CAG Fire Safety Manual
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 1
___________________________________________________________________
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Contents
Page
Contents page
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
1 to 2
Record of Amendments .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
3
Distribution List .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
4 to 6
Abbreviations
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. …
7 to 8
Foreword
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
9 to 11
SECTION A : FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF CAG
OWNED / MANAGED PROPERTIES
Chapter 1 : General Fire Safety Duties and Responsibilities
12 to 16
Chapter 2 : General Fire Prevention Measures
17 to 21
Chapter 3 : Maintenance of Fire Detection
and Protection Systems
22 to 30
Chapter 4 : Provision and Usage of Fire Extinguishers
31 to 38
Chapter 5 : Requirements for Renovations, Alterations and Additions
to CAG owned / managed properties
39 to 42
Chapter 6 : Fire Emergency Plans for CAG Owned / Managed
building
43 to 59
Chapter 7: Fire Safety Surveillance on CAG tenanted premises
60
Appendix A-1
: Fire Safety Do’s and Don’ts
61 to 64
Appendix A-2
: Consolidated Fire Safety Requirements
for Compliance By CAG Tenants
65 to 66
Appendix A-3 : Summary of Fire Safety Requirements
for CAG Managed Buildings
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
67 to 72
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 2
___________________________________________________________________
Page
Appendix A-4 : Sample of AES Service Charge Form
73
Appendix A-5 : Sample of AES Fire Alarm Isolation and Hot Work Permits
74 to 77
Appendix A-6 : Sample of AES Isolation and Fire Patroller Checklist
78 to 79
Appendix A-7 : Sample of Annual Fire Safety Declaration for F&B outlets
80
Appendix A-8 :
81
AES Fire Safety Circular
SECTION B : FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF NON-CAG OWNED /
MANAGED PROPERTIES
Chapter 1
: General Fire Safety – Duties and Responsibilities
Chapter 2 :
Fire Evacuation Plans for Control Tower and LORADS
Complex
82 to 86
87 to 88
SECTION C : FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC FIRE
HAZARDS
Chapter 1
: Aircraft Fuel Servicing and Maintenance of Aircraft
Fuel System
89 to 100
Chapter 2
:
Airfield Vehicle Operations
101 to 102
Chapter 3
:
Precautions during Battery Charging
103 to 104
Chapter 4
:
Import, Transport, Storage and Dispense/Decant
of Petroleum & Flammable Materials
105 to 106
Chapter 5
: Welding and Hot Works
107 to 115
Chapter 6
: Welding Operations Inside Aircraft Hangars
116 to 119
Chapter 7
:
120 to 127
Fire Precautions During Oxygen Charging
And Storage
Appendix C-1 : Fire Safety Requirements involving Aircraft
Fuel Servicing
128 to 129
Appendix C-2 : Fire Safety Requirements involving Airfield
Vehicle Operations
130
Appendix C-3 : AES Fire Safety Circular 12/2012 dated 23 Aug 2012
131 to 132
Appendix C-4 : AES Fire Safety Circular 15/2012 dated 1 Nov 2012
133 to 134
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 3
___________________________________________________________________
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
S/No
Amendment No.
Date of Amendment
Reviewed By
1
01/1999
15 Apr 1999
OC(FS)
2
01/2000
01 Jul 2000
OC(FS)
3
01/2001
18 Aug 2001
OC(FS)
4
01/2002
9 Sep 2002
OC(FS)
5
01/2004
15 Mar 2004
OC(FS)
6
02/2004
7 Sept 2004
Supt (FS)
7
01/2005
1 Feb 2005
Supt (FS)
8
02/2005
1 July 2005
Supt (FS)
9
01/2006
27 Nov 2006
Supt (FS)
10
01/2008
30 May 2008
Supt (FSS)
11
01/2009
1 Jul 2009
SO(FS)
12
01/2010
18 Nov 2010
1 SO,FS
13
01/2011
14 Feb 2011
2SO, FS
14
01/2012
1 Nov 2012
1SO, FS
15
01/2014
1 Aug 2014
2SO, FP
16
01/2016
1 Mar 2017
FWO, Alex
17
01/2017
12 May 2017
SO, FP
18
02/2017
25 Sep 2017
FWO, Alex
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 4
___________________________________________________________________
DISTRIBUTION LIST A – CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Airport Operations Division
Airport Emergency Service Division
Aerodrome Safety Unit
Aviation Security Unit
Engineering & Development Group
Commercial Cluster
Changi Airport Recreation Club
Experia Events Pte Ltd
CAG Fire Wardens
DISTRIBUTION LIST B – AIR CARGO COMPANIES
All Air Cargo companies and their fire wardens
DISTRIBUTION LIST C – AIRLINES
All airlines and their fire wardens
DISTRIBUTION LIST D – AIRPORT SECURITY SERVICES
AETOS
Certis CISCO
DISTRIBUTION LIST E – AIRPORT STAFF CANTEENS
Airport Staff Canteens 1 & 2
Changi Cargo Agents Building ‘D’ & Megaplex 1 Staff Canteens
Select Group Ltd
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 5
___________________________________________________________________
DISTRIBUTION LIST F – HANDLING AGENTS
DNATA Singapore Pte Ltd
SATS Ltd
ASIG® | Aircraft Service International Group®
DISTRIBUTION LIST G – OIL COMPANIES
BP Singapore Pte Ltd
Chevron Singapore Pte Ltd
ExxonMobil Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
Shell Eastern Petroleum Pte Ltd
Singapore Petroleum Company Ltd
Changi Airport Fuel Hydrant Installation Pte Ltd (CAFHI)
Changi Into-Plane Services Pte Ltd (CHIPS)
DISTRIBUTION LIST H – RESTAURANTS
All restaurants and their fire wardens
DISTRIBUTION LIST I – SERVICES
All service providers and their fire wardens
DISTRIBUTION LIST J – SHOPS
All shops and their fire wardens
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 6
___________________________________________________________________
DISTRIBUTION LIST K – GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS / STATUTORY
BOARDS
Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS)
Singapore Aviation Academy
CAAS Fire Wardens
Airport Police Division
Immigration & Checkpoints Authority
Singapore Customs
National Environment Agency
DISTRIBUTION LIST L – OTHERS
SIA Engineering Company
ST Aviation Services Company
Menlo Worldwide Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd.
JTC Corporation
Singapore Post Limited
Eagle Services Asia Pte Ltd
ABV Aviation Support Pte. Ltd
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 7
___________________________________________________________________
Abbreviations
A&A
AC (Ops)
AES
AO
-
Addition and alteration
Air Cargo Operations
Airport Emergency Service
Airport Operations
AO/FM
-
Airport Operation / Facilities Management (formerly known as EM)
ATC
-
Air Traffic Control
BCA
BCF
BS
-
Building and Construction Authority
Bromochlorodifluoromethane
British Standards
CAAS
CAES
CAFHI
CAG
CDIR
CCS
CERT
CP
CAC
-
Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore
Chief, Airport Emergency Service
Changi Airport Fuel Hydrant Installation
Changi Airport Group (Singapore) Private Limited
Corporate Development and International Affairs Division
Casualty Clearance Station
Company Emergency Response Team
Code of Practice
Changi Airfreight Centre
DNATA
-
DNATA Singapore Pte Ltd
E&MP
EN
ERP
-
Engineering & Master Planning
European Standards
Emergency Response Plan
FCC
FMC
FSSD
FP
FS
F&B
FM
-
Fire Command Centre
Fault Management Centre
Fire Safety and Shelter Department
Fire Prevention
Fire Safety
Food & Beverages
Facility Management
HT
-
High Tension
LEW
LORADS
LPG
LT
-
Licensed Electrical Worker
Long Range Radar Station
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Low Tension
MINDEF
-
Ministry of Defence
OC
OIC
-
Officer Commanding
Officer-In-Charge
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 8
___________________________________________________________________
PA
Public Address
QP
-
Qualified Person
SAA
SASCO
SATCC
SATS
SCDF
SIA
SPRING
SS
Head, FP
-
Singapore Aviation Academy
ST Aviation Services Company Pte Ltd
Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre
Singapore Airport Terminal Services
Singapore Civil Defence Force
Singapore Airlines
Standards, Productivity and Innovation Board
Singapore Standards
Head, Fire Prevention
UL/FM
-
Underwriters Laboratories / Factory Mutual
WRO
-
Watchroom Operator
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 9
___________________________________________________________________
Foreword
1
Aims
1.1
Owing to the nature of airport operations, airport terminal buildings are
generally atrium designed. As such buildings are large and spacious, any fire
outbreak can spread rapidly. This, coupled with the high number of
passengers commuting through the airport daily, places airport buildings in the
high fire load category. Because of the global nature of airport operations, a
major fire outbreak will draw adverse publicity, both locally and overseas. In
addition, a major fire could disrupt flying operations, resulting in high losses
to the airport as well as the nation.
1.2
Therefore, the fire safety at the airports needs to be at a high level. This
Manual contains fire safety procedures, which are based on existing
regulations, and other codes already promulgated in Singapore. These
procedures spell out the fire safety measures to be observed by airport
operators and tenants so that a high standard of fire safety can be maintained at
key buildings of Singapore Changi and Seletar Airports.
2
General Terms of Reference
2.1
This Manual seeks to spell out:-
2.2
a)
the fire safety precautions that need to be provided at key buildings of
the airports;
b)
the parties responsible for the implementation and compliance of these
and other fire safety codes;
c)
the types of fire safety tests and checks to be carried out by each
concerned party
d)
the general procedures to be complied with in the event of a fire
outbreak; and
e)
other specific fire hazards.
This Manual is intended to cover both CAG and non-CAG owned/managed
buildings in the airport but are by no means exhaustive and where appropriate
should be used in conjunction with the codes of other authoritative bodies such
as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the Codes of Practice
for Fire Precautions in Buildings by the Singapore Civil Defence Force
(SCDF) and the Singapore Standards by Standards, Productivity and
Innovation Board (SPRING Singapore).
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 10
___________________________________________________________________
3
AES Service Charge
3.1
All air carriers, ground handling agents, facilities managers,
project/maintenance contractors, owners, tenants; or any contractors/subcontractors engaged by them; and all parties operating or working in Changi
Airport, the Changi Airfreight Centre or Seletar shall comply with all fire
safety requirements, safety instructions, permit to work system and hot work
procedures required by SCDF and as stipulated by CAG's Fire Safety Manual.
Non compliance to these procedures and guidelines resulting in false fire
alarm activations and turnout of AES resources may result in a service charge
being levied as per the schedule of rates listed in Para.3.3 below. (See
Appendix A-4 – Sample of AES Service Charge Form)
3.2
To prevent abuse of AES resources, AES may levy a service charge on all
airlines, air carriers, ground handling agents, cargo agents, facilities managers,
project/maintenance contractors, owners, tenants; or any contractors/subcontractors engaged by them; and all parties operating or working in Changi
Airport, the Changi Airfreight Centre or Seletar Airport for any of the
following services:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
3.3
Removal of Fuel Hazards
Refuelling / Defueling Standby
Explosives Escort
Hot Works Standby
First Aid Fire Appliances (FAFA) training
False fire alarm activation turnout
Vehicle escort
Fire Patroller duties
DECAM line connection
The schedule of rates is listed in Table 1 below:
Table 1
Service
Charge*
i)
Fire Vehicle
$600 per vehicle per hour or part thereof*
ii)
Sea Rescue
$1010 per vessel per hour or part thereof*
Craft
iii) Fire Officer
$100 per officer per hour or part thereof*
iv)
Fire fighter
$60 per firefighter per hour or part thereof*
v)
EDG
$400/ 500 per team per incident*
vi)
AvSecurity
$400 per team per incident*
vii) DECAM line
$750 per line connection*
connection
*excludes prevailing government taxes and the revised rates will be effective
from 0000LT, 15 June 2017
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 11
___________________________________________________________________
4
Amendments
4.1
This manual will be reviewed from time to time. Suggestions to improve this
manual are welcome. All proposed amendments can be emailed to
[email protected] or be submitted in duplicate, type-written in
double spacing, and addressed to:
Head, Fire Prevention
Airport Emergency Service
Fire Prevention
Changi Airport Group (Singapore) Pte Ltd
Singapore Changi Airport
P O Box 168
Singapore 918146
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 12
___________________________________________________________________
SECTION A : FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF CAG OWNED / MANAGED
PROPERTIES
CHAPTER 1
-
GENERAL FIRE SAFETY DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
1
General
1.1
The responsibility of ensuring that fire safety measures are observed at each
airport building shall be that of the owner. In the case of CAG owned /
managed properties, the head of division in charge of the premises shall be
responsible as the "owner". He should also exercise surveillance over the
tenants and staff occupying such premises. The AES and E&MP shall be
promptly notified of any suspected deficiencies.
2
Duties and Responsibilities of Divisions in CAG owned / managed
properties
2.1
The duties and responsibilities of each division shall be as follows:
I
Airport Emergency Service (Division of CAG)
(a)
Promote fire safety at Changi and Seletar Airport. To conduct fire
safety inspections at CAG owned building and airport’s critical
installations at least once a year and follow-up to ensure that fire
hazards, if any, are eradicated;
(b)
Check to ensure that fire detection and protection systems installed in
buildings are adequate for the appropriate risk;
(c)
Carry out spot checks on the maintenance of the fire protection
systems, e.g. by random checks of the water flow through some
sprinkler heads;
(d)
Advise other Divisions on fire safety measures before renovation,
alteration or addition works are carried out at CAG owned / managed
premises and then follow-up to ensure that they are incorporated;
(e)
Conduct annual briefings for the fire wardens in the terminal buildings
to update and familiarise them with their roles, the evacuation
procedures, the escape routes, the assembly areas, etc;
(f)
Conduct annual fire safety awareness workshops for airport restaurant
and canteen staff;
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 13
___________________________________________________________________
(g)
Establish a fire evacuation plan for each CAG owned/managed
building based on the procedures spelt out in Section B and conduct at
least two evacuation drills annually at the passenger terminal buildings,
Megaplex 1 in accordance with the requirements prescribed by the
FSSD; and
(h)
Maintain an updated fire warden list for CAG offices.
II
Airport Operations (Division of CAG)
(a) Be the overall coordinator of the fire wardens for the terminal buildings
during a fire/emergency;
(b) AO/FM to ensure all portable fire extinguishers belonging to CAG are
serviceable and maintained regularly in accordance to SS:578:2012
(c) AO/FM to ensure that all CAG building hosereels are inspected for their
serviceability;
(d) AO/FM to ensure that all cabinets used to house fire extinguishers and
hosereels are accessible for use during a fire;
(e) AO/FM to ensure the proper disposal of bulk rubbish at CAG buildings;
(f) AO/FM to ensure cigarette butt bins at specified smoking areas are cleared
of rubbish on a regular basis; and
(g) AO/FM to ensure that no bulk disposal of rubbish obstructs the means of
escape.
III Air Cargo (Part of CAG Airport Operations Division)
(a) Overall coordinator of the fire wardens for the cargo agents buildings
during a fire/emergency; and
(b) Liaison of all Air Cargo Ops matters.
IV
Commercial Division (Division of CAG)
(a) Exercise surveillance over CAG tenants at the terminal buildings and CAC
to ensure that they comply with fire safety precautions, and to take
appropriate action on tenants who do not comply. AES/E&MP are to be
kept informed;
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 14
___________________________________________________________________
(b) Ensure that the tenants at the terminal buildings and CAC observe the fire
prevention measures listed in Chapter 2 of this Section and its appendices
together with Schedule 3 of CAG Tenancy Agreement (where applicable)
(c) Ensure that all renovations, alterations and additions by tenants to CAG
owned / managed buildings are properly authorised in accordance with
Chapter 5 of this Section;
(d) Ensure that all concessionaires/tenants at the terminal buildings and CAC
managed by Commercial Division carry out tests on electrical wiring and
systems as required in this Manual and forward reports of these tests to the
Engineering Division upon request; and
(e) To act on errant tenants who do not take proactive actions to eliminate fire
hazards within their premises.
V Engineering & Master Planning (Division of CAG)
(a) Ensure that fire detection and protection systems at all CAG owned /
managed buildings are installed in accordance with SPRING Singapore
Codes of Practice;
(b) Conduct tests and inspections on electrical circuits in all CAG owned /
managed buildings and installations as stated in the code of practice or as
best practices.
(c) Conduct regular tests, inspections and maintenance of fire detection and
protection systems in CAG owned / managed buildings (including the fire
protection/detection and gas detector systems installed and maintained by
tenants and lessees) in accordance with the schedule spelt out in Chapter 3
of this Section and in accordance with the relevant SSCP/ CPs;
(d) Ensure contractors do not obstruct fire detectors, sprinklers, other fire
equipment or impede any access/escape route during renovation,
alteration and addition, construction works and comply with fire safety
requirements stipulated in this manual;
(e) Ensure that all renovations, alterations and additions to buildings are
properly authorised in accordance with Chapter 5 of this Section; and
(f) Ensure that the exhaust systems, beyond the cooker hoods, for all
restaurants are maintained and serviced on a regular basis as appropriate.
(g) To ensure that no bulk disposal of rubbish obstructs the means of escape in
the CAC.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 15
___________________________________________________________________
(h) To ensure all portable fire extinguishers belonging to CAG are
serviceable and maintained regularly in accordance to SS:578:2012 at
CAC;
(i) To ensure that all CAG building hosereels located at CAC are inspected
for their serviceability;
(j) To ensure that all cabinets located at CAC that are used to house fire
extinguishers and hosereels are accessible for use during a fire;
(k) To ensure cigarette butt bins located at CAC that are placed at specified
smoking areas are cleared of rubbish on a regular basis.
VI Corporate Development and International Affairs Division
(Division of CAG)
(a) Ensure that all fire warden’s contact details are updated in the Singapore
Changi Airport Telephone Directory (SCATD) upon input from AES FPS;
and
(b) Ensure that all CAG corporate security doors are linked to IBMS.
VII All Divisions & All Airport Staff
In addition to the above, each Division shall:
(a) Ensure that all electronic equipment and wiring in their premises are
regularly checked and properly maintained;
(b) Observe good housekeeping by separating combustible materials, e.g.
thermal facsimile paper, diskettes, etc from electrical peripherals;
(c) Exercise surveillance and take action as appropriate on those occupants
who do not comply and keep AES/E&MP informed;
(d) Ensure that its premises are adequately protected by fire extinguishers and
other fire safety equipment based on the advice provided by AES in
accordance with Chapter 4 of this Section;
(e) Ensure that all staff and occupants observe the fire prevention measures
listed in Chapter 2 of this Section and its appendices together with
Schedule 3 of CAG Tenancy Agreement (where applicable);
(f) Appoint fire wardens / assistant fire wardens for its own premises, and
inform FPS of any changes to their appointed fire wardens / assistant fire
wardens;
(g) Ensure that its staff are familiar with the fire evacuation plan;
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 16
___________________________________________________________________
(h) Encourage its staff to attend relevant fire safety training at the Singapore
Aviation Academy or conducted by FPS; and
(i) Ensure all renovations, major alterations and additions have been approved
by FSSD and AES.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 17
___________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER 2 GENERAL FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES
1
Introduction
1.1
Singapore Changi Airport has a wide range of occupancies such as
restaurants, duty-free shops, lounges, etc, and also a large overall volume of
combustibles such as alcohol, furniture, carpets etc. These together with the
large number of aircraft passengers commuting through the airport daily
result in a high fire load at the terminal buildings. Therefore, fire prevention
measures need to be practiced by all staff, occupants and tenants of buildings
at Changi Airport. Staff and tenants at Seletar Airport should also observe
such safety standards.
1.2
Fire prevention measures may be grouped into distinct categories, such as fire
detection and protection equipment, passive measures, housekeeping,
electrical systems and wiring, and other hazards.
2
Fire Detection and Protection Equipment
3
(a)
Fire detection, gas detection and protection systems installed, in
accordance to the approved QP plan, shall be maintained and
regularly checked for serviceability.
(b)
The fire protection systems shall have audible alarm bells or similar
facilities to warn the occupants of the building in case of fire.
(c)
DECAM connection shall be made between the fire protection
systems and the AES fire station or other approved fire alarm
receiving centre.
(d)
The fire protection systems should be extended to new areas arising
from building extension or floor alterations.
(e)
Fire hosereels should be able to provide full coverage over the whole
of the floor area where they are installed and take into consideration
the physical layout of the area covered.
(f)
Fire hosereels shall be free of obstructions at all times.
Passive Measures
(a)
Means of egress shall be so arranged that the occupants can pass
through an exit from the building or storey quickly and without
obstruction.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 18
___________________________________________________________________
(b)
Exit signs and directional exit signs shall be provided, adequately
illuminated and displayed.
(c)
Escape routes shall be kept clear and free of obstructions at all times
and be suitably marked.
(d)
All emergency exit doors shall not be locked, otherwise there shall be
provision for rapid operation of the locking device to release the lock
either by manual operation or automatically when the fire alarm is
activated.
4
Housekeeping
4.1
Housekeeping or maintenance of orderly cleanliness is a basic factor in fire
safety. Good housekeeping practices, both indoors and outdoors, by disposal
of unwanted combustibles, limitation or segregation of combustibles, reduce
the danger of fire, and they include the following:
(a)
Floors should be regularly swept or cleaned with non-flammable
materials.
(b)
Smoking is only allowed at designated areas or rooms with suitable
ashtrays or cigarette butt bins being provided. Cigarette butts shall be
completely extinguished before being disposed in a proper manner.
(c)
Other than kitchens of restaurants where fire suppression systems are
installed, there shall be no naked flame allowed, unless prior approval
is sought from AES’ FPS.
(d)
No burning of oil lamps, candles, joss sticks or joss paper, shall take
place, especially within the buildings and on the airside.
(e)
Where burning of any sort or Hot Work is required, the prior approval
of AES Division shall be obtained.
(f)
In the case of restaurant cooker hoods – these shall be
degreased/cleaned on a regular basis as appropriate. The schedule of
cleaning shall be extended to AES and EDG E&MP upon request.
(g)
Frequency and method of rubbish and waste disposal should be
adequate for the type of occupancy and activity being conducted.
(h)
Rubbish storage bins built of non-combustible materials shall be
provided under cutting, boring and turning machines.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 19
___________________________________________________________________
(i)
Used cleaning rags and other impregnated materials or waste cloths
should be kept in non-combustible containers with self closing and
close fitting lids.
(j)
No storage of flammable liquids shall be allowed. If required, the
prior approval of AES Division shall be obtained.
(k)
Storage of approved quantities of flammable liquids shall comply
with Section C, Chapter 4 of this manual.
(l)
Where there is a possibility of a flammable liquid spill, provisions
shall be made as follows:
(i)
the spread of the spill is limited;
(ii)
non-flammable absorbent material is available for immediate
use;
(iii)
ignition sources can be quickly removed; and
(iv)
the area is well ventilated.
(m)
All packing materials should be neatly stacked in a separate storage
area and not in passageways or aisles.
(n)
There shall be a minimum clear space of 0.5m between the top of
storage piles and sprinkler heads or the ceiling. This clear space shall
be at least 1m in warehouses.
(o)
In storage areas, aisles shall be maintained for access and egress.
These aisles should not be obstructed and should correspond as much
as possible in width with the building entry/exit points.
(p)
Provision shall be made for ready access to fire fighting equipment.
(q)
All fire and exit doors shall be kept clear such that stored material
will not interfere with their operation.
(r)
Storage shall not mix with other risks and there shall be separation
between the two by fire rated walls, self-closing fire doors, etc.
(s)
Hazardous goods, such as gas cylinders and combustible liquids shall
be separated from other stores, either by compartmentalisation or
distance. Hazardous materials shall be indicated outside each store.
(t)
Stores where hazardous materials are kept shall be clearly marked at
the entrance with appropriate labels.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 20
___________________________________________________________________
(u) A floor plan shall be made available at the fire indicator board for arriving
emergency services in case of fire outbreak.
5
Electrical Systems and Wiring
(a)
Connections between wires and plugs should not be loose.
(b)
Conduits and raceways should be fastened into position and secured
to outlet boxes, cabinets and other equipment.
(c)
All electrical boxes should be closed to prevent the possibility of
contact with combustible materials.
(d)
Overloading of electrical circuits is not allowed. In general, the power
should not exceed 13 ampere. All circuits should be protected by a
proper size fuse or circuit breaker.
(e)
All fixtures, switches and sockets should be well maintained.
(f)
Electrical equipment should not be improperly wired or with wiring
that have become frayed or loose. All electrical appliances shall be of
an approved type, correctly positioned and have well maintained
flexible cords.
(g)
Electrical appliances and machinery should be operated by qualified
persons and should not be left operating unattended.
(h)
Electrical equipment should not be left energised when not in use
especially during after-working hours. They should be switched off
when not in use.
(i)
Do not overload the electrical circuit by fitting many extension
outlets. If necessary, more permanent power points should be added
by a Singapore Power Licensed Electrical Worker (LEW) of the
appropriate grade.
(j)
With effect from 1 August 2014, all new lighting fixtures shall be
installed with electronic ballast or LED type of lighting systems.
Conventional ballast shall not be used in the terminal buildings
lighting systems for any new installation. Users are also required to
monitor the usage and life span of the lighting systems and change
before its end of life.
(k)
LEW shall operate, maintain and repair electrical installation and
conduct thermal scanning checks of the electrical system/wiring on a
quarterly basis, such as tests of out-going / in-coming cables on an
annual basis and submit the inspection/test reports to E&MP.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 21
___________________________________________________________________
6
Other Hazards
6.1
Some works carried out in the terminal buildings and other CAG owned /
managed buildings are inherently hazardous. These include hot works such as
welding and battery charging operations in which hydrogen is released in large
quantities. Reference shall also be made to the appendices of this section
together with Section C of this manual and Schedule 3 of CAG Tenancy
Agreement (where applicable).
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 22
___________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER 3
MAINTENANCE OF FIRE DETECTION AND
PROTECTION SYSTEMS
1
Introduction
1.1
This chapter spells out the maintenance procedures for fire detection and
protection systems in all CAG owned / managed properties in the airport.
2
Duties and Responsibilities
2.1
E&MP is responsible for maintaining the fire protection installations in
optimum working condition except for those equipment/systems installed and
maintained by the tenants/lessees as per recognised local or international fire
safety standards or manufacturer’s recommendations.
2.2
AO/FM is responsible for the maintenance of fire extinguishers and fire
hosereels up to the stop cocks.
2.3
Both E&MP and AO/FM are responsible to notify AES of any defects (and
their status of rectification) that affect the operations of the fire protection
installations, so that alternative arrangements as deemed necessary by the AES
can be made.
2.4
Copies of all initial system commissioning, subsequent modification and
commissioning and subsequent annual test reports on the fire protection systems
carried out to comply with statutory requirements shall be compiled for audit
purposes.
3
Inspection and Test Procedures
3.1
Fire alarm and detection systems
3.1.1
Regular testing and inspection shall be conducted as follows:
(a)
Daily Tests. A check shall be made on fire alarm and detection systems
connected to the Building Automation System to ensure that they are
being continuously monitored.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 23
___________________________________________________________________________
(b)
Weekly Tests. A simulated fire alarm call, by operating at least 50% of
fire alarm group test switches provided on the fire alarm indicator board,
shall be carried out so as to transmit a full fire call to the fire station.
Check the battery voltage by operating the battery test switch and record
voltage under load conditions in the log book.
(c)
Monthly Tests. Check battery terminals for cleanliness, ensure they are
capped with non-conducting material and to ensure that they are in good
serviceable condition; voltages, charging current, and electrolyte to
ensure that they are at the correct levels.
(d)
Annual Tests. At least 20% of the detectors in an installation shall be
checked each year. The selection of detectors shall be made in such a
way that all the detectors in an installation should have been checked
once in any period of five years. The checking of detectors shall take
the form of either:(i)
the testing of a detector in-situ and testing the effectiveness of
detectors (especially smoke/heat detectors) mounted near air
conditioning/exhaust vents;
(ii)
check for obstructions such as partitions, racks or piled stock
which are erected/placed in such a way as to interfere with the
effectiveness of the fire alarm/detection system; or
(iii)
the removal of a detector and its replacement by a detector which
has been checked and calibrated by the supplier.
In addition, the following shall also be conducted:(i)
Circuits requiring automatic voltage regulated supplies shall be
checked to ensure correct operation and voltage output.
(ii)
Where the heat-sensitive element of thermal detectors or the
enclosure of other detectors are found to be coated with paint or
any other material likely to affect adversely the operation of the
detectors, such materials shall be cleaned off or detectors
replaced.
e)
Random Tests. Fire detectors that are installed and maintained by
tenants at their respective premises shall be subject to random tests by
E&MP and/or its engaged M&E maintenance contractor(s).
f)
Others. Checks shall be conducted for obstructions such as partitions,
racks, piled stocks or detectors located near air-conditioning/exhaust
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 24
___________________________________________________________________________
vents, in such a way as not to interfere with the effectiveness of the
detectors’ function.
3.2
Fire hydrants and dry rising mains
3.2.1
Inspection, maintenance and testing of fire hydrants shall be carried out at least
once a year by E&MP. E&MP shall also ensure that all isolating valves for the
systems are kept locked in an "open" position.
3.2.2
Dry rising mains inlets, landing valves, drain valves, door hinges and locking
arrangements to the inlet and landing valve boxes shall be inspected every six
months. Special attention should be given to all valves, spindles, glands and
washers to ensure that they are in satisfactory conditions so that all equipment
continues to be ready for immediate use. Wet tests shall be carried out
annually when the mains should also be checked for leaks.
3.3
Automatic fire sprinkler systems
3.3.1
Periodic testing of automatic fire sprinkler systems shall be carried out on a
weekly, quarterly, annually, and three-yearly basis.
(a)
Weekly tests. The following checks and tests should be made every
week.
(i)
Check water level and automatic refilling facilities of all water
storage tanks in the system.
(ii)
Check that all stop valves are secured in the open or closed
position as appropriate. Particular attention shall be given to the
main control valve, drain valve and test valve.
(iii)
Check and record the pressure at the installation gauge and water
supply gauge and ensure that normal water pressure is being
maintained.
(iv)
Check for the correct operation of the water alarm gong.
(v)
Start all pumping units, by operating the test valve in a manner
which will simulate the conditions and check correct cut-in
pressure, pump gland operation, both local and remote 'pump
run' alarms, and pump priming water. (Note: On electric motor
driven pumps, check the phase failure alarm and check that there
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 25
___________________________________________________________________________
is no excessive vibration or noise. Pump shall be fully
operational within 30 seconds). For compression-ignition engine
driven pumps, run pumps for not less than 10 minutes and check
the following items:
(b)
-
Water, oil and fuel leaks, loose fittings and ancillary
equipment.
-
Belt drives.
-
Correct operation of battery charging alternator/generator.
-
Battery charger power failure alarm.
-
Battery terminals for cleanliness, capped with nonconducting material and correct level of electrolyte in each
cell to ensure that they are in good serviceable condition.
-
Obvious out of balance.
-
Correct running speed.
-
Before and after running, check water, oil and fuel levels.
Top up if required.
-
After running, ensure that the engine stop mechanism
automatically returns to the start position.
(vi)
Test the interchange ability and function of the duty and standby
pumps.
(vii)
After testing of the pumps and resetting of the systems, check
and record the pressure at the installation gauge and water supply
gauge to ensure that normal water pressure is being maintained.
(viii)
Check that required spare sprinklers and sprinkler spanner are on
hand.
(ix)
Check pump room to ensure it is kept free of combustible
materials and accessible at all times.
(x)
Check the Fire Service breeching inlet to ensure they are in good
condition.
Quarterly tests. In addition to the normal weekly tests, the following
additional tests shall be performed.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 26
___________________________________________________________________________
(i)
Electric power pump - where secondary power supplies are
provided, the pump shall be run off the secondary supply. The
pump shall be run for not less than 5 minutes.
(c)
(ii)
Compression-ignition engine driven pump - the engine shall be
run at rated speed for a period of not less than 30 minutes and the
operating temperature checked.
(iii)
Test all water flow alarm switches by operation of a 10 mm test
valve to simulate fire conditions. These may be tested as a
weekly rotating basis; however, each switch must be tested
quarterly.
(iv)
Check condition of all accessible sprinklers. Sprinklers shall be
replaced when painted, corroded, damaged or loaded with
foreign materials.
(v)
Operate and check to ensure that all isolating valves on the main
connection, and any other water supply stop valves, are fully
open.
(vi)
Check to ensure that all water supply non-return valves are
correctly seated.
(vii)
Clean the strainer and oil the external alarm water motor and
gong.
(viii)
Check for obstructions such as partitions, racks or piled stock
which are placed in such a way as to interfere with the
effectiveness of water discharging from sprinklers.
Annual tests. In addition to the normal weekly and quarterly tests, the
following additional tests shall be performed:
(i)
Compression-ignition engine driven pumps - check, clean and
replace, if required, engine fuel sludge and sediment trap, and
fuel, oil and air filters; and change engine oil.
(ii)
Carry out water supply periodic check test to ensure that the
water supply satisfies the pressure/flow requirements appropriate
to the hazard class.
(iii)
Physical check of the internal mechanism of all pressure
switches to ensure that all components are free of corrosion,
securely mounted and in working order.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 27
___________________________________________________________________________
(iv)
With electrical equipment isolated from all power supplies, the
motor starter should be cleaned and the condition of all heavycurrent-carrying contacts checked. Any item showing signs of
water or corrosion shall be immediately repaired or replaced.
(d)
(v)
Run electric pump for a minimum period of 30 minutes under
full load conditions and check the load current per phase for
variation from original test readings.
(vi)
Replace all sprinklers installed in hood over cooking equipment.
(vii)
Examine the interior and exterior of water tank, clean and paint
as required.
(viii)
Examine all pipes and hangers for corrosion and mechanical
damage. Clean, paint and replace as required. Loose hangers
shall be replaced or refastened.
(ix)
Oil or grease all valve stems. Completely close and re-open the
valve to test its operation and distribute the lubricant.
(x)
Check all gauges with an inspection gauge.
Three-yearly tests. In addition to the normal annual tests, every three
years, overhaul all stop, alarm, non-return and pressure-reducing valves.
Replace all damaged and worn parts as necessary. Where investigation
suggests that sediment may have collected in the pipe work, all system
pipe work should be flushed. Conditions that may indicate the need for
investigation include the following:
(i)
Discharge of obstructive material during routine water tests.
(ii)
Foreign material in sprinkler pumps or in check valve.
(iii)
Heavy discoloration of water during drain tests.
(iv)
Plugging of sprinklers.
(e)
Random tests. Random tests shall be conducted by the actual activation
of selected sprinkler heads.
(f)
Sprinkler Burst Test. The sprinkler burst test shall be carried out
during the opening or commissioning of new premises. In addition, the
sprinkler burst test is carried out once a month at the existing
installations.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 28
___________________________________________________________________________
3.4
Gas Flooding Fire Protection Systems
3.4.1
Halon 1301 system
Inspection, maintenance and testing of Halon 1301 fire protection system shall
be carried out as follows:
(a)
Monthly Inspection. Check to ensure correct pressure gauge reading,
correct setting and accessibility of all operating controls, and
serviceability of indicators. Carry out visual inspection on its pipeline
system and nozzles.
(b)
3.4.2
Half-yearly Inspection. Check to determine the amount of agent
available by weighing the container. A loss of the agent in nett content
of more than 5% shall require the container to be refilled.
FM-200 System
A systematic maintenance programme shall be established for proper operation
of FM-200 system. The preventive maintenance schedule shall include the
daily, monthly, half-yearly, two-yearly, and five-yearly inspections and
maintenance as follows:
(a)
Daily Inspection. Check FM-200 cylinder pressure gauges and
Nitrogen cylinder for proper operating pressure.
(b)
Monthly Inspection. Weigh FM-200 cylinders to ascertain nett weight
of agent by subtracting tare weight (as stamped on the cylinder) from the
gross weight. If the agent nett weight is less than 95% of the original
charge net weight, replace cylinder with fully charged FM-200 cylinder.
Inspect FM-200 cylinders and equipment for damaged or missing parts,
viz:
(i)
flexible actuation hoses for loose fittings, damaged threads,
cracks, distortion, cuts, dirt and frayed wire braid;
(ii)
FM-200 cylinder pressure operated control heads for physical
damage, deterioration, corrosion, distortion, cracks, dirt and
loose couplings;
(iii)
FM-200 cylinder electric control heads for physical damage,
corrosion, or dirt and check control heads flexible electrical line
for wear and damage;
(iv)
FM-200 cylinder and valve assembly for leakage, physical
damage such as cracks, dents, distortion, and worn parts and
check burst disc and pressure gauges for damage;
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 29
___________________________________________________________________________
(v)
FM-200 cylinder brackets, straps, cradles and mounting
hardware for loose, damaged, or broken parts and check cylinder
brackets, straps, and associated parts for corrosion, oil, grease,
grime, etc;
(vi)
(vii)
flexible discharge hoses for loose fittings, damaged threads,
cracks, rust, kinks, distortion, dirt and frayed wire braid;
nitrogen actuation line (if used) and support brackets for
continuity, physical damage, loose fittings, distortion, cracks, or
cuts;
(viii)
discharge nozzles for dirt and physical damage;
(ix)
all manual pull stations for cracks, broken or cracked glass plate,
dirt or distortion and sign of physical damage; and
(x)
pressure switches for deformations, cracks, dirt or other damage.
(c)
Half-yearly Inspection. Perform pressure switch test and electric
controls heads test for proper operation.
(d)
Two-yearly Inspection. Remove nozzles from piping and all pressure
operated control heads from FM-200 cylinders, open distribution valves
and blow out all distribution piping with air or nitrogen or ensure that it
is not obstructed.
(e)
Five-yearly Inspection. Conduct hydrostatic pressure test on FM-200
and nitrogen cylinders and flexible hoses as necessary.
3.5
Fire hosereels
3.5.1
E&MP and AO/FM shall conduct annual serviceability check of fire hosereels.
Fire hosereels shall be free from obstruction and be accessible at all times. Fire
hosereel cabinets shall be free from any combustible material.
3.5.2
Once a year the hose shall be completely run out and subjected to operational
water pressure test to ensure that the hose is in good condition and that all
couplings are water-tight. A flow test should be carried out to ensure that a
discharge of at least 0.4 litres per second and the horizontal throw of the jet of
at least 6 metres are achieved at all times for either direct-feed system or pumpfeed system.
3.6
Kitchen Fire Suppression System (KFSS)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 30
___________________________________________________________________________
3.6.1
Restaurant / F&B operators are responsible to maintain the KFSS installed in
their premises.
3.6.2
Restaurant / F&B operators shall ensure that the KFSS is serviced annually with
records updated for AES inspection (refer to appendix A-VI – Summary of Fire
Safety Requirements for CAG Managed Buildings in particular point 8).
3.6.3
Ensure that the kitchen fire suppression system is always linked to the AES Fire
Station through the building Fire Alarm Panel.
3.6.4
As per Appendix A-7 - AES Fire Safety Circular 05/2011 dated 8 Sep 2011,
there will be no open flame cooking/deep frying activities without the
protection of the KFSS.
3.6.5
As per AES Fire Safety Circular 07/2012 dated 29 May 2012, all F&B
operators are requested to submit the necessary declaration form at Appendix
A-6– Annual Declaration Form for F&B outlets to CAG on an annual basis.
3.6.6
In addition to the fire extinguisher required for the F&B premises, all kitchen
with open flame and/or deep frying activities shall install at least one 75F rated
fire extinguisher within 7 meters from the open flame and/or deep frying
activities or as recommended by a qualified person (reference to SS 578:2012
Use and maintenance of portable fire extinguisher).
3.7
Gas Pipes and Detection Systems
3.7.1
Specific requirements on the above can be found in the Renovation
Requirements but in general interlinking between gas solenoid valve, gas
detection system and ventilation system shall be carried out by the tenant. The
gas detector panel shall interface with the existing IBMS and the tenant shall
ensure that all gas detection systems (including link to Fault Monitoring Centre
located at Changi Airport Terminal 3) are checked and serviced annually with
records to be produced upon request by AES.
3.7.2
No liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinder is allowed in the Changi Airport
unless prior approval of SCDF and AES are sought.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 31
___________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER 4 1
PROVISION AND USAGE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Provision of Fire Extinguishers
1.1
Generally, provisions of fire extinguishers are in the form of portable handheld
or trolley extinguishers.
1.2
Portable fire extinguishers shall comply with the latest editions of SS578:2012
Code of Practice for use and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers and SS
EN 3 Specifications for Portable Fire Extinguishers. FSR14.2016 Fire
Extinguisher Requirement on A&A Hoarding Work Space
1.3
Trolley fire extinguishers shall comply with the latest editions of NFPA 10
Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers or BS:EN 1866-1 Mobile fire
extinguishers Characteristics, performance and test methods.
1.4
All stated ratings of fire extinguisher shall be of SS578:2012 / BS:EN standards
unless otherwise stated.
2
Basic Types of Fire Extinguishers and Their Recommended Colours of
Identification
2.1
Type of fire extinguisher
Colour
Water
Foam
Dry Powder
Carbon dioxide
Clean Agent/Halon*
Signal red
Pale cream
French blue
Black
Emerald green
*Note:
Existing halon (BCF type) fire extinguishers may still be
available although new replacement is discontinued.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 32
___________________________________________________________________________
2.2
Fire Extinguishing Agents for the Various Classes of Fire
Classes
Type of fires
A*
Fires involving
ordinary combustible
materials like wood,
paper, cloth,
furnishing, plastics,
rubber, etc., usually of
an organic nature, in
which combustion
normally take place
with the formation of
glowing embers.
Fires involving
flammable liquids,
solvents, oils, paints,
thinner and liquefiable
solids
B
C
Fires involving
Electrical Energy
F
Fires involving
cooking media
(vegetable or animal
oils and fats) in
cooking appliances
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Suitable Extinguishing
Agents
Water, multi-purpose powder
types, foam, or clean agent
Powder, clean agent, carbon
dioxide and mechanical foam
such as aqueous film forming
foam (AFFF).
Note – When used in open
areas, the powder type is
recommended since in the
open, both carbon dioxide gas
and clean agent gas are less
efficient.
Clean agent, carbon dioxide
or dry powder extinguisher
marked safe for use on
energised electrical
equipment
Wet chemical agent.
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 33
___________________________________________________________________________
2.3
Classification of occupancy hazards
(a)
Low hazard
These occupancies consist of fire hazards having normally expected quantities
of Class A combustible furnishings, and/or the total quantity of Class B
flammables typically expected to be present is less than 5 litres in any room or
area.
(b)
Medium hazard
These occupancies consist of fire hazards that only occasionally contain Class
A combustible materials beyond the normal anticipated furnishings, and/or the
total quantity of Class B flammables typically expected to be present is l 5 litres
to 20 litres in any room or area.
(c)
High hazard
These occupancies consist of fire hazards involving storage, packaging,
handling or manufacture of Class A combustibles and/or the total quantity of
Class B flammables expected to be present is more than 20 litres in any room or
area.
3
Strategic Locations for Fire Extinguishers
3.1
A qualified person (QP) should be consulted for assistance to ensure that the
right types of fire extinguishers are provided at suitable locations.
3.2
Extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in positions where they will be
readily accessible and immediately available in the event of fire. They shall be
located in the following priority:
(a)
Exit staircases (just beside the exit door but not inside exit staircase)
(b)
Exits (for 1st storey)
(c)
Common lobby or common corridor
(d)
Room exit access doors
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 34
___________________________________________________________________________
(e)
Internal corridor along path of escape
3.3
In certain locations where visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, fire
extinguisher signs shall be provided to indicate the location.
3.4
Extinguishers provided to deal with special risk shall be sited near to the risk
concerned, but not too near as to be inaccessible in case of fire. If the special
risk is contained within a confined space, it is generally advisable to position
the extinguisher outside that space.
3.5
Placement of fire extinguishers
3.6
(a)
Shall be mounted on walls by the hangers or brackets supplied
1) Handle shall not exceed 1.2m above the floor - extinguisher gross
weight not exceeding 4kg
2) Handle shall not exceed 1.0m above the floor – extinguisher gross
weight exceeding 4kg
(b)
Cabinets, if permitted to house extinguisher, shall not be locked.
Cabinet shall be in red colour or indicated with a fire extinguisher
signage
(c)
Free-standing extinguishers may be placed on shelves or on the floor if
these extinguishers are designed for such form of placement on
appropriately designed support to prevent accidental dislodgement.
Fire extinguisher size and placement for Class A hazards
(a)
Extinguisher shall be located so that no person needs to travel more than
15 m to reach an extinguisher
(b)
Minimum sizes of fire extinguishers
1) For low hazard occupancy the minimum rating shall be 13A
2) For medium hazard occupancy the minimum rating shall be 21A
3) For high hazard occupancy the minimum rating shall be 34A
3.7
4
Fire extinguisher requirements in A&A hoarding work space
(a)
Within the hoarded area(s), 50kg fire extinguisher(s) in trolley shall be
provided near the hoarding exit access door.
(b)
Each fire extinguisher shall not cover more than 20m.
Inspection and Maintenance of Fire Extinguishers
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 35
___________________________________________________________________________
4.1
Inspection Procedures. AO/FM shall conduct regular inspection that shall
include at least a check of the following:
4.2
(a)
Fire extinguishers are located in their designated locations.
(b)
There is no obstruction to access or visibility.
(c)
The operating instructions on the label attached to each fire extinguisher
are legible and facing outward.
(d)
Seals and tamper indicators are not broken or missing.
(e)
The content level is correct.
(f)
Visual checks for obvious physical damages, corrosion, leakage or
clogged nozzles.
(g)
Pressure gauge reading is within the operative range or pressure gauge
indicator is in the correct position.
(h)
Essential parts, such as the discharge tube/horn are serviceable and not
missing.
Each fire extinguisher shall be clearly marked with the following information:
(a)
The extinguishing medium contained in the extinguisher.
(b)
Type (e.g. gas cartridge or stored pressure).
(c)
The class of fire for which it is suitable.
(d)
Method of operation.
(e)
Test and working pressures.
(f)
The date of last service or expiry date of serviceability.
4.3
The discharge lever of fire extinguishers should have a safety pin secured with a
plastic seal.
4.4
All fire extinguishers, except those that are empty, shall be positioned upright at
all times.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 36
___________________________________________________________________________
4.5
All fire extinguishers shall be serviced annually by competent person(s) from
organisations approved by the relevant authority and a label is attached to each
extinguisher as proof.
4.6
All extinguishers shall be completely emptied and recharged at intervals
recommended in SS578:2012.
a. Every 2.5 years
- Water (stored pressure)
Chemical foam
Mechanical foam (gas cartridge)
Mechanical foam (stored pressure)
b. Every 5 years
- Water (gas cartridge)
Powder (gas cartridge)
Power (stored pressure)
c. Every 10 years
- Carbon dioxide
Clean agent type
4.7
All extinguishers shall be hydrostatically testes at intervals not exceeding those
specified in SS578:2012 Table 5 (see below).
5
Usage of Portable Fire Extinguisher
5.1
When a fire is discovered, airport staff or members of public shall raise the
alarm by activating the nearest fire manual call points or contact AES at 6541
2525. Within his/her means, take the nearest fire extinguisher in the area.
Check the fire extinguisher to ensure that it has the correct pressure and
suitability for the fire type.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 37
___________________________________________________________________________
5.2
Before attempting to put out the fire using the fire extinguisher, user shall
ensure that he/she has an unobstructed exit path behind him before approaching
the fire.
5.3
The following are simple steps (P.A.S.S method) to use the fire extinguisher:a. Pull the pin at the top of the extinguisher. The pin releases a locking
mechanism and will allow you to discharge the extinguisher.
b. Aim at the base of the fire, not the flames. This is important - in
order to put out the fire, you must extinguish the fuel.
c. Squeeze the lever slowly. This will release the extinguishing agent
in the extinguisher. If the handle is released, the discharge will stop.
d. Sweep from side to side. Using a sweeping motion, move the fire
extinguisher back and forth until the fire is completely put out.
Operate the extinguisher from a safe distance, several feet away, and
then move towards the fire once it starts to diminish. Be sure to read
the instructions on your fire extinguisher - different fire
extinguishers recommend operating them from different distances.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 38
___________________________________________________________________________
5.4
For trolley extinguishers, the method of application is similar to that of the
portable extinguisher; the only difference would be a need to open a valve after
pulling out the safety pin (Step 2 in the diagram below). Refer to the diagram
below for the step by step description of how to operate the extinguisher.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 39
___________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER 5 FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR RENOVATIONS,
ALTERATIONS, AND ADDITIONS TO CAG OWNED /
MANAGED PROPERTIES
1
Objective
1.1
These requirements are intended to ensure that fire safety and the general safety
of occupants are not compromised by any renovation, alteration or addition to
the existing configuration inside and outside buildings. Besides these
requirements, reference shall also be made to the latest copy of the CAG
Renovation Requirements and Schedule 3 of CAG Tenancy Agreement (where
applicable).
1.2
Compliance with the requirements listed hereunder shall be incorporated into
the tenancy agreement and rest with the division responsible for co-ordinating
the renovation, alteration or addition works, viz; Airport Operations, Air Cargo
Operations, E&MP, Commercial or People Team , and shall be based on Fire
Safety Act, Codes of Practice or as advised by the AES Division.
2
General Requirements
2.1
In all renovations, alterations and additions to buildings, AES approval in
regard to fire safety measures, access for fire vehicles, escape routes and other
fire precautions, has to be obtained.
2.2
This approval is in addition to other requirements or approval by other CAG
Divisions or other relevant authorities e.g. FSSD, BCA, URA etc.
2.3
Copies of the relevant floor plans indicating the extent of renovations,
alterations, and/or additions; together with fire safety measures, e.g. fire exits
and signs, etc, shall be extended to AES for comments and approval. The coordinating division shall ensure that AES comments and/or requirements are
complied with and to notify SUPT, Fire Prevention on the completion of such
works.
2.4
E&MP shall be responsible for maintaining fire protection installations. E&MP
shall ensure that both existing and new installations are in their proper working
order after renovation, alteration, and/or addition works. E&MP shall also
ascertain that the work does not compromise fire separation of affected areas.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 40
___________________________________________________________________________
2.5
Permission or clearance from relevant authorities shall be sought and extended
to AES. Where the approval of FSSD is not required, a copy of the waiver shall
be attached to the floor plans extended to AES for their comments and approval.
2.6
Hoarding material used shall be of non-combustible material [i.e. Gypsum
Board]. A copy of the hoarding material and its proof of its non-combustibility
shall be extended to AES prior to work commencement.
3
Fire Alarm Isolation & Hot Works
3.1
All isolation of fire alarm system / draining of sprinkler system require
“Isolation of Fire Alarm System/Draining of Sprinkler System” permit. The
“Isolation of Fire Alarm System/Draining of Sprinkler System” permit shall be
applied in www.cagswift.com. This shall be done at least 3 working days before
the work is expected to commence. When the work needs to be carried out
urgently, CAG AES Division HQ [Tel No.: 6541 2535 (Changi)/6481 3377
(Seletar) during office hours] or Fire Station 1 [Tel: 6541 2526 (Changi)/6481
3377 (Seletar) during non-office hours] shall be notified and approval sought.
3.2
Hot works shall not be allowed without the appropriate permit and applications
can be applied in www.cagswift.com
3.3
The fire alarm isolation and hot work permits lists the various fire safety
requirements involving isolation of fire alarm system / draining of sprinkler
system and doing hot works in CAG managed buildings. (See Appendix A-5 –
Sample of AES Fire Alarm Isolation and Hot Work Permits)
Non compliance to these requirements resulting in false fire alarm activations
and/or turnout of AES resources may result in a service charge and/or ‘stop
work order’ being imposed on owners, tenants or any contractors or subcontractors engaged by them as listed in this Fire Safety Manual. (See
Appendix A - 4 – Sample of AES Service Charge Form)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 41
___________________________________________________________________________
4
Commencement of works
4.1
No work shall commence without the written permit from CAG Divisions or
other relevant authorities.
4.2
Renovation, alteration, and/or addition works may commence when every
proposed plan has been approved by AES together with the written permit from
relevant authorities.
4.3
Fire extinguisher requirements in A&A hoarding work space
(c)
Within the hoarded area(s), 50kg fire extinguisher(s) in trolley shall be
provided near the hoarding exit access door.
(d)
Each fire extinguisher shall not cover more than 20m.
4.4
All works carried out shall comply with all statutory requirements imposed by
the relevant authorities. The tenant shall indicate when the renovations would
be completed and business resumed. About one or two days before this date,
the co-ordinating division with AES and other divisions involved will carry out
a site inspection.
4.5
Upon AES’s advice, if there are serious shortcomings, the co-ordinating
division shall inform the tenant that he will not be allowed to resume operations
until rectification is completed. Contingency arrangements by the co-ordinating
division shall be made for critical business such as restaurants.
4.6
However, if the shortcomings are minor, the co-ordinating division shall inform
the tenant that he will be given 30 days to rectify these, failing which CAG
would do so at the tenant’s cost with an administrative charge (as set by CAG
Finance Division).
4.7
Commercial Division (CAG) or coordinating division shall ensure that the
tenant can only start operation after FSC is obtained from FSSD and meeting
any additional Fire Safety Requirements from AES.
4.8
Tenants shall permit the Landlord (or any other authorised by the Landlord) to
perform unannounced fire safety surveillance of the premises at any time based
on Appendix A-VI – Summary of Fire Safety Requirements for CAG Managed
Buildings, following which the Tenants and affected CAG division will receive
a fire safety surveillance report if any non-compliances are found.
4.9
Tenants shall rectify any non-compliance of fire safety requirements,
procedures or measures listed in the fire safety surveillance report within thirty
(30) days from the date of the receipt of the said report according to the
recommendation(s) mentioned by the Landlord. If any outstanding deficiencies
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 42
___________________________________________________________________________
are not rectified to the satisfaction of the Landlord as observed during the reinspection after the stipulated period, the Landlord shall give the Tenant a
further fourteen (14) days from the date of re-inspection to rectify the same
before a further re-inspection is held.
4.10
If the deficiency remains, the Tenant’s business may be suspended without
compensation and the Tenant would be given another fourteen (14) days before
action is taken to terminate its Tenancy. In addition, the Tenant shall pay a Fire
Service Charge, as well as a fifteen percent (15%) administrative charge for
each inspection, after the initial re-inspection, at the prevailing rate. Where the
Landlord finds that the deficiencies are minor, and the Tenant fails to rectify
these after fourteen (14) days notice so to do, the Landlord shall take all steps
necessary to rectify the same immediately thereafter and the Tenant shall bear
all costs, expenses, as well as a fifteen percent (15%) administrative charge, or
such charges as the Landlord shall impose from time to time, incurred by the
Landlord.
4.11
No flammable substance (needed for renovation, alteration, and/or addition
works) shall be stored in the Airport. If required, the prior clearance of AES
Division shall be obtained. It shall be brought to site and removed from the
airport on the very same day.
5
After Completion of Works
5.1
The Division responsible for co-ordinating renovation, alteration and/or
addition works shall, upon completion of such works, notify AES FPS.
5.2
SUPT, Fire Prevention or his representative shall follow-up to inspect the
premises to confirm that all fire safety requirements set out prior to
commencement of works were fully complied with.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 43
___________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER 6 FIRE EMERGENCY PLANS FOR CAG OWNED / MANAGED
BUILDINGS INCLUDING THOSE AT CAC
1
Procedures for Alerting AES
1.1
The fire alarm systems of all buildings at Changi and Seletar Airports are
linked to the Airport Fire Stations. Any person discovering an outbreak of
fire, however small it may seem, shall alert AES and the nearby occupants
immediately by activating the nearest fire alarm (break-glass) call point.
1.2
In case a call point is not available, he shall then inform AES at telephone no.
65412525 (or 64813377) in the case of Seletar Airport) of the following:
•
•
•
•
Location of fire,
Nature of fire, if known,
Injury to personnel, if known,
Informant's particulars and contact number.
1.3
In case of fire outbreaks within ramp or remote aircraft parking areas where no
fire alarm system is installed, AES shall be informed immediately by
telephone.
2
OBJECTIVE
2.1
The objectives of this plan are:
a)
To ensure the safeguard of human lives in the event of fire outbreak;
b)
To establish a systematic and orderly evacuation plan for all occupants
and members of the public present in the building to escape to the
designated Assembly Areas for the purpose of reporting and accounting;
c)
To ensure prompt raising of the fire alarm and marshalling of first aid
fire-fighting efforts;
d)
To establish roles and responsibilities for each organization / agency
involved in handling the fire emergencies;
e)
To ensure that the airport operations and business can be resumed as
quickly as possible; and
f)
To control and prevent any further spread of fire, minimizing total
property damage.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 44
___________________________________________________________________________
3
FIRE SAFETY COMMITTEE
3.1
A Control Group shall be formed and convened at the respective building’s Fire
Command Centre to execute the plan and to coordinate the evacuation in the
event of a major fire. It shall comprise the following members:(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
CAES;
Commander, Civil;
AES Head Inspectorate;
AES Supt, FP;
AES Operations Commander (initially head the Control Group);
Representative from Fire Prevention;
Duty Terminal Manager;
Representative from Airport Police Division;
Representative from Central Public Announcement Team;
Representative from Engineering & Development Group; and
M&E Maintenance Contractor
4
Fire Alarm
1.1
The evacuation concept is the “2 stage alarm” and total evacuation”. The
sounding of the fire alarm (lasting not less than 1 minute) should be treated as
an alert signal and occupants should standby for evacuation. Upon confirmation
of a fire situation, the second continuous alarm is sounded and immediate
evacuation should be effected.
1.2
The fire alarm signal can be raised by one of the following means:
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.3
Break glass alarm system, which require a person to break the glass
of the nearest fire alarm call point;
Automatic heat or smoke detection system;
Automatic sprinkler system.
1st Fire Alarm
1.3.1
This is the alert signal. When the fire alarm is activated, the alarm
bells on all floors within the affected fire alarm zone shall ring for
not less than one minute before it is isolated. Simultaneously, an
audio and visual signal will be registered at the fire alarm panel:
1.3.2
The floor sub-panel will indicate the floor zone at which the alarm
has been activated.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 45
___________________________________________________________________________
1.3.3
The main alarm panel located at the Fire Command Centre or its
affected panel will indicate the floor on which the alarm has been
activated.
4.4
1.3.4
The fire alarm panels located at AES Watchroom (WRO) and Fault
Management Centre (FMC) shall indicate which Fire alarm panel
has been activated.
1.3.5
AES or DTM shall inform Central Announcement Room (CAR,
6541 2305) to broadcast a general alert announcement over the
public address (PA) system (Refer to Appendix I – Text 1)
1.3.6
M&E Maintenance Contractor shall silence the fire alarm bell after it
has rang for not less than one minute.
1.3.7
AES shall link up with the M&E Maintenance Contractor at the
affected fire alarm panel (to attach work flow for fire alarm
activation).
1.3.8
If it is confirmed to be false fire alarm activation, AES or DTM shall
inform CAR (6541 2305) to broadcast a general alert announcement
over the PA system (Refer to Appendix I – Text 2)
2nd FIRE ALARM
4.4.1
This is the signal to commence total evacuation. The alarm bells on
all floors (of the affected zone) shall ring continuously. Upon confirmation of a
fire situation, the evacuation announcement (Refer to Appendix I Text 4) shall
be made via the FCC PA System in phases beginning with:(a)
(b)
(c)
4.4.2
The affected fire floor within its zone and adjacent zones;
Two floors above the fire floor within its zone and adjacent zones;
Two floors below the fire floor within its zone and adjacent zones.
The evacuation will be carried out by the AES Ops Commander.
4.4.3
The rest of the floors shall be evacuated subsequently (if deemed
necessary decided by the AES Ops Commander). Notwithstanding the above, a
total evacuation of the building may be declared in an extreme situation.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 46
___________________________________________________________________________
5
ACTION TO BE TAKEN IN EVENT OF AN OUTBREAK OF FIRE
5.1
Informant
The person who discovers the fire shall immediately:
5.2
(a)
Raise the alarm by activating the nearest fire alarm “Break Glass” call
point or call Airport Emergency Service at 6541-2525
(b)
Attempt to extinguish any incipient fire with the available fire
extinguisher or fire hose reel without taking personal risk. Water shall
not be used on fire involving energised electrical equipment. Electrical
equipment shall be de-energised by turning off the main power supply.
All Tenants/Staffs
(a)
Upon hearing the instruction to evacuate, all staff shall lock important
files and cash, shut down machinery etc, and evacuate immediately
guided by their respective fire wardens and/or assistant fire wardens.
(b)
Appointed fire wardens and assistant fire wardens shall guide staff to the
nearest exit immediately and evacuate together to the nearest Assembly
Area.
(c)
When evacuating do not panic but quickly walk down the staircase by
the nearest exit and proceed to the designated assembly area.
(d)
Do not use lifts. The assembly areas are located at both the landside and
airside outside of the terminal building. See Appendix II.
(e)
Airport staff (officers from Immigration and Checkpoints Authority
(ICA), Security Screening Unit (SSU), Auxiliary Police, Ground
Handling Agents, Airlines and concessionaire/shop, who are attending
to the passenger and member of public at the time shall guide them to
the nearest Assembly Areas as indicated at Appendix II
(f)
The fire escape tunnels at Terminal 2 should also be used for quick and
direct evacuation of occupants to the assembly areas outside the terminal
building.
(g)
All staff shall not re-enter the building once evacuated unless instructed
otherwise by the AES or SCDF officer(s) in attendance.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 47
___________________________________________________________________________
5.3
Fire Safety Manager or his representative (AES Ops Commander / Fire
Prevention)
5.3.2
5.3.1
In the event of an actual fire:
(a)
Ensure that AES crew is en route to location.
(b)
Proceed to affected fire alarm panel to determine the exact location of
the alarm activation or directly to the affected area via the most
expeditious route. They are required to continue to monitor the AES
Frequency.
(c)
Ensure that the first fire alarm bell has been isolated after ringing for not
less than one minute.
(d)
Ensure that the first alert announcement (Refer to Appendix I – Text 1)
has been made by CAR (6541 2304) to all floors (of the affected zone).
(e)
Standby to receive status report from AES crew on the “fire” floor and
assess the need to declare total evacuation of the area or the building.
If AES crew reports that:
(a)
The situation is under control: Instruct CAR (6541 2304) personnel to
broadcast announcement Text 3 (Refer to Appendix I).
(b)
It is a false alarm: Instruct CAR (6541 2304) personnel to broadcast
announcement Text 2 (Refer to Appendix I).
(c)
When evacuation is necessary:
•
Ops Commander to direct CAR or CSO located at FCC2 to
broadcast Text 2 (Refer to Appendix I) to the fire floor within the
affected zone and its adjacent zone or “ALL CALL” button for full
evacuation.
•
Ensure that the building evacuation status is monitored at the FCC
using Floor Register (Refer to Appendix D – Floor Registers).
•
Report the condition of the fire and number of persons missing, if
any, to the AES of SCDF officers upon his arrival at the FCC.
•
Ensure the smoke curtain system across the main atrium is activated
to form a fire resistant barrier across the atrium opening, to prevent
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 48
___________________________________________________________________________
rising smoke from entering the floor.
5.4
•
Ensure that the fire door release system is activated to shut the fire
doors to form compartments, so as to curb rapid spread of fire.
•
Ensure that the lifts home within the building except for the fire lifts.
All lifts will be homed to level 1.
Fire Warden / Assistant Fire Warden
On hearing the instructions to evacuate, the appointed fire wardens shall:(a)
Alert everyone to evacuate in an orderly manner using the nearest exit
when the instruction to evacuate is given.
(b)
Check all offices, stores, toilets etc. to ensure that no one is left behind.
Closed all doors after ensuring everyone have left the office.
(c)
Ensure that the disabled, children, pregnant women etc. if present are
given particular attention during evacuation.
(d)
Leave the building after ascertaining that all the occupants of the floor
have complied with his/her order.
(e)
At the assembly areas, appointed fire warden shall conduct roll call of
their staff who have evacuated the terminal building. Fire Wardens shall
report all missing persons to the security officer in-charge at the
assembly area who will in turn relay the information to Fire Command
Centre 2 at 6541 2030.
(f)
Inform AES or the security officer at the assembly areas immediately of
any missing person.
(g)
All evacuees shall be allowed to re-enter the building only when the
“All Clear” signal is given by the AES Ops Commander/ SCDF officer.
(h)
All transit evacuees and passengers shall only be allowed to enter the
restricted areas subject to Airport Police clearance. All passengers and
staff shall be subjected to undergo security screening at the Arrival /
Departure staff entrances prior to entering the restricted area. This will
be managed by Airport Police Division and Immigration Checkpoint
Authority
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 49
___________________________________________________________________________
5.5
Airport Police Division
In the event of fire outbreak, the roles of the Airport Police shall be as follows:
5.6
5.7
(a)
Security officers are to be deployed at the assembly areas and also to
facilitate evacuees to the designated Assembly Areas.
(b)
Dispatch Police or Auxiliary Police resources to the scene.
(c)
Assume initial control of situation until the arrival of AES Ops
Commander.
(d)
Establish liaison with the AES Ops Commander.
(e)
Ensure that all main entrances and exits to/from the building are
adequately manned to prohibit unauthorized entry and also to intensify
patrolling in the vicinity of the building.
(f)
Direct SCDF OIC to the affected Fire Command Centre or the affect
area on his arrival.
(g)
Control traffic movements to facilitate movement of evacuees at the
assembly areas.
M&E Maintenance Contractor
(a)
Receive call from FMC.
(b)
Response to the affect panel
(c)
Direct AES to the affect area
(d)
If the activation is confirmed to be a false alarm, M&E maintenance
contractors shall isolate the system upon clearance from AES and reset
the system.
Airport Emergency Service (AES)
(a)
AES Operations Commander shall exercise command and control of
evacuation and fire-fighting operations and take charge at the Fire
Command Centre or the affect area. He shall hand over command and
control to the SCDF OIC upon his arrival.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 50
___________________________________________________________________________
(b)
AES Operations Commander shall coordinate and ensure that all
evacuees are directed to the nearest assembly area. All evacuees shall
be requested to remain in the assembly areas until further instruction
provided by AES / APD /SCDF.
5.8
Central Announcement Personnel
In an event a confirmed fire outbreak, CAR personnel will assist Ops
Commander / AES / FSM / DTM, to select location of the affected zone at the
FCC.
6
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
6.1
AES Supt, FP
(a)
Represent the Management of Terminal 2 in respect of all fire safety
matters.
(b)
Has the full responsibility for:
•
Establishment of a Fire Safety Committee
•
Training of the employees
•
Preparation, drafting and putting into force of the ERP.
(c)
Ensures that the ERP is current and abided by all staff of the building
and other organisations/agencies involved.
(d)
Ensures that all exit, escape route and fire detection/protection systems
in the premises are in good order through regular inspections and
maintenance.
(e)
Conduct yearly briefing for all fire wardens.
(f)
Ensure that the floor registers are updated once a year.
(g)
Ensures that exit doors are kept closed and unlocked during
business hours and that hallways, corridors, lobbies and
staircases are kept free from obstruction at all times.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 51
___________________________________________________________________________
6.2
Fire Warden / Assistant Fire Warden
6.3
6.4
(a)
Be familiar with their role as a fire warden.
(b)
Acquaint new employees with the ERP including his/her specific role
(if any) during an emergency.
(c)
Be familiar with the ERP, means of escape, escape routes, fire exits
and pre-designated assembly areas of the building.
(d)
Be familiar with the operation of the fire alarm system and the use of
first aid fire-fighting equipment. (E.g. fire extinguishers, hose reel, etc.)
Airport Police Division
(a)
Be familiar with the ERP, means of escape, escape routes, fire exits
and pre-designated assembly areas of the building.
(b)
Ensure that Police personnel are well versed with their roles as
described in the ERP.
(c)
To dispatch auxiliary police for crowd control at the pre-designated
assembly areas.
(d)
To dispatch resources to manage road traffic.
Central Announcement Room (CAR) Personnel
Be familiar with the messages to be announced under the various phases of
evacuation.
6.5
M&E Maintenance Contractor (Keppel FMO)
(a)
Be familiar with the ERP, location and operation of the Fire Alarm
System.
(b)
Response to fire alarm activation together with the AES responder.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 52
___________________________________________________________________________
7
FIRE EVACUATION DRILLS
7.1
Fire evacuation drills shall be conducted at least twice a year.
7.2
All occupants in the building/selected fire zone shall participate in the drill.
8
8.1
9
GENERAL
It is in the interest of everyone:
(a)
How to report a fire – sound the alarm without delay and call the
Airport Emergency Service at 6541-2525.
(b)
What to do in the event of fire – avoid panic and confusion.
(c)
The locations of nearby fire extinguishers and hosereels – learn the
proper way to use them.
(d)
Means of escape in case of fire and to keep staircases, landings and
other escape routes clear of obstruction at all times.
ANNEXES
Annex 1: Emergency Contact Numbers
Annex 2: Site Plan of Assembly Areas (Contact FPS for details)
Annex 3: Typical Floor Plans (Contact FPS for details)
Annex 4: Evacuation drill record sheet
Annex 5: Standard Announcements
Annex 6: Floor Register
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 53
___________________________________________________________________________
Annex 1
Emergency Contact Numbers
Airport Fire Station (for fire calls)
: 6541-2525
Airport Police
: 6546-0000
Ambulance Services (for médical emergency)
: 6543-2223
Airside Management Centre (For airside accident & incident reporting): 6541 2273/75
Airside Control Centre (For fuel spillage reporting)
: 6541 2151/48
Fault Management Centre (For defects & hazard reporting)
: 6541-2424
Airport Operations Centre (AOC)
: 6603 4908
Terminal Management Centre
: 6307 8686
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 54
___________________________________________________________________________
Annex 2: Site Plan of Assembly Areas (Contact FPS for details)
Annex 3: Typical Floor Plans (Contact FPS for details)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 55
___________________________________________________________________________
Annex 4
EVACUATION DRILL RECORD SHEET
I, the undersigned, designated as coordinator of the fire drill held by ____________
hereby certify that all the facts shown on the line or lines herein below opposite my
signature are correct and further that each drill was successfully conducted in full
compliance with the approved ERP.
Date of
Drill
Time
Location
No. of
participants
Evacuation
Time
Name & Signature
of Coordinator
Name & Designation:
Signature & Date: __________________________
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 56
___________________________________________________________________________
Annex 5
STANDARD PA ANNOUNCEMENT TEXTS DURING ACTIVATION OF
FIRE ALARM
Fire Evacuation Standard Announcement
TEXT 1
Announcement 1 - In the event of a fire alarm activation in the building
“Ladies and gentlemen,”
“The fire alarm has been activated.” “We are investigating the situation.”
“Please stand-by for further information.”
(Announce Twice)
TEXT 2
Announcement 2 - In the event of a false fire alarm
“Ladies and gentlemen,”
“The fire alarm activation is found to be a false alarm.” “We regret any inconvenience caused.”
(Announce Twice)
TEXT3
Announcement 3 - In the event where evacuation is not required
“Ladies and gentlemen,”
“The situation is now under control.”
“We regret any inconvenience caused.”
(Announce Twice)
TEXT4
Announcement 4 - In the event where evacuation is required
Announcement to be made by AES Operations Commander or CSO directed by AES Operations
Commander/DTM
“Ladies and gentlemen,” “There is an emergency.”
“Please remain calm and evacuate by the nearest exits.” “Please do not use the lifts.”
(Announce Twice)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 57
___________________________________________________________________________
Testing of Fire Alarm in the Terminal Buildings
Announcements to be made by CSO upon request by M&E Maintenance Contractors
Text 5 -Testing of Fire Alarm
“Ladies and gentlemen, your attention please.”
“We will be testing the fire alarm system.”
(Announce Twice)
Text 6 -Completion of testing of Fire Alarm
“Ladies and gentlemen.”
“The Fire Alarm testing is completed.”
(Announce twice)
Text 7 -Testing of the generator set
“Ladies and gentlemen.”
“We are having a partial power failure. Sorry for the inconvenience.”
(Announce Twice)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 58
Fire Evacuation Drill in the Terminal Buildings
Announcements to be made by CSO
Text 8 - Pre-fire drill announcement (5 mins prior to activation)
“Ladies and gentlemen.”
“There will be a fire drill for airport staff in five minutes time.” “Passengers and members of the public are advised
to be alarmed.”
(Announce Twice)
Text 9 -Fire drill activation announcement
“Ladies and gentlemen.”
“This is a fire drill for airport staff.”
“Passengers and members of the public are advised not to be alarmed.”
(Announce Twice)
Text 10 - Termination of Fire Drill announcement
“Ladies and gentlemen.”
“The fire drill for airport staff is now terminated.”
(Announce Twice)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 59
Annex 6
TO:
Changi Airport Group (Singapore) Pte Ltd
Airport Emergency Service Division
P O Box 168
Singapore Changi Airport
Singapore 918146
Fax No. 65457072
FLOOR REGISTER
Tenant / Company Name_________________________________________________
Floor Level: _______________ Unit/Room No: _____________________________
(Please use a separate form for each level)
Telephone & Fax No. ______________________/____________________________
Name of Fire Warden & Contact No: _____________________________________
Name of Assistant Fire Warden & Contact No: _____________________________
Name of Occupants / Staff
Evacuation Status
(for official use during emergency)
Present
Absent
Remark
Submitted by: _________________________________________________________
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 60
Chapter 7
Fire Safety Surveillance on CAG tenanted premises by AES
1.1
To ensure a high level of fire safety, AES on behalf of the CAG as the
Landlord conducts unannounced fire safety surveillances in many locations in
Changi Airport based on Appendix A-3 – Summary of Fire Safety
Requirements for CAG Managed Buildings, following which the tenants
and affected CAG division will receive a fire safety surveillance report via
email if any non-compliances are found.
1.2
Tenants shall rectify any non-compliance of fire safety requirements,
procedures or measures listed in the fire safety surveillance report issued
within thirty (30) days from the date of the receipt of the said report according
to the recommendation(s) mentioned by the Landlord. If any outstanding
deficiencies are not rectified to the satisfaction of the Landlord as observed
during the re-inspection after the stipulated period, the Landlord shall give the
Tenant a further fourteen (14) days from the date of re-inspection to rectify the
same before a further re-inspection is held.
1.3
If the deficiency remains, the Tenant’s business may be suspended without
compensation and the Tenant would be given another fourteen (14) days
before action is taken to terminate its Tenancy. In addition, the Tenant shall
pay a Fire Service Charge, as well as a fifteen percent (15%) administrative
charge for each inspection, after the initial re-inspection, at the prevailing rate.
Where the Landlord finds that the deficiencies are minor, and the Tenant fails
to rectify these after fourteen (14) days notice so to do, the Landlord shall take
all steps necessary to rectify the same immediately thereafter and the Tenant
shall bear all costs, expenses, as well as a fifteen percent (15%) administrative
charge, or such charges as the Landlord shall impose from time to time,
incurred by the Landlord.
1.4
In addition to the fire safety surveillances, fire safety patrols are conducted by
AES at the terminal buildings and Changi Airfreight Centre. Any fire safety
irregularity or deficiency is recorded on the respective CAG division for
follow-up actions.
1.5
Besides the CAG Fire Safety Committee meeting, fire safety deficiencies in
CAG owned/managed buildings are followed up at the various internal regular
CAG meetings. The co-operation of all concerned is sought to promote a high
standard of fire safety at Singapore Changi Airport and Seletar Airport.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
APPENDIX A-1
1.
-
Page 61
FIRE SAFETY DO’S AND DON’TS
Do not use cardboard boxes, wooden crates or other receptacles that are made of
combustible material as makeshift rubbish bins at your workplace.
Do provide and use proper rubbish bins, preferably those made of non-combustible
material, like metal.
2.
Do not accumulate unwanted items at your workplace.
Do dispose of unwanted items at regular intervals to ensure good housekeeping at
your workplace.
3.
Do not use corridors, walkways or passageways that form parts of the emergency
escape route at your workplace for storage.
Do keep corridors, walkways and passageways free of obstructions.
4.
Do not leave food or edibles accessible to rats.
Do ensure food and other edibles are inaccessible to rats by using proper storage
facilities.
5.
Do not remove ceiling boards or use ceiling void (i.e. space above suspended
ceiling) for storage.
Do ensure all ceiling boards are in place, not missing, or damaged and refrain from
using ceiling voids for storage purpose.
6.
Do not paint over smoke/heat detectors and sprinkler heads or hang objects on them.
Do ensure the detectors and sprinkler heads are not painted over or obstructed with
objects.
7.
Do not stack up items to a height less than 0.5m (or 1 m for warehouse) from
sprinkler heads.
Do ensure that there is clear headroom of 0.5m (or 1 m for warehouse) between
stacked goods and sprinkler heads.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
8.
Page 62
Do not use fragile containers to store flammable liquids or keep flammable
substances in places where large amounts of heat will build up or near an ignition
source.
Do store flammable liquids in proper, unbreakable containers and keep flammable
substances in well-ventilated places and away from any ignition source.
9.
Do not seal up ventilation openings or leave a non-working/inoperable ventilation
fan unrepaired.
Do ensure ventilation openings are not sealed up and have defective ventilation fan
repaired quickly.
10.
Do not use candles or other naked flame for lighting purposes, especially during a
power failure.
Do make available battery operated portable torches as a backup.
11.
Do not smoke in “No-smoking” areas.
Do observe “No-smoking” rule strictly in your premises.
12.
Do not use or operate dirty or greasy equipment/machinery.
Do have the equipment/machinery cleaned and serviced regularly.
13.
Do not leave heavy machinery operating or running unattended.
Do ensure that machines that are in use are tended at all times by qualified operators.
14.
Do not leave electrical appliances or equipment continued to be energized when they
are not in use, especially after office/working hours.
Do switch off at the mains all electrical appliances or equipment that are not in use,
15.
especially after office/working hours.
Do not put any liquid or thing that is flammable or combustible near an electrical
switchboard or an enclosure containing electrical components.
Do ensure that the electrical switchboards and the enclosures of electrical
components are kept clear of flammable or combustible substances and liquids.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
16.
Page 63
Do not dispose of oil-soaked rags in combustible receptacles.
Do dispose of oil-soaked rags in self-closing metal bins.
17.
Do not use electrical equipment that has poor wiring such as frayed cables and loose
connections.
Do ensure the wiring is in good condition and for any defect, get a licensed
electrician to check and rectify it immediately.
18.
Do not overload the electrical circuit by drawing current from one power outlet to
multiple electrical appliances or equipment simultaneously.
Do use one power outlet for one electrical appliance or equipment, wherever
possible.
19.
Do not allow electrical fitting works to be carried out by non-qualified or
unauthorized personnel.
Do engage licensed electricians for all electrical fitting works.
20.
Do not use electrical closets or compartments that house dry riser inlets/outlets,
hosereels, telecom riser ducts etc, for storage.
Do ensure that the closets and compartments are clean and free of obstructions at all
times.
21.
Do not use staircases as rest areas or storage space.
Do keep staircases free of obstructions at all times.
22.
Do not burn joss stick, oil, incense paper and other offerings used in religious
ceremonies in the premises.
Do use joss sticks, lamps and candles that are electrical or battery operated.
23.
Do not cook in the premises using open-flame stove or electrical hot-plate except for
areas that are allowed for cooking such as kitchens and food stalls.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 64
Do use microwave or electrical oven for heating up food only.
24.
Do not wedge open any fire door.
Do ensure fire doors are kept closed but unlocked at all times.
25.
Do not obstruct the access to a fire hosereel or a fire extinguisher.
Do keep the hosereel cabinets and fire extinguishers free from any obstruction.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
APPENDIX A-2
Page 65
CONSOLIDATED FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR
COMPLIANCE BY CAG TENANTS
1
Tenants shall ensure that the fire-fighting installations and/or equipment such
as fire sprinklers, dry riser breeching inlets and outlets, hosereels, and fire
extinguishers in their demised premises are accessible (unobstructed) at all
times. They are provided solely for the purpose of fire fighting and shall not
be misused or vandalized.
2
Tenants shall ensure that the fire-fighting equipment like fire hosereels, fire
extinguishers, kitchen fire suppression system (for food outlets and
restaurants) in their demised premises are checked and serviced at least once a
year by trained persons of approved organizations, authorized by the relevant
authorities. A label certifying that the equipment is checked and serviced shall
be attached to the same.
3
Tenants shall ensure that staircases, passageways and exits, etc. that form parts
of the emergency escape route in their demised premises are unobstructed at
all times. Exit signs are to be lit at all times. Exit doors shall not be locked or
obstructed in any way when the premises are occupied. Where exit doors are
required to be locked for reasons of security, they shall be linked to the fire
alarm system which, upon its activation, will automatically unlock the exit
doors for immediate access.
4
Tenants shall take proper precautions to prevent fire in their demised premises.
Tenants shall adhere to the list of fire safety dos and don’ts in Appendix A-I at
all times.
5
Tenants shall ensure no burning of candles, oil lamps, joss sticks, incense
paper, etc. on the demised premises without prior written approval of the
Landlord.
6
Except for approved eateries or restaurants, Tenants shall ensure no open
flame cooking is allowed on the demised premises at all times. The use of
microwave ovens for warming of food is allowed.
7
Tenants shall ensure no flammable liquids, gases or other hazardous
substances (e.g. toxic, corrosives) are stored in the demised premises unless
with the prior written approval of the Landlord and subject to strict
compliance with all conditions set by the Landlord and with the relevant codes
of practice issued by SPRING Singapore and requirements of the relevant
authorities including but not limited to the Ministry of Environment & Water
Resources and the Fire Safety and Shelter Department (FSSD). Tenants shall
also provide to the Landlord the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the
hazardous materials.
Tenants shall take part in the fire evacuation drills organized by the Landlord.
Every tenant shall appoint at least one fire warden per unit on every
floor/level, whose primary duty is to ensure all their staff are evacuated to
8
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 66
safety during an emergency. Tenants shall also send their appointed fire
wardens to attend the annual fire warden briefing organized by the Landlord.
9
Tenants shall submit to the Landlord by 31 January of each calendar year the
names and contact numbers of their appointed fire wardens, assistant fire
wardens and the floor registers listing the names of their staff occupying the
demised premises. Subsequently, should the tenants make any changes to the
appointed fire wardens, assistant fire wardens or floor registers, the tenants
concerned shall write to update the Landlord with those changes no later than
30 days.
10
All hot works that generate heat or sparks require the prior written approval of
the Landlord. Tenants shall apply for online approval at the CAG website or
alternatively apply manually using the prescribed application form available
on the CAG website. The approval will be subject to such conditions as
deemed fit by the Landlord.
11
Where due to renovation or A&A works, Tenants require the fire detection
and/or protection systems in their demised premises to be temporarily isolated,
written approval shall be sought from the Landlord, through AES FPS.
Tenants shall apply for the approval using the prescribed application form
available on the CAG website. The approval will be subject to such
conditions as deemed fit by the Landlord.
12
Tenants shall ensure that all their staff are aware of the need for them to notify
the Airport Emergency Service (AES) Division immediately at Tel: 6541 2525
upon discovery of a fire outbreak on their demised premises. The fire
emergency number shall be prominently displayed at the strategic locations on
the demised premises. All fires, however small, shall be reported to AES.
13
Tenants shall take all reasonable measures to prevent false fire alarm in their
demised premises. If the Airport Emergency Service (AES) is activated by a
false fire alarm activation that is not due to technical fault of the fire alarm
system but due to the negligence or vandalism by the tenant, the tenant
concerned shall pay the service charge levied by the Landlord as stipulated in
the foreword.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 67
APPENDIX A –3 - Summary of Fire Safety Requirements for CAG Managed
Buildings
1
1.1
1.2
Fire Detection and Protection
Systems
C
A clear space of 0.5m (Warehouse 1m) is maintained between the top
of storage goods and sprinkler
heads.
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance (if
any)
To remove obstruction
immediately.
To remove obstruction
immediately.
Objects are not hung on the
sprinkler heads.
1.3
Detectors/sprinklers are not
covered.
To remove cover
immediately.
1.4
1.5
Detectors are not loose from
mounting or damaged.
Detectors are not painted over.
To be replaced
immediately.
To remove paint works
2
Passive Fire Safety Measures
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance (if
any)
2.1
Access to EXIT doors and escape
routes are not obstructed.
To remove obstruction
immediately.
2.2
EXIT doors are not locked or
latched. (unless fire alarm linked or
having one way locking device)
To unlock door / install
one-way locking device /
link to Fire Alarm
System
2.3
2.4
2.5
3
3.1
3.2
EXIT signs are lighted.
[unless self-luminous exit sign
(affixed with a radioactive symbol)]
Exit doors are kept closed at all
times (unless linked to fire alarm
system)
Fire extinguishers are visible,
unobstructed or clearly indicated
when enclosed in a cabinet.
Fire extinguishers are fully charged,
within servicing period (annually)
and labeled.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Done
To rectify EXIT sign.
To close the exit door
immediately
To remove obstruction
immediately
Fire Shutters are not obstructed
Fire extinguisher / Hosereel
(Serviced Annually)
Done
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance (if
any)
Extinguishers to be
correctly install or place
signages
Done
Extinguishers to be
replaced / serviced.
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
3.4
3.5
3.6
Page 68
Adequate fire extinguishers are
available in the premises.
To inform FPS for further
investigation
Hosereel, dry riser or their cabinets
shall not be obstructed or used as
storage place. Fire Extinguishers
can be stored in the hosereel
cabinet with an extinguisher sign
indicated outside.
Hosereels are within servicing
period (annually)
To remove obstruction
or storage item
immediately
To service
3.7
Hosereel signage is installed on the
cabinets.
To install hosereel
signage.
3.8
Fire extinguisher / Hosereel
cabinets are in good condition.
To rectify cabinet
3.9
DR Landing valve cabinets to have
at least one standby fire hose
To replace hose
4
Housekeeping of premises
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance
(if any)
4.1
No accumulation of rubbish inside
the premises, at the doorway,
passageway and stairwells.
To remove obstruction
immediately
4.2
Goods are not stacked haphazardly
in the storeroom.
To tidy the goods in the
store.
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
6
6.1
Prohibited items in premises
C
Flammable liquids are not stored in
the premises. (Except with official
AES approval as per Fire Safety
Circular 15/2012)
LPG cylinders are not kept in the
premises.
No burning / naked flame (oil lamp,
candle etc.)
Electrical fixture
Electrical fixtures, such as switches
and sockets and wiring are not
defective / damaged or exposing
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance
(if any)
Done
Done
To remove immediately
To remove immediately
To remove or change to
electrical type
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance
(if any)
Defective / damaged
electrical switches or
sockets to be rectified.
Done
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 69
live wiring.
6.2
Access to Distribution Board (DB) is
not obstructed and closet is not
used for storage purposes.
To remove obstruction
or objects immediately
6.3
"DB Closet" signage posted.
To fix signage.
6.4
Electrical cords / wires are to be
secured in conduits / trunking.
Electrical wires to be
covered by trunking.
7
7.1
Mechanical & Electrical Room
C
7.3
7.4
b) Fuelling inlet padlocked.
To be cleaned or
rectified
To be padlocked.
c) "No Smoking" signs are
displayed.
To display “No Smoking"
signs.
d) Ventilation system is functioning.
To rectify the fault.
Generator Room :a) Battery bank terminals are
protected by rubber covers.
To provide rubber
covers for the terminals.
b) No accumulation of oil at fuel
pump.
HT/LT Switch Room :Insulation mat provided.
To be cleaned.
To provide insulation
mat.
Battery Room :a) Ventilation system is functioning.
To rectify the fault.
b) Battery & battery charging
equipment in good condition &
checked as per checklist in Fire
Safety Circular 12/2012
c) Battery end of life date not
exceeded
8
8.1
Done
Diesel Tank Room :a) No presence of oil or leakage
7.2
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance
(if any)
Restaurant / Kitchen
Cleaning of Cooker Hood / Ducts
(Regular Basis)
Cooker hood is clean & free from
grease
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
To be serviced and/or
records produced for
AES sighting.
To replace expired
battery.
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance
(if any)
Done
To be cleaned
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 70
8.2
Cooker hood filters are clean & free
from grease
To be cleaned
8.3
Record of cleaning
To be produced for AES
sighting
8.4
Record of annual deep fryer
servicing is available
To be produced for AES
sighting
9
Restaurant / Kitchen
Fire Suppression System
(Serviced bi-annually)
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance (if
any)
9.1
Discharge nozzles with nozzle
seal/cap
To replace the seal/ cap
9.2
Discharge nozzles are free from
grease
To be cleaned
9.3
9.4
Regulated actuator assembly is
visible and free from obstructions
Service label is attached & visible to
inspector
Done
To remove obstruction
To attach service label
9.5
Fusible links are free from grease
To be cleaned
9.6
Remote manual pull station (MPS)
is not obstructed and tampered seal
is intact
To remove obstruction &
replace seal
Supply lines / pipe fittings are
visually connected
Linkage to Fire Station & FMC to be
9.8 verified by Term Maintenance
Contractor
Submission of annual fire safety
9.9 declaration form as per Fire Safety
Circular 07/2012
9.10 Model / Type of Kitchen's Fire Suppression System :
9.7
To be inspected by
maintenance contractor
To be tested by
maintenance contractor
Record or date to be
produced for AEs
reference
9.11 Name of Service & Maintenance Contractor Company :
9.12 Date of Service :
9.13
10
Telephone No :
Maintenance
Staff Name :
Restaurant / Kitchen
Piped Gas System
(Serviced annually)
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance
(if any)
10.1 Bypass valve is padlocked
To padlock bypass valve
10.2 Gas detectors are free from grease
To be cleaned
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Done
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 71
To be checked by
maintenance contractor
10.3 Gas detectors are not damaged
10.4
Record of inspection by Licensed
Gas Worker (LGW)
To be produced for AES
sighting
To be checked by
maintenance contractor
10.5 Piped Gas System is linked to FMC
11
Restaurant / Kitchen
Non CAG Fire Alarm Panel
(Serviced annually)
C
Corrective Action(s)
NC NA for non-compliance
(if any)
Done
To be checked by
maintenance contractor
11.1 Linkage to Fire Station & FMC
11.2 Name of Service & Maintenance Contractor Company :
11.3 Date of service :
Telephone No :
11.4 Maintenance staff name :
12
Restaurant / Kitchen Fire Warden
12.1 Appointed Fire Warden(s): Y/N
12.2 Name of Fire Warden (s) :
12.3 Date of last fire safety awareness talk attended :
13
Restaurant / Kitchen's Cleaning of Kitchen Exhaust Ducts (by Building
Maintenance Contractors)
13.1 Name of Service & Maintenance Contractor Company :
13.2 Date of service :
Telephone No :
13.3 Maintenance staff name :
14
Fire Safety Education
14.1 Staff familiar with common fire causes/hazards in their premises: Yes / No / NA
Staff familiar with AES fire reporting hotline at 6541 2525 & AES hotline number to be
displayed clearly at all times: Yes / No / NA
Staff familiar with the location and operation of fire extinguishers/manual pull
14.3 stations/hose reels and other common fire detection/protection systems in their
premises: Yes / No / NA
14.2
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 72
Staff familiar with the evacuation announcements/procedures/routes/assembly areas &
14.4 to guide any member of public/passenger to the assembly areas during a fire or
emergency: Yes / No / NA
Staff familiar with the issuance of AES Service Charge due to fire or fire alarm activation
14.5
due to negligence/ignorance of fire safety requirements: Yes / No / NA
Staff to contact AES FPS at 6541 2535 for further fire safety enquiries or briefings: Yes /
14.6
No / NA
14.7 Premises Fire warden familiar with his/her duties: Yes / No / NA
14.8 No. of staff educated
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 73
Appendix A-4 – Sample of AES Service Charge Form
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 74
Appendix A-5 –AES Fire Alarm Isolation and Hot Work Manual Permits
Pending for Hotwork Reviewed Form
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 75
Pending for Hotwork Reviewed Form
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Page 76
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Page 77
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 78
Appendix A-6 – Sample of Isolation and Fire Patroller Checklist
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Page 79
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 80
Appendix A-7 – Sample of Annual Fire Safety Declaration for F&B outlets
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 81
Appendix A-8 – AES Fire Safety Circular
Please refer to
http://www.changiairport.com/corporate/e-services/documents.html#_sp_fireprevention-circulars
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 82
SECTION B : FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF NON CAG OWNED /MANAGED
PROPERTIES
CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL FIRE SAFETY – DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Besides CAG buildings (all Passenger Terminal Buildings, Megaplex 1, CAB
“C”, “D” & “E”), all other buildings located within airport boundary having
direct implication and impact are important to airport operations. Hence, there
is equally a need to maintain high standards of fire safety at these buildings.
1.2
Furthermore, some of the companies of these buildings are engaged in ground
servicing activities, which carry the risk of fire. There is a need to practice a
high standard of fire safety to ensure the safety of passengers and no
disruption to airport operations.
2
General Responsibilities
2.1
The owners of airport buildings which are neither CAG owned nor managed,
shall be responsible in ensuring the following:
(a)
Exercise surveillance over their staff and occupants to ensure that the
fire prevention measures listed in Section A Chapter 2 are complied
with.
(b)
Maintain and test the protection systems installed in the buildings
regularly in accordance with the Codes of Practice.
(c )
Maintain and check the electrical systems in the buildings regularly.
The tests listed in Section A Chapter 1, para 2.1, sub-para V (b) should
be carried out.
(d)
Test the safety devices of the electrical systems and wiring regularly
and also to ensure that they are adequate.
(f)
Provide adequate fire extinguishers and hose reels in the premises in
accordance with FSSD regulations and requirements. These fire
protection equipment shall also be properly maintained in accordance
with the relevant standards.
(g)
All owners and tenants shall comply with the procedures and
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 83
guidelines in this Manual and shall take all reasonable measures to
prevent false fire alarm activations in their demised premises. Non
compliance to these procedures resulting in false fire alarm activations
and turnout of AES resources may result in a service charge being
levied to owners, tenants or any contractors or sub-contractors engaged
by them as listed in the Foreword.
(h)
2.2
All building owners or its Fire Safety Managers are encourage to
provide AES FPS a copy of their ERP (ERP) and conduct annual fire
evacuation exercise to familiarise AES operations with their ERP.
The specific duties and responsibilities of relevant building owners shall be as
follows:
I
Air Traffic Services Division (Division of CAAS)
(a)
Exercise surveillance over the staff and occupants at LORADS
complex and the Control Tower to ensure that they comply with fire
safety precautions and take action as appropriate on those ) who do not
comply and keep AES informed;
(b)
Ensure that the staff and occupants at LORADS complex and the
Control Tower observe the fire prevention measures listed
in Section A of this Manual and its appendices;
(c)
Ensure that the LORADS complex and Control Tower are adequately
protected by fire hose reels (Chapter 3 of Section A), fire extinguishers
(Chapter 4 of Section A) and other fire safety equipment based on the
advice provided by QP;
(d)
Ensure that fire wardens are appointed for LORADS complex and the
Control Tower at all times;
(e)
Establish evacuation plans for LORADS complex and the Control
Tower based on the procedures spelt out in Section B, Chapter 2 and
conduct at least one evacuation drill annually at the complex and tower
in accordance with the requirements prescribed by the FSSD;
(f)
Ensure that all pieces of electronic equipment installed in LORADS
complex, the Control Tower and airfield installations are regularly
checked and properly maintained; and
(g)
Ensure that all electronic safety devices, e.g. switch breakers installed
to protect the electronic equipment in LORADS complex, the Control
Tower and airfield installations are in working condition.
II
Singapore Aviation Academy (Division of CAAS)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 84
(a)
Exercise surveillance over the staff and occupants at the SAA to ensure
that they comply with fire safety precautions. SAA FM to conduct
regular fire safety inspections within SAA premises, especially on the
tenanted premises and issue warning and take appropriate action to
ensure tenants or users comply to fire safety requirements or rectify the
fire safety hazards and keep AES informed;
(b)
Ensure that the staff and occupants at the SAA observe the fire
prevention measures listed in Section A Chapter 2 of this manual and
its appendices (where applicable);
(c)
Ensure that the fire protection system installed at SAA is regularly
maintained and tested.SAA will ensure the term contractor for fire
detection and protection systems is checked regularly and service
reports are submitted and filed in the appropriate files;
(d)
Ensure that all pieces of electronic equipment installed in SAA are
regularly checked and properly maintained.SAA will inform the
relevant party /parties to check their electronic equipment installed in
SAA;
(e)
Ensure that fire wardens are appointed for the SAA as per SAA Fire
Safety Committee recommendations; and
(f)
Establish a fire evacuation plan for the SAA and conduct at least one
evacuation drill annually at SAA as per established FEP.
III
All non-CAG building owners
In addition to the above, each building owner shall:
(a)
Ensure that all electronic equipment and wiring in their premises are
regularly checked and properly maintained;
(b)
Observe good housekeeping by separating combustible materials, e.g.
thermal facsimile paper, diskettes, etc from electrical peripherals;
(c)
Exercise surveillance and take action as appropriate on those occupants
who do not comply and keep AES informed;
(d)
Ensure that its premises are adequately protected by fire extinguishers
and other fire safety equipment based on the advice provided by AES
in accordance with Section A of this manual;
(e)
Ensure that all staff and occupants observe the fire prevention
measures listed in Section A of this manual and its appendices together
with Schedule 3 of CAG Tenancy Agreement (where applicable)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 85
(f)
Appoint fire wardens / assistant fire wardens for its own premises,
(g)
Ensure that its staff are familiar with the fire evacuation plan;
(h)
Encourage its staff to attend relevant fire safety training at the
Singapore Aviation Academy or other relevant institutions; and
(i)
Ensure all renovations, major alterations and additions have been
approved by FSSD.
(j)
It is recommended that a copy of their ERP and CERT setup be
submitted to AES FPS so that AES Changi Operation will be familiar
with its building’s ERP for better collaboration.
3
Fire Prevention Measures
3.1
Owners of all non-CAG managed properties shall observe the Fire Prevention
Measures listed in Section A Chapter 2 and its appendices and Section C of
this manual.
4
Renovations, Alterations and Additions to Buildings
4.1
Owners of all non-CAG managed properties have to inform AES with regard
to fire prevention measures, access for fire vehicles, escape routes and other
fire precautions, and for all renovations, alterations and additions to their
buildings.
4.2
These comments is in addition to other requirements or approval by the other
CAG Divisions or other relevant authorities i.e. FSSD, BCA, URA etc.
4.3
Copies of the relevant floor plans indicating the extent of renovation,
alteration, and/or addition works together with fire safety measures e.g. fire
exits and signs, etc. shall be submitted to AES for comments.
4.4
The coordinating CAG division for the renovations, alterations, and/or
additions, shall ensure that AES comments and/or requirements are complied
with and notify Supt, FP (Dy Cmdr, Seletar in the case of Seletar) upon the
completion of such works.
4.5
Permission or clearance from the relevant authorities shall be sought and
copies extended to AES. Where the approval of FSSD is not required a copy
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 86
of the waiver shall be attached to the floor plans extended to AES for information.
4.6
The owner of the building shall be responsible in maintaining the existing and
the new fire protection installations, should there be any, in proper working
order after the renovations, alterations and/or additions made to the building.
5
Fire Evacuation Plan and Exercises
5.1
It is the responsibility of the owners of major airport buildings not owned by
CAG or lessees of CAG buildings to establish ERPs for all their premises and
conduct fire evacuation exercises in accordance to the state requirement. It is
recommended that a joint fire evacuation drill be conducted with AES at least
once a year to exercise the tie-up between the building’s CERT and AES.
5.2
The evacuation plan at Section B, Chapter 2 may be used as a guide and the
AES may be consulted when the annual evacuation exercises are planned.
6
Other Hazards
6.1
All owners and lessees of airport buildings shall strictly observe the safety
measures listed in the Section A and its appendices together with those in
Section C.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
CHAPTER 2
-
Page 87
FIRE EVACUATION PLANS FOR CONTROL TOWER
AND LORADS COMPLEX (APPLICABLE TO SELETAR
WHERE INDICATED)
1
Introduction
1.1
The control tower and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre (SATCC) at
LORADS Complex (Building 1007 in the case of Seletar) are restricted areas
accessible only to essential personnel and authorised visitors. There are
critical telecommunication equipment housed in many parts of the buildings
and many of the equipment rooms are protected by gas flooding systems
which require the occupants to evacuate in the event the gas is released due to
fire outbreak.
2
Fire Evacuation Procedures for Control Tower
Primary Evacuation Route
2.1
All occupants of the Control Tower shall evacuate to the assembly area at
Carpark A (near Building 999 for Seletar) using the staircase as the primary
evacuation route.
2.2
The last person who leaves the cabin shall activate the FM200 System and
close the automatic door.
Alternative Route
2.3
In the event that the staircase is threatened by fire and is inaccessible, the ATC
officers (for Seletar – the ATC officers will escape by external emergency
ladder to the ground floor) shall proceed as follows:
(a)
Inform AES
(b)
Lower the collapsible ladder and secure the joints with bolts.
(c )
Climb up to the transceiver room in an orderly manner.
(d)
Unlatch the escape door at the location marked by the “EXIT” sign.
The last person to leave shall retrieve the hatch and close the steel door
at the balcony to keep out the smoke.
(e)
Assemble at the balcony on the portion painted yellow outside the
transceiver room.
(f)
Lower all the collapsible antennas on the rooftop.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
(g)
2.4
Page 88
Wait for aerial evacuation by helicopter.
The AES Operations Commander shall decide if aerial evacuation is
necessary. If so, the AES WRO shall alert MINDEF Operations Centre
(MOC) using the phrase “REQUEST HELICOPTER AERIAL
EVACUATION FOR CHANGI CONTROL TOWER – ALERT” (OR
“SCRAMBLE”) and give a brief description of the situation.
Note: “Alert” shall be used if helicopters are required to be on standby only,
and “Scramble” shall be used if helicopters are required for deployment
immediately.
2.5
The helicopter landing point at Fire Station 1 shall be used and all evacuees
shall be sent to the CCS 1.
3
Fire Evacuation Procedures for LORADS Complex
3.1
In the event of a major fire outbreak at SATCC or any of the other buildings
forming the Complex, all occupants from the building on fire and any other
building(s), so required by the AES to be evacuated, shall assemble at the
open area at LORADS carpark.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 89
SECTION C : FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF OTHER SPECIFIC FIRE
HAZARDS
CHAPTER 1 - AIRCRAFT FUEL SERVICING AND MAINTENANCE OF
AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM
1
Scope
1.1
For the purpose of these regulations "Aircraft fuelling" shall be regarded as
including fuelling and defueling, aircraft fuel tank calibration, aircraft fuel
tests and the draining of fuel tanks. Generally, Aircraft fuelling activities shall
comply with the latest editions of NFPA 407 Standard for Fuel Servicing.
Aircraft fuel servicing operators shall permit the Landlord (or any other
authorized by the Landlord) to perform unannounced Aircraft refueling
inspection at the Airside based on Appendix C-1 – Fire Safety
Requirements involving Aircraft Fuel Servicing.
1.2
Operational requirements make it necessary for fuelling crew to perform their
duties efficiently and quickly under all types of weather conditions, at all
hours, and concurrent with transport and military aircraft. These aggravate the
situation and make it imperative to establish basic fire safety procedures.
These regulations are intended to help prevent accidents. It is recognised that
there are certain hazards (especially the operation and use of aircraft servicing
equipment and ground power generators with internal combustion engines in
close proximity to fuelling operations), over which safety cannot be controlled
without interference with operations. Therefore, specific caution is given in
this Chapter with regard to these hazards.
2
Objective
2.1
These requirements are intended to represent a fire-safe practice for Aircraft
fuel servicing operations on the ground.
3
The Different Types of Fuel and Their General Nature of the Hazards
3.1
Presently, the fuels used in aircraft are of three common types:(a)
Aviation gasoline, now abbreviated AVGAS;
(b)
Kerosene grade turbine, now abbreviated AVTUR; and
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
(c)
3.2
Page 90
A wide blend of gasoline and kerosene fractions designated as
AVTAG.
There are several grades of AVGAS used in reciprocating engines. These
may be recognised by their different colours;
Grade identifications
115/145
108/135
100/130
91/98
80/87
Octane Grade
Octane Grade
Octane Grade
Octane Grade
Octane Grade
-
Purple
Brown
Green
Blue
Red
3.3
The flash point of AVGAS is approximately 40 degrees below zero
centigrade. AVGAS is highly flammable.
3.4
The flash point of AVTUR (Jet-A1) has a minimum specification requirement
of 38°C. AVTUR, when spilled on hot surfaces such as an exhaust pipe or
over sun baked ramp, vapourises sufficiently to form a combustible and highly
hazardous vapour.
3.5
Because of its low volatility, AVTUR spill on unheated surfaces present a
prolonged hazard by not evaporating quickly and completely at normal
temperatures. As a result, the danger of fire is prolonged and special
treatment of the spill is important.
4
Spillage Sizes
4.1
Fuel spills may vary in size and therefore in quantity too. But the hazards
inherent in them vary only in small degrees. It is therefore important to
consider sp ills as a potential fire source. Every spill covering an area
above 4m² or in quantity exceeding (5 gallons) 22.5 litres, or if in the
opinion of the fuelling supervisor the spill constitutes a serious hazard, he
shall call for immediate attention of AES so that remedial action can be
rendered at once. As far as possible, in all cases of spillage, the entry of
fuel into the airport drainage system shall be checked.
4.2
All fuel spillage shall be reported to CAG Airside Control Centre at 6541
2151/ 2148 and AES at 65412525 / 2526. Depending on the severity of the
fuel spillage, AES may impose a service charge on airlines, ground handling
agents, contractors or sub-contractors engaged by them for the cleaning up of
the fuel spillage based on the rates listed in the Foreword.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 91
4.3
Small spills need no emergency action and these shall be cleaned up with
the use of oil absorbent or rags, which shall then be discarded immediately
to a safe spot, or placed in a closed metal container. Saw dusts shall not
be used.
4.4
In the case of larger fuel spills (covers an area above 4m²), the immediate
safety procedure is as follows:
(a)
Stop the flow immediately by releasing the deadman control. In
the event that a spill continues from a hydrant system, the system
emergency fuel shutoff shall be activated.
(b)
AES shall be notified immediately if the spillage covers an area
above 4m² or in quantity exceeding (5 gallons) 22.5 litres, or if in
the opinion of the fuelling supervisor the spill constitutes a
serious hazard,
(c)
Prevent the movement of unauthorised persons or vehicles into
the area.
(d)
Inform the Airline representative who should use his discretion
to determine if the operation already in progress can be continued
safely or if it should be stopped until the emergency is over.
(e)
Ensure, as far as possible, that activities in the vicinity including
the movement of aircraft, vehicles or ground equipment, are
restricted so as to reduce the risk of igniting the fuel until the area
is deemed safe by AES and airline rep / aircraft engineer
(f)
Passengers and crew on board aircraft shall be instructed not to
smoke.
(g)
Larger spills shall be blanketed with foam at the discretion of the
AES Officer in attendance. In such cases, the passengers and
crew on board should be directed to leave the aircraft at once and
the aircraft shall be towed away to an uncontaminated area, if
necessary.
(h)
The final treatment for all fuel spillage, whether small or large, is
by washing them up with water and detergent, or if necessary,
with oil dispersant.
(i)
The location of the spill, its direction of flow, the wind, etc. shall
be taken into consideration when choosing the safest evacuation
route.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
(j)
Page 92
The fuel spillage shall be investigated by the airline or its
engineering services to determine the cause and necessary
corrective measures to be taken. Such information shall be
provided to AES at [email protected] or the AES
investigating officer.
5
Disposition of the Aircraft
5.1
If the safety of an aircraft near a LARGE SPILL is seriously jeopardised,
the aircraft should be towed to an uncontaminated area before cleaning up
shall be allowed to commence.
5.2
Aircraft on which fuel has been spilled shall be carefully inspected for any
accumulation of fuel or fuel vapour. Any fuel discovered on the aircraft
must be cleaned up, and the fuel vapour shall be cleared.
5.3
All out-going cargo, mail and baggage on the ramp at the time of the spill
shall be examined carefully before they are placed on board. All traces of
fuel contamination must be removed or allowed to evaporate.
6
Neighbouring Turbine Aircraft
6.1
No fuelling shall be carried out within 46m directly downstream from the tail
pipe of an operating turbo-jet engine, or within 23m directly downstream from
an operating turboprop engine. Should a turbine-powered aircraft move
within these distances, fuelling shall be stopped at once. All refuelling
operations downstream of an operating wide-body aircraft shall be stopped
until such time that the refuelling can be carried out safely.
7
Static Electricity and Stray Current
7.1
Static electricity is a constant threat to safe fuelling. The presence of static
electricity is not readily apparent until a discharge or spark occurs. The
danger is increased during fuelling operations.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
7.2
Page 93
Generation of Static Electricity
7.2.1 Static electricity may be generated during the course of fuelling as
follows:
7.2.2
7.3
(a)
When fuel is pumped through a service hose;
(b)
When fuel is allowed to fall freely through the air from a filler spout
into the dome of a truck, or from a tank or line draining into a
container; and
(c)
Turbulence in the fuel generates static electricity.
In addition, static electricity may be present under the following
circumstances:
(a)
A charge may accumulate in an aircraft during flight or on the
ground.
(b)
Particles of rain or other liquid crystals of dust blowing across the
aircraft can produce a very heavy charge of static electricity.
(c)
The servicing vehicles, like any rubber-tyre vehicle may become
electrified.
(d)
Static electricity can also be built-up by induction from an
electrically charged atmosphere.
Stray Electric Current
7.3.1 Stray current may provide a source of ignition during fuelling
operations.
7.4
Bonding
7.4.1 Hydrocarbon fuels, such as aviation gasoline and Jet A, generate
electrostatic charge when passing through the pumps, filters, and
piping of a fuel transfer system. Splashing, spraying or free-falling
of fuel will further enhance the charge. When charged fuel arrives
at the receiving tank (cargo tank or aircraft-fuel tank) either of the
following two possibilities can occur;
(a)
The charge relaxes harmlessly to ground; or
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
(b)
Page 94
If the charge on the fuel is sufficiently high, a spark discharge may
occur. Whether or not an ignition will follow depend on the energy
(and duration) of the discharge and the composition of the fuel/air
mixture in the vapour space, i.e. whether or not the vapour is within
its flammability range.
7.4.2 The amount of charge on a fuel when it arrives at the receiving tank,
and hence its tendency to cause a spark discharge, will depend on
the nature and amount of impurities in the fuel, its electrical
conductivity, the nature of the filter media, and the relaxation time
of the system; i.e. the residence time of the fuel in the system
between the filter (separator) and the receiving tank. The time
required for this charge to dissipate is dependent upon the
conductivity of the fuel. The duration may be a fraction of a second
or several minutes.
7.4.3 No amount of bonding or grounding will prevent discharge from
occurring inside a fuel tank. Bonding will ensure that the fuelling
equipment and the receiving tank (aircraft or fueller) are at the same
potential and to provide a path for the charges which are separated
in the fuel transfer system, primarily the filter/separator and
therefore to neutralise the charges in the fuel.
7.4.4 For over-wing fuelling and top loading of cargo tanks, bonding will
ensure that the fuel nozzle or the fill pipe is at the same potential as
the receiving tank, so that a spark will not occur when the nozzle or
fill pipe is inserted into the tank opening. For this reason, the
bonding wire must be connected before the tank is opened.
7.5
Use of Chamois Filters
7.5.1 The practice of using a chamois filter should be discouraged, as its
use is extremely hazardous under any condition. Ordinary plastic
funnels or other non-conducting materials can increase static
generation. They must be properly bonded.
7.6
Aircraft Engines and Heaters
7.6.1 Fuel servicing shall not be done on an aircraft until the aircraft's
engine(s) has (have) been stopped (ignition OFF).
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 95
7.6.2 Aircraft combustion heaters shall not be operated during fuelling
operations.
8
Safeguard Against Incidents arising from Automotive Operation
8.1
No vehicle, other than those performing servicing functions, shall be
permitted within 15m of the aircraft during fuelling operations. Hand
brakes should be applied on vehicles before the driver leaves the cabin of
his vehicle.
8.2
All vehicles performing aircraft servicing functions, other than fuel
servicing (i.e. baggage trucks, air conditioning vehicles, etc) shall not be
parked under aircraft wings while fuelling is in progress. The starting of
equipment or any vehicle shall not be done whilst refuelling is in progress.
Drivers shall be thoroughly instructed as to the hazards inherent in
operating or parking of such vehicles in close proximity to fuelling
operations. (Aircraft servicing normally requires mechanised equipment
and it is most often impractical to suspend such operations during fuelling.
Minimum precautions dictate superior apron vehicle maintenance and
educating vehicle operators in recognising potentially hazardous conditions
such as spills).
9
Prevention of Arcing of Electrical Circuits
9.1
Electrical circuits frequently produce arcs when switched on or off, when
connections are made, or when equipment is not operated properly. The
precautions are as follows:
(a)
Aircraft batteries shall not be installed, removed, raised or lowered
during fuelling.
(b)
Aircraft ground-power units should be located as far away from the
fuelling points as practical. These shall not be connected or
disconnected during fuelling. They should not be placed under the
wings of aircraft or just aft of the trailing edge except when the
design of the aircraft permits no other suitable location.
(c)
Electric hand lamps or flashlights used in the immediate proximity
of the fuelling operations shall be of the approved type.
(d)
No electrical tools, drills, buffers, vacuum cleaners or similar tools
likely to produce sparks or arcs shall be used during fuelling
operations.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 96
(e)
Aircraft electric switches, which control units in the wings or tank
areas not needed for the fuelling operations, should not be operated
during fuelling except in an emergency.
(f)
Photographic flash bulbs shall not be used within 15m of the
aircraft. Electronic flash shall not be used within 15m of fuelling
zones.
10
Elimination of Open Flames
10.1
Open flames may be used during maintenance work. The presence of the
following are sometimes overlooked during aircraft fuelling operations:
(a)
Flare-pots and similar open flame lights;
(b)
Welding or cutting torches;
(c)
Blow torches; and
(d)
Exposed flame heaters (liquid, solid or gaseous devices including
portable and wheeled petrol or kerosene heaters).
10.2
No fuelling shall be done while any open flame device is in use within 15m
of the aircraft.
10.3
There shall be no fuelling where the aircraft engine(s) or the aircraft
combustion heater(s) is (are) running. These include wing and tail de-icing
heaters. Engine ignition shall be switched off.
11
Control of Radar Equipment
11.1
The beam from radar equipment can cause ignition of flammable vapourair mixture from inductive electric heating of solid materials or from
electrical arcs or sparks from charge resonant conditions. The ability of an
arc to ignite flammable vapour-air mixture depends on the total energy of
the arc and the time lapse involved in the arc's duration, which is related to
the dissipation characteristics of the energy involved. The intensity or peak
power output of the radar unit is thus the key factor in establishing safe
distances between the radar antenna and fuelling operations, fuel storage or
fuel leading rack areas, fuel tank truck operations, or any operations where
flammable liquid or vapour may be present or created. Radar shall not be
operated within 35m of fuelling.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 97
12
Use of Communication Equipment
12.1
Communication equipment used during aircraft fuel servicing operations
within 3m (10ft) of the fuelling equipment or the fill or vent points of
aircraft fuel systems shall be intrinsically safe in accordance with UL913,
Standard for Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use
in Class I, II and III Division 1, Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
13
Additional Precautions
13.1
Fuelling location
13.1.1
13.2
Concurrent operations
13.2.1
13.3
All aircraft fuel servicing shall be done outdoor at least 15m from
any building to minimise the danger of ignition of flammable
vapour discharged during fuelling operations by sources of ignition
likely to exist in such buildings. When it is necessary to perform
fuelling operation under shelter, special permission must be
obtained from the AES.
Concurrent operations during fuelling operations is allowed
provided that equipment, other than that performing aircraft
servicing functions, shall not be permitted within 15 m (50 ft) of
aircraft during fuel servicing operations.
Refuelling with passengers on board aircraft or when there is passenger
movement between the aircraft and terminal building
13.3.1
Fuelling may proceed with passengers remaining on board the
aircraft, if not prohibited as stated below, provided the airline
operator ensures:
(a)
Passengers should be warned that refueling will take place and that
they must not smoke, operate electrical switches or otherwise
produce sources of ignition;
(b)
"NO SMOKING" signs and exit lights in the aircraft are switched
on;
(c)
One qualified person trained in emergency evacuation procedures
shall be in the aircraft at or near a door at which there shall be at
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 98
least one passenger loading walkway, integral stairs that lead
downward, or passenger loading stair or stand;
(d)
A clear area for emergency evacuation of the aircraft shall be
maintained at not less than one additional exit;
(e)
For situations or locations not meeting requirements c) & d) above:
All slides shall be armed;
One ARFF vehicle shall be on standby;
Controls shall be established so that passengers avoid hazardous
areas when boarding or deplaning and they are not allowed to
linger;
(f)
If during fuelling, the presence of fuel vapour or potential hazard is
observed, the airline operator is to be informed and fuelling and all
cleaning activities within the aircraft should be stopped until
conditions permit resumption;
(g)
Ground servicing activities and work within the aircraft are
conducted in a manner so as not to obstruct exit from the aircraft,
should there be an emergency.
(h)
Two-way communications shall be maintained by aeroplane
intercommunications system or other suitable means between the
ground crew supervising the refuelling and the qualified personnel
on board the aeroplane.
13.3.2 AES may impose a service charge on airlines, ground handling agents,
contractors or sub-contractors engaged by them for the provision of the
fire vehicle based on the rates listed the Foreword.
14
Positioning of Aircraft Fuel Servicing Vehicles
14.1
Indiscriminate positioning of fuelling trucks, air conditioning plants, etc,
near an aircraft where fuelling is in progress should be discouraged to avoid
impedance to the rapid removal of the aircraft and other servicing vehicles
in case of emergency.
14.2
A free passage shall always be maintained so as to allow the speedy
removal of service vehicles, and also to allow for safety measures to be
rendered quickly.
14.3
The hand-brakes of aircraft fuelling vehicles shall be engaged by the
drivers before they leave their driving position.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 99
14.4
For over-the-wing fuelling, fuel servicing vehicles should be positioned
forward of the trailing edge of the aircraft main plane, so that fuel spillage
will flow behind the vehicles.
14.5
The structure of the aircraft's main-plane trailing edge is such that it is not
meant to support the weight of a heavy hose. Therefore servicing (i.e.
over-the-wing fuelling) shall only be over the leading edge.
15
Manning of Fuelling Equipment
15.1
Adequate manpower shall be constantly available to shut the flow of fuel
quickly from the servicing equipment (i.e. vehicles, hydrants, pits or
cabinets) in case of emergency.
15.2
Fuel nozzles used in over the wing fuelling hose assemblies shall be
designed so that nozzles will close and the flow of fuel will stop when the
hand of the operator is removed. Blocking nozzles in an open position
even if it is only momentarily is prohibited. Only competent and qualified
operators shall be permitted to operate the equipment.
15.3
It is recommended that other aircraft servicing personnel not engaged in
fuelling operations be trained in the operation of emergency fuel shut off
controls in the event of a spill or other hazardous conditions.
15.4
Kinks and short loops in fuelling hoses should be avoided. The kinked fuel
hose shall not be allowed to drag along the ground. The hose should not be
stretched with the complete weight of the hose off the ground as this places
extra strain on the nozzle coupling.
16
Loose Objects
16.1
Persons involved in fuelling operations shall not carry in their breast
pockets loose objects, e.g. tools, cigarettes, matches, cigarette lighters, etc,
because there is the possibility of these items falling into the fuel tank. It is
advisable to have the pockets on shirts and uniform sewn shut or removed
completely.
16.2
Should there be an occasion of any object getting into the aircraft fuel tank,
such object shall be removed before further flight. The supervisor in
charge must be notified immediately.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 100
17
Lightning Storms
17.1
Extreme caution should be taken during fuelling operations when lightning
or electrical storm is imminent. Operations shall be suspended during
severe disturbances and shall be determined by the ground handlers or
refuellers.
18
Provision of Fire Extinguishers for aircraft fuel servicing and
maintenance of aircraft fuel system
18.1
Adequate serviceable fire extinguishers [at least 2 x 9kgs ABC Dry Powder
– with minimum 20-B:C rating (UL/FM) or 144B rating each] are available
at both sides of the refuelling bowser.
18.2
Since the quick and effective use of fire extinguishers is of vital
importance, all fuelling crew shall be trained to use fire extinguishers
correctly and effectively and training records shall be produced upon
request by CAG or any other relevant agencies.
18.3
The ground engineer or the appointed ground handling agent shall ensure
that during any aircraft servicing operation, including aircraft fuel
servicing, there shall be at least one trolley extinguisher located at the
aircraft bay (fixed or remote). The trolley extinguisher shall be positioned
not more than 61 metres away from the refuelling site (reference to NFPA
410: Standards on Aircraft Maintenance 2010 Edition, para 10.2).
18.4
With effect from 1 August 2014, any new replacement trolley extinguisher
shall have a minimum listed rating of 233B or 80-B (UL/FM) located at the
aircraft parking bay (fixed or remote).
19
Defueling Requirements
19.1
Defueling operations present greater fire hazards due to the more difficult
procedures that are involved in the draining operations.
19.2
Therefore the safeguards listed in the para 7 of this chapter regarding
electrostatic bonding and grounding should not be overlooked. Their
application is equally important.
19.3
Variations between different types of aircraft preclude the establishment of
standard procedures but the same principles should apply in all cases.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 101
CHAPTER 2 - Airfield Vehicle Operations
1
General
1.1
Fire mishaps can result in disastrous consequences especially at the apron
area as flammable aviation fuel fumes can be present. Thus, it is
imperative that all Airfield Vehicle are maintained fire hazard free at all
times. AES conducts regular joint vehicle inspection with Airside
Operations to ensure Airside vehicles driving in the apron are compliant to
airside rules and regulations (see Appendix C-2 – Fire Safety
Requirements involving airfield vehicle operations). Reference should
also be made to the latest edition of CAG By-Laws for the latest
requirements on airfield vehicle operations.
1.2
Some common causes of vehicle fires are:
a.
b.
c.
2
Actions when vehicle catches fires:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
3
Electrical short-circuiting;
Poor maintenance of battery and wiring system; and
Long running engine, resulting in engine overheating.
Park vehicle immediately to the side; away from the aircraft and
building (Air-tug driver shall attempt to disconnect vehicle from
aircraft & attempt to move it to a safe distance if safe to do so);
Turn off engine;
Get the passengers and yourself out of the vehicle;
Attempt to put out the fire with the fire extinguisher onboard,
without placing yourself in danger;
Inform AES immediately at 6541 2525; and
Stay away from the vehicle and direct traffic away.
AES recommends Airside Operators to prevent vehicle fires by:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Regular vehicle maintenance, especially for older vehicles.
Particular attention should be given to the electrical systems of the
vehicle, e.g. wiring connection of battery compartment;
Ensuring that a fire extinguisher is constantly available in the
vehicle;
Turning off the engine before leaving the vehicle;
Ensuring a strict no smoking policy;
Always checking your vehicle for leakage of fluid before starting
the engine; and
Ensuring that the coolant container is filled up.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 102
6
Fire Extinguisher
6.1
All Airside Vehicle, except for refueling vehicle, shall be equipped with
at least one fire extinguisher with a capacity of not less than 1.0 kg and
with a minimum rating of not less than 13A or 5B (UL/FM). The
extinguishers shall be securely mounted on a suitable bracket affixed to
a readily accessible position. Refueling vehicle shall be equipped with
sufficient extinguishers meeting requirements stated in Section C,
Chapter 1, para 18.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 103
CHAPTER 3 - PRECAUTIONS DURING BATTERY CHARGING
1
General
1.1
In view of the various hazards associated with the use of lead acid electric
vehicles and equipment in the passenger terminal buildings, only electric
vehicles and equipment using sealed lead acid batteries (commonly known as
‘maintenance free’, ‘dry’ or ‘dry cell’ batteries) shall be allowed to be used
and charged in the passenger terminal buildings. Existing electric vehicles and
equipment using flooded or non-sealed lead acid batteries (commonly known
as ‘wet’ or ‘wet cell’ batteries) will not be allowed to be used in the passenger
terminal buildings and are to be replaced or converted.
1.2
Although the present system of charging wet batteries is considered safe, the
release of hydrogen during the charging process may give rise to a fire
outbreak. As such, the following precautions shall be observed whilst charging
accumulators.
1.3
Reference shall also be made to the latest editions of NFPA 111 - Standard on
Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems and SS 563
- Code of Practice for The design, installation and maintenance of emergency
lighting and power supply systems in buildings and also AES Fire Safety
Circular 12/2012 dated 23 Aug 2012 for new guidelines for the maintenance
of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units, battery bank and chargers in CAG
buildings. (See Appendix C-3 : AES Fire Safety Circular 12/2012 dated 23
Aug 2012)
2
Precautions
(a)
Charging room should be cool and well-ventilated (outdoors where
practicable), away from manufacturing and service areas.
(b)
Batteries should stand on non-porous, non-combustible, nonconducting surface (e.g. slate, glazed tiles, etc) which must be kept dry.
(c)
All wood-work must be treated with acid resisting paint.
(d)
Batteries should be spaced at least 25 mm (one inch) apart.
(e)
Batteries shall not be charged at an excessive rate. Booster, if used,
shall be switched off after completion. Do not leave charging
unattended especially overnight.
(f)
All connections must be properly and firmly made.
(g)
Terminals must be clean, highly greased and capped with insulating
material.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 104
(h)
Charging circuit shall be correctly fused.
(i)
Plant/equipment shall be switched off before making or breaking
battery connections.
(j)
Bulk storage of electrolytes shall be in separate compartments.
(k)
Smoking and naked lights shall not be allowed within battery charging
rooms.
(l)
Charging of lead acid and alkaline shall be carried out independently.
(m)
Finger-rings, wrist watches, waist chains, etc. should not be worn
while working near battery terminals because a short circuit may cause
an arc or result in severe burns.
Wrenches and other hand tools must be used carefully to avoid
shorting.
(n)
(o)
Brushes used to clean batteries shall have neither a metal frame nor
wire bristles.
3
Location
3.1
Advice and approval shall be obtained from CAG in regard to the location of
battery charging rooms.
3.2
Fire safety measures shall be recommended by SUPT, FP. Tenants shall
comply with these strictly.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
CHAPTER 4
Page 105
Import, Transport, Storage and Dispense/Decant of Petroleum &
Flammable Materials
1
Import, Transport, Storage and Dispense/Decant of Petroleum &
Flammable Materials
1.1
Flammable liquids pose a serious fire hazard if they are improperly stored or
handled. They can be easily ignited, with a spark for example, and can cause
fire to spread quickly especially if the liquid is spilled or exposed to heat. Any
storage of flammable/combustible liquids shall have the prior approval of AES
Division. For fire safety requirements related to the storage of flammable
liquids, reference can be made to the following documents:
i.
ii.
1.2
SCDF issues a licence for the import, transport and storage of petroleum
Singapore according to their class and quantity below:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
1.3
Fire Safety Act - Fire Safety (Petroleum and Flammable Materials)
Regulations
SS 532 : 2007 - Code of practice for the storage of flammable
liquids
Class 0
Class I
CNG)
Class II
Class III
- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (e.g. LPG)
- flash point less than 23 degree C (e.g. petrol, AVGAS,
- flash point between 23- 61 degree C (e.g. Jet A fuel)
- flash point between 61-93 degree C (e.g. diesel)
All storage of petroleum and flammable materials, regardless of quantity
stored, have to comply with SS 532 and indicated in building plans submitted
to SCDF and AES for approval. Storage licence is not required if the quantity
stored is below the licence exemption quantity in the tables below but
conditions of ‘Minor Storage’ as per SS 532 shall be met.
i.
Class 0 Petroleum
Purpose
For private use in a private
dwelling house
For use in an eating place
For use in a restaurant
For use in a factory
ii.
Exemption Quantity
Not more than 30 kg in not more
than 2 cylinders
Not more than 30 kg per stall in the
eating place, subject to a maximum
quantity of not more than 200 kg to
be stored at that eating place
Not more than 200 kg
Not more than 300 kg per factory
Class I, II, III Petroleum
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 106
Purpose
Exemption Quantity
Class I
Class II
Class III
For private use in a private
Not more Not more
Not more
dwelling house or for use in any than 20 L than 200 L
than 200L
business other than in a factory
For use in a factory
Not more Not more
Not more
than 400 L than 1000 L than 1500 L
1.4
Reference can be made to Appendix C-4 : AES Fire Safety Circular
15/2012 dated 4 October 2012 for conditions on the minor storage and
decanting of diesel in CAG buildings. Tenants are still required to consult and
obtain approval from CAG AES FPS before proceeding to store and dispense /
decant diesel in their units to avoid contravening SCDF regulations and CAG
tenancy agreements.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 107
CHAPTER 5 - WELDING AND HOT WORKS
1
Scope
1.1
The procedures in this Appendix are for the protection of persons from injury
and illness and the protection of property from damage by fire or from
improper handling of equipment.
1.2
The requirements listed in this Part shall be in addition to the SS510:2005
Code of practice for safety in welding and cutting
(and other operations involving the use of heat) and the Hot Work Permit
Form sample in Appendix A-5 – AES Fire Alarm Isolation and Hot
Work Permits.
2
Welding and Cutting Operations
2.1
When portable cutting or welding equipment is used, the main danger is that
combustible materials may be ignited by sparks, hot metal, heat conduction,
the flame, or the electric arc itself. Other fire risks associated with the
different types of equipment are flashback fires from gas equipment and the
accidental arcs from stray current in electric arc-welding equipment.
2.2
No hot work which generate sparks such as welding, cutting and grinding shall
be permitted within 3m from the safety net
2.3
No hot work within 75 meters from any aircraft unless the aircraft parking
bay(s) is/are closed (Permit to be obtained from Apron Control Management
Service (ACMS) at 65412274/ 2144
2.4
The hazards associated with welding and cutting processes are:
(a)
High temperatures such as for oxy-acetylene 3,101.7ºC (5,615ºF), oxypropane 2,776.7ºC (5,030ºF) and flames that may easily cause ignition
of nearby combustible materials.
(b)
Flexible rubber hoses carrying flammable gas to the blow-torch are
prone to damage by sharp edges or hot surfaces.
(c)
Assembled equipment has many joints, which can leak hazardous
substances if not properly designed or installed, and hoses improperly
secured to connectors may whip off under pressure and cause injury.
(d)
A great deal of pressure energy is stored in cylinders and this stored
energy can be devastating when released in an uncontrolled manner.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 108
(e)
Leakages, even if they are minor, can give rise to fire, explosion and
other hazards especially in unventilated spaces.
(f)
Oxygen enrichment may cause most materials normally accepted as
non-combustible to ignite and burn rapidly with just one spark, e.g.
asphalt with ignition temperature of 485ºC (905ºF).
(g)
Oxygen deficiency can cause immediate unconsciousness resulting in
death.
(h)
Incorrect operations can make the flame flash back into the hose
causing it to rupture, start a fire, explode or burn internally. Flashback
arrestors shall be fitted at both ends of the hoses to prevent this.
(i)
During welding and flame cutting operations, toxic hazards can arise
from fumes and gases especially metal fumes, deriving from zinc,
cadmium, copper, iron and lead, are dangerous.
(j)
Poor ventilation may cause build-up of toxic gases, fumes and
explosive mixtures of flammable gases.
(k)
Unsecured gas cylinders may be knocked over and there is risk of
damage to the regulator causing a release of flammable gas.
(l)
Operators are exposed to stray sparks and heat.
3
Responsibilities
3.1
The following guidance is for cutters, welders, their supervisors and those
managing the property where welding or cutting work is being done. These
guidelines should be complied with as far as possible. Non compliance to
these guidelines resulting in false fire alarm activations and turnout of AES
resources may result in a service charge being levied to owners, tenants or any
contractors or sub-contractors engaged by them as listed in the Foreword. In
addition, a ‘stop work order’ may also be issued by AES FSSU on any hot
works being carried out by owners, tenants or any contractors or subcontractors engaged by them as a result of any violations to these guidelines.
3.2
The “Owner” Division, as Management, shall be responsible for planning and
control as follows:
(a)
Recognise its responsibility for safe usage of cutting and welding
equipment on its property.
(b)
Designate / establish approved area for cutting and welding works.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
3.3
Page 109
(c)
Designate an individual to be responsible for authorising cutting and
welding operations. The individual must be aware of the hazards
involved and be familiar with the standard required for cutting and
welding processes.
(d)
Ensure that only approved apparatus; such as torches, manifolds,
regulators or pressure reducing valves are used.
(e)
Ensure cutters, welders and supervisors are suitably trained in the safe
operation of equipment and processes.
(f)
Select contractors who have suitably trained personnel to perform the
hot works and who have an awareness of the magnitude of the risks
involved.
(g)
Advise workers about flammable materials and hazardous conditions
in the vicinity.
(h)
Authorise /permit, such hot works to be carried out after having
obtained AES Division’s approval in the form of the Hot Work
Approval and keep the AES Division informed. The hot work permit
shall be valid for a certain period and be certified that:
(i)
Area is safe before work commences;
(ii)
Precautions are taken as hot work is in progress; and
(iii)
Check for smoldering materials is done half-an-hour after
completion.
The Supervisor of welding and/or cutting operations shall:
(a)
Be responsible for the safe handling of welding and cutting equipment,
and safety in welding and cutting processes.
(b)
Determine combustible materials and hazards in the work location.
(c)
Protect combustibles from ignition by:
(i)
Having the welding or cutting works moved to a location free
from dangerous combustibles; or
(ii)
Having the combustibles moved to a safe distance from the
work; or
(iii)
Having the combustibles properly shielded against ignition e.g.
protect floor impregnated with paint, grease or oil; and
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
(iv)
(d)
Page 110
Ensuring that welding or cutting works are so scheduled that
operations which might expose combustibles to ignition,
(e.g. doping, spray painting, battery charging), do not
coincide with welding or cutting works.
Secure authorisation for cutting or welding operations from the
designated management representative and assure themselves of the
following:
(i)
The cutting and welding equipment used is in satisfactory
operating (mechanical and electrical) condition and in good
repair.
(ii)
The floor is swept clear of combustible waste and storage
for a radius of 12m from the welding or cutting operations.
Combustible floors shall be kept wet, covered with damp
sand, or protected by fire resistant shields or noncombustible sheets. Where floors have been wetted down,
personnel shall be protected from electric shock.
(iii)
All combustibles shall be relocated at least 11m from the
work site. Where relocation is impracticable, irremovable
combustibles shall be protected with flameproof covers /
non-combustible screen, or shielded with metal or other
appropriate guards or curtains. Edges of covers at the floor
shall be tight to prevent sparks from getting under them.
This is also important where several covers are used to
protect a large pile.
(iv)
Wall or floor openings, gaps within 11m of the site shall be
tightly covered with non-combustible materials to prevent
passage of sparks to adjacent areas.
(v)
Ducts and conveyor systems that might carry spark to
distant combustibles shall be suitably protected by a fire
damper or other means or be shut down.
(vi)
Where cutting or welding is done near walls, partitions,
ceilings or roofs of combustible construction, fire-resistant
shields or guards shall be provided. If welding is to be done
on a metal wall, partition, ceiling or roof, precautions shall
be taken to prevent ignition of combustibles on the other
side due to conduction or radiation of heat. If possible,
combustibles shall be removed from the near side of the
metal walls, partition or work pieces. Where combustibles
are not relocated, a fire watch on the opposite side from the
work shall be provided.
.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 111
(vii)
Cutting or welding on pipes or other metal in contact with
combustible walls, partitions, ceiling or roofs shall not be
undertaken if the work is close enough to cause ignition by
conduction.
(viii)
Cutting or welding of tanks, vessels, plant or equipment
which had previously contained flammable substances,
vapours, liquids or dusts, shall be cleaned and purged
properly prior to the cutting or welding works. These
containers shall also not be refilled until the metal has
cooled down.
(ix)
Portable fire extinguishers, appropriate for the classes of
fires that may break out, shall be suitably placed at the work
area.
Where hose-lines are available, they shall be
connected and ready for use.
(x)
All welders / cutters shall be fully trained and aware of the
fire risks involved.
(xi)
All persons are suitably protected against heat, sparks, slags,
etc.
(xii)
Ensure adequate ventilation to prevent flammable or toxic
fumes build up.
xiii)
Ensure non-combustible containers are available for placing
hot tools after use. The container shall be made of
electrically insulated material if arc electrical welding
equipment is used.
(e)
Ensure that the cutter or welder secures his approval and that
conditions are safe before starting operations.
(f)
Ensure that fire protection and extinguishing equipment e.g.
hosereels, extinguishers, etc; are properly located at the site.
(g)
The Fire Patroller with portable fire extinguisher shall not be more
than 15m from the welding or cutting works. If necessary, another
Fire Patroller shall oversee the adjacent welding or cutting works,
so that the required distance can be maintained.
(h)
Ensure that Fire Patrollers are present for every welding or cutting
works. Hot works shall be stopped if a Fire Patroller is not present.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
3.4
Page 112
The Cutter or Welder shall:
(a)
Handle his equipment safely and use it so as not to endanger lives or
property.
(b)
Have approval of his supervisor before he starts to cut or weld.
(c)
Not to cut or weld where conditions are not safe.
(d)
Continue to cut or weld only so long as conditions are unchanged
from those under which approval was granted.
(e)
Watch for fire in all exposed areas and together with the Fire
Patroller, try to extinguish them first when within the capacity of
the equipment available or otherwise sound the alarm.
(f)
All fire occurrences shall be reported to the AES Division.
(g)
Check for smouldering materials half-an-hour after completion of
work.
4
General Fire Prevention
4.1
Cutting or Welding shall be permitted in a fire-safe area and if it is to be
carried out within a building, it shall be done in a specific area designed or
approved for such works. These areas should be of non-combustible or
fire-resistive construction, free of combustibles and flammable contents,
and segregated from adjacent areas.
4.2
Cutting or welding shall not be permitted under the following situations:
(a)
The area is not authorised by management.
(b)
In a sprinkler protected building where the sprinkler system is
impaired.
(c)
Where there is presence of explosive atmospheres (mixtures of
flammable gases, vapours, liquids or dusts with air), or uncleaned or
improperly prepared tanks or equipment, which previously
contained such gases or materials.
(d)
In areas near the storage of large quantities of exposed, readily
ignitable materials.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
4.3
Page 113
The area shall be inspected by the individual responsible for authorising
cutting and/or welding operations to ensure that it is fire safe before cutting
or welding is permitted. He shall:
(a)
Determine the precautions to be followed in granting authorisation
to proceed with the works in the form of a written permit.
(b)
Be familiar with the standard for cutting and welding processes.
(c)
Have fire-extinguishing equipment readily available and be trained
in its safe and proper use.
(d)
Familiar with facilities for sounding an alarm in the event of fire
outbreak.
(e)
Look out for fires in all exposed areas and try to extinguish them
first when within the capacity of the equipment available or
otherwise sound the alarm.
(f)
Remain on site for at least half-an-hour after completion of cutting
or welding operations to detect and extinguish possible smouldering
fires. All cylinders shall be returned to a safe store.
5
Safe Cutting and Welding Practices
5.1
With Gas Cutting and Welding
(a)
All gas cylinders shall be clearly marked to indicate content.
(b)
The cylinders shall be clamped or chained and supported to ensure
they remain in an upright position.
(c)
Valve protection caps, where the cylinder is designed to accept a cap,
shall be in place, hand-tight except when cylinders are in use or
connected for use.
(d)
Both the fuel and oxygen hoses must be fitted with non-return valves
and at both ends of hoses with flash back arrestors.
(e)
Equipment shall be checked for damage before use.
(f)
Soapy water may be used to check for leakage.
(g)
Replace leaking hose immediately.
(h)
Damaged equipment shall not be used.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
5.2
Page 114
(i)
Repair or replace damaged equipment before commencing the hot
works.
(j)
Observe correct ignition procedure.
(k)
Open cylinder valves slowly.
(l)
Cylinder valves should not be lubricated.
(m)
Cylinder valve shall be kept clean.
(n)
When key-operated cylinders are being used, key should be left in
position on the spindle. This will allow cylinders to shut quickly if
necessary.
(o)
The cylinders must be stood as far as possible from hot work area.
(p)
Cutting and welding nozzles must be kept clean and free of blockage.
(q)
Never release oxygen in the air deliberately or inadvertently. Be aware
that excess oxygen in confined space increases danger of fire and
explosion.
With Electric Arc Cutting and Welding
(a)
Easily accessible isolation switch shall be available.
(b)
Separate earth conductor shall be used to earth the metal work and
welding set.
(c)
Welding earth shall be protected from mechanical heat damage or
inadvertent disconnection.
(d)
All electrical components shall be regularly inspected and tested.
(e)
Damaged equipment shall not be used.
(f)
Repair or replace damaged equipment before commencing the hot
works.
(g)
Damaged cables shall not be used.
(h)
Replace damaged cables immediately.
(i)
Welding current shall be as low as possible.
(j)
Avoid exposed metals parts in equipment and which may induce
accidental arcs.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
5.3
Page 115
Fire-Fighting Arrangement
(a)
Qualified Fire Patrollers equipped with the appropriate fire
extinguisher shall be available during the hot work process.
(b)
Fire involving electric arc welding equipment can be extinguished with
dry chemical or carbon dioxide extinguishers.
(c)
Heated cylinders shall be cooled by copious water spray from a safe
distance.
(d)
Remove other cylinders to a safe place in the open and away from
aircraft.
(e)
In case of leaking cylinders becoming ignited, turn off cylinder valves
and try to extinguish the fire. DO NOT EXTINGUISH FIRE
BEFORE SHUTTING THE VALVE.
(f)
Evacuate if flame is impinging on the cylinder.
6
Additional Safety Requirements for Hot Works on the Ramp / Apron
6.1
Hot works that are performed on the ramp or apron will pose even greater fire
hazards because it is where aircraft fuel servicing operations are normally
carried out. Should a fire occur in this area, it will jeopardize the nearby
aircraft and passengers alike. To safeguard lives and property, the following
additional safety measures shall be implemented for hot works that are carried
out in the ramp / apron area:
Type of Hot Work
1. Acetylene welding
2. Shielded arc welding
3. Thermo-plastic painting
using LPG
4. Thermo-plastic painting
using non-gaseous fuel
Additional Requirements
(a) Observe a 75m separation1 from
aircraft. If the hot work is supervised
by a qualified safety officer
(Registered with Ministry of
Manpower), the 75m can be reduced to
50m.
(b) Engage a fire patroller and a fire
engine to stand by at the hot work
location.
5. Metal grinding
(c) Monitor ambient fuel vapors using
flammable gas detector (with alarm2)
before and during the hot work.
Note1: Separation is the distance between the hot work location and the tip of
the aircraft wing.
Note 2: Hot work shall be stopped immediately upon a flammable gas alarm.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
CHAPTER 6
-
Page 116
WELDING OPERATIONS INSIDE
AIRCRAFT HANGARS
1
General
1.1
Aircraft welding operations should comply to the requirements in SS510:2005
Code of practice for safety in welding and cutting (and other operations
involving the use of heat) or any other relevant NFPA codes such as NFPA
51B - Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot
Work or NFPA 410: Standard on Aircraft Maintenance and should be done
outdoors whenever possible. When aircraft welding must be done in hangars,
the precautions stated in this Chapter shall be followed. Many of the
recommended safe practices are also applicable to welding on aircraft
regardless of the location.
1.2
If welding should be performed on aircraft, only gas shielded-arc is to be
employed. Oxy-acetylene, straight arc welding, and other types of welding
should be avoided in hangars.
1.3
Operations involving the use of heat and flame in hangars shall be
permitted only when effective safeguards have been introduced to protect
all nearby combustible materials from flying sparks and heat. Fire hazards
may occur in the use of all methods of welding; both gas and arc, and in
flame cutting. Open flame operations, therefore, shall not be conducted as
a regular practice in any hangar. Faulty equipment or misuse of equipment
may also cause fire.
1.4
Fire Watchers (as recognised by CAG) shall be required whenever cutting
or welding is performed. Fire Watchers shall have extinguishing
equipment readily available and shall be familiar with facilities for
sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. They shall watch for fires in all
exposed areas, try to extinguish them if within the capacity of the
equipment available or otherwise sound the alarm. A fire watch shall be
maintained for at least half-an-hour, after completion of cutting and
welding operations, to detect and extinguish possible smouldering fires.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 117
2
Welding Operations
2.1
It is recommended that for any contract to perform structural or general
welding in a hangar, the hazard to the contents should be taken into special
consideration. Aircraft should be removed wherever possible and the
precautions herein applied where practicable.
2.2
Welding shall not be done on an aircraft in a hangar while work is in
progress on the following:
(a)
Any system or component of an aircraft which contains, or did
contain, fuel or other flammable liquid; or
(b)
The fuel systems on any other aircraft within 30m from the point of
welding.
2.3
Immaculate housekeeping should prevail around the welding area. Any
hangar floor drains in the area of a welding operation should be checked
periodically to determine that no flammable or combustible liquid or
vapours are present.
2.4
If other aircraft are located in any adjacent work bays of a hangar, all
persons working on or having access to these other aircraft shall be notified
in advance that welding is to be carried out.
2.5
No other work shall be permitted within 7m radius of the location of any
gas shielded-arc welding operation, or within 12m radius of the location of
any other type of welding operation. All other work may be conducted
routinely, provided flammable vapour is not present.
2.6
Fuel tank access plates and any fuel tank openings shall be closed on all
aircraft within 30m from the point of any welding. All fuel lines, valves,
manifolds and other fuel components on the aircraft on which welding is
being done shall be in place, secured or capped prior to the start of welding
operations and throughout such welding operations.
2.7
All fuel tank vents on the aircraft being worked upon and the vents of other
aircraft within 7m radius of the location of any gas shielded-arc welding, or
within 11m radius of the location of any other type of welding operation,
shall be covered prior to the start of welding operations and throughout
such welding operations.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 118
2.8
Only qualified welders, trained in the technique and familiar with the
hazards involved shall be permitted to carry out welding operation.
2.9
The specific location where the welding is being done shall be roped-off or
otherwise segregated by physical barrier to prevent unintended entry into
the welding area. A placard reading shall be prominently displayed
“WELDING OPERATIONS IN PROGRESS”.
2.10
Welding generating equipment shall be placard as follows:
“WARNING – KEEPS CLEAR OF AIRCRAFT ENGINES AND
FUEL TANK AREA”.
2.11
Welding equipment shall have no electrical components (other than flexible
lead cables) within 45 cm (18 inches) from the floor. The ground leads
should be as close to the area to be welded as possible and clamps used on
such ground leads should be of the 'C' clamp type, not the clip type.
Components, which could produce arcs, sparks or hot metal, under any
condition of operation, should be of the totally enclosed type or should
have suitable guards or screens. The inert gas cylinder should be securely
fastened to prevent tipping and the regulator and gauge shall be in proper
working condition.
3
Precautions for Aircraft
3.1
It is recommended that where welding is to be carried out on an aircraft in a
hangar, the aircraft should be in towable condition, with its parking brakes
off, the wheels chocked, and it is hooked on to a tow tug. Any equipment,
which could obstruct prompt removal of the aircraft, should be cleared
away. Where practicable, a qualified operator should be pre-designated to
operate the tow tug and mechanics assigned to remove the wheel chocks
and to operate controls in the cockpit. It is recognised that under many
conditions, the aircraft being worked upon may not be mobile, and when
this is true it is of even greater importance to follow the other precautions
given in this Chapter.
4
Supervision
4.1
The supervisor shall be responsible for the safety of the welding operation.
He shall ensure that appropriate measures for fire cover are taken
throughout the welding operation. One fire tender shall be on standby
throughout the operation with exception where under wing aircraft fire
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 119
protection system is available, and then the fire engine standby may not be
necessary. If at any time, a hazardous condition develops, the AES shall
have the authority to stop the welding operation.
4.2
A checklist shall be maintained in order to eliminate all hazards and
possible ignition sources when aircraft welding is to be carried out. The
supervisor shall be thoroughly familiar with each aircraft to be welded so
that he has proper knowledge of the flammable vapour sources and
combustible materials on the aircraft. Prior to starting any welding
operation, the supervisor in charge of the project shall inspect the area to
see that all safety requirements have been complied with and all necessary
steps have been taken to ensure that welding works can be conducted
safely.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 120
CHAPTER 7 - FIRE PRECAUTIONS DURING OXYGEN CHARGING AND
STORAGE
1
Scope
1.1
This Chapter describes the hazards associated with the handling of
breathing oxygen aboard aircraft and describes the recommended
procedures for safe charging. Reference should also be made to the latest
edition of NFPA 410: Standard on Aircraft Maintenance.
2
General
2.1
Currently, aircraft breathing oxygen systems may utilise either gaseous or
liquid oxygen.
2.2
Gaseous oxygen is colourless, odourless, tasteless and non-toxic. It
constitutes about 21 percent of normal air by volume and is about 10
percent heavier than air. Above its critical temperature (-82.4°C) or oxygen
can exist only as a gas regardless of the pressure exerted upon it.
2.3
Liquid oxygen is a light blue, transparent liquid, which flows like water. It
boils at minus 147.2°C at standard atmospheric pressure. If a volume of
liquid oxygen is confined and allowed to warm to room temperatures, the
attempt of the vaporising oxygen to expand will result in the attainment of
extremely high pressures (in the order of 40,000 psi).
3
Hazards
3.1
Both gaseous and liquid oxygen are stable, non-flammable substances, but
they vigorously support combustion and increase the intensity of fires.
This makes it necessary to keep concentrations of oxygen separated from
combustibles and from any source of ignition. Therefore, the highest
standard of housekeeping is essential in areas where oxygen is stored or
charged.
3.2
Physical damage to, or a failure of, oxygen cylinders, valves or plumbing
can result in explosive rupture in oxygen system components causing
danger to life, limb and property.
3.3
In addition to aggravating the fire hazard, liquid oxygen can cause severe
burns (frostbite) when in contact with the skin because of its low
temperature.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 121
3.4
Only corrosion resistant tubing, pipes and fittings suitable for the class of
oxygen service it is intended to provide, shall be used.
4
Precautions for Charging Operations
4.1
Because of the possibility of fire or explosion involving large quantities of
oxygen, such factors as the presence of other aircraft, vehicles, valuable
structures, utilities, and people in the vicinity; and the accessibility of the
aircraft to fire-fighting equipment, shall be considered when choosing sites
for oxygen charging.
4.2
Where it is necessary to conduct gaseous oxygen system recharging or
filling in a hangar or building, it must be done under controlled conditions.
4.3
Liquid oxygen recharging shall not be conducted indoors under any
condition. Wherever possible, at least 15m separation shall be maintained
between any point of filling and other aircraft, structures, etc.
4.4
Avoid liquid oxygen charging operations within range of any drainage
system elements, such as catch basins, through which a liquid oxygen spill
could enter the drainage system. Such systems may contain combustible
materials, which could be extremely hazardous when in contact with the
liquid oxygen in confined space.
4.5
Good housekeeping is necessary in the vicinity of oxygen charging
operations. This is particularly true with combustibles like grease,
lubricating oil, asphalt, etc.
4.6
Prohibit open flames (including smoking) within 15m of charging
equipment.
4.7
Do not permit aircraft servicing or maintenance operations, which may
inherently or accidentally introduce ignition source of combustibles
simultaneously with oxygen charging operations. These include fuelling,
fuel and hydraulic system repairs, use of flammable cleaning fluids, deicing fluids, etc.
4.8
Do not operate electrical system switches, connect or disconnect ground
power generators during oxygen charging operations.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 122
4.9
Use only charging equipment, containers, etc, suitable for the specific
aircraft breathing oxygen system involved. Identify each container by its
marking before connecting to the aircraft system. Never interchange
equipment with equipment intended, or used, for other gases.
4.10
High-pressure commercial containers 122.4 Bar (1800 psi or higher) must
be connected through a pressure regulator to service low pressure aircraft
systems. Failure to use a high-pressure regulator specific for oxygen
service is extremely dangerous.
4.11
Oxygen charging hoses shall be kept clean, capped when not in use and
clearly marked or tagged "FOR OXYGEN USE ONLY".
4.12
Electro-statically ground the aircraft and electro-statically bond the oxygen
charging equipment to a suitable and safe part of the aircraft, when
removing or replacing oxygen bottles on the aircraft.
4.13
Never permit oil, grease or other readily combustible substances to come in
contact with containers, flasks, valves, regulators, fittings or any other part
of the aircraft oxygen system or charging equipment. Do not handle
oxygen equipment with oily gloves, tools or perform charging operations
wearing oily or greasy clothing.
4.14
Keep protective caps on equipment in position as long as possible and
replace as soon as possible. Before charging, inspect all connections for
cleanliness. If dust, dirt, grease or any other contaminant is found, it shall
be removed with detergent or solvent approved for oxygen service. Bleed a
small amount of oxygen through hose or valve outlet before connecting to
the fill fitting to eliminate foreign material, which may escape external
inspection.
4.15
Use only lubricating and thread compounds specifically approved for
oxygen service under pressures and temperatures involved. Do not use oil
or grease.
4.16
Use only valve packing and transfer hose gaskets, which are suitable for
oxygen service.
4.17
Avoid damaging oxygen containers, hoses, flasks, converter, etc. Secure
equipment so that it cannot fall or roll.
4.18
Do not tamper with safety devices or the identifying markings, symbols and
nameplates.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 123
4.19
Do not direct gaseous oxygen at the body or clothing or allow liquid
oxygen to contact the body or clothing because of the possibility of both
fire and personal injury.
4.20
Desiccant cartridges are sometimes required to assure only dry oxygen is
introduced. Check on the need for such cartridges and be sure that drying
medicine is fresh. Only desiccant cartridges with filters shall be used.
4.21
Before commencing charging, turn all oxygen regulators in the aircraft to
the "OFF" position.
4.22
Ensure that threaded fittings on regulators, containers, valve outlets, hoses,
etc. correspond to each other. Never force connections, which do not fit.
Fittings with worn or damaged threads should be replaced.
4.23
After connecting containers or charging hoses to the oxygen-fill fitting
system, check the connections for gas tightness by audible and visual
means. If a leak is suspected, test with a solution that is specially approved
for oxygen service.
4.24
Close all charging equipment discharge valves when charging is completed.
5
Gaseous Oxygen (specific cautions)
5.1
Open container charging valves slowly. Rapid opening and subsequent
sudden and fast discharge of oxygen can cause dangerous heating, which
could result in a fire or explosion of the combustibles within the system.
Container valves should be fully opened to prevent leakage around the
valve stem. (See Para 6.7: liquid oxygen).
5.2
Never use wrenches, hammers or other tools to force container valves. If a
container valve cannot be hand operated, it shall be considered defective
and returned to the supplier.
5.3
Charge the oxygen bottles to the established pressure having set the supply
regulating valve to the proper setting.
5.4
When removing oxygen containers from aircraft for recharging, (a
condition found particularly where high pressure containers are employed),
close the container valve and release all oxygen in the lines at an oxygen
station before attempting container removal. It is vitally important that this
discharge be done slowly, as sudden release of oxygen might readily create
a serious fire hazard. Before removing the container from the aircraft,
disconnect, cap the container valve outlet, and plug all distribution lines.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 124
6
Liquid Oxygen (specific cautions)
6.1
Do not permit liquid oxygen to contact any part of the body or clothes. It
can cause severe skin injury and make clothing highly combustible. Do not
handle liquid oxygen lines with bare hands.
6.2
Personnel should wear protective clothing while handling liquid oxygen
equipment. Such protective clothing include the following:
(a)
Safety goggles or a clear plastic face shield.
(b)
Clean, dry leather, rubber-coated cotton or canvas gloves. It is
recommended that these gloves be loose fitting without wrist
gauntlets.
(c)
Clean overalls with long cuff-less sleeves or rubber apron. In cold
weather, a clean rubber raincoat, preferably without pockets, may
be worn over jackets or coats.
(d)
Shoes should preferably be of the high top type with cuff-less
trousers outside the shoes.
NOTE:
If liquid oxygen is spilled on clothing the clothing shall be
removed immediately and thoroughly aired before re-use.
6.3
Personnel who have handled liquid oxygen should refrain from smoking for
at least 15 minutes after leaving the charging area.
6.4
Exercise care that no moisture is introduced into a liquid oxygen system
and that there is no moisture in fill fittings or nozzles where it may be
entrained into the system during transfer operations. Dry, oil-free air,
oxygen, or nitrogen may be used to eliminate moisture before introduction
of liquid oxygen.
6.5
Because of its low temperature, liquid oxygen must be handled in
equipment constructed of materials suitable for the service. Ordinary
rubber or plastic hoses, gaskets, seals, etc. for example are unsuitable.
6.6
If it is necessary to transfer liquid oxygen from one container to another,
care is needed to avoid splashing. Cool the receiving container gradually to
avoid breakage. Fragile containers such as glass should not be used. The
container must be clean.
6.7
When transferring liquid oxygen, do not leave valves open all the way,
open them wide and then immediately close them about one-quarter turn;
otherwise they may freeze in the open position. (See paragraph 5.1 for
gaseous oxygen).
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 125
6.8
Use pressure relief devices on all lines in which liquid oxygen may be
trapped between closed valves and on closed containers.
6.9
Avoid spilling liquid oxygen on pavement. A fire or an explosion can
result if pavement has combustibles (e.g. asphalt) or if it is porous and is
impregnated with combustibles (e.g. concrete contaminated with oil).
6.10
Because of its low temperature and expansion characteristics, liquid oxygen
can spall pavement. If a spill occurs, stop the flow of the liquid and where
possible, allow the liquid spill some brief time to evaporate. Do not walk
on spilled liquid oxygen or roll equipment over.
6.11
Variances in the design of aircraft systems and charging equipment may
require deviations. Observe the equipment manufacturer's instructions
closely.
6.12
Under normal circumstances, oxygen re-charging is not permitted to be
carried out on the aircraft at the parking apron. Approval from CAES is
required if such operation needs to be performed due to unavoidable
circumstances.
7
Fire Protection for Oxygen Charging Operations
7.1
In case of fire, shut off the oxygen supply to the fire.
7.2
A fire involving combustible materials in an oxygen filled atmosphere
should be treated as a fire involving combustibles in normal air atmosphere.
7.3
If liquid oxygen is involved it is normally desirable, where practical, to
allow the fire to burn until the liquid oxygen present in the fire area is
evaporated, following which the ignited combustible materials should be
attacked with the appropriate extinguishing agent.
7.4
Remember that oxygen can combine with a number of combustible
materials in a manner to cause an explosion. Liquid oxygen, as a vigorous
combustion-supporting substance, cannot be effectively smothered or
'blanketed' by carbon dioxide or foam used as the extinguishing agent.
8
Storage of Oxygen Charging Equipment
8.1
Gaseous breathing oxygen is generally received in high-pressure cylinders
or containers. The cylinders must be stored and transported to the charging
site where they are used to charge the aircraft oxygen system storage
containers. In some instances the aircraft system storage containers may be
received for charging and in such cases, the containers must be stored after
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 126
charging until they are transported to the aircraft and interchanged with
empty containers in the aircraft system.
8.2
Liquid oxygen is generally received in a tank car or truck and transferred to
a storage vessel. It is then transferred as needed to a mobile charging
vehicle and transported to the charging site where it is used to charge the
converter in the aircraft system.
8.3
Oxygen cylinder storage
8.3.1
Cylinder should be stored in a specifically assigned location and protected
against tampering by unauthorised individuals. Oxygen cylinders shall not
be stored in aircraft servicing and maintenance areas of aircraft hangars and
should, preferably be stored in a separate building.
8.3.2
Oxygen cylinders shall not be stored near flammable materials (such as
petroleum products), other readily combustible substances, or in the same
area as compressed combustible gases. Empty and full cylinders should be
stored separately with empty cylinders clearly marked.
8.3.3
Each cylinder should be clearly marked to indicate its content. Breathing
oxygen cylinders should not be mixed with other oxygen cylinders.
8.3.4
Cylinders shall be stored so that they are never allowed to reach a
temperature exceeding 52°C. When stored in the open they should be
protected against direct rays of the sun in localities where extreme
temperatures prevail, and from the ground beneath to prevent rusting.
8.3.5
Cylinders should be protected against abnormal mechanical shock liable to
damage the cylinder, valves or safety devices. Valve protection caps
should also be used when cylinders are not connected in use.
8.3.6
When moving cylinders, care should be exercised to prevent dropping,
which may cause damage to the cylinder, valve or safety devices. Lifting
magnets, slings of rope/chain, or any other device in which the cylinders
themselves form a part of the carrier should not be used for hoisting oxygen
cylinders. When transported on hand/power trucks or tractors, cylinders
should be secured in the upright position.
8.4
Liquid oxygen storage
8.4.1
Liquid oxygen shall be stored outdoors or in a detached non-combustible
structure if the quantity exceeds one day's need. Smaller quantities should
be located outdoors, in a detached non-combustible structure or in a cut-off
room provided the cut-off room has effective ventilation and necessary
doorways protected by fire doors with ramps or curbs to prevent entrance
of flammable liquids and exit of liquid oxygen.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
8.4.2
Page 127
Storage areas shall be reserved for liquid oxygen storage and be clearly
placarded
"OXYGEN - NO SMOKING & NO OPEN FLAMES" or equivalent.
8.4.3
The construction and occupancy of liquid oxygen storage areas shall be
strictly non-combustible and have no floor drains. Wall scuppers (not
connected to drainage systems) are recommended.
9
Miscellaneous Cautions
9.1
Never use oxygen as a substitute for compressed air. It is very dangerous
to use oxygen for pneumatic tools, for pressuring containers, for paint
spraying, for blowing out pipelines, etc.
9.2
Never attempt to mix gases in an oxygen container.
9.3
Only corrosion resistant tubing, pipes and fittings shall be used.
9.4
Liquid oxygen charging operations are not regarded as more hazardous
than gaseous oxygen charging operations. However, a spill of liquid
oxygen introduces a new hazard, which must be specifically safeguarded.
AES shall be informed of liquid oxygen spills.
9.5
Aircraft oxygen cylinders shall be removed and taken away from aircraft
parking areas for charging. On-site charging at the aircraft is not permitted.
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 128
APPENDIX C-1 -Fire Safety Requirements involving Aircraft Fuel Servicing
S/No
Item
Compliance
Remark
1. Precautionary Measures
(Before the commencement of
refueling process)
Yes
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
No
NA
Bonding connections are attached
and mechanically firm
Equipment performing aircraft
servicing function are not positioned
within 3 m radius of aircraft fuel vent
openings
Equipment other than that
performing aircraft servicing
functions are not positioned within 15
m of aircraft during fuel servicing
operations.
The accessibility to the aircraft by fire
vehicles is established during aircraft
fuel servicing
Handheld Communication devices
used within 3 m from the fuel vent
shall be intrinsically safe
At least one listed trolley
extinguisher having a rating of not
less than 80-B (UL:FM) or 233B
(BS:EN)
Staff are trained in fire safety and
are able to demonstrate the use of
a fire extinguisher
Staff are familiar with the
emergency procedure to contact
AES during a fire incident and
ACC/AES during a fuel spillage
incident
2. Precautionary checks on Fuel Brower / Dispenser
Presence of at least 02 x 9kg ABC
Dry Powder Fire Extinguishers at
2.1
both sides of the Refueling Browser /
Dispenser
2.2
Spark plugs & other exposed
terminal connections are insulated.
3. Precautionary Measures (Re-fuelling in process)
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
S/No
3.1
3.2
3.3
Items
Page 129
Compliance
Yes
No
NA
All vehicles, other than those
performing fuel servicing, are not
to be driven or parked under
aircraft wings.
Electric tools, drills or similar
tools likely to produce sparks or
arcs are not used.
Hot work within 50 / 75 metres of
refuelling operations is ceased
(For 50m, a MOM approved
Safety Officer shall be present)
4. Additional Precautionary Measures (only if passengers remain
onboard/embarkation/disembarkation during fuel servicing)
Compliance
S/No
Items
Yes
No
NA
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Remark
Remark
The ground service activities do
not impede the egress should
there be an emergency.
At least one qualified person
trained in emergency evacuation
procedures shall be in the
aircraft at or near a door.
One aerobridge or mobile step
or integral stairs are positioned
with the aircraft door fully
opened for evacuation of
passengers.
A clear area for emergency
evacuation of the aircraft shall
be maintained at the rear (or
front) aircraft exit door.
5. For situations or locations not meeting requirements 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4.
5.1
i) All slides shall be armed
5.2
ii) One ARFF vehicle shall be on
standby
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 130
APPENDIX C-2 -Fire Safety Requirements involving Airfield Vehicle Operations
S/No
Item
1
Fuel system is free of leaks
2
Engine drip tray available
3
4
Compliance
with the Safe
Practice
Yes
No
Remark
Spark Plugs are covered-type &
protected
Wiring insulation not cracked or
damaged
5
Wiring connection is not loose
6
Spark arrestor installed
(Only for petrol engine without
catalytic converter)
7
Battery is covered
8
Battery is ventilated
9
Fuse box enclosed & protected by
cover
10
At least 1kg ABC Dry Powder
Extinguisher for all Airfield Vehicle or
At least 2 x 9kg ABC Dry Powder
Extinguishers for Fuel Browser /
Dispenser
11
Fire extinguisher within servicing
period
12
Fire extinguisher within working
pressure
APPENDIX C-3 - AES Fire Safety Circular 12/2012 dated 23 August 2012
CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP (S) PTE LTD
Sep 2017
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 131
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 132
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
APPENDIX C-4 - AES Fire Safety Circular 15/2012 dated 4 October 2012
Page 133
FIRE SAFETY MANUAL
Page 134
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement