Instruction Manual, Book 1

Instruction Manual, Book 1
1
Instruction Manual, Book 1
Welcome to Matrix 8
Innovation is our Tradition
Matrix 8 offers toolsets and workflows that take a comprehensive approach to jewelry design.
Developed for Jewelers by Jewelers, Matrix 8 makes designing, pricing, ordering, selling and
manufacturing jewelry easier. At Gemvision innovation is our tradition.
I
Matrix 8 Instruction Manual
© 2015 Gemvision Corporation
Contributing Writers: Chris Van De Sompele, Daniel Otten, & Jill Goodson
BOOK 1
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 11-3
A Tour of the Interface
CHAPTER 838-43
History
CHAPTER 24-8
The Main Menu
CHAPTER 944-47
The Layers Menu
CHAPTER 3 9-11
The F6 Menu
CHAPTER 1048-52
Using Project Manager
CHAPTER 412-16
Modeling in the Viewports
CHAPTER 1153-56
Project Manager Database
Project Manager Database 54
CHAPTER 517-19
Builders vs. Commands
CHAPTER 1257-62
Using the Snaps Menu
End Snap 59
Mid Snap59
Center Snap59
Quad Snap59
Near Snap60
Point Snap 60
Intersection Snap
60
Tangent Snap60
Perpendicular Snap 61
Surface Snap61
Polysurface Snap
61
Between61
Ortho62
Planar62
Project62
CHAPTER 620-21
Styles
CHAPTER 722-37
Using Info & Settings Menu
Rhino Options25
Object Properties
25
Object Info26
All Object Info
26
Command History
26
Project Notes27
Super Select27
Viewport Tabs Toggle
27
Display Menu28
Box Edit Menu
28
Library Menu30
Selection Filter Menu
30
SmartTrack30
Design Report31
Rhino History33
Matrix History Update
34
Matrix History Record
34
Matrix Clear Object History 34
Smart Target MSR
34
Gumball35
Relocate Gumball
37
Gumball Alignment
37
Grid Snap
62
CHAPTER 1363-70
Display Menu
Show Grid
65
Show Cutters65
Preview Shade65
Shade Selected65
Gem View66
Surface View66
Render Mesh 66
Shade Mode67
III
CHAPTER 1471-78
Top 11 Buttons
UnGroup 104
Extract Bad Surface
104
Show Z Buffer
104
Fill Hole 105
Fill Holes 105
Align Mesh Vertices
105
Mesh from NURBS Object
105
Mesh Reduce108
Apply Mesh UVN
108
Extract Render Mesh
109
Duplicate72
Edit Points On
72
Control Points On
72
Mirror73
Move74
Rotate74
Explode74
Join75
Split76
Trim76
Ring Rail 77
CHAPTER 18110-119
Measure Menu
Angle111
Distance
111
Length 111
Radius112
Horizontal Dimension
112
Vertical Dimension
112
Angle Dimension 113
Rotated Dimension
113
Aligned Dimension
114
Diameter Dimension
114
Radial Dimension
114
Leader115
Text
Block
116
Edit Text
117
Edit Dimension117
Recenter Dimension Text
118
Dimension Options
118
CHAPTER 1579-86
The File Menu
New81
Open 81
Export Selected
81
Import82
Save82
Save As82
Save Small82
Save Small As
83
Notes83
Print
83
Stuller Studio CAM Services
86
CHAPTER 1687-94
View Menu
CHAPTER 19 120-165
Curve Tools
Picture Frame90
Restore Viewports
91
Synchronize Viewports
91
Zoom Dynamic91
Zoom Extents92
Zoom Selected92
Zoom Window92
Viewport to File
92
Set Crosshairs93
System 6 HD View
93
Zoom 1:193
Zoom 1:1 Calibrate
94
Center Viewport
94
PolyLine122
Line123
Interp Curve 125
Rectangle 127
Circle 128
Ellipse 130
Arc 132
Arc Direction 134
Rebuild 134
Refit to Tolerance
135
Quick Curve Blend
136
Adjustable Curve Blend
137
Curve from 2 Views
139
Curve 2 Views with History 140
Pullback 140
Project 141
Intersection 142
Offset Curve 142
Offset Curve on Surface
144
Extract Isocurve 144
Fillet Curves
145
Fillet Corners 146
Chamfer Curves 146
Create UV Curves
147
Apply UV Curves
147
Through Points 147
Extend Curve 148
CHAPTER 1795-109
Utilities Menu
Direction
97
Select Bad Objects
98
Check98
Show Edges98
Split Edge99
Merge Edge 99
Join 2 Naked Edges
100
Unjoin Edge 100
Make 2D Drawing
100
Bounding Box102
Center Object103
Group 103
IV
Polygon 149
Spiral 150
Helix151
Point 152
Mark Curve Start
152
Mark Curve End
152
Adjust Closed Curve Seam 152
Continue Interpolated Curve 153
Divide Curve 153
Curve Boolean 154
Tween Curves 154
Duplicate Edge 155
Duplicate Border 155
Curve 156
Continue Control Point Curve 156
Extract Angle Isocurve
157
Cross Section Profiles
157
Sketch 158
Sketch on Surface
158
Sketch on Mesh 159
Polyline on Surface
159
Interp Curve on Surface
159
Curve to Lines 160
Section 160
Match 161
Silhouette 162
Extract Wire Frame
163
Soft Edit
163
Offset Normal to Surface
164
Arc Blend 164
Intersect Two Sets
165
Match Surfaces199
Drape201
Sweep Multi
202
Split at Isocurve
204
Extend Surface204
Extrude Normal to Surface
205
Unroll Surface205
Soft Edit206
Cutting Plane207
Adjust Closed Surface Seam
207
Set Surface Tangent
208
CHAPTER 21209-234
Solid Tools
Boolean Union213
Boolean Difference
213
Boolean Intersection
213
Boolean Two Objects
214
Cap Planar214
Extract Surface215
Fillet Edge215
Text217
Extrude Curve Straight
218
Solid Extrude All
219
Pipe221
Box222
Sphere223
Ellipsoid 223
Torus224
Cylinder225
Tube226
Pyramid227
Cone228
Truncated Cone
228
Boss229
Rib230
Slab231
Make Hole231
Array Hole232
Array Hole Polar
233
Move Hole
233
Move Face
234
Shell
234
CHAPTER 20166-208
Surface Tools
Sweep 1170
Sweep 1 History
173
Sweep 2174
Sweep 2 History
176
Profile Sweep
177
Rebuild
178
Blend Surface179
Variable Blend Surfaces
182
Loft
183
Curve Network
185
Shrink Trimmed Surface
186
Patch186
Planar Curves187
Edge Curves
188
Plane from Corners
188
Untrim189
Surface Extrude All
189
Rail Revolve192
Sweep 4
193
Fillet Surfaces193
Variable Fillet Surfaces
194
Chamfer Surfaces
195
Variable Chamfer Surfaces
196
Offset Surface197
Variable Offset Surface
197
Tween Surfaces
198
Merge Surfaces 199
V
WELCOME
About This Manual
Welcome to Matrix!
Visit each of the Main Menu chapters with stepby-step, illustrated descriptions of tools from
beginning to advanced modeling, and learn the
fundamentals necessary to get you started. The
Top 11 Commands along with each main menu
command is covered in detail in the same order
found in the main menu for easy reference.
Matrix software for jewelry artisans facilitates
the Computer-Aided-Design of stunning jewelry
models with tools unique to the industry in every
sense of the word. Matrix is built on Rhinoceros
(Rhino) CAD software by McNeel and Associates
in Seattle, WA., a sophisticated tool in itself
that is used in many industries from Computer
Generated Imagery (CGI) special effects in major
motion pictures to boat building.
How to Read this Manual
Each Chapter begins with an overview of what
you will find along with a list of commands and/or
builders. Each command appears with its
common name (in the color header) and the icon
from the associated menu (1). Below that, in
quotes, appears the command as you would type
it into the command line, if applicable (2). For
instance, the command, “Merge Surfaces,” from
the Surface menu is typed ‘MergeSrf’ in the
command line. (Knowledge of a typed command
is useful for editing and customizing the F6 menu
or creating your own keyboard shortcuts). Under
the typed command name is a short description
of what this tool or builder does (3), After that, the
menu where the command is found is listed along
with its F6 menu location, when appropriate (4).
Gemvision’s development team has harnessed the
Rhino software engine so that elements like gems,
finger sizes, common setting types, and even
whole rings - signet rings, eternity rings, raised
bands - are instantly built for you by the software.
When you make design decisions in the software,
Matrix directs Rhino to build the design you’ve
indicated.
Using the Matrix Manual
Tour the interface, get a basic overview of the
Matrix Main Menus and F6 components that you’ll
use every day, learn basics in modeling along
with all the features of a Matrix Builder, and gain
insights into useful elements such as Styles; all this
and more is covered in the Introduction to Matrix.
Start with this introduction to learn common
tools needed to navigate simple commands or
advanced builders.
1
2
3
4
1. Command’s Common Name along with its icon,
2. Typed command name. 3. A brief description of what
the command does. 4. Menu name where the command is
found including the F6 menu, if applicable.
The Matrix Main Menu displaying the Gem Menu.
VI
Steps
Builder Modes and Options
Next, the step-by-step instructions are found,
detailing the work flow through commands or
builders.
Some builders have multiple modes with different
sets of dimension controls for each mode. In these
instances each
mode is covered
individually. More on
Builder Modes in the Bezel Builder
the function of
Builders is detailed
in the Builders vs. Commands section of the
introduction.
‘Steps” include the very basic things you need to do
to use a given command.
Each builder option is covered, and if additional
steps are needed those are outlined as well.
Command Line Options
Additional options or controls are covered in the
Command Line Options or Editing Dimensions
sections. Also, included within sub-options are
additional steps. Each option is explained in detail
along with helpful illustrations to guide you along
the way.
Options are found within each
builder.
Builder options are also found in the Command
line. Be sure to look here as well.
Builders can have Command line options as well as builder
options.
Editing Dimensions covers the controls available
to manipulate the interactive previews
generated by the builder.
VII
CHAPTER 1
A Tour of the Interface
The Interface - starting at the left side of your screen - provides all the tools &
settings you need to get acquainted with the program.
What You See On-screen
On the left-hand side of the screen is the Matrix
Interface, divided into sections by the gray
title bars indicating “Icon History”, “Main Menu”,
“Display”, “Snaps”, “Info & Settings”, “Layers”, and
“Projects”.
Icon History: This contains
last nine commands run in
the program along with the
Undo and Redo buttons.
Matrix Interface on Start Up
select, group, hide or lock them.
The Main Menu: The bulk
Projects: Save your models
of the commands used
in Matrix, all of which are
covered in the Manual, are
featured here.
as you work on them. Use
the Project Manager to add
keywords to make it easy to
find a particular design once
it is completed.
The Display Menu: These
options control how the
model appears on the
screen.
In the space below the Project Manager, the
Builder interface for Matrix tools will appear,
providing menu controls to create the given model
Snaps: This menu contains
Grid and Object Snaps
which will assist you in
creating watertight models
ready for production.
Info and Settings: See
basic or complex information
about models, keep project
notes, select certain types of
objects, and control History
and preview settings here.
or use the tool in the viewports.
Layers: Organize your
When a builder is opened in Matrix you may
notice that some of the interface runs off the
screen (whether it does or not is dependent on
Builders Open Here
An Open Builder
Navigating The Menus
designs to make it easier to
1
the screen size). See below for ways that you can
remedy this.
Builder interface running
off of the bottom of the
screen
Changing the Menu Layout
Left-click the gray menu bar once to “roll up” or
temporarily hide the contents of any of the main
menus. This saves space by getting them out of
the way. Some (Snaps, Layers) keep important
controls and settings on their closed title bars so
you can access them with ease.
Four Viewports: Looking Down,
Perspective, Side View and Through Finger
like curves, surfaces, and solids, select items for
use with builders, and complete functions you’ll
start up with a button in one of the Main Menus.
We’ll discuss the viewports in more detail in
another section.
Click a “rolled up” menu to see its contents again.
Click and drag a gray menu title bar to reposition
it. Click and drag in order above or below another
menu to change the order of the menus. Click
and drag it out into the viewports to “float” the
menu over your model where you might be able
to access it more easily. Or, click and drag it to the
far right-hand side of your screen and it will “dock”
there, or find itself a new home in a 300-pixelwide menu that mirrors its counterpart on the
left-hand side of the screen. Dock or float as many
menus as you want this way; including builders
- the menus that open up in the area beneath
Project Manager.
The Command Line: The top two lines are the feedback
area where Matrix will communicate information such as
measurements from the Measure command. The bottom line
is the Command Line where you can type commands, enter
values, and select Command options.
Command Line
Just above the four viewports is the Rhino
Command Line. This provides important feedback
about the tool selected and the model. So, pay
close attention to this while you work.
The Command Line will often display the next
You can even drag menus off onto other monitors!
If you love this menu configuration and want to
keep it for the next time you open Matrix, go to
the View drop down menu at the very top, lefthand side of your screen, select Matrix Menus >
Set as Default, and they will always open in the
new configuration. Reset Menus puts them back
in the default mode, while Reload Menus loads
them back the way the program opens, with their
factory authorized settings.
Command Line Options or what Rhino calls “arguments”
appear here. Left-click on the desired option in the
Command Line or type the underlined letter (and press
Enter) in order to select the option.
step for the tool you are using. It also offers a
series of options to change the way the selected
tool works. Click on the option you want to adjust
by moving your mouse over the Command Line
and clicking the left mouse-button on the option
of your choice to select it.
Rhino Viewports
Just to the right of the menus is the bulk of your
screen: four viewports that are actually the Rhino
part of the program, where you will see the model
appear. By working directly in the viewports with
Matrix and Rhino commands, you can draw items
You will also have to type values into the
Command Line at times, simply begin typing on
2
your keyboard and press Enter to confirm the
value. All Matrix and Rhino commands can in fact
be started up in this way, by typing their name
into the Command Line, good for commands that
you can remember their name, but not where the
icon is located. Press Enter and the Command
Line will accept your input and deliver that
information to build your model.
Just above the Command Line is the Feedback
line, which provides helpful feedback on a
function you’ve just run. For instance, when you
run the Measure command, this is where Matrix
will display those measurements. In a sense,
the Command Line is how we communicate
to Matrix what we want done and how Matrix
communicates back information on what it has
done.
Drop Down Menus
The menus at the top (horizontal menu bar) of
the screen, starting with File, Edit, View, Curve,
Surface, etc., are used less frequently in this
program. All Rhino functions can be found in
these menus, including ones that are not found
in Matrix menus and are not covered in this
manual. Because Matrix is built on Rhino, you
have full access to Rhino functionality and every
command at their disposal. Consult the Rhino
Help (F1) Manual if you wish to learn the additional
commands found in this section of the program.
3
CHAPTER 2
The Main Menu
Located in the upper left-hand corner, the Matrix Main Menus are where you’ll find
every modeling tool in the program.
Using the Main Menus
shows hidden
items, turns
The Reset Button
on any layers
that are off, ends any command that is currently
running, and discards any background bitmap. We
used to call this the “Panic” button, because it is a
good thing to click on when you’re not sure what
else to do. It restores program settings back to
the defaults they had when the program was first
started up.
Click on a menu title, and its contents - icons
representing each command available in that
menu - will open in the gray space
below the menus. You can only open
one menu at a time. To scroll down
throughout the menu to find the
command you need, use the scroll
Scroll Button
buttons on the far right-hand side of
the open menu. Click the scroll button to access
the next rows of menus: two at a time. Click one of
the commands found in the Main Menus to start
up that command. To determine which command
is which, move the mouse over that command
and its Quick Tip will appear in the space beside
“Main Menu” on the gray title bar. If you hover the
mouse over a command, its Quick Tip will appear
beside the button. As you select a command, its
icon will appear in the Icon History portion of your
screen. Icons representing the last 9 commands
ran will appear here, so you can quickly return to
them if necessary.
File, View, Utilities, & Measure
Each of these menus will be covered more in
depth in their individual section beginning with
the File Menu; you will start here to perform the
familiar File > New, Open, and Save features
customary for Windows programs. You may also
import and export models, save notes, print, and
save with different options to maximize file size.
The View menu is where you will import and
control bitmap images you may wish to have
in the viewports to assist you while you work.
Change the “zoom” on the model and find other
viewport view control tools here. Utilities are
commands that are used once your model is
made. They range from basic to advanced and
will all be covered later. The Measure Menu allows
you to measure models on-screen, in mm, with a
few easy mouse-clicks, and display measurement
values right in the viewports beside your model to
aid in production.
Undo/Redo & Reset Tools
As you work, click “Undo” to undo the
last command you ran. In the case
Undo/Redo
of builders, which send a number of
commands to Rhino automatically, it is best to
use the “Undo” found in the Builder menu, where
applicable.
“Redo” will redo this command. As when working
in Windows, “Ctrl + Z” keys on your keyboard run
Undo and “Ctrl + Y” run Redo. The Reset Tools
button, found after the “Custom” menu on the far
right-hand side under the Main Menu gray title bar,
resets the viewports to restore the default view
of your work (if it is panned or zoomed), returns
to Wireframe Shade, unlocks any locked items,
4
Builder Menu Matrix
Other tools help you work on your models,
including a tool to create an inset surface (Surface
Inset and Surface Pullback), cut out or add
shapes (Boolean Builder), apply a mesh model to
add a design element or texture (Mesh Mapper),
Resize your ring once it’s built (Ring Resizer),
check your objects (Object Checker), weigh your
final design (Metal Weights), place objects on a
curve, and cap the end of a shape (Profile End
Cap). Trace images using high contrast images
(Image Trace), repair models and prepare them for
growing using tools and mesh repair (3D Printing
and Mesh Repair)
Builders create whole rings (Signet, Eternity, &
Raised Band styles) or design elements (Award
Ring tops, Celtic Knots, Jump Rings, Patterns, and
Nautilus curves) that you control with a Builder
Menu interface. This interface opens in the lower
left-hand corner of the screen, with the icon and
Builder Name in the gray title bar. Close a builder
by clicking the X beside its name. Builder controls
will be explained in greater detail later, but notice
that the Mill Version of the software also contains
the Toolpath Builders for preparing models to
be milled (only appears in your software if you’ve
purchased the Revo Mill), as well as the Mill Large
Fixture Area button, which places a curve in the
viewports representing the size of the largest
fixture on the Revo Mill. For
more information on using
these tools, consult your Revo
manual, as this manual will not
cover these topics.
This menu is also home to the Smart Target
commands. These allow you to create complex
networks of blended curves that can be
manipulated by modifying the position and
direction of the Smart Targets.
Gems Menu
While building your first ring in Chapter 1, use the
most basic gem tool, Gem Loader, to place a gem
of any size, shape, and cut in the viewports. This
gem can be manipulated with Gem Positioner
(MSR) - also found in this menu - with the ease
of Viewport Control Handles. Every dimension
of Emeralds and Baguettes can be controlled
with these interactive tools.
Save Styles and Match
Attributes are the helpful
tools that make gems active
with
History. After learning to create
curves
in the Curve Menu, use gem tools that incorporate
curves, such as Gem on a Curve (Advanced),
Cluster Builder, Tapered Baguette Channel,
Baguette Between Two Curves, Gems Between
Two Curves, and Custom Gem - which creates
a gem from any shape curve you input. Gem
Control and Gem Report reports size, weight, and
apply helpful cues to gems. Advanced gem tools
Tools Menu
This menu is where you will find the most basic
tools you will use when modeling and some of
the most advanced. These tools form the building
blocks of your models, and include the tool
to place your basic ring size (Ring Rail), apply
a cross-section shape or shapes to it (Profile
Placer), add control via “Rails” (Outer Rail, Curve
Transform Tool, Custom Rail, Advanced Custom
Rail), and control the “Profiles” or cross section
shapes you’ll be building (Profile Merge, Profile).
5
include the Pavé builder tools: Auto Pavé, Pavé,
Pavé Azure, Pavé Prong, Gem Springs, Gem
Flow, Gem Splop, and Pavé Sphere.
(scalloped settings on a row of gems), and Bright
Cut Channel with its cousin Bright Cutter (for a
single gem). Other tools allow you
to cut away material that intrudes
on the finger rail (Cut to Finger
Rail), Boolean Builder, and cut a
model in half or in quadrants for
modeling symmetrical pieces
(Plane and Cube Cutters & Quad
Flip).
Settings Menu
Render Menu
This is where you’ll find the Settings tools that
build material around gems (as opposed to those
that cut material away from gems, which are
known to the program as “Cutters”).
Those that work with single gems include Head
Builder, Bezel Builder (creates underbezels and
gallery rails as well), Scallop Bezel to create
scalloped bezels, T-Spline Bezel and T-Spline
Under Bezel. Pull Object to Rail morphs the
settings. For a gem line that
you’ve laid out with the help of
curves, Prong Builder, Prong
Editor, Metal Piece (adds a metal
border around a row of gems),
Channel Border (places curves
around gems for adding further details with other
tools), and Bead on Curve (Milgrain Builder) are
all great setting tools. Bead on a Surface and
Prong on a Surface supplement these tools, or
may be used in conjunction with Pavé’ tools in the
program.
All the tools you need for creating photo-realistic
renders with a few clicks of the mouse are found
in this menu. Our V-Ray Styles render builder,
together with a range of light objects and props to
enhance renders, animation tools to create minimovies or animations of renders are all found here.
This menu also contains new render tools such as
Batch Render (great for creating online catalogs
showing a design in multiple views and materials),
Layout Tools, 4 View Capture and Render Editor
makes it easy to watermark or modify a render
after it is completed.
Matrix Art
Cutters Menu
Advanced Heightfield from bitmap modeling is
available in this menu. Totally different from other
Many of these tools work with gems on curves,
including Gem Cutters, Gem Cutter Library (with
an array of cutting tools you can scale to fit the
gems), Channel Builder, Micro Prong Cutter
modeling in Matrix, you can raise up bitmap
images to instantly create design elements or
texture in the form of “Mesh Objects” in Matrix.
6
Join, Split, Trim, and Ring Rail.
Matrix Art opens in a totally different part of the
program: “docked” on the far right-hand side of
the screen.
Curve, Surface, Solid, and Transform
These menus contain Rhino and Matrix tools for
modeling curves, surfaces, and solids - the three
main types of objects used to build models - as
well as tools to edit each type of object. The
Transform menu commands can be used to
transform any of these objects with commands
like Scale, Array, Bend, Taper, etc. The same
general rules apply that you’re familiar with from
high school geometry: a curve object is only one
point object thick, and so has no dimension other
than length. However, curves can be used along
with tools from the Surface and Solid menus to
create Surfaces and Solids. Surfaces are still only
one point object thick if they have openings in
them. These are known as “open surfaces”, and
they must be closed in almost all circumstances
before a model can be produced by a mill or
growing machine. Closed surfaces are called
Solids, and these are produced with Solid menu
tools alone or by using Solid and Surface menu
tools with curves.
Custom Menu
Any program icon can be loaded into a Custom
menu that you design. To create this menu, rightclick on “Custom”. The gray slots are where the
icons will appear when you left-click “Custom” to
open this menu. Scroll left and right through all
the program icons, and “click and drag” the ones
you use most often to place them in the menu.
“Save” different versions of this menu to “Load”
later based on the job you’re doing. Or, just close
the window to create your Custom menu.
The Top 11 Buttons
These commands are not found in any of the
Matrix Main Menus, but rather reside just above
the Snaps menu and just below the area onscreen where the Main Menus open. They are
in fact Rhino functions, but are so fundamental
to modeling in the viewports that they are the
most commonly-used tools in the program,
which is why they get their own menu and are
permanently “left out” for your use. These buttons
are, from left to right: Duplicate, Edit Points On,
Control Points On, Mirror, Move, Rotate, Explode,
From top to bottom: Curve menu, Surface menu and
Solid menu.
7
Using these Menus
Where there are more than 1 row of buttons, as in
each of these menus, you will see
“scroll buttons” to the right-hand
side of the icons. Click the top,
middle, or lower (where present)
Scroll Button
button to advance 2 rows of
buttons at a time.
8
CHAPTER 3
The F6 Menu
F6 makes navigation quick and easy by listing the most-commonly used functions
that can be run with selected objects on-screen in an “intuitive” menu.
The Power of F6
selected to run “F6” will be input automatically into
the builder.
F6 is a menu that is customized and intuitive for
the object you have selected on-screen. The
power of the F6 menu allows you quick access to
the most-commonly used tools, commands and
builders. Select nothing at all for a set of “starting”
commands; select a curve and
you’ll get one set of commands;
select two curves to see another
set of commands; select a gem
and you’ll get another set; select a
row of gems and see yet another
set of commands. Watch the menu
change quickly as none, one or
multiple objects are selected. This
behavior is know as contextual,
meaning the menu changes based
on the context of what is selected.
Or, start with nothing selected and F6 will provide
you with a “general” list of “starting” tools to get
you modeling (General Mode). For example,
choose Ring Rail to begin to create
a ring, or select from various Curve
menu tools to begin drawing in
the viewport. Switch between the
eight modes to access other menus
or watch the General Mode menu
change as the selected objects
change. Add Profiles or an Offset
Curve (Curve Mode) when a single
curve is selected. Use ‘Join” when
multiple curves are selected. Add
Prongs to a row of gems and make
a setting for a single gem with Head
Builder (Gem Mode).
Using F6
It is easy to use this feature. Simply
select the object you want to work
on (such as a gem, row of gems,
curve or two curves), and press the
F6 button on your keyboard. The F6
interface appears right beside your
cursor in the viewport along with
a list of the most commonly-used
Matrix commands associated with
the selected object(s).
Start modeling with Smart Target
tools in Surface Mode. Create
T-Splines Primitives from the tools
found in T-Splines Mode. Create a
custom menu in User Mode. View
a summary of the selected objects
with Report Mode. Apply Render
materials (along with the metal’s
Specific Gravity) to metal and gem
objects from Material Mode.
Click on the name of the command
you wish to use. Select from the Command Line
options or see the builder open in the area under
the Project Manager on the left-hand side of your
screen. In addition, the “In Box” for that builder will
be populated with the item you selected; meaning
that, if the builder requires a gem, the gem you
F6 to Edit Objects
Some objects can be edited by selecting the
object (such as a head), pressing F6, and selecting
the builder from the menu that appears (Head
Builder). Selecting this option starts up the
builder with the object used to create the existing
9
Curve Mode: Contains commands for
head (gem) AND populates the builder with the
settings that were used to create it. In that way,
you can start from the last settings used and
continue making changes to this piece.
creating and editing curves including: Point,
Polyline, Line, Interp Curve, Arc, Circle, etc.
Gem Mode: View commands related to the
This functionality is also available on gems (to
Move, Scale, and Rotate gems - or, open the tool
known as Gem Positioner) and Profiles (the
curves that create the cross-section shapes of
rings), but the “Cue” available in the F6 list for
these two functions is called “MSR” or, Move,
Scale, and Rotate. Incidentally, selecting any
laying out and reporting of gems including:
Gem Loader, Gem Map, MSR, Match Attributes
and Gem Reporter, etc.
Surface Mode: See commands listed here
including: Extract Isocurve, Smart Flow,
Split, Trim, Picture Frame and Smart Target tools.
T-Splines Mode: Contains commands that
are useful when working with T-Splines.
Create T-Splines Primitives, access T-Splines
commands and open the HUD controls, etc.
User Mode: Add specific tools to create
your own, specialized menu. See Customizing
the F6 Menu below.
Gem Positioner MSR
Report Mode: View summaries on the
curve and choosing MSR from the F6 list gives it
the “Move, Scale, and Rotate” handles that are
available to Profile curves, in effect turning it into a
Profile curve (Tools Menu>Profile). Learn more
about how to control and make the best use of
this functionality later on in this manual.
selected objects. This includes any Render
materials that maybe applied to the model. Some
of this information is included at the bottom of the
F6 menu regardless of Mode.
Materials Mode: This is like the Material
Editor in the VRay Styles. Apply materials to
objects including metal quality with specific
gravity. This info is used for rendering and for the
Design Report. Select an object to apply material,
select the render material, and metal quality if
applicable. Then, click the green arrow to apply
the material to the selected object. Sort the
material list by “GV” or “User-created” materials.
F6 Modes:
The redesigned F6 menu has eight Modes.
Each Mode provides various menus of tools and
builders available for the selected object(s). Note
that within each Mode the menu will change
based on the selected objects. Select no objects,
a single curve, two curves, a polysurface, a gem
or a row of gems, etc. and see the menu options
switch within a Mode.
Customizing the F6 Menu:
One of the main things to remember when
adding commands to the menus is the command
is based on what object type is selected. For
Example, if I add Interp Curve to the Surface
Mode menu WHILE I have nothing selected onscreen, Interp Curve will only appear on the menu
list in Surface Mode when nothing on-screen is
selected. So, when adding a command keep in
mind what object types are SELECTED in the
General Mode: This contains a selection of
general purpose commands with which to
start modeling. It also offers unique menu lists
depending on what type of object is selected or if
no objects are selected. This is the main, default
Mode for F6 and is used the most frequently.
10
viewports WHILE you are adding the command.
Menus appear contextually, they are solely
based on what objects are selected. Additionally,
a “Global” check option is available to force a
command to appear in all the Modes, at all times,
regardless of what objects are selected.
appear in User Mode. Follow the steps outlined
above to add commands to this menu.
The “Global” Switch: Check the box next to
the command (far right) while adding and naming
a command. This allows the
command is be listed on
the menus in all the Modes
AND to be listed regardless
of what object type is
selected.
Steps:
• Choose the selection type for which the command
is to appear by selecting the desired object(s) in
the viewport when adding the command. (None,
one or two objects selected and the type of
object).
• Select a Mode where the command is to be added.
In that specific Mode, click
on the “gear” icon to the
Customize F6 Menu
bottom on the lower leftside.
• The F6 Customize menu will
appear. Click on the ‘+’
button in the lower left-hand corner of the
menu to add a command.
• Assign an icon from the drop down menu
(these are organized by what menu the
command is in).
• Assign a name to the command in the Name
field (i.e. Gem Cutter).
• Next, type the command as you would in the
Command Line. (‘gvAzureCutter’, for example)
• Select a position - Use the up or down arrow
on the bottom left to move the selected
command up or down on the list.
• Highlight a command and select ‘-’ button to
remove it from the list.
• When done customizing, click on
“Save” to complete the changes.
NOTE: After adding a command to a Mode
remember what object types were selected onscreen while the command was added (a curve, two
curves, a gem, a row of gems, nothing selected, etc.).
The new command will only be listed on the menu,
OR available for editing, when that object type is
selected on-screen!
Import (Advanced): Use the Import button to
add saved menu files (.MENU) to F6.
Refresh:
Click on the “Refresh” icon next
to the gear icon to refresh the
menus when necessary.
Moving and Pinning F6:
To move the F6 interface, simply click and hold
the header bar (where the F6 name appears at
the top) while dragging to the desired position.
The F6 interface is a floating menu and can be
moved anywhere including to a second monitor.
One of the other changes to the F6 menu is the
ability to pin it open wherever you like. To do this,
click on the “pin” icon in the upper right-hand
corner (header bar) of the F6 menu. Now, instead
of closing after selecting a command the F6 menu
will stay open where you left it like any other menu
in the program.
Note: Notice that in the F6 menu the commands
are preceded by an underscore ‘ _’. This forces the
commands to use the English language even if Rhino
is configured for another language.
Unpinned: F6
menu will close
once command is
selected.
User Mode: While in User Mode select the “gear”
icon and begin to create a custom menu that will
11
Pinned: F6 menu
stays open and
positioned wherever
you placed it.
CHAPTER 4
Modeling in the
Viewports
Learn the important features of the main workspace in the product: the
Viewports. See and work on one model from four views at a time.
About the Viewports
Each viewport contains the visible grid: a 40 X
40 mm grid or Construction Plane (shortened to
“C-Plane”) which is centered on the ring in each
of the aforementioned views (as long as the ring
is not moved off center of where the Ring Rail is
placed when using this tool). The center of the
grid is marked with a red (horizontal) and blue
(vertical) line so you can find the center visually
very easily. These grids, grid lines, and center
lines represent the familiar Cartesian planes you
learned in high school geometry, where X is the
horizontal line, Y is the vertical line, and Z is the
direction coming “toward” the user - or, up and
down.
Picture the viewports as four different views of
the same thing. In this case, the model is more
than likely a ring, so they are set up to present
four views of the ring: “Looking Down” on the ring
as though the wearer were gazing at her finger;
the “Through Finger” view of the ring as though
you were holding it up to look through the finger
opening; the “Side View” of the ring, as though
you were looking at it from one side of the
wearer’s finger; and finally, the “Perspective”
viewport, which allows the user to freely rotate the
view to any angle necessary.
The 40x40mm grid is broken into
1 x 1 mm squares indicated by
the light grid lines and 5 X 5 mm
squares indicated by the LIGHTER
grid lines.
Looking Down
Perspective
Global vs. Local X, Y, & Z
Through Finger
You will notice that each viewport has its own X,
Y and Z (termed “Local” in Rhino), represented by
the colors of the lines in the center of the grid, but
this is not always the program X, Y, and Z (termed
“Global”or “World”). Global X, Y, and Z are only
represented in the Looking Down and Perspective
viewports, and can be tracked to each of the four
viewports by looking at the small Cartesian “key” in
the lower left-hand corner of the viewports, which
shows the Global coordinates relative to each
view.
For example, Looking Down shows you X and Y;
Side View
Four Views of one model. Looking Down, Side View
and Through Finger are planar viewports. These are
mathematically accurate but give you a limited view of the
model. The Perspective viewport gives you a good overall
view of your model.
12
Through Finger shows you X and Z, and Side View
shows you Y and Z.
a mention anyway just to understand a bit more
about the viewports. Each light gray “box” on
the grid represents 1 mm. Each brighter gray box
represents 5 mm square. The grid is therefore
40 X 40 mm square. But because Rhino is
a sophisticated CAD modeler living in this
Cartesian world, you can actually type values
into the Command Line to start a design at a
certain Cartesian coordinate on the grid. Type in
the format “1, 2, 3” to place a point at the world
coordinate 1, 2, 3. Or, leave off the last number
(program reads it as “0”) and the point will be
placed flush against the Looking Down grid.
When the Command Line is asking for a value,
remember these are always in Millimeters (mm),
because the grid lines each represent 1 mm
square. You will learn later on in this section how
to change to other values if you wish.
Why this is so beneficial?
The program is set up this way because there are
often times when it will be easier to work on one
part of the ring in one viewport and one part of
the ring in another viewport: the view in which you
can see and access that part of the design best.
F4: The Center of the Universe
From this moment on, the new center of your
universe is “F4”, which is the keystroke on your
keyboard representing 0,0,0 in the Cartesian
system in Matrix: or, the center of the grid axes.
Since the finger size for the ring you will build is
centered on this point (0,0,0) in space, it is very
likely you will need to refer to it when performing
modeling functions that - for example - make the
ring symmetrical (Mirror), make a bypass shape
that is the same in two corners in the Looking
Down view of the ring (Rotate), or for any number
of tools you will learn in the program. Whether or
not you are building a ring, it is a good idea to
center your model on F4, as it is very easy to
Mirror designs just by pressing this key as the
center of the mirror plane around which you are
mirroring an item. Without it, you never know what
you are centered on, and your design can easily
come out lopsided and give you bigger problems
down the road when you are producing it on a mill
or growing machine.
Activating & Maximizing Viewports
For many commands, it matters what viewport
you are working in. These commands are called
viewport dependent. That is because by default,
objects and commands run from a viewport’s
Construction plane. The Perspective and Looking
Down viewport share a Construction plane that is
at the zero on the Z axis. The Through Finger
viewport’s Construction plane (C-Plane) is at zero
on the Y axis and Side view is at Zero on the X
axis. This is the same location as the grid in each
viewport, so it maybe helpful to think of the
C-Plane and the viewport grid as nearly
synonymous.
The Perspective and Looking Down viewports share a
Construction plane, indicated by the orange surface.
Mirroring from F4
Cartesian Coordinates & MM Values
Although it is possible to model this way in
Matrix, It doesn’t mean you should; but it’s worth
13
To work in any viewport, move the mouse into that
viewport, left-click on the grid, and the viewport
will be activated - i.e., that is the one the object will
be drawn in. If you don’t need to click on the grid
but wish to activate the viewport, click on the
Right-click and drag in a planar viewport to pan.
Hold Shift and Right-Click to pan in the Perspective
viewport.
Zooming the View
In any of the four viewports, move the mouse over
the portion of the grid that you would like to focus
in on and scroll the mouse wheel up to zoom in
and down to zoom out.
viewport name, turning it from a dim blue to a
brighter blue color, and it will be active. Suppose
the viewport is too small to see comfortably while
you are working?
Double-click on the viewport name and the
viewport will take up the entire four-viewport view
of the product so you can really see what you are
doing. Obviously, this is now the active viewport.
To minimize the viewport again, returning to the
four-viewport view, double-click the name of the
viewport again and it will be reduced. Or, click the
Reset button, which restores the default view of
the viewports that the program originally has at
startup.
When one of your views is maximized you can
quickly change between viewports by clicking on
the viewport tabs at the top of the window.
Position your mouse cursor over the area of interest.
Roll you mouse wheel away from you to Zoom.
Resetting the View Again
To restore either the Pan or Zoom back to the
default at program start-up, use the Reset button
in the Matrix Main Menu. Pressing the F5 key will
recenter the camera at F4 but not change the
zoom amount or Shade mode.
Panning the View
Rotating the View In the Perspective
Viewport ONLY
In any of the three planar viewports, (planar
means flat) Looking Down, Side View, and
Through Finger, position your mouse anywhere in
the grid and hold down your right mouse button
while moving the mouse left, right, up or down
(right-click and drag). This “pans” the view - or,
moves it in the direction your mouse moves - to
give you a better picture of everything you can
see in that viewport.
Holding down the right mouse button while
moving the mouse left, right up or down (rightclick and drag) rotates the view in the direction of
the mouse. The center of this rotation might not
be on the model: it is at the center of the current
view of the model. So, if this feels a little weird,
click “Reset” and re-try. To “Pan” the Perspective
14
viewport, hold down the Shift key while using
“right-click and drag” in the direction you wish to
pan.
object, it will flag you with a little Selection Box
that lists all the possible objects in the general
vicinity of your cursor that you could be trying to
select. To help you out, it displays their Layer color
beside what they are (Curve, Surface, Gem, etc.)
to assist you in the selection process. If you see
what you want in that box, move the mouse over
its name and click it. It will be selected, and the
box will disappear.
Surrounding Objects to Select
Another way to select multiple objects at the
same time (the selection box won’t appear) is to
The Perspective viewport gives you the best overall
sense of the look of your design; though it can be
easier to be precise in the planar views.
Selecting an Object
There are lots of instances in the program when
you’ll need to select an object in the viewports.
The best way is to left-click on the object, and
it will turn to the pink highlighted color that
indicates to you it is selected. If you need to add
objects to your selection, hold down the “Shift”
key on the keyboard and click on more objects. If
you need to remove objects from your selection,
hold down the “Ctrl” key and click on selected
objects to remove from the selection.
The Selection window appears when there are multiple
objects where you clicked.
“region-select” them. Position the mouse at the
upper left-hand corner PAST the objects to select,
hold down the left mouse-button, and “click and
drag” a selection rectangle (solid line) down and
to the right, past the other side of the objects to
select and fully surrounding EVERYTHING you
wish to select. Everything in that rectangle will be
selected.
Selection Box
If the program can’t figure out what you are
clicking on when you are trying to select an
Crossing Objects to Select
Another way to select multiple objects is to click
Click and drag, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, a box to
surround all objects you want selected. Objects will
only be selected if they are completely surrounded.
Left-click on an object to select it. Hold down Shift
and left-click to select multiple objects. Ctrl and leftclick will remove an object from the selection.
15
to the RIGHT of all the objects to select, hold
down the left mouse-button, and click and drag a
selection rectangle down and to the left (dotted
line). In this situation, you only need to “cross” - or,
touch with the selection box - everything you
wish to select, and it will be selected.
Note: To deselect anything, click on another object
to select; or, click on the black grid of the viewport,
selecting nothing.
Click and drag, FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, a box to
CROSS all objects you want selected.
Visual Cues
Obviously, the pink highlight color indicates
what is selected. Other visual cues include: the
cursor turns into a flat “hand” while panning; a
“magnifying glass” while zooming, and a little
pointer finger while selecting Command Line
options. A simple text cursor appears when you
position the cursor to type in the Command Line.
While drawing, you will see cross-hairs, indicating
the next point will be placed, and you may see a
marker with a Tracking line in functions.
Keyboard Shortcuts for the Viewports
Press F7 if you don’t wish to see the grid lines,
F4 to indicate 0,0,0 during a Command, and
F5 recenter the viewport camera at F4. “Enter”
ends a command, “space bar” and “right mouseclick” start up the same command again, Ctrl+
C, V, X, Z, Y, and A are the same as they are in
Windows: respectively, Copy, Paste, Cut, Undo,
Redo and Select All (objects
in the viewports). Other
keyboard shortcuts will
be discussed with the
commands they relate
to. You can also view
additional keyboard short
cuts in the Rhino Options
(Info & Settings menu)
under “Keyboard”-you can
Keyboard commands
even add your own.
16
CHAPTER 5
Builders vs.
Commands
Follow the Command Line prompts for simple, Rhino-powered tools; or, access
customized features, and options within a Matrix Builder’s User Interface that opens
below Project Manager. Familiarize yourself with each unique method.
Simple or Customized
menu open just below the Project Manager on
the left-hand side of your screen. Almost all
builders have these common features, which we’ll
cover in detail in this section: Preview Windows
displaying what type of object should be placed
into the builder and what shape curves the builder
is using to build its creation; an Options list that
changes the way the builder works and offers the
Styles section of the program from which you can
load a library of premade styles specific to that
builder; Builder Controls, which show graphic
representations of each builder and editing
dimensions you can adjust, as well as a slider bar
controlling the dimension you’ve selected from
this list.
Matrix provides both simple commands and
customized Builders that contain multiple
commands all built-in as one function to
accomplish complex tasks easily. Draw a Polyline
with the built-in function of Rhino or build a
complex ring easily with Raised Band Builder.
Each method requires understanding to access
all the available options and features provided.
Simple, command-driven tools require the user
to select options in the Command Line only.
So, first look at the Command Line to make the
necessary selections. Builders have their own
unique Interface that opens on the left-hand side
of the viewports and contain multiple features,
and options plus the added benefit of Viewport
Control Handles along with Command Line
options. Both methods are explained in detail in
this Chapter.
Viewport Features Common to Builders
Upon inputting the object to use in a builder
(some builders require you to click “Start” in the
Options list, if there’s nowhere to input an item),
the object being
built will appear in
the viewports.
Before it is created,
Viewport Control
Handles appear
that have
counterparts to
every Builder
Control in the menu.
Also found in and
around the
viewports are the Command Line options, most of
which also correspond to Builder Controls and
Options within the Builder menu.
Map of a Builder
Upon
opening
most of the
Matrix
Builders in
the program
- any of the
Matrix
commands
that has an
“interface” or
menu - you
will see a
17
Ending a Builder
Mode
When you’ve used a combination of Builder
Controls, Viewport Control Handles, and
Command Line Options to create your
masterpiece, you can end the work of the builder
by pressing “Enter.” The handles and
the preview
display of the
object will
disappear, leaving
you with a model
of the object
you’ve been
building. If you
don’t press “Enter”
to end the work of
the builder - for example, you change your mind click “Reset” to begin again or just press “Escape”
to end.
Choose the type of object to build from the icons
found in the “Mode” list just above the Builder
Controls. This list displays related items
that can also be created by the builder - such as
different types of bezels, heads with different
prong configurations, etc. The selected Mode is
outlined in yellow.
Builder Controls
The builder can control each of the dimensions
that is represented graphically in the Builder
Controls. Select a dimension to change, and its
name appears in the Slider Control beneath the
icons. Click
on the white
box above
the builder
name and
hold down
the left
mousebutton while
you move
the mouse to
the right or left to raise or lower this value (click
and drag the slider control). The current value is
displayed in the window to the right of name of
that dimension, as is the unit of measurement in
which the value is represented: Percentage, here.
Millimeter is another common unit you might see
displayed here, as is Degree: it just depends on
the dimension you are controlling at the time. Hold
down Shift while you click and drag the slider
control to move it in increments of 0.5. Or, click on
the “+” and “-” signs on either side of the dimension
name to change the value in increments of 0.10.
To enter your own value into this window, left-click
and drag the cursor over this value, highlighting it;
then, type in a new value for this amount.
Preview Window
Certain preview windows require you to input
objects in order to start up the builder. They have
an “In” arrow at the bottom.
The type of
object it
accepts is
indicated at
the top of the
Preview
Window.
Select the
object in the viewports and click the “In” arrow to
input that object and start up the builder. (The
builder makes its creation on the input object.) If
you select and try to input the wrong kind of
object, the Preview window will not accept it.
Inputting the object will start up the builder:
placing the builder object with handles in the
viewports and displaying the Command Line
options to show the command has begun. As
previously discussed, another way to start up a
builder is to select the object on which to build,
press F6, and select the builder from the list that
appears. This will open the builder, populate the
Preview Window, and show the builder object with
handles and Command Line options.
18
Viewport Control Handles
Edit a Profile
To find out what a Viewport Control Handle does,
move the mouse over it and it will be highlighted
in red and display the name of the dimension it
controls. If that is the one you wish to change,
click on the handle and
drag it to one side or
the other, raising or
lowering the value and
visibly changing the
dimension. Different
handle designs indicate
different dimensions.
For example, the
“arrows” control scale; the “cube” controls position,
the “orb” (white sphere) controls position along
curve, and the “orb + halo” controls rotation and
angle. Other Viewport Control Handles sometimes
include letters (P & R stand for Prong and Rail in
Head Builder; E stands for Sweep Edit Points in
Profile Placer) and symbols. The symbol you’ll
notice most often is the Profile shape. Click here
to open the Profile browser (also
reached by clicking on the “Profile”
preview window in the builder,
explained next) and click on a new
shape for the curve located beside
the Profile symbol. The shape will change to the
new curve.
The “Edit” option at the bottom of every Profile
Preview window in the program
allows you to draw a profile shape of
your own to apply to that location on
the object you are building (“Edge” of
bezel, here: hence the name “Edge
Profile” for the Preview window).
Click “Edit”, and a new window
will open up over Matrix, complete with its own
viewport that displays the currently-selected
shape. It is best to first select a shape that is
close to the shape you want to create; then click
Edit. Using this shape as a guide or as a starting
point, you can use all the Curve menu commands,
O-Snaps, Grid Snaps, etc. that you will learn later
on in this manual to create your own profile shape.
Options List
The portion of the builder menu just
beside the Preview Windows
contains a list of options specific to
each builder. Click “Reset” to return
to the builder defaults for the
particular Mode you’ve selected.
Other options are explained in the
section of the manual specific to the
builder in which they appear.
Command Line Options
Profile Preview Window
Command Line Options are found in simple tools
like Polyline and in builders. They work the same
for both. In many builders, these correspond
to the Builder Controls and the Options List.
However, there are sometimes options in the
Command Line that don’t appear in the builder. Or,
there are controls in the builder that don’t appear
in the Command Line.
Preview the profile or “shape curve” being used to
build your object in the “Profile” preview window.
This window is usually named for the location on
the object where the shape appears (“Edge
Profile”, “Top Profile”, etc.). To change the profile
shape, click on the shape, which will
open up the profile browser - a
menu of possible profile shapes for
this object - at the bottom of your
screen. As you move the mouse
over each object in the Profile
Browser, the shape in the viewports will change,
previewing how that shape curve will change your
design. Click on it with the left mouse-button and
it will be applied to your design. This will close the
browser and make the selected shape appear in
the Profile Preview Window, as well as changing
the model in the viewports to the new shape.
To use a Command Line option, click on the
option to access it. Some options “toggle” or
change between two alternatives. Some options
offer you further sub-options, which you can click
on to select. Others prompt you for a value, which
you must type into the Command Line and press
“Enter” to accept.
19
CHAPTER 6
Styles
Access a library of ready-made Styles within a Builder, and save your favorite
design component settings as a Style to be used over and over again.
Loading “Styles”
Accessible both in the Options list and in most
builders’ Command Line Options, “Styles”, where
available, comprise the Gemvision-created “library
of parts” that make a great starting point from
which to build any model. Click the “Styles” option
in the Option list or Command Line to open the
Styles menu..
Note: Builder defaults including Styles are scaled to
gem size based on a range of sizes, so you may need
to adjust values if your gem size falls on one end or
the other of that range.
Save and Load Style
Note: Styles may be dependent upon Mode, so select
the Mode you wish to work in first, or you may not
see the Style choice you want. In the example above,
the 4 Prong Mode determines the Style option.
Suppose you would like to save your OWN style
to this interface, so that you can load your favorite
head, bezel, prong configuration, etc. just by
opening the Styles menu in that particular builder.
Click on a thumbnail to preview how it will appear
on your model. After selecting one, click the green
arrow to apply it to your model, changing the
viewport model and closing the Styles interface.
After applying a style, you can still adjust the
model; however, Styles offers a great starting
point.
Begin by adjusting the particular tool with
available Style option to your preferred settings.
Once complete, open the Styles menu option.
Within Styles, use the Save Styles” option. This will
take you to your My Documents > Matrix folder,
which is where the program saves your styles,
20
personal profiles, Job Bags, Animations, renders,
etc. Your style will save to the folder representing
that builder. Name the style “1” through “8” and you
will be able to open it with the icons numbered “1 8” in the Styles menu. Or,
name it anything you
wish that you can
remember easily, and
you can access it using
“Load Style” in this menu.
Please notice that Match Attributes has its own
button in the Gems Menu by which you can
load any Style present on a gem; using Match
Attributes in the Style menu only lets you load the
style relevant to the builder you’re using.
Match Attributes from an Existing Style
Match Attributes also has its own selection on the
F6 menu, from which you can run this function
without even jumping into the Gems menu. When
running Match Attributes outside of a builder, you
will be able to choose from a list of all the builders
that were run on this gem.
One final feature of the Style menu is the Match
Attributes button. Use this when you have a style
on-screen to which you wish
to match to a new object. To
use Match Attributes from
the Style menu, select this
option ; select the gem on-screen (the gem must
be in the input box within the active builder) to
match, select Styles within the builder, and choose
“Match.” Follow the Command Line prompt to
“select object to get the Style from” and choose
the gem on-screen that has the Style head you
want to Match. The Styles box will reappear. Click
the green button to Apply it to the new gem,
closing the Style menu.
21
CHAPTER 7
Using Info &
Settings Menu
See basic or complex information about models, keep project notes, select certain
types of objects, and control History.
Rhino Options - Changing the Viewport
Properties
Object Properties / Object Information /
All Object Information
Rhino Options to change viewport properties
(color, dimensions, etc.) are found by clicking the
button for Rhino Options in the Info & Settings
menu (or by typing “Options” into the Command
Line and pressing Enter). It is NOT recommended
that you change things in here if you are not
aware of what they do, as these are the program
settings and there is no easy way to revert to
the defaults. However, a quick exploration of the
“Appearance” menu (find menu on left-hand side
of this screen) will show you where to change
the grid colors, while the “Grid” menu under
“Document Properties” will help you change the
Grid Extents (Size) and grid line properties. “Units”,
three menus above that, lets you switch from
mm to other dimensions, such as feet (yes, more
Matrix customers than you would guess have
modeled their new store layout in the software.).
Finally, the “Keyboard” option shows you where
the keyboard shortcuts are found.
The program stores information about all objects
on-screen. To see this information in quick, easy-to
read format or longer, more complex format, use
one of these tools. Object Info displays a quick
“pop up” label beside a
selected object in the
viewports. This display
is the layer color of the
object it is referring to.
It displays the type of
object and important
information about
Object info
it: surface or polysurface
(made up of more than once surface); closed or
open (can’t be used in growing/milling), valid or
invalid (can’t be used
in Boolean and further
modeling operations),
and point count (for
curves), or surface count
(for polysurfaces).
As you learn more
about the program, you
All Object Info
will come to appreciate all this
information more. To use Object Information,
select the object or objects for which you wish
to see information displayed, and click this tool.
Their information boxes will appear. Press Enter to
hide them again. To view All Object Information,
or Object Properties select the object(s) to view
and click the button. All the same information is
Appearance Menu
22
Project Notes
displayed about all objects on-screen; however,
there is more stuff to wade through that we’re not
going to explain here. If an advanced user needs
this information; it’s still here.
Start this up and type any project notes
you wish to keep in the Saved file into
the window that appears. Click “Done”
to keep them, and open them again in the future.
Check the Notes by clicking here again. Just
remember to do a File > Save As, or place the file
into a Master Job Bag, in order to save the Notes
with the file.
The Gumball
The Gumball is a set of translation handles similar
to the Gem Positioner (MSR) or the T-Spline
translation handles and in some instances they
can be used interchangeably. When Gumball is on
the Gumball will appear centered on whatever
object or objects are selected. With Gumball you
can Move, Scale, and Rotate the object using the
handles.
Super Select
This tool determines what types of objects you
have on-screen and will display them in the
menu that appears It is a quick way to
check if you have any open curves (won’t
properly build solids), open surfaces (won’t
mill or grow correctly), invalid surfaces (won’t
Boolean or function properly in modeling/
growing), or duplicate objects (especially a pain:
located right on top of one another and therefore
indiscernible). If these problematic objects exist, or
if you simply wish to, for instance, select all curves
and hide/ job bag/ delete them, etc., you can do
so here. To use this tool, simply make the selection
from the list that appears and it will be highlighted
in the viewports for further modeling operations.
At the left the Gumball appears
on a selected cube. Bellow are
the 3 Gumball commands that
appear in the Info & Settings
menu.
Smart Targets MSR
The Smart Targets MSR looks similar to the
Gumball but has some additional functionality.
When a Smart Target with Smart
MSR is selected, the whole
thing highlights pink. Click on
one of the handles to edit each,
individually.
Rhino History On / Off
This History stores the connection between a
command’s input geometry and the result so
that when the input geometry changes, the result
updates accordingly. For example, with History
recording and Update turned “On,” a lofted
surface can be changed by editing the input
curves.
It applies a selection filter for Smart Targets
making it so no other objects can be selected.
This makes it easier to move the Smart Target
(input geometry/Parent) without accidentally
moving the blended curves (output geometry/
child). The Smart Target MSR also makes it
possible to manipulate a single handle of the
Smart Target as opposed to the whole target.
Matrix History Record & Update On / Off
Turn Matrix History Record and Update “Off”
when they are not needed; otherwise, we
recommend you leave them on: all History-related
functionality will work as expected when they’re
both on.
Command History
Matrix Clear History
The Command History button displays the
commands that have been passed by Matrix to
Rhino. Scroll through to see the list of processes
completed.
Use Clear History on any object to let Matrix
forget about updating a single part. This function
is particularly useful while dragging objects from
one location to another on-screen and you want
the program to forget the history only on certain
23
items. That way, Matrix does not have to work so
hard at remembering everything.
Design Summary, a gem map along with a fourview render of your design, to organize your jobs
more efficiently.
Viewport Tab Toggle
Matrix has added viewport tabs which make it
easier to switch between viewports when one
view is maximized. The Viewport Tabs Toggle will
hide these tabs if you so choose.
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
Rhino Options:
Display Menu
Rhino Options, Object Properties, Viewport Tabs
Toggle, and Display Menu
This controls the appearance of objects in your
viewport. Control things like whether curves are
shown or if objects cast a shadow.
Box Edit Menu
Object Info, Command History & Notes
This tool edits objects according to their
bounding box size, orientation, and position. New
bounding boxes are calculated each time the
settings are applied.
Object Info, All Object Info, Command History,
Notes
Library Menu
Other:
Super Select,Box Edit, Library, Selection Filter
Menu, Smart Track, Design Report
Materials, textures and environment files are
contained in Rhino’s Libraries and displayed here.
Selection Filter
This feature allows optional selection of the types
of objects that you want to be able to select. It is
like locking by an object class as opposed to by
an individual object or the layer they are on. Leftclick on a check mark to ‘lock’ that class of object.
Right-click on a check box to deselect all objects
but that one.
History:
Rhino History, Matrix History Update, Matrix
History Record, Matrix Clear Object History.
Translation Handles:
Smart Targets MSR, Gumball Alignment,
Relocate Gumball, Gumball
The Selection Filter opens in a window. Dock it by dragging
it to the edges of the viewport.
Smart Track
Use this modeling aid to reference tracking lines
and smart points while drawing items in the
viewports.
Design Report
The Design Report accesses the model’s render
materials while joining reports for gem and metal
weights, and providing real-time Stuller pricing
quotes. Use this, combined with the Print option,
24
Steps:
Rhino Options
• Select Rhino Options from the Info and Settings
Menu.
• The Interface opens, displaying the Rhino Options
settings.
‘Options’
This is the Rhino Options menu that houses all of
the settings for the Rhino document. This includes
all displays, plug-ins, updates, appearance, units,
video card settings, keyboard shortcuts scripting
and more.
A complete listing on how to manage Rhino
options can be found in the Rhinoceros Help
menu (F1) listed as “Manage Rhino Options.”
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info & Settings
Menu>Rhino Options
Object Properties
‘Properties’
Manage the object properties for the selected
objects. This command opens an interface that
has all the settings for an objects’ display, render
mesh, edge softening, texture mapping and more.
Why does the Rhino Options button
appear in Matrix?
Matrix installs a scheme in Rhino for viewport
display settings along with all your video card
settings upon install. Advanced knowledge of
how these settings, along with others, impact
use in Matrix and is needed when making setting
adjustments. Making any of these changes
should be done with great care as they can
cause an adverse effect in Matrix. We added this
quick shortcut button to help those following
instructions from Matrix support or aid those with
advanced knowledge of Rhino Options. From
scripting keyboard shortcuts to changing units
(mm, inches or feet), Rhino Options is a powerful
tool that helps users make setting changes so
Matrix runs at its optimal performance.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info &
Settings>Object Properties
Or, select an object and press Ctrl+T.
Why does Rhino’s Object Properties
button appear in Matrix?
Since adding buttons in Matrix’s main
user interface for Edge Softening, Apply
Displacement along with Texture mapping ability
in VRay and more, having a quick, easy access
to Object Properties makes sense. Turn on or
off Displacement, or select a different texture
map for your object. A complete description of
Object Properties can be found in Rhino Help (F1)
under Properties command or Manage Object
Properties.
25
Steps:
Command History
• Select object(s) on-screen.
• Select “Object Properties” from the Info & Settings
Menu to open the interface.
• Click on the “X” to close.
The Command History button displays the
commands that have been passed by Matrix to
Rhino. Depending on the commands used, Matrix
will sometimes clear the command history. For
instance, after running the Object Information
command, Matrix will clear the command history
and then show the object information.
Object Info
‘DisplayProperties’
Object Info displays a quick “pop up” label beside
a selected object in the viewports. This display
is the layer color of the object it is referring to.
It displays the type of object and important
information about it: surface
or
polysurface (made up
of more than once
surface); closed or
open , valid or invalid
and point count for
curves, or surface count
for polysurfaces.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Command History
Or, by clicking F2 on the keyboard.
Steps:
• Select Command History from the Info & Settings
Menu.
• Click on the green “Done” arrow to close.
It is also possible to access the Command History
information by pressing F2 on the keyboard.
Pressing this key will display the Rhino Command
History. The Rhino Command History is the same
as the Matrix one, except that it is never cleared.
The Rhino Command History window displays up
to 500 lines of commands.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Object Info
Steps:
• Select the object(s) you wish to have display their
object info.
• Select Object Info in the Info & Settings Menu.
• Press Enter when done.
All Object Info
Brings up an Object information window
displaying all of the characteristics of the selected
object.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from
Info and Settings>All Object
Info
Steps:
• Select the object(s) to display
their object info.
• Select All Object Info from the
Info & Settings Menu.
• Press Enter when done.
26
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Super Select
Project Notes
Add notes for your project to keep in the Saved
file. Click “Done” to keep them, and open them
again in the future when needed. Remember to
do a File > Save As, or place the file into a Master
Job Bag, in order to save the notes with the file.
Steps:
• Select Super Select from the Info & Settings Menu.
• From the menu select the objects you would like
highlighted.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Project Notes
Steps:
• Select Project Notes from the Info & Settings
Menu.
• Click in the project notes field and begin typing
your notes.
• Press done when complete.
Note: The Super Select menu will only display the
classes of objects that are in the viewport. When
an object class is selected from the Super Select
menu, it selects all objects that meet that criteria.
Viewport Tabs Toggle
‘ViewportTabs’
Matrix has added Viewport Tabs which make it
easier to switch between the viewports when one
view is maximized. The Viewport Tabs toggle will
hide these tabs, if desired.
Super Select
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Viewport Tab Toggle
Super Select can determine what types of objects
you have on-screen and displays in a menu only
those types of object. It’s a quick way to check if
you have any open curves, open surfaces, invalid
surfaces, or duplicate objects. If you do have
these problematic objects, or if you simply wish to,
for instance, select all curves and hide/ job bag/
delete them, etc., you can do so here. To use this
tool, simply make the selection from the list that
appears and it will be highlighted in the viewports
for further modeling operations.
Steps:
• Select Viewport Tabs Toggle from the Info &
Settings Menu to hide or show the Viewport tabs.
27
Command Line Options:
Box Edit Menu
These options are only available when you run
(type) the ‘ViewportTabs’ in the Command Line.
‘BoxEdit’
Edits objects according to their bounding box
size, orientation, and position. Increase or decrease
size, scale, position or rotation in X, Y, Z. Or, change
an object’s Pivot Point location
Show/Hide/Toggle: These options control
whether or not the Viewport Tabs are displayed.
Align:
Top: This is the default option. The Viewport Tabs
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Box Edit Menu
are displayed on the top of the viewport.
Bottom: Aligns the tabs to the bottom of the
Steps:
viewport.
• Select Box Edit menu from the Info & Settings
Menu.
• Select object(s) to modify.
• Specify Transform options in the Box Edit Menu.
• Click Apply to accept the changes. Or, click Reset
to reject the changes.
Left: Aligns the tabs to the left of the viewport.
Right: Aligns the tabs to the right of the viewport.
Display Menu
Note: New bounding boxes are calculated each time
the settings are applied.
Rhino’s Display Menu lists the Active Viewport,
Display Mode, controls shading, choose whether
curves are shown or hidden, add Transparency
and more. Use these quick access to change
these settings.
Box Edit Panel:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Display Menu
Objects selected: Reports the number of
objects selected on-screen.
Steps:
Apply: Saves the applied changes.
• Select Display Menu from the Info & Settings Menu.
• Click on the “X” to close.
Reset: Reject the changes and revert the objects
to their previous state.
Size
X/Y/Z: Specifies the X, Y, or Z size in model units.
28
Increment: Type a value for the increment used
Increment: Type a value for the increment used
by the spinner controls.
by the spinner controls.
Options:
Scale
X/Y/Z: Specifies the X, Y, or Z size in model
units.
Increment: Type a value for the increment used
by the spinner controls.
Pivot location: Sets the base point for scale and
Position
rotate transforms. X/Y/Z
Min: Uses the minimum bounding box X, Y, or Z
point. Set X, Y, and Z to Min to use the “lower-left”
corner of the bounding box as the pivot.
Minimum X, Y, or Z.
Cen (default): Uses the centroid bounding box
X, Y, or Z point. Set X, Y, and Z to Cen to use the
“middle” of the bounding box as the pivot. Center
X, Y, or Z .
X/Y/Z: Specifies the X, Y, or Z size in model units.
Increment: Type a value for the increment used
Max: Uses the maximum bounding box X, Y, or
by the spinner controls.
Z point. Set X, Y, and Z to Max to use the “upperright” corner of the bounding box as the pivot.
Maximum X, Y, or Z.
Rotation:
Use world C-Plane: Uses World coordinates
for the transformations.
Use current C-Plane: Uses Construction plane
coordinates for the transformations.
Transform objects individually: Transforms
each object from its own pivot point and
bounding box. By default, selected objects
are all contained in one bounding box and are
X/Y/Z: Specifies the X, Y, or Z size in model units.
29
transformed from one pivot point as one unit.
Single bounding box and pivot for all selected
objects.
Selection Filter Menu
‘SelectionFilter’
This selection filter allows you to restrict or add
any specified object types to selection. Objects
specified in this filter control will be allowed during
selection (Selection Box or Region Select).
Show Bounding Box: Displays a control
polygon that represents the bounding box.
Copy Objects: Transforms a copy instead of the
Select Copied Objects: Leaves the copied
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info & Settings
Menu>Selection Filter Menu
objects selected. This allows incremental changes
to the copied objects.
Steps:
original objects.
• Select “Selection Filter” from the Info & Settings
Menu.
• A selection dialog box will appear. Uncheck any
items to exclude from selection. Any items left
checked will be available in a selection mode.
Library Menu
‘Libraries’
This menu displays materials, textures and
environment files are contained in Rhino’s
Libraries. Use this quick access to add files.
The dialog box shows persistent filter options by
default. Press Ctrl or Shift to change the dialog to
one-shot filter selections. It also works for preselecting objects, and sub-parts of objects using
Ctrl + Shift + Left-mouse click.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info & Settings
Menu>Library Menu
Steps:
• Select Library Menu from the Info & Settings Menu.
• This opens Rhino’s Library Directories. The Libraries
panel displays a view into the content folder you
have set up. Use this to drag and drop content
into the model or to store document content to
a location outside the model. Choose between
environment, metal, plastic, wood material files
and more.
Example: Only select just curves one time.
Set the files to Surfaces. With the mouse over the
Selection Filter dialog box, press the Ctrl or Shift
key. Click the Curves Button, Select Objects.
Result: Only curves will be selected for one
selection. The filter then returns to its previous
mode.
SmartTrack
‘SmartTrack’
Use this modeling aid to reference Tracking Lines
and Smart Points while drawing items in the
viewports.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info & Settings
30
Menu>Smart Track
Rhino’s SmartTrack is a system of temporary
reference lines and points that is drawn in the
viewport using implicit relationships among
various 3-D points, other geometry in space, and
the coordinate axes’ directions. Temporary infinite
lines (tracking lines) and points (smart points)
are available to Object Snaps very much like real
lines and points. You can snap to intersections of
the tracking lines, perpendiculars, and directly to
smart points as well as intersections of tracking
lines and real curves. The tracking lines and
smart points are displayed for the duration of a
command. Add or “capture” new points as needed
up to the current maximum after which the oldest
smart points disappear as new ones are added.
Captured points can be cleared at any time if they
are not proving useful.
Design Report
‘gvDesignReport’
The Design Report accesses the design’s applied
render materials while joining reports for gem and
metal weights, providing real-time Stuller pricing
quotes. Use this, combined with the Print option,
Design Summary, a gem map along with a fourview render of your design, to organize your jobs
more efficiently.
Where is this tool:
Access this tool from Info & Settings
Menu>Design Report
Steps:
• Select SmartTrack from the Info & Settings menu.
• This toggles On SmartTrack. Select again to toggle
Off.
• Apply Materials for gems and metals, including
Metal Quality, to all objects.
• Select Design Report from the Info & Settings
Menu.
• Select additional gem quality options.
• Select Print to view the Design Summary Report.
• Select Quote to view Stuller Pricing.
Capture Smart Points Automatically:
Setting up the Model
Steps
Render Materials: The Design Report uses the
• Capture Smart Points automatically by hovering
over an object snap point.
model’s assigned render materials. So, first apply
metal and gem materials (via VRay Styles or F6
Materials Mode) to each object in the design. Be
sure to designate the specific Metal quality. With
gems you will have the ability to select specific
qualities later. The design does not need to be
water-tight to produce metal volumes. Once the
design is assigned metal and gem materials it is
ready for a real-time Stuller quote.
Steps
Manually:
• Press the Ctrl key once to place a manual Smart
Point anywhere in space. This makes it easy to for
example to place Smart Points along curves.
• Press “Ctrl” twice to clear all Smart Points.
Notes: Captured Smart Points are drawn in
their own color and styles: gray with a cross for
captured, but not currently active points (that is
they are not sending out any tracking lines), and
blue for active Smart Points. Tracking lines are
drawn once a Smart Point is captured and the
cursor is in a predictable relation with the captured
point(s). In this case, predictable means that the
cursor is along or near an Ortho line through the
point, at or near the intersection between Ortho
lines from two Smart Points. When a single Smart
Point is highlighted and the Ortho cursor is seen
with a distance, Type a distance or enter relative
coordinates to place a point relative to the active
Smart Point.
31
Launch the Design Report: Click the Design
Report button in the Info & Settings menu to
open the report. Upon launch the design is
checked for volume and made water-tight. So, it
may take several seconds and up to a minute or
longer to display the report. Large models with
tens or hundreds of components will require more
waiting time when launching the Design Report.
You must be connected to the Internet and have
a Stuller.com account to receive real-time pricing
quotes.
Metal Report: The metal report displays the
DWT amount, Sprue DWT, quality or metal
type.
Sprue: Click on the “0.00” DWT amount under
“Sprue” to type an amount of raw material
required for casting to be included in your order.
Type: Click on the underlined metal name in
“Type” to access Stuller’s raw material product web
page.
Stock Parts: Any Stuller findings included in the
design will be listed here along with quantity, and
the parts description.
Additional Notes: Add any note pertaining to
Design Report Components
this design you wish.
The Design Report is comprised of a stone
report, metal report, stock parts listing, notes and
quoting options. It also includes the ability to save
by using the “Print” option. Also, parts and raw
material orders from Stuller can be completed
directly from the report.
Stuller Real-Time Quotes: Next to every
item listed is a check box that is checked “On”
by default. All of the checked items are quoted.
Any unchecked item will not be quoted. Check or
uncheck each item as needed.
Turn On Stuller Pricing: Stuller Pricing is “On”
Stone Report: The stone report section will
by default. See the button at the top right
of the report. Click on the square, blue On/Off
toggle to disable Stuller pricing.
display each stone quantity, shape, quality and
size along with the single carats weights. The
“Group Matching Stones” is checked “on” by
default (upper right corner). Stone Family / Color
/ Quality: The report will provide a default value
upon the first open. So, you will want to change
the quality of each stone in your design. Click
directly on the name of the stone to change the
stone entirely (family), change the color, or select
a new clarity (quality). Choose from the selections
in the drop down menu that appears.
Quote: When all items are set as needed just
click the “Quote” button on the bottom left of
the report. Enter your Stuller.com account user
name and password. You will only be required to
do this once. Matrix will
remember this every
time it’s used after this.
32
Metal pricing is listed in raw materials only. Gem
pricing is per group. (There are no setting fees
associated with the Design Report. Pricing is for
raw materials only.)
Changing Selections: The report will quote any
item that is currently available at Stuller. If an item
appears as “not available” you can go back and
change the quality or check the item’s availability
at Stuller.com. If a stone quality is changed a
“Reset” icon will appear along with a round, yellow
warning icon.
Reset: Reset will reset that item back to the
default upon launch of the report. Viewing an
Item on Stuller.com: After the quote is completed
a “preview” link will appear under each listed item.
Click the link to view that item’s Stuller web page.
Viewing the Design Report Summary along with
the Print Preview.
Save: Save in a .xps format for future viewing.
Add to Cart: Click on “Add to Cart” to display
your shopping cart at Stuller.com. You can
complete your purchase here.
Print / View: After clicking on “Print” a Design
Report Summary will appear as the first page
along with the main Design Report as page two.
Rhino History
Design Report Summary: The summary
includes a four-view capture of the design along
with a stone map (see explanation in Gems>Gem
Map) and the listing of stones, metals and parts.
The bottom of the page includes a Customer
Approval signature space, date, and a pricing box.
‘History’
History stores the connection between a
command’s input geometry and the result so
that when the input geometry changes, the result
updates accordingly. For example, with History
Recording and Update turned on, a lofted surface
can be changed by editing the input curves.
Increase or Decrease the Preview: Increase
the print preview size by clicking on the “+”
microscope symbol or decrease the size by
clicking on the “-.”
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Rhino History
Steps:
Preview Layout Styles: Choose a viewable
• Click on the Rhino History button to toggle History
Recording and Updating “On” or” Off.”
layout by selecting any one of the layout style
icons shown at the top of the Preview box (one
page, two pages, etc).
Command Line Options:
Print: Print to your attached printer or save as a
These options are only available when you run the
history command in the Command Line. If you use
the Rhino History button it simply toggles the
recording and updating of History “On” or” Off.”
document (if computer software is installed that
allows print to file).
33
Record=Yes/No: When set to ‘Yes,” Rhino
Steps:
will, by default, record History for all commands.
When set to “No,” Rhino will, by default, not
record History. These defaults can be explicitly
overridden when running a command if necessary.
• .Click on the Matrix History Update button to
toggle History Updating “On” or” Off.”
Update=Yes/No: When Update is set to ‘Yes,”
Matrix Update History and Matrix History Record
must both be on in order to see the changes
History is making while you work. There may be
some instances when you want to record History,
but prefer not to have it update until you have
finished making the changes. For instance, if you
are working on a complex design and the changes
may take a while to redraw.
Matrix History Record
the output objects will update when the input
changes. So, if you modify a profile that is part
of a Swept surface the surface will update. Any
children (copies,mirrors etc.) of an object will also
update when the parent object (the original) is
adjusted. When the option is set to no children,
the output objects will not update when parent or
input objects are moved.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Matrix History Record
Lock=Yes/No: “Yes” locks child objects created
with History to discourage direct editing, which
would break the History link to the parent object.
“No” will not lock the children objects.
Steps:
• Click on the Matrix History Record button to toggle
History Recording “On” or” Off.”
Note: History locked objects are selectable to
use as input and edit properties, but not change
geometry. If full locking is needed, children can
be selected and locked with Lock command.
Matrix Clear Object History
Clears Matrix History information from a selected
object.
Broken History Warning: Displays a warning
dialog when an action is taken that breaks History.
You can restore history by clicking on the “Undo”
button.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Matrix Clear Object History
Matrix History Update
Steps:
Matrix Update History and Matrix History Record
must both be “On” in order to see the changes
History is making while you work. There may be
some instance when you want to record History
but prefer not to have it update until you have
fished making the changes. For instance if you are
working on a complex design and the changes
may take a while to redraw. Matrix will update the
design when you turn Matrix History Update back
“On.”
• Select the object(s) you wish to purge Matrix
History information from.
• Click on the Matrix Clear Object History.
Smart Target MSR
‘gvSmartMSR’
This tool acts as a selection filter for Smart
Targets making them easier to select and
manipulate without breaking History. Smart MSR
also exposes additional functionality making
it possible to modify part of a Smart Target as
opposed to the whole target.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Matrix History Update
34
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from >Info and
Settings>Smart MSR
• Click on the Gumball toggle in Info and Settings.
Z
Or, Tools>Smart MSR
Y
Smart MSR Selection Filter Steps:
• Turn on Smart MSR by clicking on Smart Targets
MSR in Info and Settings menu.
• Select Smart Targets using any selection method.
All other objects will be ignored.
X
Note: It is easy to forget that you have left Smart
MSR on. When Smart MSR is active only Smart
Targets can be selected. Turn off when it isn’t
needed.
The Gumball
Move:
Moves the selected object along the specified
axis. Click and drag the X, Y or Z arrow.
Rotating a single blend handle in a Smart
Target:
When a Smart Target is rotated using the Gumball,
or other methods, all of the Blend Handles rotate
together. With Smart MSR the handles can rotate
independent of one another.
Move Z: Only moves the selected object on the
Z axis. Click and drag the Yellow arrow.
Move Y: Only moves the selected object on the
Y axis. Click and drag the Blue arrow.
Note: A Smart Target must already have more than
one set of Blend Handles in order to rotate them
independently.
Move X: Only moves the selected object on the
Steps:
X axis. Click and drag the Red arrow.
• Select a Smart Target.
• With the Smart Target selected, click on the Blend
Handle to rotate.
• Use Smart MSR controls to manipulate the Blend
Handle.
4=Axis Plane Indicator: Move the selected
object on two axises. The two axises are indicated
by their color.
5=Free Move Origin: Move the selected object
freely in any direction.
Gumball
Z
‘Gumball’
The Gumball is a set of Display Widgets and
Viewport Control Handles that when ‘On” is
displayed on any selected object. The
Gumball makes it so you can Move, Scale and
Rotate any selected object.
4
Y
5
X
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings > Gumball
35
Rotation Arcs:
Copy During any Operation:
Click and drag the Yellow (Z), Red (X) or Blue (Y)
arc for adjusting rotation on the selected object.
Steps:
• Click any Gumball Arrow, Arc, or Scale handle.
• Start dragging the object.
• Tap the “Alt” key to toggle “Copy” mode On.
• Tap the “Alt” key again to turn Off Copy mode.
Specify a Distance, Rotation Angle, or
Scale Factor:
Steps:
• Click any Gumball Arrow, Arc, or Scale handle.
• In the Edit box, type a Distance, Rotation Angle or
Scale Factor that will be applied to the selected
object.
Rotate Z: Rotate selected object along the Z
axis. Click and drag the Yellow arc.
Copy with Numeric Input:
Rotate X: Rotate selected object along the X
Steps:
axis. Click and drag the Red arc.
• Press and hold the “Alt” key and click any Gumball
Arrow, Arc, or Scale handle. In the Edit box, type a
Distance, Rotation Angle or Scale Factor that will
be applied to a copy of the selected object.
Rotate Y: Rotate selected object along the Y
axis. Click and drag the Blue arc.
Scale Handles:
Use Distance and Angle constraint:
Scale X: Scale the selected object 1D along the X
axis. Click and drag the Red square.
Normal Matrix Distance and Angle constraints
can be used during a Gumball operation.
Scale Y: Scale the selected object 1D along the Y
Steps:
axis. Click and drag the Blue square.
• Start dragging an object.
• Type a number, and press the Enter key. This
number appears on the Command Line and is
used to constrain a Distance or Angle of Rotation.
• Drag the object. Distances are constrained along
the axis arrow line. Angles are constrained in
increments of the angle around the rotation arc.
Scale Z: Scale the selected object 1D along the Z
axis. Click and drag the Yellow square.
Extrude a Curve or Surface:
Steps:
• Click and drag any Gumball arrow on a planar
curve or surface.
• Press and hold the “Ctrl” key.
• Release the mouse button.
36
To Extrude a Specific Distance:
Gumball Alignment Options:
Steps:
C-Plane: The Gumball Widgets align to the
Construction plane, the visible plane in the
viewports. This causes the widgets to move in
alignment to the plane instead of an object’s
rotated orientation, for example.
• Start dragging a planar curve or surface.
• With the mouse button down, type a Distance and
press the Enter key. This number appears on the
Command Line and will constrain the Distance.
• Press and hold the “Ctrl” key, and release the
mouse button.
Object: The Gumball Widgets align to the
object’s direction for the following: curves:
extrusion objects, lights, mesh faces, edges
vertices, planar objects and sub-objects, and the
camera object. However an object is oriented, the
Object option places the Widgets in alignment
exactly with the object.
Relocate Gumball
‘RelocateGumball’
Change the Gumball Display Widgets, and
location where oriented to an object.
World: The Gumball Widgets aligns to World
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Relocate Gumball
XYZ directions. This is the most useful orientation
in Matrix. The arrow icon in the lower left corner of
each viewport displays the direction of the world,
X, Y and Z axes. The arrows move to show the
orientation of the World axes when rotating a view.
There are two ways to use Relocate Gumball:
Steps:
• Select “Relocate Gumball” in Info & Settings menu.
• Follow the Command Line prompt and enter a
Gumball origin (enter viewport coordinates in the
format X, Y, and Z).
• Then, choose the X-axis direction.
• Press Enter when done.
Or
• Press the “Ctrl” key, click the Gumball Widget.
• Release the “Ctrl’ key, and start dragging to
relocate the Gumball widget.
Gumball Alignment
‘GumballAlignment’
Align the Gumball Widgets to a C-Plane, Object or
the World.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Info and
Settings>Gumball Alignment
Steps:
• Click on Gumball Alignment and select one of the
three Command Line options; C-Plane, Object or
World.
37
CHAPTER 8
History
In Matrix, History enabled commands can be used to your advantage to create
flexible models. Below is an overview of the Rhino and Matrix History functions, how
they work, and what best practices to keep in mind when using these powerful tools.
Rhino History “On”
Rhino History Enabled Commands
To begin, first make sure that Rhino History is turned
on. The button is located in the Info & Settings
menu. This should default to the ‘ON’ position, but
double check its status.
To view the commands that contain Rhino
History, press the F1 key. This will activate the
Rhino Help menu. When the window appears,
type in “History.” A brief description of History will
display, along with a full list of all the commands
that are History enabled. This list has been greatly
expanded, increasing your modeling possibilities.
Note: There may be times when you do not wish for
History to be active. If so, simply click the tool OFF
before creating a “child” object.
38
The Relationship
Broken History
When working with Rhino History, it all begins
with an original object or objects. History stores
information about these objects (or geometry)
and when this object is duplicated, mirrored, or
used in combination to create new objects, a
relationship is established between the original
object, (known as the PARENT), and the new
object, (known as the CHILD). When the original
or Parent is updated, the Child follows.
The relationship is broken if a Child object is
altered apart from the Parent. When this occurs,
a warning message window will appear. If it was
not your intention to break History between the
Parent and Child Objects simply “Undo” the last
action by clicking on the Undo button in the Main
Menu or pressing ‘CTRL + Z’ on your keyboard.
Then, repeat the desired action on the Parent
object instead of the Child.
There are certain commands that will break
History and this is unavoidable. Commands such
as Join and Boolean change the Child geometry,
be it a curve or a surface, so that it no longer has
a Parent/Child relationship with the geometry that
created it. It is recommended that you Job Bag,
or save a design, before performing one of these
commands. That way you can revert back to your
flexible history-enabled model if necessary.
Move and Scale the original sphere (Parent)
and the Mirrored sphere will update to match.
Note: Sometimes a Rhino update will also break
History. So, saved models that had History may lose
it after installing an update.
Disabling the “Broken History” Warning
To disable the History Warning text box, simply
type the word ‘History’ into the Command Line.
The options menu
offers to set the
“Broken History Warning” to “NO.”
For information on the other Command Line
options for History, see the History command in
the Info and Settings section of the Introduction.
CAUTION: Be aware that without the Broken History
warning, it will not be clear when a relationship
has “changed” between objects. It may not be
discovered for several steps and can be a challenge
to track, after the fact. It is recommended that
you give yourself time, and experience, before
deactivating this message.
39
Strategize
Color-Coding
When working with History, color-coding the
Parent separate from the Children can help ensure
that changes are made to the correct object,
thereby, preserving the relationship.
When a strong history tree is established,
the modeling process can be extremely fluid.
Changes can occur to your surfaces with just a
small adjustment to a single curve, as seen below.
When working with History, color-coding the
Parent, separate from the Children, can help
ensure that changes are made to the correct
object, thereby, preserving the relationship.
Simple
In this simple example (above), the Parent object
is green and the children are gray.
Complex
In this design (below), there are multiple Parent/
Child relationships at work.
Angle and position of curves used as part of a blend
were moved, updating the Blended Curve, the Pipes
on those curves, and the Polar-arrayed Pipes forming
the wires.
Layers of History
History can actually be layered with multiple
“generations,” if you will. In the set up of a model
with Rhino History, there will be Parent objects
and Child objects; but, keep in mind that Child
objects can produce Children as well. When the
Parent is updated, the Child and Grandchildren
update too. If the second generation is updated, it
will break the relationship with the Parent, but its
Children will continue to update and follow. This all
needs to be tracked as you model.
Color-coding, for this example ONLY, each
Parent has been color-coded “red” for ease of
identification.
40
When coloring your own Parent/Child objects,
a good rule of thumb is to leave Parents their
standard layer colors and re-color children. Layer
04 Gray works well for this purpose.
one gem is manipulated in these tools, the effect
can be stunning: causing all gems - for example,
a Pavé’ layout - to flow like a school of fish toward
one curve or point on-screen.
Setting Tools that Follow their Gems
Matrix History
Thanks to Matrix History, there are a number of
settings tools that follow their gems around like
lovesick puppies. Move a gem with the MSR
(Move, Scale, and Rotate) handles (aka Gem
Positioner in the gems menu), or just pick it up
and drag it around, and bezels, prongs, Metal
Piece (metal built around a line of gems), and
channel border (a rectangle curve built around a
line of gems) will follow. The powerful thing about
prongs, Metal from Gems, and Channel Border is
that these tools are built around a line of gems, so
the entire layout - in the case of Metal Piece, an
entire surface - can be changed as gems are
scaled, rotated, and manipulated, making History a
design tool in itself: when you want to adjust one
of these items, simply make changes to the gems
and the surfaces follow.
A Gem Never Forgets
In addition to the powerful “Edit (Object)” or “MSR”
found in the F6 Menus, Matrix History is achieved
above all through the gems in the program. Gems
retain a memory of most of the program’s Settings
and Cutters Tools that were created on them
(including Heads, Bezels, Bezel Cutter, Prongs,
Metal Piece, Channel Border, Azure Cutter,
Channel Cutter, MicroProng Cutter, Bright Cutter,
Bright Cut Channel; excluding Prong on Surface /
Bead on Surface, Emerald Profile & Cluster,
Millgrain, & Gem Cutter Library). Using the “Match
Attributes” a Setting or Cutter currently on a gem
or ever created on a gem (even if it was deleted)
can be re-applied to the same gem or to another
gem in the program. When that object appears, it
can be edited by selecting F6 and the original
builder used (where available). Alternately, without
running Match Attributes, simply input the gem
that already had the object on it into the same
builder, and the last settings used in that builder
will appear on the gem.
Move or adjust the rotation or even scale a gem and the
history enabled setting built on it will update.
Gem Control: When either sphere is moved the the gems
north or culet direction will move to point to the control
object.
Gem Follow and Gem Control, both of which
assign the gems a “North” axis that can be told to
point at another gem (Gem Follow) or any object
on the screen (Gem Control). When more than
41
Other Tools with Matrix History
History Update”, and they must both be on to see
the changes History is making while you work. If
“Matrix History Update” is turned off but “Record”
is on, you will not see the changes, but History will
be making them “behind the scenes”. When you
turn on “Update” again, they will be visible. In this
way, you can make changes without your
computer having to “chug” away to keep up with
In this manual, you’ll learn to use lots of Matrix
tools that are enabled with History. Starting in the
Curve Menu, the Curve from 2
Views tool creates advanced
shapes that are interactive with
History; so that you can edit
them and see your changes
keep up in real time. The
Surface menu contains History Matrix History
enabled Commands
enabled Sweep commands
have a yellow arrow
in the corner as seen
such as Sweep 1 History and
here in Profile Sweep
Sweep 2 History.
From left to right Matrix History Update, Matrix History
Record, Matrix Object History Clear
Application of History
By building models with these interactive surface
tools, you are creating incredibly flexible models
that can be changed in subtle or dramatic ways to
accommodate your design changes. In this way,
you could use one design many times for many
different customers, changing it in subtle ways
(new gem size or shape, new cross-section shape
for shank) or dramatic ways (new setting type or
an entirely new ring shape) and the builders can
make the changes for you without the need to
rebuild the entire model from scratch, as you
would have had to do in previous versions of the
program.
you. But usually, you’ll want them both on at the
same time to see the results while you work. If
both settings are turned Off, NONE of the History
functions described in this section will be available
so it is a good idea to always leave both settings
on.
The only reason you would want to turn them
off is to make major changes to your model: for
instance, when moving a ring created with Profile
Placer and Sweep History or a model created with
Metal from Gems clear across your screen - as
when setting it up for a render, for example - you
will find that all the pieces take a moment. To
avoid this convoluted look turn Off History before
attempting major moves like this.
But don’t worry: none of the History relationships
are “broken” when you turn History off on a model
like this. You can turn it right back on and pick up
modeling where you left off. I like to think of it as
“suspending” History. If, however, you attempt to
build more models once it has been turned off,
History will not apply for them even after you turn
it back on. It must be on at the start of working
with a History-enabled tool. If however you are
completely done with the History on an object
and you want the program to forget the history
you can use the “Matrix Clear Object History”
command. This function is object specific and
allows you to pick one object at a time and “Clear
History”.
Make minor or major changes to your design and watch it
update.
Turning History On and Off
History defaults to On when you open up the
program. In the Info and Settings menu in the
Matrix interface, you will see the History settings
on the far right under this menu’s title bar. Matrix
History appears like a “Record” and “Play” button.
These are “Matrix History Record” and “Matrix
42
3- Don’t delete the input objects or the
output objects.
What it does is, when you copy or re-create
an object using one of its tools, you can make
changes to the original object (sometimes flat
against the grid or easier to manipulate in some
other way) and the changes will be carried
through to the new object. This can be helpful
in that, if you have two objects that you want to
be identical and you edit one, the new object will
also reflect your changes. However, it can also be
a pain: what if you forgot you had it on, and you
wanted the new object to be left alone - NOT
exactly the same as the first.
Obviously, if you delete the input objects used to
make the surface; or the output surface you are
working on, History will be broken.
Tips & Tricks: Using History
These tips and tricks for not breaking apply to
both Matrix and Rhino History
1- For any History processes involving
curves - don’t Split, Trim, Join, or Curve
Boolean curves.
The thought here is: these processes create a
NEW curve, which is no longer part of the History
relationship. If you need to edit the curves using
these tools, do so before running the command;
or edit them and re-run the command. For join
you can use the Join History command which
creates a new curve that is a child of the unjoined
curves. Use the new curve to create new output
geometry with commands like Curve Network.
The parent curves can be updated and the joined
curve and surface with update.
2- For any History process that creates
surfaces - don’t Split or Cut away
(Boolean) objects from the surface.
This rule is similar to the previous one, only you’re
breaking it from the other end: not breaking the
input objects, but breaking the output objects.
Once the output object’s history relationship with
their curves are broken, changes to the curves
won’t continue to change the surfaces. However,
there is a way around this limitation: if you use
Matrix’s Profile Placer to create the shape curves,
you can always build the surface again with
Matrix’s Sweep History tools and re-cut it with the
Gem Cutter history available on gems (Match
Attributes of a gem or gem line to itself and select
the cutters), and you can re-sweep and re-cut the
surface.
43
CHAPTER 9
The Layers Menu
Organize your work and keep track of different parts of your model visually,
using different colors from the Layers Menu.
About the Layers Menu
out by grouping colors into four: “Metals”, “Gems”,
“User” colors, and layer colors on which the parts
are typically created by Matrix builders (“Heads”,
“Finger” or ring size, “Cutting”, and “Creation”).
The Layers menu is one of the most helpful
menus when modeling with Matrix. You’ll go to it
every time you build something. Think of it as a
giant organizer for your model. Not only does it
organize things visually - i.e., when you see their
colors; you can easily tell what each part of your
model is. It also organizes things by turning off
or hiding those parts you don’t need to see right
at the moment; selecting things you need to use
all at once, and “locking” layers you don’t wish to
change with a certain operation.
Does it matter what color I use?
The best part about the Layers menu is that
Some objects are automatically
placed on a particular layer color.
What is a Layer?
Well, obviously, a layer is a color: so, changing
it’s a flexible system you can tailor to the way
the color of items places them on different layers
you model. We have some recommendations,
in the program; and in turn, changing the layer
though. We recommend you keep Profiles (Crossof an item turns it a different color. But, I like to
section shape curves) on the Creation yellow
think of each layer color as a little “drawer” into
layer, because that is the color on which our
which you can put every related type of item
Profile Placer builder creates them. We also like
that makes up your model. While you certainly
to draw Cutting
don’t want to build
objects on
everything on one
Cutting orange;
layer color, the same
Finger size rails
way you wouldn’t
and other ring
put everything into
shapes on the
one drawer in your
Finger layer;
desk. You also don’t
and Heads and
want to put things
Settings on the
on so many different
Heads layer.
colors that you’re
using all of them!
To keep things
Also like when you
organized, we
organize your desk,
teach you in
you put similar things
class to create
together. It’s the
(“Sweep”)
The Layers Menu
same with the Layers menu,
surfaces on the Metal layers.
which is why we’ve helped you
44
Our program gems appear on the Gem 01 - 04
layers, and we recommend you rarely or never put
them on any other colors.
(unless the have a preassigned layer like a head).
And when you’re drawing your own curves,
we recommend you use the four “User” colors,
because other objects in the program don’t come
out on these layers, so they’re a good place to put
your own work. But when you’re drawing things
yourself, you can use any of these layers - any of
the 16 (32, actually, when you open the Advanced
Options in this menu) colors for anything you’re
working on.
2 Left-click on the arrow next to the layer name to put selected objects on that layer.
3. Right-click on the color swatch to select all objects on that layer.
4. Left-click on the lock button to ‘Lock’ all objects on a particular layer.
5. Left-click on the blue button to hide all objects on a layer
The Anatomy of the Layers Menu
The arrow beside the layer name places a select
object onto the layer color. Right-click the “color
swatch” beside this arrow to select all objects on
that layer color. Click the “lock” icon to lock or
protect all objects on that layer from being used in
modeling.
The Layers Menu is also like a anatomical drawing
on transparent pages in a textbook: peel back
the “skin” (surfaces) by turning off their layers to
inspect the “organs” (gems); turn these off to see
the “skeleton” (Curves) only to learn all about your
model.
Controlling an Object’s Color
You are about to learn two ways to control an
object’s color. The first way is to draw the object
on that layer color by first making it the “Current
Layer”. The second way is to change the object’s
layer color, a process explained below.
The “Current Layer”
Any tool you use that does not already have an
assigned layer for it in the program (Settings are
purple, Cutters orange, Profiles yellow, and Rail
tools maroon) will be drawn on the “Current Layer”;
or, the layer that is currently selected or “active” in
the Layers as indicated by its blue highlight.
Reveal the additional layers by clicking on the Advanced
options button (arrow) near the bottom of the Layers
menu.
Click the next button to turn a layer on or off. The
long button besides each group of layers turns all
layers in this group on or off. Shift + Right-click an
Advanced options layer name to changes its
name. Shift + Right-click its color swatch to
change its color
1
2
3
4
Changing an Object’s Layer
If you wish to change the layer color of an object
or objects in the viewports (even if it was created
by a Matrix builder), select the object using one
of the selection methods outlined in the section
of this chapter, “Modeling in the Viewports”. With
the object selected, move your cursor over to the
Layers menu and click on the “In” arrow between
the layer name and the swatch representing its
color. This changes its color from its previous one
to the new layer color you just selected.
5
1. The light blue on the layer name indicates the active layer color. New objects created will come out on this layer 45
Selecting by Layer
An Important Note about Job Bags,
Saving, & Layers
Another way to select items in the viewports is by
right-clicking on the color swatch of the layer they
are currently on and all the items on-screen that
are this color will be highlighted.
Do NOT forget to Show any hidden items and turn
back ON a layer you turned off before placing
objects into a
Job Bag if you
need to save
items on layers
that are off. Job
Bags only save
what you select in
the viewports,
and you can’t
select objects on
layers that are
“Off” (same goes
for objects that
are Hidden!).
However, saving a
model or using
the Master Job Bag
will save the objects
on layers that are
turned OFF, as well as the current state of the
layers menu (Off/ On, hidden objects, current
layer, etc.).
TIP: Select like items together easily by placing them
on the same layer color.
Locking a Layer
Click the little “lock” icon beside the color swatch
in the Layers menu to “lock” that layer; or, to
prevent all the objects on that layer from being
selected for use in modeling operations. You can
even do a Region Select and they won’t be
selected. You can still see objects for reference,
but they are “protected” from selection. Click it
again to unlock the layer.
Using Hide and Show
To “turn off” or hide objects so they temporarily
can’t be seen using a method that doesn’t
depend on
their layer
color, select
the object
or objects to hide and click the “Hide” button.
Similarly, click “Show” to see them again. You can
run several instances of Hide, but a single instance
of “Show” shows EVERYTHING that has been
hidden during this instance of using Matrix (since
the last File > New or Master Job Bag was opened
or saved). Advanced use of Hide and Show
lets you right-click on the Hide button to select
the objects on-screen you DON’T want hidden;
everything ELSE will be hidden. It’s like a “Reverse
Hide”, where you get to select what you want
to see instead of what you want to hide. Rightclicking on “Show” is similarly advanced: it shows
you everything that is currently hidden and allows
you to select JUST those things you wish to show.
Turning off a Layer
Click on the final button in the row beside a layer’s
name to turn off the layer so that objects on it
can’t be seen while you’re working on other things
in your model. The final bar on a row of Layers
Menu colors turns all colors in that group on and
off for quicker access. Click each again to turn
layer(s) back on.
46
Advanced Layers Menu
Click the “Down” arrow beneath the layers menu to
see an additional 16 layer colors. These CANNOT
be used in Matrix Art (“Lights” layer can’t, either)
but are helpful for models with lots of different
items to organize. For these colors ONLY, you can
change the layer name and even the layer color of
that swatch (and the items on that layer in the
viewports) for any given model. To change the
name of an advanced layer, hold down the Shift
key on the keyboard and right-click the Advanced
layer color name. Type a new name over the old
and press enter to keep it. To change the layer
color, hold down shift and right-click on the layer
color “swatch” This opens a palette of colors.
Choose a new one by left-clicking it and click OK
to make it that color.
Note: As when hiding objects or turning OFF
layer colors, these settings are only saved for that
particular instance of using the program. Do a
File > Save As or save the model in a Master Job
Bag to save these settings with the model. Upon
using File > New or closing and re-opening the
program, these settings will be returned to their
defaults.
47
CHAPTER 10
Using Project Manager
Create rows of “Job Bags” to save & organize models. Save model in stages of
creation, return to earlier versions, and easily vary designs.
About Project Manager
Saving & Loading Project Manager Rows
Start using Matrix, and after a few days you’ll
wonder why every program doesn’t have a
“Project Manager”! This tool makes saving and
organizing a model extremely easy and intuitive. It
should become second nature for you to “Job
Bag” or create a saved version of a model every
time you reach a critical stage (so you have a
saved version to return to); run an operation that
will significantly change it (so you have a version
saved before significant changes, and can try out
different ones); and save objects and design
elements related to that model together in one
place. If you need to create a variation on the
model, return to a version before you made a
major change by simply retrieving it from Project
Manager.
Right-click the name of a row to see the available
options for managing Project Manager rows: Save
a row; Delete a row; Rename a row; Compact a
row (delete unused “Job Bags”, or, the individual
“blocks” into which you place your objects for
safekeeping!), Start / Stop / Reset Timer, and
Update a Job Bag row. We’ll cover
each of these options in detail
next. Once a project row has been
“Saved” into a “zipped” format
called “.mpj”, it can be cleared from
your Project Manager to make way
for new ones. When you need that
row again, load it from the location
where you saved it by using the
“Load” icon (the “Up Arrow” to the
right of the “Create” icon).
How Many Job Bags?
“Job Bags” are each individual “block” in a row.
There are 10 in a new row; however, once you fill
up the 10th, an 11th one is added, etc. We have not
yet hit upon any one number that is “too many”
Job Bags, but if your computer starts to choke on
the memory it takes to think about all those Job
Bags (upwards of 200 for most people), consider
saving them using Save / Delete / Load to give
your computer a break. Same goes for Project
Manager rows.
Creating a New Project Manager Row
We strongly recommend you create a new Project
Manager row for each new model
you work on by clicking the “Create”
icon from above the list of rows.
Only the “Default” row comes with
Create a new job
the product. Make a new row by
bag row
clicking this button, typing a name
for your new row, and clicking “Create” (or “Cancel”
to change your mind and not create the row). Do
this EVERY TIME you start a new project in Matrix,
for best results.
Save a Project Manager Row
Right-click on the name of a row to access Save,
Delete, Rename, Compact, Timer Options, and
Update. “Save” saves the entire row as a “.mpj” file,
which is a special type of zipped file that can only
be opened by Project Manager using the “Load”
icon to the right of the “Create” icon. These files
48
default to saving in your “My
Documents > Matrix > Project
Archives” folder, so you can find
them again easily, but you can
navigate anywhere in Windows and
save this row wherever you want. Type a
memorable file name, so you won’t wonder where
it is when you need it again.
Tracking time in the Project Manager
Anatomy of a Job Bag
Each little “block” in a Project Manager row is
known as a “Job Bag”. In fact, The Advanced
Master Job Bag in each row is special, so we’ll
get to that in a minute. Each Job Bag has an “In”
arrow to place an object into it, a “Load” arrow
to place the item from it onto the screen (or just
click the thumbnail image to load it), a thumbnail
image of the object as you selected it on-screen
to place into the Job Bag, a number indicating
which Job Bag it is in the row, a “Save” button
to save it in Windows with a file name, and an
“X” button to delete the contents of a bag. You
will discover additional
options when you rightclick the Job Bag image.
These allow you to place
in the viewports ONLY
the types of items (gems,
surfaces, polysurfaces,
curves, or meshes) that
you want from that Job
Job Bag
Bag. Similarly, if you rightclick on the “In” arrow for
a
Job Bag, you can place into a Job Bag ONLY the
types of items you select from this list, out of the
ones you have selected in the viewports.
Open a Matrix .MPJ file
Deleting & Renaming Rows
Click “Delete” to ERASE Job Bag files you no
longer need. (Delete it after you’ve Saved it off
if you’ll need it again) Click “Rename” and type a
new name for the row if you need to. These are
displayed alphabetically, so name them with this
in mind to place certain rows “on top”. Compact
deletes the Job Bag blocks that are empty, in
case you have any empty ones between used
ones. It also changes the numbers, so if you left
“2” empty, the model you placed in “3” would
become “2” after clicking, “Compact”.
Using the Timer
The final three options when right-clicking a
Project Manager row are Start, Stop, and Reset (to
0) a timer that displays the hours, minutes, and
seconds you have had this Project Manager row
open. “Stop” timer when you pause the project
and “Start” it from where you left off to resume
working on it. “Reset” returns the timer to
00:00:00
Select the object types you want to import into the
viewport.
49
Load from a Job Bag
To scroll through Job Bags, click and drag the
slider below the row. (To scroll down through
Project Manager rows, use the slider on the side of
the rows). To open a row, extending your view of it
to the right-hand side of your screen, click “+”, and
click “-” to return to the standard, “short” view.
Click on the thumbnail preview of the Job Bag
(or the Load arrow in the upper right-hand corner
of the bag to load the item into the viewports.
In all but the Master Job Bag, this does a File >
Import, adding the Job Bag items to whatever
you already have on-screen and not deleting
or overwriting any existing work. To similarly be
selective about what items you are loading into
Expand the Project Manager by clicking on the ‘+’ next to
the slider.
Input an Item into a Job Bag
Select the object or objects in the viewports to
place into a Job Bag and click the “In” arrow
beneath the Job Bag, in the lower left-hand
corner of the bag into which you want to place
the items. To be more selective about which of the
selected items you will place into the bag, rightclick this arrow and select the types of items from among those you had selected originally in
the viewports -to input (such as, gems, meshes,
curves, surfaces, or polysurfaces). You will know
an item is placed in the bag because you can see
the thumbnail preview of the view in which you
selected the piece.
Import a project from the Project Manager by clicking on
the thumbnail of the project
the viewports from a Job Bag, right-click the
thumbnail preview or “load” arrow and select
the type of object from the bag to load to the
viewport. Select the object and click Load. The
menu will disappear and the item will appear in
the viewports.
Delete a Job Bag
Click on the “X” in the lower right-hand corner of
a Job Bag to delete the
contents of the bag.
Make sure you ONLY do
this if you have already
saved the contents, or
if you REALLY don’t
need them. This won’t
delete the Job Bag - it
will just be emptied. Use
“Compact” to remove
empty bags.
Input the selected object into the Job bag by clicking on
the up arrow.
Save a File from a Job Bag
The “Disk” icon beneath a Job Bag runs the
Save operation on the contents of the bag.
Navigate to a location where you can find it later,
and save with a name you can remember.
Managing Projects in Windows Explorer
Your Projects folder for Matrix lives in your My
Documents folder > Matrix 8.0 > Projects (this
location can be changed in the Project Manager
Database). Inside the Projects folder, each folder
Note: Saving is HIGHLY recommended for finished
models, as Job Bags are really only for temporary
saving during modeling.
50
is named after each row you created, and within
these folders live the .3dm files for each Job Bag.
They are named after the Job Bag name and Job
Bag number. Using this knowledge, you can back
up Job Bags, copy them for use on another
computer, etc. the way you would any other file
folder in Windows.
function when you load it in the viewports. It’s
important to remember what this means, because
the other Job Bags (Creation, Parts Render,
Output) work the SAME way: they just have
different names. “File > Save” in Matrix saves ALL
aspects of the current document - for instance,
the Shade mode, Render materials, ALL objects
on ANY layers (including layers you have off or
locked) and objects that are Hidden. Similarly, “File
> Open” will discard all objects you currently have
on-screen, including those on all layers that are
turned off, locked, and all hidden objects, and it
will open the selected document complete with
its saved shade mode, render materials, and other
document properties (any special Rhino Options
you may have selected using the “Options” menu).
Using Master Job Bags
To use the “Master” Job Bags (or any of the
named Job Bags), you don’t even need to have
an object selected: simply click the “In” arrow
to perform the File > Save function. To load an
object from one of these bags, make certain you
don’t need any of the objects currently in the
viewports (i.e. they are all saved or Job-Bagged)
When do I use Job bags?
We recommend placing an item in a Job Bag
before and after placing gems on it (so you can
try new gem layouts), before and after placing
a setting (so you can vary the setting design
and try new ones), before and after using cutters
(so you can try different cutter layouts), and
ESPECIALLY before using Booleans to cut
away and union together objects, since there is
no good way to “go back” to before a Boolean
operation after a few steps, and you’ll have a
version that’s saved prior to Booleans. Also Job
Bag on a regular basis while you work, at major
stages before and after you have completed
important steps, to avoid losing your work.
and click on the Job Bag (or, click on the arrow
in the upper right-hand corner of the Job Bag).
A warning message will appear on-screen. Click
“Yes” to pass it (or “No” if you need to return to
Matrix and save your work!) and the file you
previously saved will be opened in the viewports.
Using Master Job Bags
Five “Master” Job Bags, and the ability to
“Add” more of your own, enhance saving and
organization. Master Job Bags are found by
clicking on the advanced/ expand button below
the job bag slider bar.
Each Type of Master Job Bag
We named these Job Bags with the expectation
that you would wish to use them to save a single
project in various stages. For instance, you may
wish to use the “Creation” bag to save all parts
of the model that are needed in order to build
it again, such as those with History enabled:
Profile curves, surfaces made with Sweep
History BEFORE they are Booleaned, cutting
objects used to create Booleans, gems with their
What are “Master” Job Bags?
Master Job Bags help you better organize your
work. The first of these types of Job Bags,
“Master”, completes the “File > Save” function
when you populate it, and the “File > Open”
51
attributes (Style Sheets) saved with them, etc.
to with this model; you’ve created several versions
of the “Render” that you wish to save in order to
re-create when you need them; or you need to
“Output” the model in two pieces, for example.
In this way, using Master Job Bags, and adding
more, will enhance your saving and organization.
The “Parts” Job Bag is designed for parts you
may have built specifically for this project, such
as special heads, bezels, or other settings and
cutters, saved with their gems so you can easily
run Match Attributes again later; design elements
like a filigree piece, a Matrix Art mesh, or a special
element you created for use with the “Object on a
Curve” tool, for instance.
To save the object in the “Render” Master Job
Bag, you may wish to delete all the parts and
pieces that won’t be used in the render. Also use
this bag AFTER you’ve added any props you’ll
render with it, and after you’ve added all the
materials in VRay that you’ll apply for the render.
Remember: when doing a File > Save in Matrix,
which is what adding the object to any of the
Master Job Bags does automatically, the render
materials are all saved with their objects. That way,
when you need to render this item again, simply
load it from the Master Job Bag and click “Render”
in VRay - it’s as easy as that!
The “Output” Master Job Bag has been provided
to help you save the version that will be milled with its supports, for instance - or grown (input
the STL) only. For the same model, you may need
to split it in two pieces, add a sprue, set it up for
special milling or growing processes, or save it
in two different parts, to output it correctly. For
that reason, we’ve placed “Output” Job Bags to
save the model EXACTLY how you need it set
up for the Output phase of your project. Load
the project again from this bag when it’s time to
output it again, in the case that you need to make
another item or make some changes to the way it
was set up for output.
Adding Master Job Bags
In the upper right-hand corner of each Master
(Named) Job Bag, just beneath the tiny arrow that
you click to Load the bag in the viewports, lives
a tiny “plus” sign. Click on this, and a brand-new
Master Job Bag with the same name appears in
the row. In this way, you can create any number
of bags with this name that you might need: if, for
instance, you have a lot of “Parts” you created go
52
CHAPTER 11
Project Manager
Database
Use tags to find your projects quickly, add customer information, add stone and
metal weights and more.
Due Date, Job Number, etc. Select a project and
click on the “Information” tab to add this data to
the project. From here you can select/or add a
Customer, Designer, set the Due Date, set a Status
along with adding other important information
about the model.
The Project Manager has been redesigned
to make it easier to classify and then find the
projects you are working on. The thumbnail
representing the Master Job Bag is used as a
project identifier in this Project Manager database.
If master job bags are empty the image will
be blank, Access the database by clicking on
“Mngr” button to the right of the Create and Load
buttons.
Searching the Database
Once information has been added and saved you
can use the Keyword search or the search filters
along the right side to help you find your designs
in the future.
Control the projects that appear in the
Projects window.
The more you work in Matrix the more projects
are accumulated. It is the best practice to only
leave on (viewable) the job bag rows that you are
currently working with and turn the others off (not
viewable). When Matrix starts up it has to check
each file in the Project Manager
- having all of your job bag
rows turned on uses valuable
resources on your computer. In
the database, click on the blue
check mark in the lower right
corner of the thumbnail to hide
certain job bag rows.
Viewing the Project
View the Project along with all the job bags,
export a Project to any computer folder location
and open the file location of a saved Project all
from the Project Manager Database.
Adding Meta Data
Meta Data is information that
is included with the project.
This searchable information
makes it easy to quickly find the
design you are looking for. This
information can include things
like Keywords, Customer Name,
53
Refresh: If the files in your Projects
Project Manager Database
folder (My Documents folder >
Matrix 8.0 > Projects) have changed
since Matrix booted, “Refresh” will have Matrix
reanalyze the files.
Search through your projects by applying tags
and meta data. Controls what job bags appear in
the Projects window and where they are saved.
Import Project:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Projects
Manager>Mngr
Imports a Project’s
folder. This will add the Project row along with all
the saved job bags.
Open the Project Manager:
Import Folder:
• Click on the ‘Mngr’ button to the lower left in the
Projects window.
Hide Projects in the Projects Window
Import a Project Folder
- multiple projects
saved in a folder. This is especially helpful when
upgrading Matrix from a previous version or
transferring to a new computer. Simply click on
‘Import Folder” and navigate to your old version
Projects folder on your computer to import.
Control which projects appear in the Projects
window and which will be hidden.
Change: Change the location
This will open the Project Manager Database.
of the Projects folder from
the default location. Warning:
Accessing a Projects folder from multiple
computers at the same time can cause a loss of
data by projects being overwritten. It is possible
to change the location of the Projects Folder
to a sync folder (such as Dropbox), though it is
intended to sync job bags between single user’s
computers.
Steps:
• Click on the check mark in the lower right hand
corner of each thumbnail to uncheck and hide a
project.
Adding Information:
Add tags and other meta data to a specific
Project. This makes it easier to search for projects
in the future.
Unchecked on the left: Will not show up in the Projects
Window.
Steps:
• Select a Project from the Project Manager
database. Double-click to expand the Project.
• Click on the Information (“Info”) tab.
• Enter the desired information and click “Save”.
• OR, uncheck the ‘Show All In Matrix’ check box to
deselect all projects (hides everything). Then,
check the project you wish to appear in the
Projects window.
Managing Project Files
These commands are interactions between
your computer’s file system and Matrix’s Project
Manager.
54
Project information
Customer: Select a customer from existing
customer in the drop down menu. Create and
add a new customer by clicking on the pencil
icon next to the drop down. The Edit Customer
window opens (in “Add” mode). Enter as much
customer info as you feel is necessary and click
on “Create” to complete.
The Edit Customer window has 3 modes:
Add: Creates a new customer with the information
entered.
Date Created: Enter the date which the project
was created. Either type the date in the window or
click on the calendar and select the date from the
calendar pop up.
Delete: Delete a customer record. Select the
record you want to remove from the drop down.
Date Due: Enter the date which the project is
due. Either type the date in the window or click
on the calendar and select the date from the
calendar pop up. The due date is listed along side
the job number-this is also viewable outside of the
Project Information tab.
Update: Update an existing customer recorded
with the information entered. Select the customer
record to update from the drop down. Add or
remove the desired information and click “Save”.
Status: Set the status of the job from the existing
Designer: Assign a designer to a project by
options found in the drop down menu. Select or
remove existing statuses by clicking on the drop
down menu.
selecting one form the drop down menu. Add
designers to the menu by clicking on the pencil
icon next to the drop down. This opens the Edit
designer window from here you can Add, Delete
or Rename a designer. Just type in the empty box
by “Add Designer” to add a designer name. Then,
click the “Add” button.
Job #: Type in a unique job number to track the
project. The Job number will appear next to the
due date out side the information tab.
CAD Labor: Type in a value for the amount of
CAD labor.
CAM Labor: Type in a value for the amount of
CAM labor.
55
Ring Rail Size: Type in the ring size for the
weight.
Open a File: Double-click on any thumbnail
preview to open that file in Matrix. Follow the
Command Line instructions to save what is
currently in the viewports.
Metal Total Weight: Type in the total metal
Open Folder Location: Click
weight.
on the “Folder” icon in the upper
right of the Files Tab to open
the Projects folder or the location on your
computer where the Project is saved.
model.
Stone Total Weight: Type in the total stone
Description: Type in a description of the project
in this text field.
Tags: Select from a list of attribute tags from the
Search Project Manager Database
drop down or create your own by clicking on the
pencil icon near the drop down.
Select a Search option and click the “Search”
button below. Or, select “Reset” to clear all the
fields. Click on the blue ‘X’ to clear one field.
Viewing Files
Text Search: Use the “Text”
View the expanded Project along with all the job
bag thumbnails.
search box to enter a keyword
search. Enter a word used in
the description, or name.
Customer or Designer
Name: In Search Filters
expand a filter for Customer or
Designer Name and use the
drop-down box to locate a
name.
Tags: Select a Tag from the
Steps:
drop-down box.
• Select a Project from the Project Manager
database. Double-click to expand the Project.
• Click on the “Files” tab.
Metal or Gem Total
Weight: Enter a Gem or Metal
Export: Click on the Export
Total Weight value and click on
Search.
icon to the upper left-hand
side in the larger thumbnail
(defaults as Master). Export
the entire named Project as
a folder with each job bag represented by a .3dm
file to a selected location on your computer.
CAD or CAM Labor, Ring
Rail Radius: Enter a value and
choose Search below.
Creation or Due Date: Click on the Calendar
icon and select a date to search.
Large Preview Window: Select any of the job
Jobs On/Off: Choose a search between All,
bags to display in the large preview window by
clicking once on the job bag thumbnail. Use the
scroll bar on the right side to scroll through all the
job bag rows. Master is the default large preview.
Visible or Hidden Projects.
56
CHAPTER 12
Using the Snaps Menu
Find a location on-screen with precision using the tools in this menu. You’ll use these
helpers daily to ensure accurate modeling.
About the Snaps Menu
as you’ll recall, each “square” of the grid is 1 mm. As
you move the cursor around to place a point while
using a tool, cursor movement will be constrained
to increments of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mm on the
grid. The cursor will “snap to” these increment
values relative to every “square” on the grid. Turn
Off Grid Snaps to quit using them.
Commands found in this menu turn on viewport
cues and cause tools to work in ways that make
precise modeling possible. For example, using
Grid Snaps, you can draw or place an item exactly
to the 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, or 0.1 mm location. Using
O-Snaps, you can be assured that curves and
other objects fit precisely together at their ends,
midpoints, quadrants, and centers; perpendicular,
tangent, and intersection points, etc. to ensure
technically accurate modeling. And using the
Project, Planar, and Ortho snaps, you can be
sure you are drawing where you think you are in
the viewports, so curves and other items aren’t
created in ways not expected that won’t work for
your particular model.
Other Helpful Hints while using Snaps
Rather than starting up a command, each of
these buttons turns on a setting that changes the
way other tools in the program work. Use them
before OR during a command to ensure the next
point you place or the next function you run is
done accurately and precisely.
Snaps do NOT constrain the work of Viewport
Control Handles or Builder controls. They mainly
just apply to Rhino tools uses for drawing and
modeling. Also note, if it appears the snap is “On”
(blue) but the Snap Control (O-Snap Control, Grid
Snap Control) is OFF (grayed-out), the snap will
not work. You must turn on the main snap control
(The rightmost button beside the viewport in the
first row of the Snaps menu is the O-Snaps On/
Off button. When it is bright blue, your selected
O-Snaps are bright blue, and they will work as
described here. When it is grayed-out, selected
O-Snaps are dim blue and off (will not influence
your modeling).
The remaining snaps in this menu will be explained
next: O-Snaps or “Object Snaps” all work in similar
ways, snapping to the indicated locations on
objects (end, mid, center, etc). These remaining
snaps assist in modeling.
Using Grid Snaps
Using O-Snap Cues
The most simple kind of snaps, Grid Snaps, can
be turned on and off by the Grid Snap icon: the
rightmost button in the second row of this menu.
With this setting on (lit up in blue), the current
setting (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mm) is the Grid Snap
value that tools will use while you are working in
the viewports. Click on a new value to switch this
depending on your needs. The way this works is:
The way you will know an O-Snap is found is
when the cue appears beside your cursor telling
you that snap is found. To snap to that point, just
click when you see it during the command.
Commands you should ALWAYS run with
O-Snaps ALWAYS draw curves you will need
closed (for Extrude, Matrix Art, profile shapes,
57
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
etc.) with O-Snaps. An object will not close if its
creation curves do not touch perfectly, end on
end. Sometimes it will look closed - sometimes
it will even Join (ouch!) - and sometimes it will
REGISTER closed but will be “Invalid” or unusable.
Default Snaps:
These snaps are turned on by default: End Snap
and Mid Snap
The “Hidden” O-Snap, Tab Lock: To lock a
tool into a given direction, locate the mouse where
you want to lock it (usually using another snap,
Near) and press Tab. The cursor is now locked into
moving along that plane, so you can draw with
your own “snap” without clicking any Snap button
at all!
Other Snaps:
Center, Quad, Near, Point, Intersection, Tangent,
and Perpendicular
On Surface:
The “Hidden” O-Snap: Elevator Mode:
On Surface, On Polysurface
This mode is similar to the Tab Lock. As you are
drawing, place the next mouse click at a location
on another PLANE, use Ctrl + Click at the location
and you will be locked to that location; but
moving the cursor will move you up and down in
the vertical plane above it. Click again to place the
point.
Other Snaps and Snap Like:
Between, Ortho, Planar, Project
Grid Snaps:
Set the snapping distance and toggle On or Off
Grid Snaps.
58
End Snap Center Snap
‘Osnap E’
Snap to the end of a curve, text corners, interior
vertices of polylines and joined curves, the seam
point on closed curves, and the “corners” of
surfaces, and polysurfaces.
‘Osnap C’
Snap to the center of a circle, arc, closed polyline,
centers of single surfaces with a polyline outer
boundary and no holes, and annotation text
bounding box.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>End Snap
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Center Snap
Steps:
Steps:
• Turn on the End Snap in the Snaps menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
• Turn on the Center Snap in the Snaps menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Point to the object to find it’s center.
Mid Snap
Quad Snap
‘Osnap M’
Snaps to the midpoint of a line, curve, surface, or
surface edge. It is also left on by default, since it is
another common drawing tool.
‘Osnap Q’
Snap to the point on a curve that is at the
maximum X or Y point relative to the current
Construction plane. The Quad O-Snap is
especially helpful when modeling with circles and
circular objects (ellipses, arcs) because it snaps to
the four quadrants (North, South, East and West)
of a circle.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Mid Snap
Steps:
• Turn on the Mid Snap in the Snaps menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Quad Snap
Steps:
• Turn on the Quad Snap in the Snaps menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Notes:
• The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at
the extremes in each Construction plane axis
direction.
59
Steps:
• Ellipses have quadrant points at the ends of the
ellipse axes if the ellipse is oblique in addition to
those at the Construction plane extremes.
• Turn on the Point Snap in the Snaps menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Intersection Snap
‘Osnap I’
This is another O-Snap to use with care. It will
appear when the object you are drawing is
intersecting with another object on-screen. You
can’t START FROM an Intersection O-Snap: you
can only draw TO it. Also, if it merely appears to
intersect in the view you’re in because of your
perspective and it doesn’t actually intersect, this
snap still appears.
Near Snap
‘Osnap N’
This O-Snap allows you to snap near to another
object, but it can be deceiving: you might be near
but not perfectly on the curve, surface, edge, or
other object you are snapping to.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Intersection
Snap
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Near Snap
Steps:
• Turn on the Near Snap in the Snaps menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Steps:
• Turn on the Point Snap in the Snaps menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Point Snap Tangent Snap
‘Osnap P’
Turn this on to snap to any point object in the
viewports. This is a helpful one when you need to
snap to an already existing point object.
‘Osnap T’
Tangent is like Intersection, you can’t start a line
Tangent to another object. To do so, check for
this option in the Line tool. This only draws the
line or curve or other object so that it approaches
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Point Snap
60
another curve at a tangent angle.
Surface Snap
Where is this Command:
You can access this command from
Snaps>Tangent Snap
When placing points, turn on this to snap to a
surface. They will prompt you to select a surface
to snap to, and will then constrain the point to that
object. They only work during a command.
Steps:
• Turn on the Tangent Snap in the Snap menu along
with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Surface
Snap
Steps:
• Turn on the Surface Snap in the Snaps menu while
in a command. Be sure the Main On/Off O-Snap
switch is also On.
• Select the surface to place points or continue to
draw on.
Polysurface Snap
When placing points, turn on this to snap to a
polysurface. They will prompt you to select a
polysurface to snap to, and will then constrain
the point to that object. They only work during a
command.
Perpendicular Snap ‘Osnap R’
This snap cannot start a curve Perpendicular to
another; look for that option in the Line command
found in the Curve menu. It just tells you when
the object you’re drawing is perpendicular to the
curve or other object you’re approaching with the
cursor.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Polysurface
Snap
Steps:
Steps:
• Turn on the Polysurface Snap in the Snaps menu
while in a command. Be sure the Main On/Off
O-Snap switch is also On.
• Select the Polysurface to place points or continue
to draw on.
• Turn on the Perpendicular Snap in the Snaps menu
along with the Main On/Off O-Snap switch.
Between
Where is this Command:
Access this command from
Snaps>Perpendicular Snap
While running a command, select this O-Snap
to place the next point during the command
“Between” two other points on-screen. You need
to select “Between” before every point you place.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Between
Snap
61
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Planar
• Turn on the Between Snap in the Snaps menu
while in a command. Be sure the Main On/Off
O-Snap switch is also On.
• Select a first and second point to place a point
between.
Steps:
• Turn on Planar in the Snaps menu. Be sure the
Main On/Off O-Snap switch is also On.
• All successive points of a curve will snap to the
same plane.
Ortho
Project
‘Ortho’
Turn “Ortho” on when drawing straight lines only;
or, leave it Off and hold down Shift while drawing
as a “shortcut” to engage the tool. It keeps all your
lines at straight 45-degree angles. Alternately, turn
this on when drawing almost all straight lines and
hold down Shift to temporarily defeat it.
‘ProjectOsnap’
This makes anything you draw in a viewport snap
flat to the grid no matter what. If you use O-Snaps
to snap to other objects, the curve or object you
are drawing may no longer be flat, which can
cause problems down the road. Turn this on and
Snaps will work, but objects will be drawn flat
against the grid anyway. (Look in other views to
see results.)
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Ortho
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Project
• Turn on Ortho in the Snaps menu while drawing.
Or, click on the F8 button. Be sure the Main On/
Off O-Snap switch is also On.
• You can temporarily engage or disengage Ortho
by holding down the Shift key.
Steps:
• Turn on Project in the Snaps menu Be sure the
Main On/Off O-Snap switch is also On.
• All successive points of a curve will snap to the
same plane.
Grid Snap
Constrains the cursors to the grid based on the
set increment.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Snaps>Grid Snap
Steps:
• Select the increment you want the cursor to snap
to in the Grid Snap menu.
• Make sure the Grid Snap toggle is turned “On.”
Planar
‘Planar’
When drawing in any viewport, curves snap back
flat against the grid (plane), making drawing
easy. When you need to draw somewhere else in
space, turning on Planar locks your drawing to an
alternate flat plane in space: the one created by
the first (or first and second, if you turn it on after
the second) points you placed.
Snaps Off
62
Snaps On
CHAPTER 13
Display Menu
Choose how Matrix displays models from one of the many Shade Modes, toggle
display features On or Off, or reorient a viewport to an object.
Display Menu
This Display Menu houses the following icons;
Show Grid, Show Cutters, Preview Shade,
Shade Selected, Gem View, Surface View as well
as the Display Option menu.
Display Menu
Display Options Menu
This menu remembers the last five
Shade modes used and displays
them here. Use the On/ Off toggle
to toggle between Wireframe Toggle Shade on/off
and the active Shade mode.
Click the drop-down arrow for a full list of possible
Shade modes. As you can see we have added
quite a few new
modes to choose
from including; Vivid, Last Five Used Shade Modes
Tech White, Pastel,
Matrix White, Matrix Blue, Legacy, Ice, Floorplan,
Chalk, Art Colors, Pen and Artistic, Depending on
your specific task, some of the new Shade modes
can come in very handy. For example, when using
the Smart Flow tools, the Detect Backface mode
will make it easy to determine the top and bottom
of the reference surface.
“Show Grid” is the familiar F7 option that toggles
the Grid On/Off in the active viewport. “Show
Cutters” and “Preview Shade” can be used to
toggle between “Shaded” and “Wireframe” view
when working with on-screen boolean tools like
Bezel Cutter, Channel Cutter, or Micro Prong
Cutter. The “Shade Selected” icon allows you to
shade only the selected items within a viewport.
Toggle this button “On” and select the items you
want shaded. Be sure to toggle this button “Off”
when you are done using it.
Changing C-Planes
The next two tools are Gem View and Surface
View. Select any gem in the viewport and toggle
the “Gem View” button. The Looking Down,
Through Finger and Side View viewports will all
reorient flat to the girdle of the gemstone. Also
note, the small ring icon in the upper right-hand
corner of each of the viewports will be replaced
with a gemstone to provide a visual
indication you are working within Gem
View. Now, it will be easier to design
around this gemstone. Once finished
simply deselect all gems and click the
“Gem View” button again to revert
back to the traditional four viewports.
Surface View works the same way, but on single
surfaces.
63
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
Move and Copy:
Show Grid, Show Cutters, Preview Shade,
Shade Selected
Change C-Plane:
Gem View and Surface View
Render Mesh:
Coarse, Medium, Fine and Super Fine
Shade Modes:
64
Show Grid
++
This button toggles to Show or Hide the Grid in all
the viewports.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Display>Show Grid
Or, click on the F7 key (only the active
viewport)
Cutters On
Cutters Off
Preview Shade
Toggles the preview of a builder output from
Shaded view to a Wireframe.
Steps:
• Click on Show Grid to toggle ON the display of the
grid.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Display>Preview
Shade
Steps:
Grid On
• While using Bezel Builder (just one example) from
the Settings Menu, click on the Preview Shade
tool to toggle the display of the Bezel from
Shaded to Wireframe.
Grid Off
Note: Some Display Modes have the Grid deactivated
(i.e.. Floorplan). While in these Display Modes this
button does not do anything.
Show Cutters
Gem Cutter tools have a feature to interactively
Boolean (cut) the surface that the gems are set in,
so the results of the cutters can be seen and not
the cutters themselves.
Preview Shade On
Preview Shade Off
Shade Selected
With this option turned “On” only objects that are
selected appear shaded. All other objects appear
in Wireframe Display Mode.
To see the cutters (a wireframe of them, so as
not to intrude on the view of the cut), turn this
setting on. It adds little or no speed to the way the
cutting tools work.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Display>Shade
Selected
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Display>Show
Cutters
Steps:
• While using Gem Cutters in the Cutters Menu,
toggle the Show Cutters button to Show or Hide
the Gem Cutters.
65
Steps:
selected, click on the Gem View icon. Now, the
Construction plane with be returned to its
default location.
• Select the items for Shade Selected.
• Click on the Shade Selected tool to toggle the
display from Shaded to Wireframe on only the
selected items.
• When items are deselected they are no longer in
Wireframe Mode. (This also works in the reverse;
Wireframe objects become Shaded.)
Surface View
Surface View reorients the Construction plane in
the planar viewports (Looking Down, Through
Finger, Side View) to a selected surface. This
works the same as Gem View to allow the user to
easily build on the selected surface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Display>Surface
View
Shade Selected Off
Gem View
Shade Selected On
Steps:
• Select the Surface that you wish to reorient the
C-Plane.
• Click on the Surface View icon in the Display menu.
• The Construction plane is now reoriented around
an imaginary bounding box of the selected
surface.
Gem View reorients the Construction plane in the
planar viewports (Looking Down, Through
Finger, Side View) to a selected gem, placing the
gem’s girdle centered at 0,0,0 (F4). This enables
objects to be easily built on gems using Mirror and
other functions with an F4 start point.
Note:
• When in Surface View the ring icon indicating the
orientation of the viewports switched to a green
surface icon.
• Return to the default view - with nothing
selected, click on the Surface View icon. Now,
the Construction plane with be returned to its
default location.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Display>Gem View
Steps:
• Select the gem to reorient the C-Plane.
• Click on the Gem View icon in the Display menu.
• The Construction plane is reoriented so the
selected gem is now located at 0,0,0 or F4.
Render Mesh
While in Shaded mode set the Render Mesh
to either Coarse, Medium, Fine or Super Fine
resolution. Render Mesh works as a “skin” over
the wireframe model to make it look shaded.
How tightly this mesh is created is determined
by its setting. These settings also apply to the
rendered model. Choosing a Coarse Render
Mesh resolution helps move large models quicker
(models with tens or hundreds of parts and pieces
that are all Shaded). A finer setting creates better
renders.
Gem View Looking Down
Note:
• When in Gem View the ring icon
indicating the orientation of the
viewports switches to a gem icon.
• Return to the default view - with nothing
Where is this tool:
Access this tool from Display>Render Mesh
66
Note: Render Mesh can only be visible in a Shaded
or similar Display Mode in Matrix. Wireframe display
does not display the Render Mesh settings.
will move slower on the screen with this setting
using the max of the computer’s resources.
Steps:
Shade Mode
• Set the Display Mode to Shaded.
• Use the drop down menu to select a Render Mesh
resolution. Move items in your viewports quicker
(Coarse Mesh). Or, choose a finer setting while
rendering your design (Fine Mesh).
Chose how the objects in the viewport are
displayed on the screen.
Where is this Command:
You can access this command from
Display>Shade Mode
Mesh Density Settings are found in Rhino
Options>Document Properties>Mesh>Density.
See these settings change as the Render Mesh
changes from one setting to another.
Steps:
• Select the desired Shade Mode from the drop
down menu.
• Click on the Shade On/Off button to toggle
between the selected Shade mode and
Wireframe.
Wireframe:
Wireframe:
Coarse Mesh: The Render Mesh density is 0.4.
Displays the UV curves
and edges of a surface or
the vertices and edges of
the polygons of a mesh as
unshaded wires.
Coarse Render Mesh density setting
causes the most distortion of any of the
mesh modes (edges pull away and blend
instead of being crisp). This setting can be used
when shading hundreds of objects displayed on
your screen. It will use the least of your system’s
resources while shading objects permitting
movement of objects quicker in the viewports.
Shade Modes:
Medium Mesh: The Render Mesh density is 0.6.
Medium Render Mesh density setting will
distort objects slightly. The edges are not
as clean and fine as Fine Mesh density. Use
this setting or the Coarse setting if lots of objects
are present.
Shaded:
Uses a mesh over the wires
with the Layer color to show
an opaque surface.
Fine Mesh: The Render Mesh density is 0.9. Fine
Render Mesh density displays designs
optimally without taxing your system
resources to the max. This setting also will
produce excellent VRay renders without any
noticeable distortion and can be used as your
default Render Mesh for renders.
Rendered:
Displays surfaces of objects
with the material that has
been applied to them either
from the VRay Material Editor
or the F6 menu.
Super Fine Mesh: The Render Mesh density is
1.0. This displays designs crisply and
accurately without any distortion. Models
67
Art Color:
Ghosted:
Displays a surface that is
semi-transparent while being
able to see through it as in
Wireframe.
Displays a simplified surface
with a heavy outline on a
white background. Curves and
the grid are not shown.
X-Ray:
Art Color Wires:
This is similar to Ghosted
and shows a less transparent
surface. X-Ray is slightly less
transparent than Ghosted.
This is identical to Art Color
but the curves and the grid
are displayed.
Technical:
Chalk:
Shows opaque, solid colors
like Shaded but on a white
background with heavy black
wire outlines.
Displays the model as drawn
on a chalk board and features
shading lines while showing
curves.
Artistic:
Detect All:
Displays the design as a
sketch, drawn on a textured
paper.
This shade mode incorporates
all of the diagnostic shade
modes named “Detect......”.
Pen:
Detect Backface:
This mode is comparable to
Artistic, except with a lighter
background and less shading.
Shows surfaces with normals
that face out as green and as
red if the normals are inverted,
facing inwards.
68
Legacy:
Detect Naked Edges:
Highlights any surface edges
that are unjoined or naked.
Displays model as a schematic
illustration - an outline sketch
with shade lines on a light
background.
Detect Smart Flow:
Machine:
Indicates Smart Flow surfaces
in the color red.
Shows the model as a solid
color without wires, curves or
any outlines.
Detect UV Normals:
Matrix Blue:
Displays the direction of
surface normals: Red for
normals pointed outwards and
green for those inwards.
Displays model as a schematic
illustration like Legacy except
using a blue outline with white
on a blue background.
Floorplan:
Matrix White:
Displays the model as a
blueprint with a white, outline
sketch on a blue background.
Displays as a schematic
illustration like Legacy but
using a black outline with
white on a black background.
Ice:
Pastel:
Shows the model as semitransparent in light gray tones
with a gray background and
no curves.
Displays the design with a
black outline showing Layer
colors in pastel hues on a light,
textured background.
69
Plastic:
Vivid:
Shows shiny, solid Layer colors
with dark edge curves. This is
good for displaying meshes
with no wires.
Displays opaque surfaces with
dark edge curves on a white
grid. Curves are also visible.
Presentation:
Wire Render:
Displays surfaces of objects
with the Render materials
applied and no visible curves
or grid.
This is comparable to
Rendered but displays the
objects’ Layer colors in outlines
showing isocurves, edge and
construction curves.
Shiny Plastic:
Working Render:
This mode is similar to Plastic
but has a high gloss finish. It
also shows backfaces in red.
This is comparable to Wire
Render without displaying
isocurves.
Simple Shade:
Working Shade:
This mode bypasses the
Layer colors and displays the
objects as opaque, gray tones
on a white background with
no curves.
This is a high gloss version
of Shiny Plastic. It displays
backfaces as gray.
Tech White:
TsShiny:
This mode is identical to
Simple Shade but also
displays the isocurves and
edge curves.
This mode is akin to Shaded
but slightly less shiny.
70
CHAPTER 14
Top 11 Buttons
These commands are used so frequently in the program they are right out
“on top” for you to use whenever you need them.
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
About the Top 11 Buttons
These tools perform the most fundamental
editing functions on curves, surfaces, and solids
that it would be a crime to hide them deep in a
menu somewhere! They are the tools that move
and copy objects in the viewports (Copy, Move,
Mirror, Rotate), edit shapes for easy design
changes (Edit and Control Points On), and help
Move and Copy:
Duplicate, Mirror, Move, and Rotate
Edit Curves and Surfaces:
Edit Points On and Control Points On
“operate” models to cut them apart, join them to
other objects, trim or split them off, and divide
them into their component parts (Explode, Join,
Split, and Trim). And, for quick, easy access we
have placed Ring Rail in the menu too. Begin a
design using Ring Rail to place a finger rail in the
viewports.
Split and Join:
Explode, Join, Split and Trim
Ring Rail:
Ring Rail
71
Duplicate
No: Pick a new direction for the next copy.
‘Copy’
Makes duplicates of the selected objects.
Copy once with the Alt Key:
While dragging any object in the viewports, press
the “Alt” key. A “+” will appear next to your cursor to
show you are in Copy mode. Release your cursor
from dragging to place the copied object.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Duplicate
Steps:
• Select Duplicate from the Top 11 menu.
• Select Objects to copy.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick a point to copy from.
• Pick a point to copy to. Continue picking points to
place multiple copies.
• If no more copies are desired, press Enter to close
the command.
Edit Points On
Command Line Options:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Edit Points On
‘EditPtOn’
Edit Points On turns on a little point object at
every point where the mouse was clicked while
drawing a curve. This allows the user to edit the
curve by dragging around the edit points to
change the shape of the curve.
Vertical: The “Vertical” option changes the
direction of the command so that the copy of the
object is constrained in a vertical direction to the
Construction plane of the viewport in which the
object is planar. Therefore the object being copied
can only be placed above or below the original.
Steps:
• Select Edit Points On from the Top 11 menu.
• Select curve(s) for Edit Point display.
• Press Enter when done.
• Press Escape key (ESC) to turn Edit Points off
when done.
In Place: This will copy the object in the exact
same location as the original.
Note:
Options after the first copy:
Edit points are like Control Points except they
are always located on the curve. Moving one edit
point generally changes the shape of the entire
curve (moving one control point only changes
the shape of the curve in a sub region). Edit
Points are most useful when you need a point on
the interior of a curve to pass exactly through a
certain location. Control Point editing is preferred
when you need to change the look of a curve and
maintaining “fairness” is important.
From Last Point:
Yes: Uses the point the last object was copied to
as the base point.
No: Uses the first base point as location to copy
from.
Use Last Distance:
Yes: Places the next copy at the same distance
from the base point as the last copy.
No: Pick a new distance for the next copy.
Control Points On
Use Last Direction:
Yes: Places the next copy at the same direction
‘PointsOn’
The Control Points On command is similar to the
Edit Points On command, except that it also works
on surfaces. However, Control Points On may
from the base point as the last copy.
72
only be used for single surfaces, not polysurfaces.
When applied to a curve, the Control Points On
button affects the bend of the curve between the
Edit Points which are the knots (points) on the
curve. The Edit Points On function only affects
the points and allows the user to move them to a
different location
longer needed, simply delete it after the process is
complete.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Control Points On
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Mirror
Right-Click Command: Mirror from F4
• Select Mirror from the Top 11 menu.
• Select the Object(s) to Mirror.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick the Start Point of the Mirror plane.
Or, by pressing F10 with an object selected.
Steps:
The Mirror plane determines the orientation of the
mirrored objects. Frequently this will be center of
the universe (0,0,0) or F4.
• Select Control Points On from the Top 11 menu.
• Select Object(s) for Control Point display.
• Press Enter when done.
• Press Escape (ESC) to turn Control Points off
when done.
• Pick the End of the Mirror plane.
Note:
When using Control
Points to edit curves
that are smooth and
consist of several curve
segments joined together,
the curve will fuse into a
single curve that cannot
be exploded. If necessary use the Split command
with the Point option and Near O-Snap to break
the curve into segments. To ensure the seams
of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open,
polysurface control points cannot be turned
on. To control-point edit a polysurface, Explode
the object into separate surfaces first or use
the Extract Surface command to separate the
surfaces you want to edit. While control points
are on, they can be selected and deleted. This
changes the shape of the curve or surface.
Mirror a gem and bezel to the opposite side of the ring
to complete the design.
Command Line Options:
3point: Pick three points to define a Mirror plane.
Copy=Yes/No: Specifies whether or not the
objects are copied. A plus sign appears at the
cursor when copy mode is on.
Mirror
X Axis: Automatically mirrors the object around
‘Mirror’
The Mirror command makes a true mirror image
of the objects selected. The Mirror command will
mirror any object – curves, points, surfaces, or
polysurfaces. This command makes a copy of the
object being mirrored. If the original object is no
the Construction plane X axis.
Y Axis: Automatically mirrors the object around
the Construction plane Y axis.
73
Command Line Options:
Move
Vertical: Moves the object vertical to the current
‘Move’
The Move command prompts the user to move
an object from one location to another in the
viewports. This is different from simply clicking on
an object or its control points and moving them
with the cursor. Because the Move command
prompts the user for a “Point to move from” and
a “Point to move to”, the O-Snaps may be used to
select an object exactly at the point from which
it needs to be moved and move it precisely to a
new location where it is needed. This precision is
especially useful when the moved object will be
joined to another after the move.
Construction plane.
Rotate
‘Rotate’
The Rotate command rotates objects in a
360-degree radius around a user-selected point
in space.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Rotate
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Move
• Select Rotate from the Top 11 menu.
• Select the Objects to rotate.
• Pick the center of rotation.
• Type the rotation angle in the Command Line, or
pick two Reference points.
Steps:
• Select Move from the Top 11 menu.
• Select the Object(s) to Move.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick a Point to move from.
• Pick a Point to move to.
The head and gem are being rotated together
from their shared center.
Command Line Options:
Copy=Yes/No: Specifies whether or not the
objects are copied. A plus sign appears at the
cursor when copy mode is on.
Explode
‘Explode’
This command separates a polysurface (an object
made up of many separate surfaces, joined) or a
polyline curve (made up of many curves joined
together) into its component objects. There won’t
be any visible change in the model, but each
component item is now able to be selected. To rejoin the objects, select them all and click “Join”.
Move objects precisely from one point to another.
74
is called Position Continuity. As long as objects
have position continuity, they will Join. This is
why it is SO important to use O-Snaps during
modeling. O-Snaps, especially the End O-Snap,
can ensure that two objects have position
continuity.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Explode
Note: If an object is a single curve or a single
surface already, it cannot be exploded.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Join
Steps:
• Select Explode from the Top 11 menu.
• Select the Object(s) to Explode.
• Press Enter when done.
Steps:
• Select Join from the Top 11 menu.
• Select the Objects to Join.
• Press Enter when done.
Explode breaks down objects as
follows:
Blocks: Block Instances are spared from the
Explode button. Block instances will not function
as Blocks in Matrix if exploded. (Explode must be
typed in the Command Line to truly explode a
Block Instance)
Dimensions: Curves and text.
Groups: Explodes objects contained in the
group, but leaves the objects grouped.
Before joining, on the left, the model is comprised of 3
separate surfaces. After joining the model is a polysurface
made up of 3 surfaces
Mesh: Mesh parts and mesh faces based
on unwelded edges. If a mesh is completely
unwelded, then it will explode to its individual
faces.
Command Line Options:
Undo: Reverse the last action
Cage controls: Curves, surfaces, cages.
Notes for curves:
You can join curves that are arranged sequentially.
When Joining curves, the old curves are discarded
and a new one added. The coordinates of the two
joined ends are replaced with a single coordinate
half way between the two original ends.
Polysurface: Surfaces.
Polycurve: Single segment curves.
Text: Curves.
Notes for surfaces:
You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch
at naked edges. Joining does not change the
underlying surface geometry. It simply “glues”
adjacent surfaces together so meshing, Boolean
operations, and intersections can go across the
seam without gaps.
Join
‘Join’
The Join command joins surfaces and curves
together into one object. In order to be joined, the
objects much touch in space: that is, the start or
end point of one object must line up with the start
or end point of another object so that they have
the same exact grid coordinates. This relationship
To change two adjacent surfaces into a single
surface, use Merge Surface Pay special attention
75
to the setting of the Smooth option to get the
geometry you want.
own isoparametric curves. This option only
appears when a single surface is selected.
Split
‘Split’
The Split command will split curves, surfaces, and
polysurfaces. This command assigns one object
(or group of objects) as the object(s) to be cut
and another object (or group of objects) as the
objects doing the cutting. Multiple objects may be
selected during the Split command: for instance,
one object may be split with multiple cutters; or
multiple objects may be split with a single cutter.
Split single surface with an isocurve.
Note: Use the Intersection O-Snap for snapping to
isocurve intersections.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Split
Direction
U: Splits a surface with an isocurve in the surface
U direction.
Steps:
V: Splits a surface with an isocurve in the surface
• Select Split from the Top 11 menu.
• Select the Objects. (Multiple objects can be
selected to split with multiple objects.)
• Select Cutting objects. Deselect cutting objects
with the “Ctrl” Key.
• Press Enter to end the command.
V direction.
Both: Splits a surface with an isocurve in both U
and V directions.
Toggle: Toggles the direction between U and V.
Notes:
Shrink (Surfaces Only):
Yes: Shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface
• The Isocurve option only appears when a single
surface is selected.
• Use Untrim to remove a trimming boundary from a
surface.
close to trimming boundaries similar to the Shrink
Trimmed Surface command.
No: Does not shrink the underlying surface.
Options:
Point (Curves Only): Pick locations on the
Trim
curve. This option only appears when a curve is
selected.
‘Trim’
The Trim command allows the user to select a
number of objects and, at every point where they
intersect, a Split point will be made. When using
Trim, each object is used to split another, meaning
that there are no distinctions between “cutting
objects” and “objects to be cut”: each object
is split at the point where it intersects another
one. During the Trim command, the user can left
mouse-click on any part of an object that was
Split a curve with a point. Closed curves must be split at
two or more locations.
Isocurve (Surfaces only): Split an object by its
76
Or, Ring Rail from the F6 Menu when nothing is
selected.
split and it will be deleted from the viewports.
This command allows users to effectively “trim”
intersecting objects so that excess materials are
deleted and new shapes can be created.
Steps:
• Select the Ring Rail icon from Top 11 menu.
• Select the desired Ring Size from the drop down
menu-available in quarter size increments.
• Click on the green arrow to place the selected rail
size in the viewports.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Trim
Steps:
• Select Trim from the Top 11 menu.
• Select the Objects. You can select multiple objects
to split with multiple objects.
• Select the parts of objects to trim away.
Options:
Region: Set the desired region for the Ring Rail
size.
Region Steps
• Click on the Region (this displays ‘USA’ by default)
to open the ‘Select Ring Rail Region Type’
interface.
• Select the desired Region.
• Click on the green “Set Region” button.
Click on segments of the overlapping curves that
you don’t want. They will be deleted.
Command Line Options:
Extend Lines: When line objects are used as
cutting objects, imaginary extensions of the line
are used. This makes it unnecessary to manually
extend lines that do not intersect the objects to
trim.
Custom Ring Size: Create a custom ring size in
the options listed below.
Options:
Use Apparent Intersections: Curves are
trimmed in relation to the view. They do not
need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need
to appear to intersect in the active viewport. This
option does not apply to surfaces.
Ring Rail
Millimeters: Sets the unit of measurement to
Millimeters.
Inches: Sets the unit of measurement to Inches.
Diameter: Creates a Ring Rail with the Diameter
specified.
‘gvRingRail’
Place a Ring Rail in the finger size needed, using
an international region or custom dimension.
Circumference: Creates a Ring Rail with the
Circumference specified.
Custom Ring Size Steps:
• Select the unit of measurement.
• Select the Diameter or Circumference option.
• Click on the on the ‘Set Region’ button.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Top 11
Commands>Ring Rail
Or, from Tools>Ring Rail
77
Custom Ring Rail Options:
The region window will display a unit
measurement with ‘C’ or ‘D’ indicating
Circumference or Diameter.
Edit: Like with most profiles libraries you can
modify or add to this profile library. Click on the
Edit button to bring up the Profile Editor interface.
(See Tools Menu>Profile Editor for complete Edit
instructions.)
• Click in the Ring size window and type in the
desired size.
• Click on the green arrow to place Ring Rail.
Add existing rail to the library:
Replacing the Current Ring Rail
Add your own rail curve and save it to the custom
rail curve library.
When a Ring Rail is already in the viewports,
the builder will flag you with the message, “You
already have a ring rail. Do you want to replace it?”
Add Steps:
• Draw a curve around F4
• Select the curve and click on the ‘Add existing rail
to the library’ button.
Yes: Will replace the current ring rail with the new
selected size.
No: Will place a second ring rail of the size
selected.
Cancel: No ring rail will be placed.
Custom Ring Rail:
Allows for adding a Non-Round Finger Rail.
Custom Ring Rail Steps:
• Click on the white ‘Down’ arrow. To reveal the Ring
Rail Advanced Options.
• Click on the Custom Window and select a Ring Rail
shape from the library.
• Click on the green arrow next to the finger size to
place the Ring Rail.
78
CHAPTER 15
The File Menu
Learn to manage files using fundamental tools like Save, Import and Export.
Managing Files
reduces it’s file size making it easier to share the
file via email. The render mesh is automatically
regenerated from the file after it is opened, it
simply takes a moment longer than it would have
if the alternative method, Save is used.
The File menu contains commands to manage
design files. Many of these tools will be intuitive
because they are consistent with other standard
Windows programs. For example, New, Open,
Save and Print display standard system dialog
boxes, so they should appear familiar.
Exporting/Importing
Matrix supports many file formats. Use Import
to bring files from other programs into Matrix, or
Export a design out of Matrix in a different file
format. Exporting files is a typical workflow for
manufacturing a CAD design.. Many 3d printers
support the .stl (stereolithography) format
whereas the native Matrix file format is .3dm.
The Project Manager is an alternative way to
manage files. This feature acts as a quick way to
‘save’ each step during the design process. The
Project Manager is a important aspect of Matrix
and will be covered in another section of the
manual. This chapter focuses on the tools within
the File menu.
Stuller Studio CAM Services
Rely on Stuller for your manufacturing needs
using Stuller Studio CAM Services. Send a design
to Stuller for manufacture and Stuller’s team of
expert jewelry professionals will complete your
design based on your specifications.
Save vs. Save Small
There are multiple tools within Matrix used to
save a file: Save, Save As, Save Small and Save
Small As. Each option offers a slight difference,
for example, the Save Small options in Matrix save
everything in the model except the Render Mesh.
Removing the render mesh from the file greatly
79
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
New and Open Files:
New, Open, Import
Save and Export:
Export, Save, Save As, Save Small, Save Small As
Other:
Notes, Print, Stuller Studio CAM Services
80
New
Export Selected
Click “New” to create a new file and discard any
items that are currently open on-screen. The new
file will be titled, “Untitled.3dm”, until it is saved for
the first time. If there is currently a model on the
screen Matrix will ask you if you want to save the
file before creating the new file.
Export Selected converts the file type of the
selected objects for use in other programs. Matrix
supports a variety of file formats.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Export
Selected
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>New
Steps:
• Select objects to export.
• Select Export Selected from the File menu.
• Select the desired file type from the drop-down list
of supported file types.
• Type a name for the file in the File Name box.
• Click the Save button.
• Steps:
• Select New from the File menu to create a new file.
Note: After New is selected, Matrix will offer the
option to save the model. Click Yes, No, or Cancel:
Yes prompts the Save function (also found in the File
menu). No clears the viewports without saving the
model. Cancel will stop the “New” function entirely.
Any hidden objects or objects on layer colors that
have been turned off will be lost unless the current
model is saved.
Open
Menu Options:
The “Open” command loads a previously saved file
into the viewport. Click this command to access
the file browser and navigate to the location
where the file is saved. Select the file you wish to
Open. If there is geometry on the screen, prior to
using the Open command, Matrix will prompt you
to Save the existing file.
Save Small: Removes the Render Mesh from
the model creating a smaller file which is easer
to share via email. The Render Mesh will be
regenerated the next time the file is opened, but
as a result, the model will shade and render more
slowly the next time you open the file.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Open
Steps:
• Select Open from the File menu.
• Select the Matrix file (.3dm) you wish to open from
the file browser.
Save Geometry Only: Saves geometry objects
only and discards all layers, materials, properties,
notes, or unit settings. A new file is created, but it
does not become your active Matrix model.
Save Textures: Saves any associated applied
Texture Mapping material to the exported
object(s).
Note: After Open is selected, Matrix will offer the
option to Save the model. Click Yes, No, or Cancel:
Yes prompts the Save function (also found in the File
menu). No clears the viewports without saving the
model. Cancel will stop the “Open” function entirely.
Notice the files are filtered to display .3dm files. Only
Matrix files may be opened using this method.
81
or Save Small As, instead.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Save
Note: Some file types have additional options that
can be accessed from the option button that appears
when one of these file types is selected. When a
file type creates mesh objects, the Polygon Mesh
Options dialog appears and can be used to specify
the mesh settings.
Steps:
• Select Save from the File menu.
• Specify a name for the .3DM file in the Save Matrix
Model dialog box.
• Click the Save button.
Save As
Import
Using the Save As function always prompts for a
file name. To overwrite an existing file (for example
if you wish to update a project), navigate to the
location where the files is saved and click on that
filename. The name of the file will appear in the
File name text box. Click Save. It is better to use
the Save As command, even when saving the
same model repeatedly, rather than using the
Save command. This ensures that a model is not
inadvertently saved over another file.
Import allows the user to add an existing
geometry to the current project. Import can be
used with .3dm files (the native file format of
Matrix and Rhino) and any of the supported Matrix
file formats. The advantage of Import is that a
saved geometry can be added to an open file
without closing the current file.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Import
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Save
Steps:
• Select Import from the File menu.
• Navigate to the desired file using the file browser
and click the Open button.
Steps:
• Select Save As from the File menu.
• Specify a name for the .3DM file in the Save Matrix
Model dialog box.
• Click on the Save button.
Note: Matrix imports objects to the file on their
original layers and creates the layers if they do not
already exist.
Note: Save the file at different stages along the
design process so that if changes are required,
instead of starting the model again from scratch, it
can be revisited and amended as necessary.
If the imported file type does not contain layer
information, such as when you Save a file using the
Geometry Only option, the objects are placed on the
current layer.
Save Small
Save
The Save Small button functions just like the
Save button however, it removes the render
mesh or “skin” that is created when the project is
rendered or shaded. This render or polygon mesh
is regenerated and saved with the model the
first time it is shaded, making each subsequent
shading and rendering faster. To reduce the
file size, this mesh is not saved along with the
model during the Save Small operation. Use this
command in order to save disk space or to send
The Save button prompts the user for a file name
if the project has not yet been saved. After a
project has been saved for the first time, the Save
function automatically saves over the current file
name for that project. This can be dangerous if
an existing file is open and the Save command is
used, because it will save over the previous model.
To avoid saving over another project, use Save As
82
the file via email or other electronic media.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Save Small
typing.
• Click on the X in the upper right-hand corner of the
window when the notes are completed to save
them and close the window.
Steps:
• Select Save Small from the File menu.
• Specify a name for the .3DM file in the Save Matrix
Model dialog box.
• Click on the Save button.
Note: Clearing the render mesh makes the file
smaller, but the model will shade and render more
slowly the next time the file is opened.
Note: Upon saving the project as a .3dm file,
the notes will be saved as well, and when the project
file (.3dm file) is opened again later, the notes will
still be present. Click on Notes again to continue
typing notes and to view the former notes that were
saved.
Save Small As
The Save Small As button functions the same
way the Save As button does, yet, as in the Save
Small command, the render mesh or “skin” created
during rendering or shading is not saved along
with the model, making the file size smaller.
Print
This command prints a viewport image of the
model or allows you to save the image to a file.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Save Small As
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Notes
Steps:
Steps:
• Select Save Small As from the File menu.
• Specify a name for the .3DM file in the save dialog
box.
• Click on the Save button.
• Select Print from the File menu.
• The Print Setup dialog box appears. In it, change
the print options to create the desired effect.
Note: Clearing the render mesh makes the file
smaller, but the model will shade and render more
slowly the next time the file is opened.
Menu Options:
Destination:
Select the Notes command to add notes to save
with the project.
Use the options in this section to determine the
printer, the size of paper, the orientation of the
image on the paper (portrait or landscape) as
well as how many copies of the image to print.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Notes
Printer: Select from a list of printers available on
your computer.
Steps:
Size: Select from available paper sizes. Options
Notes
are dictated by the select printer.
• Select Notes from the File menu and the Notes
window appears.
• Position the left mouse button in the blank space
near the top of the window or below the last line
of type that was entered and click once to begin
Portrait/Landscape: Specify the orientation for
the image.
Properties: Opens the Windows printer driver
settings for the selected printer.
83
View and Output Scale:
Copies: Specify the number of copies to print.
Select which viewport to print and toggle one of
the following three options to define what will be
printed:
Print to File: Creates a .Printer Files (.prn) and
opens a standard system save dialog.
Output Type: Output type determines whether
the image is a vector image or a raster image.
Imagine every line in a vector image as a point
connected with
a curve. So as an
image is scaled
up, the resolution
is not impacted.
Comparatively,
imagine every line
of a raster image
as small points.
As this image
is scaled, the
points become
discernible or
pixelated.
Viewport: This option prints the selected
viewport, end to end, without the grid lines (only
the wireframe model or models will appear, but
they will be small because space will be left
around them in proportion to how much is left in
the active viewport on-screen).
Extents: This option prints just the model
between the margins set for the page. The item
printed will usually be much larger on the page
using this option because the empty space left on
the grid is not considered.
Window: Press the “Window” button and the
Print dialog box will disappear briefly, returning the
user to the viewports. Draw a box around the area
of the model(s) to print by clicking and dragging
the cursor from one corner of the selected region
to the other. The dialog box will appear after
the box is drawn, and only this region will print,
without accounting for the empty space on the
grid or the remainder of the model. This produces
the most “zoomed in” outcome, filling the printed
page with only this small section of the model.
Output Color:
Print Color:
Uses the layer
Print Color setting
to print curves
and wireframes.
Display Color: Prints objects the same color
Set: Select a new area of the viewport to print.
that displays in the viewports.
Resize the print area by clicking and dragging on
the ‘window grips’. Move the selection by clicking
and dragging the grip at the center of the window.
Black and White: Converts color to grayscale.
Note: The following options appear disabled unless
additional layouts have been added. The Layout Tools
in the render menu are one way to add these layouts.
Multiple Layouts: Print multiple layouts in a
single print job. Enter a comma-separated list of
page numbers or page ranges. For example: 1,2,48. If printing to a PDF this will create a single PDF
file.
Print All Layouts: Prints all layout pages
Note: When printing multiple layouts to an image file,
multiple image files will be created. All files will have
an ascending index suffix appended to the file name.
84
Scale: Select the scale from the list or set the
Offset From: These options are grayed out
scale in paper units = model units.
(unavailable) if centered is chosen.
On paper = In model: Sets the units used on
Lower Left: Moves the image in from the lower
left corner the specified distance.
the printed page and the equivalent units used in
the model.
Upper Left: Moves the image in from the upper
left corner the specified distance.
Margins and Position (Model Views Only):
Lower Right: Moves the image in from the lower
right corner the specified distance.
Margins are the non-printable areas around the
page. Control the size of the Margins and the
position of the image on the page.
Upper Right: Moves the image in from the
Units: Specify whether the margins are set in
inches, centimeters, millimeters, or pixels.
upper right corner the specified distance.
X, Y, offset values and unit: Specify the offset
amount in the x- and y and sets the offset units.
Margins: Sets the location of the margins for all
four sides. Top, Left, Bottom and Right using the
specified units.
Linetypes and Line Widths:
Linetype: Specifies whether curves are displayed
Top, Left, Width and Height: Sets the location
with a set pattern, for example a dashed line.
Create a line type using the SetLinetype
command.
of the Top and Left margins and the Width and
Height of the print area in the specified units.
Top, Right, Width and Height: Sets the
Match pattern definition: The printed line
location of the Top and Right margins and the
Width and Height of the print area in the specified
units.
Bottom, Left, Width and Height: Sets the
location of the Bottom and Left margins and the
Width and Height of the print area in the specified
units.
type pattern matches the values in the linetype
definition file.
Match viewport display: The printed line type
pattern matches the current display properties
Line width:
Scale by: Sets a global modifier to scale the
Bottom, Right, Width and Height: Sets the
printed line widths.
location of the Bottom and Right margins and the
Width and Height of the print area in the specified
units.
Centered, Width and Height: Centers the
print area and sets a Width and Height.
Default line width: Sets the width of the line
type. This value ranges from Hairline through
normal drafting widths (in millimeters) through No
Print.
To define your own line widths, add line-width values
to the printwidths.txt file in the Rhino support folder.
Match the Viewport Aspect Ratio: Set the
margins and position to the same aspect ratio
(height: width) as the selected viewport/layout.
Non-scaling objects:
Point objects: Set the size for point objects on
Match Maximum Printable Area: Sets the
the printed page.
margins to the selected printers maximum.
Arrowhead size: Set the size for arrowheads on
Position:
Centered: Centers the image in the printable
the printed page.
area.
85
Text dot font size: Size for the text dot font on
Filename Bottom: The file name is printed at
the printed page.
the bottom of the page.
Visibility:
Printer Details:
Specify what optional objects will appear on the
printed image.
Displays information about the selected printer.
Scale X/Scale Y: If the printer requires
Background Color: Prints the viewport
calibration in order to print exactly, a scale factor
can be applied.
background color.
Background Bitmap: Prints the viewport
Stuller Studio CAM Services
background bitmap.
Manufacturing your Matrix design has never been
easier. Link to the Stuller Studio CAM Services
website from within the Matrix interface.
Wallpaper: Prints the viewport wallpaper.
Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the
viewport grid instead of in front of it.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from File>Stuller Studio
CAM Services
Lights: Prints all light objects.
Clipping Planes: Prints Clipping Plane objects.
Note: A Stuller account and Internet connection are
required to use Stuller Studio CAM Services.
Only Selected Objects: Prints only selected
Steps:
objects.
• Save your completed model to your hard drive.
• Select Stuller Studio CAM Services from the File
menu.
• The Stuller Studio CAM Services web page opens
in your default web browser.
• When prompted login to your Stuller Account.
• Click on the New Request Tab to start a new order.
• Click on the Browse button and navigate to the
location where you saved your Matrix File.
• Specify your choice of alloy and finish.
• Specify Semi-Finished, Full Polished Casting, or
Fully Set- when fully set is specified you will be
prompted to provide details of gemstone sizes
and locations.
• Save request.
Locked Objects: Locked objects will be printed.
Uncheck the check box to “hide” locked objects
on the printed page.
Grid: Prints the construction plane grid.
Grid axes: Prints the construction plane grid
axes.
Margins: Prints a dashed line at the margins.
Text:
Notes None: Notes are not printed.
Notes Top: Notes are printed at the top of the
page.
Shortly after a request is saved, a Stuller CAD/
CAM expert will call to discuss your project. You
will be provided a quote and a timeline for your
project. Stuller will send you an agreement form
requiring your signature.
Notes Bottom: Notes are printed at the bottom
of the page.
Filename None: No file name is printed.
Filename Top: The file name is printed at the
Fax or e-mail your signed form back and leave
the rest to Stuller’s manufacturing experts. Spend
your time designing rather than worrying about
the manufacturing process.
top of the page.
86
CHAPTER 16
View Menu
Control different aspects of the viewports: including placing images in them to
guide you with modeling; zooming; and sizing views.
About the View Menu
will scale it evenly according to the aspect ratio
of the original image. The image will appear in the
viewports. You can then select and manipulate
it just like any Surface object in Matrix, including
scaling, moving, centering, hiding, showing, and
snapping to it.
To see what file types work with this command,
pull down the “Files of Type” menu while
navigating Windows for the image. The image
must be of these file types to be able to be
placed using this command.
Various features of the View menu will provide
modeling helps specific to your viewports. For
example, you can place a picture in the viewports
to help you model using the “Picture Frame”
command. Nine more tools assist you with
zooming in on exactly the part you need to see,
or getting the right “Camera” set up to see the
part of the model you want (the camera is the
“window” and angle through which we are seeing
the model in a viewport). Three additional tools
allow you to save the image in a viewport to a file,
creating a digital picture of what you’re working on
onscreen; import a special file type created in one
of Gemvision’s other products: the System 6 HD
Camera system, and finally assign a “cross-hair”
cue to the viewports that keeps a constant track
over the vertical and horizontal location of the
cursor while you draw.
Placing an Image with
Picture Frame
The easiest and most
intuitive way to place an
image in the viewports
for assistance while
you model is to use the
View Menu tool “Picture
Frame”. Start this tool up,
navigate in Windows to
the location of the image
you wish to place, select
it, and click ‘Open’. You
will be returned to Matrix.
Click in the viewports
to place two points
representing the bottom
edge of the image. This
Controlling the Viewport View
Nine commands in this menu control the viewport
views. “Restore Viewports” resets the viewports
to their default camera and zoom views, easily
centering objects placed at F4. “Synchronize
Views” matches all the viewports to the zoom you
have set up in the active
viewport. Remember
to start it up with the
correct viewport active
(the one with the view to
which you want the rest
to synchronize) or else
this command will not
work as expected. Only
the planar viewports
“synchronize”: Perspective
does not. Zoom tools
include “Zoom Dynamic”,
which lets you zoom in
and out of a viewport on
a specific focus (click and
drag to zoom - similar
to using the scroll wheel
on your mouse but uses
Use Picture Frame to add an image to your viewports to
“left-click and drag”,
use as a modeling add or with Matrix Art.
87
instead).
“Zoom Extents”, which fills the active viewport
with any model you have in there, only out to the
edges of the model - not to the edges of the grid,
as the default zoom does. Select an object or
objects and “Zoom Selected” will zoom in on that
object in the active viewports, filling the viewport
with the view of that object - no matter how big or
small. Similarly, “Zoom Window” lets you draw a
selection window around an object - however big
or small you want - and fill the active viewport
with the size of that selection window, so you can
zoom into as small - or as large - a part of your
image as you need to. The Zoom 1: 1 and Zoom 1:1
Calibrate allow you to set a size to zoom to that
makes the object the same size as it would be in
real life. To use Zoom 1:1, you must first use Zoom
1:1 Calibrate to make sure your mm onscreen will
zoom out to the size of a mm in real life. To do so,
grab your calipers (in real life) and start up this
command. A window will appear prompting you
to measure the bar on your screen. Although
people may look at you funny, hold the calipers
up to the screen and measure the bar. Type the
length into the “Length of Bar” field and make sure
the dimension is set to Millimeters. Click ‘OK’. Now,
clicking Zoom 1:1 will zoom the active viewport to
the size where your model is the same size it
would be in real life, upon production.
Remaining View Menu Controls
Three more View menu commands perform
functions unique to the viewports. The first,
Viewport to File, instantly takes a snapshot of
the view currently found in the active viewport,
and saves it to an image file. Before running this
command, set up the active viewport the way you
want the image to appear. Select this command,
type in a name for this image file, and navigate to
a location on your computer to which you wish
to save this file. “Set Crosshairs” turns on a set
of crosshairs - or, white tracking lines that follow
your cursor around onscreen as you work to help
you track the vertical and horizontal location of
the cursor at all times. Click this command again
to toggle them off. Finally, “System 6 HD 3 View”
imports an image file created by certain versions
of our System 6 HD Camera & software that
presents all three views (Looking Down, Through
Finger, and Side View) of a ring in Background
Bitmap form at the same time, to scale and center,
and use as a guide while modeling
Where Did Place Background Bitmap go?
If you have used the program previous to version
8 you may have used a command called Place
Background Bitmap. This command and many
related commands have moved from the View flymenu to the View drop down menu (Background
Bitmap) with other lesser used commands. If you
prefer to use Place Background Bitmap you can
add it back to the View Menu through the Menu
Editor. To access the Menu Editor right-click on
the ‘View’ menu. You can then add or reposition
any tools in the menu you wish.
Get a better sense of the scale of your piece using Zoom 1;1
The final viewport Zoom control, “Center
Viewport”, maintains the zoom level you’ve set
and centers the viewport on the grid axes, its
typical center point. This is like “Restoring” the
active viewport without changing the zoom level
you’ve set, should you need this functionality.
88
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
Working with Images:
Picture Frame, System 6 HD 3 View, Viewport to
File
Working with Viewports:
Restore Viewports, Synchronize Viewports, Set
Crosshairs, Center Viewport
Zoom:
Zoom Dynamic, Zoom Extents, Zoom Selected,
Zoom Window, Zoom 1:1, Zoom 1:1 Calibrate
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SelfIllumination: The image mapped to the
Picture Frame
Picture Frame plane always displays at full
intensity and is not affected by light or shadow.
‘PictureFrame’
Place a scalable and movable image in the
viewports using two reference points (similar to
the Rectangle command in the Curve menu) to
use as a guide in modeling.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Picture
Frame
Steps:
Left=Self Illumination ‘No’. Right=Self Illumination
‘Yes’.
• Select Picture Frame command from the View
menu.
• Select an image from the file browser.
• Pick a corner of the plane.
• Pick or type the length in the Command Line. The
plane retains the same aspect ratio as the source
image. (Hold ‘Shift’ key for Ortho)
EmbedBitmap: Matrix stores the image in the
.3dm file. This increases the file size, but ensures
that the image is always available to the Picture
Frame surface. Otherwise, when this option is
‘OFF’, if you move or delete the image from the file
system, it will disappear from Matrix.
Note: Edit Picture Frame properties such as
transparency using the Material Properties.
Autoname: Automatically assigns the image files
name to be the Name property for the Picture
Frame surface.
Options:
Vertical: Draws the picture frame vertical to the
current construction plane.
The Autoname option allows you to select the picture
frame by its file name using the SelName command.
AlphaTrasnparency: If the image has alpha
channel transparency, the transparent areas
can either show the object color through the
transparency or make the object transparent.
‘Vertical’ draws the Picture Frame vertical to the
active Construction plane.
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Restore Viewports
Re-focus the viewports back to the default zoom
and camera settings. Objects centered at F4 can
be clearly seen now.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Restore
Viewports
Steps:
• Select Restore Viewports from the View menu.
When it is clicked, it :
• Refreshes the viewports.
• Restores the Matrix viewport titles “Looking Down”,
“Perspective”, “Through Finger”, and “Side View” if
previously deleted.
• Synchronizes the viewports so that F4 (0, 0, 0 on
the grid) is at center for all of them.
• Unshades a shaded model, returning it to the
wireframe display in all viewports except the
active viewport.
• Discards a background bitmap image placed with
Place Background Bitmap.
Note: Only planar viewports will synchronize. A
Perspective viewport will not sync.
Zoom Dynamic
‘Zoom_Dynamic’
Select this option to zoom in and out as the left
mouse button is held down and the mouse is
moved (known as a “click and drag” operation).
When this feature is selected it will instead cause
the view in the active viewport to zoom in (as
the mouse is moved up) and out (as the mouse
is moved down). It is also possible to zoom in this
way by holding down the ‘Control’ key and the
right mouse button while moving the mouse up
and down in a viewport.
Synchronize Viewports
‘SynchronizeViews’
Set the scale and center of all planar viewports
to match the active viewport. If a viewport is
maximized, the Synchronize Views command
does nothing.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Synchronize
Views
Of course, with a wheel mouse, rotate the wheel
up to zoom in and down to zoom out. Or, use the
keyboard commands “Page Up” to zoom in and
“Page Down” to zoom out.
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View> Zoom
Dynamic
• Select the viewport that you would like to
synchronize the other viewports to. Make sure it is
active. (Click in the viewport.)
• Select Synchronize Viewports from the View
menu.
• The Looking Down, Through Finger and Side
viewports are the planar viewports that can be
synchronized.
Or, activate this mode by holding the ‘Control’
key on the keyboard, clicking and dragging the
left mouse button.
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Steps:
Steps:
• Select Zoom Dynamic in the View menu.
• Click and hold the left mouse button and move the
mouse up and down to zoom in and out.
• Select the object(s) you wish to Zoom.
• Select Zoom Selected from the View menu.
Zoom Extents
‘Zoom_Extents’
Recenter and zoom the active viewport so that
every extent of the open model is visible. If the
user has “zoomed in” to a part of the model, this
command will zoom out until all of the extents of
the model fit in the active viewport. Or, if the user
is “zoomed out” so that the model is very tiny on
the screen, this command will zoom in until the
extents of the model fill up the active viewport
Zoom Selected behaves like Zoom Extents but for a
selected object as opposed to the entire model.
Zoom Window
‘Zoom_Window’
Zoom by drawing a selection window around
an object, however big or small you want. Fill the
active viewport with the size of that selection
window, so you can zoom into as small- or as large
- a part of your design as you need.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Zoom
Extents
Steps:
• Select the desired viewport you wish to zoom
your model in. Make sure it is active. (Click in the
viewport.)
• Select Zoom Extents command in the View menu.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Zoom
Window
Steps:
• Run Zoom Window from the View menu
• Left click and drag a selection window around the
area you wish to Zoom.
Viewport to File
Zoomed Extents centers the model and zooms the
active viewport so that the entire model is visible in
the viewport.
‘ViewCaptureToFile’
Instantly takes a snapshot of the view currently
found in the active viewport, and saves it to a
specified image file.
Zoom Selected
‘Zoom_Selected’
Zoom Selected works the same as Zoom
Extents; however, it zooms in only on the selected
object(s). This function zooms in (or out) until the
extents of the selected object(s) or points fill the
active viewport.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Viewport to
File
Steps:
• Set up the active viewport the way you want the
image to appear.
• Select Viewport to File from the View menu.
• Type a name for the file in the Save Bitmap Dialog
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Zoom
Selected
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and navigate to where you would like to save the
image.
• Select a file type from the drop down menu
selection. Click ‘Save’.
System 6 HD View
Imports an image file created by certain versions
of our System 6 HD Camera & software that
presents all three views (Looking Down, Through
Finger, and Side View) of a ring in Background
Bitmap format at the same time, scales and
centers, to use as a guide while modeling.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>System 6 HD
3 View
Steps:
.
• Click on the System 6 HD 3 View command for an
“Open” dialog box to appear.
• Select the System 6 picture file to import into
Matrix as a Background Bitmap.
• Use this bitmap image as a guide in modeling in
Matrix.
Viewport to File brings up a standard system save
dialog. Name the file and save it in the desired
location
Set Crosshairs
Zoom 1:1
‘Crosshairs’
Turns on a set of crosshairs - or, white tracking
lines that follow your cursor around onscreen
as you work to help you track the vertical and
horizontal location of the cursor at all times.
Zooms the active viewport so that the view is full
scale. The command must be calibrated for this to
work properly. In Perspective views, only objects
on the target plane will be displayed full scale; in
Parallel views, objects on any plane perpendicular
to the camera axis are displayed full scale. The
model must have units set.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Set
Crosshairs
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View>Zoom 1:1
Steps:
• Click on the Set Crosshairs icon to toggle on.
• Click on the Set Crosshairs icon again to toggle
off.
Steps:
• Make sure you have calibrated the Zoom 1:1
command using Zoom 1:1 Calibrate
• Select the Zoom 1:1 command in the View menu.
Crosshairs ‘ON’ tracks the cursor’s position onscreen.
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Center Viewport
Maintains the current, set zoom level and centers
the viewport on the grid axes, its typical center
point. This is like “Restoring” the active viewport
without changing the zoom level set.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View> Center
Viewport
Right=Zoom 1:1. Use this tool to get a sense of the
scale of your real-life model.
Or, by pressing the F5 key.
Zoom 1:1 Calibrate
Steps:
Calibrates your computer screen so that objects
appear to the exact size or scale. The model must
have units set.
• Select the Center Viewport command from the
View menu.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from View> Zoom 1:1
Calibrate
Steps:
• Select the Zoom 1:1 Calibrate command from the
View menu.
• Measure the bar (that says ‘Measure this bar’) in
the Zoom 1:1 Calibration Dialog box using calipers .
• Type the length of bar in the highlighted field.
• Click on ‘OK’. The Calibration is complete.
After calibrating your computer screen, Zoom 1:1
objects will appear correct to scale.
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CHAPTER 17
Utilities Menu
The commands within the Utilities menu work on objects after they have been
created. The Utilities tools validate and fix problematic geometry as well as offer
functionality to streamline standard modeling tasks.
2D Drawing
command creates a 3D box for 3D objects (have
height) and a 2D rectangle around 2D objects (are
flat).
More closely related to the technical presentations
possible in the View menu than the rest of the
Utilities commands, this tool creates a 2D Drawing
of a 3D model. Start up this command and select
the options (which view, how many views, which
parts to draw, what
colors, and options
for visible and
hidden lines, and
annotations. Click
OK to see 2D
drawing. It will
appear in the
viewports as curve
objects drawn on
the Lights layer.
Group & UnGroup
You will want to take careful note of these tools.
Group causes objects to work like a single object,
even though they are many. It is not Joined or
Boolean Unjoined (“Join” for solid objects), as it
does not change the constitution of the models.
It simply changes the way they act. In this case,
selecting one of them selects them all, making
it easy to control large groups of objects, such
as gems and prongs: sets of objects which are
commonly grouped by Matrix builders after
they are created. But there are frequently times
when you’ll want to select and edit one of these
grouped objects by itself. The ONLY way to get it
alone is to select the group and click on UnGroup.
This separates the objects from one another so
that you may now select and use one separately
of its neighbors. The object still knows it’s part of a
Gem Line or a Prong Layout. However, it can now
be adjusted separately for your modeling needs. If
you wish to group them again, select all objects to
Group and click on Group. Just remember: They’re
NOT a single object!
Center Object & Bounding Box
The Center Object utility is a quick way to center
any object or objects in the X, Y, and/or Z planes.
You can also place a point at the center of the
object if you should need this; for example, you
can Move or Scale an object from its center point
for more precision as you model. Another tool
that assists with centering is the Bounding Box
tool. You’ll recall that the Center O-Snap can only
find the center of relatively simple objects: such
as a rectangle or a box. The Center Object Utility
actually places an imaginary Bounding Box - or, a
box as big as the largest extents of the model (H
X W X L) and centers this box, moving the object
with the box as it does so. You can re-create this
magic with the Bounding Box tool, the Center
O-Snap, the Move command, and your old friend
F4. Or save yourself the clicks and use Center
Object. However, you may find another reason
to enclose an object in a Bounding Box. This
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Skills & Commands in this Chapter
Diagnostics and Repair:
Direction, Select Bad Objects, Check, Show
Edges, Split Edges, Merge Edge, Join 2 Naked
Edges, Unjoin Edge, Bounding Box, Extract Bad
Surface
Other Utilities:
Make 2D Drawing, Center Object, Group,
Ungroup, Show Z Buffer
Mesh Tools:
Fill Hole, File Holes, Align Mesh Vertices, Mesh
from Nurbs Object, Mesh Reduce, Apply Mesh
UVN, Extract Render Mesh
96
Direction
Single Surface Options:
The arrow color for the U and
V directions matches the
construction plane X- and
Y-axis colors.
‘Dir’
Direction displays and edits the direction of the
normals of an object. Normals are an indicator
of which direction a curve or surface is oriented
(clockwise or counter clockwise) and which way
a surface is oriented (inside or outside). These
directions are indicated with white arrows that
only appear during the function.
UReverse/VReverse:
Reverses the surface U- or V-direction.
SwapUV: Switches the U- and V- directions.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Direction
Flip: Reverses the direction of the surface.
Steps:
Multiple Surfaces Options:
• Select Direction
from the Utilities
menu. Arrows show
the direction of the
objects normal.
• Select a curve or
surface.
• Move the cursor over the object to show a
dynamic arrow for the direction.
• Click on the mouse to flip the normal direction.
Click any individual surface to flip the normal.
FlipAll: Reverses the direction on all selected
surfaces.
NextMode: Cycles through the modes for all the
selected surfaces.
Mode=FlipU/FlipV: Reverses the U-direction or
V-direction for all the selected surfaces.
Mode=FlipNormal: Reverses the normal
direction for all of the selected surfaces.
Mode=SwapUV: Switches the U and V
directions for all the selected surfaces.
Note: The Command Line options vary depending on
the type of object select when you run the command.
Each set of options will be covered in turn.
Closed polysurfaces, surfaces, and lightweight
extrusion objects cannot have their normal direction
facing toward the interior of the object.
Note: Controlling the direction of curve normals
is important. For example, if a sweep results in
a twisted surface it is likely because the curves
that were swept are facing different directions. To
remedy the twist in the surface, align the direction of
all of the curves. For example, all arrows touching the
ring rail should face the same direction.
Single Curve Options:
Flip: Reverses the direction
of the curve.
Multiple Curve Options:
Click on an individual curve to change its
direction.
FlipAll: Reverses the direction of
all selected curves.
97
During advanced modeling techniques such as Smart
Flow and curve network controlling the direction of
surface normals as well as the orientation of U and V
direction is important. For surfaces, a user may need
to alter normals when applying a bitmap texture map
or during a Boolean operation for a surface that is
not closed. If gems placed with Gem Layout tools
appear upside-down, it is usually necessary to adjust
Directions on a surface. Sometimes, if a polysurface
is open and it doesn’t shade properly, it is necessary
to check its directions and make sure they are
consistent (all facing out).
Check
‘Check’
Check reports errors in the selected object’s data
structure. Unfortunately, there is no reason we
can give in this help as to why a model develops
an error. Hopefully, most users will never see
the window appear with the occurrence of bad
geometry.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Check
Select Bad Objects
‘SelBadObjects’
“Bad” objects are ones that violate certain NURBS
rules or have structural issues that cause invalid
geometry. The Select Bad Objects command
scans all objects in the viewport. If a model is
“bad” or invalid, an error message appears and the
object highlights.
Steps:
• Select Check
from the
Utilities menu.
• Select objects
to check.
Note: If there are no problems with the model, a
message stating so appears in the feedback window.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Select Bad
Objects
If there are errors in the model, a message
displays. Click the Done button to close the
window. The best fix for a failed model is to delete
and rebuild it.
Steps:
• Click the Select Bad Objects command from the
Utilities menu.
• If bad objects are present the ‘Model Errors’ dialog
appears.
• Click Done in the ‘Model Errors’ dialog. The bad
objects will be selected.
Show Edges
‘ShowEdges’
The Show Edges command shows the edges of
a surface or polysurface if it has open or naked
edges, or if the object is closed. This tool shows
the start/stop point and sections of a surface
edge as shown in the Split Edge section. It is
also useful to preview where an object would be
separated if the Explode command is used.
Note: The best way to fix bad models is to delete or
rebuild the object.
If there are no errors in any objects in the viewport,
a message in the
feedback window
appears indicating
there are no bad
objects.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Show
Edges
It is a good idea to check models right after
Boolean operations, which can cause invalid
models. If it is early in the design process and a
model has failed, it is best to remake the model.
Steps:
• Select a polysurface for edge display.
• Select Show Edges from the Utilities menu.
This opens the ‘Edge Analysis’ menu.
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Menu Options:
Previous: Moves to the previous naked or nonmanifold edge on the model.
Mark: Adds a point representing each naked or
non-manifold edge.
AllEdges: Displays all surface and polysurface
edges
Naked Edges: Displays any open edges (naked)
in surfaces or polysurfaces.
Split Edge
‘SplitEdge’
Split Edge divides a surface edge at designated
locations.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Split Edge
Steps:
• Select Split Edge from the Utilities menu.
• Select a surface edge.
• Pick locations along the
edge to split.
Note: Use the
Non-Manifold Edges: Displays edges of
Show Edges
polysurfaces, meshes that have more than one
face joined to a single edge.
command to
display the
surface edge
and its end
points.
Zoom: Magnifies the view to either a Naked or
Non-Manifold edge. See options below.
Edge Color: Set the display color for the edges.
Merge Edge
Add Objects: Add objects to the edge display.
‘MergeEdge’
The Merge Edge command will join adjacent
edges of the same simple surface into one edge.
The edges must be naked (open), must belong
to the same surface, must share an endpoint, and
must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint.
Remove Objects: Remove objects from the
edge display.
Command Line Options:
All: Repositions the active viewport so that all
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Merge
Edge
naked or non-manifold edges are visible in the
viewport.
Current: Repositions the active viewport to the
first in the list of naked or non-manifold edge on
the model.
Steps:
• Select Merge Edge from the Utilities menu.
• Select a naked edge on a surface or a polysurface.
• If possible, the edge will merge to an adjacent
Next: Moves to the next naked or non-manifold
edge on the model.
99
edge of the same simple surface into one edge.
Otherwise “The edge is already merged” appears
at the Command Line, and the prompt repeats.
• Select an adjacent edge.
each other (within tolerance). If not, you may have
some problems later on with the model.
If you cannot join surfaces using this command,
you should either make the surfaces a little more
accurate or your tolerance higher. If the edges are
too far out of line, no join will occur and “Unable
to find overlapping intervals” will appear at the
Command Line.
Notes: Use Show Edges > Naked Edges to display
edges and their ends. Use Merge Edge when
complex polysurfaces have been unjoined and Join
will not work properly.
Join 2 Naked Edges
Unjoin Edge
‘Join Edges’
Joins two naked edges that are out of tolerance
to join.
‘UnjoinEdge’
Unjoin Edge will unjoin selected polysurface
edges.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Join 2
Naked Edges
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>UnJoin
Edge
Steps:
Steps:
• Select Join 2 Naked Edges from the Utilities menu.
• Select two naked surface edges that are close
together. (Use Show Edges command to help
identify naked edges)
• Select the Unjoin Edge command from the Utilities
menu.
• Select polysurface edges to unjoin. Press enter
when done.
Note: Seams in closed surfaces will not unjoin.
Make 2D Drawing
‘Make2D’
The Make 2D Drawing command takes the
selected objects in the viewports and makes
a 2-dimensional drawing of them. The most
common use of this button is to create a classic
3-view drawing with an included isometric view.
In the Make 2D Drawing menu, this can be done
using the 4 view USA option. This command
creates curves from the silhouette of the model.
Note: If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel)
along at least part of their length (an interval),
but are not coincident, the Edge Joining dialog
box reports, “Joining these edges requires a join
tolerance of <distance>. Do you want to join these
edges?”. The surfaces will extend to join along the
intervals.
Warnings
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Make 2D
Drawing
The Join 2 Naked Edges command is a tolerance
override. It will “join” edges no matter how far apart
they are. Joining has to do with topology (what is
listed as being connected) rather than geometry
(where the parts are in relation to each other). It
works fine if the surface edges are pretty close to
Steps:
• Select Make 2D Drawing from the Utilities menu.
• Select the object(s) in the viewport to be drawn in
2D.
100
• Press Enter.
• This opens the 2D options dialog-select your
desired options and click OK.
Drawing layout:
Current View: Creates
the 2D drawing from only
the currently active view.
Current Cplane: Creates
the 2D drawing from the
plane view of the active
viewport. The resulting curves are placed on that
viewport’s construction plane.
Left: 4-View USA
Right: 4-View Europe
Options:
Show Tangent Edges: This option causes the
command to draw
all surface edges.
On most objects
selected, it will
make a negligible
difference.
Note: When using the “Current View” or “Current
C-Plane” options, this tool is viewport-dependent .
Therefore, be sure to select the object in the
viewport containing the view of the object that will
be needed for the drawing when either of these
options will be used. (It doesn’t matter if the object is
shaded or not: the same curves will
be drawn during the operation.)
Create hidden Lines: This option draws lines
that are hidden when the object is converted to
the 2-D drawing process. This gives the viewer
extra detail to help understand the drawing;
however, if it makes the
drawing more confusing, leave the option off.
4-View (USA): The
USA option creates
four views with US (3rd
angle) layout, using
world-coordinate
orthographic
projections (not view
or construction plane
directions of current
viewports).
Show Viewport Rectangle: This places a
rectangle curve representing the outline of the
viewport.
Maintain Source Layers: This option places the
new drawing on similar layer colors to the original.
4-View (Europe): This option creates four
views with European (1st angle) layout, using
world-coordinate orthographic projections (not
view or construction plane directions of current
viewports). The Europe view shows the same
views of the objects as the USA view; only the
layout is different.
Note: These are not actually the same layers, even
though they are the same colors: Matrix creates
new layer colors with the name extensions “Visible”
and “Hidden” added. So, the new curves cannot be
selected in the traditional way, by right-clicking on
the layer color. Although this is an interesting effect,
most Matrix users should not select this option
because they have limited access to the layers, and
placing items on inaccessible layer colors could
become confusing. Opening the object properties
box by selecting the new curve object and pressing
Control + t reveals the new layer color on which the
curve was placed. Layers for hidden line objects:
When the Maintain Source Layers option is OFF, the
options beneath “Layers for hidden line objects” are
accessible. Use the drop-down menus to select a
layer for each.
101
Layers for Make2D Objects:
Bounding Box
Visible Lines: Select a layer name for visible
‘BoundingBox’
This command draws a box around any object
or objects in the viewport to assist the user with
orienting them to other objects in the viewports.
lines or type a new layer name.
Visible tangents: Select a layer name for visible
tangent edges or type a new layer name.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Bounding
Box
Steps:
Visible Clipping Planes: Select a layer name
for visible clipping plane intersections or type a
new layer name.
Hidden Lines: Select a layer name for hidden
lines or type a new layer name.
for hidden clipping plane intersections or type a
new layer name.
• Select Bounding Box from
the Utilities menu.
• Select the objects to
frame with a box.
• Press Enter.
• A Bounding Box is created
around the selected items
in the viewport.
Annotations: Select a layer name for dimensions
Command Line Options:
Hidden Tangents: Select a layer name for
hidden tangent edges or type a new layer name.
Hidden Clipping Planes: Select a layer name
or type a new layer name.
Coordinate System C-Plane: Bases the object
creation on construction plane coordinates.
Restore Defaults: Resets layer names to default
names.
Coordinate System World: Bases the object
creation on world coordinates.
Note: Select a new layer color for each type of
line by selecting it from the drop-down menu. The
new layer color will be entered into the text box
beside the type of line chosen. Now, when the 2-D
drawing is created, the curves may be selected
in the conventional way (right-clicking on the
corresponding color in the Layers Menu.
Output: For three-dimensional objects, specifies
the resulting bounding box object type.
Solids: Creates a solid box
Note: If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another
curve in the view, they may not appear on the correct
layer color.
Meshes: Creates a mesh box.
Curves: Creates six grouped rectangles.
Tips for using Make 2D Drawings:
None: Reports the dimensions of the bounding
box at the Command Line.
Depending on the object(s) and their complexity,
it can take an hour or more when using the
Make 2D Drawing command. CPU speed is a
determining factor for the time is will take for the
command to run. Use this command at the end
of the day and return to find your complete 2D
drawing.
Note: If an object is planar (drawn all on one
construction plane), the bounding box will also be
drawn on the plane on which the object sits. If the
object is three-dimensional, a 3-D bounding box will
be drawn around it.
Make 2D Drawing does not work with mesh
objects.
102
Center Object
Group
‘gvCenterObjects’
Center Object returns a dialog window with
options allowing you to center an object, move to
a 0 coordinate on one or more axis or put a point
at center.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Center
Object
‘Group’
Use the Group command to cause separate
objects to act as one group. It is most commonly
used when several objects that are either (1) next
to each other in space, or (2) of the same type
should be treated as one object.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Group
The default keyboard shortcut to Center an
object along the X,Y, and Z axis is Ctrl+Alt+C.
The Default Keyboard shortcut for Group is
Crtl + Q
Steps:
Steps:
• Select the object(s) in the viewport to be centered.
• Select Center Objects from the Utilities menu.
• Select the desired centering options.
• Select Group from the Utilities menu.
• Select the objects you wish to Group together.
Note: The objects are NOT joined. They are only
acting as a group for the purposes of commands
such as Move, Duplicate, Mirror, etc. Heads in Matrix
are a common example of a group of objects.
When objects are grouped all objects in the group
are selected when you click on them. You can select
an object within the group by using subselect
(Crtl+Shift+Left Click)
Menu Options
Plane:
X/Y/Z: Allows you to
optionally toggle along which
axis the selected object will
be centered.
Related Commands:
Move to 0: Moves the
‘AddToGroup’
selected objects center to 0.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from the top drop-down
menu. Edit>Groups>Add to Group
Move at Center: Starts the
Move command from the
center point of the object.
Steps:
Put Point at Center:
• Select Add To Group from the Edit drop-down
menu.
• Select the objects you want to add to the group.
• Press Enter.
• Select the group you want to add to.
Places a point at the center
of the selected object(s).
Coordinate Space:
C-Plane: Centers the object based on
construction plane coordinates. This is helpful
when you are in Surface View or Gem View.
‘RemoveFromGroup’
World: Centers the object on world coordinates
Where is this Command:
Access this command from the top drop-down
menu. Edit>Groups>Remove from Group
(0,0,0).
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Steps:
Extract Bad Surface
• Select Remove From Group from the Edit dropdown menu.
• Select the objects you want to remove from the
group.
• Press Enter.
‘ExtractBadSrf’
Extract Bad Surface separates surfaces with
errors from a polysurface. The polysurface in
this instance would be invalid, which you might
discover using the Object Checker, This command
will remove the surface or surfaces of a model that
are causing it to fail. Then rebuild these surfaces to
complete the model.
‘SetGroupName’
Names a selected group.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from the top drop-down
menu. Edit>Groups>Set Group Name
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Extract
Bad Surface
Steps:
• Select Set Group Name from the Edit drop-down
menu.
• Select the group of objects to name.
• Press Enter.
• Type the new group name into the Command Line
and press Enter.
Steps:
• If a polysurface does not pass the Check
command, use the Extract Bad Surface
command to extract the bad surfaces from the
original polysurface.
• Fix the bad surfaces and use the Join command to
reattach them.
UnGroup
‘UnGroup’
Returns grouped items to their ungrouped phase
so that they may be selected and used separately.
Show Z Buffer
‘ShowZBuffer’
The Show Z Buffer command shows the depth
and contour of an object in grayscale. It is used
by Matrix Art and other programs. Each pixel is
given a grayscale value that relates directly to the
distance between the camera and that pixel (in
the scene). The closest pixel becomes white and
the furthest pixel becomes black.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>UnGroup
The Default Keyboard shortcut for UnGroup is
Crtl + W
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Show Z
Buffer
• Select Ungroup from the Utilities menu.
• Select the group you wish to return as separate
objects.
Note: If gems are part of a group, DO NOT click
UnGroup twice! Gem objects are grouped so that
the program can recognize them as gems. In order
to keep them separate from other items that may be
grouped, the Matrix developers grouped gems twice
so that, in order to UnGroup them, someone would
have to run UnGroup two times. It is very dangerous
to UnGroup a gem object because the program will
cease to recognize it as a gem. If the user thinks a
gem object may have been inadvertently UnGrouped,
DELETE what is left of the former gem and simply
replace it with a new one.
Steps:
• Select Show Z Buffer from
the Utilities menu.
• Click again to toggle back
to the normal view.
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Steps:
Fill Hole
• Start with a mesh object with a hole or open
edges.
• Select Align Mesh Vertices from the Utilities menu.
• Press Enter.
‘FillMeshHole’
When working with meshes imported into Matrix
from another program, the mesh may Import with
holes. The Fill Hole command will help repair an
imported mesh.
Command Line Options:
Select Vertices: Select vertices to align.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Fill Hole
Select Naked Edges: Select naked edges to
align all vertices on the edge.
Distance To Adjust: Set the tolerance distance.
Steps:
• Start with a mesh object with a hole or open
edges.
• Run the Fill Hole command from the Utilities menu.
• Select a mesh hole boundary.
Mesh from NURBS Object
‘Mesh”
The Mesh command converts a NURBS object(s)
into a mesh object. Mesh objects are usually used
as the final step in the creation process. An STL
(stereolithography) file is an example of a mesh
object. Mesh files are a common file format that
can be opened in both Matrix and in the programs
used by mills or rapid prototyping machines.
Fill Holes
‘FillMeshHoles’
When working with meshes imported into Matrix
from another program, the mesh may import with
holes. This tool repairs imported meshes by filling
all holes in a polygon mesh object with triangular
faces. This helps repair mesh files for rapid
prototype printing.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Mesh from
NURBS Object
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Fill Holes
Note: Do NOT convert a NURBS model to a mesh
model if additional changes to the object are
required. This is because there are many necessary
functions that cannot be used with a mesh object,
such as Trim, Split, Join, Blend, Booleans,
and many more. Matrix creates triangles and
quadrilaterals meshes for export into various file
formats. When surfaces are joined together in Matrix,
the meshes along the joined edge have coincident
vertices. If a mesh is generated from a solid, there
will be no holes in the mesh making it a seamless,
watertight closed mesh. This is valuable for export to
STL rapid prototyping files.
Steps:
• Start with a mesh object with a hole or open
edges.
• Select Fill Holes from the Utilities menu.
Align Mesh Vertices
‘AlignMeshVertices’
The Align Mesh Vertices command re-aligns
the edges of the polygons used to make up the
mesh, which makes it easier for the program to
fill any holes of the new, curved edge that will be
replacing the existing shape.
Steps:
• Select Mesh from the Utilities menu.
• Select the surfaces or polysurfaces you wish to
mesh.
• Preview the mesh and set the mesh options.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Align Mesh
Vertices
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Polygon Mesh Options:
the objects. It will tend to make meshes denser in
areas of high curvature and less dense in flatter
areas.
Fewer Polygons-More Polygons: The Slider
roughly controls the density and number of
mesh polygons. Set the slider and click preview. If
acceptable, click okay.
Maximum Aspect Ratio: Surfaces are initially
tessellated with a regular quadrangle mesh and
then that mesh is refined. The initial quad mesh
is constructed so that on average, the maximum
aspect ratio of the quads is less than or equal to
Maximum aspect ratio. Smaller values result in
slower meshing and a higher polygon count with
more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons.
This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio
of the quads in the Minimum initial grid quads.
Setting Maximum aspect ratio to zero turns off
the option. Zero means no limit. The default value
for this option is zero and the suggested range,
when not zero, is from 1 to 100. This setting is scale
independent. Application: When shading long,
skinny objects, use 0. This allows infinite ratios.
Control the smoothness of the mesh with other
parameters.
Preview: The mesh is drawn as a preview in the
viewports and the dialog box stays on-screen for
more adjustments.
Minimum Edge Length: If any edge is shorter
than the Minimum edge length, no further
division of the mesh faces occur. This is also,
approximately, the minimum edge length of the
quads in the minimum initial grid quads. The
default value for this option is 0.0001. 0 units
and the usable range depends on the size of the
model. Bigger values result in faster meshing,
less accurate meshes and a lower polygon
count. Setting this value to zero turns off the
minimum edge length option. This option is scale
dependent. The value is always in the current unit
system.
Menu Options:
Density: Uses a formula to control how close the
polygon edges are to the original surface. Values
are between 0 and 1. Larger values result in a
mesh with a higher polygon count.
Maximum Edge Length: Polygons are further
divided until all polygon edges are shorter
than this value. This is also, approximately, the
maximum edge length of the quads in the
Minimum initial grid quads. Smaller values result in
slower meshing and a higher polygon count with
more equally sized polygons. Setting this value to
zero turns off the option. The default value is zero
and the usable range depends on the size of the
model. This option is scale dependent.
Maximum Angle: Sets the maximum allowable
angle between input surface normals at
neighboring mesh vertices. If the angle between
surface normals is greater than this setting, the
mesh is further refined (more vertices are inserted)
and the mesh is made denser. Two vertices are
neighbors if they are at the opposite ends of a
single facet edge. The Maximum angle setting
will influence the meshing of objects of the same
shape in the same way regardless of the size of
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Maximum Distance Edge to Surface: Use
suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Setting
Maximum angle to 0 turns off the option. This
option is scale independent.
for making sure the polygons are approximately
the same size. Maximum distance, edge to
surface: Polygons divide until the distance from
a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface
is smaller than this value. This distance is also the
approximate maximum distance from polygon
edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the
Minimum initial grid quads. Smaller values result
in slower meshing, more accurate meshes, and a
higher polygon count. Setting this value to zero
turns off the option. The default value is zero
and the usable range depends on the size of the
model.
Toggling this option off results in faster meshing,
less accurate meshes, and a lower polygon count.
Clearing this check box also means untrimmed
individual surfaces and surface areas away from
trim edges and joined edges are meshed with
evenly sized quadrangles.
Jagged Seams: All surfaces mesh
independently and Rhino does not stitch
the edges of joined surface edges together.
Meshes for each surface in a polysurface do not
necessarily meet to form a watertight mesh. If
Jagged seams is not checked, watertight meshes
are created. This causes faster meshing, a lower
polygon count and cracks between joined
surfaces in the rendered image.
Application: Matrix does not support watertight
quadrangle meshes unless you are meshing
a single untrimmed surface. In this case, clear
Refine mesh and use Jagged seams to generate
quadrangle meshes.
Application: Use as a general polygon mesh
tolerance setting.
Minimum Initial Grid Quads:
Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates
on each NURBS surface in the first stage of
meshing. When the initial mesh grid is made,
trim curves are ignored. After the initial grid is
made, Rhino meshes all trim edges, connects the
initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the
mesh if the Refine mesh option is selected. The
number of quadrangles per surface in the initial
mesh grid. In practice, Matrix will use at least this
many polygons on each surface. Bigger values
result in slower meshing, more accurate meshes
and a higher polygon count with more evenly
distributed polygons. Setting this value to zero
turns off the option. The default value is 16. The
suggested range is from 0 to 10000. This option is
scale independent.
Simple Planes: All planar surfaces are meshed
by meshing the surface edges and then filling the
area bounded by the edges with triangles. This
setting causes slower meshing and a minimum
polygon count on planar surface, especially for
complex trimmed surfaces. If Simple planes is
selected, the settings, except Jagged seams, are
ignored for planar surfaces and the planar surface
is meshed with as few polygons as possible.
Application: Use to make sure that surfaces with
very subtle details are meshed with a high enough
polygon count.
Pack Textures: This packs the mesh textures
of the selected polysurfaces. When polysurfaces
are meshed, the packed texture coordinates are
created. A packed texture is a partition of the
unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that
one bitmap can be used to apply independent
textures to each face of the polysurface.
Check Box Options
Refine Mesh: After its initial meshing, Rhino
uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until
it meets the criteria defined by Maximum angle,
Minimum edge length, Maximum edge length,
and Maximum distance, edge to surface options.
The mesh is refined until the angle between
surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller
than this value. The default is 20 degrees and the
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Note: With large meshes, use 2 or 3 percent
reduction at a time for your mesh settings. Doing
multiple times until the desired output is obtained.
Undo Reduce Mesh by using the Undo button.
Mesh Reduce
‘ReduceMesh’
Mesh Reduce is an easy way to reduce the
polygon count (size) of mesh objects.
Mesh Reducer in the Tools menu functions similar to
Mesh Reduce but is not identical to this command
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Mesh
Reduce
.
Apply Mesh UVN
‘ApplyMeshUVN’
Apply Mesh UVN transfers a mesh object up onto
a surface, exactly fitting the length, width and
curvature of that surface.
Steps:
• Select Mesh
Reduce from
the Utilities
menu
• Select mesh
objects
• Set the new
polygon count.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Apply
Mesh UVN
Steps:
• Select Apply Mesh UVN from the Utilities menu.
• Select a mesh object to Apply.
• Press Enter.
• Select the target surface..
• The mesh object now flows on the selected
surface.
Menu Options:
Or Planar Only: Restricts the reduction to
planar polygons.
Fast - Accurate: Fast trades speed for accuracy
during conversion. Reduction is performed more
randomly, involving fewer calculations, and is
therefore faster. Accurate produces the fewest
visible artifacts. This involves more calculations
and is slower.
Example: Apply
a brick pattern,
from a bitmap
file created into
3Dgeometry in
Matrix Art, with a
UV curve (created
from the rings
target surface).
Create the mesh
and use it with
Apply Mesh UVN.
Preview: Click to display a preview of the output.
Do this after any setting change to see the
updated preview.
Note: The resolution settings in Matrix Art or other
program used to create the mesh will determine
how many triangles (or other polygons) are used to
make the mesh and how large or small they are. If
the resolution is high, there will be smaller triangles
used - and hence more of them - in order to try and
capture the shape of that surface as accurately as
possible. If the resolution is low, there will be fewer,
larger triangles used, which means less information
the computer has to work with and greater speed
and ease while modeling - as well as less surface
definition and accuracy in the resulting shape.
Note: Start with a surface that is not split or trimmed
for the best results.
Use Create UV Curves (Curves Menu) for a preview
to see how the size of your mesh objects will fit
on the surface. Or, use it in Matrix Art to apply a
textured bitmap.
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If necessary, use Direction (on the target surface) to
change the surface normals if your mesh objects flow
inside out on the selected surface.
The ability to flow mesh objects is now part of
SmartFlow (Transform Menu). SmartFlow has this
same ability plus more.
Extract Render Mesh
‘ExtractRenderMesh’
What you see when shading or rendering the
object is actually meshes stored with the object
and turned on when you hit Shade or Render. To
get this mesh as a separate object you can model
with on-screen, run the Extract Render Mesh
utility.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Utilities>Extract
Render Mesh
Steps:
• Start the Extract Render Mesh command from the
Utilities menu
• Select a surface ,polysurface, mesh, extrusions or
block instances. Press Enter.
• A separate mesh option is created.
Note: This mesh will be created with the current
Mesh settings stored in Display (Coarse, Medium,
Fine, or Superfine). So, set the desired Shade setting
BEFORE you use this tool.
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CHAPTER 18
Measure Menu
Measure models on-screen and display measurement values in the viewport. Create
schematics to aid the manufacturing process.
Measure
command that which creates text in the viewport.
This command is distinct from the Text object
command found in the Solid menu which creates
text as curves, surfaces or solids. Use Text
Block to add any notes that are to appear in the
modeling viewports.
The Measure menu contains tools that assist
in precision modeling. The Angle, Distance,
Length and Radius tools provide feedback in the
Command Line. These tools are typically used
in conjunction with O-Snaps to ensure accurate
measurements.
Leaders and Dimension tools:
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
Unlike the Measure tools which give feedback in
the Command Line the Dimension tools place
an object in the viewport with the measurement
displayed. This can be helpful to create print outs
for manufacturing where these dimensions are
desired. A Leader is a simple arrow that which
can be accompanied by text. This can be used
to point out important information in a design.
The Measure menu also contain the Text Block
Measure:
Angle, Distance, Length, Radius
Dimension:
Horizontal Dimension, Vertical Dimension,
Angle Dimension, Rotated Dimension, Aligned
Dimension, Diameter Dimension, Radius
Dimension, Edit Dimension, Recenter Dimension
Text, Dimension Options
Leader And Text:
Leader, Text Block, Edit Text
110
The resulting Angle measurement will appear in
the above the Command Line in the feedback
window. Use your O-Snaps to snap to existing
geometry.
Angle
‘Angle’
The Angle command provides an angles
dimension in the feedback window.
Command Line Options:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Angle
TwoObjects: Measures the angle between two
planar surfaces or two lines.
Steps:
Distance
• Select Angle from the Measure menu.
• The Command Line will prompt “Start of first line”.
• Select a point that defines the start of the first line
that makes up the angle.
• At the “End of first line” prompt, click on the end of
the first line that makes up the angle.
‘Distance’
This reports the Distance between two points.
The measurement results appear in the feedback
area above the Command Line. Use O-Snaps to
get accurate measurements of existing geometry.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Distance
Steps:
• Select Distance
from the Measure
menu.
• Pick the first point.
• Pick the second point.
• The distance between the points displays in the
command history window, or feedback window.
Command Line Options:
Unit: Select the measurement unit for the
distance display. By default the unit displayed is
Model_Units in millimeters.
• At the “Start of second line” prompt, select a point
that defines the beginning of the second line.
• Then, the “End of second line” prompt will appear.
Select a point that defines the end of the second
line in the angle.
Length ‘Length’
Length reports the length of curves or edges.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Length
Steps:
• Select Length from the Measure menu.
• Select curves or edges.
• Press Enter.
111
• The cumulative length of the curves or edges
displays in the feedback window.
Horizontal Dimension
‘Dim’
This command measures a linear horizontal
dimension and allows the user to place the
annotation in the viewports beside the model.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Horizontal
Dimension
Command Line Options:
Unit: Select the measurement unit for the
distance display. By default the unit displayed is
Model_Units in millimeters.
Note: This option is only available if no objects are
selected.
Steps:
• Select Horizontal Dimension from the Measure
menu.
• Pick the first point.
• Pick the second point.
• Pick a point for the dimension annotations.
Radius
‘Radius’
This reports the Radius of a curve at a specified
point. This command will measure (1) the radius of
a circle or circular object in the
viewports, or (2) the radius of
a circle that would be created
if the present curve were part
of a circle.
Note: Dimensions always
measures as though the object
were projected to the current
construction plane.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Radius
Steps:
Command Line Options:
• Select Radius from the Measure menu.
• Pick a location on a curve. The radius of the curve
at the specified point displays in the feedback
line.
Style: Style allows you to enter the dimension
style name.
Object: Select an object to dimension.
Continue: Add more (chain) dimensions along
the same dimension line.
Note: The Center object snap is ignored if it is on.
Vertical: Draws the dimension aligned with the
Command Line Options:
construction plane y-axis.
SelectCurve: Limit the selection to a specified
Horizontal: Draws the dimension aligned with
curve. Press the Enter key to select any curve.
the construction plane x-axis.
Vertical Dimension
MarkRadius: This places a point object at
the evaluated point on a curve and creates a
curvature circle through that point.
‘Dim’
This command measures a linear vertical
dimension and allows the user to place the
annotation in the viewports beside the model.
112
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Vertical
Dimension
Steps:
• Select Vertical Dimension from the Measure menu.
• Pick the first point.
• Pick the second point.
• Pick a point for the dimension annotations.
Note: Dimensions always
measure as though the object
were projected to the current
construction plane.
Note: Edit dimensions using Properties: Dimension.
Command Line Options:
Command Line Options:
Style: Enter the dimension style name.
Style: Styles allows you to enter the dimension
Points: Pick the apex of the angle and then the
style name.
dimension points.
Object: Select an object to dimension.
Rotated Dimension
Continue: Add more (chain) dimensions along
‘DimRotated’
This command allows the user to measure a
dimension that does not fall along a vertical or
horizontal angle.
the same dimension line.
Vertical: Draws the dimension aligned with the
construction plane y-axis.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Rotated
Dimension
Horizontal: Draws the dimension aligned with
the construction plane x-axis.
Angle Dimension
Steps:
• Select Rotated Dimension from the Measure menu.
• Pick two points to establish a rotation angle or
enter a number in degrees.
• Pick the first dimension point.
• Pick the second dimension point.
• Pick the dimension location.
‘DimAngle’
This command defines the angle between two
linear curves or surface edges.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Angle
Dimension
Steps:
• Select Angle Dimension from the Measure menu.
• Select an Arc or select two lines (polyline
segments, linear surface, or polysurface edges.)
• Pick a point to place angle dimension annotation.
Note: Edit dimensions using Properties: Dimension.
113
Command Line Options:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Diameter
Dimension
Style: Enter the dimension style name.
Object: Select an object to dimension.
Steps:
Continue: Add more (chain) dimensions along
• Select Diameter Dimension from the Measure
menu.
• Pick a curve.
• Pick the dimension location.
the same dimension line.
Aligned Dimension
Note: Edit dimensions using Properties: Dimension.
‘DimAligned’
When this tool is selected a dimension may be
measured that does not fall on a horizontal or
perpendicular angle.
Note: Dimensions
always measure as
though the object were
projected to the current
construction plane.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Aligned
Dimension
Steps:
Command Line Options:
• Select Aligned
Dimension from the
Measure menu.
• Pick the first point.
• Pick the second point.
• Pick the location for the
dimension annotation.
Style: Enter the dimension style name.
PointOnCurve: Pick a point on the curve where
the dimension arrow will start.
Radial Dimension
Note: Edit dimensions using Properties: Dimension.
‘DimRadius’
Select a circle or a circular edge curve for which
to measure the radius. In fact, any curve with an
arc in it may be used because, were that arc to
be made into a complete circle, the radius of that
imaginary circle will be measured.
Command Line Options:
Style: Enter the dimension style name.
Object: Select an object to dimension.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Radial
Dimension
Continue: Add more (chain) dimensions along
the same dimension line.
Undo: This reverses the last action.
Steps:
• Select Radial Dimension from the Measure menu.
• Pick a curve.
• Pick the dimension location.
Diameter Dimension
‘DimDiameter’
Select a circle or a circular edge curve for which
to measure the diameter. In fact, any curve with
an arc in it may be used. If the arc is made into a
complete circle, the diameter of that imaginary
circle will be measured.
Note: Edit dimensions using Properties: Dimension.
114
Note: In the case of an
object that is not a circle,
the program places this
object at the center of an
imaginary circle of which
the line in question is part
of the circumference
Command Line Options:
Style: Enter the dimension style name.
Command Line Options:
PointOnCurve: Pick a point on the curve where
the dimension arrow will start.
Undo: Reverts one mouse click.
Leader
Menu Options:
‘Leader’
An arrow Leader is simply a line used in
dimensioning to point to a particular location in a
viewport or on a model. This command draws an
annotation leader with arrowhead and attached
text.
Click in the text editing area to display the cursor.
Enter text using the keyboard. Right-Click in the
text editing area to display the context menu or
use the Windows shortcuts for basic functions.
CTRL+X=Cut: Cut
selected text to the
Windows Clipboard.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Leader
CTRL+C=Copy: Copy
selected text to the
Windows Clipboard.
Steps:
• Select Leader from the Measure menu.
• Pick a point for the head of the leader (this is the
arrow end).
• Pick the next points of the leader, continue until
satisfied.
• Press Enter.
• The Leader Text dialog appears.
• Enter text for the leader.
• Click OK.
CTRL+V=Paste: Paste
text from the Windows Clipboard.
CTRL+A=Select All: Selects all text in the edit
window.
Delete: Use the Keyboards Delete key to remove
selected text.
Note: Dimension Document Properties control the
text height and arrow size.
Set Edit Text Size:
Sets the size for the text
inside the edit box.
115
and the text dialog box opens. Specify the
options.
• Type the desired text.
Degree: Enters a degree symbol (°) into
the text.
Diameter: Enters a diameter symbol (Ø)
into the text.
Plus/Minus: Enters a plus/minus symbol
(±) into the text.
Text Field: Text fields are formulas that
are evaluated while Rhino is running and
the result is displayed in the text.
Leader Properties:
Select the Leader and click CTRL+T to access the
Leader properties. Manage the object properties
for the selected leaders.
Menu Options:
Style: Sets the dimension style.
Annotation text is primarily used for printing,
so the settings affect the printed size of your
annotation text.
Property Overrides: Replaces style settings
with specified settings for the selected dimension
or leader.
Font: Sets the font of the annotation text.
Save As New Style: Saves the changes made
with property overrides as a new dimension style.
Height: Sets the text height in model units.
Edit Style: Opens Dimension Style Document
Mask: Places an opaque mask around the text so
objects in the model do not show through.
Properties.
Match: Changes the Leader properties to match a
different Leader.
Text Block
None: No mask is used.
‘Text’
Text places two-dimension annotation text in the
viewport at the location specified.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Text
Background Color: Sets the mask color to the
Steps:
viewport background color.
• Select Text Block from the Measure menu.
• Select a “Start Point” location to place text in the
viewport.
• Clicking in the viewport establishes a Start Point
Solid Color: Select a color from the “Select
Color” dialog box.
116
Margin: Sets the size of the margin between the
Steps:
text and the edge of the mask.
• Select Edit Dimension from the Measure menu
• Select the desired options from the Command
Line.
Layout Scaling: When displayed in a layout
detail, the text Height will be multiplied by the
scale of the detail containing the text.
Bold: Sets the text to bold.
Command Line Options:
Italic: Sets the text to italic.
Style=Default: Uses the default dimension
Align Left/Center/Right/Top/Middle/
Bottom: Aligns the text in a chosen location.
Edit Text
style. Click to select a different style that you have
created and saved.
New: Creates a new dimension style.
Name: Name the dimension style.
‘gvEditText’
Edit Text allows you to change the display of
existing text in the viewport.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Edit Text
Copy: Create a copy of the existing template.
Copy setting from: Select from a list dimension
style templates.
Steps:
Rename: Rename the existing template.
• Select Edit Text from the Measure menu.
• Select text that was placed using the Text Block
tool in the Measure menu and click on Edit Text.
The Edit Text dialog box opens, revealing the
options to adjust or edit the text.
Delete: Delete the existing template.
Edit: Change the settings of the existing
template.
Font: Change the font for your annotations by
typing the name of the desired font
Display: Control how the annotations are
displayed.
Decimal: Uses decimal annotations to display
the measurements.
Note: If more than one text block is selected, they
will be deselected and the Command Line prompts
“Select text:’.
Fractional: Measurements are displayed as
fractions.
Edit Dimension
Feet and Inches: Displays measurements in feet
Manage dimension settings for the current model
with Edit Dimension.
and inches.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Edit
Dimension
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Precision:: Indicates how many decimal places
Recenter Dimension Text
will be indicated in the dimension.
Return dimension text to its default location.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Measure>Recenter
Dimension Text
Steps:
• Select Recenter Dimension Text from the Measure
menu.
• Select dimensions.
• Text will return to its default location.
Note: To move dimension text away from the
dimension line, turn in the dimension control points
and drag the text control point.
Dimension Options
This tool opens the Document Properties dialog
box.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from
Measure>Dimension Options
Setting Up a New Style:
Steps:
Steps:
• Click on “New” beneath Dimension style.
• Name the new dimension style.
• Choose to copy settings from an existing
dimension or set up new options.
• Select Dimension Options from the Measure menu.
• Select the desired options from the Dimension
Options dialog box (default mode).
Menu Options:
Dimension Style: Use the settings in this menu
Each new style can be set up with its own format,
text size, and text alignment.
to adjust the way the dimensions appear on the
screen. The default style includes the font, number
format, text size, and text alignment indicated
in the box. Double-click any Style to view the
available options.
Number Format: Select whether the
dimensions will be displayed in decimals, fractions,
or inches. In addition, adjust the precision, or, the
number of decimal places to which the dimension
will be carried.
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Text Size: Describe the way the size of the text
in the dimension and the way that the annotation
will appear.
Extension line Extension: Determines the
length of the extension line above the dimension
line in millimeters.
Extension line Offset: Determines the distance
from the dimension point on the object to the
start of the extension line in millimeters.
Arrow Length: Sets the length of the dimension
arrow in millimeters.
Text Alignment: This section determines where
the dimension value and text is placed.
Above Dimension Line: This option places the
text above the dimension line, Rotating it to an
angle so that it aligns to the dimension line.
In Dimension Line: This option centers the text
within the dimension line
Horizontal to View: This option draws the text
horizontal to the user no matter what angle the
dimension line is.
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CHAPTER 19
Curve Tools
Learn to Create Closed Curves, Open Curves, and Curves on
Surfaces for Basic Designs.
Open vs.Closed Curves
Why Start with Curves?
An understanding of curves is essential to 3D
modeling because curves
form the foundation of all
surfaces and solid objects in
Matrix. You’ll recall from your
high school geometry class
that, by themselves, curves
have no 3D mass: they are
Split a closed curve
with two cutting
1-dimensional lines that are
curves to change it.
only the thickness of a single
point object. But in Matrix,
when curves are used together with tools found in
the Surface and Solid menus, it quickly becomes
apparent that curves form the “skeleton” of almost
all 3D models.
Some curve tools create closed curves (Circle,
Rectangle, Ellipse, and Polygon). Other curve tools
create open curves that you can “close” if you
wish (Polyline, Interp Curve, Curve). Still others
create only open curves (Line, Arc, Arc Direction).
Usually, you’ll use these shapes together to create
closed and open curves. Then, with tools from the
Top 11 Buttons and other basic curve tools (Fillet,
Chamfer, and Offset), you’ll be able to create new,
closed curve shapes. The O-Snaps and Grid
Snaps Menus contain tools that will help you
create closed curves at the shape, location, and
size you want. Later in this manual, you’ll study
other tools from the Curve menu that play vital
roles in more advanced 3D modeling.
Types of Curves
Avoiding Problem Curves
Beware of creating curves that “loop” or intersect
themselves. These will create invalid surfaces
when they are used in modeling. Also, make sure
you use O-Snaps to achieve closed curves. In
order to be closed, each segment in a polycurve
- or, the Start and
End point of a Nurbs
curve - must have
Position Continuity
- which means they
must occupy the
same point in space.
The End O-Snap will
help you ensure that
the end of one curve
snaps to the end
of another curve,
so they will have
Position Continuity
and can be joined.
There are two different kinds of curves: open
and closed. In most modeling you’ll be doing,
you will need to draw closed curves to ensure
that the surfaces and solids created from the
curves are also closed,
“watertight” models.
You can think of a
3D model as a ship:
it shouldn’t have any
“holes” or leaks in it
where water could
seep in and sink it!
Closed curves result
in closed, watertight
models. As for
open curves... well...
they can “sink” your
modeling efforts
pretty quickly!
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Skills & Commands in this Chapter
Closed Curve Tools:
Circle, Ellipse, Rectangle, Polygon
Open Curve Tools:
Line, Arc, Arc Direction
Open or Closed Curve Tools:
Polyline, Interp Curve, Curve
Modifying Curves:
Offset, Offset on Surface, Offset Normal to
Surface, Blend, Blend Curve Handles, Fillet, Fillet
Corners, Chamfer, Curve Boolean
Fixing Problem Curves:
Rebuild, Fit, Mark Curve Start & End, Extend,
Match
Curves on Surfaces:
Extract Isocurve, GV Extract Isocurve, Pullback,
Project, Polyline & Interp Curve on Surface,
Sketch, Sketch on Surface & Mesh, Curve to
Lines, Helix, Spiral
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Length: This option only appears when
PolyLine
Line is selected. Specify the length of the
next segment. When the length option
is selected you only specify the length
of the next segment the location of the point is
constrained to being parallel with the previous
point.
‘Polyline’
Polyline literally means many (poly) lines. This tool
allows the user to draw a single straight line or
many straight lines that together form one closed
or open shape.
Mode=Arc: Instead of drawing straight line
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Polyline
segments this option will create a polyline
composed of arc segments. The user can switch
back and forth between the two options within a
single polyline.
Steps:
• Select Polyline from the Curve menu.
• Click a location for the start of the polyline
• Click a location for the end of the first line
segment.
• Continue until you complete the shape and then
press Enter.
Arc Steps:
• Pick a Start point for the Arc segment
• Pick the End point for the Arc segment.
Direction:
Note: If the user wishes to create a closed polyline
curve, approach the start point of the polyline shape
with the cursor, which causes the Point O-Snap
Indicator (Point) to appear. Clicking once on this
indicator will cause the final line segment of the
polyline shape to end on the same point where the
polyline started, creating a closed curve. This is
called AutoClose hold the Alt key to suspend this
behavior.
This options only appear when the Arc Command
Line option is selected. Specify the direction of a
line tangent to the arc’s end point. This effects the
radius of the arc.
Command Line Options:
Arc Direction Steps:
The arc option will use the same direction for each
arc segment until a new direction is indicated.
• Pick a start point.
• Pick a tangent direction.
• Pick an end point.
PersistentClose: Closes the curve as soon as
there are two points placed. You can continue to
pick points. The curve updates the shape while
remaining closed.
In the illustration above the green line indicates the
direction chosen. From left to right the direction was
set a 45, 90, and 135 degrees.
Close: Closes the curve with an additional curve
segment between the first and last control points
and ends the command. This option only appears
after three points have been placed.
Center: This options only appear when the Arc
Command Line option is selected. Pick the center
point for the arc’s radius and then the length of
the arc. The distance from the first point and the
center define the radius of the arc segment.
Mode=Line: Line is the default option. Creates a
polyline constructed of 1 degree curve segments.
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Center Steps:
Normal: Draws the line perpendicular or normal
• Select the center of the arc.
• Pick the point for the end of the arc.
to a location on a surface.
Normal Steps:
• Select a surface.
• Pick the start of the line on the surface.
• Pick the end of the line or type a length, and press
Enter.
The Orange dot indicates the start of the arc, the
Green dot the center of the arc and the Blue dot the
end of the arc.
Normal Options:
Helpers=Yes/No: Turns on dynamic tracking
IgnoreTrims:
No: Surface trims are taken into consideration.
similar to Smart Track. Helpers indicates when the
next point on the polyline is tangent or ortho.
Line
When the marker is off the visible part
of the surface, the no-access cursor is
shown.
‘Line’
Draws one Line segment
Yes: Surface trims are ignored. When the marker
misses the untrimmed surface, the no-access
cursor is shown.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Line
Angled: Draws the line at a specified angle from
a reference line.
Right Click Command: Line Both Sides
Angled Steps:
• Pick the start of a base (reference) line.
• Pick the end of a base (reference) line.
• Type the pivot angle, and press Enter.
• Pick the end of the line.
Steps:
• Select Line from the Curve menu.
• Click a location for the start of the line
• Click a location for the end of the line.
Command Line Options:
BothSides: Draws the object on both sides of
the start point, creating the object twice as long
as you indicate. The first mouse click places the
midpoint of the line.
Vertical: Draws the line vertical to the
construction plane.
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Vertical Steps:
Perpendicular: Draws the line perpendicular to
• Pick the start of the line.
• Pick the end of the line or type a length and press
Enter.
or from a curve.
Perpendicular Steps:
• Pick the start of the line on a curve.
• Pick the end of the line.
A white snap appears along the curve indicating that
the curve is perpendicular.
FourPoint: Draws the line using two points to
establish direction and two points to establish
length.
Perpendicular Options:
BothSides: Draws the object on both sides of
FourPoint Steps:
the start point, creating the object twice as long
as you indicate. The first mouse click places the
midpoint of the line.
• Pick the start of the base line (reference location).
• Pick the end of the base line (second reference
location).
• Pick the start of the line.
• Pick the end of the line.
Point: Allows you to pick a point that is near, but
not on a curve, overriding the built-in object snap.
Bisector: Draws the line that bisects a specified
PointOnCurve:
angle.
Pick a point along the curve to serve as the
start of your curve. This option allows you to
snap to a particular location on the curve while
the end point is also being constrained to be
perpendicular to the original curve.
Bisector Steps:
• Pick the start of the bisector line.
• Pick the start of the angle to bisect.
• Pick the end of the angle to bisect.
• Pick the end of the line or type a length, and press
Enter.
FromFirstPoint: Forces the line to go through
the first picked point on the curve instead of
allowing the point to slide along the curve. This
option is only available when BothSides or
PointOnCurve is selected.
2Curves: The line will be perpendicular to two
curves.
Tangent: Draws the line tangent from an existing
curve.
Bisects a user defined angle.
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Tangent Steps:
Extension Steps
• Pick the start of the line on a curve.
• Pick the end of the line.
• Select a curve (line) near the end you want to
extend.
• Pick the end of the line or type a distance and
press Enter.
Extend an existing curve.
Interp Curve
A white snap appears along the curve that the new
curve is tangent to.
‘InterpCrv’
Interp Curve creates a free-from curve whose
shape is dependent upon points placed by the
user. Each click of the mouse sets a point that
falls along the curve. The placement of each point
determines the shape and curvature of the line:
more points closer together make for a tighter
curve that is easier to control, while fewer points
placed further apart make for a looser, smoother
curve that is more difficult to control.
Tangent Options:
BothSides: Draws the object on both sides of
the start point, creating the object twice as long
as you indicate. The first mouse click places the
midpoint of the line.
Point: Allows you to pick a point that is near, but
not on a curve, overriding the built-in object snap.
Point on Curve:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Interp Curve
Right Click Command: Continue Interp Curve
Pick a point along the curve to serve as the start
of your curve. This option allows you to snap to
a particular location on the curve while the end
point is also being constrained to be tangent to
the original curve.
Steps:
• Select Interp Curve from the Curve menu.
• Pick the start of the curve.
• Pick the next points along the curve.
• Press Enter to end the curve.
FromFirstPoint: Forces the line to go through
the first picked point on the curve instead of
allowing the point to slide along the curve. This
option is only available when BothSides or
PointOnCurve is selected.
The curve automatically closes when the cursor
moves close to the curve’s start point regardless
of whether O-snaps are toggled to the On
position.
2Curves: The line will be perpendicular to two
curves.
Steps:
Extension: Extends a curve with a line.
• Move the cursor close to the start point of the
curve, and pick. The curve will close.
• Press the Alt key to suspend automatic closing.
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Command Line Options:
confusing to the user, so it is always a good idea
to leave the Knots feature at its default setting.
Degree: Changing this number affects the “pull”
on the curve, making it bend at different levels
of strength (1 – 11) between the points that are
placed. Setting this number higher (its upper limit
is 11) makes the bend between each point far
more dramatically.
PersistentClose: Closes the curve as soon as
there are two points placed. You can continue to
pick points. The curve updates the shape while
remaining closed.
1 Degree Curve
Start Tangent: When starting up the Interp
Curve command, the user has the option to start
the curve so that its starting point is tangent to
another curve or tangent to a direction shown by
picking the start and end direction.
3 Degree Curve
Knots:
“Knots” is Rhino’s term for the points that are
placed to make the curve. Typing “K” into the
Command Line and pressing Enter will reveal
that the three settings for this option are Uniform,
Chord, and SqrtChord (square root chord).
Uniform: Knots are always placed approximately
one millimeter away from one another, meaning
that the curve will bend at 1 mm increments
(as though the points on the curve, or, the little
people holding the “plank”, are spaced 1 mm away
from each other all over the grid) regardless of the
points placed by the user. It’s not a good idea to
turn this feature on, since it can make using this
tool pretty confusing.
The green curve added for illustration indicates the
user defined tangent for the start of the curve.
Chord: Is the default setting for this option, and
it means that the knot spacing corresponds to the
mouse-clicks of the user.
End Tangent: Draws the end of the curve
tangent to another curve or tangent to a direction
shown by picking a start and end direction.
SqrtChrd: (square root chord) places the knots
at a point equal to the square root of the distance
between the two points picked by the user.
This, too, makes using the Interp Curve rather
Close: Will cause the start and end point of the
curve to join smoothly creating a periodic curve.
Type ‘C’ and press enter to close the curve.
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Sharp: Close the curve with a kink, creating a non
Vertical: Draws the rectangle perpendicular to
periodic curve. Type ’S’ and press enter to close
the curve with a sharp junction.
the construction plane.
Vertical steps
• Pick the start of the edge.
• Pick the end of the edge.
• Pick or type a width.
Each curve has the same knots the curve on the right
has Sharp set to No and the one on the Left is set to
Yes.
Undo: Reverses the last action.
Rectangle
Center: Draws the rectangle around a center
‘Rectangle’
The Rectangle tool draws rectangles or squares.
point.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Rectangle
Right Click Command: Rectangle Rounded
Corners.
• Pick the center.
• Pick the other corner or type a length.
Steps:
Rounded steps
• Select Rectangle from the Curve menu.
• Pick the first corner of the rectangle.
• Pick the other corner. Or type a value and press
Enter to specify the length and then pick the
other corner. Hold shift to create a square.
• Draw the rectangle, then pick the radius of the
rounded corner.
Center steps
Rounded: Rounds the corners of the rectangle.
Command Line Options:
3Point: Draws the rectangle using two adjacent
corner locations and a location on the opposite
side. Use this command to draw a rectangle on a
slant.
3Point steps
• Pick the start of an edge.
• Pick the end of the edge.
• Pick or type the width.
127
Rounded Rectangle Options:
Circumference Steps:
Corner: This option offers two sub-options; Arc
• Type the circumference value at the Command
Line or pick a location to show the circumference
length.
and Conic which subtly alter the shape of the
corners. The key difference is how the rectangles
are built: Arc explodes into 8 sections. Conic
explodes into 4 sections.
Area: Specifies the circle’s area.
Area Steps
Arc: Rounded
• Type the area value at the Command Line or pick a
location to show the area value.
corners are circular
arcs.
Command Line Options:
Conic: Rounded
Deformable: A NURBS approximation of the
corners are conic
sections.
curve will be created with the degree an number
of points you specify. Deformable (degree 3) (left);
Not deformable (degree 2) (right).
Circle
‘Circle’
Draws a Circle from a center location and a radius.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Circle
Right Click Command: Circle 2Points
Steps:
• Select Circle from the Curve menu.
• Pick the center location.
• Pick a radius location or specify an option in the
Command Line.
Vertical: Draws a circle perpendicular to the
construction plane.
Vertical Steps:
• Pick the center and a radius or diameter.
Circle Options:
Radius/Diameter: Toggles between accepting
a radius value and a diameter value.
Steps:
• Pick a location or type a value.
Orientation: Specifies an orientation not on the
construction plane
Orientation Steps:
• Pick a direction that will be perpendicular to the
circle plane
2Point: Draws the circle from the two ends of its
diameter.
Circumference: Specifies the circle’s
2Point Steps:
circumference.
• Pick the start and end diameter.
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Tangent options:
Point: Allows a point that does not have to be a
tangent point on a curve.
FromFirstPoint: Forces the circle or arc to go
through the first picked point on the curve instead
of allowing the point to slide along the curve.
Radius: The circle is restricted to the specified
radius. If a tangent point exists on the second
curve that meets the radius requirement, the
tangent constraint will appear at that point as you
drag the circle.
Set the diameter of a circle by picking two points. In
this instance two end points on a set of gems.
3Point: Draws a circle through three points on
the circumference.
3Point Steps:
AroundCurve: Draws a circle perpendicular to a
• Pick three points that define the circumference.
curve.
Steps:
• Select a curve and pick the center of the circle on
the curve and a Radius or Diameter.
Set the diameter of a circle by picking three points
on its circumference points. In this instance two end
points on a set of gems and inside a gem profile.
FitPoints: Draws a circle by fitting to selected
3Point options
Radius: Specifies the radius and orientation for
point objects, curve and surface control points,
and mesh vertices.
the circle after two points have been picked.
Steps:
Steps:
• Select point objects or control points. A minimum
of three points or control points is required.
• Pick a location or type a radius value.
• Pick a direction to orient the circle.
Tangency is indicated along the curve by a white
snap.
129
Diameter/Radius options
Tangent: Draws a circle tangent to curves.
Radius/Diameter: Toggles between accepting
a radius value and a diameter value.
Steps:
• Pick a location or type a value.
Orientation: Specifies an orientation not on the
construction plane
Orientation Steps:
• Pick a direction that will be perpendicular to the
circle plane
Tangency is indicated along the curve by a white snap.
Circumference: Specifies the circle’s
circumference.
Steps:
Circumference Steps:
• Pick the first tangent location on the first curve.
• Type the circumference value at the Command
Line or pick a location to show the circumference
length.
Tangent options:
FromFirstPoint: Forces the circle or arc to go
through the first picked point on the curve instead
of allowing the point to slide along the curve.
Area: Specifies the circle’s area.
Area Steps
Point: Allows a point that does not have to be a
• 1. Type the area value at the Command Line or pick
a location to show the area value.
tangent point on a curve.
Radius: The circle is restricted to the specified
radius. If a tangent point exists on the second
curve that meets the radius requirement, the
tangent constraint will appear at that point as you
drag the circle.
Ellipse
‘Ellipse’
Draws a closed elliptical curve (elongated circular
shape where the length and width are different).
Vertical: Draws a circle perpendicular to the
Vertical Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Ellipse
Right Click Command: Ellipse Diameter
• Pick the center and a radius or diameter.
Steps:
construction plane.
• Select Ellipse from the Curve menu.
• Pick the center location.
• Pick the end of the first axis.
• Pick the end of the second axis.
Command Line Options:
Deformable: A NURBS approximation of the
curve will be created with the degree a number of
points you specify.
130
Diameter: Draws the ellipse from points on its
axes.
Diameter Steps:
• Pick the start of the first axis
• Pick the end of the first axis.
• Pick the end of the second axis.
Deformable (degree 3) (left); Not Deformable
(degree 2) (right).
PointCount: Sets the number of control points
in the curve.
Vertical: Draws the ellipse center point and axes
perpendicular to the construction plane.
Vertical Steps:
• Pick the center.
• Pick the end of the first axis.
• Pick the end of the second axis.
FromFoci: Draws the ellipse from focus points
and a point on the curve.
FromFoci Steps:
• Pick the first focus.
• Pick the second focus.
• Pick a point on the ellipse curve.
Corner: Draws the ellipse from the corners of an
enclosing rectangle.
Corner Steps:
• Pick a corner for the enclosing rectangle.
• Pick the opposite corner of the enclosing
rectangle.
From Foci Options:
MarkFoci: Places a point object at the focus
locations.
AroundCurve: Draws the ellipse around a curve
Steps:
• Select the curve to draw the ellipsoid around.
• Pick the center location on a curve.
• Pick the end of the first axis.
• Pick the end of the second axis.
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StartPoint: Draws an arc starting from the arc’s
Arc
first end point.
‘Arc’
Draws an Arc curve using a center location, one
end point and a second end point or an angle.
StartPoint Steps:
• Pick the arc’s start point.
• Pick the arc’s end point.
• Click a location the arc passes through.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Arc
Right Click Command: Arc Extension
Steps:
• Select Arc from the Curve menu.
• Pick the center of the arc’s radius.
• Pick the arc’s first endpoint This point is also the
arc’s start point.
• Pick the arc’s second end point or type an angle.
Tilted: Draws an arc whose plane is tilted from
the current construction plane. In a different
viewport or with elevator mode, pick the start of
the tilted arc, and specify the arc’s orientation.
StartPoint options:
Direction: Specifies the direction of a line
tangent to the arc’s first end point.
Length: Type a positive or negative number or
Direction Steps
pick two points to specify the arc curve’s length.
• Pick a start point.
• Pick a tangent direction
• Pick an end point.
Command Line Options:
Deformable: Draws a NURBS approximation of
ThroughPoint: Specifies a location the arc curve
the arc.
must pass through.
ThroughPoint Steps
• Pick a start point.
• Pick a location that the arc must pass through..
• Pick an end point.
Deformable (degree 3) (left); Not Deformable
(degree 2) (right).
Degree: Specifies the degree of the curve.
Note: When drawing a high-degree curve, the output
curve will not be the degree you request unless there
is at least one more control point than the degree.
The red point is the start point. The green point is the
through point.
PointCount: Specifies the number of control
points.
132
Center: Specifies a center point for the arc radius.
Radius: Specifies a radius. If a tangent point
Center Steps
exists on the second curve that meets the radius
requirement the tangent constraint will appear at
that point as you drag the circle along the second
curve. This option is only available when you are
defining the second tangent point.
• Pick a center point.
Extension: Extends a curve with an arc by
picking the arc’s endpoint.
Extension Steps
1. Pick the curve to extend.
2. Pick the arc’s end point.
Tangent: Draws an arc tangent to two curves
with an option to specify a radius.
Tangent Steps:
• Select a tangent curve.
• Select the second tangent curve, or type a
radius to restrict the arc to the specified radius.
If a tangent point exists on the second curve
that meets the radius requirement, the tangent
constraint will appear at that point as you drag
the arc around.
• Select a third tangent curve, or press Enter to draw
a circle.
• Click to choose the arc direction from the options
displayed when the mouse is dragged.
Extension Options
Center: Extends a curve with an arc by picking
the arc’s center and endpoint.
Steps
• Pick the arc’s center point.
• Pick the arc’s end point.
Notes:
• The arc extension is not joined to the original
curve.
• To draw an arc extension and join it in one step,
use the Extend command.
• The center point is constrained to a plane
perpendicular to the curve end. If the extension is
drawn in a view perpendicular to the constraint
plane, the input will be automatically locked
parallel to the construction plane.
• In other views Matrix tries to make sure one of
the ortho directions is parallel to the construction
plane. Press the Shift key when making the pick to
maintain the ortho direction
Tangent Options:
Point: Releases the command form the tangent
constraint. Pick a point not on the tangent curve
for the arc to pass through.
FromFirstPoint: Forces the arc to go through
the first picked point on the curve instead of
allowing the point to slide along the curve. Option
only available when the first curve the are is
tangent to is selected .
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Center: Specifies a center point for the arc radius.
Arc Direction
Center Steps
‘Arc_StartPoint’
Draws an arc starting from the arc’s first end point
as opposed to starting from the center of the arc.
Arc Direction is the Arc’s Command Line option
StartPoint so the option for the two commands
are the same.
• Pick a center point.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Arc
Direction
Steps:
Rebuild • Select Arc Direction from the Curve menu.
• Pick the start point of the arc
• Pick the end point of the arc
• Pick a third point to control the arcs direction and
amount.
‘Rebuild’
Reconstructs selected curves to a specified
degree and control point number. The points are
evenly redistributed evenly along the rebuilt curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Rebuild
Command Line Options:
Direction: Specifies the direction of a line
Steps:
tangent to the arc’s first end point.
• Select Rebuild from the Curve menu.
• Select the curves you wish to rebuild.
• The current Point Count and Degree are shown in
parenthesis.
• Enter a new value for the Point Count.
• Click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will
look like.
• When you are satisfied with the results, click OK.
Direction Steps
• Pick a start point.
• Pick a tangent direction
• Pick an end point.
ThroughPoint: Specifies a location the arc curve
must pass through.
ThroughPoint Steps:
• Pick a start point.
• Pick a location.
• Pick an end point.
Options:
PointCount: Specifies the number of control
points.
The red point is the start point. The green point is the
through point.
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Degree: Specifies the degree of the curve (or
Refit to Tolerance
surface.) When drawing a high-degree curve, the
output will not be the degree you request unless
there is at least one more control point than the
degree.
‘FitCrv’
Reconstructs the curve using the lowest number
of control points possible, while maintaining
the shape of the curve. This command results
in a non-rational NURBS curve of a specified
degree that matches the input curve to within the
specified tolerance. The resulting curve may have
fewer control points than the input, or it may have
more points if the input is simple. Generally, use
this command to fit very dense or complex curves
to a simpler structure.
DeleteInput: Deletes the original geometry from
the file.
Create new object on current layer: Creates
the new objects on the current layer. Clear this
checkbox to place the new objects on the layer of
the original curves.
Maximum deviation: Reports the maximum
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>FitCrv
deviation from the original curve in the feedback
line (above the Command Line) when Preview is
clicked. A Point object is placed on the curves
indicating the area on the curve with the largest
deviation.
Steps:
• Select Refit to Tolerance from the Curve menu.
• Select curves.
• Type a new tolerance value in the Command Line
or press enter.
Preview: Click to display a preview of the output.
If you change the settings, click the Preview
button again to refresh the display.
Notes:
• When the input to the FitCrv command is a
polyline, the FitCrv command treats the polyline
vertices as a list of points, and it tries to compute
a curve that goes near the points but has a
reasonable number of control points. The FitCrv
command is meant for polylines with many closely
spaced points.
• When the input to the FitCrv command is a control
points wiggly curve with many control points, the
FitCrv command tries to compute a curve that
has the same general shape but fewer control
points.
The pink line indicates the line that will be the result
of the rebuild. This particular curve went from 17
points to seven, resulting in a deviation of around .41
mm. Your particular circumstances will dictate the
amount of deviation that is acceptable.
Notes:
• Rebuild can be an important tool if you are having
difficulty with your sweeps or gem on curve. This
is often an issue of having a high point count
which can be resolved with the Rebuild or Refit
command.
• If you use fewer edit points, the shape will relax.
Use as few edit points as possible while still
keeping the shape of the curve.
• Rebuild Curve results in a single curve which
cannot be exploded.
• Curves in Matrix use a Degree value of 3. Degree 1
curves is a straight line.
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Refit to Tolerance Command Line
Options:
Command Line Options:
DeleteInput: Deletes the original geometry from
choosing either curve to blend a curve to a
surface edge perpendicular to the surface with
continuity.
Perpendicular: Select this option before
the file.
Degree: Specifies the degree of the curve (or
surface.) When drawing a high-degree curve, the
output will not be the degree you request unless
there is at least one more control point than the
degree.
OutputLayer: Specifies the layer for the results
of the command.
Current: Places the results on the current layer.
Input: Places the results on the same layer as the
input curve.
AtAngle: Orients the direction of the blend
curve at an angle other than perpendicular to the
edge. Choosing this option prompts for a point
or location on the edge for the start of the blend
and the direction at the start of the blend, which
sets the angle of the blend. Hold the Shift key, to
restrict the angle direction by ortho but keeping it
tangent to the edge curve.
Angle Tolerance: Controls when Matrix
considers two curves or surfaces to be tangent.
This option allows you to change the Angle
Tolerance for the selected object from the model
tolerances in the program. Model tolerances can
be adjusted in Rhino options.
Quick Curve Blend
Continuity Options:
‘Blend’
Creates a curve that blends between two curves
maintaining continuity with the input curves.
Position (G0): Position (G0 continuity)
measures location only. If the end points of each
curve are in the same location in space, the curves
are position continuous (G0) at the ends. In other
words, the two curves in question touch each
other at their end points. Essentially the blend
curve is a straight line in between the two curves
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Quick Curve
Blend
Steps:
• Select Quick Curve Blend from the Curve menu.
• Select the first curve near the end where you want
the blend to start.
• Select the second curve near the blend to end.
Note: Blend is a history enabled command. If you
move or rotate the input curves the blended curve
will follow.
Note: The resulting curve is a separate curve. Join
the curves if needed.
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Tangency (G1): Tangency (G1 continuity)
Adjustable Curve Blend
measures position and curve direction at the ends.
In other words, the two curves not only touch, but
they go the same direction at the point where
they touch.
‘BlendCrv’
Creates a blend curve between curves and/or
surface edges with control over the continuity
with the input curves.
Tangency places two control points in a row (one
on the original curve and one on the new curve),
creating a quicker transition between the blends.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Adjustable
Blend Curve
Steps:
• Select Adjustable Curve Blend from the Curve
menu.
• Select the curves.
• Select a control point to adjust.
• Press the Shift key and select for symmetry.
• A preview of the curves displays that allows
adjustment of the curve before it is made.
Note: Blend is a history enabled command. If you
move or rotate the input curves the blended curve
will follow.
Selection Options:
Edges: Restricts selection to surface edges.
Curvature (G2): Curvature continuity (G2
continuity) between two curves measures
position, direction, and radius of curvature at
the ends. If the radius of curvature is the same
at the common end point, curves are curvature
continuous (G2). In other words, the curves not
only go the same direction when they meet, but
also have the same radius at that point. Curvature
places three control points in a row (one on the
original curve and two on the new curve).
Point: Specifies a point to blend to.
Curves: This option only appears if you have
select either Point or Edge in the Command Line.
This is the default option and restricts selection to
Curves.
Adjust Curve Blend options
Continuity Curve 1 / 2: Sets the continuity option
between the blend curve and the input curves or
edges.
Note: Experiment with the results choosing between
Curvature and Tangency.
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Position (G0): Position (G0 continuity)
Curvature (G2): Curvature continuity (G2
measures location only. If the end points of each
curve are in the same location in space, the curves
are position continuous (G0) at the ends. In other
words, the two curves in question touch each
other at their end points. Essentially the blend
curve is a straight line in between the two curves.
continuity) between two curves measures
position, direction, and radius of curvature at
the ends. If the radius of curvature is the same
at the common end point, curves are curvature
continuous (G2). In other words, the curves not
only go the same direction when they meet, but
also have the same radius at that point. Curvature
places three control points in a row (one on the
original curve and two on the new curve).
Tangency (G1): Tangency (G1 continuity)
measures position and curve direction at the ends.
In other words, the two curves not only touch, but
they go the same direction at the point where
they touch.
G3: G3 continuity adds a third requirement: planar
acceleration. Curves that are G3 continuous touch,
go the same direction, have the same radius, and
that radius is accelerating at the same rate at a
certain point. G3 continuous curves have equal
third derivatives.
Tangency places two control points in a row (one
on the original curve and one on the new curve),
creating a quicker transition between the blends.
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G4: G4 continuity is very seldom used, but can
Keys for control:
be important in certain isolated cases. G4
continuous curves have all the same requirements
as G3 curves, but their curvature acceleration is
equal in three dimensions.
ALT: By default the shape curves are
perpendicular to the surface edge. Hold the Alt
key while dragging the handles to change the
angle between the shape curve and the surface
edge.
SHIFT: The Shift key controls symmetry. By
default the shape curves are separately edited at
each end, with symmetry, point editing is mirrored
to the other end of the curve.
Curve from 2 Views
‘Crv2View’
Creates a third curve from two curves that are
planar in different construction planes. The new
curve looks the same as each of the original
curves when viewed in each plane.
Reset: Reverts the continuity to its starting bulge
amount.
Flip 1 / 2: Reverses the direction of the specified
curve. Use this option if the wrong end of the
curve was inadvertently selected.
Trim: Trims the input curves to the resulting
curve.
Join: Joins the resulting curves.
Show Curvature: Displays the curvature graph.
Curve from 2 Views uses the Extrude and Intersect
commands behind the scenes. First use Extrude on both of
the planar curves. Next run the Intersect command.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Curve from
2 Views
Steps:
• Select Curve from 2 Views from the Curve menu.
• Select the first curve.
• Select the second curve.
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Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Curve From
2 View History
Steps:
• Select Curve from 2 Views with History from the
Curve menu.
• Select The first curve then the second curve.
• Full=True or False in the Command Line and press
Enter.
Command Line Options:
Full=True/False: When set to true Matrix will
draw a curve both on the top and bottom of the
ring rail. When set to false Matrix will only draw a
curve on the top of the finger rail (from 9 o’clock
to 3 o’clock as seen in the Through Finger View.
Full=True Matrix creates a curve on both side of the
finger rail.
The red curve have matches the shape of both the
brown curves and green curve when viewed in there
respective planar views.
Command Line Options:
Direction: Two points establish the direction
angle.
Full=False leaves the bottom of the ring shank
unfinished. Complete the Shank by sweeping the ring
manually.
Steps
• Pick a base point.
• Pick a second point that establishes the direction
angle.
Pullback
Curve 2 Views with History
‘Pull’
Creates curves and points on a given surface by
pulling a curve or points onto a single surface or
mesh object.
Creates a third curve from two curves that are
planar in different construction planes. The new
curve looks the same as each of the original
curves when viewed in each plane. This command
behaves the same as Curve from 2 views but has
an additional option.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Pull
140
Steps:
TargetObject: Places the results on the same
• Select Pullback from the Curve menu.
• Select curves.
• Select surface to pull the curves back to.
layer as the target surface.
Notes: Pullback can be used in any viewport. For
best results place the curves to be pulled as close
to the surface as possible to minimize the amount
of distortion that may occur as the curve is pulled.
The curve pulls towards a point at the center of the
surface which is pulling. When exiting the command,
the newly created curves will be always be selected.
When drawing the curves, use the fewest control
points possible. This guarantees the smoothest
possible curve pullback to the target surface.
‘Project’
Creates curves and points on a given surface, by
finding the intersection of a surface and curve
projected towards the construction plane. This
command is viewport specific. For best results,
run the Project in the viewport where the curve
appears in front of the surface. This command
works on surfaces, polysurfaces and meshes.
Project
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Project
Steps:
• Select Project from the Curve menu.
• Select curves.
• Select surface to project the curves on to.
The input curve get pulled back to the selected
surface.
Command Line Options:
Loose: Pulls edit points back to the surface. If any
edit point misses the surface, the curve will not be
created.
Unlike Pullback project finds the intersection of all
surfaces
DeleteInput: Deletes the original curve from the
file.
Notes: When exiting the command, the newly
created curves will be always be selected.
When drawing the curves, use the fewest control
points possible. This guarantees the smoothest
possible curve pullback to the target surface.
OutputLayer: Specifies the layer for the results
of the command.
Input: Places the results on the same layer as the
input curve.
Current: Places the results on the current layer.
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Command Line Options:
Notes: Intersecting curves with other curves or
surfaces results in curves or point objects.
Loose: Pulls edit points back to the surface. If any
Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces
or polysurfaces results in curves. To create surface
and solid intersections, use the BooleanIntersection
command.
edit point misses the surface, the curve will not be
created.
DeleteInput: Deletes the original curve from the
file.
Offset Curve OutputLayer: Specifies the layer for the results
‘Offset’
Copies a curve a specified distance from the
original curve. The new curve may be larger (offset
outside) or smaller (offset inside) the original
curve.
of the command.
Input: Places the results on the same layer as the
input curve
Current: Places the results on the current layer.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Offset
Curve
Right Click Command: Offset Through Point
TargetObject: Places the results on the same
layer as the target surface.
Steps:
Intersection • Select Offset Curve from the Curve menu.
• Select a curve or edge to offset.
• Click on one side of the curve to set the direction
for the offset.
‘Intersect’
Creates section curves at the intersection of two
objects on a surface, polysurface, or mesh.
Note: For best results, use proportionately small
offset distances and smooth curves; otherwise, you
may get kinks and doubled-back curves.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Intersection
Steps:
• Select Intersection from the Curve menu.
• Select objects.
• Press Enter when done.
• This creates a curve or point at the intersection of
two objects.
Offsetting inside and outside ring rail inward in order
to create a cutter.
Command Line Options:
Distance: Sets the offset distance.
Corner Options:
Specifies how the offset corner continuity is
handled.
142
Sharp: The corners of the offset curves will be
Chamfer: The corners of the offset curves will be
extended to meet at sharp corners with position
(G0) continuity.
filled with a straight line between their endpoints.
ThroughPoint: Offsets through a picked point
Round: The corners of the offset curves will be
instead of at a set distance.
filled with arc segments with tangent (G1)
continuity.
Tolerance: Sets the tolerance for the offset
curve.
BothSides: Offsets the curve on both sides of
the input curve.
Smooth: The corners of the offset curves will be
filled with blend segments with curvature (G2)
continuity.
The green curve was the original curve in this
example
InCPlane: The Curve is offset in the plane of the
original curve. This option offsets the curve in the
plane of the current construction plane instead.
Cap:
Closes the gap at the end of the curves.
None: No closing segments are added. The
offset curve goes on the current layer.
143
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Offset
Curve on Surface
Right Click Command: Offset Curve on Surface
ThroughPoint
Steps:
• Select Offset Curve on Surface from the Curve
menu.
• Select a curve on surface.
• Select the base surface.
• Type the offset distance.
Flat: Straight line segments are added between
the curves and joined. The object goes on the
same layer as the original.
Round: Tangent arcs are added between the
curves and joined. The offset curve goes on the
same layer as the original.
Yellow curve is an offset off the rings surface edge,
Command Line Options:
ThroughPoint: Offsets through a picked point
instead of at a set distance. The ThroughPoint
option lets you keep picking offset locations for
the next curve on the surface at any distance.
Flip: Reverses the direction of the offset.
Offset Curve on Surface
Number: Specifies the number of curves to be
‘OffsetCrvOnSrf’
Copies a curve or surface edge on a surface
so that all locations on the copied curve are a
specified distance from the original curve and lie
on the surface. The new curve on the surface may
be larger (offset outside) or smaller (offset inside)
the original curve.
Extract Isocurve
offset. Each curve is offset the offset distance
from the previous curve.
‘ExtractIsocurve’
Creates curves along a surface by duplicating a
surfaces isocurves.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Extract
Isocurve
144
Steps:
Fillet Curves
• Select Extract Isocurve from the Curve menu.
• Select a surface.
• Pick a place to extract a curve on the selected
surface.
‘Fillet’
The Fillet command creates a smooth arc at a
sharp “joint” between two curves. The two curves
can be; joined; touching but not joined; not
touching but would form a sharp angle if they did.
Note: The cursor is constrained to the surface
selected at the beginning of the command. Use
O-Snaps to determine a precise location for the
extracted curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Fillet
The new curve is created on the current layer color.
Change the layer color to a contrasting color so the
new curve is easily discernible.
Steps:
• Select Fillet from the Curve menu.
• Select the first curve near the end.
• Select the second curve near the end.
Note: The Fillet can fail of the value for the radius
is larger than the distance the Fillet can
accommodate.
Extracting isocurves on a ring’s surface.
Command Line Options:
Direction: Specify the direction. U, V or both
directions (perpendicular to one another)..
Toggle: Toggles the direction between U and V.
ExtractAll: Extracts all isocurves in U, V, or both
directions depending on the Direction option.
The top two points have been filleted with a radius of
.125. The rest haven’t been filleted.
IgnoreTrims:
No: Surface trims are taken into
Command Line Options:
consideration. When the marker is off the
visible part of the surface, the no access
cursor is shown
Radius: Allows you to set the fillet radius.
Join: Joins the resulting curves.
Yes: Surface trims are ignored. When the marker
misses the untrimmed surface, the noaccess cursor is shown.
Trim: Trims the input curves with the resulting
curve.
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Chamfer Curves
‘Chamfer’
The Chamfer command creates a beveled edge
between two curves that meet at a point.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Chamfer
Steps:
ExtendArcsBy: Applies when arcs are filleted or
• Select the first curve near the end for the chamfer.
• Select the second curve near the end for the
chamfer.
chamfered but need to be extended to meet the
fillet curve or chamfer line.
Arc: The arc is extended maintaining validity.
Line: The arc is extended with a line segment,
which is joined to the arc converting it to a
polycurve.
Fillet Corners
‘FilletCorners’
Rounds all corners of polycurves or polylines with
arcs of a single specified radius.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Fillet
Corners
Steps:
• Select Fillet Corners from the Curve menu.
• Select the polycurve and press enter.
• Specify the fillet radius
The top 4 points of the star have been chamfer to a
distance of .2mm
Command Line Options:
Distances: The distance from the intersection of
the curves to the chamfer.
Join: Joins the resulting curves.
Trim: Trims the in put curves with the resulting
curve.
ExtendArcsBy: Applies when arcs are filleted or
chamfered but need to be extended to meet the
fillet curve or chamfer line.
Arcs: The arc is extended maintaining validity.
All corners of a polycurve are filleted at once.
146
Line: The arc is extended with a line segment,
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Apply UV
Curves
which is joined to the arc converting it to a
polycurve.
Steps:
Create UV Curves
• Select planar curves on world XY plane to apply to
a surface.
• Select a surface to apply the planar curves to.
• The curves are mapped to the surface.
Corresponding 3-D curves are created on the
surface.
‘CreateUVCrv’
Projects a surface’s untrimmed boundary and
trim curves onto the world x-y plane. The results
can be used in conjunction with Apply UV Curve
or Flow Along Surface. Use the results as a 2D
pattern on which to layout design details and then
return onto the 3D surface.
Note: Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate
planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface
so you can use them as a guide to orient your text
or pattern. Then Apply UV curves to the original
surface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Create UV
Curves
Steps:
• Select Create UV Curves from the Curve menu.
• Select a surface.
Note: The control polygon determines the sizes of
the uv curves.
Create UV Curves works with single untrimmed
surfaces.
A pattern is created and placed on the UV curve.
Then the Apply UV Curve command is used to place
the pattern onto the rings surface.
Through Points
‘CurveThroughPt’
Fits a Curve through selected point objects.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Through
Points
The UV curves are created from the ring.
Steps
• Select Through Points from the Curve menu.
• Select points.
Apply UV Curves
‘ApplyCrv’
Wrap planar curves onto a surface. Use the
Create UV Curves prior to this command to create
template on which to design then use the Apply
UV Curves command to transfer the planar curves
onto the 3D surface.
147
Command Line Options:
Closed: Choose to create a closed curve or an
Degree: Specifies the degree of the curve (or
open curve. Toggle between Yes or No.
surface). When drawing a high-degree curve, the
output curve will not be the degree you request
unless there is at least one more control point
than the degree.
Extend Curve
‘Extend’
Lengthens a given curve. Extend a curve to
touch another curve (boundary object) or its own
endpoint to create a closed curve.
CurveType
Specify the type of curve created a control point
curve or a interpolated curve.
CurveType=Interpolated: The curve passes
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Extend
Curve
through the vertices, points, or control points.
Steps:
• Select Extend from the Curve menu.
• Select a boundary object, type a length, or press
Enter to extend without boundary edges.
• Select a curve or an surface edge near the end.
• The extension will now join to the original curve.
To extend to multiple objects, pick the end of
the curve again to extend the curve beyond
the first boundary to the next.
CurveType=ControlPoint: The curve’s control
points pass through the vertices, points, or control
points.
Knots: Determines how an interpolated curve is
parameterized. When the spacing between the
picked points is equal for the whole curve, all three
parameterizations generate the same curve.
Notes: Use any combination of curves, surfaces, and
solids as boundary edges. If you want to extend two
curves to meet each other simultaneously, use the
Connect command.
When you draw an interpolated curve, the points
you pick are converted into knot values on the
curve. The parameterization means how the
intervals between knots are chosen.
Command Line Options:
Type=Natural: Lines, polylines, and polycurves
Uniform: The knot spacing is always 1 and is
with a line at the end to extend are extended by
line. Arcs and polycurves with arc at the end to
extend are extended by same radius arc. Other
curves are extended smooth.
not based on the physical spacing of the points.
Uniform parameterization can be used if the
point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable
to draw several curves that have the same
parameterization. This is possible only with uniform
curves (unless you rebuild the curves). Uniform
guarantees that every control point affects the
surface exactly the same way, no matter how
much the surface is edited.
Type=Arc: Makes an arc extension tangent to
the original curve.
Arc Options:
Center: Extends a curve with an arc by picking
Chord: The spacing between the picked points is
the arc’s center and endpoint.
used for the knot spacing. This makes curves that
have widely varying point spacing behave better
than uniform curves.
Steps:
• Pick the arc’s center point.
• Pick the arc’s end point.
SqrtChrd: The square root of the spacing
between picked points is used for the knot
spacing.
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Polygon
‘Polygon’
Draws a closed polyline or Polygon with a
specified number of sides.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Polygon
Steps:
• Select Polygon from the Curve menu.
• Pick a point for the center of an inscribed polygon.
• Pick a point for the corner of a polygon.
The resulting arc is a separate curve object when trim
is set to no.
ToPoint: Extends a curve with an arc by picking
the arc’s endpoint.
Steps:
• Pick the arc’s end point.
Type=Line: Makes a line extension tangent to
the original curve.
Command Line Options:
NumSides: Specifies the number of sides for the
polygon
Inscribed: Draws the polygon where the
corners of the sides touch an imaginary circle of
a specified radius (therefore the base polygon is
inscribed inside the imaginary circle) .
Type=Smooth: Makes a smooth curve extension
curvature continuous with the original curve.
Steps:
• Pick the center of the polygon.
• Pick a corner of the polygon
ExtensionLength: The length the will be
extended. Use negative values to shorten the
curve.
Undo: Reverses the last action.
149
Circumscribed: Draws a polygon where the
midpoints of the sides touch an imaginary circle of
a specified radius.
Steps:
• Pick the center of the polygon.
• Pick the midpoint of the polygon edge.
Vertical: Draws a polygon perpendicular to the
construction plane.
Steps:
• Pick the center and a radius.
AroundCurve: Draws a polygon perpendicular
to a curve.
Edge: Draws a polygon by defining one edge
Steps:
Steps
• Select a curve and pick the center on the curve
and a radius.
• Pick the start of the polygon edge.
• Pick the end of the polygon edge.
.
Spiral
‘Spiral’
Draws a Spiral curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Spiral
Steps:
• Select Spiral from the Curve menu.
• Pick the start of the spiral axis, this is an imaginary
line around which the spiral will wind.
• Pick the end of the spiral axis.
• Pick the first radius and start point for the spiral.
• Pick the second radius at the end of the spiral.
Star: Draws a Star shaped polygon
Steps
• Pick the center of the star.
• Pick a corner of the star.
• Pick a radius for the imaginary circle defining the
second star radius.
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Command Line Options:
ReverseTwist: Reverses the direction of the
Flat: Draws a planar spiral curve.
twist to counter-clockwise. Drag the mouse after
changing options to preview.
NumPointsPerTurn: Sets the number of control
points in each turn of the Spiral. This option is only
available when AroundCurve is selected.
Vertical: Draws a spiral curve whose axis
perpendicular to the construction plane.
The 2 spirals above were created with the same settings
except the spiral on the right has NumPointsPerTurn set to
40 and the one on the left 10. Too many control points can
make it difficult to smoothly edit a curve.
AroundCurve: Draws a spiral curve around
another curve.
Helix
‘Helix’
Think of the Helix as a spiral with a fixed radius.
Only one radius can be defined for the helix,
meaning that it does not “grow” or “shrink” from
start to finish but is simply a uniform-sized coil.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Helix
Steps:
• Select Helix from the Curve menu.
• Pick the start of the helix axis.
• Pick the end of the helix axis.
• Specify the radius.
Options:
Diameter/Radius: Click the option to toggle
between picking a Radius and picking a Diameter
Mode=Turns: When using this mode the number
of turns takes precedence,the pitch adjusts
automatically.
Mode=Pitch: When using this mode the pitch
takes precedence,the number of turns adjusts
automatically.
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Command Line Options:
Mark Curve Start
Vertical: Draws a Helix curve whose axis is
‘CrvStart’
Places a point at the start of a curve.
perpendicular to the construction plane.
AroundCurve: Draws a Helix curve around
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Mark Curve
Start
another curve.
Options:
Steps:
Diameter/Radius: Click the option to toggle
between picking a Radius and picking a Diameter
• Select Mark Curve Start from the Curve menu.
• Select a curve or curves.
Mode=Turns: When using this mode the number
of turns takes precedence,the pitch adjusts
automatically.
Mode=Pitch: When using this mode the pitch
takes precedence,the number of turns adjusts
automatically.
ReverseTwist: Reverses the direction of the
Mark Curve End
twist to counter-clockwise. Drag the mouse after
changing options to preview.
‘CrvEnd’
Places a point at the end of a curve.
NumPointsPerTurn: Sets the number of control
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Mark Curve
End
points in each turn of the Helix. This option is only
available when AroundCurve is selected.
Steps
Point
• Select Mark Curve End from the Curve menu.
• Select a curve or curves.
‘Point’
Creates a point object or point objects.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Point
Right Click Command: Multiple Points
Steps:
• Select Point from the Curve menu.
• Pick a location for the point object.
Adjust Closed Curve Seam
‘CrvSeam’
Changes the seam (start/end) location on closed
curves.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Adjust
Closed Curve Seam
This gem has points applied to its prong points
(using Gem Guides) to make them easy to snap to.
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Steps:
Steps:
• Select Adjust Closed Curve Seam from the Curve
menu.
• Select one or more closed curves.
• Select a seam point marker, and move it along the
closed curve.
• Continue to adjust the seam points until they line
with each other and the closed curves all have the
same direction, and then press Enter.
• Select Continue Interpolated Curve from the
Curve menu.
• Select an open curve near an end.
• Pick the next points.
• Press Enter to end the curve.
Note: Works best with curves that were drawn with
the InterpCrv command.
Command Line Options:
PersistentClose: Closes the curve as soon as
there are two points placed. You can continue to
pick points. The curve updates the shape while
remaining closed.
Note: The seam point of each closed curve is
indicated with a point. Each seam point is connected
with a tracking line. Arrows indicate the direction of
each curve.
Close: Closes the curve smoothly, creating a
If a sweep has a twist in it, try to align all of the
seam points on the profiles being swept so they are
located in a similar location and facing the same
direction.
periodic curve.
Sharp: Closes the curve with a kink, creating a
non-periodic curve.
Command Line Options:
Undo: Reverses the last action.
Flip: Reverses the curve direction.
Divide Curve
Automatic: Attempts to align the seam points
and directions without intervention.
‘Divide’
Creates point objects along a curve or splits a
curve by the number of equal length segments or
segments of a specified length.
Natural: Moves the seam points to the way they
were at the beginning of the command.
Continue Interpolated Curve Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Divide
Curve
‘ContinueinterpCrv’
Continues to draw the selected curve interpolating
through picked points.
Steps:
• Select Divide Curve from the Curve menu.
• Select curves.
• Type the number of segments.
• The point objects this command creates are
spaced evenly along the curve, with an additional
point at each end of the curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Continue
Interpolated Curve
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The region that will be retained highlights.
A planar curve is created around the chosen
region.
The pattern on the left is before curve boolean the
pattern on the right is after.
Command Line Options:
DeleteInput:
None: Deletes no input curves.
Command Line Options:
Length: Creates point objects a specified
distance from one another on a curve starting
from the natural start of the curve. To start
measuring at the other end, click the curve to flip
the direction.
All Deletes all input curves.
Split: Splits the curve instead of placing point
CombineRegions: Appends the selected
objects.
regions to the previously edited regions.
Used: Deletes only the parts of the input curves
that correspond to the newly-created curves.
MarkEnds: Places a point at the ends of the
Tween Curves
curve.
‘TweenCurves’
Creates curves between two open or closed
curves.
GroupOutput: Groups the resulting objects.
Curve Boolean
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Tween
Curves
‘CurveBoolean’
Trims, splits, and joins curves based on their
overlapping regions.
Steps:
• Select Tween Curves from the Curve menu.
• Select the first curve.
• Select the second curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Curve
Boolean
Steps
Adjust curve seams if necessary.
• Select Curve Boolean from the Curve menu.
• Select two or more overlapping curves.
• Click inside the areas to keep.
• Click an area again to remove it.
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Duplicate Edge
‘DupEdge’
Creates a curve that duplicates a surface edge on
a closed or open surface..
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Duplicate
Edge
Steps:
• Select Duplicate Edge from the Curve menu.
• Select edges of a surface.
• Press enter when done.
Command Line Options:
Number: Specifies the number of curves created
between the two input curves.
MatchMethod: Specifies the method for refining
the output curves.
None: Uses the control points of the curves for
matching. So the first control point of first curve
is matched to first control point of the second
curve.
Refit: Refits the output curves like using the
Refit to Tolerance command. Both the input
curve and the output curve will have the same
structure. The resulting curves are usually more
complex than input unless input curves are
compatible.
Select edges of an object you would like to duplicate.
Command Line Options:
OutputLayer: Specifies the layer for the results
SamplePoints: Input curves are divided to
of the command.
Current: Places the results on the current layer.
the specified number of points on the curve,
corresponding points define new points that
output curves go through. If you are making one
tween curve, the command essentially does the
following;
Input: Places the results on the same layer as the
input curve.
Duplicate Border
Divides the two curves into an equal number
of points, finds the midpoint between the
corresponding points on the curves, and
interpolates the tween curve through those points
‘DupBorder’
Creates a curve or polyline that duplicates any
open edge on a surface, polysurface, hatch, or
mesh border.
SampleNumber: The number of sample points
to use.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Duplicate
Border
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Steps:
The curve automatically closes when the cursor
moves close to the curve’s start point regardless
of whether O-snaps are toggled to the On
position.
• Select Duplicate Border from the Curve menu.
• Select objects. The border curves or polylines of
the selected objects are created as separate
objects.
Steps:
• Move the cursor close to the start point of the
curve, and pick. The curve will close.
• Press the Alt key to suspend automatic closing.
Curve Command Line Options
Degree: Specifies the degree of the curve (or
surface).
When drawing a high-degree curve, the output
curve will not be the degree you request unless
there is at least one more control point than the
degree.
Extracts a curve on any open edge.
Command Line Options:
PersistentClose: Closes the curve as soon as
there are two points placed. You can continue to
pick points. The curve updates the shape while
remaining closed.
OutputLayer: Specifies the layer for the results
of the command.
Current: Places the results on the current layer.
Close: Closes the curve smoothly, creating a
Input: Places the results on the same layer as the
periodic curve.
input curve.
Sharp: Closes the curve with a kink, creating a
Curve
non-periodic curve.
‘Curve’
Draws a curve from control point locations.
Undo: Reverses the last action.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Curve
Continue Control Point Curve ‘ContinueCurve’
Continues to draw the selected curve using
control point curve.
Right Click Command: Continue Curve
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Continue
Curve
• Select Curve from the Curve menu.
• Pick the start of the curve.
• Pick the next points.
• Press Enter to end the curve.
156
Steps:
Note: The cursor is constrained to the surface
selected at the beginning of the command. Use
O-Snaps to precisely locate the extracted curve.
• Select Continue Control Point Curve from the
Curve menu.
• Select an open curve near an end.
• Pick the next points.
• Press Enter to end the curve.
Extract a curve on a surface
at a specified.
Command Line Options:
Command Line Options:
PersistentClose: Closes the curve after
Angle: Set the angle of the curve that will be
pressing Enter. The curve updates the shape when
closed.
extracted on the surface.
Cross Section Profiles
Close: Closes the curve smoothly, creating a
periodic curve.
‘CSec’
Create cross-section curves through several
different (parallel) curves known as “Profiles” in this
command.
Sharp: Closes the curve with a kink, creating a
non-periodic curve.
Undo: Reverses the last action.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Cross
Section Profiles
Extract Angle Isocurve
Steps:
‘gvExtractIsocurve’
Extracts a curve on a surface at a specified angle.
• Using any curve creation command, draw “profile
curves” that roughly define the shape of your
object.
• Select the “profiles” in either clockwise or
counterclockwise order..
• Pick the start of a line that is perpendicular to the
current “profile curves”.
• Pick the end of the line (perpendicular to the
current “profile curves”.
• In the plane defined at the cross-section line, a
curve will be created that passes through the
profile curves, and press Enter. Once you have
made the cross-section curves, you can use the
Loft or other command to create a surface
through them.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Extract
Angle Isocurve
Steps:
• Select Extract Angle Isocurve from the Curve
menu.
• Select a surface.
• Specify an angle in the Command Line. (Use
hotkeys A & D to modify the angle visually).
• Pick a place to extract curve on the selected
surface.
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Planar: Creates a planar curve.
OnSurface: Sketches a curve on a surface.
OnMesh: Sketches a curve on a polygon mesh.
Sketch on Surface
The yellow curves indicate the profiles and the green
curves are the cross sections.
‘Sketch O’
Draws a curve on a surface by dragging the
mouse while depressing the left mouse button.
Command Line Options:
Closed: Yes, creates closed curves. No, the
curves start at the first profile line and end at the
last profile line.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Sketch on
Surface
Notes: The cross section lines must cross all of the
profile curves. For best results, space the cross
section curves relatively evenly.
Steps:
• Select Sketch from the Curve menu.
• Select the surface to Sketch on.
• Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the
mouse to sketch.
• Release the mouse button to end the curve.
Sketch
‘Sketch’
Draws a curve by dragging the mouse while
depressing the left mouse button.
Note: Drawing a single curve in multiple viewports is
allowed using this method.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Sketch
Steps:
• Select Sketch from the Curve menu.
• Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the
mouse to sketch.
• Release the mouse button to end the curve.
Note: Drawing a single curve in multiple viewports is
allowed using this method.
Command Line Options:
Closed=No: Creates an open curve
Closed=Yes: Creates a closed curve. Select the
option before dragging points with the mouse.
The curve closes when you stop dragging points.
Command Line Options:
Closed: Creates a closed curve. Select the
option before dragging points with the mouse.
The curve closes when you stop dragging points.
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Sketch on Mesh
Pick points along the
selected surface. The polyline
will be constrained to the
surface.
‘Sketch N’
Draws a curve on a mesh by dragging the mouse
while depressing the left mouse button.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Sketch on
Mesh
Steps:
• Select Sketch on Mesh from the Curve menu.
• Select the mesh to Sketch on.
• Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the
mouse to sketch.
• Release the mouse button to end the curve.
Interp Curve on Surface
‘InterpCrvOnSrf’
Draws a curve through selected locations on a
selected surface.
Note: Drawing a single curve in multiple viewports is
allowed using this method.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Interp Curve
on Surface
Command Line Options:
Closed=No: Creates an open curve
Closed=Yes: Creates a closed curve. Select the
Steps:
option before dragging points with the mouse.
The curve closes when you stop dragging points.
• Select Interp Curve on Surface from the Curve
menu.
• Select the surface.
• Pick the start of the curve.
• Pick the subsequent points for the curve to pass
through.
• Press Enter when done.
Polyline on Surface
‘gvPolylineOnSurface’
Draws a polyline on a surface by picking points on
the selected surface.
Note: The curve will not cross seams in the surface.
Object snaps End, Center, Mid, Near, Knot, and
Intersect can be used.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Polyline on
Surface
Steps:
• Select Polyline on Surface from the Curve menu.
• Select the surface.
• Pick the points on the surface to create the
polyline. Press Enter when done.
Pick points along the
selected surface. The interp
curve will be constrained to
the surface.
Note: Drawing a single curve in multiple viewports is
allowed using this method.
Command Line Options:
Undo: Reverses the last action
159
Tolerance: The tolerance at segment midpoints,
Curve to Lines
overriding the system tolerance setting.
‘Convert’
Changes the structure of a curve to a polyline or
arc segments.
MinLength: The minimum segment length.
Specify 0 (zero) for no minimum limit.
MaxLength: The maximum segment length.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Curve to
Lines
Specify 0 (zero) for no maximum limit.
Output Layer Options:
Steps:
OutputLayer: Specifies the layer for the results
• Select Curve to Lines from the Curve menu.
• Select curves to convert.
• Select the options.
of the command.
Current: Places the results on the current layer.
Command Line Options:
Input: Places the results on the same layer as the
input curve.
Output:
Arcs: Converts the curve to arc segments.
Section
Sections of curve that are nearly straight are
converted to straight-line segments.
‘Section’
Creates section curves on a surface, polysurface,
or mesh.
Lines: Converts the curve to polyline segments.
SimplifyInput:Yes/No
Yes: Simplifying ensures that NURBS curves
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Section
that consist of arc and line segments are split
into proper arc and line segments making the
conversion to arcs and lines more accurate.
Steps:
• Select Section from the Curve menu.
• Select objects
• Pick the start of the section plane.
• Pick the end of the section.
No: Simplifying can be too aggressive, converting
normal NURBS curves into arcs or lines, especially
if the curves are very small in relation to the
absolute tolerance. In that case turning off
simplifying may give a better and more accurate
answer.
Section curves and points are created by
intersecting the selected objects with the section
plane, which is perpendicular to the construction
plane.
• Press enter when you finish creating sections
DeleteInput: Deletes the original geometry from
the file.
Note: The curve will not cross seams in the surface.
Object snaps End, Cen, Mid, Near, Knot, and Int can
be used.
AngleTolerance: The maximum angle between
segments at endpoints. Specify 0 (zero) to allow
non-tangent arcs. The output will have kinks, but
since it consists of arc segments, there will be
fewer segments than if the Lines option was used.
This is useful for approximating a curve with the
smallest number of segments.
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No: Section curves will not be created for objects
that are not cut by the drawn section plane.
Yes: Section curves will be created for all selected
objects as though the drawn section plane
extended through them.
Match
‘Match’
Use this command to Match the end points of two
curves so that the two curves start and end in
the same location. This command is useful when
two curves are very close but do not touch, and
so Join cannot be run on them. Match the curves
first, and then run Join and they will join up.
The green curves are the resulting section curve
across the surface.
Command Line Options:
AssignLayersBy: Specifies the layer for the
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Match
contour curves and points.
CurrentLayer: The output will be on the current
Steps:
layer.
• Select Match from the Curve menu.
• Select the end of an open curve.
• Select the curve to match.
• Choose the options for the Match.
InputObject: Contour curves and points will be
on the same layer as the input objects.
JoinCurves: Specifies how contour curves
created from polysurfaces will be joined.
ByPolysurface: Curves in the same contour
plane created from a polysurface will be joined.
ByContourPlane: All curves in the same
contour plane will be joined.
Two curves before match command on the left. Right
is a preview of the curves after the match command
has run.
None: No curve joining.
Command Line Options:
GroupObjectsByContourPlane: Specifies
SurfaceEdge: Matches the curve perpendicular
how contour curves will be grouped.
to the curve and uses the surface to determine
continuity.
No: No grouping.
Yes: Curves on the same contour plane will be
Options:
grouped.
Sets the continuity of the match.
ExtendSection: Specifies whether the section
Position: Ensures the points of the line match up
perfectly – meaning that the end point of the first
line is located at the same coordinates on the grid
as the start point of the next line.
curves will automatically apply to all selected
objects if the section plane does not intersect
them.
161
Tangency: Both curves share the same angle of
be selected for the Merge option to function.
This option takes the smooth curve created by
the Match command and rebuilds it so that the
control points are spaced out evenly over the
curve. It is also joined into one smooth curve,
so that it cannot be exploded into component
segments the way a curve merely joined by the
Join option, above, can be.
tangency to the arc that is drawn.
Curvature: Creates
an even larger curve
joining the two lines,
and dramatically
changes one of the
lines to match the
curvature of both as
they meet.
Silhouette Creates outline curves from a selected surface or
polysurface. Creates curves that duplicate surface,
polysurface isoparametric curves, and mesh
edges displayed in the wireframe view.
Preserve other End:
Maintains the shape
of each curve at its
opposite end – the side
away from the match. With curves that have fewer
than 6 control points, un-checking this option
causes the shape to change far more dramatically
with either the Tangency or the Curvature
continuity
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Silhouette
Steps:
• Select Silhouette from the Curve menu.
• Select a surface or polysurface.
None: No constraints.
When you are looking at a model, the “visual edge”
of the model is where the model stops and the
background begins. This visual edge is sometimes
called the silhouette or horizon of the model.
Position: Location only.
Tangency: Position and curve direction.
Note: The silhouette direction is based on the current
view. For example, if you look at a donut from the
top, the silhouette is two circles. If you look at a
donut from the side, the silhouette is an oval.
Curvature: Position, direction and radius of
curvature.
Perpendicular to Edge: Sets the curve
perpendicular to a surface edge,
Average Curves: Depending on which of the
three continuity options is chosen (described
above), the Average Curves option produces
a different result, spreading out the change
between the two curves (averaging them) so that
they are more even in the resulting shape (when
this option is not selected, the change occurs
mainly in the first curve that was selected during
the Match).
Join: This option creates one curve out of the
two following the Match operation. If it is not
selected, two separate curves will be created:
Merge: The option for Curvature continuity must
Silhouette of a ring.
162
Extract Wire Frame
Soft Edit
‘ExtractWire’
Creates curves that duplicate surface, polysurface
isoparametric curves, and mesh edges displayed
in the wireframe view.
‘Soft Edit”
Moves the curve area surrounding a selected
point smoothly relative to the distance from
selected point.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Extract
Wireframe
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Soft Edit
Steps:
Editing is done by moving the selected point. This
location on the curve is moved, and the move
is smoothly tapered off with increasing distance
along the curve from this point.
• Select Extract Wire Frame from the Curve menu.
• Select surfaces or polysurfaces.
Use this command to fine-tune curves with many
control points.
The command takes over the moving of the
control points so that the curve stays smooth.
This is difficult on curves that are very dense. The
falloff distance is adjustable, allowing the changes
made to the curve to be more or less local.
Steps:
• Select Soft Edit from the Curve menu.
• Select a curve.
• Pick a point on the curve.
• Pick a point to move to.
• Press Enter to end the command.
Extracted wireframe
Notes: The selection point snaps to the closest edit
point. Corresponding control points of the curve/
surface are moved.
Command Line Options:
OutputLayer: Specifies the layer for the results
of the command.
Current: Places the results on the current layer.
Input: Places the results on the same layer as the
input curve.
GroupOutput: Groups the resulting objects.
Soft move a curve from a selected point.
163
Soft Edit Command Line Options
• Pick a location to set another distance, or press
Enter if the offset should be a uniform distance
from the original.
Distance: The distance, in model units, along
the curve from the editing point over which the
strength of the editing falls off smoothly. Either
enter a value or click on the curve to set the
distance.
Command Line Options:
SetBasePoint: Specifies the first point for a
distance for the offset if it should be different from
the point where the curve was selected.
Copy=Yes/No: Specifies whether or not the
objects are copied.
Flip: Reverses the direction.
FixEnds: Keeps the position of the curve ends
fixed.
Note: Positive values for the distance follow the
direction arrows.
No: If the Distance setting is larger than the
distance to one or both ends of the curve, the end
of the curve will be allowed to move.
Yes: If the Distance setting is larger than the
distance to one or both ends of the curve, the end
of the curve will not be allowed to move.
All control points are moved as they would be
according to the normal falloff except the end
control points. This can lead to an abrupt change
in the curve near the end on dense curves.
Offset Normal to Surface
‘Offset Normal’
Copies a curve on a surface in the normal
direction of the surface so that all locations on the
copied curve are a specified distance from the
original curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Offset
Normal to Surface
Offsetting curve from the surface in the direction of
the surface normal.
Steps:
• Select Offset Normal to Surface from the Curve
menu.
• Select a curve on a surface.
• Select the base surface.
• Specify the offset distance.
Arc Blend
‘ArcBlend’
Creates a blend curve consisting of two arcs
between two curves with adjustable endpoints
and bulge.
The selected curve is pulled back to the surface
first. The offset distance is calculated from the
surface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Arc Blend
164
Steps
• Select Arc Blend from the Curve menu.
• Select the first curve near the end you want to
blend.
• Select the second curve near the end you want to
blend.
• Select the arc blend points to adjust.
• Drag the point to set the arc control polygon
length ratio. Type zero or snap to ends to minimize
radius difference.
• Type zero to automatically pick a ratio that makes
the arc radii the same when possible and as close
to being the same as possible otherwise.
• Select another arc blend point to adjust, or press
Enter to end the command.
Intersect Two Sets
‘IntersectTwoSets’
Finds the intersection of one set of objects with
another set of objects. Intersections among
objects within each set are ignored. When finding
intersects between curves, point objects are
placed at the intersections.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Curve>Intersection
Two Sets
Steps:
• Select Intersect Two Sets from the Curve menu.
• Select objects got the first set.
• Select objects for the second set.
Note: Use the group command or layers to make
selection easier.
Adjusting the Arc Blend handles before confirming
the arc.
Command Line Options:
AlternateSolution: Offers the longer solution
when more than one arc fills the requirements.
RadiusDifference: Makes it possible to draw an
S-shaped blend where the difference of the two
radii is specified.
If the difference is positive the first radius will be
bigger than second, and if negative the first radius
will be smaller.
Trim: Trims the input curves to the resulting
curve.
Join: Joins the resulting curves
165
CHAPTER 20
Surface Tools
Learn how to create surfaces. Which are fundamental building blocks that create
solid objects. Understand the difference between a Nurbs surface and a polysurface.
Types of Surfaces:
Closed surfaces are also known as Solids. Closed
single surfaces are objects like a Sphere, Torus, or
Ellipsoid (found in the Solid menu). They are single
surfaces because they have no edges, no sharp
angles, and may therefore be created using one
surface. They cannot be exploded into
component surfaces. A solid object encloses a
volume, and different commands can be run on
single-surface solids and closed polysurface
solids. Refer to the Solid menu to learn more
about these.
A single, open surface in Matrix is an object with
length and width but no depth (thickness). An
open surface may be flat, it may curve in space, or
it may be tubelike, as if a straight, flat surface in
space had been rolled up so that two of its edges
meet each other, like a rolled-up newspaper (the
other two edges are still showing, making it an
open, single surface. A polysurface is comprised
of more than one surface that has been Joined.
Therefore, when a polysurface is Exploded, more
than one surface remains. An open surface
encloses no volume, meaning that it is only one
point object thick.
Example of three Closed NURBS Surfaces found in
the Solid menu. Ellipsoid, Torus and Sphere.
The tube on the left and plane on the right are both
examples of a single open surface. In fact the plane
was created by unrolling the tube.
Examples of Closed PolySurfaces: Box, Truncated
Cone, Cylinder.
An important distinction is made between singlesurface solids (NURBS objects) and polysurface
solids. When solids cannot be exploded into
component surfaces because they are made
with only one surface, they are known as Nurbs
surfaces. A polysurface is made up of several
Nurbs surfaces put together (Joined),
Polysurfaces are made up multiple joined surfaces.
When exploded they become unjoined individual
surfaces. Some commands behave differently
on polysurfaces than single surfaces and some
commands won’t work at all.
166
The above polysurfaces have been exploded into
their individual surfaces indicated by different layer
colors. Each polysurface is several surfaces joined
The command Direction in the Utilities menu will
display the U V and Surface Normal directions
on a selected surface. You can also reverse and
swap the U and V directions in this command. This
is used when you need to orient a base surface to
the flow surface when using Flow along Surface.
Matrix’s Smart Flow command has the ability to
orient the base surface to the flow surface within the
command. Smart Flow calls U,V and Surface Normal
X,Y and Z but they are for all intents and purposes
the same.
together.
Parts of Surfaces:
Nurbs surfaces have rectangular construction.
Observe how there are lines running through each
surface that are perpendicular to one another,
Single open surfaces have border curves that
mark each edge. Single surfaces that have been
made into polysurfaces also have curves at each
edge where they meet. These are called edge
curves. Edge Curves can be used in the same
way as Curves for some commands. For instance
you can use an Edge Curve as a profile or rail in a
Sweep
command.
When you Loft
from one Edge
Curve to another
you get the
additional option
to have the loft
match tangency
with the existing
edge.
meaning that they run in two directions: up-anddown, and left-to-right. These curves are known
as Isocurves. The program ascribes two names
to these directions: “U” and “V”. “U” always runs
one way (for example, left-to-right) and “V” always
runs the other way (for example, up-and-down);
however, due to the complex composition of
surfaces, the program will sometimes assign these
letters in what seems like an arbitrary fashion. Just
be assured that there will always be two directions
in any surface: “U” going one way and “V” going
at right angles to it. U and V become important
when performing complex commands such as
Flow along Surface.
In a very flat
surface, there
are fewer isocurves needed, with a minimum of 2
needed for a totally flat, rectangular surface. For a
more curvy surface, there are more isocurves. At
each place where the isocurves intersect, Control
Points may be found on the surface. Like in a
curve, the Control Points may be reorganized and
167
moved around to adjust the shape of a surface.
If more control points are needed in any given
surface, a surface, like a curve, may be rebuilt
using the Rebuild command found in the Surface
menu.
This produces a surface that has two openings in
it, like a tube.
Creating Surfaces:
To create surfaces with many of the tools from the
Surface menu, users are actually drawing the
shapes of the U and/or V isocurves first, then
allowing the program to create the surface
between them. When creating a ring, for example,
the user first places the “rail curve” in the
viewports, and then the “profile curve”. It is very
important that the profile curve runs
perpendicular to the rail curve for the most
predictable surface. This is because the rail curve
and the profile curve will become the “U” and “V”
directions in the new surface.
Although the rail curve is a closed circle in the
above examples, it is also possible to sweep
a rail that is not closed or a circle. Place any
rails in space, along with a profile curve that is
perpendicular to it, and sweep them. If an open
rail curve is swept with an open profile curve, a
single, open surface will result.
If the profile curve is a closed polycurve, the
resulting surface will be an open polysurface.
Original Curves (Left) Swept Surface (Right)
Notice that the profile curve is used to make the
cross-section shape of the ring. Put another way, if
the ring were to be sliced in half, the shape of the
cross-section would
be the same as the
shape of the profile.
That is why the
profile curve is
referred to as the
“cross-section curve”
during a Sweep
operation.
If, however, the profile curve is first rebuilt, the
resulting surface will be an open Nurbs surface,
or, a single surface (not a polysurface). This is
important to consider when creating surfaces
with Sweep 1 or Sweep 2 (a sweep that uses
The ring pictured above is called a “Closed Sweep”
because it does not have any openings. An “Open
Sweep” can also be run by placing two profile
curves and only sweeping the rail between them.
168
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
two rail curves instead of just one), since the two
different kinds of surfaces work differently with
the functions of builders and other operations in
Matrix.
Create Surfaces:
Sweep 1, Sweep 1 History, Sweep 2, Sweep 2
History, Profile Sweep, Blend Surface, Variable
Blend Surface, Loft, Curve Network, Patch,
Plannar Curves, Plane From Corners, Surface
Extrude All, Revolve, Rail Revolve, 4 Rail Profile
Sweep, Offset Surface, Variable Offset Surface,
Tween Surfaces, Sweep Multi, Heightfield from
Image,
There is one more “direction” on a surface in
addition to the U and V directions: Surface
Normals. The surface normals tell the user “which
end is up”. To check the direction of a surface,
select the surface and click on the Direction
command in the Utilities menu.
Up: To reverse the directions on a surface, click on
it once with the mouse and the arrows will flip.
Edit Surfaces:
Rebuild, Shrink Trimmed Surface, Untrim, Fillet
Surfaces, Variable Fillet Surface, Chamfer
Surfaces, Variable Chamfer Surfaces, Merge,
Match, drape, Split at Isocurve, Extend Surface,
Extrude Normal to Surface, Unroll Surface, Soft
Edit, Cutting Plane, Adjust ClosedCurve Seam,
Set Surface Tangent
Down:
On a closed surface that is valid (correct), the
direction is always “out”. It is important to consider
surface normals when using builders and other
functions in Matrix.
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• A single open curve or a single closed curve can
be used as the cross-section curve.
• Select multiple open cross-section curves near the
same ends.
• Select multiple closed cross-section curves in the
order the surface will pass through them.
• Select either all open or all closed cross-section
curves, but not a combination of both.
• Use surface edges (or edge) for the rail curve. See
Chain Edges option below.
Sweep 1
‘Sweep1’
Creates a surface from a series of cross-section or
Profile curves which define the surface shape and
a single rail curve (often a Ring Rail) which defines
a surface edge.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Sweep 1
Or, from the F6 menu when a Ring Rail or curve
is selected
Steps:
• Select Sweep 1 from the Surface menu.
• Select a rail curve (often a Ring Rail).
• Select cross-section curves (Profiles) in the order
that the surface will pass through them.
• Press Enter when done.
• Choose any Sweep 1 Option and click on “OK’ to
close the Sweep 1 Options dialog box.
Adjust the direction of the arrows to be the same by
clicking on the end of an arrow to flip directions.
Adjust seam points to all line up when using multiple
closed, cross-section curves. Before (left) and after
(right).
Adjust Seams Points Steps (closed curves only):
• Select a seam point marker, and drag it along the
closed curve.
• Continue to adjust the seam points until they lineup with each other and the closed curves’ arrows
all have the same direction and appear in the
same location (for example, on the Ring Rail).
• Press Enter when done.
Sweep 1 using a single rail with one open crosssection curve (left) and using a single rail (Ring Rail)
with two closed cross-section curves (right) with the
Closed option checked.
Adjust Seam Options:
Flip: Reverses the curve direction. Select a curve
Rules:
seam to flip.
• Closed curve Seam Points must all be on the
inside (on the rail), or all be on the outside (away
from the rail).
• The Profile (cross-section) curves’ directions must
all match. Click on each arrow to flip the direction
of a curve.
Automatic: Attempts to align the seam points
and directions without intervention.
Natural: Moves the seam points to the way they
were at the beginning of the command.
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Command Line Options:
Chain Edges: This allows for selection of
multiple, touching, surface edges to use as the
single rail curve.
Steps:
• Select Chain Edges in the Command Line.
• Select first segment (surface edge) for rail.
• Select next segment (surface edge) for rail.
• Continue selecting edge segments, if needed.
Then, press Enter when done.
• Select the cross-section curves (Profiles).
• Press Enter when done.
• Select any option from the Sweep 1 Options dialog
box. Press ‘OK’ when done.
Point is used at the start and end of the Sweep 1.
Sweep 1 Rail Options:
Style:
Select Chain Edges when using multiple surface
edges as the single rail.
Choose from one of four Sweep 1 styles using the
drop down selection menu.
Point: Creates a surface that begins or ends at
a point. Use this option only at the start or end of
the curve series.
Freeform (default): The profile curve rotates
to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the
Sweep.
Steps:
Road-like Through Finger: The profile curve
maintains its angle to the Through Finger C-Plane
throughout the Sweep.
• Select ‘Point’ in the Command Line at the start or
end of the selection of cross-section curves.
• Pick the point.
• Pick the cross-section curve.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select any option from the Sweep 1 Options dialog
box. Press ‘OK’ when done.
Road-like Side View: The profile curve
maintains its angle to the Side View C-Plane
throughout the Sweep.
Road-like Looking Down: The profile curve
maintains its angle to the Looking Down C-Plane
throughout the Sweep.
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Cross-Section Curve Options:
Closed Sweep: Creates a closed surface,
continuing the surface past the last Profile curve
around to the first Profile curve. This option is only
available after two cross-section curves are used.
Note: With closed rail curves, the first cross-section
curve selected is added to the end of the list if you
choose to create a closed surface.
Global Shape Blending: The Sweep is linearly
blended from one end to the other, creating
Sweeps that tapers evenly from one cross-section
curve to the other. Otherwise, the Sweep meets
at a tangency to the curves and blends in the
middle.
Align Shapes: Allows reversing the direction
of the cross-section curves. Click the end of the
shape curve to reverse its direction and press
Enter on the keyboard.
Global Shape
Blending was
selected in
Sweep Style
Options (left)
and without
it (right).
Do Not Simplify (default): Creates the Sweep
without doing anything to the shape curves.
Rebuild with ‘x’ control points:
Rebuilds the
shape (Profile)
curve control
points before
creating the
Sweep. Enter a
value for number
of control points in the provided box. A lower
number of points will deform the curve more. A
higher number of control points will follow the
original curve more.
Untrimmed Miters: This option is available if the
rail has sharp angles or corners. The Sweep aligns
linearly, and meets the cross-section curves at the
rail angle instead of at a tangency. Turning this ON
ensures that the resulting surfaces are Untrimmed.
If it is OFF, they will be Trimmed surfaces.
Refit within ‘x’: Refits the shape curves within
a specified tolerance before creating the Sweep.
Enter a value (mm) for the tolerance in the
provided box. The lower the tolerance value, the
closer the Sweep fits the shape curves. The higher
the value creates a greater variance between the
shape curve and the Sweep surface.
Use ‘Untrimmed
Miters’ when the
rail curve has kinks
or sharp angle. This
allows the Sweep to
follow the angle of
the rail instead of
creating a tangency
to the cross-section
curves.
Simple Sweep: Simple Sweep works in cases
where the shape curves intersect the rail at rail
edit points. This option generates simpler surfaces
in cases when the curves are perfectly set up.
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Refit Rail: This refits the rail curve, taking the
curve’s control points and rearranging them to
smooth the curve. See ‘Refit to Tolerance” (FitCrv)
in the Curve menu.
Note: The fitting tolerance for the rail curve is
controlled by Rhino Options > Document
Properties > Units > Absolute Tolerance.
Preview: Click to display a preview of the output.
After a setting change, click the Preview button
again to refresh the display.
Sweep 1 History
Edit a Profile curve. Press Enter to complete the edit
and Sweep 1 History will automatically update the
surface.
Rules:
• Select multiple open cross-section curves near the
same ends.
• Select multiple closed cross-section curves in the
order the surface will pass through them.
• Select either all open or all closed cross-section
curves, but not a combination of both.
‘gvSweepHistory’
This History-enabled command creates a surface
from a series of cross-section (Profile) curves and
a single rail curve (often a Ring Rail). The created
surface automatically updates after a Profile or the
rail is edited.
Command Line Options:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Sweep 1
History
Closed=Yes (default): Creates a closed surface,
continuing the surface past the last curve around
to the first curve. This option only appears with a
rail that is a closed curve and two or more Profiles.
Or, from the F6 menu when a Ring Rail is
selected
Closed=No: Creates an open surface, leaving
Steps:
a gap between the first and last profile selected.
This option only works when there are two or
more profiles. This option only appears with a rail
that is a closed curve and two or more Profiles.
• Select Sweep 1 History from the Surface menu.
• Select a rail curve.
• Select Profile curves (cross-section curve), one-byone in the order that the surface will pass through
them following the direction of the arrows.
• Press Enter when done.
• Edit a profile, or the rail and press Enter to
complete the edit. See the surface update
automatically after each edit.
Flip=Yes/No: When Flip equals ‘Yes’, it reverses
the direction of the Sweep (as shown by the
preview curves) and therefore the direction of the
surface created.
Sweep 1
History
displays
preview
curves to
indicate the
Sweep surface
direction and
the order in
which to pick
the Profile
curves (pick
order in red).
Using Flip with Sweep 1 History, before (left) and
after (right).
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Sweep 2
‘Sweep2’
Creates a surface from a series of cross-section or
Profile curves which define the surface shape and
two rail curves (often Ring Rails).
Sweep 2
with open
rails and
profiles
(left).
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Sweep 2
History
Sweep 2
with closed
rails and
profiles
(right).
Or, from the F6 menu when two curves are
selected
Steps:
• Select Sweep 2 from the Surface menu.
• Select the first rail (often an inside Ring Rail).
• Select the second rail (often an Outside Ring Rail).
• Select cross-section curves (Profiles) in the order
that the surface will pass through them.
• Press Enter when done.
• Choose any Sweep Option and click on “OK’ to
close the Sweep 2 Options dialog box.
Adjust Seam Options:
Flip: Reverses the curve direction. Select a curve
seam to flip.
Automatic: Attempts to align the seam points
and directions without intervention.
Natural: Moves the seam points to the way they
were at the beginning of the command.
Adjust Seams Points Steps (closed curves only):
• Select a seam point marker, and drag it along the
closed curve.
• Continue to adjust the seam points until they lineup with each other and the closed curves’ arrows
all have the same direction.
• Press Enter when done.
Command Line Options:
Chain Edges: This allows for selection of
multiple, touching, surface edges to use as a rail
curve.
Steps:
Rules:
• Select Chain Edges in the Command Line.
• Select first segment (surface edge) for rail.
• Select next segment (surface edge) for rail.
• Continue selecting edge segments, if needed.
Then, press Enter when done.
• Select the cross-section curves (Profiles).
• Press Enter when done.
• Select any option from the Sweep Options dialog
box. Press ‘OK’ when done.
• Closed curve Seam Points must all be on the
inside (on the rail), or all be on the outside (away
from the rail).
• The Profile (cross-section) curves’ directions must
all match. Click on each arrow to flip the direction
of a curve.
• A single open curve or a single closed curve can
be used as the cross-section curve.
• Select multiple open cross-section curves near the
same ends.
• Select multiple closed cross-section curves in the
order the surface will pass through them.
• Select either all open or all closed cross-section
curves, but not a combination of both.
• Use surface edges (or edge) for a rail curve. See
Chain Edges option below.
Point: Creates a surface that begins or ends at
a point. Use this option only at the start or end of
the curve series.
Steps:
• Select ‘Point’ in the Command Line at the start or
end of the selection of cross-section curves.
174
• Pick the point.
• Pick the cross-section curve.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select any option from the Sweep Options dialog
box. Press ‘OK’ when done.
Cross-Section Curve Options:
Maintain Height is ON (left) and OFF (right).
Rail Curve Options:
Do Not Simplify (default): Creates the Sweep
Continuity is only enabled if the rails are surface
edges and the shape curves are non-rational, that
is, all control point weights are one. Exact arcs
and ellipse segments are rational. Most of the time
these controls are not used.
without doing anything to the shape curves.
Rebuild with ‘x’ control points: Rebuilds
the shape (Profile) curve control points before
creating the Sweep. Enter a value for number
of control points in the provided box. A lower
number of points will deform the curve more. A
higher number of control points will follow the
original curve more.
Note: Only continuity options that the curve structure
(point count and rational/non rational) supports will
be available (not grayed out).
Refit within ‘x’: Refits the shape curves within
Sets the continuity for the edge match. See Blend
Surface in the Surface menu for more details.
Position / Tangency / Curvature
a specified tolerance before creating the Sweep.
Enter a value (mm) for the tolerance in the
provided box. The lower the tolerance value, the
closer the Sweep fits the shape curves. The higher
the value creates a greater variance between the
shape curve and the Sweep surface.
Position (G0): Position (G0 continuity)
measures location only. If the end points of each
curve are in the same location in space, the curves
are position continuous (G0) at the ends. In other
words, the two curves in question touch each
other at their end points.
Preserve First/ Last Shape: When edge
curves are used as rails, the surface may pull away
from the selected Profile curves. These options
force the surface shape to match the first profile
curve or last profile curve.
Tangency (G1): Tangency (G1 continuity)
measures position and curve direction at the ends.
In other words, the two curves not only touch, but
they go the same direction at the point where
they touch.
Maintain Height: When creating a surface,
Sweep 2 usually maintains a relationship between
the height and the width; where the rails are wider
apart, the surface is taller; where they are closer
together, the surface is shorter. To keep the height
consistent regardless of width, turn ON Maintain
Height.
Curvature (G2): Curvature continuity (G2
continuity) between two curves measures
position, direction, and radius of curvature at
the ends. If the radius of curvature is the same
at the common end point, curves are curvature
175
Preview: Click to display a preview of the output.
continuous (G2). In other words, the curves not
only go the same direction when they meet, but
also have the same radius at that point.
After a setting change, click the Preview button
again to refresh the display.
Sweep 2 History
‘gvSweep2History’
This History-enabled command creates a surface
from a series of cross-section (Profile) curves and
two rail curves (often Ring Rails). The created
surface automatically updates after profiles or rails
are edited.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Sweep 2
History
Closed Sweep: Creates a closed surface,
continuing the surface past the last Profile
curve around to the first curve. This option is
only available after two cross-section curves are
selected.
Or, from the F6 menu when two curves are
selected
Steps:
Note: With closed rail curves, the first cross-section
curve selected is added to the end of the list if you
choose to create a closed surface.
• Select Sweep 2 History from the Surface menu.
• Select two rail curves.
• Select profile curves (cross-section) in the order
that the surface will pass through them.
• Press Enter when done.
• Edit a profile, or a rail and press Enter to complete
the edit. See the surface update automatically
after each edit.
Simple Sweep: Simple Sweep works in cases
where the shape curves intersect the rail at rail
edit points. This option generates simpler surfaces
in cases when the curves are perfectly set up.
Add Slash: Adds additional cross-section
alignments to control how the surface is created
between sections. Select first point on one rail.
Then, select a point on the other rail. Press Enter
when done.
Sweep 2 History displays preview curves to indicate
the Sweep surface direction and the order in which
to pick the Profile curves (pick order in red). Change
Closed = Yes to Closed = No in the Command Line
to create a gap between the first and last selected
profiles.
Add Slash - Additional alignment is added as if more
profiles existed. Select any point on one rail. Use
Perpendicular O-Snaps to set the second point on
the second rail.
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Rules:
Profile Sweep
• Select multiple open Profile curves (cross-section)
near the same ends.
• Select multiple closed Profile curves (cross-section)
in the order the surface will pass through them.
• Select either all open or all closed cross-section
curves, but not a combination of both.
‘gvProfileSweep’
This History-enabled command creates a surface
between two Profiles or any two, planar, closed
curves without requiring a rail curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Profile
Sweep
Command Line Options:
Closed=Yes (default): Creates a closed surface,
Or, from the F6 menu when two Profiles or two
planar, closed curves are selected
continuing the surface past the last profile curve
around to the first profile curve. This option only
works when there are two or more profiles as part
of a Sweep.
Steps:
• Select Profile Sweep from the Surface menu.
• Choose from any Command Line options
• Select two Profiles (two, planar, closed curves).
• Edit a profile and press Enter to complete the edit.
See the surface update automatically after each
edit.
Closed=No: Creates an open surface. Leaving
a gap between the first and last profile selected.
This option only works when there are two or
more profiles as part of a Sweep.
Flip=Yes/No: When Flip equals ‘Yes’ it reverses
Note:
the direction of the Sweep and therefore the
direction of the created surface.
• With Profile Sweep, Matrix creates a blended
surface using the shortest path between the two
Profiles.
• Edit the scale or position of the Profiles and the
surface will automatically update with Matrix
History turned ON.
• Use Profiles from Profile Placer, if possible. The
Profile Sweep command utilizes the profile’s origin
point.
• Convert a closed, planar curve into a Profile curve.
Two closed, planar curves are needed to run this
command. (See Tools>Profile for making a Profile)
• Be sure Matrix History is turned on before running
this command. Using Trim, Boolean, Split or Join
on the curves or surface will break History. If
History breaks, the surface will not update with
edits. (See Info & Settings menu> Matrix History.)
Maintain Height=Yes/No: A relationship
between the height and the width is maintained;
where the rails are wider apart, the surface is
taller; where they are closer together, the surface
is shorter. Height is kept consistent regardless
of width when Maintain Height is ON. This is the
default setting.
Lay out two sets of
mirrored Profiles on a
Ring Rail. Use Profile
Sweep between the
two mirrored Profiles
on each side.
Maintain Height is ON (left) and turned Off (right).
177
Use Profile Sweep
between the top set
of mirrored Profiles.
Then, edit the Profile
with MSR, rotating
it into the desired
position.
Blend Amount is set to 0.5 along with using the
Ring Rail option in Profile Sweep. The blend avoids
the space inside the Ring Rail regardless of the
Blend Amount set.
Rebuild
Profile Sweep surface now follows the Bezel after the
Profile is rotated and edited.
‘Rebuild’
Use Rebuild to assign a new number of U and V
control points to unjoined surfaces.
Command Line Options:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Rebuild
Blend Amount: A Blend Amount can be set
starting at 0.1 up to 1.0. The default of ‘1.0’ gives
the best results the majority of the time. However,
experiment with this setting to get the results
desired.
Or, from the F6 menu when a surface is
selected
Steps:
Blend amount
of 1.0 (left)
and 0.5
(right).
• Select Rebuild from the Surface menu.
• Select a surface or multiple unjoined surfaces to
Rebuild.
• Press Enter when done.
• Set the Point count U and V values in the Rebuild
Surface Options box.
• Click on “OK’ when done.
The existing
surface UV point
counts (shown in
image = 2) are in
parenthesis near
each value box.
Start Blend: Values can be set between 0.1 and
1.0 to adjust the amount of the blend at the Start
of the input curve. The default value of ‘1.0’ is best
for most blends.
End Blend: Values can be set between 0.1 and
1.0 to adjust the amount of the blend at the End
of the input curve. The default value of ‘1.0’ is best
for most blends.
Ring Rail: This options allows selection of a Ring
Rail that the output surface avoids regardless of
the Blend Amount set.
A simple surface with point counts of U=2 and V=2.
178
Calculate: The calculation tests how far away the
new surface is at knot line intersections and halfway between knot lines. Conducts tests at knot
line intersections and halfway between knot lines.
The display color indicates how far away the new
surface is from the original. Points are; green if the
surface is within absolute tolerance; yellow if it is
between tolerance and 10 times tolerance, and;
red if it is farther away than that. The lines are 10
times longer than the measured deviation in the
direction of the deviation.
Surface after Rebuild with point counts of U=6 and
V=6.
Note: Rebuild can also be used for curves, extrusions
(a type of surface), along with unjoined surfaces.
However, a combination of these cannot be selected
at the same time. Run the command individually for
each object type.
Rebuild Surface Options:
Point Count: A surface has a U and V direction
(perpendicular). The input surface UV point
counts are shown in parenthesis next to the value
boxes. Enter a new U and V point count for the
rebuilt surface in the respective value boxes.
Rebuild Surface preview.
Preview: Click to display a preview of the
Degree: A surface degree is always set to 3.0.
output. If you change the settings, click the
Preview button again to refresh the display. The
highlighted lines are the original surface. The
green lines are the Preview of the new surface.
So, in the case of rebuilding surfaces leave this
value set to 3.0. Curves have a different degree
value. Straight curves are 1.0 degree.
Options:
Blend Surface
Delete Input:
Deletes the
original geometry
from the file.
‘BlendSrf’
Creates a surface that connects or blends
together two, open or closed, surface edges.
Current Layer: Creates the new surfaces on the
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Blend
Surface
current layer. Clear this check box to place the
new surface on the layer of the original surface.
Steps:
Retrim: Trims the rebuilt surface with the original
trimming curves.
• Select Blend Surface from the Surface menu.
• Select a segment for the first edge.
• Select the next adjacent segment for the first
edge. Continue selecting segments to complete
the first edge and press Enter when done.
• Select a segment for the second edge. Continue
selecting segments to complete the second edge
and press Enter when done.
Maximum deviation: Reports the maximum
deviation from the
original surface.
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Gap Tolerance: If the gap between two
• Select a seam point marker, and move it along the
closed curve. Continue to adjust the seam points
until they line with each other and the closed
curves all have the same direction. (Click on an
arrow to change the curve direction, if needed.)
• Press Enter when done.
• Select a control point to adjust. Hold ALT key and
move handle to adjust edge angle. Press SHIFT
for symmetry. Or, change the settings in the
‘Adjust Surface Blend’ dialog box.
• Click on ‘OK’ when done.
edges or curves is less than this value, the chain
selection will ignore the gap and will select the
next segment.
Angle Tolerance: When Continuity is set to
Tangency, if the angle between two edges or
curves is less than this value, the chain selection
will consider the criteria for continuity met and will
select the next segment.
Undo: This will undo the last segment edge
selected.
Next: This allows selection of the next edge
curve segment.
All: This allows selection of all, both first and
second, edge segments.
Adjust Seam Options:
These Command Line options
are available along with the
ability to grab the handle and
move it in the viewport. After
selecting both the first and
second edges for the blend,
this option appears to adjust
the seam. The seam points
must line up and the direction
arrows must point in the same
direction. Select a seam point
marker, and drag it along the
closed curve. Continue to adjust the seam points
until they line with each other and the closed curves
all have the same direction.
From left to right. (1) Drag the seam point to line
up the surface Blend. (2) Adjust a control point to
control the blend angle and amount. (3) Surface
Blend is complete (red surface).
Chain Edge Options:
Auto Chain = Yes/No: When set to ‘Yes’ Auto
Chain will select all surfaces edges in a closed
loop after the first edge is selected.
Chain Continuity: Controls the level of
continuity required between segments to
be selected with the Auto Chain option. See
‘Continuity Options’ below for a detailed
description.
Flip: Reverses the curve direction. Select the
Direction = Both/ Backward/ Forward:
and direction to match without intervention.
seam to Flip. Or, click the arrow end on the seam
and it will flip directions.
Automatic: Attempts to align the seam points
Forward selects curves in the positive curve
direction. Backward selects curves in the negative
curve direction. And ‘Both’ selects curves in both
the positive and negative curve directions.
Natural: Moves the seam point to the way they
were at the beginning of the command.
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Adjust Surface Blend Options:
(edge) end, indicated by numbers 1 & 2. There are
five levels of Continuity to choose between:
Position, Tangency, Curvature. G3 and G4.
A dialog box to Adjust Surface Blend appears
after the seam points are adjusted. Use the
available sliders and settings in the dialog box or
use the key controls as outlined below.
Position (G0): Position (G0 continuity)
measures location only. If the end
points of each curve are in the
same location in space, the curves
are position continuous (G0) at the
ends. In other words, the two
curves in question touch each
other at their end points.
Lock: Check the lock box to maintain the
relationship between the two curve ends. When
one slider is moved the other
goes with it.
Tangency (G1): Tangency (G1 continuity)
measures position and curve
direction at the ends. In other
words, the two curves not only
touch, but they go the same
direction at the point where they
touch.
Sliders: Determine the
bulge (or distance of
influence) the surface has
on the edge curve. Sliders
control each surface end.
Curvature (G2)(default): Curvature continuity
(G2 continuity) between two
curves measures position,
direction, and radius of curvature
at the ends. If the radius of
curvature is the same at the
common end point, curves are
curvature continuous (G2). In other
words, the curves not only go the
same direction when they meet, but also have the
same radius at that point.
Keys for Control:
Shift: By default the shape curves (input edges)
are separately edited at each end, Hold the Shift
key to retain symmetry. With symmetry, point
editing is mirrored to the other end of the curve.
Alt: Hold the Alt key while dragging the handles
to change the shape curve and the surface edge.
Continuity Options:
G3: G3 continuity adds a third requirement; planar
acceleration. Curves that are G3
continuous touch, go the same
direction, have the same radius,
and that radius is accelerating at
the same rate at a certain point.
G3 continuous curves have equal
third derivatives.
G4: G4 continuity is very seldom used, but
can be important in certain
isolated cases. G4 continuous
curves have all the same
requirements as G3 curves, but
their curvature acceleration is
equal in three dimensions.
Continuity: When edges
are used to make surfaces,
this sets the shape
curvature for each curve
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Adjust Surface Blend Options Cont’d:
Using Handle Grips:
AddShapes: Add additional curve profile shapes
to increase control over the blend shape. This is
especially important the input shapes are complex
and more control is needed for the shape in more
locations. Click a location on each surface edge to
add another shape curve.
Planar Sections: Forces all shape curves to be
planar and parallel to the specified direction.
Same Height: If gaps between the surface vary,
as the options change.
The default handles have one grip that can be
dragged to change the radius. Any added or
copied handles have two grips. Use the grip on
the edge to move the handle along the edge.
Use the grip in the center to change the radius at
the handle location.
Variable Blend Surfaces
Radius/ Distance Options:
this option maintains the height of the shape
curves throughout the blend.
Preview: Check to dynamically display a preview
Radius/Distance options: Set the radius value
before the first surface is selected. And, Radius
and Distance options appear on the Command
Line when a handle grip is selected and moved.
‘VariableBlendSrf’
Creates a blend surface between surface edges
(of two intersecting surfaces) with varying radius
values, trims the original surfaces faces, and joins
the resulting surfaces.
FromCurve: Select a curve. The radius of the
curve at the picked location will be used.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Variable
Blend Surfaces
FromTwoPoints: Pick two points to show the
Radius distance.
Note: Both surfaces must intersect.
Steps:
• Select Variable Blend Surfaces in the Surface
menu.
• Select the first surface for Variable Radius Blend
on the surface near the edge that will be blended.
(Enter a Radius value before selecting or edit the
handle later).
• Select the second surface for Variable Radius
Blend on the surface near the edge that will be
blended.
• Select a blend handle to edit. Click on the handle
and enter a different Radius value, etc. Or, press
Enter to accept the default Radius value.
• Choose from any of the Command Line options if
desired.
• Press Enter when done.
Dragging a handle to edit the Radius.
Variable Blend
Surfaces is
complete.
Surfaces are
trimmed and
joined.
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Handle Options:
Loft
AddHandle: Adds a handle along the edges.
‘Loft’
Creates a surface that stretches between curves
or surface edges. Two or more curves or surface
edges of varying shapes can be connected using
the Loft command.
Use the grip on the edge to move the handle
along the edge. Use the grip in the center to
change the radius at the handle location.
CopyHandle: Adds a new handle by selecting
an existing handle or using the distance from the
selected handle.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Loft
RemoveHandle: Visible only when at least one
Steps:
handle has been added. Select the blend handle
to remove.
• Select Loft from the Surface menu.
• Select curves to Loft. Choose either closed or
open curves (or edges) in the order to be lofted.
• Drag seam point to adjust (closed curves only).
Seam points must line up.
• Press Enter when done.
• Specify the settings in the Loft Options dialog box.
• Click ‘OK’ to complete the command.
SetAll: Sets the distance or radius for all handles.
LinkHandles: Editing a single handle updates all
handles the same amount.
Things to remember when working with handles:
Note: Curves can either be closed or open but not
both. Also, it is very important to click in roughly the
same position on each curve. Selecting one curve
by clicking on one side of it and the next curve by
clicking on the other side will yield a twisted surface
that is very likely to be undesirable.
• Only added handles can be removed.
• The default handles at the ends of each open
edge segment cannot be moved or deleted. This
is the minimum information the command needs
in order to work.
• The handle at the end of a single closed edge can
be moved but not deleted.
Options:
Adjust Closed Curve Seams: Select a seam
point marker, and move it along
the closed curve. Continue to
adjust the seam points until they
line with each other and the
closed curves all have the same
direction, and then press Enter.
Rail-Type Options:
DistanceFromEdge: The distance from the
edge curve determines the intersection.
RollingBall: The radius of a rolling ball
determines the intersection.
DistanceBetweenRails: The distance between
Adjust Seam Options:
the edge rails determines the intersection.
Flip: Reverses the curve direction. Select the
TrimAndJoin: Trims and joins the resulting
seam to Flip. Or, click the arrow end on the seam
and it will flip directions.
surface to the input surfaces.
Preview = Yes/No: Displays a dynamic preview.
Automatic: Attempts to align the seam points
and direction to match without intervention.
The options can be changed at this point and the
preview will update. When set to ‘No’, no preview
will display. There is no opportunity to change the
options.
Natural: Moves the seam point to the way they
were at the beginning of the command.
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original curves. The surface closely follows the
original. This is a good choice when the input
curves are going around a corner.
Normal Loft with 3 input
curves.
Straight Sections: Creates straight surfaces
between the curves instead of curved surfaces.
Developable: Creates a separate developable
surface or polysurface from each pair of curves.
This option is designed to create surfaces that can
be flattened using the ‘Unroll Surface’ command
(Surface menu> Unroll Surface) without stretching
the surface.
Command Line Option:
Point: Allows picking a location for the start or
end of the loft at a point. This tapers the loft from
the curve to the selected point. Use this option
only at the start or end of the curve series.
Exceptions: Not all sets of curves create developable
surfaces. You may get no surface or
a partial surface. Two straight lines that are not
parallel are not developable.
Loft Options (Style):
Uniform: Makes the object knot vectors uniform.
Style: Determines the knot and control point
Closed loft: Creates a closed surface, continuing
the surface past the last curve and around to the
first curve. Available when you have selected three
or more shape curves.
structure of the resulting surface.
Match Start Tangent: If the start curve is
a surface edge, the lofted surface maintains
tangency with the adjacent surface.
Normal (Default): The surface gradually
changes between each shape at an even rate so
that the surface touches the curve as it nears it,
taking on its shape perfectly at that point before
morphing into the appropriate shape for the next
curve. This is a good choice when the curves are
proceeding in a relatively straight path or there is a
lot of space between the curves.
Example shows a Loft surface between a surface
edge and a curve. Match Start Tangent is checked
‘ON’ (left) and ‘OFF’ (right).
Loose: This causes the new surface to conform
Match End Tangent: If the end curve is a
more loosely (pulls away from) to the crosssection curves, making for a smoother and more
even surface.
surface edge, maintains tangency with the
adjacent surface.
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
Tight: This style is very close to the Normal,
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface when
the input curves are joined, tangent curves.
but sticks even more closely to the shape of the
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Cross-section Curve Options:
See an explanation of these settings in Surface
menu> Sweep 1.
Preview: Check to dynamically display a preview
as the options change.
Curves are assigned letters to adjust settings in the
Curve Network Options box.
Curve Network
NetworkSrf
Creates a surface from a network of three or more
crossing curves.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Curve
Network
Note: All curves in one direction have to cross all
curves in the other direction and cannot cross each
other.
Steps
• Select Curve Network from the Surface menu.
• Select curves in a network.
• Press Enter when done.
• Specify the settings in the Options dialog box that
appears.
• Click on ‘OK’ to complete the command.
Curve Network Options:
Command Line Option:
Tolerances:
Edge curves:
Curve Network surface is complete.
Sets the tolerance
for the edge
curves. The edges
of the surface will
be within this value
from the edge
curves.
NoAutoSort: Turns off automatic sorting so the
curves can be selected manually.
Three curves in a network
of curves are intersecting
at the end points. Select
the curves in this order:
blue, red and green for
the best results.
Interior curves:
Sets the tolerance
for the interior
curves. The interior
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of the curve’s surface will be within this value. If
the curves themselves are farther apart from each
other than the tolerance values, the best guess is
made at the surface.
Angle: If the edge curves are surface edges,
and you want the surface matching the adjacent
surfaces with tangency or curvature continuity,
this is the accuracy used to match the surface
normals.
Preview: Check to dynamically display a preview
as the options change.
Surface before (left) and after (right) using Shrink
Trimmed Surface displaying Control Points and UV
Curves.
Edge Matching: Determines how the edges
match the input geometry.
Loose: The surface will match to the input edge
Patch
curves with less accuracy.
‘Patch’
This command creates a surface using edge
curves and/ or point objects. If a surface has been
split with a curve, leaving a hole, Patch can be
used to repair it.
Position / Tangency / Curvature
See the full details in Surface menu> Blend
Surface> Continuity Options.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Patch
Shrink Trimmed Surface
‘ShrinkTrimmedSrf’
This command allows you to make a trimmed
surface forget it ever was trimmed, becoming an
“original” surface. As though it was created this
way from the start. In that way Smart Flow,
Control Point Editing or Create UV Curves will
work as expected.
Note: Patch may not give the best results for every
shape of hole. It does not hug the edges as well
as the Sweep commands. Use Sweep or Curve
Network for more control of the output surface
shape, if needed.
Steps
• Select Patch from the Surface menu.
• Select curves, points, point clouds and meshes to
fit surface through.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select a setting from the Patch Options dialog box.
• Click ‘OK’ to complete the command.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Shrink
Trimmed Surface
Steps:
• Select Shrink Trimmed Surface from the Surface
menu.
• Select trimmed surfaces to shrink.
• Press Enter when done.
Using ‘Patch’ to
create surfaces
where holes exist
in a shank.
Note: A trimmed surface that has been used in a
Boolean, Trim, or Split operation retains a memory of
the surface it was originally.
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Patch Options:
Planar Curves
General:
Sample Point Spacing: The nominal 3D
‘PlanarSrf’
Create surfaces using planar curves, polylines or
surface edges (on a single Construction plane).
A single, flat surface on the same Construction
plane is created between the curves.
distance between points sampled from input
curves. Minimum of 8 points per curve.
Surface U Spans: This indicates the U direction
span count for the automatically generated
surface. Increase the amount for a more complex,
tight-fitting surface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Planar
Curves
Surface V Spans: This indicates the V direction
span count for the automatically generated
surface. Increase the amount for a more complex,
tight-fitting surface.
Steps:
• Select Planar Curves from the Surface menu.
• Select planar curves, polylines or edges to build
the surface.
• Press Enter when done.
Stiffness: This setting tells how much is allowed
for best fit plane to deform. The larger the number,
the ‘stiffer’ and more planar the resulting surface
is.
Adjust Tangency: Match to the tangent
direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges
of existing surfaces.
Automatic Trim: This setting defaults to ‘ON’. It
tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface
to it.
Starting Surface:
Select Starting Surface: Click to select a
Surfaces created with Planar Curves
starting surface where a surface has already been
created similar in shape to the surface desired with
‘Patch’.
Note:
• Curves may be joined, polylines or curves, or
merely touching (having Position Continuity), but
they must be on the same plane.
• Two or more curves that do not touch and are not
planar will not form a surface.
• If two closed curves partially overlap (intersect),
each curve produces a separate surface.
• If a closed curve is wholly in another closed curve
then it will be treated as a hole.
• If two closed curves on two or more different
planes are selected, two separate surfaces will be
made.
Starting Surface Pull: This is similar to Stiffness,
but it applies to the starting surface. The larger the
pull, the closer the resulting surface shape will be
to the starting surface.
Preserve Edges: This clamps the edges of the
starting surface in place. It’s useful when you don’t
want the starting surface to move.
Delete Input: The starting surface is deleted
after the new surface is made.
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Edge Curves
‘EdgeSrf’
Create a surface using 2, 3, or 4 unjoined, (nonplanar or planar) curves or edges. This command
works similarly to Planar Curves but the curves do
not need to be planar.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Edge
Curves
Steps:
• Select Edge Curves from the Surface menu.
• Select 2, 3 or 4 open curves.
Vertical, 3Point, Center, and Square planes created
with Plane from Corners.
Rectangle Options:
3Point: Draws the rectangle using two adjacent
Select four nonplanar edges to
create a surface
using ‘Edge Curves’.
corner locations and a location on the opposite
side.
3Point steps:
• Pick the start of an edge.
• Pick the end of the edge.
• Pick the width. Type a value or press Enter to use
the length value.
Note:
Vertical: Draws the rectangle perpendicular to
• Curves must be open and not joined.
• Joined curves or polylines will not create a surface.
• Curves and edges may be non-planar.
the Construction plane.
Vertical steps
• Pick the start of the edge.
• Pick the end of the edge.
• Pick the height. Type a value or press Enter to use
the width value.
Plane from Corners
‘Plane’
Creates a rectangular, planar surface.
Center: Draws the rectangle around a center
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Plane
From Corners
point.
Center steps
• Pick the center of the plane.
• Pick the other corner or type a length.
Right-Click Command: Plane From Center
Steps
Plane Options:
• Select Plane from Corners from the Surface menu.
• Pick the first corner of plane.
• Pick the other corner or type a length.
Deformable: Sets the degree in the U and V
directions and the point count in the U and V
directions.
Note: Hold the Shift key to draw a square.
188
the trimming objects are deleted. This also deletes
any geometry attached to the edges of the
boundary.
A Deformable
plane is created
with 6- U and V
degrees with 10U and V points.
AllSimilar: Removes all trimming curves on
the edge of a trimmed surface, or if a hole edge
is selected, all holes on the same face will be
deleted.
UDegree/VDegree: Sets the Degree of the
surface in the U and V directions.
Surface Extrude All
Degree: Specifies the degree of the curve (or
surface). When drawing a high-degree curve, the
output curve will not be the degree you request
unless there is at least one more control point
than the degree.
Use planar or non-planar, curves or surfaces to
extrude into capped or uncapped polysurfaces, to
a point, straight, tapered or along a curve.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Surface
Extrude All
UPointCount/VPointCount: The number of
control points in the U and V directions.
Steps:
Untrim
• Select Surface Extrude All from the Surface menu.
• Select or get objects to Extrude.
• Select the Extrusion Type.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick an Extrude Option in the Command Line.
‘Untrim’
Removes a trimming boundary from a surface,
returning it to its untrimmed state.
Note:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Untrim
• Non-planar curves will not cap into a solid
polysurface.
• Planar curves will cap into a solid polysurface.
• Surfaces and curves can be extruded separately
but not together.
• Non-planar curves do not always give the best
results when choosing the tapered option.
Steps:
• Select Untrim from the Surface menu.
• Select the edge to Untrim.
• Select another edge to Untrim or press Enter to
end the command.
Straight Extrude Options (Default):
Curves or surfaces
are extruded straight,
perpendicular to the input
objects in Surface
Extrude All - Straight
(Solid=Yes).
Untrim is used to return the trimmed surfaces (left)
to their original state (right).
Direction: Two points establish the direction
angle.
Command Line Options:
Steps
KeepTrimObjects Yes/No: Yes; the original
trimming objects are separated and retained. No;
• Pick a base point.
• Pick a second point that establishes the direction
angle.
189
BothSides: Draws the object
Corners Round: The corners of the tapered
on both sides of the start
point, creating the object
twice as long as you indicate.
surfaces will be filled with filleted segments with
tangent (G1) continuity.
Corners Smooth: The corners of the tapered
Solid Yes/No: Places caps
surfaces will be filled with blend segments with
curvature (G2) continuity.
and joins all to make a closed
polysurface.
See Surface menu > Blend Surface > Continuity
Options for a full explanation of Continuity types.
DeleteInput Yes/No: Deletes the original
geometry from the file.
DeleteInput: Deletes the original geometry from
ToBoundary: Extrudes the object to a boundary
the file.
surface.
FlipAngle: Toggles the draft angle direction.
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
ToBoundary: Extrudes the object to a boundary
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface when
the input curves are joined tangent curves.
surface.
SetBasePoint: Specify a location that serves as
the first point when picking two points that set
the extrusion distance.
SetBasePoint: Specify a location that serves as
the first point when picking two points that set
the extrusion distance.
Tapered Extrude Options:
To Point Extrude Options:
Curves or surfaces are extruded using a draft angle,
and tapered (Solid=Yes).
Direction: Two points establish the direction
angle.
Non-planar or planar curves or surfaces are extruded
to a specified point (Solid=No)
Steps
• Pick a base point.
• Pick a second point that establishes the direction
angle.
Solid Yes/No: Places caps and joins all to make
DraftAngle: Specify the draft angle for the taper.
DeleteInput Yes/No: Deletes the original
a closed polysurface.
geometry from the file.
Solid Yes/No: Places caps and joins all to make
a closed polysurface.
ToBoundary: Extrudes the object to a boundary
surface.
Corners Sharp (Default): The corners of the
tapered surfaces will extend to meet at sharp
corners with position (G0) continuity.
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface when
the input curves are joined tangent curves.
190
Along Curve Extrude Options:
Steps
• Select Revolve from the Surface menu.
• Select curves to revolve.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick the start of the revolve axis.
• Pick the end of the revolve axis. (Press Enter to use
C-Plane Z axis direction.)
• Select the start angle location. Enter a degree
amount (from 0° to 360°). Specify a Command
Line option. Press Enter.
• Select a revolution angle (0° to 360°). Press Enter
when done.
With Surface Extrude All - Along Curve, Select a
path curve for the curve or surface extrusion near
the start of the extrusion. Non-planar surface and
curve (left) and planar curve and surface (right).
Solid Yes/No: Places caps and joins all to make
a closed polysurface.
DeleteInput Yes/No: Deletes the original
Picking the start and end
of the revolve axis (left).
Selecting a revolution angle
(above).
geometry from the file.
SubCurve: Extrudes a curve the distance
specified by picking two points along a curve.
Note: The extruded surface starts from the beginning
of the curve, not the first picked point. Picking the
points only establishes the extrusion distance.
Steps:
• Select the path curve.
• Pick a start along the path curve.
• Pick an end along the path curve.
ToBoundary: Extrudes the object to a boundary
surface.
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
Revolve a profile curve 360° to create a
custom-shaped object.
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface when
the input curves are joined tangent curves.
Command Line Options:
DeleteInput: Deletes the original geometry from
Revolve
the file.
‘Revolve’
Creates a surface or polysurface by revolving
a profile curve that defines the surface shape
around an axis.
Deformable Yes/No: No: the resulting revolved
surface is an exact revolve: a rational surface
with fully-multiple knots at the quadrants. This
kind of surface is not easy to deform smoothly
by point editing. Yes: the surface is rebuilt on
the ‘around’ direction to a degree 3 non-rational
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Revolve
191
Rail Revolve example pictured: This is a typical
set up for Rail Revolve.
surface. Specify how many points in that direction.
Deformable revolves can be deformed smoothly
with point editing.
• The path curve is a closed curve shown in yellow.
• The profile or shape curve is an open curve inside
the closed, path curve, shown in red.
• The start of the Rail Revolve axis is the bottom of
the green line (this point lines up on the same
plane as the path curve and bottom of the profile
curve).
• The end of the Rail Revolve axis is the top of the
green line where the profile meets.
• Set up the profile and path curve so they are
positioned perpendicular to each other for best
results.
• The axis curve (green) should ideally be located in
the center of the closed, rail curve. The surface is
made around this curve.
• Closed rail curves give the best results. However,
an open curve may be used.
PointCount: When Deformable is set to ‘Yes’, this
specifies the number of control points.
FullCircle: Revolves the input curve 360 degrees
as a shortcut for specifying 360 degrees as the
revolve angle. Using this option also sets the next
use of the command to 360 as the Revolve angle.
AskForStartAngle Yes/No: No; the revolve
starts from 0 (the input curve location). Yes; pick
the angle (a number of degrees away from the
current input curve location) the revolve will start.
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface when
the input curves are joined tangent curves.
Rail Revolve
‘RailRevolve’
Creates a surface or polysurface by revolving a
profile, shape, curve around a path curve that runs
perpendicular to the profile.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Rail
Revolve
Steps:
• Select Rail Revolve from the Surface menu.
• Select a profile curve. (This profile curve must be
placed inside of a closed rail curve.)
• Select a rail (path) curve.
• Pick the start of the Rail Revolve axis. (Choose a
point in the center of the closed, rail curve)
• Pick the end of the Rail Revolve axis. (Pick a point
in line with the start point).
Rail Revolve curves (top) and completed surface
(bottom). The gray curves, at both ends of the red
profile curve represent tick marks used to create the
blend curve (red) used for the profile.
(See Curve menu > Quick Curve Blend or
Adjustable Curve Blend)
Command Line Options:
ScaleHeight: The profile curve, in addition to
being revolved, stretches along the revolve axis
using the revolve axis origin as the scale base
point. The distance from the revolve axis origin to
the path curve start point along the revolve axis
is the primary reference height, and the distances
from the revolve axis origin to path curve control
points along the revolve axis are the secondary
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editable. The bounding box connects to the four
rails. But, the profiles will not necessarily touch all
four rails, depending on their shape.
• Sweep 4 is a history enable command so you can
select any of the profiles and use MSR to edit the
profiles.
• Matrix History must be turned off before the
Sweep 4 command is run to view updated edits.
• This command is unique so that when any of
the 4 rail curves are edited, the profiles that are
connected to them update along with the output
surface. This allows you to quickly create complex
surfaces that previously would have required
knowledge of more advanced surface modeling
techniques.
• Edit the rail curves by manipulating the control
points or edit points directly. Or, if the rail curve
is a ‘child’ of another set of objects, just edit the
‘parent’ object. (See Info & Settings > Matrix
History)
reference heights. You do not need ScaleHeight
option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular
to the revolve axis. Use the ScaleHeight option
if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular
to the revolve axis and you want a part of the
profile curve to only revolve around the revolve
axis, not to move along the revolve axis as it is
revolved. This is the case if you want to build railrevolved surfaces with smooth round ends even
if the rail curve is not planar. With the ScaleHeight
option, the revolve axis origin location matters.
The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin. The
one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the
revolve axis. If the rail curve is closed, the seam
must be where the profile touches the rail for
good results.
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface when
the input curves are joined tangent curves.
Sweep 4
‘gvFourProfileSweep’
This History-enabled command creates a
polysurface using 4 rail curves with attached
profiles that were created with the Four Rail
Profile command in the Tools menu.
Four Rail Profiles are
selected for create a
Sweep 4.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Sweep 4
Or, in Four Rail Profile
Note: Begin by placing profiles on the rails using
Four Rail Profile command (Tools menu).
Edit the rail’s control
points and see the
updates.
Steps:
• Select Sweep 4 from the Surface menu.
• Select the profiles attached to the rails.
• Edit the rail control points and see the Sweep
update after each edit. (Matrix History must be
turned on when the command is first run to see
each edit.)
Fillet Surfaces
Note:
‘FilletSrf’
Adds a tangent, curved surface between two
joined or unjoined surfaces.
• Use Four Rail Profile in advance to place profiles
on four rail curves. The profiles are attached to
the rails based on a bounding box. This bounding
box can be seen when the profiles are active and
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Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Fillet
Surfaces
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Variable
Fillet Surfaces
Steps:
Steps:
• Select Fillet Surfaces from the Surface menu.
• Select first surface to fillet. (Select a radius option
first in the Command Line.)
• Select the second surface to fillet.
• Select Variable Fillet Surfaces from the Surface
menu.
• Select the first surface for Variable Fillet Surfaces.
(Enter a Radii amount before selecting the
surface, or press Enter to use the default value.)
• Select the second surface for Variable Fillet
Surfaces.
• Select the Fillet Handle that appears to edit the
position or Radius. Click on the edge point to
move the handle position. Click and drag the inner
point to change or set the fillet radius.
• Specify a Command Line option, or select a handle
to edit.
• Press Enter when done.
The outside and
side surfaces are
used to create a
fillet on the right
edge with Fillet
Surface. Before
(left) and after
(right).
Command Line Options:
Radius: Specify the fillet radius.
Extend: When one input surface is longer than
the other, the fillet surface is extended to the input
surface edges.
Trim=Yes/No: Yes; Trims the original surfaces
to the intersections with the resulting surface. No;
does not trim the original surfaces..
To edit a Fillet handle, click on the
edge point (1) to move the position. Click and drag
the inner point (2) to change the fillet radius or enter
a radius value in the Command Line.
Split: Splits the original surfaces at the resulting
surface edges.
Radius Options:
Radius/Distance Options: Radius and
Fillet Surface creates a
tangent, curved surface
between two surfaces
Distance options appear on the Command
Line when the inner point on the handle grip is
selected or when a handle is added.
FromCurve: Select a curve. The radius of the
curve at the picked location will be used.
Variable Fillet Surfaces
FromTwoPoints: Pick two points to show the
‘VariableFilletSrf’
Creates a curved, tangent surface between two
surface edges with varying radius values.
radius distance.
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Handle Options:
Handle Options Cont’d:
AddHandle: Adds a handle
TrimAndJoin: Trims and joins the resulting
along the edges. Drag the
cursor and click to set the
location. Press Enter when
done.
surface to the input surfaces when set to ‘Yes’.
Preview Yes/No: Yes; displays a dynamic
preview. When set to ‘No’, no preview will display.
There is no opportunity to change the options.
CopyHandle: Adds a new
handle using the distance
from the selected handle.
Drag to move the position,
click to set it, and press Enter
when done.
Chamfer Surfaces
RemoveHandle: Visible only when at least one
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Chamfer
Surfaces
‘ChamferSrf’
Creates a flat beveled edge between two input
surfaces..
handle has been added. Click on a handle to
remove it.
Steps:
SetAll: Sets the distance or radius for all handles
• Select Chamfer Surfaces from the Surface menu.
• Select first surface to chamfer. (Select a distance
option, first, in the Command Line.)
• Select the second surface to chamfer.
and all handles will be updated.
Note: Only added handles can be removed. The
default handles at the ends of each open edge
segment cannot be moved or deleted. This is the
minimum information the command needs in order
to work. The handle at the end of a single closed
edge can be moved but not deleted.
A flat, beveled
edge is added
between
two surfaces
with Chamfer
Surfaces.
Rail Type Options:
Three rail types control the intersection.
DistFromEdge: The distance from the edge
curves determines the intersection.
RollingBall (Default): The radius of a rolling ball
determines the intersection.
Note:
• Component surfaces will be selected and
unjoined from their polysurfaces.
• The first chamfer distance is the distance from the
location where the two surfaces would intersect
to the chamfer point on the first surface. (Specify
the distance value in the Command Line before
selecting the surfaces.)
• The second chamfer distance is the distance
from the location where the two surfaces would
intersect if extended to the chamfer point on the
second surface.
• This command works on the analogy of rolling a
ball of a defined radius along the edges of the
DistBetweenRails: The distance between the
edge rails determines the intersection.
Variable Fillet
Surfaces is
complete.
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surfaces. If a corner is narrower than the ball
radius, the ball cannot negotiate the turn which
can cause the command to fail.
Using Handle Grips:
Command Line Options:
Distances: The distance from the intersection of
the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Enter a
value for the first and second chamfer distances
in the Command Line before picking the first
surface.
The edge point controls the position (left). The inner
point controls the Chamfer distance (right).
Extend: Extends the Chamfer surface as far as it
can along a surface.
surfaces to the intersections with the resulting
surface. No; does not trim. Split: splits the original
surfaces at the resulting surface edges.
The default handles have one grip that can be
dragged to change the radius. Any added or
copied handles have two grips. Use the grip on
the edge to move the handle along the edge.
Use the grip in the center to change the radius at
the handle location.
Variable Chamfer Surfaces
Command Line Options:
‘VariableChamferSrf’
Creates a Chamfer surface between surface
edges with varying distance values, trims the
original surfaces faces, and joins the resulting
surfaces.
Radius/Distance Options: Radius and
Trim = Yes/No/Split: Yes; Trims the original
Distance options appear on the Command
Line when the inner point on the handle grip is
selected or when a handle is added.
FromCurve: Select a curve. The distance of the
curve at the picked location will be used.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface> Variable
Chamfer Surfaces
FromTwoPoints: Pick two points to show the
distance.
Steps:
• Select Variable Chamfer Surfaces from the
Surface menu.
• Select a first surface for Variable radius Chamfer.
(Specify a Chamfer distance first in the Command
Line)
• Select a second surface for Variable radius
Chamfer.
• Select the Chamfer Handle that appears to edit
the position or Radius. Click on the edge point to
move the handle position. Click and drag the inner
point to change or set the Chamfer distance.
• Specify a Command Line option, or select a handle
to edit.
• Press Enter when done.
Adding a handle in Variable Chamfer Surfaces (left)
and completing the command (right).
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Handle Options:
AddHandle: Adds a handle along the edges.
Drag the cursor and click to set the location. Press
Enter when done.
CopyHandle: Adds a new handle using the
distance from the selected handle. Drag to move
the position, click to set it, and press Enter when
done.
A split surface is offset with Offset Surface to create
a custom channel bottom.
RemoveHandle: Visible only when at least one
handle has been added. Click on a handle to
remove it.
Command Line Options:
SetAll: Sets the distance or radius for all handles
Type a new value and press Enter when done.
Distance: Enter a distance amount for the offset.
and all handles will be updated.
Corner = Round/ Sharp: Round creates a fillet
Note: Only added handles can be removed. The
default handles at the ends of each open edge
segment cannot be moved or deleted. This is the
minimum information the command needs in order
to work. The handle at the end of a single closed
edge can be moved but not deleted.
at sharp corners on the original surface. Sharp
maintains the sharp corner when the original
surface has a sharp corner.
TrimAndJoin: Trims and joins the resulting
surface to the input surfaces when set to ‘Yes’.
Solid = Yes/ No: Makes a closed solid from the
input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface
between all of the matching edges.
Preview Yes/No: Yes; displays a dynamic
Loose = Yes/ No: For surfaces only, the
preview. When set to ‘No’, no preview will display.
There is no opportunity to change the options.
resulting surface point structure is identical to the
original surface when set to ‘Yes’.
Offset Surface
Tolerance: Sets the tolerance for the offset
surface. Type ‘0’ to use the default tolerance.
‘OffsetSrf’
Copies a surface or polysurface so that locations
on the copied surface are the same specified
distance from the original surface.
Both Sides: Creates an offset on both sides of
the original.
FlipAll: Changes the offset direction on all the
input objects.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Offset
Surface
Variable Offset Surface
Steps:
‘VariableOffsetSrf’
Use this tool to deform the surface while it offsets.
Offset different parts of a surface to different
varying distances away from the original surface
• Select Offset Surface from the Surface menu.
• Select a surfaces or polysurfaces to offset.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select object to flip direction (if needed). Preview
arrows will display the direction of the offset. Click
on the object to change the offset (flip) direction.
Enter an offset distance amount in the Command
Line when selecting ‘Distance’.
• Press Enter when done.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface> Variable
Offset Surface
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Steps:
Tween Surfaces
• Select Variable Offset Surface from the Surface
menu.
• Select a surface to variable offset. (First, run Shrink
Trimmed Surface command, Surface menu, for
any surfaces that have been cut.)
• Select a point to move. (Click and drag a point to
the desired position.)
‘TweenSurfaces’
Creates intermediate surfaces between two input
surfaces.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Tween
Surfaces
• Press Enter when done.
Steps:
Note:
• Select Tween Surfaces from the Surface menu.
• Select a start surface.
• Select the end surface.
• Press Enter to accept the options. Or, specify an
option.
• Turn ‘ON’ point and near O-Snaps when selecting
a point or adding handles.
Pairs of handles are added to both sides to control
the offset distance.
A surface preview appears for Tween Surfaces.
Variable Offset Surface is complete.
Options:
Tolerance: Sets the offset tolerance.
Flip: Reverses the direction of the offset.
A surface is made between two surfaces with Tween
Surfaces.
SetAll: Sets all the offset distances to match.
LinkHandles: Causes all of the adjustment
Command Line Options:
handles to move at once.
NumberOfSurfaces: Specifies the number
UnlinkHandles: reverses the Link Handles
previous turned on.
of surfaces to create between the two input
surfaces.
AddHandle: Adds an adjustment handle.
MatchMethod: Specifies the method for refining
the output surfaces.
SideTangency: Maintains the tangency direction
of the original surface at an edge.
None: No refinement of the output surfaces
is done. Control points of resulting surfaces are
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generated by connecting corresponding control
points. Any extra control points are connected
to the last control points of the surface with the
smaller number of control points.
Refit: Refits the output surfaces. The resulting
surfaces are usually more complex than input
unless input surfaces are compatible.
SamplePoints: Input surfaces are divided
to the specified number of points (on curve),
corresponding points define new points that
output surfaces go through.
Merge Surfaces before (top) and after (bottom).
SampleNumber: The number of sample points
to use.
Command Line Options:
Smooth: The resulting surface will be smooth.
Merge Surfaces This makes the surface behave better for control
point editing, but may alter the shape of both
surfaces.
‘MergeSrf’
This tool combines two untrimmed surfaces
together into a single, new surface (not a
polysurface). It also smooths seams and eliminates
kinks (sharp corners) but, may alter the shapes of
both surfaces.
Tolerance: Surface edges must be within this
tolerance for the two surfaces to merge.
Roundness: Defines the roundness
Steps:
(smoothness, dullness, bluntness, non-sharpness)
of the Merge. The default is 1 (full smoothing).
Acceptable values are between 0 (sharp) and 1
(smooth).
• Select Merge from the Surface menu.
• Choose a Command Line option and select a pair
of surfaces to merge.
Match Surfaces
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Merge
‘MatchSrf’
Changes the edge of a surface to have position,
tangent, or curvature continuity with another
surface.
Note:
• Surfaces must be untrimmed (no Boolean, Trim or
Split operations).
• The two surfaces must share an edge, and those
edges must share endpoints.
• The shared edge must run along the U and V
directions of the surfaces. The surfaces should
have been created with sweeps, which have
predictable outcomes for their U and V directions;
one end (rails) assign one direction , and the other
end (profiles) assign the other direction.
• The seam where the two surfaces meet smooths
out to eliminate a kink.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Match
Steps:
• Select Match from the Surface menu.
• Select an untrimmed surface edge to change.
• Select the segment (edge) to match.
• Press Enter when done.
• Choose options in the dialog box.
• Click on ‘OK’ to complete the command.
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direction. Backward: Selects curves in the
negative curve direction. Both: Selects curves in
both the positive and negative curve direction.
GapTolerance: If the gap between two edges is
less than this value, the chain selection will ignore
the gap and will select the next segment.
AngleTolerance: When Continuity is set to
Match Surface with ‘Average Surfaces’.
Note:
• The edge of a surface being modified must be an
untrimmed edge.
• A closed edge cannot be matched to an open
edge.
• Only single complete edge curves can be
matched.
• To match to part of an edge, trim the surface or
split the edge using Split Edge (Utilities menu).
• This command most reliable when the surfaces are
nearly matched already and require only a small
amount of movement to get an accurate match.
Tangency, if the angle between two edges is less
than this value, the chain selection will consider
the criteria for continuity met and will select the
next segment.
Undo: Undo last segment selection.
Next: Select next segment.
All: Select all segments
Match Surface Options:
Continuity: Sets the continuity for the match.
(See Surface > Blend Surface > Continuity
Options for a full explanation.) Choose between
Position, Tangency or Curvature
Options:
MultipleMatches: Allows the selection of more
than one end (edge) to match. Select multiple
edges that touch.
Command Line Options:
AutoChain: Selecting a curve or surface
edge automatically selects all curve segments
connected with the level of continuity set by the
ChainContinuity option.
ChainContinuity: Controls the level of
continuity (curvature or how the edges meet)
required between segments to be selected
with the AutoChain option. Choose between
Position, Tangency, or Curvature. (See Surface
> Blend Surface > Continuity Options for a full
explanation.)
Preserve Other End:
Changes the surface structure to prevent
modification of the curvature at the edge
opposite the match.
None: No constraint.
Position: Location only.
Tangency: Position and curve direction.
Curvature: Position, direction, and radius of
curvature.
Average Surfaces: Both surfaces are modified
to an intermediate shape. If the target surface is
also untrimmed, the surfaces match by averaging
the two.
Direction - Forward/ Backward/ Both:
Forward: Selects curves in the positive curve
200
Match Edges by Closest Points: Aligns the
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Drape
surface being changed to the target edge in two
ways: Stretches or compresses the surface to
match the entire edge end to end, or pulls each
point object on the edge to the closest point
object on the other edge.
Steps:
• Select Drape from the Surface menu.
• Drag a window (rectangle) over the area to Drape.
A surface is created that drapes over the objects.
Refine Match: Determines if the match results
should be tested for accuracy and refined so the
faces match within tolerance.
Note:
• Drape works over meshes, surfaces, and solids.
• Drape does not create a UV surface and cannot be
used with Create and Apply UV curves.
Distance ‘X’ units: Position matching in model
units.
Tangency ‘X’ degrees: Tangency matching.
Curvature ‘X’ percent: Curvature matching, in
percent of the radius of curvature.
Isocurve Direction Adjustment:
Specifies the way the parameterization of the
matched surfaces is determined.
Mesh object before using Drape.
(Display=Shiny Plastic)
Automatic: If the target edge is not trimmed,
it works like the Match target isocurve direction
option. If the target edge is trimmed, it works like
the Make perpendicular to the target edge option.
Preserve Isocurve Direction: Does not
change the existing isoparametric curves
directions.
Match Target Isocurve Direction: The
isoparametric curves of the surface will be parallel
to those of the target surface.
The NURBs object created with Drape over a mesh
object. Point Spacing Density was set at ‘1’.
(Display= Tech White)
Make Perpendicular to Target Edge: The
isoparametric curves of the surface will be
perpendicular to the target surface edge.
Command Line Options:
Drape
AutoSpacing: Yes/No: Yes; all points within the
draped surface are evenly-spaced at a distance
set by the Spacing option.
‘Drape’
Places a NURBs surface over any objects: meshes,
surfaces and solids. The surface follows the shape
of the objects that literally ‘drapes’ over these
objects.
Spacing: Sets the control points spacing value.
Controls custom spacing for the points. The lower
the number, the more dense the surface will be.
201
AutoDetectMaxDepth: Yes/No: Yes; stops
Note:
the draped surface at what is automatically
determined to be the farthest visible point within
the rectangle. No; controls the custom depth
setting.
• At least two and up to four rails can be used in
Sweep Multi.
• At least two profiles are needed.
• This tool places additional invisible “rails” in the
model to sweep in a more controlled way from
one profile to the next using the Sweep Edit
Points of each profile.
• Edit the Sweep Edit Points to control how the
Sweep surfaces are made. Click and drag one
point and the mirrored partner will move too.
See Tools menu>Profile Placer>Edit Sweep Edit
Points for complete instructions.
• Edit a rail or profile and see History update the
created Sweep Multi surfaces.
MaxDepth: Sets the maximum depth for the
draped surface when Auto Detect is set to OFF.
This can be farther away from (1.0) and/or closer
to the camera (0.0), providing complete or partial
coverage of an object.
Sweep Multi
‘gvfourSweep’
History-enabled Sweep Multi controls the shape
of the surface using the Sweep Edit Points of the
profiles. Use this in place of Sweep 1 or 2 History
when extra control is needed.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Sweep
Multi
Sweep Edit Points located on the Profile curves are
used as guides in Sweep Multi. Adjust these points to
change the way the Sweep surface is created.
Steps:
• Select Sweep Multi from the Surface menu.
• Select the rails curves (2, 3 or 4 rails are needed).
• Press Enter when done.
• Select profiles (2 or more).
• Press Enter when done.
Note: See Tools menu>Profile Placer>Edit Sweep Edit
Points for complete instructions.
Heightfield from Image
‘Heightfield’
Creates a NURBS surface or mesh based on
grayscale values of the colors in an image file.
The Profile’s Sweep Edit points are moved inwards.
The Sweep flows from these points in Sweep Multi.
Sweep Multi surfaces made with four rail curves and
two profiles. (Sweep Edit Points are in the original
locations.)
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Heightfield
Steps:
• Select Heightfield from Image from the Surface
menu.
• Browse to an image file and Open it.
• Pick the first corner location in the viewport. The
base of the surface will be parallel to the current
Construction plane.
• Pick the second corner or type a length. (Hold
Shift key) The shape of the pick rectangle will
match the aspect ratio of the bitmap file and be
the size of the resulting surface.
• Specify options in the Heightfield dialog box.
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Number of Sample Points ‘U’ x ‘V’: The
number of points indicates the density of the
surface in the U and V directions. Enter a higher
point count for more detail, and lower for less
detail.
Height ‘X’ mm: Sets the height of the surface in
the Z direction relative to the X and Y directions
selected when placing the image in the viewport.
Set Image as Texture: Uses the image as a
render texture for the created object.
Create Vertex Colors (Mesh only): Evaluates
the color of the texture at each texture coordinate
(U and V) and sets the vertex color to match.
Use a high-quality image for best results.
Hint:
• Use a high-quality image for the best results. There
are no adjustments for its quality the way there
are in Matrix Art.
• The number of sample points (U and V counts)
controls the detail outcome of the resulting
surface (see below).
• The created surface matches the contours of the
bitmap or image file. Dark colors are low, and light
colors are high.
Resulting surfaces using 50 U and 50 V counts.
‘Surface with control points at sample locations’
(left) and ‘Interpolate surface through samples’
(right). Experiment between the options
for the best results.
Heightfield Options:
Create Object By:
Mesh with vertexes at sample locations:
Creates a mesh with vertex points at each of the U
and V locations.
Surface with control points at sample
locations: Creates a surface with control points
at each of the U and V locations.
Interpolate surface through samples:
Creates a surface that passes through each
sample location’s height.
Hint: Try adjusting these various options to change
the outcome of the tool.
203
Split at Isocurve
‘Split’ Isocurve
Divides a single surface into parts using an
isoparametric curve (isocurve) as a cutter.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Split at
Isocurve
Command Line Options:
Direction = U, V or Both: U: Splits a surface
with isocurves in the surface u-direction. V: Splits
a surface with isocurves in the surface v-direction.
Both: Splits a surface with isocurves in both U and
V directions.
Toggle: Toggles the direction between U and V.
Shrink (Surfaces only) = Yes or No: Yes:
Steps:
• Select Split at Isocurve from the Surface menu.
• Select a single surface to split.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick isocurves (click to set) along the surface to
split along.
• Press Enter to end the command.
Notes: The Isocurve option only appears when a
single surface is selected.
Shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface close
to the trimming boundaries similar to the Shrink
Trimmed Surface command. No: Does not shrink
the underlying untrimmed surface.
Extend Surface
‘ExtendSrf’
Moves a surface edge to lengthen a surface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Extend
Surface
Pick isocurves along the
surface to use for splitting
the surface. Click to set the
isocurve location for each.
Steps:
• Select Extend Surface from the Surface menu.
• Select edge of surface to extend. Specify an
option.
• Enter a value for the extension factor in mm.
Selecting a
surface edge in
Extend Surface.
Preview of the
extension (the
last extension
value used) is
shown (right) and
original surface
(left).
With Split at Isocurve, a
single surface is split with
two isocurves to make
three surfaces.
204
Note: The new surface cannot be exploded
from the original.
Command Line Options:
Type:
Smooth: Extends the surface smoothly curving
from the edge.
Line: Extends the surface in a straight line from
the edge.
Extrude Normal to Surface
‘Fin’
Extrudes a curve on a surface in the direction of
the surface normal or tangent to the surface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Extrude
Normal to Surface
Picking a point to set the height (left) and an
extrusion with multiple heights is complete (right).
Unroll Surface
Steps
• Select Extrude Normal to Surface from the
Surface menu.
• Select a curve on the surface.
• Select the surface (base). Specify a Command
Line option.
• Pick a location on the curve for a height. Drag
your cursor and click to set the height or enter
the Distance (height) in the Command Line. Enter
a positive value for an outward extrusion and a
negative value for an extrusion below the base
surface. (For a simple, uniform extrusion, just enter
a Distance amount without picking a point on the
curve, press Enter and press Enter again.)
• Pick a location to set another height, or press
Enter if the surface should be uniform in height.
Continue picking curve locations to set another
height.
‘UnrollSrf’
Use this command to produce a model flat, as
pattern, to fashion into a curved surface after
production. Surfaces that curve in two directions
such as spheres or those created with curved
profiles cannot be unrolled.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Unroll
Surface
Steps:
• Select Unroll Surface from the Surface menu.
• Select a surfaces or polysurface to unroll. Specify
the Command Line option.
• Select any curves on the surface to unroll.
Press Enter when done.
Command Line Options:
SetBasePoint: Specify a location that serves as
the first point when picking two points that set
the extrusion distance.
Direction:
Normal: Creates the surface in the surface normal
direction.
Unroll Surface with Explode = Yes shows each single
surface unrolled flat.
Tangent: Creates the surface tangent to the
surface.
205
Steps:
• Select Soft Edit from the Surface menu.
• Select a surface.
• Pick a base point on the surface.
• Pick a point to move to. Drag your cursor and click
to set. Specify a Command Line Option.
• Press Enter when done.
The selection
point snaps
to the nearest
surface
control point.
Corresponding
control points of
the surface are
moved.
Unroll Surface with Labels = Yes shows each surface
unrolled, and labeled showing where it originated on
the polysurface ring.
Command Line Options:
Explode Yes/No: Yes; creates surfaces that are
not joined. No; the resulting surfaces are joined
along the same edges that were joined in the
original polysurface.
Note: To specify where a polysurface splits on an
unroll with Explode set to No, use the Unjoin Edge
command. Select the edges on the polysurface
you want open at unfolding to be unjoined prior to
unrolling.
Labels: Matching numbered dots are placed
on the edges of the original polysurface and the
flattened surfaces.
Pick a point to move to. Drag your cursor and click to
set the ‘move to’ location.
KeepProperties: Copies the object properties
from the original surface to the new surface.
RelativeTolerance: Affects the maximum
deviation of the curves from the original surface to
the unrolled surface.
Soft Edit
‘SoftEditSrf’
Moves the surface area surrounding the selected
point, smoothly, relative to the distance from
selected point.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Soft Edit
Surface after running Soft Edit surface.
Command Line Options:
U Distance/V Distance: Specify a value for
distance in the U or V direction influenced by the
move. (‘1’ is the default.)
Copy=Yes/No: Creates a copy of the original
surface after Soft Edit is complete.
206
FixEdges: When set to ‘Yes’ it keeps the edge
locations fixed in the original position. This
is useful keeping the corners of the surface
stationery when the UV distance set is greater
than the size of the surface in either given
direction.
Two cutting planes
were placed on
a cube with the
Cutting Plane
command.
DirConstraint Options:
Constrains the direction of the move.
None: Allows free movement.
SrfNormal: Constrains movement normal to the
surface.
UTangnet: Constrains the surface tangent to the
surface U Direction
VTangent: Constrains the surface tangent to the
surface V Direction
Cutting Plane
‘CutPlane’
Creates planar surfaces through objects at
designated locations.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Cutting
Plane
Steps:
• Select Cutting Plane from the Surface menu.
• Select the objects that the cutting planes will pass
through.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick the start of a line that defines the cutting
plane.
• Pick the end of a line that defines the cutting
plane.
• The prompts repeat to make several cut planes.
• Press Enter to stop making cut planes.
Command Line Options:
3Point: Draws the rectangle using two adjacent
corner locations and a location on the opposite
side.
3Point steps:
• Pick the start of an edge.
• Pick the end of the edge.
• Pick or type the width.
Adjust Closed Surface Seam
‘SrfSeam’
Use this command to change the location of the
seam of any closed, unjoined surface for better
results in commands like Smart Flow.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Adjust
Closed Surface Seam
Steps:
• Select Adjust Closed Surface Seam from the
Surface menu.
• Select an unjoined, closed surface for seam
adjustment. (The surface that loops back to back
and touches itself is closed.)
• The seam of the surface is indicated by a curve.
• Adjust the surface seam. Drag your cursor and
click to set the new location for the seam point.
Note: This command creates planes perpendicular to
the current Construction planes. These planes pass
through the selected objects and are large enough to
intersect all of the objects.
Drag your cursor and
click to place the new
location for the closed
surface seam.
207
Set Surface Tangent
‘SetSurfaceTangent’
Sets an untrimmed surface edge tangent
direction.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Surface>Set
Surface Tangent
Steps:
• Select Set Surface Tangent from the Surface
menu.
• Select an untrimmed surface edge.
• Pick the base point for the tangent direction.
• Pick the second point for the tangent direction.
Pick a second point for the tangent direction.
The surface is transformed and now tangent to a
selected point direction.
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CHAPTER 21
Solid Tools
Learn to create closed “watertight” surfaces known as Solids and how to join or cut
them using the Boolean operations.
Modeling with Solids
Solids are a closed surface. Recall that a solid is a
closed surface; or, a surface with no open edges
(edges that aren’t joined to other edges) that
encloses a volume. Solids may have more than
one side, making them polysurfaces, like the box,
pipe, cylinder, and cone tools. Or, a solid may be a
single surface, like a sphere, torus, or tube. All of
these solid objects may be drawn using the tools
in the Solid menu. Also found in this menu are
tools that control solids, like Booleans, explained
below.
selected Boolean operation. However, any of the
three Boolean operations found in the Solid menu
will have the same results as their counterparts in
the builder:
Intersecting Solids (Left)
(Right)
The box on the left is a polysurface. Where as the torus
is created from a single surface. This affects the types of
commands that can be used on them.
Boolean Union
Boolean Difference (Above)
About Booleans
There are three Boolean operations available in
the Solid menu: Boolean Union, which joins two
solids; Boolean Difference, which removes a
section of a solid with another solid that intersects
it; and Boolean Intersection, which makes a new
solid at the point where two solids intersect. It
may be more convenient to perform these same
operations with Boolean Builder, found in the
Tools fly-out menu, which lets the user select the
objects on which the Boolean operation will be
performed and place them into two separate
object boxes. The builder then performs the
Boolean Intersection:
209
Notice that, unlike Split or Trim, Booleans are the
only operations that, when used with two solid
objects (closed surfaces or polysurfaces), produce
a solid following the operation. This can
sometimes make Booleans trickier to use then
other tools like Split and Trim; however, since solid,
watertight models are often required for certain
rapid prototyping machines, Booleans are often
inevitable.
When in doubt about whether or not the surfaces
are coplanar, use the following trick. Select both
surfaces and click on Intersect in the Curve menu.
If the intersection command cannot locate the
place where the two objects intersect, Booleans
won’t be able to, either.
Sink the cutter into the surface of the ring. Run the
Intersect command again and a resulting curve
will be drawn and “Found One Intersection” will
appear in Feedback line. Now try Booleans.
If it is absolutely necessary that both objects
are located in space as close as possible to their
present positions, use the Boolean Builder in
the Tools menu and set the AutoMove and/
or AutoScale options to move (or scale) one of
the objects ever so slightly. This causes them to
intersect with one another on a smaller scale than
above, and the builder moves them for the user so
that a trial and error process is not necessary.
Sphere split with a curve results as an open surface
(Left) Sphere cut using Boolean Difference results
as a solid object (closed polysurface). (Right)
Tips and Tricks for Successful Booleans:
2: Use Object Checker, Show Edges, Join
Edge: Booleans work best on solids (closed
1: Make sure that objects are not coplanar.
polysurfaces or closed Nurbs surfaces). Although
they can be used with open polysurfaces, this is
NOT recommended. Running the Object Checker
in the Tools menu to see whether the object
passes both checks will help the user find out
whether or not the object will pass Booleans.
If the object fails either of the checks in Object
Checker, Booleans will be unsuccessful. However,
passing both of these checks does not ensure a
successful Boolean (read on to find out why).
If the objects do not pass Object Checker, it is a
good idea to select the object and use the Show
Edges function in the Utilities menu to highlight
any “naked edges”, or, open surfaces. When you
use the Boolean Builder from the tools menu the
builder automatically checks that the objects are
valid and will yield the expected results.
Booleans will always fail when objects are coplanar, or, when they have edges that share the
same grid coordinates in space. In the following
example, Booleans will fail because the cutter and
the ring are co-planar (on the left, below), meaning
that the edge of the cutter is inhabiting the same
grid space as the edge of the ring. Booleans
become confused over which edge to keep
when two edges are in the same exact location in
space. Therefore, the cutter must be plunged into
the surface of the ring, not merely touching the
surface of the ring, for Booleans to work properly
(right-hand illustration).
Naked Edges can occur at any point in the
modeling process and while it is always best to
avoid Naked Edges. Rather than starting over
from scratch, click on Join Edge from the Utilities
menu and select the errant edges. The Edge
Joining dialog box will appear. Click on Yes to
reconnect the edges. When the Naked Edge has
Objects are coplanar and Boolean will fail (Left).
Object sunk into the surface of the band Boolean will
succeed. Note: If the Feedback line reads “Found no
intersections”, objects are either coplanar or they
don’t touch at all.
210
been healed with Edge Joining, it will not be
highlighted when the Object Checker is run the
next time.
This one is pretty scary: the Edge Analysis thinks that
the original curve is the edge of the surface, even
though the surface extends outside the curve!
(2) A surface with a twist:
If larger gaps appear in you model between
Naked Edges a different approach may be
required. Loft, Sweep 2, Edge Curves and Patch
are all tools that can be used to repair a hole in a
surface. These each create a separate surface that
will need to be joined to the original to create a
water tight solid.
To fix this model, rebuild it with Seam Point Arrows
adjusted correctly.
3: Make sure to create valid surfaces
during modeling.
Booleans will fail when objects are invalid. An
invalid surface is one that intersects itself or twists
through itself. Sometimes, invalid surfaces even
pass the Object Checker, which can make them
tricky to find until Booleans fail. By then, it may
take a lot of work to go back and fix an invalid
surface. Therefore, be very careful when modeling
not to use curves that intersect themselves,
surfaces that twist, or surfaces with “kinks”. These
break models and make them invalid so that
Booleans will not know what to do with them.
Booleans will fail with the following invalid
surfaces:
(3) A surface with a “kink” in which the
model folds in on itself.
Highlight the model to see intersecting surfaces.
Fix this by placing two rails instead of one and
using Sweep 2.
(1) A surface drawn from a curve that
intersects itself:
Original Curve: Resulting surface:
211
Skills & Commands in this Chapter
4: Check Surface Normals using Directions:
The reason that Booleans are only recommended
for solid objects is because Booleans look for the
surface normals, or directions, on objects to be
pointing outward. On a solid, the normals are
always pointing outward. Yet on an open surface,
its normals may be pointing outward or inward, so
the results with Booleans may be unexpected.
Booleans
Boolean Union, Boolean Difference, Boolean
Intersection, Boolean Two Objects
Primitives
Pipe, Box, Sphere, Ellipsoid, Torus, Cylinder,
Tube, Pyramid, Cone, Truncated Cone
Other Solid Creation Tools:
Text,Extrude Curve, Solid Extrude All, Boss, Rib,
Slab
Surface normals “out” (Left) Surface normals “in”
(Right)
For successful Booleans, the surface normals
should point outward. If the results of a Boolean
turn out opposite from what was expected (i.e.
Boolean Difference is selected but Boolean
Union is performed, or vice versa), first reverse the
direction of the surface normals using Direction
in the Utilities menu. To do so, select the surfaces
and run the Direction command so the direction
arrows are visible, click once on the surface to flip
the direction of the arrows. Press Enter to end the
Directions command. Try the Boolean operation
again with the surface normals on both objects
pointing out. When working with open surfaces
(surfaces with Naked Edges), Booleans are NOT
recommended. Try Join or Split instead.
Editing Surfaces:
Cap Planar, Extract Surface, Fillet, Array Hole,
Array Hole Polar, Move Hole, Move Face, Shell
212
Boolean Union
Boolean Difference
‘BooleanUnion’
This command combines two solid objects
together. It removes the shared area between
selected objects (where objects overlap) and
creates a single polysurface from the unshared
surfaces.
‘BooleanDifference’
This command cuts one solid object out of
another, leaving space in the shape of the cutter.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Boolean
Difference
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Boolean
Union
Steps:
• Select Boolean Difference from the Solid menu.
• Select surfaces or polysurfaces to subtract from
(the object being cut into).
• Press Enter when done.
• Select surfaces or polysurface to subtract with (the
cutter).
• Press Enter when done.
Steps:
• Select Boolean Union from the Solid menu.
• Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union.
• Press Enter when done.
• The objects combine into one polysurface.
Note: See Rules for Successful Booleans listed under
Boolean Union.
Note: Use the Boolean Builder in the Tools or Cutters
menu to boolean meshes. The Boolean Builder
requires both objects to be either meshes or both to
be NURBs objects.
Two surfaces are
joined together
with Boolean
Union. Objects
before (top) and
after (bottom).
Surfaces before (blue, red) and after (green) using
Boolean Difference with the red sphere as the cutter.
Rules for Successful Booleans:
Command Line Option:
• Objects must be closed (solid) and valid
polysurfaces. Surfaces can also be used.
• Open Surfaces may yield opposite results ( a
Union would cause a Difference).
• Objects must not be co-planar. Co-planar objects
have corners or whole edges that exist on the
same plane in space. (Move one slightly away
from the other one.)
• Objects with lots of sharp corners, or objects that
pass into and then out of one another one or
more times can also have problems booleaning.
• An object that is fully inside another object cannot
be booleaned from it.
DeleteInput: Deletes the surface or polysurfaces
being used to subtract with (the cutter). Set
DeleteInput to ‘No’ to keep the cutters.
Note: Use the Boolean Builder in the Tools or Cutters
menu to boolean meshes. The Boolean Builder
requires both objects to be either meshes or both to
be NURBs objects.
Boolean Intersection
‘BooleanIntersection’
This command creates a solid shape only where
two objects intersect. It removes the unshared
ares of the selected polysurfaces or surfaces.
213
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Boolean
Intersection
Boolean Two Objects displays boolean results for
Union, Intersection, Difference A/B, Difference
B/A, and Inversion Intersection
Steps:
• Select Boolean Intersection from the Solid menu.
• Select the first set of surfaces or polysurfaces.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select the second set of surfaces or polysurfaces.
• Press Enter when done.
Boolean 2 Objects allows for a
Boolean Inversion Intersection in one step.
Note: See Rules for Successful Booleans listed under
Boolean Union.
Note: Use the Boolean Builder in the Tools or Cutters
menu to boolean meshes. The Boolean Builder
requires both objects to be either meshes or both to
be NURBs objects.
Option:
DeleteInput: Deletes the surface or polysurfaces
being used to subtract with (the cutter). Set
DeleteInput to ‘No’ to keep the cutters.
Note: Use the Boolean Builder in the Tools or Cutters
menu to boolean meshes. The Boolean Builder
requires both objects to be either meshes or both to
be NURBs objects.
Two surfaces used with
Boolean Intersection.
Objects before (top)
and after (bottom).
Cap Planar
‘Cap’
Use Cap Planar on an open surface or polysurface
to create a solid. Cap Planar fills openings in
surfaces or polysurfaces with a planar surface
joined to the hole edge.
Boolean Two Objects
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Cap Planar
‘Boolean2Objects’
This option gives you all the possible Boolean
results, between two objects, with the click of
the mouse. It cycles through possible operations
between two object with mouse clicks.
Steps:
• Select Cap Planar from the Solid menu.
• Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap.
• Press Enter when done.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Boolean Two
Object
Note: The openings must have edge loops that are
closed and planar. They must be flat along a single
plane in space.
Steps:
• Select Boolean Two Objects from the Solid menu.
• Select two objects to boolean. (The objects must
be surfaces or polysurfaces.)
• Click the mouse in the viewport to iterate through
the boolean results.
• Press Enter to accept.
• An open polysurface (before on left) and a closed
polysurface (after on right) using Cap Planar.
Note: See Rules for Successful Booleans listed under
Boolean Union.
214
Outputlayer = Current: Current places the
Extract Surface
results (the extracted surface) on the current layer.
‘ExtractSrf’
Use this command to separate a component
surface from a polysurface, creating a single
surface and an open polysurface.
With the
“OutputLayer=Current”
option, the extracted surface
will appear on the current
Layer color (Metal 01).
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Extract
Surface
Outputlayer = Input: Places the results (the
Or, right-click the command to activate the
Copy=Yes option.
extracted surface) on the same layer as the input
curve.
Steps:
Fillet Edge
• Select Extract Surface from the Solid menu.
• Select surfaces or polysurfaces to extract.
• Press Enter when done.
• The extracted surface remains in the same place
until it is deleted or moved by you.
‘FilletEdge’
Use this tool to fillet (add tangent curvature to)
edges in a polysurface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Fillet Edge
Right-Click Command: Fillet Edge - Previous
Edge
Steps:
• Select Fillet Edge from the Solid menu.
• Select edges to Fillet. (Choose a ‘NextRadius’
amount before selecting the edge or use the
default amount shown.)
• Press Enter when done.
• Select Fillet handle to edit.
• Press Enter when done.
Using Extract Surface to extract the surface on the
shank end.
Note:
• The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces.
The remainder of each polysurface will stay joined.
• The extracted surface is also removed from any
groups to which the original surface may belong.
• To remove a surface from the selection, press the
‘Ctrl’ key while clicking.
• When extracting a surface from a polysurface this
command can save time. It only lets you extract
the selected surfaces from the polysurface
instead of using Explode and having to join
everything together again.
Note: Moving a handle at the end of the edge will
cause the fillet to extend beyond the surface. This
will have to be trimmed by other means.
Note: The polysurface may be open or closed, but
component surfaces must be joined.
Command Line Options:
Copy=Yes/No: Specifies whether or not the
objects (the surfaces being extracted) are copied.
A plus sign appears at the cursor when copy
mode is on.
Fillet before (left) and after (right).
215
curves is less than this value, the chain selection
will ignore the gap and will select the next
segment.
Radius amount
is shown on
the handle
when Shows
Radius=Yes.
AngleTolerance: When Continuity is set to
Command Line Options:
Tangency, if the angle between two edges or
curves is less than this value, the chain selection
will consider the criteria for continuity met and will
select the next segment.
Undo: Undo last segment selection.
ShowRadius: Controls the display of the current
Next: Select next segment.
radius in the viewport
All: Select all segments.
NextRadius: Specifies the radius for the next
handle.
Options Continued:
PreviousEdgeSelection: In cases where the
Chain Edges Options:
command is canceled or ended prematurely, reselects the previously selected edges. Supports
multiple sets of previously selected edges for up
to 20 previous edge sets.
AutoChain Yes/No: Selecting a curve or a
surface edge automatically selects all curve
segments connected with the level of continuity
set by the Chain Continuity option.
Radius/Distance options
Chain Edges Steps:
Radius and Distance options appear on the
Command Line when you drag a handle grip.
• Select Chain Edges option in the Command Line.
• Select first chain segment. (If Auto Chain is
enabled the chain of edges will auto select.)
• Select next chain segment. (If Auto Chain is set to
‘No’.)
• Press Enter when done.
FromCurve: Select a curve. The radius of the
curve at the picked location will be used.
FromTwoPoints: Pick two points to show the
radius distance.
ChainContinuity: Controls the level of continuity
(Position, Tangency or Curvature) required
between segments to be selected with the Auto
Chain option. With Position the curves are position
continuous (G0) and touch at the ends. Tangency;
the curves touch at the ends and go the same
direction a the point where they touch (G1).
Curvature continuity measures position, direction
and radius of curvature at the ends. They go the
same direction and have the same radius (G2).
Handle Options
AddHandle: Adds a handle along the edges.
Add Handle Steps:
• Enter a new Radius amount in the Command Line
by clicking on ‘CurrentRadius’.
• Select new fillet handle location. Drag your cursor
to the desired location. Left-click to set the
location. Repeat as many times as desired.
• Press Enter when done.
Direction: ‘Forward’ selects curves in the positive
curve direction. ‘Backwards’ selects curves in the
negative curve direction. ‘Both’ selects curves in
both the positive and negative curve direction.
CopyHandle: Adds a new handle using the
distance from the selected handle.
GapTolerance: If the gap between two edges or
216
Copy Handle Steps:
TrimAndJoin: Trims and joins the resulting
• Select Fillet handle to copy.
• Select new handle location or an existing handle.
Drag your cursor to the desired location. Leftclick to set the location. Repeat as many times as
desired.
• Press Enter when done.
surface to the input surfaces.
Text
‘TextObject’
Draws text-shaped curves, surfaces or
polysurfaces based on True Type fonts.
RemoveHandle: Visible only when at least one
handle has been added. Select the Fillet handle
to remove. Click on the handle(s) to remove and
press enter when done.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Text
SetAll: Sets the distance or radius for all handles.
• Select Text from the Solid menu.
• Specify the options in the text object window.
Enter the text to create, select the font, select if
curve, surfaces or solids, etc.
• Pick a location in the viewport to place the Text.
Steps:
LinkHandles Yes/No: Editing a single handle
updates all handles.
Note:
• Only added handles can be removed.
• The default handles at the ends of each open
edge segment cannot be moved or deleted. This
is the minimum information the command needs
in order to work.
• The handle at the end of a single closed edge
can be moved but not deleted.
RailType options
DistFromEdge: The distance from the edge
curves determines the intersection,
Rolling Ball: The radius of a rolling ball
determines the intersection (default).
DistBetweenRails: The distance between the
edge rails determines the intersection.
Handle Options Continued:
SelectEdges: Allows selecting more edges after
the selection has been closed.
Options:
Preview Yes/No: ‘Yes’ displays a dynamic
Text to Create: Type the desired text in this
window. Right click in the edit area to cut, copy
and paste text.
preview. You can change the options at this
point and the preview will update. ‘No’ means no
preview will display. There is no opportunity to
change the options.
Font: Selects the font and style.
217
Solid Thickness: Sets the thickness of text
Note: Matrix uses the fonts in Windows on your
computer. Add fonts in Windows to have them
available in ‘Text’.
created from solids (Z direction)
Lower case as small caps: This option creates
Name: Use the drop down menu to select from
lower case letters as small caps. Set the relative
text size as a percentage of the normal text.
the installed fonts on your computer.
Note: Not all fonts will create valid surfaces or
solids without requiring reworking.
Add spacing: Adds spacing between letters.
Bold: Sets the font to Bold.
Extrude Curve Straight
Italic: Sets the font to Italic.
‘ExtrudeCrv’
Creates solid polysurfaces from closed, planar
curves. This is the same command as Extrude
Curve All but it defaults to the Straight option.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Extrude
Curve Straight
Comic Sans font used to create curves with ‘Text’.
Create
Steps:
Specifies the object type.
• Select Extrude Curve Straight from the Solid
menu.
• Select Curves to Extrude.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select Command Line options.
• Specify an extrusion distance by picking a point or
typing in a value.
Curves: Creates text using outline curves.
Surfaces: Creates text using planar surfaces.
Solids: Creates text using solids.
Note: Not every font is suitable to create as valid
solids. They may first need to be fixed at the curve
level. Then, extrude the curves as solids.
Solid polysurfaces are created from closed curves.
Notes:
Solid polysurface text created with ‘Text’.
• Curves must be planar, or, appear as a single line
when seen in another viewport.
• Nonplanar curves will not extrude properly.
• Curves must be closed and joined, or have position
continuity to create valid, solid objects with no
naked (open) edges.
• When two or more curves are selected, they
should not intersect. If they do, trim them together
first.
• In order to make a hole through the solid object,
one curve should be fully inside the other, and on
the same plane in space.
• When curves on separate planes are selected
together, two solid objects will result.
Group Objects: Groups the resulting text
objects.
Allow single-stroke fonts: Allows fonts that
do not have closed loop boundaries. Engravingstyle fonts for machine applications are the most
common. If unchecked, single-stroke engraving
fonts display closed loop boundaries
Text Size: Set text height and thickness.
Height: Sets the height in model units (mm as
default in the Y direction).
218
correspond to the tangent sub-curves in the input
curves. The output will be a polysurface. When
UseExtrusions is on, this setting has no effect.
SetBasePoint: Specify a location that serves as
the first point when picking two points that set
the extrusion distance.
Solid Extrude All
Nonplanar curve shown in Through Finger viewport
produces surface walls but does not create closed,
solid, polysurface.
‘ExtrudeCrv’
Extrudes open curves, closed curves, or surfaces
(either planar or non-planar) and creates
polysurfaces that are straight-edged, come to a
single point, tapered or follow a path curve.
Command Line Options:
Direction: Pick Two points to establish the
direction angle.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Solid Extrude
All
Steps:
• Pick a base point.
• Pick a second point that establishes the direction
angle.
Steps:
• Select Solid Extrude All from the Solid menu.
• Select objects to Extrude.
• Pick an Extrude option.
• Specify a distance by picking a point or typing in a
value.
Hints:
Pick a point in the Through Finger viewport to set
the direction (if Curves are positioned planar in the
Looking Down viewport).
• Curves and surfaces cannot be selected together
in one step. Either select all curves or all surfaces.
• Both planar and non-planar objects can be
selected in one step.
BothSides: Draws the object on both sides of
the start point, creating the extrusion twice as
high as the distance value.
Solid: If the profile curve is closed and planar,
both ends of the extruded object are filled with
planar surfaces and joined to make a closed
polysurface.
ToBoundary: Extrudes the object to a boundary
surface.
Solid Extrude All
DeleteInput: Deletes the original curve.
Extrude Options:
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
There are four extrude options; Straight, Tapered,
ToPoint or AlongCurve. See each expanded
Command Line options further below.
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface
when the input curves are joined tangent curves.
Surfaces in the resulting polysurface object
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Straight: Extrudes objects at a tangency.
Polysurfaces are made with straight sides.
curves. The output will be a polysurface. When
UseExtrusions is on, this setting has no effect.
Tapered: Extrudes objects at an angle.
Polysurfaces are made with angled sides with one
end smaller in two dimensions than the other end.
SetBasePoint: Specify a location that serves as
the first point when picking two points that set
the extrusion distance.
ToPoint: Creates angled polysurfaces that meet
Command Line Options (Tapered):
at a single designated point.
AlongCurve: Select a ‘Path Curve’ for the
original object to create the polysurface along.
See instructions above (Command Line Options
- Straight) for shared options: Direction, Solid,
DeleteInput, ToBoundary and Set BasePoint.
Command Line Options (Straight):
Extrude closed curves Tapered
Draft Angle: Enter a value for the angle of the
Extrude closed curves Straight
Direction: Pick Two points to establish the
direction angle.
Steps:
• Pick a base point.
• Pick a second point that establishes the direction
angle.
BothSides: Draws the object on both sides of
the start point, creating the extrusion twice as
high as the distance value.
Solid: If the profile curve is closed and planar,
both ends of the extruded object are filled with
planar surfaces and joined to make a closed
polysurface.
taper.
Corners=Sharp/ Round/ Smooth: Sharp
produces straight-edged corners. Round makes
Arc curve-shaped corners. And, Smooth creates
Blend curve-shaped corners.
FlipAngle: This option reverses the Draft Angle
from a positive to a negative amount or vice versa.
Command Line Options (To Point):
See instructions above (Command Line Options
- Straight) for shared options: Solid, DeleteInput,
ToBoundary and SplitAtTangents.
DeleteInput: Deletes the original object used for
the extrusion.
ToBoundary: Extrudes the object to a boundary
surface.
SplitAtTangents: Specifies whether resulting
Command Line Options (Along Curve):
surfaces will be one surface or a polysurface
when the input curves are joined tangent curves.
Surfaces in the resulting polysurface object
correspond to the tangent sub-curves in the input
See instructions above (Command Line Options
- Straight) for shared options: Solid, DeleteInput,
ToBoundary and SplitAtTangents.
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SubCurve= Yes/No: Select a start and end
Chain Edge Options:
point along the Path Curve, to extrude the shape
along only that part of the path curve.
AutoChain Yes/No: Selecting a curve or a
surface edge automatically selects all curve
segments connected with the level of continuity
set by the Chain Continuity option.
Chain Edges Steps:
• Select Chain Edges option in the Command Line.
• Select first chain segment. (If Auto Chain is
enabled the chain of edges will auto select.)
• Select next chain segment. (If Auto Chain is set to
‘No’.)
• Press Enter when done.
Extrude a closed curve along a Path Curve using
Extrude All - Along Curve.
ChainContinuity: Controls the level of continuity
Pipe
(Position, Tangency or Curvature) required
between segments to be selected with the Auto
Chain option. With Position the curves are position
continuous (G0) and touch at the ends. Tangency;
the curves touch at the ends and go the same
direction a the point where they touch (G1).
Curvature continuity measures position, direction
and radius of curvature at the ends. They go the
same direction and have the same radius (G2).
‘Pipe’
This command creates an open or closed tubelike surface around a curve as though a round
profile curve, with a radius selected by the user,
has been swept along the chosen curve. This is a
useful tool when round “wire” is a required as part
of a design.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Pipe
Direction: ‘Forward’ selects curves in the positive
curve direction. ‘Backwards’ selects curves in the
negative curve direction. ‘Both’ selects curves in
both the positive and negative curve direction.
or from the F6 menu with a curve selected.
Right-Click Command: Pipe with Chain Edges
GapTolerance: If the gap between two edges or
Steps:
curves is less than this value, the chain selection
will ignore the gap and will select the next
segment.
• Select Pipe from the Solid menu.
• Select curve to create Pipe around.
• Set the start Radius at the beginning of the Pipe.
Choose the Command Line options.
• Set the Radius at the end of the Pipe.
• Set a point for the next radius, or press Enter for
none.
AngleTolerance: When Continuity is set to
Tangency, if the angle between two edges or
curves is less than this value, the chain selection
will consider the criteria for continuity met and will
select the next segment.
Undo: Undo last segment selection.
Next: Select next segment.
Pipe is
created
around a
single curve.
All: Select all segments.
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Command Line Option:
Multiple: Allows selecting more than one curve.
Multiple curves are
able to be selected
with the ‘Multiple’
option.
Shape Blending of Pipe is Local (left) or Global
(right).
Pipe Options:
Diameter/Radius: Toggle between using a
value for Radius or Diameter when creating Pipe.
Thick=No/Yes: When set to ‘No’ the pipe has
only one wall. When set to ‘Yes’ the pipe has two
walls creating a tube that follows the selected
curve.
Pipe Thick (Yes) Steps:
• Pick the first start Radius.
• Pick the second start Radius.
• Pick the first end Radius.
• Pick the second end Radius.
The first and second Radius set the inside and
outside diameter of the tube.
Box
‘Box’
Draws a solid Box.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Box
Right-Click Command: Box - 3 Points
Steps:
• Select Box from the Solid menu.
• Draw the base rectangle of the box by selecting
the first corner of the base.
• Select the other corner of the base or length.
• Select the Width. Press Enter to use length.
• Pick the Height of the box. Press Enter to use
Width.
Cap = None/ Flat/ Round: Specifies the type
of the end of the Pipe. None has no cap. The pipe
is an open surface. Flat caps the end of the pipe
with a planar surface. Round caps the end of the
pipe with a hemispherical surface
FitRail No/Yes: If the curve is a polycurve of
Draw a Box using the
‘Box’ command.
lines and arcs, the curve is fit and a single surface
is created Otherwise, the result is a polysurface
with joined surfaces created from the polycurve
segments.
Command Line Options:
ShapeBlending (Single Curve Only):
Local: The Pipe radius stays constant at the ends
and changes more rapidly in the middle.
Diagonal steps
Global: The Radius is linearly blended from one
end to the other, creating Pipes that taper from
one radius to the other.
Diagonal: Draws the base rectangle from two
diagonal corners. No option for side length is
offered.
• Pick two opposite corners - first and second
corners.
• Or, select the Cube option. Cube allows you to
select diagonal corners, one at the base and the
other at the top for height.
• Next, pick a height that also define the cubes
orientation.
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3Point: Draws the base rectangle using two
3Point with Radius: Specifies the radius and
adjacent corner locations and a location on the
opposite side.
orientation for the circle after two points have
been picked.
3Point steps:
Steps:
• Pick the start of an edge.
• Pick the end of the edge.
• Pick or type the width.
• Pick a location or type a radius value.
• Pick a direction to orient the circle.
Tangent: Draws a circle tangent to curves. Pick
Vertical: Draws the base rectangle so that it is
the three tangent curve locations. The Point
options allows you to pick a point or enter a
radius.
perpendicular to the Construction plane.
Vertical steps
• Pick the start of the edge.
• Pick the end of the edge.
• Pick or type a width.
AroundCurve: Draws a circle perpendicular to a
curve.
Steps:
Center: Draws the base rectangle around a
• Select a curve and pick the center of the circle on
the curve and a Radius or Diameter.
center point.
Center steps
4Point: Draws the sphere based on three
• Pick the center for the base rectangle.
• Pick the other corner or type a length.
points that define a circumference and a point to
establish the location
4Point steps
Sphere
• Pick three points, or two points and a radius to
define a circle that will lie on the sphere.
• If no radius is specified, pick a fourth point to
specify the sphere’s location. The fourth point
sets the size of a sphere constrained by the circle.
‘Sphere’
Draws a Solid Sphere.
Where is this Command:
You can access this command from
Solid>Sphere
FitPoints: Draws a circle by fitting to selected
Right-Click Command: Sphere - 2 points
point objects, curve and surface control points,
and mesh vertices.
Steps:
Fit Point Steps:
• Pick the center of the Sphere.
• Enter a radius for the base circle (drag cursor to
select a point or enter a value in the Command
Line.
• Select point objects or control points.
A minimum of three points or control points is
required.
Ellipsoid Spheres drawn with the Sphere command.
‘Ellipsoid’
Draws a solid Ellipsoid
Command Line Options:
2Point: Draws the circle from the two ends of its
diameter. Pick the start and end diameter.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Ellipsoid
3Point: Draws a circle through three points on
Right-Click Command: Ellipsoid from Diameter
the circumference. Pick three points that define
the circumference.
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Steps:
Steps:
• Select Ellipsoid from the Solid menu.
• Pick the center of the Ellipsoid.
• Pick the end of the first axis.
• Pick end of second axis
• Pick the end of the third axis.
• Pick the center of the ellipsoid on a curve.
• Pick the end of the first axis
• Pick the end of the second axis
• Pick the 3 axis to set the thickness of the ellipsoid
Torus
‘Torus’
Draws a solid Torus (donut shape).
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Torus
Ellipsoid drawn with the Ellipsoid command.
Right-Click Command: Torus - 2Points
Steps:
Command Line Options:
Corner: Draws the base ellipse from the corners
of an enclosing rectangle.
• Select Torus from the Solid menu.
• Pick the center of the Torus.
• Pick the radius.
• Pick the second radius.
Corner Steps:
• Pick a corner for the enclosing rectangle.
• Pick the opposite corner of the enclosing rectangle
• Pick the third axis to set the thickness of the
ellipsoid.
Diameter: Draws the base ellipse from points on
its axes.
Diameter Steps:
• Pick the start of the first axis.
• Pick the end of the first axis.
• Pick the end of the second axis.
• Pick the third axis to set the thickness of the
ellipsoid.
Draw a Torus with the Torus command.
Command Line Options:
From Foci: Draws the ellipse from focus points
Vertical: Draws a circle perpendicular to the
and a point on the curve.
Construction plane.
Steps:
Steps:
• Pick the first focus.
• Pick the second focus.
• Pick a point on the ellipse curve.
• Pick the center and a radius or diameter.
MarkFoci (From Foci Option): Places a point
object at the focus locations.
Around Curve: Draws a circle perpendicular to a
curve.
2Point: Draws the Circle from the two ends of its
diameter.
Steps:
• Pick the start and end diameter.
3Point: Draws a circle through three points on
the circumference.
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3Point Steps:
• Pick three points that define the circumference.
3Point options:
Radius: Specifies the radius and orientation for
Draw a Cylinder using the
Cylinder command.
the circle after two points have been picked.
Radius Steps:
• Pick a location or type a radius value.
• Pick a direction to orient the circle.
Tangent: Draws a circle tangent to curves.
Tangent Steps:
Direction Constraint Options:
• Pick the first tangent location on the first curve.
None: The center can be anywhere in 3D space.
Tangent Options:
Point: Allows a point that does not have to be a
The second point can be placed anywhere using
elevator mode, object snaps or other modeling
aids.
tangent point on curve.
Vertical: Draws an object perpendicular to the
AroundCurve: Draws a circle perpendicular to a
Construction plane.
curve.
Around Curve Steps:
AroundCurve: Draws the base circle
Select a curve and pick the center of the circle on
the curve and a Radius or Diameter.
perpendicular to a curve.
Cylinder Options:
FitPoints: Draws a circle by fitting to selected
Solid Yes/ No: Fills the base with a surface to
point objects, curve and surface control points,
and mesh vertices.
form a closed solid or leaves the ends open.
Steps:
2Point: Draws the Circle from the two ends of its
diameter.
• Select point objects or control points.
A minimum of three points or control points is
required.
Steps:
• Pick the start and end diameter.
Cylinder
3Point: Draws a circle through three points on
the circumference.
‘Cylinder’
Draws a solid Cylinder.
Steps:
• Pick three points that define the circumference.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Cylinder
3Point Option (Radius): Specifies the radius
Right-Click Command: Cylinder - 2Point
and orientation for the circle after two points have
been picked.
Steps:
Steps:
• Select Cylinder from the Solid menu.
• Pick the center and radius of the base circle.
• Pick the end of the cylinder to set the height.
• Pick a location or type a radius value.
• Pick a direction to orient the circle.
Tangent: Draws a circle tangent to curves.
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Steps:
Vertical: Draws an object perpendicular to the
• Pick the first tangent location on the first curve.
Construction plane.
Tangent Option (Point): Allows a point that
AroundCurve: Draws the base circle
does not have to be a tangent point on curve.
perpendicular to a curve.
FitPoints: Draws a circle by fitting to selected
point objects, curve and surface control points,
and mesh vertices.
Base of Tube Options:
Solid (default): Fills the base with a surface to
Steps:
form a closed solid.
• Select point objects or control points.
A minimum of three points or control points is
required.
2Point: Draws the Circle from the two ends of its
diameter. Pick the start and end diameter.
3Point:Draws a circle through three points on the
Tube
circumference.
‘Tube’
Draws a closed Cylinder with a concentric
cylindrical hole, creating a Tube.
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Tube
and orientation for the circle after two points have
been picked.
Right-Click Command: Tube - 2Point
Steps:
• Select Tube from the Solid menu.
• Pick the center and radius of the base circle.
• Pick the radius/diameter for the second base circle
creating the tube wall.
• Pick the end of the tube or type a height.
• Pick three points that define the circumference.
3Point Option (Radius): Specifies the radius
Steps:
• Pick a location or type a radius value.
• Pick a direction to orient the circle.
Tangent: Draws a circle tangent to curves.
Steps:
• Pick the first tangent location on the first curve.
Tangent Option (Point): Allows a point that
does not have to be a tangent point on curve.
Drawing Tubes with the
Tube command.
FitPoints: Draws a circle by fitting to selected
point objects, curve and surface control points,
and mesh vertices.
Steps:
• Select point objects or control points.
A minimum of three points or control points is
required.
Direction Constraint Options:
Set Size of Base:
None: The center can be anywhere in 3D space.
Radius, Diameter or Area: After setting the
The second point can be placed anywhere using
elevator mode, object snaps or other modeling
aids.
center of the base you can set the size of the base
using radius, diameter or area by specifying your
selection in the Command Line.
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Steps:
WallThickness: Specifies the value for the
distance between the inside and outside of the
tube.
• Pick the center of the polygon.
• Pick a corner of the polygon
BothSides: Draws the Tube on both sides of the
Circumscribed: Draws a polygon where the
midpoints of the sides touch an imaginary circle of
a specified radius.
start point (base circle), creating an object twice
as long as you indicate.
Steps:
Pyramid
• Pick the center of the polygon.
• Pick the midpoint of the polygon edge.
‘Pyramid’
Draws a solid Pyramid.
Edge: Draws a polygon by defining one edge.
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Pyramid
• Pick the start of the polygon edge.
• Pick the end of the polygon edge.
Right-Click Command: Pyramid - Star
Edge Option (Flip): Flips the polygon along
the edge you are drawing.
Steps:
• Select Pyramid from the Solid menu.
• Draw the base polygon. Click once to place the
center in the viewport. (Select the Command Line
Options to change the side count or shape.)
• Pick a corner point for the Pyramid.
• Pick the end of the Pyramid (apex) or type a value
to set the height
Star: Draws a Star shaped polygon.
Steps:
• Pick the center of the star.
• Pick a corner of the star.
• Pick a radius for the imaginary circle defining the
second star radius.
Star Option (Automatic): Creates a star where
the size of the outer and inner points are equal.
Press Enter on your keyboard to select Automatic.
Draw many
different
shapes with
the Pyramid
command
including
5-or 6-point
stars.
Solid: Fills the base with a surface to form a
closed solid.
Direction Constraint Options:
None: The center can be anywhere in 3-D space.
The second point can be placed anywhere using
elevator mode, object snaps or other modeling
aids.
Pyramid Options:
Numsides: Specifies the number of sides for the
Vertical: Draws an object perpendicular to the
base polygon.
Construction plane.
Inscribed (default): Draws the polygon where
the corners of the sides touch an imaginary circle
of a specified radius (therefore the base polygon
is inscribed inside the imaginary circle).
AroundCurve: Draws the base circle
perpendicular to a curve.
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Cone
3Point:Draws a circle through three points on the
circumference.
‘Cone’
Draws a solid Cone.
Steps:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Cone
3Point Option (Radius): Specifies the radius
Right-Click Command: Cone - 2Point
Steps:
• Select Cone from the Solid menu.
• Pick the center and radius of the base.
• Pick the end of the cone (apex) or type a value to
set the height.
• Pick three points that define the circumference.
and orientation for the circle after two points have
been picked.
Steps:
• Pick a location or type a radius value.
• Pick a direction to orient the circle.
Tangent: Draws a circle tangent to curves.
Steps:
• Pick the first tangent location on the first curve.
Tangent Option (Point): Allows a point that
does not have to be a tangent point on curve.
FitPoints: Draws a circle by fitting to selected
point objects, curve and surface control points,
and mesh vertices.
Draw cone-shaped objects with the Cone command.
Direction Constraint Options:
Steps:
• Select point objects or control points.
A minimum of three points or control points is
required.
None: The center can be anywhere in 3-D space.
The second point can be placed anywhere using
elevator mode, object snaps or other modeling
aids.
Vertical: Draws an object perpendicular to the
Construction plane.
AroundCurve: Draws the base circle
perpendicular to a curve.
Cone Options:
Solid: Fills the base with a surface to form a
closed solid.
2Point: Draws the Circle from the two ends of its
diameter.
Steps:
Set Size of Base:
Radius, Diameter or Area: After setting the
center of the base you can set the size of the base
using radius, diameter or area by specifying your
selection in the Command Line.
Truncated Cone
‘TCone’
Draws a solid cone whose apex is truncated by a
plane.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Truncated
Cone
Right-Click Command: Truncated Cone - 2Point
• Pick the start and end diameter.
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Steps:
3Point Option (Radius): Specifies the radius
• Select Truncated Cone from the Solid menu.
• Pick the center and radius of the base.
• Pick the end of the cone (apex) or type a value to
set the height
• Pick a radius of diameter for the top surface of the
truncated cone.
and orientation for the circle after two points have
been picked.
Steps:
• Pick a location or type a radius value.
• Pick a direction to orient the circle.
Tangent: Draws a circle tangent to curves.
Steps:
Draw
Truncated
cone-shaped
objects with
the Truncated
Cone
command.
• Pick the first tangent location on the first curve.
Tangent Option (Point): Allows a point that
does not have to be a tangent point on curve.
FitPoints: Draws a circle by fitting to selected
point objects, curve and surface control points,
and mesh vertices.
Steps:
Direction Constraint Options:
None: The center can be anywhere in 3-D space.
The second point can be placed anywhere using
elevator mode,object snaps or other modeling
aids.
Vertical: Draws an object perpendicular to the
• Select point objects or control points. (A minimum
of three points or control points is required.)
Set Size of Base:
Radius, Diameter or Area: After setting the
center of the base you can set the size of the base
using radius, diameter or area by specifying your
selection in the Command Line.
construction plane.
AroundCurve: Draws the base circle
perpendicular to a curve.
Truncated Cone Options:
Solid: Fills the base with a surface to form a
closed solid.
2Point: Draws the Circle from the two ends of its
diameter.
Steps:
• Pick the start and end diameter.
3Point: Draws a circle through three points on
the circumference.
Steps:
• Pick three points that define the circumference.
Set size for top of Cone:
Radius (default) or Diameter: Select the
diameter option to enter a value for the diameter.
Boss
‘Boss’
Extrudes a closed planar curve normal to the
curve plane toward a boundary surface where the
boundary surface is trimmed and joined to the
extruded object(s).
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid>Boss
Steps:
• Select Boss from the Solid menu.
• Select a planar, closed curve to boss.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select a surface or polysurface as a boundary
object.
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Hints:
• Placement of the planar curve inside the
boundary polysurface object creates a hole in the
polysurface.
• Placement of the planar curve above or below the
boundary object determines the output shape.
Rib
‘Rib’
Extrudes a curve in two directions. First, it offsets
the curve, creating thickness. Then, the planar
curve extrudes toward a boundary surface or
polysurface and joins with it.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Rib
Steps:
Planar curve is placed beneath the boundary surface
(left). Planar curve is placed above the boundary
surface (right).
• Select Rib from the Solid menu.
• Select a planar curves to Rib.
• Press Enter when done.
• Select a boundary surface or polysurface.
Planar curve is placed above the boundary
polysurface (left). Planar curve is placed inside the
boundary polysurface (right).
Using a planar curve and a surface with Rib.
Mode Options:
Sets the type of extrusion.
Straight (default): Extrudes curves straight to
the boundary.
Tapered: Extrudes the curve to the boundary
with a draft angle. Choose a draft angle for the
taper.
Using a planar curve and a boundary polysurface
with Rib.
DraftAngle (Tapered only): Specify the draft angle
in degrees when the tapered option is selected.
Looking inside
the joined
surfaces after
using Rib. The
curve is offset on
both sides and
extrudes towards
the boundary
object.
Boss Tapered with a draft angle of 10° (left)
and 20° (right).
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Command Line Options
Offset: Changes the offset direction relative to
the input curve. Choose between In Curve Plane
or Normal to Curve Plane.
Offset=InCurvePlane (default): Use when the
input curve describes the Rib in plane view.
Offset=NormalToCurvePlane: Use when the
A planar curve is used in Slab.
Rib curve describes the Rib in elevation view.
Options
Distance: Sets the offset distance for the input
Distance: Sets the offset distance. This value
curve. Enter a value.
affects the size of the base of your slab.
Mode= Straight or Tapered: Straight extrudes
ThroughPoint: Offsets through a pick point
curves straight to the boundary. Tapered extrudes
the curve to the boundary object with a draft
angle.
BothSides: Draws the Slab on both side of the
DraftAngle (Tapered Option Only): Specify
start point, creating the Slab twice as long as the
set distance.
the draft angle when the tapered option is
selected. Enter a value in degrees.
InCPlane: As a default, the curve is offset in the
instead of at a set distance.
plane of the original curve. This option offsets the
curve in the plane of the current Construction
plane instead.
Note: The draft angle is dependent on the
Construction plane orientation. When the surface is
vertical or perpendicular to the Construction plane,
the draft angle is zero. When the surface is parallel to
the Construction plane, the draft angle is 90 degrees.
Make Hole
‘Slab’
Offsets a curve, extrudes and caps the result to
create a solid.
‘MakeHole’
Projects selected closed curves to a surface or
polysurface creating holes in that object. This
command has a similar effect to extruding a curve
and then performing a boolean difference-though
there are additional options with this command.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Slab
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Make Hole
Slab
Steps:
• Select Slab from the Solid menu.
• Select a curve to Slab.
• Pick a side to offset by dragging your cursor to
one side of the curve. Then, click in the viewport.
• Pick a height by dragging your cursor up or down.
Then, click to set the height. Or, enter a value in
the Command Line.
Steps:
• Select Make Hole from the Solid menu.
• Select closed curves.
• Select a surface or polysurface.
• Pick a cut depth point by dragging your cursor up
or down. Or, press Enter to cut through the object.
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Extrusion Options:
DeleteInput: Deletes the original curve used to
create the hole.
BothSides: Draws the Slab on both side of the
start point, creating the slab twice as long as you
indicate.
Curves are oriented above the surface. Pick a cut
depth (below the surface.).
Make Hole with Delete Input set to ‘Yes’.
Array Hole
‘ArrayHole’
Copies holes in a surface in a specified number of
rows and columns
After Make Hole is complete.
Direction Options:
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Array Hole
X/Y/Z: Constrains the direction for the hole
Steps:
extrusion to X, Y, or Z directions.
• Select Array Hole from the Solid menu.
• Select a hole.
• Enter an amount for the number of holes in the
A-direction.
• Enter an amount for the number of holes in the
B-direction.
• Pick a base point.
• Pick the A-direction and distance.
• Pick the B-direction and distance.
NormalToCurve (default): Constrains the
direction for the hole extrusion to the curve plane
normal.
CPlaneNormal: Constrains the direction for
the hole extrusion to the Construction plane Z
direction.
Pick: Two points establish the direction angle.
Steps
• Pick a base point.
• Pick a second point that establishes the direction
angle.
AlongCurve: Constrains the direction for the
hole extrusion along a chosen curve path.
Before (top) and after (bottom) Array Hole.
232
Options
ADirection: Changes the first direction.
A preview
of the array
is shown.
Change the
number
or angle if
desired.
ANumber: Number of holes in the first direction.
ASpacing: Distance between hole centers in the
first direction.
BNumber: Number of holes in the second
direction.
BSpacing: Distance between hole centers in the
second direction.
Array Hole
Polar is
complete. It
fills a 180°
angle and
has a count
of 8 holes.
Rectangular
Yes: Forces the second direction to be
perpendicular to the first direction.
No: Allows the array to be skewed-not
perpendicular.
UseASpacing: Use the same distance as the
second direction as for the first direction.
Array Hole Polar
‘ArrayHolePolar’
Copies holes in a surface around a central
location.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Array Hole
Polar
Steps:
• Select Array Hole Polar in the Solid menu.
• Select a hole in a planar surface to array.
• Pick a Center for the array. The rotation axis for the
polar array is the normal direction of the surface.
• Type the number of holes.
• Type an angle to fill, and press Enter when done.
Move Hole
‘MoveHole’
Moves a hole or holes in a single planar surface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Move Hole
Steps:
• Select Move Hole from the Solid menu.
• Select holes in one planar surface.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick a point to move from.
• Pick a point to move to.
Move Hole before.
Command Line Options:
Number: The number of holes in the array.
Move Hole after.
Angle: The number of degrees of a circle to fill.
360° is the full circle and 180° is half a circle.
233
Command Line Option:
Copy: Specifies whether or not the objects
To Boundary
object is used in
Move Face.
(holes) are copied.
Move Face
‘MoveFace
Moves a polysurface face.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Move Face
Steps:
• Select Move Face from the Solid menu.
• Select a face or faces to move.
• Press Enter when done.
• Pick a point to move from.
• Pick a point to move to.
Note:
• The surrounding joined surfaces are adjusted
to accommodate the new face shape and
orientation.
• All adjusted faces must be either planar or easy to
stretch.
• Holes in the adjusted faces generally do not move
or stretch.
Delete Boundary Yes/ No: This determines
if the designated boundary is removed from the
selection or not.
Shell
‘Shell’
Creates a hollowed-out shell from a solid, closed
polysurface.
Where is this Command:
Access this command from Solid> Shell
Steps:
• Select Shell from the Solid menu.
• Select faces to remove from closed polysurface.
Leave at least one face unselected.
• Press Enter when done.
Note: Shell only operates on simple, solid, manifold
(only one face joined to one edge) polysurfaces.
These surfaces are removed and the remainder is
offset inward, using the outer parts of the removed
surfaces to join the inner and outer parts.
Faces (in
green) were
selected to
move with
Move Face.
Before (left)
and after
(right).
Command Line Options:
Direction Constraint=None (default): Faces
can be moved in any direction.
Shell before (left) and after (right).
Direction Constraint=Normal: Face can only
be moved in the positive or negative normal
direction (facing toward the interior of the object).
ToBoundary: The face is moved until the side
surfaces intersect the boundary object and the
face itself is replaced by a trimmed section of the
boundary object.
Command Line Option:
Thickness: Specifies the thickness amount for
the Shell.
234
Instruction Manual, Book 1
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