null  null
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Category
Title
NFR:
1.A.4.a.i,
Small combustion
1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i,
1.A.5.a
SNAP:
020103a
020103b
020106
020202a
020202b
020205
020302a
020302b
020305
Commercial/institutional — Combustion plants 20–50 MW
Commercial/institutional — Combustion plants < 20 MW
Commercial/institutional — Other stationary equipments
Residential — Combustion plants 20–50 MW
Residential — Combustion plants < 20 MW
Residential — Other stationary equipments
Agriculture/forestry/aquaculture — Combustion plants 20–
50 MW
Agriculture/forestry/aquaculture — Combustion plants
< 20 MW
Agriculture/forestry/aquaculture — Other stationary
equipments
ISIC:
Version Guidebook 2009
Coordinator
Carlo Trozzi
Contributing authors (including to earlier versions of this chapter)
Krystyna Kubica, Bostjan Paradiz, Panagiota Dilara, Zbigniew Klimont, Sergey Kakareka,
B. Debsk, Mike Woodfield and Robert Stewart
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
Contents
1
2
Overview...................................................................................................................................3
Description of sources...............................................................................................................4
2.1 Process description ..............................................................................................................4
2.2 Techniques ..........................................................................................................................5
2.3 Emissions ..........................................................................................................................14
2.4 Controls .............................................................................................................................17
3
Methods...................................................................................................................................19
3.1 Choice of method ..............................................................................................................19
3.2 Tier 1 default approach......................................................................................................20
3.3 Tier 2 technology-specific approach .................................................................................29
3.4 Tier 3 emission modelling and use of facility data............................................................59
4
Data quality.............................................................................................................................60
4.1 Completeness ....................................................................................................................60
4.2 Avoiding double counting with other sectors....................................................................60
4.3 Verification........................................................................................................................60
4.4 Developing a consistent time series and recalculation ......................................................66
4.5 Uncertainty assessment .....................................................................................................66
4.6 Inventory quality assurance/quality control QA/QC .........................................................67
4.7 Mapping ............................................................................................................................67
4.8 Reporting and documentation............................................................................................67
5
Glossary ..................................................................................................................................67
6
References...............................................................................................................................68
7
Point of enquiry.......................................................................................................................71
Appendix A
Technology-specific emission factors..................................................................72
Appendix B
Calculation of emission factors from emission concentrations..........................109
Appendix C
Emission factors associated with emission limit values in selected countries...115
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Small combustion
1 Overview
This chapter covers the methods and data needed to estimate stationary combustion emissions
under NFR sectors 1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.1, 1.A.4.c.1 and 1.A.5.a. . The sectors cover combustion
installations activities in the following sectors which, for the purpose of this guidance, are
considered to have a thermal capacity ≤ 50 MWth.
•
1.A.4.a — Commercial/institutional
•
1.A.4.b — Residential
•
1.A.4.c — Agriculture/forestry
•
1.A.5.a — Other (stationary combustion)
The activities essentially cover combustion in smaller-scale combustion units and installations
than those in Chapter 1.A.1, Energy industries. The combustion technologies employed may be
relevant to sectors in Chapter 1.A.1. Chapter 1.A.1 provides additional emission information for
the activities in this chapter (and vice versa). The information within this chapter is also
appropriate for assessing stationary combustion emissions within certain other sectors.
The sectors covered in this chapter can include the following activities:
•
commercial and institutional heating
•
residential heating, cooking
•
agriculture/forestry and
•
other stationary combustion (including military).
The open-field burning of agricultural residues is not included in this chapter. The range of
activities relevant to sector 1.A.4 are summarised in section 2. The most important pollutants
emitted to atmosphere are summarised in Table 1-1
Table 1-1
Pollutants with potential for small combustion activities to be a key category
Source releases
X
X
X
Residential heating
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Agriculture and
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammonia
X
Dioxins, PCB, HCB
X
PAH
X
Mercury, Cadmium
X
Metals (excluding mercury and
cadmium) and their
compounds
Oxides of nitrogen
X
Volatile organic compounds
Oxides of sulphur
X
Hydrogen chloride, fluoride
PM2.5
X
Oxides of carbon
PM10
X
Commercial and
PM (TSP)
X
Activity
institutional heating
X
other
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Small combustion
2 Description of sources
2.1 Process description
The small combustion installations included in this chapter are mainly intended for heating and
provision of hot water in residential and commercials/institutional sectors. Some of these
installations are also used for cooking (primarily in the residential sector). In the agricultural
sector the heat generated by the installations is used also for crops drying and for heating
greenhouses.
In some instances, combustion techniques and fuels can be specific to an NFR activity category;
however most techniques are not specific to an NFR classification. The applications can be
conveniently sub-divided considering the general size and the combustion techniques applied:
•
residential heating — fireplaces, stoves, cookers, small boilers (< 50 kW);
•
institutional/commercial/agricultural/other heating including:
o
o
heating — boilers, spaceheaters (> 50 kW),
smaller-scale combined heat and power generation (CHP).
Emissions from smaller combustion installations are significant due to their numbers, different
type of combustion techniques employed, and range of efficiencies and emissions. Many of them
have no abatement measures nor low efficiency measures. In some countries, particularly those
with economies in transition, plants and equipment may be outdated, polluting and inefficient. In
the residential sector in particular, the installations are very diverse, strongly depending on
country and regional factors including local fuel supply.
Fugitive
Emissions
Chapter 1.B.1
NMVOC, PM10
Electricity
Fuel
Combustion
Heat
Steam
Figure 2-1
Illustration of the main process in small combustion installations; figure adapted
from 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
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Small combustion
2.2 Techniques
2.2.1
2.2.1.1
Residential heating (1.A.4.b)
General
In small combustion installations a wide variety of fuels are used and several combustion
technologies are applied. In the residential activity, smaller combustion appliances, especially
older single household installations are of very simple design, while some modern installations of
all capacities are significantly improved. Emissions strongly depend on the fuel, combustion
technologies as well as on operational practices and maintenance.
For the combustion of liquid and gaseous fuels, the technologies used are similar to those for
production of thermal energy in larger combustion activities, with the exception of the simple
design of smaller appliances like fireplaces and stoves.
The technologies for solid fuels and biomass utilization vary widely due to different fuel
properties and technical possibilities. Small combustion installations employ mainly fixed bed
combustion technology, i.e. grate-firing combustion (GF) of solid fuels. Solid fuels include
mineral and biomass solid fuels, with grain size varying from a few mm to 80 mm.
More detailed descriptions of techniques can be found in Kubica, et al., (2004).
2.2.1.2
Fireplaces overview
Fireplaces are the most simple combustion devices, and are often used as supplemental heating
appliances primarily for aesthetic reasons in residential dwellings. There are solid- and gas-fuelled
fireplaces. The fireplaces can be divided into open, partly-closed and closed fireplaces. Based on
the type of construction materials used, they can be divided into cut stone and/or brick (masonry)
fireplaces, or, and cast-iron or steel. Masonry fireplaces are usually built on site and integrated
into the building structure, while iron or steel are prefabricated for installation with a suitable
chimney or flue.
Solid fuel fireplaces
Solid fuel fireplaces are manually-fired fixed bed combustion appliances. The user intermittently
adds solid fuels to the fire by hand. They can be distinguished into the following.
Open fireplaces
This type of fireplace is of very simple design — a basic combustion chamber, which is
directly connected to the chimney. Fireplaces have large openings to the fire bed. Some of
them have dampers above the combustion area to limit the room air intake and resulting heat
losses when fireplace is not being used. The heat energy is transferred to the dwelling mainly
by radiation. Open fireplaces are usually of masonry type and have very low efficiency while
having significant emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP), CO, non-methane volatile
organic compounds (NMVOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) resulting from
the incomplete combustion of the fuels.
Partly-closed fireplaces
Equipped with louvers and glass doors to reduce the intake of combustion air. Some masonry
fireplaces are designed or retrofitted in that way in order to improve their overall efficiency.
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Small combustion
Closed fireplaces
These fireplaces equipped with front doors and may have distribution of combustion air to
primary and secondary as well as a system to discharge the exhaust gases. They are
prefabricated and installed as stand-alone units or as a fireplace inserts installed in existing
masonry fireplaces. Because of the design and the combustion principle, closed fireplaces
resemble stoves and their efficiency usually exceeds 50 %. They have similar emissions to
stoves, i.e. lower than open or partly-closed fireplaces. For this reason they can be rated on a
similar basis to stoves.
Fuels used in solid fuel fireplaces are mainly log, lump wood, biomass briquettes, and charcoal,
coal and coal briquettes. Multifuel appliances are available which can burn a range of solid fuels
including manufactured solid fuels and wood.
Gas-fuelled fireplaces
Gas fireplaces are also of simple design; materials and equipment are similar to those of solid
fuels fireplaces, yet equipped with a gas burner. Because of the simple valves employed for
adjustment of fuel/air ratio and non-premixing burners, NOx emissions are lower, but emissions of
CO and NMVOC can be higher in comparison to gas-fired boilers.
2.2.1.3
Stoves
Stoves are enclosed appliances in which useful heat is transmitted to the surroundings by radiation
and convection. They can vary widely due to fuels type, application, design and construction
materials, and also combustion process organisation.
The stoves utilizing solid fuels are usually used for heating of the rooms (room heaters), but also
for cooking, and hot water preparation (boilers and water heaters), while liquid and gas stoves
tend to be used mainly for space heating.
Solid fuel stoves
The solid fuel stoves can be classified on the basis of the combustion principle, which primarily
depends on the airflow path through the charge of fuel in a combustion chamber. Two main types
exist: up-draught (under-fire, down-burning combustion) and downdraught (up-burning
combustion). The vast majority of older stoves are of the up-draught type, which is of simpler
design, but has higher emissions.
Different kinds of solid fuels are used, such as coal and its products (usually anthracite, hard coal,
brown coal, patent fuels, and brown coal briquettes) and biomass — wood logs, wood chips and
wood pellets and briquettes. Coals of different grain sizes are used usually 20–40 mm, and above
40 mm, or mixtures of both. Peat is also occasionally used.
The stoves can be made as prefabricated iron or steel appliances or masonry stoves, which are
usually assembled on site with bricks, stone or ceramic materials. Regarding the main mode of
heat transfer, solid fuel stoves can be divided into two main subgroups which are radiating stoves,
and heat storing or, heat accumulating stoves. Radiating stoves are usually prefabricated iron or
steel appliances; some of them can provide water heating, indirect heating (boilers) and some are
used as cooking stoves.
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Small combustion
Conventional, traditional stoves
These have poorly organised combustion process resulting in low efficiency (40 % to 50 %)
and significant emissions of pollutants mainly originating from incomplete combustion (TSP,
CO, NMVOC and PAH). Their autonomy (i.e. the ability to operate without user intervention)
is low, lasting from three to eight hours. Those, which are equipped with hot-plate zones, are
used also for cooking — kitchen stoves. Some of them could also be used for hot water
preparation.
Energy efficient conventional stoves
Essentially, traditional stoves with improved utilization of secondary air in the combustion
chamber. Their efficiency is between 55 % and 75 % and emissions of pollutants are lower,
their autonomy ranges from 6 to 12 hours.
Advanced combustion stoves
These stoves are characterized by multiple air inlets and pre-heating of secondary combustion
air by heat exchange with hot flue gases. This design results in increased efficiency (near
70 % at full load) and reduced CO, NMVOC and TSP emissions in comparison with the
conventional stoves.
Modern pellet stoves
This is a type of advanced stove using pelletized fuels such as wood pellets, which are
distributed to the combustion chamber by a fuel feeder from small fuel storage. Modern
pellets stoves are often equipped with active control system for supply of the combustion air.
They reach high combustion efficiencies by providing the proper air/fuel mixture ratio in the
combustion chamber at all times (CITEPA, 2003). For this reason they are characterized by
high efficiency (between 80 % and 90 %) and low emissions of CO, NMVOC, TSP and PAH.
Masonry (heat accumulating) stoves
These stoves are made of materials able to accumulate heat (e.g. fire brick, ceramic tiles or
certain volcanic rocks (Finish stove for example)). Slow heat-release appliances are generally
masonry stoves. A rapid heating in large thermal mass of masonry materials is achieved. Heat
is slowly released by radiation to the surrounding area. Their combustion efficiency ranges
from 70 to 80 % and their autonomy from 8 to 12 hours (CITEPA, 2003).
Catalytic combustor stoves
Stoves, in particular for wood combustion, can be equipped with a catalytic converter in order
to reduce emissions caused by incomplete combustion. Due to more complete oxidation of the
fuels, energy efficiency also increases. Catalytic combustors are not common for coal stoves.
Liquid/gas-fuelled stoves
The liquid/gas stoves have simple design; gas stoves are equipped with simple valves for fuel/air
ratio adjustment and non-pre-mixing burners. For that reason emissions of NOx from these are
lower in comparison to gas-fired boilers. Simple liquid fuel stoves use evaporation systems for
preparation of fuel/air mixture.
Regarding construction material and design, liquid and gas stoves are generally less diversified
than those for solid fuels. They are made of steel and prefabricated.
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Small combustion
2.2.1.4
Small boilers (single household/domestic heating) — indicative capacity ≤ 50 kW
output
In general, boilers are devices which heat water for indirect heating. Small boilers of this capacity
are used in flats and single houses. Designs are available for gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. They
are mainly intended for generation of heat for the central heating system (including hot air
systems) or hot water, or a combination of both.
Solid fuel small boilers
Small boilers for central heating for individual households are more widespread in temperate
regions and usually have a nominal output between 12 kW to 50 kW. They use different types of
solid fossil fuels and biomass usually depending on their regional availability. They could be
divided into two broad categories regarding the organisation of combustion process: overfeed
boiler (overfeed burning — over-fire and under-fire — down-burning) and underfeed boiler
(underfeed burning — over-fire). They can be differentiated between conventional and advanced
combustion boilers.
Conventional, coal/biomass boilers
Over-fire boilers
Over-fire boilers are commonly used in residential heating due to their simple operation and
low investment cost. An incomplete combustion process takes place due to the non-optimal
combustion air supply, which is usually generated by natural draught. The fuel is periodically
fed onto the top of the burning fuel bed. The efficiency of the over-fire boiler is similar to the
efficiency of conventional stoves, and is usually between 50 % and 65 %, depending on
construction design and load. The emission of pollutants resulting from incomplete
combustion of fuel may be very high particularly if they are operated at low load.
Under-fire boilers
Under-fire boilers have manual fuel feeding systems, and stationary or sloping grates. They
have a two-part combustion chamber. The first part is used for storage of fuel and for partial
devolatilization and combustion of the fuel layer. In the second part of the combustion
chamber the combustible gases are oxidized. In older designs, natural draught is used.
Combustion in under-fire boilers is more stable than in over-fire boilers, due to continuous
gravity feed of fuel onto the fire bed. This results in higher energy efficiency (60-70 %) and
lower emissions in comparison to overfeed combustion.
Advanced combustion boilers
Advanced, under-fire coal boilers
In general, the design and the combustion technique are similar to the conventional under-fire
boiler. The main difference is that a fan controls the flue gases flow. Control system for the
primary and secondary air might lead to increase in efficiency above 80 % (usually between
70 % and 80%).
Downdraught wood boilers
This type of boiler is considered state of the art in the lump wood combustion. It has two
chambers, first one where the fuel is fed for partial devolatilisation and combustion of the fuel
layer, and a secondary chamber, where burning of the released combustible gases occurs. The
advantage of this boiler is that the flue gases are forced to flow down through holes in a
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Small combustion
ceramic grate and thus are burned at high temperature within the secondary combustion
chamber and ceramic tunnel. Owing to the optimised combustion process, emissions due to
incomplete combustion are low.
Stoker coal burners
The fuel with low ash contents and the grain size of between 4 mm up to 25 mm is
automatically fed into to a retort by a screw conveyor. The stoker boiler is characterized by
higher efficiency, usually above 80 %. The advantage of stoker boiler is that it can operate
with high efficiency within load range from 30 % to nominal capacity. In a properly operated
stoker, emissions of pollutants resulting from incomplete combustion are significantly lower;
however, NOx increases due to the higher combustion temperature.
Wood boilers
Automatic log-fired boilers are available. However. most small boilers are wood pellet or
chip-fired. These have a fully automatic system for feeding of pellet or woodchip fuels and for
supply of combustion air, which is distributed into primary and secondary. The boilers are
equipped with a smaller fuel storage bin, which is fuelled manually or by an automatic system
from a larger chamber storage. The pellets are introduced by screw into the burner. These
boilers are characterised by a high efficiency (usually above 80 %) and their emissions are
comparable to those of liquid fuel boilers.
Liquid/gas-fuelled small boilers
These are usually two-function appliances used for hot water preparation and for heat generation
for the central heating system. In the capacity range below 50 kW output they are used mainly in
single households. Water-tube low temperature boilers (temperature of water below 100 oC) with
open combustion chamber are usually used. These devices can be made of cast iron or steel. The
boilers with capacity below 50 kW, can be divided into two main groups, i.e. standard boiler and
condensing boilers.
Standard boilers
Standard boilers have an open combustion chamber, having maximum energy efficiency
above 80 %, because of the comparatively high flue gas losses. Due to very simple design of
combustion process automation system they can have higher emissions of CO and VOC in
comparison to larger boilers and industrial installations.
Condensing boilers (room-sealed boilers)
These devices recover more heat from the exhaust gases by condensing moisture released in
the combustion process and can operate with efficiency more than 90 %. Condensing boilers
are also available for oil-firing boilers.
2.2.1.5
Cooking
Domestic cooking using solid fuel
These appliances are usually made of iron or steel and the combustion chamber is often
covered with fire bricks; modern devices may incorporate a hot-water boiler for indirect
heating of a dwelling. Their combustion efficiency ranges from 50 to 70 % depending on the
type and quality of the installation and also the operation mode. Their autonomy is a few
hours. Pollutant emissions are quite high in old installations, while in the most recent ones, the
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Small combustion
use of secondary or tertiary air allows a better combustion control. Solid fuel barbecues
(outdoor cooking including ‘disposable’ single use barbecue packs) are used seasonally.
Cooking using gas
Gas-fired units are widely used in the residential sector. These comprise hobs (including
heating rings for pots) and ovens. Outdoor cooking uses bottled gas (LPG).
2.2.1.6
Outdoor heating and other combustion
Residential and commercial use of outdoor heating has increased in some countries in recent years
through the use of gas-fired patio heaters and similar devices. Traditional solid fuel fire pits and
chimney devices are also relevant.
Combustion appliances are used to heat stones used in saunas in Scandinavia.
2.2.2
2.2.2.1
Non-residential heating (1.A.4.a, 1.A.4.c, 1.A.5.a)
Boilers with indicative capacity between 50 kW and 50 MWth
Boilers of such a capacity are used for heating in multi-residential houses, office, school, hospital
and apartment blocks and are most commonly found small sources in commercial and institutional
sector as well as in agriculture. The largest units are more likely to be associated with other NFR
sectors but are included for convenience.
Solid fuel boilers
Fixed and moving bed combustion technology is commonly used for combustion of solid fuels in
this capacity range. This is a well-established technology, and a great variety of fixed-bed layer
and moving layer boilers (travelling grate combustion, stokers) are in use. In addition to fixed bed
combustion, fluidised bed combustion boilers are in use in this capacity range, frequently for
biomass combustion.
Installations are differentiated into two main subgroups:
•
manually fuelled
•
automatically fuelled.
Manual feed boilers
Due to economical and technical reasons manual-fired boilers usually have a capacity lower than
1 MWth.
Coal/wood boilers
Manually fed boilers in this capacity range apply two combustion techniques, under-fire and
upper-fire, similar as in boilers of lower capacity range (see subsection 2.2.1.4 of the present
chapter).
•
Overfeed boilers, under-fire boilers: coal fuels of different grain size (usually between
5 mm and 40 mm) or lump wood are used in this type of installations. Their thermal
efficiency ranges from 60 % to 80 % and depends on the air distribution into
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Small combustion
•
primary/secondary system and secondary sub-chamber design. The emissions of
pollutants, i.e. CO, NMVOC, TSP and PAH resulting from incomplete combustion are
generally high.
Overfeed boilers, upper-fire boilers: fine coal, or mixture of fine coal with biomass chips,
which are periodically moved into combustion chamber are used in this type of boilers.
The ignition is started from the top of the fuel charge. Their efficiency ranges from 75 %
to 80 %. The emissions of pollutants of TSP, CO, NMVOC, PAH are lower in
comparison to overfeed boilers due to different combustion process organization, which is
similar to stoker combustion.
Both the under-fire and upper-fire boilers in this capacity range have better organisation of the
combustion air compared with the ones used in single households.
Biomass/straw boilers
Overfeed boilers, biomass/straw fixed grate boilers are developed and applied for straw and cereal
bale combustion. The straw bales are fed to the combustion chamber by hand. Due to the very fast
combustion of this type of biomass, such installations contain a hot-water accumulation system.
For this reason they are used only in small-scale applications up to a nominal boiler capacity of
1,5 MWth. They are popular in the agricultural regions due to their relatively low costs and simple
maintenance.
Automatic feed boilers
The automatic feed boilers usually have a capacity above 1 MWth, but nowadays also lower
capacity boilers are equipped with automatic feeding (including residential units). In addition,
these installations have, in general, better control of the combustion process compared with
manually fed ones. They typically require fuels of standardised and stable quality. These
installations might also have particulate abatement equipment.
Moving bed (GF) combustion is commonly classified according to the way in which fuel is fed to
the grate, as spreader stokers, overfeed stokers, and underfeed stokers.
Coal of smaller granulation or fine wood (e.g. wood pellet, chips or sawdust) is charged on a
mechanical moving grate. The combustion temperatures are between 1 000 °C and 1 300 °C. The
grate-fired installations are also suitable for co-combustion of coal with biomass. General
applications are aimed at production of heat and/or hot water, and/or low-pressure steam for
commercial and institutional users, in particular for district heating. Due to the highly controlled
combustion process of solid fuels in moving-bed techniques and usually fully automatic process
control systems, the emissions of pollutants, resulting from incomplete combustion, is
significantly lower in comparison to manual feed boilers.
Advanced techniques
Underfeed coal/wood boilers; upper-fire burning, stoker boilers, underfeed rotating grate
These are used for both coal and wood combustion. The process principle is combustion in
underfeeding stoker. The fuel with low ash contents (wood chips, sawdust, pellets; particle
sizes up to 50 mm, or coal up to 30 mm) is fed into the combustion chamber through a screw
conveyor and is transported to a retort when is oxidised.
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Small combustion
Cigar straw boiler technology
This is applied for combustion of straw and cereal bales. The fuel bales are automatically
transported to the combustion chamber by a hydraulic piston through an inlet tunnel into the
combustion chamber.
Indirect combustor, gasification of wood biomass
This uses a separate gasification system for the chipped wood fuels, and the subsequent
combustion of the product fuel gases in the gas boiler. An advantage of this technology is a
possibility to use wet wood fuels of varying quality. This technique has low emissions of
pollutants resulting from incomplete combustion of fuels.
Pre-ovens combustion system:
Wood chip combustion installations are used in some countries, especially in the countryside,
heating larger houses and farms. This system contains automatic chips fuel feeding by a screw
and pre-ovens (well-insulated chamber) and could be connected to an existing boiler. Preovens systems apply a fully automatic combustion process and consequently emissions are
low.
Advance automatically stoked wood chip and wood pellet boilers
They generally have a high level of autonomy. Inverted combustion is generally used with
forced draught providing the best performances. The combustion efficiency ranges from 85 to
90 % and the degree of autonomy depends on the degree of automation applied to fuel and ash
handling equipment (ranges from 24 hours to all the heating season).
Fluidised bed combustion
Fluidised bed combustion (FBC) can be divided into bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and circulating
fluidised bed combustion (CFB), depending on the fluidisation velocity. FBC is particularly
suitable for low-quality, high-ash content coal or other ‘difficult’ solid fuels. The FBC is often
used for co-combustion of coal with biomass. There are only few medium size installations of this
type in operation.
Liquid/gas fuels
For gas and oil boilers the fuel and air are introduced as a mixture using dedicated burners in the
combustion chamber. The burners on these small boilers tend to be self-contained units from
specialist manufacturers which are fitted to a boiler.
Boilers fired with gaseous and liquid fuels are produced in a wide range of different designs and
are classified according to burner configuration (injection burner or blow burner), construction
material, the type of medium transferring heat (hot water, steam) and their power, the water
temperature in the water boiler (which can be low temperature ≤ 100 oC, medium-temperature
> 100 oC to ≤ 115 oC, high-temperature > 115 oC), the heat transfer method (water-tube, fire-tube)
and the arrangement of the heat transfer surfaces (horizontal or vertical, straight or bent over
tube).
Cast iron boilers
Produce mainly low-pressure steam or hot water. Typically, they are used in residential and
commercial/institutional sectors up to a nominal boiler capacity of about 1,5 MWth.
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Small combustion
Steel boilers
Manufactured, up to a nominal capacity of 50 MWth, from steel plates and pipes by means of
welding. Their characteristic feature is the multiplicity of their design considering the
orientation of heat transfer surface. The most common are water-tube boilers, fire-tube boilers
and condensing boilers.
Water-tube boilers
Equipped with external steel water jacket. Water-tubes (water flows inside, exhaust gasses
outside) are welded in the walls of the jacket.
Fire-tube boilers
In these boilers combustion gasses flow inside smoke tubes, which are surrounded by water.
They are designed as cylinder or rectangular units.
Furnace-fire-tube boilers made of steel
These devices are produced as the horizontal cylinders. The cylinder made of rolled steel plate
ends at both sides with bottoms. The front bottom in its lower part (under the cylinder axis) is
equipped with a furnace tube, which plays the role of combustion chamber.
Condensing boilers
Partly utilize the latent heat of the water vapour in the flue gases due to its condensation in the
heat exchanger. For that reason their efficiency is higher than for other boiler systems. Their
efficiency is more than 90 %. They could efficiently operate at lower inlet water temperatures.
Besides high efficiency their advantage is also a lower emission of NOX.
2.2.2.2
Cooking
Commercial cooking using solid fuel
The extent of solid fuel use in commercial cooking is not known, but is likely to be in specialised
areas such as bakeries and traditional wood-fired pizza ovens.
Cooking using gas
Gas-fired units are widely used in the commercial sectors. These comprise hobs (including heating
rings for pots) and ovens. Outdoor cooking uses bottled gas (LPG).
2.2.2.3
Space heating (direct heating)
Fireplaces and stoves are residential spaceheaters which may also find use in commercial and
institutional premises. However, larger gas and oil-fired combustion units are used for heating in
the commercial and industrial sectors. Units can be fixed (to ceilings and walls) or semi-portable.
2.2.2.4
Outdoor heating and other combustion
Commercial use of outdoor heating has increased in some countries in recent years through the
use of gas-fired patio heaters and similar devices. Larger hot air furnaces are often used to heat
temporary buildings and marquees.
Combustion appliances are used to heat stones used in saunas in Scandinavia.
Steam cleaning equipment often incorporates an oil burner to provide hot water.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
2.2.2.5
Combined heat and power (CHP)
Requirements to increase the efficiency of the energy transformation and the use of renewable
energy sources have led to the development of small CHP units. Use of steam boiler plus backpressure turbine for electricity generation is the traditional approach and can allow use of biomass
fuels. However, use of small-scale internal combustion cogeneration technology (gas turbine or
stationary engine with heat recovery) is increasingly common. The cogeneration technology can
be applied in comparatively small applications using small gas-fired reciprocating engines, but
large reciprocating engines and gas turbines are also applied. Tri-generation (CHP and cooling) is
also applied using this technology.
There are examples of small-scale wood gasification technology, primarily for waste wood
streams, but also capable of operation on non-waste wood.
2.3 Emissions
Relevant pollutants are SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, PAH,
polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). For solid
fuels, generally the emissions due to incomplete combustion are many times greater in small
appliances than in bigger plants. This is particularly valid for manually-fed appliances and poorly
controlled automatic installations.
For both gaseous and liquid fuels, the emissions of pollutants are not significantly higher in
comparison to industrial scale boilers due to the quality of fuels and design of burners and boilers,
except for gaseous- and liquid-fuelled fireplaces and stoves because of their simple organization
of combustion process. However, ‘ultra-low’ NOx burner technology is available for gas
combustion in larger appliances. In general, gas- and oil-fired installations generate the same type
of pollutants as for solid fuels, but their quantities are significantly lower.
Emissions caused by incomplete combustion are mainly a result of insufficient mixing of
combustion air and fuel in the combustion chamber (local fuel-rich combustion zone), an overall
lack of available oxygen, too low temperature, short residence times and too high radical
concentrations (Kubica, 1997/1 and 2003/1). The following components are emitted to the
atmosphere as a result of incomplete combustion in small combustion installations: CO, PM and
NMVOCs, NH3 , PAHs as well as PCDD/F.
NH3 — small amounts of ammonia may be emitted as a result of incomplete combustion process
of all solid fuels containing nitrogen. This occurs in cases where the combustion temperatures are
very low (fireplaces, stoves, old design boilers). NH3 emissions can generally be reduced by
primary measures aiming to reduce products of incomplete combustion and increase efficiency.
TSP, PM10, PM2.5 — particulate matter in flue gases from combustion of fuels (in particular of
solid mineral fuels and biomass) may be defined as carbon, smoke, soot, stack solid or fly ash.
Emitted particulate matter can be classified into three groups of fuel combustion products.
The first group is formed via gaseous phase combustion or pyrolysis as a result of incomplete
combustion of fuels (the products of incomplete combustion (PIC)): soot and organic carbon
particles (OC) are formed during combustion as well as from gaseous precursors through
nucleation and condensation processes (secondary organic carbon) as a product of aliphatic,
aromatic radical reactions in a flame-reaction zone in the presence of hydrogen and oxygenated
species; CO and some mineral compounds as catalytic species; and VOC, tar/heavy aromatic
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
compounds species as a result of incomplete combustion of coal/biomass
devolatilization/pyrolysis products (from the first combustion step), and secondary sulphuric and
nitric compounds. Condensed heavy hydrocarbons (tar substances) are an important, and in some
cases, the main contributor, to the total level of particles emission in small-scale solid fuels
combustion appliances such as fireplaces, stoves and old design boilers.
The next groups (second and third) may contain ash particles or cenospheres that are largely
produced from mineral matter in the fuel; they contain oxides and salts (S, Cl) of Ca, Mg, Si, Fe,
K, Na, P, heavy metals, and unburned carbon formed from incomplete combustion of
carbonaceous material; black carbon or elemental carbon — BC (Kupiainen, et al., 2004).
Particulate matter emission and size distribution from small installations largely depends on
combustion conditions. Optimization of solid fuel combustion process by introduction of
continuously controlled conditions (automatic fuel feeding, distribution of combustion air) leads to
a decrease of TSP emission and to a change of PM distribution (Kubica, 2002/1 and Kubica et al.,
2004/4). Several studies have shown that the use of modern and ‘low-emitting’ residential biomass
combustion technologies leads to particle emissions dominated by submicron particles (< 1 μm)
and the mass concentration of particles larger than 10 μm is normally < 10 % for small
combustion installations (Boman et al., 2004 and 2005, Hays et al., 2003, Ehrlich et al, 2007).
Note that there are different conventions and standards for measuring particulate emissions.
Particulate emissions can be defined by the measurement technique used including factors such as
the type and temperature of filtration media and whether condensable fractions are measured.
Other potential variations can include the use of manual gravimetric sampling techniques or
aerosol instrumentation. Similarly, particulate emission data determined using methodology based
on a dilution tunnel may differ from emission data determined by a direct extractive measurement
on a stack. These issues in measurement methodology, and hence definition, mean that it can be
difficult to compare reported emission data.
Heavy metals (HM) — the emission of heavy metals strongly depends on their contents in the
fuels. Coal and its derivatives normally contain levels of heavy metals which are several orders of
magnitude higher than in oil (except for Ni and V in heavy oils) and natural gas. All ‘virgin’
biomass also contains heavy metals. Their content depends on the type of biomass.
Most heavy metals considered (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) are usually released as
compounds associated and/or adsorbed with particles (e.g. sulphides, chlorides or organic
compounds). Hg, Se, As and Pb are at least partially present in the vapour phase. Less volatile
metal compounds tend to condensate onto the surface of smaller particles in the exhaust gases.
During the combustion of coal and biomass, particles undergo complex changes, which lead to
vaporization of volatile elements. The rate of volatilization of heavy metal compounds depends on
technology characteristics (type of boilers; combustion temperature) and on fuel characteristics
(their contents of metals, fraction of inorganic species, such as chlorine, calcium, etc.). The
chemical form of the mercury emitted may depend in particular on the presence of chlorine
compounds. The nature of the combustion appliance used and any associated abatement
equipment will also have an effect (Pye et al., 2005/1).
Mercury emitted from small combustion installations (SCIs), similarly to emission from large
scale combustion, occurs in elementary form (elemental mercury vapour Hg0), reactive gaseous
form (reactive gaseous mercury (RGM)) and total particulate form (TPM) (Pacyna et al, 2004).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Meanwhile, it has been shown (Pye et al., 2005) that in the case of SCIs, distribution of particular
species of emitted mercury is different to the one observed under large scale combustion.
Contamination of biomass fuels, such as impregnated or painted wood, may cause significantly
higher amounts of heavy metals emitted (e.g. Cr, As). With the exception of Hg, As, Cd and Pb
(which have a significant volatile component), heavy metals emissions can be reduced by
secondary (particulate) emission reduction measures.
PCDD/F — the emissions of dioxins and furans are highly dependent on the conditions under
which cooling of the combustion and exhaust gases is carried out. Carbon, chlorine, a catalyst and
oxygen excess are necessary for the formation of PCDD/F. They are found to be consequence of
the de-novo synthesis in the temperature interval between 180 oC and 500 oC (Karasek et al.,
1987). Coal-fired stoves in particular were reported to release very high levels of PCDD/F when
using certain kinds of coal (Quass U., et al., 2000). The emission of PCDD/F is significantly
increased when plastic waste is co-combusted in residential appliances or when
contaminated/treated wood is used. The emissions of PCDD/F can be reduced by introduction of
advanced combustion techniques of solid fuels (Kubica, 2003/3).
HCB — emissions of HCB from combustion processes are highly uncertain but, on the whole,
processes resulting in PCDD/F formation lead also to HCB emissions (Kakeraka, 2004).
PAH — emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons results from incomplete (intermediate)
conversion of fuels. Emissions of PAH depend on the combustion process, particularly on the
temperature (too low temperature favourably increases their emission), the residence time in the
reaction zone and the availability of oxygen (Kubica K., 1997/1, 2003/1). It was reported that coal
stoves and old type boilers (hand-fuelled) emit several times higher amounts of PAH in
comparison to new design boilers (capacity below 50 kWth), such as boilers with semi-automatic
feeding (Kubica K., 2003/1, 2002/1,3). Technology of co-combustion of coal and biomass that can
be applied in commercial/institutional and in industrial SCIs leads to reduction of PAH emissions,
as well as TSP, NMVOCs and CO (Kubica et al., 1997/2 and 2004/5).
CO — carbon monoxide is found in gas combustion products of all carbonaceous fuels, as an
intermediate product of the combustion process and in particular for under-stoichiometric
conditions. CO is the most important intermediate product of fuel conversion to CO2; it is oxidized
to CO2 under appropriate temperature and oxygen availability. Thus CO can be considered as a
good indicator of the combustion quality. The mechanisms of CO formation, thermal-NO,
NMVOC and PAH are, in general, similarly influenced by the combustion conditions. The
emissions level is also a function of the excess air ratio as well as of the combustion temperature
and residence time of the combustion products in the reaction zone. Hence, small combustion
installations with automatic feeding (and perhaps oxygen ‘lambda’ sensors) offer favourable
conditions to achieve lower CO emission. For example, the emissions of CO from solid fuelled
small appliances can be several thousand ppm in comparison to 50–100 ppm for industrial
combustion chambers, used in power plants.
NMVOC — for small combustion installations (e.g. residential combustion) emissions of NMVOC
can occur in considerable amounts; these emissions are mostly released from inefficiently working
stoves (e.g. wood-burning stoves). VOC emissions released from wood-fired boilers (0.510 MW)
can be significant. Emissions can be up to ten times higher at 20 % load than those at maximum
load (Gustavsson et al, 1993). NMVOC are all intermediates in the oxidation of fuels. They can
adsorb on, condense, and form particles. Similarly as for CO, emission of NMVOC is a result of
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
low combustion temperature, short residence time in oxidation zone, and/or insufficient oxygen
availability. The emissions of NMVOC tend to decrease as the capacity of the combustion
installation increases, due to the use of advanced techniques, which are typically characterized by
improved combustion efficiency.
Sulphur oxides — in the absence of emission abatement, the emission of SO2 is dependent on the
sulphur content of the fuel. The combustion technology can influence the release of SO2 with (for
solid mineral fuels) higher sulphur retention in ash than is commonly associated with larger
combustion plant.
Nitrogen oxides — emission of NOx is generally in the form of nitric oxide (NO) with a small
proportion present as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Although emissions of NOx are comparatively low
in residential appliances compared to larger furnaces (due in part to lower furnace temperatures),
the proportion of primary NO2 is believed to be higher.
Carbon dioxide — refer to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidance.
Nitrous oxide — refer to IPCC guidance.
Methane — refer to IPCC guidance.
2.4 Controls
Reduction of emissions from combustion process can be achieved by either avoiding formation of
such substances (primary measures) or by removal of pollutants from exhaust gases (secondary
measures).
The key measure for residential appliances is combustion control; emission of PM, CO, NMVOC
and PAH are very dependent on combustion control, and measures to improve this include better
control of temperature, air distribution and fuel quality. A modern enclosed fireplace burning fuel
of the correct quality is less polluting than an open fire.
Primary measures which change appliance population or fuel quality are not directly relevant to
current emissions except for trying to assess how far national or regional policies may have been
implemented. The timing or progress of implementation of national measures for primary
measures is also relevant for projections.
Primary measures: there are several common possibilities (Kubica, 2002/3, Pye et al., 2004):
•
modification of fuels composition and improvement of their quality; preparation and
improvement of quality of solid fuels, in particular of coal (in reference to S, Cl, ash contents,
and fuel size range); modification of the fuels granulation by means of compacting —
briquetting, pelletizing; pre-cleaning — washing; selection of grain size in relation to the
requirements of the heating appliances (stove, boilers) and supervision of its distribution;
partial replacement of coal with biomass (implementation of co-combustion technologies
enabling reduction of SO2, and NOx), application of combustion modifier; catalytic and Ssorbent additives (limestone, dolomite), reduction and modification of the moisture contents
in the fuel, especially in the case of solid biomass fuels;
•
replacing of coal by upgraded solid derived fuel, biomass, oil, gas;
•
control optimization of combustion process;
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
•
management of the combustion appliance population: replacement of low efficiency heating
appliances with newly designed appliances, and supervision of their distribution by obligatory
certification system; supervision over residential and communal system heating;
•
improved construction of the combustion appliances; implementation of advanced
technologies in fire places, stoves and boilers construction (implementation of Best Available
Techniques (BAT) for combustion techniques and good combustion practice).
Co-combustion of coal and biomass that can be applied in commercial/institutional and in
industrial SCIs leads to reduction of TSP and PIC emission, mainly PAHs, NMVOCs and CO,
(Kubica et al., 1997/2 and 2004/5).
Secondary emission reduction measures: for small combustion installations a secondary measure
can be applied to remove emissions, in particular PM. In this way emissions of pollutants linked
with the PM, such as heavy metals, PAHs and PCDD/F can also be significantly reduced due to
their removal together with particulate matter. These measures/controls are characterized by
various dedusting efficiency (Perry at al., 1997 and Bryczkowski at al., 2002) and tend to be
applied in accordance with national emission control requirements which vary considerably. For
particulate matter the following options can be considered:
•
settling chambers: gravity separation characterised by a low collection efficiency and
ineffective for the fine particulate fraction;
•
cyclone separators: commonly applied but have a comparatively low collection efficiency for
fine particles (< 85 %);
•
for higher effectiveness (94–99 %), units with multiple cyclones (cyclone batteries) are
applied, and multi-cyclones allow for increased gas flow rates;
•
electrostatic precipitators (their efficiency is between 99.5 % to 99.9 %) or fabric filters (with
efficiency about 99.9 %) can be applied to the larger facilities.
The range of emission control encompasses manually-fired residential appliances with no control
measures through to large boilers with fabric filters. Although emission control may be limited for
small appliances, automatic biomass heating boilers as small as 100 kW output are commonly
fitted with a cyclone.
Small (residential) wood combustion appliances, stoves in particular, can be equipped with a
catalytic converter in order to reduce emissions caused by incomplete combustion. The catalytic
converter is usually placed inside the flue gas channel beyond the main combustion chamber.
When the flue gas passes through catalytic combustor, some pollutants are oxidized. The catalyst
efficiency of emission reduction depends on the catalyst material, its construction (active surface),
the conditions of flue gases flow inside converter (temperature, flow pattern, residence time,
homogeneity, type of pollutants). For wood stoves with forced draught, equipped with catalytic
converter (Hustad, et al., 1995) the efficiency of emission reduction of pollutants is as follows: CO
70–93 %, CH4 29–77 %, other hydrocarbons more than 80 %, PAH 43–80 % and tar 56–60 %.
Reduction of CO emissions from stoves equipped with catalytic converter is significant in
comparison to an advanced downdraught staged-air wood stove under similar operating conditions
(Skreiberg, 1994). However, the catalysts needs frequent inspection and cleaning. The lifetime of
a catalyst in a wood stove with proper maintenance is usually about 10 000 hours. Modern wood
appliances are generally not fitted with catalytic control systems.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
FBC furnaces can incorporate lime injection into the combustion bed to capture SO2.
3 Methods
3.1 Choice of method
Figure 3-1 presents the procedure to select the methods for estimating process emissions from the
relevant activities. The main ideas behind the decision tree are:
•
if detailed information is available, use it.
If the source category is a key source, a Tier 2 or better method must be applied and detailed input
data must be collected. The decision tree directs the user in such cases to the Tier 2 method, since
it is expected that it is easier to obtain the necessary input data for this approach than to collect
facility level or appliance data needed for a Tier 3 estimate.
Start
Are all single
sources in the source
category Measured
/reported?
Yes
Use Tier 3
Facility data
only
No
Use measurements Tier
3 approach and
combine with country
specific EFs from Tier 2.
Yes
Is specific fuel
use data available
for the source
No
Is a detailed
estimation model
available?
Yes
Can modelled fuel
consumption be reconciled
with national fuel statistics
from independent
sources?
Yes
Use model Tier 3
approach
No
No
Yes
Key source?
Get
technology stratified
activity data
and EFs
Use Tier 2
technology specific
activity data
and EFs
No
Apply Tier 1
default EFs
Figure 3-1
Decision tree for source category 1.A.4 Small combustion
Note that for the combustion activities in this chapter it is unlikely that a facility-specific approach
could be adopted because detailed information on individual installations is unlikely to be
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
available. However, modelling of the NFR sector and appliance population is consistent with a
Tier 3 approach.
3.2 Tier 1 default approach
3.2.1
Algorithm
The Tier 1 approach for process emissions from small combustion installations uses the general
equation:
E pollutant = AR fuelconsumption × EFpollutant
(1)
where:
Epollutant
= the emission of the specified pollutant,
ARfuelconsumption = the activity rate for fuel consumption,
EFpollutant
= the emission factor for this pollutant.
This equation is applied at the national level, using annual national fuel consumption for small
combustion installations in various activities.
In cases where specific abatement options are to be taken into account, a Tier 1 method is not
applicable and a Tier 2 or, if practical, Tier 3 approach must be used.
3.2.2
Default emission factors
Factors are provided for major fuel classifications and applying a distinction between residential
and non-residential (institutional, commercial, agricultural and other) activities which can have
significantly different emission characteristics.
Table 3-1
Summary of Tier 1 emission factor categories
Activity
Application
1.A.4.b Residential combustion
Hard coal, brown coal, natural gas, other
liquid fuels, biomass
1.A.4.a/c, 1.A.5.a Non-residential
Hard coal, brown coal, natural gas, heavy
(institutional, commercial, agricultural and other)
fuel oils, other liquid fuels, biomass
The general Tier 1 fuel types are provided in Table 3-2. The hard and brown coal types are treated
as one fuel type. Liquid fuels (heavy fuel oil and other liquid fuel) are treated as one fuel type.
Similarly, natural gas and derived gases are treated as one fuel type at Tier 1.
Where ‘Guidebook 2006’ is referenced in the tables, the emissions factor is taken from chapter
B216 of the 2006 Guidebook. The original reference could not be determined and the factor
represents an expert judgement based on the available data.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-2
Summary of Tier 1 fuels
Tier 1 Fuel type
Associated fuel types
Hard coal
Coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, coke, manufactured ‘patent’ fuel
Brown coal
Lignite, oil shale, manufactured ‘patent’ fuel, peat
Natural gas
Natural gas
Derived gases
Gas works gas, coke oven gas, blast furnace gas
Heavy fuel oil
Residual fuel oil, refinery feedstock, petroleum coke
Other liquid fuels
Gas oil, kerosene, naphtha, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, orimulsion,
bitumen, shale oil, refinery gas
Biomass
Wood, charcoal, vegetable (agricultural) waste
Default Tier 1 emission factors are provided in Table 3-3 to Table 3-10.
3.2.2.1
Residential combustion (1.A.4.b)
Table 3-3
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.b, using hard coal and brown
coal
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
Not applicable
Hard Coal and Brown Coal
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Total 4 PAHs
Not estimated
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
NH3
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
110
4600
484
900
0.3
444
404
398
130
1.5
5.1
2.5
11.2
22.3
12.7
1
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
36
3000
250
300
0.1
80
76
72
100
0.5
3
1.5
10
20
10
1
200
7000
840
1000
7
600
480
480
200
3
6
5
15
30
20
2.4
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
220
170
800
230
330
130
110
0.62
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
120
85
300
60
102
60
48
0.31
300
260
1200
300
480
180
144
1.2
Unit
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
Reference
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Expert judgement based on
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Note:
900 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 1.2 % S of coal fuel of lower heating value on a dry basis 24 GJ/t and
average sulphur retention in ash as value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
Table 3-4
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.b, using natural gas (and
derived gases)
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
Not applicable
Natural Gas
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Not estimated
Pollutant
Value
Unit
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
57
31
10.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.984
0.515
0.234
0.0937
0.656
0.398
0.984
0.0112
13.6
0.5
0.562
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
µg/GJ
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
25
18
6
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.492
0.172
0.0781
0.0312
0.219
0.199
0.492
0.00375
4.53
0.3
0.187
200
70
28
0.7
0.75
0.75
0.75
1.97
1.55
0.703
0.281
1.97
0.796
1.97
0.0337
40.7
1
0.562
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Reference
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
Note:
Concerning the respective heating value used to convert US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) factors,
the USEPA quotes higher heating value (HHV) = 1 020 MMBtu/MM scf; derived lower heating value (LHV) =
920 MMBTU/MM scf (90 % of HHV). The derivation calculations are based on 1 lb/MMscf being equivalent to
0.468 g/GJ (LHV) (note 1 MM= 1x 106).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
22
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-5
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.b, using other liquid fuels
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Name
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
'Other' Liquid Fuels
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Se, Total 4 PAHs
Value
68
46
15.5
140
6
3.7
3.7
15.5
1.5
0.03
0.9
15.5
7.9
240
8.5
10
22
25.7
12.5
14.8
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
30
30
10
70
3
2
2
3
0.2
0.015
0.3
3
1.5
80
3
5
5
5
3
2
80
120
30
210
18
12
12
24
2.4
0.045
1.2
24
12
350
12
15
60
75
40
50
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
140 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 0.3 % S of liquid fuel of lower heating value 42 GJ/t. Because the
sulphur content of liquid fuels is defined also by national regulations, compilers of the emission inventory should
consider the national standards for sulphur content as well as information on average sulphur content on the
market, if available.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
23
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-6
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.b, using biomass
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Biomass
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
NH3
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
74.5
5300
925
20
3.8
730
695
695
40
1.4
0.5
1
2.9
8.6
4.4
0.5
130
0.06
700
210
220
130
140
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
30
4000
400
10
3.04
500
475
475
10
0.1
0.2
0.3
1
0.5
1
0.25
60
0.012
500
130
150
60
80
3
150
6500
1500
30
14
1260
1200
1190
60
2.5
0.6
2.5
10
11.2
250
0.75
250
0.3
1000
300
260
180
200
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
24
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
3.2.2.2
Non-residential combustion (1.A.4.a, 1.A.4.c, 1.A.5)
Table 3-7
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.a/c, 1.A.5.a, using hard and
brown coal
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
Hard Coal and Brown Coal
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Value
173
931
88.8
900
124
117
108
134
1.8
7.9
4
13.5
17.5
13
1.8
200
170
203
45.5
58.9
23.7
18.5
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
150
150
10
450
70
60
60
50
0.2
5
0.2
0.5
5
0.5
0.2
50
85
40
10
10
8
5
0.31
200
2000
300
1000
250
240
220
300
5
10
8
20
50
30
3
500
260
500
150
180
100
80
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
900 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 1.2 % S of coal fuel of lower heating value on a dry basis 24 GJ/t and
average sulphur retention in ash as value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
25
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-8
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.a/c, 1.A.5.a, using gaseous
fuels
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
Gaseous Fuels
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Value
Unit
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
70
25
2.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.984
0.515
0.234
0.0937
0.656
0.398
0.984
0.0112
13.6
2
0.562
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
µg/GJ
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
35
20
2
0.05
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.492
0.172
0.0781
0.0312
0.219
0.199
0.492
0.00375
100
1
0.187
200
30
3
1
2
2
2
1.97
1.55
0.703
0.281
1.97
0.796
1.97
0.0337
240
3
0.562
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
26
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-9
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.a/c, 1.A.5.a, using liquid
fuels
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
Liquid Fuels
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Se, Total 4 PAHs
Value
100
40
10
140
27.5
21.5
16.5
16
0.3
0.1
1
12.8
7.2
260
8
10
5.2
6.2
4
2.2
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
50
20
5
20
5
3
3
10
0.15
0.05
0.5
2
3
200
5
5
1
2
1
1
150
60
15
500
50
40
30
20
0.45
0.15
1.5
20
10
300
10
15
8
9
6
3
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
See note
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
140 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 0.3 % S of liquid fuel of lower heating value 42 GJ/t. Because the
sulphur content of liquid fuels is defined also by national regulations, compilers of the emission inventory should
consider the national standards for sulphur content as well as information on average sulphur content on the
market, if available.
Sulphur emission factor can be calculated from fuel sulphur content. Emission factor range provided corresponds
to approximately 0.05 to 1 % sulphur content.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
27
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-10
Tier 1 emission factors for NFR source category 1.A.4.a/c, 1.A.5.a, using biomass
Tier 1 default emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
150
1600
146
38.4
156
150
149
24.8
1.8
0.7
1.4
6.5
4.6
2
0.5
114
0.06
326
44.6
64.9
23.4
22.3
6
3.2.3
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
Biomass
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
90
200
10
20
60
50
50
5
0.1
0.4
0.25
1
1
0.1
0.1
1
0.012
30
10
10
5
2
3
300
4500
450
50
250
240
240
30
3
1.5
2
10
5
300
2
150
0.3
500
100
120
40
60
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Activity data
Information on the use of energy suitable for estimating emissions using the Tier 1 simpler
estimation methodology, is available from national statistics agencies or the International Energy
Agency (IEA).
Further guidance is provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories, Volume 2 on Stationary combustion www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/2_Volume2/V2_2_Ch2_Stationary_Combustion.pdf
The activity rate and the emission factor have to be determined on the same level of aggregation
depending on the availability of data. The activity statistic should be determined within the
considered country or region by using adequate statistics. The activity should refer to the energy
input of the emission sources considered (net or inferior fuel consumption in [GJ]).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
28
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
3.3 Tier 2 technology-specific approach
3.3.1
Algorithm
The Tier 2 approach is similar to the Tier 1 approach, using activity data and emission factors to
estimate the emissions. The main difference is that the detailed methodology requires more fuel,
technology and country-specific information. Development of the detailed methodology has to be
focused to the combinations of the main installation types/fuels used in the country.
The annual emission is determined by an activity data and an emission factor:
Ei = ∑ EFi , j ,k ⋅ A j ,k ,
(1)
j ,k
where
Ei
= annual emission of pollutant i,
EFi , j ,k
= default emission factor of pollutant i for source type j and fuel k,
A j ,k
= annual consumption of fuel k in source type j.
For example, the sources may be characterised as:
•
residential heating : fire places, water heaters, stoves, boilers, cookers;
•
non-residential heating : space heating, boilers;
•
CHP.
The non-residential activities need to be apportioned to the appropriate NFR activity sectors.
3.3.2
Technology-specific emission factors
The detailed methodology envisages the use of default emission factors for different types of fuel
and combustion appliance technology and these are summarised in Table 3-11. These factors can
be used with knowledge of equipment populations and sectors to develop aggregate factors or
emissions for the NFR subsectors.
The development of national emission factors should consider the combination of installation
types and fuels in the country and, where relevant, emission controls. When deriving specific
emission factors, the emphasis has to be given to taking into account start-up emissions. These
could, especially in the case of stoves and solid fuel small boilers, significantly influence the
emissions of the total combustion cycle.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
29
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-11 Tier 2 emission factor summary
Activities
Fuels
Residential (1.A.4.b < 50 kW):
Fireplace/sauna/outdoor
Hard and brown coal, biomass
Stoves
Hard and brown coal, biomass, gas,
oil
Water heaters/boilers
Hard and brown coal, biomass, gas,
oil
Non-residential (1.A.4.a/c, 1.A.5.a > 50 kW to 50 MW):
Boilers
Hard and brown coal, biomass, heavy
fuel oil, gas
CHP (< 50 MW):
Gas, gas oil
Gas turbines
Reciprocating engines
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
30
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
3.3.2.1
Residential heating technologies (1.A.4.b)
Table 3-12
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, fireplaces burning solid fuel
(except biomass)
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Solid Fuel (not biomass)
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Fireplaces, Saunas and Outdoor Heaters
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
NH3
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
60
5000
600
500
5
350
330
330
100
0.5
3
1.5
10
20
10
1
200
170
500
100
170
100
80
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
36
3000
360
300
3
210
198
198
60
0.3
1.8
0.9
6
12
6
0.6
120
85
300
60
102
60
48
0.31
84
7000
840
700
7
490
462
462
140
0.7
4.2
2.1
14
28
14
1.4
280
260
700
140
238
140
112
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
500 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide is equivalent to 0.8 % S of coal fuels of lower heating value of fuel on a dry basis
29 GJ/t and an average sulphur retention in ash value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
31
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-13
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, fireplaces burning gaseous
fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Gaseous Fuels
020205
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
Fireplaces, Saunas and Outdoor Heaters
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
Unit
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCDD/F
50
50
20
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.984
0.515
0.234
0.0937
0.656
0.398
0.984
0.0112
13.6
1.5
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
Benzo(a)pyrene
0.562
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
Reference
30
30
12
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.492
0.172
0.0781
0.0312
0.219
0.199
0.492
0.00375
4.53
0.9
70
70
28
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.97
1.55
0.703
0.281
1.97
0.796
1.97
0.0337
40.7
2.1
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
UNEP (2005)
µg/GJ
0.187
0.562
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
32
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-14
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, fireplaces burning biomass
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Biomass
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Fireplaces, Saunas and Outdoor Heaters
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
NH3
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
50
6000
1300
10
10
900
860
850
40
2
0.4
0.5
1
8
2
0.5
100
0.06
800
180
180
100
140
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
30
4000
780
6
6
540
516
510
24
1.2
0.24
0.3
0.6
4.8
1.2
0.3
60
0.012
500
130
150
60
84
3
70
6500
1500
14
14
1260
1200
1190
56
2.8
0.56
0.7
1.4
11.2
2.8
0.7
140
0.3
1000
300
260
140
180
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
33
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-15
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, stoves burning solid fuel
(except biomass)
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Solid Fuel (not biomass)
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Stoves
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
100
5000
600
900
500
450
450
100
1
5
1.5
10
20
10
2
200
170
1000
250
400
150
120
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
60
3000
360
540
240
228
216
60
0.6
3
0.9
6
12
6
1.2
120
85
300
150
150
60
54
0.31
150
7000
840
1000
600
480
480
240
3.6
7.2
6
18
36
24
2.4
360
260
1200
324
480
180
144
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
34
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-16
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, boilers burning solid fuel
(except biomass)
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Solid Fuel (not biomass)
Not estimated
Small (single household scale, capacity <=50 kWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
130
4000
300
900
400
380
360
200
3
6
5
15
30
20
2
300
170
500
270
250
100
90
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
60
3000
250
540
240
228
216
60
0.6
3
0.9
6
12
6
1.2
120
85
300
150
150
60
54
0.31
150
7000
840
1000
600
462
462
240
3.6
7.2
6
18
36
24
2.4
360
260
1200
324
480
180
144
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
35
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-17
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, stoves burning wood and
similar wood waste
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Wood and similar wood waste
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Stoves
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
NH3
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
50
6000
1200
10
5
850
810
810
40
1
0.4
0.5
2
8
2
0.5
100
0.06
800
250
240
150
180
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
30
4000
720
6
3.8
510
486
486
24
0.6
0.24
0.3
1.2
4.8
1.2
0.3
60
0.012
500
150
180
90
108
3
150
6500
1500
40
7
1190
1130
1130
56
2.5
0.56
2.5
2.8
11.2
2.8
0.7
250
0.3
1000
300
260
180
200
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
36
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-18
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, boilers burning wood and
similar wood waste
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Wood and similar wood waste
Not estimated
Small (single household scale, capacity <=50 kWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
NH3
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
120
4000
400
30
3.8
500
475
475
40
2
0.6
2
5
10
10
0.5
200
0.06
500
130
200
100
80
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
I-Teq ng/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
30
3000
300
6
3.04
400
450
450
24
0.6
0.24
0.3
1.2
4.8
1.2
0.3
60
0.012
400
100
150
80
50
3
150
6500
1500
40
14
1190
1130
1130
56
2.5
1
2.5
6
11.2
15
0.7
250
0.3
1000
300
260
180
180
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
37
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-19
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, stoves burning natural gas
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Natural Gas
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Stoves
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
Unit
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCDD/F
50
30
10
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.984
0.515
0.234
0.0937
0.656
0.398
0.984
0.0112
13.6
1.5
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
Benzo(a)pyrene
0.562
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
Reference
25
18
6
0.05
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.492
0.172
0.0781
0.0312
0.219
0.199
0.492
0.00375
4.53
0.8
200
42
14
1
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.97
1.55
0.703
0.281
1.97
0.796
1.97
0.0337
40.7
2.3
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
UNEP (2005)
µg/GJ
0.187
0.562
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
38
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-20
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, boilers burning natural gas
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Natural Gas
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Small (single household scale, capacity <=50 kWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
Pollutant
Value
Unit
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCDD/F
70
30
10
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.984
0.515
0.234
0.0937
0.656
0.398
0.984
0.0112
13.6
1.5
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
Benzo(a)pyrene
0.562
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
Reference
35
18
6
0.05
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.492
0.172
0.0781
0.0312
0.219
0.199
0.492
0.00375
4.53
0.8
200
42
14
1
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.97
1.55
0.703
0.281
1.97
0.796
1.97
0.0337
40.7
2.3
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
UNEP (2005)
µg/GJ
0.187
0.562
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
39
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-21
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, stoves burning liquid fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Liquid Fuels
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Stoves
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Se, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Value
50
100
20
140
15
10
10
5
0.3
0.03
0.5
5
3
100
5
10
50
60
30
40
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
30
40
15
25
5
3
3
3
0.2
0.024
0.3
3
1.5
80
3
8
10
11
5
4
80
120
30
168
18
12
12
24
2.4
0.036
1.2
24
12
350
12
12
60
75
40
50
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216 + see
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
140 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 0.3 % S of liquid fuel of lower heating value 42 GJ/t. Emission factor
range provided corresponds to about 0.05 to about 1 % sulphur content.
Because the sulphur content of liquid fuels is defined also by national regulations, compilers of the emission
inventory should consider the national standards for sulphur content as well as information on average sulphur
content on the market, if available.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
40
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-22
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, boilers burning liquid fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Liquid Fuels
Not estimated
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Small (single household scale, capacity <=50 kWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Se, Total 4 PAHs
Value
70
40
15
140
5
3
3
20
2
0.03
1
20
10
300
10
10
10
11
5
4
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
50
30
10
25
3
2
2
5
0.3
0.024
0.5
5
3
100
5
8
5
5
3
2
80
120
30
168
18
12
12
24
2.4
0.036
1.2
24
12
350
12
12
60
75
40
50
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216 + see
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
140 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 0.3 % S of liquid fuel of lower heating value 42 GJ/t. Emission factor
range provided corresponds to about 0.05 to about 1 % sulphur content.
Because the sulphur content of liquid fuels is defined also by national regulations, compilers of the emission
inventory should consider the national standards for sulphur content as well as information on average sulphur
content on the market, if available.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
41
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-23 Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, advanced stoves burning coal
fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Coal Fuels
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Advanced coal combustion techniques <1MWth - Advanced stove
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
150
2000
300
450
250
240
220
100
1
5
1.5
10
15
10
2
200
170
500
150
180
100
80
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
50
200
20
300
80
76
72
80
0.5
3
1
5
10
5
1
120
85
40
13
17
8
6
0.31
200
3000
400
900
260
250
230
200
3
9
5
15
30
20
2.4
300
260
600
180
200
150
100
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
450 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide is equivalent to 0.6 % S of coal fuel of lower heating value on a dry basis, 24 GJ/t and
average sulphur retention in ash value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
42
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-24
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, advanced fireplaces burning
wood
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Wood
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Advanced wood combustion techniques <1MW - Advanced fireplaces
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
90
4500
450
20
250
240
240
30
1
0.4
0.5
8
2
2
0.5
80
0.06
300
100
90
40
60
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
50
300
20
15
70
66
65
20
0.5
0.2
0.3
1
1
0.1
0.25
60
0.012
30
12
14
8
6
3
150
5000
500
50
260
250
250
60
2.5
0.6
2.5
10
11.2
200
0.75
250
0.3
500
150
120
50
80
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
43
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-25
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, advanced stoves burning wood
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Wood
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Advanced wood combustion techniques <1MW - Advanced stoves
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
90
3000
250
20
250
240
240
30
1
0.4
0.5
8
2
2
0.5
80
0.06
300
100
90
40
60
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
50
300
20
15
70
66
65
20
0.5
0.2
0.3
1
1
1
0.25
60
0.012
30
12
14
8
6
3
150
5000
500
50
260
250
250
60
2.5
0.6
2.5
10
11.2
200
0.75
250
0.3
500
150
120
50
80
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
44
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-26
Tier 2 emission factors for source category 1.A.4.b.i, pellet stoves burning wood
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
Name
NFR Source Category
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Wood
Residential - Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...)
020205
Advanced wood combustion techniques <1MW - Pellet stoves
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
Not estimated
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
Value
90
500
20
20
80
76
76
20
0.5
0.4
0.5
3
1
2
0.5
80
0.06
50
50
15
16
10
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
50
300
10
15
70
66
65
10
0.1
0.2
0.3
1
0.5
1
0.25
60
0.012
30
12
14
8
6
3
150
5000
500
50
250
240
240
60
2.5
0.6
2.5
10
11.2
200
0.75
250
0.3
500
100
120
40
60
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
45
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
3.3.2.2
Non-residential heating (1.A.4.a, 1.A.4.c, 1.A.5.a)
Table 3-27
Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, medium-size (> 50 kWth to
≤ 1 MWth) boilers burning coal fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.c.i
Stationary
Coal Fuels
Medium size (>50 kWth to <=1 MWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
160
2000
200
900
200
190
170
200
3
7
5
15
30
20
2
300
170
400
100
130
50
40
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
150
200
20
450
80
76
72
80
1
5
0.5
1
8
2
0.5
100
85
40
13
17
8
6
0.31
200
3000
300
1000
250
240
220
300
5
9
8
20
50
30
3
500
260
500
150
180
100
80
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
900 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 1.2 % S of coal fuel of lower heating value on a dry basis, 24 GJ/t and
average sulphur retention in ash as value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
46
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-28
Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, medium-size (> 1 MWth to
≤ 50 MWth) boilers burning coal fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.c.i
Stationary
Coal Fuels
Medium size (>1 MWth to <=50 MWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Value
180
200
20
900
80
76
72
100
1
9
4
15
10
10
2
150
170
100
13
17
9
6
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
150
150
10
450
70
60
60
80
0.5
5
0.5
1
8
2
0.5
100
85
40
10
10
8
5
0.31
200
3000
300
1000
250
240
220
200
3
10
5
20
30
20
3
300
260
500
150
180
100
80
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
900 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 1.2 % S of coal fuel of lower heating value on a dry basis, 24 GJ/t and
average sulphur retention in ash as value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
47
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-29 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, manual boilers burning coal fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.c.i
Stationary
Coal Fuels
Advanced coal combustion techniques <1MWth - Manual Boiler
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
200
1500
100
450
150
140
130
150
2
6
4
10
15
15
2
200
170
200
90
110
50
40
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
150
200
20
300
80
76
72
80
1
5
0.5
1
8
2
0.5
100
85
40
13
17
8
6
0.31
300
3000
300
900
250
240
220
200
3
9
5
15
30
20
3
300
260
500
150
180
100
80
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
450 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 0.6 % S of coal fuel of lower heating value on a dry basis, 24 GJ/t and
average sulphur retention in ash as value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
48
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-30
Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, automatic boilers burning coal
fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.c.i
Stationary
Coal Fuels
Advanced coal combustion techniques <1MWth - Automatic Boiler
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Value
200
400
20
450
80
76
72
80
2
8
0.5
1
8
2
0.5
100
170
40
17
18
8
7
0.62
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
150
200
10
400
70
60
60
50
0.2
5
0.2
0.5
5
0.5
0.2
50
85
20
13
17
5
6
0.31
300
3000
300
1000
250
240
220
300
5
10
8
20
50
30
3
500
260
500
150
180
100
80
1.2
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Note:
450 g/GJ of sulphur dioxide corresponds to 0.6 % S of coal fuel of lower heating value on a dry basis, 24 GJ/t and
average sulphur retention in ash as value of 0.1.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
49
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-31 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, manual boilers burning wood
Tier 2 emission factors
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Code
Name
1.A.4.a.i
1.A.4.c.i
Wood
Commercial / institutional: stationary
Stationary
Advanced wood combustion techniques <1MW - Manual Boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
150
3000
250
20
80
76
76
10
0.3
0.5
1
2
3
200
0.5
5
0.06
300
50
60
20
20
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
90
300
20
15
70
66
65
5
0.1
0.4
0.25
1
1
0.1
0.1
1
0.012
30
12
14
8
6
3
200
5000
500
50
250
240
240
30
2
0.8
2
10
5
250
2
150
0.3
500
150
120
50
80
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
50
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-32 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, automatic boilers burning wood
Tier 2 emission factors
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCB
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
HCB
Code
Name
1.A.4.a.i
1.A.4.c.i
Wood
Commercial / institutional: stationary
Stationary
Advanced wood combustion techniques <1MW - Automatic Boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Value
150
300
20
20
70
66
66
20
0.5
0.6
0.5
4
2
2
0.5
80
0.06
30
12
14
8
6
6
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
90
200
10
15
60
50
50
10
0.3
0.4
0.25
2
1
0.1
0.1
5
0.012
20
10
10
5
2
3
200
5000
500
50
250
240
240
30
2
0.8
2
10
5
200
2
150
0.3
500
150
120
50
80
9
Reference
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
Kakareka et. al (2004)
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/CORINAIR B216
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
51
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-33 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, medium-sized (> 50 kWth to
≤ 1 MWth) boilers burning natural gas
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.c.i
Stationary
Natural Gas
Medium size (>50 kWth to <=1 MWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
Unit
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
70
30
3
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.98
0.52
0.23
0.094
0.66
0.4
0.984
0.011
13.6
2
0.562
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
µg/GJ
35
18
1.8
0.05
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.49
0.17
0.078
0.031
0.22
0.2
0.492
0.0037
4.5
1
0.187
200
42
4.2
1
0.7
0.7
0.7
2
1.5
0.7
0.28
2
0.8
1.97
0.034
41
3
0.561
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Reference
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
52
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-34 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, medium sized (> 1 MWth to
≤ 50 MWth) boilers burning natural gas
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.c.i
Stationary
Natural Gas
Medium size (>1 MWth to <=50 MWth) boilers
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
Unit
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
PCDD/F
Benzo(a)pyrene
70
20
2
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.98
0.52
0.23
0.094
0.66
0.4
0.984
0.011
13.6
2
0.562
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
ng I-TEQ/GJ
µg/GJ
35
12
1.2
0.05
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.49
0.17
0.078
0.031
0.22
0.2
0.492
0.0037
4.5
1
0.187
200
28
2.8
1
0.7
0.7
0.7
2
1.5
0.7
0.28
2
0.8
1.97
0.034
41
3
0.562
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Reference
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
Guidebook (2006) chapter B216
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
53
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-35 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, gas turbines burning natural gas
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Pollutant
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Natural Gas
020104
Comm./instit. - Stationary gas turbines
Gas Turbines
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, PCDD/F, Total 4 PAHs
Value
Unit
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
Benzo(a)pyrene
153
39.2
1
0.281
0.908
0.908
0.908
0.234
0.515
0.1
0.0937
0.656
0.398
0.984
0.0112
13.6
0.562
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
µg/GJ
92
24
0.3
0.169
0.454
0.454
0.454
0.0781
0.172
0.05
0.0312
0.219
0.199
0.492
0.00375
4.53
0.187
245
63
3
0.393
1.82
1.82
1.82
0.703
1.55
0.15
0.281
1.97
0.796
1.97
0.0337
40
0.562
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.843
µg/GJ
0.281
0.843
Reference
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
van der Most & Veldt 1992
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
US EPA 1998, chapter 1.4 "Less
than value" based on method
detection limits
Notes:
1. Concerning the respective heating value used to convert USEPA factors, the USEPA quotes higher heating
value (HHV) = 1020 MMBtu/MM scf; derived lower heating value (LHV) = 920 MMBTU/MM scf (90 % of
HHV). The derivation calculations are based on 1 lb/MMscf being equivalent to 0.468 g/GJ (LHV) (note
1 MM= 1x 106).
2. The SO2 emission factor refers to USEPA 1998 and not USEPA 2000, as this former factor was considered to
more consistent with the other USEPA factors for natural gas.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
54
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-36 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, gas turbines burning gas oil
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Gas Oil
Comm./instit. - Stationary gas turbines
020104
Gas Turbines
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, As, Cu, Ni, Se, Zn, PCDD/F, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene,
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
Cr
398
1.49
0.19
46.1
3
3
3
6.34
2.17
0.543
4.98
Unit
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
239
0.89
0.11
4.61
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.11
0.723
0.181
1.66
557
2.09
0.26
460
6
6
6
19
6.51
1.63
14.9
Reference
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
See Note
Rubenstein (2003)
Rubenstein (2003)
Rubenstein (2003)
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
US EPA 2000, chapter 3.1
Note:
Factor for SO2 assumes no SO2 abatement and is based on 0.1 % mass sulphur content.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
55
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-37
Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, reciprocating engines burning
gas fuels
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Gas fuel (includes dual fuel 95% gas + 5% gas oil)
020105
Comm./instit. - Stationary engines
Stationary reciprocating Engines - gas-fired, includes dual fuel
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, PCDD/F, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
NOx
1420
g/GJ
708
2120
CO
407
g/GJ
204
611
NMVOC
46
g/GJ
23
69
0.281
1.5
g/GJ
g/GJ
0.169
0.01
0.393
20
PM10
1.5
g/GJ
0.01
20
PM2.5
1.5
g/GJ
0.01
20
SOx
TSP
Unit
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
Benzo(a)pyrene
0.234
0.515
0.1
0.0937
0.656
0.398
0.984
0.0112
13.6
0.0027
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
0.0781
0.172
0.05
0.0312
0.219
0.199
0.492
0.00375
4.53
0.00135
0.703
1.55
0.15
0.281
1.97
0.796
1.97
0.0337
40.7
0.00405
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
0.018
mg/GJ
0.009
0.027
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.002
mg/GJ
0.001
0.003
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.0047
mg/GJ
0.00235
0.00705
Reference
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
van der Most & Veldt (1992)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Expert judgement based on US
EPA 2000, chapt 3.2 and US EPA
1996, chapt 3.4
Note:
Concerning the emission factor reference in the table above ‘Expert judgement based on US EPA 2000, chap 3.2
and US EPA 1996, chap 3.4’ — the factors are an average of different engine type subgroups in the AP42 chapters
3.2 and 3.4 calculated using a simple geometric mean (with no application of any population/use weighting
procedure).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
56
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 3-38 Tier 2 emission factors for non-residential sources, reciprocating engines burning gas
oil
Tier 2 emission factors
Code
NFR Source Category
Fuel
SNAP (if applicable)
Technologies/Practices
Region or regional conditions
Abatement technologies
Not applicable
Not estimated
Name
1.A.4.a.i
Commercial / institutional: stationary
1.A.4.b.i
Residential plants
Gas Oil
020105
Comm./instit. - Stationary engines
Reciprocating Engines
NA
NA
Aldrin, Chlordane, Chlordecone, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptabromo-biphenyl, Mirex,
Toxaphene, HCH, DDT, PCB, HCB, PCP, SCCP
NH3, PCDD/F, Total 4 PAHs
Pollutant
Value
Unit
95% confidence interval
Lower
Upper
NOx
CO
NMVOC
SOx
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Pb
Cd
Hg
As
Cr
Cu
Ni
Se
Zn
Benzo(a)pyrene
1450
385
37.1
46.1
28.1
22.4
21.7
4.07
1.36
1.36
1.81
1.36
2.72
1.36
6.79
1.81
0.116
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
g/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
680
193
18.5
4.61
14.1
11.2
10.8
0.41
0.14
0.14
0.18
0.14
0.27
0.14
0.68
0.18
0.0582
2050
578
55.6
461
56.2
44.8
43.4
40.7
13.6
13.6
18.1
13.6
27.1
13.6
67.9
18.1
0.116
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.502
0.0987
mg/GJ
mg/GJ
0.251
0.0493
0.754
0.0987
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.187
mg/GJ
0.0937
0.187
Reference
US EPA (1996), chapter 3.4
US EPA (1996), chapter 3.4
US EPA (1996), chapter 3.4
See note in Guidebook text
US EPA (1996), chapter 3.4
US EPA (1996), chapter 3.4
US EPA (1996), chapter 3.4
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1996)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
US EPA (1998), chapter 1.3
("Less than" value based on
method detection limits)
Notes:
1. Factor for SO2 assumes no SO2 abatement and is based on 0.1 % mass sulphur content.
2. TSP is based on AP 42 factor for PM10.
3.3.3
Abatement
A limited number of add-on technologies exist that are aimed at reducing the emissions of
primarily PM in these sectors. The resulting emission can be calculated by extending the
technology-specific emission factor with an abated emission factor as given in the formula:
EFtechnology ,abated = (1 − η abatement ) × EFtechnology ,unabated
(5)
However, as abatement technology is rarely specified in terms of efficiency, it may be more
relevant to develop abated emission factors from the final emission concentrations achieved using
abatement.
Guidance on estimating emission factors from concentrations is provided at subsection 4.3 of the
present chapter.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
57
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
3.3.4
Activity data
In most cases the statistical information includes data on annual fuel consumption in the relevant
activities. However, data on use of fuels in different technologies may be limited. To fill these
data gaps the following sources could be used:
•
information from emission trading schemes
•
information from the fuel suppliers and individual companies
•
energy conservation/climate change mitigation studies for relevant sectors
•
residential, commercial/institutional and agriculture sector surveys
•
energy demand modelling.
The data from sources should be compared, taking into account their inherent uncertainties in
order to obtain the best assessment of appliance population and fuel use. To improve reliability of
the activity data, appropriate efforts should be made in order to encourage the institution
responsible for national energy statistics to report the fuel consumption at the adequate level of
sectoral disaggregation in their regular activity.
Also, when data on fuel consumption are provided at an appropriate level of sectoral split, they
should be checked for possible anomalies. Wood and other types of biomass consumption (in
some cases also gas oil consumption) in the residential sector requires particular consideration.
For example, the self-supply and direct purchase of the wood from farmers might not be taken into
account when energy statistics are based mainly on the data obtained from the fuel suppliers. This
could lead to a significant underestimation of the wood consumption, especially in the countries
with abundant wood supplies and greater share of heating with stoves and small solid fuel boilers.
In that case, the data on wood consumption should be adjusted. Consultation with the forestry
experts and/or energy demand modelling is recommended.
The Tier 2 methodology requires further allocation of the fuel consumed according to the
installation types. This is particularly relevant to the residential sector where, for example, the
proportion of solid fuel burned in traditional low technology appliances is important to
understanding the significance of the emissions. The data needed are generally not available in
statistics reports. In most cases the inventorying agency would have to use surrogate data to assess
the activity data at the required level of desegregation. National approaches have to be developed
depending on the availability and quality of surrogate data. Some examples of surrogate data
sources are:
•
residential, commercial/institutional and agriculture sector surveys
•
energy conservation/climate change mitigation studies for relevant sectors
•
energy demand modelling
•
information from the fuel suppliers
•
information from producers and sellers of heating appliances
•
chimney sweeping organisations.
Particularly in the case of the residential sector it should be emphasised that the surveys have to be
based on a representative sample. In some countries the means of heating of the households are
regionally very inhomogeneous with a significantly greater share of solid-fuel stoves and boilers
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
58
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
in traditionally coal mining regions and in some rural areas. Additional data could be obtained
from the chimney-sweeper organisations and from environmental inspectorates, particularly for
the commercial-institutional sector.
Another important source of data could be housing statistics. Within the scope of national census,
the data on dwellings occupied by households are usually collected. Data on individual dwellings
might include:
•
number of residents,
•
area of the dwelling,
•
type of building (individual house, attached house, block of flats),
•
construction year,
•
existence or not of central heating,
•
central heating boiler in the flat or common for block of flats,
•
fuels used for heating.
Dwelling statistics could be used to extrapolate results of the household survey or to perform
detailed energy demand/emission modelling. Especially in the case where household emissions
represent a key source or are of a great relevance due to local air quality, it is recommended to
perform such an exercise. Detailed energy demand/emission modelling may be usually performed
at local or regional level; however the extension to the national level does not pose significant
additional requirements. To justify the additional effort required for energy demand/emission
modelling of the households, the emission inventorying agency might find it appropriate to initiate
a common project with other stakeholders, such as, for instance, agencies involved in energy
conservation, climate change mitigation or energy supply.
3.4 Tier 3 emission modelling and use of facility data
Installation-specific emission estimation is not considered to be applicable for the activities
detailed. However the Tier 3 methodology allows a modelling-based approach using more detailed
appliance population data and applies more technology-specific emission factors — guidance on
determining plant-specific emission factors is given in the Measurement Protocol. Relevant
emission factors are also provided at Appendix A.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
59
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
4 Data quality
4.1 Completeness
The potential for self-supply or other unrecorded fuel supply needs to be considered.
4.2 Avoiding double counting with other sectors
In cases where it is possible to split the emissions, it is good practice to do so. However, care must
be taken that the emissions are not double counted.
4.3 Verification
4.3.1
Best Available Technique emission factors
The size of combustion appliance will generally fall below the threshold where guidance on BAT
emission levels applies.
However, many countries apply emission controls on appliances in the size range considered and
selected emission limit values are provided in the following sections. Details of the methodology
applied to calculate emission factors from emission limits are provided in Appendix B.
4.3.2
Fuel sulphur content
For processes without SO2 abatement, the sulphur content of the fuel provides a means to calculate
the SO2 emission factor.
EFSO2 = [S] x 2 x 1000
100 x CV
where:
•
EFSO2 is the SO2 emission factor g.GJ-1,
•
[S] is the percent sulphur (w/w),
•
CV is the net/inferior calorific value GJ.kg-1,
•
2 is the ratio of the RMM of SO2 to Sulphur.
This equation can be extended to include a factor for retention of SO2 in ash.
Liquid fuels in the EC are subject to sulphur limits (EC SCOLF, 1999/2005) as summarised in
Table 4-1. The SO2 emission factors in Table 4-1 have been calculated assuming 100 %
conversion of fuel sulphur and applying UK net calorific values for fuel oils (DUKES, 2007).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
60
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 4-1
Fuel oil
Heavy fuel oil
Sulphur emission factors from oil sulphur limits
Implementation
Maximum sulphur SO2 emission
date
content
1.1.2003
Comment
factor, g.GJ-1
1%
485
Assumes net CV of
41.2 GJ.tonne-1
Gas oil
4.3.3
Pre 1.1.2008
0.2 %
92
Assumes net CV of
Post 1.1.2008
0.1 %
46
43.4 GJ.tonne-1
Residential and small (< 300 kW output) non residential solid fuel boilers
EN303 pt5 is a non-harmonised tandard which incorporates emission ‘classes’ for CO, OGC
(volatile organic compounds) and TSP. The emission factors associated with the emission
concentrations are provided in Table 4-2.
Many countries operate type-approval schemes for residential coal and biomass appliances which
apply TSP emission limits on solid fuel appliances and these can be developed into emission
factors. Ecolabelling schemes for gas appliances may include labelling for NOx emissions.
The following emission factors are calculated using procedure described in Appendix B.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
61
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 4-2
EN303 Pt 5 emission classes as emission factors
Fuel
Fuel
Appliance
feed
type
output
type
Manual
kW
biogenic
fossil
Automatic
biogenic
fossil
Emission concentration, mg m-3 at STP (0 ºC, 101.3 kPa), dry and 10 % O2
CO
‘OGC’ (VOC)
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
< 50
25 000
8 000
5 000
2 000
300
150
200
180
150
50–150
12 500
5 000
2 500
1 500
200
100
200
180
150
150–300
12 500
2 000
1 200
1 500
200
100
200
180
150
< 50
25 000
8 000
5 000
2 000
300
150
180
150
125
50–150
12 500
5 000
2 500
1 500
200
100
180
150
125
150–300
12 500
2 000
1 200
1 500
200
100
180
150
125
< 50
15 000
5 000
3 000
1 750
200
100
200
180
150
50–150
12 500
4 500
2 500
1 250
150
80
200
180
150
150–300
12 500
2 000
1 200
1 250
150
80
200
180
150
< 50
15 000
5 000
3 000
1 750
200
100
180
150
125
50–150
12 500
4 500
2 500
1 250
150
80
180
150
125
150–300
12 500
2 000
1 200
1 250
150
80
180
150
125
-1
Emission factors, g.GJ
Manual
biogenic
fossil
Automatic
biogenic
fossil
4.3.4
PM
(net thermal input)
< 50
13 181
4 218
2 636
1 054
158
79
105
95
79
50–150
6 591
2 636
1 318
791
105
53
105
95
79
150–300
6 591
1 054
633
791
105
53
105
95
79
< 50
13 181
4 218
2 636
1 054
158
79
95
79
66
50–150
6 591
2 636
1 318
791
105
53
95
79
66
150–300
6 591
1 054
633
791
105
53
95
79
66
< 50
7 909
2 636
1 582
923
105
53
105
95
79
50–150
6 591
2 373
1 318
659
79
42
105
95
79
150–300
6 591
1 054
633
659
79
42
105
95
79
< 50
7 909
2 636
1 582
923
105
53
95
79
66
50–150
6 591
2 373
1 318
659
79
42
95
79
66
150–300
6 591
1 054
633
659
79
42
95
79
66
Selected national emission limits for small combustion installations
Many countries apply emission controls to combustion appliances smaller than 50 MWth and a
summary of selected countries’ pollutant limit values is provided as emission factors below;
further details (and countries) are provided at Appendix C.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
62
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 4-3
Country
Selected national emission limits as emission factors for coal-fired boilers
Size
Ref.
Emission concentrations, mg.m-3 at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dry at reference O2 content
O2
NOx
SO2
PM
%
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
2 000
50
100
CO
VOC
200
110
France
20–50 MW
6
450
650
850
France
< 4 MW
6
550
825
2 000
150
France
4–10 MW
6
550
825
2 000
100
France
> 10 MW
6
550
825
2 000
100
Finland
1–50 MW
6
275
550
1 100
1 100
55
Germany
< 2.5 MW
7
300
500
350
1 300
50
150
Germany
< 5 MW
7
300
500
350
1 300
50
150
Germany
> 5 MW
7
300
500
350
1 300
20
150
Germany
> 10 MW
7
300
400
350
1 300
20
150
140
Emission factor, g.GJ-1 (net basis)
France
20–50 MW
163
235
308
725
18
36
72
France
< 4 MW
199
299
725
54
France
4–10 MW
199
299
725
36
France
> 10 MW
199
299
725
36
Finland
1–50 MW
100
199
398
398
20
Germany
< 2.5 MW
116
194
136
505
19
58
Germany
< 5 MW
116
194
136
505
19
58
Germany
> 5 MW
116
194
136
505
8
58
Germany
> 10 MW
116
155
136
505
8
58
40
51
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
63
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 4-4
Country
Selected national emission limits as emission factors for wood-fired boilers
Size
Emission concentrations, mg.m-3 at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dry at reference O2 content
Ref.
O2
NOx
%
Low
SO2
High
PM
Low
High
2000
Low
High
50
100
CO
VOC
200
110
France
20–50 MWth
11
400
650
200
France
< 4 MW
11
500
750
200
150
France
4–10 MW
11
500
750
200
100
France
> 10 MW
11
500
750
200
100
Finland
1–5 MW
6
250
500
250
375
Finland
5–10 MW
6
250
500
125
250
Finland
10–50 MW
6
250
500
50
125
Germany
< 2.5 MW
11
250
350
100
10
Germany
< 5 MW
11
250
350
50
10
Germany
> 5 MW
11
250
350
20
10
Emission factor, g.GJ-1 (net basis)
France
20–50 MWth
232
377
116
France
< 4 MW
France
4–10 MW
France
> 10 MW
290
1161
29
290
435
116
290
435
116
58
435
116
58
58
116
64
87
Finland
1–5 MW
96
193
96
145
Finland
5–10 MW
96
193
48
96
Finland
10–50 MW
96
193
19
48
Germany
< 2.5 MW
145
203
58
6
Germany
< 5 MW
145
203
29
6
Germany
> 5 MW
145
203
12
6
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
64
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 4-5
Country
Selected national emission limits as emission factors for oil-fired boilers
Size
Emission concentrations, mg.m-3 at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dry at reference O2 content
Ref.
O2
NOx
SO2
PM
%
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
1 700
50
100
CO
VOC
100
110
France
20–50 MWth
3
450
650
850
France
< 4 MW
3
550
825
1 700
150
France
4–10 MW
3
550
825
1 700
100
France
> 10 MW
3
500
750
1 700
100
Finland
1–15 MW
3
800
900
1 700
50
200
Finland
15–50 MW
3
500
670
1 700
50
140
Germany
HWB
3
180
350
50
80
Germany
LPS
3
200
350
50
80
Germany
HPS
3
250
350
50
80
Emission factor, g.GJ-1 (net basis)
France
20–50 MWth
France
3
127
184
241
481
14
28
28
< 4 MW
156
233
481
42
France
4–10 MW
156
233
481
28
France
> 10 MW
3
141
212
481
28
Finland
1–15 MW
3
226
255
481
14
57
Finland
15–50 MW
3
141
190
481
14
40
Germany
HWB
3
51
99
14
23
Germany
LPS
3
57
99
14
23
Germany
HPS
3
71
99
14
23
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
31
65
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table 4-6
Country
Selected national emission limits as emission factors for gas-fired boilers
Size
Emission concentrations, mg.m-3 at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dry at reference O2 content
Ref.
O2
NOx
SO2
%
Low
High
Low
PM
High
Low
CO
VOC
100
110
High
France
20–50 MWth
3
120
350
35
5
France
< 10 MW
3
150
225
35
5
France
> 10 MW
3
100
150
35
5
Finland
1–15 MW
3
340
400
Finland
15–50 MW
3
170
300
Germany
HWB
3
100
10
5
50
Germany
LPS
3
110
10
5
50
Germany
HPS
3
150
10
5
50
Emission factor, g.GJ-1 (net basis)
France
20–50 MWth
34
99
10
1
28
France
< 10 MW
42
64
10
1
France
> 10 MW
28
42
10
1
Finland
1–15 MW
96
113
Finland
15–50 MW
48
85
Germany
HWB
28
3
1
14
Germany
LPS
31
3
1
14
Germany
HPS
42
3
1
14
31
4.4 Developing a consistent time series and recalculation
The emissions of non-CO2 emissions from fuel combustion change with time as equipment and
facilities are upgraded or replaced by less-polluting energy technology. The mix of technology
used with each fuel will change with time and this has implications for the choice of emission
factor at Tier 1 and Tier 2.
4.5 Uncertainty assessment
4.5.1
Emission factor uncertainties
There is uncertainty in the aggregated emission factors used to estimate emissions. The number of
sources, range of use, sizes, fuel quality (particularly solid fuels including biomass) and
technologies in the residential sector will impact on the uncertainty to be expected from the
application of an ‘average’ emission factor.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
4.5.2
Activity data uncertainties
The activity data for residential fuel use may be subject to uncertainty from issues of self-supply,
waste disposal or ‘unofficial’ fuel sources.
4.6 Inventory quality assurance/quality control QA/QC
No specific issues
4.7 Mapping
No specific issues
4.8 Reporting and documentation
No specific issues
5 Glossary
Automatic feed boiler:
boiler with fully automated fuel supply
Boiler:
any technical apparatus in which fuels are oxidised in order to
generate thermal energy, which is transferred to water or steam
Briquettes:
refers to patent fuels from hard/sub-bituminous coal (NAPFUE 104)
and brown coal briquettes (NAPFUE 106)
Brown coal:
refers to brown coal/lignite (NAPFUE 105) of gross caloric value
(GHV) less than 17 435 kJ/kg and containing more than 31 % volatile
matter on a dry mineral matter free basis
Charcoal:
refers to temperature treated wood (NAPFUE 112)
Chimney:
brick, metal or concrete stack used to carry the exhaust gases into the
free atmosphere and to generate draught
CHP:
combined heat and power production
Coke:
refers to the solid residue obtained from hard coal (NAPFUE 107) or
from brown coal (NAPFUE 108) by processing at high temperature
in the absence of air
Efficiency:
is the ratio of produced output heat energy to energy introduced with
the fuel, with reference to net (low) calorific value of fuel
Fireplace:
usually very simple combustion chamber, with or without front door,
in which fuels are oxidized to obtain thermal energy, which is
transferred to the dwelling mainly by radiation
Gaseous fuels:
refers to natural gas (NAPFUE 301), natural gas liquids (NAPFUE
302) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG; NAPFUE 303), biogas
(NAPFUE 309)
Hard coal:
refers to coal of a gross caloric value greater than 17 435 kJ/kg on
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
ash-free but moisture basis, i.e. steam coal (NAPFUE 102,
GHV> 23 865 kJ/kg), sub-bituminous coal (NAPFUE 103,
17 435 kJ/kg < GHV<23 865 kJ/kg) and anthracite
Liquid fuels:
refers to kerosene (NAPFUE 206), gas oil (gas/diesel oil (NAPFUE
204), residual oil, residual fuel oil (NAPFUE 203) and other liquid
fuels (NAPFUE 225)
Manual feed boiler:
boiler with periodical manual fuel supply
Patent fuels:
refers to manufactured smokeless fuels from hard/sub-bituminous
coal (NAPPFUE 104)
Peat:
refers to peat-like fuels (NAPFUE 113)
Solid biomass fuel:
refers to wood fuels which are wood and similar wood wastes
(NAPFUE 111) and wood wastes (NAPFUE 116) and agricultural
wastes used as fuels (straw, corncobs, etc; NAPFUE 117)
Stove:
simple appliance in which fuels are combusted to obtain thermal
energy, which is transferred to the interior of the building by
radiation and convection
6 References
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Volume 1: Development of emission factors using API/WSPA approach. Publication No 348.
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biomass fuels — Extensive quantification and characterization’. Energy Technology and Thermal
Process Chemistry Umeå University, STEM-BHM (P12648-1 and P21906-1), Umeå, February
2005.
Boman Ch., Nordin A., Boström D., and Öhman M. (2004). ‘Characterization of Inorganic
Particulate Matter from Residential Combustion of Pelletized Biomass Fuels’. Energy&Fuels 18,
pp. 338–348, 2004.
Bryczkowski A., Kubica R. (2002): Inżynieria i Aparatura Chemiczna, 41, nr 4, 14, 2002 (Polish).
CEPMEIP (2004). Visschedijk, A.J.H., J. Pacyna, T. Pulles, P. Zandveld and H. Denier van der
Gon, 2004. ‘Cooordinated European Particulate Matter Emission Inventory Program (CEPMEIP)’.
In: P. Dilara et. al (eds.), Proceedings of the PM emission inventories scientific workshop, Lago
Maggiore, Italy, 18 October 2004. EUR 21302 EN, JRC, pp 163–174.
CITEPA, (2003). ‘Wood Combustion in Domestic Appliances’. Final background document on
the sector, 30.06.2003.
DUKES 2007. Digest of UK Energy Statistics 2007, published by BERR and available here
http://stats.berr.gov.uk/energystats/dukesa_1-a_3.xls
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EC SCOLF 1999/2005. Sulphur Content of Liquid Fuels Directive 1999/32/EC and 2005/33/EC
Marine oil amendment.
Ehrlich et al 2007. Ehrlich C, Noll G, Kalkoff W-D, Baumbach G, Dreiselder A. ‘PM10 , PM2.5
and PM1.0 Emissions from industrial plants — Results from measurement programmes in
Germany’, Atmospheric Environment Vol. 41, No 29 (2007) pp. 6236–6254.
Guidebook (2006). EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook, version 4 (2006 edition),
published by the European Environmental Agency. Technical report No 11/2006. Aavailable via
http://reports.eea.europa.eu/EMEPCORINAIR4/en/page002.html. Generally chapter B216.
Hays M.D., Smith N.D., Kinsey J., Dongb Y., Kariherb P. (2003). ‘Polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbon size distributions in aerosols from appliances of residential wood combustion as
determined by direct thermal desorption — GC/MS’, Aerosol Science, 34, pp. 1061–1084, 2003.
Hustad J. E., Skreiberg Ø., and Sønju O. K., (1995).‘Biomass Combustion Research and
Utilisation in IEA Countries, Biomass and Bioenergy’, Vol. 9, Nos 1–5, 1995.
Gustavsson, L., Johansson, L, Leckner, B, Cooper, D, Tullin, C, Potter, A. 2004 b. ‘Emission
characteristics of modern and old-type residential boilers fired with wood logs and wood pellets’,
Atmospheric Environment Vol. 38, Issue 24, pp. 4183–4195, (2004).
Kakareka S., Kukharchyk T., Khomich V. (2004). Research for HCB and PCB Emission
Inventory Improvement in the CIS Countries (on an Example of Belarus) / Belarusian
Contribution to EMEP. Annual report 2003. Minsk, 2004.
Karasek F., Dickson L., (1987). Science, 237, 1987.
Kubica K. (2002/3). ‘Low emission coal boilers as alternative for oil and gas boilers for residential
and communal sectors; Coal hasn’t to contaminate’ Katalog ochrony środowiska — Ekoprofit nr 1
(61)/2002, Katowice, 2002 (Polish).
Kubica K. (2003/3). ‘Zagrożenia trwałymi zanieczyszczeniami, zwłaszcza dioksynami i furanami
z indywidualnych palenisk domowych i kierunki działań dla ich ograniczenia’ (‘Threats caused by
persistent pollutants, particularly by dioxins and furans from residential heating and the directions
of protection actions aiming at their emission reduction’). Project: GF/POL/01/004 — Enabling
activities to facilitate early action on the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs Convention), Warszawa, 2004; http://ks.ios.edu.pl/gef/doc/gfpol-nip-r1.pdf .
Kubica K. (2004/5). ‘Spalanie i współspalanie paliw stałych w miastach’ (‘Combustion and cocombustion of solid fuels’). Rozdział w monografii ‘Zarządzanie energią w miastach’
(‘Management of energy in the town’). red. R. Zarzycki; ISBN 83-86492-26-0; Polska Akademia
Nauk Oddział w Łodzi, Łódź 2004 s. 102–140.
Kubica K., (1997/1). ‘Distribution of PAH generated in domestic fuels boilers’. Proc. of the ninth
International Conference on Coal Science, Essen, Niemcy, 7–12.9.1997.
Kubica K., (2002/1). ‘Emission of Pollutants during Combustion of Solid Fuels and Biomass in
Small Appliances’. UN-ECE TFEIP Combustion and Industry Expert Panel Workshop on:
‘Emissions from Small and Medium Combustion Plants’, Ispra, April 2002, Procc. No I.02.87.
Kubica K., (2003/1). ‘Environment Pollutants from Thermal Processing of Fuels and Biomass’,
and ‘Thermochemical Transformation of Coal and Biomass’ in Termochemical Processing of
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Coal and Biomass, pp. 145–232, ISBN 83-913434-1-3. Publication, copyright by IChPW and
IGSMiE PAN, Zabrze-Kraków, 2003 (Polish).
Kubica K., J. Rańczak J. (2003/3). ‘Co-firing of coal and biomass in mechanical great boilers’;
Procc., of Int., Conf., Combustion of alternative fuels in power and cement industry, 20–
21.2.2003, Opole, Poland, pp. 81–97.
Kubica K., Paradiz B., Dilara (2004/4). ‘Toxic emissions from Solid Fuel Combustion in Small
Residential Appliances’. Procc. sixth International Conference on Emission Monitoring CEM2004, 9–11.6.2004, Milano Italy; www.cem2004.it .
Kubica K., Paradiz B., Dilara P., (2004). ‘Small combustion installations — Techniques,
emissions and measurements’, Ispra, EUR report 2004.
Kubica, K., Raińczak, J., Rzepa, S., Ściążko, M., (1997/2). ‘Influence of ‘biofuel’ addition on
emission of pollutants from fine coal combustion’, Proc. fourth Polish-Danish Workshop on
Biofuels, Starbieniewo, 12–14 czerwca 1997/2.
Kupiainen, K., Klimont, Z., (2004). ‘Primary Emissions of Submicron and Carbonaceous Particles
in Europe and the Potential for their Control’, IIASA IR 04-079,
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Pacyna J.M., Munthe J. (2004). ‘Summary of research of projects on mercury funded by EC DG
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Pye S., Jones G., Stewart R., Woodfield M., Kubica K., Kubica R., Pacyna J. (2005/1). ‘Costs and
environmental effectiveness of options for reducing mercury emissions to air from small-scale
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Pye S., Thistlethwaite G., Adams M., Woodfield M., Goodwin J., Forster D., Holland M. (2004).
Study Contract on the Cost and Environmental Effectiveness of Reducing Air Pollution from
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Westphalia State Environment Agency.
Rubenstein, G. (2003). Gas Turbine PM Emissions — Update. Sierra Research, June 2003. Paper
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Small combustion
Van der Most, P.F.J., Veldt, C. (1992). ‘Emission Factors Manual PARCOM-ATMOS, Emission
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The Netherlands. Reference number 92-235, 1992.
7 Point of enquiry
Enquiries concerning this chapter should be directed to the relevant leader(s) of the Task Force on
Emission Inventories and Projection’s expert panel on combustion and industry. Please refer to the
TFEIP website (www.tfeip-secretariat.org/) for the contact details of the current expert panel
leaders.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
Appendix A
Technology-specific emission
factors
In this annex a compilation of various emission data is given to enable users’ comparison with
their own data.
Table A 1
Emission factors for small coal combustion installations
Installation
Pollutants
g/GJ
Domestic open fire
SO2
NOx
CO
n.d
n.d
n.d.
141)
75
1500
1)
1)
2)
Domestic closed stoves
Domestic boiler
Small commercial or institutional boiler
mg/GJ
420
3)
1)
104
4)
17.2 1)
n.d.
8
6.2 1)
n.d.
BaP
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
60
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
1.8 1)
n.d.
0.02 1)
n.d.
n.d.
2)
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
0.1 2)
416
VOC
1)
PAH
709
NMVOC
1)
Source: Hobson M., et al., 2003.
Notes:
1. No information about NMVOC and VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2. Original data in g/kg;.
3. Original data in g/kg; for recalculation Hu of 24 GJ/t (d.b.) was assumed.
4. Coal stove;.
5. Roomheater 12.5 kW, anthracite.
6. Boiler, bituminous coal; n.d. — no data.
Table A 2
Emission factors for combustion of manufactured solid fuels
Installation
Pollutants
g/GJ
SO2
Mg/GJ
NOx
CO
NMVOC 1)
VOC 1)
PAH BaP
Domestic open fire
2)
n.d
n.d
n.d.
n.d.
5.0–20
n.d.
n.d.
Domestic closed stoves
3)
n.d.
n.d.
121–275 2)
10.5 2);
16.1 2)
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
75 2) and
127 2)
4 2) and
7 2)
1 125 2);
1 193 2)
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
4)
Domestic boiler
Small commercial or
institutional boiler
5)
371
382
12 400
n.d.
91
n.d.
n.d.
6)
n.d.
64–73
140–7 400
n.d.
0–
500 7)
n.d.
n.d.
8)
n.d.
35
270
n.d.
2 7)
n.d.
n.d.
Source: Hobson M., et al., (2003). Notes:
1. No information about NMVOC and VOC standard reference — usually CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2. Original data in g/kg.
3. 10 kW open fire, smokeless coal brands.
4. Stoves, charcoal and char briquettes, 12.5 kW roomheater, coke and manuf. briq.
5. UNECE TFEIP: Dutch fig. for coke use.
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Small combustion
6.
7.
8.
UNECE TFEIP: Sweden, pellet boilers, 1.8–2 MW.
As THC.
8) UNECE TFEIP: Sweden, briquette boilers 1.8–2 MW; n.d.- no data.
Table A 3
Range of emission value from small coal appliances which employ fixed bed
combustion with counter-current techniques (manually fuelled)
Types of
appliances
Efficiency
%
Assortment
of fuel
Standard
stove
45–75
Masonry
stove
60–75
Unassortment
coal
Kitchen
stove
Emissions factor of pollutants
CO
G/GJ
SO2a)
g/GJ
NOx
G/GJ
TSP
g/GJ
16 PAH
g/GJ
Ba)P
mg/GJ
VOC
(C3)
g/GJ
3 500–
12 500
200–800
100–150
700–900
20–40
200–600
500–700
2 500–
11 000
200–800
100–200
600–
1 200
15–25
150–350
400–800
40–60
3 600–
11 000
200–800
50–150
300–
1 000
50–90
400–650
500–
1 100
Standard
boiler
50–67
1 800–
7 000
200–800
50–150
150–500
30–90
600–900
400–
1 200
Advanced
boiler
76–82
200–
1 500
200–800
150–200
50–100
0.2–0.6
2–30
60–120
Assortment
coal,
Source: Kubica, 2003/1.
Note:
a)
Emission factor of sulphur dioxide strongly depends on sulphur content of fuel; these emission factors are for
sulphur content between 0.5 % and 1.0 % with oxidation efficiency of sulphur about 90 %.
Table A 4
Range of emissions from small coal appliances which employ fixed bed combustion
with co-current techniques (in principle automatic fuelled)
Types of
appliances
Efficiency
%
Assortment
of fuel
Advanced
boiler b)
76–80
Burners
boiler
Stoker,
retort boiler
Emissions factor of pollutants
a)
CO
g/GJ
SO2
g/GJ
NOx
G/GJ
TSP
g/GJ
16 PAH
g/GJ
B a)P
mg/GJ
VOC
(C3)
g/GJ
Fine coal
2 800–
1 100
250–750
150–200
50–200
0.2–0.8
3–50
100–250
77–84
Fine coal
1 500–
400
250–750
150–250
30–120
0.2–2.0
5–50
2–50
77–89
5–25 mm c)
120–800
130–350
150–300
30–60
0.1–0.7
1–20
1–50
Source: Kubica, 2003/1.
Notes:
1. a) Emission factor of sulphur dioxide strongly depends on sulphur content of fuel; these emission factors are
for sulphur content between 0.5 % and 1.0 % with oxidation efficiency of sulphur about 90 %.
2. b) Manually fuelled.
3. c) For capacity above 50 kW, grain size 5–30 mm.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
Table A 5
Emission value of coal combustion in stoves and small boilers derived from
measurement campaign in Poland
Parameter
Unit
Advance under-fire boiler
30 kW
Advance upper-fire, retort
boiler
Stove 5.7 kW
Coal J
Coal W
50 kW
150 kW
Coal J
Coal
W
Thermal
efficiency
%
67.8
70.9
82.9
82.0
54.7
51.2
CO
g/GJ
3 939
2 994
48
793
3 271
2 360
SO2
g/GJ
361.6
282.8
347.8
131.5
253.0
211.0
NOx as NO2
g/GJ
190.3
162.3
172.9
160.0
81.2
104.0
VOCs (C3)
g/GJ
514.2
483.1
6.1
4.8
486.0
700.0
Dust; TSP
g/GJ
227.0
294.0
267
30.0
523.0
720.0
16 PAHs
Mg/GJ
26 688
29 676
87.2
0.2
39 500
3 2800
PCDD/F
Ng
ITeq/GJ
285.0
804.1
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Source: Kubica, UN-ECE TFEIP, 2002/1.
Note:
n.d. — no data.
Table A 6
Emission factors for advanced coal-fire small boilers (< 1 MW) in Poland.
Voluntary standard requirements
Pollutants
Advanced under-fire boilers,
manual fuelled
Advanced upper-fire boilers,
automatic fuelled
Emission factors (g/GJ)
≤ 2 000
≤ 1 000
Nitrogen dioxide; NOx as NO2
≤ 150
≤ 200
Sulphur dioxide; SO2 1)
≤ 400
≤ 400
Dust; TSP
≤ 120
≤ 100
TOC 2)
≤ 80
≤ 50
16 PAHs acc. EPA
≤ 1.2
≤ 0.8
Benzo(a)pyrene; B(a)P
≤ 0.08
≤ 0.05
Carbon monoxide, CO
Source: Kubica, 2003/1, Kubica, UN-ECE TFEIP, (2002/1).
Notes:
1. 1) Emission factor of sulphur dioxide strongly depends on sulphur content of fuel; these emission factors were
established for sulphur content of < 0.6 %.
2. 2) TOC is the sum of organic pollutants both in the gaseous phase and as organic solvent soluble particles
except C1–C5 (Kubica 2003/1).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
Table A 7
Emission values of co-combustion of coal and wood in small and medium boilers in
Poland
Parameter
Unit
Automatic fuelled
burner boiler 25 kW
Coal
80 %m/m coal
20 % wood
Fluidized bed
boiler 63 MW
Travelling grate
combustion;
10 MW
Travelling grate
combustion,
25 MW
Coal 91 % w/w
coal 9 %
wood
Coal
92 % w/w
coal, 8 %
wood
Coal
97 % w/w
coal, 3 % dry
sewage sludge
Thermal
efficiency
%
79.1
81.6
87.4
86.2
81.1
81.4
84.4
85.7
CO
g/GJ
254
333
35.2
41.5
120
63
23.8
24.7
SO2
g/GJ
464
353
379
311
290
251
490
557
NOx as NO2
g/GJ
269
232
109
96
150
155
137
141
VOCs (C3)
g/GJ
14.0
9.5
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Dust; TSP
g/GJ
50.3
37.6
6.6
7.7
735
948
133
111
16 PAHs
Mg/GJ
401
207
346
121
126
117
269
63
Source: Kubica, et al., 2003/2.
Note:
n.d. — no data.
Table A 8
Emission factors for combustion of biomass; comparison between poor and high
standard furnace design
Emissions
Poor standard
High standard
2–4
1.5–2
625–3125
13–156
CxHy ; g/GJ
63–312
<6
PAH; mg/GJ
62–6 250
< 6.2
94–312
31–94
Excess air ratio, λ
CO; g/GJ
2)
Particles, after cyclone; g/GJ
Source: van Loo, 2002.
Notes
1. 1) Original data in mg/m3o at 11 % O2, for recalculation Hu of 16 GJ/t and 10m3/kg of flue gases were
assumed.
2. 2) No information about CxHy standard reference — usually CH4 or C3H8 are used.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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Small combustion
Table A 9
Emission factors for pellet burners in Sweden
Type of the burners
TSP
(g/GJ)
CO2
(%)
O2
(%)
THC 1)
(g/GJ)
NOx
(g/GJ)
Effect
(kW)
Pellet burner (continuous operation)
Nominal effect
22
9.5
11.1
3
73
10.7
6 kW capacity
4
6.0
14.6
78
70
6.2
6 kW generated power*
28
4.8
15.8
31
68
6.2
3 kW generated power
65
3.7
16.9
252
66
3.2
Pellet burner (electric ignition)
Nominal effect
16
13.0
7.4
1
70
22.2
6 kW generated power
64
9.1
11.3
60
64
6.1
6 kW generated power+
-
10.6
9.7
41
174
6.3
3 kW generated power
15
8.6
11.9
10
67
3.1
THC 1)
(g/GJ)
CO (g/GJ)
NOx
(g/GJ)
1 111
4 774
71
Source: Bostrom, 2002.
Notes:
1. No information about THC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2. *High ventilation, + wood with high ash content.
Table A 10 Emission factors for wood boilers in Sweden
Type of the burners
TSP
(g/GJ)
CO2
(%)
O2
(%)
Water cooled boiler
Intermittent log burning
89
6.8
13.4
Water cooled boiler
Operation using accumulator
103
8.3
11.8
1 500
5 879
67
Intermittent log burning
n.d.
5.6
13.4
4 729
16 267
28
2 243
6.9
14.6
2 958
8 193
64
Cold-start
Source: Bostrom; (2002).
Note:
1) No information about THC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2) n.d. — no data.
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Small combustion
Table A 11 Arithmetic average emission values for wood combustion. The data were collected
from investigations in various IEA countries (Norway, Switzerland, Finland, UK
and Denmark)
NOx
(g/GJ)
CO
(g/GJ)
VOC a)
(g/GJ)
THC as
CH4
(g/GJ)
Particles,
TSP
(g/GJ)
PAH
(mg/GJ)
Cyclone furnaces
333
38
2.1
n.d.
59
n.d.
Fluidized bed boilers
170
0
n.d.
1
2
4
Pulverised fuel burners
69
164
n.d.
8
86
22
Grate plants
111
1 846
n.d.
67
122
4 040
Stoker burners
98
457
n.d.
4
59
9
Wood boilers
101
4 975
n.d.
1 330
n.d.
30
Modern wood-stoves
58
1 730
n.d.
200
98
26
Traditional wood-stoves
29
6 956
671
1 750
1 921
3 445
Fireplaces
n.d.
6 716
520
n.d.
6 053
105
Techniques
Source: van Loo, (2002).
Notes
1. No information about VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2. n.d. — no data.
Table A 12 Arithmetic averages of emission values from biomass combustion in small-scale
applications
Techniques
Load
(kW)
Excess
air ratio
CO
(g/GJ)
CxHya)
(g/GJ)
Part.
TSP
(g/GJ)
NOx
(g/GJ)
Temp.
(oC)
Efficiency
(%)
Wood — stoves
9.33
2.43
3 116
363
81
74
307
70
Fire place inserts
14.07
2.87
2 702
303
41
96
283
74
Heat storing stoves
13.31
2.53
1 723
165
34
92
224
78
Pellet stoves
8.97
3.00
275
7
28
92
132
83
Catalytic wood-stoves
6.00
n.d.
586
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Source: van Loo, 2002.
Notes:
1. Original date in mg/m3o at 13 % O2, for recalculation Hu of 16 GJ/t and 10m3/kg of flue gases were assumed.
2. a) No information about CxHy standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
3. n.d. — no data.
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Small combustion
Table A 13 Emissions from small industrial wood-chip combustion applications in the
Netherlands (g/GJ)
Capacity
kW
CO
CxHy a)
NOx
TSP
Efficiency
( %)
Natural
uncontrolled
36
1 494
78
97
13
85
Forced
uncontrolled
34.6
2 156
81
108
18
83.5
30
410
13
114
21
90
Forced
controlled
~40
41
2
74
50
85.4
320
19
2
116
32
89.1
Type of
operation
Combustion
principle
Draught
control
Manual
Horizontal
grate
Automatic
Stoker boiler
Source: van Loo, 2002.
Notes:
1. Original date in mg/m3o at 11 % O2, for recalculation Hu of 16 GJ/t and 10 m3/kg of flue gases were assumed.
2. a) No information about CxHy standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
3. n.d. — no data.
Table A 14 Emission value from biomass combustion in small-scale applications derived from
measurement campaign in Poland
Capacity
(kW)
SO2
(g/GJ)
CO
(g/GJ)
VOC as
C3
(g/GJ)
TSP
(g/GJ)
NOx
(g/GJ)
16 PAH
g/GJ
Efficiency
(%)
Wood — log, stoves
5.7
9.8
6 290
1 660
1 610
69
33 550
64.4
Upper fire stocker,
pellet combustion
25
29
200
21
9.9
179
71
80.4
Pellet burners
20.5
6.0
58.5
7.2
29.7
295
122
85.7
Gas fire, pre-oven
20.0
21.0
1 226
6.8
15.6
78.9
480
83.9
Techniques
Source: Kubica, et al., 2002/2.
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Small combustion
Table A 15 Emission value of biomass combustion in small and medium boilers derived from
measurement campaign in Poland
Parameter
Unit
Automatic boilers
Straw fixed grate
boiler 65 kW
Advance under-fire boiler
30 kW
Rape
straw
Wheat
straw
Briquettes
of sawdust
Lump pine
wood
81.
84.2
81.3
76
90.1
84.3
3,5 MW
1,5 MW
Mixture of cereal straws
Thermal
efficiency
%
CO
g/GJ
2 230
4 172
1 757
2 403
427
1 484
SO2
g/GJ
127.1
66.5
15.9
4.8
74.6
151.0
NOx (as
NO2)
g/GJ
105.3
76.1
41.6
31.7
110.1
405.0
VOC (as C3)
g/GJ
n.a.
n.a.
176.1
336.4
n.a.
n.a.
TSP
g/GJ
654.0
901.0
39.0
116.0
31.5
109.0
TOC 1)
g/GJ
59.4
39.4
98.6
176.0
18.1
39.0
16 PAHs acc
EPA
Mg/GJ
9 489
3 381
9 100
9 716
197
0.4
PCDD/F
ng ITEQ/GJ
840.9
746.2
107.5
1 603
n.a.
n.a.
Source: Kubica, 2003/1; Kubica, UN-ECE TFEIP, (2002/1)
Table A 16 Emission factors for 1.75 MW and 2 MW boilers in Sweden
Fuel
Effect
(%)
O2
(%)
CO
(g/GJ)
THC
(g/GJ) a)
CH4
(g/GJ)
TSP
(g/GJ)
NOx
(g/GJ)
NH3
(g/GJ)
Pellets
20
4
7 400
500
400
43
17
6
Pellets
50
7
1 600
17
<1
43
27
1
Pellets
100
4
140
<1
<1
32
37
<1
Briquettes
100
6.3
270
2
<1
36
35
<1
Logging residue
100
6.5
42
<1
<1
71
74
<1
Wood chips
100
7.2
3 900
48
31
51
25
2
Source: Bostrom C-A, UN-ECE TFEIP (2002).
Note:
a)
No information about CxHy standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
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Small combustion
Table A 17 Emission factors for biomass small combustion installations
Pollutants
Installation
g/GJ
SO2
NOx
CO
n.d
n.d
4 000
n.d
29
7 000
1 750 5)
Domestic open fire
3)
Domestic closed stoves
Domestic boiler
Small commercial or institutional boiler
mg/GJ
n.d.
NMVOC
1)
)
PAH
BaP
90–
800
13 937; 10 062;
7 9371 2)
n.d
670
3 500
n.d
n.d
26
n.d
4)
n.d.
58
1 700
6)
n.d.
101
5 000
1 330 5)
n.d
n.d
n.d
7)
n.d.
25
3 900
n.d
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
8)
n.d
n.d.
n.d.
480
n.d
n.d.
n.d.
9)
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
96
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
200
5)
VOC 1
Source: Hobson M., et al., 2003.
Notes:
1. 1) No information about NMVOC and VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2. 2) Original data in g/kg for recalculation Hu of 16 GJ/t was assumed and PAH that is ∑16 PAH.
3. 3) Traditional wood stove.
4. 4) Modern wood stove.
5. 5) THC as CH4.
6. 6) Wood boilers.
7. 7) Wood chips boilers 1.8–2 MW.
8. 8) Wood, charcoal, 120 kW boiler, benchmark.
9. 9) Wood, charcoal, 120 kW, improved boiler.
10. n.d. — no data.
Table A 18 Emission factors for domestic combustion processes (g/GJ) in the Netherlands
Pollutant
Fuel
Natural gas
Oil
LPG
Petroleum
Coal
6.3
15
2
10
60
SO2
0.22
87
0.22
4.6
420
N2O
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.6
1.5
NOx (as NO2)
57.5
50
40
50
75
CO
15.8
60
10
10
1 500
CO2
55 920
73 000
66 000
73 000
103 000
TSP
0.3
5
10
2
200
PM10
0.3
4.5
2
1.8
120
-
0.5
-
0.2
80
VOC
1)
Particles >PM10
Source: Heslinga D., 2002.
Note:
1)
No information about VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
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Small combustion
Table A 19 Emission factors for small combustion installations of gas and oil fuels (g/GJ)
derived from measurement campaign in Poland
Fuel
Pollutant
Natural gas
Oil
35 kW
218 kW
210 kW
650 kW
35 kW
195 kW
400 kW
650 kW
8.9
7.8
6.2
0.6
5
4.2
10
2.1
-
-
-
-
110
112
140
120.3
142
59.1
24.6
38.4
43
56.4
60
56.7
10.3
30.9
21.2
15.3
46
44
45
33.6
TOC 1)
5.5
6.4
4.2
4.5
25
20.8
15
7.5
SO2 2)
n.d.
-
-
-
115–145
average 130
-
-
-
NOx (as NO2) 2)
17–22
average 20
-
-
-
35–55
average 40
-
-
-
CO 2)
7–12
average 9
-
-
-
10–12
average 11
-
-
-
NMVOC (as C3)
1)
SO2 1)
NOx (as NO2) 1)
CO
1)
Source: 1) Kubica et al., 1999; 2) Kubica et al., 2005/2 The measurements were done in the field.
Note:
n.d. — no data.
Table A 20 Emission factors for small combustion installations of gas and oil fuels (g/GJ)
derived from measurement campaign in Poland
Pollutant
Fuel
Natural gas
Oil
2.1 MW
11.0 MW
5.8 MW
4.6 MW
2.3 MW
1.7 MW
2.2 MW
NOx (as NO2)
64
30
29
38
23
66
63
CO
3.1
0.0
0.0
3.6
0.4
0.0
1.4
SO2
n.m.
n.m.
n.m.
n.m.
n.m.
105
69
TSP
n.m.
0.2
0.2
n.m.
0.1
n.m.
0.2
Source: Czekalski B et al., 2003.
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Small combustion
Table A 21 Emission factors for gas-fired small combustion installations
Installation
Pollutants
g/GJ
mg/GJ
SO2
NOx
CO
NMVOC
Open fire
0.5
50
20
6
Closed stoves
0.5
50
10
Domestic boiler
0.2;
0.5
40.2;
57.5
Small commercial or institutional
boiler
n.d.
Agricultural heater
CHP
Steam, gas turbine;
1)
1)
VOC
PAH
BaP
n.d.
n.d
n.d.
3
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
8.5;
15.8
3.0; 15.0
5–30
n.d
1.5 2)
n.d.
n.d.
1.0; 5.0
5.0
n.d.
0.1 1)
38 3)
0.22
65
10
n.d.
30
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
179
43
2.1
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Source: Hobson M., et al., 2003.
Notes:.
1) No information about VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used. Original data in mg/t for
recalculation Hu of 35 GJ/t was assumed.
2) mg/1000xm3.
3) n.d. — no data.
Table A 22 Emission factors for LPG small combustion installations
Installation
Pollutants
g/GJ
SO2
NOx
CO
Open fire
NMVOC
VOC
1)
PAH
BaP
None
447 1)
n.d
n.d
n.d
10
n.d.
2
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
2
n.d.
n.d.
40
10
n.d.
2
n.d.
n.d.
Closed stoves
n.d.
n.d.
454
Domestic boiler
0.22
40
Small commercial or institutional boiler
n.d.
Agricultural heater
0.22
CHP
Steam, gas turbine
mg/GJ
1)
1)
None
Source: Hobson M., et al., 2003.
Notes
1) 1) No information about VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used. Original data in g/kg for
recalculation Hu of 42 GJ/t was assumed.
2) n.d. — no data.
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Small combustion
Table A 23 Emission factors for burning oil (kerosene) small combustion installations
Installation
Pollutants
g/GJ
SO2
NOx
mg/GJ
CO
NMVOC
Domestic open fire
1)
VOC
1)
PAH
BaP
None
Domestic closed stoves
n.d.
n.d.
421 2); 1 478 2)
354 2); 1 457 2)
n.d
n.d
n.d
Domestic boiler
87
50
60
1.5; 7.5
15
n.d.
0.1
Small commercial or institutional boiler
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
1.0; 5.0
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Agricultural heater
0.22
50
10
n.d.
10
n.d.
n.d.
CHP
Steam, gas turbine
None
Source: Hobson M., et al., 2003.
Notes:
1) No information about VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2) Original data in g/kg t for recalculation Hu of 42 GJ/t was assumed.
3) n.d. — no data.
Table A 24 Emission factors for fuel oil small combustion installations
Pollutants
Installation
g/GJ
SO2
NOx
CO
PM10
Mg/GJ
NMVOC 1) VOC 1) PAH
Domestic open fire
None
Domestic closed stoves
None
Domestic boiler
n.d.
n.d.
BaP
n.d.
8.0–
50
n.d.
10
n.d.
0.08 2)
3)
449
62.4 15.6
3.1
n.d.
0.6
n.d.
n.d.
4)
467 61.4 15.4
18.5
n.d.
0.6
n.d..
n.d.
5)
488
169
15.4
26.4
n.d.
0.9
n.d.
n.d.
n.d
n.d
n.d.
3–23
n.d.
8
n.d.
0.1 2); 0.5 2);
0.5 2)
Agricultural heater
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
0.08 2)
CHP 6)
n.d
186
14
2.1
6.8
n.d.
0.1 2)
Small commercial or institutional
boiler
Source: Hobson M., et al., 2003).
Notes:
1) 1) No information about VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
2) 2) Original data in g/Mt for recalculation Hu of 42 GJ/t was assumed.
3) 3) 1.5 % of S.
4) 4) 4.5 % of S.
5) 5) 5.5 % of S.
6) 6) Power station.
7) n.d. — no data.
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Small combustion
Table A 25 Emission of pollutants for gaseous, liquid and coal fuels for small combustion
installations in Italy
Installation
Pollutants
g/GJ
Natural gas
LPG
Burning oil
Coal
SO2
NOx
CO
VOC1)
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Range
0.22–0.5
7.8–350
20–50
0.5–10
0.03–3
0.03–3
0.03–0.5
Average
0.5
50
25
5
0.2
0.2
0.2
Range
9.7–150
30–269
20–40
0.1–15
0.2–50
0.2–50
0.2–50
Average
100
50
20
3
5
5
5
Range
69–150
24–370
5–40
1.1–48
1.5–60
1.5–60
1.5–50
Average
150
150
16
10
40
40
30
Range
60–2 252
45–545
100–5 000
3–600
70–350
10–400
30–200
Average
650
150
2 000
200
150
140
70
Source: Caserini S. 2004.
Note:
1)
No information about VOC standard reference — usual CH4 or C3H8 are used.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table A 26 Sectoral emission factors for firing appliances in Germany in the household and
small consumer sectors, in 1995 (Pfeiffer et al. 2000)
Pollutants
Sector
Households
Small consumers
Fuel
g/GJ
SO2
NOx as NO2
CO
CO2
TSP
High rank coal and products
456
51
4 846
95 732
254
High rank coals
380
49
5 279
95 930
278
Briquettes
561
54
4 246
95 457
221
Coke from high rank coals
511
60
6 463
106 167
15
Brown coal briquettes
261
71
3 732
96 021
86
Natural wood
7
50
3 823
103 093
42
Distillate oil
77
46
25
73 344
1.6
Natural gas
0.5
38
14
55 796
0.03
High rank coal and products
419
108
564
95 930
278
High rank coals
419
108
564
95 930
278
Coke from high rank coals
370
61
1 498
106 167
12
Brown coal briquettes
234
87
4 900
95 663
59
Natural wood and wood wastes
9.1
78
2 752
101 099
45
Distillate oil
77
47
14
73 344
1.7
Residual oil
384
162
9.9
75 740
38
Natural gas
0.5
31
11
55 796
0.03
Table A 27 Emission factors of CO, NOx and SO2 for advanced combustion techniques of coal
and biomass
Pollutants (g/GJ)
Source
BLT, 2000/1
BLT, 2005/1
Installation/fuel
SO2
NOx
(as NO2)
CO
Wood boilers with two combustion
chambers and sonar Lambda
n.d.
100
141
Wood pellets and chip boiler 25 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
127; n.d.
186; 589
Pellets and wood chips boiler 43 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
110; 71
60; 37
Wood boiler 60 kW, air dry oak
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
79; n.d.
127; 720
Boiler, wood chips 25 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
115; n.d.
23; 358
Pellets boiler 46.7 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
110; 118
118; 172
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Pollutants (g/GJ)
Source
Installation/fuel
SO2
NOx
(as NO2)
CO
BLT, 2003
Pellets and briq., boiler 7.7, 26 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
67; n.d.
7; 44
BLT, 1999
Wood chips, boiler 500 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
123; n.d.
16; 126
BLT, 2004/1
Wood chips, boiler 20 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
44; n.d.
17; 108
BLT, 2004/2
Wood log and briq., boiler 50 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
109; n.d.
44; n.d.
BLT, 2000/2
Wood briq., chamber boiler 60 kW
100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
88; n.d.
30; 120
Wood log, chamber boiler 27 kW
n.d.
78
131
Fireplaces; dry wood
n.d.
n.d.
4 010
Boiler < 50 kW; pelleted wood
n.d.
n.d.
120
Boiler; chopped wood log
n.d.
n.d.
790–1 400
Boiler; coke
n.d.
n.d.
2 400
Boiler; wood and coke
n.d.
n.d.
3 500
Boiler; wood, brown coal briquettes
n.d.
n.d.
4 200
Boiler; wood logs (beech, spruce)
n.d.
n.d.
3 800
Boiler; wood (beech, spruce), coke
n.d.
n.d.
2 100
Stove; wood, brown coal briquettes
wood
n.d.
n.d.
2 100
Stove; beach wood logs
n.d.
n.d.
2 100–4 700
Stove; wood
n.d.
n.d.
1 500
Stove; spruce wood (small logs)
n.d.
n.d.
2 400
Stove; wood (small logs)
n.d.
n.d.
1 600
Stove; wood briquettes
n.d.
n.d.
4 600
Pellet boilers with fixed grates with
moving scrapes 1.75–2.5 MW
n.d.
30–50
20–100
Conventional stove, cordwood
n.d.
n.d.
7 200
Pellet stoves, softwood
n.d.
n.d.
1 400–1 630
Pellets stove, hardwood
n.d.
n.d.
125; 188; 219
Pellets boiler, top-feed, softwood
n.d.
n.d.
146; 449; 510
Pellets boiler, bottom-feed softwood
n.d.
n.d.
112; 169
Pellet stove 4.8 kW (high load)
n.d.
31–36;
average 33
52–100;
average 88
BLT, 2005/2
1)
Houck et al., 2001
Hübner et al.,20051 2)
Johansson at al., 2001 1)
Houck et al., 2000
1)
Boman et al., 2005
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Pollutants (g/GJ)
Source
Kubica, 2004/2
Installation/fuel
SO2
NOx
(as NO2)
CO
Pellet stove 4.8 kW (low load 2.3 kW)
n.d.
29–33;
average 31
243–383;
average 299
Natural-draft wood stove, 9 kW; birch
pine spruce
n.d.
37–71;
average 50
1 200–7 700;
average 3 800
Pellet stove, 4–9.5 kW; pine and spruce
(high load)
n.d.
57–65;
average 61
110–170;
average 140
Pellet stove, 4- 9,5 kW; pine and spruce
(low load 30 %)
n.d.
52–57;
average 54
320–810;
average 580
Automatic-fuelled coal boilers stocker; pea coal (qualified size)
120–450;
average
260
96–260;
average
190
90–850
average 280
Automatic-fuelled coal boilers;
fine coal (qualified coal size)
355–600
average
420
70–200
average
145
60–800
average 450
Conventional stove 5 kW
253
81
2 272
Boiler, stocker; wood pellets
n.d.
n.d.
300–500
Chamber boiler, top feed; fine coal
250–700
100–150
1 100–2 800
Automatic boiler, stocker; pea coal
130–350
100–250
120–800
Automatic coal boiler; fine coal
250–700
100–250
400–1500
Chamber boiler, advanced technique;
qualified size coal
150–550
150–250
50–100
Boilers with moving grate 5–32 MW
n.d.
116–137
10–24
Boilers with moving grate 0.3–0.6 MW
n.d.
146–248
36–363 4)
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler, fine coal
n.d.
140
130
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler —
stocker
n.d.
70–220
120–800
Boiler, bottom feed, nut coals
n.d.
150–200
200–1500
Boiler, top feed, nut coals
n.d.
50–150
1 800–3 500
Boiler, bottom feed, log wood
n.d.
32
2 403
Boiler, bottom feed, wood briquettes
n.d.
42
1 757
Automatic-fuelled boiler — stocker
30 kW, pellets
n.d.
200
200
Automatic-fuelled boiler, wood chips
n.d.
150
880
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler —
stocker, ≤ 25 kW (120 pieces);
pea coal
n.d.
67–207;
average
161
104–320;
average 150
Pellet boilers
Kubica at al., 2005/4
Kubica K.; 2004/1
Kubica, 2004/2
Kubica et al., 2005/1
Kubica at al., 2005/23)
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Pollutants (g/GJ)
Source
Installation/fuel
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler,
≤ 35 kW (68 pieces); fine coal,
SO2
NOx
(as NO2)
CO
155–496
average
252
64–208;
average
122
119–435;
average 232
Notes:
1) 1) Original factors in g/kg of fuels, for recalculation Hu of 24 GJ/t (d.b.) for hard coal was of 17 GJ/t (d.b.) for
lignite and brown coal, of 30 GJ/t (d.b.) for anthracite, of 30 GJ/t (d.b.) for coke; of 16 GJ/t for wood, of
42 GJ/t for oil and of 35 GJ/t for natural gas were assumed.
2) 2) Capacity of all boilers < 50 kW and all stove < 10 kW.
3) 3) A measurement was done in the field.
4) n.d. — no data.
Table A 28 Wood burning appliance emission factors in British Columbia (Gulland, 2003)
Pollutants 1)
Installation
g/GJ
SO2
NOx
CO
VOC 1)
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Fireplace
Conventional with glass doors
12.5
87.5
6 162.5
1 312.5
843.75
812.5
806.25
Conventional without glass doors
12.5
87.5
4 856.3
406.3
1 206.3
1 156.3
1 156.3
Advanced technology
12.5
87.5
4 400
437.5
318.75
300
300
Insert; conventional
12.5
87.5
7 212.5
1 331.3
900
850
850
Insert; catalytic
12.5
87.5
4 400
437.5
318.8
300
300
Insert; advanced technology
12.5
87.5
4 400
437.5
318.8
300
300
Woodstove
Conventional
12.5
87.5
6 250
2 218.8
1 537.5
1 450
1 450
Conventional, not air-tight
12.5
87.5
6 250
2 218.8
1 537.5
1 450
1 450
Conventional, air-tight
12.5
87.5
7 212.5
1 331.3
900
850
850
Advanced technology
12.5
87.5
4 400
437.5
318.8
300
300
Catalytic
12.5
87.5
4 400
437.5
318.8
300
300
Pellet stove
12.5
87.5
550
94
75
69.7
64
Boilers
Central furnace/
boiler (inside)
12.5
87.5
4 281.3
1 331.3
881.3
831.3
831.3
Central furnace/
boiler (outside)
12.5
87.5
4 281.3
1 331.3
881.3
831.3
831.3
Other equipment
12.5
87.5
7 212.5
1 331.3
900
850
850
Note:
1)
Original factors in kg/tonne of fuels, for recalculation Hu of 16 GJ/t for wood was assumed.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table A 29 Emission factors for particulate matter reported in the literature for coal and
manufactured solid fuels combustion (g/GJ)
Source
Installation type
BUWAL, 2001 1)
CEPMEIP, 2002 1)
Pfeiffer et al., 2000
1)
Spitzer et al., 1998 1)
Winiwarter et al, 2001 1)
UBA, 1999a 1)
EPA, 1998a 1)
Meier & Bischoff, 1996 1)
Hobson M. et al, 2003
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Small furnaces
n.d.
110
270
Domestic boiler
n.d.
90
150
Residential, brown coal
70
140
350
Residential, hard coal (‘high’)
60
120
300
Residential, hard coal (‘low’)
25
50
100
Residential, low grade hard coal
100
200
800
Residential, hard coal
n.d.
n.d.
260–280
Residential, brown coal briquettes
n.d.
n.d.
120–130
Residential, coke
n.d.
n.d.
14
Residential heating
n.d.
n.d.
153±50 %
Single family house boiler, stoves
n.d.
n.d.
94±54 %
Residential plants
75
85
94
Domestic stoves, fireplaces
122
138
153
Domestic furnaces, hard coal
n.d.
n.d.
250
Domestic furnaces, brown coal
n.d.
n.d.
350
Small boilers, top loading
n.d.
n.d.
291
Small boilers, bottom loading
n.d.
n.d.
273
Hard coal, stoker firing
n.d.
n.d.
1 200
Pulverized lignite boilers
n.d.
n.d.
1 105
Grate firing, lignite
n.d.
n.d.
2 237
2)
Domestic open fire; < 10 kW, coal
n.d.
375 –
459 2)
n.d.
Domestic open fire; < 10 kW, smokeless
coal brands
n.d.
38–67 2)
n.d.
Domestic open fire; < 10 kW, pet coke
blends
n.d.
96–117 2)
n.d.
Domestic open fire; < 5 kW coal
n.d.
1 683 2)
n.d.
Domestic closed stove; US EPA,
developing stoves charcoal
n.d.
n.d.
100 2)
Domestic closed stove; US EPA,
developing stoves char briquette
n.d.
n.d.
121 2)
Domestic closed stove; CRE; < 10 kW,
smokeless coal brands
n.d.
42-50 2)
n.d.
Domestic closed stove; CRE; < 10 kW,
pet coke blends
n.d.
108-133 2)
n.d.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
89
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
Installation type
Kubica, 2004/1
Kubica, 2004/2
Kubica et al., 2005/1
Kubica at al., 2005/2 3)
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Domestic boilers; ERA research, boiler
Efis, bituminous coal
n.d
250 2)
n.d.
Domestic boilers; UNECE TFEIP, Dutch
figures for coke use
n.d.
6
n.d.
UNECE TFEIP; Sweden, briquette boilers
1.8–2 MW
n.d.
n.d.
36
Conventional stove 5 kW
n.d.
n.d.
523
Chamber boiler, top feed; fine coal
n.d.
n.d.
50–200
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler, stocker
n.d.
n.d.
30–60
Automatic-fuelled boiler, fine coal
n.d.
n.d.
30–120
Chamber boiler, qualified size coal;
distribution of combustion air
n.d.
n.d.
50–150
Boilers with moving grate 5–32 MW
n.d.
n.d.
58–133
Boilers with moving grate 0.3–0.6 MW
n.d.
n.d.
51–64
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler, fine coal
n.d.
n.d.
50
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler — stocker
n.d.
n.d.
30–60
Boiler, bottom feed, nut coals
n.d.
n.d.
50–100
Boiler, top feed, nut coals
n.d.
n.d.
300–1100
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler — stocker,
25 kW (120 pieces)
n.d.
n.d.
54–133
average 78
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler, fine coal,
25 and 35 kW (68 pieces)
n.d.
n.d.
70–380
average
187
Hard coal; stoves and boilers < 1 MW
25-100
average
65
25-1050
aver.270
30-1,200
average
360
Hard coal; boilers > 1 MW < 50 MW
70-122
average
70
90-250
average
110
25-735
average
140
Brown coal
Residential/commercial/institutional/
140
260
350
Coke
Residential/commercial/institutional/
30 -80
average
80
96-108
average
90
14-133
average
110
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler — stocker,
100 kW
n.d.
n.d.
98
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler, fine coal,
25 kW
n.d.
n.d.
13
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler, fine coal,
90 kW
n.d.
n.d.
16
Kubica et al., 2005/3
Krucki A. et al., 2006
2)
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
90
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
Installation type
Lee et al., 2005
2)
Open fire place
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
n.d.
1 200
n.d.
Notes:
1) 1) As quoted in Klimont et al., 2002.
2) 2) Original data in g/kg for recalculation Hu of 24 GJ/t (d.b.) was assumed.
3) 3) The measurements were done in the field.
4) n.d. — no data.
Table A 30 Particulate matter size fractions reported in the literature for coal combustion (per
cent of TSP emissions)
Source
UBA, 1999a
1)
EPA, 1998a 1)
Hlawiczka et al., 2002
Installation type
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Domestic furnaces, hard coal
n.d.
90 %
100 %
Small boilers, top loading
14 %
37 %
100 %
Small boilers, bottom loading
25 %
41 %
100 %
Domestic furnaces, hard coal
n.m.
76 % 2)
100 %
Notes:
1. 1) As quoted in Klimont et al., 2002.
2. 2) Original data 76 % of PM was emitted as the size fractions up to 12 µm.
Table A 31 Particulate matter emission factors reported in the literature for wood burning
(g/GJ)
Source
Installation type
BUWAL, 2001 1)
Karvosenoja, 2000 1)
Dreiseidler, 1999
1)
Baumbach, 1999 1)
Pfeiffer et al., 2000
1)
CEPMEIP, 2002 1)
Winiwarter et al, 2001 1)
NUTEK, 1997 1)
Smith, 1987 1)
BUWAL, 1995 (1992 Swiss limit
value) 1)
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Domestic open fire places
n.d.
150
150
Domestic furnaces
n.d.
150
150
Domestic small boilers, manual
n.d.
50
50
Small boilers, automatic loading
n.d.
80
80
Domestic furnaces
n.d.
n.d.
200–500
Domestic furnaces
n.d.
n.d.
200
Domestic furnaces
n.d.
n.d.
50–100
Residential and domestic
n.d.
n.d.
41–65
‘High emissions’
270
285
300
‘Low emissions’
135
143
150
Residential plants
72
81
90
Domestic stoves, fireplaces
118
133
148
Single family house boiler, conventional
n.d.
n.d.
1 500
Single family house boiler, modern with
accumulator tank
n.d.
n.d.
17
Residential heating stoves < 5 kW
n.d.
n.d.
1 350
Residential cooking stoves < 5 kW
n.d.
n.d.
570
up to 1 MW
n.d.
n.d.
106
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
Installation type
Spitzer et al., 1998 1)
Zhang et al., 2000
1)
Houck and Tiegs, 1998/1 3)
EPA, 1998b (1,2)?
Hobson M. et al, 2003
CITEPA, Paris, 2003
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Residential heating
n.d.
n.d.
148±46 %
Single family house boiler, stoves
n.d.
n.d.
90±26%
Firewood in China
n.d.
n.d.
760–1 080
Conventional stove
n.d.
n.d.
1 680
Conventional stove with densified fuel
n.d.
n.d.
1 200
Non-catalytic stove
n.d.
n.d.
490
Catalytic stove
n.d.
n.d.
440
Masonry heater
n.d.
n.d.
250
Pellet stove
n.d.
n.d.
130
Fireplace, conventional
n.d.
n.d.
8 600
Double-shell convection, national draft
n.d.
n.d.
4 600
Convectiontubes, ‘C’ shaped, glass door
n.d.
n.d.
4 000
Double-shell convection, blower, glass
doors
n.d.
n.d.
1 900
Masonry fireplace with shaped fire
chambers and gladd doors
n.d.
n.d.
1 200
Fireplace, non-catalytic insert
n.d.
n.d.
500
Fireplace, catalytic insert
n.d.
n.d.
450
Fireplace, pellet insert
n.d.
n.d.
130
Open fireplaces
n.d.
805
875
Wood stove
n.d.
724
787
UNECE TFEIP, Sweden, wood chips
boilers 1.8–2 MW
n.d.
n.d.
51
Open fire < 5 kW, hardwood 2)
n.d.
494
n.d.
Domestic open fire: hundreds of source
studies 2)
n.d
n.d.
738
Open fire places
698
713
750
Conventional closed fireplaces and
inserts
288
295
310
Conventional closed stoves and cooking
288
295
310
Hand-stoked log wood boiler
233
238
250
9
10
10
Boilers, bark
n.d.
n.d.
2 266
Fluidized bed in large boilers
n.d.
n.d.
1 000 –3 000
Grate firing in large boilers
n.d.
n.d.
250–1 500
Wood/pellet boilers and stoves
n.d.
n.d.
50
Automatically-stoked wood boiler
EPA, 1998a
4)
Lammi et al., 1993 4)
Tullin et al.; 2000
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
Installation type
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Old wood boiler
n.d.
n.d.
1 000
Wood stove
143.8–
637.5
n.d.
n.d.
Fireplaces
537.5
n.d.
n.d.
Wood boilers with two combustion
chambers and sonar Lambda
n.d.
n.d.
20
Wood pellets and chip boiler 25 kW
n.d.
n.d.
14
Pellets and wood chips boiler
43 kW–100 % and 33 % of capacity
n.d.
n.d.
23; 9
Wood boiler 60 kW
n.d.
n.d.
28
Boiler, wood chips 25 kW
n.d.
n.d.
18
Pellets boiler 46.7 kW–100 % and 33 %
of capacity
n.d.
n.d.
5; 12
BLT, 2003
Pellets and briquettes, boiler 7.7–26 kW
n.d.
n.d.
4
BLT, 1999
Wood chips, boiler 500 kW
n.d.
n.d.
28
BLT, 2004/1
Wood chips, boiler 20 kW
n.d.
n.d.
8
BLT, 2004/2
Wood log and briquettes, boiler 50 kW
n.d.
n.d.
16
BLT, 2000/2
Wood briquettes, chamber boiler 60 kW
n.d.
n.d.
10
BLT, 2005/2
Wood log, chamber boiler 27 kW
n.d.
n.d.
12
Fireplaces
As
PM2.5.
n.d.
180–560;
average 380
Woodstove
n.d.
n.d.
140–450;
average 270
Open fire place
n.d.
425
n.d.
Fireplace, pine
n.d.
n.d.
147
Fireplace, artificial logs (wax and
sawdust)
n.d.
n.d.
483
Stove, oak
n.d.
n.d.
504
Fireplaces; hardwood — yellow poplar
n.d.
n.d.
425 ± 50
Fireplaces; hardwood — white ash
n.d.
n.d.
206 ± 19
Fireplaces; hardwood — sweetgum
n.d.
n.d.
218 ± 25
Fireplaces; hardwood — mockernut
hickory
n.d.
n.d.
425 ± 56
Fireplaces; softwood — loblolly Pine
n.d.
n.d.
231 ± 25
Fireplaces; softwood — slash Pine
n.d.
n.d.
100 ± 19
Conventional masonry fireplaces;
hardwood — red maple northern
n.d.
n.d.
206 ± 19
Hays et al. (2003) 2)
BLT, 2000/1
BLT, 2005/1
McDonald et. al., 2000
Lee et al., 2005 2)
Gullet et al., 2003
Fine et al., 2002 2)
Fine et al.; 2001
2)
2)
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
93
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
Installation type
Boman et al., 2004
Broderick et al. 2005
Gaegauf et al., 2001
2)
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Conventional masonry fireplaces;
hardwood — red oak
n.d.
n.d.
356 ± 19
Conventional masonry fireplaces;
hardwood — paper birch
n.d.
n.d.
169 ± 19
Conventional masonry fireplaces
softwoods — eastern white pine
n.d.
n.d.
713 ± 125
Conventional masonry fireplaces
softwoods — eastern hemlock
n.d.
n.d.
231 ± 25
Conventional masonry fireplaces
softwoods — balsam fir
n.d.
n.d.
300 ± 31
Fireplaces; wood
170–
710
n.d.
n.d.
Pellet burner boilers 10–15 kW,
overfeeding of the fuel; sawdust,
logging residues and bark
n.d.
n.d.
114–377
average 240
Pellet burner boilers 10–15 kW,
horizontal feeding of the fuel; sawdust,
logging residues and bark
n.d.
n.d.
57-157
average 95
Pellet burner boilers 10–15 kW,
underfeeding of the fuel; sawdust,
logging residues and bark
n.d.
n.d.
64-192
average 140
All masonry and factory-built (zero
clearance)
n.d.
n.d.
590
Fireplaces, all cordwood
n.d.
n.d.
810
Fireplaces, all dimensional lumber
n.d.
n.d.
410
Fireplaces, all with closed doors
n.d.
n.d.
350
Fireplaces, all with open doors
n.d.
n.d.
690
Fireplaces, all masonry fireplaces
n.d.
n.d.
660
Fireplaces, all factory-built fireplaces
n.d.
n.d.
580
Fireplaces, cordwood, factory-built,
open doors
n.d.
n.d.
870
Fireplaces, dimensional lumber, factory
built, open doors
n.d.
n.d.
510
All fireplaces, all wood types
n.d.
n.d.
Average 590
All factory-built fireplaces with open
door, cordwood
n.d.
n.d.
Average 840
Wood room heaters
n.d.
n.d.
70 ± 25
Wood accumulating stoves
n.d.
n.d.
167 ±44
Wood log boilers
n.d.
n.d.
28 ±11
Pellet boilers
n.d.
n.d.
20 ±0.4
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
94
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
Installation type
Johansson at al., 2001 7)
Nussbaumer, 2001 2)
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Pellet room heaters
n.d.
n.d.
54 ± 3
Wood chip boilers — dry fuel
n.d.
n.d.
94 ± 13
Wood chip boilers — wet fuel
n.d.
n.d.
48 ± 6
Wood chip boilers — residuals
n.d.
n.d.
64 ± 7
Pellet boilers with fixed grates with
moving scrapes 1.75–2.5 MW
n.d.
n.d.
35–40
All automatic wood furnaces
n.d.
n.d.
< 110
Understoker furnaces
n.d.
n.d.
< 55
Log wood boilers
n.d.
n.d.
34
n.d.
n.d.
68
n.d.
n.d.
70
Urban waste wood, boiler 6)
n.d.
n.d.
1.5
Conventional stove, cordwood
n.d.
n.d.
750
Pellet stoves, softwood
n.d.
n.d.
80–170
Pellets stove, hardwood
n.d.
n.d.
125; 190;220
Pellets boiler, top-feed, softwood
n.d.
n.d.
27.5; 37.5;
62.5
Pellets boiler, bottom-feed softwood
n.d.
n.d.
16.3; 25.0
Conventional stove woodstove
890
n.d.
n.d.
Catalytic certified woodstove
430
n.d.
n.d.
Non-catalytic certified woodstove
330
n.d.
n.d.
Pellet stove exempt
160
n.d.
n.d.
Certified pellet stove
160
n.d.
n.d.
Pellet stove 4.8 kW (high load)
n.d.
n.d.
11–20
average 15
Pellet stove 4.8 kW (low load 2.3 kW)
n.d.
n.d.
32–81
average 51
Natural-draft wood stove, 9 kW; birch
pine spruce
n.d.
n.d.
37–350
average 160
Pellet stove, 4–9,5 kW; pine and spruce
(high load)
n.d.
n.d.
15–17;
average 16
Pellet stove, 4–9,5 kW; pine and spruce
(low load 30 %)
n.d.
n.d.
21–43
average 34
Biomass boiler, two stage combustor
95 kW, log wood
n.d.
n.d.
34
Biomass boiler, two-stage combustor
22 kW, log wood
n.d.
n.d.
13
Conventional stove 5 kW
n.d.
n.d.
1 610
Wood chips boiler 5)
Wood residues, boiler
Houck et al., 2000 2)
Houck et al., 2005
2)
Boman et al., 2005
Krucki et al., 2006
Kubica, 2004/1
(2)
5)
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
95
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
PM2.5
PM10
TSP
Pellet burner/boilers
n.d.
n.d.
20–60
Chamber boiler (hand-fuelled), log
wood
n.d.
n.d.
70–175
Boiler, bottom feed, log wood
n.d.
n.d.
116
Boiler, bottom feed, wood briquettes
n.d.
n.d.
39
Automatic-fuelled boiler — stocker
30 kW, pellets
n.d.
n.d.
6
Automatic-fuelled coal boiler, wood
chips
n.d.
n.d.
60
Residential/commercial/institutional/
9–698
average
450
10–713
average
490
17–4 000
average 520
Boilers > 1MW < 50 MW
9–170
average
80
60–214
average
80
20–500
average 100
Hedberg et al., 2002 2)
Commercial soapstone stove, birch logs
6–163
average
81
n.d.
n.d.
Johansson et al, 2006
Single family house boiler, modern with
accumulator tank
n.d.
n.d.
26–450
Johansson et al, 2006
Single family house boiler, conventional
n.d.
n.d.
73–260
Johansson et al, 2004 a
Single family house boiler, modern with
accumulator tank
n.d.
n.d.
23–89
Johansson et al, 2004 a
Single family house boiler, conventional
n.d.
n.d.
87–2 200
Johansson et al, 2006
Single family house boiler, conventional
n.d.
n.d.
73–260
Johansson et al, 2004 a
Pellets burners/boiler
n.d.
n.d.
12–65
Ohlström, 2005
Wood log stove
90 8)
n.d.
100
n.d.
200
Kubica, 2004/2
Kubica et al., 2005/1
Installation type
Kubica et al., 2005/3
8)
Sauna
190
Pellets burner
70 8)
n.d.
n.d.
Pellets burner
25
8)
n.d.
35
Wood chips/pellets boiler 30–50 kW
15 8)
n.d.
20
Wood chips boiler 30–50 kW
10
8)
n.d.
20
Pellets boiler 30–50 kW
10 8)
n.d.
15
Wood chips/pellets stoker 50–500 kW
20
8)
n.d.
40
Wood chips stoker 30–500 kW 6)
30 8)
n.d.
50
Pellets stoker 50–500 kW 6)
10 8)
n.d.
20
6)
6)
Wood chips grate boiler 5–20 MW
20–55
Wood chips Fluidized bed 20–100 MW
2–20 7)
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
96
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Source
Installation type
Wood chips grate boiler 20–100 MW
Paulrud et al. 2006.
Johansson et al, 2004b
PM2.5
7)
PM10
TSP
3–10
Wood chips grate boiler 10 MW 6)
3 8)
n.d.
10
Wood log stove
n.d
n.d
22–181
Pellets stove
30–55
30–58
n.d.
Pellets burner/boiler
10–60
10–75
n.d.
Glasius et al, 2005
Wood stove
n.d.
n.d.
200–5 500
Schauer et. al., 2001
Open fire place
330–
630
n.d.
n.d.
Purvis et. al., 2000
Open fire place
n.d.
n.d.
170–780
Moving grate 1.5 MW saw dust, low
load
36 6,8)
n.d.
Moving grate 1.5 MW saw dust,
Medium load
28 6,8)
n.d.
Moving grate 1.5 MW saw dust, high
load
25 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Moving grate 1.5 MW pellets, low load
20 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Moving grate 1.5 MW pellets, medium
load
19 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Moving grate 1 MW forest residue,
medium load
676 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Moving grate 1 MW forest residue, high
load
57 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Moving grate 6 MW forest residue, high
load
43 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Moving grate 12 MW forest residue,
high load
77 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Moving grate 0.9 MW pellets, low load
10 6,8)
n.d.
n.d.
Wierzbicka, 2005
Strand. et al, 2004
Notes:
1. As quoted in Klimont et al., 2002.
2. Original factors in lb/ton or in g/kg for recalculation Hu of 16 GJ/t were assumed.
3. Original factors are estimated per unit of heat delivered, no conversion was made.
4. The data for large scale combustion for illustration only.
5. Cyclone separator-dust control.
6. Filter separator-dust control.
7. PM mainly 0.1-0.3 μm. Typically more than 80 % of all particles are smaller than 1 μm. The mean particle
size is typically around 0.1 μm (between 50 nm to 200 nm).
8. Measured as PM1.
9. n.d. — no data.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
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1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
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Appendix B
B.1
Calculation of emission factors from
emission concentrations
Standardisation of emission concentrations from combustion activities
Annual emissions, emission rates and emission limit values are generally expressed in terms of
pollutant mass (for example tonnes.year-1, kg.hr-1, mg.m-3). Note that a mass concentration is
meaningless unless the volume conditions are defined — typically for a combustion process the
conditions will be a dry volume, at STP (0 °C, 101.3 kPa) and normalised to a reference oxygen
concentration. Consumption of fuel requires a minimum theoretical (stoichiometric) quantity of
air. In practise, more air than the stoichiometric quantity is required to achieve combustion. The
oxygen content in exhaust gases from a combustion appliance is indicative of the amount of
excess air and air ingress in the combustion system. Normalisation to a reference oxygen content
allows comparison between technologies as it removes a diluting (or concentrating) effect of
different levels of excess air/air ingress on the pollutant concentration.
Common oxygen concentrations for emission normalisation are:
•
oil- or gas-fired boilers — 3 % O2
•
solid-fuel boilers — 6, 7 % O2
•
wood-fired boilers — 6, 7, 10, 11 or 13 % O2
•
incineration — 11 % O2
•
gas turbines — 15 % O2
•
stationary engines — 5, 15 % O2
•
dryers — 17 % O2.
Other normalisation oxygen concentrations are used including 0 % O2 which is commonly used in
the testing of residential gas appliances. Concentrations can also be normalised using carbon
dioxide (although this is much less common).
Usually emission concentration data will be provided as mass concentrations at a specified oxygen
content. However, where emission data are provided in other forms, the following equations may
help the user manipulate the date into a more useful form.
Some pollutants are measured and reported on a wet basis and may require standardisation to the
dry condition.
[X]d
=
[X]w .
100
(100-[H2O])
where:
•
[X]w
is the measured concentration for a wet flue gas (ppm, mg.m-3, %v/v),
•
[X]d
is the measured concentration for a dry flue gas (same units as the dry concentration),
•
[H2O] is the flue gas moisture content as % v/v on a wet basis.
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Many pollutants are measured as volume (molar) concentrations. Conversion to a mass
concentration assumes ideal gas behaviour and is detailed below:
[X]m
=
[X]d .
MW
22.4
where:
•
[X]d
is the measured concentration in ppm (parts per million) by volume for a dry flue gas,
•
[X]m
is the measured concentration in mg.m-3 by volume for a dry flue gas,
•
MW
is the relative molecular mass of the pollutant (for example 64 for SO2),
•
22.4
is the volume occupied by 1 kgmole of an ideal gas at 0°C, 101.3 kPa (m3).
Note that NOx emission concentrations and emission factors are defined in terms of NO2. Hence,
the relative molecular mass used for NOx is 46. VOC emission concentrations are often defined in
terms of carbon. Hence, the relative molecular mass used for VOC is 12, but this will often be
modified further for the calibration gas applied (for example MW for concentrations measured as
propane C3H8 ‘equivalents’ would 3 x 12 - 36).
Normalisation to a reference O2 concentration is given by:
[X]ref
=
[X]m . (20.9-[ O2]ref)
(20.9-[O2]m)
where :
•
[X]ref
is the standardised concentration of the pollutant at the reference O2 content,
•
[x]m
is the measured concentration in mg.m-3 for a dry flue gas,
•
[O2]m
is the measured O2 concentration in % on a dry basis,
•
[O2]ref is the reference O2 concentration in % on a dry basis (for example 3, 6 or 15 %).
This calculation is appropriate where pollutant and O2 concentrations are measured on a dry basis.
B.2
Calculation of emission factors
An emission factor relates the release of a pollutant to a process activity. For combustion
processes, emission factors are commonly described as the mass of pollutant released per unit of
fuel burned.
An emission factor can be calculated in several ways; the approach adopted uses the standardised
pollutant emission concentrations and the specific theoretical (stoichiometric) volume of flue gas
for the relevant fuel. This approach avoids measurement of exhaust gas flow and fuel flows which
can have a high uncertainty and may not be practical at many combustion plant.
The approach requires knowledge of the fuel used, the pollutant concentration and the oxygen
concentration.
Fuel analysis, where available, allows calculation of the specific flue gas volume from the
elemental analysis. However, the US Environmental Protection Agency Method 19 provides flue
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
110
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
gas volume for common fuels. For other fuels (for example derived gases, landfill gas, unrefined
natural gas or waste-derived fuels) fuel analysis is advised to minimise uncertainty.
Fuel analysis route: the fuel analysis and combustion calculations are used to determine the
stoichiometric air requirement and dry flue gas volume per volume or mass of fuel. Note that is
important to understand the analysis reporting conditions, particularly for solid fuels. The
calculations assume ideal gas behaviour. A dry flue gas volume is calculated for the reference O2
concentration used to normalise the pollutant emission concentration. A pollutant emission factor
(EF) can hence be calculated by multiplying the standardised pollutant concentration by the dry
flue gas volume at the same reference oxygen content.
Generally, the flue gas volumes generated from combustion of fuel can be calculated in
accordance with the following equations.
CXHY
+ (X+(Y/4)O2 = X CO2 + (Y/2) H2O
Note that some of the oxygen may be sourced from the fuel. For combustion in air, each cubic
metre of oxygen is associated with (79.1/20.9) cubic metres of nitrogen.
The dry flue gas volume at stoichiometric conditions (DFGVSC) per unit mass of fuel (or volume
for gaseous fuels) can be calculated and hence the dry flue gas volume at the normalised condition
(DFGVref) for the required reference oxygen content:
DFGVref
=
DFGVSC . (20.9/(20.9-[O2ref]))
A pollutant emission factor (EF) can hence be calculated by multiplying the standardised pollutant
concentration by the dry flue gas volume at the same reference oxygen content. For example, at
15 % oxygen:
EF
=
[X]15% . DFGV15
Emission factors are reported in several ways and these are generally recalculated using physical
or other properties of the fuel.
For example, a thermal emission factor (as used in the Guidebook) can be derived by dividing the
emission factor calculated above by the calorific value of the fuel. For the Guidebook, this is the
net (inferior) CV.
EFthermal =
EF
CV
where:
•
EFthermal is the thermal emission factor expressed in units to suit the user (for example g GJ-1),
•
CV is the net calorific value of the fuel in appropriate units to suit the units of the emission
factor.
USEPA Method 19: the USEPA provides stoichiometric dry flue gas volume for fuel oil. The
USEPA data can be found in USEPA Method 19 (US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part
60, Appendix A). The USEPA ‘F-factor’ data are presented as the volume of dry flue gas at 20 °C
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
111
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
associated with the gross thermal input of the fuel. These USEPA conditions are not consistent
with the Guidebook or emission reporting practise in Europe and consequently some manipulation
of the data is required. Calculations assume an ideal gas.
The USEPA method can be obtained here www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/methods/method19.html and the
F-factors are provided below.
The Fd factors are used — these represent the dry stoichiometric flue gas volume per unit of
energy input. The Fw and Fc factors represent the wet flue gas volume and CO2 volumes
respectively.
The USEPA dry flue gas volume at stoichiometric conditions are first recalculated to provide the
flue gas volume (DFGVref) for the required oxygen content at STP and for the net energy input.
Fd’
= Fd . (273/293). ((CVgross)/CVnet))
where :
•
Fd’ is the stoichiometric dry flue gas volume at STP per unit of net energy input – m3.J-1,
•
Fd is the USEPA factor (20 °C and gross energy input),
•
273/293 volume correction — ratio of temperatures in Kelvin.
Note that it is the ratio between the fuels’ gross and net calorific values that is needed. Indicative
ratios are provided below based on UK data (DUKES 2007).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
112
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table B1
Fuel
Fuel calorific values
CVgross
Power stn coal
Industrial coal
Wood
HFO
Gas oil
Natural gas
26.2
26.6
11.9
43.3
45.6
39.8
CVnet
Units
Ratio
24.9
25.3
10
41.2
43.4
35.8
GJ.tonne-1
GJ.tonne-1
GJ.tonne-1
GJ.tonne-1
GJ.tonne-1
MJ.m-3
1.05
1.05
1.08
1.05
1.05
1.11
The dry flue gas volume at the normalised oxygen content can then be calculated:
Fdref
=
Fd’ . (20.9/(20.9-[O2ref]))
A pollutant emission factor (EFthermal) can then be calculated by multiplying the standardised
pollutant concentration by the dry flue gas volume at the same reference oxygen content. For
example at 15 % oxygen:
EFthermal
=
[X]15% . Fd15%
Emission factors are reported in several ways and these are generally recalculated using physical
or other properties of the fuel.
For example, a mass emission factor can be derived by multiplying the thermal emission factor
calculated above by the net calorific value of the fuel.
EF
=
EFthermal . CV
where:
•
EFthermal is the thermal emission factor expressed in units to suit the user (for example g GJ-1),
•
CV is the net calorific value of the fuel in appropriate units to suit the units of the emission
factor.
Example figures for correlation of emission concentrations to emission factors from USEPA
Method 19 F factors are provided in Figures B1 and B2 below.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
113
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Emission Factors and Concentrations
1000
900
800
Emission factor, g/GJ net
700
600
Coal (6% O2)
Wood (6% O2)
Oil, gas (3% O2)
Oil, gas (15% O2)
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Emission concentration, mg/m3 dry, STP (0'C, 101.3 kPa) at Reference O2
Figure B1
Emission factors — selected fuels and standardised concentrations up to
1 000 mg.m-3
200
180
160
Emission factors, g/GJ (net)
140
120
Coal (6% O2)
Wood (6% O2)
Oil, gas (3% O2)
Oil, gas (15% O2)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Emissions concnetrations, mg/m3 dry at STP (0'C, 101.3kPa) at Reference O2
Figure B2
Emission factors — selected fuels and standardised concentrations up to 200 mg.m-3
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
114
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Appendix C
Table C1
Country
Emission factors associated with
emission limit values in selected
countries
Selected national emission limit values for small coal-fired combustion installations
Size
-3
-1
Emission concentrations, mg.m at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dEmission factor, g.GJ (net basis)
Ref.
O2
%
NOx
PM
SO2
CO
Belgium
0.3-5 MW
Low High Low High Low High
6
300
800 1250 1250
100
200
Belgium
5-20 MW
6
300
800
1250
1250
Belgium
20-50 MW
6
300
600
1250
1250
Czech republic
0.2-50 MW
6
650
Czech republic
<50 MW
6
1500
France
20-50 MW
6
450
France
<4 MW
6
550
France
4-10 MW
6
France
>10 MW
6
Finland
1-50 MW
Germany
250
50
200
200
50
200
250
250
VOC
NOx
SO2
PM
CO
Low High Low High Low High
109
290
453
453
36
72
109
290
453
453
18
72
109
217
453
453
18
72
650
50
235
1000
50
543
200
110
91
VOC
91
72
91
235
18
362
18
72
40
800
2500
650
850
2000
163
825
2000
150
199
550
825
2000
100
550
825
2000
100
6
275
550
1100
1100
55
<2.5 MW
7
300
500
350
1300
50
Germany
<5 MW
7
300
500
350
1300
50
Germany
>5MW
7
300
500
350
1300
20
150
116
194
136
505
8
58
Germany
>10 MW
7
300
400
350
1300
20
150
116
155
136
505
8
58
50
100
290
906
235
308
725
299
725
54
199
299
725
36
199
299
725
100
199
398
398
20
150
116
194
136
505
19
58
150
116
194
136
505
19
58
140
36
36
51
Italy
20-50 MW
6
400
200
30
200
145
72
11
72
Latvia
<10 MW
6
600
2500
1000
2000
217
906
362
725
Latvia
10-50 MW
6
600
2500
500
2000
217
906
181
725
Norway
0.5-1 MW
7
250
100
150
97
39
58
Norway
1-5 MW
7
250
20
100
97
8
39
200
20
100
78
8
39
Norway
5-50 MW
7
Poland
<5
6
Poland
5-50 MW
Portugal
Slovakia
0.2-2 MW
630
6
6
2700
02-50 MW
6
Slovenia
1-50 MW
6
Slovenia
5-50 MW
6
UK
20-50 MW
6
145
1000
2500
250
2000
150
50
543
978
362
906
91
725
54
150
100
54
100
36
50
450
650
2000
3000
300
7
228
400
1500
6
Slovakia
20
18
36
18
150
163
235
725
1087
109
54
Notes:
1. All combustion unit sizes are MWth (thermal input).
2. Range of concentrations (NOx, SO2 and PM) generally corresponds to ELVs for new and existing combustion
plant. Some countries apply BAT achievable emission levels rather than ELVs.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
115
18
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table C2
Country
Selected national emission limit values for small coal-fired combustion installations
Size
-3
-1
Ref.
Emission concentrations, mg.m at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dEmission factor, g.GJ (net basis)
O2
NOx
%
Low
PM
SO2
High
Low
High
200
110
SO2
High
Low
377
116
435
116
1161
29
VOC
High
11
400
650
200
11
500
750
200
France
4-10 MW
11
500
750
200
100
290
435
116
58
France
>10 MW
11
500
750
200
100
290
435
116
58
Finland
1-5 MW
6
250
500
250
375
96
193
96
Finland
5-10 MW
6
250
500
125
250
96
193
48
96
Finland
10-50 MW
6
250
500
50
125
96
193
19
48
Germany
<2.5 MW
11
250
350
100
10
145
203
58
6
Germany
<5 MW
11
250
350
50
10
145
203
29
6
Germany
>5MW
11
250
350
20
10
145
203
12
6
400
200
30
200
20
154
77
12
77
6
600
200
1000
2000
231
77
386
771
200
77
193
500
232
CO
Low
<4 MW
150
290
PM
High
20-50 MWth
<10 MW
100
NOx
Low
France
Latvia
50
VOC
High
France
Italy
2000
CO
Low
58
116
145
6
Latvia
10-50 MW
6
600
2000
231
Norway
0.5-1 MW
11
250
100
300
150
145
58
174
87
Norway
1-5 MW
11
250
20
300
100
145
12
174
58
5-20 MW
11
200
300
20
100
100
116
174
12
58
58
Norway
20-50MW
11
200
300
20
50
100
116
174
12
29
58
<5
6
700
Poland
5-50 MW
6
400
Portugal
UK
20-50 MW
6
1500
6
450
2700
270
154
1000
300
8
771
Norway
Poland
64
87
150
50
579
174
1041
386
116
58
Notes:
1. All combustion unit sizes are MWth (thermal input).
2. Range of concentrations (NOx, SO2 and PM) generally corresponds to ELVs for new and existing combustion
plant. Some countries apply BAT achievable emission levels rather than ELVs.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
116
19
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table C3
Country
Selected national emission limit values for small oil-fired combustion installations
Size
-3
Ref.
-1
Emission concentrations, mg.m at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dEmission factor, g.GJ (net basis)
O2
NOx
%
Low
PM
SO2
High
Low
High
CO
Low
VOC
High
NOx
Low
SO2
High
Low
Czech republic
3
1700
100
481
Czech republic
3
1700
100
481
100
110
28
28
3
450
650
850
France
<4 MW
3
550
825
1700
France
4-10 MW
3
550
825
France
>10 MW
3
500
750
Finland
1-15 MW
3
800
Finland
15-50MW
3
500
Germany
HWB
3
180
350
50
80
51
99
14
23
Germany
LPS
3
200
350
50
80
57
99
14
23
Germany
HPS
3
250
350
50
80
71
99
14
23
Italy
5-50 MW
3
500
Latvia
<10 MW
3
400
1700
50
400
113
481
14
113
Latvia
10-50 MW
3
400
1700
50
400
113
481
14
113
Norway
0.5-1 MW
3
250
100
100
10
71
28
28
Norway
1-5 MW
3
250
20
100
10
71
6
28
3
Norway
5-50 MW
3
200
20
150
10
57
6
42
3
Poland
<5
Portugal
100
VOC
High
20-50 MWth
127
184
241
150
156
233
481
42
1700
100
156
233
481
28
1700
100
141
212
481
28
900
1700
50
200
226
255
481
14
57
670
1700
50
140
141
190
481
14
40
600
50
CO
Low
France
1700
1700
PM
High
100
141
481
170
481
14
28
28
31
28
3
3
3
1500
2700
1000
50
424
764
283
Slovakia
0.2-2 MW
3
1700
100
481
28
Slovenia
1-50 MW
3
1700
50
481
14
Slovenia
5-50 MW
3
UK
20-50 MW
3
481
28
50
200
600
1700
100
14
150
150
57
170
42
42
Notes
1. All combustion unit sizes are MWth (thermal input).
2. Range of concentrations (NOx, SO2 and PM) generally corresponds to ELVs for new and existing combustion
plant. Some countries apply BAT achievable emission levels rather than ELVs.
3. Note that for SO2, the ELV for unabated combustion units is determined by fuel sulphur content and Directive
1999/32/EC on sulphur content of certain liquid fuels (1 % for heavy fuel oil and 0.2 % for gas oil until
1.1.2008 when the gas oil sulphur limit will be 0.1 %).
4. Germany distinguishes NOx emissions by application; HWB — hot water boiler, LPS — steam boiler
supplying steam at temperature up to 210 ºC and up to 1.8 Mpa, HPS — boilers supplying steam at
temperature greater than 210 ºC or pressure over 1.8 Mpa.
,
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
117
14
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table C4
Country
Selected national emission limit values for small gas-fired combustion installations
Size
-3
-1
Ref.
Emission concentrations, mg.m at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dEmission factor, g.GJ (net basis)
O2
NOx
%
Low
PM
SO2
High
Low
High
CO
Low
VOC
High
NOx
Low
SO2
High
PM
Low
High
CO
Low
Czech republic
3
35
10
10
Czech republic
3
35
10
10
3
France
20-50 MWth
3
120
350
35
5
France
<10MW
3
150
225
35
5
35
5
France
>10 MW
3
100
150
Finland
1-15 MW
3
340
400
300
100
110
3
34
99
10
1
42
64
10
1
10
1
28
42
96
113
48
85
VOC
High
28
Finland
15-50MW
3
170
Germany
HWB
3
100
10
5
50
28
3
1
Germany
LPS
3
110
10
5
50
31
3
1
14
Germany
HPS
3
150
10
5
50
42
3
1
14
Italy
14
3
350
35
5
99
10
1
Latvia
<10 MW
3
350
35
5
150
99
10
1
42
Latvia
10-50 MW
3
350
35
5
150
99
10
1
42
Norway
0.5-1 MW
3
120
10
34
Norway
1-5 MW
3
120
10
34
Norway
5-50 MW
3
120
10
34
Poland
3
Portugal
3
200
3
3
57
3
5
1500
2700
1
1000
50
425
765
283
Slovakia
0.2-2 MW
3
35
10
10
3
Slovenia
1-50 MW
3
35
5
10
1
Slovenia
5-50 MW
3
UK
20-50 MW
3
10
1
5
140
35
5
31
1
100
40
28
Notes:
1. All combustion unit sizes are MWth (thermal input).
2. Range of concentrations (NOx, SO2 and PM) generally corresponds to ELVs for new and existing combustion
plant. Some countries apply BAT achievable emission levels rather than ELVs.
3. Germany distinguishes NOx emissions by application; HWB — hot water boiler, LPS — steam boiler
supplying steam at temperature up to 210 ºC and up to 1.8 Mpa, HPS — boilers supplying steam at
temperature greater than 210 ºC or pressure over 1.8 Mpa.
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
118
14
1.A.4.a.i, 1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.i, 1.A.5.a
Small combustion
Table C5
Country
Selected national emission limit values for engines and gas turbines
Fuel
Ref.
Emission concentrations, mg.m-3 at STP (0ºC, 101.3 kPa) dEmission factor, g.GJ-1 (net basis)
O2
NOx
%
Low
SO2
High
Low
PM
High
CO
Low
VOC
High
NOx
Low
SO2
High
Low
PM
High
CO
Low
VOC
High
Engines :
France
Gas
5
350
112
France
Oil
5
1000
319
Finland
Gas
15
750
1750
Finland
Oil
15
750
2300
Germany
Gas, <3MW
5
1000
20
300
2000
319
19
290
1934
Germany
Gas
5
500
20
300
650
159
19
290
629
Germany
Oil, <3MW
5
1000
20
300
319
19
290
600
60
70
20
300
644
4561
644
5990
156
182
Germany
Oil
5
500
UK
Gas
15
500
750
50
19
290
450
200
430
1955
130
261 1173
UK
Oil
15
1100
1800
100
521
150
150
944
4688
260
391
391
Finland
Gas
15
115
Finland
Oil
15
115
175
99
150
175
99
Germany
Gas
15
75
100
64
150
86
Germany
Oil
15
150
100
129
86
100
159
1563
Gas turbines :
UK
Gas
15
60
125
60
52
107
52
UK
Oil
15
125
165
60
107
142
52
Notes:
1. All combustion unit sizes are MWth (thermal input).
2. Range of concentrations (NOx, SO2 and PM) generally corresponds to ELVs for new and existing combustion
plant. Some countries apply BAT achievable emission level ranges rather than ELVs.
3. Note that for SO2, the ELV for unabated combustion units is determined by fuel sulphur content and Directive
1999/32/EC on sulphur content of certain liquid fuels (1 % for heavy fuel oil and 0.2 % for gas oil until
1.1.2008 when the gas oil sulphur limit will be 0.1 %).
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009
119
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