a-cr-ccp-804/pf-001 m490.02-1 royal canadian air

a-cr-ccp-804/pf-001 m490.02-1 royal canadian air
A-CR-CCP-804/PF-001
ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS
PROFICIENCY LEVEL FOUR
INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE
SECTION 2
EO M490.02 – OPERATE A STOVE AND A LANTERN
Total Time:
90 min
PREPARATION
PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS
Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-804/
PG-001, Proficiency Level Four Qualification Standard Plan, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are
identified throughout the instructional guide within the TP for which they are required.
Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.
The lesson has been designed using the common features of naphtha fuelled two-burner stoves and dualmantle lanterns. Consult the operating manuals of the equipment to be used, and if necessary, modify the TPs
accordingly.
PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT
Nil.
APPROACH
An interactive lecture was chosen for TPs 1 and 2 to introduce to the cadets the characteristics of the stove
and of the lantern.
A demonstration and performance was chosen for TPs 3–6 as it allows the instructor to explain and demonstrate
how to operate a stove and lantern while providing an opportunity for the cadets to practice the skill under
supervision.
INTRODUCTION
REVIEW
Nil.
OBJECTIVES
By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have operated and a stove and a lantern.
IMPORTANCE
It is important for cadets to safely operate and maintain the stoves and lanterns most commonly used during
field training. While on field training, a base of operations is required to support survival training.
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Teaching Point 1
Identify the characteristics of a two-burner naphtha stove.
Time: 10 min
Method: Interactive Lecture
CHARACTERISTICS
The following are characteristics of a two-burner naphtha stove:
It is capable of operating with a clean, smokeless flame.
The flame can be quickly extinguished.
It is easily ignited in cold weather.
It is easy to refuel.
It has no noxious odours.
Fuel in the tank will not spill when being carried in any position.
It cools quickly.
It is easily cleaned and repaired.
Operational Temperature
A two-burner stove (that uses naphtha as a fuel), when shielded from the wind, can be used in temperatures
as low as -52 Celsius.
Fuel Type
The stove uses naphtha. (Note: also known as white gas, camping fuel and Coleman fuel.)
Parts and Accessories
The following diagram is provided for part identification, not disassembly purposes.
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Figure 1 Parts of the Coleman Two-Burner Stove
Note. From Basic Cold Weather Training, Arctic and Sub Arctic Operations (Vol. 2) (p.2-75), 1982,
Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence. Copyright 1982 by Department of National Defence.
Stove box. This is the container in which the burners are mounted. The fuel tank and generator assembly are
also stored here when the stove is disassembled for storage.
Control valve assembly. This consists of the main valve wheel, auxiliary value, nut and body. Its function is
to regulate the flow of pressurized fuel from the fuel tank through the generator to the burner head. It remains
attached to the fuel tank.
Master Burner. The master burner head is located on the right (or left, depending on make / model) of the
stove and consists of a burner cap and a small screw with a series of burner rings. The entire assembly sits in
a large burner bowl. The master burner control knob is located on the valve and generator assembly.
Auxiliary burner. The auxiliary burner head is located on the left (or right, depending on make / model) of
the stove and consists of a burner cap and small screw along with a series of small burner rings. The entire
assembly sits in a small burner bowl. The auxiliary burner control valve is located on the left (right) side of
the stove box.
Pump assembly. The pump assembly is fitted into the tank and is held in place by a pump cap clip.
Fuel tank. The fuel tank is red in colour. The tank fits on the front of the stove box when in use.
Wind baffles. The wind baffles shelter the burners from the wind.
Stove grate. The stove grate supports cookware.
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Generator. The generator supplies fuel to the burners. Fuel passing through the generator is heated by the
master burner.
Precautions
Hazards are few if precautions are taken. Follow these simple rules:
Never leave a lit stove unattended.
Do not use a stove as a heating device or in an enclosed space.
Never remove the fuel tank or loosen the filler cap on the fuel tank while the stove is in operation.
Always fill and light the stove outside in a well ventilated area, away from open flame, heat and
combustibles.
Use only naphtha fuel.
Store away from open flame or excessive heat.
Always ensure wind baffles and lid supports are securely positioned before lighting the stove.
Before transporting or storing, ensure the stove is cool. Loosen the filler cap to release the air pressure
and retighten. Turn the control knob off. Ensure pump value is closed.
If the stove catches fire, turn off the fuel supply, close the wind baffles and drop the stove lid.
When removing the fuel tank to be refilled, remember that the generator gets HOT when the stove is
operated. Allow the generator to cool before refilling the fuel tank.
When using the stove ensure that a fire extinguisher is readily available.
It is important to stress to cadets that stoves and lanterns should not be used in enclosed
spaces such as buildings and tents unless they are well ventilated. The burning of naphtha
results in the release of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is heavier than air, it therefore
pools in the bottoms of buildings and tents, where cadets usually sleep. It will not dissipate,
even for days, unless it is forced out by a strong, persistent, direct draft of cold air at floor /
ground level. Carbon monoxide can kill.
CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1
QUESTIONS:
Q1.
What type of fuel is used?
Q2.
What is the purpose of the generator?
Q3.
Why should you only operate a stove in a well ventilated place?
ANTICIPATED ANSWERS:
A1.
Naphtha. (Note: also known as white gas, camping fuel and Coleman fuel.)
A2.
The generator supplies fuel to the burners. Fuel passing through the generator is heated by the master
burner.
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A3.
The burning of naphtha results in the release of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is heavier than air,
it therefore pools in the bottoms of buildings and tents, where cadets usually sleep. It will not dissipate,
even for days, unless it is forced out by a strong, persistent, direct draft of cold air at floor / ground level.
Carbon monoxide can kill.
Teaching Point 2
Identify the characteristics of a dual-mantle naphtha lantern.
Time: 5 min
Method: Interactive Lecture
CHARACTERISTICS
Dual-mantle lanterns are designed to burn naphtha. This fuel is pressurized in a tank attached to the unit,
heated in a generator and then burned as a gas.
A lit lantern produces heat. Flammable materials should be kept a minimum of 60 cm above
and 30 cm from all sides of the lantern.
Parts and Accessories
Figure 2 Coleman Dual-Mantle Lantern
Note. Created by Director Cadets 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.
Ventilator. Allows for heat and exhaust to evacuate the lantern.
Generator. Provides pressurized fuel to the mantle.
Mantle. Emits a bright light by the burning naphtha fuel.
Handle. Allows the user to carry or hang the lantern.
Pyrex globe. Protects the mantle from foreign debris. The globe also reduces the amount of oxygen entering
the lantern.
Fuel cap. Seals the fuel tank.
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Control knob. Controls the amount of fuel entering the generator, controlling the brightness of the lantern.
Tank. Is a fuel storage reservoir.
Pump. Pumps air into the fuel tank, pressurizing the tank.
Precautions
Hazards are few when precautions are taken. The following simple rules should be used:
Never leave a lit lantern unattended.
Do not use a lantern as a heating device or in an enclosed space.
Never loosen the filler cap on the fuel tank while the lantern is in operation.
Always fill and light the lantern outside in a well ventilated area, away from open flame, heat and
combustibles.
Use only naphtha fuel.
Store away from open flame or excessive heat.
If the lantern catches fire, turn off the fuel supply and let the excess fuel burn off.
When using the lantern ensure that a fire extinguisher is readily available.
The ventilator is HOT when lantern is lit.
If hung by the handle while the lantern is lit, the handle is HOT.
Mantles should be regularly checked for holes (replace if found).
CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2
QUESTIONS:
Q1.
What does the mantle do?
Q2.
What does the pump on the lantern do?
Q3.
When a lit lantern is hung, what should you keep in mind about the handle?
ANTICIPATED ANSWERS:
A1.
It emits a bright light by the burning naphtha fuel.
A2.
It pumps air into the fuel tank, pressurizing the tank.
A3.
If hung by the handle while the lantern is lit, the handle is HOT.
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Teaching Point 3
Explain, demonstrate and have the cadets fill and drain a
stove and a lantern, utilizing a drip pan.
Time: 15 min
Method: Demonstration and Performance
For this skill, it is recommended that instruction take the following format:
1.
Explain and demonstrate the complete skill while cadets observe.
2.
Explain and demonstrate each step required to complete the skill. Monitor cadets as
they imitate each step.
3.
Monitor the cadets' performance as they practice the complete skill.
Note: Assistant instructors may be employed to monitor the cadets' performance.
Stoves and lanterns must be cool to the touch before filling or draining.
Filling a Stove
The steps to fill a two-burner stove tank are as follows:
1.
Ensure main valve wheel is closed.
2.
Close pump knob firmly.
3.
Remove fuel cap.
4.
Insert funnel.
5.
Ensure fuel tank is level.
6.
Fill with clean, fresh fuel until the level reaches the bottom of the fill hole.
7.
Remove funnel, ensuring any spills / overflow fall into the drip pan.
8.
Replace fuel cap.
Filling a Lantern
The steps to fill a dual-mantle lantern are as follows:
1.
Ensure control valve is closed.
2.
Close pump knob firmly.
3.
Remove fuel cap.
4.
Insert funnel.
5.
Ensure lantern is level.
6.
Fill with clean, fresh fuel until the level reaches the bottom of the fill hole.
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7.
Remove funnel, ensuring any spills / overflow fall into the drip pan.
8.
Replace fuel cap.
Draining a Stove
The steps to drain a two-burner stove tank are as follows:
1.
Ensure main valve wheel is closed.
2.
Close pump knob firmly.
3.
Remove fuel cap.
4.
Insert funnel into fuel storage container.
5.
Slowly and carefully pour fuel from tank into the funnel, ensuring any spills / overflow fall into the drip pan.
6.
Replace fuel cap.
Draining a Lantern
The steps to drain a dual-mantle lantern are as follows:
1.
Ensure control valve is closed.
2.
Close pump knob firmly.
3.
Remove fuel cap.
4.
Insert funnel into fuel storage container.
5.
Slowly and carefully pour fuel from lantern into the funnel, ensuring any spills / overflow fall into the drip
pan.
6.
Replace fuel cap.
CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3
The cadets' participation in filling and draining a stove and a lantern will serve as the confirmation of this TP.
Teaching Point 4
Explain, demonstrate and have the cadets operate a twoburner naphtha stove.
Time: 15 min
Method: Demonstration and Performance
For this skill, it is recommended that instruction take the following format:
1.
Explain and demonstrate the complete skill while cadets observe.
2.
Explain and demonstrate each step required to complete the skill. Monitor cadets as
they imitate each step.
3.
Monitor the cadets' performance as they practice the complete skill.
Note: Assistant instructors may be employed to monitor the cadets' performance.
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ASSEMBLING
To assemble a two-burner stove:
1.
Unlatch and open the stove (as per Figure 3).
2.
Open and secure the wind baffles (as per Figure 4).
3.
Lift the grate and remove the fuel tank (as per Figure 5).
4.
Install the fuel tank. Ensure the generator passes through the large hole in the front of the stove and is
inserted into the opening in the mixing chamber above the burner. Insert hanger brackets on the tank
into the slots located on the front of the stove case (as per Figure 5).
5.
Secure the safety chain (as per Figure 6).
6.
Close the grate (as per Figure 7).
7.
Ensure the auxiliary burner valve is in the closed position (as per Figure 8).
Figure 3 Closed Stove
Note. Created by Director Cadets 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.
Figure 4 Wind Baffles
Note. Created by Director Cadets 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.
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Figure 5 Installing the Fuel Tank
Note. Created by Director Cadets 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.
Figure 6 Securing the Safety Chain
Figure 7 Closed Grate
Note. Created by Director Cadets 3, 2007,
Ottawa, ON:Department of National Defence.
Note. Created by Director Cadets 3, 2007,
Ottawa, ON:Department of National Defence.
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Figure 8 Auxiliary Burner Control
Note. Created by Director Cadets 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.
LIGHTING AND EXTINGUISHING
The stove fuel tank should have been fuelled previous to this lesson; however, it should not
be pressurized.
Pressurizing the Fuel Tank
1.
Make sure the control knob is in the OFF position.
2.
Turn the pump rod two full turns counter-clock wise (as per Figure 9).
3.
Place the thumb over the air vent of the pump rod handle (as per Figure 9).
4.
Pump 30–40 full strokes to pressurize the fuel tank.
5.
Turn the pump rod clockwise until it is closed tight (as per Figure 9).
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Figure 9 Pressurizing the Fuel Tank
Note. From Coleman Camp Stove Model M425F710C Instructions for use, by
The Canadian Coleman Co., Mississauga, ON: The Coleman Company, Inc.
Lighting the Master Burner
During colder conditions, it may be necessary to warm the generator prior to lighting. This
can be accomplished by applying a small amount of fuel to the master burner directly and
lighting it with a match. The burning fuel will heat the generator, heating the fuel inside
and facilitating the lighting of the burner. When the generator is not adequately heated it is
possible for liquid fuel to pool in the stove which is very dangerous.
1.
Ensure the auxiliary valve is in the closed position and the tank is pumped.
2.
Do not lean over the stove while lighting.
3.
Hold a lit match near the master burner (as per Figure 10).
4.
Turn the instant light lever to the UP TO LIGHT position (as per Figure 10).
5.
Turn the main valve control knob to the LIGHT position or setting.
6.
Monitor the flame.
7.
When the flame turns blue in colour (approximately one minute), turn the instant light lever to the DOWN
TO BURN position and turn the control knob to the desired heat setting (HI – LO).
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Figure 10 Lighting the Master Burner
Note. From Coleman Camp Stove Model M425F710C Instructions for use, by
The Canadian Coleman Co., Mississauga, ON: The Coleman Company, Inc.
Should the stove fail to light or the match goes out before ignition, turn the control knob to
the OFF position and wait two minutes before attempting to light the stove again.
Lighting the Auxiliary Burner
1.
After the master burner has been lit, the auxiliary burner may be lit.
2.
Hold a match to the auxiliary burner. Open the auxiliary valve located on the side of the stove box, next
to the burner (the master burner may require adjustment after lighting the auxiliary burner).
Extinguishing the Burner
1.
Close the auxiliary burner valve.
2.
Remove cookware from the stove and turn the instant light lever up to LIGHT position and let burn for
one minute. This cleans heavier parts of fuel from the generator.
3.
Turn the main valve control knob clockwise to the OFF position and close firmly.
A small flame on the master burner will continue to burn for a few minutes, until the fuel
empties from the generator.
DISASSEMBLING AFTER USE
To store a two-burner stove:
1.
Allow the stove to cool before packing.
2.
Ensure the stove is clean and any dirt, matches, etc. are emptied from the stove box.
3.
Ensure the auxiliary burner valve is in the closed position.
4.
Open the grate.
5.
Remove the safety chain.
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6.
Uninstall the fuel tank and remove it from the stove box.
7.
Unpressurize the fuel tank by loosening the filler cap, then retighten it to reseal the fuel tank. Note: Angle
the fuel tank so that the filler cap is highest to reduce possible fuel leakage.
8.
Place the fuel tank inside the stove box.
9.
Close the grate.
10.
Close and fold in the wind baffles.
11.
Close the cover and latch the box.
CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4
The cadets' participation in operating a stove will serve as the confirmation of this TP.
Teaching Point 5
Explain, demonstrate and have the cadets operate a dualmantle naphtha lantern.
Time: 20 min
Method: Demonstration and Performance
For this skill, it is recommended that instruction take the following format:
1.
Explain and demonstrate the complete skill while cadets observe.
2.
Explain and demonstrate each step required to complete the skill. Monitor cadets as
they imitate each step.
3.
Monitor the cadets' performance as they practice the complete skill.
Note: Assistant instructors may be employed to monitor the cadets' performance.
ASSEMBLING
The lantern does not require assembly or disassembly except when replacing the mantles / globe. Before
operating the lantern, the cadet should verify that the handle is in place and that the ball nut (screw on top of
the ventilator) is tight.
LIGHTING AND EXTINGUISHING
The lantern should have been fuelled previous to this lesson; however, the lantern should
not be pressurized. When a mantle is replaced it should be burned prior to use. By burning
the mantle, the mantle shrinks down in size ensuring that combustion of the fuel takes place
at the mantle. When the mantle is not burned prior to use fuel can leak out of the mantle
prior to combustion.
Pressurizing the Fuel Tank
1.
Make sure the control knob is in the OFF position.
2.
Turn the pump rod two full turns counter-clockwise.
3.
Place the thumb over the air vent of the pump rod handle.
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4.
Pump 30–40 full strokes to pressurize the fuel tank.
5.
Turn the pump rod to clockwise until it is closed tight.
Lighting the Lantern
Do not position the hands or head above the lantern when lighting.
Mantles are very fragile and shall be avoided when using a match to light the lantern.
1.
Insert a lit match through the hole in the bottom of the burner frame.
2.
Turn the control knob to the LIGHT position.
3.
When the mantle burns bright white (after about one minute), turn the control knob to the ON position.
4.
Add more air pressure to the tank. Air pressure may be added while the lantern is in operation. Good air
pressure is important for maximum light output.
Extinguishing the Lantern
1.
Turn the control knob to the OFF position.
2.
Allow the remaining fuel to burn off.
STORING AFTER USE
To store a dual-mantle lantern:
1.
Ensure the lantern is cool.
2.
Wipe and clean away any dirt.
3.
Drain the fuel into a fuel storage container (do not drain as the lantern is required for the other groups
to use).
4.
Place in a cool, dry location.
CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 5
The cadets' participation in operating a lantern will serve as the confirmation of this TP.
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Teaching Point 6
Explain, demonstrate and have the cadets perform minor
maintenance on a stove and lantern.
Time: 15 min
Method: Demonstration and Performance
For this skill, it is recommended that instruction take the following format:
1.
Explain and demonstrate the complete skill while cadets observe.
2.
Explain and demonstrate each step required to complete the skill. Monitor cadets as
they imitate each step.
3.
Monitor the cadets' performance as they practice the complete skill.
Note: Assistant instructors may be employed to monitor the cadets' performance.
PERFORM MINOR MAINTENANCE
Stoves and lanterns must be cool to the touch before performing cleaning and any minor
maintenance.
Cleaning the Stove
Clean as needed during a field exercise and before storage.
Fuel tank should be wiped using fresh naphtha as the solvent.
The burner assemblies should have the remains of matches and food residue (Note: Flame usually burns
yellow instead of blue where there are remains and residue).
Stove box should be washed with soap and water to remove food residue and grease.
The burner assemblies should not be immersed in water as any water left in the tubes will
cut-off or restrict the flow of fuel. Burner assemblies should be removed from the stove box
and cleaned separately if the stove box is being immersed to be cleaned.
Cleaning the Lantern
Clean as needed during a field exercise and before storage.
Fuel tank and ventilator should be wiped using fresh naphtha as the solvent.
Remains of matches should be removed from inside the globe.
Globe should be carefully cleaned and dried.
Replacing a Mantle
If a mantle has fallen apart or has a hole in it, it should be replaced before operating the lantern.
1.
Remove handle by pulling the handle arms gently away from the lantern.
2.
Unscrew and remove the ball nut.
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3.
Remove the ventilator.
4.
Remove the globe.
5.
Only use the appropriate mantle for the lantern.
6.
Remove the remains of the old mantle.
7.
Tie mantle around the groves in the burner cap, with the flat side of the mantle facing the generator (as
per Figure 11).
8.
Cut off excess string.
9.
Light bottom of the mantle evenly, burning until nothing but ash is left.
10.
Allow mantle to cool before lighting the lantern.
11.
Reassemble the lantern.
Figure 11 Replacing a Mantle
Note. From Coleman Lantern Model 220K195 & 228K195 How To Use and
Enjoy, by The Canadian Coleman Co., Toronto, ON: The Coleman Company, Inc.
Inspecting the Pump Assembly
1.
Remove clip from pump cap using needle-nose pliers (as per Figure 12).
2.
Turn pump knob counter clockwise several times to unscrew air stem.
3.
Pull out pump and air stem (as per Figure 12).
4.
Examine pump leather, if dry, work several drops of oil into it.
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5.
Insert pump and air stem into tank (pump leather must not invert or fold).
6.
Replace pump cap and clip.
7.
Turn pump knob clockwise several times to screw air stem into the tank.
Figure 12 Pump Assembly
Note. From Coleman Lantern Model 220K195 & 228K195 How To Use and
Enjoy, by The Canadian Coleman Co., Toronto, ON: The Coleman Company, Inc.
CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 6
The cadets' participation in performing minor maintenance will serve as the confirmation of this TP.
END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION
The cadets' filling and draining, operating and performing minor maintenance on a two-burner stove and a dualmantle lantern will serve as confirmation of this lesson.
CONCLUSION
HOMEWORK / READING / PRACTICE
Nil.
METHOD OF EVALUATION
This EO is assessed IAW A-CR-CCP-804/PG-001, Proficiency Level Four Standard and Plan, Chapter 3,
Annex B, 490 PC.
CLOSING STATEMENT
Knowing how to operate a stove and a lantern will give the cadets the skills needed to help support survival
training during field exercises.
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INSTRUCTOR NOTES / REMARKS
The spill response kit will be at the fuelling area.
Refer to the manuals for all operations and maintenance of the two-burner naphtha stove and dual-mantle
naphtha lantern.
A fire extinguisher will be at each site where stoves and lanterns are being lit.
When cleaning the stove, the fuel tank is to be wiped with fresh naphtha. Protective gloves and clothing are
to be worn when completing this task. Acceptable materials for gloves are neoprene, nitrilee / viton. It is also
recommended that safety glasses, splash goggles, or face shield be worn. Have eye water wash available.
Cadets who are qualified Survival Instructor may assist with this instruction.
REFERENCES
Manuals for stove and lantern types being used.
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