Teens and Parents - The National Center on Addiction and

®
National Survey of
American Attitudes
on Substance
Abuse XIV: Teens
and Parents
August 2009
Conducted by QEV Analytics, Ltd.
*The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University is
neither affiliated with, nor sponsored by, the National Court Appointed Special
Advocate Association (also known as "CASA”) or any of its member organizations,
or any other organizations with the name of "CASA".
Board of Directors
Lee C. Bollinger
President, Columbia University
Bruce E. Mosler
President, CEO, Cushman & Wakefield, Inc.
Ursula M. Burns
CEO, Xerox Corporation
Manuel T. Pacheco, Ph.D.
President Emeritus, University of Arizona and
University of Missouri System
Columba Bush
Former First Lady of Florida
Joseph A. Califano, Jr.
Founder and Chairman, CASA
Joseph J. Plumeri II
Chairman and CEO,
Willis Group Holdings, Limited
Jim Ramstad
Kenneth I. Chenault
Chairman and CEO, American Express Company
Shari E. Redstone
President, National Amusements, Inc.
Jamie Lee Curtis
Jamie Dimon
Chairman and CEO, JPMorgan Chase & Co.
Peter R. Dolan
Victor F. Ganzi
Chairman of the Board PGA Tour
David L. Rosenbloom, Ph.D.
President and CEO, CASA
E. John Rosenwald, Jr.
Vice Chairman Emeritus, J.P.Morgan
Michael I. Roth
Chairman and CEO, The Interpublic Group
of Companies, Inc.
Donald R. Keough
Chairman of the Board, Allen and
Company Incorporated
(Former President of The Coca-Cola Company)
Michael P. Schulhof
Chairman, GTI Group LLC
David A. Kessler, M.D.
Louis W. Sullivan, M.D.
President Emeritus, Morehouse School of Medicine
Alan I. Leshner, Ph.D.
CEO, Executive Publisher, Science, American
Association for the Advancement of Science
John J. Sweeney
President, AFL-CIO
Rev. Edward A. Malloy, CSC
President Emeritus, University of Notre Dame
Clyde C. Tuggle
Senior Vice President, Global Public Affairs &
Communications, The Coca-Cola Company
Doug Morris
Chairman and CEO, Universal Music Group
Directors Emeritus
James E. Burke (1992-1997)
Mary Fisher (1996-2005)
Betty Ford (1992-1998)
Douglas A. Fraser (1992-2003)
Barbara C. Jordan (1992-1996)
Leo-Arthur Kelmenson (1998-2006)
LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr., M.D., F.A.C.S. (1992-2001)
Nancy Reagan (1995-2000)
Linda Johnson Rice (1992-1996)
George Rupp, Ph.D. (1993-2002)
Michael I. Sovern (1992-1993)
Frank G. Wells (1992-1994)
Michael A. Wiener (1997-2009)
Copyright ©2009. All rights reserved. May not be used or reproduced without the express written permission of The National Center
on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University.
Advisory Group
Timothy Johnson, PhD
Director
Survey Research Laboratory
University of Illinois
Chicago, IL
and
Professor of Public Administration
University of Illinois, School of Public Health
Chicago, IL
Robert Shapiro, PhD
Professor
Department of Political Science
Columbia University
New York, NY
Nicholas Zill, PhD
Psychologist
Washington, DC
Table of Contents
Accompanying Statement........................................................................................................ i
Chapter I: Key Findings.........................................................................................................1
Teen Drunkenness................................................................................................................2
The Relationship Between Teen Drunkenness and Other Drug Use...................................2
Father Knows Best? The Influence of Dads on Teen Drinking..........................................2
Marijuana: A Big Deal? ......................................................................................................3
Marijuana Getting Easier to Buy .........................................................................................3
Teen Drunkenness, Marijuana Use and Harmful Sexual Behavior .....................................3
Prescription Drugs Readily Available .................................................................................3
Drugs in Schools ..................................................................................................................3
Parental Acceptance of Drugs in Schools............................................................................4
Parental Role Models...........................................................................................................4
Parents’ Expectations...........................................................................................................4
Chapter II: Teen Drunkenness ..............................................................................................5
Teen Moderate Drinking a Rare Phenomenon ....................................................................5
Teen Drunkenness and Harmful Sexual Behavior...............................................................6
The Relationship Between Teen Drunkenness and Other Drug Use...................................6
Father Knows Best? Teen Drinking and the Influence of Dad...........................................7
Chapter III: Marijuana..........................................................................................................9
Marijuana: A Big Deal? ......................................................................................................9
Teen Marijuana Use and Harmful Sexual Behavior ..........................................................11
Chapter IV: Availability of Substances: Which Are Easiest to Buy, How Fast
Teens Get Them, and Where Do They Get Them? .........................................................13
Easiest to Buy ....................................................................................................................13
How Fast Teens Can Get Substances ................................................................................14
Where Teens Get Substances.............................................................................................14
Chapter V: Drugs in School .................................................................................................15
Parental Acceptance of Drugs in School ...........................................................................16
Chapter VI: Parent Enablers...............................................................................................17
Parental Role Models.........................................................................................................17
Parents’ Expectations.........................................................................................................18
Appendix A: Sample Performance................................................................................... A-1
Appendix B: Survey Methodology ....................................................................................B-1
Appendix C: Screening Questions.....................................................................................C-1
Appendix D: 2008 CASA Survey of Teenagers, 12- to 17-Years Old ........................... D-1
Appendix E: 2008 CASA Survey of Parents of Teenagers..............................................E-1
Accompanying Statement by
Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Founder and Chairman
This 14th annual “back-to-school survey”
continues the unique effort of The National
Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse
(CASA) at Columbia University to track
attitudes of teens and those, like parents, who
influence them. Over a decade and a half,
through this survey we have identified factors
that increase or decrease the likelihood of teen
substance abuse. Armed with this knowledge,
parents, teachers, clergy, coaches and other
responsible adults have been better able to help
our nation’s teens grow up drug free.
We regard this as a work in progress as we try
each year to improve our ability to identify those
situations and characteristics that influence the
risk that a teen will smoke, drink, get drunk, use
illegal drugs, or abuse prescription drugs.
Over the past 15 years we have surveyed
thousands of American teens and their parents.
We have learned how their attitudes and their
parents’ expectations impact teens’ behavior.
And through surrogate questions for drug use-such as, “If you wanted to buy marijuana right
now, how long would it take you to get it?”--we
have gained insight into America’s teen culture.
Perhaps our most important finding from so
many years of surveying teens and our other
research is this: A child who gets through age
21 without smoking, using drugs or abusing
alcohol is virtually certain never to do so. And,
for better or worse, no one has greater power to
influence a teen’s decision whether to drink or
use drugs than his parents.
This year we surveyed 1,000 teens, age 12 to 17
(509 boys, 491 girls), and 452 of the parents of
these teens. Elizabeth Planet, CASA’s Vice
President and Director of Special Projects,
managed this complex undertaking.
Parents who do not want their kids getting drunk
and using drugs should begin by sending a
strong message to their kids about the
importance of avoiding alcohol. Our survey
results this year show how important it is for
teens to get a clear anti-use message from their
parents, especially from Dad.
This year’s survey sounds an alarm to parents of
teens who drink:
•
Mom and Dad, if your teen drinks, odds are
your teen is getting drunk. Two-thirds of
teens who drink at least once a month get
drunk at least once a month.
•
Teens who get drunk at least once a month
are 18 times likelier to use marijuana and likelier
to associate with teens who abuse other illegal
and prescription drugs.
This year’s survey identifies parents who have
become enablers of their teens’ smoking,
drinking and drug use. These parent enablers
are parents who by their attitudes and conduct
send their 12- to 17-year olds a message that it’s
okay to smoke, drink, get drunk and use illegal
drugs like marijuana. The worst parent enablers
are those parents whose children have seen them
drunk. Fathers who are okay with their 12- to
17-year olds drinking are parent enablers. So
are mothers and fathers who expect their
children to use drugs and acquiesce in sending
their children to schools where drugs are used,
kept or sold.
But this survey also shows that words are not the
only way to communicate. Teen behavior is
strongly associated with their parents’ behavior,
so that kids who witness their parents drunk are
themselves likelier to get drunk. And teen
behavior is also related to their parents’
expectations: when parents expect the worst,
teens all too often deliver on that expectation.
The bottom line for parents is this: Do not be
vague about your expectations for your kids--let
them know in no uncertain terms that you do not
approve of underage drinking. Set high
expectations for your kids and for their school
environment. And show them through your own
behavior how you live by those expectations.
The Alcohol Connection: Teen
Drinking, Drunkenness and Other
Drug Use
Ending substance abuse in this country is all
about kids--getting them to age 21 without using
substances. And preventing teens from starting
to use is first and foremost a Mom and Pop
operation. My new book, How to Raise a DrugFree Kid: The Straight Dope for Parents, which
was published earlier this month by Simon and
Schuster’s Touchstone/Fireside division, is
packed with practical advice and suggestions for
parents on talking to your kids about the dangers
of tobacco, alcohol and other drug use, about
setting high expectations for your kids, and
about setting a good example through your own
behavior.
The most important finding to come out of this
survey for parents is that if your teen drinks
monthly, odds are your teen gets drunk monthly
too. And if your teen gets drunk regularly, he’s
much likelier to use marijuana and to hang out
with friends who use other drugs.
Two-thirds of teens who drink on a monthly
basis also get drunk at least once in a typical
month.
Eight out of ten 17-year old drinkers get drunk at
least once in a typical month.
This year’s survey results highlight how
important it is for parents to steer their kids
away from alcohol--because two-thirds of teens
who drink regularly also get drunk regularly,
and regular teen drunkenness is associated with
much higher rates of marijuana use and having
friends who use other drugs like cocaine, heroin
and LSD and abuse prescription drugs.
Compared to teens who have never tried alcohol,
teens who get drunk monthly are:
•
-ii-
Eighteen times likelier to have tried
marijuana;
•
Four times likelier to be able to get
marijuana in an hour;
•
Almost four times likelier to know someone
their age who abuses prescription drugs;
•
More than three times likelier to have
friends who use marijuana;
Five percent of 12- to 15-year old girls and nine
percent of 12- to 15-year old boys say their
fathers are okay with them drinking.
•
More than twice as likely to know someone
their age who uses meth or ecstasy, or other
drugs such as cocaine, heroin or LSD;
Thirteen percent of 16- and 17-year old girls say
their fathers are okay with them drinking.
•
Twice as likely to know a girl who was
forced to do something sexual she didn’t
want to do; and
•
Nearly four times likelier to know a guy
who uses drugs or alcohol to hook up.
•
Twenty percent of 16- and 17-year old boys say
their fathers are okay with them drinking.
Parents: What You EXPECT
Matters
While nearly all of the parents we surveyed say
it is important to them that their teen does not
use marijuana, only half believe it is realistic to
expect that a teen will never try marijuana.
Parents: What You DO Matters
One-third of teens have seen one or both of their
parents drunk.
Teens of parents who say future drug use by
their child is very likely are 10 times likelier to
have tried marijuana, compared to teens of
parents who say future drug use by their child
will never happen.
Compared to teens who have not seen a parent
drunk, those who have are:
•
More than twice as likely to get drunk in a
typical month;
•
Three times likelier to have used marijuana;
and
•
Three times likelier to have smoked
cigarettes.
Sixty percent of parents say their teen’s school is
not drug free, meaning drugs are used, kept or
sold on school grounds. Of these parents:
Parents: What You SAY Matters
Teens’ drinking behavior is strongly associated
with how they believe their fathers feel about
them drinking:
•
Compared to teens who are living with no
father in the home, teens who believe their
father is okay with them drinking are more
than one and a half times likelier to have had
a drink.
Compared to teens who believe their father
is against them drinking, teens who believe
their father is okay with them drinking are
two and a half times likelier to get drunk in a
typical month.
•
Nearly two-thirds believe the presence of
illegal drugs in their teen’s school makes it
more likely that their teen will try them;
•
More than half believe the goal of making
the school drug free is unrealistic; and
•
Only one-quarter have discussed this issue
with a school official or teacher.
I hope that when parents see these survey results
they will be as struck as I am by the crystal clear
message that parents are key to preventing
substance use in their kids.
-iii-
Parents who send ambiguous messages to their
kids about drinking and drug use or--worse yet-parents who encourage such use through their
own words and actions are enablers of teen
substance use.
I want to express CASA’s appreciation to Steve
Wagner, President of QEV Analytics, Ltd. for
his insightful work in analyzing the data. We
much appreciate the counsel of our survey
advisory group members: Timothy Johnson,
PhD, Director of the Survey Research
Laboratory, University of Illinois, Chicago,
Professor of Public Administration, School of
Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago;
Robert Shapiro, PhD, Professor, Department of
Political Science, Columbia University; and
psychologist Nicholas Zill, PhD.
Roger Vaughan, DrPH, head of CASA’s
Substance Abuse and Data Analysis Center
(SADACSM), Professor of Clinical Biostatistics,
Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of
Public Health at Columbia University and
associate editor for statistics and evaluation for
the American Journal of Public Health, and
Susan Foster, Vice President and Director of
Policy Research and Analysis, reviewed the
analysis. Jane Carlson and Jennie Hauser
handled expertly the administrative aspects.
All these individuals helped, but CASA and
QEV Analytics, Ltd. are responsible for this
report.
-iv-
Chapter I
Key Findings
Through 14 surveys conducted over 15 years,
CASA has been surveying public opinion on
substance abuse, seeking answers to the
question: “Why do some teenagers smoke,
drink and use illegal substances while others do
not?”
This survey continues an analysis aimed at
revealing factors that contribute to teens’ risk of
smoking, drinking and using other drugs. Some
of these factors--including their family
dynamics, their parents’ involvement in their
lives, their friends’ substance use, and their
school and neighborhood environments--tend to
cluster. Teens with problems in one area of their
life often have problems in others as well.
Nevertheless, by identifying individual risk
factors, we seek to help parents (and other adults
who influence teens) better identify those who
are most vulnerable to substance abuse, and
develop strategies to diminish their risk.
Although this survey includes some questions on
substance use, it is not intended to be an
epidemiological study of substance abuse. For
measurements of the actual prevalence of
various types of substance use there are other
sources of data, including the Youth Risk
Behavior Surveillance System (conducted by the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of
the U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services), the Monitoring the Future Study
(conducted at the University of Michigan and
funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse
of the National Institutes of Health), and the
National Survey on Drug Use and Health
(sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration of the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services).
This survey was conducted by telephone in the
United States. The 1,000 teens (ages 12 to 17)
who participated were randomly selected from a
nationally representative sample frame and
interviewed between March 2 and April 5, 2009;
the 452 parent interviews were conducted
between March 21 and April 10, 2009. Despite
assurances of confidentiality, we assume that
some teenage respondents will be reluctant to
admit inappropriate or illegal activities over the
telephone to someone unknown to them.
Therefore, this survey--like any telephone
survey asking respondents to self-report
proscribed behaviors--presents conservative
estimates of the extent of the use of illegal
drugs, the consumption of tobacco products and
alcohol by teenagers, and other negative
behaviors, and over-reports positive behaviors.
The parental permission requirement also may
contribute to under-reporting of proscribed
behaviors. ∗
The Relationship Between Teen
Drunkenness and Other Drug Use
Compared to teens who have never tried alcohol,
teens who get drunk monthly are:
Teen Drunkenness
This year we took a close look at teen drinking
and discovered that if a 12- to 17-year old is
drinking odds are that teen is also getting drunk:
•
Sixty-five percent of teens who drink
monthly report that they get drunk at least
once in a typical month.
•
Eighty-five percent of 17-year old drinkers
get drunk at least once in a typical month.
•
Eighteen times likelier to have tried
marijuana;
•
Four times likelier to be able to get
marijuana in an hour;
•
Almost four times likelier to know someone
their age who abuses prescription drugs;
•
More than three times likelier to have
friends who use marijuana; and
•
More than twice as likely to know someone
their age who uses meth or ecstasy, or other
drugs such as cocaine, heroin or LSD.
Father Knows Best? The Influence
of Dads on Teen Drinking
Teens’ drinking behavior is associated strongly
with how they believe their fathers feel about
their drinking:
Eighty-five percent of teen drinkers who say that
when they drink they usually drink to get drunk
do so at least once a month.
•
Compared to teens who believe their father
is against them drinking, teens who believe
their father is okay with them drinking are
two and a half times likelier to get drunk in a
typical month.
•
Compared to teens who are living with no
father in the home, teens who believe their
father is okay with them drinking are more
than one and a half times likelier to have had
a drink.
But even 33 percent of those teens who do NOT
set out to get drunk nonetheless find themselves
drunk at least once a month.
∗
See Fendrich, M., & Johnson, T. P. (2001).
Examining prevalence differences in three national
surveys of youth: Impact of consent procedures,
mode, and editing rules. Journal of Drug Issues,
31(3), 615-642.
-2-
Five percent of 12- to 15-year old girls and nine
percent of 12- to 15-year old boys say their
fathers are okay with their drinking.
•
Twice as likely to know a girl who was
forced to do something sexual she didn’t
want to do; and
Thirteen percent of 16- and 17-year old girls say
their fathers are okay with their drinking.
•
Nearly four times likelier to know a guy
who uses drugs or alcohol to hook up.
Twenty percent of 16- and 17-year old boys say
their fathers are okay with their drinking.
Compared to teens who have never tried
marijuana, teens who have tried marijuana are:
Marijuana: A Big Deal?
•
Teens who say that the decision to use marijuana
by someone their age is not a big deal are four
times more likely to use it compared to teens
who say this decision is a big deal.
Twice as likely to know a girl who was
forced to do something sexual she didn’t
want to do; and
•
Three times likelier to know a guy who uses
drugs or alcohol to hook up.
Teens of parents who believe the decision to use
marijuana is not a big deal are almost twice as
likely to use the drug, compared to teens of
parents who say this decision is a big deal.
Prescription Drugs Readily
Available
For the first time this year we asked 12- to 17year olds how fast they can get prescription
drugs (for the purpose of getting high):
Marijuana Getting Easier To Buy
Between 2007 and 2009 there was a 37 percent
increase in the percentage of teens who say
marijuana is easier to buy than cigarettes, beer or
prescription drugs, from 19 percent to 26
percent.
Nearly one-quarter of teens (5.7 million) say
they can get marijuana in an hour; four out of
ten teens (10 million) can get marijuana within a
day.
•
Nearly one in five teens (4.7 million) can get
prescription drugs (in order to get high) in
an hour.
•
More than one-third of teens (8.7 million)
can get prescription drugs within a day.
Home, parents, other family members and
friends are the most common sources of
prescription drugs for teens.
Teen Drunkenness, Marijuana Use,
and Harmful Sexual Behavior
Drugs in Schools
About two-thirds of high school students and
one-quarter of middle school students say drugs
are used, kept or sold on the grounds of their
schools.
Virtually every teen surveyed--boys and girls, at
every age--believe that girls need to be careful
when they are with guys who have been
drinking.
Compared to students who say their schools are
drug free, students who say they attend druginfected schools are:
Their concerns are justified.
Compared to teens who have never tried alcohol,
those who get drunk at least once a month are:
•
-3-
Almost three times likelier to be able to get
marijuana in an hour; and
•
Teens of parents who say future drug use by
their child is very likely are 10 times likelier to
have tried marijuana, compared to teens of
parents who say future drug use by their child
will never happen.
Twice as likely to be able to get prescription
drugs in an hour.
One out of five teens who say drugs are used,
kept or sold on the grounds of their schools
name school as the place where they could
obtain marijuana.
Parental Acceptance of Drugs in
Schools
Sixty percent of parents think their teen’s school
is not drug free, meaning drugs are used, kept or
sold on school grounds. Of these parents:
•
Nearly two-thirds believe the presence of
illegal drugs in their teen’s school makes it
more likely that their teen will try them;
•
More than half believe the goal of making
the school drug free is unrealistic; and
•
Only one-quarter have discussed this issue
with a school official or teacher.
Parental Role Models
One-third of teens have seen one or both of their
parents drunk.
Compared to teens who have not seen a parent
drunk, those who have are:
•
More than twice as likely to get drunk in a
typical month;
•
Three times likelier to have used marijuana;
and
•
Three times likelier to have smoked
cigarettes.
Parents’ Expectations
While nearly all of the parents we surveyed say
it is important to them that their teen does not
use marijuana, only half believe it is realistic to
expect that a teen will never try marijuana.
-4-
Chapter II
Teen Drunkenness
This year’s survey shows a strong relationship
between teen drinking and drunkenness. If a
teen is drinking monthly, odds are that the teen
is also getting drunk monthly.
Teen Moderate Drinking a Rare
Phenomenon
Nearly two-thirds (65 percent) of teens who are
current (past month) drinkers also report that
they get drunk at least once in a typical month.
This relationship is even stronger among older
teens: more than eight out of ten 17-year old
regular drinkers (85 percent) also get drunk at
least monthly. (Figure 2.A)
Figure 2.A
Percentage of Regular Teen Drinkers
Who Get Drunk Monthly
85
65
All Teen Drinkers
17-Year Old Drinkers
Eighty-five percent of teen drinkers who say that
when they drink they usually intend to get drunk
do get drunk at least monthly.
-5-
Even one-third of teens (33 percent) who do not
usually drink intending to get drunk nonetheless
get drunk on a monthly basis. (Figure 2.B)
Figure 2.B
If You Set Your Mind To It
(and Even if You Don't)...
Teen Drunkenness and Harmful
Sexual Behavior
% Teens Who Intend to Get Drunk
and Succeed--Every Month
Compared to teens who have never tried alcohol,
those who get drunk at least once in a typical
month are:
•
Twice as likely to know a girl who was
forced to do something sexual she didn’t
want to do (33 percent vs. 16 percent); and
•
Nearly four times likelier to know a guy
who uses alcohol or other drugs to hook up
(38 percent vs. 10 percent).
85
% Teens Who Get Drunk Every
Month Despite Not Intending To
33
The Relationship Between Teen
Drunkenness and Other Drug Use
Figure 2.C
Compared to teens who have never tried alcohol,
teens who get drunk monthly are:
•
Eighteen times likelier to have tried
marijuana (53 percent vs. three percent);
•
Four times likelier to be able to get
marijuana in an hour (48 percent vs. 12
percent); and
•
Percentage of Teens Who...
67
22
12
3
Have Tried
Marijuana
Can Get
Marijuana in an
Hour
More than three times likelier to have
friends who use marijuana (67 percent vs. 22
percent). (Figure 2.C)
Compared to teens who have never tried alcohol,
teens who get drunk monthly also are:
•
53
48
Teen Gets
Drunk
Monthly
Have Friends
Who Use
Marijuana
Figure 2.D
Percentage of Teens Who...
Almost four times likelier to know someone
their age who uses prescription drugs (53
percent vs. 14 percent); and
63
53
29
•
Teen Has
Never Tried
Alcohol
More than twice as likely to know someone
their age who uses meth or ecstasy, or other
drugs such as cocaine, heroin or LSD (63
percent vs. 29 percent). (Figure 2.D)
14
Know User of Prescription
Know User of Meth,
Drugs
Ecstasy, Cocaine, Heroin or
LSD
-6-
Teen Has
Never Tried
Alcohol
Teen Gets
Drunk
Monthly
Father Knows Best? Teen Drinking
and the Influence of Dad
Five percent of 12- to 15-year old girls and
almost twice as many 12- to 15-year old boys
(nine percent) say their father is okay with their
drinking.
Figure 2.E
Percentage of Teens Who Say
Father is OK with Teen Drinking
20
By the time girls reach ages 16 and 17, 13
percent say their fathers are okay with their
drinking. By the time boys reach ages 16 and
17, 20 percent say this is the case. (Figure 2.E)
13
9
5
Twelve to 17-year olds who believe their father
is okay with their drinking are two and a half
times likelier to get drunk in a typical month,
compared to those who believe their father is
against their drinking (34 percent vs. 14
percent). (Figure 2.F)
Girls 12-15
Boys 12-15
Girls 16-17
Boys 16-17
Father is OK w ith Teen Drinking
Figure 2.F
Percentage of Teens Who Get Drunk Monthly
Compared to teens who are living with no father
in the home, teens who believe their father is
okay with their drinking are more than one and a
half times likelier to have had a drink
(41 percent vs. 65 percent). (Figure 2.G)
34
Father Against
Teen Drinking
14
Father OK w ith
Teen Drinking
Some teen drinkers may rationalize their
behavior by saying that their fathers think it is
okay: We note that 21 percent of the kids who
get drunk in a typical month say their father is
okay with their drinking, but only five percent of
teens who have not tried alcohol believe their
father would approve of their drinking.
Get Drunk in Typical Month
Figure 2.G
Percentage of Teens Who Have Tried Alcohol
Dad OK w ith
Teen Drinking
65
No Dad in Home
Dad Against
Teen Drinking
-7-
41
25
-8-
Chapter III
Marijuana
Marijuana: A Big Deal?
We asked teens this year whether the decision
by someone their age to use marijuana is or is
not a big deal. Their responses vary by their
age, and by whether they are using substances
themselves, but overall three-quarters of teens
and almost nine out of 10 parents think the
decision to use marijuana is a big deal.
Seventeen-year olds are almost four times as
likely to say the decision by someone their age
to use marijuana is NOT a big deal, compared to
12-year olds (38 percent vs. 10 percent).
(Figure 3.A)
Figure 3.A
Percentage of Teens: The Decision to Use
Marijuana is Not a Big Deal
38
10
Age 17
Age 12
Not a Big Deal
Teens who say that the decision to use marijuana
by someone their age is not a big deal are four
times more likely to use it, compared to teens
who say this decision is a big deal (40 percent
vs. nine percent). (Figure 3.B)
Figure 3.B
Percentage of Teens Who
Have Tried Marijuana
40
9
Not a Big Deal
-9-
Big Deal
More than twice as many teens as parents (23
percent vs. nine percent) believe the decision by
a teen to use marijuana is not a big deal.
(Figure 3.C)
Figure 3.C
Percentage of Teens and Parents: Is the
decision by a teen to use marijuana
a big deal or not?
74
Compared to teens whose parents say the
decision by a teen to use marijuana is a big deal,
teens of those relatively few parents who say the
decision to use marijuana is NOT a big deal are
almost twice as likely to use the drug (13 percent
vs. 23 percent).
88
Teens
Parents
23
9
Big Deal
Among teens who have tried cigarettes, 56
percent say the decision by someone their age to
use marijuana is not a big deal. Among teens
who have tried marijuana, 59 percent say this
decision is not a big deal. (Figure 3.D)
Not a Big Deal
Figure 3.D
Percentage of Teens Who Think the Decision
to Use Marijuana is Not a Big Deal
Eighty percent of teens who have never tried
marijuana believe the decision by someone their
age to use the drug is a big deal.
16
Teens who get good grades in school, have
excellent relationships with their parents, attend
religious services weekly, and say future drug
use will never happen are more likely to
consider the decision by someone their age to
use marijuana a big deal:
•
Never Tried
Marijuana
Eighty-four percent of teens who say they
get mostly A’s in school believe the decision
by someone their age to use marijuana is a
big deal, compared to 67 percent of teens
who usually get grades of C or lower.
•
Eighty-one percent of those teens who have
an excellent relationship with their mother
believe the decision to use marijuana is a big
deal, compared to 68 percent of those teens
who have a fair or poor relationship with
their mother.
•
Eighty-three percent of those teens who
have an excellent relationship with their
father believe the decision to use marijuana
is a big deal, compared to 59 percent of
those teens who have a fair or poor
relationship with their father.
59
56
-10-
20
Never Tried
Tried Cigarettes
Cigarettes
Am ong Teens Who Have...
Tried Marijuana
•
Eighty-one percent of teens who attend
religious services at least weekly believe the
decision to use marijuana is a big deal,
compared to 65 percent of teens who never
attend religious services.
•
Eighty-two percent of teens who say they
will never use drugs believe the decision by
someone their age to use marijuana is a big
deal, compared to 45 percent of teens who
say future drug use is likely.
Teen Marijuana Use and Harmful
Sexual Behavior
Teens who have tried marijuana are twice as
likely as teens who have never tried marijuana to
know a girl who was forced to do something
sexual she didn’t want to do (40 percent vs. 20
percent). This is the case for nearly half (47
percent) of girls who have used marijuana and
about one-third (34 percent) of boys who have
used marijuana.
Teens who have tried marijuana are three times
likelier than teens who have never tried
marijuana to know a guy who uses alcohol or
other drugs to hook up (45 percent vs. 13
percent).
-11-
-12-
Chapter IV
Availability of Substances: Which Are Easiest to Buy, How
Fast Can Teens Get Them, and Where Do They Get Them?
Easiest To Buy
This year, teens report that marijuana is as easy
to buy as cigarettes.
Between 2007 and 2009 there was a 37 percent
increase in the percentage of teens who say
marijuana is easiest to buy (26 percent of teens
say marijuana is easiest to buy in 2009,
compared to 19 percent in 2007). (Figure 4.A)
Figure 4.A
Percentage of Teens:
Which Substance is Easiest to Buy, 2007-2009
26 25 26
Cigarettes
19
23 26
13
Marijuana
2007
19 16
17 15 14
Beer
Prescription
Drugs to Get
High
2008
2009
Marijuana is especially easy for the oldest teens
we surveyed to obtain. (Figure 4.B)
Figure 4.B
Percentage of Teens:
Marijuana is Easiest to Buy, by Age
35
25
18
A ge 12-13
-13-
Age 14-15
Age 16-17
How Fast Teens Can Get
Substances
We have observed for several years that
marijuana is readily available to teens: 23
percent of teens say they can get marijuana in an
hour, 40 percent can get it within a day. If we
apply these percentages to the March 2009 CPS
of the U.S. Census Bureau, then as many as 5.7
million 12- to 17-year olds could get marijuana
in an hour; 10 million could get it within a day.
Figure 4.C
Percentage of Teens Who Can Get
Marijuana/Prescription Drugs in an Hour/Day
40
35
23
For the first time, this year we asked 12- to 17year olds how fast they can get prescription
drugs, and we find that 19 percent of teens (4.7
million) can get prescription drugs (in order to
get high) in an hour; 35 percent (8.7 million) can
get prescription drugs within a day. (Figure 4.C)
19
Marijuana
Prescription Drugs
In an Hour
Where Teens Get Substances
Within a Day
Figure 4.D
Where Teens Usually Get Alcohol/Cigarettes
Friends are the most common source of both
alcohol and cigarettes for teens. The second
most common source of alcohol is parents, the
home or other family members. The second
most common source of cigarettes is a store.
(Figure 4.D)
34
Alcohol
29
Cigarettes
23
10
9
Friends are the most common source of
marijuana for teens, followed by school.
6
5
0
Friends
Home, parents or other family members are the
most common sources of prescription drugs for
teens, followed very closely by friends.
(Figure 4.E)
Home
Store
Parties
Figure 4.E
Where Teens Would Get
Marijuana/Prescription Drugs
Marijuana
Prescription Drugs
24
15
16
13
6
1
Friends
-14-
Scho o l
Ho me/P arents/
Other Family
4
2
Drug Dealer
Chapter V
Drugs in School
Overall, 45 percent of teens say drugs are used,
kept or sold on the grounds of their schools: 64
percent of high school students and 23 percent
of middle school students. (Figures 5.A and 5.B)
Figure 5.A
Percentage of High School Students:
Drugs Used, Kept, Sold on School Grounds
62
53
50
2003
2004
44
2002
61
63
64
2007
2008
2009
51
2005
2006
High School
Figure 5.B
Percentage of Middle School Students:
Drugs Used, Kept, Sold on School Grounds
19
21
2002
2003
24
2004
31
28
20
2005
2006
2007
21
23
2008
2009
Middle School
Compared to students who say they attend drugfree schools, students who say drugs are used,
kept or sold on the grounds of their schools are:
-15-
•
Almost three times likelier to be able to get
marijuana in an hour (13 percent vs. 34
percent); and
•
Twice as likely to be able to get prescription
drugs in an hour (13 percent vs. 26 percent).
One out of five teens (21 percent) who say drugs
are used, kept or sold on the grounds of their
schools name school as the place where they
could obtain marijuana.
Parental Acceptance of Drugs in
Schools
Eighty-nine percent of parents say it is
extremely (63 percent) or very (26 percent)
important that their teen’s school is drug free.
Sixty percent of parents say their teen’s school is
not drug free, meaning drugs are used, kept or
sold on school grounds. Of these parents:
•
Nearly two-thirds (62 percent) believe the
presence of illegal drugs in their teen’s
school makes it more likely that their teen
will try them;
•
More than half (58 percent) believe the goal
of making the school drug free is unrealistic;
•
Forty-five percent believe there is nothing a
parent can do to help achieve a drug-free
school; and
•
Only about one-quarter (27 percent) have
discussed this issue with a school official or
teacher.
-16-
Chapter VI
Parent Enablers
Parental Role Models
Thirty-four percent of all teens have seen one or
both of their parents drunk, and 33 percent of
parents say their teen has seen one or both
parents drunk. (Figure 6.A)
Figure 6.A
Percentage of Teens Who
Have Seen Parent Drunk
51
37
34
33
34
15
16
26
20
All
Teens
12
13
14
17
Compared to teens who have not seen their
parent(s) drunk, those who have seen their
parent(s) drunk are:
•
More than twice as likely to get drunk in a
typical month;
•
Three times likelier to have used marijuana;
and
•
Three times likelier to have smoked
cigarettes. (Figure 6.B)
Figure 6.B
Percentage of Teens Who Have Used
Substances by Whether
Teen Has Seen Parent Drunk
29
29
9
Used Marijuana
-17-
25
12
8
Drunk in Typical
Month
Smoked Cigarettes
Have Not
Seen
Parent
Drunk
Have
Seen
Parent
Drunk
Four percent of teens have seen a parent high on
drugs, and four percent of parents say their teen
has seen one or both parents high on drugs.
Figure 6.C
Percentage of Teens Who Use Marijuana by
How Likely a Parent Thinks Future Teen Use Is
Parents’ Expectations
Teens whose parents say future drug use by their
child is very likely are 10 times likelier to have
tried marijuana, compared to teens whose
parents say future drug use by the child will
never happen (30 percent vs. three percent).
(Figure 6.C)
Will Never Happen
Not Very Likely
Somew hat Likely
3
12
16
30
Very Likely
Ninety-six percent of parents say it is important
to them that their teen does not use marijuana.
But only half (53 percent) believe it is realistic
to expect that a teen will never try marijuana.
(Figure 6.D)
Figure 6.D
Percentage of Parents: How realistic is it that
a teen will not try marijuana; how important is
it that your teen not use marijuana?
Ninety-three percent of parents believe that
marijuana is very or fairly harmful to someone
the age of their teenage child, but 21 percent say
marijuana use is a normal part of being a
teenager. (Figure 6.E)
96
53
Realistic
Important
Figure 6.E
Percentage of Parents: Is teen marijuana use
harmful? Is it a normal part of being a
teenager?
93
21
Normal
-18-
Harmful
Appendix A
Sample Performance
A good way to assess the quality of the achieved
survey sample is to compare the results obtained
in the survey with known characteristics of the
target population, in this case the national
population of teenagers between 12 and 17 years
of age. Five demographic characteristics are of
particular interest to us: age, sex, race, ethnicity
and family structure. Our benchmark is the
March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS)
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Table
A.1 below compares the achieved results of our
survey with the reported results of the March
2009 CPS.
The reported survey results throughout this
report are weighted, meaning the obtained
results were mathematically adjusted to correct
for deviations from the target population profile
derived from the CPS. Weighting was applied
in a two-stage, iterative procedure, first to bring
the achieved sample in line with the CPS for age
and sex, then for race and ethnicity. Because of
the second iteration of weighting, the age by sex
distribution is unlikely to match exactly the CPS
targets. Table A.1 below reports both our initial
unweighted and final weighted results, so that a
reader can assess the impact of this corrective
measure.
What is observable from the table below is that
the obtained sample was close to the
demographic targets with a few exceptions.
Twelve year-old males and females are both
significantly unrepresented. As a result, we
have been cautious in analyses involving this
cohort (better to combine 12- and 13-year olds).
Again this year, the survey did not obtain as
many teens residing in non-two-parent
households as indicated by the CPS. No attempt
was made to correct this under-representation by
weighting. One factor for this underrepresentation may be the requirement for
parental consent, discussed below.
A-1
Table A.1
Characteristic
Age and Sex
Male, 12-years old
Male, 13-years old
Male, 14-years old
Male, 15-years old
Male, 16-years old
Male, 17-years old
Female, 12-years old
Female, 13-years old
Female, 14-years old
Female, 15-years old
Female, 16-years old
Female, 17-years old
Race and Ethnicity
White, not Hispanic
Hispanic, any race
Black, not Hispanic
Asian American
Native American
Other/Mixed/No Response
Family Structure
Two Biological Parents
Biological Mother, Step Father
Biological Father, Step Mother
Two Step Parents
Subtotal, Two Parents
Sub, Two Parents, Wht ~Hsp
Sub, Two Parents, Hsp
Sub, Two Parents, A-A
Biological Mother, No Father
Step Mother, No Father
Subtotal, Mother Only
Sub, Mthr Only, Wht ~Hsp
Sub, Mthr Only, Hsp
Sub, Mthr Only, A-A
Biological Father, No Mother
Step Father, No Mother
Subtotal, Father Only
Sub, Fthr Only, Wht ~Hsp
Sub, Fthr Only, Hsp
Sub, Fthr Only, A-A
Neither Parent
Neither Parent, Wht ~Hsp
Neither Parent, Hsp
Neither Parent, A-A
Unweighted Survey Weighted Survey CPS Estimates
3.1
9.1
9.2
9.6
10.3
9.6
5.1
6.8
8.6
10.2
9.9
8.5
8.5
8.2
8.0
8.0
9.4
8.7
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.0
9.4
8.9
8.1
8.3
8.1
8.3
9.4
8.7
8.0
8.0
7.7
7.9
9.1
8.3
67.6
12.1
9.6
3.5
1.1
6.1
57.4
18.6
16.1
2.4
1.0
4.5
58.3
19.1
15.2
4.1
0.8
2.6
70.5
7.8
1.6
0.2
80.1
86.0
74.4
56.2
12.6
0.3
12.9
9.3
17.4
31.3
1.9
0.1
2.0
0.8
3.3
5.2
4.0
3.3
4.1
5.2
68.1
8.6
1.5
0.1
78.2
85.9
75.8
58.0
13.9
0.5
14.4
9.5
16.1
29.6
2.2
0.1
2.3
0.9
3.8
4.3
4.1
3.0
3.8
6.2
A-2
66.6
74.9
64.7
35.8
24.8
16.9
26.2
54.9
7.3
6.9
7.6
8.6
1.3
1.4
1.6
0.7
Appendix B
Survey Methodology
The questionnaire for this survey was designed
by the staffs of QEV Analytics and CASA.
Questions and themes were pre-tested by
conducting two focus groups in Woodbridge,
New Jersey. One session was with current high
school students (16- and 17-year olds), one with
recent graduates of high school (18- to 20-year
olds).
This survey was conducted by telephone,
utilizing a random household selection
procedure called random digit dialing (RDD), in
which a pool of telephone numbers was
assembled by a commercial survey sample
vendor utilizing extensive information
concerning telephone number assignments
across the country. Numbers in this initial pool
represented all 48 continental states in
proportion to their population.
Households were qualified for participation in
the survey by determining that a teen between
the ages of 12 and 17 lived in the household (see
Appendix C for screening questions). At least
six call back attempts were made to each
telephone number before the telephone number
was rejected.
Once a household was qualified as the residence
of an eligible teenager, 12 to 17, permission for
survey participation by the teen was sought from
the teen’s parent or guardian. After permission
was obtained, if the potential teen participant
was available, the teen interview was conducted.
If the potential teen participant was not available
at the time of the initial contact with the parent
or guardian, then a call back was scheduled for
the teen interview. After the teen interview was
accomplished, an interview with a parent or
guardian of the teen was attempted in
subsequent telephone calls to every household in
which a teen interview was completed.
B-1
This protocol could potentially influence the
representativeness of the parents’ sample.
In an effort to improve the obtained sample in
terms of its representation of African-American
and Hispanic youth, this year we established a
quota for interviews to be completed in those
counties with 33 percent or greater total minority
population (African-American plus Hispanic).
The data collection process was supervised by
QEV Analytics, Ltd. of Washington, DC. The
survey analysis was accomplished by Steven
Wagner, President of QEV Analytics, Ltd. and
Elizabeth Planet of CASA; this report was
written by Planet and Wagner.
Forty-one percent (41 percent) of our interviews
in the target counties were with AfricanAmerican or Hispanic youth, versus 17 percent
with minority youth in non-target counties. 49.7
percent of the total resident population of target
counties is African-American or Hispanic,
versus 14.4 percent of non-target counties.
Insuring that high-minority population counties
are not underrepresented contributes to an
improved sample performance.
Methodological Considerations
Parental Consent
This survey project complied with the protection
of human subjects in research protocols of the
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The survey instrument and methodology were
reviewed by CASA’s Institutional Review Board
(IRB), which required affirmative parental or
guardian consent prior to attempting an
interview with a teenage respondent. While the
explicit refusal rate of parents, having occurred
in 99 cases, seems modest, this represents the
loss of 7 percent of otherwise eligible
households, which is substantial enough to have
an impact on the achieved sample. This may be
a contributing factor to the understatement of
substance use rates, and to the underrepresentation of racial and ethnic populations
prior to our corrective steps of oversampling.
Additionally, the fact of parental consent was
known to some number of teen respondents and
this knowledge could potentially affect
responses.
In total, 1,000 teenagers (509 males, 491
females) and 452 parents of teenagers (121
males and 331 females) were interviewed
between March 2 - April 5, 2009 (for teens) and
March 21 - April 10, 2009 (parents). The
margin of sampling error for the teen survey is
±3.1 percent at a 95 percent confidence level
(meaning, were it possible to interview all
teenagers in the country between the ages of 12
and 17, the results would vary by no more than
±3.1 percent, 19 times out of 20, from what was
reported in this survey).
This year, all of the 452 parents interviewed
reside in two-interview households, meaning
that a teen was also interviewed from the same
household. The two sets of responses (parent
and teen) are linked, so we can relate the teen’s
risk of using drugs with the parent’s responses
and characteristics. We only interview parents
in households with a teen respondent because
the principal utility of the parental data is in its
relationship with the teen data. The margin of
sampling error for a survey of 452, which is the
size of the parent/guardian sample, is ±4.6
percent (at the 95 percent confidence level).
While we consider the random selection of
households with teenagers in residence to yield a
representative sample of parents of teenagers as
well, it should be noted that parents were
interviewed only after assenting to the
participation of their teenager in the survey, and
the successful completion of the teen interview.
While there were only 44 cases in which an
interview was not conducted due to the
persistent unavailability of a parent or guardian
to provide consent, this unavailability could also
have been the reason behind some of the much
larger number of cases (31,513) in which
qualifying information could not be obtained
from a household.
Underrepresentation of Non-Two-Parent
Households
As Table A.1 in Appendix A reports, the number
of teens from mother-only headed households
B-2
Utilizing the American Association for Public
Opinion Research (AAPOR) Response Rate
Calculator #3 (www.aapor.org), we achieved a
response rate of 17.4 percent.
was 52 percent of what the CPS predicted, and
this rate of under-representation, which we have
observed in the past, was constant for the three
main racial/ethnic subpopulations (white/nonHispanic, Hispanic, African-American).
Interview Privacy
It is entirely speculative to suggest reasons for
this under-representation, but it is not
unreasonable to suppose that the requirement of
parental consent impedes the participation of
non-two parent households. The probability of
finding a parent or guardian at home is
obviously less when there is one parent or
guardian in the household rather than two. We
have no reason to suppose single parents are
inherently less likely to provide consent for
participation, but that may also be the case.
Teen respondents were asked at the conclusion
of the interview if their answers could be
overheard by someone at their home. Twentyfive percent said they could be overheard. Teens
who believed that someone could overhear the
interview had only a slightly lower average risk
score (0.96 vs. 1.01) suggesting that some teen
respondents may have been cautious about
giving responses indicating substance abuse risk
(there does not appear to be an age effect;
younger respondents are not more likely to have
been monitored).
Pre-Qualification of Eligible Households
In order to increase the efficiency
of the interviewing process, some
screening of households to
determine eligibility (resident teen
in the target age range) occurred
prior to the administration of the
interview or consent protocols.
Similarly, the interview may have
been administered in a call
subsequent to obtaining parental
permission. These measures did
not have a detectable effect on
responses, but may have had an
impact on the sample characteristics
in ways we cannot detect.
Table B.1 summarizes the number
of calls necessary to achieve the
completed sample of 1,000
interviews, and presents the results
of all of our calls in attempt to
conduct an interview.
Table B.1
Results of Telephone Calls
Numbers Percent
Initial Pool of Random Telephone Numbers
130,098
Other than Residential or Fax Number
2,411
Fax Number
3,792
Not in Service
14,964
Subtotal, Operational Residential Telephones
108,931
No Answer
20,881
Busy (on final attempt)
2,445
Answering Machine
11,501
Arranged for Call Back, Unfulfilled
1,298
Language Barrier
1,592
Other Terminations
0
Subtotal, Potential Respondents
71,214
100.0
Ineligible (no teen 12 to 17 in household)
38,251
43.4
Refused to Provide Qualifying Information*
31,513
54.4
Parental Permission Denied
99
Mid-Interview Termination
209
Teen Respondent Refusal
83
Other Inabilities to Complete Interview
59
Completed Interviews
1,000
1.3
* In this survey, we are seeking respondents representing a small subpopulation of
all residents of the United States (roughly 9 percent). We would expect that 64,805
of 71,214 households dialed at random would not have a resident teenager 12- to
17-years of age. Therefore, we expect that most of the refusals to provide
qualifying information were in fact ineligible households not willing to respond to
the screening questions (roughly 26,554 of 31,513 or 84 percent).
B-3
Appendix C
Screening Questions
VERBAL PROTOCOL FOR THE TEEN QUESTIONNAIRE
PARENT CONSENT
INTRODUCTION: Hello, my name is (__________) and I'm calling on behalf of QEV Analytics, a
public opinion research firm. We are conducting a nationwide research project about
teen attitudes and the risks facing teens. We are looking for teenagers between 12 and
17 years old to participate in this survey. Is there someone between 12 and 17 living at
your home?
[IF YES]
Is the adult parent or guardian of this teen available?
[IF YES]
May I speak with him or her please?
[IF NOT HOME OR AVAILABLE, ASK FOR TIME FOR CALL-BACK]
[IF NO] Thank you. [TERMINATE CALL]
[IF THE PERSON ON THE PHONE WAS NOT THE ADULT, AND THE ADULT THEN COMES TO
THE PHONE, REPEAT INTRODUCTION, OTHERWISE CONTINUE AT **]
INTRODUCTION: Hello, my name is (__________) and I'm calling on behalf of QEV Analytics, a
public opinion research firm. ** We are conducting a nationwide research project for a
research center at a major university about teen attitudes and the risks facing teens. We
are looking for teenagers between 12 and 17 years old to participate in this survey. This
is not a sales call; I won’t ask you or the teen to buy anything. No money will be
offered to your teen. All responses are confidential. You or the teen may stop the
interview at any time for any reason and may refuse to answer any question. The phone
interview should take no longer than 20 minutes.
We will ask questions about the teen’s living situation, their relationship with a parent,
their activities at school and outside of school, teen sexual activity, their attitudes about
tobacco use, alcohol use, and other drug use, and their experiences with tobacco, alcohol
and marijuana.
Will you give us permission to talk over the phone with the teen in your house about
these issues?
[IF NO TO PERMISSION] Thank you. [TERMINATE CALL]
C-1
[IF YES, TEEN CAN PARTICIPATE] Would [YOU / the teen’s father] also be willing to speak to us
about these and other issues? Could I have the first initial of your first name please?
[NOTE ANSWER]
Is your teen available to speak with me now?
[IF YES, TEEN AVAILABLE NOW]
What would be a convenient time to call back to speak with [you / the teen’s father]?
[NOTE TIME FOR PARENT CALL BACK]
[IF NO, TEEN NOT AVAILABLE NOW]
Is now a convenient time to speak with [you / the teen’s father]?
I would like you to write down this number in case you have a question or a problem
with this survey. Please call collect at 212-841-5200 and ask for Jane Carlson.
Thank you for your help.
C-2
VERBAL PROTOCOL FOR THE TEEN QUESTIONNAIRE
TEEN ASSENT
INTRODUCTION: Hello, my name is (__________) and I'm calling on behalf of QEV Analytics, a
public opinion research firm. This is not a sales call; I won’t ask you to buy anything.
We are conducting a nationwide research project about teen attitudes and the risks
facing teens. We are looking for teenagers between 12 and 17 years old to participate in
this survey. Is there someone between 12 and 17 living at your home?
[IF YES]
Is the adult parent or guardian of this teen available?
[IF YES]
May I speak with him or her please?
[IF NOT HOME OR AVAILABLE, ASK FOR TIME FOR CALL-BACK]
[IF NO] Thank you. [TERMINATE CALL]
[ONCE ADULT CONSENT IS OBTAINED] Hello, my name is (__________) and I'm interviewing
teenagers across the country for a research center at a major university about what it’s
like to be a teenager in America today. This is not a sales call; I am not going to ask you
to buy anything. No money will be offered to you. I just want to learn about some of
your experiences and opinions on issues of importance to teenagers. Your answers are
confidential. I don’t have your name, and no one will ever know how you responded.
This interview will take about 20 minutes, and there are no right or wrong answers to
these questions. You may stop the interview at any time for any reason and may refuse
to answer any question.
We will ask questions about your living situation, your relationship with a parent, your
activities at school and outside of school, teen sexual activity, your attitudes about
tobacco use, alcohol use, and other drug use, and your experiences with tobacco, alcohol
and marijuana.
[IF THIS TEEN’S PARENT IS TO BE CALLED BACK]
We have also asked to speak with your parent / guardian, and will ask him / her about
similar issues. A different interviewer will call back to speak with him / her. I will not
speak with him / her, and he / she will never know how you answered these questions.
Are you willing to complete the survey?
[IF NO] Thank you. [TERMINATE CALL]
[IF YES]
I would like you to write down this number in case you have a question or a problem
with this survey. Please call collect at 212-841-5200 and ask for Jane Carlson.
C-3
VERBAL PROTOCOL FOR THE PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE
INTRODUCTION: Hello, my name is (__________) and I'm calling on behalf of QEV Analytics, a
public opinion research firm. This is not a sales call; I won’t ask you to buy anything.
We are conducting a nationwide research project on the future of our youth for a
research center at a major university. We are looking for parents of teenagers between
12 and 17 years old to participate in this survey. Is the parent with the first initial “__”
of the teenager available to speak with me?
[IF YES, CONTINUE WITH SURVEY]
[IF NOT AVAILABLE] When would be a good time to call back? [RECORD CALLBACK TIME]
[IF NO] Thank you. [TERMINATE CALL]
[PARENT INTRODUCTION]
INTRODUCTION: [REPEAT AS NECESSARY] Hello, my name is (__________) and I'm calling on
behalf of QEV Analytics, a public opinion research firm. We are talking today with
parents of teenagers as part of a nationwide survey for a research center at a major
university on the risks facing teens.
In an earlier call you had indicated that you would be willing to answer some questions
in a phone interview. Recall that this is not a sales call; I will not ask you to buy
anything. The interview will take about 20 minutes, and your answers are confidential.
There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, we really just want to learn
about your opinions and experiences. You may stop the interview at any time for any
reason and may refuse to answer any question. Do I have your permission to begin?
I would like you to write down this number in case you have a question or a problem
with this survey. Please call collect at 212-841-5200 and ask for Jane Carlson.
[IF NO, ASK FOR CALLBACK TIME]
C-4
Appendix D
2009 CASA Survey of Teenagers, 12- to 17-Years Old
Weighted Frequencies *
1.
First, what is your age, please?
16%
16%
15%
16%
19%
18%
0%
2.
Do you currently attend school? [IF YES] What grade are you in? [IF NO] Are you being home
schooled, or have you stopped going to school?
8%
15%
17%
16%
16%
14%
8%
2%
2%
1%
*%
3.
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
OTHER
HOME SCHOOLED
STOPPED GOING TO SCHOOL
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF GRADE 9] Is your school a Middle, Intermediate or Junior High School, or is it a High
School or Senior High School?
16%
80%
3%
*%
82%
3.
12
13
14
15
16
17
OTHER (THANK & TERMINATE)
MIDDLE/JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
HIGH/SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
OTHER/NEITHER
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[NOT ASKED] †
COMPOSITE
43%
53%
4%
MIDDLE/INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL
HIGH SCHOOL
OTHER
D-1
4.
[IF ATTEND SCHOOL] What kind of school do you attend: is it public, private but not
religious, Catholic, or religiously-affiliated but not Catholic?
86%
5%
4%
2%
4%
*%
5.
[IF ATTEND SCHOOL] How many students would you say there are in your school? (IF
CLARIFICATION NEEDED: Give me your best guess of all the students in the school).
[RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE]
26%
32%
16%
22%
4%
3%
6.
PUBLIC
PRIVATE, NOT RELIGIOUSLY AFFILIATED
CATHOLIC
OTHER RELIGIOUSLY AFFILIATED
DON’T ATTEND SCHOOL [NOT ASKED]
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
0-499
500-999
1000-1499
1500+
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
[SPLIT SAMPLE, VERSION 1]
[IF ATTEND SCHOOL] What kind of grades do you get in school? Just stop me when I read the
right category…
1%
3%
2%
23%
7%
47%
17%
1%
6.
MOSTLY D’s AND F’s
MOSTLY C’s AND D’s
MOSTLY C’s
MOSTLY B’s AND C’s
MOSTLY B’s
MOSTLY A’s AND B’s
MOSTLY A’s
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE/NOT ASKED (NOT IN SCHOOL)
[SPLIT SAMPLE, VERSION 2]
[IF ATTEND SCHOOL] What kind of grades do you get in school? Just stop me when I read the
right category…
20%
42%
8%
21%
4%
3%
1%
*%
MOSTLY A’s
MOSTLY A’s AND B’s
MOSTLY B’s
MOSTLY B’s AND C’s
MOSTLY C’s
MOSTLY C’s AND D’s
MOSTLY D’s AND F’s
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE/NOT ASKED (NOT IN SCHOOL)
D-2
6.
COMBINED RESULTS
1%
3%
3%
22%
7%
43%
19%
2%
7.
Gender [BY OBSERVATION, ASK IF NECESSARY]
51%
49%
8.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How would you describe your main race: are you mainly white; African-American or black;
Asian-American; Native American; or other?
57%
16%
2%
1%
4%
*%
19%
10.
MALE
FEMALE
Do you consider yourself to be mainly of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino heritage or not?
19%
81%
1%
9.
MOSTLY D’s AND F’s
MOSTLY C’s AND D’s
MOSTLY C’s
MOSTLY B’s AND C’s
MOSTLY B’s
MOSTLY A’s AND B’s
MOSTLY A’s
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE/NOT ASKED (NOT IN SCHOOL)
WHITE (NOT HISPANIC)
AFRICAN-AMERICAN OR BLACK (NOT HISPANIC)
ASIAN-AMERICAN (NOT HISPANIC)
NATIVE-AMERICAN (NOT HISPANIC)
OTHER/MIXED (NOT HISPANIC)
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
HISPANIC (NOT ASKED)
[PRECODE OPEN END] What is the most important problem facing people your age--that is, the
thing which concerns you the most?
Education
12%
4%
1%
DOING WELL IN SCHOOL
GETTING INTO COLLEGE
THE GENERAL LACK OF QUALITY EDUCATION
Drugs
18%
4%
1%
DRUGS
ALCOHOL
TOBACCO
D-3
Moral Values
1%
*%
1%
DECLINING MORAL STANDARDS/IMMORALITY
LACK OF RELIGION/SPIRITUALITY
TELEVISION/MOVIES/POP CULTURE
Social Issues/Relations
14%
4%
1%
1%
SOCIAL PRESSURES (POPULARITY, “FITTING-IN”)
SEXUAL ISSUES
GETTING ALONG WITH PARENTS [OR PARENT OR GUARDIAN]/OTHER
PROBLEMS AT HOME
HAVING A SAY/COMMUNICATIONS
2%
2%
FRIENDSHIP DRAMA
DATING RELATIONSHIPS
Violence
4%
2%
*%
CRIME AND VIOLENCE IN SCHOOL
OTHER CRIME AND VIOLENCE
GANGS
Economics
3%
1%
JOBS/ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY
LACK OF MONEY
Mental Wellbeing
11.
3%
2%
1%
*%
1%
BULLIES/BEING BULLIED
PERSONAL APPEARANCE/CONFIDENCE
DEPRESSION
SUICIDE
HAPPINESS (GENERAL)
6%
10%
OTHER RESPONSES
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Do you live with your biological mother? [IF NO] Do you live with a stepmother?
91%
2%
7%
*%
BIOLOGICAL MOTHER
STEPMOTHER
NEITHER
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
D-4
12.
Do you live with your biological father? [IF NO] Do you live with a stepfather?
72%
9%
9%
1%
BIOLOGICAL FATHER
STEPFATHER
NEITHER
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
11/12 COMPOSITE
68%
9%
14%
4%
5%
*%
13.
Would you describe your relationship with your [mother/stepmother] as excellent, very good,
good, fair or poor?
42%
29%
17%
4%
1%
*%
7%
14.
EXCELLENT
VERY GOOD
GOOD
FAIR
POOR
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
[IF LIVE WITH MOTHER] How easy is it for you to talk with your [mother/stepmother] about
personal things, such as friendships, dating, or drinking--is it very easy, fairly easy, fairly hard or
very hard?
39%
38%
11%
5%
1%
7%
15.
BOTH BIO PARENTS
BIO MOM, STEP DAD
BIO MOM, NO DAD
BIO DAD, NO BIO MOM
NO BIO PARENT
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
VERY EASY
FAIRLY EASY
FAIRLY HARD
VERY HARD
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
Would you describe your relationship with your [father/stepfather] as excellent, very good, good,
fair or poor?
30%
22%
18%
8%
3%
*%
19%
EXCELLENT
VERY GOOD
GOOD
FAIR
POOR
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
D-5
16.
[IF LIVE WITH FATHER] How easy is it for you to talk with your [father/stepfather] about
personal things, such as friendships, dating, or drinking--is it very easy, fairly easy, fairly hard or
very hard?
24%
32%
15%
10%
1%
19%
17.
In a typical month, how often do you attend church or religious services? [RECORD ACTUAL
RESPONSE]
25%
9%
10%
7%
31%
13%
4%
18.
0
1
2
3
4
5+
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
In a typical week, how often do you and your parents [or parent or guardian] eat dinner together?
[RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE]
7%
5%
8%
12%
8%
11%
6%
42%
1%
19.
VERY EASY
FAIRLY EASY
FAIRLY HARD
VERY HARD
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[VERSION 1, IF DINNERS = 5,6] What are some of the reasons you and your family do not
have dinner together every night? [OPEN-ENDED]
[VERSION 2, IF DINNERS <5] What are some of the reasons you and your family do not have
dinner together more often? [OPEN-ENDED]
35%
34%
12%
8%
7%
7%
14%
6%
[43%
TOO BUSY/DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES
AT WORK, LATE SHIFTS
FAMILY NOT HOME, OUT A LOT
SPORTS
WITH FRIENDS, GIRL/BOY FRIENDS
EVERYONE WANTS TO DO OWN THING
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED]
D-6
20.
[IF NOT ZERO] You told me that in a typical week, you will have dinner with your family [x]
times. At how many of these [x] dinners will your [father/stepfather] be present?
2%
6%
10%
15%
11%
15%
10%
31%
1%
21.
When your [father/stepfather] is present for dinner, are you more likely or less likely to talk about
personal things, such as friendships, dating, or drinking--or is it the same?
15%
29%
54%
2%
19%
22.
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
When you are having dinner with your family, is someone usually talking or texting on a cell
phone, or not?
19%
80%
1%
24.
MORE LIKELY
LESS LIKELY
THE SAME
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
Would you be willing to give up a weeknight activity if it meant you could have dinner with your
family?
65%
29%
6%
23.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
When you are having dinner with your family, is someone usually using a Blackberry, laptop or
Gameboy, or not?
9%
90%
*%
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
D-7
25.
You told me that in a typical week, you will have dinner with your family [x] times. How many
of these dinners do you help prepare?
22%
19%
17%
11%
8%
7%
2%
6%
1%
8%
26.
You told me that in a typical week, you will have dinner with your family [x] times. How many
of these dinners do you eat at a restaurant?
40%
36%
10%
3%
1%
*%
0%
*%
2%
8%
27.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
When you have dinner with your family, where do you most often eat: at a dining room table, at a
kitchen table, at a counter/bar, on the couch, or somewhere else?
40%
41%
3%
13%
3%
*%
28.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
DINING ROOM TABLE
KITCHEN TABLE
COUNTER/BAR
COUCH
SOMEWHERE ELSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
When you have dinner with your family, how long would you guess dinner usually lasts, in
minutes? [RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE]
26%
36%
17%
18%
3%
1-20
21-30
31-45
46+
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
D-8
Let’s talk about your school for a moment, and just to be clear, when I mention illegal drugs in the
following question, I mean to include marijuana and prescription drugs when they are used without a
prescription to get high.
29.
Is your school a drug-free school or is it not drug free, meaning some students keep drugs, use
drugs or sell drugs on school grounds?
50%
45%
5%
30.
Thinking now about your own close circle of friends, how many of them currently drink beer or
other alcoholic drinks pretty regularly, like most weekends--none of them, less than half, about
half, more than half, or all of them?
54%
23%
10%
7%
5%
2%
31.
NONE
LESS THAN HALF
HALF
MORE THAN HALF
ALL OF THEM
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Have you ever in your life had a drink of beer, wine or other alcoholic beverage? By drink I mean
a whole glass or can, not just a sip or two.
32%
68%
*%
32.
DRUG-FREE
NOT DRUG-FREE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF EVER TRIED] How old were you when you had your first drink of beer, wine or other
alcoholic beverage? [IF RESPONDENT EXPRESSES UNCERTAINTY] If you don’t remember
exactly, tell me roughly how old you were. [RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE; INCLUDE
“NEVER DRANK ALCOHOL” AS A RESPONSE CATEGORY]
5%
2%
3%
1%
4%
6%
5%
6%
4%
1%
3%
62%
NEVER TRIED
UNDER 10
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
D-9
33.
During the past 30 days, on how many days did you have at least one drink of alcohol?
[RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE]
74%
5%
3%
1%
1%
3%
14%
34.
How do you think your [father/stepfather] feels about you drinking alcohol: is he against you
drinking, or does he think it is okay for you to drink?
62%
8%
10%
19%
35.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF EVER HAD A DRINK] Where do you usually get your alcohol from? [OPEN-ENDED]
34%
9%
9%
6%
6%
5%
5%
5%
6%
8%
37.
AGAINST YOU DRINKING
THINKS IT’S OKAY FOR YOU TO DRINK
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
Have you ever played a drinking game, like beer pong, quarters, or flip-cup?
12%
85%
4%
36.
0
1
2
3
4
5+
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
FRIENDS
FAMILY/RELATIVES
PARENTS
PARTIES
PEOPLE WHO HAVE IT/CAN BUY OFF OF
STORE
UNABLE TO ACQUIRE/DON’T TRY
HOME
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF EVER HAD A DRINK] When you drink alcohol, do you usually drink in order to get drunk,
or not?
17%
68%
15%
62%
GET DRUNK
NOT GET DRUNK
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
D-10
38.
[IF EVER HAD A DRINK] In a typical month, how many times will you get drunk, if at all?
[RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE]
54%
17%
6%
5%
4%
12%
2%
62%
39.
Have you ever in your life smoked or chewed tobacco?
13%
87%
*%
40.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF EVER TRIED TOBACCO] How old were you when you smoked your first cigarette? [IF
RESPONDENT EXPRESSES UNCERTAINTY] If you don’t remember exactly, tell me roughly
how old you were. [RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE; INCLUDE “HAVE NEVER SMOKED”
AS A RESPONSE CATEGORY]
35%
4%
2%
3%
9%
10%
10%
14%
5%
2%
6%
80%
41.
0
1
2
3
4+
DOESN’T DRINK
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
NEVER TRIED
UNDER 10
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
[IF EVER TRIED TOBACCO] During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke or
chew tobacco? [RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE]
65%
4%
4%
1%
1%
6%
13%
7%
80%
0
1
2
3
4
5-20
30
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
D-11
42.
[IF EVER SMOKED] Where do you usually get your cigarettes from? [OPEN-ENDED]
30%
5%
3%
*%
5%
10%
8%
1%
6%
7%
43.
Thinking now about your own close circle of friends, how many of them currently use marijuana-none of them, less than half, about half, more than half, or all of them?
62%
22%
8%
5%
2%
1%
44.
NONE
LESS THAN HALF
HALF
MORE THAN HALF
ALL OF THEM
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
What do you think is the main reason someone your age uses marijuana? [OPEN-ENDED]
20%
25%
12%
9%
10%
12%
12%
45.
FRIENDS
FAMILY/RELATIVES
PARENTS
PARTIES
PEOPLE WHO HAVE IT/CAN BUY OFF OF
STORE
UNABLE TO ACQUIRE/DON’T TRY
HOME
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
TO FIT IN/LOOK COOL
RESPONSES PERTAINING TO ASSUAGING PROBLEMS
PEER PRESSURE
FOR FUN/SOMETHING TO DO
TP GET HIGH/FEEL GOOD
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Do you think the decision to use marijuana by someone your age is a big deal--in the sense it is an
important or serious decision--or is it not a big deal? [IF YES] Do you feel that way strongly or
not strongly?
65%
9%
12%
11%
3%
BIG DEAL, STRONGLY
BIG DEAL, NOT STRONGLY
NOT A BIG DEAL, STRONGLY
NOT A BIG DEAL, NOT STRONGLY
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Please tell me if you think the following statements are true or false.
46.
Because marijuana comes from a plant, it is safer than other drugs people use to get high: do you
think that statement is true or false?
23%
75%
3%
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
D-12
47.
Today’s marijuana is much stronger than when your parents were your age: do you think that
statement is true or false?
50%
37%
12%
48.
The use of marijuana increases the likelihood of using other drugs: do you think that statement is
true or false?
78%
18%
4%
49.
VERY HARMFUL
FAIRLY HARMFUL
NOT TOO HARMFUL
NOT HARMFUL AT ALL
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Do you know a friend or classmate who has used illegal drugs like acid, cocaine, or heroin? [IF
YES] Do you know more than one person who has used drugs like acid, cocaine, or heroin?
14%
22%
61%
3%
59.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How harmful to the health of someone your age is the use of marijuana: is it [READ OPTIONS]
60%
23%
12%
3%
1%
52.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
It is safe for someone your age to drive after using marijuana: do you think that statement is true
or false?
6%
92%
2%
51.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Marijuana can be an addictive drug: do you think that statement is true or false?
84%
14%
2%
50.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
YES, KNOW ONE
YES, KNOW MORE THAN ONE
DO NOT KNOW ANYONE WHO HAS USED THESE DRUGS
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[SPLIT SAMPLE, VERSION A] Do you know a friend or classmate who has used ECSTASY
OR “E”? [IF YES] Do you know more than one person who has used ECSTASY?
8%
13%
77%
3%
47%
YES, KNOW ONE
YES, KNOW MORE THAN ONE
DO NOT KNOW ANYONE WHO HAS USED ECSTASY
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
D-13
[SPLIT SAMPLE, VERSION B] Do you know a friend or classmate who has used
METHAMPHETAMINES OR “METH” OR “SPEED”? [IF YES] Do you know more than one
person who has used METHAMPHETAMINES?
8%
8%
81%
4%
53%
54.
Do you know a friend or classmate who uses prescription drugs without a prescription to get high,
such as Oxycontin, Percocet, Vicodin or Ritalin? [IF YES] Do you know more than one person
who uses prescription drugs to get high?
10%
15%
73%
2%
55.
YES, KNOW ONE
YES, KNOW MORE THAN ONE
DO NOT KNOW ANYONE WHO HAS ABUSED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Some people say using prescription drugs to get high is LESS dangerous than the use of other
illegal drugs. Others say the use of prescription drugs to get high is NOT LESS dangerous than
the use of other illegal drugs? With which of these statements do you agree more?
24%
67%
10%
57.
YES, KNOW ONE
YES, KNOW MORE THAN ONE
DO NOT KNOW ANYONE WHO HAS ABUSED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Do you know a friend or classmate who uses stimulants like Adderall and Ritalin without a
prescription in order to do better in school? [IF YES] Do you know more than one person who
uses stimulants to do better in school?
6%
8%
82%
4%
56.
YES, KNOW ONE
YES, KNOW MORE THAN ONE
DO NOT KNOW ANYONE WHO HAS USED METHAMPHETAMINES
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
LESS DANGEROUS
NOT LESS DANGEROUS
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
What do you think is the main reason someone your age abuses prescription drugs? [OPENENDED]
12%
19%
7%
5%
15%
16%
20%
TO FIT IN/LOOK COOL
RESPONSES PERTAINING TO ASSUAGING PROBLEMS
PEER PRESSURE
FOR FUN/SOMETHING TO DO
TP GET HIGH/FEEL GOOD
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
D-14
58.
Which is easiest for someone your age to buy: cigarettes, beer, marijuana, or prescription drugs
without a prescription, drugs such as Oxycontin, Percocet, Vicodin or Ritalin?
26%
14%
26%
16%
10%
8%
59.
Do you personally know a girl your age who was forced by another person to do something sexual
she didn’t want to?
23%
76%
1%
60.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
Do you agree or disagree with this statement: a girl has to be careful when she’s with guys who
have been drinking?
96%
3%
1%
62.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF YES] As far as you know, was the person who forced her to do this drunk or high on drugs?
30%
59%
11%
77%
61.
CIGARETTES
BEER
MARIJUANA
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
THE SAME
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
AGREE
DISAGREE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Do you personally know a guy your age who uses alcohol or drugs to get girls to hook up with
him?
18%
80%
2%
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Just a few more questions and then we’ll be done. I want to remind you that your answers are completely
confidential and no one will know what you have told me.
D-15
63.
If you wanted to buy marijuana right now, how long would it take you to get it: an hour or less, a
few hours, within a day, within a week, longer than a week, or would you be unable to buy it?
23%
7%
11%
10%
4%
36%
10%
64.
If you wanted to get marijuana right now, where would you get it from? [OPEN ENDED,
MULTIPLE RESPONSES RECORDED]
24%
1%
0%
0%
5%
1%
1%
0%
13%
7%
4%
6%
41%
65.
FRIENDS
FAMILY/RELATIVES
PARENTS
PARTIES
PEOPLE WHO HAVE IT/CAN BUY OFF OF
STORE
UNABLE TO ACQUIRE/DON’T TRY
HOME
FROM SCHOOL
NEIGHBOR
DEALERS
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
If you wanted to get prescription drugs right now in order to get high, how long would it take you
to get them: an hour or less, a few hours, within a day, within a week, longer than a week, or
would you be unable to get them?
19%
7%
9%
17%
6%
34%
9%
66.
AN HOUR OR LESS
A FEW HOURS
WITHIN A DAY
WITHIN A WEEK
LONGER THAN A WEEK
WOULD BE UNABLE TO BUY
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
AN HOUR OR LESS
A FEW HOURS
WITHIN A DAY
WITHIN A WEEK
LONGER THAN A WEEK
WOULD BE UNABLE TO BUY
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
If you wanted to get prescription drugs right now--in order to get high, not for a medical reason-where would you get them from? [OPEN ENDED, MULTIPLE RESPONSES ACCEPTED]
15%
1%
2%
*%
3%
3%
2%
FRIENDS
FAMILY/RELATIVES
PARENTS
PARTIES
PEOPLE WHO HAVE IT/CAN BUY OFF OF
STORE
UNABLE TO ACQUIRE/DON’T TRY
D-16
14%
14%
6%
2%
2%
6%
38%
67.
Have you ever in your life used marijuana?
16%
83%
1%
68.
VERY LIKELY
SOMEWHAT LIKELY
NOT VERY LIKELY
NEVER HAPPEN
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Have you ever seen one or both of your parents drunk?
34%
65%
1%
71.
NEVER TRIED
UNDER 10
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
How likely is it that you will try drugs in the future?
3%
9%
30%
57%
2%
70.
YES
NEVER TRIED IT
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF TRIED MARIJUANA] How old were you when you first used marijuana? [RECORD
ACTUAL RESPONSE]
2%
1%
1%
4%
6%
15%
18%
24%
17%
5%
7%
83%
69.
HOME (MEDICINE CABINET)
DOCTOR/PHARMACY
FROM SCHOOL
NEIGHBOR
DEALERS
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Have you ever seen one or both of your parents using an illegal drug or high on an illegal drug?
4%
95%
1%
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
D-17
72.
Have you ever done something you regret because you were drinking or high on drugs?
10%
89%
1%
73.
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
One final question: as you were speaking with me, was there someone there with you who could
overhear your answers?
25%
74%
1%
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
That's the last of my questions. Thank you very much for your answers and for your time. Good-bye.
*
*% = less than one-half percent
When the response category “not asked” is bracketed, this indicates that the percentages are calculated on the basis
of those who were actually asked the question. When not bracketed, the percentages are based on the entire sample.
†
D-18
Appendix E
2009 CASA Survey of Parents of Teenagers
Weighted Frequencies*
1.
How many children aged 12 - 17 do you have? [RECORD RESPONSE]
57%
34%
7%
1%
0%
2.
How many children older than 17 do you have? [RECORD RESPONSE]
47%
31%
13%
6%
4%
*%
3.
1
2
3
4 OR MORE
NONE [THANK AND TERMINATE]
0
1
2
3
4 OR MORE
DON’T KNOW/REFUSED
How many children younger than 12 do you have? [RECORD RESPONSE]
63%
25%
8%
2%
2%
0%
0
1
2
3
4 OR MORE
DON’T KNOW/REFUSED
[IF MORE THAN ONE TEEN, STATE] For the purposes of these next few questions, please have in
mind your teenager who is closest to [AGE VARIABLE DERIVED FROM TEEN SAMPLE] years old.
4.
Gender of Respondent [BY OBSERVATION, ASK IF NECESSARY]
27%
73%
MALE
FEMALE
E-1
5.
What do you feel is the most important problem you face today as the parent of a teenager--that is,
the thing which concerns you the most? [OPEN END]
14%
3%
0%
4%
3%
14%
1%
17%
5%
3%
6%
4%
3%
6%
*%
2%
3%
1%
7%
5%
6.
DRUGS
ALCOHOL
TOBACCO
SAFETY
VIOLENCE/CRIME
EDUCATION/DROPPING OUT OF SCHOOL
COLLEGE/GETTING THEM INTO GOOD COLLEGE
PEER PRESSURE/INFLUENCE OF FRIENDS
COMMUNICATION/PARENTS
TEEN PREGNANCY/SEXUALITY
MORALS/FAMILY VALUES
MEDIA INFLUENCE/CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
FINANCIAL PRESSURES/ISSUES
MAKING THE RIGHT CHOICES FOR THEIR FUTURE
DRIVING
RELIGION
CHARACTER ISSUES
THEIR ENVIRONMENT
OTHER
DON’T KNOW/REFUSED
And from the point of view of a teenager like your own, what do you think he or she would say is
the most important problem someone their age faces? [OPEN END]
7%
36%
2%
3%
13%
2%
0%
13%
2%
1%
1%
1%
2%
3%
9%
6%
FITTING IN/SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
PEER PRESSURE
ACCEPTANCE OF SELF
SEXUAL ISSUES/PRESSURE TO HAVE SEX/PREGNANCY
DRUGS
ALCOHOL
TOBACCO
EDUCATION/FUTURE
GANGS/VIOLENCE
GAINING INDEPENDENCE
COMMUNICATION
COPING WITH STRESS
MAKING GOOD DECISIONS
FINDING A JOB
OTHER
DON’T KNOW/REFUSED
E-2
7.
Would you say that the use of illegal drugs by teenagers is more common today than it was when
you were growing up, or is it not more common?
64%
31%
5%
8.
Does your teen currently attend school? [IF YES] What grade is he or she in? [IF NO] Is your
teen home-schooled?
5%
12%
20%
19%
17%
16%
9%
*%
3%
*%
0%
9.
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
OTHER
HOME SCHOOLED
STOPPED GOING TO SCHOOL
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF ATTEND SCHOOL] What kind of grades does your teen normally get in school? Just stop
me when I read the right category…
1%
3%
4%
14%
9%
38%
31%
1%
*%
10.
MORE COMMON
NOT MORE COMMON
DON’T KNOW/REFUSED
MOSTLY D’s AND F’s
MOSTLY C’s AND D’s
MOSTLY C’s
MOSTLY B’s AND C’s
MOSTLY B’s
MOSTLY A’s AND B’s
MOSTLY A’s
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE/NOT ASKED (NOT IN SCHOOL)
NOT ASKED
[OTHER THAN ALL A’s] Do you push your teen to get better grades in school, or not?
78%
22%
1%
31%
PUSH
DON’T PUSH
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED (GET ALL A’s)
E-3
11.
How likely is it that your teen will go to college: would you say going to college is certain, is very
likely, is fairly likely, or is not likely?
53%
32%
8%
5%
1%
CERTAIN
VERY LIKELY
FAIRLY LIKELY
NOT LIKELY
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[FOR PURPOSES OF THE NEXT QUESTION, IF RESPONDENT FEMALE, VARIABLE = ‘Mother’;
IF RESPONDENT MALE, VAREIABLE = ‘Father’
12.
Are you your teen’s biological [mother/father]?
92%
8%
0%
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[FOR PURPOSES OF THE NEXT QUESTION, IF RESPONDENT FEMALE, VARIABLE = ‘Father’;
IF RESPONDENT MALE, VARIABLE = ‘Mother’]
13.
Does your teen live with his or her biological [mother/father]?
78%
22%
0%
YES
NO
NO RESPONSE
[FOR PURPOSES OF NEXT QUESTION, IF RESPONDENT FEMALE, VARIABLE = ‘Father’; IF
RESPONDENT MALE, VARIABLE = ‘Mother’]
14.
Would you describe your teen’s relationship with his/her biological [mother/father] as excellent,
very good, good, fair or poor?
45%
25%
13%
6%
7%
5%
15.
Would you describe your relationship with your teen as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?
51%
34%
12%
2%
1%
0%
16.
EXCELLENT
VERY GOOD
GOOD
FAIR
POOR
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
EXCELLENT
VERY GOOD
GOOD
FAIR
POOR
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
In a typical week, how many times do you and your children have dinner together as a family?
E-4
[RECORD RESPONSE]
1%
3%
5%
13%
15%
21%
14%
27%
0%
17.
NONE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[VERSION 1, IF DINNERS = 5,6] What are some of the reasons you and your family do not have
dinner together every night? [OPEN-ENDED]
[VERSION 2, IF DINNERS <5] What are some of the reasons you and your family do not have
dinner together more often? [OPEN-ENDED]
35%
34%
8%
20%
10%
9%
6%
2%
12%
*%
29%
18.
Would you be willing to give up a weeknight activity if it meant you could have dinner with your
family?
75%
16%
9%
19.
TOO BUSY/DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES
AT WORK, LATE SHIFTS
FAMILY NOT HOME, OUT A LOT
SPORTS
SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
EXTRACURRICULAR/RECREATION ACTIVITIES
WITH FRIENDS, GIRL/BOY FRIENDS
EVERYONE WANTS TO DO OWN THING
OTHER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
YES
NO
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
When you were growing up, how many dinners in a typical week did you have with your family?
2%
2%
5%
4%
8%
14%
14%
49%
2%
NONE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Now, just to be clear, when I mention illegal drugs in the following questions, I mean to include
E-5
marijuana and prescription drugs when they are used to get high.
20.
To the best of your knowledge, is your teen’s school a “drug-free” school or is it not “drug free”,
meaning some students keep drugs, use drugs or sell drugs on school grounds? [PUSH TO
AVOID DON’T KNOW RESPONSES: “Well, what is your guess?”
35%
60%
5%
21.
Some parents say that the presence of illegal drugs in their teen’s school will not affect whether
their teen does or does not try illegal drugs. Other parents say that the presence of illegal drugs in
their teen’s school makes it more likely their teen will try illegal drugs. Which of these two views
is closer to your own?
37%
60%
4%
22.
25.
EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
VERY IMPORTANT
FAIRLY IMPORTANT
NOT TOO IMPORTANT
NOT IMPORTANT AT ALL
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF NOT DRUG FREE] Is your teen’s school not drug free because illegal drugs are tolerated by
school administrators, or is your teen’s school not drug free despite the best efforts of school
administrators?
3%
81%
2%
14%
35%
24.
OPTION A: WILL NOT AFFECT
OPTION B: MAKES IT MORE LIKELY
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How important is it to you that your teen’s school be drug-free, meaning that illegal drugs are not
used, kept or sold on school grounds: is this extremely important, very important, fairly
important, not too important or not important at all?
63%
26%
4%
1%
2%
4%
23.
DRUG-FREE
NOT DRUG-FREE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
ILLEGAL DRUGS TOLERATED
DRUGS OCCUR DESPITE BEST EFFORTS OF ADMINISTRATORS
ADMINISTRATORS CAN’T DO ANYTHING [VOLUNTEERED]
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
[IF NOT DRUG FREE] How realistic is the goal of making your teen’s school drug free: is this a
very realistic goal, a fairly realistic goal, a fairly unrealistic goal or a very unrealistic goal?
9%
VERY REALISTIC GOAL
28%
A FAIRLY REALISTIC GOAL
44%
A FAIRLY UNREALISTIC GOAL
10%
A VERY UNREALISTIC GOAL
8%
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
35%
NOT ASKED
Have you ever discussed the issue of drugs in your teen’s school with a school official or teacher?
E-6
25%
72%
3%
26.
Is there anything you can do as a parent to help achieve a drug-free school or is there really
nothing you can do??
54%
35%
11%
27.
VERY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
A VERY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How realistic is the expectation that a teenager will not drink alcohol until age 21: is this a very
realistic expectation, a fairly realistic expectation, a fairly unrealistic expectation, or a very
unrealistic expectation?
13%
21%
36%
28%
2%
29.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How realistic is the expectation that a teenager will not smoke cigarettes: is this a very realistic
expectation, a fairly realistic expectation, a fairly unrealistic expectation, or a very unrealistic
expectation?
34%
37%
20%
7%
2%
28.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
VERY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
A VERY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How realistic is the expectation that a teenager will never try marijuana: is this a very realistic
expectation, a fairly realistic expectation, a fairly unrealistic expectation, or a very unrealistic
expectation?
18%
35%
34%
10%
3%
VERY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
A VERY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
E-7
30.
How realistic is the expectation that a teenager will never try illegal drugs such as LSD, cocaine or
heroin: is this a very realistic expectation, a fairly realistic expectation, a fairly unrealistic
expectation, or a very unrealistic expectation?
37%
37%
17%
6%
2%
31.
How important is it to you that your teen not try marijuana: is this extremely important, very
important, fairly important, not too important or not important at all?
59%
23%
14%
2%
1%
1%
32.
EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
VERY IMPORTANT
FAIRLY IMPORTANT
NOT TOO IMPORTANT
NOT IMPORTANT AT ALL
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How important is it to you that your teen not try illegal drugs: is this extremely important, very
important, fairly important, not too important or not important at all?
81%
17%
1%
0%%
1%
*%
33.
VERY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY REALISTIC EXPECTATION
A FAIRLY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
A VERY UNREALISTIC EXPECTATION
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
VERY IMPORTANT
FAIRLY IMPORTANT
NOT TOO IMPORTANT
NOT IMPORTANT AT ALL
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
If you had to guess, out of every ten teenagers the age of your son or daughter, how many have
tried marijuana?
5%
12%
13%
15%
12%
18%
6%
4%
7%
3%
*%
5%
NONE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
E-8
34.
If you had to guess, out of every ten teenagers the age of your son or daughter, how many have
used prescription drugs in order to get high?
10%
18%
21%
15%
8%
14%
3%
2%
1%
1%
0%
8%
35.
Some parents tell us that once a child becomes a teenager, parents have very little influence over
their decision of whether they will smoke, drink, or try illegal drugs. Do you agree strongly, agree
somewhat, disagree somewhat, or disagree strongly with this opinion?
8%
16%
22%
54%
1%
36.
AGREE STRONGLY
AGREE SOMEWHAT
DISAGREE SOMEWHAT
DISAGREE STRONGLY
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Does it seem to you that the use of marijuana is today just a normal part of being a teenager, or is
it not?
21%
77%
3%
37.
NONE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NORMAL
NOT A NORMAL PART OF BEING A TEENAGER
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Do you think the decision to use marijuana by a teen the age of your child is a big deal--in the
sense it is an important or serious decision--or is it not a big deal? [IF YES] Do you feel that way
strongly or not strongly?
84%
4%
5%
4%
2%
BIG DEAL, STRONGLY
BIG DEAL, NOT STRONGLY
NOT BIG DEAL, STRONGLY
NOT BIG DEAL, NOT STRONGLY
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
E-9
Please tell me if you think the following statements are true or false.
38.
Because marijuana comes from a plant, it is safer than other drugs people use to get high: do you
think that statement is true or false?
22%
75%
2%
39.
Today’s marijuana is much stronger than when you were a teenager: do you think that statement
is true or false?
47%
22%
31%
40.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
It is safe for a teenager to drive after using marijuana: do you think that statement is true or false?
1%
99%
1%
43.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Marijuana can be an addictive drug: do you think that statement is true or false?
84%
13%
3%
42.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
The use of marijuana increases the likelihood of using other drugs: do you think that statement is
true or false?
81%
17%
2%
41.
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
TRUE
FALSE
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
How harmful to the health of someone your age is the use of marijuana: is it [READ OPTIONS]
61%
32%
5%
1%
1%
VERY HARMFUL
FAIRLY HARMFUL
NOT TOO HARMFUL
NOT HARMFUL AT ALL
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
E-10
44.
Which is easiest for someone your teenager’s age to buy: cigarettes, beer, marijuana, or
prescription drugs such as Oxycontin, Percocet, Vicodin or Ritalin without a prescription?
37%
12%
22%
9%
9%
10%
45.
Some people say using prescription drugs to get high is LESS dangerous than the use of other
illegal drugs. Others say the use of prescription drugs to get high is NOT LESS dangerous than
the use of other illegal drugs? With which of these statements do you agree more?
14%
86%
0%
46.
CIGARETTES
BEER
MARIJUANA
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
THE SAME
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
LESS DANGEROUS
NOT LESS DANGEROUS
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
When it comes to making decisions about whether to drink alcohol or use illegal drugs, how much
do you trust your teen to make the right decisions: do you trust him or her completely, a great
deal, a fair amount, not very much, or not at all?
39%
45%
13%
1%
1%
*%
TRUST HIM OR HER COMPLETELY
A GREAT DEAL
A FAIR AMOUNT
NOT VERY MUCH
NOT AT ALL
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
I have just a few questions for statistical purposes…..
47.
Are you single or married? [IF SINGLE:] Have you ever been married? [IF MARRIED] Were
you ever previously married to someone else?
4%
9%
62%
24%
1%
48.
SINGLE, NEVER BEEN MARRIED
SINGLE, PREVIOUSLY MARRIED
MARRIED, NOT PREVIOUSLY MARRIED
MARRIED, PREVIOUSLY MARRIED
NO RESPONSE
What is your employment situation: are you...
56%
15%
19%
3%
1%
4%
1%
EMPLOYED FULL-TIME OUTSIDE OF HOME
EMPLOYED PART-TIME OUTSIDE OF HOME
WORK AT HOME, TAKING CARE OF FAMILY OR SELF
RETIRED
STUDENT
UNEMPLOYED & LOOKING FOR WORK
DON'T KNOW/REFUSED
E-11
49.
[IF MARRIED] And what is your spouse's employment situation?
68%
5%
6%
2%
1%
2%
1%
14%
50.
How important is religion in your family life: very important, fairly important, not too important,
or not important at all?
59%
27%
10%
4%
*%
51.
VERY IMPORTANT
FAIRLY IMPORTANT
NOT TOO IMPORTANT
NOT IMPORTANT AT ALL
DON'T KNOW/REFUSED
In a typical month, how often do you attend church or religious services? [RECORD
RESPONSE]
24%
9%
11%
9%
27%
21%
*%
52.
EMPLOYED FULL-TIME OUTSIDE OF HOME
EMPLOYED PART-TIME OUTSIDE OF HOME
WORK AT HOME, TAKING CARE OF FAMILY OR SELF
RETIRED
STUDENT
UNEMPLOYED & LOOKING FOR WORK
DON'T KNOW/REFUSED
NOT ASKED
NONE
1
2
3
4
5+
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Which of the following best describes your religious preference:
43%
20%
21%
2%
*%
5%
7%
3%
BORN-AGAIN, EVANGELICAL, OR FUNDAMENTALIST CHRISTIAN
TRADITIONAL PROTESTANT
CATHOLIC
JEWISH
MUSLIM
OTHER
NONE
DON’T KNOW/REFUSED
E-12
53.
How many different places has your teen lived in, all together? [RECORD ACTUAL
RESPONSE]
3%
43%
29%
12%
7%
3%
3%
*%
54.
Do you believe there is a connection between teen alcohol and/or drug use and risky sexual
behavior among teens?
95%
4%
1%
55.
SOME HIGH SCHOOL OR LESS
COMPLETED HIGH SCHOOL
VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OR SOME COLLEGE
COLLEGE GRADUATE
POST GRADUATE
DON'T KNOW/REFUSED
Do you consider yourself to be mainly of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino heritage or not? [YES/NO]
4%
96%
*%
59.
<40
40-44
45-49
50+
DON’T KNOW/REFUSED
What is the highest level of education you completed?
3%
17%
20%
34%
25%
1%
58.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
NOT ASKED
In what year were you born, please? [RECORD ACTUAL RESPONSE] [AGE SHOWN]
12%
20%
33%
34%
1%
57.
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
[IF YES] Have you spoken with your teen about this connection?
78%
16%
*%
5%
56.
LIVED IN SAME PLACE
1
2
3
4
5
6+
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/REFUSED
How would you describe your main race: are you mainly white; African-American or black;
E-13
Asian-American; Native American; or other?
84%
6%
2%
1%
3%
1%
4%
60.
Has your teen ever seen you or the teen’s [other parent/stepparent] drunk?
33%
66%
2%
61.
WHITE
AFRICAN-AMERICAN OR BLACK
ASIAN-AMERICAN
NATIVE AMERICAN
OTHER
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
HISPANIC (NOT ASKED)
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/REFUSED
Has your teen ever seen you or the teen’s [other parent/stepparent] high on an illegal drug?
4%
95%
1%
YES
NO
DON'T KNOW/REFUSED
And two final questions …
62.
If you had to guess, how likely is it that your teenager will try an illegal drug at some point in the
future? Is it …
11%
25%
47%
16%
1%
63.
VERY LIKELY
SOMEWHAT LIKELY
NOT VERY LIKELY
NEVER HAPPEN
DON’T KNOW/NO RESPONSE
Which of the following categories best describes your household income? Please just stop me
when I reach the appropriate category.
8%
23%
32%
31%
7%
LESS THAN $30,000
$30,000 TO LESS THAN $60,000
$60,000 TO LESS THAN $100,000
$100,000 OR MORE
NO RESPONSE/REFUSED
That’s the last of my questions. Thank you very much for your time and your responses.
*
*% = less than one-half percent
E-14