Oracle Database Installation Guide

Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle® Database
Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit)
E48740-01
September 2013
Oracle Database Installation Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit)
E48740-01
Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Prakash Jashnani
Contributing Authors: Ashmita Bose, Douglas Williams, Reema Khosla
Contributors: David Austin, Subhranshu Banerjee, Janelle Simmons, Mark Bauer, Robert Chang, Jonathan
Creighton, Sudip Datta, Thirumaleshwara Hasandka, Joel Kallman, George Kotsovolos, Simon Law, Richard
Long, Shekhar Vaggu, Rolly Lv, Padmanabhan Manavazhi, Sreejith Minnanghat, Krishna Mohan, Rajendra
Pingte, Hanlin Qian, Roy Swonger, Ranjith Kundapur, Aneesh Khandelwal , Barb Lundhild, Barbara Glover,
Binoy Sukumaran, Hema Ramamurthy, Prasad Bagal, Martin Widjaja, Ajesh Viswambharan, Eric Belden,
Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Rudregowda Mallegowda , Matthew McKerley, Trivikrama Samudrala, Akshay
Shah, Sue Lee, Sangeeth Kumar, James Spiller, Saar Maoz, Rich Long, Mark Fuller, Sunil Ravindrachar,
Sergiusz Wolicki, Eugene Karichkin, Joseph Francis, Srinivas Poovala, David Schreiner, Neha Avasthy,
Dipak Saggi, Sudheendra Sampath, Mohammed Shahnawaz Quadri, Shachi Sanklecha, Zakia Zerhouni, Jai
Krishnani, Darcy Christensen., Kevin Flood, Clara Jaeckel, Emily Murphy, Terri Winters
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. xi
Audience.......................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
Command Syntax .......................................................................................................................................
Accessing Documentation.........................................................................................................................
Related Documentation ............................................................................................................................
Typographic Conventions........................................................................................................................
xi
xi
xii
xii
xiii
xiv
What’s New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) .......................................................... xv
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) New Features and Enhancements.................................... xv
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New Features and Enhancements.................................... xv
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features....................................................................... xvi
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features...................................................................... xvii
Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) ............................................................................ xx
Desupported in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) ......................................................................... xx
1 Overview of Oracle Database Installation
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release ....................................................
Planning the Installation ........................................................................................................................
Installation Considerations ....................................................................................................................
Hardware and Software Certification .............................................................................................
Multiple Oracle Homes Support......................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation ...................
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server ......................................................................
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services........................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment.................................
Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters .............................
Oracle Database Installation Methods.................................................................................................
Interactive Installation Types ...........................................................................................................
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files ..............................................................
Software Updates Option .......................................................................................................................
Oracle Database Editions........................................................................................................................
Database Configuration Options ..........................................................................................................
Preconfigured Database Types ........................................................................................................
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation.......................................................................
1-1
1-1
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-7
iii
Creating a Database After Installation............................................................................................ 1-8
Database Storage Options ...................................................................................................................... 1-8
File System .......................................................................................................................................... 1-8
Oracle Automatic Storage Management......................................................................................... 1-9
Database Management Options ......................................................................................................... 1-11
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases.................................................................. 1-12
Management Options for Custom Databases ............................................................................ 1-12
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control .................................... 1-12
Database Backup and Recovery Options.......................................................................................... 1-13
Enabling Automated Backups....................................................................................................... 1-13
Backup Job Default Settings ......................................................................................................... 1-14
E-mail Notification Options................................................................................................................ 1-14
Migration Consideration ..................................................................................................................... 1-14
Upgrade Considerations ...................................................................................................................... 1-14
Upgrading Your Operating System Before a Database Upgrade ............................................ 1-15
Upgrading the Operating System.......................................................................................... 1-15
Migrating to a New Computer .............................................................................................. 1-15
Upgrading Oracle Automatic Storage Management ................................................................. 1-15
Daylight Saving Time Upgrade .................................................................................................... 1-16
Upgrading an Oracle Database in the Same Oracle Home ....................................................... 1-16
2 Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
Logging In to the System as root ........................................................................................................... 2-2
Checking the Hardware Requirements................................................................................................ 2-3
Memory Requirements...................................................................................................................... 2-3
System Architecture........................................................................................................................... 2-4
Disk Space Requirements.................................................................................................................. 2-4
Display Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 2-5
Run Level Requirement..................................................................................................................... 2-5
Checking the Software Requirements ................................................................................................. 2-5
Operating System Requirements ..................................................................................................... 2-6
Compiler Requirements .................................................................................................................... 2-8
Additional Software Requirements ................................................................................................. 2-8
ODBC Drivers.............................................................................................................................. 2-9
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers ......................................................................................................... 2-9
Oracle Messaging Gateway ....................................................................................................... 2-9
Programming Languages .......................................................................................................... 2-9
Browser Requirements ............................................................................................................... 2-9
Oracle Database Vault Preinstallation Requirement .......................................................... 2-10
Patch Requirements ........................................................................................................................ 2-10
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices .......................................................... 2-13
Installation Fixup Scripts..................................................................................................................... 2-13
Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters.................................................................................... 2-13
Confirming Host Name Resolution................................................................................................... 2-14
Checking the Network Setup.............................................................................................................. 2-14
Confirm Host Name Resolution ................................................................................................... 2-14
Installing on Multihomed Computers ......................................................................................... 2-14
iv
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases .........................................................................
Installing on Non-Networked Computers ..................................................................................
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users .............................................................
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles...........................................
Understanding Restrictions for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation..............
Database Groups for Job Role Installations .........................................................................
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups for Job Role Installations ...........................................
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation ............
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group...................................................................................
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations .....................................................
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations ....................................................
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management......................
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ......................
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ....................
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User...........................................................................
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists...............................................
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User.....................................................................
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User..................................................
Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters ..................................................
Configure Shell Limits....................................................................................................................
Configure System Configuration Parameters .............................................................................
Checking Asynchronous Input Output Processes .....................................................................
Identifying Required Software Directories .....................................................................................
Oracle Base Directory .....................................................................................................................
Oracle Inventory Directory............................................................................................................
Oracle Home Directory ..................................................................................................................
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory ..........................................................................
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory............................................................................
Creating an Oracle Base Directory................................................................................................
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files.........................................
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files ........................................................
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System................................................
Creating Required Directories.......................................................................................................
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes...................................................................................................
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment .......................................................................
Running the rootpre.sh Script ............................................................................................................
2-15
2-15
2-15
2-16
2-16
2-17
2-17
2-18
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-20
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-22
2-22
2-22
2-23
2-23
2-25
2-26
2-26
2-27
2-28
2-28
2-28
2-30
2-30
2-31
2-31
2-32
2-33
2-34
2-37
3 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation...............................................................
Memory Requirements......................................................................................................................
Disk Space Requirements..................................................................................................................
Configuring the User’s Environment..............................................................................................
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support...........................................................................................
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions .....................................................................
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances .......................................
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations ...........................................
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation .............................
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-6
v
General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management .................................. 3-7
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ......... 3-7
Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management 3-10
Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ................................. 3-10
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation ............................... 3-11
Installing the Software Binaries .................................................................................................... 3-11
Configuring the Software Binaries ............................................................................................... 3-11
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server..................... 3-12
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation................................ 3-12
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database................................................ 3-17
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries .................................. 3-18
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups ........................ 3-19
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation ............................................... 3-19
4
Installing Oracle Database
Preinstallation Considerations .............................................................................................................. 4-1
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Response File or Silent Mode............. 4-1
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines ................................................................ 4-1
Selecting the Database Character Set .............................................................................................. 4-2
Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group .................................................. 4-3
Accessing the Installation Software ..................................................................................................... 4-4
Downloading Oracle Software......................................................................................................... 4-5
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN........................................................ 4-5
Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud .................................... 4-5
Extracting the Installation Files................................................................................................. 4-6
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk ......................................................................................... 4-7
Mounting Disks........................................................................................................................... 4-7
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk ........................................................ 4-8
Database Security Options ..................................................................................................................... 4-8
Installing the Oracle Database Software ............................................................................................. 4-9
Running Oracle Universal Installer ................................................................................................. 4-9
Installing Oracle Database Examples................................................................................................ 4-19
5 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
Required Postinstallation Tasks ...........................................................................................................
Downloading and Installing Patches ..............................................................................................
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks .................................................................................................
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script ..........................................................................................
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases.....................................................................................
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts ..........................................
Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users .............................................................................
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable.............................................................................
Generating the Client Static Library................................................................................................
Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group ...................................................................................
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group...........................
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group ........................................................................
Enabling and Disabling Database Options.....................................................................................
vi
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-5
5-5
Running RACcheck Configuration Audit Tool ............................................................................. 5-6
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks ............................................................................ 5-6
Configuring Oracle Net Services ..................................................................................................... 5-7
Configuring Oracle Label Security .................................................................................................. 5-7
Configuring Oracle Database Vault ................................................................................................ 5-8
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway ....................................................................................... 5-8
Configuring Oracle Precompilers .................................................................................................... 5-8
Configuring Pro*C/C++ ............................................................................................................ 5-8
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN ..................................................................................................... 5-8
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer................................................................................................... 5-9
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases ....................................................................... 5-9
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB ................................................................................. 5-9
Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client ..................................................................................... 5-9
Direct NFS Client ........................................................................................................................ 5-9
Enabling a Direct NFS Client .......................................................................................... 5-10
Disabling Direct NFS Client ............................................................................................ 5-11
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters........................................................................... 5-12
6
Getting Started with Oracle Database
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location ................................. 6-1
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control .......................................................... 6-1
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management .......................................................................... 6-3
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management................................................. 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities.......................................................................... 6-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus ........................................................................................ 6-4
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer .............................................................................. 6-5
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords .................................................................................................... 6-5
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords........................................................................................... 6-8
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords .......................................... 6-8
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords ........................................................ 6-9
Unlocking and Changing Passwords .............................................................................................. 6-9
Identifying Databases .......................................................................................................................... 6-10
Locating the Server Parameter File .................................................................................................... 6-11
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files .............................. 6-11
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files ....................................................................................... 6-11
Locating Redo Log Files ................................................................................................................. 6-13
Locating Control Files..................................................................................................................... 6-13
7
Removing Oracle Database Software
About the Deinstallation Tool...............................................................................................................
Downloading the Deinstallation Tool for Use with Failed Installations .....................................
Example of Running the Deinstall Command ...................................................................................
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Database ..........................................................
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure ........................................
7-1
7-4
7-4
7-5
7-5
vii
A
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
How Response Files Work..................................................................................................................... A-1
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode.............................................................. A-2
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage Option for
Database Files .......................................................................................................................A-3
General Procedure for Using Response Files ................................................................................ A-3
Preparing a Response File ..................................................................................................................... A-3
Editing a Response File Template................................................................................................... A-3
Saving a Response File ..................................................................................................................... A-4
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File ........................................................... A-5
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File....................................................... A-7
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File............................................. A-7
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode............................................................ A-8
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Progress Only Mode............................................. A-8
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode......................................... A-8
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File .................................................................... A-9
About the Postinstallation Configuration File .............................................................................. A-9
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File .............................................. A-10
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle Home ....................................................................................................................... B-1
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home...................................... B-3
C
Using NAS Devices
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices ......................................................................
NFS Feature Description........................................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points .........................................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files .......................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files .............................................
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management...........
NFS Mount Options................................................................................................................................
D
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard ..............................................................
Advantages of Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA ........................................................................
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture ...................................................................................
File Systems........................................................................................................................................
Number of File Systems ............................................................................................................
Naming Conventions ................................................................................................................
Naming Directories...........................................................................................................................
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention...........................................................................
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs).................................................
Referring to Path Names...........................................................................................................
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention........................................................................
Naming Subdirectories .............................................................................................................
Naming Database Files.....................................................................................................................
viii
C-1
C-2
C-2
C-2
C-4
C-4
C-5
D-1
D-1
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-4
D-5
Separating Segments with Different Requirements..................................................................... D-6
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files.................................. D-6
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping ................................................................................ D-7
E
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
About Managing Ports ...........................................................................................................................
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs ..........................................................................................
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components .......................................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port..............................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports...............................................
F
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages...............................................
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages .............................................
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG................................................
Installing Translation Resources .....................................................................................................
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages .........................................................
G
F-1
F-1
F-2
F-3
F-3
F-4
Troubleshooting
Verify Requirements ..............................................................................................................................
X Window Display Errors......................................................................................................................
Remote Terminal Installation Error.....................................................................................................
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?.......................................................................................
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session ...................................................................................
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart........................................................................
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS ...............................................................................
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants........................................................................................
Configuration Assistant Failure......................................................................................................
Irrecoverable Errors ..........................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues.......................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues .............................................................................................
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling.......................................................................................
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation..............................................................................................
H
E-1
E-2
E-2
E-3
E-3
G-1
G-2
G-2
G-3
G-3
G-4
G-5
G-5
G-5
G-6
G-6
G-6
G-6
G-7
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
Installing Oracle Database ...................................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Tools .........................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications .....................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways) ..............................
H-1
H-3
H-7
H-8
Glossary
Index
ix
x
Preface
This guide provides instructions about how to install and configure Oracle Database
for AIX. This guide describes Optimal Flexible Architecture, Database Storage
Options, and Database Configuration Options. This guide also describes installing and
configuring a database using response files, globalization support, ports, and
troubleshooting.
The preface contains the following topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Command Syntax
■
Accessing Documentation
■
Related Documentation
■
Typographic Conventions
Audience
This guide is intended for anyone responsible for installing Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) on AIX systems. Additional installation guides for Oracle Database,
Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Database Examples, and
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control are available on the relevant installation
media.
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit) to install Oracle Database using the default
settings
See Also:
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or
visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
xi
Command Syntax
UNIX command syntax appears in monospace font. The dollar sign ($), number sign
(#), or percent sign (%) are UNIX command prompts. Do not enter them as part of the
command. The following command syntax conventions are used in this guide:
Convention
Description
backslash \
A backslash is the UNIX command continuation character. It is used in
command examples that are too long to fit on a single line. Enter the
command as displayed (with a backslash) or enter it on a single line
without a backslash:
dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s6 of=/dev/rst0 bs=10b \
count=10000
braces { }
Braces indicate required items:
.DEFINE {macro1}
brackets [ ]
Brackets indicate optional items:
cvtcrt termname [outfile]
ellipses ...
Ellipses indicate an arbitrary number of similar items:
CHKVAL fieldname value1 value2 ... valueN
italic
Italic type indicates a variable. Substitute a value for the variable:
library_name
vertical line |
A vertical line indicates a choice within braces or brackets:
FILE filesize [K|M]
Accessing Documentation
The documentation for this release includes platform-specific documentation and
generic product documentation.
Platform-Specific Documentation
Platform-specific documentation includes information about installing and using
Oracle products on particular platforms.
This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
on various platforms of AIX. Ensure that you review information related to the
platform on which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.
The platform-specific documentation for this product is available in both PDF and
HTML format on the product media. To access the platform-specific documentation on
media:
1.
Use a Web browser to open the welcome.html file in the top-level directory of the
media.
2.
Platform-specific documentation is available in PDF and HTML formats in the
Documentation section.
Product Documentation
Product documentation includes information about configuring, using, or
administering Oracle products on any platform. The product documentation for
Oracle Database 11g products is available in both HTML and PDF formats in the
following locations:
xii
■
On the Oracle Database Documentation Library media
Use a Web browser to view or open the index.htm file in the top-level directory on
the media.
■
Online on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
Related Documentation
The related documentation for Oracle Database 11g products includes the following
manuals:
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database New Features Guide
■
Oracle Database Licensing Information
■
Oracle Database Readme
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
■
Oracle Database Release Notes for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit)
■
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit)
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit)
■
■
Oracle Database Client Quick Installation Guide for IBM AIX on POWER Systems
(64-Bit)
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
■
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
For information about Oracle error messages, see Oracle Database Error Messages.
Oracle error message documentation is available only in HTML. If you only have
access to the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Online Documentation Library, then
you can browse the error messages by range. After you find the specific range, use
your browser's "find in page" feature to locate the specific message. When connected to
the Internet, you can search for a specific error message using the error message search
feature of the Oracle online documentation.
Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database,
which is installed by default when you install Oracle Database. See Oracle Database
Sample Schemas for information about how these schemas were created and how you
can use them yourself.
To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other
collateral, visit Oracle Technology Network. You must register online before using
Oracle Technology Network; registration is free and can be done at:
xiii
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/community/join/overview/index.html
If you have a user name and password for Oracle Technology Network, then you can
go directly to the documentation section of Oracle Technology Network Web site at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
See Oracle Database Release Notes for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit) for important
information that was not available when this book was released. The release notes for
Oracle Database is updated regularly. The most recent version is available on Oracle
Technology Network at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
Typographic Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
xiv
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
What’s New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2)
This section describes new features that are documented in this guide and provides
pointers to additional information.
■
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) New Features and Enhancements
■
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New Features and Enhancements
■
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features
■
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features
■
Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Desupported in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) New Features and
Enhancements
■
RACcheck Configuration Audit Tool
RACcheck Configuration Audit Tool
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) Configuration Audit Tool (RACcheck)
is available to check your Oracle Database installation.
Note: The RACcheck tool is available starting with Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4).
See Also:
"Running RACcheck Configuration Audit Tool" on
page 5-6
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New Features and
Enhancements
■
Proxy Realm Information
Proxy Realm Information
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) you can enter the Proxy Realm
information when providing the details for downloading software updates. The proxy
realm identifies the security database used for authentication. If you do not have a
xv
proxy realm, then you do not have to provide an entry for the Proxy Username, Proxy
Password, and Proxy Realm fields. It is case-sensitive.
This proxy realm is for software updates download only.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features
The following is a list of new features or enhancements provided with Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2):
■
Enhanced Patch Set Installation
■
New Software Updates Option
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
■
In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database Client
Enhanced Patch Set Installation
Starting with the release of the 11.2.0.2 patch set for Oracle Database 11g Release 2,
Oracle Database patch sets are full installations of the Oracle Database software. Note
the following changes with the new patch set packaging:
■
■
■
Direct upgrades from previous releases (11.x, 10.x) to the most recent patch set are
supported.
Out-of-place patch set upgrades, in which you install the patch set into a new,
separate Oracle home, are the best practices recommendation. In-place upgrades
are supported but are not recommended.
New installations consist of installing the most recent patch set, rather than
installing a base release and then upgrading to a patch release.
My Oracle Support note 1189783.1, "Important Changes to
Oracle Database Patch Sets Starting With 11.2.0.2", available from the
following URL:
See Also:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NO
T&doctype=ANNOUNCEMENT&id=1189783.1
New Software Updates Option
This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
Use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply software
updates as part of the Oracle Database installation. You can also download the updates
separately using the -downloadUpdates option and later apply them during the
installation by providing the location where the updates are present.
See Also:
"Software Updates Option" on page 1-6
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) is a new
multi-platform, scalable file system, and storage management design that extends
Oracle ASM technology to support data which cannot be stored in Oracle ASM, in
both single instance and cluster configurations. Additionally, Oracle ACFS provides
snapshot functionality for a point in time copy of an Oracle ACFS system.
The software required for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
is installed with the grid infrastructure installation.
xvi
See Also:
■
■
"Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support" on page 3-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
more information about Oracle ACFS
In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database Client
This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
Use the In-Place Upgrade feature of Oracle Database Client to upgrade an existing
Oracle Database Client 11g Release 2 (11.2) version with the latest Oracle Database
Client version.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features
The following is a list of new features or enhancements provided with Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1):
■
New Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Option
■
New Desktop and Server Class Options
■
Daylight Saving Time Upgrade of Timestamp with Timezone Data Type
■
SYSASM Privilege
■
Fixup Scripts and Prerequisite Checks
■
New Tool to Configure Custom Installation Options
■
Deinstallation Tool
■
Intelligent Data Placement
■
Oracle Data Pump Export and Oracle Data Pump Import
■
Use Oracle Restart to Automatically Restart Your Database
■
SRVCTL Support for a Single-Instance Database in a Cluster
New Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Option
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 introduces the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
For single instance databases, Oracle Grid Infrastructure includes Oracle Automatic
Storage Management (Oracle ASM), the listener, and Oracle Restart. Oracle Restart is a
new feature that provides the ability to monitor, manage, and automatically restart if
the Oracle Database environment including the Oracle Database instance, Oracle
Automatic Storage Management instance, and listeners fails. In a clustered
environment, Oracle Grid Infrastructure includes Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM,
and the listener.
To use Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, you must install the Oracle
software from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media before you install the database.
See Also:
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server"
New Desktop and Server Class Options
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 introduces a new option that enables you to specify the
type of system on which the database is installed. If you are installing on a laptop or a
desktop, then select the Desktop Class option; otherwise, select the Server Class option
to install on a server. These options are available on the System Class screen.
xvii
There is no difference in the software that gets installed after you select any one option
but the Desktop Class option installs a single instance database without the advanced
configuration options.
"Interactive Installation Types" on page 1-5 for more
information about the desktop and server class options
See Also:
Daylight Saving Time Upgrade of Timestamp with Timezone Data Type
When time zone version files are updated due to daylight saving time changes,
TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE (TSTZ) data could become stale. In previous releases,
database administrators ran the SQL script utltzuv2.sql to detect TSTZ data affected
by the time zone version changes and then had to perform extensive manual
procedures to update the TSTZ data.
With this release, TSTZ data is updated transparently with minimal manual
procedures using newly provided DBMS_DST PL/SQL packages. In addition, there is
no longer a need for clients to patch their time zone data files.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about preparing to
upgrade Timestamp with Time Zone data
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information about
how to upgrade the Time Zone file and Timestamp with Time
Zone data
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for information about
performance effects of clients and servers operating with different
versions of Time Zone files
SYSASM Privilege
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM administration must be
done with the SYSASM privilege. The SYSASM privilege also can be granted using
password authentication on the Oracle ASM instance.
You can designate OPERATOR privileges (a subset of the SYSASM privileges, including
starting and stopping Oracle ASM) to members of the OSOPER for an Oracle ASM
group.
Using the SYSASM privilege for ASM administration creates a clear division of
responsibility between ASM administration and database administration. It also
provides the optional capability to prevent different databases using the same storage
from accidentally overwriting each other's files.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for more information about the SYSASM privilege, ASMSNMP account,
and OSASM operating system group
See Also:
Fixup Scripts and Prerequisite Checks
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
detects when minimum requirements for an installation are not completed, and creates
scripts, called fixup scripts, to resolve many incomplete system configuration
requirements. If OUI detects an incomplete task, then click the Fix & Check Again
button to generate the fixup script.
For Oracle Clusterware, you also can have Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) generate
fixup scripts before the installation.
xviii
The fixup script is generated during the installation. You are prompted to run the
script as root in a separate terminal session. When you run the script, it sets some
system parameters to Oracle-recommended values, if necessary, and completes other
operating system configuration tasks.
New Tool to Configure Custom Installation Options
Oracle Universal Installer no longer provides the custom installation option of
individual components. Use the chopt tool, a command-line utility that is located in
the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory, to configure the database options.
See Also:
"Enabling and Disabling Database Options" on page 5-5
Deinstallation Tool
Use the new deinstallation tool (deinstall) available as an Oracle Technology
Network download (before installation) and in the Oracle home directory (after
installation) to remove Oracle Database software.
See Chapter 7, "Removing Oracle Database Software"
Intelligent Data Placement
The Intelligent Data Placement feature enables you to specify disk regions on Oracle
ASM disks to ensure that frequently accessed data is placed on the outermost (hot)
tracks which provide higher performance.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for more information about Oracle ASM Intelligent Data Placement
See Also:
Oracle Data Pump Export and Oracle Data Pump Import
Data Pump provides a legacy mode in which you can use original export and import
parameters when performing Oracle Data Pump export and import operations.
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about Data
Pump Legacy Mode
See Also:
Use Oracle Restart to Automatically Restart Your Database
Oracle Restart is a new feature included in this release to enhance the availability of
Oracle databases in a single-instance environment. If you install Oracle Restart, and
there is a temporary failure of any part of the Oracle Database software stack,
including the database, listener, and Oracle ASM instance, Oracle Restart
automatically restarts the failed component. In addition, Oracle Restart starts all these
components when the database host computer is restarted. The components are
started in the proper order, taking into consideration the dependencies among
components.
Chapter 4, "Configuring Automatic Restart of an Oracle
Database" in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle Restart
See Also:
New Method of Installing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In past releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation.
With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed when you install the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure components and shares an Oracle home with Oracle
Clusterware when installed in a cluster such as with Oracle Real Application Cluster
(Oracle RAC) or with Oracle Restart on a single instance database.
xix
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM
by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM
installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must
complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle
Database installation.
See Also:
Appendix 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server"
SRVCTL Support for a Single-Instance Database in a Cluster
SRVCTL was enhanced to support single-instance databases with Oracle Restart on
standalone servers and on clusters with Oracle Clusterware. SRVCTL is a
command-line interface used to manage Oracle processes (database instance, listener,
Oracle ASM instance) when using Oracle Restart. With SRVCTL, you can manage the
Oracle Restart configuration, see the status of processes managed by Oracle Restart,
and start or stop processes such as the Oracle Database.
Chapter 4, "Configuring Automatic Restart of an Oracle
Database" in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about SRVCTL commands
See Also:
Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
The following are not supported or not available anymore with Oracle Database 11g
Release 2:
■
■
Installing data files directly on raw devices is no longer available during
installation with Oracle Universal Installer or Database Configuration Assistant.
You must use a file system or use Oracle ASM.
Oracle Ultra Search
Desupported in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
The following feature is no longer supported with Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2):
■
xx
The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is desupported. There is no
replacement for this flag.
1
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1
This chapter describes the different installation types of Oracle Database and issues to
consider before you install Oracle Database:
■
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release
■
Planning the Installation
■
Installation Considerations
■
Oracle Database Installation Methods
■
Software Updates Option
■
Oracle Database Editions
■
Database Configuration Options
■
Database Storage Options
■
Database Management Options
■
Database Backup and Recovery Options
■
E-mail Notification Options
■
Migration Consideration
■
Upgrade Considerations
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release
Refer to What’s New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for more information
about the new features and products installed with this release.
Planning the Installation
The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following steps:
1.
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for IBM AIX on POWER
Systems (64-Bit) before you begin the installation. The release notes are available
with the platform-specific documentation.
The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle Technology Network
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-1
Planning the Installation
2.
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media
pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those
components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which
licenses have not been purchased.
See Also:
3.
Oracle Database Licensing Information
Plan the installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can
install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
You can also refer to Appendix H, which covers frequently asked questions about
installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if
the site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database
connections.
4.
Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 2 describes preinstallation tasks that you
must complete before installing the product. Additionally, see Chapter 3 for Oracle
Restart preinstallation tasks.
5.
Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database and
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
■
■
■
■
Chapter 3 describes how to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server.
Chapter 4 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle
Database and how to clone an Oracle home.
Chapter 7 describes how to remove Oracle Database software.
Appendix A provides information about performing silent, or response file
installations, which you may want to use if you must perform multiple
installations of Oracle Database.
■
Appendix B provides information about cloning an Oracle home.
■
Appendix F describes globalization support information.
■
Appendix G provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems
with the installation.
6.
Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 5 describes recommended and required
postinstallation tasks.
7.
Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started with
Oracle Database:
■
■
■
■
Chapter 6 describes how to verify the contents of the installed Oracle
Database, how to start various tools, and how to locate various files.
Appendix C describes the network-attached storage (NAS) devices, which you
can use to store Oracle database files and Oracle software.
Appendix D describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of
guidelines that ensures reliable Oracle installations that require little
maintenance.
Appendix E explains the method to manage Oracle Database port numbers.
1-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installation Considerations
Installation Considerations
This section contains information that you must consider before deciding how to
install this product. It contains the following sections:
■
Hardware and Software Certification
■
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
■
Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment
■
Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters
Hardware and Software Certification
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide
were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support Web site for the most
up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. The My
Oracle Support Web site is available at:
https://support.oracle.com/
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, from the
menu options, select the Certifications tab. On the Certifications page, use the
Certification Search options to search by Product, Release, and Platform. You can also
search using the Certification Quick Link options such as Product Delivery, and
Lifetime Support.
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
This product supports multiple Oracle homes. So, you can install this release or earlier
releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home
directories.
Installing Oracle Database on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation
You must install Oracle Database into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install
products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a
different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 11g Release 2
software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory.
You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is
installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server provides the infrastructure to
include your single-instance database in an enterprise grid architecture. Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) combines these infrastructure products into one software
installation called the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. On a single-instance database,
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic
Storage Management (Oracle ASM) software.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-3
Installation Considerations
To use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must
manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server" for more information about installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server
See Also:
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
When you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) configures the single-node version of Oracle Cluster Synchronization
Services (CSS). Specifically, CSS is a daemon process that is configured by the root.sh
script.
The CSS service is required to enable synchronization between an Oracle ASM
instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. Because the
service must be running before an Oracle ASM instance or database instance starts, it
is configured to start automatically by Oracle Restart before the Oracle ASM instance
is started. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Oracle ASM for database
file storage.
For single-instance installations, the CSS daemon is installed-in and runs from the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home which is the same home that runs Oracle ASM.
Note: On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS
daemon is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If
the system is running Oracle Clusterware, then see Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for
information about removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.
See Also:
"Oracle Automatic Storage Management" on page 1-9
Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment
If you plan to use Oracle Data Guard with Oracle Database Vault, then see My Oracle
Support note 754065.1 at:
https://support.oracle.com/
Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters
Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers
the access control configuration information stored in Oracle Database Vault database
tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so
on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you
install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters
are initialized with default values.
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more
information about the database audit policy
See Also:
1-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Database Installation Methods
Oracle Database Installation Methods
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
■
Interactive Installation Types
■
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
Interactive Installation Types
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database by selecting the
Create and configure a database option, Oracle Universal Installer displays a series of
screens that enable you to specify all the required information to install the Oracle
Database software and create a database.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle Universal Installer provides
you the following options:
■
■
Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class
system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration.
This option is designed for those who want to quickly set up a database.
Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a server class system, such
as what you would use when deploying Oracle Database in a production data
center. This option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced
configuration options available with this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM,
backup and recovery configuration, integration with Oracle Enterprise Manager
Grid Control, and more fine-grained memory tuning, among others.
Furthermore, the Server Class option provides you with the following installation
types:
–
Typical: Select this installation method to quickly install Oracle Database. This
installation type requires minimal user input. OUI installs the software and
optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information that you
specify on the screen. It is the default installation type.
–
Advanced: Select this installation type to complete any of the following tasks:
–
Select a database character set or different product languages.
–
Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation.
–
Create a database on a different file system from the software.
–
Specify different passwords for administrative schemas.
–
Configure automated backups or Oracle Enterprise Manager notifications.
–
Configure Oracle Configuration Manager.
–
Customize components from the available components list. In the Select
Database Edition screen, if you select Enterprise Edition, then Oracle
Universal Installer automatically selects the components most customers
need for their Oracle Database installation. You can also click Select
Options to customize components from the components list.
"Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines"
on page 4-1 for additional information about Oracle database
installation
See Also:
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-5
Software Updates Option
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal
Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These
automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations
on similarly configured systems or if the system where you want to install the software
does not have X Window system software installed.
When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following
modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information:
■
■
Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response
file that specifies all required information, and specify the-silent option when
starting Oracle Universal Installer. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens
are displayed.
Response File Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file mode if you
do not specify all required information in the response file.
For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation
using response files, see Appendix A.
Software Updates Option
Use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest
updates released by Oracle; such as, interim patch updates, critical patch updates,
Oracle Universal Installer updates, and the latest patch set updates. This functionality
is available with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
You can choose to download the latest updates by providing your My Oracle Support
credentials or you can apply previously downloaded updates. You can also download
the updates separately using the -downloadUpdates option and later apply them
during the Oracle Database installation by providing the location of the updates.
"Running Oracle Universal Installer" on page 4-9 for more
information on the -downloadUpdates option and dynamically
applying software updates during installation
See Also:
Oracle Database Editions
You can choose one of the following database editions when installing Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2):
■
■
■
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database
configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are
installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most
commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. This option also
allows you to enable or disable individual components from a components list.
Standard Edition: This installation type is designed for department-level or
workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and
options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution,
replication, Web features, and it helps build business-critical applications.
Standard Edition One: This installation type is designed for department-level,
workgroup-level, or Web applications. From single-instance environments for
small business to highly distributed branch environments, Oracle Database
1-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Configuration Options
Standard Edition One includes all the features necessary to build business-critical
applications.
Note:
■
■
■
You must install Oracle Database Client separately. You cannot
install it during an Oracle Database installation. See Oracle
Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for installation
instructions.
The installation process is the same for all the database editions.
Ensure that you install only those products for which you have a
valid license.
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more information
about the features available with each Oracle Database edition and for
information about licensing
See Also:
Database Configuration Options
During the Oracle Database installation, you can choose to create an Oracle database
as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, then Oracle
Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can
create the database with one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed
for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types,
or create a customized database to meet your requirements.
This section describes the following database configuration options:
■
Preconfigured Database Types
■
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
■
Creating a Database After Installation
Preconfigured Database Types
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or
customize during the installation:
■
General Purpose/Transaction Processing
■
Data Warehouse
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two
modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
■
Silent or response file mode
If you choose either the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition database edition,
then choose to create a preconfigured database type. Oracle Universal Installer
prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a
database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-7
Database Storage Options
Assistant in silent or response file mode to create the database after it installs the
software.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a
database if you have not previously created one.
■
Interactive mode
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database
types or customize the database.
Note: If you use this method to create a database, then click Help
on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant screens for a
description of the information that you must specify on that screen.
Creating a Database After Installation
If you did not create a database during the installation, then you can use Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant to create a database after you install the software.
For more information about using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a
database after installation, see "Creating and Managing a Database with DBCA" in
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
Database Storage Options
If you create a database during the installation, you can specify one of the following
storage options for database files:
■
File System
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Installing files on raw devices is no longer an option during
installation. You must use a file system or Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM).
Note:
File System
If you use the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates
the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on the computer. Oracle
recommends that the file system be separate from the file systems used by the
operating system or the Oracle software. The file system can be any of the following:
■
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID
devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over many
disks.
■
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
1-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Storage Options
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle
recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology
to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not have
to specify multiple file system mount points for the database storage.
■
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network-attached storage
(NAS) device. You also have the option to use the Direct NFS Client feature, which
simplifies the administration of NFS configurations and also improves
performance.
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on
them.
See Also:
■
■
"General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices" on page C-1
for NAS device certification information
"Direct NFS Client" on page 5-9
If you use the Advanced database creation option, then you can also use the Oracle
Managed Files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then you must
specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting
database files.
"Specifying Oracle Managed Files at Database Creation"
in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is a high-performance storage
management solution. For Oracle Database files, it simplifies the management of a
dynamic database environment, for example, creating and laying out databases and
managing disk space.
Oracle ASM can be used with single database installations, multiple database
installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created
in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) databases must use Oracle ASM from Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2) or later. Oracle ASM is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. If you plan to use Oracle ASM, then you must install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure before you install and create the database. If you want to upgrade an
existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server" for more information about installing the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software
See Also:
Oracle ASM manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files,
and data pump export files.
Oracle ASM can manage the Oracle Database executable binary files and any other
non-database files by creating a file system with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System. Although Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System is cluster-aware, it also works as a file system on a single-instance
database.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-9
Database Storage Options
At a high level, implementing Oracle ASM involves allocating partitioned disks for
Oracle Database with preferences for striping and mirroring. Oracle ASM manages the
disk space for you. This helps avoid the need for traditional disk management tools,
such as Logical Volume Managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands
necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Oracle ASM and the database
instance is handled by CSS.
The following are components of an Oracle ASM installation:
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
A disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle ASM manages as a single unit. Each
disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device, such as a RAID
storage array or logical volume, or a partition on a physical disk. In most cases, disk
groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable Oracle ASM to
balance input/output operations and storage efficiently within the disk group, you
must ensure that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage
capacity and performance.
You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a
disk group by using Oracle ASM disk group templates. When you create a disk group,
Oracle ASM creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template
settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control
files for both normal and high redundancy disk groups is set to three-way mirroring.
Other files are configured with two-way mirroring for normal redundancy, or
three-way mirroring when configured for high redundancy. For a high redundancy
disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that all files are
always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the
default templates to suit your site’s needs. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide for more information.
Oracle ASM spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk group to optimize
performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group
without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Oracle ASM
rebalances the files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to do
specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to regular file
storage activities.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device.
Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for
example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all
devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its
own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Oracle ASM can distribute
data among the devices in the disk group to minimize the risk of data loss caused by
component failures.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance
The Oracle ASM instance is a special Oracle instance that manages Oracle ASM disk
groups. The Oracle ASM instance and the ASMSNMP account are created and started, if
necessary, when you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Enterprise Manager
uses this account to monitor Oracle ASM instances to retrieve data from Oracle
ASM-related data dictionary views. The ASMSNMP account status is set to OPEN upon
creation, and it is granted the SYSDBA privilege.
1-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Management Options
Oracle recommends that you have the Oracle ASM instance in its own Oracle home.
Oracle also recommends that you run this instance before you start a database instance
that uses Oracle ASM.
For an Oracle Database installation, you only need one Oracle ASM instance,
regardless of the number of database instances on the computer.
"Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise
Manager" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide for information about the ASMSNMP user
See Also:
Database Management Options
To simplify database administration, Oracle provides a Web-based management tool
called Oracle Enterprise Manager. There are different ways to deploy Oracle Enterprise
Manager:
■
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally in the environment
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle
Management Repository and one Oracle Management Service within the
environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every
computer to manage. You can then use a single HTML interface to manage and
monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include
Oracle databases, application servers, net listeners, and third-party software. This
single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control (Grid Control).
Note:
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager is available separately on the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media, and on the
Oracle Technology Network Web site at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentatio
n/index.html
■
For the latest certification information, see My Oracle Support
note 412431.1, "Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control
Certification Checker" at:
https://support.oracle.com/
■
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control locally on the database
system
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control software is installed by default with
every Oracle Database installation. This local installation provides a Web-based
interface called Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. The Database
Control is similar to the Grid Control, but it can manage only a single database. If
you want to administer multiple databases on a system, then you must either
configure a separate Database Control for each database, or you must install
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts manual and the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control Basic Installation Guide on the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media for more
information about Oracle Enterprise Manager
See Also:
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-11
Database Management Options
This section contains the following topics:
■
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
■
Management Options for Custom Databases
■
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
When you create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the
Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to use to manage the database. The following
options are available:
■
Use Grid Control for central database management
This option is available only if an Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Agent is installed on the system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects an
Oracle Management Agent on the system, you can choose this option and specify
the Oracle Management Service to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you must use Database
Control to manage the database. However, if Oracle Management Agent is
installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Grid Control to manage this
database.
■
Use Database Control for local database management
This option is selected by default if an Oracle Management Agent is not installed
on the system. However, even if a Management Agent is installed, you can still
configure Database Control to manage the database.
Management Options for Custom Databases
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to use to manage
the database. You can also choose not to configure the database with Oracle Enterprise
Manager.
Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
during installation. However, if you do not configure the database to use Oracle
Enterprise Manager during the installation, then you can use Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant after the installation to configure the database to use it.
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control provides a Web-based user interface that
enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database. You can use it to
perform all database administration tasks. You can also use it to determine
information about the database, such as:
■
Instance name, database version, Oracle home location, media recovery options,
and other instance data
■
Current instance availability
■
Database alert information
■
Session and SQL-related performance information
1-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Backup and Recovery Options
■
Space usage matrix
In addition, it provides you with automatic notification of security alerts and the
ability to download and apply patches for the software.
Database Backup and Recovery Options
If you use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, then
you can optionally enable automated database backups that use the Oracle-suggested
default backup strategy. You do not have to enable automated backups during the
installation. If you prefer, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or
Grid Control to configure automated backups after you install the software and create
a database.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Enabling Automated Backups
■
Backup Job Default Settings
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about using Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control to configure or customize
automated backups or to recover a backed up database
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more detailed
information about defining a backup strategy and backing up and
recovering Oracle databases
Enabling Automated Backups
If you enable automated backups, then Oracle Enterprise Manager schedules a daily
backup job that uses Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up all of the database
files to a disk storage area called the fast recovery area. The first time the backup job
runs, it creates a full backup of the database. Subsequent backup jobs perform
incremental backups, which enable you to recover the database to its state at any point
during the preceding 24 hours.
To enable automated backup jobs during installation, you must specify the following
information:
■
The location of the fast recovery area
You can use either a file system directory or an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast
recovery area. To set the default values for fast recovery area and data file location,
use Oracle base as the starting point. See "Oracle Base Directory" for more
information on Oracle base.
–
Default fast recovery area: $ORACLE_BASE/recovery_area
–
Default data file location: $ORACLE_BASE/oradata
The default disk quota configured for the fast recovery area is 2 GB. For Oracle
ASM disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the
disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how to choose the location of the
fast recovery area and identifies its disk space requirements.
■
An operating system user name and password for the backup job
Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the operating system credentials that you specify
when running the backup job. The user name that you specify must belong to the
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-13
E-mail Notification Options
UNIX group that identifies database administrators (the ORA_DBA group). This user
also must have Logon As A Batch Job privilege.
Backup Job Default Settings
If you enable automated backups after choosing a preconfigured database during the
installation, then automated backup is configured with the following default settings:
■
The backup job is scheduled to run every morning at 2.00 a.m.
■
The disk quota for the fast recovery area is 2 GB.
If you enable automated backups by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant,
either during or after the installation, then you can specify a different start time for the
backup job and a different disk quota for the fast recovery area.
E-mail Notification Options
During the installation, if you choose the option to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control for database management, then you can also configure Oracle
Enterprise Manager to automatically send you an email when specific events occur.
These events can include occurrences such as the disk space reaching a critical limit (a
threshold) or a database shutting down unexpectedly.
If you enable email notifications, then you must specify the following information:
■
The host name of a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server
■
The email address that should receive the alerts
The email address that you specify could belong to an individual, or a shared
email account, or a distribution list.
You can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to set up, change, or
customize email notifications after you create the database.
The Enable Email Notifications option is not available starting
with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
Note:
Migration Consideration
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for
Refer to the "Migrating Data To and From ASM" section in Oracle Database
Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for migration
information.
Upgrade Considerations
For information about upgrading an earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), see Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following sections
provide additional platform-specific upgrade information that you must review before
upgrading an existing database:
■
Upgrading Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Daylight Saving Time Upgrade
■
Upgrading an Oracle Database in the Same Oracle Home
1-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Upgrade Considerations
Upgrading Your Operating System Before a Database Upgrade
When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, the operating system
requirements may have changed. If required, upgrade your operating system before
upgrading Oracle Database. See Chapter 2, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks" for
a list of supported operating systems.
To upgrade the operating system and then perform a database upgrade, perform one
of the following procedures:
■
Upgrading the Operating System
■
Migrating to a New Computer
Upgrading the Operating System
Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by
using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant.
Migrating to a New Computer
Migrate to a new computer using one of the following methods:
■
To upgrade the database on the new computer:
1.
Copy the database files from the computer running the previous operating
system to the one running the supported operating system.
2.
Re-create the control files on the computer running the supported operating
system.
3.
Manually upgrade the database using the method described in Oracle Database
Upgrade Guide.
Note: You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you use
this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the earlier
database.
■
You can also upgrade the database using the Export/Import utilities method
described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
The table on "Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading
Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information
about upgrading your current database release
See Also:
Upgrading Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In previous releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database
installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade
Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have
Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then
you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your
Oracle Database installation.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-15
Upgrade Considerations
See Also:
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Daylight Saving Time Upgrade
See "Daylight Saving Time Upgrade of Timestamp with Timezone Data Type" for
information about Daylight Saving Time Upgrade.
Upgrading an Oracle Database in the Same Oracle Home
See the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about performing an
in-place Oracle Database upgrade.
1-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
2
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
2
This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI).
This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2). Ensure that you review information related to the platform on which you intend
to install Oracle Database 11g.
Note:
■
■
To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) or
Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must
manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
Additionally, see "Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installation" on page 3-2 before you proceed with the database
preinstallation tasks.
It includes information about the following topics:
■
Logging In to the System as root
■
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
Checking the Software Requirements
■
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
■
Installation Fixup Scripts
■
Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters
■
Confirming Host Name Resolution
■
Checking the Network Setup
■
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters
■
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
■
Identifying Required Software Directories
■
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
■
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
■
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
2-1
Logging In to the System as root
■
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
■
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
■
Running the rootpre.sh Script
See Also:
■
■
■
"Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation"
"Preinstallation Requirements" section in Oracle Configuration
Manager Installation and Administration Guide and Oracle
Configuration Manager Prerequisites
Appendix A, "Country Codes", in Oracle Configuration Manager
Installation and Administration Guide for a list of valid country
codes that can be used while installing Oracle Configuration
Manager
Logging In to the System as root
Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root
user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:
Note: Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation,
you must install the software from an X Window System
workstation, an X terminal, a PC, or other system with X server
software installed.
For more information about silent-mode installations, see
Appendix A.
■
To install the software from an X Window System workstation or X terminal:
1.
Start a local terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
2.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter the
following command to enable the remote host to display X applications on the
local X server:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.example.com
3.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh,
rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to
install the software:
$ telnet fully_qualified_remote_host_name
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command to
switch the user to root:
$ su - root
password:
#
■
To install the software from a PC or other system with X server software:
2-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Hardware Requirements
Note: If necessary, see the X server documentation, or contact
your X server vendor or system administrator for more information
about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server
software that you are using, you may have to complete the tasks in
a different order.
1.
Start the X server software.
2.
Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts
to display X applications on the local system.
3.
Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software and start
a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user on the remote system, then enter the
following command to switch the user to root:
$ su - root
password:
#
Checking the Hardware Requirements
The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:
■
Memory Requirements
■
System Architecture
■
Disk Space Requirements
■
Display Requirements
■
Run Level Requirement
Memory Requirements
The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2):
Minimum: 1 GB of RAM
Recommended: 2 GB of RAM or more
■
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/lsattr -E -l sys0 -a realmem
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
■
The following table describes the relationship between the installed RAM and the
configured swap space recommendation:
RAM
Swap Space
Between 1 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of the RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of the RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
2-3
Checking the Hardware Requirements
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/lsps -a
If necessary, see the operating system documentation for information about how to
configure additional swap space.
Note:
■
■
Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the
available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is
because the available RAM and swap space keep changing
depending on the user interactions with the computer.
Contact your operating system vendor for swap space
allocation guidance for your server. The vendor guidelines
supersede the swap space requirements listed in this guide.
System Architecture
To determine if the system architecture can run the software, enter the following
command:
# /usr/bin/getconf HARDWARE_BITMODE
The expected output of this command is 64. If you do not see the expected output,
then you cannot install the software on this system.
To determine if the system is started in 64-bit mode, enter the following command:
# bootinfo -K
The result of this command must be 64, indicating that the 64-bit kernel is enabled.
Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release to install. If
you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this
system.
For AIX Based Systems, Oracle Database 11g supports 64-bit
kernel and does not provide support for 32-bit kernel applications.
Note:
Disk Space Requirements
The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2):
■
At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory
To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then
complete one of the following steps:
2-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
■
■
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user’s
environment.
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 2-34 for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
See Also:
■
■
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the
system administrator for information about extending file systems.
The following tables describe the disk space requirements for software files and
data files for each installation type on AIX Based Systems:
Installation Type
Requirement for Software Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
7.8
Standard Edition
7.5
Installation Type
Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
1.75
Standard Edition
1.73
To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following
command:
# df -k
Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Oracle ASM disk group is
required for the fast recovery area if you configure automated backups.
Display Requirements
The minimum resolution for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) is 1024 x 768 or
higher.
Run Level Requirement
Ensure that the system is started with run level 2.
Checking the Software Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following
software is installed on your system:
■
Operating System Requirements
■
Run Level Requirement
■
Additional Software Requirements
■
Patch Requirements
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
2-5
Checking the Software Requirements
Note:
■
■
This guide contains information required to install Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). Ensure that you review
information related to the platform on which you intend to
install Oracle Database 11g.
Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on the system to
verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these
checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle
Universal Installer.
Operating System Requirements
The following operating system versions (or later) are required for Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2):
■
AIX 5L V5.3 TL 09 SP1 ("5300-09-01"), 64 bit kernel
■
AIX 6.1 TL 02 SP1 ("6100-02-01), 64-bit kernel
■
AIX 7.1 TL 0 SP1 ("7100-00-01-1037"), 64-bit kernel
The following operating system filesets are required for AIX 5L:
■
bos.adt.base
■
bos.adt.lib
■
bos.adt.libm
■
bos.perf.libperfstat 5.3.9.0 or later
■
bos.perf.perfstat
■
bos.perf.proctools
■
xlC.aix50.rte.10.1.0.0 or later
■
xlC.rte.10.1.0.0 or later
■
gpfs.base 3.2.1.8 or later
The following operating system filesets are required for AIX 6.1:
■
bos.adt.base
■
bos.adt.lib
■
bos.adt.libm
■
bos.perf.libperfstat 6.1.2.1 or later
■
bos.perf.perfstat
■
bos.perf.proctools
■
xlC.aix61.rte:10.1.0.0 or later
■
xlC.rte.10.1.0.0 or later
■
gpfs.base 3.2.1.8 or later
The following operating system filesets are required for AIX 7.1:
■
bos.adt.base
■
bos.adt.lib
2-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
■
bos.adt.libm
■
bos.perf.libperfstat
■
bos.perf.perfstat
■
bos.perf.proctools
■
xlC.rte.11.1.0.2 or later
■
gpfs.base 3.3.0.11 or later
Note:
■
■
1.
On AIX 5L operating system, if you set the value of LOCK_SGA
parameter to true, then you must ensure that the CAP_BYPASS_
RAC_VMM and CAP_PROPAGATE privileges are enabled for the
operating system account that is used to start the respective
database instances. Otherwise, setting the value of LOCK_SGA
parameter to TRUE alone does not ensure startup of the database
instance.
The GPFS fileset is required only if you want to use the IBM GPFS
cluster file system as the shared storage for Oracle clusterware or
database files.
To determine the distribution and version of AIX installed, enter the following
command:
# oslevel -s
For AIX 5L: If the operating system version is lower than AIX 5.3 TL 9 SP 1, then
upgrade your operating system to this, or a later, level.
For AIX 6.1: If the operating system version is lower than AIX 6.1 TL 2 SP 1, then
upgrade your operating system to this, or a later, level.
For AIX 7.1: If the operating system version is lower than AIX 7.1 TL 0 SP 1, then
upgrade your operating system to this, or a later, level.
AIX maintenance packages are available from the following website:
http://www-933.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/
2.
To determine if the required filesets are installed and committed, enter a command
similar to the following:
# lslpp -l bos.adt.base bos.adt.lib bos.adt.libm bos.perf.perfstat \
bos.perf.libperfstat bos.perf.proctools
3.
To determine the supported kernel mode, enter a command similar to the
following:
# getconf KERNEL_BITMODE
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
2-7
Checking the Software Requirements
Note:
■
■
The expected output of this command is 64. If you do not see the
expected output, then you cannot install the software on this
system.
Oracle Database 11g supports 64-bit kernel and does not provide
support for 32-bit kernel applications.
Compiler Requirements
The following is the minimum compiler requirement for Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call
Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer’s Kit (XDK) with
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
IBM XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0 April 2008 PTF:
You can download this software from the following link:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg24019055
Note: Even if you do not install the IBM XL C/C++ compiler, you
require the compiler for AIX Runtime Environment Component. The
runtime environment file sets can be downloaded with no license
requirements. The minimum recommended runtime environment for
AIX 5.3 and AIX 6.1 is available at the following URL:
For AIX 5.3 and AIX 6.1:
IBM XL C/C++ for AIX, V10.1 Runtime Environment
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=2239&uid=swg24019829
For AIX 7.1:
September 2010 Runtime for XL C/C++ for AIX, V11.1
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg24028034
Additional Software Requirements
Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following
software is installed:
■
ODBC Drivers
■
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
■
Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Programming Languages
■
Browser Requirements
■
Oracle Database Vault Preinstallation Requirement
Chapter 2, "Oracle Application Express Installation
Requirements" and "Recommended Pre-installation Tasks" in Oracle
Application Express Installation Guide
See Also:
2-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
ODBC Drivers
Oracle ODBC driver on AIX is certified with ODBC Driver Manager 2.2.12. You can
download and install the Driver Manager from the following link:
http://www.unixodbc.org
ODBC Driver Manager is not required to install Oracle Database.
To use ODBC, install gcc 3.4.5.
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
Use JDK 6 (Java 6 64-bit 6.0.0.50 IZ30726 (SR2)) or JDK 5 (Java 5 64-bit
5.0.0.250 IZ55274 (SR10)) with the JNDI extension with the Oracle Java Database
Connectivity and Oracle Call Interface drivers. However, these are not mandatory for
the database installation. JDK 1.5 is installed with this release.
Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced
Queuing (AQ) with the following software:
■
Tibco Rendezvous 7.2
■
IBM WebSphere MQ for AIX V6.0.2.3
mqm.Client.Bnd
mqm.Server.Bnd
■
IBM WebSphere MQ for AIX V7.0.1.3
If you require a CSD for WebSphere MQ, then see the following Web site for download
and installation information:
http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Downloads/Software/WebSphere/W
ebSphere_MQ
Programming Languages
The following products are certified for use with:
■
■
Pro* COBOL
–
IBM COBOL for AIX Version 4.1 (September 2010 PTF)
–
IBM COBOL for AIX Version 3.1
–
Micro Focus Server Express 5.1
Pro* FORTRAN
–
■
IBM XL Fortran Enterprise Edition for AIX, V11.1, April 2008 PTF
Ada
–
OC Systems PowerAda 5.5
For more information about OC Systems and PowerAda, refer to:
http://www.ocsystems.com/contact.html
Browser Requirements
You do not require a web browser to install Oracle Database. However, browsers are
required to access documentation, and if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
2-9
Checking the Software Requirements
Database Control and Oracle Application Express. Web browsers must support
JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control supports the following browsers:
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 10.0 (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control 11.2.0.3 and higher)
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 9.0
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 8.0
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 SP1
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2
■
Firefox 21.0 (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control 11.2.0.4)
■
Firefox 17.0.6 ESR (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control 11.2.0.4)
■
Firefox 3.6
■
Firefox 3.5
■
Firefox 3.0.7
■
Firefox 2.0
■
Safari 4.0.x
■
Safari 3.2
■
Safari 3.1
■
Google Chrome 27.0 (supports Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
11.2.0.4)
■
Google Chrome 4.0
■
Google Chrome 3.0
■
Netscape Navigator 9.0
■
Netscape Navigator 8.1
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Oracle Database Vault Preinstallation Requirement
To install Oracle Database Vault, set the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter to
4096 or larger. If the value is less than 4096, then you cannot change it. The only way to
change the DB_BLOCK_SIZE value is by re-creating the database.
"Specifying Database Block Sizes" in Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
See Also:
Patch Requirements
The following, or later, patches are required for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
for AIX Based Systems:
2-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Note:
■
AIX APAR numbers are tied to AIX versions and technology
levels (TL). Download and install the APAR that matches your
AIX versions and TLs from the IBM fix central web site at the
following URL:
http://www-933.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/
■
If you are using a later TL level than the minimum level listed
for this release, then check with IBM to determine if the
required APARs listed here are included in the TL level that
you have on your system. If they are included, then you do not
have to install them. If they are not included, then you must
install the equivalent APAR for the appropriate TL level.
Installation Type or
Product
Requirement
All installations
Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 5L:
If you are using the minimum operating system TL level for AIX 5L
listed above, then install the following Authorized Problem Analysis
Reports (APARs) for AIX 5L V5.3 TL 09 SP1:
■
IZ42940
■
IZ49516
■
IZ52331
These 5.3 fixes are present in the following TL levels:
■
AIX 5.3 TL 09 SP 05 and later
■
AIX 5.3 TL 10 SP 02 and later
■
AIX 5.3 TL 11
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-11
Checking the Software Requirements
Installation Type or
Product
Requirement
All installations
Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 6.1:
If you are using the minimum operating system TL level for AIX 6.1
listed above, then install the following Authorized Problem Analysis
Reports (APARs) for AIX 6.1 TL 02 SP1:
■
IZ41855
■
IZ51456
■
IZ52319
■
IZ97457
■
IZ89165
These 6.1 fixes are present in the following TL levels:
■
AIX 6.1 TL 02 SP 04 and later
■
AIX 6.1 TL 03 SP 02 and later
■
AIX 6.1 TL 04
If you are using a later TL level than the minimum level listed for
this release, apply the following additional operating system patch
for defect:
BIND64 CORES WITH -BLAZY OPTION
Download the appropriate patch for your operating system TL level
using the following APAR numbers:
All installations
■
AIX 6.1 TL 03 - use AIX APAR IZ89304
■
AIX 6.1 TL 04 - use AIX APAR IZ89302
■
AIX 6.1 TL 05 - use AIX APAR IZ89300
■
AIX 6.1 TL 06 SP 4 - use AIX APAR IZ88711
■
AIX 6.1 TL 06 SP 5 - use AIX APAR IZ89514
■
AIX 6.1 TL 07 - use AIX APAR IZ88880
Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 7.1:
If you are using the minimum operating system TL level for AIX 7.1
listed above, then install the following Authorized Problem Analysis
Reports (APARs) for AIX 7.1 TL 0 SP1:
■
IZ87216
■
IZ87564
■
IZ89165
■
IZ97035
The following procedure describes how to check these requirements:
■
To determine if an APAR is installed, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/instfix -i -k "IZ42940 IZ49516 IZ52331 IZ41855 IZ52319"
If an APAR is not installed, then download it from the following Web site and
install it:
http://www-933.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/
■
If you require a CSD for WebSphere MQ, then refer to the following Web site for
download and installation information:
2-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters
http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Overview/Software/WebSphere
/WebSphere_MQ
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security. Ensure
that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common security
practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.
Installation Fixup Scripts
During installation, for certain prerequisite verification failures, click Fix & Check
Again to generate a fixup script (runfixup.sh). You can run this script as the root user
to complete the required preinstallation steps.
The fixup script:
■
Checks for and sets kernel parameters to values required for successful
installation, including:
–
Shared memory parameters
–
Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters
Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of the generated fixup script.
Note: Using fixup scripts does not ensure that all the prerequisites
for installing Oracle Database are met. You must still verify that all the
preinstallation requirements are met to ensure a successful
installation.
Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters
Use NDD to ensure that the kernel TCP/IP ephemeral port range is broad enough to
provide enough ephemeral ports for the anticipated server workload. Ensure that the
lower range is set to at least 9000 or higher, to avoid Well Known ports, and to avoid
ports in the Registered Ports range commonly used by Oracle and other server ports.
Set the port range high enough to avoid reserved ports for any applications you may
intend to use. If the lower value of the range you have is greater than 9000, and the
range is large enough for your anticipated workload, then you can ignore OUI
warnings regarding the ephemeral port range.
Use the following command to check your current range for ephemeral ports:
# /usr/sbin/no -a | fgrep ephemeral
tcp_ephemeral_low = 32768
tcp_ephemeral_high = 65535
udp_ephemeral_low = 32768
udp_ephemeral_high = 65535
In the preceding example, the TCP and UDP ephemeral ports are set to the default
range (32768-65536).
If you expect your workload to require a high number of ephemeral ports, such as
high node counts or heavy use of Parallel Query, then update the UDP and TCP
ephemeral port range to a broader range. For example:
# /usr/sbin/no -p -o tcp_ephemeral_low=9000 -o tcp_ephemeral_high=65500
# /usr/sbin/no -p -o udp_ephemeral_low=9000 -o udp_ephemeral_high=65500
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-13
Confirming Host Name Resolution
"Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration
Parameters" on page 2-22
See Also:
Confirming Host Name Resolution
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to a
network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable through a Domain Name
System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained TCP/IP
host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your computer
host name is resolvable. For example:
ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56
If your computer host name does not resolve, then contact your system administrator.
Checking the Network Setup
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to
the network. The computer has local storage to store the Oracle Database installation.
It also contains a display monitor and DVD drive. This section describes how to install
Oracle Database on computers that do not meet the typical scenario. It describes the
following cases:
■
Confirm Host Name Resolution
■
Installing on Multihomed Computers
■
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
■
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
Confirm Host Name Resolution
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to a
network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable through a Domain Name
System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained TCP/IP
host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your computer
host name is resolvable. For example:
$ ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56
If your computer host name does not resolve, then contact your system administrator.
Installing on Multihomed Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer
is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple
network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In
addition, you can set up aliases for the host name. By default, Oracle Universal
Installer uses the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host name.
If ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has multiple
network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name from the
/etc/hosts file.
2-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using
aliases for this host name. To verify, ping the host name from the client computers
using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain
name). Both tests must be successful.
Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable
Use the following procedure to set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. For
example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.example.com, then enter one of
the following commands:
In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.example.com
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME
In C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.example.com
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
A computer with multiple aliases is registered with the naming service under a single
IP but with multiple aliases. The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the
same computer. Before installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the ORACLE_
HOSTNAME environment variable to the computer whose host name you want to use.
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such
as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the
network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the
computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can
connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the
fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.
When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the
ping command should return the IP address of the computer.
Note:
If the ping command fails, then contact the system administrator.
Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation
If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database
instance on the computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer
can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Depending on if this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this system
and on the products that you are installing, you may have to create several operating
system groups and users.
If you prefer to allocate operating system user privileges so that you can use one
administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all
administrative privileges, then you can use the oracle user as the installation owner,
and use one group as the primary group for any user requiring administrative
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-15
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
privileges for Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database administration. This group must also
be the Oracle Inventory group. To simplify using the defaults for Oracle tools the
group name should be oinstall.
You can also create custom configuration groups and users based on job role
separation. A custom configuration is a configuration with groups and users that
divide access privileges granted by membership in separate operating system groups
and users. You can create a single user (for example, oracle) to own both Oracle
Database, and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations. Alternatively, you can create a
separate user (for example, grid) to own the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
The Oracle Database, and the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
installation owner users must be members of the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall).
■
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
■
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
Note: In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle
Grid Infrastructure software installations is called the grid user. A
user created to own either all Oracle installations, or only Oracle
database installations, is called the oracle user.
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
This section provides an overview of how to create users and groups to divide access
privileges by job roles. Log in as root to create these groups and users.
■
Understanding Restrictions for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
■
Database Groups for Job Role Installations
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups for Job Role Installations
Understanding Restrictions for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
Oracle recommends that you create one software owner to own each Oracle software
installation (typically, oracle, for the database software and grid for the Oracle
Restart owner user). You must create at least one software owner the first time you
install Oracle software on the system.
To create separate Oracle software owners, to create separate users, and separate
operating system privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, each of
these users must have the Oracle central inventory group (oraInventory group) as
their primary group. Members of this group have write privileges to the Oracle central
inventory (oraInventory) directory, and and are also granted permissions for various
Oracle Restart resources and directories in the Oracle Restart home to which DBAs
need write access, and other necessary privileges. In Oracle documentation, this group
is represented as oinstall in code examples. See "Creating the Oracle Inventory
Group" on page 2-19.
The database software owner (typically, oracle) must also have the OSDBA group of
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home so that database instances can log on to Oracle
ASM, and (if you create it) the OSOPER group as secondary groups. In Oracle
documentation, the Oracle software owner users are referred to as oracle users.
The Oracle Database, and the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
installation owner users (oracle and grid respectively) must belong to the Oracle
Inventory group (oinstall).
2-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory group.
Oracle recommends that you do not have more than one central inventory for Oracle
installations. If an Oracle software owner has a different central inventory group, then
you may corrupt the central inventory.
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, the grid user (grid) must be in
the OSDBA group of every database home.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about the OSDBA, OSASM and OSOPER groups, and the SYSDBA,
SYSASM and SYSOPER privileges
See Also:
Database Groups for Job Role Installations
Create the following operating system groups if you are installing Oracle Database:
■
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have
database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). The name used for this
group in Oracle code examples is dba.
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges
(the SYSOPER privilege). This group cannot directly connect as SYSOPER, unless
explicitly granted. However, they have the privileges granted by the SYSOPER
privilege. By default, members of the OSDBA group have all privileges granted by
the SYSOPER privilege.
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify the name of this group. The
usual name chosen for this group is oper.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups for Job Role Installations
Create the following operating system groups if you are installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure:
Note: You can designate a unique group, separate from database
administrator groups, or you can use the same group as the OSASM
and OSDBA groups, to grant system privileges to administer both the
Oracle ASM instances and Oracle Database instances.
■
The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmdba)
The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM can be the same group used as the OSDBA
group for the database, or you can create a separate OSDBA group for Oracle ASM
(typically, asmdba) to provide administrative access to Oracle ASM instances.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner (typically, grid) must be a member
of the OSDBA group. Membership in the OSDBA group enables access to the files
managed by Oracle ASM. If you have a separate OSDBA group for Oracle ASM,
then the Oracle Restart software owner must be a member of the OSDBA group
for each database and the OSDBA group for Oracle ASM.
■
The OSASM group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmadmin)
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-17
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
SYSASM privileges for Oracle ASM files provide administrator privileges for storage
file. In Oracle documentation, the operating system group whose members are
granted SYSASM privileges is called the OSASM group, and in command lines, is
referred to as asmadmin. Oracle ASM can support multiple databases.
Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance
as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit
mounting and dismounting of disk groups, and other storage administration
tasks. SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.
If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, then the OSDBA
group you define is also, by default, the OSASM group.
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmoper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle instance administrative
privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping the
Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.
If you want to have an OSOPER group for Oracle ASM, then the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure owner must be a member of this group.
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and
groups:
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
■
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
■
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
■
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
Note:
■
■
■
After you create the required operating system groups described
in this section, you must add the Oracle software owner user
(typically, oracle) to these groups, otherwise these groups will
not be available as an option in Oracle Universal Installer while
performing the database installation.
The UIDs and GIDs mentioned in this section are illustrative only.
Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID
defaults. Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs,
and confirm that they are unused before you create or modify
groups and users.
If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user.
2-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal
Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle
Inventory group (typically, oinstall) and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory.
You can configure one group to be the access control group for Oracle Inventory, for
database administrators (OSDBA), and for all other access control groups used by
Oracle software for operating system authentication. However, this group then must
be the primary group for all users granted administrative privileges.
Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle
Inventory group and a software owner:
■
Determining if the Oracle Inventory Group Exists
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
Determining if the Oracle Inventory Group Exists
An oraInst.loc file has content similar to the following:
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle
Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to
the central inventory.
If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle
Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software
users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.
To determine if the Oracle Inventory group exist, enter the following command:
# grep oinstall /etc/group
To determine if the oraInst.loc file exists, enter the following command:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
In the previous output example:
■
■
The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory
The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this
example, oinstall).
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group using the
following procedure:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to create the Oracle Inventory (oinstall)
group.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-19
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
3.
Press F10 to exit.
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
■
■
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database
installation
If the OSDBA group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create
it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name dba unless a group with
that name exists:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to create the dba group.
3.
Press F10 to exit.
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
Create an OSOPER group only to identify a group of operating system users with a
limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For
most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If you want to use
an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:
■
■
If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
If you require a new OSOPER group (typically, oper), then create it as follows. In the
following, use the group name oper unless a group with that name exists:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oper group.
3.
Press F10 to exit.
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create
it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name asmadmin unless a group
with that name exists:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to create the asmadmin group.
3.
Press F10 to exit.
2-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If you require a new OSDBA group for Oracle ASM, then create it as follows. In the
following procedure, use the group name asmdba unless a group with that name exists:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to create the asmdba group.
3.
Press F10 to exit.
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If you require an OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure,
use the group name asmoper unless a group with that name exists:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to create the asmoper group.
3.
Press F10 to exit.
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:
■
■
■
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system.
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative
privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation.
If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, such
as grid, and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle
Database software, such as oracle.
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists To determine if an Oracle software
owner user named oracle, or grid exists, enter a command similar to the following:
# id oracle
# id grid
If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
If the grid user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=8001(grid) gid=8001(oinstall)
groups=8001(oinstall),8002(asmadmin),8003(asmdba),8006(dba)
Ensure that the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) has the Oracle Inventory
group (oinstall) as its primary group and is a member of the appropriate OSDBA,
ASMDBA, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA, and OSKMDBA groups you created in the
preceding sections. Depending on whether you want to create a new user, or use an
existing user to do this, see the following sections:
■
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-21
Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters
■
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User
Note: If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user.
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User If the Oracle software owner user does not exist,
or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, such as oracle or grid, then create
it as described in this section (in this case to create the oracle user).
In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name
exists:
■
1.
asmdba, or oper.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oracle user, specifying the
following information:
■
■
In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example
oinstall.
In the Group SET field, specify the OSDBA group and if required, the
OSOPER group. For example dba, asmdba, or oper.
3.
Press F10 to exit.
4.
Set the password of the oracle user:
# passwd oracle
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User If the oracle user exists, but its primary
group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER
groups, then modify it as follows:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit security
2.
Choose the appropriate menu items to modify the oracle user.
3.
In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example
oinstall.
4.
In the Group SET field, specify the required secondary groups, for example dba,
asmdba, or oper.
5.
Press F10 to exit.
Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters
This section contains the following topics:
■
Configure Shell Limits
■
Configure System Configuration Parameters
■
Checking Asynchronous Input Output Processes
2-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters
Note: The parameter and shell limit values shown in this section are
recommended values only. For production database systems, Oracle
recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance
of the system. See your operating system documentation for more
information about tuning kernel parameters.
Oracle recommends that you set shell limits and system configuration parameters as
described in this section.
Configure Shell Limits
For AIX, it is the ulimit settings that determine process memory related resource
limits. Verify that the shell limits displayed in the following table are set to the values
shown:
Shell Limit (As Shown in smit)
Recommended Value
Soft FILE size
-1 (Unlimited)
Soft CPU time
-1 (Unlimited)
Note: This is the default value.
Soft DATA segment
-1 (Unlimited)
Soft STACK size
-1 (Unlimited)
Soft Real Memory size
-1 (Unlimited)
Processes (per user)
-1 (Unlimited)
Note: This limit is available only in AIX 6.1 or later.
Refer to "Configure System Configuration
Parameters" for information on configuration of
processes per user limits.
To display the current value specified for these shell limits, and to change them if
necessary perform the following steps:
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit chuser
2.
In the User NAME field, enter the user name of the Oracle software owner, for
example oracle.
3.
Scroll down the list and verify that the value shown for the soft limits listed in the
previous table is -1.
If necessary, edit the existing value. To edit the values, you can use the smit utility.
However, to set the value of Soft Real Memory size, you must edit the file
/etc/security/limits. If you have permissions to run smit utility, then you
automatically have the permissions to edit the limits file.
4.
When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.
Configure System Configuration Parameters
If you cannot use the Fixup scripts, then verify that the kernel parameters shown in the
following table are set to values greater than or equal to the minimum value shown. If
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-23
Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters
the current value for any parameter is greater than the value listed in this table, then
the Fixup scripts do not change the value of that parameter.
Parameter
Recommended Value
maxuprocs
16384
ncargs
128
tcp_ephemeral_low
32768
tcp_ephemeral_high
65535
udp_ephemeral_low
32768
udp_ephemeral_high
65535
Ensure that you set the TCP and UDP parameters by following the procedure
described in the Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters section.
The following procedure describes how to verify and set the values manually.
■
To verify that the maximum number of processes allowed per user is set to 16384
or greater, use the following steps:
Note: For production systems, this value should be at least 128 plus
the sum of the PROCESSES and PARALLEL_MAX_SERVERS initialization
parameters for each database running on the system.
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit chgsys
2.
Verify that the value shown for Maximum number of PROCESSES allowed
per user is greater than or equal to 16384.
If necessary, edit the existing value.
3.
■
When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.
To verify that long commands can be executed from shell, use the following steps:
Note: Oracle recommends that you set the ncargs system attribute
to a value greater than or equal to 128. The ncargs attribute
determines the maximum number of values that can be passed as
command line arguments.
1.
Enter the following command:
# smit chgsys
2.
Verify that the value shown for ARG/ENV list size in 4K byte blocks is
greater than or equal to 128.
If necessary, edit the existing value.
3.
When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.
2-24 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters
Checking Asynchronous Input Output Processes
On AIX 5, run the rootpre.sh script to enable the AIO (Asynchronous Input Output)
device drivers. On AIX 6, the AIO device drivers are enabled by default. For both AIX
5 and AIX 6, increase the number of aioserver processes from the default value. The
recommended value for aio_maxreqs is 64k (65536). Confirm this value for both AIX 5
and AIX 6.
Confirm the aio_maxreqs value using the procedure for your release:
On AIX 6.1 and AIX 7.1:
# ioo –o aio_maxreqs
aio_maxreqs = 65536
On AIX 5.3:
# lsattr -El aio0 -a maxreqs
maxreqs 65536 Maximum number of REQUESTS True
When performing an asynchronous I/O to a file system, each asynchronous I/O
operation is tied to an asynchronous I/O server. Thus, the number of asynchronous
I/O servers limits the number of concurrent asynchronous I/O operations in the
system.
The initial number of servers that are started during a system restart is determined by
the minservers parameter. As concurrent asynchronous I/O operations occur,
additional asynchronous I/O servers are started, up to a maximum of the value set in
the maxservers parameter.
On AIX 5.3, if you are using Oracle Database with data files on a file system then
increase the default values for minservers and maxservers, as the default values for
these parameters are too small. Increase the minservers and maxservers values based
on I/O kprocs for each processor.
In general, to set the number of asynchronous I/O servers, complete the following
procedure:
1.
Adjust the initial value of maxservers to 10 times the number of logical disks
divided by the number of CPUs that are to be used concurrently but no more than
80.
2.
Monitor the performance effects on the system during periods of high I/O activity.
If all AIO server processes are started, then increase the maxservers value. Also,
continue to monitor the system performance during peak I/O activity to
determine if there was a benefit from the additional AIO servers. Too many
asynchronous I/O servers increase memory and processor overload of additional
processes, but this disadvantage is small. See your operating system vendor
documentation for information about tuning AIO parameters.
To monitor the number of AIO server processes that have started, enter the following:
# ps -ek|grep -v grep|grep –v posix_aioserver|grep -c aioserver
Starting with AIX 6.1, minservers and maxservers are
replaced by the aio_minservers and aio_maxservers parameters
respectively.
Note:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-25
Identifying Required Software Directories
See Also:
■
"Verifying UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters" on page 2-13
■
"Running the rootpre.sh Script" on page 2-37
Identifying Required Software Directories
You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:
■
Oracle Base Directory
■
Oracle Inventory Directory
■
Oracle Home Directory
Note:
■
■
Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as the
Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII
characters. Because installation owner names are used by default
for some paths, this ASCII character restriction applies to user
names, file names, and directory names.
Ensure that all paths used by the database software, such as the
Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use characters only
from the following set: "# % & ' () * + , - . / : ; < = > ? @ _ A-Z a-z
0-9. This includes user names, file names, and directory names. At
the time of this release, the use of other characters for an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home or Oracle Database home is not
supported. The set of characters provided is further restricted by
user and file naming rules of the operating system.
Oracle Base Directory
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. The
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path
similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:
/mount_point/app/software_owner
In this example:
■
mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that contains the
Oracle software.
The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory.
■
software_owner is the operating system user name of the software owner
installing the Oracle software, for example oracle or grid.
If you start a database instance using the server parameter file
(spfile) with the ORACLE_BASE environment variable set, then its
value is automatically stored in spfile. If you unset the ORACLE_BASE
environment variable and start the instance again, then the database
uses the value of the Oracle base directory stored in spfile.
Note:
You must specify the Oracle base directory that contains all Oracle products.
2-26 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying Required Software Directories
Note: If you have an existing Oracle base directory, then you can
select it from the Oracle Base list during the database installation. If
you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing the
text in the list box. By default, the list contains the existing value for
the Oracle base. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software" on
page 4-9 for more information.
You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple installations or you can create
separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system
users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate
Oracle base directory. The following are examples of Oracle base directories that can
exist on the same system:
/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser
See "Creating an Oracle Base Directory" on page 2-30.
Oracle Inventory Directory
The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software
installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on
a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal
Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.
The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer
provides an Optimal Flexible Architecture-compliant path in the format
/u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app. The user running the installation has permissions to
write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle
Inventory directory in the path /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:
/u01/app/oraInventory
If you have set ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user during installation, then Oracle
Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path ORACLE_
BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to /u01/app/oracle, then
the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path /u01/app/oraInventory.
If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is
performing the installation. For example:
/home/oracle/oraInventory
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct
owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not have to create it.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-27
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Note:
■
■
■
All Oracle software installations rely on the Oracle Inventory
directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.
Do not delete this directory unless you have completely
removed all Oracle software from the system.
By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under
the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software
installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only
one Oracle Inventory for all users. Whereas, there is a separate
Oracle Base for each user.
Oracle Home Directory
The Oracle home directory is the directory where you install the software for a
particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different
releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you
run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and
a name that identifies it. In accordance with the OFA guidelines, Oracle strongly
recommends that the Oracle home directory you specify is a subdirectory of the Oracle
base directory for the user account performing the installation. Oracle recommends
that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:
oracle_base/product/11.1.0/dbhome_1
oracle_base/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
oracle_base/product/11.2.0/grid
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle
base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not
have to create this directory.
Note: During the installation, you must not specify an existing
directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle
home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure
due to file and group ownership permission errors.
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base
directory or, if required, create one. This section contains information about the
following topics:
■
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
■
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Note: You can create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle
base directories exist on the system.
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that follow the Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory
2-28 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle
base directories, as follows:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. See "Creating the Oracle
Inventory Group" on page 2-19 for more information.
Note: Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory
directory under the Oracle base directory for a new installation. If you
have an existing installation, then follow the steps in this section.
■
Identifying an existing Oracle home directory
Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:
# more /etc/oratab
If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines of code similar to the following:
*:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1:N
*:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
*:/oracle/9.2.0:N
The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories.
Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner to use
are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user
to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed
in the previous example:
/u03/app/oracle
/oracle
If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one
(/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
Note:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle base directory
After you locate the Oracle home directory, run a similar command to confirm the
location of Oracle base:
cat /u01/app/oraInventory/ContentsXML/inventory.xml
Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure
that it meets the following conditions:
■
It is not on the same file system as the operating system.
■
The Oracle base directory requires a free disk space of 7.5 GB for its software files.
To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory
is located, enter the following command:
# df -k oracle_base_path
See the following sections for more information:
■
If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then see "Choosing a
Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files" section on page 2-30.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-29
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
■
If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or to create an Oracle base
directory, see "Creating an Oracle Base Directory" on page 2-30.
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file
system with sufficient free disk space.
To identify an appropriate file system:
1.
To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system, use the following
command:
# df -k
2.
From the display, identify a file system that has the appropriate amount of free
space.
The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or
an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.
3.
Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.
To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and
permissions for it:
1.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the
appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
# mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
# chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
2.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you
created.
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server
parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage
option to use for Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated backups
during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option to use for
recovery files (the fast recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option
for each file type.
Note: Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems
and Oracle ASM.
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options for each file type:
2-30 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
■
■
■
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, or both. See "Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle
Automatic Storage Management" on page 3-7 for more information.
For more information about these storage options, see "Database Storage Options"
on page 1-8.
For information on how to configure disk storage before you start the installation, see
one of the following sections depending on your choice:
■
■
■
To use a file system for database or recovery file storage, see the "Creating
Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files" section on page 2-31.
To use Oracle ASM for database or recovery file storage, see the "Preparing Disks
for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation" section on page 3-6.
To identify disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain, see the
"Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group" section on
page 4-3.
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
This section contains the following topics:
■
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
■
Creating Required Directories
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following
guidelines when deciding where to place them:
■
■
The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file
directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.
You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the
database files:
–
If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical
device that is dedicated to the database.
For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume
on more than one physical device and implement the
stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.
–
If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on
separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.
This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and
create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also
enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines. You can choose the
Advanced database creation option to implement this method.
■
If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the
file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 2 GB of free disk
space.
For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement
depending on the use of the database.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-31
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
■
■
For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose must be on physical
devices that are used only by the database.
The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that
you specify.
Creating Required Directories
Note: You must perform this procedure only to place the Oracle
Database or recovery files on a separate file system from the Oracle
base directory.
To create directories for the Oracle database or recovery files on separate file systems
from the Oracle base directory:
1.
Use the following to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system:
# df -k
2.
From the display, identify the file systems to use:
File Type
File System Requirements
Database files
Choose either:
■
■
Recovery files
A single file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space
Two or more file systems with at least 2 GB of free disk space in
total
Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space
If you are using the same file system for many file types, then add the disk space
requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.
3.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
4.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate
owner, group, and permissions on them:
■
Database file directory:
# mkdir /mount_point/oradata
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
The default location for the database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.
■
Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):
# mkdir /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
# chmod 775 /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/fast_recovery_area. Oracle
recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate physical disk
than that of the database file directory. This enables you to use the fast
recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable for
any reason.
2-32 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
5.
If you also want to use Oracle ASM for storage, then see "Preparing Disks for an
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation" on page 3-6 and "Stopping
Existing Oracle Processes" section on page 2-33.
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
If you are installing additional Oracle Database 11g
products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes,
including the listener and database, running in the Oracle home.
You must complete this task to enable Oracle Universal Installer to
relink certain executables and libraries.
Note:
Consider the following before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle
Database:
■
If you plan to use Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
before you install and create the database. When you perform a database
installation, the database must use the same listener created during the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation, thereafter you do not have to perform the steps
listed in this section.
The default listener and any additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home. See "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 2-34 to continue.
■
If you have an existing Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) running on Oracle
ASM, then stop any existing Oracle ASM instances. After you finish installing the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, start the Oracle ASM instance again.
If you create a database during the software installation, then most installation types
configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC
key value EXTPROC. If an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the same port or
key value, Oracle Universal Installer looks for the next available port (for example,
1522) and configures and starts the new listener on this available port.
To determine if an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if
necessary:
1.
Switch user to oracle:
# su - oracle
2.
Enter the following command to determine if a listener process is running and to
identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:
$ ps -ef | grep tnslsnr
This command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the
system:
... oracle_home1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is
installed and LISTENER is the listener name.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-33
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
If no Oracle Net listeners are running, then see the
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" section on
page 2-34 to continue.
Note:
3.
At the command prompt, set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the
appropriate Oracle home directory for the listener:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C or tcsh shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME oracle_home1
4.
Enter the following command to identify the TCP/IP port number and IPC key
value that the listener is using:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl status listenername
If the listener uses the default name LISTENER, then you do
not have to specify the listener name in this command.
Note:
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to stop the listener process:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop listenername
6.
Repeat this procedure to stop all listeners running on this system.
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
You must run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle or grid account. However,
before you start Oracle Universal Installer, you must configure the environment of the
oracle or grid user. To configure the environment, you must:
■
Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file.
■
Set the DISPLAY environment variable.
Use shell programs supported by your operating system
vendor. If you use a shell program that is not supported by your
operating system, then you can encounter errors during installation.
Caution:
To set the Oracle software owners' environments, follow these steps, for each software
owner (oracle, grid). The following procedure lists the steps for the oracle user only:
1.
Start a new X terminal session (xterm).
2.
Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display
on this system:
$ xhost + RemoteHost
where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:
$ xhost + somehost.example.com
2-34 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
3.
If you are not logged in as the user, then switch to the software owner user you are
configuring. For example, as the oracle user.
$ su - oracle
4.
To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
5.
Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:
■
Bash shell (bash):
$ vi .bash_profile
■
Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):
$ vi .profile
■
C shell (csh or tcsh):
% vi .login
6.
Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode
creation mask:
umask 022
7.
Save the file and exit from the text editor.
8.
To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
■
Bourne or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
■
C shell:
% source ./.login
9.
If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following
command on the remote computer to set the DISPLAY variable:
■
Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:
$ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your
workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.
Run the following command on the remote system to check if the SHELL and the
DISPLAY environment variables are set correctly:
echo $SHELL
echo $DISPLAY
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-35
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
To change the display location from the default display to a remote system display,
run the following command on the local computer:
$ xhost + RemoteHost
To verify that the X applications display is set properly, run an X11-based program
that comes with the operating system such as xclock.
$ xclock
If the DISPLAY environment variable is set correctly, then you can see xclock on
your computer screen. If xclock does not start, then contact your system
admimistrator.
10. If the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free disk space, then identify a file
system with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment
variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:
a.
To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
b.
If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
su - root
$ mkdir /mount_point/tmp
$ chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
#exit
c.
Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR
environment variables:
*
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TMP TMPDIR
*
C shell:
% setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
11. If you have had an existing installation on your system, and you are using the
same user account to install this installation, then unset the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_
BASE, ORACLE_SID, TNS_ADMIN environment variables and any other environment
variable set for the Oracle installation user that is connected with Oracle software
homes.
Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE,
ORACLE_SID and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
unset
unset
unset
unset
ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_SID
TNS_ADMIN
C shell:
2-36 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running the rootpre.sh Script
%
%
%
%
unsetenv
unsetenv
unsetenv
unsetenv
ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_SID
TNS_ADMIN
Use the following command to check the PATH environment variable:
$ echo $PATH
Ensure that the $ORACLE_HOME/bin path is removed from your PATH environment
variable.
Note: If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then Oracle
Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the default path
for the Oracle home directory. If you set the ORACLE_BASE
environment variable, then Oracle recommends that you unset the
ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the default path
suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
12. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following
commands:
$ umask
$ env | more
Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the
environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.
"Configuring the User’s Environment" on page 3-3 for
information about setting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
owner user’s environment
See Also:
Running the rootpre.sh Script
Do not run the rootpre.sh script if you have a later release of
the Oracle Database software installed on this system.
Note:
Run the rootpre.sh script:
1.
Switch user to root:
$ su - root
password:
#
2.
Complete one of the following steps, depending on the location of the installation
files:
■
If the installation files are on disc, enter a command similar to the following,
where directory_path is the disc mount point directory or the path of the db
directory on the DVD:
# /directory_path/rootpre/rootpre.sh
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the location
where rootpre.sh exists and enter the following command:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 2-37
Running the rootpre.sh Script
# ./rootpre.sh
3.
Exit from the root account:
# exit
2-38 Oracle Database Installation Guide
3
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server
3
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server is the Oracle software that
provides system support for an Oracle database including volume management, file
system, and automatic restart capabilities. If you plan to use Oracle Restart or Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), then you must install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure before you install and create the database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for
a standalone server is the software that includes Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM.
Oracle combines the two infrastructure products into a single set of binaries that is
installed as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
Oracle ASM is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that
supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle
RAC) configurations. Oracle ASM also supports a general purpose file system for your
application needs including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle ASM is Oracle's
recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to
conventional volume managers, file systems, and raw devices.
Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database by providing the
following:
■
■
■
When there is a hardware or a software failure, Oracle Restart automatically starts
all Oracle components, including the Oracle database instance, Oracle Net
Listener, database services, and Oracle ASM.
Oracle Restart starts components in the proper order when the database host is
restarted.
Oracle Restart runs periodic checks to monitor the status of Oracle components. If
a check operation fails for a component, then the component is shut down and
restarted.
Note:
■
■
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before
you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must
manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
Oracle Restart is used in single-instance (nonclustered)
environments only.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-1
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
■
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support
■
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
■
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
■
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
■
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries
■
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
■
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
The system must meet the following requirements:
■
Memory Requirements
■
Disk Space Requirements
■
Configuring the User’s Environment
Memory Requirements
The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a Standalone Server:
Minimum: At least 1.5 GB of RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server; at least 1 GB of additional RAM if you plan to install Oracle Database after
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server.
Recommended: 4 GB of RAM or more if you plan to install both Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server and Oracle Database.
■
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/lsattr -E -l sys0 -a realmem
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
■
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the
configured swap space recommendation:
Note: On AIX systems, with 1 GB or more of memory, Oracle
recommends that you set the paging space to an initial setting of half
the size of RAM plus 4 GB, with an upper limit of 32 GB. During
installation, to optimize paging, monitor the paging space use in a
separate window. Use the command chps to increase or decrease the
paging space size. The output of chps should indicate paging space
use of less than 25 percent on a healthy system. Refer to Oracle
Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems for more information about configuring paging space.
3-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
RAM
Swap Space
Between 1.5 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of the RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of the RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/lsps -a
If necessary, see the operating system documentation for information about how to
configure additional swap space.
IMPORTANT:
■
■
Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the
available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is
because the available RAM and swap space keep changing
depending on the user interactions with the computer.
Contact your operating system vendor for swap space
allocation guidance for your server. The vendor guidelines
supersede the swap space requirements listed in this guide.
Disk Space Requirements
The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
■
At least 11.2 GB of disk space.
■
At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.
To determine the amount of free space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
If there is less than 1 GB of free space available in the /tmp directory, then complete
one of the following steps:
■
■
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory
when setting the oracle user’s environment.
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 2-34 for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
See Also:
■
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the
system administrator for information about extending file systems.
Configuring the User’s Environment
Complete the following tasks to set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner
user’s environment:
■
Review the information in "Logging In to the System as root" on page 2-2.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-3
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support
■
Ensure that you set the path to the Oracle base directory. Oracle Restart and Oracle
Database are under the same Oracle base directory. For example:
# ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle;
# export ORACLE_BASE
■
■
■
Set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user default file mode creation
mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that
the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation software owner.
Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for installation.
If you plan to install Oracle Database, then you must meet additional preinstallation
requirements. See Chapter 2.
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) extends
Oracle ASM technology to support of all of your application data in both single
instance and cluster configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic
Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) provides volume management services and a
standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System is layered on Oracle ASM through the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager interface.
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on AIX 6.1 TL4 SP2 and later updates
to AIX 6.1. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), Oracle ACFS and
Oracle ADVM are also supported on AIX 7.1.
See Also:
■
For current information on platforms and releases that support
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM refer to My Oracle Support Note
1369107.1 at:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type
=NOT&id=1369107.1
■
For current Patch Set Update (PSU) release and support
information refer to the PSU document on My Oracle Support.
Note: Oracle recommends that you create Oracle data files in Oracle
ASM disk groups. Creating Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file
system is not supported. Oracle ACFS can be used as an option only
when Oracle ASM is configured.
Oracle ACFS resources are not supported for Oracle Restart configurations on all
platforms. You must manually load ACFS drivers after a system restart. Oracle ACFS
database home file systems can be placed into the Oracle ACFS mount registry to be
mounted along with other registered Oracle ACFS file systems.
3-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Release Notes for IBM AIX on POWER Systems
(64-Bit) for latest information about supported platforms and
releases
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
more information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Dynamic Volume Manager
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and modify disk
groups when you install earlier Oracle databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations.
Releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant (Oracle DBCA) to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting
with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed as part of an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation. You can no longer use Oracle DBCA to perform
administrative tasks on Oracle ASM.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for details about configuring disk group compatibility for databases
using Oracle Database 10g or earlier software with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
See Also:
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
If you have an Oracle ASM installation from an earlier release installed on your server,
or in an existing Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can use Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to upgrade the
existing Oracle ASM instance to 11g Release 2 (11.2), and subsequently configure disk
groups, Oracle ASM volumes and Oracle ASM file systems.
Note: You must first shut down all databases and applications using
an existing Oracle ASM instance before upgrading it.
During the installation, if you use Oracle ASM, and Oracle ASMCA detects that there
is a prior Oracle ASM version installed in another Oracle ASM home, then after
installing the Oracle ASM 11g Release 2 (11.2) binaries, you can start Oracle ASMCA to
upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance.
See Also:
■
■
■
"Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle Universal
Installer" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
"Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle ASM
Configuration Assistant" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide
"Downgrading an Oracle ASM Instance in an Oracle Restart
Configuration" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was
installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a
cluster, or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade
Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade (upgrades of existing
Oracle ASM installations). If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to
use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) is
installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation.
You must run Oracle ASMCA for installing and configuring Oracle ASM instances,
disk groups, volumes, and Oracle ACFS. In addition, you can use the ASMCA
command-line interface.
See Also: Chapter 11, "Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant" in
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
information about Oracle ASMCA
Apply the following guidelines when you install Oracle ASM:
■
■
■
■
You must complete the steps listed under "Preparing Disks for an Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Installation" on page 3-6 to prepare a disk
partition to use for the Oracle ASM disk groups.
Ensure that at least one disk is configured appropriately for use in an Oracle ASM
disk group before beginning the installation.
When you install Oracle ASM, Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) creates a separate server parameter file
(SPFILE) and password file for the Oracle ASM instance. As soon as Oracle ASM is
installed, the ASMSNMP schema and user are created. See Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for more information.
The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk group runs in the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home directory.
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
This section describes how to configure disks for use with Oracle ASM. The following
sections describe how to identify the requirements and configure the disks on each
platform:
■
■
■
■
General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
3-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Note: Oracle does not recommend using identifiers for database
object names that must be quoted. While these quoted identifiers may
be valid as names in the SQL CREATE statement, such as CREATE
DISKGROUP "1data" ..., the names may not be valid when using
other tools that manage the database object.
"Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation" in
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
information about creating and managing disk groups
See Also:
General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
The following are the general steps to configure Oracle ASM:
1.
Identify the storage requirements of the site.
2.
If you are creating a new Oracle ASM disk group, create partitions for DAS or
SAN disks.
3.
Configure the disks for use with Oracle ASM. You must provide the Oracle ASM
disk configuration information during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the
number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this
task:
1.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, or both.
Note: You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for
Oracle Database files and recovery files. You can use a file system
for one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.
If you enable automated backups and you do not have a shared file
system available, then you must choose Oracle ASM for recovery
file storage.
During the database installation, if you plan to enable automated backups, then
you can choose Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for recovery files by
specifying an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast recovery area. Depending on
how you create a database during the database installation, you have the
following options:
■
You can run Oracle ASMCA in interactive mode to create and configure the
required disk groups.
During the database installation, if you select an installation method that runs
Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode (Advanced Installation
type), then you can select the disk groups that you created using Oracle
ASMCA.
You have the option to use the disk groups you created using Oracle ASMCA
both for database files and recovery files, or you can use different disk groups
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-7
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
for each file type. Ideally, create separate Oracle ASM disk groups for data files
and for recovery files.
■
If you run Oracle ASMCA in noninteractive mode, then you must use the
same Oracle ASM disk group for data files and recovery files. During the
database installation (Typical Installation type), you must select the same disk
group for both data files and recovery files.
See Also:
■
■
2.
"Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line Interface"
section in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
"Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group" on page 5-4
Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level to use for each Oracle ASM disk group
that you create.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle ASM disk group determines
how Oracle ASM mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of
disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:
■
External redundancy
This option does not allow Oracle ASM to mirror the contents of the disk
group. Oracle recommends that you select this redundancy level either when
the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own
data protection or when the database does not require uninterrupted access to
data.
■
Normal redundancy
To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group,
Oracle ASM uses two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring
for control files, by default. In addition, you can choose the mirroring
characteristics for individual files in a disk group. You can use two-way
mirroring or no mirroring.
A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups
(or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk
space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space of
all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy
disk groups.
■
High redundancy
The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a
disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure
groups (a minimum of three devices).
Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data
protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices
before deciding to use this redundancy level.
3.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files
and recovery files.
If an Oracle ASM instance is running on the system, then you can use an existing
disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to
an existing disk group during the database installation.
3-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the
minimum disk space requirements for the installation:
Redundancy
Level
Minimum Number
of Disks
Data Files
Recovery
Files
Both File
Types
External
1
1.8 GB
3.6 GB
5.4 GB
Normal
2
3.6 GB
7.2 GB
10.8 GB
High
3
5.4 GB
10.8 GB
16.2 GB
4.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in
a custom failure group. By default, each device is included in its failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller
fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you can use two small computer system
interface (SCSI) controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the
disks attached to each controller. This configuration would enable the disk group
to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.
Note: If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify
a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk
groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
5.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the
following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
■
■
■
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group must be the same size and have
the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group
device. Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate
physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk
group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of
complexity that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. Oracle recommends that if
you choose to use a logical volume manager, then use the logical volume
manager to represent a single logical unit number (LUN) without striping or
mirroring, so that you can minimize the effect on storage performance of the
additional storage layer.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-9
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
See Also:
■
■
"Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management" on page 3-10 for information about completing this
task
"Preparing Storage for ASM" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for information about
configuring Oracle ASM disk groups
Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle ASM, the disk must have a partition table.
Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk.
Note: You can use any physical disk for Oracle ASM, if it is
partitioned.
Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To configure disks for use with Automatic Storage Management:
1.
If necessary, install the disks that you intend to use for the Automatic Storage
Management disk group and restart the system.
2.
To ensure that the disks are available, enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/lsdev -Cc disk
The output from this command is similar to the following:
hdisk0 Available 1A-09-00-8,0
hdisk1 Available 1A-09-00-9,0
hdisk2 Available 17-08-L
3.
16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
SSA Logical Disk Drive
If a disk is not listed as available, then enter the following command to configure
the new disks:
# /usr/sbin/cfgmgr
4.
Enter the following command on any node to identify the device names for the
physical disks that you want to use:
# /usr/sbin/lspv | grep -i none
This command displays information similar to the following for each disk that is
not configured in a volume group:
hdisk2
0000078752249812
None
In this example, hdisk2 is the device name of the disk and 0000078752249812 is
the physical volume ID (PVID). The disks that you want to use may have a PVID,
but they must not belong to a volume group.
5.
Enter commands similar to the following to clear the PVID from each disk device
that you want to use:
# /usr/sbin/chdev -l hdiskn -a pv=clear
3-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
6.
Enter commands similar to the following to change the owner, group, and
permissions on the character file for each disk that you want to add to the disk
group:
# chown oracle:dba /dev/rhdiskn
# chmod 660 /dev/rhdiskn
Note: If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Automatic
Storage Management, then ensure that you set the permissions only
on the correct logical device name for the disk.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
A software-only installation only copies the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server binaries to the specified location. Configuring Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle ASM must be done manually after
the installation is finished.
When you perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software,
you must complete a few manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after
you install the software.
Note: Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform the
software-only installation because this installation method provides
no validation of the installation, and this installation option requires
manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
software.
Performing a software-only installation involves the following steps:
1.
Installing the Software Binaries
2.
Configuring the Software Binaries
Installing the Software Binaries
1.
Run the runInstaller command from the relevant directory on the Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) installation media or download directory.
2.
Complete a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
See "Configuring the Software Binaries" on page 3-11 for information about
configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure after performing a software-only
installation.
3.
Verify that the server meets the installation requirements using the command
runcluvfy.sh stage -pre hacfg. Ensure that you complete all storage and server
preinstallation requirements.
Configuring the Software Binaries
To configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation for
Oracle Restart, complete the following tasks:
1.
Login as root and run the roothas.pl script from Grid_home using the following
syntax:
Grid_home/perl/bin/perl -I Grid_home/perl/lib -I Grid_home/crs/install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-11
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl
For example, if your Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid, then run the following script:
# /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/perl/lib -I /u01/app/oracle/product
/11.2.0/grid/crs/install
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl
2.
Change the directory to Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
3.
Login as the Oracle Restart software owner user and enter the following
command:
./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName CLUSTER_
NODES= CRS=TRUE
For example:
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_
HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
-defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
4.
Use the SRVCTL utility along with Network Configuration Assistant and Oracle
ASMCA to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and all Oracle ASM disk
groups to the Oracle Restart configuration.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server
If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create your database, the database is
automatically added to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration and is
automatically restarted when required. However, if you install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure on a host computer on which a database exists, you must manually add
the database, the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and other components to the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration.
Note: Oracle Grid Infrastructure can accommodate multiple
single-instance databases on a single host computer.
This section includes the following topics:
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation
Perform the following steps to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create a
database that is managed by Oracle Restart. First install Oracle Grid Infrastructure,
which installs Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM, then configure Oracle ASM with at least
one disk group, and then install Oracle Database that stores database files in Oracle
ASM disk groups. Click the help button on the Oracle Universal Installer page for
page level assistance.
3-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
You may have to shut down existing Oracle processes before you proceed with the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. See "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" on
page 2-33 for more information.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server with a new database
installation:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner
user. Complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the
installation files:
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
directory on the installation media:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
Note: You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the path of
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure (clusterware) directory and enter the following
command:
$ ./runInstaller
■
Downloading Updates Before Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), if you plan to run the
installation in a secured data center, then you can download updates before
starting the installation by starting Oracle Universal Installer on a system that
has Internet access in update download mode. To start Oracle Universal
Installer to download updates, enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller -downloadUpdates
Provide the My Oracle Support user name and password, and provide proxy
settings if needed. After you download updates, transfer the update file to a
directory on the server where you plan to run the installation.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for more information about response file formats
"Software Updates Option" on page 1-6
"Configuring the User’s Environment" on page 3-3 for information
about setting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user’s
environment
Note: Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner
user and set the user’s environment.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-13
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, see "X Window Display Errors" on
page G-2 and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" on page G-2 for information
about troubleshooting.
2.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you can use the Software
Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest updates. In the
Download Software Updates screen, select one of the following options and click
Next:
■
Use My Oracle Support credentials for download: Select this option to
download and apply the latest software updates.
Click Proxy Settings to configure a proxy for Oracle Universal Installer to use
to connect to the Internet. Provide the proxy server information for your site,
along with a user account that has access to the local area network through
which the server is connecting. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2.0.3) you can enter the Proxy Realm information. The proxy realm
information is case-sensitive. If you do not have a proxy realm, then you do
not have to provide an entry for the Proxy Username, Proxy Password, and
Proxy Realm fields.
Click Test Connection to ensure that your proxy settings are correctly entered,
and the installer can download the updates.
■
■
3.
Use pre-downloaded software updates: Select this option to apply the
software updates previously downloaded using the -downloadUpdates flag.
Skip software updates: Select this option if you do not want to apply any
updates.
The Apply Software Updates screen is displayed if you select to download the
software updates, or provide the pre-downloaded software updates location.
a.
If you selected Use My Oracle Support credentials for download in the
previous screen, select Download and apply all updates, and then click Next
to apply the updates.
By default, the download location for software updates is placed in the home
directory of the Oracle installation owner you are using to run this installation.
If you choose to download the software updates in another location, then click
Browse and select a different location on your server.
b.
If you selected Use pre-downloaded software updates in the previous screen,
select Apply all updates, and then click Next to apply the updates
downloaded before starting the installation.
4.
In the Select Installation Option screen, select the Configure Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server option to install and configure Oracle
Restart and Oracle ASM. Click Next.
5.
In the Select Product Languages screen, select one or more languages. Move the
languages from the Available Languages list to the Selected Languages list. Click
Next.
6.
The Create ASM Disk Group screen lists all the Oracle ASM disks.
Click Change Discovery Path to select any devices to be used by Oracle ASM but
are not listed in the screen. In the Change Disk Discovery Path window, enter a
string to use to search for devices that Oracle ASM will use. If the disk string is set
to ORCL:* or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these disks. Click OK.
After you finish selecting the disks to be used by Oracle ASM, click Next.
3-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Note: During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and
registered on ASMLIB with the string ORCL:* are listed as default
database storage candidate disks.
Consider the following information about disk devices while performing this step:
■
■
■
The default Disk Group Name is DATA. You can enter a new name for the disk
group, or use the default name.
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by
Oracle ASM are mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the
redundancy. If the disks are not mirrored at the storage level, then select
Normal for the redundancy.
Note: For normal redundancy, you require twice as much disk space
to hold the same amount of data. For example, if your database is 100
GB, then you require approximately 200 GB of storage.
■
7.
Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation
unit is the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group. Starting with
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), you can select the AU Size value from
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB, depending on the specific disk group compatibility
level. The default value is set to 1 MB.
In the Specify ASM Password screen, enter the password required to connect to
the Oracle ASM instance. The Oracle ASM instance is managed by a privileged
role called SYSASM, which grants full access to Oracle ASM disk groups. Oracle
recommends that you create a less privileged user, ASMSNMP, with SYSDBA privileges
to monitor the Oracle ASM instance.
Enter passwords for the SYS and ASMSNMP user accounts. The passwords should be
at least eight characters in length and include at least 1 alphabetic, 1 numeric, and
1 of the following three punctuation mark characters: hyphens (-), underscores (_),
or number sign (#). No other special characters are allowed in the password field.
Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle
recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must
remember the passwords that you specify.
8.
In the Privileged Operating System Groups screen, select the name of the
operating system group you created for the OSDBA group, the OSASM group, and the
database operator group OSOPER. If you create only the dba group, then you can
use that group for all three privileged groups. If you created a separate asmadmin
group, then use that value for the OSASM group. Click Next.
9.
In the Specify Installation Location screen, enter the following information, and
click Next:
■
■
Oracle Base: Enter the location for the Oracle base directory. Do not include
spaces in the path.
Software Location: Accept the default value or enter the directory path in
which you want to install the software.The directory path must not contain
spaces..
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-15
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
See Also:
■
■
"Identifying Required Software Directories" on page 2-26 for
information about Oracle base directory and Oracle home
directory
"Naming Directories" on page D-2 for directory naming
conventions
10. If you have not installed Oracle software previously on this server, the Create
Inventory screen appears.
Change the path for the Inventory Directory, if required. Select oinstall for the
oraInventory Group Name, if required. Click Next.
11. The Perform Prerequisite Checks screen checks if the minimum system
requirements are met to perform the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If all
the system requirements are met, then you are directed to the Summary screen. If
an installation fails, you can review the error.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if
the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check
the system requirements again.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must
run as the root user. This generated script sets some system parameter
values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of
this script. See "Installation Fixup Scripts" on page 2-13 for more
information.
To get a list of failed requirements, select Show Failed from the list. To get a list of
all the prerequisites checks run by the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the
prerequisites checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use caution when selecting the
Ignore All option. If you select this option, then Oracle Universal
Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database
successfully.
12. Review the contents of the Summary screen, and click Install.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can click Save Response
File to save all the installation steps into a response file. This file can be used for a
silent installation.
13. The Install Product screen displays the progress of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. During the installation process, the Execute Configuration Scripts
window appears. Do not click OK until you run the scripts mentioned in this
screen.
Run the root.sh and, if required, the orainstRoot.sh configuration scripts as the
root user.
14. The Finish screen displays the installation status. Click Close to end the
installation, then click Yes to exit Oracle Universal Installer.
3-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
If you encounter any problems, see the configuration log for information. The path
to the configuration log is displayed on the Configuration Assistants window.
15. Oracle ASMCA is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server installation. To create additional disk groups, run the Oracle
ASMCA utility. For example, you can create another disk group named RECOVERY
to store the fast recovery area.
See Also:
■
■
"Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Disk Groups" on page 3-19
"Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group" on page 5-4
Note: To verify that the Oracle High Availability Service is installed
properly, run ./crsctl check has command from Grid_home/bin
directory.
Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a
standalone server. ohasd is a daemon installed with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure that starts software services, such as Oracle ASM.
16. Install Oracle Database. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software" on page 4-9.
Note:
■
■
If a new database is installed after a grid infrastructure
installation, then the listener runs from the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home. Because Oracle ASM is installed as part of
Oracle Grid Infrastructure, the default listener is created and runs
from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. If you perform a
database installation, then the database must use the same listener
created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
If you are using Oracle Restart, then the default listener and any
additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home.
See "Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart" on page G-4 to
deconfigure Oracle Restart without removing installed binaries.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database
Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and configure it for an existing Oracle database. Oracle Restart can only manage
existing release 11.2 resources and hence you can install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
only for an existing release 11.2 database. However, Oracle database releases before
11.2 can coexist on the same server without being managed by Oracle Restart.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an existing database:
■
On the same host computer as the database, use Oracle Universal Installer to
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and select Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a Standalone Server as the installation option.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-17
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure components are installed in a separate Oracle
home.
See "Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation" on
page 12 for detailed instructions.
■
Go to the Grid home’s bin directory.
Use the srvctl add database command with the -c SINGLE flag to add the
database in an Oracle Restart configuration. Also use the srvctl add command to
add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle ASM disk groups, and any
database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.
"srvctl add" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for
more information
See Also:
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries
After the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation, you must first
stop the Oracle Restart stack to modify the software installed in your Grid home. For
example, to apply a one-off patch or modify any of the DLLs used by Oracle Restart or
Oracle ASM, you must follow these steps to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack.
Before relinking executables, you must shut down all
executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are
relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle
shared libraries.
Caution:
Prepare the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server home for modification
using the following procedure:
1.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user and change the
directory to the path Grid_home/bin, where Grid_home is the path to the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
2.
Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:
$ crsctl stop has -f
3.
After the Oracle Restart stack is shut down, perform the updates to the software
installed in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
4.
Use the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:
$ crsctl start has
Relink Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server using the following
procedure:
1.
Login as root
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# perl roothas.pl -unlock
2.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server owner:
$ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
$ Grid_home/bin/relink
3-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
3.
Login as root again:
#
#
#
#
cd Grid_home/rdbms/install/
./rootadd_rdbms.sh
cd Grid_home/crs/install
perl roothas.pl -patch
You must relink the Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM binaries every time you apply
an operating system patch or after an operating system upgrade.
See Also:
"Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home" on page 7-4
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk
Groups
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA)
utility creates a new Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no
Oracle ASM instance currently configured on the computer.
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you can also use Oracle ASMCA to create
and configure disk groups, Oracle Oracle ADVM and Oracle ACFS.
To create additional disk groups or manually configure Oracle ASM disks, you can run
the Oracle ASMCA as follows:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
$ ./asmca
Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a standalone server.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
To test the Oracle ASM installation, login using the asmcmd command-line utility,
which lets you manage Oracle ASM disk group files and directories. To do this:
1.
Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM
instance to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and the Oracle home is located
in the grid subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following
commands to create the required settings:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
2.
Use ASMCMD to list the disk groups for the Oracle ASM instance:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd lsdg
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-19
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
ASMCMD connects by default as the SYS user with SYSASM privileges.
If the Oracle ASM instance is not running, you can start the instance with the
following:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd startup
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Utilities or more information about ASMCMD
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
3-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
4
4
Installing Oracle Database
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site, or the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud portal. In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by
Oracle Universal Installer to install the software. However, you can also use Oracle
Universal Installer to complete silent mode installations, without using the GUI.
■
Preinstallation Considerations
■
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
■
Accessing the Installation Software
■
Database Security Options
■
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
Installing Oracle Database Examples
Appendix A for information about silent mode
installations
See Also:
Preinstallation Considerations
Review the information in Chapter 1, "Overview of Oracle Database Installation" and
complete the tasks listed in Chapter 2, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks".
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Response File or Silent Mode
If you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database, you may want to use
silent mode or response file mode. In response file mode, at each node, you run Oracle
Universal Installer from the command line using a response file. The response file is a
text file that contains the settings you typically enter in the Oracle Universal Installer
GUI dialog boxes.
Appendix A for information about silent mode
installations
See Also:
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
Review the following guidelines before starting Oracle Universal Installer:
■
Oracle Universal Installer
Using Oracle Universal Installer from an earlier Oracle release to install
components from this release is no longer allowed.
Installing Oracle Database 4-1
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was
installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation,
either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
To upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, upgrade Oracle ASM by running
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM installed
and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database
installation.
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server" for information about Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server
See Also:
■
Installations on a cluster
If Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC are installed on the system, Oracle
Universal Installer displays the Specify Hardware Cluster Installation page. You
must select the Local Installation option, unless you want to install Oracle RAC.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX
Selecting the Database Character Set
Oracle Database uses the database character set for:
■
Data stored in SQL character datatypes (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).
■
Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.
■
Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this
code.
After a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in
terms of time and resources. Such operations may require converting all character data
by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that
you carefully select the database character set at installation time.
Oracle recommends Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set. Unicode is the
universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the
world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is the native
encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML, ECMAScript, and
LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the Internet and the global
economy.
Because AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data
may be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as
WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use
characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy
character sets supporting the language. The increase in storage space concerns only
character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and flexibility of
Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.
Consider legacy character sets when compatibility, storage requirements, or
performance of text processing is critical and the database supports only a single
group of languages. The database character set to be selected in this case is the
character set of most clients connecting to this database.
4-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
The default character set suggested or used by Oracle Universal Installer and Database
Configuration Assistant in this release is based on the language configuration of the
operating system.
For most languages, the default character set is one of the Microsoft Windows
character sets, for example WE8MSWIN1252, even though the database is not installed
on Windows. This results from the assumption that most clients connecting to the
database run under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Because the database
should be able to store all characters coming from the clients and Microsoft Windows
character sets have a richer character repertoire than the corresponding ISO 8859
character sets, the Microsoft Windows character sets are usually the better choice. For
example, the EE8MSWIN1250 character set supports the Euro currency symbol and
various smart quote characters, while the corresponding EE8ISO8859P2 character set
does not support them. Oracle Database converts the data between the database
character set and the client character sets, which are declared by the NLS_LANG
settings.
The list of database character sets that is presented to you for selection by Oracle
Universal Installer contains only the recommended character sets. Even though Oracle
Database supports many more character sets, they are either deprecated or they are
binary subsets of another recommended character set. For example, WE8DEC is a
deprecated character set and US7ASCII and WE8ISO8859P1 are both binary subsets of
WE8MSWIN1252.
If, for compatibility reasons, you must create a database in one of the character sets
that was not recommended, select the Advanced database configuration option.
Database Configuration Assistant in the interactive mode gives you the opportunity to
select any of the database character sets supported on AIX.
Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
This section is optional and describes how to identify disk groups and determine the
free disk space that they contain. You can store either database or recovery files in an
existing Oracle ASM disk group that you created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation.
Note: The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk
group runs in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory.
To determine if an existing Oracle ASM disk group exists or to determine if there is
sufficient disk space in a disk group, use the following procedure:
1.
View the contents of the oratab file to determine if an Oracle ASM instance is
configured on the system:
# more /etc/oratab
If an Oracle ASM instance is configured on the system, then the oratab file
contains a line similar to the following:
+ASM:oracle_home_path:N
In this example, +ASM is the system identifier (SID) of the Oracle ASM instance and
oracle_home_path is the Oracle home directory where Oracle ASM is installed. By
convention, the SID for an Oracle ASM instance should be +ASM.
Installing Oracle Database 4-3
Accessing the Installation Software
2.
Open a shell prompt and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM
instance to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and is located in the grid
subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands to
create the required settings:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
3.
Using SQL*Plus, connect to the Oracle ASM instance as the SYS user with SYSASM
privilege and start the instance if necessary:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus /nolog
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
Enter password: SYS_password
SQL> STARTUP
4.
Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy
level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
5.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level, and
note the free space that it contains.
6.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements listed in the previous section.
Note: If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then
Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size
and performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk
group.
"Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Instances" on page 3-5
See Also:
Accessing the Installation Software
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site, or the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud portal. To install the software from the hard disk, you must either download it
and unpack it, or copy it from the installation media, if you have it.
You can access and install Oracle Database by using one of the following methods:
■
To copy the software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Software to the Hard Disk"
on page 4-7
4-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
■
To download the software from Oracle Technology Network, see "Downloading
Oracle Software" on page 4-5
Downloading Oracle Software
You can download the trial version of the installation files from the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN) or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal and extract them on
your hard disk. Ensure that you review and understand the terms of the license. Most
downloads include the development license. This section contains the following
topics:
■
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN
■
Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud
■
Extracting the Installation Files
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN
To download the installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network:
1.
Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology
Network:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/downloads/index.html
2.
Go to the download page for the product to install.
3.
On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for
each required file.
The file sizes are listed next to the file names.
4.
Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.
In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the
archive files.
5.
On the file system that you selected in Step 4, create a parent directory for each
product, for example OraDB11g, to hold the installation directories.
6.
Download all of the installation archive files to the directory that you created in
Step 5.
7.
Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files
on Oracle Technology Network. Also verify the checksums are the same as noted
on Oracle Technology Network using a command similar to the following:
cksum filename.zip
8.
Extract the files in each directory that you just created.
9.
After you have extracted the required installation files, see "Installing the Oracle
Database Software" on page 4-9.
Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud
You can download the software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud as Media Packs.
A Media Pack is an electronic version of the software that is also available to Oracle
customers on CD-ROM or DVD. To download the Media Pack:
1.
Use any browser to access the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/
Installing Oracle Database 4-5
Accessing the Installation Software
2.
Complete the Export Validation process by entering information (name, company,
email address, and country) in the online form.
3.
In the Media Pack Search page, specify the Product Pack and Platform to identify
the Media Pack you want to download. If you do not know the name of the
Product Pack, you can search for it using the License List.
4.
Optionally, select the relevant product to download from the Results list.
5.
In the search results page, click Readme to download and review the Readme file
for download instructions and product information.
6.
After you review the Readme, choose the appropriate Media Pack from the search
results to download the individual zip files. Follow the Download Notes
instructions in this page. After you download and extract the contents of the
required zip files, proceed with the installation of the software.
Note: Print the page with the list of downloadable files. It contains a
list of part numbers and their corresponding descriptions that you
may refer during the installation process.
7.
After you download the files, click View Digest to verify that the MD5 or SHA-1
checksum matches with what is listed in the media download page.
See Also:
■
My Oracle Support note 549617.1 for information on how to verify
the integrity of a software download at:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type
=NOT&id=549617.1
■
Frequently Asked Questions section on the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud portal for more information about Media Packs
Extracting the Installation Files
To extract the installation archive files, perform the following steps:
1.
If necessary, change to the directory that contains the downloaded installation
archive files.
2.
Oracle RDBMS software is available as two archive files. Ensure that you extract
both the archive files to the same directory.
If the downloaded file has the zip extension, use the following command to
extract the content:
unzip file_name.zip
If the downloaded file has the cpio.gz extension, use the following command:
$ gunzip filename.cpio.gz
This command creates files with names similar to the following:
filename.cpio
To extract the installation files, enter a command similar to the following:
$ cpio -idcmv < filename.cpio
4-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
Note: See the download page for information about the correct
options to use with the cpio command.
Some browsers uncompress files while downloading them, but
they leave the .gz file extension.
For each file, this command creates a subdirectory named Diskn, where n is the
disk number identified in the file name.
When you have extracted all of the required installation files, see the "Installing the
Oracle Database Software" on page 4-9.
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk
Before installing Oracle Database, you might want to copy the software to the hard
disk to enable the installation process to run faster. Before copying the installation
media content to the hard disk, you must mount the disk. The following sections
describe how to mount the disk and copy its content to the hard disk.
Mounting Disks
On most AIX systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the disk
drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount it:
1.
Switch user to root:
$ sudo - root
2.
If necessary, enter a command similar to following to unmount the currently
mounted disc, then remove it from the drive:
# umount /dvd
In this example, /dvd is the mount point directory for the disc drive.
3.
Insert the appropriate disc into the disc drive, then enter a command similar to the
following to mount it:
# /usr/sbin/mount -rv cdrfs /dev/cd0 /dvd
In this example, /dev/cd0 is the device name of the disc drive and /dvd is the
mount point directory.
4.
If Oracle Universal Installer displays the Disk Location dialog box, enter the disc
mount point directory path, for example:
/dvd
To continue, go to one of the following sections:
■
■
To copy software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Oracle Database Software to a
Hard Disk" on page 4-8.
To install the software from the installation media, see "Installing the Oracle
Database Software" on page 4-9.
Installing Oracle Database 4-7
Database Security Options
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk
Note: If the system does not have an installation media, you can
copy the software from the disk to a file system on another system,
then either mount that file system using NFS or use FTP to copy the
files to the system where you want to install the software.
To copy the contents of the installation media to a hard disk:
1.
Create a directory on the hard disk, outside of the Oracle base directory, to hold
the Oracle software:
$ mkdir OraDb11g
2.
Change the directory to the directory you created in Step 1:
$ cd OraDb11g
3.
Mount the disk, if it is not mounted.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert it into the drive. If
the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section on
page 4-7 for platform-specific information.
4.
Copy the contents of the mounted disk to the corresponding new subdirectory as
follows:
$ cp -R /directory_path OraDb11g
In this example, /directory_path is the disk mount point directory.
5.
If necessary, mount the next disk and repeat Step 4.
Database Security Options
During installation, you are prompted to select a database security configuration. The
Secure Configuration option configures the database with database auditing options,
and password policy and expiration settings.
For new database installations, the default configuration for Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) includes the Secure Configuration option. To disable these enhanced
security controls you can deselect the Assert all new security settings check box in the
Specify Configuration Option screen that appears during the database installation.
Oracle Database is then installed with default options for Oracle Database 10g Release
2. You can enable or disable auditing or password security settings, or revert to a
previous security setting. After installation, you can enable or disable the security
configuration by starting Database Configuration Assistant through the command-line
interface.
To enable the security configuration:
dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration NONE
-enableSecurityConfiguration true
To disable the security configuration:
dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration
[ALL|PASSWORD_PROFILE] -enableSecurityConfiguration false
SID is the system identifier.
4-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
For database upgrades, the upgraded database retains your existing database security
configuration to ensure compatibility with existing applications.
Note:
■
■
Oracle recommends configuring your database with the Secure
Configuration option either during installation or after installation
using Database Configuration Assistant.
Database Vault is an enhanced security feature. If it is installed
with the database, then you cannot change the secure
configuration using the Database Configuration Assistant option.
Installing the Oracle Database Software
In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal
Installer to install Oracle Database. The instructions in this section explain how to run
the Oracle Universal Installer GUI to perform most database installations.
Running Oracle Universal Installer
For any type of installation process, start Oracle Universal Installer and install the
software, as follows:
1.
Logon as the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle) to the computer on
which you want to install Oracle components.
2.
If you are installing the software from installation media, mount the disk if it is not
mounted.
If the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section on
page 4-7 for platform-specific information.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation
media into the drive.
3.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending
on the location of the installation files:
Note: Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the oracle user and set the user’s
environment.
See Also:
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 2-34
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
installation media:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the
database directory and enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller
Installing Oracle Database 4-9
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
Downloading Updates Before Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), if you plan to run the
installation in a secured data center, then you can download updates before
starting the installation by starting Oracle Universal Installer on a system that
has Internet access in update download mode. To start Oracle Universal
Installer to download the updates, enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller -downloadUpdates
Provide the My Oracle Support user name and password, and provide proxy
settings, if needed, in the Provide My Oracle Support credentials screen. Then,
enter the Download location and click Download in the Download software
updates screen. If updates are available, then they are downloaded in the
location provided. The Finish Updates screen shows the successful download
of the updates. Click Close.
After you download the updates, transfer the update file to a directory on the
server where you plan to run the installation.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for more information about response file formats
"Software Updates Option" on page 1-6
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, see "X Window Display Errors" on
page G-2 and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" on page G-2 for information
about troubleshooting.
4.
Use the following guidelines to complete the installation:
■
■
Do not install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software into an existing
Oracle home.
Follow the instructions displayed on the Oracle Universal Installer screens. If
you need additional information, click Help.
"Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" on page 6-5 for
information about password guidelines
See Also:
■
■
■
Do not modify the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) except by using a patch
provided by Oracle Support Services. Oracle Universal Installer automatically
installs the Oracle-supplied version of the JRE. This version is required to run
Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants.
If errors are displayed while installing the software, see Appendix G for
information about troubleshooting.
If you chose an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant in interactive mode, then you must provide detailed information
about configuring the database and network.
If you need help when using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in
interactive mode, click Help on any screen.
Note: If you chose a default installation, Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant does not run interactively.
4-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
5.
When the configuration assistant tasks are complete click finish, click Exit, then
click Yes to exit from Oracle Universal Installer.
6.
During the database installation, when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to
run a script with root privileges, enter a command similar to the following in a
terminal where you are logged in as the root user, then click OK:
# /script_path/script_name
For more information see screen "Install product" in the installation table that
follows.
7.
See Chapter 5 for information about tasks that you must complete after you install
Oracle Database.
The following table lists the various screens displayed during an Enterprise Edition
installation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
Screen
Action
Configure Security Updates
Enter your email address, preferably your My Oracle Support
email address or user name in the Email field.
Select the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle
Support check box to receive security updates.
Enter your My Oracle Support password in the My Oracle
Support Password field.
Click Next.
Download Software Updates
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you can
use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download
and apply the latest updates. Select one of the following
options, and click Next:
■
Use My Oracle Support credentials for download: Select
this option to download and apply the latest software
updates.
Click Proxy Settings to configure a proxy for Oracle
Universal Installer to use to connect to the Internet.
Provide the proxy server information for your site and a
user account that has access to the local area network
through which the server is connecting. Starting with
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) you can enter the
Proxy Realm information. The proxy realm information
is case-sensitive. If you do not have a proxy realm, then
you do not have to provide an entry for the Proxy
Username, Proxy Password, and Proxy Realm fields.
Click Test Connection to ensure that your proxy settings
are correctly entered, and the installer can download the
updates.
■
Use pre-downloaded software updates: Select this option
to apply the software updates previously downloaded
using the -downloadUpdates flag.
Specify the path to the location where you have already
downloaded the software updates.
■
Skip software updates: Select this option if you do not
want to apply any updates.
See Also: "Software Updates Option" on page 1-6
Installing Oracle Database
4-11
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Apply Software Updates
This screen is displayed if you select to download the
software updates, or provide the pre-downloaded software
updates location.
■
If you selected Use My Oracle Support credentials for
download in the previous screen, select Download and
apply all updates, and then click Next to apply the
updates.
By default, the download location for software updates is
placed in the home directory of the Oracle installation
owner you are using to run this installation. If you
choose to download the software updates in another
location, then click Browse and select a different location
on your server.
■
Select Installation Option
Select one of the following installation options, and click
Next:
■
■
■
System Class
If you selected Use pre-downloaded software updates in
the previous screen, select Apply all updates, and then
click Next to apply the updates downloaded before
starting the installation.
Create and configure a database: This option creates a
new database with sample schemas.
Install database software only: This option only installs
the database binaries. To configure the database, you
must run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after
the software installation.
Upgrade an existing database: This option installs the
software binaries in a new Oracle home. After the
installation, you can upgrade the existing database.
Select the type of system for installing the database, and click
Next.
■
Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a
laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a
starter database and enables a minimal configuration.
This option is designed for those who want to get the
database running quickly.
See Also: "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME
Environment Variable" on page 2-15
■
4-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a
server class system, such as what you would use when
deploying Oracle Database in a production data center.
This option provides more advanced configuration
options. Advanced configuration options available using
this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, backup
and recovery configuration, integration with Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control, and more fine-grained
memory tuning, among many others.
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Grid Installation Options
Select the type of database installation you want to perform,
and click Next.
■
■
■
Single instance database installation: This option installs
the database and the listener.
Oracle Real Application Clusters database installation:
This option installs Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Oracle RAC One Node database installation: This option
installs the Oracle RAC One Node database.
Note: Oracle RAC One Node is only supported with
Oracle Clusterware.
Select Install Type
Select one of the following, and click Next:
■
■
Select Product Languages
Typical Install: This installation method is selected by
default. It lets you quickly install Oracle Database using
minimal input. It installs the software and optionally
creates a general-purpose database using the information
that you specify on this screen.
Advanced Install: This installation method enables you
to perform more complex installations, such as creating
individual passwords for different accounts, creating
specific types of starter databases (for example, for
transaction processing or data warehouse systems),
using different language groups, specifying email
notifications, and so on.
This option enables you to select the language in which you
want to run the product.
Select the product language from the Available Languages
list, and move it to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.
Select Database Edition
Select Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Standard
Edition One. Click Next.
If you click Select Options, then based on your selection you
can enable or disable components from the components list.
This screen enables you to customize the database. The
components available in this screen are:
■
Oracle Partitioning
■
Oracle OLAP
■
Oracle Label Security
■
Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files
■
Oracle Database Vault option
■
Oracle Real Application Testing
Click OK to continue.
Note: The Select Options button is enabled only if you select
the Enterprise Edition installation type.
Installing Oracle Database
4-13
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Installation Location
The Oracle base path appears by default. You can change this
path based on your requirement. Specify Oracle Base,
Software Location, and click Next.
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle
software installations owned by an Oracle installation owner
account. The default Oracle base path is
mountpoint/app/user, where user is the user account running
the installation. You can change the path based on your
requirements.
In the Software Location field, accept the default value or
enter the Oracle home directory path in which you want to
install Oracle software.
The directory path must not contain spaces. Click Next.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced
Installation.
Ensure that the Oracle home path for the database home and
the Oracle base path use only ASCII characters. At the time of
this release, the use of non-ASCII characters for an Oracle
database home or Oracle base is not supported.
See Also: "Naming Directories" on page D-2 and "Identifying
Required Software Directories" on page 2-26
Create Inventory
You are prompted by the installer to specify the Inventory
Directory path for the central inventory the first time you
install any Oracle software on your computer.
Select the oraInventory Group Name of the operating system
group that will own the Oracle Inventory directory (the
Oracle Inventory group).
Click Next.
Note: By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not
installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all
Oracle software installations share a common Oracle
Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users,
whereas there is a separate Oracle Base directory for each
user.
Select Configuration Type
Select one of the following, and click Next:
■
■
General Purpose / Transaction Processing: This is a
starter database designed for general usage or
transaction-heavy applications.
Data Warehousing: A starter database optimized to run
Data Warehousing applications.
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal
Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a
description of these preconfigured database types.
4-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Database Identifiers
Provide the following information, and click Next:
Database Naming
Provide the Global Database Name using the following
syntax:
db_unique_name.db_domain
■
■
db_unique_name is the name of the database. It can
contain a maximum of 30 characters if the first 8
characters are unique and begin with an alphabetic
character. The characters can include alphanumeric,
underscore (_), dollar sign ($), and pound sign (#), no
other special characters are permitted in a database
name.
db_domain is the computer environment used for the
database. It can contain no more than 128 characters
(alphanumeric, underscore (_), and pound sign (#)),
inclusive of all periods.
Note: Ensure that the combination of database name (first 8
unique characters of the unique name for the database),
delimiter, and the database domain name does not exceed 128
characters.
For example:
sales.us.example.com
■
db_unique_name is sales
■
db_domain is us.example.com
When you enter the Global Database Name, Oracle Universal
Installer automatically populates the SID prefix with the
database name. You can change this name in Advanced
Installation. Oracle Universal Installer limits the SID to 12
alphanumeric characters and the SID cannot contain an
underscore (_), dollar sign ( $), or pound sign (#).
See "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment
Variable" on page 2-15 and "Identifying Databases" on
page 6-10
Installing Oracle Database
4-15
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Configuration Options
Provide the following configuration information, and click
Next:
Memory:
The Enable Automatic Memory Management option enables
the database to automatically distribute memory between
SGA and PGA. If you deselect this option, then the SGA and
PGA must be sized manually.
Character Sets:
This option enables you to store the character data in the
database in one of the following methods:
■
■
■
Use the default: This option uses the operating system
language settings.
Use Unicode: This option enables you to store multiple
language groups
Choose from the following list of character sets: This
option enables the Select Database Character Set drop
down list.
See Also:
■
■
"Selecting the Database Character Set" on page 4-2
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for
information about choosing a character set
Security:
The Assert all new security settings option is selected by
default. This setting includes enabling auditing and using
new password profile.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use the default settings.
Sample Schemas:
The Create database with sample schemas option is not
selected by default. You can select this option, to create a
starter database with sample schemas.
Specify Management Options
Select one of the following options, and click Next:
■
■
Use an existing Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control
for database management: This option is useful if you
have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for
database management: This option enables you to
manage Oracle Database locally. Optionally, select
Enable Email Notifications and enter the outgoing SMTP
server and e-mail address.
See Also: "E-mail Notification Options" on page 1-14
Note: The Enable Email Notifications option is not
available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2.0.2).
4-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Database Storage
Options
Select one of the following options, and click Next.
■
■
File System: Specify the database file location.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management: Specify a
password for the ASMSNMP user.
Note: Installing Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file
system is not supported. Oracle recommends that these data
files are installed in Oracle ASM disk groups.
See Also: "Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Disk Group" on page 4-3
Specify Recovery Options
Select one of the following options, and click Next.
■
■
Do not enable automated backups
Enable automated backups: If you select this option, then
the backup job uses a specified recovery area storage.
Select File System to use a file system directory for the
fast recovery area, and then specify the fast recovery area
path in the Recovery Area location field.
Select Oracle Automatic Storage Management to use an
Automatic Storage Management disk group for the fast
recovery area.
Specify your operating system user credentials to
perform the backup job.
See Also: "Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Installation" on page 3-6
Select ASM Disk Group
This screen is displayed only if you select Oracle Automatic
Storage Management as your storage option in the Specify
Storage Option screen.
Disk groups are created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. Disk groups are configured with the SYSASM
privilege using asmcmd or SQL create diskgroup commands.
An ASM disk group consists of multiple disk partitions.
The table in this screen displays existing disk groups created
during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Select the
disk group to use for database file storage.
Specify Schema Passwords
Enter and confirm passwords for the privileged database
accounts, and click Next.
Note: Optionally, you can use the same password for all
accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a
different password for each account. You must remember the
passwords that you specify.
See Also: "Unlocking and Changing Passwords" on page 6-9
for information about password guidelines
Privileged Operating System
Groups
The operating system groups are selected by default. You can
also manually select the OSDBA and OSOPER groups.
Click Next.
See Also: "Creating Required Operating System Groups and
Users" on page 2-15 for more information.
Installing Oracle Database
4-17
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Perform Prerequisite Checks
This option verifies that the minimum system requirements
to perform the database installation are met.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite
check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to
carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the
problem and verify the system requirements again.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that
you must run as the root user. This generated script sets
some system parameters to Oracle-recommended values.
Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of
this script.
See Also: "Installation Fixup Scripts" on page 2-13 for more
information.
To get a list of failed requirements, select ShowFailed from
the list. To get a list of all the prerequirement checks run by
the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequirement
checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use caution when
selecting the Ignore All option. If you select this option, then
Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system
can install Oracle Database successfully.
See Also: Chapter 2, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks"
Summary
Review the information displayed on this screen, and click
Install.
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you
can save all the installation steps into a response file by
clicking Save Response File. Later, this file can be used for a
silent installation.
Install Product
This screen displays the progress of a database installation.
This screen then displays the status information for the
configuration assistants that configure the software and
create a database.
A message is displayed at the end of the Database
Configuration Assistant process. Click OK.
During the installation process, the Execute Configuration
Scripts window appears. Run the root.sh and, if required,
the orainstRoot.sh configuration scripts as the root user to
complete the installation. Click OK.
Note: If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software
on your system, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you
to run the orainstRoot.sh script.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
Finish
This screen is shown automatically when all the configuration
tools are successful.
Review the Enterprise Manager Database Control URL
information displayed in this screen and click Close.
4-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Examples
After installation is complete, do not manually remove or
run cron jobs that remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle
directories or their files while Oracle software is running. If you
remove these files, then the Oracle software can intermittently stop
responding. Oracle Restart installations fail with the following error:
Caution:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
Installing Oracle Database Examples
If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the
products from the Oracle Database Examples media:
■
Oracle JDBC Development Drivers
■
Oracle Database Examples
■
Oracle Text Knowledge Base
■
Various Oracle product demonstrations
For information about installing software and various Oracle product demonstrations
from the Oracle Database Examples media, see Oracle Database Examples Installation
Guide
Installing Oracle Database
4-19
Installing Oracle Database Examples
4-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
5
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
5
This chapter describes tasks that you must perform after you have installed the
database software. It includes information about the following topics:
■
Required Postinstallation Tasks
■
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
■
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
You must perform the tasks listed in "Required Postinstallation Tasks" on page 5-1.
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks listed in "Recommended
Postinstallation Tasks" on page 5-2 after all installations.
If you install and intend to use any of the products listed in "Required Product-Specific
Postinstallation Tasks" on page 5-6, then you must perform the tasks listed in the
product-specific sections.
This chapter describes basic configuration only. See Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide, Oracle Database Administrator's
Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems and
product-specific administration and tuning guides for more
detailed configuration and tuning information.
Note:
"Post-installation Database Configuration" section in
Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide
See Also:
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Perform the following task after completing the Oracle Database installation:
Downloading and Installing Patches
Check the My Oracle Support Web site for required patch updates for your
installation.
To download required patches:
1.
Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:
https://support.oracle.com/
2.
Log in to My Oracle Support.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
5-1
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Note: If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, click
Register here and follow the registration instructions.
3.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click the Patches and Updates tab.
4.
In the Patch Search group, select Product or Family (Advanced).
5.
In the Product field, select Oracle Database.
6.
In the Release field select the release number. For example, Oracle 11.2.0.3.1.
7.
Click Search.
8.
Any available patch updates are displayed in the Patch Search page.
9.
Select the patch number and click ReadMe. The README page is displayed and
contains information about the patch set and how to apply the patches to your
installation.
10. Return to the Patch Search page, click Download, and save the file on your
system.
11. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) to
uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle
Support. The unzip utility is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks described in the following section after
completing an installation:
■
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
■
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
■
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts
■
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable
■
Generating the Client Static Library
■
Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
■
Enabling and Disabling Database Options
■
Running RACcheck Configuration Audit Tool
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then
Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing root.sh script during
the installation. If you require information contained in the original root.sh script,
then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
Oracle recommends that you run the utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a
database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that might be in an invalid state,
including packages, procedures, and types. This is an optional step but Oracle
recommends that you do it during installation and not at a later date.
5-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
To run the utlrp.sql script, follow these steps:
1.
Switch the user to oracle.
2.
Use the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the database where
you want to run the utlrp.sql script:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
■
C shell:
% source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
When prompted, provide the SID for the database.
3.
Start SQL*Plus, as follows:
$ sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
4.
Start the database in restricted mode and run the utlrp.sql script:
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts
If required, create additional operating system accounts. Users must be members of
the OSDBA or OSOPER groups to connect to the database with administrator
privileges.
Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users
Update the startup files of the oracle user and the operating system accounts of
Oracle users, specifying the appropriate environment variables in the environment file.
For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the environment variables to the .profile
file, or the .bash_profile file for the Bash shell .
For the C shell, add the environment variables to the .login file.
Note: You can use the oraenv or coraenv script to ensure that
Oracle user accounts are updated.
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable
NLS_LANG is an environment variable that specifies the locale behavior for Oracle
software. This variable sets the language and territory used by the client application
and the database server. It also declares the character set of the client, which is the
character set of data entered or displayed by an Oracle client program, such as
SQL*Plus.
Appendix F, "Configuring Oracle Database
Globalization Support" for more information about the NLS_LANG
environment variable
See Also:
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
5-3
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Generating the Client Static Library
The client static library (libclntst11.a) is not generated during installation. To link
the applications to the client static library, you must first generate it as follows:
1.
Switch the user to oracle.
2.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the Oracle home directory
used by the Oracle Database installation, for example:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
3.
Enter the following command:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/genclntst
Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an
Oracle Database for a standalone server, then you should create the fast recovery area
for database files.
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related
to recovery. Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
parameter to the path for the fast recovery area to enable on-disk backups and rapid
recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system
administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
When you enable fast recovery in the init.ora file, Oracle Database writes all RMAN
backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies to the fast
recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting
obsolete backups and archiving files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle
Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and
you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle
recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage
device contention.
The fast recovery area is enabled by setting the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter.
The size of the fast recovery area is set with DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a
general rule, the larger the fast recovery area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of
use, Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group on storage
devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast
recovery area is large enough to hold a copy of all of your data files and control files,
the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database
using the data file backups kept under your retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have
created a fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by 3
different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database
depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your least
important database, database2 is of greater importance and database3 is of greatest
5-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
importance, then you can set different DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE settings for each
database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for database1, 50 GB
for database2, and 70 GB for database3.
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
To create a fast recovery file disk group:
1.
Go to the Grid home bin directory, and start ASM Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA), for example:
$ cd /u01/grid/bin
$ ./asmca
2.
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group.
3.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area
group. For example: FRA.
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the fast
recovery area, and click OK.
4.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is
complete. Click OK.
5.
Click Exit.
See Also:
■
■
"Setting the Fast Recovery Area Location and Initial Size" section
in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Enabling and Disabling Database Options
When you install Oracle Database, some options are enabled and others are disabled.
To enable or disable a particular database feature for an Oracle home, shut down the
database and use the chopt tool. See Example 5–1.
The chopt tool is a command-line utility that is located in the ORACLE_HOME/bin
directory. The syntax for chopt is:
chopt [ enable | disable] db_option
The possible values for db_option are described in the following table:
Value
Description
dm
Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files
dv
Oracle Database Vault
lbac
Oracle Label Security
olap
Oracle OLAP
partitioning
Oracle Partitioning
rat
Oracle Real Application Testing
ode_net
Oracle Database Extensions for .NET 1.x
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
5-5
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Value
Description
ode_net_2
Oracle Database Extensions for .NET 2.0
Example 5–1 Complete Example of Running the Chopt Tool
To enable the Oracle Label Security option in your Oracle binary files, use the
following command:
cd %ORACLE_HOME%
srvctl stop database -d myDb
chopt enable lbac
srvctl start database -d myDb
Running RACcheck Configuration Audit Tool
Oracle recommends that you run the Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
Configuration Audit Tool (RACcheck) to check your Oracle Database installation.
RACcheck is an Oracle RAC auditing tool that checks various important configuration
settings within Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle Clusterware, Oracle
Automatic Storage Management, Oracle Database single instance, Oracle Restart and
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure environment.
Oracle recommends that you download and run the latest version of RACcheck from
My Oracle Support. For information about downloading, configuring and running
RACcheck utility, refer to My Oracle Support note 1268927.1:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=1268927.1
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide
See Also:
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
The following sections describe product-specific postinstallation tasks that you must
perform if you install and intend to use the products mentioned:
■
Configuring Oracle Net Services
■
Configuring Oracle Label Security
■
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
■
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
■
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
■
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
■
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
■
Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client
Note: You need only perform postinstallation tasks for products
that you intend to use.
5-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Configuring Oracle Net Services
If you have an earlier release of Oracle software installed on this system, you might
want to copy information from the Oracle Net tnsnames.ora and listener.ora
configuration files from the earlier release to the corresponding files for the new
release.
The following sections describe about how to configure the Oracle Net Services:
■
Modifying the listener.ora File
■
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
The default location for the tnsnames.ora and
listener.ora files is the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/ directory.
However, you can also use a central location for these files.
Note:
Modifying the listener.ora File
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends
that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the
previous release.
If you have referenced the previous Oracle home directory names in the static listener
information, then these directory names must be modified before the listener.ora
file can be used in the 11.2 environment.
To use the listener from the current release, copy the static service information from
the listener.ora file from the previous release to the version of that file used by the
new release.
For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to
the listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not require
static service information.
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
Unless you are using a central tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net Services names and
connect descriptors from the earlier release tnsnames.ora file to the version of that file
used by the new release.
If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances
to the new file.
Configuring Oracle Label Security
If you installed Oracle Label Security, you must configure it in a database before you
use it. You can configure Oracle Label Security in two ways; with Oracle Internet
Directory integration and without Oracle Internet Directory integration. If you
configure Oracle Label Security without Oracle Internet Directory integration, you
cannot configure it to use Oracle Internet Directory at a later stage.
Note: To configure Oracle Label Security with Oracle Internet
Directory integration, Oracle Internet Directory must be installed in
your environment and the Oracle database must be registered in
the directory.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
5-7
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle Label Security enabled with Oracle
Internet Directory
See Also:
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
If you install Oracle Database Vault, then you must register it in a database. Ensure
that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, Database Vault Account
Manager administrative accounts before you can use it.
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for information
about registering Oracle Database Vault
See Also:
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway, an Oracle Database Advanced Queuing feature, requires
additional configuration after you install Oracle Database if you plan to use Oracle
Database Advanced Queuing.
Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide to configure
Oracle Messaging Gateway and for additional instructions about
configuring the listener.ora, tnsnames.ora, and mgw.ora files
See Also:
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
This section describes postinstallation tasks for Oracle precompilers:
■
Configuring Pro*C/C++
■
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
All precompiler configuration files are located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin directory.
Note:
Configuring Pro*C/C++
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the C compiler executable.
Table 5–1 shows the default directories and the appropriate command to verify the
path setting of the compiler.
Table 5–1
C/C++ Compiler Directory
Path
Command
/usr/vac/bin
$ which xlc
/usr/vacpp/bin
$ which xlc
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the FORTRAN compiler executable. You can verify the path setting by using the which
xlf command. The path for the FORTRAN executable is /usr/bin.
5-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
Oracle recommends that you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure
that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP
requests.
See Also: Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for
more information about configuring and using SSL
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme
indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to
use any of these Oracle Text features, then you can install two supplied knowledge
bases (English and French).
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
Oracle Text Reference for information about creating and extending
knowledge bases, such as extending the supplied knowledge
bases to accommodate your requirements, or creating your own
knowledge bases in languages other than English and French
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
See Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the following tasks:
■
Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
■
Configuring or customizing the Oracle XML DB tablespace
■
Configuring FTP, HTTP/WebDAV port numbers
See Also:
Appendix A of Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client
Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the
first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, see the appropriate
guide in the product documentation library.
See Also:
■
■
Chapter 4, "Configuration Tasks When Installing from the
Database" in Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Appendix C, "Using NAS Devices"
Direct NFS Client
With Oracle Database 11g, instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client, you
can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle
internal Direct NFS Client. If Oracle Database cannot open an NFS server using Direct
NFS Client, then Oracle Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS
client. In this case, the kernel NFS mount options must be set up as defined in
"Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters" on page 5-12. Additionally, an informational
message is logged in the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS Client
could not be established.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
5-9
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
The Oracle files available on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client
are also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual
considerations for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer
is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS Client
to operate. To disable reserved port checking, see your NFS file server documentation.
For NFS servers that restrict port range, you can use the insecure option to enable
clients other than root to connect to the NFS server. Alternatively, you can disable
Direct NFS Client as described in "Disabling Direct NFS Client" on page 5-11.
Direct NFS Client may require up to four network paths defined for an NFS server.
The Direct NFS Client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified
path fails, then Direct NFS Client reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.
The following sections elaborate on enabling, disabling, checking the buffer size for a
Direct NFS Client:
■
Enabling a Direct NFS Client
■
Disabling Direct NFS Client
■
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters
Enabling a Direct NFS Client By default Direct NFS Client serves mount entries found in
/etc/mtab. No other configuration is required. You can use oranfstab to specify
additional Oracle Database specific options to Direct NFS Client. For example, you can
use oranfstab to specify additional paths for a mount point.
A new Oracle Database specific file oranfstab can be added to either /etc or to
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs. When oranfstab is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries are
specific to a single database. However, when oranfstab is placed in /etc, then it is
global to all Oracle databases, and hence can contain mount points for all Oracle
databases.
Note: Direct NFS Client does not work and falls back to the
traditional kernel NFS path if the back-end NFS server does not
support a write size (wtmax) of 32768 or larger.
Direct NFS Client determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on
the configurations in /etc/mtab. Direct NFS Client looks for the mount point entries in
the following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
It uses the first matched entry as the mount point.
Oracle Database requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system
even when served through Direct NFS Client.
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS Client:
1.
You can optionally create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each
NFS server to be accessed using Direct NFS Client:
■
Server: The NFS server name.
5-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
■
■
Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP
address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the filer.
Local: Up to four local paths on the database host, specified by IP address or
by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database host.
■
Export: The exported path from the NFS server.
■
Mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.
■
■
Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the
operating system, but sent using the IP address they are bound to. Please note
that this attribute does not work on Linux with multiple paths in the same
subnet.
mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time for which Direct NFS Client
should wait for a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is
optional and the default timeout is 10 minutes.
The following is an example of an oranfstab file with two NFS server entries:
server: MyDataServer1
local: 145.34.45.12
path: 132.34.35.12
local: 132.34.45.13
path: 132.34.35.13
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
server: MyDataServer2
local: LocalPath1
path: NfsPath1
local: LocalPath2
path: NfsPath2
local: LocalPath3
path: NfsPath3
local: LocalPath4
path: NfsPath4
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata2
export: /vol/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4
export: /vol/oradata5
2.
mount:
mount:
mount:
mount:
/mnt/oradata2
/mnt/oradata3
/mnt/oradata4
/mnt/oradata5
Oracle Database is not shipped with Direct NFS Client enabled by default. To
enable Direct NFS Client, complete the following steps:
a.
Change the directory to $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib.
b.
Enter the following command:
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_on
Disabling Direct NFS Client Complete the following steps to disable the Direct NFS
Client:
1.
Log in as the Oracle software installation owner, and disable Direct NFS Client
using the following commands:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_off
2.
Remove the oranfstab file.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-11
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Note: If you remove an NFS path that Oracle Database is using, then
you must restart the database for the change to take effect.
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters If you are using NFS, then you must set the values
for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle
recommends that you use the value 32768.
Direct NFS Client issues writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server.
For example, to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value 32768, then update
the /etc/filesystems file on each node with an entry similar to the following:
/NFS_mount:
dev = "/NFS_mount"
vfs = nfs
nodename = NFS_server
mount = true
options = bg,soft,intr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768
account = false
Note: If you use NFS servers that restrict port range, you may need
to mount the file system using the insecure option:
(rw,no_root_squash, insecure)
Alternatively, see "Disabling Direct NFS Client".
See your storage vendor documentation for additional
information about mount options.
Note:
5-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
6
6
Getting Started with Oracle Database
This chapter provides information about the default preconfigured database, including
information about Oracle Database accounts, passwords, and file locations. It includes
information about the following topics:
■
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
■
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
■
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
■
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
■
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
■
Identifying Databases
■
Locating the Server Parameter File
■
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
You can use Oracle Universal Installer to check the contents and directory location of
an Oracle Database installation using the following steps:
1.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, run the following command:
$ ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller
2.
Click Installed Products to display the Inventory dialog box on the Welcome
screen.
3.
Select the Oracle Database product from the list to check the installed contents.
4.
Click Details to find additional information about an installed product.
5.
Click Close to close the Inventory dialog box.
6.
Click Cancel to close Oracle Universal Installer, and then click Yes to confirm.
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
If you configured Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control (Database Control)
during the installation, you can use it to manage the database. You can also use Oracle
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-1
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Enterprise Manager Grid Control to manage the database. To display the Database
Control:
1.
First check the Database Control status using the following command:
emctl status dbconsole
2.
Use a Web browser to access the Database Control URL:
https://host:port/em
In this example:
■
host is the name of the computer on which you installed Oracle Database
■
port is the port number reserved for the Database Control during installation
If you do not know the correct port number to use, look for the following line in
the $ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini file:
Enterprise Manager Console HTTP Port (db_name) = 1158
The installation reserves the first available port from the range 5500 to 5519. For
example, if you installed Oracle Database on host mgmt42, and the Database
Control uses port 1158, use the following URL:
https://mgmt42:1158/em
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Database Control login page.
3.
Log in to the database using the user name SYSTEM and connect as SYSDBA. Oracle
Enterprise Manager displays the Database Home page.
Use the password that you specified for the SYSTEM account during the
installation.
You can also log in to the Database Control using the SYS,
SYSTEM, or SYSMAN accounts, or you can grant login privileges to
other database users. If you log in as SYS, then you must connect as
SYSDBA.
Note:
Chapter 3, "Getting Started with Database
Administration" in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information
about Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
See Also:
Understanding Database Control Login Privileges
When you log in to the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control using the SYSMAN
user account, you are logging in as the Oracle Enterprise Manager super user. The
SYSMAN account is automatically granted the roles and privileges required to access all
the management features provided by the Database Control.
You can also use the SYS and SYSTEM accounts to log in to the Database Control. In
addition, you can grant login privileges to other database users, as follows:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
The "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control" section for more information
See Also:
2.
Click Setup at the top of the Database Control home page.
6-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
3.
Click Administrators in the left navigation bar.
4.
Click Create to create an Enterprise Manager user.
5.
In the Name field, enter the user name of an existing database user or click the
flashlight icon and select a user from the window.
6.
In the E-mail Address field, provide one or more email addresses.
7.
In the Administrator Privilege list, select either View on all targets, Full on all
targets, or Super Administrator.
8.
You can also select the Grant SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE option.
9.
Enter the password for this user, and then click Review.
10. On the properties page, click Finish.
Oracle Enterprise Manager assigns login privileges to the specified user and includes
this user in the list of Enterprise Manager users on the Setup Administrators page.
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
This section provides information about managing an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) installation. It covers the following topics:
■
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To start and stop Oracle ASM, see Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux
and UNIX-Based Operating Systems.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities
To manage Oracle ASM, you can use the following tools:
■
■
asmcmd: This command-line tool enables you to manage Oracle ASM disk group
files and directories.
ASMCA: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle
ASMCA) is an interactive utility that enables you to create an Oracle ASM instance
or upgrade existing Oracle ASM instances.
It also enables you to create and configure disk groups, Oracle ASM volumes and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
■
■
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control: If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager
installed, you can use Grid Control to manage Oracle ASM functions, such as
migrating an existing database to Oracle ASM, checking the status of the Oracle
ASM instance, checking the performance of the Oracle ASM disk groups, and
creating or dropping Oracle ASM disk groups.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control: This utility enables you to perform
functions similar to Grid Control.
SQL*Plus: You can run commands that are specific to Oracle ASM from either of
these tools. To connect to an Oracle ASM instance, use the same methods that you
use to connect to an Oracle database instance.
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
See Also:
■
■
■
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control" on
page 6-1
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about asmcmd
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
more information about managing your storage with Oracle ASM
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
To run the SQL and PL/SQL statements to access the Oracle Database, you can use
SQL*Plus. This tool enables you to perform the same database management
operations, and also to query, insert, update, or delete data directly in the database.
Note:
■
■
Before you start SQL*Plus, ensure that all the environment
variables, specially ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID, are set. See,
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on page 2-34
for more information about setting environment variables.
In addition, it is advisable to set the PATH environment variable to
include the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
Use the following statement to start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting as
SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
For example, to log on as SYSTEM enter:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM
Enter password: password
If you are logging on as SYS, you must connect as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
See Also:
■
"Connecting to the Database with SQL*Plus" in Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information about accessing Oracle
Database using SQL*Plus
■
SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference
■
SQL*Plus Quick Reference
6-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
To run the SQL and PL/SQL statements to access Oracle Database, you can use SQL
Developer. All SQL and PL/SQL statements are supported because they are passed
directly from the SQL Worksheet to the Oracle Database.
Set Up the JDK Path for SQL Developer
Set the following environmental variables to ensure that the correct JDK is picked up:
■
$ORACLE_HOME
■
$JAVA_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME/jdk
■
$PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin/:$PATH
To start SQL Developer on which the Java SDK release 1.5 is installed, use the
following commands:
■
Change to $ORACLE_HOME/sqldeveloper.
■
Run $ ./sqldeveloper.sh.
■
Right-click Connections. In the dialog box, enter a connection name, username,
password, and for the host string, the name of the database to which you want to
connect, and click Connect.
After you are connected, you can view, create, modify, and delete the database objects
using the Connection Navigator or issue any SQL or PL/SQL statement using a SQL
Worksheet. From the Tools menu, select SQL Worksheet.
SQL*Plus statements have to be interpreted by the SQL Worksheet before being passed
to the database. The SQL Worksheet currently supports many SQL*Plus statements.
SQL*Plus statements which are not supported by the SQL Worksheet are ignored and
are not sent to Oracle Database.
See Also:
"SQL*Plus Statements Supported and Not Supported in SQL
Worksheet" in Oracle Database SQL Developer User's Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
All databases created by the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) include the
SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP database accounts. In addition, Oracle Database
provides several other administrative accounts. Before using these accounts, you must
unlock them and reset their passwords. Table 6–1 describes these accounts and lists
their user names and default passwords.
See Also:
"Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords" on page 6-8
Note: Use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to
view the complete list of database accounts.
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-5
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Table 6–1
Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
ANONYMOUS
Enables HTTP access to Oracle XML DB.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
APEX_030200
The account owns the Application
Express schema and metadata.
Oracle Application Express
Application Builder User's
Guide
APEX_PUBLIC_USER
The minimally privileged account used
Oracle Application Express
for Application Express configuration
Application Builder User's
with Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql. Guide
APPQOSSYS
Used for storing and managing all data
and metadata required by Oracle Quality
of Service Management.
None
BI
The account that owns the Business
Intelligence schema included in the
Oracle Sample Schemas. It is available
only if you loaded the sample schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
CTXSYS
The Oracle Text account.
Oracle Text Reference
DBSNMP
The account used by the Management
Agent component of Oracle Enterprise
Manager to monitor and manage the
database.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control Installation and Basic
Configuration
DIP
The account used by the Directory
None
Integration Platform (DIP) to synchronize
the changes in Oracle Internet Directory
with the applications in the database.
DVSYS
There are two roles associated with this
account. The Database Vault owner role
manages the Database Vault roles and
configurations. The Database Vault
Account Manager is used to manage
database user accounts.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user
interface text is stored in database tables
in the DVSYS schema. By default, only
the English language is loaded into these
tables. You can use Oracle Database Vault
Configuration Assistant to add more
languages to Oracle Database Vault. For
the necessary steps, see Appendix C in
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's
Guide
EXFSYS
The account owns the Expression Filter
schema.
None
FLOWS_FILES
The account owns the Application
Express uploaded files.
Oracle Application Express
Application Builder User's
Guide
HR
The account that owns the Human
Resources schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the sample schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
IX
The account that owns the Information
Transport schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the sample schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
6-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Table 6–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
LBACSYS
The Oracle Label Security administrator
account.
Oracle Label Security
Administrator's Guide
MDDATA
The schema used by Oracle Spatial for
storing geocoder and router data.
Oracle Spatial Developer's
Guide
MDSYS
The Oracle Spatial and Oracle
Multimedia Locator administrator
account.
Oracle Spatial Developer's
Guide
MGMT_VIEW
An account used by Oracle Enterprise
Manager Database Control.
None
OE
The account that owns the Order Entry
Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the sample schemas.
ORDPLUGINS
The Oracle Multimedia user. Plug-ins
supplied by Oracle and third-party
plug-ins are installed in this schema.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
ORDSYS
The Oracle Multimedia administrator
account.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
ORDDATA
This account contains the Oracle
Multimedia DICOM data model.
Oracle Multimedia DICOM
Developer's Guide
OUTLN
The account that supports plan stability.
Plan stability enables you to maintain the
same execution plans for the same SQL
statements. OUTLN acts as a role to
centrally manage metadata associated
with stored outlines.
Oracle Database Concepts
ORACLE_OCM
This account contains the instrumentation Oracle Configuration Manager
for configuration collection used by the
Installation and Administration
Oracle Configuration Manager.
Guide
OWBSYS
The account used by Oracle Warehouse
Oracle Warehouse Builder
Builder as its default repository. You must Installation and Administration
unlock this account after installing the
Guide
Oracle Database and before launching the
Warehouse Builder Repository Assistant.
OWBSYS_AUDIT
This account is used by the Warehouse
Builder Control Center Agent to access
the heterogeneous execution audit tables
in the OWBSYS schema.
PM
The account that owns the Product Media Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the sample schemas.
SCOTT
An account used by Oracle sample
programs and examples.
SH
The account that owns the Sales History
Oracle Database
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Administrator's Guide
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the sample schemas during an Enterprise
Edition installation.
SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA
The account that stores the information
views for the SQL/MM Still Image
Standard.
Oracle Warehouse Builder
Installation and Administration
Guide
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
Oracle Multimedia Reference
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-7
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Table 6–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_
USR
The Catalog Services for the Web (CSW)
Oracle Spatial Developer's
account. It is used by the Oracle Spatial
Guide
CSW cache manager to load all record
type metadata, and record instances from
the database into the main memory for
the record types that are cached.
SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_
USR
The Web Feature Service (WFS) account. Oracle Spatial Developer's
It is used by the Oracle Spatial WFS cache Guide
manager to load all feature-type
metadata, and feature instances from the
database into main memory for the
feature types that are cached.
SYS
The account used to perform database
administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
SYSMAN
The account used to perform Oracle
Enterprise Manager database
administration tasks.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control Installation and Basic
Configuration
SYSTEM
Another account used to perform
database administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
WMSYS
The account used to store the metadata
information for Oracle Workspace
Manager.
Oracle Database Workspace
Manager Developer's Guide
XDB
The account used for storing Oracle XML
DB data and metadata.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN,
and DBSMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account, you must
unlock it and reset its password. If you created a preconfigured database during the
installation, but you did not unlock a required account, you must unlock it, using one
of the following methods:
■
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
■
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
■
Unlocking and Changing Passwords
Note: If you are creating a database using Database Configuration
Assistant, you can unlock accounts after the database is created by
clicking Password Management before you exit from Database
Configuration Assistant.
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1
See Also:
6-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Security section of the Server page, click Users.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a table listing all database accounts. The
Account Status column indicates if the account is locked and if the password has
expired.
4.
Select the user account to modify, then click Edit.
5.
Use the General page of the Users property sheet to unlock the account and,
optionally, to change the password.
See Also: Click Help in the Database Control window for more
information
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using SQL*Plus:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Enter a command similar to the following, where account is the user account to
unlock and password is the new password:
SQL> ALTER USER account IDENTIFIED BY password ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
Note: If you unlock an account but do not reset the password,
then the password remains expired. The first time someone
connects as that user, they must change the user’s password.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Security Guide to learn how to add new users and
change passwords
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for the ALTER USER
statement syntax used for unlocking user accounts
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about the
users SYS and SYSTEM
Unlocking and Changing Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN,
and DBSNMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account, you must
unlock it and reset its password. If you created a starter database during the
installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant displays a screen with your
database information and the Password Management button. Use the Password
Management button to unlock only the user names you use.
Apply the following guidelines when specifying passwords:
■
Passwords must be between 8 and 30 characters long.
■
Passwords must not start with a numeral.
■
Passwords must not be the same as the user name.
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-9
Identifying Databases
■
Passwords must not be Oracle reserved words.
■
The SYS account password must not be change_on_install.
■
The SYSTEM account password must not be manager.
■
The SYSMAN account password must not be sysman.
■
The DBSNMP account password must not be dbsnmp.
■
■
■
■
If you use the same password for all the accounts, then that password must not be
change_on_install, manager, sysman, or dbsnmp.
Passwords must have at least one alphabetic, one numeric, and one special
character.
Passwords must not be simple or obvious words, such as welcome, account,
database, and user.
Passwords must not have any consecutive repeating characters.
"Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" on page 6-5 for
more information
See Also:
Identifying Databases
The Oracle Database 11g software identifies a database by its global database name. A
global database name consists of the database name and database domain. Usually, the
database domain equals the network domain, but it need not be. The global database
name uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database in the same network.
You specify the global database name when you create a database during the
installation, or using the Database Configuration Assistant.
The database name input field is used to set the DB_NAME, DB_UNIQUE_NAME, and DB_
DOMAIN Oracle initialization parameter values.
For example:
sales_world.example.com
In this example:
■
■
■
sales_world is the name of the database. The database name (DB_UNIQUE_NAME)
portion is a string of no more than 30 characters that can contain alphanumeric
characters, underscore (_), dollar sign ($), and pound sign (#) but must begin with
an alphabetic character. No other special characters are permitted in a database
name.
sales_wo is the DB_NAME. The DB_NAME initialization parameter specifies a database
identifier of up to eight characters.
example.com is the database domain in which the database is located. In this
example, the database domain equals the network domain. Together, the database
name and the database domain make the global database name unique. The
domain portion is a string of no more than 128 characters that can contain
alphanumeric characters, underscore (_), and pound sign (#). The DB_DOMAIN
initialization parameter specifies the database domain name.
However, the DB_NAME parameter need not necessarily be the first eight characters of
DB_UNIQUE_NAME.
6-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
The DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameter and the DB_DOMAIN name parameter combine to create
the global database name value assigned to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the
initialization parameter file.
The system identifier (SID) identifies a specific database instance. The SID uniquely
distinguishes the instance from any other instance on the same computer. Each
database instance requires a unique SID and database name. In most cases, the SID
equals the database name portion of the global database name.
See Also: "DB_UNIQUE_NAME" and "DB_NAME" in Oracle Database
Reference
Locating the Server Parameter File
By default, the preconfigured database uses a server parameter file named
spfilesid.ora, which is stored in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. However, if you
choose Oracle ASM for the database, Database Configuration Assistant typically uses
the same storage mechanism for the server parameter file.
If the server parameter file is not located in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory, the
database uses the SPFILE parameter in an initialization parameter file to locate it. The
default initialization parameter file is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora.
You can use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the location of
the server parameter file and list all of the initialization parameters, as follows:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for more information
See Also:
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Database Configuration section of the Server page, click Initialization
Parameters.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the current value of each
initialization parameter.
4.
Select the SPFile tab.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the value of each initialization
parameter specified in the server parameter file. The location of the server
parameter file is displayed on top of the page.
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
The following sections contain information about tablespaces and data files, redo log
files, and control files:
■
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
■
Locating Redo Log Files
■
Locating Control Files
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
An Oracle database is divided into smaller logical areas of space known as tablespaces.
Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files. Data files contain the
Getting Started with Oracle Database
6-11
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
contents of logical database structures such as tables and indexes. You can associate
each data file with only one tablespace and database.
Note: The SYSAUX and SYSTEM tablespaces must be present in all
Oracle Database 11g databases.
Table 6–2 describes the tablespaces provided by the default preconfigured database.
Table 6–2
Tablespaces and Data Files
Tablespace
Data File
Description
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE01.DBF
Stores the sample schemas, if you included them.
SYSAUX
SYSAUX01.DBF
Acts as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace.
Some products and options that previously used the
SYSTEM tablespace now use the SYSAUX tablespace to
reduce the load on the SYSTEM tablespace.
SYSTEM
SYSTEM01.DBF
Stores the data dictionary, including definitions of tables,
views, and stored procedures needed by Oracle Database.
Information in this area is maintained automatically.
TEMP
TEMP01.DBF
Stores temporary tables and indexes created during the
processing of your SQL statement. If you run a SQL
statement that involves a lot of sorting, such as the
constructs GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT, then you may
have to expand this tablespace.
UNDOTBS
UNDOTBS01.DBF
Stores undo information. The undo tablespace contains
one or more undo segments that maintain transaction
history that is used to roll back, or undo, changes to the
database.
All starter databases are configured to run in automatic
undo management mode.
USERS
USERS01.DBF
Stores database objects created by database users.
See Also: Oracle Database Concepts and the Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the list of data files
used by the database and their associated tablespaces:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for more information
See Also:
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Datafiles.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a table listing each data file, and the
tablespace with which it is associated.
For more information about using the Database Control to view, modify, and
create tablespaces, click Help in the Database Control window
6-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Locating Redo Log Files
The preconfigured database uses three redo log files. Redo log files record all changes
made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance fails, then Oracle Database 11g
uses the redo log files to recover the modified data in memory.
Oracle Database uses redo log files in a cyclical fashion. For example, if three files
constitute the online redo log, Oracle Database fills the first file, then the second file,
and then the third file. In the next cycle, it reuses and fills the first file, the second file,
and so on.
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for
more information about redo log files
See Also:
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view or modify the redo log
files for the preconfigured database:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for more information
See Also:
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Redo Log Groups.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the redo log groups used by the
database.
4.
To view the name and location of the redo log file associated with a particular
group, select that group then click View.
For more information about using the Database Control to view, modify, and create
redo log files, click Help in the Database Control window.
Locating Control Files
The preconfigured database uses two control files. Oracle recommends that you keep
at least two control files for each database and set the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter to specify the location of each file.
A control file is an administrative file. Oracle Database 11g requires a control file to
start and run the database. The control file defines the physical structure of the
database. For example, it defines the database name and the names and locations of
the database data files and redo log files.
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view information about the
control files for the preconfigured database:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for more information
See Also:
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Control Files.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the control files used by the
database.
Getting Started with Oracle Database
6-13
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
For more information about using the Database Control to view information about
control files and creating backups of these files to trace them, click Help in the
Database Control window,
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about setting the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter value
See Also:
6-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
7
7
Removing Oracle Database Software
This chapter describes how to completely remove Oracle software and configuration
files related to the specified Oracle home. It includes information about removing
Oracle software using the deinstallation tool.
The deinstall command removes standalone Oracle Database installations, Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) from your
server, and also Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) and Oracle Database
client installations.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle recommends that you use
the deinstallation tool to remove the entire Oracle home associated with the Oracle
Database, Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, Oracle RAC, or Oracle Database client
installation. Oracle does not support the removal of individual products or
components.
The following sections describe the deinstall command, and provide information
about additional options to use the command:
■
About the Deinstallation Tool
■
Downloading the Deinstallation Tool for Use with Failed Installations
■
Example of Running the Deinstall Command
■
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Database
■
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
If you have a standalone database on a node in a cluster
and you have multiple databases with the same global database name
(GDN), then you cannot use the deinstall tool to remove one database
only.
Caution:
About the Deinstallation Tool
The deinstallation tool (deinstall) is available in the installation media before
installation, and is available in Oracle home directories after installation. It is located
in the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall directory.
The deinstall command uses the information you provide, plus information gathered
from the software home to create a parameter file. You can alternatively supply a
parameter file generated previously by the deinstall command using the –checkonly
option, or by editing the response file template.
The deinstallation tool stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle software and
configuration files on the operating system for a specific Oracle home. If you run the
Removing Oracle Database Software
7-1
About the Deinstallation Tool
deinstallation tool to remove an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server,
then the deinstaller prompts you to run the roothas.pl script, as the root user, to
deconfigure Oracle Restart.
When you run the deinstall command, if the central
inventory (oraInventory) contains no other registered homes besides
the home that you are deconfiguring and removing, then the deinstall
command removes the following files and directory contents in the
Oracle base directory of the Oracle Database installation owner:
Caution:
■
admin
■
cfgtoollogs
■
checkpoints
■
diag
■
oradata
■
fast_recovery_area
Oracle strongly recommends that you configure your installations
using an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) configuration, and that
you reserve Oracle base and Oracle home paths for exclusive use of
Oracle software. If you have any user data in these locations in the
Oracle base that is owned by the user account that owns the Oracle
software, then the deinstall command deletes this data.
The deinstall command uses the following syntax, where variable content is
indicated in italics:
deinstall -home complete path of Oracle home [-silent] [-checkonly] [-local]
[-paramfile complete path of input parameter property file] [-params name1=value
name2=value . . .] [-o complete path of directory for saving files] [-help]
Oracle recommends that you run the deinstallation tool as the Oracle software
installation owner. The default method for running the deinstallation tool is from the
deinstall directory in the Oracle home as the installation owner:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/deinstall
Provide information about your servers as prompted or accept the defaults.
The deinstall command stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle software and
configuration files on the operating system.
In addition, you can run the deinstallation tool from other locations, or with a
parameter file, or select other options to run the tool.
The options are:
■
-home
Use this flag to indicate the home path of the Oracle home to check or deinstall. To
deinstall Oracle software using the deinstall command in the Oracle home you
plan to deinstall, provide a parameter file in another location, and do not use the
-home flag.
If you run deinstall from the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall path, then the -home flag
is not required because the tool knows from which home it is being run. If you use
the standalone version of the tool, then -home is mandatory.
7-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About the Deinstallation Tool
■
-silent
Use this flag to run the command in silent or response file mode. If you use the
-silent flag, then you must use the -paramfile flag, and provide a parameter file
that contains the configuration values for the Oracle home to deinstall or
deconfigure.
You can generate a parameter file to use or modify by running deinstall with the
-checkonly flag. The deinstall command then discovers information from the
Oracle home to deinstall and deconfigure. It generates the properties file, which
you can then use with the -silent option.
You can also modify the template file deinstall.rsp.tmpl, located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/response folder.
■
-checkonly
Use this flag to check the status of the Oracle software home configuration.
Running the deinstall command with the -checkonly flag does not remove the
Oracle configuration. The -checkonly flag generates a parameter file which you
can then use with the deinstall command and the -silent option.
■
-local
Use this flag on a multinode environment to deinstall Oracle software in a cluster.
When you run deinstall with this flag, it deconfigures and deinstalls the Oracle
software on the local node (the node where deinstall is run). On remote nodes, it
deconfigures Oracle software, but does not deinstall the Oracle software.
■
-paramfile complete path of input parameter property file
Use this flag to run deinstall with a parameter file in a location other than the
default. When you use this flag, provide the complete path where the parameter
file is located.
The default location of the parameter file depends on the location of deinstall:
■
–
From the installation media or stage location: $ORACLE_
HOME/inventory/response
–
From a unzipped archive file from OTN: /ziplocation/response
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response
-params [name1=value name 2=value name3=value . . .]
Use this flag with a parameter file to override one or more values to change in a
parameter file you have created.
■
-o complete path of directory for saving response files
Use this flag to provide a path other than the default location where the properties
file (deinstall.rsp.tmpl) is saved.
The default location of the parameter file depends on the location of deinstall:
■
–
From the installation media or stage location before installation: $ORACLE_
HOME/
–
From a unzipped archive file from OTN: /ziplocation/response/
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response
-help
Removing Oracle Database Software
7-3
Downloading the Deinstallation Tool for Use with Failed Installations
Use the help option (-help) to get additional information about the command
option flags.
Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home
For upgrades from previous releases, if you want to deinstall the previous release Grid
home, then as the root user, you must manually change the permissions of the
previous release Grid home, and then run the deinstall command.
For example:
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01/app/grid/11.2.0
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/grid/11.2.0
In this example, /u01/app/grid/11.2.0 is the previous release Grid home.
Downloading the Deinstallation Tool for Use with Failed Installations
If you require the deinstallation tool (deinstall) to remove failed or incomplete
installations, then it is available as a separate download from the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN) Web site.
To download the deinstallation tool:
1.
Go to the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/downloads
/index.html
2.
Under Oracle Database 11g Release 2, click See All for the respective platform for
which you want to download the deinstallation tool.
The deinstallation tool is available for download at the end of this Web page.
Example of Running the Deinstall Command
As the deinstall command runs, you are prompted to provide the home directory of
the Oracle software to remove from your system. Provide additional information as
prompted.
Use the optional flag -paramfile to provide a path to a parameter file.
In the following example, the deinstall command is in the path
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall, and it uses a parameter file
in the software owner location /home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
For the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, use the deinstallation script in the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home, which in this example is
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_grid_paramfile.tmpl
If you enter the deinstall command outside of the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall folder,
then help is displayed, unless you enter a -home flag and provide a path. If you run the
deinstall command from the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall folder, then deinstallation
starts without prompting you for a home address.
7-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Database
You can run the deinstall command on a standalone Oracle Database with the
-paramfile option to use the values you specify in the parameter file. The following is
an example of a parameter file, in which the Oracle Database binary owner is oracle,
the Oracle Database home (Oracle home) is in the path
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/, the Oracle base (where other Oracle
software is installed) is /u01/app/oracle/, the central Oracle Inventory home
(oraInventory) is /u01/app/oraInventory, the virtual IP address (VIP) is 192.0.2.1,
the local node (the node where you run the deinstallation session from) is myserver,
and the OSDBA group is dba:
#Copyright (c) 2005, 2006 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
#Mon Feb 16 06:48:39 UTC 2009
DISK_GROUPS.sidb=
ASM_HOME=
ASM_LOCAL_SID=
LOGDIR=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/oraInventory/logs/
ORACLE_BASE.sidb=/u01/app/oracle/
RECOVERY_LOC.sidb=
STORAGE_TYPE.sidb=FS
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle/
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
DB_TYPE.sidb=SI_DB
NODE_LIST.sidb=myserver
ARCHIVE_LOG_DESTINATION_LOC.sidb=
LOCAL_SID.sidb=sidb
DB_UNIQUE_NAME_LIST=sidb
ASM_FILES.sidb=
HOME_TYPE=SIDB
CRS_HOME=false
RAW_MAPPING_FILE.sidb=
SID_LIST.sidb=sidb
ORACLE_BINARY_OK=true
DATAFILE_LOC.sidb=/u01/app/oracle/oradata
local=false
LOCAL_NODE=myserver
CREATION_MODE.sidb=y
CONFIGFILE_LOC.sidb=
DIAG_DEST.sidb=/u01/app/oracle/
silent=false
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/
SPFILE_LOC.sidb=
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
You can run the deinstall command on an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server home with the -paramfile option to use the values you specify in
the parameter file.
The following is an example of a parameter file, in which the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure binary owner is oracle, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is in the
path /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid, the Oracle base (where other Oracle
software is installed) is /u01/app/oracle/, the central Oracle Inventory home
(oraInventory) is /u01/app/oraInventory, the local node (the node where you run the
deinstallation session from) is myserver, and the OSDBA group is dba:
#Copyright (c) 2005, 2009 Oracle Corporation.
All rights reserved.
Removing Oracle Database Software
7-5
Deinstallation Parameter File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
#Thu Mar 05 11:36:03 PST 2009
LOCAL_NODE=myserver
HOME_TYPE=SIHA
ASM_REDUNDANCY=EXTERNAL
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle/
SCAN_PORT=0
silent=false
ASM_UPGRADE=false
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
GPNPCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
LOGDIR=/home/oracle/tmp/deinstall/logs/
ASM_DISCOVERY_STRING=/u02/stor/asm*
GPNPGCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_OWNER=oracle
ASM_DISKSTRING=
CRS_STORAGE_OPTION=0
ORACLE_BINARY_OK=true
OCR_VOTINGDISK_IN_ASM=false
ASM_ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
NETCFGJAR_NAME=netcfg.jar
ORA_DBA_GROUP=dba
JREDIR=/u01/app/oracle/grid/jdk/jre/
ORA_ASM_GROUP=dba
LANGUAGE_ID='AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8ISO8859P1'
CSS_LEASEDURATION=400
ASM_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/grid
SHAREJAR_NAME=share.jar
HELPJAR_NAME=help4.jar
SILENT=false
local=false
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
GNS_CONF=false
JEWTJAR_NAME=jewt4.jar
EMBASEJAR_NAME=oemlt.jar
ASM_
DISKS=/u02/stor/asm/asm0,/u02/stor/asm/asm2,/u02/stor/asm/asm3,/u02/stor/asm/asm1,
/u02/stor/asm/asm4,/u02/stor/asm/asm5,/u02/stor/asm/asm6,
/u02/stor/asm/asm7,/u02/stor/asm/asm8
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/grid
CRS_HOME=true
ASM_IN_HOME=true
EWTJAR_NAME=ewt3.jar
ASM_DROP_DISKGROUPS=false
ASM_LOCAL_SID=+ASM
JLIBDIR=/u01/app/oracle/grid/jlib
VNDR_CLUSTER=false
ASM_DISK_GROUP=DATA
7-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
A
A
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database
Using Response Files
This appendix describes how to install and configure Oracle products using response
files. It includes information about the following topics:
■
How Response Files Work
■
Preparing a Response File
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
■
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
How Response Files Work
You can automate the installation and configuration of Oracle software, either fully or
partially, by specifying a response file when you start Oracle Universal Installer. Oracle
Universal Installer uses the values contained in the response file to provide answers to
some or all of Oracle Universal Installer prompts. It includes information about the
following topics:
■
■
■
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage
Option for Database Files
General Procedure for Using Response Files
Typically, Oracle Universal Installer runs in interactive mode, which means that it
prompts you to provide information in graphical user interface (GUI) screens. When
you use response files to provide this information, you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command prompt using either of the following modes:
■
Silent mode
If you include responses for all of the prompts in the response file and specify the
-silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer, then Oracle Universal
Installer runs in silent mode. During a silent mode installation, Oracle Universal
Installer does not display any screens. Instead, it displays progress information in
the terminal that you used to start it.
■
Response file mode
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-1
How Response Files Work
If you include responses for some or all of the prompts in the response file and
omit the -silent option, then Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file
mode. During a response file mode installation, Oracle Universal Installer displays
all the screens, screens for which you specify information in the response file and
also screens for which you did not specify the required information in the
response file. The advantage is that you can validate the values in the screens for
which you have provided the information in the response file and continue with
the installation.
You define the settings for a silent or response file installation by entering values for
the variables listed in the response file. For instance, to specify the Oracle home
location, you would supply the appropriate value for the ORACLE_HOME variable, as
follows:
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Another way of specifying the variable settings of the response file is to pass them as
command line arguments when you run Oracle Universal Installer. For example:
-silent directory_path
In this command, directory_path is the path to the database directory on the
installation media or on the hard drive.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for more information about response file formats
My Oracle Support Web site for more information about response
files:
https://support.oracle.com/
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
The following table describes several reasons why you might want to run Oracle
Universal Installer in silent mode or response file mode.
Mode
Uses
Silent
Use silent mode to:
■
■
■
Complete an unattended installation, which you might schedule using
operating system utilities such as cron
Complete several similar installations on multiple systems without user
interaction
Install the software on a system that does not have X Window System
software installed on it
Oracle Universal Installer displays progress information in the terminal that
you used to start it, but it does not display any of Oracle Universal Installer
screens.
Response File
Use response file mode to complete similar Oracle software installations on
multiple systems, providing default answers to some, but not all of Oracle
Universal Installer prompts.
In response file mode, all the installer screens are displayed, but defaults for
the fields in these screens are provided by the response file. You must
provide information for the fields in screens where you have not provided
values in the response file.
A-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing a Response File
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage
Option for Database Files
Before you create a database that uses Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM), you must run the root.sh script. For this reason, you cannot create a database
using Oracle ASM as the storage option for database files during a silent-mode
installation. Instead, you can complete a software-only installation using silent mode,
and then run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant and Database Configuration
Assistant in silent mode after you complete the software-only installation and run the
root.sh script.
Note: This limitation applies only to databases that use Oracle ASM
as the storage option for database files. You can create a database that
uses the file system option during a silent mode installation.
General Procedure for Using Response Files
The following are the general steps to install and configure Oracle products using
Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode:
Note: You must complete all required preinstallation tasks on a
system before running Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response
file mode.
1.
Prepare a response file.
2.
Run Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode.
3.
Run the root scripts as prompted by Oracle Universal Installer.
4.
If you completed a software-only installation, then run Net Configuration
Assistant and Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode, if
required.
These steps are described in the following sections.
Preparing a Response File
This section describes the following methods to prepare a response file for use during
silent mode or response file mode installations:
■
Editing a Response File Template
■
Saving a Response File
Editing a Response File Template
This method is most useful for the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition installation
types.
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and for
each configuration tool. These files are located in the database/response directory on
the installation media.
Note: If you copied the software to a hard disk, the response files
are located in the database/response directory.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files A-3
Preparing a Response File
Table A–1 lists the response files provided with Oracle Database.
Table A–1
Response Files
Response File
Description
db_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Database 11g
grid_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure
dbca.rsp
Silent installation of Database Configuration Assistant
netca.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
To copy and modify a response file:
1.
Copy the response file from the response file directory to a directory on your
system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/response_file.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path to the database directory on the
installation media. If you copy the software to a hard drive, then edit the file in the
response directory.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/response_file.rsp
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for
Windows and UNIX for detailed information about creating response
files
See Also:
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Note: The installer or configuration assistants fail if you do not
correctly configure the response file. See the "Silent-Mode Response
File Error Handling" section on page G-6 for more information
about troubleshooting a failed response file mode installation.
4.
Change the permissions on the file to 700:
$ chmod 700 /local_dir/response_file.rsp
Note: A fully specified response file for an Oracle Database
installation contains the passwords for database administrative
accounts and for a user who is a member of the OSDBA group
(required for automated backups). Ensure that only the Oracle
software owner user can view or modify response files or consider
deleting them after the installation succeeds.
Saving a Response File
You can use Oracle Universal Installer in interactive mode to save a response file,
which you can then edit and use to complete silent mode or response file mode
installations.
A-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can save all the installation
steps into a response file during installation. You can click the Save Response File
button on the Summary page to do this. Later, this file can be used for a silent
installation.
When you save the response file, you can either complete the installation, or you can
exit from Oracle Universal Installer on the Summary page, before it starts to copy the
software to the system.
If you save a response file during a silent installation, then Oracle Universal Installer
saves the variable values that were specified in the original source response file into
the new response file.
Note: Oracle Universal Installer does not save passwords in the
response file.
To save a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 2.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer to save a response file, it checks the
system to verify that it meets the requirements to install the software. For this
reason, Oracle recommends that you complete all of the required preinstallation
tasks and save the response file while completing an installation.
2.
Ensure that the Oracle software owner user has permissions to create or write to
the Oracle home path that you specify when you run Oracle Universal Installer.
3.
On each Oracle Universal Installer screen, provide the required information.
"Running Oracle Universal Installer" on page 4-9 for
information about the installation process
See Also:
4.
When Oracle Universal Installer displays the Summary screen, perform the
following:
a.
Click Save Response File and provide a file name and location for the
response file. Then, click Save to save the values to the file.
b.
Click Finish to continue with the installation.
Click Cancel if you do not want to continue with the installation. The
installation stops, but the saved response file is retained.
5.
Before you use the saved response file on another system, edit the file and make
any required changes.
Use the instructions in the file as a guide when editing it.
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
Now, you are ready to run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line, specifying
the response file you created, to perform the installation. The Oracle Universal
Installer executable, runInstaller, provides several options. For help information
about the full set of these options, run the runInstaller command with the -help
option, for example:
$ directory_path/runInstaller -help
The help information appears in a window after some time.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files A-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
To run Oracle Universal Installer using a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 2.
2.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle).
3.
If you are completing a response file mode installation, set the DISPLAY
environment variable.
Note: You do not have to set the DISPLAY environment variable if
you are completing a silent mode installation.
4.
To start Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode, enter a command
similar to the following:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
Note: Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you
specify a relative path, then Oracle Universal Installer fails.
In this example:
■
■
directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD or on the
hard drive.
-silent runs Oracle Universal Installer in silent mode.
See "Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling" on page G-6
■
■
5.
-noconfig suppresses running the configuration assistants during installation,
and a software-only installation is performed instead.
responsefilename is the full path and file name of the installation response
file that you configured.
When the installation completes, log in as the root user and run the root.sh
script:
$ su - root
password:
# /oracle_home_path/root.sh
6.
If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system, then
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the orainstRoot.sh script. Log in as
the root user and run the orainstRoot.sh script:
$ su - root
password:
# /oracle_home_path/orainstRoot.sh
Note: You do not have to manually create the oraInst.loc file.
Running the orainstRoot.sh script is sufficient as it specifies the
location of the Oracle Inventory directory.
A-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure Oracle
Net service names. To run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode, you must copy
and edit a response file template. Oracle provides a response file template named
netca.resp in the response directory in the database/response directory on the DVD.
Note: If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the database/response directory.
To run Net Configuration Assistant using a response file:
1.
Copy the netca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/netca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD.
If you cope the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the response
directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/netca.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Note: Net Configuration Assistant fails if you do not correctly
configure the response file.
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Net Configuration Assistant in
silent mode:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca -silent -responsefile /local_dir/netca.rsp
In this command:
■
■
The -silent option runs Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the netca.rsp
response file template.
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Database Configuration Assistant in response file or silent mode to
configure and start an Oracle database on the system. To run Database Configuration
Assistant in response file or silent mode, you must copy and edit a response file
template. Oracle provides a response file template named dbca.rsp in the
database/response directory on the DVD.
Note: If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the database/response directory.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files A-7
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, you must use the
-responseFile flag in combination with either the -silent or -progressOnly flag. To
run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, you must use a graphical
display and set the DISPLAY environment variable.
"Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line
Interface" section in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide for information about running Oracle ASMCA in
noninteractive mode
See Also:
This section contains the following topics:
■
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Progress Only Mode
■
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode
Use -silent flag in combination with the -responseFile flag to set the mode to silent.
In the silent mode, Database Configuration Assistant uses values that you specify, in
the response file or as command-line options, to create a database. No window or user
interface is displayed in the silent mode.
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Progress Only Mode
Use the -progressOnly flag in combination with the -responseFile flag to set the mode
to progress only. As it configures and starts the database, Database Configuration
Assistant displays a window that contains status messages and a progress bar. This
window is similar to the window that is displayed when you choose to create a
preconfigured database during an Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition installation.
In this mode, Database Configuration Assistant uses values that you specify in the
response file or as command line options to create the database.
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, that is, silent mode or
progress only mode:
Note: Instead of editing the response file template, you can create a
database by specifying all required information as command-line
options when you run Database Configuration Assistant. For
information about the list of options supported, enter the following
command:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca -help
1.
Copy the dbca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/dbca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD.
If you copy the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the response
directory if you prefer.
A-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/dbca.rsp
3.
Edit the file, following the instructions in the file.
Note: Database Configuration Assistant fails if you do not
correctly configure the response file.
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
If you intend running Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, set
the DISPLAY environment variable.
6.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Database Configuration Assistant
in response file or silent mode with a response file:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca {-progressOnly | -silent} -responseFile \
/local_dir/dbca.rsp
In this example:
■
■
■
The -silent option runs Database Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
The -progressOnly option runs Database Configuration Assistant in response
file mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the dbca.rsp
response file template.
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
Use the following sections to create and run a response file configuration after
installing the Oracle software.
About the Postinstallation Configuration File
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide information about
your servers in a response file that you would otherwise provide manually during a
graphical user interface installation. However, the response file does not contain
passwords for user accounts that configuration assistants require after the software
installation is complete. The configuration assistants are started with a script called
configToolAllCommands. You can run this script in response file mode by using a
password response file. The script uses the passwords to run the configuration tools in
succession to complete the configuration.
If you keep the password file to use for clone installations, then Oracle recommends
that you store it in a secure location. In addition, if you must stop an installation to fix
an error, you can run the configuration assistants using configToolAllCommands and a
password response file.
The configToolAllCommands password response file consists of the following syntax
options:
■
■
internal_component_name is the name of the component that the configuration
assistant configures
variable_name is the name of the configuration file variable
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files A-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
■
value is the desired value to use for the configuration
The command syntax is as follows:
internal_component_name|variable_name=value
For example:
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=welcome
Oracle recommends that you maintain security with a password response file:
■
■
Set the permissions on the response file to 600.
The response file owner must be the installation owner user, with the group set to
the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
To run configuration assistants with the configToolAllCommands script:
1.
Create a response file using the syntax filename.properties. For example:
$ touch cfgrsp.properties
2.
Open the file with a text editor, and cut and paste the password template,
modifying it as needed.
Example A–1 Password response file for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server
Oracle Grid Infrastructure requires passwords for Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) and for Intelligent Platform Management
Interface Configuration Assistant (IPMICA) if you have a BMC card and you want to
enable this feature. Provide the following response file:
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
Example A–2 Password response file for Oracle Database
Oracle Database configuration requires the SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP
passwords for use with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). The S_
ASMSNMPPASSWORD password is necessary only if the database is using Oracle ASM for
storage. Also, if you selected to configure Oracle Enterprise Manager, then you must
provide the password for the Oracle software installation owner for the S_
HOSTUSERPASSWORD password, similar to the following example:
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSTEMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSMANPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_DBSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_HOSTUSERPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD=password
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager or Oracle ASM, then leave
those password fields blank
3.
Change permissions to secure the file. For example:
$ ls -al cfgrsp.properties
-rw------- 1 oracle oinstall 0 Apr 30 17:30 cfgrsp.properties
A-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
4.
Change the directory to $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs
Run the configuration script using the following syntax:
configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/path/name.properties
for example:
$ ./configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/home/oracle/cfgrsp.properties
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-11
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
A-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
B
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle home involves creating a copy of the Oracle home and then
configuring it for a new environment. If you are performing multiple Oracle Database
installations, then you may want to use this method to create each Oracle home,
because copying files from an existing Oracle Database installation takes less time than
creating a new version of them. This method is also useful if the Oracle home that you
are cloning has had patches applied to it. When you clone the Oracle home, the new
Oracle home has the patch updates.
When you clone Oracle homes using release 11.2 Database Control, you must update
the exclude file list. This file list specifies files that need not be included when the
source Oracle home is archived because these files are not required for the cloning
operation. Do not include the following files in the archive:
■
sqlnet.ora
■
tnsnames.ora
■
listener.ora
■
oratab
Note: In addition to cloning an Oracle home, you can clone
individual Oracle Database installations by using Oracle Enterprise
Manager Database Control. Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
provides detailed information about cloning Oracle Database
installations and Oracle homes.
This appendix includes information about the following topics:
■
Cloning an Oracle Home
■
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle Home
Perform the following to clone an Oracle home:
1.
Verify that the installation of Oracle Database to clone is successful.
You can do this by reviewing the installActionsdate_time.log file for the
installation session, which is typically located in the /orainventory_
location/logs directory.
If you install patches, then check their status using the following:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch
Cloning an Oracle Home
B-1
Cloning an Oracle Home
Include $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch in $PATH
$ opatch lsinventory
2.
Stop all processes related to the Oracle home. See "Stopping Existing Oracle
Processes" on page 2-33 for more information about stopping the processes for an
Oracle home.
3.
Create a ZIP file with the Oracle home (but not the Oracle base) directory.
For example, if the source Oracle installation is in the
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1, then you zip the dbhome_1 directory
by using the following command:
# zip -r dbhome_1.zip /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Do not include the admin, fast_recovery_area, and oradata directories that are
under the Oracle base directory. These directories are created in the target
installation later, when you create a new database there.
4.
Copy the ZIP file to the root directory of the target computer.
5.
Extract the ZIP file contents by using the following command:
# unzip -d / dbhome_1.zip
6.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each computer where you want to clone the Oracle home,
unless the Oracle home is on a shared storage device.
7.
On the target computer, change the directory to the unzipped Oracle home
directory, and remove all the .ora (*.ora) files present in the unzipped $ORACLE_
HOME/network/admin directory.
8.
From the $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin directory, run the clone.pl file for the
unzipped Oracle home. Use the following syntax:
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl clone.pl ORACLE_BASE="target_oracle_base" ORACLE_
HOME="target_oracle_home"
OSDBA_GROUP=OSDBA_privileged_group OSOPER_GROUP=OSOPER_privileged_group
-defaultHomeName
For example:
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl clone.pl ORACLE_BASE="/u01/app/oracle/" ORACLE_
HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1"
OSDBA_GROUP=dba OSOPER_GROUP=oper -defaultHomeName
Oracle Universal Installer starts, and then records the cloning actions in the
cloneActionstimestamp.log file. This log file is typically located in
/orainventory_location/logs directory.
9.
To configure the connection information for the new database, run Net
Configuration Assistant:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./netca
10. To create a new database for the newly cloned Oracle home, run Database
Configuration Assistant:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./dbca
B-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for detailed information about using Oracle Universal
Installer to clone an Oracle Database home
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
cloning Oracle databases and cloning an Oracle Database home
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Perform the following to configure Oracle Configuration Manager for a cloned Oracle
home:
1.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/state:
$ rm -rf *.ll*
2.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/inventory:
$ cp core.jar pending
3.
Run the following commands from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin:
$ ./emSnapshotEnv
$ ./deployPackages
4.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin and provide the proper
credentials:
$ ./configCCR
If Oracle Configuration Manager was manually configured using setupCCR, then
perform the following in the cloned Oracle home:
1.
Delete all the subdirectories of the $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/hosts directory to remove
previously configured hosts.
2.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin:
$ ./configCCR -a
If you installed Oracle Configuration Manager in the original Oracle home but have
not configured it, then run the following command in the cloned Oracle home:
$ setupCCR
Cloning an Oracle Home
B-3
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
B-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
C
C
Using NAS Devices
This appendix provides guidelines for using a network attached storage (NAS) device
for Oracle software and database files. It includes information about the following:
■
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
■
NFS Feature Description
■
Choosing Mount Points
■
■
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
NFS Mount Options
See Also:
■
■
"Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client" on page 5-9
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for information about
using NAS devices on Oracle Real Application Clusters
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
See the documentation provided with the NAS device for specific information about
how to configure it. In addition, use the following guidelines to ensure the
performance of the Oracle software:
■
Before using the NAS device for the installation, verify that it is certified.
Note: For certification information refer to note 359515.1 on the
My Oracle Support Web site:
https://support.oracle.com/
■
The performance of Oracle software and databases stored on NAS devices
depends on the performance of the network connection between the Oracle server
and the NAS device.
For this reason, Oracle recommends that you connect the server to the NAS device
using a private dedicated network connection, which should be Gigabit Ethernet
or better.
■
For single-instance database installations, Oracle recommends that you create a
separate Oracle home directory for each installation. Run the software in this
Oracle home directory only from the system that you used to install it.
Using NAS Devices C-1
NFS Feature Description
NFS Feature Description
The following are the features of Network File Storage (NFS):
■
■
■
■
■
The Oracle kernel handles the best possible configuration to perform optimal I/O
using available resources to enable better configuration management.
An NFS available across different platforms.
Oracle uses the Oracle Disk Manager (ODM) to control NFS. ODM NFS helps
standardize all the configuration parameters that can be tuned.
ODM NFS has a stable NFS client that does not affect kernel performance. It
optimizes the I/O path when making NFS operations.This ensures higher stability.
NFS provides better diagnostics in case of errors.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX for information on ODM
See Also:
Choosing Mount Points
This section provides guidelines on how to choose the mount points for the file
systems to use for the Oracle software and database files. The guidelines contained in
the following sections follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations:
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
Oracle software files are stored in three different directories:
■
Oracle base directory
■
Oracle inventory directory
■
Oracle home directory
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations and
is identified by the ORACLE_BASE environment variable. For example, for a first
installation, the Oracle base, Oracle Inventory, and Oracle home directories might have
paths similar to the following:
Directory
Path
Oracle base ($ORACLE_BASE)
/u01/app/oracle
Oracle Inventory
ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory (or)
/u01/app/oraInventory
Oracle home
$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
For subsequent installations, you can use either the same Oracle base directory or a
different one, but every subsequent installation uses the original Oracle Inventory
directory. For example, if you use the /u02/app/oracle directory as the Oracle base
directory for a new installation, then the Oracle Inventory directory continues to be
/u01/app/oraInventory.
To enable you to effectively maintain the Oracle software on a particular system,
Oracle recommends that you keep the Oracle Inventory directory only on a local file
system, if possible. If you must place the Oracle Inventory directory on a NAS device,
C-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Choosing Mount Points
create a specific directory for each system, to prevent multiple systems from writing to
the same inventory directory.
See Also:
"Identifying Required Software Directories" on page 2-26
Directory-Specific Guidelines
You can use any of the following directories as mount points for NFS used to store
Oracle software:
Note: In the following examples, the paths shown are the defaults
if the ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set before you start
Oracle Universal Installer.
■
Oracle base directory or its parents (/u01/app/oracle for example)
If you use the Oracle base directory of one of its parents as a mount point, then the
default location for all Oracle software and database files is on that file system.
During the installation, consider changing the default location of the following
directories:
–
The Oracle Inventory directory (oracle_base/../oraInventory)
Specify a local file system or a host-specific directory on the NFS, for example:
u01/app/oraInventory
–
The Oracle database file directory (oracle_base/oradata)
You might want to use a different file system for database files, for example, to
enable you to specify different mount options or to distribute I/O.
–
The Oracle database recovery file directory (oracle_base/fast_recovery_
area)
Oracle recommends that you use different file systems for database and
recovery files.
If you use this mount point, then all Oracle installations that use this Oracle base
directory use the NFS.
■
The product directory (oracle_base/product)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS. You can also use this mount
point to install software from different releases, for example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0
/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
■
The release directory (oracle_base/product/11.2.0)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS. You can also use this mount
point to install different products from the same release, for example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/client_1
■
The Oracle home directory (oracle_base/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS file system. This is the most
restrictive mount point. You can use it only to install a single release of one
product:
Using NAS Devices C-3
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
See Also:
"Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping" on page D-7
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
To store Oracle database or recovery files on a NAS device, you can use different paths
depending on whether you want to store files from only one database or from multiple
databases:
■
Use the NFS for files from multiple databases
To store the database files or recovery files from multiple databases on the same
NFS, use paths or mount points similar to the following:
File Type
Path or Mount Point
Database files
/u02/oradata
Recovery files
/u03/fast_recovery_area
When Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the data file and the recovery file
directories, specify these paths. Database Configuration Assistant and Oracle
Enterprise Manager create subdirectories in these directories using the value you
specify for the database name (DB_NAME) as the directory name, for example:
/u02/oradata/db_name1
/u03/fast_recovery_area/db_name1
■
Use the NFS for files from only one database
To store the database files or recovery files for only one database in the NFS, you
can create mount points similar to the following, where orcl is the name of the
database:
/u02/oradata/orcl
/u03/fast_recovery_area/orcl
Specify the directory /u02/oradata when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you
for the data file directory and specify the directory /u03/fast_recovery_area
when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the recovery file location. The
orcl directory is used automatically either by Database Configuration Assistant or
by Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
If you have a certified NAS device, then you can create zero-padded files in an NFS
mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) disk group. To create these files, follow these steps:
Note: To use files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk group,
the files must be on an NFS mounted file system. You cannot use
files on local file systems.
1.
If necessary, create an exported directory for the disk group files on the NAS
device.
C-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
NFS Mount Options
See the NAS device documentation for more information about completing this
step.
2.
Switch the user to root:
$ su - root
password:
3.
Create a mount point directory on the local system:
# mkdir -p /mnt/oracleasm
4.
To ensure that NFS is mounted when the system restarts, add an entry for the file
system in the /etc/mtab mount file.
For more information about editing the mount file for the operating system, see
the man pages. For more information about recommended mount options, see
"NFS Mount Options" section on page C-5.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to mount the NFS on the local system:
# mount /mnt/oracleasm
6.
Choose a name for the disk group to create, for example, nfsdg.
7.
Create a directory for the files on the NFS file system, using the disk group name
as the directory name:
# mkdir /mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg
8.
Use commands similar to the following to create the required number of
zero-padded files in this directory:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg/disk1 bs=1024k count=1000
This example creates 1 GB files on the NFS. You must create one, two, or three files
respectively to create an external, normal, or high redundancy disk group.
Note: Creating multiple zero-padded files on the same NAS device
does not guard against NAS failure. Instead, create one file for each
NAS device and mirror them using the Oracle ASM technology.
9.
Enter the following commands to change the owner, group, and permissions on
the directory and files that you created:
# chown -R oracle:dba /mnt/oracleasm
# chmod -R 660 /mnt/oracleasm
10. When you are creating the database, edit the Oracle ASM disk discovery string to
specify a regular expression that matches the file names you created. For example,
you might specify a disk discovery string similar to the following:
/mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg/*
NFS Mount Options
You must mount NFS volumes used for storing database files with special mount
options on the host where the database server is running. When mounting an NFS file
system, Oracle recommends that you use the same mount point options that the NAS
Using NAS Devices C-5
NFS Mount Options
vendor used when certifying the device. See the device documentation or contact the
vendor for information about recommended mount-point options.
C-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
D
D
Optimal Flexible Architecture
This appendix describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standard. This
standard is a set of configuration guidelines created to ensure well organized Oracle
installations that are easier to maintain. It includes information about the following
topics:
■
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
■
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
The Optimal Flexible Architecture standard helps you to organize database software
and configure databases to allow multiple databases, of different versions, owned by
different users to coexist. Optimal Flexible Architecture assists in identification of
ORACLE_BASE with its Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) diagnostic data to
properly collect incidents.
All Oracle components on the installation media are compliant with Optimal Flexible
Architecture. Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle Database components in
directory locations, assigning the default permissions that follow Optimal Flexible
Architecture guidelines.
Oracle recommends that you use Optimal Flexible Architecture, especially if the
database is huge, or if you plan to have multiple databases.
Advantages of Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA
When you install Oracle database, you are installing a large application that your
computer can support. Using multiple Oracle homes and Optimal Flexible
Architecture provides many advantages when administering large databases. The
following advantages are important:
■
■
■
■
■
Structured organization of directories and files, and consistent naming for
database files simplify database administration.
Distribution of I/O across multiple disks prevents performance bottlenecks caused
by multiple read or write commands issued simultaneously to a single drive.
Distribution of applications across multiple disks safeguards against database
failures.
Login home directories are not at risk when database administrators add, move, or
delete Oracle home directories.
Multiple databases, of different versions, owned by different users can coexist
concurrently.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-1
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
■
Software upgrades can be tested in an Oracle home in a separate directory from
the Oracle home where your production database is located.
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
This section describes the naming strategy recommended by the Optimal Flexible
Architecture standard. It contains the following sections:
■
File Systems
■
Naming Directories
■
Naming Database Files
■
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
■
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
■
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
File Systems
The following sections describe the conventions for mount points:
■
Number of File Systems
■
Naming Conventions
Number of File Systems
To fully implement the Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations for a database
stored on file systems that are not striped or mirrored, you require at least three file
systems located on separate physical devices.
Naming Conventions
Name all file system mount points using the syntax /pm, where p is a string constant
and m is a unique fixed-length key (typically a two-digit number) used to distinguish
each mount point. For example: /u01 and /u02, or /disk01 and /disk02.
Naming Directories
The following sections describe the naming conventions for directories that are
compliant with the Optimal Flexible Architecture standard:
■
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
■
Referring to Path Names
■
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Subdirectories
Note: Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as
the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII
characters. Because installation owner names are used by default for
some paths, this ASCII character restriction applies to user names, file
names, and directory names.
D-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
The Oracle Base directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the
various Oracle software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for
multiple installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the
same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory.
Name Oracle base directories using the syntax /pm/s/u. Table D–1 describes the
variables used in this syntax.
Table D–1
Syntax for Naming Oracle Base Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory (the user running Oracle Universal
Installer)
For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by the oracle user
and /u01/app/applmgr is an Oracle base directory created by the applmgr user.
Placing Oracle base directories at the same level in the UNIX file system is
advantageous because it enables you to refer to the collection of Oracle base directories
on different mount points using a single pattern matching string, /*/app/*.
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
If each disk drive contains database files from one application and there are enough
drives for each database to prevent I/O bottlenecks, use the syntax /h/q/d for naming
mount points. Table D–2 describes the variables used in this syntax.
Table D–2
Syntax for Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string denoting that Oracle data is stored in this directory, for example,
oradata
d
The value of the initialization parameter DB_NAME (typically the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
For example, to allocate two drives exclusively for the test database, name the mount
points /u01/app/oracle/oradata/test and /u02/app/oracle/oradata/test.
Referring to Path Names
Refer to explicit path names only in files designed specifically to store them, such as
the password file, /etc/passwd, and the Oracle oratab file. Refer to group
memberships only in the /etc/group file.
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
To help fulfill the Optimal Flexible Architecture requirement of simultaneously
running multiple versions of Oracle software, install the software in a directory
matching the pattern /pm/s/u/product/v/type_[n].
Table D–3 describes the variables used in this syntax.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-3
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–3
Syntax for Naming Oracle Home Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory
v
The version of the software
type
The type of installation, for example Database (dbhome_1), Client (client), or
Oracle Grid Infrastructure (grid)
n
An optional counter, which enables you to install the same product more than
once in the same Oracle base directory
For example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1 indicates the Oracle home directory for
the first installation of Oracle Database on this system.
The ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set to the Oracle home directory.
Naming Subdirectories
To facilitate the organization of administrative data, Oracle recommends that you store
database-specific administration files in subdirectories matching the pattern
/h/admin/d/a/, where h is the Oracle base directory, d is the database name (DB_
NAME), and a is a subdirectory for specific types of database administration files.
Table D–4 describes the database administration file subdirectories.
Table D–4
Subdirectories for Database Administration Files
Subdirectory
Description
arch
Archived redo log files
adump
Audit files
(Set the AUDIT_FILE_DEST initialization parameter to specify the adump
directory. Clean out this subdirectory periodically
create
Contains database creation log files and scripts used to create the database.
dpdump
Default directory for data pump operations. Contains the data pump file
dp.log.
exp
Database export files
logbook
Files recording the status and history of the database
pfile
Instance parameter files
scripts
Ad hoc SQL scripts
For example, /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/scripts/ is the scripts subdirectory
associated with the database named orcl.
In Oracle Database 11g, Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) directories replace
the bdump, cdump, and udump directories. The ADR diagnostic data goes into the
/h/diag/rdbms/d/i/ directory by default.
where
h is Oracle Base
d is the database name
i is the instance name.
D-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
The ADR home has the trace, alert, and incident sub-directories. Table D–5 describes
the ADR directories.
Table D–5
Locations for Diagnostic Traces
Diagnostic Data
10g Location
11g Location
Foreground Process traces
user_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Background Process traces
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Alert Log Data
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/alert/
Core Dump
core_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/incident/In/
Incident Dumps
user_dump_dest or background_
dump_dest depending on the
process
ADR_HOME/incident/In/
Naming Database Files
The following table lists the recommended file naming conventions for database files:
Note: Oracle Managed Files (OMF) and files stored in Oracle
Automatic Storage Management disk groups use different naming
conventions. For more information about these naming
conventions, refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
File Type
File Naming Convention
Control files
/h/q/d/control.ctl
Redo log files
/h/q/d/redon.log
Data files
/h/q/d/tn.dbf
The following table describes this syntax:
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string (typically oradata) distinguishing Oracle data from all other files
d
The value of the DB_NAME initialization parameter (typically, the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
t
An Oracle tablespace name
n
A two-digit string
Note: Do not store files other than control files, redo log files, or
data files associated with database d in the path /h/q/d.
Using this convention, it is easy to determine the database to which the
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/sab/system01.dbf file belongs.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-5
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
Separate groups of segments with different lifespans, I/O request demands, and
backup frequencies across different tablespaces.
Table D–6 describes the special tablespaces that the Database Configuration Assistant
creates for each Oracle database. If you manually create a database, you must create
the required tablespaces. These tablespaces are in addition to those required for
application segments.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about creating databases manually
See Also:
Table D–6
Special Tablespaces
Tablespace
Required
Description
EXAMPLE
No
The EXAMPLE tablespace used to store the Sample
Schemas
SYSAUX
Yes
Auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace
SYSTEM
Yes
Data dictionary segments
TEMP
Yes
Temporary segments
UNDOTBS1
Yes
Used by Oracle to store undo information
USERS
No
Miscellaneous user segments
Creating these special tablespaces is effective because data dictionary segments are
never dropped, and no other segments that can be dropped are allowed in the SYSTEM
tablespace.
"Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files,
and Control Files" on page 6-11 for information about redo log, and
control files
See Also:
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
Table D–7 describes the syntax used for identifying classes of files.
Table D–7
Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files
Directory Structure Syntax
Description
/u[0-9][0-9]
User data directories
/*/home/*
User home directories
/*/app/*
User application software directories
/*/app/applmgr
Oracle applications software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product
Oracle software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product/11.2.0
Oracle software subtree for release 11g products
/*/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db*
Oracle home directories for Oracle Database 11g
/*/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid*
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 11g for a standalone server, for user
oracle
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl
orcl database administrative subtrees
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl/arch/*
orcl database archived log files
/*/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directories
D-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–7 (Cont.) Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files
Directory Structure Syntax
Description
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*
orcl database files
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*.log
orcl database redo log files
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
Table D–8 shows a hierarchical file mapping of a sample Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation with two Oracle home directories and two
databases. The database files are distributed across three mount points, /u02, /u03,
and /u04.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use Oracle ASM to provide
greater redundancy and throughput.
Table D–8
Hierarchical File Mapping for an Optimal Flexible Architecture Installation
Directory
Description
/
Root directory
/u01/
User data mount point 1
/u01/app/
Subtree for application software
/u01/app/oracle/
Oracle Base directory
/u01/app/oracle/admin/
Subtree for database administration files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/TAR
Subtree for support log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name1/
admin subtree for db_name1 database
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name2/
admin subtree for db_name2 database
/u01/app/oracle/doc/
Online documentation
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/
Subtree for recovery files
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/db_name1
Recovery files for db_name1 database
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/db_name2
Recovery files for db_name2 database
/u02/app/oracle/oradata
/u03/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directory
/u04/app/oracle/oradata
/u01/app/oracle/product/
Distribution files
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database, for user
oracle
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server, for user oracle
/u01/app/kjf/
Oracle base directory for user kjf
/u01/app/edm/
Oracle base directory for user edm
Table D–9 shows a hierarchical file mapping for log files of a sample Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation in the orcl database
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-7
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–9
Hierarchical File Mapping for Log Files in an Optimal Flexible Architecture Installation
Directory
Description
/u01/app/oracle/admin/TAR
Subtree for support log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/arch/*
Archived log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/create/
Contains the database creation log files
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*.log
Redo log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/dpdump/
Contains the data pump file dp.log
/u01/app/oracle/diag
Contains all database, listener, sqlnet and other
diagnostic logs
/u01/app/oracle/audit
Contains all audit logs
/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs
Contains logs for configuration assistants such as
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, Database
Upgrade Assistant, and Oracle Net Configuration
Assistant
D-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
E
E
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. This appendix lists the default port numbers and
describes how to change the assigned port after installation. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
About Managing Ports
■
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
■
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
About Managing Ports
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. Many Oracle Database components and services
use ports. As an administrator, it is important to know the port numbers used by these
services, and to ensure that the same port number is not used by two services on your
host. Enter the following command to identify the ports currently used on your
computer:
$/bin/netstat -a
Most port numbers are assigned during installation. Every component and service has
an allotted port range, which is the set of port numbers Oracle Database attempts to
use when assigning a port. Oracle Database starts with the lowest number in the range
and performs the following checks:
■
Is the port used by another Oracle Database installation on the host?
The installation may be up or down at the time; Oracle Database can still detect if
the port is used.
■
Is the port used by a process that is currently running?
This could be any process on the host, even a non-Oracle Database process.
■
Is the port listed in the /etc/services file?
If the answer to any of the preceding questions is yes, Oracle Database moves to the
next highest port in the allotted port range and continues checking until it finds a free
port.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-1
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
In most cases, the Oracle Database component’s port number is listed in the tool used
to configure the port. In addition, ports for some Oracle Database applications are
listed in the portlist.ini file. This file is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/install
directory.
If you change a port number, it is not updated in the portlist.ini file, so you can
only rely on this file immediately after installation. To find or change a port number,
use the methods described in this appendix.
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
The following table lists the port numbers and protocols used by components that are
configured during a single instance database installation. By default, the first port in
the range is assigned to the component, if it is available.
Table E–1
Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Oracle Net Services Listener
1521
Port number TCP
changes to the
next available
port.
Modifiable
manually to
any available
port.
1630
1630
TCP
1158
5500–5519
HTTP
5520
5520–5539
TCP
5540
5540–5559
TCP
3938
1830–1849
HTTP
Enables Oracle client connections to the database over the
Oracle Net Services protocol. You can configure it during
installation. To reconfigure this port, use Net
Configuration Assistant.
Connection Manager
Protocol
Listening port for Oracle client connections to Oracle
Connection Manager. It is not configured during
installation, but can be configured manually by editing
the cman.ora parameter file. You can find the file under
/network/admin directory.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
HTTP port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports" on page E-3
explains how to modify its port number.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
RMI port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation."Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports" on page E-3
explains how to modify its port number.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
JMS port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports" on page E-3
explains how to modify its port number.
Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent
HTTP port for Enterprise Management Agent. It is
configured during installation.
"Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
Port" on page E-3 explains how to modify its port
number.
E-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
Table E–1
(Cont.) Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle XML DB
0
Configured
Manually
HTTP
0
Configured
Manually
FTP
42424
Dynamic
UDP
Dynamic
Dynamic
UDP
The Oracle XML DB HTTP port is used if Web-based
applications must access an Oracle database from an
HTTP listener. It is configured during installation, but
you cannot view it afterward.
See Also: "Using HTTP(S) on a Standard Port Instead of
an Oracle XML DB Default Port" in Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB FTP is used when applications must
access an Oracle database from an FTP listener. It is
configured during installation, but you cannot view it
afterward.
See Also: "Using FTP on the Standard Port Instead of the
Oracle XML DB Default Port" in Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide
Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS)
CSS daemon internode connection for the GM layer. The
port number is assigned automatically. You cannot view
or modify it. This port is used exclusively with the cluster
interconnect, which is private network that is physically
separated from the public network.
Oracle Cluster Registry
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX for a list of clusterware ports used in Oracle components
See Also:
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
To find the current setting for the Oracle Management Agent port, search for EMD_URL
in the $ORACLE_HOME/host_sid/sysman/config/emd.properties file.
To change the Oracle Management Agent HTTP port, use the emca -reconfig ports
command:
emca -reconfig ports -AGENT_PORT 1831
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
To find the current HTTP, RMI, and JMS port settings, search in the following files:
■
■
■
HTTP port: Search for REPOSITORY_URL in the $ORACLE_HOME/host_
sid/sysman/config/emd.properties file.
RMI port: Search for the port attribute in the rmi-server tag in the $ORACLE_
HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_host_sid/config/rmi.xml file.
JMS port: Search for the port attribute in the jms-server tag in the $ORACLE_
HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_host_sid/config/jms.xml file.
To change the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control ports, use the emca
-reconfig ports command:
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-3
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
$ORACLE_HOME/bin emca -reconfig ports option setting
where option can be:
■
DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT: Sets the HTTP port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820
■
RMI_PORT: Sets the RMI port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -RMI_PORT 5520
■
JMS_PORT: Sets the JMS port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -JMS_PORT 5521
You can enter multiple -reconfig port settings in one line, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820 -AGENT_PORT 1821 -RMI_PORT 5520
E-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
F
F
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization
Support
This appendix describes the following Globalization Support topics:
■
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for an overview
of globalization support for Oracle Database
See Also:
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
This section describes the following procedures:
■
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
■
Installing Translation Resources
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
You can specify the language and the territory, or locale, in which you want to use
Oracle components. The locale setting of a component determines the language of the
user interface of the component and the globalization behavior, such as date and
number formatting. Depending on the Oracle component, the locale of the component
is either inherited from the operating system session that started the component, or is
defined by the NLS_LANG environment variable.
The operating system locale usually influences Oracle components that are based on
Java technology. The NLS_LANG environment variable usually influences Oracle
components that use Oracle Client libraries such as OCI.
Note: The user interface of an Oracle component is displayed in a
selected language only if the appropriate translation is available and
has been installed. Else, the user interface is displayed in English.
This section describes the following procedures:
■
■
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment
Variable
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-1
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable
The locale setting of your operating system session determines the language of the
user interface and the globalization behavior for components such as Oracle Universal
Installer, Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, and Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant. It also determines the globalization behavior of Oracle Database sessions
created by a user application through Oracle JDBC driver, unless overridden by the
application.
The operating system locale is determined by the value of the LANG environment
variable. Depending on your desktop environment, such as KDE, GNOME, or telnet,
you can select a default session locale on a login screen, in a configuration panel, or in
a configuration file.
Note: Refer to the operating system documentation on how to select
a locale for the operating system session in your desktop environment.
You can modify the LANG variable in the environment of your shell to start an Oracle
component in a selected language. For example, to start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant in German, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591 dbca
■
C shell (csh):
% (setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591; dbca)
Note: The LC_ALL environment variable overrides the value of the
LANG environment variable. For the commands listed in this section
to work, either ensure that the LC_ALL environment variable is not set
in the environment, or substitute LC_ALL for LANG.
To modify the operating system locale for all Oracle components started by the given
shell, modify the LANG variable using one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591; export LANG
$ ...
■
C shell (csh):
% setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591
$ ...
The value of the LANG environment variable must be a valid operating system locale.
To see the list of valid locales, enter the following command:
$ locale -a
Note: Refer to the operating system documentation for a mapping
between values of the LANG environment variable and the languages
and territories that they represent.
F-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG
The NLS_LANG environment variable determines the language of the user interface and
the globalization behavior for components such as SQL*Plus, exp, and imp. It sets the
language and territory used by the client application and the database user session. It
also declares the character set for entering and displaying data by the client
application.
The NLS_LANG environment variable uses the following format:
NLS_LANG=language_territory.characterset
In this format:
■
■
■
language specifies the language used for displaying Oracle messages, sorting, day
names, and month names
territory specifies the conventions for default date, monetary, and numeric
formats
characterset specifies the encoding used by the client application
In most cases, this is the Oracle character set that corresponds to the character set
of the user terminal or the operating system.
The NLS_LANG environment variable is set as a local environment variable for the shell
on all UNIX-based platforms. For example, if the operating system locale setting is en_
US.UTF-8, then the corresponding value of NLS_LANG environment variable is
AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8.
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information
about the NLS_LANG parameter and Globalization Support
initialization parameters
See Also:
The following examples illustrate some valid values for the NLS_LANG environment
variable.
Note: Refer to the operating system documentation on how to
determine the operating system locale environment setting.
Operating System Locale
NLS_LANG Values
French (France)
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P15
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P1
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8MSWIN1252
FRENCH_FRANCE.AL32UTF8
Japanese (Japan)
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16EUC
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16SJIS
JAPANESE_JAPAN.AL32UTF8
Installing Translation Resources
To view the user interface of Oracle components in different languages, you must
install the appropriate language translations along with the component.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-3
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user interface text is stored in
database tables in the DVSYS schema. By default, only the English
language is loaded into these tables. You can use Oracle Database
Vault Configuration Assistant to add more languages to Oracle
Database Vault. For the necessary steps, refer to Appendix C in Oracle
Database Vault Administrator's Guide.
To install the translation resources:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer.
2.
In the Configure Security Updates screen enter the relevant information and click
Next.
3.
In the Download Software Updates and Apply Software Updates screens, enter
the relevant information and click Next.
4.
In the Select Installation Option screen, select the installation option and click
Next.
5.
In the System Class screen, select the type of system class for installing the
database, and click Next.
6.
In the Grid Installation Options screen, select the type of database installation you
want to perform, and click Next.
7.
In the Select Product Languages screen, select the language in which you want to
use Oracle components from the Available Languages field.
The Available Languages field lists all languages supported by
Oracle globalization libraries. The set of languages for which a
translation is actually available is usually smaller and depends on a
particular component. The scope of translation for a given component
may differ between languages. For example, some translations may
include all user interface text, while others may include only error
messages and no help files.
Note:
8.
Use the > arrow to move the selected language to the Selected Languages field,
and then click Next.
Note: Oracle Universal Installer ignores languages in the Selected
Languages field for which no translation is available.
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Your operating system locale determines the language in which Oracle Universal
Installer runs. Oracle Universal Installer may run in one of the following languages:
■
Brazilian Portuguese (pt_BR)
■
French (fr)
■
German (de)
■
Italian (it)
■
Japanese (ja)
F-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
■
Korean (ko)
■
Simplified Chinese (zh_CN)
■
Spanish (es)
■
Traditional Chinese (zh_TW)
To run Oracle Universal Installer in an available language, change the locale in which
your operating system session is running before you start Oracle Universal Installer
with the ./runInstaller command. If the selected language is not one of those that
were listed earlier, Oracle Universal Installer runs in English.
You must ensure that the selected value for the LANG environment variable starts with
the appropriate language abbreviation. In the aforementioned list of languages, in
which Oracle Universal Installer can run, the required abbreviation appears in
parentheses beside the language name. For example, fr_FR and fr_CA are valid values
to run the Oracle Universal Installer in French.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
F-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
G
G
Troubleshooting
This appendix contains information about troubleshooting. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
Verify Requirements
■
X Window Display Errors
■
Remote Terminal Installation Error
■
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
■
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
■
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart
■
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
■
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
■
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
■
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues
■
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
■
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
Chapter 6, "Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration
Manager" in Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and
Administration Guide for information about some errors that may occur
while using Oracle Configuration Manager and tips to troubleshoot
these errors
See Also:
Verify Requirements
Before performing any of the troubleshooting steps in this appendix, ensure that the
system meets the requirements and that you have completed all of the preinstallation
tasks specified in Chapter 2.
Read the Release Notes
Read the release notes for the product before installing it. The release notes are
available on the Oracle Database 11g DVD. The latest version of the release notes is
also available on the Oracle Technology Network Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
Troubleshooting G-1
X Window Display Errors
X Window Display Errors
If you run Oracle Universal Installer on a remote system and you want to display
Oracle Universal Installer’s user interface on your local system, you might see error
messages similar to the following:
"Failed to connect to server"
"Connection refused by server"
"Can’t open display"
If you see any of these error messages, follow these steps:
Note: This procedure applies only to users of UNIX workstations.
If you are using a PC or other system with X server software
installed, contact your X server vendor, system administrator, or
refer to the X server documentation for information about how to
permit remote systems to display X applications on the local
system.
1.
In a local terminal window, log in as the user that started the X Window session.
2.
Enter the following command:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.us.example.com
3.
Enter the following commands, where workstation_name is the host name or IP
address of your workstation:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=workstation_name:0.0
$ export DISPLAY
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY workstation_name:0.0
4.
To determine if an X Window application displays correctly on the local system,
enter the following command:
$ xclock
The X clock should appear on your monitor.
5.
If the X clock appears, close the X clock and start Oracle Universal Installer again.
PC-X Server or operating system vendor documents for
further assistance
See Also:
Remote Terminal Installation Error
If you run the installation from a remote terminal, or if you use an su command to
change users you might receive an error similar to the following:
Could not execute auto check for display colors using command
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo
G-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
This can occur if the DISPLAY variable is not set, or the user running the installation is
not authorized to open an X window. For instance, if you use an su command to
change from a user that is authorized to open an X window to a user account that is
not authorized to open an X window on the display, such as a lower-privileged user
opening windows on the root user's console display.
To troubleshoot this issue, run the command echo $DISPLAY to ensure that the display
variable is set to the correct visual or to the correct host. If the display variable is set
correctly then either ensure that you are logged in as the user authorized to open an X
window, or run the command xhost + to allow any user to open an X window.
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
If you encounter an error during installation:
■
■
■
Do not exit Oracle Universal Installer.
If you click Next after you enter incorrect information on one of the installation
screens, click Back to return to the screen and correct the information.
If you encounter errors while Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) is copying or
linking files, then review the installation logs for more information.
For copy file errors review:
/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/timestamp for date of install.log
/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/timestamp for date of install.err
/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/timestamp for date of install.out
For errors during linking review:
$ORACLE_HOME/install/make.log
If you encounter errors when you run the OUI, then rerun the OUI with the
-debug option:
$./runInstaller -debug
Check the log file for details. Refer to "Reviewing the Log of an Installation
Session" section on page G-3.
■
■
If you encounter an error while a configuration assistant is running, refer to
"Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants" section on page G-5.
If you cannot resolve the problem, remove the failed installation by following the
steps listed in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation" section on page G-7.
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
During an installation, Oracle Universal Installer records all of the actions that it
performs in a log file. If you encounter problems during the installation, review the log
file for information about possible causes of the problem.
To view the log file, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, enter the following command to determine the location of the
oraInventory directory:
$ cat /etc/oraInst.loc
The inventory_loc parameter in this file specifies the location of the
oraInventory directory.
Troubleshooting G-3
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart
2.
Enter the following command to change directory to Oracle Universal Installer log
file directory, where orainventory_location is the location of the oraInventory
directory:
$ cd /orainventory_location/logs
3.
Enter the following command to determine the name of the log file:
$ ls -ltr
Run these commands to list the files in the order of creation, with the most recent
file shown last. Installer log files have names similar to the following, where date_
time indicates the date and the time when the installation started:
installActionsdate_time.log
oraInstalldate_time.err
oraInstalldate_time.out
4.
To view the most recent entries in the log file, where information about a problem
is most likely to appear, enter a command similar to the following:
$ tail -50 installActionsdate_time.log | more
This command displays the last 50 lines in the log file.
5.
If the error displayed by Oracle Universal Installer or listed in the log file indicates
a relinking problem, refer to the following file for more information:
$ORACLE_HOME/install/make.log
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart
Running the roothas.pl command flags -deconfig -force enables you to
deconfigure Oracle Restart without removing installed binaries. This feature is useful
if you encounter an error during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
installation, when running the root.sh command, such as a missing operating system
package. By running roothas.pl -deconfig -force you can deconfigure Oracle
Restart, correct the cause of the error, and then run root.sh again.
Note: Stop any databases, services, and listeners that may be
installed and running before deconfiguring Oracle Restart.
To deconfigure Oracle Restart:
1.
Log in as the root user.
2.
Go to the Grid_home/crs/install directory. For example:
# cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install
3.
Run roothas.pl with the -deconfig -force flags. For example:
# roothas.pl -deconfig -force
G-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
If you change the host name for Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM),
then the Oracle CSS daemon does not start. To solve this issue, perform the following
steps:
1.
Login as the root user
2.
Run roothas.pl to to deconfigure CSS:
# cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/crs/install
# perl roothas.pl -deconfig -force
This removes any configuration on the system that referenced the old host name.
3.
Run root.sh to reconfigure CSS using the new host name:
# cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
# ./root.sh
4.
Go to the grid home’s bin directory.
Use the srvctl add database command with the -c SINGLE flag to add the
database in an Oracle Restart configuration. Also use the srvctl add command to
add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle ASM disk groups, and any
database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.
See Also:
"srvctl add" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
To troubleshoot an installation error that occurs when a configuration assistant is
running:
■
■
■
Review the installation log files listed in the "Reviewing the Log of an Installation
Session" section on page G-3.
Review the specific configuration assistant log file located in the $ORACLE_
HOME/cfgtoollogs directory. Try to fix the issue that caused the error.
If you see the "Fatal Error. Reinstall" message, look for the cause of the problem by
reviewing the log files. Refer to "Irrecoverable Errors" on page G-6 for further
instructions.
Configuration Assistant Failure
Oracle configuration assistant failures are noted at the bottom of the installation
screen. The configuration assistant interface displays additional information, if
available. The configuration assistant execution status is stored in the following file:
oraInventory_location/logs/installActionsdate_time.log
The execution status codes are listed in the following table:
Status
Result Code
Configuration assistant succeeded
0
Configuration assistant failed
1
Configuration assistant canceled
-1
Troubleshooting G-5
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
Irrecoverable Errors
If you receive a irrecoverable error while a configuration assistant is running, you
must remove the current installation and reinstall the Oracle software, as follows:
1.
Remove the failed installation as described in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed
Installation" section on page G-7.
2.
Correct the cause of the irrecoverable error.
3.
Reinstall the Oracle software.
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
If you face any of the following situations for Oracle home, then run the opatch
lsinventory -detail command to list the contents of the inventory and see section
"Recovering from inventory corruption" in the Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch
User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for information about fixing the issue.
■
Oracle home is cloned without completing the inventory steps.
■
There is bad inventory.
■
Inventory is not available but it is created when the Oracle Enterprise Manager
Agent is installed in a separate Oracle home.
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues
If you connect to Oracle database with a screen resolution of 640X480 or 800X600, then
the Next button in the GUI is not visible as it hides behind the Taskbar. To fix this
problem, perform one of the following:
■
Hide the Taskbar.
■
Move the Oracle Universal Installer screen up.
■
Set the screen resolution to 1024X768 or higher.
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
To determine if a silent-mode installation succeeds or fails, refer to the following log
file:
/oraInventory_location/logs/silentInstalldate_time.log
If necessary, refer to the previous section for information about determining the
location of the oraInventory directory.
A silent installation fails if:
■
You do not specify a response file
■
You specify an incorrect or incomplete response file
■
Oracle Universal Installer encounters an error, such as insufficient disk space
Oracle Universal Installer or configuration assistant validates the response file at run
time. If the validation fails, the silent-mode installation or configuration process ends.
G-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
If an installation fails, you must remove files that Oracle Universal Installer created
during the attempted installation using the Deinstallation Tool.
For more information about how to run the Deinstallation Tool see Chapter 7,
"Removing Oracle Database Software" and "Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring
Oracle Restart" on page G-4
Troubleshooting G-7
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
G-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
H
H
Frequently Asked Questions About
Installation
Use the following guidelines to decide how to install Oracle Database components:
■
Installing Oracle Database
■
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
■
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Note: Some Oracle Database components may not be available on all
platforms. Consult your platform-specific installation guide or release
notes.
Installing Oracle Database
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database:
■
■
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test database
to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for these
situations?
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
■
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
■
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
■
■
■
■
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test
database to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for
these situations?
■
If you want a quick installation using the default installation settings, then refer to
the platform-specific Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-1
Installing Oracle Database
■
If your site has special requirements, then refer to this guide for more information.
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
If you want to create a starter database designed for transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications, then refer to this guide for more details. Select the
Advanced Installation method, and then select the database type you want on the
Select Database Configuration screen.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide after installation
Alternatively, you can install Oracle OLAP during the Oracle Database installation.
Oracle OLAP provides optimal support for database environments that must meet
OLAP requirements. To do so, in the Select Database Edition screen, select Enterprise
Edition. Click the Select Options button, and from the Choose Components screen,
select Oracle OLAP.
See Also:
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
Use this guide to install Oracle Database using either of the following methods:
■
■
Installing with response files: This method lets you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command line using a response file that contains settings specific to each
computer.
Cloning a Database: Install Oracle Database on one computer using interactive
mode. You can also clone databases. Instructions for cloning databases are
described in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
1. Install Oracle Database on a server by using this guide for more information.
2.
Use Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle Client on each client
node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, consider staging the software centrally, mapping
the drive, and running Oracle Universal Installer in the silent or response file
mode.
If the client nodes only require a default installation into a new Oracle home
directory, consider using this guide for more information.
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
1. Install Oracle Database onto a server by using this guide for more details.
2.
Use Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle Client on each client
node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, then consider running Oracle Universal Installer in
silent or response file mode.
H-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
Refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to use software
cloning to upgrade Oracle Database
See Also:
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
Use any of the following installation scenarios:
■
■
■
If you want to run a single-instance Oracle Database in a clustered environment,
then install Oracle Clusterware either before or after you install Oracle Database.
If you want a consolidated pool of storage for all databases in a cluster, then install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM) to manage this storage. Afterward, install Oracle Database (which can be
either a single instance database or Real Application Clusters).
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, first install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, and then install Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Refer to platform-specific Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for the platform to install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle Real Application Clusters. See this guide for
information about how to install Oracle ASM and Oracle Database.
Oracle Clusterware is a key component required by Oracle Real Application Clusters
installations. Oracle Clusterware is an integrated cluster management solution that can
bind multiple servers to act as a single system. This is referred to as a cluster. It
performs workload management and component restart. For example, when an
instance supporting a particular service fails, Oracle Clusterware restarts the service
on the next available instance that you have configured for that service. Oracle
Clusterware can monitor non-Oracle programs, if they are defined within the Oracle
Clusterware environment using the High Availability API.
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
Use Oracle SQL Developer to migrate your non-Oracle databases and applications to
Oracle. Oracle SQL Developer software and documentation is available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/overview/i
ndex.html
Installing Oracle Database Tools
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database tools:
■
How do I install Oracle WebLogic Server?
■
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
■
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
■
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
■
■
■
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover hidden
meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-3
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
■
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database 11g?
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
How do I install Oracle WebLogic Server?
Refer to Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation Guide for Oracle WebLogic Server.
For more information on Oracle WebLogic Server refer to the product documentation
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/weblogic/documentation/index.
html
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
To perform regular administrative functions such as creating, configuring, or deleting
databases, or managing database templates, use one of the following methods:
To manage only the single database and listener that you are installing:
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
2.
From Oracle Database, use Database Configuration Assistant to manage your
databases.
You can also administer and monitor the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager
Grid Control, which is installed by default with Oracle Database. Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control requires an agent which is not installed by
default.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control includes the Oracle Management Agent,
Oracle Management Service, and Oracle Management Repository, and also Grid
Control, a browser-based central console through which administrators can
perform all monitoring, administration, and configuration tasks for the enterprise.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic
Configuration available on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control
installation media
See Also:
Documentation available on the Oracle Technology Network Web site
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/inde
x.html
To perform advanced administration tasks, such as monitoring Oracle Database and
managing multiple hosts, application servers, and databases including the one that
you are installing, install Oracle Enterprise Manager as follows:
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, then install Oracle Database
by using the platform-specific Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX.
2.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration to
install and configure Oracle Enterprise Manager. For postconfiguration tasks, use
Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration. Refer to documentation available
on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media, or on the Oracle
Technology Network Web site at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
H-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
Oracle provides a wide range of security solutions for your enterprise environment,
including centralized administration and security features integrated with Oracle
Internet Directory. The set of Oracle security services called Oracle Platform Security
integrates the security features built into Oracle Database, Oracle WebLogic Server,
and the Oracle Identity Management infrastructure. Combined, these features enable
the development and deployment of secure e-business applications.
Oracle Identity Management includes Oracle Internet Directory, a centralized
repository that simplifies administration of users and applications in the Oracle
environment with the following components:
■
■
Oracle Internet Directory client tools, including LDAP command-line tools, the
Oracle Internet Directory SDK, and Oracle Directory Manager.
Oracle Internet Directory server components, including the directory server, the
directory replication server, the directory integration server, and various tools for
starting and stopping them.
Oracle Database includes the Oracle Internet Directory client tools, but not the Oracle
Internet Directory server components. To install the Oracle Internet Directory server
components, see Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation Guide for Oracle Identity and Access
Management, and the Oracle Identity Management documentation at:.
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/id-mgmt/overview/index.html
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Security Guide
■
Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Technology Network topics on database security:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/security/whatsne
w/index.html
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
Use Oracle XML DB, which is installed as part of Oracle Database. Oracle XML DB
enables you to efficiently store, generate, retrieve, query, and manage XML data on
your site. Oracle XML DB provides all the advantages of a relational database, for
example, allowing you to control the referential integrity of XML data with constraints
and triggers. It works well with large amounts of XML data by storing it in a parsed,
relational form, which improves access performance.
Oracle XML DB supports XML Type, which is a native data type for XML data, for
which you can choose various storage options depending on your needs. In addition,
Oracle XML DB supports XML Schema processing, structured and unstructured
storage, a content repository that you can access by using common protocols (FTP,
HTTP(S), and WebDAV), and SQL/XML, which is a standard for SQL with XML. For
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), Oracle XML DB introduced support for the
XQuery language for querying, transforming, and constructing XML; the ability for
users to define their own metadata for schema-based XML; a set of new SQL functions
for DML operations on XML data; and more.
You can use Oracle XML DB with Oracle XML Developer’s Kit (XDK) to build
applications that run on either Oracle Database or Oracle WebLogic Server.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-5
Installing Oracle Database Tools
See Also:
■
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
■
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Yes, install Oracle OLAP, which is provided in the Oracle Database installation. Oracle
OLAP provides optimal support for database environments that must meet OLAP
requirements.
Use either of the following methods in Oracle Database Installation Guide to install
Oracle OLAP:
■
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, in the Select Database Edition screen,
select Enterprise Edition. Click the Select Options button, and from the Choose
Components screen, select Oracle OLAP.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
Select the Enterprise Edition installation type, and then on the Select Database
Configuration screen, select the Data Warehouse configuration.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide after installation
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover
hidden meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
Yes, you must have an Enterprise Edition licence for the database installation. Install
Oracle Data Mining, which is provided in the Oracle Database installation. With the
Oracle Data Mining option, you can create and execute predictive and descriptive data
mining models that use a variety of algorithms.
Use the following method in this guide to install Oracle Data Mining:
1.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, select the Enterprise Edition installation
type.
2.
In the Select Database Configuration screen, select the General
Purpose/Transaction Processing configuration.
The following manuals after you have installed Oracle
Data Mining:
See Also:
■
Oracle Data Mining Concepts
■
Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Data Mining Application Developer's Guide
■
Oracle Data Mining Java API Reference
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference (search for
Data Mining)
H-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
Use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN), which is a backup and recovery tool
integrated into Oracle Database. This tool satisfies the pressing demands of
high-performance, manageable backup, and recovery. Recovery Manager is native to
the database server, automatically tracks database structure changes, and optimizes
operations accordingly. In addition, Recovery Manager is integrated with leading tape
media management products, so that Oracle database backups can be integrated with
your existing networked data protection infrastructure.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database 11g?
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Workflow is no longer released with the
database. Oracle Workflow is available with the Oracle E-Business Suite releases.
See Also:
Oracle Workflow statement of direction:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/ias/overview/in
dex.html
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
Starting January 2006, customers are encouraged to re-create and implement
workflows using Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Oracle is in the process of creating a
technical migration guide to provide detailed recommendations for migrating Oracle
Workflow processes to Oracle BPEL Process Manager.
See Also:
Oracle Workflow statement of direction:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/ias/overview/in
dex.html
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database with
Oracle applications:
■
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
■
How can I create Web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
■
Which Web server can my Oracle applications use?
■
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
In most cases, install Oracle Database itself, then install the Oracle application. The
Oracle Universal Installer for that application prompts you for the connection
information. Check the application documentation requirements.
If you must implement your applications with Oracle Real Applications Clusters
databases, refer to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
and Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for more information.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-7
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
How can I create Web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
Install Oracle Application Express and a Web server.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database. Oracle Application Express is automatically
installed, when you install Oracle database.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Which Web server can my Oracle applications use?
Install Oracle HTTP Server, which ships on separate media, or use the XML DB HTTP
Protocol Server and the embedded PL/SQL Gateway that installs with Oracle
Database 11g Release 2.
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
Use Oracle SQL Developer to migrate your non-Oracle applications to Oracle. Oracle
SQL Developer software and documentation is available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/overview/i
ndex.html
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
The following section discusses the Gateway products:
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
You can use Oracle Database Gateway as the connectivity tool to enable Oracle
applications to access data in non-Oracle databases. The following are the functions of
Oracle Database Gateway:
■
■
Integrates a non-Oracle database into your Oracle Database environment.
Enables Oracle PL/SQL applications to integrate with APPC-enabled transactions,
or access messages in IBM Websphere MQ.
You can install the Gateway product on a computer independent of the Oracle
application, Oracle database, and non-Oracle database.
For example, suppose you have the following scenario:
■
■
■
Oracle Database is installed on an UNIX computer.
The Oracle application is installed on a Microsoft Windows computer and accesses
data from the Oracle database on the UNIX computer.
The Oracle application must join data in a DB2 database on Oracle Solaris and an
Oracle Database on UNIX.
You have the option of installing the Database Gateway for DRDA on the Oracle
Solaris computer where DB2 is running, on UNIX where Oracle is running, or on a
third computer.
Table H–1 lists the non-Oracle database systems that you can access from Oracle
applications, and the Gateways products that are available for those systems.
H-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Table H–1
Oracle Gateway Products
Non-Oracle Database
Oracle Gateway Products and Documentation
IBM DB2 Universal
Database (UDB)
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
IBM DB2 z/OS
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
IBM DB2/400
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
WebSphere MQ
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ.
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ Installation and User's Guide.
CICS/TS
Oracle Database Gateway for APPC.
IMSTM
Use Oracle Database Gateway for APPC Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L
Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux
x86, and Linux x86-64.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for APPC User's Guide
SQL Server
Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server User's Guide.
Sybase Adaptive Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide.
Teradata
Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata User's Guide.
Informix Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Informix.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Informix User's Guide.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-9
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Table H–1 (Cont.) Oracle Gateway Products
Non-Oracle Database
Oracle Gateway Products and Documentation
IMS
Oracle Database Gateway for IMS.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System
(SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for IMS User's
Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS
VSAM
Oracle Database Gateway for VSAM.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System
(SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for VSAM User's
Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS.
Adabas
Oracle Database Gateway for Adabas.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System
(SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for Adabas User's
Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS.
H-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Glossary
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group
A set of disk devices that Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
manages as a unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk
device such as a RAID storage array or logical volume, or even a partition on a
physical disk. You can create the Oracle ASM disk group when you create the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management instance, or with Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance
The Oracle instance that manages an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group. It is created automatically when you install and configure Oracle Automatic
Storage Management. See also Oracle system identifier (SID).
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Enables creation of a single disk group from a collection of individual disk devices. It
balances I/O to the disk group across all of the devices in the disk group. It also
implements striping and mirroring to improve I/O performance and data reliability.
automatic undo management mode
A mode of Oracle Database in which undo data is stored in a dedicated undo
tablespace. Unlike in manual undo management mode, the only undo management
that you must perform is the creation of the undo tablespace. All other undo
management is performed automatically.
connect descriptor
A specially formatted description of the destination for a network connection. A
connect descriptor contains destination service and network route information.
The destination service is indicated by using its service name for the Oracle Database
or its Oracle system identifier (SID) for Oracle release 11.2 databases. The network
route provides, at a minimum, the location of the listener through use of a network
address.
connect identifier
A name, net service name, or service name that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users
initiate a connect request by passing a user name and password along with a connect
identifier in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect, for
example:
SQL> CONNECT [email protected]_identifier
Enter password: password
Glossary-1
control files
control files
Files that record the physical structure of a database and contain the database name,
the names and locations of associated datafiles and online undo tablespace, the time
stamp of the database creation, the current log sequence number, and checkpoint
information.
default domain
The network domain within which most client requests take place. It can be the
domain where the client resides, or a domain from which the client often requests
network services. The default domain is also the client configuration parameter that
determines what domain to append to unqualified network name requests. A name
request is unqualified if it does not have a "." character within it.
directory naming
A naming method that specifies a directory server to resolve a net service name into a
connect descriptor. The net service name is stored centrally in a directory server.
directory server
A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compliant directory server. A
directory can provide centralized storage and retrieval of database network
components, user and corporate policies preferences, user authentication, and security
information, replacing client-side and server-side localized files.
external procedures
Procedure or function written in the C programming language and stored in a shared
library. An Oracle server can call external procedures or functions using PL/SQL
routines. For Oracle Database to connect to external procedures, the server must be
configured with a net service name and the listener must be configured with protocol
address and service information.
global database name
The full database name that uniquely distinguishes it from any other database in your
network domain.
For example:
sales.us.example.com
where sales is the name you want to call your database and us.example.com is the
network domain in which the database is located.
initialization parameter file
An ASCII text file that contains information needed to initialize a database and
instance.
instance
Process associated with a running Oracle Database instance. When a database is
started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle Database
allocates a memory area called the System Global Area and starts one or more Oracle
Database processes. This combination of the System Global Area and Oracle Database
processes is called an instance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the
associated database's data efficiently and serve the users of the database.
Glossary-2
net service name
installation type
A predefined component set that automatically selects which components to install.
See "Oracle Database Editions" on page 1-6 for a list of installation types available with
each top-level component.
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
A protocol that client applications use that resides on the same node as the listener to
communicate with the database. IPC can provide a faster local connection than
TCP/IP.
listener
A process that resides on the server and whose responsibility is to listen for incoming
client connection requests and manage the traffic to the server.
When a client requests a network session with a database server, a listener receives the
actual request. If the client information matches the listener information, then the
listener grants a connection to the database server.
listener.ora file
A configuration file for the listener that identifies the:
■
Listener name
■
Protocol addresses on which it is accepting connection requests
■
Services for which it is listening
The listener.ora file resides in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.
An Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) does not require identification of the database
service because of service registration. However, static service configuration is
required for an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) if you plan to use Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
local naming
A naming method that resolves a net service name into a connect descriptor. This
name is configured and stored in the tnsnames.ora file on each individual client.
manual undo management mode
A mode of the database in which undo blocks are stored in user-managed rollback
segments.
naming method
A resolution method used by a client application to resolve a connect identifier to a
network address when attempting to connect to a database service. Oracle Net
Services supports the following naming methods:
■
Local naming
■
Directory naming
■
Host naming
■
External naming
net service name
A simple name for a service that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a
connect request by passing a user name and password along with a net service name
in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect:
Glossary-3
OPS$
SQL> CONNECT [email protected]_service_name
Enter password: password
Depending on your needs, net service names can be stored in a variety of places,
including:
■
Local configuration file, tnsnames.ora, on each client
■
Directory server
■
External naming service, such as Network Information Service (NIS) or Cell
Directory Service (CDS)
OPS$
Acronym for operating system specific. The initialization file parameter OS_AUTHENT_
PREFIX enables users to specify a prefix that Oracle uses to authenticate users
attempting to connect to the database. Oracle concatenates the value of this parameter
to the beginning of the user's operating system account name. When a connection
request is attempted, Oracle compares the prefixed user name with Oracle user names
in the database.
The default value of this parameter is "" (a null string), thereby eliminating the
addition of any prefix to operating system account names. In earlier releases, OPS$ was
the default setting.
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_BASE is the root of the Oracle Database directory tree. The Oracle Base
directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the various oracle
software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple
installations. For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by the
oracle user.
ORACLE_HOME
Corresponds to the environment in which Oracle Database products run. If you install
an OFA-compliant database, using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, Oracle home
(known as $ORACLE_HOME in this guide) is located beneath $ORACLE_BASE. The default
Oracle home is db_n where n is the Oracle home number. It contains subdirectories for
Oracle Database software executables and network files. See also Oracle home.
Oracle home
The directory path to install Oracle components (for example,
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_n). You are prompted to enter an Oracle home
in the Path field of the Specify File Locations window. See also ORACLE_HOME.
Oracle schema
A set of rules that determine what can be stored in an LDAP-compliant directory
server. Oracle has its own schema that is applied to many types of Oracle entries,
including Oracle Net Services entries. The Oracle schema for Oracle Net Services
entries includes the attributes the entries may contain.
Oracle Net foundation layer
A networking communication layer that establishes and maintains the connection
between the client application and server, and also exchanging messages between
them.
Glossary-4
SID
protocol address
An address that identifies the network address of a network object.
When a connection is made, the client and the receiver of the request, such as the
listener, or Oracle Connection Manager, are configured with identical protocol
addresses. The client uses this address to send the connection request to a particular
network object location, and the recipient "listens" for requests on this address. It is
important to install the same protocols for the client and the connection recipient, and
to configure the same addresses.
raw partitions
Portions of a physical disk that are accessed at the lowest possible disk (block) level.
redo log files
Files that contain a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If
an instance failure occurs, then an administrator can use the redo log files to recover
the modified data that was in memory.
repository
A set of tables located in any Oracle database accessible to the Oracle Management
Server. Oracle Management Server uses a repository to store all system data and
application data, information about the state of managed nodes distributed
throughout the environment, and information about the separately licensable
management packs.
service registration
A feature by which the PMON process (an instance background process) automatically
registers information with a listener. Because this information is registered with the
listener, the listener.ora file does not have to be configured with this static
information.
Service registration provides the listener with the following information:
■
Service names for each running instance of the database
■
Instance names of the database
■
■
Service handlers (dispatchers and dedicated servers) available for each instance to
enable the listener to direct a client's request appropriately.
Dispatcher, instance, and node load information
To enable the listener to determine which dispatcher can best handle a client
connection's request. If all dispatchers are blocked, the listener can spawn a
dedicated server for the connection.
This information enables the listener to determine how best to service a client
connection request.
SID
The Oracle system identifier that distinguishes the database from all other databases
on your computer. The SID automatically defaults to the database name portion of the
global database name (sales in the example sales.us.example.com) until you reach
eight characters or enter a period. You can accept or change the default value.
The SID can also refer to an Oracle ASM instance SID, available when you install
Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
Glossary-5
sqlnet.ora file
sqlnet.ora file
A configuration file for the client or server that specifies the:
■
Client domain to append to unqualified service names or net service names
■
Order of naming methods for the client to use when resolving a name
■
Logging and tracing features to use
■
Route of connections
■
External naming parameters
■
Oracle Advanced Security parameters
The sqlnet.ora file resides in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
An industry standard protocol designed by Netscape Communications Corporation
for securing network connections. SSL provides authentication, encryption, and data
integrity using public key infrastructure (PKI).
SSL
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
System Global Area
A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an
Oracle Database instance.
system identifier
See SID.
tablespace
A logical storage unit within a database. Tablespaces are divided into logical units of
storage called segments, which are further divided into extents.
tnsnames.ora file
A configuration file that contains net service names mapped to connect descriptors.
This file is used for the local naming method. The tnsnames.ora file resides in
$ORACLE_BASE/network/admin.
undo tablespace
A tablespace that contains one or more undo segments. The creation of any other types
of segment (for example, tables, indexes) in undo tablespaces is not allowed.
In the automatic mode, each Oracle instance is assigned one and only one undo
tablespace. Each undo tablespace is composed of a set of undo files. Undo blocks are
grouped in extents. At any point in time, an extent is either allocated to (and used by)
a transaction table, or is free.
Blocks in undo tablespaces are grouped into the following categories:
■
■
■
Glossary-6
File control blocks, bitmap blocks, and so forth used for space management
Undo segments containing transaction table blocks, undo blocks, and extent-map
blocks used for transaction management
Free blocks that are unallocated to file control or undo segments
unqualified name
unqualified name
A net service name that does not contain a network domain.
Glossary-7
unqualified name
Glossary-8
Index
Symbols
/, G-3
A
accounts
reviewing, 6-5
ACFS, 1-9
requirements, 3-4
ADVM
requirements, 3-4
aliases, multiple on computers, 2-15
APPC-enabled databases, H-9
applications, migrating non-Oracle applications to
Oracle, H-8
asm groups
creating, 2-20
ASM See Oracle Automatic Storage Management
asmcmd utility, 3-19
asmdba groups
creating, 2-21
authorized problem analysis report
See APAR
Automatic Storage Management
changing owner and permissions of disks, 3-11
character raw device names, 3-11
checking disk availability, 3-10
identifying available disks, 3-10
identifying disks, 3-10
B
backups of database
Oracle Database Recovery Manager,
base directory
See Oracle base directory
H-7
C
C compiler
requirement, 2-8
See also Pro*C/C++
certification, hardware and software, 1-3
cfgmgr command, 3-10
character raw device
device name, 3-11
character raw device names, 3-11
checking disk availability for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
checking distribution of the operating system, 2-7
checking version of the operating system, 2-7
chmod command, 2-30, 2-32, 3-11
chown command, 2-30, 2-32, 3-11
client static library, generating, 5-4
cloning
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a
Cloned Oracle Home, B-3
Oracle home, B-1
Cluster Ready Services (CRS). See Oracle Clusterware
Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 1-10
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
clusters
installation guidelines, 4-2
See also Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Real
Application Clusters
Clusterware
installed before Oracle Database, 4-2
Clusterware. See Oracle Clusterware
commands
runcluvfy.sh, 3-11
setup.exe, 3-11
computers with multiple aliases, 2-15
computers, non-networked, 2-15
configuration assistants
failure, G-5
troubleshooting, G-5
configuring
accounts of Oracle users, 5-3
configuring disks for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-7 to ??, 4-4
configuring new disks, 3-10
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a
Cloned Oracle Home, B-3
Connection Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
control files
locating, 6-13
naming, D-5
reviewing, 6-11
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
with, 6-13
Index-1
CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter, 6-13
create inventory, 4-14
CSD
download location for WebSphere MQ, 2-9
custom database
failure groups for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-9
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 3-8
customize the database, 4-13
D
DAS (direct attached storage) disks, 3-10
data files
creating separate directories for, 2-32
defined, 6-11
managing with Oracle ASM, 1-9
minimum disk space for, 2-31
naming, D-5
options for placing on file system, 2-31
recommendations for file system, 2-31
reviewing, 6-11
setting permissions on data file directories, 2-32
setting up, 6-11
data loss
minimizing with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-9
data mining tools
Oracle Data Mining, H-6
data warehousing tool
Oracle OLAP, H-6
Database Configuration Assistant
running in silent mode, A-7
troubleshooting, G-5
database install
customize, 4-13
databases
files, 6-11
identifying, 6-10
initialization parameter file, 6-11
naming, 4-15
non-Oracle
APPC-enabled, H-9
non-Oracle, listed, H-9
OLAP support (Oracle OLAP), H-6
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, D-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 3-8
recovery with Oracle Backup and Recovery, H-7
redo log files, 6-13
security management, H-5
tablespaces, 6-11
Daylight Savings Time, 1-16
DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter, 6-10
DB_NAME initialization parameter, 6-10
DB2 database, H-9
DB2 z/OS database, H-9
DB2/400 database, H-9
Index-2
dba group
and Automatic Storage Management disks, 3-11
creating, 2-20
description, 2-17
SYSDBA privilege, 2-17
dba groups
creating, 2-20, 2-21
dbca.rsp file, A-4
Deconfiguring
Oracle Restart, G-4
default data files, 6-12
default file mode creation mask
setting, 2-34
default tablespaces, 6-12
Deinstallation tool, 7-1
about, 7-1
example, 7-4
failed installations, 7-4
previous grid home, 7-4
roothas.pl, 7-1
deinstalling previous grid home, 7-4
deprecated features, xx
description
database restart, 3-1
Oracle Restart, 3-1
desupported features, xx
device names, 3-11
directory
creating separate data file directories, 2-32
database file directory, 2-31
Oracle base directory, 2-26
Oracle home directory, 2-28
Oracle Inventory directory, 2-27
oraInventory, 2-27
permission for data file directories, 2-32
disc
mounting, 4-7
disk devices
in Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 1-10
managing with Oracle ASM, 1-9
disk space
checking, 2-5
requirements for preconfigured database in Oracle
Automatic Storage Management, 3-9
disks
changing permissions and owner for Automatic
Storage Management, 3-11
checking availability for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
configuring for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-7 to ??, 4-4
configuring new disks, 3-10
identifying LVM disks, 3-10
supported for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
DISPLAY environment variable
setting, 2-34
DOMAIN_NAME initialization parameter, 6-10
E
Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent
ports
ranges and protocol, E-2
enterprise.rsp file, A-4
environment
configuring for oracle user, 2-34
environment variables
DISPLAY, 2-34
NLS_LANG, F-3
ORACLE_BASE, 2-30, 2-34
ORACLE_HOME, 2-34, 2-36
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, 2-14
ORACLE_SID, 2-34
PATH, 2-34
SHELL, 2-35
TMP and TMPDIR, 2-4, 2-36, 3-3
TNS_ADMIN, 2-36
errors
configuration assistants, G-5
display errors, G-2
installation, G-3, G-6
remote terminal installation, G-2
response file installation, G-6
silent mode, G-6
su command, G-2
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo, G-2
X Window, G-1
X Window display errors, G-2
EXAMPLE tablespace
description, 6-12
example01.DBF data file, 6-12
example01.DBF data file, 6-12
examples
Oracle Automatic Storage Management failure
groups, 3-9
Oracle base directories, 2-27
external redundancy
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 3-8
F
failure group
examples of Oracle Automatic Storage
Management failure groups, 3-9
failure groups
characteristics of Oracle Automatic Storage
Management failure group, 3-9
examples in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-9
in Oracle ASM, 1-10
Fast Recovery Area, 5-4
fatal errors, G-6
file mode creation mask
setting, 2-34
file sets, 2-5
file system
appropriate for Oracle base directory, 2-30
data file and recovery file placement
options, 2-31
requirements for Oracle base directory, 2-30
using for data files, 2-31
files, D-5
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora, 6-11
$ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini, 6-2
control, 6-13, D-5
data files, D-5
dbca.rsp, A-4
enterprise.rsp, A-4
/etc/group, D-3
/etc/passwd, D-3
listener.ora, 5-7
oraInst.loc, 2-19
oratab, 2-29
redo log, 6-13
response files, A-3
tnsnames.ora, 5-7
Flash Recovery Area
See Fast Recovery Area
For, 2-30
G
Gateways products FAQ, H-8
Global Database Name
about, 4-15
global database name, 6-10
globalization support, F-1
Grid Control. See Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control
group file, D-3
groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 2-19
creating the asm group, 2-20
creating the asmdba group, 2-21
creating the dba group, 2-20
creating the oinstall group, 2-19
creating the oper group, 2-20
UNIX OSDBA group (dba), 2-17
UNIX OSDBA group for Oracle Restart
(dba), 2-17
UNIX OSOPER group (oper), 2-17
H
hardware certification, 1-3
hardware requirements, 2-3, 3-2
disk space, 2-4
display, 2-5
memory, 2-3
run level, 2-5
system architecture, 2-4
high redundancy
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 3-8
home directory
See Oracle home directory
host name resolution, 2-14
host name, setting before installation, 2-15
Index-3
I
L
IBM DB2 database, H-9
IBM DB2 z/OS database, H-9
IBM DB2/400 database, H-9
IBM WebSphere MQ Series databases, H-9
identifying disks for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
identifying LVM disks, 3-10
Informix Server database, H-9
initialization parameter file
description, 6-11
in databases, 6-11
initsid.ora, 6-11
initialization parameters
DB_NAME, 6-10
DOMAIN_NAME, 6-10
SERVICE_NAMES, 6-10
initsid.ora file, 6-11
initsid.ora initialization parameter file, 6-11
in-place Oracle Database Client upgrade, xvii
installation
accessing installation software, 4-4
available products, 1-6
cleaning up after a failed installation, G-7
clusters, installation guidelines, 4-2
component-specific guidelines, 4-1
computer aliases, multiple, 2-15
considerations, 1-3
database editions, 1-6
errors, G-3, G-6
silent mode, G-6
laptops, 2-15
log files, G-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 3-8
overview, 1-1 to 1-14
response files, A-1, A-3
preparing, A-3, A-4
silent mode, G-6
templates, A-3
silent mode, A-6
upgrading, H-3
installation errors
steps to resolve, G-3
installation guidelines, 4-10
installation overview, 1-1
installation software
copying to a hard disk, 4-8
extracting, 4-6
installation software, accessing, 4-4
Installing
Oracle restart, 3-12
instance
instance identifier (SID), 2-34
IP addresses, multiple, 2-14
languages
installing Oracle components in different
languages, F-4
using Oracle components in different
languages, F-3
laptops, installing Oracle Database on, 2-15
listener
identifying Oracle home for, 2-33
lsnrctl command, 2-34
stopping, 2-33, 2-34
listener.ora file, 5-7
local device
using for data files, 2-31
log files, G-3
troubleshooting, G-3
log files locations in OFA, D-8
logical volume manager
See LVM
loopback adapters
non-networked computers, 2-15
lsdev command, 3-10
lsnrctl command, 2-34
lspv command, 3-10
LVM
identifying volume group devices, 3-10
recommendations for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8
J
JDK requirements, 2-5
M
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-34
memory requirements, 2-3, 3-2
Microsoft SQL Server database, H-9
migrating
See upgrading
migrating applications to Oracle, H-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, H-3
mirroring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk groups, 3-8
mkdir command, 2-30, 2-32
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-34
mount point
for Oracle base directory, 2-26
mount point directories, 4-8
mount point directory
choosing, C-2
mount points
Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions for
creating, D-2
multihomed computers, installing on, 2-14
multiple aliases, computers with, 2-15
multiple databases and Oracle ASM, 2-18
multiple Oracle homes, 1-3
N
naming subdirectories, D-4
Index-4
NAS devices
creating files on for use with Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, C-4
guidelines for configuration, C-1
Net Configuration Assistant
troubleshooting, G-5
Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA)
response files, A-7
running at command prompt, A-7
netca.rsp file, A-4
network adapters
computers with multiple aliases, 2-15
non-networked computers, 2-15
primary, on computers with multiple
aliases, 2-15
See also loopback adapters, primary network
adapters
network cards, multiple, 2-14
Network Information Services
alternative to local users and groups, 2-18
Network Information Services.See NIS
network setup
about, 2-14
computers with multiple aliases, 2-15
host name resolution, 2-14
network topics
laptops, 2-15
multiple network cards, 2-14
non-networked computers, 2-15
NFS
mount options, C-5
NLS_LANG environment variable, F-3
noninteractive mode
See also response files, response file mode, A-1
non-networked computers, 2-15
non-Oracle databases, listed, H-9
normal redundancy, Oracle Automatic Storage
Management redundancy level, 3-8
O
OEM
See Oracle Enterprise Manager
oinstall group
checking for existing, 2-19
oinstall groups
creating, 2-19
OLAP tools
about, H-6
Oracle OLAP, H-6
OMF
See Oracle Managed Files
oper group
creating, 2-20
description, 2-17
oper groups
creating, 2-20
operating system
checking distribution and version, 2-7
reviewing common practices, 2-13
operating system accounts
creating and configuring, 5-3
operating system groups
creating the oinstall group, 2-19
operating system requirements, 2-5
operating system users
root user, 4-11
Optimal Flexible Architecture
advantages, D-1
conventions for creating mount points, D-2
file identification, D-6
file mapping, D-7
files systems, D-2
naming, D-2
database files, D-5
Oracle base directory, D-2
subdirectories, D-4
very large databases, D-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, D-5
Oracle Managed Files, D-5
overview, D-1
pathnames, D-3
recommendations for Oracle base directory, 2-26
recommended path for Oracle base
directory, 2-26
recommended path for Oracle home
directory, 2-28
recommended path for Oracle Inventory
directory, 2-27
special tablespaces, D-6
standard, D-1
using separate segments, D-6
Oracle ACFS, 1-9, 3-4
requirements, 3-4
Oracle ADVM, 3-4
requirements, 3-4
Oracle Application Server, H-4
Oracle applications
installing with Oracle Database, H-7
Oracle ASM, 1-9
Oracle ASM disk groups
about, 1-10
Oracle ASM failure groups
about, 1-10
Oracle ASM instance
about, 1-10
Oracle ASMCA, 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 1-9
asmcmd utility, 3-19
characteristics of failure groups, 3-9
configuring disks, 3-7 to ??, 4-4
configuring disks for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
considerations before installing, 3-6
DAS disks, 3-10
disk devices, 1-10
disk groups, 3-8
disks, supported, 3-10
failure groups
examples, 3-9
Index-5
identifying, 3-9
installation, testing, 3-19
managing, 6-3
mirroring, 3-8
multiple databases, 2-18
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, D-5
Oracle ASM disk group templates, 1-10
partition creation, 3-10
password file, 3-6
recommendations for disk groups, 3-8
redundancy levels, 3-8
response files, A-3
SAN disks, 3-10
space required for preconfigured database, 3-9
SPFILE server parameter file, 3-6
starting and stopping, 6-3
templates, 1-10
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File
System, 1-9, 3-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration
Assistant, 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups
managing, 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic
Volume Manager, 3-4
Oracle base directory
creating, 2-30
creating new, 2-30
description, 2-26
examples, 2-27
identifying appropriate file system, 2-30
identifying existing, 2-28
mount point for, 2-26
naming conventions, D-2
recommended path, 2-26
relationship with Oracle software owner
user, 2-26
requirement for, 2-26
requirements for existing directory, 2-29
requirements on file system, 2-30
Oracle Cluster Registry
See OCR
Oracle Cluster Registry port, E-3
Oracle Clusterware
about, H-3
used with Oracle Real Application Clusters, H-3
Oracle components
using in different languages, F-3
Oracle Data Mining
about, H-6
installing, H-6
Oracle Database
administering and monitoring, H-4
creating data file directories, 2-32
Enterprise Edition installation, 1-6
getting started using
accessing, 6-4, 6-5
starting and stopping database, 6-4, 6-5
installing with Oracle applications, H-7
Index-6
minimum disk space requirements, 2-31
naming, 4-15
requirements with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8
security management, H-5
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable, 2-34
Standard Edition installation, 1-6
upgrading, H-3
Web servers, H-8
Oracle Database Client
configuring connections, H-2
Oracle Database components
administering and monitoring, H-4
connectivity FAQ, H-8
FAQ on installing, H-1 to ??
installing with Oracle applications, H-7
installing with Oracle Database tools, H-4
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
response file, A-4
Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN)
about, H-7
Oracle Database Vault
audit policy, 1-4
postinstallation task, 5-8
preinstallation requirement, 2-10
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
HTTP port, changing, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Manager, 1-11
Database Control
logging into, 6-1
port number, 6-1
using to modify control files, 6-13
using to modify redo log files, 6-13
using to view control files, 6-13
using to view redo log files, 6-13
login privileges, 6-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
ports, changing, E-3
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle home
cloning, B-1
Oracle home directory
description, 2-28
identifying for listener, 2-33
multiple homes, network considerations, 2-14
recommended path, 2-28
requirement for, 2-28
requirements, 2-28
using to identify Oracle base directory, 2-29
Oracle host name, setting before installation, 2-15
Oracle Internet Directory, H-5
Oracle Inventory
description, 2-27
pointer file, 2-19
Oracle Inventory directory
description, 2-27
recommended path, 2-27
Oracle Inventory group
creating, 2-19
Oracle Inventory groups
checking for existing, 2-19
creating, 2-19
Oracle Label Security
post-installation tasks, 5-7
Oracle Managed Files
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming
conventions, D-5
Oracle Messaging Gateway
postinstallation tasks, 5-8
Oracle Net
configuration file directory, 5-7
identifying Oracle home for listener, 2-33
lsnrctl command, 2-34
stopping listener, 2-33
stopping the listener, 2-34
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
response file, A-4
Oracle Net Services
post-installation tasks, 5-7
Oracle Net Services Listener
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle OLAP
about, H-6
Oracle Precompilers
postinstallation tasks, 5-8
Oracle Procedural Gateway
listed products, H-8
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
installed before Oracle Database, 4-2
installing with Oracle Enterprise Manager, H-4
Oracle Clusterware
about, H-3
Oracle Restart
description, 3-1
Installing, 3-12
modifying, 3-18
OSDBA group description, 2-17
relinking, 3-18
user, 2-17
Oracle Schemas, xiii
Oracle Software Owner user
and Automatic Storage Management disks, 3-11
creating, 2-21
oracle user, 2-22
Oracle software owner user
configuring environment for, 2-34
determining default shell, 2-35
relationship with Oracle base directory, 2-26
Oracle SQL Developer
accessing, 6-5
migrating non-Oracle applications to Oracle, H-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, H-3
Oracle Technology Network (OTN)
downloading documentation from, xiv
Oracle Text knowledge base, 5-9
Oracle Transparent Gateway
listed products, H-8
Oracle Universal Installer
guidelines for using, 4-1
installation guidelines, 4-1
response files, A-1
list of, A-4
running, 4-9
running in different languages, F-4
oracle user
and Automatic Storage Management disks, 3-11
configuring environment for, 2-34
creating, 2-21
determining default shell, 2-35
relationship with Oracle base directory, 2-26
Oracle user accounts
configuring, 5-3
Oracle XML DB
about, H-5
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
ORACLE_BASE environment variable, 2-30
setting, 2-34
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
setting, 2-34
unsetting, 2-36
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, 2-14
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable
computers with multiple aliases, 2-15
multihomed computers, 2-14
setting before installation, 2-15
ORACLE_SID environment variable
setting, 2-34
oraInst.loc file
location, 2-19
location of, 2-19
oraInventory directory
See Oracle Inventory directory
oratab file, 2-29
formats, 2-29
location of, 2-29
OSASM groups
creating, 2-20
multiple databases, 2-18
SYSASM, 2-18
OSDBA group
and Automatic Storage Management disks, 3-11
OSDBA groups
creating, 2-20
creating for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 2-21
description for database, 2-17
SYSDBA privilege, 2-17
SYSDBA privilege for Oracle Restart, 2-17
OSOPER groups
creating, 2-20
description for database, 2-17
SYSOPER privilege, 2-17
OTN Web site
downloading installation software from, 4-5
P
partition
using with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8
partitions
Index-7
creation for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disks, 3-10
passwd command, 2-22
passwd file, D-3
password file for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-6
passwords
resetting, 6-8
with Database Control, 6-8
with SQL*Plus, 6-9
reviewing, 6-5
unlocking, 6-8
with Database Control, 6-8
with SQL*Plus, 6-9
PATH environment variable
setting, 2-34
pathnames
Optimal Flexible Architecture, D-3
permissions
for data file directories, 2-32
for Oracle base directory, 2-30
port numbers
managing, E-1
portlist.ini file, 6-2, E-2
ports
access URLs, E-2
Cluster Synchronization Services, ranges and
protocol, E-3
configured for applications, E-2
Connection Manager, ranges and protocol, E-2
default ranges, E-1
Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent,
ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Cluster Registry, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent HTTP,
changing, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control,
changing, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control,
ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Net Services, E-2
Oracle Net Services Listener, ranges and
protocol, E-2
Oracle XML DB, ranges and protocol, E-3
post-installation
required tasks, 5-1
Oracle Label Security, configuring, 5-7
Oracle Net Services, configuring, 5-7
patches, installing and downloading, 5-1
postinstallation
recommended tasks
client static library, generating, 5-4
creating operating system accounts, 5-3
root.sh script, backing up, 5-2
required tasks
configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway, 5-8
Oracle Precompilers, 5-8
postinstallation tasks
Oracle Text knowledge base, 5-9
Precompilers
Index-8
requirements, 2-8
preconfigured database
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk space
requirements, 3-9
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 3-8
Pro*C/C++
configuring, 5-8
requirements, 2-8
See also C compiler
process
stopping existing, 2-33
stopping listener process, 2-33
program technical fix
See PTF
ps command, 2-33
R
RACcheck audit tool, 5-6
RAID
using for Oracle data files, 2-31
RAM requirements, 2-3, 3-2
readme.txt file, E-2
recommendations
on perfomring software-only installations, 3-11
recovery files
options for placing on file system, 2-31
recovery of databases
Oracle Backup and Recovery, H-7
redo log, D-5
redo log files
in starter database, 6-13
locating, 6-13
naming, D-5
reviewing, 6-11
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
with, 6-13
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 3-9
for Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 3-8
redundant array of independent disks
See RAID
Removing Oracle Database Software, 7-1
requirements
hardware, 2-3, 3-2
response file installation
response files
preparing, A-3, A-4
templates, A-3
silent mode, A-6
errors, G-6
response file mode
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
response files, A-1
about, A-1
creating with template, A-3
dbca.rsp, A-4
enterprise.rsp, A-4
general procedure, A-3
Net Configuration Assistant, A-7
netca.rsp, A-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, A-3
passing values at command line, A-2
specifying with Oracle Universal Installer, A-5
response files installation
about, A-1
root user, 4-10, 4-11
logging in as, 2-2
roothas.pl, 3-11, 7-1, G-4
root.sh script
backing up, 5-2
Sybase Adapter Server database, H-9
SYSASM
OSASM, 2-18
SYSDBA privilege
associated UNIX group, 2-17
SYSOPER privilege
associated UNIX group, 2-17
SYSTEM
tablespace, description, 6-12
System Identifier, 6-11
See SID
system01.dbf data file, 6-12
S
tablespaces, 6-12
defined, 6-11
in databases, 6-11
reviewing, 6-11
setting up, 6-11
expanding for large sorts, 6-12
Optimal Flexible Architecture
special tablespaces, D-6
SYSTEM, 6-12
TEMP, 6-12
UNDOTBS, 6-12
USERS, 6-12
TEMP
tablespace (temp01.dbf), 6-12
temp01.dbf data file, 6-12
temporary disk space
requirements, 2-3, 3-2
Teradata database, H-9
TMP environment variable, 2-4, 3-3
setting, 2-36
TMPDIR environment variable, 2-4, 3-3
setting, 2-36
TNS_ADMIN environment variable
unsetting, 2-36
tnsnames.ora file, 5-7
troubleshooting, G-1
display errors, G-2
fatal errors, G-6
Oracle Restart, G-4
remote terminal installation, G-2
su command, G-2
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo, G-2
Sample Schemas
tablespaces and data files, 6-12
SAN (storage area network) disks, 3-10
schema passwords, 4-17
schemas
database schema passwords, 4-17
Oracle Schemas, about, xiii
Sample Schemas tablespaces and data files, 6-12
security
dividing ownership of Oracle software, 2-15
management tools, H-5
server parameter file (SPFILE), 3-6
SERVICE_NAMES initialization parameter, 6-10
shell
determining default shell for oracle user, 2-35
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 2-35
SID, 6-11
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable, 2-34
SID. See Oracle Database SID
silent mode
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
See also response file mode, response files, A-1
silent mode installation, A-6
smit command, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21, 2-22
software certification, 1-3
software requirements, 2-5
software updates option, xvi, 1-6, 3-14, 4-11
downloading before installation, 3-13, 4-10
SPFILE server parameter file, 3-6
SQL Developer
accessing, 6-5
SQL Server database, H-9
SQL*Plus
accessing, 6-4
storage area network disks, 3-10
storage management See Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
suppressed mode. See response file mode
swap space
checking, 2-4, 3-3
requirements, 2-3, 3-2
T
U
umask command, 2-34
UNDOTBS
tablespace (undotbs01.dbf),
UNIX commands
cfgmgr, 3-10
chmod, 2-30, 2-32, 3-11
chown, 2-30, 2-32, 3-11
lsdev, 3-10
lspv, 3-10
mkdir, 2-30, 2-32
6-12
Index-9
passwd, 2-22
ps, 2-33
smit, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21, 2-22
umask, 2-34
unset, 2-36
unsetenv, 2-36
xhost, 2-2
xterm, 2-2
UNIX groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 2-19
OSDBA (dba), 2-17
OSDBA (dba) for Oracle Restart, 2-17
OSOPER (oper), 2-17
using NIS, 2-18
UNIX users
using NIS, 2-18
UNIX workstation
installing from, 2-2
unset command, 2-36
unsetenv command, 2-36
upgraded databases
configuring, 5-2
upgrading, 1-14
ASM, 1-15
Daylight Savings Time, 1-16
operating sytem, 1-15
Oracle Database, 1-15
USERS
tablespace (users01.dbf), 6-12
users
creating the oracle user, 2-21
Oracle Restart, 2-17
users and groups, 2-15
UTLRP.SQL
recompiling invalid SQL modules, 5-2
V
very large databases
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming mount
points, D-3
W
Web servers (Oracle HTTP Server), H-8
WebSphere MQ
CSD download location, 2-9
WebSphere MQ Series database, H-9
X
X Window
display errors, G-1
X Window system
enabling remote hosts,
xhost command, 2-2
XML data, H-5
xterm command, 2-2
Index-10
2-2
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