User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera

Table of Contents
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
About This Manual ........................................................................................................................................................... v
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................... v
Document Conventions..................................................................................................................................................... v
Organization of the Manual............................................................................................................................................. vi
Free Software Updates.....................................................................................................................................................viii
Installation Guidelines .................................................................................................................................................... ix
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................... x
System Requirements ......................................................................................................................................................... x
What is in the Box ............................................................................................................................................................. xiv
Installing the Software ..................................................................................................................................................... xiv
Installing the Hardware ..................................................................................................................................................xviii
Multiple Camera Installations...........................................................................................................................................xx
Using SPOT’s On-line Documentation ............................................................................................................................xx
Quick Start ..................................................................................................................................................................... xxi
Taking Your First Picture ....................................................................................................................................................xxi
Ch. 1 - New Features ..................................................................................................................................................... 23
Ch. 2 – Basic and Advanced Program Modes ............................................................................................................ 25
Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................ 25
Basic vs. Advanced Features.......................................................................................................................................... 25
Ch. 3 – The Basic Program Mode .................................................................................................................................. 27
Introduction: Using the Basic Program........................................................................................................................... 28
Navigating in Basic Program Mode ............................................................................................................................... 28
Preparing to Take a Picture............................................................................................................................................. 35
Taking a Picture................................................................................................................................................................. 43
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images .................................................................................................................... 47
Working with Image Sequences..................................................................................................................................... 55
Creating a Report............................................................................................................................................................. 55
Image Printing ................................................................................................................................................................... 65
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode ......................................................................................................................... 67
Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................ 67
The Viewing and Editing Window................................................................................................................................... 68
Working With Image Files ................................................................................................................................................. 71
Setup ................................................................................................................................................................................... 73
Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture............................................................................................................................... 79
Introduction: What is an Image Setup?......................................................................................................................... 80
Accessing the Image Setup Window ............................................................................................................................ 80
Image Setup Options ....................................................................................................................................................... 83
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images............................................................................................................................................ 105
Using Live Images............................................................................................................................................................106
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture ............................................................................................................................................... 115
Introduction: Three Ways to Take a Picture ................................................................................................................116
Basic Image Captures....................................................................................................................................................116
Image Captures in Other Procedures .........................................................................................................................121
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images ..................................................................................................... 127
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................128
View ..................................................................................................................................................................................128
Working with Image Sequences...................................................................................................................................131
Edit.....................................................................................................................................................................................135
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
i
Table of Contents
Ch. 9 – Using SPOT Databases..................................................................................................................................... 169
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 170
The Database Menu ...................................................................................................................................................... 170
The SPOT Sample Database ......................................................................................................................................... 171
Creating and Modifying Databases............................................................................................................................ 174
Searching Databases .................................................................................................................................................... 184
Ch. 10 - Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 191
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 192
Overview: The SPOT Sample Report (Windows) ........................................................................................................ 192
Creating a Report........................................................................................................................................................... 195
Running a Report............................................................................................................................................................ 209
Distributing Reports ......................................................................................................................................................... 212
Ch. 11 - Printing Images .............................................................................................................................................. 213
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 213
Printer Setup..................................................................................................................................................................... 213
Print ................................................................................................................................................................................... 214
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications ............................................................................................... 217
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 217
Preparing to Take a Picture........................................................................................................................................... 218
Taking a Picture............................................................................................................................................................... 221
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode ...................................................................... 223
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 224
Establishing the TWAIN Interface.................................................................................................................................. 224
Working in the Basic TWAIN Interface ......................................................................................................................... 225
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings ........................................................................................................... 228
Taking a Picture............................................................................................................................................................... 237
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications ...................................................................................................... 239
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 239
Preparing to Take a Picture........................................................................................................................................... 240
Taking a Picture............................................................................................................................................................... 245
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode ............................................................................. 247
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 248
Working in the Basic 3rd Party Interface ...................................................................................................................... 248
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings ........................................................................................................... 251
Taking a Picture............................................................................................................................................................... 261
Appendix A: Electronic Imaging Theory and SPOT Cameras................................................................................... 263
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 263
Digital Photography ....................................................................................................................................................... 263
Color Images ................................................................................................................................................................... 264
SPOT Digital Cameras .................................................................................................................................................... 265
Appendix B: Specifications ......................................................................................................................................... 267
Hardware and Software Specifications ...................................................................................................................... 267
FCC “Class A” Product Warning .................................................................................................................................. 268
RT Camera Series Catalog Information....................................................................................................................... 269
Defect Specifications – KAI-2092M CCD Chip........................................................................................................... 270
Transmission of RT Mono. and RT Slider Windows....................................................................................................... 271
Quantum Efficiency of KAI-2092 and KAI-2000 .......................................................................................................... 271
Appendix C: Keyboard and Toolbar Button Commands.......................................................................................... 273
Appendix D: Selected Error Messages ....................................................................................................................... 275
Appendix E: Converting Previous Version SPOT Databases ..................................................................................... 279
Database Conversion Steps ......................................................................................................................................... 279
Appendix F: Changing the Desiccant........................................................................................................................ 281
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 281
Appendix G: Third Party Software............................................................................................................................... 283
Appendix H: SPOT Cameras, RT Cameras, and Polarized Light Microscopy........................................................... 285
Index............................................................................................................................................................................. 287
ii
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Copyright/Warranty
Single User Copyright and License Agreement, Diagnostic Instruments
Carefully read the following terms and conditions before using the software. By using the software
on the enclosed CD, you indicate your complete and unconditional acceptance of these terms and
conditions.
This document is a legal agreement between you, the end user, and Diagnostic Instruments,
concerning the use of the enclosed software. This agreement constitutes the complete agreement
between you and Diagnostic Instruments.
If you do not agree to the terms of this agreement, do not use the CD. Promptly return the CD,
including the written materials, the binder, and all other equipment/containers to the dealer where
you purchased them from. You will receive a full refund.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
LICENSE: Diagnostic Instruments grants you the LICENSEE, a limited, non-exclusive license to use
the enclosed software. You do not need a separate license for using the software on multiple
computers. This means that your organization may install the software on more than one computer
that is owned or leased by the organization. You may make a copy of the Software for backup and
archival purposes, provided that the original copyright notice and/or other legend is reproduced on
each copy. You may not modify, translate, adapt, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble, or create
derivative words based on the Software.
TITLE: Diagnostic Instruments retains title to the Software, subject to your right to possess and use
the software while the License is in effect. You will agree to use your best efforts to protect the
software from unauthorized use, illegal reproduction, or illicit distribution.
COPYRIGHTS and TRADE SECRETS: Diagnostic Instruments owns all rights to the Software.
This agreement does not convey ownership of the software to you, but only the right to use a copy of
the software strictly in accordance with this agreement. The unauthorized duplication or distribution
of the software or the documentation is an infringement of Diagnostic Instruments' rights to the
software and may be subject to criminal and/or civil penalties.
UPDATE POLICY: To receive updates to the Software, complete and return the enclosed registration
card to Diagnostic Instruments. All updates provided to you shall become part of the Software
governed by the terms of this agreement.
GENERAL: This agreement merges all prior written and oral communication regarding the Software
and sets forth the entire agreement of the parties. This agreement shall be governed by the laws of the
state of Michigan, without regard to the conflict of law provisions thereof, as if it was performed
wholly within the state.
Copyright 2001 - 2002, Diagnostic Instruments, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Trademarks:
Adobe Photoshop is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Image Pro is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics
SPOT RT Slider, SPOT RT Color, and SPOT RT Monochrome are registered trademarks of
Diagnostic Instruments, Inc.
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows ME are registered trademarks
of Microsoft,Inc.
All other product names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective trademark holders.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
iii
Copyright/Warranty
FCC “Class A” Product Warning
All SPOT cameras fall into the Class A category of the FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
emission standard EN55022/CISPR22. The following is the FCC’s standard warning for this type of
device:
WARNING:
This is a Class A Product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio
interference in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
Warranty Information
LIMITED WARRANTY: Diagnostic Instruments, Inc. (henceforth referred to as Diagnostic) warrants to
the original purchaser, that the camera will be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of
one year from the date of purchase. Diagnostic shall, at its choice, either repair or replace, free of charge,
any product that, upon inspection by Diagnostic, is found to be defective. Abuse, misuse, or improper
maintenance and/or repair during the one year period invalidates this warranty. This warranty does not
cover defects caused by ordinary wear and tear.
In no event shall Diagnostic be liable for any consequential, indirect, incidental, or special damages of any
nature arising from the sale or use of this product.
In no event, and under no circumstance shall Diagnostic be liable to the Dealer or to any other individual or
entity for any indirect, special, consequential, or incidental losses or damages, including without limitation,
lost profits.
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS,
INC., MAKES NO WARRANTIES OR REPRESENTATIONS TO THE DEALER OR USER, EITHER
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. THIS INCLUDES, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THE VALIDITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, OR OWNERSHIP OF ANY PATENTS OR TECHNOLOGY IN OR CONCERNING
THE CAMERA. DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS INC., HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL
SUCH WARRANTIES, GUARANTIES, REPRESENTATIONS, OR CONDITIONS.
iv
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
About This Manual
Document Conventions
About This Manual
Introduction
The manual contains instructions for the SPOT RT camera and version 3.5 of the accompanying SPOT
software. Diagnostic Instruments makes the following versions of the RT camera:
•
•
•
•
•
RT Slider
RT Color
RT Monochrome
RT KE Color Mosaic
RT SE6 (monochrome)
An on-line version of this manual in PDF (portable document format) is also included on the CD that
contains the SPOT software. Refer to the Installation Guidelines chapter for more information on
accessing and using the on-line manual.
Document Conventions
The following is a list of the textual conventions used in this manual:
Notes
!
Note: This is an example of a note. Notes appear within the text to indicate
information for further consideration or reference.
Cautions
CAUTION!
This is an example of a cautionary note. Cautionary notes appear to indicate that
you should carefully consider the implications of an action.
Warnings
"WARNING"
THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF A WARNING. WARNINGS INDICATE THAT THE ACTION
YOU ARE TAKING COULD EITHER CAUSE INJURY TO YOURSELF OR COULD
HARM YOUR SYSTEM
RT Slider
RT Slider notes indicate specific instructions for users with the slider version of
the SPOT RT camera.
RT Mono/SE6
RT Mono/SE6
RT Mono/SE6 notes indicate specific instructions for users with monochrome
versions of the SPOT RT camera. In most cases, these notes indicate that a
color related option is unavailable.
RT KE Color
Mosiac
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosaic notes indicate specific instructions for users with the color
mosaic chip version of the SPOT RT camera
RT Slider
Software
Development
!
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Software Development informational notes indicate special circumstances related to
the current release of the SPOT software. These notes also describe how to obtain
free updates from Diagnostic Instruments.
v
About this Manual
Organization of the Manual
Organization of the Manual
The User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera is structured as shown in the table below. In addition to the
chapter names and descriptions, the table indicates whether the chapter applies to the Basic program mode,
the Advanced program mode, or both:
Chapter
About This Manual
Basic or
Advanced
Description
Describes document conventions, manual structure.
Both
Describes hardware/software installation.
Both
Steps for immediately capturing your first image in the Basic
Program Mode.
Basic
Describes the software enhancements for version 3.5 (Windows
and Mac edition) of the SPOT RT software.
Both
Compares the features of the Basic and Advanced program
modes.
Both
Ch. 3 –
The Basic Program Mode
Details the SPOT Basic program mode, which is designed for
beginning users who want to start taking pictures immediately
without having to make a lot of processing decisions.
Basic
Ch. 4 –
The Advanced Program
Mode
Describes the SPOT Advanced program environment,
including basic file commands and preliminary setup
instructions.
Advanced
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a
Picture
Describes the different procedures involved in setting up the
software for image captures.
Advanced
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Describes SPOT’s real-time imaging functionality.
Advanced
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture
Describes the image capture process.
Advanced
Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing,
and Annotating Images
Describes the rich set of image editing and customization
features in the SPOT software.
Advanced
Ch. 9 –
Using SPOT Databases
Describes the procedures for creating and working with SPOT
image databases.
Advanced
Installation Guidelines
Quick Start
Ch. 1 –
New Features
Ch.2 –
Basic and Advanced
Program Modes
This functionality is not yet available for Mac users. Refer to the Free Software Updates section below for
details on obtaining updated versions of the software.
Ch. 10 – Reporting
Describes the custom reporting functionality in the SPOT
software.
Advanced
This functionality is not yet available for Mac users. Refer to the Free Software Updates section below for
details on obtaining updated versions of the software.
vi
Ch. 11 – Printing Images
Describes the procedures for printing images from the SPOT
program.
Ch. 12 – Using Other
Windows Imaging
Applications in Advanced
Mode
Describes how to capture images (via an Advanced Mode
TWAIN interface) with the SPOT camera using other Windowsbased imaging programs such as Photoshop or Image-Pro
Plus.
Both
Advanced
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
About This Manual
Organization of the Manual
(cont.)
Basic or
Advanced
Chapter
Description
Ch. 13 – Using Other
Windows Imaging
Applications in Basic Mode
Describes how to capture images (via a Basic Mode
TWAIN interface) with the SPOT camera using other
Windows-based imaging programs such as Photoshop
or Image-Pro Plus.
Basic
Ch. 14– Using Other Mac
Imaging Applications
Describes how to capture images with the SPOT
camera using other Mac imaging programs such as
Photoshop or Image-Pro Plus.
Ch. 15– Using Other Mac
Imaging Applications in
Basic Mode
Describes how to capture images (via a Basic Mode 3
party interface) with the SPOT camera using other Mac
imaging programs such as Photoshop or Image-Pro
Plus.
Basic
An introduction to the theory behind the SPOT RT
camera.
Both
Appendix A: Electronic
Imaging Theory and the
SPOT Cameras
Advanced
rd
Appendix B: Specifications
Technical specifications for the SPOT hardware and
software.
Both
Appendix C: Keyboard and
Toolbar Button Commands
A table of menu commands and their keystroke and
button equivalents.
Both
Appendix D: Selected Error
Messages
A table of errors, causes, and solutions
Both
Appendix E: Converting
Previous Version SPOT
Databases
Instructions for performing a one-time conversion of
SPOT databases from earlier versions of the software.
Advanced
Appendix F: Changing the
Desiccant
Instructions for changing the desiccant packets in the
SPOT RT camera.
Both
Appendix G: Third Party
Software
A list of imaging software systems and their levels of
compatibility with SPOT and SPOT RT cameras.
Both
Instructions for capturing images with SPOT RT
cameras and polarized light microscopes.
Both
Appendix H: SPOT
Cameras, RT Cameras, and
Polarized Light Microscopy
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
vii
About this Manual
Free Software Updates
Free Software Updates
Registered SPOT camera owners can download free software updates via the Internet. When you register
your product, Diagnostic Instruments supplies you with the user name and password needed to download
the latest release of the software, as well as PDF user guides, software developer kits, and SPOT third party
DLLs. To register, contact Diagnostic Instruments at 1 (586) 731-6000. You should periodically check
Diagnostic Instruments’ web site (www.diaginc.com/software) for the latest release.
To download files, follow these steps:
viii
1.
Access the software download page on Diagnostics Instruments’ web site –
www.diaginc.com/software.
2.
Click on the link for your software/operating system. You are prompted for a user name and
password.
3.
Enter your User Name and Password. If you have not yet registered your product, contact
Diagnostic Instruments at 1 (586) 731-6000 to do so and obtain the user name and password.
4.
Click OK.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Installation Guidelines
Table of Contents
Installation Guidelines
Introduction ....................................................... x
QUICK REFERENCE:
System Requirements ....................................... x
Equipment Standards - Windows .................x
!"Compare the minimal and optimal hardware
Equipment Standards - Mac ....................... xii
requirements for using the SPOT RT Camera…
pp. x – xiii
Epson Printer Settings................................... xiii
What is in the Box ............................................xiv
Installing the Software.....................................xiv
Windows Installation .....................................xv
Video Card Related Problems
(Windows) ............................................. xvi
Windows 95 Related Errors ................... xvi
Windows NT Related Errors................... xvi
!"Set up an Epson printer for use with the SPOT
software… p. xiii
!"Install the PCI board… p. xvii
!"Adjust the video card settings in Windows…
p. xvii
Mac Installation...........................................xvii
Mac OS 8.6 - 9.0 Installation
Problems..............................................xviii
!"Connect the SPOT RT camera to your
microscope… p. xix
Installing the Hardware................................. xviii
Installing the PCI Board ............................. xviii
Connecting the Camera to the
Microscope ................................................... xix
Multiple Camera Installations ........................ xx
!"Use multiple SPOT cameras with a single
computer… p. xx
!"Access the on-line PDF documentation provided
on the SPOT software CD… p. xx
Using SPOT’s On-line Documentation ........... xx
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
ix
System Requirements
Installation Guidelines
Introduction
The following sections detail the system and installation guidelines for using the SPOT RT camera and
v3.5 of the accompanying software. They are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
System Requirements
What is in the Box
Installing the Software
Installing the Hardware
Using SPOT’s On-line Documentation
System Requirements
The following sections details the hardware and software requirements needed for the SPOT RT
camera/software on both Windows and Mac systems. Minimum and optimal system recommendations are
detailed for each item.
Equipment Standards - Windows
Minimum
Processor
Pentium,
166 MHz
Optimal System Recommendations
Dell Precision Workstation 340 Mini-Tower
with 2.40 GHz Pentium IV Processor
In addition to the fact that this is a fast and reliable machine, there are many
good reasons to order from Dell, including:
• Easy to use web site
• On-line ordering and product selection
• One week shipping time
• Excellent technical support
Video Card
A card that
supports 24 bit,
true color at the
desired resolution
with a refresh rate
above 70 Hz.
nVidia Quadro2 EX, 32MB, AGP Graphics Card
This is one of the cards offered on the aforementioned Dell computer. For
customers who want to videotape their live image output, Diagnostic
Instruments recommends the following cards:
•
Matrox G400 Dual Head video card
•
ATI Radeon 64 Mb VIVO card
Both of these cards have video outputs for connection to a standard VCR.
All of the above cards offer refresh rates of 85 MHz or more at 1600 x 1200
resolution (for higher resolutions with the nVidia card, replace the Dell driver with
one downloaded from the nVidia web site). All of these cards provide displays
with sharp resolution, superb color quality, and clean, artifact-free images.
With some video cards, you might experience system crashes or display problems in live image mode; you might also
experience display problems when zooming in on captured images. To correct these problems, lower the Graphics
Acceleration setting in Windows, as described in the “Video Card Related Problems” section below.
RAM
64 Mb
256 Mb of RAM is recommended for optimal smoothness of operation.
PCI Slot
x
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Installation Guidelines
System Requirements
Equipment Standards (cont.)
Minimum
Optimal System Recommendations
Any color monitor
with at least 800 x
600 pixel resolution
at 24 bit RGB, and
a refresh rate over
70 Hz.
Hitachi CM 815 Plus
Database
Image File
Storage
Zip drive, Jaz drive,
network drive
Iomega 2 Gb Jaz Drive
Operating
System
Windows 95/98/NT/
2000/ME/XP
Windows XP
Monitor
This is Hitachi’s latest 21“ monitor, the replacement for the 814. It has perfect
focus from the center to the corners of the screen, very fine resolution, and
consistent color rendition. A very bright monitor, the 815 can display brilliant
images even in high ambient light environments. It is also compact by
comparison to other 21” monitors.
If you plan on creating image databases via the SPOT software, you will need
some form of storage device to prevent your hard drive from filling up. Each
Iomega 2 Gb Jaz drive holds approximately 500 uncompressed images, or
20,000 JPEG compressed images. We use the SCSI Insider version, which
comes with a PCI SCSI card.
Microsoft intends to replace all versions of the Windows operating system with
Windows XP. Previous versions of the SPOT software experienced significantly
slower live image frame rates when operating under Windows NT/2000 than
when operating under Windows 95/98/ME. This situation has been rectified.
With v3.5 of the SPOT software, live image frame rates are equally fast with ALL
versions of Windows, including XP.
Epson Stylus Photo 820
Printer
This printer produces high resolution, true color, 8.5 x 11 glossy prints that look
better than those produced by many dye sub printers. It is perfect for printing
reports that contain a mixture of images and text. It sells for an incredible $99.
Refer to the “Epson Printer Settings” section below for details on how to optimize
print quality.
Additional Hardware and Software
Web
Browser
Coupler
Internet Explorer 4.0 or greater.
This requirement applies only to Windows 95 users. Current releases of Internet Explorer are available
as free downloads from www.microsoft.com/downloads.
•
•
For the RT Color and RT Slider models:
A digital camera coupler designed to fit a camera with a Nikon F Lens mount.
For the RT Monochrome model:
A digital camera coupler designed to fit a camera with a C mount.
Diagnostic Instruments makes couplers for most microscopes. They are available from the dealer
where the camera was purchased. Refer to “Connecting the Camera to the Microscope” (see below)
for a list of coupler models for various microscopes.
Light
Source
Because SPOT RT cameras are capable of extremely short exposure times, light sources whose
intensity varies with the waveform of the 60 Hz line supply, should be avoided. Problem light sources
include fluorescent lamps, 120 volt incandescent bulbs, and 6 volt 20 watt halogen lamps. These light
sources cause the Live Image window to flicker and result in incorrect brightness and color balance
readings in captured images. We have found that the low voltage halogen/xenon lamps used on most
microscopes work well, as do the mercury burners used on fluorescence illuminators.
If your work requires you to use a light source that is problematic, you can use the Minimum Exposure
option on the Image Setup window to avoid flicker and give you correct brightness and color balance
readings. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for more information.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
xi
System Requirements
Installation Guidelines
Equipment Standards - Mac
Minimum
Processor
PowerPC computer with a PCI
bus
Optimal System Recommendations
G4 with a Hitachi CM815 Plus monitor
(Note that the Apple 21” Studio Display has been discontinued)
Note that the G4 and “Blue and White” G3 computers have new 64
bit PCI bus connectors that are larger than the standard 32 bit PCI
edge card connector used on the SPOT PCI bus plug-in card.
Despite the apparent size discrepancy, the SPOT cards work when
plugged in – the small slot on the SPOT edge connector lines up with
the bar on the PCI bus connector.
#
Video
Memory/
Card
RAM
Note: Apple Power Macintosh models 6100, 7100, and 8100 are PowerPCs, but they do not have a
PCI bus, and thus cannot be used with the SPOT camera. The iMac does not have a PCI bus and
cannot be used.
Enough video memory on
either the mother board or a
plug in video card to display
millions of colors at the desired
resolution, and with a refresh
rate above 70 Hz
64 Mb
The nVidia GeForce video cards that come standard on newer G4
computers work well.
256 Mb of RAM is recommended for optimal smoothness of
operation.
PCI Slot
Monitor
Operating
System
Printer
Any color monitor with at least
800 x 600 pixel resolution at
24 bit RGB, and a refresh rate
over 70 Hz.
Hitachi CM 815 Plus
This is Hitachi’s latest 21“ monitor, the replacement for the 814. It
has perfect focus from the center to the corners of the screen, very
fine resolution, and consistent color rendition. A very bright monitor,
the 815 can display brilliant images even in high ambient light
environments. It is also compact by comparison to other 21”
monitors.
Mac OS 8.6 through OSX
Epson Stylus Photo 820
This printer produces high resolution, true color, 8.5 x 11 glossy
prints that look better than those produced by many dye sub printers.
It is perfect for printing reports that contain a mixture of images and
text. It sells for an incredible $99.
xii
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Installation Guidelines
System Requirements
Equipment Standards – Mac (cont.)
Additional Hardware and Software
Image
Editing
Software
(optional)
The SPOT 3rd Party Interface, which is included with version 3.5 of the SPOT Mac software, is a standalone mini-application designed for Mac users who want to use the SPOT camera to capture images,
and then edit the images in another imaging application. Some commonly used third party applications
include:
• Adobe Photoshop (v. 3.0 or higher)
• Image Pro Plus (v. 3.0 or higher)
• Color It (v. 3.2 or higher)
The image editing software used with the AppleEvent Interface does not need to be TWAIN compliant.
Refer to Ch. 13 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications for more information.
Coupler
•
•
For the RT Color and RT Slider models:
A digital camera coupler designed to fit a camera with a Nikon F Lens mount.
For the RT Monochrome model:
A digital camera coupler designed to fit a camera with a C mount.
Diagnostic Instruments makes couplers for most microscopes. They are available from the dealer
where the camera was purchased. Refer to “Connecting the Camera to the Microscope” (see below)
for a list of coupler models for various microscopes.
Light
Source
Because the SPOT Insight camera is capable of extremely short exposure times, light sources whose
intensity varies with the waveform of the 60 Hz line supply should be avoided. Problem light sources
include fluorescent lamps, 120 volt incandescent bulbs, and 6 volt 20 watt halogen lamps. These light
sources cause the Live Image window to flicker and result in incorrect brightness and color balance
readings in captured images. We have found that the low voltage halogen/xenon lamps used on most
microscopes work well, as do the mercury burners used on fluorescence illuminators.
If your work requires you to use a light source that is problematic, you can use the Minimum Exposure
option on the Image Setup window to avoid flicker and give you correct brightness and color balance
readings. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for more information.
Epson Printer Settings
To optimize print quality when printing images with an Epson Photo Stylus 820 printer on a PC running
Windows 98, do the following:
•
Use photo quality, glossy paper.
•
Set the Windows printer preferences as follows (after
you have installed the printer):
a)
From the Start menu, select Settings >
Printers. The Printers window displays all of
the printers that are available to you.
b)
Right click on the Epson Stylus Photo 750 icon,
and select the Properties option. The properties
window for the printer appears.
c)
Click on the Main tab. The properties window
should now appear as shown at right.
d)
Set the Mode to Advanced (i.e., click on the
Advanced button).
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
xiii
What is in the Box
e)
Installation Guidelines
Click on More Settings, and set the following parameters:
Print Quality – Super Fine 1440 dpi
Media Type – Photo Paper
Ink – Color
MicroWeave – Ensure that Super is not checked.
Flip Horizontal – Ensure that this option is not checked.
Color - ICM
Click on OK. The Current Settings under the Main tab on the properties window should appear
as you defined them.
Click on Apply and then click on OK to close the window.
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
f)
g)
What is in the Box
In addition to the manual, the shipping box should contain the following items:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Camera head with a dust cap
Power supply
Power cord for the power supply
PCI interface board
25 pin cable to connect the power supply to the camera (6 feet long)
50 pin cable to connect the interface board to the camera (10 feet long)
Grounding wrist strap
One CD-R that contains:
− The software required to operate the SPOT camera.
− A PDF (portable document format) version of the user manual, User Guide to the SPOT RT
Camera.
− The Adobe Acrobat Reader software that is required to read and/or print the user's manual. Refer
to “Using SPOT’s On-line Documentation” below for instructions on installing the Reader on your
computer.
− A database conversion utility program to convert previous version (2.1 and earlier) SPOT
databases for use with the current version, 3.5. See Appendix E: Converting Previous Version
SPOT Databases.
•
A registration card.
Installing the Software
Windows users must install the SPOT software before installing the PCI card and connecting the camera.
For Mac users, no installation sequence is required. The CD-R disk provided with your camera contains
the SPOT software, which can be used with:
•
•
Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME/XP
Mac OS 8.6 or higher
#
xiv
Note: Although the SPOT software can be installed either before or after installing the PCI card,
Diagnostic Instruments recommends installing the software first.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Installation Guidelines
Installing the Software
Windows Installation
1.
Ensure that all other application programs are closed. Windows NT/2000/XP Users should also ensure
that they are logged on with administrator privileges.
2.
Insert the disk into your CD drive. The SPOT InstallShield Wizard automatically runs, and the Setup
window appears.
3.
Click on Next at the Readme Information window. The User Information window appears. Enter
your name and company name.
Click on Next. The Choose Destination Location window appears. Either press the Browse button to
specify the destination directory, or click on Next to accept the default directory, C:\SpotCam.
The Select Program Folder window appears. Click on Next. The Start Copying Files window
displays the settings that you selected. Either click on Next to accept the settings, or click on Back to
return to the previous screens and revise the settings.
4.
5.
6.
After you have accepted the settings, the program files are copied over, and the installation program
prompts you with the message Will there be a SPOT camera connected this computer?
7.
Select Yes. The installation program runs.
8.
When the installation is complete, shut down your computer and install the plug-in card, as described
in the Installing the Hardware section of this chapter. At this point, if you plan to use multiple SPOT
cameras with the computer, you can install all of the PCI cards.
9.
Re-start your computer. You should see the following two desktop shortcuts.
Use the SPOT Advanced program mode if you are an experienced user, or you are
a new user who wants to explore the broad range of functionality and choices
offered by the program.
Use the SPOT Basic program mode if you are a new user who wants to
immediately begin taking high quality pictures without having to make a lot of
processing decisions.
To replace a shortcut that was deleted from the
desktop, follow these steps:
a)
b)
c)
Right click on the desktop.
Select New > Shortcut. The Create Shortcut
window appears.
Enter the information in the Command line box:
For the Advanced program, enter
C:\Spotcam\Spot32.exe -a
♦
♦
For the Basic program, enter
C:\Spotcam\Spot32.exe.
If you found the file by browsing, you will see only one Spot32.exe program. If the shortcut is for
the basic program, you will have to modify the command line, as described above.
d)
e)
f)
Click on Next.
Name the shortcut.
Click on Finish. The new shortcut appears on the desktop.
If you installed PCI cards for more than one camera, you will be prompted to select a camera when you
open the SPOT program.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
xv
Installing the Software
Installation Guidelines
Video Card Related Problems (Windows)
Diagnostic Instruments has found that the certain video cards can cause the SPOT program to crash when
using the Live Image feature. If you experience this problem, change the Graphics Acceleration in
Windows to a lower setting. Follow these steps:
From the Start menu button, select Settings > Control Panel.
Double click on the Display icon,
Click on the Settings tab.
Click on the Advanced button.
Click on the Performance tab.
Change the Hardware Acceleration setting by moving the slider to a lower setting. With some cards,
you might have to move the slider to the lowest setting in order for live imaging to work.
7. Click on Apply.
8. Click on OK.
9. Click on Close.
10. Restart your computer before using the SPOT program.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Windows 95 Related Errors
If, after installing the PCI board you cannot access Windows 95, or if the camera will not communicate
with the PC, one of the following situations might be the cause:
•
The slot that you selected for the SPOT PCI board might have been occupied (previously) by a board
from another device.
•
The PCI slot is in the shared position (the PCI slot immediately adjacent to an ISA slot).
These are areas that Diagnostics Instruments has found to be problematic on some installations. This is due
to the fact that Windows 95 is not fully plug and play compliant. To resolve the problem, try plugging the
board into another PCI slot.
Windows NT Related Errors
If, when using Windows NT, your computer freezes during an image capture process (i.e., Get Image, Live
Image viewing. Compute Exposure, etc…), it is may be due to a problem with a setting in your computer’s
BIOS. To correct this problem, follow these steps:
1. Access the BIOS settings. The method for accessing BIOS settings varies from computer to computer.
If you are unsure of how to do this, contact your MIS department or an IT professional.
2.
Go to the Advanced Setup area. This is the typical location, but it can vary according to the make of
your computer.
3.
Access the PCI Bus Mastering setting. The heading that you will see depends on the make of your
computer.
4.
Change the setting to ENABLED.
5.
Restart the computer.
$WARNING$
DO NOT MODIFY OTHER BIOS SETTINGS. ALTERING OTHER SETTINGS COULD CAUSE SYSTEM
INSTABILITY OR RENDER THE SYSTEM UNUSABLE.
xvi
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Installation Guidelines
Installing the Software
Mac Installation
The CD-R disk provided with your camera contains the SPOT software, which can be used with Mac OS
8.6 or higher. If you are installing the SPOT software on a system with Mac OSX, ensure that you have
an administrator password BEFORE BEGINNING THE INSTALLATION.
To install the SPOT software, follow the steps listed below.
1.
2.
Insert the disk into your CD drive. The SPOT window appears.
Double click on the installer icon.
3.
Click on Continue. The Spot 3.5 Installer window appears.
4.
Select the installation location for the program.
5.
Click on Install. The Installing progress indicator appears. When the installation is complete, you
will be prompted with one of two messages, depending on the version of the Mac OS that you are
using:
−
If you are using Mac OS 8.6 – 9.x, the installation is complete. The program should indicate that
the installation was successful. Quit the installer program, and restart the computer.
−
If you are using Mac OSX, the Apple
Package Installer program, which installs the
device driver for the SPOT camera, launches
and immediately prompts you to enter an
Administrator password, as shown at right.
$WARNING$
DO NOT CLICK ON THE CLOSE BUTTON.
IF YOU DO, THE DEVICE DRIVER WILL
NOT INSTALL, AND YOU WILL NOT BE
ABLE TO OPERATE THE CAMERA.
Click here to enter
an Administrator
password
6.
Enter an administrator password. To enter the
password, click on the lock icon. (“Click on the lock to make changes”). After you have entered a
password, the SPOTPCI.pkg welcome screen appears.
7.
Click on Continue. An informational screen appears.
8.
Click on Continue. The program prompts you to
select an installation destination, as shown at
right.
Select the Mac OSX boot drive as the installation
destination. The driver must be installed in this
location.
Select the
Mac OSX
10. Click on Continue.
boot drive
11. When the installation is complete, restart the
computer.
9.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
xvii
Installing the Hardware
Installation Guidelines
Mac OS 8.6 - 9.0 Installation Problems
If you are having difficulty installing the SPOT software with OS 8.6 – 9.0 systems, you will need to
download and install the latest CarbonLib Apple Extension. This is a standard extension included with the
Mac OS, and is offered as a free download/upgrade from the Apple support website –
www.apple.com/support. After upgrading your CarbonLib extension you should be able to install the
SPOT software.
Installing the Hardware
There are two main steps to installing the hardware:
•
•
Installing the PCI board
Connecting the camera to the microscope
$WARNING$
THIS (THE SPOT CAMERA) IS A CLASS A PRODUCT. IN A DOMESTIC ENVIRONMENT THIS
PRODUCT MAY CAUSE RADIO INTERFERENCE IN WHICH CASE THE USER MAY BE REQUIRED
TO TAKE ADEQUATE MEASURES.
Installing the PCI Board
To install the PCI board, follow these steps:
CAUTION!
If you are unfamiliar with the procedures for installing plug in boards, refer the installation to your
MIS department or to a qualified computer technician.
1.
Turn off the computer, and let it sit for a few minutes to let the power supply drain.
2.
Unplug all cables, and remove the power cord from the back of the computer.
$WARNING$
TO AVOID ELECTRICAL SHOCK, ALWAYS REMOVE THE POWER CORD AND ALL EXTERNAL
CABLES, AND WAIT A FEW MINUTES FOR THE POWER SUPPLY TO DRAIN BEFORE OPENING
THE CASE.
3.
Place the computer on a clean, uncluttered surface, and remove the cover.
4.
Position the computer so that the mother board is facing you.
$WARNING$
DO NOT HANDLE THE PCI INTERFACE BOARD OR TOUCH COMPONENTS INSIDE THE COMPUTER
WITHOUT USING THE ENCLOSED GROUNDING WRIST STRAP.
5.
To discharge any static charge that might have built up on your body, touch your finger to the metal
case of the computer’s power supply.
6.
Stick the copper foil end of the grounding wrist strap to the metal case of the computer’s power supply.
7.
Loop the other end of the strap around your wrist by pressing the sticky side against the strap, keeping
the dark strip against your skin.
8.
Use your computer’s manual to identify the location of the PCI slot(s) on the motherboard.
xviii
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Installation Guidelines
9.
Installing the Hardware
Remove the metal cover plate adjacent to an available PCI slot. Save the screw.
#
Note: PC users should avoid installing the PCI card in the shared slot (i.e., the PCI slot next to the
first ISA slot.
10. Carefully insert the PCI bus interface board into the PCI slot.
11. Secure the metal bracket back into place with the screw from step nine.
12. Put the cover back on the computer.
13. Reboot the computer.
−
−
−
If you have Windows 95, the computer should initially indicate that it has found a new device.
The wording of the messages varies according to which version of Windows 95 you are using.
Windows 95 then prompts you to reboot the computer to complete the installation. Click on Yes
to reboot your PC.
If you have Windows NT, you will not see any messages of this type because NT automatically
updates its registry with the new information.
Connecting the Camera to the Microscope
After you have installed the PCI board, you can connect the SPOT camera to your microscope.
•
The RT Slider and RT Color cameras require F mount couplers. You can use:
−
−
•
The HRD100-NIK coupler (1x) and the appropriate bottom clamp
Some Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss models can use the shorter, much less expensive F-mount
version of our D10 (1x) series couplers as an alternative to the HRD100-NIK. The F-mount series
of D10 couplers feature twist-focusing, and do not have lens elements. They are:
♦ D10BXF - for Olympus AX and BX photoport
♦
D10NEF - for Nikon Eclipse 400 and 600 models with TV Tube (Nikon P/N 92306)
♦
D10ZNF - for Zeiss Axiovert 100, 135, 135M, Axiolab, Axioplan-2, Axiophot-2, Axiotech,
SV6 & SV11 stereophototube 45 50 80, Standard trinoc 45 29 03(02), Stemi 2000C
♦
D10HCF - for Leica DMR (with HC optics) photoport
The RT Monochrome, RT SE6, and RT KE Color Mosaic cameras require C Mount couplers. You
can use:
−
The HRD100-CMT coupler (1x) and the appropriate bottom clamp.
−
C-mount versions of our D10 (1x) series couplers, available for a wide variety of microscopes, are
a shorter, much less expensive alternative to the HRD100-CMT. These couplers do not contain
lens elements.
To attach the camera to the microscope, follow these steps:
1.
Attach the bottom clamp to the coupler.
#
Note: If using the D10BXF for an Olympus BX, AX, or MX series microscope, a bottom clamp is
not needed.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
xix
Multiple Camera Installations
2.
Installation Guidelines
Attach the coupler/bottom clamp to the camera as follows:
a)
Using the LOCK/UNLOCK arrows on the camera, ensure that the lever arm on the camera is in
the UNLOCK position.
b)
Place the coupler into the camera, matching the slot on the coupler to the pin on the camera lens
mount.
c)
Ensure that the coupler is properly seated to the camera. You might have to wiggle it a bit.
d)
When the coupler is seated, move the camera lever into the LOCK position.
3.
Insert the camera/coupler/bottom clamp combination into the microscope’s photoport or phototube.
4.
Tighten the thumbscrew on the microscope's phototube (or the coupler's bottom clamp) to lock the
combination to the microscope.
5.
Connect the camera to your computer as follows:
$WARNING$
MAKE SURE THAT BOTH THE COMPUTER AND THE SPOT POWER SUPPLY ARE TURNED OFF
BEFORE CONNECTING THE CABLES. FAILURE TO DO SO CAN RESULT IN DAMAGE TO
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS IN THE CAMERA.
a)
Attach one end of the of the 50 pin (10 ft.) cable to the PCI board on the back of the PC, and
attach the other end to the camera head.
$WARNING$
THE 50 PIN CABLE USES THE SAME CONNECTOR AS A PC SCSI PORT. PLUGGING THE
CABLE INTO A SCSI PORT WILL DAMAGE BOTH YOUR CAMERA AND SCSI CARD.
b)
Attach one end of the 25 pin (6 ft.) cable to the power supply, and attach the other end to the
camera head.
c)
Plug one end of the power cord into the power supply and the other end into a surge protector.
Multiple Camera Installations
More than one SPOT camera can be operated from a single computer. The process for installing multiple
cameras is simple and applies to both Windows and Mac users. Any combination of SPOT, RT, or Insight
cameras can be used.
To install multiple cameras on one machine, follow these steps:
1.
Install the software, as specified in Installing the Software (see above).
2.
Shut down the computer and install ALL of the PCI cards for the cameras that you want to connect to
the computer, as described in Installing the Hardware (see above).
3.
Re-start the computer. When you open the SPOT program, you are prompted to select the camera that
you want to use.
Using SPOT’s On-line Documentation
To use the on-line documentation that accompanies your SPOT camera, you must first install the Acrobat
Reader software that is included on the CD. This software enables you to read and/or print the Portable
Document Format (PDF) version of the user guide that is on your CD.
xx
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Quick Start
Taking Your First Picture
Quick Start
Taking Your First Picture
The following sections list the basic steps for setting up your microscope and camera to immediately begin
capturing images in the Basic program mode.
The picture taking process consists of two multi-part steps:
1.
2.
Preparing the microscope, specimen, and camera.
Capturing the image.
These steps assume that you have already installed the SPOT software and connected the camera to your
computer. If you have not done so, refer back to the previous part of this manual, Installation Guidelines.
Preparing the Microscope and Camera
1. Select the specimen that you want to photograph, and set up the microscope for Koehler illumination.
2. Ensure that the specimen is in focus.
3. Using a daylight filter (5500° K), set the lamp voltage to the photo setting (or the rated lamp voltage).
Keep an assortment of ND (neutral density) filters on hand to use for images that are too bright (i.e., you
receive the Exposure time too short for Camera error message).
Capturing the Image
To capture an image, follow these steps:
1.
Open the SPOT Basic
Program Mode.
From the desktop click
on the SPOT Basic
icon.
2.
View a real-time
preview of your image
capture.
Click on the Live toolbar
button. The Live Image
window appears. As
the camera computes
the optimal autoexposure sequence, the
title bar displays
Computing Exposure.
When the program
finishes the exposure
computation sequence,
the title bar displays
Running, as shown at
right
3.
Use the microscope’s
controls to focus and
frame the image as
needed.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
xxi
Taking Your First Picture
4.
5.
Quick Start
Perform a White Balance on the image.
a)
Click on the White Balance toolbar button. The
live image display pauses, and the Compute
White Balance dialog prompts you to Move to
Clear Area of Slide.
b)
Move the slide so that the light is going through a
clear part of the slide.
c)
Click on Begin. The Compute White Balance
dialog displays Computing Exposure, and the
Live Image window restarts and computes the
new exposure settings.
Click on the Image Settings toolbar button.
The Image Settings window appears. Ensure that the
settings are as follows:
Main Window:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Profile – Default
Exposure - Auto
Image Type – (your type of microscopy)
Brightness – 1.00
Gamma – 1.00
Quality/Speed – Quality (left-most position)
Chip Imaging Area – Full Chip
Live Image Auto Brightness - Selected
Flatfield – unselected
Color Enhancement – selected
More Image Settings:
• Flip – as needed
• Rotate 90°° – as needed
• Minimum Exposure – unselected
• Live Image Maximum – default (10 sec)
• Filter Color – RGB for color images
• Binning – none
• Display Images in Grayscale - unselected
• Noise Filter – selected
The suggested settings are designed to give you quality
image captures in most, but not all cases. If your work
involves fluorescence techniques, for example, you will
need to adjust the Image Type, brightness, gamma and
Quality/Speed settings accordingly. For more details on
selecting Image Settings, refer to Ch. 3 – The Basic
Program Mode.
6.
Click on the Get Image toolbar button.
The Get Image dialog box displays the status of the
capture as it is downloaded to your screen.
Because Get Image uses the values from the live image
view, the image capture skips the initial exposure
computation sequence.
xxii
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 1 – New Features
New Features
Ch. 1 - New Features
Version 3.5 of the SPOT software includes the following new features:
Feature
Annotation
Auto-Save
AVI “movie” file
export
Basic Mode
Edit
Description
•
Annotation objects can now be positioned and sized to the exact values that you specify.
•
The User Name Text object has been added to Annotation mode.
You can now set image capture preferences (Setup>Auto-Save Images) to automatically save
during the image capture process.
SPOT image sequence files can now be exported in AVI file format.
The Basic mode has been modified as follows:
•
The Basic mode interface has been redesigned.
•
Sequential images can now be captured in Basic mode.
•
A Basic mode TWAIN interface is now available.
•
The Match Color dialog has been redesigned.
•
Full Screen mode
JPEG2000
Palettes
Reporting
TWAIN Interfaces
Zoom
Annotation
The Merge Image option has been enhanced to include brightness scaling and custom
positioning of the merged images. In addition, the Merge Image dialogue now includes an
Apply button that allows you to view changes without saving the image. In this way, you
can continually modify the merged image until it appears as you want it to.
You can now exit Full Screen mode by moving your cursor to the top of the screen and clicking
on the Exit Full Screen button.
The SPOT software now supports the JPEG2000 image standard.
The new SPOT color palettes allow you to apply specific hue and saturation values to
monochrome (8 bit or 12 bit) images. Palettes are defined via the Setup menu option (see Ch.
4). Palettes can be applied either as part of the image capture process (see Ch.5) - i.e., with the
Palette option on the Image Setup window – or as a post-capture editing option, i.e., via the Set
Palette Edit menu option (see Ch. 7).
•
Report objects can now be positioned and sized to the exact values that you specify.
•
Static images can now be added to report templates via the File>Add Image to Report
Template option. Refer to Ch. 4 – Working in Advanced Mode for details.
•
The User Name Text object has been added to Report mode.
Preferences are now accessible via both the Basic and Advanced modes.
Zoom functionality has changed. The new functionality allows you to add measurements,
calibrations, and annotations to zoomed images. Refer to Ch. 4 – Working in Advanced Mode
for details.
•
Annotation objects can now be positioned and sized to the exact values that you specify.
•
The User Name Text object has been added to Annotation mode.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
23
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Ch. 2 – Basic and Advanced Program Modes
Basic vs. Advanced Features
Ch. 2 – Basic and Advanced Program Modes
Introduction
With the SPOT software you can work in either a Basic or an Advanced program mode.
•
The Basic program mode is a simplified version of the SPOT program that enables new users to
quickly start capturing images without having to go through all of the decision making processes
associated with the Advanced version of the program. The Basic program mode is also ideal for users
who simply need “snapshots” of their specimens. Refer to Ch. 3 – The Basic Program Mode for more
details.
•
The Advanced program mode is an improved version of the previous SPOT software. It is designed
for more advanced users who want both greater control over the way images are captured and edited,
as well as access to non-image capture functions such as database image archiving and reporting.
Refer to Chapters 4 – 11 for more information on working in the Advanced program mode.
When you install the SPOT software, the installation process adds the Basic and Advanced program modes
to your menu structure as well as two icons to the desktop. The following section briefly compares the two
program modes.
Basic vs. Advanced Features
The Basic SPOT program includes only basic image capture and editing functionality. The following table
compares the general features of the Basic and Advanced SPOT programs.
Features
Advanced
Basic
automated post-processing adjustments
X
X
calibration and measurement functions
X
X
customizable (user-defined) image setups
Extensive
Simple
customizable printing
X
X
database (Windows only)
X
exposure adjustment
X
X
image annotation
X
X
Image editing
Extensive
Simple
live image preview
X
X
image editing in multiple color spaces
X
X
pre-defined image setups
X
X
recall of exposure values used in previous images
X
reporting (Windows only)
Extensive
Simple
sequential imaging
X
X
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
25
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Ch. 3 – The Basic Program Mode
Table of Contents
Ch. 3 – The Basic Program Mode
QUICK REFERENCE:
Introduction: Using the Basic Program .......... 28
Navigating in Basic Program Mode............... 28
The Viewing and Editing Window.............. 28
!"Display thumbnails of selected images… p. 30
Opening and Saving Files ........................... 30
!"Determine whether to monitor the position of the
Setup .............................................................. 32
sliding color filter on RT Slider cameras… p. 34
Preparing to Take a Picture ............................ 35
Profile.............................................................. 35
Exposure: Auto or Manual .......................... 36
Auto Exposure options................................. 36
Manual Exposure Options........................... 38
Chip Imaging Area ...................................... 38
Live Image Auto-Brightness ........................ 39
Flatfield .......................................................... 39
Color Enhancement (Captured Images) 40
More Image Settings ................................... 40
Taking a Picture............................................... 43
Initialize Camera .......................................... 43
!"Define image capture/live image settings…
p. 34
!"View a live (real-time) image… p. 43
!"Compute white balance values for an image…
p. 45
!"Capture the final image… p. 46
!"Edit the brightness and/or contrast of a
captured image… p. 47
!"Add textual and/or graphic annotations to a
captured image… p. 52
Viewing a Live Image.................................. 43
Computing White Balance Values............ 45
Capturing the Final Image ......................... 46
Get Sequential Images ............................... 46
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images..... 47
View ............................................................... 47
Edit.................................................................. 50
Working with Image Sequences .................... 55
Creating a Report............................................ 55
Creating a New Report............................... 56
Working in Report Mode ............................. 56
Defining View Options................................. 57
Defining Report Attributes .......................... 58
Defining Report Objects ............................. 60
Image Printing ................................................. 65
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
27
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Introduction: Using the Basic Program
The Basic SPOT program allows users to quickly and conveniently capture and edit images, without having
to make decisions related to the numerous processing and editing options available in the Advanced
program.
This chapter is divided into the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Navigating in the Basic Program
Preparing to Take a Picture
Taking a Picture
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Creating Reports
Printing Options
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
The following sections are an introduction to the SPOT Basic operating environment. They include:
•
The Viewing and Editing Window - The primary window for all image capture and editing functions.
•
Opening and Saving Files - The standard Windows file save and open features, as well as those that are
unique to SPOT.
•
Setup - Initial settings to customize your software.
The Viewing and Editing Window
When you open or capture an image, it appears in the main viewing and editing window. All of the image
save, view, edit, and annotation functions are accessed from this window, which consists of three areas:
•
•
•
The Menu Bar
The Toolbar
The Status Bar
The Menu Bar
The Menu Bar in the Basic program varies according to whether an image is open.
If you have not yet either captured a new
image or opened an existing image, the
following menus are available:
File
View
Setup
Help
28
If you have either captured a new image or
opened an existing image, the following
menus are available:
File
Edit
View
Setup
Window
Help
•
The File menu contains file open and save options, which for the most part, are identical to the
standard Windows file open and save options. Refer to Opening and Saving Files (below) for details.
•
The View menu contains different options for viewing captured images. Refer to Viewing, Editing,
and Annotating Images (below) for details.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
•
The Setup menu contains options used to define operating preferences. Refer to Setup (below) for
details.
•
The Edit menu contains image editing options.
•
The Window menu contains standard Windows display options. Refer to Viewing, Editing, and
Annotating Images (below) for details.
•
The Help menu contains information about the SPOT software and enables you to access the on-line
help system.
The Toolbar
The Toolbar appears underneath the Menu Bar and contains all of the image capture, editing, and
annotation functions in the Basic program. The following diagram illustrates the Basic program Toolbar,
as it appears for an open image:
Print
Live
Image
Get
Image
Show
Image
Settings
White
Balance
Zoom
Show
Pan
Window
Full
Screen
Match
Color
Figure 3- 1: Basic Mode Toolbar
The Status Bar
The status bar at the bottom of your screen displays information about the on- screen image. The following
is an illustration of the status bar, as it appears for an open image:
XY pixel
coordinates
Image Size
Brightness values
Size settings
Pixel bit depth
(bits per pixel)
Modified status
Figure 3- 2: Basic Mode Status Bar
Each of the above call-outs is described in the following list:
•
Image size – (Columns, rows) in pixels [e.g., (243, 257)].
•
Pixel bit depth (bits per pixel) - The pixel bit depth at which the image was captured. This value
reflects the pixel bit depth for the image setup that was used to capture the image. All images captured
with the Basic program are 24 bpp.
•
X Y pixel coordinates - As you move your cursor over an image, the status bar displays the x y
coordinates of the cursor in pixels.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
29
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
•
Brightness values - As you move your cursor over an image, the view status bar indicates the
brightness values of the pixel coordinates. The status bar displays separate red, green, and blue
brightness values for each part of the image [e.g., RGB: (255, 34, 194)].
•
Size Settings - In the illustration above, the view status bar displays Fit to Win (Fit to Window), the
default image capture setting.
−
−
•
If the Fit to Window option has been deselected, this area displays the word Normal.
If you are in zoom mode, this area displays the magnification level (e.g., Mag:x1, Mag:x1/4
etc…).
Modified Status - The section to the right of the size settings remains blank until you modify an
image. Once an image has been modified from the original status, the word Modified appears here.
Opening and Saving Files
All of the file open and save options in the Basic SPOT program are accessed from the File menu. These
options are described below.
#
Note: Standard Windows functions are not described in detail in this manual. For more detail on
these functions, refer to the Windows on-line help.
Open Image File
Open image files of a specified format (i.e., JPEG, TIFF, BMP, etc.). In addition to using this
menu option, you can open images by dragging an image file from the Windows 95/98/NT/2000
Explorer onto the SPOT program window.
Show Image File
Thumbnails
Display thumbnail previews of specified files and open images from the preview screen. To
show file thumbnails, follow these steps:
Open Image
Sequence File
1.
From the File menu, select the Show Image File Thumbnails option. The Thumbnail File
Spec window displays all of the image files in the directory.
2.
Navigate to the directory for the image files that you want to display.
3.
Use the Files of type drop down box, to specify the file type.
4.
Select the file or files for which you want to display thumbnails. If you do not select a file or
files, the program displays thumbnails for all files of the specified type in the directory.
5.
Click on Open. The Thumbnails preview window appears. For each thumbnail, you can:
−
Double-click (Mac and Windows) on a thumbnail to open an image for viewing or
modification.
−
Right-click (Windows)/[Ctrl] Click (Mac) on a thumbnail to display a list of options.
The right-click menu enables you to perform a variety of actions directly from the
thumbnail window. You can:
♦ Select Image.
♦ Open Image.
♦ Delete Image.
♦ Print Image.
♦ Move/Rename Image File
♦ Copy Image
♦ Add Image to Image Sequence (see below)
♦ Add Image to Report (see below)
♦ Select All Images in the thumbnail view. When you use this option, the rightclick menu expands to include the above options for multiple images
−
Click and drag with the mouse to select two or more images.
Open an image sequence file. An image sequence file is a single TIFF format file that contains
multiple images.
•
•
30
Refer to Taking a Picture section of this chapter for information on capturing an image
sequence file.
Refer to the Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for information on viewing and editing
image sequences.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
New Image
Sequence
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
Create a new image sequence file. This option enables you to specify the first image in a new
image sequence. This image can come from an open image or an image on disk (from file).
Subsequent images can be added to the sequence in one of two ways:
•
•
Via the Add Image to Image Sequence File menu option (see below). This option allows
you either to add an open, non-sequence image to a sequence or to create a new image
sequence from the image.
Via the Sequence menu options. Here you can add any image to any point in a sequence.
Refer to Working With Image Sequences in Ch. 8 for more details.
New Report
(Windows)
Create a new Basic Mode report. Refer to the Creating Reports section of this chapter for
more details.
Open Report
(Windows)
Open a Basic Mode report. Refer to the Creating Reports section of this chapter for more
details.
Reload
Reload the image from the hard drive (or other media). All changes made since opening the
image file are lost. This option appears only when a saved image is open.
Save
Save a previously unsaved image to new file, or update the changes to an existing file. This
option appears only when an image is open.
Save As
Save an image to a new file and/or file location. This option appears only when an image is
open.
Save All
Save all open image files. The program prompts you for the name and file location of each
image.
Close
Move/Rename
Close an image. The program prompts you to specify a location to save the file. This option
appears only when an image is open.
Move and/or rename an image file. This option differs from the Save As option in that it does
not retain a copy of the original file in the original location: using Move/Rename is comparable to
cutting and pasting a file.
Delete
Delete an open image. The program prompts you to verify the deletion.
Export Movie
File
Export a SPOT image sequence file to AVI format. Follow these steps:
1.
Open a SPOT image sequence. Refer to Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture, for details on capturing
image sequences.
2.
Select File>Export Movie File. The Export Movie File appears.
3.
Enter the File Name for the avi file.
4.
Specify the location where you want to save the avi file.
5.
Specify which images in the sequence that you want to Export. Select either:
•
All Images – the avi file will contain all of the images in the sequence.
•
Specified Images - the avi file will contain only the images that you specify (i.e.,
below the radio button).
6.
Specify the Frame Rate in frames per second.
7.
Specify the Compression Settings. When you click on the Compression Settings
button, the Video Compression dialog displays the compression application(s) available
on your computer. Because each computer will have different installed applications, the
Video Compression options will vary.
8.
After you have entered all of the desired settings, click on Save. The program displays a
status message as it exports the file.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
31
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
Add Image to
Image Sequence
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Add an open, non-sequence image to an open image sequence, or create a new image
sequence from an open image. To use this option, the non-sequence image must be the active
window and the image sequence must be open in the background.
When you click on Add Image to Image Sequence, SPOT prompts you to specify either the
Image Sequence or a new image sequence. If more than one image sequence is open, select
the sequence from the drop-down list.
Add Image to
Report
Print
Printer Setup
Exit (Windows)
Quit (Mac)
Add a selected open image to an open SPOT report. When you select this option, SPOT
prompts you to select from a list of reports. If you have not defined a report, SPOT
automatically creates a new report for you and inserts the image as a Static Image object.
Refer to the Creating Reports section of this chapter for more details.
Print an open image. Refer to Chapter 10 – Printing Images for information on standard
Windows and SPOT custom printing features.
Define the page setup parameters. Refer to Ch. 11 - Printing Images for information on SPOT’s
custom printing features.
Exit the SPOT program.
Setup
The Basic program mode Setup menu options are as follows:
•
•
•
•
Show Image Settings
Calibration Setup
Image Auto-Save
Preferences
Show Image Settings
Use this option to display the Image Settings window. In the SPOT Basic Program Mode, the Image
Settings window is used to define the settings for both the live image view and the final image capture.
This means that you can use the Image Settings window in one of two ways:
•
As a stand-alone dialog to pre-define the settings that the SPOT camera uses for capture images.
•
In conjunction with the Live Image window. When using the Image Settings dialog to define the live
image view, the live image settings also serve as the image capture settings. In other words, the live
image view can be used as a guide to how the final image will appear.
Refer to the Preparing to Take a Picture section below for a description of the options on the Image Settings
window.
Calibration Setups
With the SPOT program, you can use a stage micrometer to calibrate each objective on your microscope.
Once calibrated, you can use the SPOT program to perform basic measurements on an image.
32
•
For details on calibrating objectives...
refer to the Calibration Setups section of Ch. 4.
•
For details on adding measurements and/or calibration marks to your images…
refer to the Annotation – Calibration and Measurement Marks section of Ch. 8.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
Image Auto-Save
Use the Image Auto-Save feature to automatically save images as part of the capture process. To enable
SPOT’s auto-save feature, select Setup>Image Auto-Save, and check the Auto-Save Images box, as
shown at right. For details on auto-saving images, refer to the Image
Auto-Save section of Ch. 4.
Preferences
Use the Preferences option to:
• Specify whether images will open in Fit to Window mode.
• Specify thumbnail appearance.
• Ensure that the file type extension follows the file name (Macs
only).
• Specify whether to monitor the position of the RT Slider’s color
filter.
• Specify the Captured Image Bit Depth.
To open the Preferences window, and select Preferences from the Setup
menu. Each preference is discussed below.
#
Note: The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position option
appears only if you are using an RT Slider camera.
Captured Image
Bit Depth
Specify the pixel bit depth for captured images.
The Captured Image Bit Depth option enables to specify a different image bit depth when saving
an image captured in the SPOT program.
•
8 Bits per Channel – The 8 bits per channel option provides 256 gray levels per color:
−
−
With RT Mono cameras, captured images are 8 bits per pixel monochrome.
With RT Color cameras, captured images are 24 bits per pixel RGB color.
This option results in smaller, more manageable image sizes, and is best for images that
do not require extensive modification.
•
12 Bits per Channel – The 12 Bits per channel option provides 4,096 gray levels per color.
−
−
With RT Mono cameras, captured images are 12 bits per pixel monochrome.
With RT Color cameras, captured images are 36 bits per pixel RGB color.
This option reduces banding problems that can result with modified images, but also
results in larger file sizes.
When saving 12 bit per channel images, SPOT prompts you to select either 12 bits per
channel or 16 bits per channel. If you use Adobe’s Photoshop for image editing, you
should select the 16 bit per channel option because Photoshop cannot read 12 bit per
channel images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
33
Navigating in Basic Program Mode
Image
Sequences
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Memory Usage Limit
Specify how much memory is allocated for image acquisition. Note that the entry parameters
are system dependent.
Cache Images During Play
When “playing” an image sequence (see Ch. 8), the SPOT program allows you to select how it
loads the displayed images:
•
•
Thumbnail
Button Size
Maximum
Thumbnail
Resolution
Always Show
Full Chip in Live
Image
Open Images in
Fit to Window
Mode
Add Extensions
to File Names on
Save (Mac)
Monitor Camera
Color Filter
Position
(RT Slider)
34
If Cache Images During Play is selected… The program pre-loads as many images from
the sequence as your computer’s RAM allows. This enables a faster display of the image
sequence. But, if you have a sequence with many images, the size of the combined
images could exceed the RAM, and in this case, the SPOT program will load as much of
the sequence as possible, play that part of the sequence, and then pause to load the
remaining images.
If Cache Images During Play is not selected… The program loads each image in the
sequence individually. In cases where you have a large sequence with many files, this
allows you to work without being restricted by RAM limitations. The display of images will
be somewhat slower than a display where images are cached.
Specify the size of thumbnails for the Show Image File Thumbnails option
Select from one of the following options:
• Small (60 x 60 pixels)
• Medium (90 x 90 pixels)
• Large (120 x 120 pixels)
• User Defined
Minimum width and height = 20 pixels
Maximum width and height = 200 pixels
Specify the resolution of image thumbnails (Show Image File Thumbnails option)
Select from one of the following options:
• Small (54 pixels)
• Medium (84 pixels)
• Large (114 pixels)
• User Defined
Minimum resolution = 20 pixels
Maximum resolution = 200 pixels
Always Show Full Chip in Live Image ensures that you will always see the Full Chip view
when viewing a live image. Keep in mind that the selection that you make here determines how
the live image displays when viewing a region of the chip. Refer to the Chip Imaging Area
section for more details.
Specify whether images should open in Fit to Window mode.
The Fit to Window option, a program default, automatically sizes images to fit the available
screen space when you open or capture an image. Thus, you can immediately see the entire
image without having to zoom out. This is especially useful with smaller monitors. Open
Images in Fit to Window Mode is checked as a default. If you do not want images to open in
the Fit to Window mode, deselect the box.
When selected, the Add Extensions to File Names on Save option automatically appends the
file type extension (e.g., JPG, tif, bmp, etc…) to your image file. This enables cross platform file
sharing, because Windows based programs require a file type extension, while Mac based
programs do not. Once the file type extension is added, Windows based programs can
recognize the Mac file.
Determine whether to monitor the position of the color filter
The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position box is checked as a default. If this option is left
checked, the SPOT program displays error messages when the sensors in the camera head
detect that the color filter is not in the correct position. This option does not monitor the position
of the filter slider in the Live Image window. In Basic mode, the program will give you an error
message if you are capturing an image and the sliding color filter is in the B/W position.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Preparing to Take a Picture
Preparing to Take a Picture
The Image Settings dialog is the central point for defining both live
image and image capture settings. The Image Settings window
enables you to optimize the live image view, and then capture an
image using these settings. To open the Image Settings dialog, either
click on the Image Settings toolbar button, or select Show Image
Settings from the Setup menu. Each image capture/live image view
option is discussed in the sections below.
Profile
The Profile option allows you to create and re-use sets of live
image/image capture settings. When you make changes to any of the
live image/image capture settings, these changes can be saved to a
Profile – either the Default or one that you have defined. For
example, if you gamma adjust a live image and then decide that the
result is ideal for the type of specimen you are working with, you
could create a new Profile with the gamma and exposure values and
name it for that type of specimen – i.e., “Diseased Cells.”
When you close the SPOT Camera window, the program prompts you to save changes. Carefully
consider the effect of your choice:
•
Clicking Yes modifies the Profile according to the adjustments that you made. Future image captures
taken with that Profile will reflect these changes. For example, if you rotated a live image, and then
clicked Yes after closing the window, all future captures taken with that Profile would be rotated in the
same way.
•
Clicking No retains the original values of the Profile. This allows you to maintain a unique set of
image view and capture settings that can be re-applied to future captures of similar specimens.
To add, edit, or delete Profiles, right-click on the Profile
box. Right clicking gives the following options:
•
•
•
•
Add – Add a new Profile. When you add a new Profile,
the program prompts you to name it.
Save – Save a Profile that you have modified.
Rename – Rename an existing Profile.
Delete – Delete a Profile. This option appears only if there is more than one Profile.
To open the Image Settings dialog, either click on the Image Settings toolbar button, or select Show
Image Settings from the Setup menu. The Image Settings dialog appears, as shown above. Note that the
Image Settings window now features a More button.
•
Click on More to display Image Appearance (Brightness, Gamma and Quality) capture options, as
illustrated at right.
•
Click again on More to select the Image Type, and display additional image positioning and custom
capture options.
•
Click on Less to display fewer image capture options.
Each image capture/live image view option is discussed in the sections below.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
35
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Exposure: Auto or Manual
The Exposure option gives you the choice of having the camera calculate exposure time (Auto), or setting
the exposure on your own (Manual). The exposure options will vary according to whether you select
Auto or Manual, as illustrated below.
Auto
Manual
When you enter one of the above exposure settings, note that it applies both to the live image that you are
viewing and the captured image.
Auto Exposure options
Image Type
An Image Type tells the SPOT program how to expose and process image captures. Each of the 11
available Image Types (see below) corresponds to a microscopy technique: select the Image Type that
matches the technique you are using. The camera will capture the image accordingly. The table below
describes typical situations for each image type.
Image Type
36
Description
Brightfield-transmitted light
Stained specimens on glass slides using transmitted light microscopes.
Darkfield-transmitted light
Bright specimens on dark backgrounds using transmitted light darkfield technique.
Fluorescence
Fluorescence specimens not fluorescing in a single red, green, or blue primary color
Nomarksi DIC/Hoffman
Specimens being viewed with either Nomarski DIC or Hoffman techniques.
Phase contrast
Specimens being viewed using the phase contrast technique.
Polarized light
Specimens being viewed with polarized light techniques.
Brightfield-reflected light
Polished metallurgical specimens and semi-conductors using a microscope with a
vertical illuminator.
Darkfield-reflected light
Bright areas of specimens being viewed with darkfield, reflected light techniques.
Stereo/macro–no glints
Matte specimens without bright glints.
Stereo/macro–shiny glints
Shiny specimens with bright glints.
Stereo/macro-metallic glints
Metallic specimens with intense glints.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Preparing to Take a Picture
Brightness
Enter a Brightness value between .24 and 34.
A brightness value of 1, the default value, gives you the correct image brightness for most images. The
Brightness control allows you to overexpose or underexpose (darken or lighten) the image area. In many
cases, an image has varying levels of brightness; to see a specific area better you might want to lighten or
darken the image. When using the Brightness control, the SPOT camera uses an algorithm that combines
gain and exposure time to provide the fastest possible image update rate (shutter speed) in live mode:
•
When overexposing images to make them brighter (i.e., entering values greater than one), the camera
first selects the highest possible gain before lengthening the exposure time. Because gain also
brightens an image, less exposure time is needed.
•
When underexposing images to make them darker (i.e., entering values less then one) the camera uses
the lowest possible exposure time before lowering the gain.
Quality/Speed (Auto)
Use the slider to balance speed and quality when previewing dim images.
•
Moving the slider toward the Quality side increases image quality and decreases frame rates.
•
Moving the slider toward the Speed side increases frame rates and decreases image quality.
The Quality/Speed measurement corresponds to the Auto-Gain limit setting which allows you to set an
upper limit on the gain options that will be available during the Auto-Exposure process.
•
When the slider is at the left-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 1, which restricts the camera to a gain
of 1, giving you higher quality pictures, but lengthier exposure times.
•
When the slider is at the right-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 32, which allows the camera to select
from the all six gain options. This shortens exposure times, but decreases image quality.
Refer to the “Auto-Gain Limit” section in Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for a detailed explanation of
gain and exposure.
Gamma
Enter a Gamma value between .1 and 4.
Gamma adjustment smoothly lightens darker areas of an image without burning out bright areas or
lightening black areas. This is especially useful for capturing/editing images with a wide range of
brightness values (dynamic range) such as fluorescence specimens or macroscopic objects with glints, (e.g.,
printed circuitry).
• Values between 1 and 4 lighten the darker areas of the image.
• Values between .1 and 1 darken the mid-tones of the image.
Gamma adjustments on live images are made in the RGB color space, the only color space where
adjustments can be made quickly enough to keep up with live imaging. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take
a Picture for more details on gamma adjustment and color spaces.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
37
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Manual Exposure Options
Exposure Times (RGB)
Use the slider-bar to specify exposure times between .04 ms and 526.746 sec.
When you specify exposure times, the camera skips the automated exposure sequence that takes place
when you open the live image view. This is very useful in cases where exposure times are lengthy, as with
fluorescence samples.
Gain
Enter the precise gain that the camera will use for an image capture. Use the slider-bar to select one of the
six gain options: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32. The gain value displays to the right of the slider-bar. Refer to the
“Auto-Gain Limit ” and “Gain” sections of Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for details on gain and
exposure.
Gamma
The manual Gamma adjustment is identical to the auto Gamma adjustment (see above.)
Chip Imaging Area
SPOT allows you to use any rectangular portion of the CCD chip for image capture. Using a portion of the
chip is helpful in cases where you want to:
• Keep file sizes small.
• Shorten download times.
• Avoid areas of the image with optical problems (e.g., vignetting).
There are three image area options:
•
Full Chip – Capture the entire area of the CCD chip.
•
Center – Capture a rectangular part of the CCD chip’s area that has the same height - to - width ratio
as the full chip, and is centered on the center of the full chip. The percentage that you enter is the
percentage of full chip width that the new area’s width will be.
To capture a centered proportion of an image, follow these steps:
a) Check the Center option.
b) Enter the percentage of the image that you want to capture. The minimum percentage is 10 and
the maximum is 100.
c) Capture the image.
•
38
Selection –Capture a specific part of the CCD chip.
a) Check the Selection option.
b) Use the mouse to select a region for capture. Click and drag to define the selection. Note that the
new pixel dimensions display in the status bar.
c) Capture the image.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Preparing to Take a Picture
When you are viewing a live image Selection, how this selection is displayed, depends on whether the
Open Images in Fit to Window Mode and Always Show Full Chip in Live Image preferences (see the
Preferences section above) are checked. The following table illustrates the possibilities:
Fit to Window
Checked?
Always Show Full Chip
in Live Image Checked?
YES
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
LIVE
YES
NO
When you select a portion of the chip the cursor
is a zoom tool. To zoom in on a portion of a
live or captured image, click and drag over the
area that you want to zoom in on. To return to
the non-zoomed image, click on the Full Chip
option.
BOTH
NO
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
However, because Fit to Window is not
checked, you will not see the entire chip in the
window.
LIVE
NO
NO
When you select a portion of the image, the
cursor is a cropping tool. If you select a portion
of an image, the program displays only the
selected area and discards the rest of the image.
To return to the non-cropped image, click on the
Full Chip option.
BOTH
Selection Display
Live or
Captured Image
Live Image Auto-Brightness
Available only when you are using Auto exposure and viewing a live image, the Live Image AutoBrightness option enables you to maintain a consistent brightness level for changing specimens.
Flatfield
The Flatfield option is used to correct for display problems associated with uneven intensity or coloration
in illumination, or to correct for artifacts (e.g., dust) in the optical system.
#
Note: Flatfield correction with the SPOT camera refers only to the correction of uneven
lighting. It should not be confused with the correction of optical field flatness.
Flatfield correction works by taking a picture of the brightfield background without the specimen in the
field of view. This image lets the SPOT software know, on a pixel-by pixel basis, which areas in the field
of view are receiving less illumination than the brightest areas. When taking a picture that contains a
specimen, the software uses this information to accurately increase the brightness of each pixel in the dimly
illuminated areas. The resulting image gives the appearance of an even illumination.
The Flatfield correction process involves two images - the flatfield image and the final image. To use
Flatfield Correct, follow these steps:
1. Ensure that the specimen is under the desired objective and in
focus.
2.
From the Camera menu, select Get Flatfield Image. The Get
Flatfield dialog box appears.
3.
Remove the slide from the field of view.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
39
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
4.
Click on Begin. When the program finishes computing the exposure times and acquiring the
flatfield file, the program prompts you to name and save the file.
5.
Name the Flatfield file. Because flatfield image files are different for each objective, you might
want to name the file according to the objective's magnification (e.g., 10x).
6.
Click on OK. If you do not specify a directory path, the program automatically saves the flatfield
file:
− In Windows, the file is saved to the c:\SpotCam\Fltflds directory
− In the Mac OS, the file is saved to System Folder>Preferences>SPOT 3.x Prefs>Flatfields.
#
Note: The default file location varies, depending on where you installed the SPOT program.
7.
Move the specimen back into the field of view.
8.
Click on the Live toolbar button.
9.
Open the Image Settings window, and select the Flatfield box. The name of the flatfield file that
you defined in step four should appear in the drop-down list of flatfield files.
10. Perform the image capture. SPOT automatically uses the flatfield image to correct the capture.
Refer to the Taking a Picture section of this chapter for more details.
Color Enhancement (Captured Images)
The Color Enhancement option optimizes image captures by closely matching the final capture to the
image as seen through the microscope. To optimize the final image, the SPOT program processes the raw
image data to produce a final image that matches the view seen through the microscope.
If you want an image capture to match the live image view, you will want to leave Color Enhancement off.
Color Enhancement applies only to captured images.
More Image Settings
When you click on More, the program displays a dialog
of additional orientation and exposure settings, as shown
at right.
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosiac camera users will not
see the Filter Color, Binning, or Display
Images in Grayscale options.
Flip
Specify whether images will be flipped during the image capture/live image viewing process.
•
•
•
40
Select Horizontal to flip the image from left to right.
Select Vertical to flip the image from top to bottom.
Select both options to flip the image from left to right and from top to bottom.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Preparing to Take a Picture
Rotate 90°
Specify whether images will be rotated during the image capture/live image viewing process.
•
•
•
Select None if you do not want the image to be rotated.
Select Right to rotate the image clockwise 90 degrees.
Select Left to rotate the image counterclockwise 90 degrees.
Exposure Limits - Minimum
Because SPOT Insight cameras are
16.6 ms per cycle
SPOT Power Line
capable of extremely short exposure
Frequency (60 Hz)
times, light sources with intensities
8.3 ms
that vary with the waveform of the 60
per cycle
Hz line supply (e.g., fluorescent
lamps, 120 volt incandescent bulbs,
Fluorescent Light
Output Frequency
and 6 volt 20 watt halogen lamps) can
cause the Live Image window to
flicker and result in incorrect
brightness and color balance readings
in captured images. The Minimum
Exposure < 8.3 ms
Exposure option allows you to
correct for these problems by limiting
the camera to a minimum exposure
time that is greater than the pulse
interval of the light source. Consider
Minimum Exposure > 10 ms
the illustration to the right. In this
case, the pulse interval of the
fluorescent light source is 8.3 ms.
Entering a Minimum Exposure of 10 ms
ensures that the camera’s exposure time is
Figure 3- 3: Setting a Minimum Exposure to
greater than the pulse interval of the light
Accommodate Varied Light Sources
source. To enter a minimum exposure, check
(Basic Mode)
the Minimum Exposure box, and enter a value
in milliseconds.
Exposure Limits – Live Image Maximum
The Live Image Maximum option helps you to avoid unnecessarily long exposures when viewing a live
image. Consider the following situation: When you change from a lower resolution objective to a higher
resolution objective, the camera detects a brief interval of blackness. When the Auto-Brightness option
(see above) is enabled, it compensates by modifying the exposure time to maintain a constant brightness
level. This results in you having to wait for the camera to compute a lengthy and incorrect exposure for the
black interval. Using the Live Image Maximum option, you can limit this exposure time. For most cases,
Diagnostic Instruments recommends a value of 0.5 seconds.
Similarly, the Live Image Maximum option can also be used in cases where the microscope’s light path
selector is incorrectly set.
Noise Filter
The Noise Filter corrects for the effects of electrical or thermal noise. When capturing dim images with
lengthy exposure times, the noise filter acts as a “virtual cooler” for the Insight camera, eliminating “hot
pixels.”
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
41
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
The Noise Filter checks each pixel on the CCD chip as described below:
1.
The program compares the value of each red pixel with the values of the eight neighboring red pixels.
2.
If none of the eight neighboring red pixels has a value within ±15 % (i.e., the threshold value that the
SPOT program uses) of the value for the red pixel being checked, the value for the red pixel being
checked is replaced with the average value of the eight neighboring red pixels.
3.
The program repeats this procedure for the values of the green and blue pixels being checked.
To activate the Noise Filter, check the Noise Filter box. The program runs the noise filter each time an
image is captured.
•
When overexposing images to make them brighter (i.e., entering values greater than one), the camera
first selects the highest possible gain before lengthening the exposure time. Because gain also
brightens an image, less exposure time is needed.
•
When underexposing images to make them darker (i.e., entering values less then one) the camera uses
the lowest possible exposure time before lowering the gain.
Filter Color (RT Color/Slider)
The Filter Color option specifies the color or colors that will be exposed in the live image preview/image
capture. RT Slider users can select None for a completely unfiltered image.
RT Slider
RT Slider users can select RGB you to preview/capture live images in full color. If the filter slider on the
camera is moved to the B/W position, the Filter Color setting should likewise be changed to one of the
monochrome options (e.g., Clear, Red, Green, or Blue). The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position
preference monitors the color filter position only for image captures – it does not monitor color filter
position when viewing live images.
•
Red – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the red state of the LCD filter.
•
Green – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the green state of the LCD
filter.
•
Blue - Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the blue state of the LCD filter.
•
Clear – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the clear state of the LCD
filter. Selecting the Clear option does not provide the entirely unfiltered image that is possible with the
RT Slider camera. Although all three colors are transmitted, the polarizing filter, which is part of the
liquid crystal filter, and the IR filter remain in the light path, blocking some of the light. When using
the Live Image window to focus or position dim images, RT Slider users can slide the filter out to
provide higher frame rates and less noisy images.
•
None (RT Slider) – Preview capture a completely unfiltered image.
RT Slider
Selecting a Filter Color option does not change the position of the filter: this must be done by physically
sliding the filter to the desired position. If the Filter Color setting does not match the filter’s position, SPOT
prompts you with an error message. But, this error message appears only if the Monitor Camera Color
Filter Position option on the Preferences window (see above) is selected.
Display Images in Grayscale (RT Color/Slider)
To counter the difficulty of viewing, focusing, and adjusting monochrome images in live mode, the
Display Images in Grayscale option enables you to view a monochrome image in grayscale, as opposed to
with the red, green, or blue filter. This option applies only when the Filter Color (see above) is set to
either Red, Green, or Blue.
42
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Taking a Picture
Binning
Binning combines adjacent pixels on the CCD chip, thereby reducing the number of pixels used in the
image capture. Binning is useful when you have dim images and want to increase sensitivity and reduce
download time. This gives you higher frame rates and less noisy images. But, as binning level increases,
image resolution decreases. All of these factors should be considered when you select a binning option.
There are four binning options:
• None 1 pixel = 1 pixel
• 2 x 2 4 pixels
= 1 pixel
• 3 x 3 9 pixels
= 1 pixel
• 4 x 4 16 pixels = 1 pixel
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosaic users can select from the None, 2x2, or 4x4 options. If 2x2 or 4x4 is selected, both the
live image preview and the captured image are monochrome.
Taking a Picture
The actual capture of a digital image (taking the picture) is similar to traditional photographic techniques.
In digital photography, however, it is possible to continually capture, refine, and recapture images until you
have an optimal representation: the first image that you capture might be only one of several that you use to
produce a publishable product. A sample image capture process, from start to finish might proceed as
follows:
1.
Adjust the Preferences as needed (see above).
2.
Open the Live Image window.
3.
Frame and focus the image as needed.
4.
Click on the Image Settings toolbar button to access the Image Settings window and adjust the live
image view settings.
5.
Click on the Get Image toolbar button to capture the final image.
In the Basic program mode, image captures and live image view settings are defined from the same source the Image Settings window. This gives you the convenience of being able to view a live image, adjust the
settings in real-time, and then capture the image with the live image view settings.
#
Note: Except for the Captured Image Bit Depth, which is defined on the Preferences window, all
image capture/live image settings are defined from the Image Settings window.
Initialize Camera
If you turned on the SPOT power supply after you opened the program, you need to initialize the camera in
order to activate all of the capture and editing options. To do so, select the Initialize option from the
Camera menu.
Viewing a Live Image
The Live Image option enables you to see a real time, black and white or color preview of your
specimen/image capture. For instance, you can use the Live Image window to:
•
•
Scan the image for an area of interest.
Zoom in on an area of interest.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
43
Taking a Picture
•
•
•
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Focus on an area of interest.
Frame an area of interest.
Define image capture settings – see The Image Settings Dialog section below
#
Note: With some video cards, you might experience system crashes or display problems in live
image mode. To correct these problems, lower the Graphics Acceleration setting in Windows, as
described in the Video Card Related Problems section of the Installation Guidelines chapter.
To open the Live Image window, either click on the Live toolbar button, or select the Live Image option
from the Camera menu.
#
Note: Occasionally, when viewing a dim live image, you might notice that the right half of the
image is brighter or dimmer than the left half. To display images in real time, RT cameras (with
the exception of the RT SE6) use two separate amplifiers to simultaneously read the right and left
halves of the CCD chip. With some images, particularly dimmer samples, the brightness of the two
halves may not match. This results in a “split” appearance. To avoid this problem with captured
images, the RT camera reads the whole CCD through a single amplifier. A “split” Live Image
view is not indicative of what your image capture will look like. Refer to Appendix A: Electronic
Imaging Theory and SPOT Cameras for more details.
•
The title bar at the top of the Live Image window displays the status of the live image view Running, Computing Exposure, or Paused. Double-click on the title bar to “roll up” the live image
display. This pauses the live image display. Double-click again to display the whole window and
resume the live image display.
•
When the Fit to Window option is checked, the live image window cursor becomes a zoom tool. To
zoom in on a portion of a live image, click and drag over the area that you want to zoom in on. To
return to the non-zoomed image, click on the Reset Area button on the bottom of the window.
#
•
The Full Screen option (accessed via the View menu or [F 7]) can be used with live images. This
option allows you to use the entire screen to view a live image, without the SPOT menus/toolbar and
the Windows navigation bar.
−
−
•
Note: Due to a flaw in the Windows operating system, monitors that are set to higher resolutions
cannot zoom to very high magnification levels. If zoomed in to a high magnification, the monitor
displays white instead of the zoomed image.
To access live image viewing options in the full screen view, right click on the live image.
To exit the full screen view, either press [F 7], or move the cursor to the top of the screen and click
on the Exit Full Screen Mode button that appears.
There are six view/exposure options at the bottom of the Live Image window:
Restart
Pause/Resume
Close
Fit to Window
Reset Area
Faster Readout
44
Resample the brightness of the image, compute new exposure times, and restart the live image
display. This is useful for updating exposure times when specimen brightness has changed.
Freeze the live image window. This is useful when you are changing a specimen and want to
preserve the last view.
Close the Live Image window.
Size images to automatically fit the resizable display window.
Return to the non-zoomed view of the live image.
Faster Readout enables you to “speed up” the live image display (higher frame rates) in cases
where you are willing to sacrifice some resolution for a higher frame rate.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Taking a Picture
Live Images are Different Than Captured Images
When you view a live image, keep in mind that the captured version of the image will not be identical to
the live image view. This is due to two factors:
•
Live images are raw pixel data. Captured images are digitally processed to give a more accurate color
rendition. For individual image captures, there is enough time to process the data. For each image in
the live image stream, there is not enough time to process the data.
•
Live Image gamma adjustments are made in the RGB colorspace. Captured imaged gamma
adjustments are made in the HSL colorspace (or the HSV colorspace for fluorescence images). This is
because gamma adjustments can be made quickly in the RGB colorspace, but are very slow in the HSV
and HSL colorspaces. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for more information on gamma
adjustment and colorspaces.
Computing White Balance Values
White balance is the ratio of red, green, and blue exposure times necessary to achieve the proper color
rendition for an image. Many factors impact the coloration of an image capture, including lamp voltage,
the coloration of the glass used in the slide, and the coloration of the glass used in the lenses of the
microscope’s objectives. To minimize the impact of these factors, use the Compute White Balance feature.
When you perform a white balance calculation, SPOT samples the color of the light from your light source
after it has passed through the slide and the objective, and then calculates the exposure values needed to
produce images where the white areas are white and the color areas are true.
You should perform a new white balance calculation when:
•
•
•
Starting a new image capture session.
Changing the lamp voltage.
Switching to a different objective on the microscope.
To compute new white balance values, follow these steps:
1. Set the illumination and the objective that you will use for the image capture.
2.
Specify the Image Type. From the toolbar, click on the Image Settings button and select from one of
the 11 options. The computed white balance values will be used for this image type until you compute
new values.
3.
Show the camera a sample of white light. This step varies according to microscopy technique and
Image Type (sample), as shown in the table below:
Image Type
White Balance Technique
Brightfieldtransmitted light
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
Darkfieldtransmitted light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
transmitted light above.
Fluorescence
Use the Match Color feature (on the Edit menu)
Nomarksi
DIC/Hoffman
For Nomarski DIC: Adjust the Nomarski prism until the image is in either the “brightfield” or the
“gray scale” view.
For Hoffman: Perform the white balance directly on the Hoffman image.
Because both of these techniques use polarized light, and because the color filter in the SPOT
camera uses a polarizer, the camera must have the correct rotational orientation with respect to
the polarized light microscope. Refer to Appendix H: SPOT Cameras, RT Cameras and Polarized
Light Microscopy for details.
Phase contrast
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
45
Taking a Picture
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
(cont.)
Image Type
Polarized light
White Balance Technique
Pull all polarizers and compensators out of the light path and then position the slide so that the
specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide near the specimen.
Because the color filter in the SPOT camera uses a polarizer, the camera must have the correct
rotational orientation with respect to the polarized light microscope. Refer to Appendix H: SPOT
Cameras, RT Cameras and Polarized Light Microscopy for details.
Brightfieldreflected light
Replace your sample with a mirror.
Darkfieldreflected light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
reflected light above.
Stereo (all three
options)
Using an EPI-illuminator (shining a light on the top of your specimen from off to one side), replace
your sample with a white sheet of paper.
4.
Click on the Compute White
Balance Values toolbar button.
The Compute White Balance
window appears.
5.
Click on Begin to start the calculation. The camera computes the white balance values, and they are
automatically saved to the image settings for the image type that you selected.
Capturing the Final Image
Get Image captures an image according to the Image Settings that you defined (see previous
sections). To capture an image, either click on the Get Image button, or press [F 9]. The Get
Image status dialog box appears. Status messages display as the camera computes the exposure
and captures the images (RGB) or image (monochrome).. The status messages are as follows:
1.
Computing Exposure – The camera is sampling red, green, and blue brightness levels in the image
in order to determine proper exposure times.
2.
Getting Red Image – The camera is downloading the red image to the computer.
3.
Getting Green Image – The camera is downloading the green image to the computer.
4.
Getting Blue Image – The camera is downloading the blue image to the computer. Shutter open
0:07 – A countdown clock displays when individual red, green or blue exposures will last longer than
2 seconds. This informs the user that the shutter is open and counts down the minutes:seconds
remaining until it closes.Processing – The camera is preparing to display the image.
The newly captured image appears on screen.
Get Sequential Images
The Get Sequential Images option allows you to capture a sequence of images. SPOT’s sequential image
capture process enables you to save an image sequence in two different ways:
•
You can save a sequence as a group of individual image files.
•
You can save a sequence as a single (TIF format), “sequence image file” that is composed of multiple
images. Refer to the Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images section for details on viewing and
modifying image sequence files.
Refer to Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture for details on capturing sequential images.
46
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
After capturing an image, you can adjust viewing options, and edit/annotate the captured image.
View
All of the image viewing options are accessible from two menus:
•
View – Contains options specifically designed for viewing microscopic specimens
•
Window – Contains standard Windows options that enable you to work with and view multiple
images.
To help you view and analyze your image captures, the View menu contains six options – Fit to Window,
Zoom In/Out, Zoom Level, Show Grid Lines, Show Pan Window, Show Image Settings, Image
Date/Time, and Full Screen.
#
Note: The Show Grid Lines option is available only when you zoom in on an image.
Fit to Window
Fit to Window allows you to view the whole image, regardless of the window size. Typically, reducing the
size of a window also cuts off part of the image. The Fit to Window option solves this problem by resizing
the image so that it is always the same size as the window.
Zoom In/Out
1.
Either select Zoom In/Out From the View menu, or click on the Zoom toolbar button:
2.
The cursor changes to a magnifying glass, and the Zoom toolbar button becomes
active. The precise reference point for the zoom location is indicated by the white dot in the center of
the magnifying glass. The row and column numbers at the bottom of the screen indicate the exact
position of the white dot as you move the magnifying glass over the image.
3.
Use the mouse to zoom in or zoom out:
a) Position the mouse over the center of the area that you want to zoom in on.
b) Either left click to zoom in 2x, or right click to zoom out 2x.
c) To return to the normal view mode, de-select the Zoom option.
The Zoom feature works in conjunction with the pan window (see Show Pan Window below), which
allows you to see where you are in relation to the larger image while zoomed in.
#
#
Note: All of the standard save, view, and edit options, with three exceptions – Add Calibration
Mark, Add Measurement, and Annotate – can be used while the program is in zoom mode. If you
need to annotate a zoomed image, use the Zoom Level option (see below).
Note: With some video cards, you might experience display problems when zooming in on captured
images. To correct these problems, lower the Graphics Acceleration setting in Windows, as
described in the Video Card Related Problems section of the Installation Guidelines chapter.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
47
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Zoom Level
The Zoom Level option, like the Zoom In/Out option enables you to view zoomed images. However,
unlike the Zoom In/Out option, you have the option to add annotations, including text, calibration marks,
and measurements, to the zoomed image. To use the Zoom Level option , select Zoom Level from the
View menu and select a percentage option from the list.
Like the Zoom In/Out option, the The Zoom Level option can be used in conjunction with the pan window
(see Show Pan Window below), which allows you to see where you are in relation to the larger image
while zoomed in.
#
Note: With some video cards, you might experience display problems when zooming in on captured
images. To correct these problems, lower the Graphics Acceleration setting in Windows, as
described in the Video Card Related Problems section of the Installation Guidelines chapter.
Show Grid Lines
Show Grid Lines clearly defines pixel borders, which are often invisible in low contrast areas of an image.
Clearly defined borders help in positioning the cursor at an exact row and column location (i.e., using the
readouts at the bottom of the screen), which then allows you to view the brightness value for the individual
pixel.
To show the grid lines on an image, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
Position the magnifying glass in the center of the area that you want to zoom in on.
Zoom to either 8x or 16x. If you are using the Zoom Level option, select a percentage of 800 or
greater.
From the View menu, select the Show Grid Lines option. Grid lines appear around each pixel.
Show Pan Window
Show Pan Window enables you to navigate around an image while zoomed in at high magnifications.
When you select the Show Pan Window option, the program highlights your location in relation to the
whole image, and, by dragging the highlighted area around the pan window, you can explore the image,
piece by piece. Without the Show Pan Window option, the process of moving to a new point while in high
magnification would involve several steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Zooming in to the first area of interest.
Zooming out to determine where you are.
Determining a new area of interest.
Re-zooming in to the new area of interest.
This tedious process is replaced by the pan window. When you select Show Pan Window, a smaller
version of the image appears with a color negative over the zoomed area of the image.
To use the pan window, follow these steps:
1.
Either select Show Pan Window from the View menu, or click on the Show Pan Window toolbar
button.
#
Note: The pan window can be opened at any
level of magnification.
The pan window appears, superimposed upon the image.
48
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
2.
Position the cursor on the image in the pan window: it changes from a magnifying glass to a four arrow
pointer.
3.
To move to a different area of the image, either left click on the rectangle and drag it to the new
location, or left click on the new location.
Show Image Settings
Select Show Image Settings to display the current Image Settings window. It displays the previously
entered values.
Image Date/Time
The Image Date/Time feature pulls up the date and time associated with the capture of an image. When you
capture an image, the SPOT software remembers the date and time of the image capture. When you save
the image, even if this is many hours later, the program sets the Created date and time of the image file (in
Windows) to the date and time of the original image capture. In addition to the Windows date and time,
TIFF and JPEG format images have a tag that contains the original capture date and time.
When image files are transferred over networks, the Windows Created date and time is sometimes reset to
the date and time of the transfer, making it an unreliable indicator of the image capture time. TIFF and
JPEG tags, on the other hand, are not affected by network transfers. If reliable image capture date and time
information is important to your work, you should save images in either TIFF or JPEG format.When you
select the Image Date/Time option from the View menu, a dialog box displays the date and time associated
with the capture.
• For non-TIFF, non-JPEG format image files, this is the Windows Created date/time, as explained
above.
• For TIFF and JPEG format image files, this is the TIFF/JPEG tag date and time.
• For SPOT Database images this is the original date and time that was stored in the database file.
Full Screen
View a full screen version of an image – i.e., without the SPOT menus or toolbars or the Windows
navigation bar. This option allows you to utilize the entire window for previewing images. Press [F 7] to
view a full screen image or click on the Full Screen toolbar button. Press [F 7] again to exit the full screen
view. Alternatively, you can exit the full screen view by moving the cursor to the top of the window and
clicking on the Exit Full Screen Mode button that appears.
While working in Full Screen mode, Windows users can access SPOT menu options using standard
keystroke combinations, as illustrated in the table below:
[Alt] + A
[Alt] + C
[Alt] + D
[Alt] + E
[Alt] + F
=
=
=
=
=
Attributes (Report mode)
Camera
Database (Advanced mode)
Edit
File
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
[Alt] + H =
[Alt] + O =
[Alt] + Q =
[Alt] + S =
[Alt] + V =
[Alt] + W =
Help
Object (Report mode)
Sequence
Setup
View
Window
49
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Edit
All of the editing options in the Basic program mode are accessed via the Edit menu. There are five editing
categories in the Basic program mode:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basic editing
Image position
Image quality
Calibration and Measurement
Annotation
Memos
The options associated with each category are described below. In some cases, where the options are
identical to those in the Advanced program mode, the manual refers you to the appropriate chapter and
section.
Basic Editing
The Edit menu contains several functions that are common to most operating systems.
Undo
Cut (Mac)
Cut text fields within the SPOT program.
Copy to
Clipboard
(PC)/Copy
(Mac)
Copy all or part of an image onto the clipboard for insertion into another program. These options
are identical to the Windows [Ctrl C] command and the Mac [$ C] command.
1.
Press and hold the left mouse button (PC)/mouse button (Mac).
2.
Drag the cursor over the image until the dotted rectangle covers the area of the image that
you want to copy. If you copy without "cutting out" a specific portion of the image, SPOT
selects the entire image.
3.
Either select the Copy to Clipboard/Copy option from the Edit menu, or press
[Ctrl C] (PC)/[$ C] (Mac). The image is now ready to be pasted into another application.
4.
Open the application that you want to paste the image into, and select from the available
pasting options.
Paste (Mac)
Paste text fields in the SPOT program. The Paste field is grayed when editing images.
Clear (Mac)
Clear a text field in the SPOT program. The Clear field is grayed when editing images.
Select All
(Mac)
50
Undo the last edit that you made. The Undo option only allows for one level of edits: in other
words, you can only undo the immediately preceding edit. To Undo an action, select Undo from
the Edit menu.
Select an image for copying into another application. The Select All field is grayed when editing
images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Image Position
From the Edit menu, you can:
• Re-position images
• Match the on-screen orientation of a specimen to the microscopic view
• Crop an image to better reflect the area of interest
Rotate Right
Rotate Left
Flip Horizontal
Flip Vertical
Crop
Rotate an image clockwise in 90 degree increments.
Rotate an image counter-clockwise in 90 degree increments.
Flip an image from right to left
Flip an image from top to bottom.
Cut out a portion of an image. To crop an image, follow these steps:
1.
Press and hold the left mouse button.
2.
Drag the cursor over the image until the dotted rectangle covers the area of the image that
you want to crop.
3.
From the Edit menu, select Crop. The Crop Area window displays the pixel coordinates of
the rectangle that you selected.
From this window you can fine tune the crop area by modifying the pixel coordinates. If
you select the Crop option directly from the menu (i.e., without specifying a crop area), the
Crop Area window displays the values for the entire image.
4.
Click on OK to crop the image. The cropped image appears on-screen.
5.
When you crop an unsaved image, the program automatically discards the area of the
image outside the crop. To give yourself the opportunity to change the crop area, you
should save the image before you crop it.
Image Quality (Adjust Image)
The Adjust Image options allow you to
correct images that are overly bright or
dark, or to modify areas of interest that
are too light or too dark to see
important details. To access these
editing options, select Adjust Image
from the Edit menu. The Adjust Image
window appears, as shown at right.
Adjust images either by entering a
value in the box or by moving the slider
bar.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
51
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
The Adjust Image window provides three adjustment parameters:
•
Color Space – This option enables you to select the color space that is best suited to the type of image
that you are editing:
−
RGB (Red Green Blue) – Use for monochrome images
−
HSL (Hue Saturation Luminance) – Use for all color images except fluorescence
− HSV (Hue Saturation Value) – Use for fluorescence images
Refer to the Image Editing and the Concept of Color Space section of Ch. 8 for more detailed
descriptions of the three color spaces.
•
Modify Main Image - When this box is checked (the default), both the thumbnail image and the main
image change as you are adjusting the image. If you want the main image to change after you have
made the adjustments – and thereby speed the editing process - deselect the Modify Main Image box.
•
Reset – Click on the Reset button to return the image to its pre-adjustment appearance.
The following sections describe the effect of each of the four adjustments.
Dark Level
The Dark Level adjustment lightens or darkens an entire image by adding the value that you specify
to all of the pixels in the image.
To adjust Dark Level, enter a number between -100 and 100.
• Numbers between zero and –100 darken the image.
• Numbers between zero and 100 lighten the image.
Brightness
The Brightness adjustment lightens or darkens the bright areas in an image. For example, if you
used the Dark Level adjustment to modify an image, but the new bright areas are either too dark or
too light to see the details, you can you use the Brightness feature to correct this. Because the
Brightness adjustment is multiplicative (as opposed to the Dark Level adjustment which is additive),
it multiplies the pixel values in the image by the value that you specify. A multiplicative process
affects bright areas more than dark areas. Before adjustment an image’s Brightness value is
always one.
To adjust Brightness, enter a number between 0 and 5.
•
•
Gamma
Numbers between zero and one darken the image.
Numbers between one and five lighten the image.
The Gamma adjustment lightens the darker (mid-tone) areas of an image without burning out bright
areas or lightening black areas. This is useful when modifying images with a wide dynamic range,
(i.e., the range of brightness values recorded by the CCD chip. Before adjustment, the Gamma
value is always one.
To adjust Gamma, enter a number between .1 and 4.0.
•
•
Contrast
Numbers above one lighten the mid-tone areas in the image.
Numbers below one darken the mid-tone areas in the image.
The Contrast adjustment exaggerates or subdues the difference between the bright and dark areas
in an image. Before adjustment, the Contrast value is always one.
To adjust Contrast, enter a number between .1 and 4.0.
•
•
52
Numbers above one exaggerate the contrast between bright and dark areas.
Numbers below one subdue the contrast between bright and dark areas.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Match Color
The Match Color feature is typically used in two situations:
•
You want to change the colors of an image on the screen to match the way that you think the specimen
looks.
•
You want to set the white balance for pictures taken with a microscopic technique that never has white
in its images. A prime example of this situation is fluorescence microscopy.
To use the Match Color feature, follow these steps:
1. From the Edit menu, select Match Color. The cursor becomes an eye-dropper.
2.
Use the mouse to move the eye-dropper to the pixel location of the color that you want to match.
Refer to the status bar at the bottom of the window to ensure that each of the R, G, and B values are
less than 255.
3.
Click on the pixel. The Match Color
window appears.
#
Note: The Set White
Balance button appears
only for image captures
that have not yet been
saved and closed.
The window displays information about
the pixel that you selected:
4.
−
Hue – The actual color, as
distinguished from others in the
color spectrum. Hue is derived from a color wheel and is expressed in the color's angular location
(e.g., 0 to 360 degrees).
−
Saturation - The proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in the SPOT software)
is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero equals pure gray and 100 equals pure hue
(e.g., “day glow”).
−
Original Color – A sample “swatch” of the color that you selected. The cross hairs on the color
wheel (e.g., in the center of the window) indicate the relative position of the selected color.
− The Modify Main Image box is checked as a default.
Set the new color. This can be done in one of two ways, depending on whether the image should
contain white:
− If you are trying to make the selected pixel in your image appear as white (or gray if the pixel is
darker), click on the Make White/Gray button.
− If you are working with an image that does not have any white, modify the Hue and Saturation
values so that the New Color “swatch” shows up as the color that you want. You can do this
either by entering specific Hue and Saturation values, or dragging the cross-hairs on the color
wheel to the desired location.
Calibration and Measurement
The Add Calibration Mark and Add Measurement options enable you to add calibration and
measurement references to SPOT images. Refer to the Annotation – Calibration and Measurement
Marks section of Ch. 8 for detailed steps.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
53
Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Annotation
Image annotation is useful when you want to prepare captures for formal presentation, or inclusion in an
article or reference work. Using SPOT’s image annotation features, you can:
•
•
•
•
Add text to an image.
Use an arrow, line, rectangle, or ellipse to emphasize a particular area in an image.
Add a graphic stamp such as a company logo to an image.
Add freehand lines to an image.
To annotate an image, select Annotation from the Edit menu. Several changes take place in the SPOT
image editing environment:
•
The Edit menu options change to reflect annotation editing.
Refer to Editing Annotation Objects (Ch. 8) for descriptions of each option.
•
The Object menu appears with options for inserting drawing objects, text, images, and image related
information onto an image. Cursor functionality in SPOT reports varies according to which Object
menu option is selected.
−
If None is selected, the cursor is a an editing tool for selecting, sizing, and positioning objects.
When creating new reports, None is the default option.
− If a report object is selected, the cursor changes to a cross-hair icon for placing new report objects
on the grid.
Refer to Adding Annotation Objects to SPOT Images (Ch. 8) for descriptions of each object.
•
The View menu changes to reflect annotation mode:
−
The Zoom and Show Grid Lines options are no longer displayed..
−
The Show Tools option is present – this option displays the Tools dialog box, which contains
shortcuts for inserting annotation drawing objects.
Refer to Adding Annotation Objects to SPOT Images (Ch. 8) for more details on using the
Tools dialog box.
•
The Attributes menu appears with options for specifying annotation qualities.
Refer to Defining Annotation Attributes (Ch. 8) for descriptions of each option.
•
The Done! menu (Windows)/Mode menu (Mac) allows you to switch back to the image capture/edit
mode.
− Windows – The Done! menu has only one option, End Annotation Mode. When you select this
option the SPOTprogram prompts you to merge the changes into the image.
−
Mac – The Mode menu has only one option, Exit Annotation Mode. When you select this
option, the SPOT program prompts you to merge the changes into the image.
CAUTION!
If you select Yes after clicking on Done! The annotations become a permanent part of the image. If
you want to preserve the original image, save the original image to a file. After annotating it, use
Save As to save the annotated version to a different file.
Duplicate Image
Click on the Duplicate Image option to create a copy of the active (on-screen) image.
54
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Working with Image Sequences
Memos
In the SPOT software, you can attach a memo to TIFF or JPEG format image files. To use the Memo
option, follow these steps.
1.
2.
3.
From the Edit menu, select Memo. The Image Memo window appears for you to enter a new memo
or edit an existing memo.
Enter the message.
Click on OK to attach the memo to the image.
#
Note: If you attach a memo to an image that is not in either TIFF or JPEG format and then
attempt to save the memo (i.e., when you close the image file), the SPOT program displays a
warning message that asks you if you want to save the image without the memo. If you want to
retain the memo, click on Cancel and use the Save As option to save the image in either TIFF or
JPEG format.
Working with Image Sequences
Image sequence files can be edited in the following ways, as described below:
•
The Sequence menu – Rearrange the order of a sequence, add and/or remove images to and from the
sequence, extract images from the sequence, and play the sequence. Refer to the Sequence Menu
Options section of Ch.8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for details.
•
The Sequence Controls (Image Sequence) dialog – Set view options and “play” the sequence. Refer
to the Image Sequence Controls section of Ch.8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for
details.
Creating a Report
Using the Basic mode’s built-in reporting functionality, you can collect, organize, and present information
related to your image captures. This chapter discusses the process of creating and printing reports. It is
divided into the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Creating a New Report
Working in Report Mode– general reporting features and functionality
Defining View Options– the view of the report definition screen
Defining Report Attributes – the style and appearance of the report
Defining Report Objects – the text, field, and image information that appears in the report
Editing Report Objects – edit options for the report objects
Saving a Report
Printing and Distributing Reports
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
55
Creating a Report
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Creating a New Report
To create a new SPOT report, select New Report from the File menu. The following changes take place in
the main window:
•
The report definition window appears as a separate window. If an image or image(s) were open, they
remain open. When you move between an image window and the report definition window, the menu
options change accordingly.
•
The Object menu appears. Use these options to specify the fields, text, and images that appear in the
report.
•
The Attributes menu appears. Use these options to define the appearance and style of the report.
•
The View menu options change to reflect report definition function.
•
The Edit menu options change to reflect report editing functions. These options are available only
after one or more report objects has been added to the New Report window.
Working in Report Mode
The report mode contains functionality that differs from the image capture and editing functionality. The
following is a brief overview of these features.
Cursor Functionality
Cursor functionality in SPOT reports varies according to which Object menu option is selected.
•
If None is selected, the cursor is a an editing tool for selecting, sizing, and positioning objects. When
creating new reports, None is the default option.
•
If a report object is selected, the cursor changes to a cross-hair icon for placing new report objects to
the grid.
Sizing and Positioning Report Objects
When sizing and positioning a report object in the report window, you must first select the object by single
clicking on it. When an object has been selected, handles appear at the corners; for line objects, the handles
appear at each end. You can select multiple report objects by holding the mouse button down and dragging
the cursor around both objects. Handles appear around both objects. When selected, report objects can be
sized or positioned as needed.
•
To size objects, move the cursor either to a point on the object’s border or to one of the handles. The
cursor changes to a two pointed arrow
−
−
•
To position objects, move the cursor over the selected object. The cursor changes to a four point
arrow. Click and drag the object to a new location. In addition, if an object is selected, you can use
the arrow keys to fine tune its position.
#
56
To resize one dimension of a box, position the cursor on a vertical or horizontal line; click and
drag the side to the new size.
To proportionally resize a box, position the cursor on a handle; click and drag the box to the new
size.
Note: When multiple objects are selected, they can be sized and positioned as a single object.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Creating a Report
Using Right-click and Double-click Functionality
When creating a report, you can use the rightclick and double-click mouse functions as
editing shortcuts.
•
Double clicking on a report object enables
you to edit the object’s attributes – e.g., the
thickness of a line.
•
Right clicking (Windows)/[Ctrl] clicking
(Mac) on a report object calls an object
specific edit menu that contains both general
editing options and attribute editing options
specific to that object. Right clicking on an
Image object, for example, gives you a list
of editing options, as shown at right.
•
Right clicking (Windows)\[Ctrl] clicking
(Mac) on the report grid gives you two
options: Paste an object that you copied or
cut; Delete All of the objects on the grid.
Refer to the Defining Report Attributes and Editing Report Objects sections for more details.
Defining View Options
The View menu provides you with eight options:
Zoom
First Page
Previous Page
Zoom in or out to six different sizes. From the View menu, select Zoom and enter the desired
percentage.
Go to the first page in the report.
Go back one page in the report.
Next Page
Go forward one page in the report.
Last Page
Go to the last page in the report.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
57
Creating a Report
Set Display
Grid Size
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
The report definition window includes an adjustable grid (i.e., the dots on the screen) to assist you
in placing and aligning report objects on the report page. By default, the grid is turned on. To turn
off or modify the grid, follow these steps:
1.
From the View menu, select Set
Display Grid Size.
−
−
2.
Select either inches or millimeters.
3.
Enter the spacing for the display grid.
The number that you enter represents the space in inches or millimeters between the dots on
the grid.
−
−
4.
Set Object
Grid Size
To turn off the display grid,
deselect the Show Grid box.
To modify the spacing follow
steps two through four.
If the measurement is inches, enter a number between .04 and 10.
If the measurement is in millimeters, enter a number between 1 and 25.
Click on OK. The display grid appears.
In addition to the display grid, you can define a second grid specific to report objects. The object
grid controls the movement of objects as you work with them on the display grid. When you select
a report object and move it, the object automatically “snaps” to the nearest line in the object grid,
allowing you to more precisely align and arrange the objects on your report page.
1.
From the View menu, select Set Object Grid Size.
2.
If desired, check the Snap to Grid option.
3.
Define the spacing for the object grid. In many cases, the object grid and the display
grid will have the same spacing. In other cases, you might not want the display grid to
be as finely spaced as the object grid (i.e., so the dots do not interfere with the view of
the report definition window).
− If the measurement is inches, enter a number between .04 and 10.
− If the measurement is in millimeters, enter a number between 1 and 25.
The default spacing value for the Object Grid is the last entered value.
4.
Click on OK.
Horizontal Line
Show Tools
Click on the Show Tools option to display a floating
palette of navigation buttons and report objects, as
shown here. Refer to the Defining Report Objects
section of this chapter for more details.
Vertical Line
object select
mode (None)
Arrow
Rounded Box
Ellipse
Box
Defining Report Attributes
Text
Image
Freehand
Polyline
All of the general style and appearance options
Polygon
(report attributes) can be accessed from the
Attributes menu. Report attributes can be defined for
First Page
an entire report or on an object by object basis (see the
Defining Report Objects section below).
Previous Page
Last Page
Next Page
•
When a report object is selected, the attribute is defined for the selected object(s) only.
•
When nothing is selected, the attribute is defined for all future, relevant objects.
The following sections detail each of the report attributes and the report objects that they affect.
58
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Line Thickness
Colors
Creating a Report
Determine line thickness for the following report objects: Line, Horizontal Line,
Vertical Line, Arrow, Box, Rounded Box, Ellipse, Freehand, Polygon, and
Polyline.
1.
From the Attributes menu, select Line Thickness.
2.
Enter a Thickness value between .05 and 10 points.
3.
Click on OK.
Define the foreground and background colors for all objects. Follow these steps:
1.
From the Attributes menu, select Colors.
2.
Define the Text/Lines color. This is the color of the text, the line, or the
border around a text/image box. The default foreground color is black. To
select a color click on Color.
3.
The next window varies, depending on whether you are using a Windows or a
Mac system.
−
Windows allows you to select from a palette of colors or enter specific
HSL or RGB color values.
−
Mac OS allows you to select from a palette of colors, enter specific RGB,
CMYK, HLS, or HSV values, and enter Internet specific colors.
Define the Background/Fill color. This is the color that appears behind text and in
boxes. Lines and images do not display a background color.
#
Note: In order to define a background/fill color for a Box or a Rounded Box, a fill must be
selected. Similarly, in order to define a background/fill color for a text box, the Text Style must be
set to Opaque.
Image Border and Justification
Arrow Size and Direction
Determine the line thickness for image borders and define the justification of
the image within the display box. This option applies only to the Image
report object.
1.
To create a border around the image, click on the Border box, and
enter a Thickness value between .05 and 10.
2.
Select the Justification for the image. This value is the justification of
the image within its display box, not the justification on the report page.
3.
Click on OK.
Specify the size of the arrow head and define the direction that the arrow
points.
1.
To specify the size of the arrow head, enter a value between 1 and 10.
2.
Specify the direction of the arrow:
−
−
3.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
To draw an arrow starting tail first and finishing with the point
(head), select Tail to Head.
To draw an arrow starting point (head) first and finishing with the
tail, select Head to Tail.
Click on OK.
59
Creating a Report
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Box/Ellipse Fill
Define the appearance of the Box, Rounded Box, and Ellipse
objects.
1.
Specify whether you want a fill for the object.
−
−
Text Font
Text Border, Justification, and
Background
If you do not want the box to be filled (i.e., you want a
transparent box), click on OK.
If you want to specify a fill pattern for the box, check the
Fill Box/Ellipse. The Pattern options appear.
2.
Specify a pattern by clicking on one of the seven options.
3.
Click on OK.
Define the appearance of the text for the Text, Date, and Time
objects.
1.
Select a Font, a Font Style, and a point Size. The Sample
box displays a preview of the font.
2.
Define any Strikeout or Underline effects.
3.
Click on OK.
Define the appearance of the text boxes for the Text, Date, and
Time objects
1.
Specify whether the text box should have a border. To add a
border, click on the Border box, and enter a Thickness value
between .05 and 10.
2.
Define the Justification of the text. This justification applies
to the position of the text in the box, not the position of the
text on the page.
3.
Define the Background. Select either Transparent or
Opaque.
4.
Click on OK.
Defining Report Objects
All of the components of your report, including the formatting, text, images, and fields are known as
objects. Using the objects, you can specify the information that your report will contain. Before discussing
the individual report objects, review the following general procedure for inserting an object into a report:
1.
From the Object menu, select the type of item (i.e., Lines, Connected Lines, etc…) that you want to
add to the image. The cursor’s functionality varies according to whether a report object type (i.e., line,
text) is selected:.
−
2.
If a report object type is selected, the cursor changers to a cross-hair icon that is used to add new
report objects to the grid.
− If None is selected, the cursor is a an editing tool that is used to select and position objects.
Use the mouse to drag the cross-hair to the location where you want to insert the object.
3.
Left-click at the insertion point.
−
−
60
If you selected a line or a box, hold down the mouse button and drag the line/box to the desired
size.
If you selected any of the other report objects, the object will appear and you will be prompted to
enter the associated information (e.g., static text, the location of an image file, the database field,
etc…).
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
4.
Creating a Report
Once it appears on screen, you can resize, reposition, and edit an object as needed.
−
−
−
Resize - Select (click on) the object and drag the handles in the direction of the resize.
Reposition – Left click and drag the object the new area.
Edit – Select the object and choose an option from either the Edit menu or the Attributes menu.
You can also edit an object by right clicking (Windows)/[Ctrl] clicking (Mac) on it.
The following table describes the Basic program mode report objects:
None
Select None when you want to use the cursor to edit and position the objects.
Lines
Unconstrained Line – Add a straight line annotation to the report.
Horizontal Line - Add a horizontal line annotation to the report.
Vertical Line – Add a vertical line annotation to the report.
Arrow - Add an arrow to the report. Either select Arrow from the Object menu, or click on the Tools box
button. Left click on the report and drag toward the area that the arrow head will point to.
Connected
Lines
Polygon – Add a closed polygon to the report. Either select Connected Lines>Polygon from the Object
menu, or click on the Tools box button. Left click and release, and then drag the mouse to create a
side. Left click again to start a new side. Double click to finish the polygon. The program automatically
adds any additional lines needed to close the figure.
Polyline – Add an open polygon to the report. Either select Connected Lines>Polyline from the Object
menu, or click on the Tools box button. Left click and release, and then drag the mouse to create a
side. Left click again to start a new side. Double click to finish the polyline.
Freehand - Add a freehand line to the report.
Shapes
Rectangular Box – Add a square cornered box to the report.
Rounded Box – Add a round cornered box to the report.
Ellipse – Add an elliptical object to the report. Ellipses are drawn inside of the rectangular area that
you define. Ellipses touch the top, bottom, right and left sides of this rectangle.
Either select Shapes>Ellipse from the Object menu, or click on the Tools box button. To draw an
ellipse, left click at the point where you want to position one vertex of the rectangle and drag the cursor
to the point of the opposite vertex.
Images
Add an image to the report.
1.
From the Object menu, select Image.
2.
Left click at the point on the display grid where you want
to insert the Image box, and holding down the mouse
button, drag the cursor to create the desired shape and
size for the image (it can also be resized/re-positioned at
a later point). When you release the mouse button, the
Image dialog box appears.
3.
Specify the file source for the image:
−
−
4.
Currently Open Image – Add a currently open
image to the report. If you have one or more open
images, SPOT lists the file name(s) and path(s) in
the drop-down box. Select from the list.
Image File – Add an image from disk to the report.
Specify the file name and location either by entering
the path in the Name box, or clicking on the
selection box to the right.
Click on OK. The image appears on your report grid.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
61
Creating a Report
Text
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Text
Add text to the report.
Date
Add a date text box to the report. The current date is the default.
Time
Add a time text box to the report. The current time is the default.
User Name
Add a user name to the report. The user currently logged on to the computer appears as the default.
Editing Report Objects
Once you have created a report, you can edit the report objects as needed. There are three basic ways to
edit a report object:
•
Use the Attributes menu - The Attributes menu, as noted in the Defining Report Attributes section of
this chapter, allows you to either set the attributes for adding specific types of objects, or to select
existing objects and modify them as needed. Refer to the Defining Report Attributes section (above)
for more details.
•
Use the Edit menu - The Edit menu contains general editing features such as Undo, Copy, Cut, Send
to Back, etc…
•
Right-click (Windows)/[Ctrl] click (Mac) on the report object – Right/[Ctrl] clicking on a report
object brings up a customized editing menu that contains both general editing commands and the
attributes that can be edited for that object. Refer to the Working in the Report Mode section for more
information on the right click function.
The Edit Menu
The Edit menu provides general editing features for arranging, copying, and sizing report objects. Edit
menu options are active only when a report object is selected.
Undo
Undo the last action. The Undo feature allows you to undo up to ten actions.
Bring to Front
Bring a selected object in front of all other objects.
Move Forward
Bring a selected object one layer forward.
Move Backward
Send to Back
Select All
Delete
Send the selected object one layer back.
Send a selected object behind all other objects.
Select all of the objects in the report.
Delete the selected object(s).
Delete All
Delete all of the objects in the report.
Copy to
Clipboard
Copy the selected object(s) to the Windows clipboard. You can then paste the object(s) into:
•
•
A new SPOT report
A different location in the same report
This feature is particularly useful when you are creating a new report and want to use objects
from an existing report.
62
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Cut
Paste
Duplicate
Set Position,
Alignment, and
Size
Creating a Report
Cut the selected object(s) for pasting into a new report or to a new location in the existing
report.
Paste the object that you cut or copied to its new location.
Create additional copies of a report object. To duplicate a report object, follow these steps:
1.
Select the object(s) that you want to duplicate.
2.
Select Duplicate from the Edit menu. The program prompts you to enter the number of
duplicate copies.
3.
Enter the number of copies, and click on OK.
4.
The duplicate object(s) appear at the top of report window.
The Set Position, Alignment, and Size
option allows you to specify precise
sizing and position values for single or
multiple selected report and annotation
objects.
The Position options enable you to:
•
Align top/bottom edges of multiple
objects.
•
Align left/right edges of multiple
objects.
•
Align the centers of multiple
objects.
•
Center an object(s) on the page.
•
Enter exact values in inches or
millimeters to position the object.
The Size options enable you to enter:
Add Page
•
Exact width/height in inches or
millimeters for one or more
objects.
•
Set the width/height dimension for
multiple objects the to smallest or
largest object’s value in inches or
millimeters.
Add a page to your report. When you
add a page, the program prompts you
with the Add Page dialog box:
1.
Specify whether the page that you
want to add will be inserted Before
or After a specified page.
2.
Specify the Page Number that the
additional page will precede or
follow.
3.
Click on OK.
SPOT reports can have a maximum of
ten pages.
Delete Page
Delete a page from your report. When you select the Delete Page option, the program
prompts you to specify the page number.
Add Images
Add a static image to your report.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
63
Creating a Report
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Saving Reports
1.
To save a newly created report, select the Save option from the File menu.
2.
When saving a new report (.rpb file type), SPOT prompts you
with the default file location – i.e., C:SpotCam\Reports folder
(Windows) or Users\Shared\SPOT Files\Reports (Mac) .
Either save to the default location or specify a new location. If
you plan to save many reports without compressing the image
files, you should save them to a Jaz drive or to a network drive.
#
Note: Mac users will see the .rpb file type extension
only if the Add Extensions to File Names on Save
option is selected on the Preferences window .
3.
Enter a file name for the report.
4.
Define the JPEG Compression for the image(s) in the report. The Use JPEG Compression for
Images box is checked as a default. To turn off JPEG compression, deselect the box. If you are using
JPEG Compression, enter a number between one and 100.
5.
−
A value of 1 is the most compressed. File size and image resolution are decreased to the
maximum extent.
−
A value of 100 is non-compressed. File size remains large and the image resolution remains high.
Click on Save. You can now use the SPOT program to open and view the report at a later time.
Printing and Distributing Reports
To print a report, follow these steps:
1.
Open the report.
2.
Select the printer. If you have Adobe Acrobat, you
can create a PDF version of your report by
selecting Acrobat PDFWriter as the printer of
choice: select the Printer from the Page Setup
dialog – i.e., File>Printer Setup>Printer.
3.
PDF files can be distributed to anyone with the
Acrobat Reader software, which, as described
below, is available from Adobe as a free download.
4.
Click on Properties to define the printer’s properties, if needed.
5.
Specify the page range if you are not printing an entire report.
6.
Specify the number of copies.
7.
Click on OK.
If you intend to distribute SPOT image reports to people who do not have the SPOT program, we
recommend that you purchase Adobe Acrobat. Using Acrobat, you can convert the SPOT report (.rpd) files
to PDF files, which can be distributed to users who do not have the SPOT software. They can view the
reports with the free Acrobat Reader software, which is included on the SPOT software CD. The latest
version of the Acrobat Reader can also be downloaded from the Adobe’s web site www.Adobe.com.
64
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 3 – Basic Program Mode
Image Printing
Image Printing
Image printing features in the SPOT basic program and the SPOT advanced program are identical. Refer to
Ch. 11 – Printing Images for details.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
65
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
Table of Contents
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
Introduction......................................................67
The Viewing and Editing Window ...................68
Menus .............................................................68
The Toolbar ....................................................68
When You First Open the SPOT
Program….............................................. 69
After You Have Captured or Opened an
Image… ................................................. 69
The Status Bar ................................................70
Working With Image Files................................71
Setup.................................................................73
QUICK REFERENCE:
!"Display thumbnails of selected images… p. 68
!"Access the Image Setup window to define image
capture settings… p. 73
!"Use a stage micrometer with the SPOT camera/
software to calibrate the microscope’s objectives
… p. 74
!"Change the position of the SPOT toolbar… p. 76
Image Setups.................................................73
Calibration Setups ........................................73
Palettes...........................................................74
Image Auto-Save..........................................75
Preferences....................................................76
Introduction
The Advanced Program Mode is an improved version of the previous SPOT software. It is designed for
more advanced users who want greater control over the way images are captured and edited, and who want
to make use of the image archiving database, the report generator, and the calibration mark imprinting and
measuring functions.
This chapter is an introduction to the operating environment of the Advanced SPOT program mode.
Detailed discussions of the features of this mode are found in chapters 5-11. This introduction is broken
into three sections:
•
•
•
The Viewing and Editing Window - Describes the primary window for all image capture and editing
functions.
Working With Image Files - Discusses file save and open features.
Setup - Describes the initial Setup options.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
67
The Viewing and Editing Window
Ch. 4 – The Advanced Program Mode
The Viewing and Editing Window
When you open or capture an image, it appears in the main viewing and editing window. All of the image
save, view, edit, and annotation functions are accessed from this window, which consists of three areas:
•
•
•
Menus
The Toolbar
The Status Bar
Menus
The menu bar in the Advanced program varies according to whether an image is open. The table below
briefly describes each menu, indicates whether an image must be open in order to see it, and provides a
reference to the chapter that discusses the menu options in more detail:
Image Must be
Open?
Ch. Ref.
Open, save, and print files. Create and run reports.
No
4, 10
Create, access, and modify SPOT image databases.
No
9
Menu
File
Database
Edit
Sequence
View
Camera
Setup
Window
Help
Functions
Edit and annotate images.
Yes
8
Viewing/play options for image sequences.
Yes
8
Viewing options for captured images
Yes
4
Initialize the camera; view live preview images; capture images;
perform white balances.
No
6, 7
Define image setups, image capture preferences, calibration setups.
No
5
Standard Windows display options.
Yes
4
Information about the SPOT software and an on-line help system.
No
The Toolbar
The Toolbar provides shortcut buttons to frequently used menu items. Dragging the cursor over the Toolbar
displays information about each button.
•
•
The name of the button (and the associated menu option) displays on the toolbar.
The function that the button performs displays on the left of the status bar.
Refer to Appendix C: Keyboard and Toolbar Button Commands for a complete listing of command
equivalents in the SPOT program.
Like the menus, the Toolbar options vary according to whether an image is open, and what you are doing.
The toolbar displays the options necessary in each of the following situations:
•
•
68
When you first open the SPOT program…
After you have captured or opened an image…
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
The Viewing and Editing Window
When You First Open the SPOT Program…
When you first open the program, the toolbar displays only the image capture options:
Toolbar Button
Description
Live Image
Show/hide live image window
Get Image
(exposure from setup)
Take a picture
Get Image
(last used exposure)
Take a picture using the last used exposure
Compute White Balance Values
Compute RGB white-balance ratios
Full Screen
Toggle full screen mode
Search Database
Search the database
(The Search Database option is active only when a database is open.)
RT Mono
If you are using an RT Monochrome camera, the Compute White Balance Values option does not display.
Refer to Ch. 6 – Working with Live Images, Ch. 7 - Taking a Picture, and Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and
Annotating Images for more details.
After You Have Captured or Opened an Image…
After you have either captured a new image or opened an existing image, the toolbar expands to include the
file view, save, and print options:
Toolbar Button
Description
Zoom
Turn on/off zoom mode
Show Pan Window
Show/hide the pan window (useful for navigating when
zoomed)
Save
Save the image
Save As
Save the image to disk with a new name and/or type
Save to Database
(Windows)
Save the image to the database
(this option is active only when a database is open)
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
69
The Viewing and Editing Window
Ch. 4 – The Advanced Program Mode
(cont.)
Reload
Reload the image from disk
Print
Print the image
Refer to Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images and Ch. 11 - Printing Images, for more details.
The Status Bar
The status bar, which appears at the bottom of your screen, displays information about the image that is on
screen. The following is an illustration of the view status bar, as it appears for an open image:
Image
size
Pixel bit depth
(bits per pixel)
X Y pixel
coordinates
Brightness
values
Size
settings
Modified
status
Image
Setup
Figure 4- 1: Advanced Mode Status Bar
Each of the call-outs is described below.
•
Image size – The number of columns x the number of rows of pixels in the image.
•
Pixel bit depth (bits per pixel) - The pixel bit depth of the image. There are four options:
− 8 bpp (monochrome) – Insight B/W
− 12 bpp (monochrome) – Insight B/W
− 24 bpp (RGB color) – Insight Color
− 36 bpp (RGB color) - Insight Color
For a detailed discussion of pixel bit depth, refer to Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture.
•
X Y pixel coordinates - As you move your cursor over an image, the status bar displays the x y
coordinates of the cursor in pixels. For example, the values for the upper left corner pixel would be
(0,0).
•
Brightness values - As you move your cursor over an image, the status bar indicates the pixel
brightness values at the indicated x y pixel coordinates. The values depend on the pixel bit depth (see
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture) for the image. For example, if a color image is open, the status
bar displays separate red, green, and blue brightness values [e.g., RGB: (162, 134, 127)]. If a
monochrome image is open, the status bar displays only one brightness value [e.g., (176)].
•
Size Settings - In the illustration above, the view status bar displays Fit to Win (Fit to Window), the
default image capture setting.
−
−
•
70
If the Fit to Window option has been deselected, this area displays the word Normal.
If you are in zoom mode, this area displays the magnification level (e.g., Mag:x1, Mag:x1/4
etc…).
Modified Status - If you open an image file or take a picture, the section to the right of the
magnification setting remains blank until you modify that image. Once that image has been modified,
the word Modified appears here.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
•
Working With Image Files
Image Setup - The far right end of the view status bar displays the currently active Image Setup (e.g.,
Factory Defaults). This is the image setup that the program uses to capture images. From this part of
the view status bar, you can:
−
−
−
Change the currently active image setup.
Modify an existing image setup.
Add a new image setup to the list.
Refer to Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture, for more information on image setups.
Working With Image Files
The File menu contains four categories of options:
•
•
•
•
Opening files
Reporting
Saving, closing, and deleting files
Printing
The following table describes these options in the order that they appear on the menu.
Open Image File
Open image files of a specified format (i.e., JPEG, GIF, BMP, etc.). In addition to using this
menu option, you can open images by dragging the image file from the Windows Explorer onto
the SPOT program window.
Show Image File
Thumbnails
Display thumbnail previews of specified files. From the thumbnail display window, there are a
variety of options. To view image file thumbnails, follow these steps:
Open Image
Sequence File
Open Database
Image
1.
From the File menu, select the Show Image File Thumbnails option. The Thumbnail File
Spec window displays all of the image files in the directory.
2.
3.
Navigate to the directory for the image files that you want to display.
Use the Files of type drop down box, to specify the file type.
4.
Select the file or files for which you want to display thumbnails. If you do not select a file
or files, the program displays thumbnails for all files of the specified type in the directory.
5.
Click on Open. The Thumbnails preview window appears. For each thumbnail, you can:
−
Double-click (Mac and Windows) on a thumbnail to open an image for viewing
or modification.
−
Right-click (Windows)/[Ctr] Click (Mac) on a thumbnail to display a list of
options. The right-click menu enables you to perform a variety of actions
directly from the thumbnail window. You can:
♦
Select Image.
♦ Open Image.
♦ Delete Image.
♦ Print image.
♦ Move/Rename Image File
♦ Copy Image File
♦ Add Image to Image sequence (see below)
♦ Add Image to Report Template (see below)
♦ Select All Images in the thumbnail view. When you use this option, the
right-click menu expands to include the above options for multiple images
6.
Click and drag with the mouse to select two or more images.
Open an image sequence file. An image sequence file is a single TIFF format file that contains
multiple images.
•
•
Refer to Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture for information on capturing an image sequence file.
Refer to Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for information on viewing and
editing image sequences.
Open images from a SPOT database. The database must be open in order to use this feature.
Refer to Ch. 9 – Using SPOT Databases for details on working with databases and database
images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
71
Working With Image Files
New Image
Sequence
Ch. 4 – The Advance d Program Mode
Create a new image sequence file. This option enables you to specify the first image in a new
image sequence. This image can come from an open image, an image on disk (from file), or a
SPOT database. Subsequent images can be added to the sequence in one of two ways:
•
•
New Report
Open Report
Run Report
Via the Sequence menu options. Here you can add any image to any point in a
sequence. Refer to Working With Image Sequences in Ch. 8 for more details.
Create a new Advanced mode report. Refer to Ch. 10 – Reporting for details.
Open an Advanced mode report. Refer to Ch. 10 – Reporting for details.
Run a report. Reports can be run in three ways - previewed, printed, or saved to file. Refer to
Ch. 10 – Reporting for details.
Reload
Reload the image from the hard drive (or other media). All changes made since opening the
image file are lost. This option displays only when a saved image is open.
Save
Save a previously unsaved image to new file, or update the changes to an existing file. This
option appears only when an image is open.
Save As
Save an image to a new file and/or file location. This option appears only when an image is
open.
Save All
Save all open image files. The program prompts you for a name, file location, and image file
format for each image.
Close
Close an image. The program prompts you to specify a location to save the file. This option
appears only when an image is open.
Move/Rename
72
Via the Add Image to Image Sequence File menu option (see below). This option allows
you either to add an open, non-sequence image to a sequence or to create a new image
sequence from the image.
Move and/or rename an image file. This option differs from the Save As option in that it does
not retain a copy of the original file in the original location: using Move/Rename is comparable
to cutting and pasting a file.
Delete
Delete an open image. The program prompts you to verify the deletion.
Export Movie File
Export a SPOT image sequence file to AVI format. Follow these steps:
1.
Open a SPOT image sequence. Refer to Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture, for details on
capturing image sequences.
2.
Select File>Export Movie File. The Export Movie File appears.
3.
Enter the File Name for the avi file.
4.
Specify the location where you want to save the avi file.
5.
Specify which images in the sequence that you want to Export. Select either:
•
All Images – the avi file will contain all of the images in the sequence.
•
Specified Images - the avi file will contain only the images that you specify (i.e.,
below the radio button).
6.
Specify the Frame Rate in frames per second.
7.
Specify the Compression Settings. When you click on the Compression Settings
button, the Video Compression dialog displays the compression application(s) available
on your computer. Because each computer will have different installed applications, the
Video Compression options will vary.
8.
After you have entered all of the desired settings, click on Save. The program displays a
status message as it exports the file.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
Setup
Add Image to Image Sequence
Add an open, non-sequence image to an open image sequence, or
create a new image sequence from an open image. To use this option,
the non-sequence image must be the active window and the image
sequence must be open in the background.
When you click on Add Image to Image Sequence, SPOT prompts you
to specify either the Image Sequence or a new image sequence. If
more than one image sequence is open, select the sequence from the
drop-down list.
Add Image to Report Template
Print
Print Setup
Exit (Windows)
Quit (Mac)
Add a selected open image to an open SPOT report template. When you
select this option, SPOT prompts you to select from a list of report
templates. If you have not defined a report template, SPOT
automatically creates a new report for you and inserts the image as a
Static Image object. Refer to Ch. 10 – Reporting for details on working
with SPOT reports.
Print an open image. Refer to Ch. 11 – Printing Images for details.
Define the page setup parameters. Refer to Ch. 11 - Printing Images for
details.
Exit the SPOT program.
Setup
The Setup menu options allow you to define operational standards used for image capture and editing.
Refer to the sections below for descriptions of each option.
Image Setups
In the SPOT software, an image setup serves two purposes:
• It defines the way a picture will be taken.
• It defines the way the program will automatically modify a picture after it is taken.
Pre-configured image setups for standard microscope techniques (e.g., brightfield, fluorescence, etc.) help
novice users to take good pictures the first time. Experienced users can modify these pre-configured setups
as needed. Refer to Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture for details.
Calibration Setups
With the SPOT program, you can use a stage micrometer to calibrate each objective on your microscope.
Once calibrated, you can use the SPOT program to perform basic measurements on an image. Refer to Ch.
8, Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for more information on using the measurement functions.
To calibrate an objective, follow these steps:
1.
2.
Place the stage micrometer under the objective.
Adjust the microscope to display as much of the
stage micrometer as possible. You can use the
Live Image option, as described in Ch. 6 – Using
Live Images, to help position the micrometer
3.
Focus on it. Use the Live Image option.
4.
Capture an image of the stage micrometer. Refer
to Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture for details.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
73
Setup
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
5.
From the Setup menu,
select Calibration
Setups. The
Calibration Setups
window appears (see
right).
6.
Click on Add. The
Calibration Setup
window appears.
7.
Enter the name of the
calibration setup. Typically this corresponds to
the magnification of the objective (e.g., 4x).
8.
Using the mouse, draw the calibration line along
the length of the stage micrometer image. When
you draw the line, keep these guidelines in mind:
−
−
−
Keep the line as straight as possible.
Make the line as long as possible.
Use the largest unit of measurement that the micrometer allows for.
To draw the line, follow these steps:
9.
a.
Position the crosshair cursor over the stage micrometer mark that represents the start point of your
calibration line. In the illustration below, this is the 20 mm mark.
b.
Left click on the mouse.
c.
Position the crosshair cursor at the stage micrometer mark that represents the end point of your
calibration line. In the illustration below, this is
the 23 mm mark.
d.
Left click on the mouse again. The length of
the line in pixels appears on the Calibration
Setup window. To re-draw a line, double click
anywhere on the image. This clears the
previously drawn calibration line from the
screen.
Enter the length and units of the line that you drew
(e.g., 3 mm).
10. Click on OK. The 4x objective is now calibrated to perform measurements. Repeat steps one through
ten for each objective.
Palettes
The Palettes option on the Setup menu allows you to define new palettes and edit existing palettes.
SPOT color palettes allow you to apply specific hue and saturation values to monochrome (8 bit or 12 bit)
images. Palettes are useful in fluorescence applications where a sample is fluorescing at a single
wavelength, and you want the acquired image to have the correct color. For such a case, you could create a
palette to represent the color of the fluorescent dye and then apply that palette to the captured image.
There are two ways to apply a palette to an image:
74
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
•
You can associate a palette with an Image Setup, as discussed in Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture.
•
You can apply a palette to a captured image by selecting the Set Palette option from the Edit menu.
Refer to Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for more details.
Setup
To define a new palette, follow these steps:
1. From the Setup menu, select Palettes.
2.
Click on Add. The Color Palette dialog
appears as shown here:
3.
Either use the Hue and Saturation
selection lists or move the cross-hairs on
the color wheel to enter the values
4.
−
Hue is the designation for the actual
color, as distinguished from others in
the color spectrum. Hue is derived
from the color wheel and is expressed
in the color's angular location (in degrees) on the wheel. (e.g., 0° to 360°).
−
Saturation is the proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in the SPOT software)
is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero is pure gray and 100 is pure hue (e.g.,
day glow).
Click on OK.
Image Auto-Save
Use the Image Auto-Save feature to automatically save
images as part of the capture process. To enable SPOT’s
auto-save feature, select Setup>Image Auto-Save, and
check the Auto-Save Images box, as shown at right. You
can then specify the auto-save options, as described in the
table below.
File Name Prefix)
This prefix appears before the number of each image capture in the sequence. To enter the
File Name Prefix, you can:
•
•
•
Format
Type only the name (e.g., Cell) in the box. The program automatically saves the
image to the last used directory. If you specify the prefix only, you cannot see exactly
where the files are being saved. Thus, to avoid having to search for your files, you
should verify the location of the last save.
Type the full path and file name (e.g., C:\Spotcam\T-cells) in the box to specify the
location of the image. When entering the file path and name, you can also specify a
new directory simply by entering it in the path (e.g., C:\Spotcam\Cells\T-Cells).
Click on the browse button to select a new file location and file name (prefix). All of the
image files are saved with the prefix that you enter. Thus, if your Suffix Begin Number
(see below) is one, the file name for the image would be T-Cells0001.
Select the file format for the sequence of images.
•
For individual files, there are six options: Windows Bitmap, JPEG, Mac PICT, TIFF
Uncompressed TIFF JPEG, or JPEG2000.
•
For image sequences there are two options: TIFF Uncompressed or TIFF JPEG.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
75
Setup
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
Suffix Begin Number
Select the beginning number for image auto-save.
The Begin Number automatically defaults to the first number that follows the previous
sequence of images. So, if you captured a sequence of 10 images, 11 would appear as the
Begin Number when you next opened the Get Sequential Images window.
The program prefaces numbers with enough zeros to create a four character suffix. For
example, if you have 35 images, the first image suffix will be 0001 and the last image suffix
will be 0035. This enables Windows to correctly order images, so that
Growth_Sequence0002 appears before Growth_Sequence1000, and not the other way
around.
JPEG Quality
(1-100)
JPEG quality is the level of compression for JPEG images: this option is available only when
JPEG or TIFF JPEG is selected as the image file format. Enter an integer between 1 and
100 to set the JPEG quality for images. A value of one is the most compressed (and lowest
image quality), while a value of 100 is the least compressed (and highest image quality).
Compression
(JPEG2000)
When the JPEG2000 file format is selected, the Image Auto-Save Setup dialog displays
compression options:
Save Thumbnails
File Name Conflict
Action
•
Lossless – Information is not lost when the image is compressed.
•
Lossy – Information is lost according to the ratio that you enter: the higher the ratio that
you enter, the smaller the file size and the lower the quality of the image.
Save thumbnails of each image capture. This option is available only when JPEG, TIFF
JPEG, or TIFF Uncompressed is selected as the image file format.
Determine how the program will respond if it finds an image file with the same name as an
image from the current session. Select one of the following options:
• Overwrite Existing File – The program overwrites the existing file with the new image
capture.
•
Image Display
Display Warning – The program displays a warning message indicating that a file of
the same name already exists, and stops the image capture.
Determine how image captures will be displayed. Select one of the following options:
•
•
•
Display Each Image in a New Window – The program opens a window for each new
image capture. This option works well if you plan to capture a limited number of
images in the session. If you plan to capture many images, however, displaying
numerous windows uses up memory and could interfere with use of other programs.
Display Only Current Image – The program sequentially displays each image in the
same window. Each image displays only until the next image is captured. This is
useful when you have numerous captures where you do not want to be concerned with
running out of memory.
Don’t Display Images – The program automatically saves all of the image files to the
specified location without displaying them.
Preferences
Use the Preferences option to specify:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The position of the Toolbar.
Image sequence options
Live image viewing preferences
Thumbnail appearance.
Fit to Window mode.
Monitoring of the RT Slider’s color filter position
(RT Sliders)
File type extension preference (Macs)
Each option is explained in the table below.
76
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
Toolbar Placement
Image Sequences
Setup
Select the screen position for the Toolbar Placement.
Memory Usage Limit
Specify how much memory is allocated for image acquisition. Note that the entry
parameters are system dependent.
Cache Images During Play
When “playing” an image sequence (see Ch. 8), the SPOT program allows you to select
how it loads the displayed images:
•
•
Live Image
If Cache Images During Play is selected… The program pre-loads as many images
from the sequence as your computer’s RAM allows. This enables a faster display of
the image sequence. But, if you have a sequence with many images, the size of the
combined images could exceed the RAM, and in this case, the SPOT program will
load as much of the sequence as possible, play that part of the sequence, and then
pause to load the remaining images.
If Cache Images During Play is not selected… The program loads each image in
the sequence individually. In cases where you have a large sequence with many files,
this allows you to work without being restricted by RAM limitations. The display of
images will be somewhat slower than a display where images are cached.
Always show full chip
Always display the full chip in live image mode. If you select a region, it will be displayed in a
rectangular outline within the full-chip view.
Maximum Exposure
The Maximum Exposure option helps you to avoid unnecessarily long exposures when viewing
a live image. Consider the following situation: When you change from a lower resolution
objective to a higher resolution objective, the camera detects a brief interval of blackness.
When the Auto-Brightness option on the Live Image Controls dialog (see Ch. 6) is enabled, it
compensates by modifying the exposure time to maintain a constant brightness level. This
results in you having to wait for the camera to compute a lengthy and incorrect exposure for
the black interval. Using the Maximum Exposure option, you can limit this exposure time. For
most cases, Diagnostic Instruments recommends a value of 0.5 seconds.
Similarly, the Live Image Maximum option can also be used in cases where the microscope’s
light path selector is incorrectly set.
Do Post Processing On
Specify whether to apply the Post Processing options for the current Image Setup to images
captured from the live image view.
•
Transferred Images
−
−
•
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
If the Transferred Images box is selected, the Transfer option applies the Noise
Filter, Color Enhancement, and Image Size Double options as specified for the
current Image Setup.
If the Transferred Images box is unselected, the Transfer option ignores the Post
Processing options for the current Image Setup, with one exception: if the Chip
Defect Correction option is selected for the current image setup (SPOT and RT
cameras only) , the corrections will appear in the image capture, regardless of the
Transferred Images preference.
Snapped Images
−
If the Snapped Images box is selected, the Snap option uses all of the Post
Processing options from the current Image Setup, except for Background
Subtraction and Flatfield Correction.
−
If the Snapped Images box is unselected, the Snap option ignores the Post
Processing options for the current Image Setup, with one exception: if the Chip
Defect Correction option is selected for the current image setup (RT and SPOT
cameras only), the corrections will appear in the image capture, regardless of the
Snapped Images preference.
77
Setup
Ch. 4 - The Advanced Program Mode
Thumbnails
Thumbnail Button Sizing
Specify the size of thumbnails for the Show Image File Thumbnails option and database
search results
Select from one of the following options:
• Small (60 x 60 pixels)
• Medium (90 x 90 pixels)
• Large (120 x 120 pixels)
• User Defined
Minimum width and height = 20 pixels
Maximum width and height = 200 pixels
Maximum Thumbnail Resolution
Specify the resolution of thumbnails for the Show Image File Thumbnails option and
database search results
Select from one of the following options:
Small (54 pixels)
Medium (84 pixels)
Large (114 pixels)
User Defined
Minimum resolution = 20 pixels
Maximum resolution = 200 pixels
•
•
•
•
78
Open Images in Fit
to Window Mode
If this option is selected, the SPOT program automatically sizes images to fit the available
screen space when you open or capture an image. Thus, you can immediately see the entire
image without having to zoom out. This is especially useful with smaller monitors.
Add Extensions to
File Names on Save
(Mac)
When selected, the Add Extensions to File Names on Save option automatically appends
the file type extension (e.g., JPG, tif, bmp, etc…) to your image file. This enables cross
platform file sharing, because Windows based programs require a file type extension, while
Mac based programs do not. Once the file type extension is added, Windows based programs
can recognize the Mac file.
Monitor Camera
Color Filter Position
(RT Slider)
Determine whether to monitor the position of the color filter (RT Slider cameras only).
The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position box is checked as a default. If this option is left
checked, the SPOT program displays error messages when the sensors in the camera head
detect that the color filter is not in the correct position. This option does not monitor the
position of the filter slider in Live Image mode. In Basic mode, the program will give you an
error message if you are capturing an image and the sliding color filter is in the B/W position.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Table of Contents
Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture
Introduction: What is an Image Setup?..........80
Accessing the Image Setup Window .............80
Image Setup Options ......................................83
QUICK REFERENCE:
!"Define a template (Image Setup) for image
captures… p. 83
Name..............................................................83
Acquired Image............................................83
Bits per Pixel ........................................... 83
Palette (8 bpp and 12 bpp) ................. 84
Exposure .........................................................85
Type: Auto vs. User-Defined Exposure.. 85
Use Filter (RT Slider; 8 and 12 bit
mono) ................................................... 86
Filter Color (RT Color; 8 and 12 bit
mono) .................................................... 87
Use: Red Green Blue (RT Slider, RT
Color; 24 and 36 bit RGB) ..................... 87
Color Order (RT Slider, RT Color; 24
and 36 bit RGB) ..................................... 88
Binning.................................................... 88
Image Type (Auto-Exposure)................ 89
Auto-Gain Limit (Auto-Exposure).......... 89
Adjustment Factor (Auto-Exposure)..... 90
White Balance (RT Slider, RT Color;
Auto-Exposure, 24 and 36 bit RGB) ...... 91
Exposure Time(s) (User Defined
Exposure) ............................................... 92
Gain (User-Defined Exposure) .............. 93
External Shutter Lag .............................. 94
Minimum Exposure ................................ 95
Chip Imaging Area.......................................95
Post-Processing..............................................97
!"Specify which colors are exposed for a
monochrome image capture… p. 87
!"Specify which colors are exposed for a color
image capture… p. 87
!"Define the image capture process to over or
under-expose an image… p. 90
!"Ensure that the white areas of an image capture
turn out white… p. 91
!"Manually enter exposure time(s)… p. 92
!"Define an area within the image that you want
to capture… p. 95
!"Define the image capture process to
automatically lighten (gamma adjust) dark
areas of an image capture… p. 98
!"Determine the on-screen orientation of an
image capture… p. 101
Black Level Subtract (12 BPP)
(12 bit mono) ......................................... 97
Color Enhancement/Fluorescence
Images ................................................... 98
Chip Defect Correction........................ 98
Noise Filter.............................................. 98
Gamma Adjust...................................... 98
Image Size Double .............................. 101
Rotate .................................................. 101
Horizontal Flip....................................... 101
Vertical Flip .......................................... 101
Background Subtract.......................... 101
Flatfield Correct................................... 103
Locked......................................................... 104
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
79
Accessing the Image Setup Window
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Introduction: What is an Image Setup?
An image setup serves two crucial purposes:
•
It defines the way a picture will be taken.
•
It defines the way a picture will be modified after it is taken.
Image setups are defined to optimize the picture taking process for different types of images or microscopy
techniques. They can be created, saved, and recalled as needed.
Accessing the Image Setup Window
To define a new image setup or to edit an existing setup, follow these steps:
1.
From the Setup menu, select the Image Setups option.
The Image Setups window appears. Either doubleclick on a setup to open it, or select one of the
following options:
−
Add - To create a new image setup, click on
Add. The New Image Setup dialog box appears
with a list of templates (image types) that serve
as the basis for the new image setup.
−
Modify - To edit an existing image setup, select
a setup from the list, and click on Modify. The
Image Setup window appears.
−
Delete - To delete an image setup, select a setup
from the list and click on Delete.
−
Current – To make a setup the active setup,
select the setup from the list and click on
Current.
−
Close - To exit the dialog box, click on Close.
Shortcuts: You can quickly access the Image Setup window by right clicking the drop-down box in the
bottom right corner of your screen. The box displays the name of the current (active) Image Setup.
−
To change the current (active) image setup, left click on the tab and select the new Image
Setup.
−
To define a new image setup or to modify an existing image setup, right click on the box, and
select Add.
−
To modify the current image setup, right click on the box and select modify.
− To access the current image setup, press [F12].
80
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Accessing the Image Setup Window
If you select the Add option (i.e. to create a new image setup), the
New Image Setup window appears. The pre-defined templates
(image types) are indicated by brackets < >, while user-defined
setups appear without brackets:
RT Mono/SE6
2.
RT Monochrome and SE6 camera users will not
see the fluorescence – red, fluorescence – green,
and fluorescence – blue Image Type options.
Select an image type from the list.
The 14 pre-defined image types (in addition to the Factory
Defaults setting) correspond to commonly used microscopy
techniques. To define a new image setup, you must also select
an image type as a template for defining the new setup. The image type provides a baseline set of
values for that setup, according to the microscopy technique you are using. The following table
describes SPOT’s pre-defined image types:
Image Type
Description
Brightfield-transmitted light
Stained specimens on glass slides using transmitted light microscopes.
Darkfield-transmitted light
Bright specimens on dark backgrounds using transmitted light darkfield
technique.
Fluorescence
Fluorescence specimens not fluorescing in a single red, green, or blue
primary color. The camera expose images using all three colors.
Fluorescence – red
Fluorescence specimens fluorescing in red. Exposure time is reduced
because only one color is exposed.
Fluorescence – green
Fluorescence specimens fluorescing in green. Exposure time is
reduced because only one color is exposed.
Fluorescence – blue
Fluorescence specimens fluorescing in blue. Exposure time is reduced
because only one color is exposed.
Nomarksi DIC/Hoffman
Nomarski and Hoffman are polarized light techniques that require
proper camera orientation. Refer to Appendix H: SPOT RT Cameras
and Polarized Light Microscopy for details.
Phase contrast
Specimens being viewed using the phase contrast technique.
Polarized light
Polarized light techniques require proper camera orientation. Refer to
Appendix H: SPOT RT Cameras and Polarized Light Microscopy for
details.
Brightfield-reflected light
Polished metallurgical specimens and semi-conductors using a
microscope with a vertical illuminator.
Darkfield-reflected light
Bright areas of specimens being viewed with darkfield, reflected light
techniques.
Stereo/macro–no glints
Matte specimens without bright glints.
Stereo/macro–shiny glints
Shiny specimens with bright glints.
Stereo/macro-metallic glints
Metallic specimens with intense glints.
RT Slider
When the liquid crystal color filter has been moved out of the light path, RT Slider users may notice a
diffuse bright area on non-fluorescence image captures. This is due to infrared light that is transmitted
when the filter is out of the light path. Our infrared filter is bonded to the liquid crystal color filter: when the
color filter is moved out of the light path, the infrared filter is also moved. To correct this problem, you
should use an external infrared filter.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
81
Accessing the Image Setup Window
3.
82
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Click on OK.
The Image Setup window appears. Note that the Image Type that you selected appears in a drop down
box in the Exposure options part of the screen.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Image Setup Options
Image Setup Options
The Image Setup window consists of five sections:
•
•
•
•
•
Name
Acquired Image
Exposure
Chip Imaging Area
Post Processing
Name
Use this box to enter the name of a new image setup, or to modify the name of an existing setup. If you
modify the name of an existing setup, the program prompts you (when you click OK) to save this as a new
setup or overwrite the original setup.
Acquired Image
The Acquired Image section options enable you to define the characteristics of captured images. This
includes:
•
•
Bits per Pixel
Palette (8 bpp and 12 bpp images only)
Bits per Pixel
Bits per pixel, or pixel bit depth, is the number of bits per pixel (bpp) that the camera uses to create an
image. The SPOT program provides different options, depending on which RT camera model you are
using.:
• RT Color/Slider - 8 bpp, 12 bpp, 24 bpp, and 36 bpp.
• RT Mono/SE6 - 8 bpp and 12 bpp.
• RT KE Color Mosaic – 24 bpp, and 36 bpp.
The 24 bpp RGB color setting is the most common selection because it is an industry standard color format
that is used by Windows and most printers. Most monitors cannot display more than 24 bpp.
Select the Bits per pixel by clicking on the drop-down box. Because your selection determines whether
your image will be monochrome or color, it also determines the available exposure options. The Exposure
section of the Image Setup window changes accordingly.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
83
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
The following table lists the available image depth options and describes some of the potential uses,
advantages, and disadvantages associated with each setting.
Pixel Bit Depth Settings
8 bpp (monochrome)
Characteristics
The 8 bit setting is often used in cases where 256 gray levels are adequate. The
lower number of bits per pixel results in smaller, more manageable file sizes.
A typical 8 bpp image is…
12 bpp (monochrome)
1.83 Mb (KAI- 2000 chip)
1.57 Mb (KAI-2092 chip)
The greater number of bits per pixel in the 12 bit setting provides users with 4096
gray levels. This provides a more accurate means of measuring brightness in a
monochrome image, and helps to reduce banding problems that often appear when
an image is modified.
A typical 12 bpp image is… 2.75 Mb (KAI- 2000 chip)
2.35 Mb (KAI-2092 chip)
24 bpp (RGB color)
The 24 bit setting provides 8 bits per color, per pixel (i.e., 8 x 3 = 24). As noted, 24
bpp is the most common choice because it is an industry standard in terms of
printing, the Windows operating system, and monitor display.
A typical 24 bpp image is… 5.49 Mb (KAI-2000 chip)
4.70 Mb (KAI-2092 chip)
36 bpp (RGB color)
The 36 bit setting provides 12 bits per color, per pixel (i.e., 12 x 3 = 36). 36 bpp is
used in cases where images are heavily modified. The 36 bit setting provides users
with 4096 brightness levels per color and thereby reduces banding problems when
images are stretched.
A typical 36 bpp image is… 8.24 Mb (KAI-2000 chip)
7.05 Mb (KAI-2092 chip)
Palette (8 bpp and 12 bpp)
Error! Bookmark not defined.SPOT color palettes allow you to apply specific hue and saturation values
to monochrome (8 bit or 12 bit) images. Palettes are useful in fluorescence applications where a sample is
fluorescing at a single wavelength, and you want the acquired image to have the correct color. For such a
case, you could create a palette to represent the color of the fluorescent dye and then apply that palette to
the captured image. The Palette option on the Image Setup window allows you to automatically apply a
palette to a monochrome image capture.
#
Note: Applying a color palette to an image capture does not affect image data.
To apply a palette, select one from the drop down list. There are four pre-defined palettes: Red, Green,
Blue, and Grayscale. Because the Palettes option applies only to monochrome images, it is available only
when either an 8 bpp or 12 bpp Pixel Bit Depth is selected. You can define custom palettes using the
Palettes option on the Setup men. Refer to Ch. 4 – The Advanced Program Mode for more information.
RT KE Color
Mosaic
84
RT KE Color Mosiac camera users will not see the Palette option.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Image Setup Options
Exposure
The Exposure options tell the camera what settings to use when taking a picture. Carefully considered
definition of these settings helps to ensure that your images come out as planned.
#
Note: The available exposure options vary according to the selected Pixel Bit Depth.
Type: Auto vs. User-Defined Exposure
With the SPOT camera, you can either allow the camera to calculate exposure time (Auto), or you can
calculate the exposure on your own (User – Defined).
•
When you select Auto, the camera samples light levels (as the initial part of the image capture) and
uses the values to calculate the final exposure time.
•
When you select User – Defined, you have three options:
−
You can type in values for the red, green, and blue exposure times.
−
You can use the Compute Exposure option to calculate and insert the exposure times (and gain)
for you.
You can use the Recall Previous Exposure option to recall and insert the exposure times and gain
used for the last picture.
−
The following table compares the available exposure options for automated and user defined exposures at
all four image depth settings.
Bits per Pixel = 8 bpp/12 bpp (mono)
AutoExposure
UserDefined
Exposure
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
85
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Bits per Pixel = 24 bpp/36 bpp (RGB)
AutoExposure
UserDefined
Exposure
#
Note: The exposure options illustrated in the above table do not show all of the possible displays.
The sections that follow detail all of the Exposure options. If an option is available only for specific RT
camera models, only at certain pixel bit depths, or only for either automated or user-defined exposure, this
is indicated parenthetically next to the heading.
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosiac camera users will not see the Use Filter, Filter Color, Use: Red Green Blue, or Color
Order options.
Use Filter (RT Slider; 8 and 12 bit mono)
The Use Color Filter option specifies the position of the color filter for image captures, as well as the color
that will be exposed in the image capture. The Use Filter option does not change the position of the filter:
this must be done by physically sliding the filter to the desired position. If the Use Color Filter setting does
not match the filter’s position, SPOT prompts you with an error message. However, this error message
appears only if the Monitor Camera Color Filter Position option on the Preferences window (see Ch. 4) is
selected.
To specify the Use Filter settings, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the Bits per Pixel is set to either 8 bpp or 12 bpp.
2.
Specify the position of the color filter:
−
3.
86
To specify that the sliding color filter will be in the light path, ensure that the Use Color Filter box
is selected. Go to step three.
− To specify that the sliding color filter will be out of the light path, deselect the Use Color Filter
box. Go to step four.
Specify the color that will be used.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
4.
Image Setup Options
Ensure that the color filter is in the correct position.
−
−
If you are using the filter, the RT slider knob should be in the COLOR position.
If you are capturing an unfiltered image, the RT slider knob should be in the B/W position.
Filter Color (RT Color; 8 and 12 bit mono)
Filter Color specifies the color of the filter that will be used when taking a monochrome picture.
To ensure a high image quality, SPOT users should select the color that is closest to the color of the
specimen. For example, if you are looking at a single stained fluorescence, selecting the color filter that
most closely matches the color of the stain shortens the time it takes to acquire the image. In addition,
SPOT RT cameras feature a second generation liquid crystal filter that allows all three colors (e.g., red,
green, and blue) to be transmitted. This is the Clear option.
#
Note: Selecting the Clear option does not provide the entirely unfiltered image that is possible with
the RT Slider camera. Although all three colors are transmitted, the polarizing filter, which is part
of the liquid crystal filter, and the IR filter remain in the light path, blocking some of the light.
When using the Live Image window to focus or position dim images, RT Slider users can slide the
filter out to provide higher frame rates and less noisy images.
To select a the filter color for capturing a monochrome image, follow these steps:
1. Ensure that the Pixel Bit Depth is set to either 8 (mono) or 12 (mono).
2. Click on either the Auto-Exposure or the User-Defined Exposure option.
3. Select one of the following options:
− Red
− Green
− Blue
− Clear
Use: Red Green Blue (RT Slider, RT Color; 24 and 36 bit RGB)
Use: Red Green Blue specifies the colors that will be exposed. For most situations, you should select all
three colors. However, in situations where you know that your specimen lacks one or two of the colors,
you can avoid the additional exposure and download time by “turning off” (deselecting) the missing colors.
For example, if you have a pumpkin colored fluorescence sample with no blue in it, you can deselect the
blue value. The camera only exposes the red and green values.
#
Note: When you add a new 24 bpp or 36 bpp image setup, all three colors are selected as the
default.
To set the color filters for capturing a color (RGB) image, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
Ensure that the Pixel Bit Depth is set to either 24 (color) or 36 (color).
Click on either the Auto-Exposure or the User-Defined Exposure option.
Deselect one or two of the color option boxes, or leave all three checked.
− Red
− Green
− Blue
To save the image setup, at least one color must be selected.
RT Slider
If capturing an unfiltered image, it does not matter which color you select.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
87
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Color Order (RT Slider, RT Color; 24 and 36 bit RGB)
In addition to allowing you to specify specific exposure colors, the SPOT camera allows you to specify the
order in which the colors are exposed. This feature is particularly useful for triple stained fluorescence
samples, where one color dye might fade before the others. For example, if a green dye fades first, you can
set green to be the first exposure, thereby catching the green parts of the sample before they fade. To set
the Color Order for an image capture, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
Select the color or colors that you want to expose for the picture.
Click on the Color Order scroll bar.
Select the Color Order that you want to use.
#
Note: The default Color Order setting for a full color image is RGB.
Binning
Binning is a pre-exposure option that tells the camera to combine adjacent pixels on the CCD chip. The
camera treats each set of combined pixels as one large pixel. The large pixels accumulate electrons faster
and are therefore more sensitive to light. Binning has three effects on image processing:
•
•
•
Light sensitivity is increased.
Download time is decreased.
Resolution is decreased.
Binning is particularly helpful when you want to drastically reduce exposure and download times for dim
images and you don’t mind a decreased resolution. This gives you higher frame rates and less noisy images.
The SPOT camera offers four binning options, as illustrated below:
Binning Options
Combined Pixels on the CCD Chip
None
2x2
(4 pixels = 1)
3x3
(9 pixels = 1)
4 x4
(16 pixels =1)
Figure 5- 1: Binning Options
RT KE Color
Mosaic
88
For RT KE Color Mosaic users, binning options are available only when a monochrome (8 bpp or 12 bpp)
pixel bit depth is selected. Users can select from the 2x2 and 4x4 options.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Image Setup Options
Image Type (Auto-Exposure)
When using Auto-Exposure, the SPOT software provides 11 image type settings that correspond to various
types of microscopy. The image type that you enter when creating a new setup appears on the Image Setup
window. You can enter a new Image Type from the Image Setup window. Refer to the Accessing the
Image Setup Window section of this chapter for descriptions of the different image types.
Auto-Gain Limit (Auto-Exposure)
Normally an auto exposure routine in a digital camera sets the exposure time so that the brightest pixel on
the CCD chip is completely “filled” with electrons, or is “full well”. This simple technique works well for
bright images, but as an image gets dimmer, exposure times can get uncomfortably long. With the SPOT
camera you can shorten exposure times by filling the brightest pixel on the CCD to less than full well, and
then using this lower level as full scale. The inverse fraction of full well that the brightest pixel on the
CCD is filled to is known as the gain. For example, filling a pixel to half of full well cuts the exposure time
in half. Since the exposure time is cut in half, we call this a gain of 2.
The Auto-Gain Limit feature allows you to set an upper limit on the gain options that will be available
during the Auto-Exposure process.
#
Note: The User-Defined Exposure option allows you to precisely set the gain for an image
capture.
For example, with an Auto-Gain Limit of 16 the camera can “choose” from the full range of gain options.
However, if you find that gains of 8 or 16 are too noisy for your images, you can prevent the camera from
selecting these options by setting the Auto-Gain Limit to four. When the Auto-Gain Limit option is set to
four, the camera is limited to the lower three gain options: 1, 2, or 4. The following table illustrates the five
levels of gain, the fraction of full well that the brightest pixel is filled to for each level, and a sample
exposure time for each level:
Gain
Fraction of Full Well
Exposure Time (sample)
1
1
80 seconds
2
½
40 seconds
4
¼
20 seconds
8
1/8
10 seconds
16
1/16
5 seconds
Table 5- 1: Gain Settings
#
Note: If you select 36 bpp as the pixel bit depth, Gain values/Auto-Gain Limits of 16 are not
available.
Higher gain levels for dim images significantly reduce exposure time. For each doubling of gain number,
exposure time is halved. Thus, an image with an exposure time of 5 minutes at full scale (a gain of 1)
would take only 1.25 minutes at a gain of 4. Unfortunately, background noise increases proportionally to
the gain. Thus, the shortened exposure time would result in an image with four times the amount of
background noise.
The following table illustrates the relationship between gain, exposure time, and background noise:
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
89
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Auto-Gain
Limit
Possible Auto –
Gain Settings
Exposure Time
(dim images)
Background Noise
(dim images)
1
1
Longest
Lowest
2
1, 2
$
%
4
1, 2, 4
$
%
8
1, 2, 4, 8
$
%
16
1, 2, 4, 8, 16
Shortest
Highest
Table 5- 2: Relationship Between Gain, Exposure Time and Background Noise
To set the Auto-Gain Limit, follow these steps:
1.
2.
Ensure that the camera is set to use the Auto-Exposure option.
Click on the Auto-Gain Limit select list, and select the number that you want to limit the gain to.
For more information on the concept of gain, refer to Appendix A: Electronic Imaging Theory and the
SPOT Cameras.
Adjustment Factor (Auto-Exposure)
Use the Adjustment Factor option to modify the automated exposure settings determined by the SPOT
camera. The Adjustment Factor defaults to a setting of 1 (i.e., 1x the exposure times determined by the
Auto-Exposure setting). The Adjustment Factor is used to deliberately over-expose or under-expose an
image.
•
If an image that you captured (using the default Auto-Exposure settings) comes out too bright or too
dark, you can re-capture the image using a different Adjustment Factor to compensate for the excess
brightness or darkness.
•
If you use the SPOT camera to take pictures of printed circuit boards or other metallic objects, the
Adjustment Factor allows you to over-expose the image in order to burn out the glints that appear
when capturing images of metallic objects. Over-exposing the glints is necessary to correctly expose
the non-glinted areas.
To set the adjustment factor, enter a number between .25 and 32.
•
Values greater than 1 overexpose the image.
•
Values less than 1 underexpose the image.
CAUTION!
To avoid blooming problems in cases where you have entered an Adjustment Factor of 2 or
higher, you should ensure that the Auto-Gain Limit is set to 16.
90
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Image Setup Options
White Balance (RT Slider, RT Color; Auto-Exposure, 24 and 36 bit RGB)
White balance is the ratio of red, green, and blue exposure times necessary to achieve the proper color
rendition for an image. Many factors impact the coloration of an image capture, including lamp voltage,
the coloration of the glass used in the slide, and the coloration of the glass used in the lenses of the
microscope’s objectives. To minimize the impact of these factors, use the Compute White Balance feature.
When you perform a white balance calculation, SPOT samples the color of the light from your light source
after it has passed through the slide and the objective, and then calculates the exposure values needed to
produce images where the white areas are white and the color areas are true.
You should perform a new white balance calculation when:
•
•
•
Starting a new image capture session.
Changing the lamp voltage.
Switching to a different objective on the microscope.
When you open an image setup, the Image Setup screen displays the white balance values that were last
saved to the Image Setup. If you capture an image without computing a new white balance, SPOT uses
these default values.
To compute new white balance values for an image setup, follow these steps:
1. Set the illumination and the objective that you will use for the image capture.
2.
Show the camera a sample of white light. This step varies according to microscopy technique and
sample type, as shown in the table below:
Image Type
White Balance Technique
Brightfieldtransmitted light
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
Darkfieldtransmitted light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
transmitted light above.
Fluorescence
Use the Match Color feature. Refer to Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for more
information.
Nomarksi
DIC/Hoffman
For Nomarski DIC: Adjust the Nomarski prism until the image is in either the “brightfield” or the
“gray scale” view.
For Hoffman: Perform the white balance directly on the Hoffman image.
Because both of these techniques use polarized light, and because the color filter in the SPOT
camera uses a polarizer, the camera must have the correct rotational orientation with respect to
the polarized light microscope. Refer to Appendix H: SPOT RT Cameras and Polarized Light
Microscopy for details.
Phase contrast
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
Polarized light
Pull all polarizers and compensators out of the light path and then position the slide so that the
specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide near the specimen.
Because the color filter in the SPOT camera uses a polarizer, the camera must have the correct
rotational orientation with respect to the polarized light microscope. Refer to Appendix H: SPOT
RT Cameras and Polarized Light Microscopy for details.
Brightfieldreflected light
Replace your sample with a mirror.
Darkfieldreflected light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
reflected light above.
Stereo
Using an EPI-illuminator (shining a light on the top of your specimen from off to one side), replace
your sample with a white sheet of paper.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
91
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
3.
From the Camera menu, select the Compute White Balance Values option, or use the toolbar and click
on the Compute White Balance Values button. The Compute White Balance window
appears.
4.
Click on Begin to start the calculation. The
message Computing white balance values
displays, as the camera samples the light.
When the camera finishes calculating the white
balance values, SPOT displays the computed
white balance values.
#
Note: Due to the inherently poor blue
light sensitivity of CCD chips and the
energy distribution of halogen bulbs, the
blue value is often much higher than the
red and green values.
5.
To change the setup that the new white balance values are saved to, select a setup from the drop down box.
6.
Click on OK. The program returns to the main editing and viewing window.
7.
To edit the white balance values that you saved, open the image setup (i.e., Brightfield from the
previous example). The values should appear in the Red, Green, and Blue selection bars. Edit the
values as needed.
Exposure Time(s) (User Defined Exposure)
There are three options for entering user-defined exposure times. With the SPOT camera, you can:
•
•
•
Manually enter the value(s).
Allow the camera to calculate the value(s).
Recall the exposure times and the gain used for the previous image capture.
When you select the User-Defined option on the Image Setup, default values appear for the Exposure
Time(s).
To manually enter new exposure value(s) follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the User-Defined Exposure box is selected.
2.
Select either the msec (milliseconds) option or the sec (seconds) button.
3.
Either use the selection arrows or type in a value (in seconds) for the exposure time.
− The minimum exposure time is 1 milliseconds (.001 seconds) per color.
− The maximum exposure time is 536,000 milliseconds (536 seconds) per color.
4.
Click on OK to save the settings.
To have the camera calculate the exposure time, follow these steps:
92
1.
Close the Image Setup window.
2.
Close the Image Setups dialog box.
3.
From the Camera menu, select Compute Exposure.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
4.
Image Setup Options
The Exposure Settings for the current image
setup appear. If you decide to change the
settings, you can do so from the Compute
Exposure window. Any changes that you make
will be saved to the current setup.
#
Note: For information on
entering Image Type, AutoGain Limit, Adjustment
Factor, and Minimum
Exposure, refer to the
appropriate section in this
chapter.
5.
Click on Begin. The Status message changes to Computing
exposure… as the camera samples the light. When the camera
finishes, the Exposure window displays the calculated exposure
times and gain.
6.
Select an image setup from the Save to Setup scroll bar. The
current image setup is the default.
7.
Click on OK. When you open the Image Setup window, the new
exposure value(s) appear.
#
Note: When you save the calculated exposure values to an
image setup, it automatically changes the setup from Auto
to User Defined.
To recall the exposure times and gain from the previously captured image, follow these steps:
1.
From the Camera menu, select the Recall Previous Exposure option. The Exposure window displays
the exposure times and gain used for the previously captured image
2.
Select the setup that you want to save the exposure settings to, and click on OK. The settings are saved
to the image setup that you specify.
#
Note: When you save the previously used exposure values to an image setup, it automatically
changes the setup from Auto to User Defined.
Gain (User-Defined Exposure)
When you define your own Exposure, you can enter the precise gain that the camera will use for an image
capture. You can enter a specific gain in one of three ways:
•
You can manually enter the gain by selecting one of the five gain options from the selection list.
•
You can let the camera compute the best gain (and exposure times) by using the Compute Exposure
feature (see the previous section).
•
You can use the Recall Previous Exposure feature to recall the gain from the previous image capture
(see the previous section).
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
93
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
To manually enter a gain, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the User-Defined Exposure option is checked.
2.
Select one of the five gain options from the list. If the pixel bit depth is set to 12 bpp or 36 bpp, the 16
gain value is unavailable.
To use the gain that the camera selects, follow the steps (in the previous section) listed for computing
exposure times. The Exposure window, in addition to the optimal exposure times, displays an optimal
gain. This gain is automatically added to the image setup that you specify in the Save to Setup box.
#
Note: The Compute Exposure window displays the Auto-Gain limit defined for the current image
setup. This limits the gain options that the camera can choose from. If you do not want to use the
Auto-Gain Limit shown, it can be changed from the Compute Exposure window.
External Shutter Lag
When using an external shutter - to
shutter a fluorescence illuminator,
for example - there is a delay
between the application of voltage
and the shutter opening to 100 %, as
is the case with any mechanical
shutter (see the graph at right). This
delay between the application of
voltage and the full opening of the
shutter is referred to as the external
shutter lag. SPOT RT cameras
feature electronic shutters that open
almost instantaneously. When using
an external shutter with a SPOT RT
camera, then, the SPOT shutter
needs to be delayed until the mechanical shutter is
fully open. To avoid triggering the electronic shutter
Figure 5- 2: External Shutter Lag Time
before the external shutter has had a chance to open
fully, check the External Shutter Lag box, and enter the external shutter lag time value in milliseconds.
To determine the correct value, refer to the specifications guide that accompanies the external shutter.
94
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Image Setup Options
Minimum Exposure
Because SPOT Insight cameras are capable of extremely short exposure times, light sources with intensities
that vary with the waveform of the 60 Hz line supply (e.g., fluorescent lamps 120 volt incandescent bulbs,
and 6 volt 20 watt halogen lamps) can cause the Live Image window to flicker and result in incorrect
brightness and color balance
16.6 ms per cycle
readings in captured images.
Power Line
Frequency (60 Hz)
The Minimum Exposure option
allows you to correct for these
8.3 ms
problems by limiting the
per cycle
camera to a minimum exposure
time that is greater than the
Fluorescent Light
Intensity
pulse interval of the light
source. Consider the
illustration to the right. In this
case, the pulse interval of the
fluorescent light source is 8.3
Typical Exposure < 8.3 ms
ms. Entering a Minimum
Value of 10 ms ensures that the
camera’s exposure time is
greater than the interval
Minimum Exposure
Setting > 10 ms
between the pulses of the light
source. To enter a minimum
exposure, ensure that you have
selected the Auto-Exposure
option, check the Minimum
Figure 5- 3: Setting a Minimum Exposure to Accommodate
Exposure box, and enter a value
Varied Light Sources (Advanced Mode)
in milliseconds.
#
Note: For countries with 50 Mhz power line frequency, a minimum exposure of 15 ms is
recommended.
Chip Imaging Area
SPOT allows you to use
any rectangular portion of
the CCD chip for image
capture. Using a portion
of the chip is helpful in
cases where you want to:
•
•
•
Keep file sizes small.
Shorten download times.
Avoid areas of the image with optical problems (e.g., vignetting).
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
95
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
There are three image area options:
•
Full Chip – Capture the entire area of the CCD chip.
•
Center – Capture a rectangular part of the CCD chip’s area that has the same height - to - width ratio
as the full chip, and is centered on the center of the full chip. The percentage that you enter is the
percentage of full chip width that the new area’s width will be.
To capture a centered proportion of an image, follow these steps:
a) On the Image Setup window, check the Center option.
•
b)
Enter the percentage of the image that you want to capture. The minimum percentage is 10 and
the maximum is 100.
c)
Click on OK to save the image setup.
Region –Capture a specific part of the CCD chip.
If you have pre-determined the exact pixel values of the area that you want capture, follow these
steps:
a) On the Image Setup window, check Region.
b)
Enter the pixel values for the Left and Right columns and the Top and Bottom rows that form the
boundaries of the region that you want to define.
c)
Click on OK. The camera captures the region that you selected.
If you do not know the exact pixel values of the area that you want to capture, do the following:
a) Click on the Full Chip option.
b) From the Camera menu, select the Get Image (exposure from setup) option. The image capture
appears on the screen.
c) Position the cursor at the upper left edge of the image region that
you want to define.
d) Press and hold the left mouse button, and drag the cursor across
the screen. SPOT highlights the area that you selected with a
dotted border.
e) From the Camera menu, select the Set Chip Imaging Region
option. The Chip Imaging Region window displays the pixel
values for the region that you selected.
f)
Either click OK to save the region values to the current image
setup, or select a different image setup.
96
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Image Setup Options
Post-Processing
The final aspect of defining an image setup is to determine the post-processing adjustments (corrections)
that you want the SPOT camera/software to make. Each option is described in the following sections.
Black Level Subtract (12 BPP) (12 bit mono)
The amplifier in the Spot camera has been adjusted so that the average black (no light) pixel value is
between 20 and 25, rather than zero for 12 bit (4,095 full scale) downloads. This offset is called the black
level (sometimes referred to as the “pedestal”). Before each picture, the camera samples the black level by
taking a picture with the shutter closed. The software then downloads the pixel values in the first row of
the CCD chip, averages them, and stores this value as the black level. When capturing 8-bit monochrome,
24-bit RGB and 36-bit RGB images, the software automatically subtracts the black level from all pixel
values so that black pixels are 0 (black) rather than 20-25 (dark gray), and colors are represented
accurately.
When capturing 12-bit monochrome images, you can turn off the automatic Black Level Subtract. This is a
useful option in cases where you need high accuracy brightness measurements. For example, you may
want to adjust the black level of an image on a pixel-by-pixel basis by subtracting a second picture, taken
with no light (a “dark frame”), from the original image. When high accuracy measurements are needed, the
automatic Black Level Subtract is a problematic because the Black Level is an average of a sampling of
black pixel values. Some values are higher, and some values are lower than the average. Subtracting this
average value from a black pixel value that is lower than average would normally result in a negative value.
But, since there are no negative values, the result is arbitrarily set to zero and the actual value is lost. This
diminishes the accuracy of measurements.
There are two situations in the SPOT software where the automatic Black Level Subtract is always turned
off:
• When you are acquiring background images (the Get Background Image menu option) and 12 bit
mono is selected as the Pixel Bit Depth on the Image Setup window.
•
When you are capturing 12 bit mono images and the Background Subtract option is selected on the
Image Setup window.
When you define a new 12 bit monochrome image setup, the Black Level Subtract box is, as a default,
checked. To turn off the program's automatic Black Level subtraction, deselect the Black Level Subtract
box.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
97
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Color Enhancement/Fluorescence Images
The Color Enhancement option optimizes image captures by closely matching the final capture to the
image as seen through the microscope. To optimize the final image, the SPOT program processes the raw
image data to produce a final image that matches the view seen through the microscope.
#
Note: Color Enhancement adjustments are not reflected in the live image view –they appear
only in captured images. Refer to Ch. 6 – Using Live Images for more details.
Chip Defect Correction
When you capture an image, the SPOT program automatically compensates for CCD chip defects, so that
they do not appear on your images. The Chip Defect Correction option allows you to turn off this automatic
correction. This can be useful in cases when you are performing quantitative measurements of pixel
brightness values and need to see precisely where chip defects are. The Chip Defect Correction box is, as a
default, checked when you define a new image setup. To turn off the program's automatic chip correction,
deselect the Chip Defect Correction box.
Noise Filter
The Noise Filter corrects for the effects of electrical or thermal noise. The Noise Filter eliminates single,
isolated pixel values that appear out of place due to electrical or thermal noise by checking each pixel on
the CCD chip as described below:
1.
The program compares the red value of each pixel with the red values of the eight neighboring pixels.
2.
If none of the eight neighboring pixels has a red value within ± x% (x is the Threshold value that you
enter) of the red value for the pixel being checked, the red value for the pixel being checked is replaced
with the average red value of the eight neighboring pixels.
3.
The program repeats this procedure for the green and blue values of the pixel being checked.
To activate the Noise Filter, check the Noise Filter box, and enter a value between 10 and 100. The default
value is 50%. The program runs the noise filter each time an image is captured with that image setup.
Gamma Adjust
Gamma Adjust smoothly lightens darker areas of an image without burning out bright areas or lightening
black areas. This is especially useful for capturing/editing images with a wide range of brightness values
(dynamic range) such as:
•
Fluorescence specimens
•
Macroscopic objects with glints, such as printed circuitry
When the bright areas of these types of images are correctly exposed, the darker areas can be so dark that
they are in effect invisible. Gamma Adjust can remedy this problem. The figures on the following page
illustrate the effect of a gamma adjust on a fluorescent image. The image on the left is the original image,
prior to the gamma adjust. The image on the right has been gamma adjusted to a value of 1.75. In this
instance, the gamma adjustment results in a better display of detail by lightening the darker areas without
burning out bright areas or lightening black areas:
98
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Image Setup Options
Fluorescence image, no gamma adjustment
Fluorescence image, gamma adjusted to 1.75
Figure 5- 4: Effects of Gamma Adjustment on a Fluorescence Image
full scale
Pixel Value - New Image
Gamma adjustment corrects an
image by creating a new version of
the original. To create the new
image, the Gamma Adjust function
reassigns the RGB values of each
pixel in the image according to the
curve in the graph at right. This
graph demonstrates the basic principles of gamma adjustment:
gamma > 1
Black (pixel value = 0)
remains black at all gamma
values.
•
White (pixel value = full
scale) remains white at all
gamma values.
•
Gamma values greater than
one lift the darker areas of the
original image into the
brighter areas of the new
image.
•
0
A gamma curve is smooth Pixel Value - Original Image
0
there are no unexpected jumps
or cutoffs. This means that
Figure 5- 5: Gamma Curve
when viewing a gamma adjusted image, you
will be able to see the details (intensity
differences) in both the black and white areas of the image.
ga
m
m
a
=
1
•
gamma < 1
full scale
On the Image Setup window, you can specify whether or not to automatically apply gamma adjustment to
an image capture. This process works well if you know in advance which gamma value works well for a
specific class of images. If you are not certain of the best gamma value, you can acquire non-gamma
adjusted images, and then use the HSL, HSV, or RGB gamma adjust options on the Edit menu and
experiment with the gamma adjust options to find an optimal value. Refer to Chapter 8 - Viewing,
Editing, and Annotating Images for details on using the gamma adjust options.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
99
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
To automatically gamma adjust an image after it is captured, follow these steps:
1.
Check the Gamma Adjust box on the Image Setup window.
2.
Enter a gamma value between .1 and 4.0. Although there is no formula for determining a gamma
value, gamma values are typically between 1.3 and 1.7
#
3.
Note: Although the gamma adjust option is typically used to lighten the mid-tones of an image,
entering a value between .1 and 1 will darken the mid-tones.
Select one of the following options:
− HSL
− HSV
− RGB
#
Note: If the pixel bit depth is set to a monochrome setting (e.g., 8 bpp or 12 bpp), or if you are
using an RT Mono or SE6 camera, the color space options are not available. Gamma adjustment
is automatically set to use RGB, the recommended color space for monochrome image editing.
HSL (Hue Saturation Luminance), HSV (Hue Saturation Value), and RGB (Red Green Blue) are three
different color spaces. A color space is any coordinate system that is used to mathematically represent
color.
−
The HSL color space is an intuitive model based on the three attributes that are common to all
colors: hue, saturation, and luminance. The HSL color space assigns a value for each color
attribute (e.g., hue, saturation, and luminance). In this color space the brightest saturated color is
considered to be 50 % luminance. Above 50 % luminance, saturated colors transition through
pastel shades before reaching pure white at 100 % luminance. This process mimics the natural
perception of objects illuminated by broadband light sources.
−
The HSV color space is similar to the HSL color space except that it uses value instead of
luminance. In this color space, the brightest saturated color is considered to be 100 % value.
This allows you to modify images that contain only saturated colors (e.g., fluorescence) without
changing the bright, saturated areas to pastel or white.
−
The RGB color space assigns a red, green, and blue value to each pixel in an image. This is the
method that color computer monitors use to display images.
The process by which the program applies gamma to an image capture differs according to the color
space that you select. The following table briefly describes how gamma is applied in each of the three
color spaces and lists situations where the use of one color space would be preferable to another.
Colorspace
HSL
HSV
RGB
100
Gamma Adjustment Process
1.
RGB pixel values are translated to HSL (hue,
saturation, and luminance) values.
2.
Gamma is applied to the luminance.
3.
The HSL values are translated back to the RGB pixels.
1.
RGB pixel values are translated to HSV (hue,
saturation, and value) values.
2.
Gamma is applied to the value.
3.
The HSV values are translated back to the RGB pixels.
Gamma is applied separately to the red, green, and blue
pixel values.
Recommended Usage
The HSL option is ideal for all
color images except
fluorescence images.
The HSV option is ideal for
fluorescence images.
The RGB option is ideal for
monochrome images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
4.
Image Setup Options
Click on OK to save the Gamma Adjust settings to the Image Setup.
When you capture an image using the setup, the program automatically gamma adjusts the image according
to the settings that you defined.
Image Size Double
When you select the Image Size Double feature, the camera interpolates between pixels to create an image
that is twice as large. The program reads the red, green, and blue brightness values for the original (e.g.,
1315 x 1033 pixel) image and interpolates those values to create a new image that has double the number of
columns and rows (e.g., 2630 x 2066 pixels). The red, green, and blue values for the additional pixels are
calculated based on the RGB values of the original pixels.
The Image Size Double feature helps to reduce the pixellation of fine detail that often results when you use
lower magnification objectives. When used with low magnification images, the additional pixels created
via the Image Size Double feature help to smooth out details; this results in a higher resolution appearance.
Rotate
The Rotate option allows you to define an image capture’s on-screen orientation. There are two options:
•
Right – The image is rotated clockwise 90 degrees.
•
Left – The image is rotated counterclockwise 90 degrees.
Horizontal Flip
To flip an image display from left to right, check the Horizontal Flip box..
#
Note: Horizontal Flip is also available as an Edit menu option – Flip Horizontal.
Vertical Flip
To flip an image from top to bottom, check the Vertical Flip box.
#
Note: Vertical Flip is also available as an Edit menu option – Flip Vertical.
Background Subtract
Background Subtract allows you to subtract a previously acquired Background Image from an image
capture. The Background Subtract option is useful when:
•
You want to eliminate the irritating background glow seen in some fluorescence images. Sometimes,
you will notice this glow while looking at the specimen under the microscope; other times, you will
only notice it after you have already captured an image.
•
You are doing high accuracy measurements in 12 bit monochrome and want to subtract a “dark frame”
from each image to adjust the black level of each pixel. Refer to the Black Level Subtract section of
this chapter for more details.
#
Note: If 12 bit mono is selected as the Pixel Bit Depth on the Image Setup window, the automatic
Black Level Subtract process is always turned off when acquiring background images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
101
Image Setup Options
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
The Background Subtract option works by taking two pictures of a slide, using the same exposure and gain
settings: a foreground image that contains the specimen and the background glow and a background image
that contains only the background glow. When you select the Background Subtract option, the program
subtracts the background image from the image of the specimen, thereby removing the background glow.
The figures below illustrate a fluorescence image before and after background subtraction:
Fluorescence sample prior to
background subtraction
Fluorescence sample after
background subtraction
Figure 5- 6: Fluorescence Sample Before and After Background Subtraction
To perform a background subtraction, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the specimen is under the desired objective and in focus.
2.
From the Camera menu, select Get Background Image.
3.
If the specimen is not in the objective’s field of view, move it into
place, and click on Begin. The Get Background Image dialog box
displays a status message, as the camera computes the exposure
time.
4.
When the program has finished computing the exposure time, a
dialog box prompts you to “Move to background”.
To capture the background image, move the slide so that only the background portion of the specimen
is in the field of view.
5.
Click on OK. The Get Background Image window displays the status as the background image is
captured.
6.
When the program finishes capturing the background image (i.e., the
image that will be subtracted from the final image of the specimen), it
prompts you for a file name. Enter a name in the File Name box.
Because background image files are different for each objective, you
might want to name the background file according to the objective's
magnification (e.g., 10x).
7.
Choose the file save location. The program automatically saves the
background image file to the c:\SpotCam\bkgdimgs directory
(Windows) or System Folder>Preferences>SPOT 3.x Prefs>Bkgdimgs (Mac). To specify a
different directory, click on the square to the right of the File Name box and browse for a location.
#
8.
102
Note: The default file location varies, depending on where you installed the SPOT program.
Specify the image setup that will be associated with this background image file when using
Background Subtract. The current setup is the default. When you open the setup, the Background
Subtract option is selected.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
9.
Image Setup Options
Click on OK.
10. Open the image setup that you specified when you saved the background image (e.g., BrightfieldTransmitted Light).
−
−
−
All of the Exposure and Chip Imaging Area options are disabled (grayed).
A checkmark appears in the Background Subtract box.
The directory path and background file name that you defined in steps eight and nine appear in the
Background Subtract dialog box.
11. Click on OK.
12. Move the specimen back into the field of view, and perform the image capture. Refer to Ch. 7 –
Taking a Picture, for more details on the image capture process.
Flatfield Correct
Flatfield Correct is used to correct for display problems associated with uneven intensity or coloration in
your illumination, or artifacts (e.g., dust) in your optical system. It is used mainly with lower magnification
brightfield images.
Flatfield correction works by taking a picture of the brightfield background without the specimen in the
field of view. This image lets the SPOT software know, on a pixel-by pixel basis, which areas in the field
of view are receiving less illumination than the brightest areas. When taking a picture that contains a
specimen, the software uses this information to accurately increase the brightness of each pixel in the dimly
illuminated areas. The resulting image gives the appearance of an even illumination.
Flatfield Correct is similar to Background Subtract in that it is a process that involves two images. In the
case of flatfield correction, the flatfield image and the final image are the two images.
#
Note: Flatfield correction with the SPOT camera refers only to the correction of uneven
lighting. It should not be confused with the correction of optical field flatness.
To use Flatfield Correct, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the specimen is under the desired objective and
in focus.
2.
From the Camera menu, select Get Flatfield Image. The
Get Flatfield dialog box appears.
3.
Remove the slide from the field of view.
4.
Click on Begin. When the program finishes computing the exposure times and acquiring the flatfield
file, the program prompts you to name and save the file:
a)
Enter a name in the File Name box. Because
flatfield image files are different for each objective,
you might want to name the file according to the
objective's magnification (e.g., 10x).
b) Specify the image setup that will be associated with
this flatfield image file when using the Flatfield
Correct option. The current setup is the default.
When you open the setup, the Flatfield Correct
option is selected.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
103
Image Setup Options
5.
Click on OK. If you do not c:\SpotCam\Fltflds directory (Windows) or
System Folder>Preferences>SPOT 3.x Prefs>Flatfields (Mac).
#
6.
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture
Note: The default file location varies, depending on where you installed the SPOT program.
Move the specimen back into the field of view, and perform the image capture. Refer to Ch. 7 – Taking
a Picture, for more details on the image capture process.
Locked
The Locked option allows you freeze the settings for an Image Setup that you have defined. This is useful
in cases where multiple users have access to the program and you want to preserve the settings that you
defined.
To lock an Image Setup, click on the Locked box. When another user opens the Image Setup, the settings
are unavailable for entry until the Locked box is unchecked. The Locked box and the appearance of the
window serves as a message that the settings should not be modified.
104
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Table of Contents
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
QUICK REFERENCE:
Using Live Images ......................................... 106
The Live Image View.................................. 107
Live Images are Different Than
Captured Images ...................................... 108
Live Image Controls................................... 108
Filter Color ............................................110
Display Images in Grayscale ..............110
Binning ..................................................110
Area......................................................110
Gamma................................................111
Exposure ...............................................111
!"View a real-time preview of your specimen/
image capture… p. 106
!"Pause the Live Image display… p. 107
!"Zoom in on a live image… p. 107
!"Transfer a real-time image preview directly to
the editing window… p. 108
!"Use the real-time preview to define how your
final image capture will look… p. 108
!"Adjust the real-time viewing settings… p. 108
!"Adjust the real-time preview for a dim image…
p. 110
!"View a real-time preview of a “piece” of an
image… p. 110
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
105
Using Live Images
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Using Live Images
The SPOT software allows you to view real-time black and white or color previews of your specimens –
i.e., your potential image captures. Using the Live Image preview, you can scan, zoom, focus, and frame
images so that they are optimally adjusted for the image capture. After focusing and positioning the image,
you can then capture it using one of three options:
•
Get Image (exposure from Setup) - Capture the image using the settings from the current Image
Setup and ignore the Live Image Controls values. This allows you to use one set of values for framing
and focusing an image and a different set of values for capturing the image.
•
Snap - Capture the image using the area, gamma, and exposure values from the Live Image Controls
dialog (see below) and the Post-Processing settings (e.g., Background Subtract, Rotate, etc…) from
the Image Setup window (see Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture). This is useful for two reasons.
First, you can adjust the live image until you see what you want. The Snap feature then uses these
settings to capture the image. Second, because the Snap option uses Live Image values, it allows you
to avoid the exposure computation that typically precedes image captures.
Note also, the following:
•
−
When using the Snap option to capture an image, gamma adjustments are always determined from
the Live Image Controls dialog setting.
−
If the Color Enhancement option is checked on the Image Setup window, the adjustment appears
only in the captured image. You will not see the effect of a color enhancement in the Live Image
view.
−
If you crop or zoom in on an image, the Snap option captures only the cropped or zoomed portion.
Transfer - You can Pause the live image view and Transfer (see below) the preview directly to the
SPOT editing window. This option is helpful in situations with rapidly changing samples. If you see
something that you like, you can pause the live image preview before it changes. Then, you can
transfer the paused image to a SPOT editing window and save it to file. Images saved in this way have
two restrictions. First, all transferred images are 8 bit per channel (color). Second, because live
images are read out via two amplifiers, the right and left sides of the image might not be perfectly
matched.
#
#
106
Note: With some video cards, you might experience system crashes or display problems when
viewing live images. To correct these problems, lower the Graphics Acceleration setting in
Windows, as described in the Video Card Related Problems section of the Installation Guidelines
chapter.
Note: Occasionally, when viewing a dim live image, you might notice that the right half of the image
is brighter or dimmer than the left half. To display images in real time, the camera (all RT cameras
except the SE6) uses two separate amplifiers to simultaneously read the right and left halves of the
CCD chip. With some images, particularly dimmer samples, the brightness of the two halves may
not match. This results in a “split” appearance. To avoid this problem with captured images, the
Insight camera reads the whole CCD through a single amplifier. A “split” Live Image view is not
indicative of what your image capture will look like. Refer to Appendix A: Electronic Imaging
Theory and SPOT Cameras for details.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Using Live Images
The Live Image View
To open the Live Image window, either click on the Live Image toolbar button, or select the Live Image
option from the Camera menu.
•
The title bar at the top of the
Live Image window displays
the status of the live image view
- Running, Computing
Exposure, or Paused.
Double-click on the title bar to
“roll up” the live image display.
This pauses the live image
display. Double-click again to
display the whole window and
resume the live image display.
•
When the Fit to Window
option is checked, the live
image window cursor becomes
a zoom tool. To zoom in on a
portion of a live image, click
and drag over the area that you
want to zoom in on. To return
to the non-zoomed image, click
on the Reset Area button on the
bottom of the window.
•
When the Fit to Window option is not checked, the cursor is a cropping tool. If you select a portion of
an image, the program displays only the selected area and discards the rest of the image. To return to
the non-cropped image, click on the Reset Area button on the bottom of the window.
#
•
The Full Screen option (accessed via the View menu or [F 7]) can be used with live images. This
option allows you to use the entire screen to view a live image, without the SPOT menus/toolbar and
the Windows navigation bar.
−
−
•
Note: Due to a flaw in the Windows operating system, monitors that are set to higher resolutions
cannot zoom to very high magnification levels. If zoomed in to a high magnification, the monitor
displays white instead of the zoomed image.
To access live image viewing options in the full screen view, right click on the live image.
To exit the full screen view, press [F 7] or move the cursor to the top of the screen and click on the
Exit Full Screen Mode button that appears.
There are nine options at the bottom of the Live Image window.
Restart
Resample the brightness of the image, compute new exposure times, and restart the live image
display. This is useful for updating exposure times when specimen brightness has changed.
Pause/Resume
Freeze the live image window. This is useful when you are changing a specimens and want to
preserve the last view. In addition, to use the Transfer option (see below), you must first Pause
the live image view. Click on Resume to restart the live image view
Close
Controls
Close the Live Image window.
Open the Live Image Controls dialog box (see below). From this dialog box, you can define the
viewing/capture area, and adjust gamma, brightness level, and dim image quality. You can
also elect to display either the full chip or a region of interest. Refer to the steps below for more
details on the Live Image Controls window.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
107
Using Live Images
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Fit to Window
Reset Area
Size images to automatically fit the resizable display window.
Return to the non-zoomed view of the live image.
Transfer
Transfer the live image directly to the SPOT viewing window, where it can be edited and/or
saved to file. The Transfer button is inactive until you Pause the real-time view. The Transfer
option is limited in that all images are 8 bits per channel (i.e., because they are live images).
The Transfer option should not be used for image captures that require highly accurate
brightness measurements.
Snap
Capture the live image using the settings from the Live Image Controls dialog. When you click
on the Snap button, the Get Image status dialogs appear, just as they do when you select Get
Image (exposure from setup) from the Camera menu. When you use the Snap option to
capture an image, you avoid the exposure computation sequence that typically precedes image
captures.
Faster Readout
Faster Readout enables you to “speed up” the live image display (higher frame rates) in
cases where you are willing to sacrifice some resolution for a higher frame rate.
Live Images are Different Than Captured Images
When you view a live image, keep in mind that the captured version of the image will not be identical to
the live image view. This is due to two factors:
•
Live images are raw pixel data. Captured images are digitally processed to give a more accurate color
rendition. For individual image captures, there is enough time to process the data. For each image in
the live image stream, there is not enough time to process the data.
•
Live Image gamma adjustments are made in the RGB color space. Captured image gamma
adjustments are made in the HSL color space (HSV for fluorescence). This is because gamma
adjustments can be made quickly in the RGB color space, but are very slow in the HSV and HSL color
spaces. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for more information on gamma adjustment and
color spaces.
#
Note: HSL and HSV gamma adjustment for captured images applies only to images captured using
the Get Image (exposure from Setup) option. Gamma adjustment for images captured using the Snap
live image option is always made in the RGB color space.
Live Image Controls
To adjust the live image view settings, click on the Controls button at the bottom of the Live Image
window. The Live Image Controls dialog appears. The options that you see on the Live Image Controls
window depend on the following variables:
•
The camera model that you are using, e.g., RT Slider, RT Color, RT Monochrome, RT KE Color
Mosiac.
Color and Slider models
108
Mono, SE6, and KE Color Mosaic models
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Using Live Images
•
The Bits per Pixel of the current image setup
•
The color filter options defined for the current Image Setup. The Use Color Filter selection for the
current Image Setup restricts the Filter Color settings on the Live Image Controls window: this ensures
that the live image will not display more colors than will be contained in the image capture. For
example, if you selected only Red and Green for the Use: $Red $Green %Blue setting on the Image
Setup window, the Live Image Controls dialog would allow you to select either Red or Green or both
(i.e., by selecting RGB). The flow chart below illustrates the different possibilities.
RT Slider
RT Color
BPP = 8 or 12
Use Color
Filter
checked?
BPP = 8 or 12
BPP = 24 or 36
AND
AND
AND
3 filter
colors
selected
2 filter
colors
selected
1 filter
color
selected
NO
No filter color
options
All filter
color
options
2 filter
color
options
Filter
color =
Image Setup
setting
YES
Legend:
= Available Filter Color options on the
Live Image Controls window
BPP
2 filter
colors
selected
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
=
Pixel Bit Depth setting on the Image
Setup window
= Use: Red Green Blue Image
Setup setting
109
Using Live Images
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Filter Color
Your selection should provide the highest level of contrast for the image. Because different colors provide
different levels of contrast, the best way to determine a color is to preview it by clicking on the color and
seeing how it affects the view of the specimen.
•
RGB – View a color preview of your specimen
RT Slider
As noted in the above flow chart, Image setups with pixel bit depth settings of 24 bpp or 36 bpp allow you
to select RGB and preview live images in full color. However, if you move the filter slider on the camera to
the B/W position, you should also change the Filter Color setting to one of the monochrome options (e.g.,
Clear, Red, Green, or Blue). The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position preference monitors the color
filter position only for image captures – it does not monitor color filter position when viewing live images.
•
Red – View a monochrome preview of your specimen using the red state of the LCD filter.
•
Green – View a monochrome preview of your specimen using the green state of the LCD filter.
•
Blue - View a monochrome preview of your specimen using the blue state of the LCD filter.
•
Clear – View a monochrome preview of your specimen using the clear state of the LCD filter.
Selecting the Clear option does not provide the entirely unfiltered image that is possible with the RT
Slider camera. Although all three colors are transmitted, the polarizing filter, which is part of the
liquid crystal filter, and the IR filter remain in the light path, blocking some of the light. When using
the Live Image window to focus or position dim images, RT Slider users can slide the filter out to
provide higher frame rates and less noisy images.
Display Images in Grayscale
To counter the difficulty of viewing, focusing, and adjusting monochrome images in live mode, the
Display Images in Grayscale option enables you to view a monochrome image in grayscale, as opposed to
with the red, green, or blue filter. This option applies if the following are true:
•
•
The Bits per Pixel option on the Image Setup is set to either 8 bpp or 12 bpp
The Filter Color (see above) on the Live Image Controls dialog is set to either Red, Green, or Blue.
Binning
Binning, as described in Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture, combines adjacent pixels on the CCD chip,
thereby reducing the number of pixels used in the image capture. Binning is useful when you have dim
images and want to increase sensitivity and reduce download time. This gives you higher frame rates and
less noisy images. But, as binning level increases, image resolution decreases. All of these factors should
be considered when you select a binning option.
There are four binning options:
• None
1 pixel = 1 pixel
• 2x2
4 pixels = 1 pixel
• 3x3
9 pixels = 1 pixel
• 4x4
16 pixels = 1 pixel
RT KE Color
Mosaic
110
For RT KE Color Mosaic users, the available binning options depend on the bits per pixel selection on your
Image Setup. For color (24 bpp or 36 bpp) setups, the None, 2x2, and 4x4 options are available. For
monochrome (8 bpp or 12 bpp) setups, the 2x2 or 4x4 options are available.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Using Live Images
Area
The Live Image Controls window allows you to view any rectangular portion of the CCD chip.
• Full Chip - View the entire chip.
• Selection - View a selection that you made with the cursor.
• Region (from Setup) - View the region (if any) that is defined for the current image setup.
Use the Reset Area button at the bottom of the Live Image window to return to the full chip view.
When you are viewing a live image Selection, how this selection is displayed depends on whether the
Open Images in Fit to Window Mode and Always Show Full Chip in Live Image preferences (see the
Preferences section in Ch. 4 ) are checked. The following table illustrates the possibilities:
Fit to Window
Checked?
Always Show Full Chip
in Live Image Checked?
YES
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
LIVE
YES
NO
When you select a portion of the chip the cursor
is a zoom tool. To zoom in on a portion of a
live or captured image, click and drag over the
area that you want to zoom in on. To return to
the non-zoomed image, click on the Full Chip
option.
BOTH
NO
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
However, because Fit to Window is not
checked, you will not see the entire chip in the
window.
LIVE
NO
NO
When you select a portion of the image, the
cursor is a cropping tool. If you select a portion
of an image, the program displays only the
selected area and discards the rest of the image.
To return to the non-cropped image, click on the
Full Chip option.
BOTH
Selection Display
Live or
Captured Image
Gamma
Enter a Gamma value between .1 and 4.
Gamma adjustment smoothly lightens darker areas of an image without burning out bright areas or
lightening black areas. This is especially useful for capturing/editing images with a wide range of
brightness values (dynamic range) such as fluorescence specimens or macroscopic objects with glints, (e.g.,
printed circuitry).
•
Values between 1 and 4 lighten the mid-tones of the image.
•
Values between .1 and 1 darken the mid-tones of the image.
Because live images update very quickly, gamma adjustments are only displayed in the RGB color space.
Gamma adjustments made in the HSL or HSV color spaces would be too slow for live imaging display.
Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for more details on color spaces and gamma adjustment.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
111
Using Live Images
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Exposure
The Exposure options that you see on the Live Image Controls window vary according to The Auto/UserDefined Exposure Type for the current image setup:
•
If the current Image Setup is set to Auto…
The Live Image Controls dialog allows you to enter a Brightness value and control the dim image
quality with Quality/Speed slider.
•
If the current Image Setup is set to User-Defined…
The Live Image Controls dialog allows you to enter a specific exposure Time value and a specific
Gain value.
The sections below discuss each option.
Brightness (Auto)
Enter a Brightness value between .25 and 32.
A brightness value of 1, the default value, gives you the correct image brightness for most images. The
Brightness Adjustment control allows you to overexpose or underexpose (darken or lighten) the image area.
In many cases, an image has varying levels of brightness; to see a specific area better you might want to
lighten or darken the image. When using the Brightness control, the SPOT camera uses an algorithm that
combines gain and exposure time to provide the fastest possible image update rate (shutter speed) for live
images.
•
When overexposing images to make them brighter (i.e., entering values greater than one), the camera
first selects the highest possible gain before lengthening the exposure time. Because gain also
brightens an image, less exposure time is needed.
•
When underexposing images to make them darker (i.e., entering values less then one) the camera uses
the lowest possible exposure time before lowering the gain.
Quality/Speed (Auto)
Use the slider to balance speed and quality when previewing dim images.
•
Moving the slider toward the Quality side increases image quality and decreases frame rates.
•
Moving the slider toward the Speed side increases frame rates and decreases image quality.
The Quality/Speed measurement corresponds to the Auto-Gain limit setting (see Ch. 5) on the Image Setup
window, which allows you to set an upper limit on the gain options that will be available during the AutoExposure process.
•
When the slider is at the left-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 1, which restricts the camera to a gain
of 1, giving you higher quality pictures, but lengthier exposure times.
•
When the slider is at the right-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 32, which allows the camera to select
from the six gain options available for live images. This shortens exposure times, but decreases image
quality.
#
Note that the highest gain option, 32, is not an option on the Image Setup window, which features
only five gain levels, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. While a gain of 32 is usually too grainy for captured images,
it can be helpful in speeding the display of dim images in live image mode.
For more details on setting an Auto-Gain Limit, refer to Ch. 5 –Preparing to Take a Picture. For more
information on the concept of gain, refer to Appendix A: Electronic Imaging Theory and the SPOT RT
Camera.
112
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 6 – Using Live Images
Using Live Images
Auto-Brightness (Auto)
Available only when you are using Auto exposure, the Auto-Brightness option enables you to maintain a
consistent brightness level for changing specimens.
Exposure Time(s) (User-Defined)
From the Live Image Controls window, you can enter specific exposure times for the image. When you
use specific exposure times, the camera skips the auto-exposure sequence (Computing Exposure) that takes
place when you open the Live Image window. This is very useful in cases where exposure times are
lengthy, as with fluorescence samples.
To enter new exposure value(s) on the Live Image
Controls window, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the User-Defined Exposure box is
selected on the Image Setup window.
2.
Either use the selection arrows or type in a value
in milliseconds for the exposure time.
− The minimum exposure time is 1
millisecond per color.
− The maximum exposure time is 536,000
milliseconds (536 seconds) per color.
To adjust the brightness of the image, click on Adjust and enter an Adjustment Factor. The program
multiplies each exposure time by this factor. This option allows you to make an image brighter or
darker without changing the color balance. When using the Adjust RGB option, verify that the
adjusted Exposure Times fall between 1 and 536,000 milliseconds.
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosaic camera users will see only one exposure time.
Gain (User-Defined)
From the Live Image Controls window, you can enter the precise gain that the camera will use for an image
capture. The available gain options vary according to whether you
Use the drop-down list to select one of the six gain options: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32. Note that the highest gain
option, 32, is not an option on the Image Setup window, which features only five gain levels, 1, 2, 4, 8, and
16. While a gain of 32 is usually too grainy for captured images, it can be helpful in speeding the display
of dim images in live image mode.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
113
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Ch. 7 - Taking a Picture
Table of Contents
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture
Introduction: Three Ways to Take a
Picture ............................................................ 116
Basic Image Captures .................................. 116
Get Image (exposure from setup) .......... 117
Get Image (last used exposure).............. 117
Get Sequential Images ............................. 118
Image Captures in Other Procedures ......... 121
Set Chip Imaging Region.......................... 121
Compute Exposure .................................... 122
Recall Previous Exposure........................... 123
Compute White Balance Values............. 123
Get Background Image............................ 124
Get Flatfield Image.................................... 125
QUICK REFERENCE:
!"Capture an image… p. 116
!"Capture an image using the exposure times from
the previous capture… p. 117
!"Capture a sequence of images… p. 118
!"Have the camera compute optimal exposure
times for an image capture… p. 122
!"Compute the correct ratio of red, green, and
blue exposure times to ensure correct color
rendition (white balance) in displayed images
… p. 123
!"Subtract a “dark frame” from an image… p. 124
!"Eliminate the background glow that appears on
some fluorescence images… p. 124
!"Correct for uneven illumination and/or artifacts
in the optical system… p. 125
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
115
Introduction: Three Ways to Take a Picture
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture
Introduction: Three Ways to Take a Picture
There are three ways to take a picture with the SPOT camera:
•
Live Image Pause/Transfer
After pausing a live image, pressing the Transfer button saves this image to a window. This is useful
for capturing rapidly changing samples. Images captured in this way are essentially “frozen” live
images. As such, the right and left sides of the images are read out via separate amplifiers and are
limited to 8 bit monochrome/24 bit color.
•
Snap
Pressing the Snap button when viewing a live image initiates an image capture where the entire image
is read out via a single amplifier. Snap image captures avoid the time dedicated to computing exposure
by using the exposure time and gain calculated for the live image.
•
Get Image (Toolbar button)
Pressing the Get Image toolbar button initiates an image capture where the entire image is read out via
a single amplifier using only the parameters from the current image setup. This allows you to use the
live image window purely as an aid to framing and focusing the image. Adjustments made to the live
image have no impact on the image capture.
These three types of image captures were designed to give you greater flexibility in working with different
types of specimens and in how you use live images.
•
For more details on the Live Image Pause/Transfer and Snap options, refer to Ch. 6 – Using Live
Images.
•
For more details on the Get Image option, refer to the Get Image (exposure from Setup) section
below.
This chapter discusses the Get Image type of capture as used in a variety of different procedures. The
chapter is divided into two sections:
•
Basic Image Captures –Standard and sequential image captures.
•
Image Captures in Other Procedures – Image captures where one capture is used to prepare for
another capture.
Basic Image Captures
The SPOT software offers three primary image capture options:
•
•
•
Get Image (exposure from setup)
Get Image (last used exposure)
Get Sequential Images
RT Slider
116
When the liquid crystal color filter has been moved out of the light path, RT Slider users may notice a
diffuse bright area in the center of the image on non-fluorescence image captures. This is due to infrared
light that is transmitted when the filter is out of the light path. Our infrared filter is bonded to the liquid
crystal color filter. When the color filter is moved out of the light path, the infrared filter is also moved. To
correct this problem, use an external infrared filter
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 7 - Taking a Picture
Basic Image Captures
Get Image (exposure from setup)
Get Image (exposure from setup) captures an image according to the specifications in the Current image
setup. Press [F 12] to view the current image setup.
To capture an image using the current image setup, follow these steps:
1.
Determine or define the image setup that you want to use, and set it as the Current setting (i.e., select
the Current option from the Image Setups dialog box).
2.
From the Camera menu, select the Get Image (exposure from setup option), or click on the Get Image
(exposure from setup) button on the toolbar:
The Get Image window, which indicates Setup name, capture status, and gain, appears. The first status
message, Computing Exposure, indicates that the camera is sampling the light source to compute the
exposure times.
3.
The second status message indicates that the camera is capturing the
image(s). In monochrome captures, only one picture is taken, but in
full color (RGB) mode, the camera takes three pictures - one red, one
green, and one blue.
The Status messages are as follows:
a)
Computing Exposure – The camera is sampling red, green, and
blue brightness levels in the image in order to determine proper
exposure times.
b) Getting Red Image – The camera is downloading the red image
to the PC.
c)
Getting Green Image – The camera is downloading the green image to the PC.
d) Getting Blue Image – The camera is downloading the blue image to the PC.
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosiac camera users will see only one message – Getting Image.
e)
Shutter open 0:07 – A countdown clock displays when individual red, green or blue exposures
will last longer than 2 seconds. This informs the user that the shutter is open and counts down the
minutes:seconds remaining until it closes.
f)
Processing – The camera is preparing to display the image.
The newly captured image appears on screen. Following an image capture, several noticeable changes take
place in the appearance of the main SPOT screen:
•
The Edit and View menus become available.
•
The editing, save, and print related toolbar buttons are available (no longer grayed).
•
The Get Image (last used exposure), Set Image Region, and Recall Previous Exposures options on the
Camera menu are available (no longer grayed).
Get Image (last used exposure)
The Get Image (last used exposure) option captures an image using the exposure times and gain from the
previous exposure. In all other respects, it works in exactly the same way as the Get Image (exposure from
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
117
Basic Image Captures
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture
setup) option. This option shortens the time required to capture an image because it skips the initial autoexposure sequence. This is convenient when you are satisfied with the appearance of an image and want to
use the same settings to capture a similar image in the same session. If you close the software, and re-open
it, the Get Image (last used exposure) option is unavailable until you capture an image using the Get Image
(exposure from setup) option.
To use the Get Image (last used exposure) option, follow these steps:
1.
Prepare the microscope and specimen for the next image capture.
2.
Either select Get Image (last used exposure) from the Camera
menu, or click on the toolbar button.
3.
The Get Image status window appears, and the camera captures the image using the last used exposure
times. It only displays the exposure times and the gain because the camera no longer needs to sample
image brightness.
Get Sequential Images
The Get Sequential Images option allows you to capture a sequence of images. SPOT’s sequential image
capture process enables you to save an image sequence in two different ways:
•
You can save a sequence as a group of individual image files.
•
You can save a sequence as a single (TIF format), “sequence image file” that is composed of multiple
images. Refer to Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for details on viewing and
modifying image sequence files.
The available file name and save options on the Get Sequential Images window vary according to whether
you save the sequential images individually or as a sequence, as shown here:
Save and name options – individual files
Save and name options – image sequence
To use the Get Sequential Images option, follow these steps:
118
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 7 - Taking a Picture
Basic Image Captures
1.
Select the image setup that you want to use for the sequential image captures. Either define a new
image setup, or select an existing setup from the drop down list on the status bar (bottom right corner).
2.
From the Camera menu, select the Get Sequential Images option. The Get Sequential Images window
appears. The following table explains each option.
Number/Timing Options
Number of
Images
Time Interval
Compute
Exposure
Before
Enter the number of images in the sequence of captures. This number can be set up to 2,000.
Enter the time interval between the start of one image capture to the start of the next image capture in
hours, minutes, and seconds.
Select either First Image or Each Image:
•
•
First Image – The program computes the exposure value for the first capture only.
Each Image - The program computes a new exposure value for each image capture in the
sequence.
Storage Options
Store Images
Select either Individually or In an Image Sequence
•
Individually – Store each image as a separate file.
•
In an Image Sequence – Store all images in a single TIF format file.
The available save and name options depend on your selection here.
Save and Name Options
Save Images
to Disk
The Save Images to Disk box is checked as a default for the Get Sequential Images window.
•
•
If you do not want to save the sequential images/image sequence to file, deselect the box.
Deselecting the box makes the remaining save and display options unavailable. You can define
the process/display option (Don’t Process or Display Images until Done), and then click on
Begin to start the sequence.
If you want to save the sequential images/image sequence, leave the box selected, and enter the
remaining file save and display options, as described below.
The file name of each image (individual images only) in the sequence is made up of two components:
−
A File Name Prefix that you designate.
−
An automatically indexed Suffix Number that starts with the Suffix Begin Number that you designate.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
119
Basic Image Captures
File Name Prefix
(individual images)
File Name
(image sequences)
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture
This prefix appears before the number of each image capture in the sequence. To enter the
File Name Prefix/File Name, you can:
•
•
•
Suffix Begin Number
(individual images)
Type only the name (e.g., Growth Sequence) in the box. The program automatically
saves the image sequence to the last used directory. If you specify the prefix only, you
cannot see exactly where the files are being saved. Thus, to avoid having to search for
your files, you should verify the location of the last save.
Type the full path and file name (e.g., C:\Spotcam\Growth_Sequence) in the box to
specify the location of the image sequence. When entering the file path and name, you
can also specify a new directory simply by entering it in the path (e.g.,
C:\Spotcam\Flowers\Growth_Sequence).
Click on the browse button to select a new file location and file name (prefix). All of the
image files are saved with the prefix that you enter. Thus, if your Suffix Begin Number
(see below) is one, the file name for the first image in the sequence would be
Growth_Sequence0001.
Select the beginning number for the sequence of images.
The Begin Number automatically defaults to the first number that follows the previous
sequence of images. So, if you captured a sequence of 10 images, 11 would appear as the
Begin Number when you next opened the Get Sequential Images window.
The program prefaces numbers with enough zeros to create a four character suffix. For
example, if you have 35 images, the first image suffix will be 0001 and the last image suffix
will be 0035. This enables Windows to correctly order images, so that
Growth_Sequence0002 appears before Growth_Sequence1000, and not the other way
around.
Format
JPEG Quality
(1-100)
Save Thumbnails
File Name Conflict
Action
(individual images)
Select the file format for the sequence of images.
•
For individual files, there are five options: Windows Bitmap, JPEG, Mac PICT, TIFF
Uncompressed or TIFF JPEG.
•
For image sequences there are two options: TIFF Uncompressed or TIFF JPEG.
JPEG quality is the level of compression for JPEG images: this option is available only when
JPEG or TIFF JPEG (for image sequences) is selected as the image file format. Enter an
integer between 1 and 100 to set the JPEG quality for images. A value of one is the most
compressed (and lowest image quality), while a value of 100 is the least compressed (and
highest image quality).
Save thumbnails of each image in the sequence. This option is available only when JPEG
or TIFF JPEG is selected as the image file format.
Determine how the program will respond if it finds an image file with the same name as an
image in the current sequence. Select one of the following options:
• Overwrite Existing File – The program overwrites the existing file with the image from
the sequence you are capturing.
•
Image Display
(individual images)
Determine how the sequence of images will be displayed. Select one of the following
options:
•
•
•
120
Display Warning – The program displays a warning message indicating that a file of
the same name already exists, and stops the sequential image capture.
Display Each Image in a New Window – The program opens a window for each
image in the sequence. This option works well if you have a short sequence; if you
have a long sequence, however, displaying numerous images uses up memory and
could interfere with your use of other programs.
Display Only Current Image – The program sequentially displays each image in the
same window. Each image displays only until the next image is captured. This is
useful for lengthy sequences where you do not want to be concerned with running out
of memory.
Don’t Display Images – The program automatically saves all of the sequential image
files to the specified location without displaying them.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 7 - Taking a Picture
Image Captures in Other Procedures
Save and Name Options (cont.)
Display Images
(image sequences)
Select this box to open an image sequence immediately after the capture. To save the
image sequence to file without opening it, deselect the box.
Defer Image
Processing/Display
until Done
Wait until the entire sequence is completed before displaying or saving the images.
Because all processing takes places after the sequence is captured, checking this box gives
you the fastest frame rate.
After you have entered all of the options, click on Begin to start the image capture sequence. Refer to
Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for details on viewing and modifying image sequence
files.
Image Captures in Other Procedures
In addition to the basic image captures, the Camera menu contains options in which one image capture is
used to prepare the camera for the final image capture They include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set Chip Imaging Region
Compute Exposure
Recall Previous Exposure
Compute White Balance Values
Get Background Image
Get Flatfield Image
RT Mono/SE6
RT Monochrome and SE6 camera users will not see Compute White Balance Values option (or the
corresponding toolbar button).
Because they are used prior to a final image capture, several of these options are discussed as a part of the
image setup process. In such cases, the text of the manual refers back to the appropriate section of Chapter
5 - Preparing to Take a Picture.
Set Chip Imaging Region
The Set Chip Imaging Region selects a specific portion of the CCD chip. Using just a small portion of the
available area on the CCD chip is useful because:
•
•
The download time will be shorter.
The file size will be smaller and easier to manage.
To avoid confusion when defining the region of the image that you want to capture, it is important to
realize that there are two separate coordinate systems in use:
• The coordinate system of the CCD chip
• The coordinate system of the displayed image
The coordinates displayed on the Status Bar as the cursor is moved over a displayed image are always
“displayed image” coordinates. The coordinates displayed in the Set Chip Imaging Region dialog box are
always CCD chip coordinates. These coordinate systems match only if the orientation of an image has not
changed (i.e., it has not been flipped or rotated).
Because the SPOT software tracks orientation changes, you can select a Chip Imaging Region on any
displayed image, regardless of whether the orientation has changed: the Set Chip Imaging Region dialog
box will correctly display the region of the CCD chip that you designated as the imaging region. However,
because of the different coordinate systems, the coordinates that you see on the Status Bar (i.e., when
moving the cursor over the displayed image) may not match the coordinates that appear in the Set Chip
Imaging Region dialog box if the image was flipped or rotated.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
121
Image Captures in Other Procedures
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture
To set an image region, follow these steps:
1.
Position the cursor at the upper left edge of the image region that you
want to capture.
2.
Press and hold the left mouse button and drag the cursor across the
screen. A dotted border appears around the region that you select.
3.
From the Camera menu, select Set Chip Imaging Region. The Chip
Imaging Region window displays the pixel locations for the borders of
the region that you selected.
4.
Click OK to save the region values to the current image setup, or select
a different image setup. The region values are now saved to the
designated image setup.
#
5.
Note: The image setup uses the specified region values for all subsequent image captures. Refer to
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for other region capture techniques.
Recapture the image using either Get Image (exposure from setup) or the Get Image (last used
exposure) option. The new image capture displays only the region that you selected.
Compute Exposure
Compute Exposure determines the correct red, green,
and blue exposure times and gain for an image. By
calculating exposure times and gain ahead of time,
you can avoid the auto-exposure sequence that takes
place each time that you use Get Image (exposure
from setup). Using Compute Exposure also changes
your current image setup:
•
•
The computed exposure values are added to
your current image setup.
The current image setup, if set to AutoExposure, is changed to User-Defined.
To compute exposure, follow these steps:
1.
Select Compute Exposure from the Camera menu. The Compute Exposure window displays the image
setup options (from the current setup) – see above - that directly affect the computation. The entries
for these options can be modified from this window. Modifying the options also changes the current
image setup.
#
2.
122
Note: For information on entering Image
Type, Auto-Gain Limit, Adjustment Factor,
Minimum Exposure, and White Balance,
refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a
Picture.
Click on Begin. The Status message changes to
Computing exposure… When the camera finishes
sampling the light, the Exposure window displays the
values.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 7 - Taking a Picture
3.
Image Captures in Other Procedures
Select an image setup from the Save to Setup drop-down box. The current image setup is the default.
#
Note: Saving the exposure values to an image setup changes the setup from Auto-Exposure to UserDefined Exposure.
4.
Click on OK. When you open the Image Setup window, the new exposure value(s) display.
5.
Select Get Image (exposure from setup) to capture the image using the new exposure values.
Recall Previous Exposure
Recall Previous Exposure assigns the exposure times and gain from your last image capture to an image
setup. The Recall Previous Exposure feature is available only after you have taken a picture.
To recall previous exposure values, follow these steps:
1. Capture an image.
2. From the Camera menu, select Recall Previous Exposure. The Exposure window displays the values
from the last image capture (see above ).
#
3.
4.
5.
Note: If you change the current image setup, the Recall Previous Exposure option will be
unavailable until you take another picture.
Select an image setup from the drop-down box.
Click OK.
Use Get Image (exposure from setup) to capture an image with the new Exposure and gain values.
Compute White Balance Values
White balance is the ratio of red, green, and blue exposure times necessary to achieve the proper color
rendition for an image. Many factors impact the coloration of an image capture, including the lamp
voltage, the coloration of the glass in the slide, and the coloration of the lenses in the microscope’s
objectives. To minimize the impact of these factors, use the Compute White Balance feature. When you
perform a white balance calculation, SPOT samples the color of the light from your light source after it has
passed through the slide and the objective, and then calculates the exposure values needed to produce
images where the white areas are white and the color areas are true.
You should perform a new white balance calculation when you:
•
•
•
Start a new image capture session.
Change the lamp voltage.
Switch to a different objective on the microscope.
When you open an image setup, the Image Setup screen displays the default white balance values for that
Setup, which are the values that were last saved to the Image Setup. If you capture an image without
computing a new white balance, SPOT uses these default values. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a
Picture for a step by step description of how to compute a white balance.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
123
Image Captures in Other Procedures
Ch. 7 – Taking a Picture
Get Background Image
Get Background Image is the first step in the background subtract process described in Ch. 5 - Preparing to
Take a Picture. Background Subtract allows you to subtract a previously acquired Background Image from
an image capture. This is useful when:
•
You want to eliminate the irritating background glow seen in some fluorescence images. Sometimes,
you will notice this glow while looking at the specimen under the microscope; other times, you will
notice it only after you have already captured an image.
•
You are doing high accuracy measurements in 12 bit monochrome and want to subtract a “dark frame”
from each image to adjust the black level of each pixel. Refer to the Black Level Subtract section in
Ch. 5 for more details.
#
Note: If 12 bit mono is selected as the Pixel Bit Depth on the Image Setup window, the automatic
Black Level Subtract process is always turned off when acquiring background images.
The figures below illustrate the effect of a background subtraction on a fluorescence image:
Fluorescence sample prior to background
subtraction
Fluorescence sample after background
subtraction
Background subtraction works by taking a picture of the background glow only, without the specimen in
the field of view, and then automatically subtracting this image from pictures taken with the specimen in
the field of view. When you get a background image, you are taking the first of the two pictures used for
the background subtraction. This image is the one that the camera subtracts during the final image capture
process. For a detailed description of the steps involved in the background subtract process, refer to Ch. 5 Preparing to Take a Picture.
#
124
Note: If 12 bit mono is selected as the Pixel Bit Depth on the Image Setup window, the automatic
Black Level Subtract process is always turned off when acquiring background images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 7 - Taking a Picture
Image Captures in Other Procedures
Get Flatfield Image
Get Flatfield Image is the first step in the Flatfield Correct process described in Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a
Picture. Flatfield correction corrects display problems associated with uneven lighting or artifacts (e.g.,
dust) in your optical system. It is used primarily with lower magnification brightfield images. Flatfield
Correct is similar to the Background Subtract option in that it is a process that involves two images - the
flatfield image and the final image.
Flatfield correction works by taking a picture of the brightfield background without the specimen in the
field of view. This image lets the SPOT software know, on a pixel-by pixel basis, which areas in the field
of view are receiving less illumination than the brightest areas. When taking a picture that contains a
specimen, the software uses this information to accurately increase the brightness of each pixel in the dimly
illuminated areas. The resulting image gives the appearance of an even illumination.
#
Note: Flatfield correction with the SPOT camera refers only to the correction of uneven lighting.
It should not be confused with the correction of optical field flatness.
For a detailed description of the steps involved in the flatfield correct process, refer to Ch. 5 - Preparing to
Take a Picture.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
125
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Table of Contents
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
QUICK REFERENCE:
Introduction ................................................... 128
View ............................................................... 128
Fit to Window .............................................. 128
Zoom In/Out.........................................129
Zoom Level...........................................129
Show Grid Lines .......................................... 129
Show Pan Window ..................................... 130
Show Sequence Controls ......................... 130
Image Date/Time....................................... 131
Full Screen ................................................... 131
Working with Image Sequences .................. 131
Sequence Menu Options.......................... 132
Image Sequence Controls ....................... 133
Image Index.........................................133
Play Options .........................................133
Editing Images in a Sequence ................. 134
Edit.................................................................. 135
Basic Editing Functions .............................. 136
Image Sizing and Position ......................... 136
Resize....................................................136
Rotate Right .........................................137
Rotate Left............................................137
Flip Horizontal .......................................137
Flip Vertical...........................................137
Crop......................................................137
Image Quality............................................. 138
Functional Features .............................138
Image Editing and the Concept
of Color Space....................................139
Adjust RGB/Adjust HSL/Adjust HSV .....140
Filter.......................................................150
Make Negative....................................151
Convert to Gray Scale ........................152
Set Palette (monochrome images)....152
Match Color.........................................152
Customizing Images .................................. 154
Change Pixel Bit Depth .......................154
Subtract Image....................................155
Merge Images .....................................156
Duplicate Image .................................158
Annotation – Calibration and
Measurement Marks .................................. 158
Add Calibration Mark..........................158
Add Measurement ..............................159
Annotation - Custom Image
Annotation .................................................. 160
Adding Annotation Objects to SPOT
Images..................................................161
Defining Annotation Attributes ...........163
Editing Annotation Objects ................165
Memo........................................................... 167
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
!"Show pixel borders for a magnified image…
p. 129
!"Navigate around a magnified image without
having to zoom in and out…p. 130
!"View the date and time associated with an
image capture…p. 131
!"“Play” an image sequence… p. 133
!"Crop an image…p. 137
!"Decide which color space to use for editing an
image capture (e.g., RGB, HSL, or HSV)… p. 140
!"Adjust image brightness… pp. 140 – 143
!"Adjust the contrast of an image…
pp. 144 – 145
!"Lighten the dark areas of an image without
burning out the light areas… pp. 146-147
!"View an image’s histogram… pp. 147 – 149
!"Smooth out a pixellated image… p. 150
!"Sharpen a fuzzy image…p. 150
!"Change a color image to black and white…
p. 152
!"Add a calibration mark to an image… p. 158
!"Measure an image… p. 159
!"Annotate an image… p. 160
127
View
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Introduction
After capturing an image, you can choose from a variety of viewing, editing, and annotation options that
allow you to customize the appearance of the final image. All of these features are accessed through two
menus:
•
•
View
Edit
#
Note: The View and Edit menus are available only when an image is on-screen.
View
The View menu options include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fit to Window
Zoom In/Out
Zoom Level
Show Grid Lines
Show Pan Window
Show Sequence Controls
Image Date/Time
Full Screen
#
Note: The Show Grid Lines option is available
only after you have zoomed in (8x or 16x) on
an image.
Fit to Window
Fit to Window allows you to view the whole image, regardless of the window size. Typically, reducing the
size of a window also cuts off part of the image. The Fit to Window option solves this problem by resizing
the image so that it is always the same size as the window.
#
Note: The View menu options supplement the standard Windows viewing options (e.g., Cascade,
Tile Horizontal, etc…) that are found on the Window menu. Refer to the Windows on-line help for
more information on these options.
To use Fit to Window, select (i.e., click on) the image that you want to modify and, from the View window,
select Fit to Window.
128
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
View
Zoom In/Out
1.
Either select Zoom In/Out From the View menu, or click on the Zoom toolbar button:
2.
The cursor changes to a magnifying glass, and the Zoom toolbar button becomes
active. The precise reference point for the zoom location is indicated by the white dot in the center of
the magnifying glass. The row and column numbers at the bottom of the screen indicate the exact
position of the white dot as you move the magnifying glass over the image.
3.
Use the mouse to zoom in or zoom out:
a) Position the mouse over the center of the area that you want to zoom in on.
b) Either left click to zoom in 2x, or right click to zoom out 2x.
c) To return to the normal view mode, de-select the Zoom option.
The Zoom feature works in conjunction with the pan window (see Show Pan Window below), which
allows you to see where you are in relation to the larger image while zoomed in.
#
#
Note: All of the standard save, view, and edit options, with three exceptions – Add Calibration
Mark, Add Measurement, and Annotate – can be used while the program is in zoom mode. If you
need to annotate a zoomed image, use the Zoom Level option (see below).
Note: With some video cards, you might experience display problems when zooming in on captured
images. To correct these problems, lower the Graphics Acceleration setting in Windows, as
described in the Video Card Related Problems section of the Installation Guidelines chapter.
Zoom Level
The Zoom Level option, like the Zoom In/Out option enables you to view zoomed images. However,
unlike the Zoom In/Out option, you have the option to add annotations, including text, calibration marks,
and measurements, to the zoomed image. To use the Zoom Level option , select Zoom Level from the
View menu and select a percentage option from the list.
Like the Zoom In/Out option, the The Zoom Level option can be used in conjunction with the pan window
(see Show Pan Window below), which allows you to see where you are in relation to the larger image
while zoomed in.
#
Note: With some video cards, you might experience display problems when zooming in on captured
images. To correct these problems, lower the Graphics Acceleration setting in Windows, as
described in the Video Card Related Problems section of the Installation Guidelines chapter.
Show Grid Lines
Show Grid Lines clearly defines pixel borders, which are often invisible in low contrast areas of an image.
Clearly defined borders help in positioning the cursor at an exact row and column location (i.e., using the
readouts at the bottom of the screen), which then allows you to view the brightness value for the individual
pixel.
#
Note: All of the standard save, view, and edit options, with three exceptions – Add Calibration
Mark, Add Measurement, and Annotate – can be used while the program is in zoom mode.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
129
View
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
To show the grid lines on an image, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
Position the magnifying glass in the center of the area that you want to zoom in on.
Zoom to either 8x or 16x. If you are using the Zoom Level option, select a percentage of 800 or
greater.
From the View menu, select the Show Grid Lines option. Grid lines appear around each pixel.
Show Pan Window
Show Pan Window enables you to navigate around an image while zoomed in at high magnifications.
When you select the Show Pan Window option, the program highlights your location in relation to the
whole image, and, by dragging the highlighted area around the pan window, you can explore the image,
piece by piece. Without the Show Pan Window option, the process of moving to a new point while in high
magnification would involve several steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Zooming in to the first area of interest.
Zooming out to determine where you are.
Determining a new area of interest.
Re-zooming in to the new area of interest.
This tedious process is replaced by the pan window. When you select Show Pan Window, the whole image
appears in the smaller Pan Window. The zoomed-in area of the image is represented by a “color negative”
area over the smaller version of the image in the Pan Window.
To use the pan window, follow these steps:
1.
From the View menu, select Show Pan Window:
#
Note: The pan
window can be
opened at any level of
magnification.
The pan window appears,
superimposed upon the
image. The illustration to the
right shows the pan window
as it is used when zoomed in
on an image.
2.
Position the cursor on the
image in the pan window: it
changes from a magnifying
glass to a four arrow pointer.
3.
To move to a different area of
the image, either left click on the rectangle and drag it to the new location, or left click on the new
location.
Show Sequence Controls
The Show Sequence Controls option displays the play controls for image sequences. This option appears
only when an image sequence is open. Using the Image Sequence dialog you can:
•
•
•
Play all or part of an image sequence in forward or reverse order.
Set the display interval between images.
Set the action that takes when the image sequence finishes playing – i.e., stop, restart, or reverse.
Refer to the Working With Image Sequences section for details.
130
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Working with Image Sequences
Image Date/Time
The Image Date/Time feature pulls up the date and time associated with the capture of an image. When you
capture an image, the SPOT software remembers the date and time of the image capture. When you save
the image, even if this is many hours later, the program sets the Created date and time of the image file to
the date and time of the original image capture.
When image files are transferred over networks, the Created date and time is sometimes reset to the date
and time of the transfer, making it an unreliable indicator of the image capture time. Because TIFF and
JPEG format images have tags both for the Created date and the original capture date and time, they are not
affected by network transfers. If reliable image capture date and time information is important to your
work, you should save images in either TIFF or JPEG format.
When you select the Image Date/Time option from the View menu, a dialog box displays the date and time
associated with the capture.
•
For non-TIFF, non-JPEG format image files, this is the Created date/time, as explained above.
•
For TIFF and JPEG format image files, this is the TIFF/JPEG tag date and time.
•
For SPOT Database images this is the original date and time that was stored in the database file.
Full Screen
View a full screen version of an image – i.e., without the SPOT menus or toolbars or the Windows
navigation bar. This option allows you to utilize the entire window for previewing images. Press [F 7] to
view a full screen image. Press [F 7] again to exit the full screen view, click on the Full Screen toolbar
button. Alternatively, you can exit the full screen view by moving the cursor to the top of the window and
clicking on the Exit Full Screen Mode button that appears. While working in Full Screen mode,
Windows users can access SPOT menu options using standard keystroke combinations, as illustrated in the
table below:
[Alt] + A
[Alt] + C
[Alt] + D
[Alt] + E
[Alt] + F
=
=
=
=
=
Attributes (Report mode)
Camera
Database (Advanced mode)
Edit
File
[Alt] + H =
[Alt] + O =
[Alt] + Q =
[Alt] + S =
[Alt] + V =
[Alt] + W =
Help
Object (Report mode)
Sequence
Setup
View
Window
Working with Image Sequences
There are three places from which you can edit and play image sequence files:
•
The Sequence menu – Rearrange the order of a sequence, add and/or remove images to and from the
sequence, extract images from the sequence, and play the sequence.
•
The Sequence Controls (Image Sequence) dialog – Set view options and play the sequence.
•
The Edit menu - Modify/enhance image sequences using the options on SPOT’s Edit menu. Refer to
Editing Images in a Sequence (below) for more information.
Refer to the sections below for details.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
131
Working with Image Sequences
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Sequence Menu Options
Image sequences are editable. The Sequence menu, which is available only when an image sequence is
open, displays the available options. They are as follows:
132
Extract Images
Extract an image or images from a sequence file. Extracting creates new
image(s), leaving the original sequence intact. Click on Extract Images
and enter the number(s) of the image(s) that you want to extract. To
extract multiple images from a sequence, separate numbers with commas
and/or dashes - i.e., 5, 6, 7 or 5-7 or 1 – 5, 6, 9.
Insert Image
Add an image to the sequence. Using Insert Image, you can add an
image to a sequence from one of three sources:
• Currently Open Document – Add an image from the currently open
sequence file. Make sure to specify the Sequence Index – i.e., the
number of the image in the sequence.
• File – Add an image from disk. If the image comes from a sequence
file, make sure to specify the Sequence Index.
• Database (Windows) – Add an image from a SPOT database. To
determine the Image ID, open the database and use the Search
option. The search results table displays the Image ID for each
record.
When you click on OK, a dialog prompts you to specify the point in the
sequence where you want to insert the image.
Append Image
Add an image to the end of the sequence. Using Append Image, you can
add an image to a sequence from one of three sources:
•
Currently Open Document – Add an image from the currently open
sequence file. Make sure to specify the Sequence Index – i.e., the
number of the image in the sequence.
•
File – Add an image from disk. If the image comes from a sequence
file, make sure to specify the Sequence Index.
•
Database (Windows) – Add an image from a SPOT database. To
determine the Image ID, open the database and use the Search
option. The search results table displays the Image ID for each
record.
Remove Images
Remove an image or images from a sequence file. Removing an image
deletes the image from the sequence, which is automatically reordered.
Click on Remove Images and enter the number of the image(s) that you
want to extract. To extract multiple images from a sequence, separate
numbers with commas and/or dashes - i.e., 5, 6, 7 or 5-7 or 1 – 5, 6, 9.
Move Image
Move an image or image(s) to a different point in the sequence. Click
on Move Image and enter the number(s) of the image(s) that you want to
move. To move multiple images from a sequence, separate numbers
with commas and/or dashes - i.e., 5, 6, 7 or 5-7 or 1 – 5, 6, 9.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Working with Image Sequences
Play Forward
Continuously play the image sequence forward.
Play Reverse
Continuously play the image sequence backward.
Stop Play/Resume Play
Stop play if the sequence is running; resume play when it is stopped.
Step Forward
Move forward one image.
Step Reverse
Move backward one image.
Image Sequence Controls
Stop
The Sequence Controls (Image Sequence)
Play Backward
dialog enables you to play image sequences
Step Backward
and to set the play options.
Go to the first
Image Index
Play Forward
Step Forward
image in the
sequence
Go to the last
image in the
sequence
Use the Image Index options to specify the view parameters
of the sequence.
•
First - Enter the number of the image that should be first
in the sequence.
•
Current – This field displays the number of the image
you are currently viewing. Enter a new number to view a
different image.
•
Last – Enter the number of the image that should be last
in the sequence
Play Options
Use the Play Options to control how the image sequence displays when playing.
•
Interval – The time interval between each image when the sequence is playing. Enter a number in
milliseconds or seconds.
•
At End – The action that takes place when the sequence finishes playing.
−
−
−
Stop:
The sequence stops at the last image in the sequence.
Restart: The sequence begins playing from the beginning.
Reverse: The sequence reverses play when it reaches the end.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
133
Working with Image Sequences
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Editing Images in a Sequence
Images from a sequential image file can be edited using the Edit
menu options. This allows you to specify the individual image or
images (including the entire sequence) to which the edits are
applied.
134
•
In some cases – e.g., Combine Images – the dialog prompts
you to specify the Sequence Index – i.e., the number of the
image within the sequence.
•
In other cases, as with the Adjust RGB options, SPOT
prompts you to specify whether the edit applies only to the
current image in the sequence, all of the images in the
sequence, or a specific subset of images in the sequence. For
example, when editing an image sequence, if you select Edit
>Adjust RGB > Adjust Brightness (additive), the Additive
Brightness Adjust dialog appears. After you make your edits
and click on OK, the Edit Images window prompts you to
specify the image or images that the edit will apply to, as shown
at right.
−
No Other Images – The edit applies only to the current
image – i.e., the on-screen image.
−
All Other Images in Sequence – The edit applies to all of
the images in the sequence.
−
Specified Images – The edit applies to the images that you specify. Enter the number(s) of the
image(s) in the box at the bottom of the dialog. To specify multiple images, separate numbers
with commas and/or dashes - e.g., 5, 6, 7; or 5-7; or 1 – 5, 6, 9.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
Edit
The Edit menu contains six categories of editing options, as illustrated in the following table:
Editing Category
Menu Option
Basic Editing Functions
Undo
Copy to Clipboard
Image Sizing and Position
Resize
Rotate Right
Rotate Left
Flip Horizontal
Flip Vertical
Crop
Image Quality
Adjust RGB
Adjust HSL
Adjust HSV
Filter
Make Negative
Convert to Gray Scale
Set Palette (monochrome)
Match Color (RGB)
Customization
Change Pixel Bit Depth
Subtract Image
Merge Images
Duplicate Image
Annotation
Calibration and Measurement Marks
Add Calibration Mark
Add Measurement
Custom Image Annotation
Annotate
Image Memos
Memo
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
135
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Basic Editing Functions
The Edit menu contains several functions that are common to most operating systems.
Undo
Undo the last edit that you made. The Undo option only allows for one level of edits: in other
words, you can only undo the immediately preceding edit. To Undo an action, select Undo from
the Edit menu.
Copy to
Clipboard
(PC)
Copy (Mac)
Copy all or part of an image onto the clipboard for insertion into another program. These options
are identical to the Windows [Ctrl C] command and the Mac [$ C] command.
1.
Press and hold the left mouse button (PC)/mouse button (Mac).
2.
Drag the cursor over the image until the dotted rectangle covers the area of the image that
you want to copy. If you copy without “cutting out” a specific portion of the image, SPOT
selects the entire image.
3.
Either select the Copy to Clipboard/Copy option from the Edit menu, or press
[Ctrl C] (PC)/[$ C] (Mac). The image is now ready to be pasted into another application.
4.
Open the application that you want to paste the image into, and select from the available
pasting options.
Cut (Mac)
Cut text fields within the SPOT program.
Paste (Mac)
Paste text fields in the SPOT program. The Paste option is unavailable (grayed out) for image
editing.
Clear (Mac)
Clear a text field in the SPOT program. The Clear option is unavailable (grayed out) for image
editing.
Select All
(Mac)
Select text for copying. The Select All option is unavailable (grayed out) for image editing.
Image Sizing and Position
From the Edit menu, you can:
•
Re-size images
•
Re-position images
•
Match the on-screen
orientation of a specimen to
the microscopic view
•
Crop an image to better reflect
the area of interest
Resize
Use the Resize option to reduce or enlarge an image. When you reduce or enlarge an image, the resolution
and file size change accordingly. The SPOT program maintains aspect ratio so enlarged and reduced
images will not be distorted. When you reduce or enlarge an image, keep the following in mind:
•
Reduction - Resolution (number of pixels) and file size decrease.
•
Enlargement - Resolution (number of pixels) and file size increase.
The trade off for higher resolution images is increased file size. The Resize option lets you specify the
percentage by which you want to increase or decrease the linear dimensions of the image. The program
reads the red, green, and blue brightness values for the pixels in the original image and uses those values to
136
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
create a new image where the number of rows and columns is reduced or enlarged by the percentage that
you specify.
Two circumstances where you might want to enlarge or reduce an image are listed here:
•
You captured an image using a low magnification objective (e.g., 5x or below) - In this case,
enlarging the image adds pixels, which helps to smooth out the pixellation of high contrast, fine
details. This makes it easier to view and interpret the structure of these details. Enlarging also makes
large format prints appear smoother and less pixellated.
•
You want to save file space and resolution is not the primary concern - In this case, reducing the
image reduces the file size.
To resize an image, follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select the resize option. The Resize Image window
appears.
2.
Do one of the following:
− If you want to change the size of an image by a specific percentage,
type in a value between 10% and 200%, or move the slider bar
accordingly. The linear dimensions (width or height) of the image will
change by this percentage factor.
− If you want to specify the dimension in pixels, enter a number in either the Width or the Height
box. The SPOT program automatically calculates the dimension not entered in order to maintain
the proper aspect ratio.
3.
Click on OK. The newly sized image replaces the original image on the screen.
#
Note: If you want to create two differently sized images of an image for comparison purposes, use
the Save As [Ctrl A] command to save the resized image with a different file name.
Rotate Right
Rotate an image clockwise in 90 degree increments.
Rotate Left
Rotate an image counter-clockwise in 90 degree increments.
Flip Horizontal
Flip an image from right to left.
Flip Vertical
Flip an image from top to bottom.
Crop
Cut out a portion of an image. To crop an image, follow these steps:
1.
Press and hold the left mouse button.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
137
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
2.
Drag the cursor over the image until the dotted rectangle covers the area of the image that you want to
crop.
3.
From the Edit menu, select Crop. The Crop Area
window displays the pixel coordinates of the rectangle
that you selected. From this window you can fine tune
the crop area by modifying the pixel coordinates. If
you select the Crop option directly from the menu (i.e.,
without specifying a crop area), the Crop Area window
displays the values for the entire image.
4.
Click on OK to crop the image. The cropped image appears on-screen.
When you crop an unsaved image, the program automatically discards the area of the image outside the
crop. To give yourself the opportunity to change the crop area, you should save the image before you crop
it.
Image Quality
The image quality editing
options provide you with a
wide array of powerful and
easy to use tools for
changing the appearance of
an image after it has been
captured. These tools
enable you to enhance the
appearance of an image in
ways that are not possible with conventional photography.
Before using the SPOT editing features, review the following two sections:
•
Functional Features – This section explains how thumbnail images work in the SPOT image editing
windows.
•
Image Editing and the Concept of Color Space – This section introduces the concept of color space
and describes how it applies to the SPOT software.
Functional Features
With the exception of Make Negative and Convert to
Gray Scale, all of the image quality editing options
utilize thumbnail images to preview the edits being
made to the main image. As illustrated at right, a
thumbnail of the image capture appears in the
adjustment window, and the Modify Main Image box
is checked as the default.
•
If you leave the box selected… As you make
editing adjustments, the changes appear in both the
main image and the thumbnail.
•
If you deselect the box… As you make editing adjustments, the changes appear only in the thumbnail
image. After you click on OK, the changes appear in the main image.
Properly utilized, thumbnail images can be very helpful as part of the image editing process. Consider the
following:
138
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
•
You can use thumbnails to speed the editing process. The SPOT software often cannot update all the
pixels in the main image as quickly as you can adjust the edit controls. In cases where the thumbnail
image is sufficient to judge the effect of the edits, you can save time by deselecting Modify Main
Image, so that the main image is updated only after you close the editing window. Deselecting
Modify Main Image also makes the editing feel more “real time.”
•
The thumbnail can be used to display a smaller, magnified section of an image. When you select a
specific image area (i.e., by dragging the cursor) before selecting an edit function, only the selected
area appears in the thumbnail. This is useful for Sharpen, an edit function that affects only the fine
structure of an image. This is also useful when you are analyzing histograms, and want the histogram
to represent only the section of the image that interests you.
Edit
Image Editing and the Concept of Color Space
A color space is a coordinate system that is used to mathematically represent color. In order to satisfy the
imaging requirements of different microscopy techniques, the SPOT program allows you to adjust
brightness, color, and contrast in three color spaces: RGB, HSL, and HSV.
The color space options and their suggested uses are as follows:
•
Adjust RGB (Red Green Blue) – Use for monochrome images
•
•
Adjust HSL (Hue Saturation Luminance) – Use for all color images except fluorescence
Adjust HSV (Hue Saturation Value) – Use for fluorescence images
Each color space is described below.
RGB
The RGB color space operates by assigning a red, green, and blue value to each pixel in an
image. Because red, green and blue are the primary colors for emissive light, this is the method
that color computer monitors use to display images. However, the RGB color space is not
intuitive to users.
HSL
The HSL color space is a more intuitive model based on the three attributes that are common to
all colors: hue, saturation, and luminance. Instead of assigning a red, blue, and green value to
each pixel, the HSL color space assigns a value for each color attribute (e.g., hue, saturation, and
luminance). These attributes are defined as follows:
•
Hue – Hue is the designation for the actual color, as distinguished from others in the color
spectrum. Hue is derived from a color wheel and is expressed in the color's angular location
(in degrees) on the wheel. (e.g., +180° to -180° for the SPOT software).
•
Saturation – Saturation is the proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in
the SPOT software) is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero is pure gray
and 100 is pure hue (e.g., day glow).
•
Luminance – Luminance is the relative brightness or darkness of a hue. Luminance (in the
SPOT software) is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100. A saturated color starts out as
black at a luminance of 0, reaches full brightness as a saturated color at a luminance of 50,
and then transitions through lighter pastel shades to white at a luminance of 100. This
mimics the human perception of increasing brightness for images that are illuminated with
light that contains a broad spectrum of wavelengths.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
139
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
HSV
The HSV color space was added to the SPOT software to optimize fluorescence image editing.
Both the RGB and the HSL color spaces are problematic when used to edit color fluorescence
images. Increasing gamma in RGB can cause dimmer sections of the image to lose saturation
(look “washed out”) and change hue. Increasing gamma or brightness in HSL causes the brighter
areas of an image to look unnaturally pastel or even white. The HSV color space avoids both
problems.
The HSV color space is similar to the HSL color space in that it also uses the intuitive concepts
of hue and saturation. However, instead of luminance for brightness, it uses Value. Value is like
Luminance in that a value of 0 is black. Value differs from Luminance in that a Value of 100 (in
the HSV color space) is the brightest version of the original hue whereas a Luminance of 100 (in
the HSL color space) is always white. For example, a dim cherry red changes to a bright cherry
red when its Value is increased from 30 to 100. When its Luminance is increased from 30 to
100, a dim cherry red turns white.
HSV works well for fluorescence images because the dyes in fluorescence images emit single
wavelength light. This light is, by definition, highly saturated. Editing in the HSV color space
ensures that all areas of the image retain their saturated colors. Thus, using the HSV color space,
images can be modified without causing the bright areas to look unnaturally pastel or white.
Adjust RGB/Adjust HSL/Adjust HSV
The process by which the program applies edits to an image capture differs according to the color space
that you select. The following table briefly describes the edit process in each of the three color spaces and
lists the recommended usage for each color space.
Color Space
Editing Process
RGB
Adjustments are applied separately to the red, green, and
blue pixel values.
The RGB option is ideal
for monochrome images.
HSL
1.
RGB pixel values are translated to HSL (hue,
saturation, and luminance) values.
2.
Adjustments are applied to the hue, saturation, or
luminance.
The HSL option is ideal for
all color images except
fluorescence images.
3.
The HSL values are translated back to the RGB
pixels.
1.
RGB pixel values are translated to HSV (hue,
saturation, and value) values.
2.
Adjustments are applied to the hue, saturation, or
value.
3.
The HSV values are translated back to the RGB
pixels.
HSV
140
Recommended Usage
The HSV option is ideal
for fluorescence images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
The Adjust RGB, Adjust HSL, and Adjust HSV options are each made up of several image editing
functions. The table below lists the parallel RGB, HSL, and HSV functions:
Adjust RGB
Adjust HSL
Adjust HSV
Adjust Brightness (additive)
Adjust Hue, Saturation, and
Luminance
Adjust Hue, Saturation and
Value
Adjust Brightness (multiplicative)
Adjust Luminance (multiplicative)
Adjust Value
(multiplicative)
Adjust Contrast
Adjust Contrast
Adjust Contrast
Adjust Gamma
Adjust Gamma
Adjust Gamma
Stretch Bright and Dark Level
Stretch Bright and Dark Level
Stretch Bright and Dark Level
Adjust Histogram
Adjust Histogram
Adjust Histogram
Many of the Adjust edit functions are duplicated in all three color spaces. To avoid unnecessary repetition,
we have grouped together discussions of edit functions that are the same in different color spaces. The
color space associated with the option appears parenthetically in the heading.
Adjust Brightness (additive) (RGB)
Use Adjust Brightness (additive) to lighten or darken an entire image. This function adds or subtracts the
specified number(s) from the red, green, and blue values for every pixel in the image. Because this is an
additive function, it affects bright and dark areas equally. You can change an image's brightness either by
adjusting all three values (e.g., red, green, and blue) together, or adjusting each value individually.
To Adjust Brightness (additive), follow
these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust
RGB and Adjust Brightness (additive).
The Additive Brightness Adjust
window appears, with a thumbnail
preview of the open image.
The Lock RGB and Modify Main
Image boxes are checked as defaults.
To adjust the RGB values individually,
deselect the Lock RGB box.
2.
3.
Change the brightness of the image.
−
To modify an image's brightness equally for red, green, and blue values, ensure that the Lock RGB
box is checked, and either enter a number in any one of the three boxes, or use one of the slider
bars to specify a number between -255 and 255.
−
To modify an image's brightness by specifying separate red, green, and blue values, deselect the
Lock RGB box, and enter a value for each color.
Click on OK. The new image appears on-screen.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
141
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Luminance (HSL)
Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Value (HSV)
Use the Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Luminance and the Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Value options to make
additive changes to the HSL or HSV values in an image. This process converts the RGB values for each
pixel in the image to HSL or HSV values. After you make the adjustments, the program converts the
HSL/HSV values back to RGB color space values.
To change the HSL or HSV values for an image, follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust HSL, Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Luminance or Adjust HSV,
Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Value:
2.
Either type in the HSL/HSV values, or use the slider bars to select the values. Each value uses its own
scale, and must be entered separately.
−
−
−
#
3.
Hue - Enter an angle value between -180° and 180°. This number represents the amount that the
color wheel is rotated for each pixel in the image.
Saturation - Enter a number between -100 and 100. This number is added to the saturation value
(e.g., a number between 0 - pure gray and 100 - day glow) of each pixel in the image.
Luminance or Value - Enter a number between -100 and 100. This number is added to the
Luminance/Value value (e.g., a number between 0 - pure black and 100 - pure white for
Luminance/brightest version of hue if Value) of each pixel in the image.
Note: The scales used to measure HSL/HSV values are not standardized. Thus, the scales used by
the SPOT software might differ from those of other programs.
Click on OK. The new image appears on-screen.
Adjust Brightness (multiplicative) (RGB)
Use Adjust Brightness (multiplicative) to make the bright areas of an image brighter or darker. This
function multiplies the red, green, and blue values for every pixel in the image by the number(s) that you
specify. Because this option is multiplicative, it affects bright areas more than dark areas: black areas tend
to stay black while lighter areas get brighter. Like the Adjust Brightness (additive) option, the
multiplicative option enables you to either adjust the RGB values together or as individual units.
142
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
To use the Adjust Brightness
(multiplicative) function,
follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select
Adjust RGB and Adjust
Brightness
(multiplicative). The
Multiplicative Brightness
Adjust window appears,
with a thumbnail preview
of the open image.
The Lock RGB and
Modify Main Image boxes are checked as defaults. To adjust the RGB values individually, deselect
the Lock RGB box.
2.
3.
Change the brightness of the image.
−
To modify an image's brightness equally for red, green, and blue values, ensure that the Lock RGB
box is checked, and either enter a number in any one of the three boxes, or use one of the slider
bars to specify a number between 0 (darkest) and 5 (brightest).
−
To modify an image's brightness by specifying separate red, green, and blue values, deselect the
Lock RGB box, and enter a value for each color.
Click on OK. The new image appears on-screen.
Adjust Luminance (multiplicative) (HSL)
Adjust Value (multiplicative) (HSV)
Adjust Luminance (multiplicative) and Adjust Value (multiplicative) make the bright areas of an image
brighter or darker when editing in the HSL and HSV color spaces. These functions multiply the
Luminance or Value values for every pixel in the image by the number that you specify. Because these
options are multiplicative, they affect bright areas more than dark areas.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
143
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
To Adjust Luminance (multiplicative) (HSL) or Adjust Value (multiplicative) (HSV), follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust HSL, Adjust Luminance (multiplicative) or Adjust HSV, Adjust
Value (multiplicative):
The Modify Main Image box is checked as a default.
2.
Change the Luminance or Value of the image. Use the slider bar to specify a number between 0
(darkest) and 5 (brightest).
3.
Click on OK. The new image appears on-screen.
Adjust Contrast (RGB)
Use Adjust Contrast to exaggerate or subdue the differences between the bright and dark areas in an image.
The Adjust Contrast option, when accessed from the Adjust RGB menu item, enables you to make
adjustments to the red, green, and blue values either together, or as individual units.
To adjust the contrast in an image, follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust RGB and Adjust Contrast. The Contrast Adjust window appears.
The Lock RGB and Modify Main Image boxes are checked as defaults. To adjust the RGB values
individually, deselect the Lock RGB box.
2.
3.
144
Change the contrast of the image.
−
To change the contrast
equally for red, green,
and blue values, ensure
that the Lock RGB box is
checked, and either enter
a number in any one of
the three boxes, or use a
slider bar to specify a
number between 0 (pure
gray - no contrast) and 5
(maximum contrast).
−
To modify an image's
contrast by specifying
separate red, green, and blue values, deselect the Lock RGB box, and enter a value for each color.
Click on OK. The new image appears on-screen.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
Adjust Contrast (HSL)
Adjust Contrast (HSV)
The Adjust Contrast (HSL) and Adjust Contrast (HSV) options, like the Adjust Contrast (RGB) option,
exaggerate or subdue the differences between the bright and dark areas in an image. Unlike the Adjust
Contrast (RGB) process, the Adjust Contrast (HSL/HSV) process works only on the Luminance/Value
values for an image as opposed to the specific red, green, and blue values.
To use Adjust Contrast (HSL/HSV), follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust HSL and Adjust Contrast or Adjust HSV and Adjust Contrast.
The Modify Main Image box is checked as a default.
2.
Enter a value between .1 and 4, or use the slider bar to select a value. The thumbnail changes as you
adjust the value.
−
−
3.
To exaggerate the contrast of an image, enter a value above one (the base value).
To subdue the contrast of an image, enter a value below one (the base value).
Click on OK. The new image appears on-screen.
Adjust Gamma (RGB)
Gamma Adjust smoothly lightens darker areas of an image without burning out bright areas or lightening
black areas. This is especially useful for editing images with a wide range of brightness values (dynamic
range). Gamma adjustment corrects an image by creating a new version of the original. Refer to Ch. 5 –
Preparing to Take a Picture for a more detailed
explanation of gamma adjustment.
To adjust gamma, follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust RGB and
Adjust Gamma. The Gamma Adjust window
appears. The Lock RGB and Modify Main
Image boxes are checked as defaults.
2.
Gamma adjust the image.
−
To adjust the gamma equally for red,
green, and blue values, ensure that the Lock RGB box is checked, and either enter a number in any
one of the three boxes, or use a slider bar to specify a number between .1 and 4.
−
To gamma adjust an image by specifying separate red, green, and blue values, deselect the Lock
RGB box, and enter a value for each color.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
145
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
#
3.
Note: The ability to deselect the Lock RGB box and enter specific RGB values distinguishes the use
of the Adjust Gamma menu option from the Gamma Adjust option on the Image Setup window (see
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture).
Click on OK. The new image appears on screen.
Adjust Gamma (HSL)
Adjust Gamma (HSV)
Like the Adjust Gamma (RGB) option, the Adjust Gamma (HSL) and Adjust Gamma (HSV) options allow
you to smoothly lighten darker areas of an image without burning out bright areas or lightening black areas.
This is useful when modifying images with a wide dynamic range, meaning the range of brightness values
recorded by the CCD chip. Unlike the Adjust Gamma (RGB) option, Adjust Gamma (HSL) and Adjust
Gamma (HSV) work only on the luminance or value values (respectively) for an image as opposed to the
specific red, green, and blue values. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for a more detailed
explanation of gamma adjustment.
To Adjust Gamma (HSL/HSV), follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust HSL, Adjust Gamma or Adjust HSV, Adjust Gamma.
2.
Enter a value between .1 and 4, or use the slider bar to select a value. The thumbnail preview of the
image changes as you adjust the value.
−
−
3.
To lighten the mid-tones of an image, enter a gamma value above one.
To darken the mid-tones of an image, enter a gamma value below one.
Click on OK. The new image appears on-screen.
Stretch Bright and Dark Level (RGB)
The Stretch Bright and Dark Level (RGB) option stretches the darkest level in an image to 0 (black) and the
brightest level to full scale. Full scale is 255 for 8 bit monochrome and 24 bit RGB images, and 4,095 for
12 bit monochrome and 36 bit RGB images.
Stretching the bright and dark level (RGB) for a 24 bit RGB image with a range of brightness values
between 50 and 150 has the following effects:
•
•
146
The lowest value pixels (50) are stretched down to 0.
The highest value pixels (150) are stretched up to 255.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
This one-step process provides a quick and easy way to increase image contrast in low contrast specimens.
To use Stretch Bright and Dark Level (RGB), select Adjust RGB, Stretch Bright and Dark Level from the
Edit menu. The picture automatically adjusts itself.
Stretch Bright and Dark Level (HSL)
Stretch Bright and Dark Level (HSV)
Like Stretch Bright and Dark Level (RGB), the Stretch Bright and Dark Level options in the HSL and
HSV color spaces stretch the darkest luminance or value level in an image to 0 (black) and the brightest
luminance or value level to 100 (pure white if Luminance/brightest version of hue if Value). Using the
HSL or HSV (for fluorescence images) color space to stretch images, as opposed to the RGB color space,
reduces the potential for washed out images and color shifts.
To stretch bright and dark level HSL or HSV, select Adjust HSL, Stretch Bright and Dark Level or Adjust
HSV, Stretch Bright and Dark Level from the Edit menu. The picture automatically adjusts itself.
Adjust Histogram (RGB)
A histogram is a graphical representation of the number of pixels at each brightness level in an image.
SPOT’s histogram displays the red, green, and blue histograms on the same graph. It serves two main
purposes:
•
It is a point of reference for examining the distribution of brightness levels for the red, green, and blue
components in an image.
•
It can be used to reset the zero and full scale points for an image. This is known as stretching. Like
the aforementioned Stretch Bright and Dark Level function, the Adjust Histogram option enables you
to stretch the darker areas of your image to pure black and at the same time lighten the brighter areas of
the image.
#
Note: Full scale for 8 bit monochrome and 24 bit RGB images is 255. Full scale for 12 bit
monochrome and 36 bit RGB images is 4,095.
To adjust an RGB histogram, follow these
steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust RGB,
Adjust Histogram. The RGB Histogram
window appears.
2.
Set the display parameters for the
histogram:
−
Determine the color or colors that you
want to display brightness values for.
As a default, the histogram displays all
three values. To display a different
combination of colors, deselect the
Show box for the unwanted color(s).
−
To display the histogram according to
a logarithmic scale (as opposed to a
linear scale), check the Log Scale box.
This makes the vertical axis more sensitive to small numbers and compresses the range for larger
numbers.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
147
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
From the RGB Histogram screen you have three viewing/editing options.
•
Examine the number of pixels at each brightness level.
Do one of the following:
−
−
•
Examine the number of pixels between two brightness levels.
Do one of the following:
−
−
•
Move the cursor along the graph to display the number of pixels with red, green, and blue values
at each brightness level and the total number of pixels at that level.
Type the same brightness level into both boxes under Number of Pixels. The histogram readouts
display the number of pixels with red, green, and blue values at that brightness level, as well as the
total number of pixels at that level.
Position the cursor over one brightness level on the graph, and left click and drag the cursor to the
second brightness level. The histogram readouts display the number of pixels with red, green, and
blue values between the two brightness levels and the total number of pixels.
Type the two brightness levels into the boxes under Number of Pixels. The histogram readouts
display the number of pixels with red, green, and blue values between the two brightness levels, as
well as the total number of pixels.
Stretch the image.
Follow these steps
a) Either drag the left triangle (on the X axis) to the brightness level that you want to define as zero, or
enter the value in the Bottom box. All red, green, and blue values that are less than or equal to this
level are now reset to zero.
b) Either drag the right triangle (on the X axis) to the brightness level that you want to define as full
scale, or type in the value in the Top box. All red, green, and blue values that are greater than or
equal to this level are now reset to full scale.
The program automatically multiplies all red, green, and blue values between the new zero point
and full scale values by the factor necessary to make the new full scale setting equal to actual full
scale after the new zero point setting (if you have defined one) has been subtracted.
c) Click on OK to save the image with the new zero point (Bottom) and full scale (Top) values.
Adjust Histogram (HSL)
Adjust Histogram (HSV)
HSL and HSV histograms are identical to RGB histograms, except that instead of displaying the number of
pixels for the RGB components, they display the number of pixels at each luminance or value level. As
with the RGB histogram, HSL and HSV histograms are typically used for two purposes:
148
•
Examining the distribution of luminance or value levels in an image.
•
Resetting the zero and 100 % luminance/value points in an image. This is known as stretching. The
Adjust Histogram (HSL) and Adjust Histogram (HSV) options allow you to stretch the darker areas of
your image to pure black and lighten the brighter areas to either pure white, if using the HSL color
space, or the brightest version of the hue, if using the HSV color space.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
To Adjust Histogram (HSL) or Adjust Histogram (HSV), follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Adjust HSL,
Adjust Histogram or Adjust HSV, Adjust
Histogram. The Luminance Histogram or
Value Histogram window appears.
2.
If you want to display the image's
histogram according to a logarithmic
scale, check the Log Scale box.
Checking the Log Scale box makes the
vertical axis more sensitive to small
numbers and compresses the range for
larger numbers, as illustrated in the
Adjust Histogram RGB section.
From the Luminance/Value Histogram
window you have three viewing/editing options.
•
Examine the number of pixels at each Luminance/Value level.
Do one of the following:
−
−
•
Examine the number of pixels between two brightness levels.
Do one of the following:
−
−
•
Move the cursor along the graph to display the number of pixels at each Luminance/Value level.
Type the same Luminance/Value level into both boxes under Number of Pixels. The histogram
readouts display the number of pixels at that Luminance/Value level.
Position the cursor over one luminance or value level on the graph, and left click and drag the
cursor to the second Luminance/Value level. The histogram readouts display the number of pixels
between the two levels.
Type the two Luminance/Value levels into the boxes under Number of Pixels. The histogram
readouts display the number of pixels between the two Luminance/Value levels.
Stretch the image.
Follow these steps:
a) Either drag the left triangle (on the X axis) to the Luminance/Value level that you want to define as
black (0 % Luminance/Value), or enter the Luminance/Value number in the Bottom box. All
Luminance or Value values that are less than or equal to this level are now reset to black (0 %
Luminance/Value).
b) Either drag the right triangle (on the X axis) to the Luminance/Value level that you want to define
as full scale (100 % Luminance/Value), or enter the Luminance/Value number in the Top box. All
Luminance/Value values that are greater than or equal to this level are now reset to full scale (100
% luminance/value).
The program automatically multiplies all Luminance/Value values between the new black and full
scale values by the factor necessary to make the new full scale value equal to 100 %
Luminance/Value after the new black value (if you have defined one) has been subtracted. The
thumbnail sample image updates automatically so you can gauge the effect of your adjustments.
c) Click on OK to save the image with the new black and white Luminance/Value values.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
149
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Filter
The Filter menu option contains four options for modifying images:
•
•
•
•
Smooth
Sharpen
Unsharp Mask
Filter Noise
Smooth
Use Smooth to smooth out grainy images. The smooth option
works by lightening the darker side of contrast boundaries and
darkening the lighter side. Because the Smooth option removes
the high frequency details from an image, some fine image detail
is also lost.
To smooth the appearance of an image, follow these steps:
1. From the Edit menu, select Filter, Smooth.
To preview images on the thumbnail image only, deselect the
Modify Main Image box.
2.
Either use the slider bar to select a Strength value between one
and 100, or enter the value in the box.
3.
When you have determined a suitable value, click on OK.
The smoothed image appears.
Sharpen
Use Sharpen to improve the appearance of soft or blurry looking
pictures. The Sharpen option works by darkening the darker side
of a contrast boundary and brightening the brighter side of a
contrast boundary.
To sharpen the appearance of an image, follow these steps:
150
1.
From the Edit menu, select Filter, Sharpen.
To preview changes on the thumbnail image only, deselect the
Modify Main Image box.
2.
Either use the slider bar to select a Strength value between one
and 100, or enter the value in the box.
3.
When you have determined a suitable value, click on OK. The sharpened image appears.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
Unsharp Mask
Use the Unsharp Mask filter to improve the appearance of an image’s
high frequency details. The Unsharp Mask option sharpens an image
by subtracting a brightness-scaled, low-pass-filtered image from the
original image.
To apply the Unsharp Mask filter, follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Filter, Unsharp Mask.
To preview changes on the thumbnail image only, deselect the
Modify Main Image box.
2.
Either use the slider bar to select a Strength value between one
and 100, or enter the value in the box.
3.
When you have determined a suitable value, click on OK. The sharpened image appears.
Filter Noise
Filter Noise corrects for the effects of electrical or thermal noise. The Filter Noise option eliminates single,
isolated pixel values that appear out of place due to electrical or thermal noise by checking each pixel on
the CCD chip as described below:
1.
The program compares the red value of each pixel with the red values of the eight neighboring pixels.
2.
If none of the eight neighboring pixels has a red value within ± x% (x is the Threshold value that you
enter) of the red value for the pixel being checked, the red value for the pixel being checked is replaced
with the average red value of the eight neighboring pixels.
3.
The program repeats this procedure for the green and blue values of the pixel being checked.
To activate the Noise Filter, check the Noise Filter box, and enter a value between 10 and 100. The default
value is 50%. The program runs the noise filter each time an image is captured with that image setup.
To filter noise, follow these steps:
1.
2.
From the Edit menu, select Filter, Filter Noise.
Enter a value between 10% and 100%. The Threshold value is
set to a default of 50%. Refer to the procedure described at the
start of the Filter Noise section for an explanation of the Threshold
value.
3.
Click on OK. The filtered image appears on-screen.
#
Note: Image setups can be defined to automatically use the noise filter when capturing an
image. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for details.
Make Negative
Use Make Negative to make a color negative (with complimentary colors) of an image. From the Edit
menu, select Make Negative. The Program automatically converts the image to a negative.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
151
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Convert to Gray Scale
Use Convert Gray Scale to convert images from color to gray scale. The Convert to Gray Scale option
works only with color (24 bit and 36 bit) images.
RT Mono
The Convert to Gray Scale option is available only for RGB images that have been opened with the
SPOT software/RT Mono camera. For monochrome image captures, the Convert to Gray Scale
option is unavailable.
From the Edit menu, select the Convert to Gray Scale option. The program converts the color image to a
gray scale image.
Set Palette (monochrome images)
The Set Palette option enables you to apply a specific color
palette to a captured monochrome image. There are four predefined color options:
•
•
•
•
Grayscale
Red
Green
Blue
To define a custom palette, use the Palettes option (Setup>Palettes). Refer to Ch. 4 – The Advanced
Program Mode for more details. Insight B/W users can also apply palettes as part of the image capture
process using the Palettes option on the Image Setup window.
Match Color
The Match Color feature is typically used in two situations:
•
You want to change the colors of an image on the screen to match the way that you think the specimen
looks.
•
You want to set the white balance for pictures taken with a microscopic technique that never has white
in its images. A prime example of this situation is fluorescence microscopy.
#
Note: The Match Color white balance adjustment can be used as an alternative to the
Compute White Balance Values option.
To use the Match Color feature, follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Match Color.
2.
Click on OK. The cursor becomes an eye-dropper.
3.
Use the mouse to move the eye-dropper to the pixel location of the color that you want to match.
Refer to the status bar at the bottom of the window to ensure that each of the R, G, and B values are
less than full scale (255 for 24 bit RGB and 4,095 for 36 bit RGB).
#
152
Note: If you select a pixel with a red, green and/or blue value that is saturated at full scale,
the SPOT program prompts with a warning message indicating that you need to choose a pixel
with RGB values less than 255 (24 bit RGB) or 4,095 (36 bit RGB). Saturated pixels do not
provide a good reference point for correctly determining the RGB ratios needed for this
function.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
4.
Edit
Click on the pixel. The Match Color window appears.
#
Note: The Set White Balance button
(not shown above) appears only for
image captures that have not yet
been saved and closed.
RT Mono
RT Monochrome camera users will
not see the Set White Balance
button.
The window displays information about the pixel
that you selected:
−
Hue – This the actual color, as distinguished from others in the color spectrum. Hue is derived
from a color wheel and is expressed in the color's angular location (e.g., 0 to 360 degrees).
−
Saturation - The proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in the SPOT software)
is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero equals pure gray and 100 equals pure hue
(i.e., “day glow”).
−
Original Color – A sample “swatch” of the color that you selected. The cross hairs on the color
wheel indicate the relative position of the color.
The Modify Main Image box is checked as a default.
5.
Set the new color. This can be done in one of two ways, depending on whether the image should
contain white:
−
If you are trying to make the selected pixel in your image appear as white (or gray if the pixel is
darker), click on the Make White/Gray button.
−
If you are working with an image that does not have any white, modify the Hue and Saturation
values so that the New Color “swatch” shows up as the color that you want. You can do this
either by entering specific Hue and Saturation values, or dragging the cross-hairs on the color
wheel to the desired location.
At this point there are three options:
•
Click on OK to save the image with the new color rendition.
•
Click on Reset to return the image to the original color rendition.
•
Click on Set White Balance to set the values so that colors are rendered
correctly for future image captures. When you click on Set White Balance, a
dialog box displays the white balance values. As a default, the values are saved
to the current setup. If desired, you can select a different Setup and then click on
OK.
6.
If you reset the White Balance, you can now recapture the image with the new settings.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
153
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Customizing Images
In addition to the image editing features described in this chapter, the SPOT software offers several options
for customizing images.
•
Change Pixel Bit Depth – Change from one bit depth to any of the other three options without having
to recapture an image.
•
Subtract Images – Subtract an image from a selected open image.
•
Merge Images –Merge two or three images, assigning red, green, or blue to each image. The Merge
Images feature is mainly used to combine two or three monochrome images into an artificially colored
composite image.
Change Pixel Bit Depth
Use Change Pixel Bit Depth to change the bit depth of the
currently open image. To change the pixel bit depth for an
image, follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select the Change Pixel Bit Depth
option. The Change Pixel Bit Depth window displays the
current Pixel Bit Depth for image.
2.
Select the pixel bit depth that you want to change the
image to.
−
Changing from one monochrome bit depth to another (8 bit to 12 bit) or from one RGB bit depth
to another (24 bit to 36 bit) does not require the addition of any color channeling information. In
this case, select the new pixel bit depth and click on OK.
CAUTION!
If you are changing an image to either 12 bit monochrome or 36 bit RGB, you must save
the image in TIFF format before you can close it. Refer to step four for further instructions.
−
Changing from an RGB (24 bit or 36 bit) color image to a monochrome image (8 bit or 12 bit),
requires the entry of color channeling information. When you select the new pixel bit depth, the
color channeling information appears.
Select the color channel(s) that you want to use. Select either a single color or the All Channels
option, which is the default.
♦
If you select a single color channel, the program uses only the values for that color (in the
original image) when it creates the monochrome image.
♦
If you select All Channels, the program uses a mathematical algorithm to combine the red,
green, and blue values from the original image when it creates the monochrome image.
CAUTION!
If you are changing an image to either 12 bit monochrome or 36 bit RGB, you must save the image in
TIFF format before you can close it. Refer to step four for further instructions.
3.
154
Click on OK to save the image with the new pixel bit depth.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
4.
Edit
If you changed the original pixel bit depth to either 12 bit or 36 bit, follow these steps before trying to
save the image to disk:
a)
From the File menu, select the Save As option. The Save As window appears. The Save as type
dialog box displays TIFF Uncomp (12-bit/channel) (TIFF).
b) The Save as type drop-down box has two options:
c)
♦
TIFF Uncomp (12-bit/channel) (TIFF) – Select the 12 bit per channel option if you want to
save the image as 36 bpp.
♦
TIFF Uncomp (16-bit/channel) (TIFF) – Select the 16 bit per channel option if you want to
save the image as 48 bpp. This allows you to edit images with Adobe Photoshop, which
cannot read 36 bpp images.
Enter the desired file name and location, and click on the Save button.
Subtract Image
Use Subtract Image to subtract an image from a selected, open image. Follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Subtract Image.
2.
Select the Source of the image that you want to add
to or subtract from the currently open, selected
image. The image can come from one of the
following three sources:
−
A Currently Open Document – Subtract an
image from a currently open image. If the path
for the image you are editing does not appear in
the Title box, select it from the Title drop-down
list, which lists all open images. If the file is an
image sequence, specify the number of the
image in the sequence (the Sequence Index).
#
Note: It is possible to subtract an
image from itself.
−
An Image File – Subtract a file from disk from the currently open, selected image. Either enter
the file path in the box, or click on the browse button to the right of the box to search for and
select the file. If the file is an image sequence, specify the number of the image in the sequence
(the Sequence Index).
−
A Database (Windows only) – Subtract a file from a SPOT database from the currently open,
selected image. To subtract an image from a SPOT database you must enter the Image ID for that
image. You can determine the eight digit Image ID number by searching the database for the
image that you want to add. The search results display the image ID number.
#
Note: To subtract a database file, the database must be open. For more information on using
SPOT databases, refer to Chapter 9, Using SPOT Databases.
3.
Enter a Scale Factor between .01 and 5.
4.
Click on OK to add or subtract the image. The combined image replaces the original.
#
Note: Subtracting an image modifies the original file. This contrasts with the process of the
Merge Images function (see below), which creates an entirely new file.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
155
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Merge Images
Use Merge Images to combine two or three monochrome images into a single composite image. The
Merge Images option is used primarily in fluorescence imaging when specimens have been stained with
more than one dye, and a triple filter cube is not available. In this circumstance, each dye can be excited
individually, and a monochrome image can be captured for each excitation. The Merge Images feature
then allows you to combine these images to create a composite image that shows all the dyes. The
following call-outs illustrate the different aspects of the Merge Images dialogue:
Scale factor enables you to scale the
brightness of a source image before
it is merged.
Specify any
position offset
(in pixels) for
the image. This
offset is reflected in the final,
merged image.
Specify the
sources of the
images that you
are merging.
Display only the
brightness
scaling and
positioning
options for the
source images.
Specify whether non-overlapping
parts of the source images are
included in the combined
image.
156
Apply your settings to
the merged image
without closing this
dialogue.
Automatically scale the
brightness of the merged
image so that it does not
come out too bright.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
To merge images, follow these steps:
1.
Define the source for
each image.
At least two Source Images must be selected. If the image that you select is
part of an image sequence, the Sequence Index box is also active. The source
can be:
•
•
•
A Currently Open Document – Select Currently Open Document to merge
a currently open image. Specify the number of the image in the sequence,
if applicable.
An image on File – Select File to merge a file from disk. Either enter the file
path in the box, or click on the browse button (to the right of the box) to
search for and select a file from disk. Specify the number of the image in
the sequence if applicable.
A Database (Windows only) – Select Database to merge a SPOT
database image. To merge a database image you must enter the Image ID
for that image. You can determine the eight digit Image ID number by
searching the database for the image that you want to add. The search
results display the image ID number. In order to select a database image,
the database must be open.
When you are merging monochrome images, the program uses whatever palette
that you have set for that image. So, if you defined a specific palette for an
image, that color appears in the merged image. If a palette has not been
assigned to an image, the program uses the grayscale palette as a default.
Palettes cannot be applied to monochrome images through the Merge Images
function. They must be applied prior to merging the image, either via the Image
Setup window (pre-capture) or the Set Palette Edit menu option (post capture).
•
•
•
2.
Specify the brightness
(Scale Factor) for
individual images
For information on defining palettes, refer to Ch. 4 – Working in Advanced
Mode.
For information on applying a palettes to an image as part of the image
capture process, refer to the Palette Image Setup option, as discussed in
Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture (Insight B/W users only).
For information on applying a palette to a captured image, refer to the Set
Palette Edit menu option, as discussed in this chapter.
For each source image, specify a Scale Factor between .01 and 5.
•
Numbers between .01 and 1 darken the image.
•
Numbers between 1 and 5 lighten the image.
3.
Specify the Position
Offsets for individual
images
Changing filters for an image capture can cause its position to shift from that of
the previous capture. This can be problematic when trying to merge two or three
images captured with different filters. The Position Offsets for each individual
image in the merged image allow you to compensate for such shifts by
specifying Horizontal and Vertical Position Offsets in pixels.
4.
If you have defined
position offsets, specify
whether the merged
image will retain the nonoverlapping areas.
To retain the non-overlapping areas, ensure that the Include Non-Overlapping
Areas in Final Image box is selected. If you do not select the box, the final
image automatically discards any non-overlapping areas.
5.
Specify the Auto-Scale
brightness setting for the
final merged image.
Whereas the Scale Factors are applied to individual images before they are
Merged, the Auto-Scale Brightness feature automatically adjusts the brightness
of the merged image to prevent overlapping bright areas from burning out.
6.
Preview your merged
image.
Click on Apply to apply your settings and view the merged image. When you
click on Apply, the Merge Images dialogue remains open, allowing you to
experiment with different Scale Factors and Position Offsets. When
experimenting with different values, click on Shrink to view only the Scale
Factors and Position Offsets – this minimizes the amount of space that the
Merge Images dialogue takes up in the window.
7.
Click on OK.
When you are satisfied with the appearance of the merged image, click on OK to
apply the settings and close the Merge Images dialogue.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
157
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Duplicate Image
Click on the Duplicate Image option to create a copy of the active (on-screen) image.
Annotation – Calibration and Measurement Marks
The Add Calibration Mark
and Add Measurement
options enable you to add
calibration and measurement
references to SPOT images.
Add Calibration Mark
The Add Calibration Mark feature allows you to insert a
calibration mark into an image capture. To add a calibration
mark, follow these steps:
1. If you have not already calibrated the objectives on your
microscope, do so. Refer to Ch. 4 – The Advanced
Program Mode for details.
2.
From the Edit menu, select Add Calibration Mark. The
Calibration Mark window appears.
3.
Select a Calibration Setup (e.g., 15x) for the objective
that you are using.
Move the cursor to the point in the image where you want
to insert the calibration mark and click at that point. The
calibration mark appears with the default appearance
settings.
4.
#
5.
6.
158
Note: If you are not satisfied with the placement of
the calibration mark, you can click on and drag
the mark to a new position. Clicking on and
dragging the bar moves both the bar and the
number. Clicking on and dragging the number
moves only the number.
Using the on-screen mark as a reference, modify the Appearance options:
a) Orientation – Check the appropriate box to select either a horizontal or vertical display for the
calibration mark.
b)
Line Thickness – Select a line thickness between 1 (thinnest) and 5 (thickest).
c)
Decimals – Select the number of decimals that appear in the calibration mark number. Choose
from a range of zero decimals (1) to five decimals (1.00000)
d)
Color – Click on the Color button to define the color of the calibration mark. You can either
choose from a palette of basic colors or define a custom color to provide the best display.
e)
Font – Define the font, point size, and appearance.
Enter the size of the calibration mark. You can modify the size either by entering the number in the
Size box, or by using the cursor to stretch the on-screen calibration bar. To adjust the size of the
calibration mark, move the cursor to the end of the calibration bar line. The standard cursor changes to
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
a two-headed arrow. Drag the end of the bar to adjust the length. The calibration mark number
changes to reflect the new length.
7.
Click on Stamp to incorporate the calibration mark into the image.
Add Measurement
The Add Measurement option enables you to incorporate measurements into an image capture, including
line, area, and angle measurements.
To add a measurement, follow these steps:
1.
If you have not already calibrated the objectives on your microscope, do so. Refer to Ch. 4 – The
Advanced Program Mode for details.
2.
From the Edit menu, select Add Measurement. The
Measurement window appears.
3.
From the Calibration Setup drop-down list, select the
setup (e.g.,15x) for the objective that you are using.
4.
Check the type of measurement that you want.
−
Straight Line – Point to point distance measurement
−
Curve – Length of a freehand line
−
Angle – Angle measurement
−
Region Area - Area of a freehand outline
5.
Move the cross-hair cursor to the point in the image
capture where you want to begin the measurement.
6.
Single click to activate the drawing function. Do not hold
the mouse button down between the measurement points.
−
For a Straight Line, move the cross-hair cursor to the
end point of the measurement. Single click to
deactivate the drawing function and display the length
of the line.
−
For a Curve, use the cross-hair cursor to trace a freehand line on an image. Single click to
deactivate the drawing function and display the length of the freehand line.
−
For an Angle, use the cross-hair cursor to specify the three points that define the angle. Single
click to mark the end point of the first side. Move the cross-hairs to the vertex, and single click
again. Move the cross-hairs to the end point of the second side, and single click. This last click
deactivates the drawing function and displays the angle measurement.
−
For a Region Area, use the cross-hair cursor to trace a freehand outline around the area that you
want to measure. Single click to deactivate the drawing function and display the measurement. If
the area is not completely enclosed by the outline, the SPOT program automatically completes the
path by connecting the end point to the starting point with a straight line.
When you complete a measurement, the drawing function is deactivated, and the cursor changes back
to a standard arrow. At this point you can:
−
Re-position the measurement number. When you position the cursor over the number, it changes
to a four point arrow. Click and drag on the number to move it to a new location.
−
Erase the last measurement. Double-click anywhere on the image to erase the previous
measurement. The cross-hair cursor re-appears for you to draw another measurement.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
159
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
After you have completed steps one through six, you can modify the measurement as needed, using the
Appearance options:
7.
−
Line Thickness – Select a line thickness between 1 (thinnest) and 5 (thickest).
−
Decimals – Select the number of decimals that appear in the measurement. Choose from a range
of zero decimals (1) to five decimals (1.00000)
−
Color – Click on the Color button to define the color of the measurement. You can either choose
from a palette of basic colors or define a custom color to provide the best display.
−
Font – Define the font, point size, and appearance.
Click on Stamp to incorporate the measurement into the image. The cross-hair cursor reappears for
you to add additional measurements to the image.
Annotation - Custom Image Annotation
Image annotation is useful when you want to prepare captures for formal presentation, or inclusion in an
article or reference work. Using SPOT’s image annotation features, you can:
•
•
•
•
Add text to an image.
Use an arrow, line, rectangle, or ellipse to emphasize a particular area in an image.
Add a graphic stamp such as a company logo to an image.
Add freehand lines to an image.
When you select the Annotate option on the Edit menu, several changes take place in the SPOT image
editing environment:
•
The Edit menu options change to reflect annotation editing, as opposed to the image editing discussed
earlier in this chapter.
•
The Object menu appears with options for inserting drawing objects, text, images, and image related
information onto an image. Cursor functionality in SPOT reports varies according to which Object
menu option is selected.
−
−
•
If None is selected, the cursor is a an editing tool for selecting, sizing, and positioning objects.
When creating new reports, None is the default option.
If a report object is selected, the cursor changes to a cross-hair icon for placing new report objects
on the grid.
The View menu displays two options:
−
−
Show Pan Window – Refer to the beginning of this chapter for a description of this function.
Show Tools – This option displays the Tools dialog box, which contains shortcuts for inserting
annotation drawing objects. Refer to the Adding Annotation Objects to SPOT Images section
(below) for more details on using the Tools dialog box,
•
The Attributes menu appears with options for specifying annotation qualities.
•
The Done! menu (Windows)/Mode menu (Mac) allow you to switch back from annotation mode to
image capture/edit mode.
− Windows - When you select Done! after you have annotated an image, the SPOT program
prompts you to merge the changes into the image.
−
Mac – The Mode menu has only one option, Exit Annotation Mode. When you select this
option, the SPOT program prompts you to merge the changes into the image.
CAUTION!
If you select Yes after clicking on Done! The annotations become a permanent part of the image. If
you want to preserve the original image, save the original image to a file. After annotating it, use
Save As to save the annotated version to a different file.
160
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
Adding Annotation Objects to SPOT Images
Annotation objects can be added to images in one of two ways:
•
Through the Object menu.
•
Through the Tools dialog box. To access the Tools
dialog box, select the Show Tools option on the
View menu. The Tools dialog box, as illustrated
below, displays shortcut buttons to the eleven
drawing objects on the Object menu:
Horizontal Line
Vertical Line
object select
mode (None)
Before discussing the individual objects, review the following
general procedure for inserting an annotation object into an image:
#
1.
Note: In some cases, the procedure varies to fit
the object’s charac-teristics. The specifics are
noted in the descriptions of the individual objects.
Arrow
Text
Box
Ellipse
Image
Rounded
Box
Freehand
Polyline
Polygon
From the Object menu, select the type of item (i.e., Lines,
Connected Lines, etc…) that you want to add to the image. The cursor’s functionality varies according
to whether a report object type (i.e., line, text) is selected:.
−
2.
If a report object type is selected, the cursor changers to a cross-hair icon that is used to add new
report objects to the grid.
− If None is selected, the cursor is a an editing tool that is used to select and position objects.
Use the mouse to drag the cross-hair to the location where you want to insert the object.
3.
Left-click at the insertion point.
−
4.
If you selected a line, box, or other shape, hold down the mouse button and drag the object to the
desired size.
− If you selected any of the other objects, the object will either appear (e.g., Image Time) or the
program will prompt you to enter the associated information (e.g., Text, Image Memo, etc…).
After you have added the object, there are three options:
−
−
−
Add another object of the same type, as described in step 3.
Add a different type of object - select from the Object menu options.
Resize, reposition, or edit an object. To do so, select None from the Object menu.
♦ Resize - Select (click on) the object and drag the handles in the direction of the resize.
♦
Reposition – Left click and drag the object the new area.
♦
Edit – Select the object and choose an option from either the Edit menu or the Attributes
menu. You can also edit an object by right clicking on it.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
161
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
The following sections describe each of the annotation objects.
None
Select None when you want to use the cursor to edit and position the objects.
Lines
Unconstrained Line - Add a straight line annotation to the image
Horizontal Line - Add a horizontal line annotation to the image.
Vertical Line - Add a vertical line annotation to the image.
Arrow – Add an arrow to the image. Either select Lines>Arrow from the Object menu, or click on
the Tools box button. Left click on the image and drag toward the area that the arrow head will point
to.
Connected
Lines
Polygon – Add a closed polygon to an image. Either select Polygon from the Object menu, or click
on the Tools box button. Left click and release, and then drag the mouse to create a side. Left click
again to start a new side. Double click to finish the polygon. The program automatically adds any
additional lines needed to close the figure.
Polyline – Add an open polygon to an image. Either select Polyline from the Object menu, or click
on the Tools box button. Left click and release, and then drag the mouse to create a side. Left click
again to start a new side. Double click to finish the polyline.
Freehand - Add a freehand line to the image
Shapes
Rectangular Box - Add a square cornered box to the image.
Rounded Box - Add a round cornered box to the image.
Ellipse – Add an elliptical object to the image. Ellipses are drawn inside of the rectangular area that
you define. Ellipses touch the top, bottom, right and left sides of this rectangle.
Either select Ellipse from the Object menu, or click on the Tools box button. To draw an ellipse, left
click at the point where you want to position one vertex of the rectangle and drag the cursor to the
point of the opposite vertex.
Images
Stamp – Insert a selected bitmap image onto the image capture. From the Object menu, select
Stamp. The last selected bitmap appears on your image. To select a new bitmap image to insert,
choose the Stamp Bitmap option from the Attributes menu.
Image - Add an image.
1.
From the Object menu, select Image.
2.
Left click at the point on the display grid where you want to insert the Image box, and holding
down the mouse button, drag the cursor to create the desired shape and size for the image (it
can also be resized/re-positioned at a later point). When you release the mouse button, the
Select Image dialog box appears:
3.
Specify the file source for the image:
−
−
−
Currently Open Image – Add a currently open image . If you have one or more open
images, SPOT lists the file name(s) and path(s) in the drop-down box. Select from the
list.
Image File – Add an image from disk. Specify the file name and location either by
entering the path in the Name box, or clicking on the selection box to the right.
Database (Windows only) – Add an image from a SPOT database. In order to insert a
database image, the database must be open. Enter the Image ID for the file. If you do
not know the database image ID, search the database – the display table indicates the
Image ID for each file.
Click on OK. The image appears on your report grid.
!
162
Because the Mac edition of the SPOT software does not yet have database functionality, Mac users will not
be able to use the Database option. Diagnostic Instruments provides free software updates via the Web to all
SPOT camera owners. Check the Diagnostic Instruments web site (www.diaginc.com) for the most recent
update. For details on finding and downloading the latest version of the software, refer to the Free Software
Updates section in “About This Manual.”
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Text
Edit
Text - Add text to the image.
1. Either select Text>Text from the Object menu, or click on the Tools box button.
2. Left click at the point where you want to insert the text. The Text window appears.
3. Enter the text.
4. Click on OK. The text box appears.
5. Resize the box as needed to display the text.
Image Date - Add a date to the image. This date defaults to the date that the image was captured. To
change the date, double click on the box, and enter the desired date.
Image Time - Add the image capture time to the image. This time defaults to the time that the image was
captured. To change the time, double click on the box, and enter a new time. The time that appears here
varies according to whether the file was transferred across a network, and whether the file is a SPOT
database image. Refer to the Image Date/Time section of this chapter for more details.
Image Title - Add a title to the image. The title automatically defaults to the file name and location of the
open image, e.g., C:\images\cells\fluor1. To change the title, double click on the box and enter a new title.
Image Memo - Add a previously defined TIFF image memo. Click at the point where you want to insert the
text box. To change the memo, double click on the box and modify the text as needed. Changing the text in
the memo annotation does not affect a memo that is attached to the image file.
Image Sequence Index (sequence images) - Add the Sequence Index (number) to the image. This is the
number of the image within the sequence – i.e., the Sequence Index for the first image in the sequence is
“1,” the second image “2,” etc…
Image Sequence Elapsed Time (sequence images) – Add the elapsed time between the image being
annotated and an image that you specify. After selecting Object>Text>Image Sequence Elapsed Time,
the program prompts you to enter the Reference Image Index Number. If you specify a number that
comes after the image being annotated, the elapsed time will be negative. For instance, if you are
annotating image number five in a sequence of 10, and you specify a Reference Image… of eight, the
elapsed time will be a negative value.
User Name – Add the user’s name to the image. This defaults to the user who is logged on the computer.
Defining Annotation Attributes
All of the general style and appearance options can be accessed from the Attributes menu. Annotation
attributes can be defined for an entire report or on an object by object basis (see the Adding Annotation
Objects to SPOT Images section above).
•
When an annotation object is selected, the attribute is defined for the selected object(s) only. In
addition, when you right click on an object, the menu displays the attribute options for that object.
•
When nothing is selected, the attribute is defined for all future, relevant objects.
The following table details each of the annotation attributes and the report objects that they affect.
Line Thickness
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Determine line thickness for the following objects: Line, Horizontal Line, Vertical
Line, Arrow, Box, Rounded Box, Ellipse, Freehand, Polygon, and Polyline.
1.
From the Attributes menu, select Line Thickness.
2.
Enter a Thickness value between 1 and 5 pixels.
3.
Click on OK.
163
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Colors
Define the foreground and background colors for all objects. Follow these steps:
1.
From the Attributes menu, select Colors.
2.
Define the Text/Lines color. This is the color of the text, the line, or the
border around a text/image box. The default foreground color is black. To
select a color click on Color.
3.
The next window varies, depending on whether you are using a Windows or a
Mac system.
Windows allows you to select from a palette of colors or enter specific
−
HSL or RGB color values.
−
4.
#
Mac OS allows you to select from a palette of colors, enter specific RGB,
CMYK, HLS, or HSV values, and enter Internet specific colors.
Define the Background/Fill color. This is the color that appears behind text
and in boxes. Lines and images do not display a background color.
Note: In order to define a background/fill color for a Box or a Rounded Box, a fill must be selected. Similarly, in
order to define a background/fill color for a text box, the background (see Text Border, Justification, and
Background below) must be set to Opaque.
Arrow Size and Direction
Specify the size of the arrow head and define the direction that the arrow
points.
1.
To specify the size of the arrow head, enter a value between 1 and 10.
2.
Specify the direction of the arrow:
−
−
3.
To draw an arrow starting tail first and finishing with the point
(head), select Tail to Head.
To draw an arrow starting point (head) first and finishing with the
tail, select Head to Tail.
Click on OK.
The Arrow Size and Direction attribute is not available for Mac users. For
Mac users, arrows are always drawn Tail to Head.
Image Border
Box/Ellipse Fill
Determine the line thickness for image borders. This option applies only to
the Stamp and Image objects.
1.
Select the object.
2.
To create a border around the image, click on the Border box, and
enter a Thickness value between 1 and 5 pixels..
3.
Click on OK.
Define the appearance of the Box, Rounded Box, and Ellipse objects.
1.
Specify whether you want a fill for the object.
−
−
164
If you do not want the box to be filled (i.e., you want a transparent
box), click on OK.
If you want to specify a fill pattern for the box, check the Fill
Box/Ellipse. The Pattern options appear.
2.
Specify a pattern by clicking on one of the seven options.
3.
Click on OK.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Text Font
Text Border, Justification, and
Background
Stamp Image
Edit
Define the appearance of the text for the Text, Image Date, Image Time,
Image Title, Image Memo objects.
1.
Select a Font, a Font Style, and a point Size. The Sample box
displays a preview of the font.
2.
Define any Strikeout or Underline effects.
3.
Click on OK.
Define the appearance of the text boxes for the Text, Image Date, Image
Time, Image Title, Image Memo objects.
1.
Specify whether the text box should have a border. To add a border,
click on the Border box, and enter a Thickness value between .05 and
10.
2.
Define the Justification of the text. This justification applies to the
position of the text in the box, not the position of the text on the page.
3.
Define the Background. Select either Transparent or Opaque.
4.
Click on OK.
Use the Stamp Image option to select the image that you want to use for
the Stamp option. To select the image, choose Stamp Image. The Stamp
Image dialog box prompts you to enter a file name and path:
•
•
If you know the name and location of the image file, enter it in the File
box.
If you do not know the name and location, of the image, click on the
browse button to search for the file.
After you have selected the image file, click on OK.
Editing Annotation Objects
Once you have annotated an image, you can edit the annotation objects as needed. There are three ways to
edit objects:
•
Use the Attributes menu - The Attributes menu, as noted in the Defining Report Attributes section of
this chapter, allows you to either set the attributes for adding specific types of objects, or to select
existing objects and modify them as needed. Refer to the Defining Annotation Attributes section for
more details.
•
Use the Edit menu - The Edit menu contains general editing features such as Undo, Copy, Cut, Send
to Back, etc…
•
Right-click on the report object - Right clicking on a report object brings up a customized editing
menu that contains both general editing commands and the attributes that can be edited for that object.
You can also move and size annotation objects:
•
To move an object, left click on it and drag the item to a new location. When you drag the item, the
cursor becomes a four pointed arrow.
•
To size an object, left click on it and drag the handles to resize the object as needed.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
165
Edit
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
The following sections describe the available editing options.
Undo
Undo the last action. Unlike the image capture/editing Undo feature, the annotation Undo
undoes up to ten changes.
Bring to Front
Bring the selected annotation in front of all other annotations.
Move Forward
Bring the selected annotation one layer forward.
Move Backward
Send to Back
Cut
Send the selected annotation one layer back.
Send the selected annotation behind all other annotations.
Remove the selected annotation and place it on the clipboard.
Copy
Copy the selected annotation clipboard.
Paste
Place the cut or copied annotation from the clipboard into the image.
Clear
(Mac)
Select All
Delete the selected annotation object(s).
Duplicate
Create additional copies of the annotation object. The program prompts you to enter the
number of copies. When you click on OK, the duplicates appear at the top of the window.
Delete
(Windows)
Delete All
Set Position,
Alignment, and
Size
Select all annotation objects.
Delete the selected annotation object(s).
Delete all of the annotations on the image.
The Set Position, Alignment, and Size option
allows you to specify precise sizing and
position values for single or multiple selected
report and annotation objects.
The Position options enable you to:
•
Align top/bottom edges of multiple objects.
•
Align left/right edges of multiple objects.
•
Align the centers of multiple objects.
•
Center an object(s) on the page.
•
Enter exact pixel values position the
object.
The Size options enable you to enter:
166
•
Exact width/height in pixels for one or
more objects.
•
Set the width/height dimension for multiple
objects the to smallest or largest object’s
in pixels.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 8 - Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images
Edit
Memo
In the SPOT software, you can attach a memo to TIFF or JPEG format image files. To use the Memo
option, follow these steps.
1.
From the Edit menu, select Memo. The Image Memo window appears for you to enter a new memo
or edit an existing memo.
2.
Enter the message.
3.
Click on OK to attach the memo to the image.
#
Note: If you attach a memo to an image that is not in either TIFF or JPEG format and then
attempt to save the memo (i.e., when you close the image file), the SPOT program displays a
warning message that asks you if you want to save the image without the memo. If you want to
retain the memo, click on Cancel and use the Save As option to save the image in either TIFF or
JPEG format.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
167
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Table of Contents
Ch. 9 – Using SPOT Databases
QUICK REFERENCE:
Introduction ................................................... 170
The Database Menu...................................... 170
The SPOT Sample Database ......................... 171
Open the SPOT Sample Database.......... 171
View the Database Structure................... 171
View Database Preferences .................... 172
Search the Database................................ 172
Save an Image to the Database ............ 173
Creating and Modifying Databases ............ 174
Setting Up a New Database .................... 174
Defining File and Save Preferences ........ 175
Storing Archived Images – An
Important Consideration.....................175
Location and Path of Database
Images..................................................175
Image File Format................................176
Thumbnail Save Preference................177
!"“Tour” the SPOT sample database… p. 171
!"Set up a new SPOT database… p. 174
!"Set a password for a database… p. 174
!"Set the location for your database images…
p. 175
!"Define different types of database fields… p. 177
!"Save an image to a database… p. 180
!"Move an image or images from your hard drive
to a different storage medium… . 182
!"Search a database… p. 186
Defining Database Fields.......................... 177
Text/Numeric Fields..............................177
Lookup Fields and Lists ........................178
Setting Default Values.........................179
Saving Images ............................................ 180
Editing Database Image Records ........... 181
Moving Database Images........................ 182
Searching Databases ................................... 184
Defining Search Conditions...................... 185
Ordering Search Results ............................ 186
Displaying Search Results.......................... 186
Show Results as: Table .........................187
Show Results as: Thumbnails ...............187
Saving and Reusing Search Criteria........ 188
Editing Database Image Records (from a
search)......................................................... 188
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
169
Introduction/The Database Menu
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Introduction
!
SPOT’s image archiving database features are not yet available for the Mac edition of the program. As
soon as this functionality is available, you will be able to download the updated version of the software
from Diagnostic Instruments’ web site, www.diaginc.com. Check the site periodically to determine the
most recent update. For detailed steps on downloading the software, refer to the Free Software
Updates section in “About this Manual”.
In addition to the numerous image capture and editing features, the SPOT software provides you with an
easy to use, fully featured image archiving database.
#
Note: If you are using SPOT databases from an earlier version of the SPOT software, you will
need to convert the old databases to work with the latest version (3.3) of the software. Refer to
Appendix E: Converting Previous Version SPOT Databases for detailed steps.
This chapter is divided into the following sections:
•
•
•
•
The Database Menu
The SPOT Sample Database
Creating and Modifying Databases
Searching Databases
The Database Menu
The Database menu contains all of the options for accessing,
creating, modifying, and searching SPOT databases. When you
first open the SPOT program, only the first two options, New and
Open are active. The other options remain inactive (grayed) until
you either create a new database or open an existing database. In
addition, Edit Database Record does not appear on the menu
unless a database image is open. Each option is described below.
•
New – Create a new SPOT database. Refer to the Creating
and Modifying Databases section for details.
•
Open – Open or delete an existing SPOT database.
#
170
Note: Only one database can be opened per session. If you try to open a second data-base,
the program prompts you to close the open database.
•
Close – Close a SPOT database.
•
Password – Define a password to protect a SPOT database.
•
Fields – Define the text and numeric fields, look-up lists, and default options for your database.
•
Preferences – Define the location and format of the image files in your database.
•
Search – Define parameters for database searches.
•
Edit Database Record - Edit information associated with a database image, including field data, time
and date information, file save location, and memo text.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
The SPOT Sample Database
The SPOT Sample Database
For your reference, a fully functional sample database is included with your software. We recommend that
you browse through this database to familiarize yourself with the features and functionality. The following
section is a “visual tour” of the SPOT Sample Database.
Open the SPOT Sample Database
1.
From the Database menu, select Open. The
SPOT program prompts you to select the
database.
2.
Select SPOT Sample Database, and click on
Open. SPOT prompts you for a password.
3.
Do not enter a password. Click on OK. You
can define a password at a later point, as
explained in the Setting up the Database
section of this chapter.
Note that the SPOT database icon appears at the
bottom of your Windows screen, indicating that the
database is open.
View the Database Structure
When you save an image to a SPOT
database, you are prompted to enter
information for these fields.
From the Database menu,select Fields.
The Database Fields window
illustrates the different types
of fields that you can define for
a SPOT database:
Enter Text/
Numeric fields
Enter Lookup
(multi-value)
fields
Click on Default Values
to define information that
will appear as a default
for a database field.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Click on Items to define the list
items associated with a lookup field.
171
The SPOT Sample Database
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Click on the Items button for the
Sample Type lookup field to
view a list of the sample type
options for the SPOT Sample
Database.
From the Lookup Field Items
window, you can Add, Modify,
or Delete items in the lookup list.
View Database Preferences
From the Database menu, select
Preferences
The Preferences window is the
starting point for defining:
•
•
•
Image file/database location
Image file format
Thumbnail save options
Refer to the Defining File and
Save Preferences section of this
chapter for details.
Search the Database
From the Database menu, select
Search. The Database Search
window allows you to:
•
Define search and sort
parameters
•
Save a specific set of search
parameters
•
Choose display options for
search results (i.e., tabular or
thumbnail display).
Refer to the Searching Databases
section of this chapter for details.
172
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
The SPOT Sample Database
Click on Search. Clicking on Search without entering any conditions results in a display of all the records
in the database:
Database Fields
Click on Show
as Thumbnails
to switch to a
thumbnail display
Database
Records double-click
on a record
to edit it.
Image Thumbnail - doubleclick here to view/edit
the full-size image.
Save an Image to the Database
Open an image file, and from the File menu, select Save to Database:
All of the required fields must be entered before the image can be saved.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
173
Creating and Modifying Databases
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Creating and Modifying Databases
The following sections outline the details involved in creating and/or modifying SPOT databases.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Setting Up the Database
Defining Database Fields
Defining File and Save Preferences
Saving Images
Editing Database Image Records
Moving Existing Database Images
Setting Up a New Database
The initial set up for a new database consists of two steps:
•
•
Naming the database (required)
Defining a password for the database (optional)
#
Note: If you do not define a password during the initial definition, you can use the Password option
on the Database menu to add a password at a later point..
To set up your database, follow these steps:
1.
From the Database menu, select New.
2.
Enter a Name for the database.
3.
Define a password for the database, if needed. Follow these
steps:
a) Check the Require Password box. The Password and
Enter Again boxes are activated.
b) Enter a 1-10 character alphanumeric password.
c)
4.
Re-enter the password.
Click on OK. The Database Preferences window
appears. At this point, you can:
−
Define the database preferences. Refer to the next
section, Defining File and Save Preferences, for
details.
−
Click on OK to skip defining Database
Preferences and proceed directly to defining the
database fields and lookup lists (i. e., the Database
Fields window). Refer to the Defining Database
Fields section of this chapter for details.
#
174
Note: Database Preferences can be
defined/modified at any future time
by selecting the Preferences option
on the Database menu.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Creating and Modifying Databases
Defining File and Save Preferences
Before saving images to a database, you should specify your file and save preferences for the database.
This includes:
•
•
•
Location and path for database images
Image file format
Thumbnail save preference
All of the file and save preferences are defined
from a single point, the Database Preferences
window. The Database Preferences window
automatically appears when defining a new
database. If you want to define the file and save
preferences at a later point, select the
Preferences options from the Database menu.
Storing Archived Images – An
Important Consideration
Before proceeding to define the file and save parameters for your database, you should carefully plan how
and where you will store archived images, as well as how you will accommodate future images. Because
each uncompressed image file ranges from between 1.3 Mb to 8 Mb, saving and storing large quantities of
images requires planning. One option for storing images locally is to use the new 2 Gb Jaz drives. Another
alternative, if you are on a network, is to designate network space on a server. For more details on storage
planning, contact your MIS department or a qualified computer or network specialist.
Location and Path of Database Images
SPOT databases are structured so that the database
and the images stored in that database do not have
to reside in the same location. This structure
allows you to keep the relatively small database
program files on your hard drive, while storing the
larger image files in a different location. The name
and location of the database - SPOT Sample Database in the illustration above - appears under the path
for the database images; it cannot be changed from this window. The database always resides in the default
location, C:\SpotCam\DBImages. Although the default location for image files is also
C:\SpotCam\DBImages, we recommend that you define an alternative location such as a Jaz drive or a
network drive. If you plan to save images to removable media such as ZIP or Jaz drives, you should, at this
point, define the volume label for the disk. Because a single
database of images can span more than one disk, defining unique
volume labels for each disk provides a reference so that you can
conveniently access images in the future.
To define a volume label for a disk, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the ZIP or Jaz disk is in the drive.
2.
From the Windows 95/98/NT Explorer, single click on the ZIP
or Jaz drive icon.
3.
From the File menu, select the Properties option; or, right click
on the drive and select the Properties option. The Properties
window appears. If you do not see a view similar to that in the
illustration at right, click on the General tab.
4.
Enter a name in the Label box. For ease of reference, you
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
175
Creating and Modifying Databases
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
should name the volume so that it tells you both the name of the database and the disk number.
5.
Click on OK.
6.
Write the volume label on the ZIP or Jaz disk. This way, when you search a multi-disk image
database, and the program prompts you to enter the disk number, you will be able to find the
information.
7.
Repeat steps 1 – 6 for each disk of images associated with a database.
If you are saving images to an existing database,
you can click on the Current Image File
Locations button to display the location of the
saved image files and change the location and/or
volume label for the disk. The Database Image
File Locations window appears.
To change the File Path and/or the Volume label,
either double click on the File Path/Volume
information, or select the information and click
on Modify. The Image File Location dialog box
appears.
From this window you can:
•
Enter a new location for the database images in the Path box; or, click on the button next to the Path
box to browse for a new location.
•
Enter a new Volume label for the disk.
Image File Format
From the Preferences window, you can define the graphic format of the images saved to a database. There
are five options:
•
•
•
•
•
Windows Bitmap
JPEG (allows for image compression)
Mac PICT
TIFF Uncompressed
TIFF JPEG (allows for image compression)
Windows Bitmap is the default option.
To define image file format, select
one of the formats from the dropdown list. Selecting either the
JPEG or the TIFF JPEG option
activates the JPEG Quality box.
This option allows you to
compress images (i.e., lower their
resolution) so that you can save
disk space in cases where high
resolution images are not needed.
To define JPEG Quality, select a value between 1 and 100:
• A value of 1 represents the lowest resolution and the smallest file size.
• A value of 100 represents the highest resolution and the largest file size.
176
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Creating and Modifying Databases
Thumbnail Save Preference
Determine whether you will Save Image Thumbnails for the database. The Save Image Thumbnails
option saves a thumbnail of each image in the database. This allows you to visually browse through the
images in a database. You can also open a database image from a thumbnail.
CAUTION!
When you select the Save Image Thumbnails option, the thumbnail images are saved to the SPOT
database file, which resides on your hard drive at C:\Spotcam\Database\[name of your database].db.
Each thumbnail increases the size of the database file by approximately 6 Kb.
Defining Database Fields
The Database Fields window is a centralized point for defining
the details associated with a database. There are three processes
associated with the definition of database fields:
•
Naming and defining Text/Numeric Fields – The
textual/numeric fields that you define represent the data you
want to be associated with an image. Typical text fields
include patient name and ID number. Typical numeric fields
include height and weight.
•
Naming and defining Lookup Fields– Lookup fields also
represent data that you want to be associated with an image.
Lookup fields are used in cases where the data item has a
limited number of discrete options (e.g., blood type). Each lookup field is associated with a userdefined list of items, enabling you to select an option from a list, as opposed to manually entering it
each time an image is saved to the database.
•
Setting Default Values for the fields – To speed the process of saving images to a database, you can
define default values to automatically appear for a field. This helps you to avoid multiple entries of the
same item when numerous images have the same data for a particular field.
Text/Numeric Fields
To define a textual/numeric field, follow these steps.
1.
On the Database Fields window, enter the
name of the field in the Text/Numeric Fields
box. You can use up to 30 alphanumeric
characters. Entering information in the box
activates (un-grays) the four variables to the
right of the box.
2.
Define the four variables associated with each field.
− Required – Check (click on) the Required box to make the field a required entry when saving
images to the database. When this box is checked, images can not be saved until the field has an
entry.
− Title – Check the Title box to ensure that the data from the text field appears in the title of the
image window and under any thumbnail of the image.
− Text – Click on the Text button to define the field as a text field. This is the default setting for the
field type.
− Numeric – Click on the Numeric button to define the field as a numeric field.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
177
Creating and Modifying Databases
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
The field type (i.e., text or numeric) is important in terms of how the program searches the database.
Text field searches look for textual strings of information while numeric field searches look for a range
of values. So, a database field that contains numbers should not automatically be defined as a numeric
field. For instance, if your field is a number such as a patient ID, it should be defined as a Text field
because it is not a measurement and it is not within a specific range of values.
CAUTION!
After you have defined the Text/Numeric fields, you cannot change the Text or Numeric setting.
Although you can make changes to an existing field name (i.e., to correct a spelling error or make a
more intuitive name), you should not change the meaning of the field. This will render the field
useless for searches performed on all previously stored images.
Lookup Fields and Lists
Defining a Lookup Field consists of three
actions:
•
Naming the Lookup Field
•
Selecting the Required and Title variables
•
Creating the items in the Lookup Field list
The SPOT database allows you to perform these actions in different orders, depending on your situation.
Consider the following scenarios:
•
You are the database administrator, and you want to define a new database with multiple Lookup
Fields for others to use when saving images to the database. You know ahead of time which Lookup
Fields you want to define, and you also know all of the items that will be associated with each Lookup
Field.
In this scenario, you can define the Lookup Fields, the Required and Title options, and some or all of
the items in Lookup Field list.
•
You are an end user and know which Lookup Fields you want to define, but prefer to add items for
each field, as needed, when saving images to the database.
You can define one or more Lookup Fields without adding any of the Lookup Field list items. The
Lookup Field items can be added either at a later time, or during the process of saving images to the
database.
To define a Lookup Field and the associated list, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the name of the first Lookup Field.
2.
Select the Required and Title options.
− Required – Check (click on) the Required box to make the field a required entry when saving
images to the database. When this box is checked, images can not be saved until the field has an
entry.
− Title – Check the Title box to ensure that the data from
the text field appears in the title of the image window
and under any thumbnail of the image.
You can also leave one or both options unchecked.
If you do not want to enter the Lookup Field list items at this
time, you can enter any remaining Lookup Fields and click on
OK to save the database.
3.
178
Click on the Items button. The Lookup Field Items
window appears with the name, as shown at right.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
4.
Click on Add. The Lookup Item dialog window
appears for you to enter the Lookup List item.
5.
Enter the name of the Lookup List (e.g., A +) item in the
box.
6.
Click on OK. The program returns you to the Field
Lookup window. In the illustration to the right, the user
has added the A + item to the Blood Type Lookup Field
(Lookup List) .
Creating and Modifying Databases
From the Field Lookup window, you can:
7.
−
Click on Add to add additional items to the Blood
Type lookup list.
−
Select a lookup list item and click on Modify to edit
the item or Delete to remove the item from the list.
−
Click on OK to save the lookup list and the
associated items. The program returns you to the
Database Fields window.
Follow steps 1-7 to enter additional Lookup Fields. You
can enter up to four per database..
Setting Default Values
As part of the process of defining database fields, you have the option to define default values for each
field. The values that you define will appear as default field entries each time you save an image to the
database. If desired, you can edit the default
entries before saving the image. To enter
default values for a field, follow these steps:
1.
After you have defined your text/numeric
and lookup fields, click on Default
Values (at the bottom of the Database
Fields window). The Default Field
Entries window appears, as shown at
right. Unless specified, the SPOT
database uses the Last Value for each
field. To change this default for a Field,
check the box next to the field name.
Checking the box activates the Use:
option.
2.
Select the option that you want:
−
Use: Last Value
When saving an image to a database, the program uses the data entered for the last image as the
entry for the same field in the current image. The last entered data always appears in the entry box
for the image that you are saving. Thus, if you select Use: Last for the physician field, and you
select Dr. Jarvis for the first image, Dr. Jarvis appears in all subsequent images until you make a
different selection.
To select the Use: Last option, click on the Last button for that field and click on OK to save the
settings.
−
Use: Default
When saving an image to a database the program uses the entry that you make (in the box next to
the Default button). If desired, you can edit the default entries before saving the image.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
179
Creating and Modifying Databases
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
To select the Use: Default option, click on the Default button for the field and enter/select the
default entry. Click on OK to save the settings.
If you do not specify a default value option for a field, all of the fields must be entered/selected each
time an image is saved to the database.
Saving Images
Once you have acquired the images that you want to store in your database, the SPOT program makes it
easy to save the information. To save an image to a database, follow these steps:
1.
From the File menu, select the Save to Database
option. The Save Image to Database window
appears. The program automatically displays the date
and time that you first saved the image. This
information can be modified as needed.
#
2.
Note: When you save an image to a
SPOT database, the program automatically creates an image ID that is
stored in the image path folder. This
is a reference number that the program uses to access images and associated data.
Enter the information associated with the image in the
database fields.
− T next to a field indicates that the field is
Textual.
− N next to a field indicates that the field is Numeric.
To enter data for a lookup field that is not contained in the drop-down list options, simply type the
information into the field.
#
3.
Click on the Memo button to associate a memo with an image. The Image Memo window appears.
4.
5.
Enter the text for the memo, and click on OK to save the memo.
Click on OK at the Save Image to Database window. If you entered a lookup list item that was not in
the drop-down list of options, as described in step 2, the program prompts you to add the item to the
list.
Click on Yes to add the new item to the lookup list.
6.
180
Note: If you defined a data field as Required on the Database Fields window, the program will not
let you save the image without the information.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Creating and Modifying Databases
Editing Database Image Records
Once you have created a database and saved images to that database, you can edit records as needed. To
edit a database image record, follow these steps:
1. Ensure that the database is open.
2.
From the File menu, select Open Database
Image. The dialog box prompts you to enter
the Image ID. If you do not know the Image
ID, you can search the database, as described
in the Searching the Database section that
follows.
3.
Click on OK to open the database image.
4.
From the Database menu, select the Edit
Database Record option. The Image
Database Record window appears.
5.
Change the Date/Time settings as needed.
Use the following format:
mm/dd/yy.
6.
Edit the Fields data as needed.
7.
−
For the text and numeric fields, simply
enter the new data.
−
For the lookup fields, either select an
item from the drop-down list or enter a
new item. When you close the Image
Database window, the program prompts
you to add the new lookup list item.
Edit the Image Memo, if necessary. Click
on Memo, enter the information, and click
on OK.
In addition to the data associated with a database image, the Image Database Record window also allows
you to modify the image file location/path information. For example, if you have moved a database image
to a new file location, you would need to modify
the record to reflect this.
8. To modify the location/path information for
a database image, click on Modify. The
Image File Location window appears.
9.
Either enter the new file path in the Path box, or click on the button to browse for the information.
10. Enter the new Volume label.
11. Click on OK.
12. Click on OK at the Image Database Record window to save the changes.
#
Note: The image itself cannot be edited while the Image Database Record window is open.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
181
Creating and Modifying Databases
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Moving Database Images
When saving images to a database, the default save location is your computer’s hard drive –
C:\SpotCam\DBImages (or wherever you installed the SPOT software). To move images in a database
from your hard drive to a removable storage medium such as a zip disk or a CD, follow these steps.
1.
Determine the file space needed for the database images.
a)
Open the Windows Explorer.
b) Navigate to the database image files. In the
example at right, you can see that the image files
associated with the Histology SPOT database are
located in the C:\SPOTCam\DBImages\
Histology directory. Note that the status bar at the
bottom of the screen displays the number of objects
in the Histology folder (45) and the disk space used
by these objects (58.2 MB).
2.
Define the volume label for your zip disk.
In some cases, you will be able to store all of a database’s
images on one disk. At a future point, you might want to add
additional images to the database that will not fit on the same
disk. Defining a volume label enables you to access SPOT
databases that span more than one Zip disk (or any other
removable media). To define a volume label, follow these
steps:
a)
Insert the Zip disk (or other removable media) in the
drive.
b) In Windows Explorer, right click on the drive letter for
the Zip disk.
c)
Select the Properties option. You should see a view
similar to that shown at right. If you do not see the pie
shape, click on the General tab.
d) Enter a name for the Volume Label in the Label box. You should use a name that indicates both
the name of the database and the disk number (e.g., HISTO1).
3.
182
e)
Click OK.
f)
For future reference, label the disk or CD.
Move the database images to the Zip disk.
a) If it is not already open, open the SPOT program.
b) Open the database that contains the images that you
want to move. From the Database menu, select
Preferences.
c) At the Database Preferences window, click on
Current Image File Locations. The Database Image
File Locations window displays the current file path
and volume, as shown at right.
d) Click on the Modify button. The Image File Location
window appears, with the current path and volume
information for the database images,
c:\SpotCam\DBImages\Histology.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Creating and Modifying Databases
e)
Either click on the square box next to the file path to navigate to the folder that you want to
move the images to, or enter the file path in the box. When you click on the square box next to
the Path box, the SPOT program prompts you with an Explorer view. Navigate to the D: drive
(or whichever letter is used by your PC).
f)
Click on the Create New Folder
tab, as shown at right.
#
Note: If you simply enter the
Path D:\Histology on the
Image File Location dialog
(above), the SPOT program
will not create the folder.
You must create the folder
manually, either from the
Windows Explorer, or from
the Select Folder dialog.
g) Enter the name of the new folder, e.g., Histology.
h) Click on Select. The Image File Location dialog reappears.
i)
Enter the Volume label that you defined for the Zip disk in step 2, e.g., HISTO1
j)
Click on OK. The Database Image File Locations window reappears.
k) Close the Database Image File Locations window. The Database Preference window reappears.
Note that the Image Files Saved To path has not changed – it is still
C:\SpotCam\DBImages\Histology. Unless you change this setting, new images added to the
database will still be saved to this location.
l)
4.
Click on OK.
From the Windows Explorer, cut and paste
the image(s) from the original location (e.g.,
C:\SpotCam\DBImages\Histology) to the
new location (e.g., D:\Histology).
a)
Navigate to the
C:\SpotCam\DBImages\Histology
folder, and click on Histology.
b) From the Edit menu, choose Select
All.
c)
Cut the images [Ctrl X].
d) Click on the D:\Histology folder.
e)
Paste the images [Ctrl V].
Steps one through four describe how to move an entire database of images. However, it is possible to move
individual images or groups of images. When moving individual or groups of images from a SPOT
database, you must change the path of each image file that you want to move.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
183
Searching Databases
Ch. 9 – Using SPOT Databases
To do so, follow these steps:
1.
Search the database to find the image(s) that
you want to move. For details on entering
search conditions, refer to the Searching
Databases section below.
2.
From the search results display table (the
Images window), select an image that you
want to move, and click on Edit. You can
select only one image at a time for editing.
The Image Database Record window appears.
#
Note: You can also access
the Image Database Record
window by opening a
database image (i.e.,
File>Open Database
Image) and then selecting
the Edit Database Record
option from the Database
menu.
3.
Note down the Image ID number – the first
item in the Image Information section.
4.
Click on the Modify button. The Image File
Location dialog appears.
5.
Enter the Path and Volume information as
described in steps 2d – 2i above.
6.
Repeat steps two through five for each image that you want to move.
7.
From the Windows Explorer, cut and paste the images from their original location to the new location
defined in step five.
Searching Databases
The SPOT program offers a robust, yet easy
to use database search function. The
Database Search window is the central point
from which search and display parameters are
entered. From this window, you:
•
•
•
•
•
Define search conditions
Order search results
Display and edit search results
Save search criteria
Load previously saved search criteria
To access the Database Search window,
select Search from the Database menu.
184
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Searching Databases
Defining Search Conditions
To define database search conditions, follow these steps.
1.
Click on the Add button (for Search Conditions) on the Database Search window. The Search
Condition window appears.
2.
Select the database field that you want to base the
search on. The left drop-down box contains a list
of all the textual/numeric and lookup fields that
you defined for the database. In addition to the
fields that you defined, the Date associated with
the image and the Image ID appear in the list.
3.
Select the criteria for the search from the center
drop-down box. The list options vary according to the type of field that you selected, as shown below:
Field Type
4.
Options
Field Type
Date
Numeric
Text
Lookup
Options
Enter the final search parameter in the right hand box. This entry will vary according to the search
criteria that you selected. For Text and Numeric field searches, you are required to enter the
information, while for Lookup field searches, you can select from a list of the lookup items
For Text fields, asterisks (*) and question marks (?) can be used as “wild card” characters with the is
like and is not like options.
− * - The asterisk wild card tells the program that any number of characters can be used with this
text field.
For example, if you want to search all patients with “smith” in their name, you can enter *smith*.
This search will bring up names such as John Smith, Jane Smithfield, and Joe Hammersmith.
−
? - The question mark wild card tells the program that any single character can be used where the
question mark appears.
For example, if you want to search for patients with either the name Smith or Smyth, you can
enter * sm?th. The asterisk and space in the front of sm?th tells the program to find all first
names associated with sm?th. The question mark tells the program to search for one letter
difference variations on the name Smith. This search will bring up names such as John Smith,
Anne Smyth, and Fred Smoth, but it will not bring up Jane Smithfield, Harry Hammersmith, or
Abigail Smythe.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
185
Searching Databases
5.
Ch. 9 – Using SPOT Databases
Click on OK to save the search parameters. The Database Search window reappears with the search
conditions in the box.
After you have entered a search condition, you can:
− Click on Add to add another search condition.
− Select a condition and click on Modify to change it.
− Select a condition and click on Delete to remove it from the search.
6.
Define how the search results will be ordered. Refer to the next section for details.
Ordering Search Results
After you have defined the search conditions, the
Order by options allow you to set the display
order of the search results.
To order search results, follow these steps:
1.
Click on the Add button to the right of the Order by box. The
Record Ordering window appears.
2.
Select from the list of drop-down list options to determine how
the database search results will be ordered. In addition to the
database fields that you defined, the options include Date/Time
and Image ID.
3.
Check either the Ascending or Descending option:
4.
−
Ascending lists display results beginning with the lowest
value and progressing to the highest value.
−
Descending lists display results beginning with the highest value and descending to the lowest
value.
Click on OK. The options that you selected appear in the Order by box:
After you have entered an ordering condition, you can:
5.
−
Click on Add to add another ordering condition.
−
Select a condition and click on Modify to change it.
−
Select a condition and click on Delete to remove it from the search.
Choose the display options. Refer to the next section for details.
Displaying Search Results
The SPOT software allows you to display database searches either in tabular form or as thumbnails. From
the Show Results as box, select either Table or Thumbnails. When all the search conditions have been
entered, click on Search. The following sections detail the display and editing functionality.
186
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Searching Databases
Show Results as: Table
Display the search results in a table. From left to right,
the column headings for the table are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The user-defined database fields
Date/Time
Image ID
Image Format
Bits per Pixel
Size (in bytes)
The illustration at right shows a search that resulted in
one record.
From the table window, you can:
•
Open a database image – Select the database record item, and click on the thumbnail at the bottom of
the window. The image opens for viewing and modification.
•
Edit a database record – Either select the database record item and click on Edit, or double-click on
the database record item. The Image Database Record window appears. Refer to the Editing Database
Image Records section below for details.
•
Delete a single database record – Select the database record item and click on Delete.
•
Delete all of the database records - Select a database record item and click on Delete All.
•
Switch to the thumbnail view – Click on the Show as Thumbnails button.
•
Perform another search – Click on the Search Again button to return to the Database Search window,
where you can add or modify search conditions.
Show Results as: Thumbnails
Display the search results in the form of image
thumbnails. The illustration to the right shows the
thumbnail view of a database search that produced
eleven records.
•
Double-click on a thumbnail to open an image
for viewing or modification.
•
Right-click (Windows)/[Ctr] Click (Mac) on
a thumbnail to display a list of options, as
shown at right. The right-click menu enables you to perform a
variety of actions directly from the thumbnail window. You
can:
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
•
Select an image.
Open a database image.
Delete an image from the database.
Print an image.
Edit Database Record -Edit the database image record.
Add Image to Image Sequence – Add a database image to
an image sequence or create a new image sequence.
Select all images in the thumbnail view. When you use this
option, the right-click menu expands to include the above
options for multiple images.
Click and drag with the mouse to select two or more images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
187
Searching Databases
Ch. 9 – Using SPOT Databases
Saving and Reusing Search Criteria
After you have defined the search and display parameters, you can save that set of criteria to be used for
future searches on that database. Once saved, you can then reuse the search criteria clicking on the Load
button.
To save a search, follow these steps:
1. Enter the search and ordering parameters.
2.
Click on Save. The program prompts you to name the database query.
3.
Name the query.
4.
Click on OK. At this point, you can:
−
−
Run the search by clicking on Search.
Close the Database Search window and
reopen the search at a future time.
To reopen the search at a later time, click on
the Load button, and select a search (.qry)
file. Click on Open. The Database Search
window displays the parameters for that
search query.
Editing Database Image
Records (from a search)
The SPOT program provides two ways to access and edit database image records:
•
•
Via the Edit Database Record option on the Database menu
Via the display windows of database search results
In both cases, the Image Database Record window allows you to change the information associated with
the database image record.
However, the functionality differs slightly, depending on how the window is accessed:
Accessed via the Database Menu
Accessed via a Search Results Display
Modify date/time, database field entries, image memo, and file/path information.
188
Modify the database record for the open image
only.
Modify the database record for any image in the
database.
Edit the database record only.
Edit the database record and/or the image itself.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 9 - Using SPOT Databases
Searching Databases
To edit a database image record from a search
results display window, follow these steps:
1.
Open the Image Database Record window.
−
If your results are displayed in a table,
either double-click on the record in the
table, or select the record and click on
Edit.
−
If your results are displayed as
thumbnails, right-click on the thumbnail.
The Image Database Record window appears.
Notice that navigational arrows appear above
the thumbnail.
2.
Change the Date/Time settings as needed.
Enter the information in mm/dd/yy format
3.
Edit the Fields data as needed.
4.
−
For the text and numeric fields, simply
enter the new data.
−
For the lookup fields, either select an item from the drop-down list or enter a new item. When you
close the Image Database window, the program prompts you to add the new lookup list item.
Edit the Image Memo, if necessary. Click on the Memo button, enter the information, and click on
OK.
In addition to the data associated with a database image, the Image Database Record window also allows
you to modify the image file location/path information. For example, if you have moved a database image
to a new file location, you would need to modify the record to reflect this.
5.
To modify the location/path information for a database image, click on Modify. The Image File
Location window appears.
6.
Either enter the new file path in the Path box, or click on the button to browse for the information.
7.
Enter the new Volume label.
8.
Click on OK.
At this point, you can either save the changes to the image record or proceed to make changes to another
database record.
9.
−
To save the changes and return to the search results display, click on OK.
−
To edit another database record without closing the Image Database Record window, use the
navigational arrows at the top of the window to browse for the record.
♦
Use the two middle arrows to scroll one image at a time through the
database.
♦
Use the left arrow to go back to the first image in the database.
♦
Use the right arrow to go forward to the last image in the database.
Repeat steps one through seven to modify additional image database records.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
189
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Table of Contents
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Introduction ................................................... 192
Overview: The SPOT Sample Report
(Windows)...................................................... 192
Open the SPOT Sample Report................ 192
View the SPOT Sample Report Objects .. 193
Run the SPOT Sample Report ................... 194
Creating a Report.......................................... 195
Working in Report Mode ........................... 195
Defining View Options............................... 196
Defining Report Attributes ........................ 198
Defining Report Objects ........................... 200
QUICK REFERENCE:
!"“Tour” the SPOT sample report… p. 192
!"Define the style for your report… p. 198
!"Design a layout for a new SPOT report… p. 200
!"Edit report objects… p. 207
!"Run a report… p. 209
!"Save a report to file without previewing or
printing it… p. 211
Editing Report Objects .............................. 207
The Edit Menu ............................................. 207
Running a Report........................................... 209
!"Create an “instant” report without having to
save or preview… p. 212
Previewing a Report .................................. 210
!"Distribute a report electronically to a user who
Printing a Report......................................... 211
does not have the SPOT program… p. 212
Saving a Report to File .............................. 211
Instant Reports ............................................ 212
Distributing Reports ....................................... 212
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
191
Overview: The SPOT Sample Report
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Introduction
The SPOT software includes a built-in reporting functionality that can be used either by itself or in
conjunction with a SPOT database (Windows) to collect, organize, and present information related to your
image captures. This chapter discusses the process of creating and running reports. It is divided into the
following sections:
•
•
•
•
Overview: The SPOT Sample Report (Windows)
Creating a Report
Running a Report
Distributing Reports
Overview: The SPOT Sample Report (Windows)
When you create a report in SPOT, you are building a template to be applied to specific situations.
Running the report applies the template to an image or images. For example, you might have one template
called Histology Report to document histology samples and another template called Cell Pathology Report
to document different cell cultures. Similarly, you might want to produce reports for production line
analysis. In this case, you could define different templates for different parts, such as Part A Analysis
Report, Part B Analysis Report, etc…
For your reference, a fully functional sample report is included with the SPOT software. This report can be
used:
•
•
As an introduction to SPOT’s reporting features
As a basis from which to build additional reports
The following section is a “visual tour” of the SPOT Sample Report.
Open the SPOT Sample Report
The SPOT Sample Report, Pathology Report, is a database report: it is based on the information
associated with the images in the SPOT Sample Database. To open the SPOT Sample Report, follow these
steps:
1.
192
Because the SPOT Sample Report is based on the SPOT Sample Database, you must first open this
database:
a.
From the Database menu, select Open.
b.
Select SPOT Sample Database.
c.
Click on Open.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
2.
3.
Overview: The SPOT Sample Report
Open an image from the SPOT database.
a.
From the Database menu, select Search. The
Database Search window appears. Do not
enter any search conditions at this point.
b.
In the Show Results as box, select
Thumbnails.
c.
Click on Search. The search results display.
d.
Click on the John Rowland colon thumbnail
to open a database image to report on.
Open the SPOT Sample Report. From the File
menu, select Open Report. The Open window
appears for you to select the file. The file path
and name for the SPOT sample report is
C:\Spotcam\sampleDBreport.rpt.
The report appears in a new window and the menus and menu options in the main window change to reflect
SPOT’s report editing functions.
View the SPOT Sample Report Objects
When you open the
SPOT Sample Report
(or any SPOT rpt file),
you are actually
opening a template of
user-defined report
objects that the program
uses to create the report
output. The call outs on
the following
illustration of the SPOT
Sample Report template
identify the different
objects
Static
Text
used in the
design of this report.
Refer to the Defining
Report Objects section
for descriptions of each
object.
Static
Image
Header
Area
Database Field
Entries
Image Date
Report Date
Database
Record ID
Run-Time
Image
Image Memo
Run-Time Text
Run-Time Text
Run-Time Text
Footer Area
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
193
Overview: The SPOT Sample Report
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Run the SPOT Sample Report
To run the Pathology Report for the John Rowland – colon image from the SPOT Sample Database, select
Run Report from the File menu. The report sequence is as follows:
194
1.
The Run Report window prompts you to define the Output destination for the report. Select Preview
Window.
2.
Click on Run.
3.
The report then prompts you with the run-time text
prompts that have been defined for this report. Because
there are three run-time text prompts for the SPOT Sample
Report (i.e., to enter the information for the Description,
Analysis, and Recommendation fields), you will be
prompted to enter run-time text for each field. In the
illustration at right, the run-time text has already been
entered, but if you were reporting on the image for the
first time, you would see only the prompt. Click on OK at
each window. When you click on OK at the third RunTime text window, the report appears, as shown below.
4.
Click on Close to
close the report
without saving or
printing it. Refer
to the Running
Reports section
for more details.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Creating a Report
Creating a Report
To create a new SPOT report, select New Report from the File menu. The following changes take place in
the main window:
•
The report definition window appears as a separate window. If an image or image(s) were open, they
remain open.
•
The Object menu appears. Use these options to specify the fields, text, and images that appear in the
report.
•
The Attributes menu appears. Use these options to define the appearance and style of the report.
•
The View menu options change to reflect report definition function.
•
The Edit menu options change to reflect report editing functions. These options are available only
after one or more report objects has been added to the New Report window.
#
Note: When you move between an image window and the report definition window, the menu
options change accordingly.
This section is divided as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Working in Report Mode– general reporting features and functionality
Defining View Options– the view of the report definition screen
Defining Report Attributes – the style and appearance of the report
Defining Report Objects – the text, field, and image information that appears in the report
Editing Report Objects – edit options for the report objects
Working in Report Mode
The report mode contains functionality that differs from the image capture and editing functionality. The
following is a brief overview of these features.
Cursor Functionality
Cursor functionality in SPOT reports varies according to which Object menu option is selected.
•
If None is selected, the cursor is a an editing tool for selecting, sizing, and positioning objects. When
creating new reports, None is the default option.
•
If a report object is selected, the cursor changes to a cross-hair icon for placing new report objects to
the grid.
Sizing and Positioning Report Objects
When sizing and positioning a report object in the report window, you must first select the object by single
clicking on it. When an object has been selected, handles appear at the corners; for line objects, the handles
appear at each end. You can select multiple report objects by holding the mouse button down and dragging
the cursor around the objects. Handles appear around both objects. When selected, report objects can be
sized or positioned as needed.
•
To size objects, move the cursor either to a point on the object’s border or to one of the handles. The
cursor changes to a two pointed arrow
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
195
Creating a Report
−
−
•
Ch. 10 - Reporting
To resize one dimension of a box, position the cursor on a vertical or horizontal line; click and
drag the side to the new size.
To proportionally resize a box, position the cursor on a handle; click and drag the box to the new
size.
To position objects, move the cursor over the selected object. The cursor changes to a four point
arrow. Click and drag the object to a new location. If an object is selected, you can use the arrow keys
to fine tune its position.
#
Note: When multiple objects are selected, they can be sized and positioned as a single object.
Using Right-click and Double-click Functionality
When you are in report mode,
you can use the right-click and
double-click mouse functions
as editing shortcuts.
•
Double clicking on a report
object enables you to edit
the object’s attributes –
e.g., the thickness of a line.
•
Right clicking (Windows)/
[Ctrl] clicking (Mac) on a
report object calls an object
specific edit menu that
contains both general
editing options and
attribute editing options
specific to that object.
Right clicking on an Image
object, for example, gives
you a list of editing
options, as shown at right.
General
Edits
Object
Specific
Edits
•
Right clicking (Windows)/
[Ctrl] clicking (Mac) on the
report grid gives you two
options: Paste an object
that you copied or cut; Delete All of the objects on the grid.
Refer to the Defining Report Attributes and Editing Report Objects sections for more details.
General
Edits
Defining View Options
The View menu provides you with eight options:
Zoom
First Page
Previous
Page
196
Zoom in or out to six different sizes. From the View menu, select Zoom and enter the desired
percentage.
Go to the first page in the report.
Go back one page in the report.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Creating a Report
Next Page
Go forward one page in the report.
Last Page
Go to the last page in the report.
Set Display
Grid Size
The report definition window includes an adjustable grid (i.e., the dots on the screen) to assist you
in placing and aligning report objects on the report page. By default, the grid is turned on. To
turn off or modify the grid, follow these steps:
1.
From the View menu, select Set Display Grid Size.
−
−
2.
Select either inches or millimeters.
3.
Enter the spacing for the display grid. The number that you enter represents the space in
inches or millimeters between the dots on the grid.
−
−
4.
Set Object
Grid Size
To turn off the display grid, deselect the Show Grid box.
To modify the spacing follow steps two through four.
If the measurement is inches, enter a number between .04 and 10.
If the measurement is in millimeters, enter a number between 1 and 25.
Click on OK. The display grid appears.
In addition to the display grid, you can define a second grid specific to report objects. The object
grid controls the movement of objects as you work with them on the display grid. When you
select a report object and move it, the object automatically “snaps” to the nearest line in the
object grid, allowing you to more precisely align and arrange the objects on your report page.
1.
From the View menu, select Set Object Grid Size.
2.
If desired, check the Snap to Grid option.
3.
Define the spacing for the object grid. In many cases, the object grid and the display grid
will have the same spacing. In other cases, you might not want the display grid to be as
finely spaced as the object grid (i.e., so the dots do not interfere with the view of the report
definition window).
−
−
If the measurement is inches, enter a number between .04 and 10.
If the measurement is in millimeters, enter a number between 1 and 25.
The default spacing value for the Object Grid is the last entered value.
4.
Click on OK.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
197
Creating a Report
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Horizontal Line
Show Tools
object select
mode (None)
Click on the Show Tools option to display
a floating palette of navigation buttons
and report objects, as shown here.
Refer to the Defining Report Objects
section of this chapter for more details.
Rounded Box
Vertical Line
Arrow
Ellipse
Box
Defining Report Attributes
Text
Freehand
Image
Polygon
Polyline
All of the general style and appearance options (report
attributes) can be accessed from the Attributes menu.
Report attributes can be defined for an entire report or
on an object by object basis (see the Defining Report
Objects section below).
First Page
Last Page
Previous Page
Next Page
•
When a report object is selected, the attribute is defined for the selected object(s) only.
•
When nothing is selected, the attribute is defined for all future, relevant objects.
The following sections detail each of the report attributes and the report objects that they affect.
Line Thickness
Colors
Determine line thickness for the following report objects: Line, Horizontal Line,
Vertical Line, Arrow, Box, Rounded Box, Ellipse, Freehand, Polygon, and
Polyline.
1.
2.
From the Attributes menu, select Line Thickness.
Enter a Thickness value between .05 and 10 points.
3.
Click on OK.
Define the foreground and background colors for all objects. Follow these steps:
1.
From the Attributes menu, select Colors.
2.
Define the Text/Lines color. This is the color of the text, the line, or the
border around a text/image box. The default foreground color is black. To
select a color click on Color.
3.
The next window varies, depending on whether you are using a Windows or a
Mac system.
−
Windows allows you to select from a palette of colors or enter specific
HSL or RGB color values.
−
−
#
198
Mac OS allows you to select from a palette of colors, enter specific RGB,
CMYK, HLS, or HSV values, and enter Internet specific colors.
Define the Background/Fill color. This is the color that appears behind
text and in boxes. Lines and images do not display a background color.
Note: In order to define a background/fill color for a Box or a Rounded Box, a fill must be
selected. Similarly, in order to define a background/fill color for a text box, the background (see
Text Border, Justification, and Background below) must be set to Opaque.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Box/Ellipse Fill
Creating a Report
Define the appearance of the Box, Rounded Box, and Ellipse objects.
1.
Specify whether you want a fill for the object.
−
−
Image Border and Justification
Arrow Size and Direction
2.
Specify a pattern by clicking on one of the seven options.
3.
Click on OK.
Determine the line thickness for image borders and define the justification of
the image within the display box. This option applies only to the Image
report object.
1.
To create a border around the image, click on the Border box, and
enter a Thickness value between .05 and 10.
2.
Select the Justification for the image. This value is the justification of
the image within its display box, not the justification on the report page.
3.
Click on OK.
Specify the size of the arrow head and define the direction that the arrow
points.
1.
To specify the size of the arrow head, enter a value between 1 and 10.
2.
Specify the direction of the arrow:
−
−
3.
Text Font
Text Border, Justification, and
Background
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
If you do not want the box to be filled (i.e., you want a transparent
box), click on OK.
If you want to specify a fill pattern for the box, check the Fill
Box/Ellipse. The Pattern options appear.
To draw an arrow starting tail first and finishing with the point
(head), select Tail to Head.
To draw an arrow starting point (head) first and finishing with the
tail, select Head to Tail.
Click on OK.
Define the appearance of the text for the Text, Date, and Time objects.
1.
Select a Font, a Font Style, and a point Size. The Sample box
displays a preview of the font.
2.
Define any Strikeout or Underline effects.
3.
Click on OK.
Define the appearance of the text boxes for the Text, Date, and Time
objects
1.
Specify whether the text box should have a border. To add a border,
click on the Border box, and enter a Thickness value between .05 and
10.
2.
Define the Justification of the text. This justification applies to the
position of the text in the box, not the position of the text on the page.
3.
Define the Background. Select either Transparent or Opaque.
4.
Click on OK.
199
Creating a Report
Title Options
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Specify how the title of an image will appear on a report. This attribute
applies only to the Image Title report object. If you have not added an
image title to your report, the Title Options do not matter.
•
•
•
•
Time Options
To display only the file name – e.g., Healthy1 – leave both options
unselected.
To display the entire path for an image – e.g.,
C:\My Images\Cells\Healthy1 – check the Show Path for File Names
box.
To display the file name with the file type extension – e.g., Healthy1.jpg
– check the Show Extension for File Names box.
To display the file path and the file name with the extension – e.g.,
C:\My Images\Cells\Healthy1.jpg – check both boxes.
Specify whether the Image Time report object will include seconds and
milliseconds in addition to the hour and minute.
•
•
To display only seconds, check the Show Seconds box.
To display seconds and milliseconds, check both the Seconds and
Milliseconds boxes.
Defining Report Objects
All of the components of your report, including the formatting, text, images, and fields are known as
objects. Using the objects, you can specify the information that your report will contain, as well as how the
report will work.
•
You can, using run-time images, produce reports for images as they are captured. This is a good
option for situations where you are capturing many images in one sitting.
•
You can produce reports for images that are saved to a SPOT database. Refer to Ch. 9 – Using SPOT
Databases for details on creating and modifying SPOT databases.
•
You can produce ad-hoc reports for single or multiple saved images.
Before discussing the individual report objects, review the following general procedure for inserting an
object into a report:
1.
From the Object menu, select the type of item (i.e., Lines, Connected Lines, etc…) that you want to
add to the image. The cursor’s functionality varies according to whether a report object type (i.e., line,
text) is selected:.
−
2.
If a report object type is selected, the cursor changers to a cross-hair icon that is used to add new
report objects to the grid.
− If None is selected, the cursor is a an editing tool that is used to select and position objects.
Use the mouse to drag the cross-hair to the location where you want to insert the object.
3.
Left-click at the insertion point.
−
−
200
If you selected a line or a box, hold down the mouse button and drag the line/box to the desired
size.
If you selected any of the other report objects, the object will appear and you will be prompted to
enter the associated information (e.g., static text, the location of an image file, the database field,
etc…).
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
4.
Creating a Report
Once it appears on screen, you can resize, reposition, and edit an object as needed.
−
−
−
Resize - Select (click on) the object and drag the handles in the direction of the resize.
Reposition – Left click and drag the object the new area.
Edit – Select the object and choose an option from either the Edit menu or the Attributes menu.
You can also edit an object by right clicking (Windows)/[Ctrl] clicking (Mac) on it.
Refer to the table below for descriptions of the SPOT report objects.
None
Select None when you want to use the cursor to edit and position the objects in your report.
Lines
Unconstrained Line – Add a straight line annotation to the report.
Horizontal Line – Add a horizontal line annotation to the report.
Vertical Line – Add a vertical line annotation to the report.
Arrow - Add an arrow to the report. Either select Arrow from the Object menu, or click on the
Tools box button. Left click on the report and drag toward the area that the arrow head will point
to.
Connected
Lines
Polygon – Add a closed polygon to the report. Either select Connected Lines>Polygon from the
Object menu, or click on the Tools box button. Left click and release, and then drag the mouse to
create a side. Left click again to start a new side. Double click to finish the polygon. The program
automatically adds any additional lines needed to close the figure.
Polyline – Add an open polygon to the report. Either select Connected Lines>Polyline from the
Object menu, or click on the Tools box button. Left click and release, and then drag the mouse to
create a side. Left click again to start a new side. Double click to finish the polyline.
Freehand - Add a freehand line to the report.
Shapes
Rectangular Box - Add a square cornered box to the report.
Rounded Box - Add a round cornered box to the report.
Ellipse – Add an elliptical object to the report. Ellipses are drawn inside of the rectangular area
that you define. Ellipses touch the top, bottom, right and left sides of this rectangle.
Either select Shapes>Ellipse from the Object menu, or click on the Tools box button. To draw an
ellipse, left click at the point where you want to position one vertex of the rectangle and drag the
cursor to the point of the opposite vertex.
Images
1.
4.
The Static Image box then prompts you to enter the source for the image file. Select from one
of the three options:
−
Currently Open Image
If you have more than one image open, select the image from the drop-down list.
−
Image File
A file from disk. Either enter the file name and path, or click on the browse button (to the
right of the Image File box) to search for the file. If you select a sequence file, specify
the image number (i.e., the order in the sequence) in the Sequence Index box. Note
that, if the Store Image in Report Template is selected, you can view the image from
within the report template as well as in the report itself. This feature allows you to
quickly generate printed reports, without having to first save the report to file and/or run a
preview report. Refer to Instant Reports in the Running a Report section of this chapter
for details.
−
Database (Windows)
An image file from a SPOT database. In order to use an image from a database, that
must be open. If you are not sure of the Image ID, search the database and view the
results table – the image ID appears there.
Click on OK. The static image object (or the actual image if you checked the Store Image in
Report Template box) appears on the display grid, where you can move or resize the box.
When you run the report, the image is automatically proportioned to fit the dimensions of the box.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
201
Creating a Report
Images
(cont.)
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Run-Time Image
A run-time image is an image that is open at the time that you run the report. Run-time image
objects allow you to report on images as you capture them, without having to save the images to
file or to a database.
To define a run-time image, follow these steps:
1.
From the Object menu, select Images>Run-Time Image.
2.
Left click at the point the on the display grid where you want to insert the Run-Time Image
box. As you insert the box, you can also size it by dragging a corner or side.
The Run-Time Image window prompts you to specify the image.
3.
Specify which image (if you have multiple open images) will be the run-time image. The entry
in the Offset from Top Image Window box defaults to 0. If you have only one image open,
click on OK.
If you have more than one open image, you will need to specify the number for that image.
For example, if you have five open images, there are five values, from 0 – 4 that correspond
to the images, as illustrated in this cascaded view of multiple image windows:
Report Image 4
Report Image 3
Report Image 2
Report Image 1
Report Image 0
If you have multiple open images, selecting a cascade view of the images can help you to
determine the proper number. To do this, select the Cascade option from the Window
menu.
4.
202
Click on OK. The Run-Time image box appears on the display grid, where you can move or
resize the box. When you run the report, the image is automatically proportioned to fit the
dimensions of the box.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Images
(cont.)
Creating a Report
Selected Image
The Selected Image options allows you to select one or
multiple images to be included on a report at the time
that you run the report. Selected images can be:
•
•
•
Single or multiple open images
Single or multiple images from file
Single or multiple database images
To define a selected image or images, follow these
steps:
1.
From the Object menu, select Images>Selected
Image.
2.
Left click on the point in the display grid where you
want to insert the selected image.
3.
Size and position the image box as desired.
4.
Add any additional report objects needed to
complete the report.
5.
From the File menu, select Run Report.
6.
Select the report template either from the
Currently Open Template, or from File.
7.
Select the Output format. The default choice for
running a report is to use the Preview Window,
which allows you to view the report before saving
or printing it. For more details on the Run Reports
options, refer to the Running Reports section of
this chapter.
8.
Click on Run. The Selected Images window
appears.
9.
Define the Selected Images.
−
Top Open Image – The report displays only
the top- most image, if multiple images are
open.
−
All Open Images – The report displays all
open images.
−
Image File(s) – The report displays the image
file or files selected from disk. When you
check the Image File(s) option, and click on
OK, the Report Images window appears for
you to select one or more images to be
included in the report. To individually select
multiple image files, hold the [Ctrl] key and
click on each file.
−
Database (Windows) – The report displays
one or more images from a database. When
you check the Database option and click on
OK, the Database Search window appears.
Add search conditions and ordering criteria,
as needed, and click on Search. The report
displays the Search Results. Refer to Ch. 9 –
Using SPOT Databases for detailed steps on
how to define search and order conditions.
10. Click on OK.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
203
Creating a Report
Text
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Static Text
Use the Static Text option to add text that will be the same for all of the images in a report. Typical
static text fields include:
• The title of the report
• Report field headings
To define Static Text, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
From the Object menu, select Static Text.
Left click at the point where you want to insert the text. The program prompts you to enter the text:
After you have entered the text, click on OK. The Static Text appears in a box.
To edit the text, double-click on the box. The Static Text box reappears for you to modify the text.
Run-Time Text
Use the Run-Time Text option to define the data entry prompts that
will appear when you run an image report. For instance, if a static
field on your Blood Samples report is Blood Type, you can define a
Blood Type? Run-time field that prompts you to enter the blood type
for each sample, as the report is run.
To define Run-time Text, follow these steps:
1.
From the Object menu, select Run-Time Text.
2.
Left click at the point where you want to insert the text. The
program prompts you to enter a prompt and default run-time
text.
3.
Enter the Prompt. When you run a report on an image, you
will be prompted to enter information for the prompt.
4.
Enter the Default Text, if desired. The Default Text field is
useful in cases where the same item is entered for multiple
image reports. For example, one lab technician might have
drawn the sample for numerous blood samples. In this case,
you could enter this technician’s name as the Default Text.
5.
Click on OK. The object displays on the report grid as shown
here:
6.
To edit the text, double-click on the box. The Run-Time Text
dialog box reappears for you to modify the text.
Page Number
Add a page number to a report page.
Page Count
Add a display of the total number of pages in your report.
Record Number
Add the number of the record (selected image/s) to the report. When you run the report, the number for
each record is displayed on the page.
Record Count
Add the total number of records (selected image/s) in the report. When you run the report, the Record
Count appears on each page.
Report Date
Insert the current date in your report.
Report Time
Insert the time that you ran the report.
204
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Text
(cont.)
Creating a Report
Image Date
Include the date that an image was captured.
1.
After you have inserted an image in the Report, select Text>Image Date from the Object menu.
2.
Left click at the point where you want the Image Date to appear. The ImgDate box appears on the
display grid.
The number following ImgDate is associated with the image or images in your report. Thus, if the
report has more than one image, the program prompts you to define the image that the date should be
associated with.
3.
Enter the Report Image Number. When you insert images, the program automatically assigns it a
number. The first image you insert is 1, the second image 2, etc…
4.
Click on OK. When you run the report, the image date displays.
Image Time
Include the time of day that an image was captured.
1.
2.
After you have inserted an image in the Report, select Text>Image Time from the Object menu.
Left click at the point where you want the Image Time to appear.
The number following ImgTime is associated with the image or images in your report. If the report has
more than one image, the program prompts you to define the image that the time should be
associated with.
#
3.
Enter the Report Image Number.
4.
Click on OK. When you run the report, the Image Time displays.
Note: For the Image Date and Image Time objects, the date/time that appears here varies according to whether
the file was transferred across a network, and whether the file is a SPOT database image. Refer to the Image
Date/Time section of Ch. 8 for more details.
Image Title
Insert the file path and name that is associated with an image.
To insert the Image Title, follow these steps:
1.
2.
After you have inserted an image in the Report, select Text>Image Title from the Object menu.
Left click at the point where you want the Image Title to appear.
The number following ImgTitle is associated with the image or images in your report. If the report has
more than one image, the program prompts you to define the image that the title should be associated
with.
3.
Enter the Report Image Number.
4.
Click on OK. When you run the report, the file and path for the image displays.
You might have to resize the ImgTitle box to display the entire file path.
Image Memo
Insert the memo that you entered for a TIFF, JPEG, or SPOT database image. Follow these steps:
1.
After you have inserted an image in the Report, select Image Memo from the Object menu.
2.
Left click at the point where you want the Image Memo to appear. The number following ImgMemo is
associated with the image or images in your report. If the report has more than one image, the
program prompts you to define the image that the memo should be associated with.
3.
Enter the Report Image Number.
4.
Click on OK. When you run the report, the memo displays.
Image Sequence Index
Insert the number of a specific image when reporting on an image sequence file.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
205
Creating a Report
Text
(cont.)
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Image Sequence Elapsed Time
Insert the elapsed time between two images. When you run a report that contains the Image
Sequence Elapsed Time, the program prompts you to specify both the Reference Image Index
Number and the sequence number of the image you are reporting on. The Reference Image Index
number is any number within the image sequence, typically one that precedes the image being
reported on. If you specify a number that comes after the image that you are reporting on, the
elapsed time will be a negative value.
Database Record ID (Windows)
Include the record number of a database image in your report. The Database Record ID can only be
used with run-time or selected images.
To insert the database record ID for a database image, follow these steps:
1.
After you have inserted a database image in the Report (either as a run-time image or a selected
image), select Database Record ID from the Object menu.
2.
Left click at the point where you want the record ID to appear. The DBRecID box appears on the
display grid. The number following DBRecID is associated with the image or images in your
report. If the report has more than one image, the program prompts you to define the image that
the database record should be associated with.
3.
Enter the Report Image Number.
4.
Click on OK. When you run the report, the record ID of the database image displays.
Database Field Name (Windows)
The Database Field Name and Database Field Entry objects allow you to run reports that parallel
some or all of the information from a SPOT database. Use the Database Field Name object to insert a
text/numeric or lookup field from an open database.
1.
After you have inserted a database image in the Report (either as a run-time image or a selected
image), select Database Field Name from the Object menu.
2.
Left click at the point where you want the field name to appear. The program prompts you to
select the field that you want in the report.
3.
Select an entry from the Field drop-down list. The drop-down list options are generic i.e.,
Text/Numeric – 1, Text/Numeric – 2, etc….
4.
Click on OK.
5.
If the report has more than one image, the Image Number dialog box prompts you to define the
image that the database field name should be associated with.
6.
Enter the Report Image Number.
7.
Repeat steps one through seven to add additional database fields to the report.
Database Field Entry (Windows)
The Database Field Name and Database Field Entry objects allow you to run reports that parallel
some or all of the information from a SPOT database. Use the Database Field Entry object to insert
the data from a text/numeric or lookup field.
To insert a Database Field Entry in your report, follow these steps:
206
1.
After you have inserted a database image in the Report (either as a run-time image or a selected
image), select Database Field Entry from the Object menu.
2.
Left click at the point where you want the field name to appear. The program prompts you to
select the field that contains the entry (data) that you want to appear in the report:
3.
Select an entry from the Field drop-down list.
4.
Click on OK. The box at right appears.
5.
If the report has more than one image, the program prompts you to define the image that the
database field entry should be associated with.
6.
Enter the Report Image Number.
7.
Click on OK. When you run the report, the database field entry displays.
8.
Repeat steps one through seven to add additional database field entries to the report.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Creating a Report
Editing Report Objects
Once you have created a report, you can edit the report objects as needed. There are three basic ways to
edit a report object:
•
Use the Attributes menu - The Attributes menu, as noted in the Defining Report Attributes section of
this chapter, allows you to either set the attributes for adding specific types of objects, or to select
existing objects and modify them as needed. Refer to the Defining Report Attributes section for more
details.
•
Use the Edit menu - The Edit menu contains general editing features such as Undo, Copy, Cut, Send
to Back, etc…
•
Right-click (Windows)/[Ctrl] click (Mac) on the report object - Right clicking/[Ctrl] clicking on a
report object brings up a customized editing menu that contains both general editing commands and
the attributes that can be edited for that object. Refer to the Working in the Report Mode section for
more information on the right click function.
The Edit Menu
The Edit menu provides general editing features for arranging, copying, and sizing report objects. Edit
menu options are active only when a report object is selected. The following sections describe each of the
Edit menu options. As is explained in the sections below, not all of the options are available at all times.
Undo
Undo the last action. The Undo feature allows you to undo up to ten actions.
Bring to
Front
Bring a selected object in front of all other objects.
Move
Forward
Bring a selected object one layer forward.
Move
Backward
Send to
Back
Select All
Delete
Send the selected object one layer back.
Send a selected object behind all other objects.
Select all report objects.
Delete the selected object(s).
Delete All
Delete all of the objects in the report.
Copy to
Clipboard
Copy the selected object(s) to the Windows clipboard. You can then paste the object(s) into:
•
•
A new SPOT report
A different location in the same report
This feature is particularly useful when you are creating a new report and want to use objects from an
existing report.
Cut
Paste
Cut the selected object(s) for pasting into a new report or to a new location in the existing report.
Paste the object that you cut or copied to its new location.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
207
Creating a Report
Duplicate
Set
Position,
Alignment,
and Size
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Create additional copies of a report object. To duplicate a report object, follow these steps:
1.
Select the object(s) that you want to duplicate.
2.
Select Duplicate from the Edit menu. The program prompts you to enter the number of duplicate
copies.
3.
Enter the number of copies, and click on OK.
4.
The duplicate object(s) appear at the top of report window.
The Set Position, Alignment, and Size
option allows you to specify precise sizing and
position values for single or multiple selected
report and annotation objects.
The Position options enable you to:
•
Align top/bottom edges of multiple
objects.
•
Align left/right edges of multiple objects.
•
Align the centers of multiple objects.
•
Center an object(s) on the page.
•
Enter exact values in inches or
millimeters to position the object.
The Size options enable you to enter:
Add Page
•
Exact width/height in inches or
millimeters for one or more objects.
•
Set the width/height dimension for
multiple objects the to smallest or largest
object’s value in inches or millimeters.
Add a page to your report. When you add a
page, the program prompts you with the Add
Page dialog box:
1.
Specify whether the page that you want
to add will be inserted Before or After a
specified page.
2.
Specify the Page Number that the
additional page will precede or follow.
3.
Click on OK.
SPOT reports can have a maximum of ten
page.
Delete
Page
208
Delete a page from your report. When you select the Delete Page option, the program prompts you to
specify the page number.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Order RunTime Text
Prompts
Running a Report
When you run a report with multiple run-time text
prompts (see the Defining Report Objects section),
the prompts, by default, appear in the order that
you defined them. Use the Order Run-Time Text
Prompts option to rearrange the order as needed.
To re-order the run-time text prompts for a report,
follow these steps:
1.
From the Edit menu, select Order Run-time
Text Prompts. The current order of the runtime text prompts displays.
2.
Click and drag the prompts to rearrange them
in the desired order.
3.
Click on OK. When you run the report, you
will be prompted to enter the run-time text in
the newly defined order.
Running a Report
To run a SPOT report, follow these steps:
1.
2.
From the File menu, select Run Report. You
can either run an open report or a report from
file:
−
Currently Open Template
If more than one report template is open,
select from the drop-down list.
−
File
Either enter the file name and path for
the report that you want to run, or click
on the Browse button to the right of the
Name box to search for the report file.
Select the output format for the report.
−
Printer –The report is sent directly to the printer. The program first prompts you to select a
printer/define print settings. Refer to Ch. 11 – Printing Images for details on printing from the
SPOT program.
−
Preview Window –The report is displayed on screen, where it can be viewed, printed, and/or
saved. If you have not run any previous reports, this is the default option. Otherwise, the program
defaults to the output format for the last run report.
−
File – The report is saved directly to a file directory as a Run Report (.rpd) file. The program
prompts you for the file location. The report can be opened for viewing or printing at a later time.
The output options are discussed in more detail in the sections below.
3.
Specify the Allow Multiple Records Horizontally and Allow Multiple Records Vertically options.
When a report contains multiple Selected Image objects, SPOT separates each image with a page
break: the report displays only one image per page. The Allow Multiple Records Horizontally and
Allow Multiple Records Vertically options allow you to display multiple images on a page for cases
such as a report on a database or a sequence image file.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
209
Running a Report
−
To display multiple
images in a row, check
Allow Multiple Records
Horizontally.
−
To display the multiple
images in a column, check
Allow Multiple Records
Vertically.
−
To display the images in
rows and columns, check
both options.
Ch. 10 - Reporting
In addition to selecting these options from the Run Report dialog, you can select them from the
Preview window (see Previewing a Report below)
4.
Click on Run. The prompts that you see depend on the type of report objects that you defined. Refer
to the Defining Report Objects section in this chapter for more information.
Previewing a Report
When you run a report in the Preview Window, the report appears with a navigation toolbar at the bottom
of the preview window, as shown here:
From left to right, the toolbar buttons are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
210
Navigation arrows - Move forward or backward in a multi-page report, or to the first page or last
page in the report.
Page display – See which page of the report you are viewing.
Allow Multiple Records Horizontally – Display multiple selected images in a row.
Allow Multiple records Vertically – Display multiple selected images in a column.
Zoom – Zoom in or out on the report. There are six options.
Print – Print the report without saving it.
Save – Save the report as a Run Report (.rpd) file.
Close – Close the report preview without printing or saving it.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Running a Report
Printing a Report
When you run a report with an output to Printer, the program prompts you to enter print information:
Follow these steps:
1. Select the printer.
2.
Click on Properties to define the printer’s properties, if needed.
3.
Specify the page range if you are not printing an entire report.
4.
Specify the number of copies.
5.
Click on OK.
Saving a Report to File
When you run a report with an output to File, the program prompts you to save the file. Follow these steps:
1.
When saving a new report (.rpd file type), SPOT prompts you
with the default file location – i.e., C:SpotCam\Reports folder
(Windows) or Users\Shared\SPOT Files\Reports (Mac) .
Either save to the default location or specify a new location. If
you plan to save many reports without compressing the image
files, you should save them to a Jaz drive or to a network drive.
#
Note: Mac users will see the .rpd file type extension
only if the Add Extensions to File Names on Save
option is selected on the Preferences window .
2.
Enter a file name for the report.
3.
Define the JPEG Compression for the image(s) in the report. The Use JPEG Compression for
Images box is checked as a default. To turn off JPEG compression, deselect the box. If you are using
JPEG Compression, enter a number between one and 100.
−
−
4.
A value of 1 is the most compressed. File size and image resolution are decreased to the
maximum extent.
A value of 100 is non-compressed. File size remains large and the image resolution remains high.
Click on Save. You can now use the SPOT program to open and view the report at a later time.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
211
Distributing Reports
Ch. 10 - Reporting
Instant Reports
To quickly preview and print a simple report, without first running a preview report or saving the report to
file, use the new Store Image in Report Template feature. The Store Image in Report Template feature
allows you to view a Static Image report object in the report template: you do not need to run a preview
report to see what the final printed product will look like.
Follow these steps:
1. Open a new report template. From the File menu, select New Report.
2.
Add a report image that to the template. From the
Object menu, select Images>Static Image. Left-click
and drag the cross-hairs cursor to size and position the
Static Image box. When you release the button, the
Static Image window appears.
3.
Select File for the Image Source.
4.
Click on the button to the right of the Name box to
select an image.
5.
If you have selected a sequence file, specify the
Sequence Index – i.e., the number of the image in the
sequence.
6.
Ensure that the Store Image in Report Template
box is checked.
7.
Click on OK. The Static Image appears in your report, where it can be sized, positioned, or annotated
as needed.
8.
Add additional static images as needed. Follow steps one through seven.From the File menu, select
Run Report.
9.
For the Output Destination, select Printer.
10. Click on Run.
Distributing Reports
If you intend to distribute SPOT image reports to people who do not have the SPOT program, we
recommend that you purchase Adobe Acrobat. Using Acrobat, you can convert the SPOT report (.rpd) files
to PDF files, which can be distributed to users who do not have the SPOT software. They can view the
reports with the free Acrobat Reader software, which is included on the SPOT software CD. The latest
version of the Acrobat Reader can also be downloaded from the Adobe’s web site www.Adobe.com.
212
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 11 - Printing Images
Printer Setup
Ch. 11 - Printing Images
QUICK REFERENCE:
Introduction ................................................... 213
Printer Setup................................................... 213
Print ................................................................ 214
Printing a Single Image ............................. 214
Printing Multiple Images on a Page ........ 215
Printing Image Sequences........................ 216
!"Print a single image… p. 214
!"Print multiple images on one page… p. 215
!"Add images from file and/or SPOT database
images for printing… p. 215
!"Arrange how multiple images appear on the
page… p. 216
!"Print an image sequence… p. 216
Introduction
The printing features in the SPOT program fall into two categories:
•
Printer Setup - The standard Windows dialog boxes that are used to specify:
− Printer and setup
− Page setup
− Orientation
− Paper size and source.
•
Print - The SPOT printing options allow you to print one or multiple diagrams on a page.
Printer Setup
After you have installed and setup your printer, the procedure for setting up and configuring a printer in
SPOT is the same as in any other Windows program.
#
Note: Because the information contained in this section is standard Windows functionality, the
options are not discussed in detail. For more information on Windows printing features, refer to the
Windows on-line help.
To choose and configure a printer, follow these steps:
1.
Choose a printer. From the File menu, select Printer Setup. The Page Setup window appears. To
select the printer you want to use, click on the Printer button at the bottom of the window. The
program prompts you to select a printer.
2.
Modify the default settings of the printer, if necessary.
Click on Properties. From this point you can modify printer specific options such as color settings,
fonts, graphic settings, etc… The printer properties window and the available options will vary
according to the printer that you are using. Refer to the on-line help or your printer’s manual for more
information. When you finish entering the property settings, click on OK.
3.
Click on OK. The program returns you to the original Page Setup window.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
213
Print
Ch. 11 – Printing Images
4.
Define the page setup that you want to use for the image(s).
This includes the page orientation (portrait or landscape), paper size, paper source, and margins.
5.
Save the page layout specifications that you entered.
Click on OK.
#
Note: You can also access the Page Setup screen from the Print screen (i.e., From the File menu,
select Print, and click on the Setup button.
Print
After you have defined the printer and page layout, you are ready to print. With the SPOT software, you
can print a single image to a page or you can print multiple images on a page for comparison or display.
Printing a Single Image
To print a single image from the SPOT software, follow these steps:
1.
Either select Print from the File menu, or click on the Print toolbar button. The Print window appears
with a preview of the active image.
The Print window displays the following
information:
−
−
Printable Area: The printable
dimensions of the page.
Top Image: The position and size of
the top-most image (if more than one
image will be printed on the page).
They are
♦ Left - The distance between the
left side of the printable area and
the left side of the image.
♦
Top - The distance between the
top of the printable area and the
top of the image.
♦
Width - The width of the image.
♦
Height - The height of the image.
2.
Check either Inches or Millimeters to
specify the units of measurement.
3.
Adjust the size of the image:
a) Position your cursor on a side or a corner of the image. The cursor turns into a two-ended arrow.
b) Using the two-ended arrow cursor, drag a side or corner to enlarge or reduce the image. The
resized image maintains the height to width ratio of the original image.
4.
Adjust the position of the image.
a) Position the cursor on the image. When on the image, it appears as a four pointed arrow.
b) Left click and drag the image to the desired location.
5.
214
Click on the Print button. The Printing dialog box displays the job. To stop the print job, click on the
Abort button.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 11 - Printing Images
Print
Printing Multiple Images on a Page
The SPOT program also enables you to print multiple images on a single page. The additional images do
not need to be open; you can add additional images from a file directory or a SPOT database.
To add and arrange multiple images for printing, follow these steps:
1.
From the File menu, select the Print option. The currently open, selected image appears in the Print
window.
2.
Add an image to the page for printing. Follow these steps:
a)
Click on the Add button. The Add Image window appears.
b) Select the image that you want to add. Images can be added from one of three places:
c)
♦
From a Currently Open Image – Add one
or all of the currently open images. Select
either the desired image or <All Images>
from the Title drop-down list. Ensure that
you enter the Sequence Index (i.e., the
number of the image in the sequence) if you
are adding an image from a sequence file.
♦
From an Image File – Add a file from disk.
Check the Image File option, and click on
the square next to the box. Browse for the
desired image, and click on Select. Ensure
that you enter the Sequence Index (i.e., the
number of the image in the sequence) if you
are adding an image from a sequence file.
♦
From a SPOT Database – Add an image file from an open SPOT database. To add an image
file from a SPOT database, you must know its Image ID number. After you have determined
the number, check the Database option, and enter the ID number.
Set the auto-arrange option. If you check the Auto-Arrange Images box, the SPOT program
automatically sizes and positions the images to fit on the print page.
d) Click on OK. The program adds the images to the print page and returns to the Print window.
The images appear in the preview box.
♦
If you selected the Auto-Arrange Images option, the images will be arranged in a printready format. Click on Print to print the page.
♦
If you did not use the Auto-Arrange Images option, the images will be stacked on top of
each other for you to arrange. Go to step 3 for details on manually arranging the images.
To add additional images, repeat step 2.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
215
Print
3.
Ch. 11 – Printing Images
Arrange how multiple images will appear on the page. Follow these
steps:
a) Click on the Arrange button. The Arrange Images window appears.
b) Select the number of row(s) and column(s).
c)
Enter the Spacing between the images on the print-out in inches or
millimeters.
d) Select Apply to all pages to make the arrangement applicable to
every page of a multi-page report.
e)
Click on OK. The Print screen reappears with
a preview of your print arrangement. The
screen capture at right illustrates four images
arranged in a two row, two column format.
The SPOT program automatically resizes images
to fit on the page, so you can add multiple images
without having to resize them. For example, if you
add five images, the preview will show six images
(the original and five added) of equal size,
distributed proportionally across the page.
#
4.
Note: You can reposition and resize
multiple images on the preview page,
just as you can with a single image.
From the print screen, you can:
−
Click on Print to print the page.
−
Add an image as described in step two.
−
Delete an image by selecting it and clicking on Remove.
−
Reposition and/or resize the images as described in the previous section.
−
Use the Page drop-down list to navigate to a different page view (when printing multiple pages.
Printing Image Sequences
The procedures for printing sequential images in the SPOT software are
identical to those described in the Printing Multiple Images on a Page
section (see above)., with one exception. When you select the Print
option for a sequential image file, the program prompts you to specify the
image(s) in the sequence that you want to print, as shown at right.
216
•
If you select All Images in Sequence and click on OK, the program
prompts you to specify the number of images per page.
•
If you select Specified Images, you can select either a single image or multiple
images. Separate multiple images with commas and/or dashes – e.g., 1, 2, 3;
1-3; or 1, 2, 3-6.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
Introduction
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
Introduction ................................................... 217
Preparing to Take a Picture .......................... 218
Establishing the TWAIN Interface ............. 218
Defining Image Setups .............................. 218
Defining Live Image Preferences ............ 219
Always Show Full Chip .........................219
Maximum Exposure .............................219
Post Processing ....................................220
Palettes (Insight B/W)................................. 220
Taking a Picture............................................. 221
Capturing Initial Images............................ 221
Capturing Final Images............................. 222
QUICK REFERENCE:
!"Set up the camera to work with another imaging
application (define the TWAIN interface)…
p. 217
!"Define an image setup from the SPOT TWAIN
interface… p. 218
!"Preview an image in the SPOT TWAIN
interface…. p. 222
!"Transfer a captured image to a TWAIN
compliant application… p. 220
!"Capture an image and have it open in the
TWAIN application… p. 222
Introduction
The SPOT software is TWAIN compliant. The TWAIN interface, as an alternative to the stand-alone
SPOT software, allows Windows users to use other imaging programs (e.g., Photoshop or Image Pro) to
view, and edit images that were captured using the SPOT camera and software. For example, using the
TWAIN interface and the SPOT camera, you can capture an image from within Photoshop and then
transfer the image into PhotoShop to be edited and saved. The following chapter details the use of the
SPOT TWAIN interface via Adobe Photoshop 5.0.
#
Note: Adobe Photoshop was selected as the example to illustrate SPOT’s TWAIN features because
it is one of the most commonly used “TWAIN capable” image editing programs.
This chapter is divided into two sections.
•
•
Preparing to Take a Picture
Taking a Picture
#
Note: Because the image setup and image capture functionality is identical in the stand-alone and
TWAIN interface versions of the software, these sections reference other chapters in the manual.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
217
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
Preparing to Take a Picture
The TWAIN interface provides you with the same image setup options as the stand-alone version of the
SPOT software. There are two main tasks in preparing to capture an image.
•
•
Establishing the TWAIN Interface
Defining an Image Setup
Establishing the TWAIN Interface
To use the SPOT camera and software via Photoshop, establish the TWAIN interface by defining the SPOT
software as the default TWAIN source Follow these steps:
1.
Open Photoshop.
2.
Define the source of the program that
you want to interface with (in this case
the SPOT software).
From the File menu, select
Import>Select TWAIN-32 Source.
The Select Source window appears.
3.
Select SPOT Insight Camera
(Advanced) Camera, and click on
Select. The SPOT software is now the
default TWAIN source.
#
4.
Note: To work in the Basic
mode TWAIN interface,
select SPOT RT Camera
(Basic). Refer to Ch. 13 –
Using Other Windows
Imaging Applications in
Basic Mode.
From the File menu in Photoshop, select Import and TWAIN_32. The SPOT Camera window
appears within Photoshop, as shown at right.
Refer to the next sections, Defining Live Image Preferences and Defining Image Setups, for details on how
to define image setups from the TWAIN interface.
Defining Image Setups
An image setup serves two crucial purposes:
•
•
It defines the way a picture will be taken.
It defines the way the program automatically modifies a picture after it is taken.
Image setups are defined to optimize the picture taking process for different types of images or microscopy
techniques. They can be created, saved, and recalled as needed. To define a new image setup, you must
also select one of 14 pre-defined image types as a template for defining the new setup. The 14 pre-defined
image types (in addition to the Factory Defaults setting) correspond to commonly used microscopy
techniques. Refer to Ch. 5- Preparing to Take a Picture for a table of the different image types. Pre-defined
image types are indicated by brackets around the title, while the user defined image setups appear without
brackets.
218
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
Preparing to Take a Picture
•
To modify the current image setup, click on the Modify button.
•
To delete an image setup, select the image setup from the list, and click on the Delete button.
•
To define a new image setup, click on the Add button. The New Image Setup window appears with a
list of pre-defined and user-defined templates
(image types). Pre-defined image types are
indicated by brackets < >. Select a template, and
click on OK.
RT Mono/SE6
RT Monochrome camera users will not
see the fluorescence – red,
fluorescence – green, and fluorescence
– blue Image Type options.
When you add a new image setup or modify an
existing setup, the Image Setup window appears, as
shown at right. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a
Picture for a detailed explanation of the Image Setup
options.
Defining Live Image Preferences
The TWAIN window includes a Preferences button, which allows you to
define live image viewing and exposure preferences. This includes the
following options:
•
•
•
Always Show Full Chip
Maximum Exposure
Do Post Processing on
Each option is discussed below.
Always Show Full Chip
Always display the full chip in live image mode. If you select a region, it will be displayed in a rectangular
outline within the full-chip view.
Maximum Exposure
The Maximum Exposure option helps you to avoid unnecessarily long exposures when viewing a live
image. Consider the following situation: When you change from a lower resolution objective to a higher
resolution objective, the camera detects a brief interval of blackness and compensates by modifying the
exposure time to maintain a constant brightness level. This results in you having to wait for the camera to
compute a lengthy and incorrect exposure for the black interval. Using the Maximum Exposure option,
you can limit this exposure time. For most cases, Diagnostic Instruments recommends a value of 0.5
seconds. Similarly, the Live Image Maximum option can also be used in cases where the microscope’s
light path selector is incorrectly set.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
219
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
Post Processing
Specify whether to apply the Post Processing options for the current Image Setup to images captured from
the live image view.
Transferred Images
•
If the Transferred Images box is selected, the Transfer option applies the Noise Filter, Color
Enhancement, and Image Size Double options as specified for the current Image Setup.
•
If the Transferred Images box is unselected, the Transfer option ignores the Post Processing options for
the current Image Setup, with one exception: if the Chip Defect Correction option is selected for the
current image setup (SPOT and RT cameras only) , the corrections will appear in the image capture,
regardless of the Transferred Images preference.
Snapped Images
•
If the Snapped Images box is selected, the Snap option uses all of the Post Processing options from the
current Image Setup, except for Background Subtraction and Flatfield Correction.
•
If the Snapped Images box is unselected, the Snap option ignores the Post Processing options for the
current Image Setup, with one exception: if the Chip Defect Correction option is selected for the
current image setup (RT and SPOT cameras only), the corrections will appear in the image capture,
regardless of the Snapped Images preference.
Monitor Camera Color Filter Position (RT Slider)
Determine whether to monitor the position of the color filter.
The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position box is checked as a default. If this option is left checked, the
SPOT program displays error messages when the sensors in the camera head detect that the color filter is
not in the correct position. This option does not monitor the position of the filter slider in Live Image
mode. In Basic mode, the program will give you an error message if you are capturing an image and the
sliding color filter is in the B/W position.
Palettes (monochrome)
The Palettes option allows you to define new palettes and edit existing palettes.
SPOT color palettes allow you to apply specific hue and saturation values to monochrome (8 bit or 12 bit)
images. Palettes are useful in fluorescence applications where a sample is fluorescing at a single
wavelength, and you want the acquired image to have the correct color. For such a case, you could create a
palette to represent the color of the fluorescent dye and then apply that palette to the captured image.
There are two ways to apply a palette to an image:
220
•
You can associate a palette with an Image Setup, as discussed in Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture.
•
You can apply a palette to a captured image by selecting the Set Palette option from the Edit menu.
Refer to Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for more details.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
Taking a Picture
To define a new palette, follow these steps:
1. From the Setup menu, select Palettes.
2. Click on Add. The Color Palette dialog
appears as shown here:
3. Either use the Hue and Saturation
selection lists or move the cross-hairs on
the color wheel to enter the values
4.
−
Hue is the designation for the actual
color, as distinguished from others in
the color spectrum. Hue is derived
from the color wheel and is expressed
in the color's angular location (in
degrees) on the wheel. (e.g., 0° to 360°).
−
Saturation is the proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in the SPOT software)
is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero is pure gray and 100 is pure hue (e.g.,
day glow).
Click on OK.
Taking a Picture
From the SPOT TWAIN interface, you can perform both initial image captures (i.e., for computing
exposure, white balance, etc…) and final image captures.
Capturing Initial Images
The toolbar at the left of the SPOT Camera window enables you to quickly access the functions that are
used prior to the capture of the final image.
Live Image
see Ch. 6
Compute
Exposure
see Ch. 7
Recall Previous
Exposure
see Ch. 7
Compute White
Balance Values
see Ch. 7
Set Chip Imaging
Region
see Ch. 7
Get Backgound
Image
see Ch. 7
Get Flatfield Image
see Ch. 7
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
221
Taking a Picture
RT Mono/SE6
Ch. 12 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
RT Monochrome camera users will not see the Compute White Balance Values button.
Capturing Final Images
From the SPOT TWAIN interface, you can capture an image in two different ways. You can either
preview the image and then transfer it to Photoshop, or you can Acquire the image, which sends the
captured image directly to Photoshop.
•
•
•
Preview – Capture an image and preview it within the SPOT TWAIN window.
Transfer – Transfer a captured image to Photoshop.
Acquire - Capture an image and have it automatically transfer to (open in) Photoshop.
The Keep This Window on Top option allows you to preview and transfer or acquire multiple images
without having to re-open the SPOT window.
•
•
222
If the Keep This Window on Top box is checked, the SPOT window remains open.
If the box is not checked, the SPOT window automatically closes after each image is transferred or
acquired.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Table of Contents
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications
in Basic Mode
Introduction ................................................... 224
Establishing the TWAIN Interface ................. 224
Working in the Basic TWAIN Interface ......... 225
Defining Preferences ................................. 226
F-Keys ........................................................... 227
Using Live Images to Define Capture
Settings........................................................... 228
Profile............................................................ 228
QUICK REFERENCE:
!"Set up the camera to work with another imaging
application (define the TWAIN interface)… p.
224
!"Define live image and capture settings in the
SPOT Basic TWAIN interface… p. 228
!"Save live image/capture values… p. 228
Exposure: Auto or Manual ........................ 228
Auto Exposure options............................... 229
Image Type ..........................................229
Brightness..............................................229
Quality/Speed (Auto)..........................229
Gamma................................................230
Manual Exposure Options......................... 230
!"Perform a white balance on an image… p. 231
!"View or capture a region of an image… p. 233
!"Capture an image… p. 237
Exposure Times (RGB) ..........................230
Gain......................................................230
Gamma................................................230
White Balance ............................................ 231
Match Color................................................ 232
Chip Imaging Area .................................... 232
Auto-Brightness (Auto, Live Images) ....... 233
Faster Readout (Live Images) .................. 233
Flatfield (Captured Images)..................... 233
Color Enhancement (Captured
Images)........................................................ 234
Fit to Window .............................................. 234
More (Image Settings)............................... 235
Flip.........................................................235
Rotate 90° ............................................235
Exposure Limits – Minimum ..................235
Exposure Limits – Live Image
Maximum .............................................236
Filter Color (RT Color/Slider).................236
Display Images in Grayscale (RT
Color/Slider) .........................................236
Binning ..................................................237
Noise Filter ............................................237
Taking a Picture............................................. 237
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
223
Establishing the TWAIN Interface
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Introduction
The SPOT software is TWAIN compliant. The TWAIN interface, as an alternative to the stand-alone
SPOT software, allows Windows users to use other imaging programs (e.g., Photoshop or Image Pro) to
view, and edit images that were captured using the SPOT camera and software. For example, using the
TWAIN interface and the SPOT camera, you can capture an image from within Photoshop and then
transfer the image into Photoshop to be edited and saved. As with the stand-alone version of the SPOT
software, the TWAIN interface can be used in both Basic and Advanced modes. The following chapter
describes only the Basic TWAIN Interface. .
Establishing the TWAIN Interface
To use the SPOT camera and software via a TWAIN compliant imaging application (e.g., Photoshop,
Image-Pro, etc…), you must first set the SPOT software as the default TWAIN source.
Follow these steps:
1.
Open the TWAIN compliant application e.g., Photoshop, Image-Pro, etc…
2.
Specify the source of the program that you want to interface with (i.e., the SPOT software). The
procedure for this step will vary according to the software you are using, but you should see a list of
TWAIN devices. In many cases, the application asks you to specify a scanning device.
3.
Choose SPOT RT camera (Basic Mode). This establishes the SPOT software as the default TWAIN
source.
4.
Open the TWAIN interface.
Again, this step varies
according to the software you
are using. The SPOT Camera
window appears within the
application, as shown at right.
Refer to the next sections for
descriptions of the available
options on the TWAIN interface.
224
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Working in the Basic TWAIN Interface
Working in the Basic TWAIN Interface
The Basic TWAIN interface is a one-stop point for previewing and capturing images. For example, using
the Basic TWAIN interface, a typical image capture session might involve the following steps, as
illustrated below:
Preview your specimen
Use the live image as a point
of reference to focus and
position the image and to scan
for areas of interest.
A Live Image preview
of your specimen
displays here when
you first open the
Basic TWAIN interface.
Create a Profile
Profiles allow you to create,
modify, and reuse specific
exposures settings that are
tailored to your image capture
needs. To create a new
profile, right click on the
Profile box.
Right-clicking on the Profile box
gives you options to create and
modify Profiles. When you select
"Add," you are prompted to name the
new Profile. And, as you modify view
and capture settings, they are saved
to that Profile.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
225
Working in the Basic TWAIN Interface
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Define Settings
Define exposure
settings for live and
captured images. Each
of these settings are
discussed later in this
chapter.
Capture an Image
All of the image
capture options are
located on the bottom
portion of the window,
as illustrated here
Defining Preferences
In the Basic TWAIN Interface, you can define three capture/view
preferences. Click on the Prefs button to open the Preferences
window (see right). Each option is described below:
Captured Image Bit Depth
This option enables you to specify a different image bit depth when
saving an image captured in the SPOT program.
•
8 Bits per Channel – The 8 bits per channel option provides 256
gray levels per color:
−
−
226
With RT Mono cameras, captured images are 8 bits per pixel monochrome.
With RT Color cameras, captured images are 24 bits per pixel RGB color.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Working in the Basic TWAIN Interface
This option results in smaller, more manageable image sizes, and is best for images that do not require
extensive modification.
•
12 Bits per Channel – The 12 Bits per channel option provides 4,096 gray levels per color.
−
−
With RT Mono cameras, captured images are 12 bits per pixel monochrome.
With RT Color cameras, captured images are 36 bits per pixel RGB color.
This option reduces banding problems that can result with modified images, but also results in larger
file sizes.
When saving 12 bit per channel images, SPOT prompts you to select either 12 bits per channel or 16
bits per channel. If you use Adobe’s Photoshop for image editing, you should select the 16 bit per
channel option because Photoshop cannot read 12 bit per channel images.
Keep TWAIN Window on Top
Checking this option ensures that the TWAIN window remains the top-most window when working in
multiple applications. This allows you to preview and transfer or acquire multiple images without having
to re-open the SPOT window. If the Keep This Window on Top box is checked, the SPOT Camera
window remains open. If the box is not checked, the window automatically closes after each image is
transferred or acquired.
Always Show Full Chip in Live Mode
Checking this option ensures that you will always see the Full Chip view when viewing a live image.
Keep in mind that the selection that you make here determines how the live image displays when viewing a
region of the chip. Refer to the Chip Imaging Area section for more details.
Monitor Camera Color Filter Position
Determine whether to monitor the position of the color filter.
If this option is checked, the SPOT program displays error messages when the sensors in the camera head
detect that the color filter is not in the correct position. This option does not monitor the position of the
filter slider in the Live Image window. In Basic mode, the program will give you an error message if you
are capturing an image and the sliding color filter is in the B/W position.
F-Keys
The following function keys are available as shortcuts in the Basic TWAIN interface:
Function Key
Action
TWAIN Interface Option
[F 4]
Restart the live image view.
Live
[Alt] + [F 4]
Close the SPOT Camera window.
Close
[F 9]
Capture an image and automatically transfer it to
the imaging application.
Acquire
[Ctrl] + [F 10]
Compute white balance values.
White Balance
[Alt] + [F 10]
Compute white balance values without displaying
the informational dialog.
Not available from the window
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
227
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
When you open the Basic mode TWAIN Interface, the Live Image window is, by default, running, as
indicated by the Live Mode Running message in the status bar. The settings options in the TWAIN
interface window enable you to optimize the live image view, and then capture an image using these
settings. In the TWAIN interface, you can:
•
Create profiles to use as pre-defined image capture settings.
•
Modify exposure settings
•
Define a specific portion of the chip to be used in the image capture.
•
Modify the screen orientation of the specimen.
The following sections describe all of the Live Image/Image Capture Settings.
Profile
The Profile option allows you to create and re-use sets of live image/image capture settings. When you
open the TWAIN interface, the Default Profile is selected. When you make changes to any of the live
image/image capture settings, these changes can be saved to a Profile – either the Default or one that you
have defined. For example, if you gamma adjust a live image and then decide that the result is ideal for the
type of specimen you are working with, you could create a new Profile with the gamma and exposure
values and name it for that type of specimen – i.e., “Diseased Cells.”
When you close the SPOT Camera window, the program prompts you to save changes. Carefully
consider the effect of your choice:
•
Clicking Yes modifies the Profile according to the adjustments that you made. Future image captures
taken with that Profile will reflect these changes. For example, if you rotated a live image, and then
clicked Yes after closing the window, all future captures taken with that Profile would be rotated in the
same way.
•
Clicking No retains the original values of the Profile. This allows you to maintain a unique set of
image view and capture settings that can be re-applied to future captures of similar specimens.
To add, edit, or delete Profiles, right-click on the Profile box. Right clicking gives the following options:
•
•
•
•
Add – Add a new Profile. When you add a new Profile, the program prompts you to name it.
Save – Save a Profile that you have modified.
Rename – Rename an existing Profile.
Delete - Deletea Profile. This option appears only after you have defined a second Profile in addition
to the Default Profile.
Exposure: Auto or Manual
The Exposure option gives you
the choice of having the camera
calculate exposure time (Auto),
or setting the exposure on your
own (Manual). The exposure
options will vary according to
whether you select Auto or
Manual, as illustrated at right.
228
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
When you enter one of the above exposure settings, note that it applies both to the live image that you are
viewing and the captured image.
Auto Exposure options
Image Type
An Image Type tells the SPOT program how to expose and process image captures. Each of the 11
available Image Types (see below) corresponds to a microscopy technique: select the Image Type that
matches the technique you are using. The camera will capture the image accordingly. The table below
describes typical situations for each image type.
Image Type
Description
Brightfield-transmitted light
Stained specimens on glass slides using transmitted light microscopes.
Darkfield-transmitted light
Bright specimens on dark backgrounds using transmitted light darkfield technique.
Fluorescence
Fluorescence specimens not fluorescing in a single red, green, or blue primary color
Nomarksi DIC/Hoffman
Specimens being viewed with either Nomarski DIC or Hoffman techniques.
Phase contrast
Specimens being viewed using the phase contrast technique.
Polarized light
Specimens being viewed with polarized light techniques.
Brightfield-reflected light
Polished metallurgical specimens and semi-conductors using a microscope with a
vertical illuminator.
Darkfield-reflected light
Bright areas of specimens being viewed with darkfield, reflected light techniques.
Stereo/macro–no glints
Matte specimens without bright glints.
Stereo/macro–shiny glints
Shiny specimens with bright glints.
Stereo/macro-metallic glints
Metallic specimens with intense glints.
Brightness
Enter a Brightness value between .25 and 32.
A brightness value of 1, the default value, gives you the correct image brightness for most images. The
Brightness control allows you to overexpose or underexpose (darken or lighten) the image area. In many
cases, an image has varying levels of brightness; to see a specific area better you might want to lighten or
darken the image. When using the Brightness control, the SPOT camera uses an algorithm that combines
gain and exposure time to provide the fastest possible image update rate (shutter speed) in live mode:
•
•
When overexposing images to make them brighter (i.e., entering values greater than one), the camera
first selects the highest possible gain before lengthening the exposure time. Because gain also
brightens an image, less exposure time is needed.
When underexposing images to make them darker (i.e., entering values less then one) the camera uses
the lowest possible exposure time before lowering the gain.
Quality/Speed (Auto)
Use the slider to balance speed and quality when previewing dim images.
•
Moving the slider toward the Quality side increases image quality and decreases frame rates.
•
Moving the slider toward the Speed side increases frame rates and decreases image quality.
The Quality/Speed measurement corresponds to the Auto-Gain limit setting, which allows you to set an
upper limit on the gain options that will be available during the Auto-Exposure process.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
229
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
•
When the slider is at the left-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 1, which restricts the camera to a gain
of 1, giving you higher quality pictures, but lengthier exposure times.
•
When the slider is at the right-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 32, which allows the camera to select
from the all six gain options. This shortens exposure times, but decreases image quality.
Refer to the “Auto-Gain Limit” section in Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for a detailed explanation of
gain and exposure.
Gamma
Enter a Gamma value between .1 and 4.
Gamma adjustment smoothly lightens darker areas of an image without burning out bright areas or
lightening black areas. This is especially useful for capturing/editing images with a wide range of
brightness values (dynamic range) such as fluorescence specimens or macroscopic objects with glints, (e.g.,
printed circuitry).
• Values between 1 and 4 lighten the darker areas of the image.
• Values between .1 and 1 darken the mid-tones of the image.
Gamma adjustments on live images are made in the RGB color space, the only color space where
adjustments can be made quickly enough to keep up with live imaging. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take
a Picture for more details on gamma adjustment and color spaces.
Manual Exposure Options
Exposure Times (RGB)
Use the slider-bar to specify exposure times between .04 ms and 526.746 sec.
When you specify exposure times, the camera skips the automated exposure sequence that takes place
when you open the live image view – i.e., the TWAIN interface. This is very useful in cases where
exposure times are lengthy, as with fluorescence samples.
Gain
Enter the precise gain that the camera will use for an image capture. Use the slider-bar to select one of the
six gain options: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32. The gain value displays to the right of the slider-bar. Refer to the
“Auto-Gain Limit ” and “Gain” sections of Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for details on gain and
exposure.
Gamma
The manual Gamma adjustment is identical to the auto Gamma adjustment (see above.)
230
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
White Balance
White balance is the ratio of red, green, and blue gains necessary to achieve the proper color rendition for
an image. Many factors impact the coloration of an image capture, including lamp voltage, the coloration
of the glass used in the slide, and the coloration of the glass used in the lenses of the microscope’s
objectives. To minimize the impact of these factors, use the White Balance feature. When you perform a
white balance calculation, SPOT samples the color of the light from your light source after it has passed
through the slide and the objective, and then calculates the red, green, and blue gains needed to produce
images where the white areas are white and the color areas are true.
You should perform a new white balance calculation when:
•
•
•
Starting a new image capture session.
Changing the lamp voltage.
Switching to a different objective on the microscope.
To perform a white balance, follow these steps:
1.
Set the illumination and the objective that you will use for the image capture.
2.
If you have not done so, select your Image Type (see above). Each Image Type has its own set of
white balance values. Any white balance values that you compute for an image type remain linked to
that image type until you compute new values. When selecting a new image type, remember that you
will be using the white balance values linked to that image type.
3.
Click on the White Balance button.
4.
Show the camera a sample of white light. This step varies according to microscopy technique and
Image Type (sample), as shown in the table below:
Image Type
White Balance Technique
Brightfieldtransmitted light
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
Darkfieldtransmitted light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
transmitted light above.
Fluorescence
Use the Match Color feature (see above)
Nomarksi
DIC/Hoffman
For Nomarski DIC: Adjust the Nomarski prism until the image is in either the “brightfield” or the
“gray scale” view.
For Hoffman: Perform the white balance directly on the Hoffman image.
5.
Phase contrast
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
Polarized light
Pull all polarizers and compensators out of the light path and then position the slide so that the
specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide near the specimen.
Brightfieldreflected light
Replace your sample with a mirror.
Darkfieldreflected light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
reflected light above.
Stereo (all three
options)
Using an EPI-illuminator (shining a light on the top of your specimen from off to one side), replace
your sample with a white sheet of paper.
Click on Begin to start the calculation. The camera computes the white balance values, and they are
automatically saved to the image settings for the image type that you selected.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
231
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Match Color
The Match Color feature is typically used in two situations:
•
You want to change the colors of an image on the screen to match the way that you think the specimen
looks.
•
You want to set the white balance for pictures taken with a microscopic technique that never has white
in its images. A prime example of this situation is fluorescence microscopy.
To use the Match Color feature, follow these steps:
1. Click on the Preview button to capture an image. The Match Color option remains inactive until a
preview image is captured.
2. From the Edit menu, select Match Color. The cursor becomes an eye-dropper.
3.
Using the mouse to move the eye-dropper, position it on the pixel location of the color that you want to
match. The R, G, and B values of the pixel that you select must all be less than 255.
4.
Click on the pixel. The Match Color dialog appears with information about the pixel that you
selected:
− Hue – The actual color, as distinguished from others in the color spectrum. Hue is derived from
a color wheel and is expressed in the color's angular location (e.g., 0 to 360 degrees).
− Saturation - The proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in the SPOT
software) is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero equals pure gray and 100
equals pure hue (e.g., “day glow”).
5.
Move the cross-hairs to the desired color either by clicking on the new location or clicking and
dragging. As you move the cross-hairs, the color in the image changes accordingly, allowing you to
preview the color before you save the image. Alternatively, you can click on the Make White/Grey
button to automatically white balance the image.
6.
Click on Ok.
Chip Imaging Area
SPOT allows you to use any rectangular portion of the CCD chip for image capture. Using a portion of the
chip is helpful in cases where you want to:
• Keep file sizes small.
• Shorten download times.
• Avoid areas of the image with optical problems (e.g., vignetting).
There are three image area options:
•
Full Chip – Capture the entire area of the CCD chip.
•
Center – Capture a rectangular part of the CCD chip’s area that has the same height - to - width ratio
as the full chip, and is centered on the center of the full chip. The percentage that you enter is the
percentage of full chip width that the new area’s width will be.
To capture a centered proportion of an image, follow these steps:
a) Check the Center option.
b) Enter the percentage of the image that you want to capture. The minimum percentage is 10 and
the maximum is 100.
c) Capture the image.
•
232
Selection –Capture a specific part of the CCD chip.
a) Check the Selection option.
b) Use the mouse to select a region for capture. Click and drag to define the selection. Note that the
new pixel dimensions display in the status bar.
c) Capture the image.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
When you are viewing a live image Selection, how this selection is displayed, depends on two other
settings: the Fit to Window option (see below) and the Always Show Full Chip in Live Mode preference
(see above). The following table illustrates the possibilities:
Fit to Window
Checked?
Always Show Full Chip
in Live Mode Checked?
YES
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
LIVE
YES
NO
When you select a portion of the chip the cursor
is a zoom tool. To zoom in on a portion of a
live or captured image, click and drag over the
area that you want to zoom in on. To return to
the non-zoomed image, click on the Full Chip
option.
BOTH
NO
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
However, because Fit to Window is not
checked, you will not see the entire chip in the
window.
LIVE
NO
NO
When you select a portion of the image, the
cursor is a cropping tool. If you select a portion
of an image, the program displays only the
selected area and discards the rest of the image.
To return to the non-cropped image, click on the
Full Chip option.
BOTH
Selection Display
Live or
Captured Image
Auto-Brightness (Auto, Live Images)
Available only when you are using Auto exposure and viewing a live image, the Auto-Brightness option
enables you to maintain a consistent brightness level for changing specimens.
Faster Readout (Live Images)
Faster Readout enables you to “speed up” the live image display (higher frame rates) in cases where you
are willing to sacrifice some resolution for a higher frame rate.
Flatfield (Captured Images)
For all other SPOT camera lines, the Flatfield Correct option is used to correct for display problems
associated with uneven intensity or coloration in illumination, or to correct for artifacts (e.g., dust) in the
optical system. Flatfield can still be used for this purpose with SPOT Insight cameras. But, because SPOT
Insight cameras use a color mosaic chip, Flatfield correction serves a new primary purpose. In the
production process for color mosaic CCD chips, the RGB colors are applied directly to the pixels on the
chip. This process often results in an uneven color density around the outer 30-40 rows of the CCD chip,
causing a “halo” appearance in some image captures, particularly those with low contrast. The Flatfield
option can be used to correct this problem.
#
Note: Flatfield correction with the SPOT camera refers only to the correction of uneven
lighting. It should not be confused with the correction of optical field flatness.
Flatfield correction works by taking a picture of the brightfield background without the specimen in the
field of view. This image lets the SPOT software know, on a pixel-by pixel basis, which areas in the field
of view are receiving less illumination than the brightest areas. When taking a picture that contains a
specimen, the software uses this information to accurately increase the brightness of each pixel in the dimly
illuminated areas. The resulting image gives the appearance of an even illumination.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
233
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
To use the Flatfield option, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the specimen is under the desired objective and
in focus.
2.
Right click on the Flatfield drop-down list and click on the
Add option. The Get Flatfield dialog appears as shown at
right.
3.
Remove the slide from the field of view.
4.
Click on Begin. When the program finishes computing the exposure times and acquiring the flatfield
file, the Flatfield dialog prompts you to name the file:
a)
Enter a name. Because flatfield image files are different for each objective, you might want to
name the file according to the objective's magnification (e.g., 10x).
b) Click on OK. If you do not specify a location, the program automatically saves the flatfield file to
the c:\SpotCam\Fltflds directory.
#
5.
Note: The default file location varies, depending on where you installed the SPOT program.
Move the specimen back into the field of view, and perform the image capture, using either the
Preview or the Acquire option.
Color Enhancement (Captured Images)
The Color Enhancement option optimizes image captures by closely matching the final capture to the
image as seen through the microscope. To optimize the final image, the SPOT program processes the raw
image data to produce a final image that matches the view seen through the microscope.
If you want an image capture to match the live image view, you will want to leave Color Enhancement off.
Color Enhancement applies only to captured images.
Fit to Window
In addition to automatically resizing images to fit within the live image window, the Fit to Window option
also determines cursor behavior in the live image view.
•
When the Fit to Window option is checked, the live image window cursor becomes a zoom tool. To
zoom in on a portion of a live image, click and drag over the area that you want to zoom in on. To
return to the non-zoomed image, click on the Full Chip option.
•
When the Fit to Window option is not checked, the cursor is a cropping tool. If you select a portion of
an image, the program displays only the selected area and discards the rest of the image. To return to
the non-cropped image, click on the Full Chip option.
These points apply only when the Always Show Full Chip in Live Mode (see above) is not selected. For
more details, refer back to the Chip Imaging Area section (see above).
#
234
Note: Due to a flaw in the Windows operating system, monitors that are set to higher resolutions
cannot zoom to very high magnification levels. If zoomed in to a high magnification, the monitor
displays white instead of the zoomed image.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
More (Image Settings)
When you click on More, the program displays a
dialog of additional orientation and exposure settings
for the TWAIN interface, as shown at right.
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosaic camera users will
not see the Filter Color, Binning, or
Display Images in Grayscale options.
Flip
Specify whether images will be flipped in the live
image view and during the image capture process.
•
•
•
Select Horizontal to flip the image from left to right.
Select Vertical to flip the image from top to bottom.
Select both options to flip the image from left to right and from top to bottom.
Rotate 90°°
Specify whether images will be rotated in the live image view and during the image capture process.
•
•
•
Select None if you do not want the image to be rotated.
Select Right to rotate the image clockwise 90 degrees.
Select Left to rotate the image counterclockwise 90 degrees.
Exposure Limits –
Minimum
SPOT Power Line
Frequency (60 Hz)
16.6 ms per cycle
Because SPOT Insight cameras are
8.3 ms
per cycle
capable of extremely short exposure
times, light sources with intensities
Fluorescent Light
that vary with the waveform of the
Output Frequency
60 Hz line supply (e.g., fluorescent
lamps, 120 volt incandescent bulbs,
and 6 volt 20 watt halogen lamps)
can cause the Live Image window to
Exposure < 8.3 ms
flicker and result in incorrect
brightness and color balance
readings in captured images. This
option allows you to correct for
these problems by limiting the
Minimum Exposure > 10 ms
camera to a minimum exposure time
that is greater than the pulse interval
of the light source. Consider the
illustration to the right. In this case, the pulse interval of the fluorescent light source is 8.3 ms. Entering a
Minimum Exposure of 10 ms ensures that the camera’s exposure time is greater than the pulse interval of
the light source. To enter a minimum
Setting a Minimum Exposure to
exposure, check the Minimum box, and enter
Accommodate
Varied Light Sources
a value in milliseconds.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
235
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Exposure Limits – Live Image Maximum
The Live Image Maximum option helps you to avoid unnecessarily long exposures when viewing a live
image. Consider the following situation: When you change from a lower resolution objective to a higher
resolution objective, the camera detects a brief interval of blackness. When the Auto-Brightness option
(see above) is enabled, it compensates by modifying the exposure time to maintain a constant brightness
level. This results in you having to wait for the camera to compute a lengthy and incorrect exposure for the
black interval. Using the Live Image Maximum option, you can limit this exposure time. For most cases,
Diagnostic Instruments recommends a value of 0.5 seconds.
Similarly, the Live Image Maximum option can also be used in cases where the microscope’s light path
selector is incorrectly set.
Filter Color (RT Color/Slider)
The Filter Color option specifies the color or colors that will be exposed in the live image preview/image
capture. RT Slider users can select None for a completely unfiltered image.
RT Slider
RT Slider users can select RGB you to preview/capture live images in full color. If the filter slider on the
camera is moved to the B/W position, the Filter Color setting should likewise be changed to one of the
monochrome options (e.g., Clear, Red, Green, or Blue). The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position
preference monitors the color filter position only for image captures – it does not monitor color filter
position when viewing live images.
•
Red – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the red state of the LCD filter.
•
Green – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the green state of the LCD
filter.
•
Blue - Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the blue state of the LCD filter.
•
Clear – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the clear state of the LCD
filter. Selecting the Clear option does not provide the entirely unfiltered image that is possible with the
RT Slider camera. Although all three colors are transmitted, the polarizing filter, which is part of the
liquid crystal filter, and the IR filter remain in the light path, blocking some of the light. When using
the Live Image window to focus or position dim images, RT Slider users can slide the filter out to
provide higher frame rates and less noisy images.
•
None (RT Slider) – Preview capture a completely unfiltered image.
RT Slider
Selecting a Filter Color option does not change the position of the filter: this must be done by physically
sliding the filter to the desired position. If the Filter Color setting does not match the filter’s position, SPOT
prompts you with an error message. But, this error message appears only if the Monitor Camera Color
Filter Position option on the Preferences window (see above) is selected.
Display Images in Grayscale (RT Color/Slider)
To counter the difficulty of viewing, focusing, and adjusting monochrome images in live mode, the
Display Images in Grayscale option enables you to view a monochrome image in grayscale, as opposed to
with the red, green, or blue filter. This option applies only when the Filter Color (see above) is set to
either Red, Green, or Blue.
236
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 13 – Using Other Windows Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Taking a Picture
Binning
Binning combines adjacent pixels on the CCD chip, thereby reducing the number of pixels used in the
image capture. Binning is useful when you have dim images and want to increase sensitivity and reduce
download time. This gives you higher frame rates and less noisy images. But, as binning level increases,
image resolution decreases. All of these factors should be considered when you select a binning option.
There are four binning options:
• None
1 pixel = 1 pixel
• 2x2
4 pixels = 1 pixel
• 3x3
9 pixels = 1 pixel
• 4x4
16 pixels = 1 pixel
Noise Filter
The Noise Filter corrects for the effects of electrical or thermal noise. When capturing dim images with
lengthy exposure times, the noise filter acts as a “virtual cooler” for the Insight camera, eliminating “hot
pixels.”
The Noise Filter checks each pixel on the CCD chip as described below:
1.
The program compares the value of each red pixel with the values of the eight neighboring red pixels.
2.
If none of the eight neighboring red pixels has a value within ±15 % (i.e., the threshold value that the
SPOT program uses) of the value for the red pixel being checked, the value for the red pixel being
checked is replaced with the average value of the eight neighboring red pixels.The program repeats this
procedure for the values of the green and blue pixels being checked.
To activate the Noise Filter, check the Noise Filter box. The program runs the noise filter each time an
image is captured using the Preview or Acquire options.
Taking a Picture
From the SPOT Basic TWAIN Interface, you can capture images in different ways:
•
Preview - You can capture a Preview image. Preview images remain available in the TWAIN
window for basic editing and serve as the basis for the final image capture. When you click on the
Preview button, the Get Image dialog displays the capture status as it is captured, and the captured
image then replaces in the Live Image in the window. Note that the status bar indicated that you are
viewing a Preview image.
•
Transfer - If you like the Preview image, you can Transfer it image directly to the third party
application that you are using. The Transfer button is active only for Preview image captures.
•
Acquire - Capture an image and have it automatically transfer to (open in) the third party imaging
application.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
237
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Ch. 14– Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
Table of Contents
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
QUICK REFERENCE:
Introduction.................................................... 239
Preparing to Take a Picture........................... 240
Setting File and Save Options .................. 240
!"Define file and save options for the 3rd Party
Interface… p. 240
Defining Live Image Preferences ............ 241
Always Show Full Chip ........................ 241
Maximum Exposure............................. 241
Post Processing.................................... 242
Defining an Image Setup ......................... 242
Palettes........................................................ 244
Taking a Picture ............................................. 245
Capturing Initial Images............................ 245
Capturing Final Images............................. 246
!"Define live image viewing preferences… p. 241
!"Define a SPOT image setup from the 3rd Party
Interface… p. 242
!"Preview an image in the 3rd Party Interface ….
p. 246
!"Transfer a captured image to another imaging
application… p. 246
!"Capture an image and have it open in the
application… p. 246
Introduction
The SPOT 3rd Party Interface is a stand-alone mini-application that is designed for Mac users who want to
use the SPOT camera to capture images, and then edit the images in a third party imaging application (e.g.,
Photoshop, Image-Pro). Using the 3rd Party Interface, you can:
•
•
•
•
•
View a live image preview
Create and/or modify a SPOT image setup
Capture an image and have it automatically open in another application
Capture an image and save it to file (i.e., the image is not associated with a specific application)
Transfer captured images into the image editing software
You cannot, however, use the 3rd Party Interface to open images from file.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
239
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
Preparing to Take a Picture
Before taking a picture via the 3rd Party Interface, you can set the following parameters as needed:
•
•
•
The SPOT 3rd Party Interface File and Save Options
The SPOT 3rd Party Interface live image viewing preferences
The Image Setup, which defines how the camera will take pictures
Setting File and Save Options
Before using the 3rd Party Interface program, you
can specify file format, open, and save options.
This includes the following information:
•
•
•
•
•
File format for captured images
Imaging application to edit captured images
Location for saved image files
File naming conventions
File opening conventions
To specify this information, follow these steps:
1. Open the 3rd Party Interface. The SPOT
Camera window appears, as shown at right.
2.
Click on the Setup button. The Preferences
window appears.
3.
Specify the File Type. Click on the File Type
selector and select one of the following
options:
−
−
−
#
240
Windows Bitmap
Mac PICT ( pct, pic, pict)
TIFF Uncompressed (tif, tiff)
Note: To capture images at pixel bit
depth settings other than 8 or 24 bpp
(e.g., 12 or 36 bpp), you should select
the TIFF/Uncompressed file type.
4.
If you use the 12 bpp or 36 bpp setitngs, and
you use an imaging application that saves files
in 16 bpp and 48 bpp format (e.g., Photoshop),
ensure that the Save 12/36 bit images in 16/48
bit files (best for Photoshop) box is checked.
5.
Click on the Set Application button to specify
the imaging application (e.g., Photoshop) that
you will use with the SPOT camera and the 3rd
Party Interface.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
6.
Preparing to Take a Picture
Specify how files are named and where they are saved to. There are two options.
− Automatically name images – The program automatically names and saves images according to
the parameters that you specify.
− Ask for filename each time - Have the program prompt you to enter the name and file location
each time.
If you choose the Automatically name images option, specify the Root name for the image files and
the folder that they will be saved to.
7.
−
Enter a name in the Root name box. The Root name is the first part of the file name. If the root
name is test, for example, the first image that you save will be test0001, the second image
test0002, etc… If you do not specify a Root name, the files are saved with the numerical names
(e.g., 0001, 0002, etc…).
−
To display the PC file type extension for image files, check the Add PC filename extensions
box.
−
Click on the Set Folder button to specify where you will save the file. If you do not specify a
location, the 3rd Party Interface program creates a folder on the desktop called SPOT Images;
captured images are automatically saved to this location.
Specify the file open options. You can select one, both, or neither of the two options:
−
Open images automatically in selected application – When you Acquire or Transfer images, the
images open automatically in the application that you specified in step 4 above.
−
Bring the selected image to the foreground each time – When you Acquire or Transfer images,
the imaging application window opens in front of the SPOT Camera window, which is sent to the
background.
If neither option is selected, the image file is saved to the location that you specify.
8.
Click on OK. The file type and application that you specified appear next to the Change button on the
SPOT Camera window.
Defining Live Image Preferences
The 3rd Party Interface window includes a Preferences button,
which allows you to define live image viewing and exposure
preferences. This includes the following options:
•
•
•
Always Show Full Chip
Maximum Exposure
Do Post Processing On
Each option is discussed below.
Always Show Full Chip
Always display the full chip in live image mode. If you select a region, it will be displayed in a rectangular
outline within the full-chip view.
Maximum Exposure
The Maximum Exposure option helps you to avoid unnecessarily long exposures when viewing a live
image. Consider the following situation: When you change from a lower resolution objective to a higher
resolution objective, the camera detects a brief interval of blackness and compensates by modifying the
exposure time to maintain a constant brightness level. This results in you having to wait for the camera to
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
241
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
compute a lengthy and incorrect exposure for the black interval. Using the Maximum Exposure option,
you can limit this exposure time. For most cases, Diagnostic Instruments recommends a value of 0.5
seconds. Similarly, the Live Image Maximum option can also be used in cases where the microscope’s
light path selector is incorrectly set.
Post Processing
Specify whether to apply the Post Processing options for the current Image Setup to images captured from
the live image view.
Transferred Images
• If the Transferred Images box is selected, the Transfer option applies the Noise Filter, Color
Enhancement, and Image Size Double options as specified for the current Image Setup.
•
If the Transferred Images box is unselected, the Transfer option ignores the Post Processing options for
the current Image Setup, with one exception: if the Chip Defect Correction option is selected for the
current image setup (SPOT and RT cameras only) , the corrections will appear in the image capture,
regardless of the Transferred Images preference.
Snapped Images
•
If the Snapped Images box is selected, the Snap option uses all of the Post Processing options from the
current Image Setup, except for Background Subtraction and Flatfield Correction.
•
If the Snapped Images box is unselected, the Snap option ignores the Post Processing options for the
current Image Setup, with one exception: if the Chip Defect Correction option is selected for the
current image setup (RT and SPOT cameras only), the corrections will appear in the image capture,
regardless of the Snapped Images preference.
Defining an Image Setup
An image setup serves two crucial purposes:
•
•
It defines the way a picture will be taken.
It defines the way the program automatically modifies a picture after it is taken.
Image setups are defined to optimize the picture taking process for different types of images or microscopy
techniques. They can be created, saved, and recalled as needed. To define a new image setup, you must
also select one of 14 pre-defined image types as a template for defining the new setup. The 14 pre-defined
image types (in addition to the Factory Defaults setting) correspond to commonly used microscopy
techniques. Refer to Ch. 5- Preparing to Take a Picture for a table of the different image types. Pre-defined
image types are indicated by brackets around the title, while the user defined image setups appear without
brackets.
242
•
To modify the current image setup, click on the
Modify button.
•
To delete an image setup, select the image setup
from the list, and click on the Delete button.
•
To define a new image setup, click on the Add
button. The New Image Setup window appears
with a list of pre-defined and user-defined templates
(image types). Pre-defined image types are
indicated by brackets < >. Select a template, and
click on OK. The New Image Setup window
appears, as shown at right:
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
RT Mono/SE6
Preparing to Take a Picture
RT Monochrome camera users will not see the fluorescence – red, fluorescence – green, and
fluorescence – blue Image Type options.
When you add a new image setup or modify an existing setup, the Image Setup window appears, as shown
here.
Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for a detailed explanation of the Image Setup options.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
243
Preparing to Take a Picture
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
Palettes
The Palettes option allows you to define new palettes and edit existing palettes.
SPOT color palettes allow you to apply specific hue and saturation values to monochrome (8 bit or 12 bit)
images. Palettes are useful in fluorescence applications where a sample is fluorescing at a single
wavelength, and you want the acquired image to have the correct color. For such a case, you could create a
palette to represent the color of the fluorescent dye and then apply that palette to the captured image.
There are two ways to apply a palette to an image:
•
You can associate a palette with an Image Setup, as discussed in Ch. 5 - Preparing to Take a Picture.
•
You can apply a palette to a captured image by selecting the Set Palette option from the Edit menu (in
Advanced mode). Refer to Ch. 8 – Viewing, Editing, and Annotating Images for more details.
To define a new palette, follow these steps:
1. On the 3rd Party Interface window (SPOT Camera), click on the Palettes button.
2.
Click on Add. The Color Palette dialog
appears as shown here:
3.
Either use the Hue and Saturation
selection lists or move the cross-hairs on
the color wheel to enter the values
4.
244
−
Hue is the designation for the actual
color, as distinguished from others in
the color spectrum. Hue is derived
from the color wheel and is expressed
in the color's angular location (in
degrees) on the wheel. (e.g., 0° to 360°).
−
Saturation is the proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in the SPOT software)
is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero is pure gray and 100 is pure hue (e.g.,
day glow).
Click on OK.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
Taking a Picture
Taking a Picture
Using the 3rd Party Interface, you can perform both initial image captures (e.g., for computing exposure,
white balance, etc…) and final image captures.
Capturing Initial Images
The toolbar at the left of the SPOT Image Capture window enables you to quickly access the image capture
functions that are used prior to the capture of the final image. The call-outs below page illustrate the
toolbar buttons:
Live Image
see Ch. 6
Compute
Exposure
see Ch. 7
Recall Previous
Exposure
see Ch. 7
Compute White
Balance Values
see Ch. 7
Set Chip Imaging
Region
see Ch. 7
Get Backgound
Image
see Ch. 7
Get Flatfield Image
see Ch. 7
RT
Mono/SE6
RT Monochrome camera users will not see the Compute White Balance Values toolbar button.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
245
Taking a Picture
Ch. 14 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications
Capturing Final Images
From the 3rd Party Interface program, you can capture an image in two different ways. You can either
preview the image and then transfer it to another imaging application (e.g., Photoshop), or you can Acquire
the image, which sends the captured image directly to the application.
246
•
Preview – Capture an image and preview it within the SPOT Image Capture window.
•
Transfer – Transfer a captured image to the imaging application.
•
Acquire - Capture an image and have it open/save according to the parameters that you specified (see
Setting File and Save Options). The one-step process of Acquiring an image is identical to previewing
and then transferring an image
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Table of Contents
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in
Basic Mode
Introduction ................................................... 248
Working in the Basic 3rd Party Interface....... 248
Defining Preferences ................................. 250
QUICK REFERENCE:
!"Define live image and capture settings in the
SPOT Basic 3rd Party interface… p. 251
F-Keys ........................................................... 250
Using Live Images to Define Capture
Settings........................................................... 251
Profile............................................................ 251
Exposure: Auto or Manual ........................ 252
Auto Exposure options............................... 252
Image Type ..........................................252
Brightness..............................................253
Quality/Speed (Auto)..........................253
Gamma................................................253
!"Save live image/capture values… p. 251
!"Perform a white balance on an image… p. 254
!"View or capture a region of an image… p. 256
!"Capture an image… p. 261
Manual Exposure Options......................... 254
Exposure Times (RGB) ..........................254
Gain......................................................254
Gamma................................................254
White Balance ............................................ 254
Match Color................................................ 255
Chip Imaging Area .................................... 256
Auto-Brightness (Auto, Live Images) ....... 257
Faster Readout (Live Images) .................. 257
Flatfield (Captured Images)..................... 257
Color Enhancement (Captured
Images)........................................................ 258
Fit to Window .............................................. 258
More (Image Settings)............................... 258
Flip.........................................................258
Rotate 90° ............................................258
Exposure Limits – Minimum ..................259
Exposure Limits – Live Image Maximum
..............................................................259
Filter Color (RT Color/Slider).................259
Display Images in Grayscale (RT
Color/Slider) .........................................260
Binning ..................................................260
Noise Filter ............................................260
Taking a Picture............................................. 261
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
247
Working in the Basic 3rd Party Interface
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Introduction
The SPOT Basic 3rd Party Interface is a stand-alone mini-application that is designed for Mac users who
want to use the SPOT camera to capture images, and then edit the images in a third party imaging
application (e.g., Photoshop, Image-Pro). Using the 3rd Party Interface, you can:
•
•
•
•
•
View a live image preview
Create and/or modify a SPOT image setup
Capture an image and have it automatically open in another application
Capture an image and save it to file (i.e., the image is not associated with a specific application)
Transfer captured images into the image editing software
You cannot, however, use the 3rd Party Interface to open images from file.
Working in the Basic 3rd Party Interface
The Basic 3rd Party Interface is a one-stop point for previewing and capturing images. For example, using
the Basic 3rd Party Interface, a typical image capture session might involve the following steps, as
illustrated below:
Preview your specimen
Use the live image as a point
of reference to focus and
position the image and to scan
for areas of interest.
Create a Profile
Profiles allow you to create,
modify, and reuse specific
exposures settings that are
tailored to your image capture
needs. To create a new
profile, control-click on the
Profile box.
248
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Working in the Basic 3rd Party Interface
Define Settings
Define exposure
settings for live and
captured images. Each
of these settings are
discussed later in this
chapter.
Capture an Image
All of the image
capture options are
located on the bottom
portion of the window,
as illustrated here
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
249
Working in the Basic 3rd Party Interface
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Defining Preferences
In the Basic 3rd Party Interface, you can define three capture/view
preferences. Click on the Prefs button to open the Preferences
window (see right). Each option is described below:
Captured Image Bit Depth
This option enables you to specify a different image bit depth when
saving an image captured in the SPOT program.
•
8 Bits per Channel – The 8 bits per channel option provides 256
gray levels per color:
−
−
With RT Mono cameras, captured images are 8 bits per pixel monochrome.
With RT Color cameras, captured images are 24 bits per pixel RGB color.
This option results in smaller, more manageable image sizes, and is best for images that do not require
extensive modification.
•
12 Bits per Channel – The 12 Bits per channel option provides 4,096 gray levels per color.
−
−
With RT Mono cameras, captured images are 12 bits per pixel monochrome.
With RT Color cameras, captured images are 36 bits per pixel RGB color.
This option reduces banding problems that can result with modified images, but also results in larger
file sizes.
When saving 12 bit per channel images, SPOT prompts you to select either 12 bits per channel or 16
bits per channel. If you use Adobe’s Photoshop for image editing, you should select the 16 bit per
channel option because Photoshop cannot read 12 bit per channel images.
Always Show Full Chip in Live Mode
Checking this option ensures that you will always see the Full Chip view when viewing a live image.
Keep in mind that the selection that you make here determines how the live image displays when viewing a
region of the chip. Refer to the Chip Imaging Area section for more details.
Monitor Camera Color Filter Position
Determine whether to monitor the position of the color filter.
If this option is checked, the SPOT program displays error messages when the sensors in the camera head
detect that the color filter is not in the correct position. This option does not monitor the position of the
filter slider in the Live Image window. In Basic mode, the program will give you an error message if you
are capturing an image and the sliding color filter is in the B/W position.
F-Keys
The following function keys are available as shortcuts in the Basic 3rd Party iIterface:
250
rd
Function Key
Action
3 Party Interface Option
[F 4]
Restart the live image view.
Live
[Alt] + [F 4]
Close the SPOT Camera window.
Close
[F 9]
Capture an image and automatically transfer it to
the imaging application.
Acquire
[Ctrl] + [F 10]
Compute white balance values.
White Balance
[Alt] + [F 10]
Compute white balance values without displaying
the informational dialog.
Not available from the window
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
When you open the Basic 3rd Party Interface, the Live Image window is, by default, running, as indicated
by the Live Mode Running message in the status bar. The settings options in the 3rd Party interface
window enable you to optimize the live image view, and then capture an image using these settings. In the
3rd Party interface, you can:
•
Create profiles to use as pre-defined image capture settings.
•
Modify exposure settings
•
Define a specific portion of the chip to be used in the image capture.
•
Modify the screen orientation of the specimen.
The following sections describe all of the Live Image/Image Capture Settings.
Profile
The Profile option allows you to create and re-use sets of live image/image capture settings. When you
open the 3rd Party Interface, the Default Profile is selected. When you make changes to any of the live
image/image capture settings, these changes can be saved to a Profile – either the Default or one that you
have defined. For example, if you gamma adjust a live image and then decide that the result is ideal for the
type of specimen you are working with, you could create a new Profile with the gamma and exposure
values and name it for that type of specimen – i.e., “Diseased Cells.”
When you close the SPOT Camera window, the program prompts you to save changes. Carefully
consider the effect of your choice:
•
Clicking Yes modifies the Profile according to the adjustments that you made. Future image captures
taken with that Profile will reflect these changes. For example, if you rotated a live image, and then
clicked Yes after closing the window, all future captures taken with that Profile would be rotated in the
same way.
•
Clicking No retains the original values of the Profile. This allows you to maintain a unique set of
image view and capture settings that can be re-applied to future captures of similar specimens.
To add, edit, or delete Profiles, right-click on the Profile box. Right clicking gives the following options:
•
•
•
•
Add – Add a new Profile. When you add a new Profile, the program prompts you to name it.
Save – Save a Profile that you have modified.
Rename – Rename an existing Profile.
Delete - Deletea Profile. This option appears only after you have defined a second Profile in addition
to the Default Profile.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
251
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Exposure: Auto or Manual
The Exposure option gives you the choice of having the camera calculate exposure time (Auto), or setting
the exposure on your own (Manual). The exposure options will vary according to whether you select
Auto or Manual, as illustrated below.
When you enter one of the above exposure settings, note that it applies both to the live image that you are
viewing and the captured image.
Auto Exposure options
Image Type
An Image Type tells the SPOT program how to expose and process image captures. Each of the 11
available Image Types (see below) corresponds to a microscopy technique: select the Image Type that
matches the technique you are using. The camera will capture the image accordingly. The table below
describes typical situations for each image type.
Image Type
252
Description
Brightfield-transmitted light
Stained specimens on glass slides using transmitted light microscopes.
Darkfield-transmitted light
Bright specimens on dark backgrounds using transmitted light darkfield technique.
Fluorescence
Fluorescence specimens not fluorescing in a single red, green, or blue primary color
Nomarksi DIC/Hoffman
Specimens being viewed with either Nomarski DIC or Hoffman techniques.
Phase contrast
Specimens being viewed using the phase contrast technique.
Polarized light
Specimens being viewed with polarized light techniques.
Brightfield-reflected light
Polished metallurgical specimens and semi-conductors using a microscope with a
vertical illuminator.
Darkfield-reflected light
Bright areas of specimens being viewed with darkfield, reflected light techniques.
Stereo/macro–no glints
Matte specimens without bright glints.
Stereo/macro–shiny glints
Shiny specimens with bright glints.
Stereo/macro-metallic glints
Metallic specimens with intense glints.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Brightness
Enter a Brightness value between .25 and 32.
A brightness value of 1, the default value, gives you the correct image brightness for most images. The
Brightness control allows you to overexpose or underexpose (darken or lighten) the image area. In many
cases, an image has varying levels of brightness; to see a specific area better you might want to lighten or
darken the image. When using the Brightness control, the SPOT camera uses an algorithm that combines
gain and exposure time to provide the fastest possible image update rate (shutter speed) in live mode:
•
•
When overexposing images to make them brighter (i.e., entering values greater than one), the camera
first selects the highest possible gain before lengthening the exposure time. Because gain also
brightens an image, less exposure time is needed.
When underexposing images to make them darker (i.e., entering values less then one) the camera uses
the lowest possible exposure time before lowering the gain.
Quality/Speed (Auto)
Use the slider to balance speed and quality when previewing dim images.
•
Moving the slider toward the Quality side increases image quality and decreases frame rates.
•
Moving the slider toward the Speed side increases frame rates and decreases image quality.
The Quality/Speed measurement corresponds to the Auto-Gain limit setting, which allows you to set an
upper limit on the gain options that will be available during the Auto-Exposure process.
•
When the slider is at the left-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 1, which restricts the camera to a gain
of 1, giving you higher quality pictures, but lengthier exposure times.
•
When the slider is at the right-most point, the Auto-Gain Limit is 32, which allows the camera to select
from the all six gain options. This shortens exposure times, but decreases image quality.
Refer to the “Auto-Gain Limit” section in Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for a detailed explanation of
gain and exposure.
Gamma
Enter a Gamma value between .1 and 4.
Gamma adjustment smoothly lightens darker areas of an image without burning out bright areas or
lightening black areas. This is especially useful for capturing/editing images with a wide range of
brightness values (dynamic range) such as fluorescence specimens or macroscopic objects with glints, (e.g.,
printed circuitry).
• Values between 1 and 4 lighten the darker areas of the image.
• Values between .1 and 1 darken the mid-tones of the image.
Gamma adjustments on live images are made in the RGB color space, the only color space where
adjustments can be made quickly enough to keep up with live imaging. Refer to Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take
a Picture for more details on gamma adjustment and color spaces.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
253
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Manual Exposure Options
Exposure Times (RGB)
Use the slider-bar to specify exposure times between .04 ms and 526.746 sec.
When you specify exposure times, the camera skips the automated exposure sequence that takes place
when you open the live image view – i.e., the 3rd Party interface. This is very useful in cases where
exposure times are lengthy, as with fluorescence samples.
Gain
Enter the precise gain that the camera will use for an image capture. Use the slider-bar to select one of the
six gain options: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32. The gain value displays to the right of the slider-bar. Refer to the
“Auto-Gain Limit ” and “Gain” sections of Ch. 5 – Preparing to Take a Picture for details on gain and
exposure.
Gamma
The manual Gamma adjustment is identical to the auto Gamma adjustment (see above.)
White Balance
White balance is the ratio of red, green, and blue gains necessary to achieve the proper color rendition for
an image. Many factors impact the coloration of an image capture, including lamp voltage, the coloration
of the glass used in the slide, and the coloration of the glass used in the lenses of the microscope’s
objectives. To minimize the impact of these factors, use the White Balance feature. When you perform a
white balance calculation, SPOT samples the color of the light from your light source after it has passed
through the slide and the objective, and then calculates the red, green, and blue gains needed to produce
images where the white areas are white and the color areas are true.
You should perform a new white balance calculation when:
•
•
•
Starting a new image capture session.
Changing the lamp voltage.
Switching to a different objective on the microscope.
To perform a white balance, follow these steps:
254
1.
Set the illumination and the objective that you will use for the image capture.
2.
If you have not done so, select your Image Type (see above). Each Image Type has its own set of
white balance values. Any white balance values that you compute for an image type remain linked to
that image type until you compute new values. When selecting a new image type, remember that you
will be using the white balance values linked to that image type.
3.
Click on the White Balance button.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
4.
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Show the camera a sample of white light. This step varies according to microscopy technique and
Image Type (sample), as shown in the table below:
Image Type
White Balance Technique
Brightfieldtransmitted light
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
Darkfieldtransmitted light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
transmitted light above.
Fluorescence
Use the Match Color feature (see above)
Nomarksi
DIC/Hoffman
For Nomarski DIC: Adjust the Nomarski prism until the image is in either the “brightfield” or the
“gray scale” view.
For Hoffman: Perform the white balance directly on the Hoffman image.
5.
Phase contrast
Position the slide so that the specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide
near the specimen.
Polarized light
Pull all polarizers and compensators out of the light path and then position the slide so that the
specimen is not in the field of view, but light is going through the slide near the specimen.
Brightfieldreflected light
Replace your sample with a mirror.
Darkfieldreflected light
Perform the white balance using the brightfield mode on your microscope. See Brightfield –
reflected light above.
Stereo (all three
options)
Using an EPI-illuminator (shining a light on the top of your specimen from off to one side), replace
your sample with a white sheet of paper.
Click on Begin to start the calculation. The camera computes the white balance values, and they are
automatically saved to the image settings for the image type that you selected.
Match Color
The Match Color feature is typically used in two situations:
•
You want to change the colors of an image on the screen to match the way that you think the specimen
looks.
•
You want to set the white balance for pictures taken with a microscopic technique that never has white
in its images. A prime example of this situation is fluorescence microscopy.
To use the Match Color feature, follow these steps:
1. Click on the Preview button to capture an image. The Match Color option remains inactive until a
preview image is captured.
2. From the Edit menu, select Match Color. The cursor becomes an eye-dropper.
3.
Using the mouse to move the eye-dropper, position it on the pixel location of the color that you want to
match. The R, G, and B values of the pixel that you select must all be less than 255.
4.
Click on the pixel. The Match Color dialog appears with information about the pixel that you
selected:
− Hue – The actual color, as distinguished from others in the color spectrum. Hue is derived from
a color wheel and is expressed in the color's angular location (e.g., 0 to 360 degrees).
− Saturation - The proportion of perceived pure hue in the color. Saturation (in the SPOT
software) is measured on a numerical scale of 0 to 100, where zero equals pure gray and 100
equals pure hue (e.g., “day glow”).
5.
Move the cross-hairs to the desired color either by clicking on the new location or clicking and
dragging. As you move the cross-hairs, the color in the image changes accordingly, allowing you to
preview the color before you save the image. Alternatively, you can click on the Make White/Grey
button to automatically white balance the image.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
255
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
6.
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Click on Ok.
Chip Imaging Area
SPOT allows you to use any rectangular portion of the CCD chip for image capture. Using a portion of the
chip is helpful in cases where you want to:
• Keep file sizes small.
• Shorten download times.
• Avoid areas of the image with optical problems (e.g., vignetting).
There are three image area options:
•
Full Chip – Capture the entire area of the CCD chip.
•
Center – Capture a rectangular part of the CCD chip’s area that has the same height - to - width ratio
as the full chip, and is centered on the center of the full chip. The percentage that you enter is the
percentage of full chip width that the new area’s width will be.
To capture a centered proportion of an image, follow these steps:
a) Check the Center option.
b) Enter the percentage of the image that you want to capture. The minimum percentage is 10 and
the maximum is 100.
c) Capture the image.
•
Selection –Capture a specific part of the CCD chip.
a) Check the Selection option.
b) Use the mouse to select a region for capture. Click and drag to define the selection. Note that the
new pixel dimensions display in the status bar.
c) Capture the image.
When you are viewing a live image Selection, how this selection is displayed, depends on two other
settings: the Fit to Window option (see below) and the Always Show Full Chip in Live Mode preference
(see above). The following table illustrates the possibilities:
256
Fit to Window
Checked?
Always Show Full Chip
in Live Mode Checked?
Live or
Captured Image
YES
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
LIVE
YES
NO
When you select a portion of the chip the cursor
is a zoom tool. To zoom in on a portion of a
live or captured image, click and drag over the
area that you want to zoom in on. To return to
the non-zoomed image, click on the Full Chip
option.
BOTH
NO
YES
When you select a portion of the chip, the
selection is outlined with a yellow rectangle.
However, because Fit to Window is not
checked, you will not see the entire chip in the
window.
LIVE
NO
NO
When you select a portion of the image, the
cursor is a cropping tool. If you select a portion
of an image, the program displays only the
selected area and discards the rest of the image.
To return to the non-cropped image, click on the
Full Chip option.
BOTH
Selection Display
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Auto-Brightness (Auto, Live Images)
Available only when you are using Auto exposure and viewing a live image, the Auto-Brightness option
enables you to maintain a consistent brightness level for changing specimens.
Faster Readout (Live Images)
Faster Readout enables you to “speed up” the live image display (higher frame rates) in cases where you
are willing to sacrifice some resolution for a higher frame rate.
Flatfield (Captured Images)
For all other SPOT camera lines, the Flatfield Correct option is used to correct for display problems
associated with uneven intensity or coloration in illumination, or to correct for artifacts (e.g., dust) in the
optical system. Flatfield can still be used for this purpose with SPOT Insight cameras. But, because SPOT
Insight cameras use a color mosaic chip, Flatfield correction serves a new primary purpose. In the
production process for color mosaic CCD chips, the RGB colors are applied directly to the pixels on the
chip. This process often results in an uneven color density around the outer 30-40 rows of the CCD chip,
causing a “halo” appearance in some image captures, particularly those with low contrast. The Flatfield
option can be used to correct this problem.
#
Note: Flatfield correction with the SPOT camera refers only to the correction of uneven
lighting. It should not be confused with the correction of optical field flatness.
Flatfield correction works by taking a picture of the brightfield background without the specimen in the
field of view. This image lets the SPOT software know, on a pixel-by pixel basis, which areas in the field
of view are receiving less illumination than the brightest areas. When taking a picture that contains a
specimen, the software uses this information to accurately increase the brightness of each pixel in the dimly
illuminated areas. The resulting image gives the appearance of an even illumination.
To use the Flatfield option, follow these steps:
1.
Ensure that the specimen is under the desired objective and in focus.
2.
Control-click on the Flatfield drop-down list and click on the Add option. The Get Flatfield dialog
appears.
3.
Remove the slide from the field of view.
4.
Click on Begin. When the program finishes computing the exposure times and acquiring the flatfield
file, the Flatfield dialog prompts you to name the file:
a)
Enter a name. Because flatfield image files are different for each objective, you might want to
name the file according to the objective's magnification (e.g., 10x).
b) Click on OK. If you do not specify a location, the program automatically saves the flatfield file to
the System Folder>Preferences>SPOT 3.x Prefs>Flatfields directory.
#
5.
Note: The default file location varies, depending on where you installed the SPOT program.
Move the specimen back into the field of view, and perform the image capture, using either the
Preview or the Acquire option.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
257
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Color Enhancement (Captured Images)
The Color Enhancement option optimizes image captures by closely matching the final capture to the
image as seen through the microscope. To optimize the final image, the SPOT program processes the raw
image data to produce a final image that matches the view seen through the microscope.
If you want an image capture to match the live image view, you will want to leave Color Enhancement off.
Color Enhancement applies only to captured images.
Fit to Window
In addition to automatically resizing images to fit within the live image window, the Fit to Window option
also determines cursor behavior in the live image view.
•
When the Fit to Window option is checked, the live image window cursor becomes a zoom tool. To
zoom in on a portion of a live image, click and drag over the area that you want to zoom in on. To
return to the non-zoomed image, click on the Full Chip option.
•
When the Fit to Window option is not checked, the cursor is a cropping tool. If you select a portion of
an image, the program displays only the selected area and discards the rest of the image. To return to
the non-cropped image, click on the Full Chip option.
These points apply only when the Always Show Full Chip in Live Mode (see above) is not selected. For
more details, refer back to the Chip Imaging Area section (see above).
#
Note: Due to a flaw in the Windows operating system, monitors that are set to higher resolutions
cannot zoom to very high magnification levels. If zoomed in to a high magnification, the monitor
displays white instead of the zoomed image.
More (Image Settings)
When you click on More, the program displays a dialog
of additional orientation and exposure settings for the 3rd
Party Interface, as shown at right.
RT KE Color
Mosaic
RT KE Color Mosaic camera users will not
see the Filter Color, Binning, or Display
Images in Grayscale options.
Flip
Specify whether images will be flipped in the live image view and during the image capture process.
•
•
•
Select Horizontal to flip the image from left to right.
Select Vertical to flip the image from top to bottom.
Select both options to flip the image from left to right and from top to bottom.
Rotate 90°°
Specify whether images will be rotated in the live image view and during the image capture process.
•
•
•
258
Select None if you do not want the image to be rotated.
Select Right to rotate the image clockwise 90 degrees.
Select Left to rotate the image counterclockwise 90 degrees.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Exposure Limits – Minimum
16.6 ms per cycle
Because SPOT Insight cameras are
SPOT Power Line
Frequency
(60
Hz)
capable of extremely short exposure
times, light sources with intensities
8.3 ms
per cycle
that vary with the waveform of the
60 Hz line supply (e.g., fluorescent
Fluorescent Light
lamps, 120 volt incandescent bulbs,
Output Frequency
and 6 volt 20 watt halogen lamps)
can cause the Live Image window to
flicker and result in incorrect
brightness and color balance
Exposure < 8.3 ms
readings in captured images. This
option allows you to correct for
these problems by limiting the
camera to a minimum exposure time
that is greater than the pulse interval
Minimum Exposure > 10 ms
of the light source. Consider the
illustration to the right. In this case,
the pulse interval of the fluorescent
light source is 8.3 ms. Entering a
Setting a Minimum Exposure to
Minimum Exposure of 10 ms ensures that the
Accommodate
Varied Light Sources
camera’s exposure time is greater than the
pulse interval of the light source. To enter a
minimum exposure, check the Minimum box, and enter a value in milliseconds.
Exposure Limits – Live Image Maximum
The Live Image Maximum option helps you to avoid unnecessarily long exposures when viewing a live
image. Consider the following situation: When you change from a lower resolution objective to a higher
resolution objective, the camera detects a brief interval of blackness. When the Auto-Brightness option
(see above) is enabled, it compensates by modifying the exposure time to maintain a constant brightness
level. This results in you having to wait for the camera to compute a lengthy and incorrect exposure for the
black interval. Using the Live Image Maximum option, you can limit this exposure time. For most cases,
Diagnostic Instruments recommends a value of 0.5 seconds.
Similarly, the Live Image Maximum option can also be used in cases where the microscope’s light path
selector is incorrectly set.
Filter Color (RT Color/Slider)
The Filter Color option specifies the color or colors that will be exposed in the live image preview/image
capture. RT Slider users can select None for a completely unfiltered image.
RT Slider
RT Slider users can select RGB you to preview/capture live images in full color. If the filter slider on the
camera is moved to the B/W position, the Filter Color setting should likewise be changed to one of the
monochrome options (e.g., Clear, Red, Green, or Blue). The Monitor Camera Color Filter Position
preference monitors the color filter position only for image captures – it does not monitor color filter
position when viewing live images.
•
Red – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the red state of the LCD filter.
•
Green – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the green state of the LCD
filter.
•
Blue - Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the blue state of the LCD filter.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
259
Using Live Images to Define Capture Settings
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
•
Clear – Preview/capture a monochrome preview of your specimen using the clear state of the LCD
filter. Selecting the Clear option does not provide the entirely unfiltered image that is possible with the
RT Slider camera. Although all three colors are transmitted, the polarizing filter, which is part of the
liquid crystal filter, and the IR filter remain in the light path, blocking some of the light. When using
the Live Image window to focus or position dim images, RT Slider users can slide the filter out to
provide higher frame rates and less noisy images.
•
None (RT Slider) – Preview capture a completely unfiltered image.
RT Slider
Selecting a Filter Color option does not change the position of the filter: this must be done by physically
sliding the filter to the desired position. If the Filter Color setting does not match the filter’s position, SPOT
prompts you with an error message. But, this error message appears only if the Monitor Camera Color
Filter Position option on the Preferences window (see above) is selected.
Display Images in Grayscale (RT Color/Slider)
To counter the difficulty of viewing, focusing, and adjusting monochrome images in live mode, the
Display Images in Grayscale option enables you to view a monochrome image in grayscale, as opposed to
with the red, green, or blue filter. This option applies only when the Filter Color (see above) is set to
either Red, Green, or Blue.
Binning
Binning combines adjacent pixels on the CCD chip, thereby reducing the number of pixels used in the
image capture. Binning is useful when you have dim images and want to increase sensitivity and reduce
download time. This gives you higher frame rates and less noisy images. But, as binning level increases,
image resolution decreases. All of these factors should be considered when you select a binning option.
There are four binning options:
• None
1 pixel = 1 pixel
• 2x2
4 pixels = 1 pixel
• 3x3
9 pixels = 1 pixel
• 4x4
16 pixels = 1 pixel
Noise Filter
The Noise Filter corrects for the effects of electrical or thermal noise. When capturing dim images with
lengthy exposure times, the noise filter acts as a “virtual cooler” for the Insight camera, eliminating “hot
pixels.”
The Noise Filter checks each pixel on the CCD chip as described below:
1.
The program compares the value of each red pixel with the values of the eight neighboring red pixels.
2.
If none of the eight neighboring red pixels has a value within ±15 % (i.e., the threshold value that the
SPOT program uses) of the value for the red pixel being checked, the value for the red pixel being
checked is replaced with the average value of the eight neighboring red pixels.The program repeats this
procedure for the values of the green and blue pixels being checked.
To activate the Noise Filter, check the Noise Filter box. The program runs the noise filter each time an
image is captured using the Preview or Acquire options.
260
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Ch. 15 – Using Other Mac Imaging Applications in Basic Mode
Taking a Picture
Taking a Picture
From the SPOT Basic 3rd Party Interface, you can capture images in different ways:
•
Preview - You can capture a Preview image. Preview images remain available in the SPOT Camera
window for basic editing and serve as the basis for the final image capture. When you click on the
Preview button, the Get Image dialog displays the capture status as it is captured, and the captured
image then replaces in the Live Image in the window. Note that the status bar indicated that you are
viewing a Preview image.
•
Transfer - If you like the Preview image, you can Transfer it image directly to the third party
application that you are using. The Transfer button is active only for Preview image captures.
•
Acquire - Capture an image and have it automatically transfer to (open in) the third party imaging
application.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
261
Appendix A
Electronic Imaging Theory and SPOT Cameras
Appendix A: Electronic Imaging Theory and SPOT
Cameras
Introduction ................................................... 263
Digital Photography ...................................... 263
Color Images................................................. 264
SPOT Digital Cameras ................................... 265
Pixel Digitization.......................................... 265
Gain.............................................................. 265
An Automated Exposure Process ............ 266
Introduction
This appendix is a brief overview of the operational theory behind SPOT digital cameras. The next two
sections, Digital Photography and Color Images, provide a short introduction to electronic imaging theory;
the following section describes how this theory applies to the SPOT cameras.
Digital Photography
Modern electronic imaging is based on the charged coupled device (CCD). All of today’s digital cameras
have a CCD chip or chips. In digital cameras, the CCD chip/sensor replaces the film of traditional cameras
as the means by which the camera records the image. The surface of the CCD chip is composed of lightsensitive cells arranged in a checkerboard pattern. Each cell of the checkerboard is known as a picture
element, or more commonly, a pixel. The following is a simplified description of what happens when you
take a picture with a digital camera:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The camera’s optical system forms images on the “checkerboard” of pixels.
The CCD is exposed to the image for a period of time.
During this period, each photo-sensitive cell receives photons of light, converts the photons to
electrons, and then stores the electrons in the cell. The process by which each cell accumulates
electrons can be compared to a well filling with water. As more light hits a cell, the electron level in
the well rises. The more electrons that are in the cell, the more voltage it will have when read by the
digital camera.
Following the exposure, a digital camera does three things:
a.
It measures the voltage of each cell.
b.
It converts the voltage to a binary number.
c.
It transmits this number down a cable to your computer.
The computer reconstructs the image by assigning a brightness value to each pixel in the final image.
Each brightness value is proportional to the voltage of the corresponding cell on the CCD chip.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
263
Electronic Imaging Theory and SPOT Cameras
Appendix A
Color Images
Because a CCD chip is inherently monochromatic (black and white), color filters must be used to extract
the color information from the image. There are three basic design methodologies.
•
Single CCD design using color masked pixels (SPOT Insight camera; SPOT RT KE Color
Mosaic)
Digital cameras designed in this manner have one CCD chip with color filters physically bonded to
each pixel on the chip. Some pixels get red filters, some pixels get green filters and some pixels get
blue filters. Since each pixel is only able to measure the intensity of one color, the intensity of the
missing two colors for this pixel must be estimated, based on nearby pixels that have precise
measurements of the missing colors. For example, a pixel that has a green filter will have an exact
measurement of the green color value, but the red and blue values must be estimated, based on the
nearest red and blue pixels. This estimation is known as interpolation.
Pros and Cons: A digital camera designed in this way is inexpensive and can freeze moving images
with a single exposure. However, because they interpolate brightness values, such cameras cannot
provide as high of a resolution as that provided from a non-filtered CCD chip.
•
Three CCD design using color beamsplitter
This design uses three CCD chips. The incoming image first goes through a color beam splitter which
directs the red light to one chip, the green light to a second chip and the blue light to a third chip. The
chips are very accurately aligned so as to achieve near perfect registration between the three chips. The
red, green, and blue values for each point on an image are measured by the corresponding pixel on
each of the three chips.
Pros and Cons: This design produces an image that retains the high resolution of the individual chips.
This type of camera can also freeze moving images with a single exposure. However, because most of
the cost in a high resolution CCD camera is in the CCD chip itself, three chip cameras are far more
costly than their single chip counterparts.
•
Single CCD design that takes three pictures (three pass method) (SPOT, SPOT RT, and Insight
3-Shot cameras)
Cameras designed in this way expose a single CCD chip three times, once to red light, once to green
light, and once to blue light. One variant in this type of camera is how the chip is exposed to the
different colors of light. Some cameras switch individual red, green and blue glass filters in front of
the chip for each exposure. Others use a liquid crystal filter that changes from red to green to blue as
different voltages are applied to it. By exposing the chip three times, each cell on the CCD is able to
measure all three color values.
Pros and Cons: This technique attains the high resolution of the three CCD design without the high
cost associated with using three chips. However, because these cameras require three exposures, they
cannot freeze moving images.
264
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Appendix A
Electronic Imaging Theory and SPOT Cameras
SPOT Digital Cameras
In order to provide you with an understanding of what happens when you take a picture, the following
sections highlight some of the basic operating principles of SPOT cameras.
Pixel Digitization
Following each exposure, SPOT reads the CCD chip and digitizes each pixel as it comes off of the CCD
chip, and before it is sent through the cable into the computer. This technique minimizes noise and
maintains the lack of distortion that is inherent with CCD chip geometry. The SPOT Insight cameras use
two methods of pixel digitization, one for live imaging, and one for image capture:
•
Live imaging (RT and Insight)
To provide the fastest possible frame rate, SPOT RT and Insight cameras use two separate circuits to
digitize the left and right halves of the CCD simultaneously.
Pros and Cons: This method provides an extremely fast display when using SPOT’s Live Image
feature. The challenge comes in achieving a good brightness match between the two image halves.
Our current algorithm achieves a good match with bright images. However, with dim images,
mismatches can occur, resulting in a “split” appearance, where one half of the image is brighter that
the other half. A “split” Live Image view is not indicative of what your image capture will look like.
•
Image capture (all SPOT models)
To provide the most accurate image captures, SPOT cameras use a single circuit to digitize the entire
CCD chip.
Pros and Cons: Because a single circuit is used to digitize the entire CCD chip, all pixels are
inherently matched. However, this method provides a slower download than the two circuit method
used for live imaging.
Gain
Normally an auto exposure routine in a digital camera sets the exposure time so that the brightest pixel on
the CCD chip is completely “filled” with electrons, or is “full well” (see the Digital Photography section).
This simple technique works well for bright images, but, as an image gets dimmer, exposure times can get
uncomfortably long.
With the SPOT camera you can shorten exposure times by filling the brightest pixel on the CCD chip to
less than full well, and then using this lower level as full scale. The inverse fraction of full well that the
brightest pixel on the CCD is filled to is known as the gain. For example, filling a pixel to half of full well
cuts the exposure time in half. Since the exposure time is cut in half, we call this a gain of 2.
The following table illustrates the relationship between gain, the fraction of full well that the brightest pixel
is filled to, and the effect of gain on exposure time:
Gain
Fraction of Full Well
Exposure Time (sample)
1
1
80 seconds
2
½
40 seconds
4
¼
20 seconds
8
1/8
10 seconds
16
1/16
5 seconds
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
265
Electronic Imaging Theory and SPOT Cameras
Appendix A
An 80 second exposure at a gain of one turns into a 5 second exposure at gain 16. This is good in terms of
the exposure time. Unfortunately, background noise is directly proportional to gain. It is 16 times higher at
a gain of 16 is than at a gain of one.
An Automated Exposure Process
Normally, for any given image, trial and error would have to be used to determine the optimal
combinations of gain and exposure time. In order to eliminate the need for trial and error experimentation,
the SPOT camera automatically determines this information by sampling light levels before each exposure.
Based on the light levels and the user-determined Auto-Gain Limit, SPOT determines the optimal gain
setting and exposure time for the image. For details on using the Auto-Gain Limit feature, refer to Ch. 5 –
Preparing to Take a Picture.
266
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Appendix B
Specifications
Appendix B: Specifications
Hardware and Software Specifications ........ 267
RT Camera Series Catalog Information......... 268
Defect Specifications – KAI-2000M CCD
Chip.................................................................... 270
Definitions .................................................... 270
Defect Test Conditions .............................. 270
Defect Classes ............................................ 270
Transmission of RT Mono. and
RT Slider Windows............................................. 271
Quantum Efficiency
of KAI-2000........................................................ 271
Hardware and Software Specifications
Camera and Filter
SPOT RT Slider – slide mounted color filter
SPOT RT Color – fixed color filter w/clear mode
SPOT RT Monochrome – monochromatic
CCD Information
KAI 2000, with protective cover glass removed
(RT models 2.1.1.0, 2.1.1.1, 2.2.1, and 2.3.1)
Active Pixels – 1600 x 1200 (1.92 million)/color plane
5,760,000 pixels measured per RGB image
7.4 mm square pixels
Full well charge capacity – 31,500e
Optical Resolution
KAI-2000 1600 x1200 (captured image)
KAI-2092 1520 x 1080
Bit Depth – SPOT RT Color/SPOT RT Slider
8 bit or 12 bit monochrome; 24 bit or 36 bit RGB color
Saved file formats: 24 bit, 36 bit, or 48 bit (RGB)
Bit Depth – SPOT Monochrome
8 bit or 12 bit monochrome
Saved file formats: 8 bit, 12 bit, or 16 bit (mono)
Pixel Readout Rate
Image capture - 6 Mhz / 12 bit
Live Image - 36 Mhz (dual channel 18 Mhz / 8 bit)
Acquisition Time to Monitor
(processor dependent)
RGB ~ 6.5 seconds
Monochrome ~ 1.5 second
Live Image Frame Rate
Computer, video card, and image brightness dependent
Binning Modes
2 x 2, 3 x 3, and 4 x 4
Power Requirements
Configurable to 100V, 120V, 220V or 240V 50/60 Hz
Weight/Dimensions
Camera – 1400 g / 127mm x 127 mm x 132mm
Power supply – 5500 g / 127mm x 140mm x 330mm
Certifications
CE, FCC, Class A, Class B, UL 1950, and CSA950
Computer Requirements
PC - Pentium 166 or greater
Windows 95/98/00/NT/ME/XP
Mac – Power PC w/PCI bus
Mac OS 8.6 or greater
RAM – 64 Mb RAM required, 256 Mb recommended.
Video card – Support of 24 bit RGB at the desired monitor
resolution.
Software Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Color live image window
Image capture window
Pre-defined image types
Auto exposure
Auto white balance
Flatfield correction
Zoom and pan window
Image enhancement tools
Annotation
Calibration mark
Measurement – length, perimeter area, angle
Print layout dialog
On-line help menu
Image archiving database (currently unavailable for Mac OS)
Report generator (currently unavailable for Mac OS)
Sequential imaging
Monochrome, 1520 x 1080 resolution: 8.5 frames/sec.
Monochrome, 760 x 540 resolution:
19 frames/sec
Color, 380 x 270 resolution:
16 frames/sec
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
267
Specifications
Appendix B
Hardware and Software Specifications (cont.)
A/D Converter Full Scale Setting
31,500e (when gain = 1)
Computer Interface
PCI bus card (supplied)
Signal to Noise Ratio
External Shutter Control
60 Db
60 dB
BNC connector on PCI plug-in board.
TTL level output for shuttering fluorescence illuminator. TTL level is high
when the shutter is open, low when it is closed.
Anti – Blooming Factor
Image File Formats
Dynamic Range2
300 times (nominal); 100 times (minimum)
TIFF, TIFF-JPEG, JPEG, BMP, PICT
Dark Current
File Sizes
0.15 e/p/s @ -12° C (typical)
Exposure
Automatic and User-Defined
Range – 1 ms – 536 seconds
Operating Environment
Kodak KAI-2000
8 bit mono. - 1.83 MB
12 bit mono - 2.75 MB
24 bit RGB - 5.49 MB
36 bit RGB - 8.24 MB
Drivers
10 %-80 % relative humidity/15° C – 30° C
ambient
TWAIN for Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME;
3rd Party Interface for Mac OS
CCD Cooling
Third Party Software
See Appendix G.
Thermoelectric with forced air
Cooled to –12° C
(37° below ambient at a typical room temperature of 25°
C)
Temperature Stability
+/- 1° C per eight hour period
Lens Mount
SPOT RT Slider/RT Color - Nikon “F” bayonet mount
SPOT RT Monochrome – C mount
Camera Window
SPOT RT Slider – UBK7 glass with 900 nm AR coating
SPOT RT Color - BK7 glass with 430-690 nm AR coating
SPOT RT Monochrome - UBK7 glass with 320 –690 nm AR coating
Lens
C- Mount lens for 1” format CCD
FCC “Class A” Product Warning
All SPOT cameras fall into the Class A category of the FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
emission standard EN55022/CISPR22. The following is the FCC’s standard warning for this type of
device:
WARNING:
This is a Class A Product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference
in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
268
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Appendix B
Specifications
RT Camera Series Catalog Information
There are three cameras in the SPOT RT (real time) series of cameras. Each camera comes with one of
three grades of the Kodak KAI2000 CCD chip. “1” represents the highest grade and “3” represents the
lowest grade. Refer to next section - Defect Specifications - KAI2000M CCD Chip for more details on
chip grade.
The catalog part number indicates the camera model, as well as the chip grade. For example, the part
number RT210-3 indicates that the camera is an RT monochrome camera with a grade 3 CCD chip. The
following table shows each camera with the standard chip configuration, as well as the special order
options
Catalog
Part
Numbers
Model Numbers
(KAI – 2000)
Description
RT210-1
RT210-2
RT210-3
2.1.1.0
SPOT RT Monochrome
“C” mount camera
without IR filter
RT215-1
RT215-2
RT215-3
2.1.1.1
SPOT RT Monochrome
“C” mount camera
with IR filter
RT220-1
RT220-2
RT220-3
2.2.1
SPOT RT Color “F”
mount camera
RT230-1
RT230-2
RT230-3
2.3.1
SPOT RT Slider “F”
mount camera
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Standard
Configuration
Model
RT210-3
RT215-3
RT220-3
RT230-2
269
Specifications
Appendix B:
Defect Specifications – KAI-2000M CCD Chip
The following defect specifications are from Kodak’s Performance Specification for the KAI-2000M CCD
chip, the standard CCD chip used in the SPOT RT series of cameras.
Definitions
Point Defect
A pixel whose signal deviates by more than 25 mV from the mean value of all active
pixels under dark field condition, or by more than 15% from a prescribed number of
neighboring active pixels under uniform illumination of 80% of saturation.
Cluster Defect
A group of 2 to 10 contiguous defective pixels.
Column Defect
A group of more than 10 contiguous defective pixels along a single column.
Defect Test Conditions
Temperature
40 ºC
Integration Time
33 ms (40 Mhz HCCD frequency, no binning, 30 fps frame rate.)
Light Source
Continuous green illumination centered at 550 nm
Operation
Nominal voltages and timing
Defect Classes
Maximum Number of Defects
270
Class
Major Point
Cluster
Column
1
5
0
0
2
10
4
0
3
20
8
0
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Appendix B
Specifications
Transmission of RT Mono. and RT Slider Windows
100%
95%
90%
85%
300
600
Wavelength (nm)
900
Quantum Efficiency of KAI-2000
Absolute Quantum Efficiency
0.45
0
300
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
600
Wavelength (nm)
900
271
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Appendix C
Keyboard and Toolbar Button Commands
Appendix C: Keyboard and Toolbar Button
Commands
Keystroke or
F-key
Command
Toolbar
Button
Basic and/or
Adv. Mode
Windows
and/or Mac
Both
Both
File Menu
Open Image File
[F3]
Show Image File Thumbnails
[F5]
Both
Both
Run Report
[F6]
Advanced
Windows
Advanced
Windows
[F2]
Both
Both
Save As
[Ctrl] + [A]
Both
Windows
Save to Database
[Ctrl] + [D]
Advanced
Windows
Save All
[Ctrl] + [F3]
Both
Windows
Close
[Ctrl] + [F4]
!+W
Both
Both
Print
[Ctrl] + [P]
!+P
Both
Both
Exit
Quit
[Alt] + [F4]
!+Q
Both
Both
Advanced
Windows
[Alt] + Bksp
!+Z
Both
Both
Copy to Clipboard
[Ctrl] + [C]
!+C
Advanced
Both
Add Measurement
[Alt] + [M]
!+M
Advanced
Both
Reload
Save
Database menu
Search
Edit menu
Undo
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
273
Keyboard and Toolbar Button Commands
Appendix C
(cont.)
Keystroke or
F-key
Command
Toolbar
Button
Basic and/or
Adv. Mode
Windows
and/or Mac
Sequence menu
Play Forward
[Ctrl] + [Space]
! + [Space]
Advanced
Both
Play Reverse
[Ctrl] + [Bksp]
! + [Bksp]
Advanced
Both
Stop Play/Resume Play
[Enter]
Advanced
Both
Step Forward
[Space]
Advanced
Both
[Backspace]
Advanced
Both
Step Back
View menu
Fit to Window
[Ctrl] + [F]
!+F
Both
Both
Zoom
[Ctrl] + [Z]
Both
Both
(Macs – button
only)
Show Gridlines
[Ctrl] + [G]
!+M
Both
Both
Show Pan Window
[Ctrl] + [W]
Both
Both
(Macs – button
only)
Image Date/Time
[Ctrl] + [T]
!+T
Both
Both
[F 7]
Both
Both
Basic
Both
Full Screen
Show Image Settings
Camera menu
Live Image
[F11]
Both
Both
Get Image (exposure from
setup)
[F9]
Both
Both
Get Image (last used
exposure)
[F8]
Advanced
Both
[F10]
Advanced
Windows
[Ctrl] + [F10]
Both
Both
Advanced
Both
Compute Exposure
Compute White Balance
Values
Non-menu driven commands
Access the Image Setup
window
274
[F12]
[Ctrl] + [F 12]
(OSX 10.1 and higher)
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Appendix D
Selected Error Messages
Appendix D: Selected Error Messages
In the following table, unless indicated, the error messages apply to all SPOT camera models and to both
Windows and Mac operating systems.
Cause(s) and Solution(s)
Error Message
A file could not be found
(Mac)
Something went wrong in a file operation, usually due to a disk error.
Reboot the computer.
At Least One Exposure
time must be specified
You defined your image setup as “User-Defined” (see Ch. 5), but did not
enter exposure times.
Enter the exposure times or use the Compute Exposure option to have the
camera compute exposure values for you. If you have captured an image
previously, you can use the Recall Previous Exposure option.
Camera Error
There is damage to the camera head or the shutter is malfunctioning.
Contact Diagnostic Instruments.
Error deleting file
(Mac)
Something went wrong in a file operation, usually due to a disk error.
Error modifying registry
Same as above
Error reading camera
information
(RT cameras only)
There is damage to the camera head, problems with the interface card, or a
bad connection cable
Error reading file
(Mac)
Something went wrong in a file operation, usually due to a disk error.
Error writing file
(Mac)
Something went wrong in a file operation, usually due to a disk error.
Exposure time too short
for camera
The brightness of the image requires an exposure time that is too short for
the camera.
Reboot the computer.
Contact Diagnostic Instruments.
Reboot the computer.
Reboot the computer.
Add a neutral density filter to dim the image without changing the color
balance.
Flatfield file is
incompatible with image
setup
The pixel bit depth (bpp) of your image setup does not match the pixel bit
depth of the flatfield file (e.g., the image setup is 8 bpp and the flatfield file is
24 bpp).
Modify either the image setup or the flatfield file so that the two match.
Images have different bit
depths
The images that you are trying to merge, add, or subtract have different
pixel bit depths.
Change one of the images so that their pixel bit depths are the same.
Images must have the
same dimensions
The images that you are trying to merge, add, or subtract are two different
sizes. This may be because you cropped or binned an image for viewing
purposes.
Ensure that the two images have the same dimensions. You might simply
use un-cropped/non-binned versions of the images.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
275
Selected Error Messages
Image too dim
JPEG Quality value must
be between 1 and 100.
Appendix D
There is not enough light to capture the image.
This error message appears for various reasons, so you might have to
experiment to increase the light. Possible solutions include:
•
•
Adjusting the microscope settings to let in more light
•
For RT Slider users, sliding the color filter to the B/W position
Binning the image (see Ch. 5) to increase camera sensitivity
When saving an image, or defining database (Ch. 9) or sequential image
(Ch. 6) preferences, you entered a value less than one or greater than 100
(for a JPEG or TIFF JPEG format image).
Re-enter a value between one (highest compression, lowest quality) and
100 (lowest compression, highest quality).
Memory is getting full.
Please try to alleviate the
problem by closing some
documents. (Mac)
The system is running low on memory.
No response from the
camera. Make sure the
camera is connected and
the power is on
This message appears for various reasons. The most typical are:
Increase the memory allocation for the SPOT program.
•
The power supply is not turned on.
•
The PCI board is not seated properly.
(when you first try to open
the SPOT program)
•
A cable is loose.
Not a supported bit depth
image
You tried to open an image with a pixel bit depth that is not supported by the
SPOT software.
Turn on the power supply, ensure that the PCI card is properly seated, or
ensure that the cables are firmly connected to the camera/computer/power
supply. Refer to the Installation Guidelines section of the manual for details
on installing the PCI card and connecting the camera to the microscope and
computer.
Using another imaging program change the pixel bit depth of the image to
one of the four depths that the SPOT program supports: 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, or
48. Note that while 16 and 48 bit per pixel images can be opened by the
SPOT program, they are treated as 12 bit per channel images.
Out of Memory (Mac)
The system is running low on memory.
Increase the memory allocation for the SPOT program.
Place the color filter in the
‘Color’ position
Place the color filter in the
‘B/W’ position
(RT Slider only)
These messages appear when you are trying to capture an image and the
position of the sliding color filter does not match the image setup filter
definitions. For example, you will see this message if you selected the Use
Color Filter option for the image setup, but the sliding filter is out (in the B/W
position). Note that you will see this message only if the Monitor Camera
Color Filter Preferences option is selected on the Preferences window.The
camera will not allow you to capture an image without correcting this
discrepancy.
Either move the filter to the correct position, or change the image setup
definition to match the position of the color filter. Alternatively, you can
deselect the Monitor Camera Color Filter Preferences option and the
program will not prompt you with error messages.
276
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Appendix D
Printer Error
Selected Error Messages
The printer software is not installed.
In order for the SPOT program to work correctly, you must have a print
driver installed on your system. The printer does not necessarily need to be
attached to the computer, but the drivers need to be installed.
Install a printer driver – follow the manufacturer’s instructions for installing
the printer that you plan to use.
Software is incompatible
with camera hardware
The causes of and solutions to this error message, which appears when you
try to run the SPOT program for the first time, vary according to the camera
model:
•
For both RT and non-RT cameras, this message appears if, during the
installation process, you specified the wrong interface card for the
camera.
Reinstall the SPOT software and specify the correct interface card.
Refer to the Installing the Software section of the Installation Guidelines
chapter for more details.
•
For non-RT cameras, this error message indicates that the chipinfo.dat
file is from an earlier version of the SPOT program.
Contact Diagnostic Instruments and request an updated chipinfo.dat
file.
Spot cannot be launched
in basic mode due to a
disk or permissions error
(Mac)
The basic mode launcher failed to write a necessary file in the preferences
folder.
Spot cannot be launched,
because the application
cannot be located.
(Mac)
The SPOT Basic application must be in the same folder as the copy of
SPOT the user is trying to start.
Spot cannot run in the
Classic environment under
OS X. (Mac)
This message appears if you try to run the OS 9 version of the SPOT
software (either the full application or the 3rd Party Interface) in the Mac OS
X environment. SPOT closes immediately following the display of this error
message.
Reboot the computer. If the problem persists, run Disk First Aid, located in
the Utilities folder of the boot drive.
Move the Basic mode application file (SPOT 3_3) into the same folder as
the Advanced mode application file.
Re-open the SPOT software in Mac OS 9.
The Spot Prefs folder is
missing. (Mac)
The folder, which is necessary in order to run the Basic mode program
(among other things) is missing.
Run the SPOT application (i.e., double-click on it) to create the folder.
This version of Spot only
runs on OS X. (Mac)
This message appears when you try to open the Carbon (OS X) version of
the SPOT software (either the full application or the 3rd Party Interface) in
Mac OS 9. SPOT closes immediately following the display of this error
message.
Re-open the SPOT software in Mac OS X.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
277
Selected Error Messages
Video driver is not set to
true color mode (millions
of colors). Displayed
images may not appear
with the correct colors.
278
Appendix D
The video driver for your graphics card is not set to True Color mode.
From the Windows Control Panel, change the graphics card settings to True
Color (24 bit) or True Color (32 bit): Select
Start>Settings>Control Panel>Display>Settings>
Color Palette (Win 95/NT) or Colors (Win 98)
and choose True Color (Win NT only), True Color (24 bit) or True Color
(32 bit) from the drop-down list.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Appendix E
Converting Previous Version SPOT Databases
Appendix E: Converting Previous Version SPOT
Databases
Database Conversion Steps
If you have SPOT databases that were created with an earlier version of the SPOT software (2.1 or earlier),
these databases must be converted for use with the current version of the software (3.5). Follow these
steps:
1.
Access the files on the software CD that came with your camera. In addition to the documentation and
program folders, you should see a Utilities folder.
2.
Open the Utilities folder.
3.
Double click on the convdb.exe icon. The program automatically converts your databases.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
279
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Appendix F
Changing the Desiccant
Appendix F: Changing the Desiccant
Introduction
After a period of time,
depending on camera use
and ambient humidity
levels, the desiccant
packets in the camera head
can become saturated with
moisture and lose their
effectiveness. At this
point, frost will start to
form on the chip and image
quality will deteriorate. If
you start to see signs of
condensation on your
image captures, this is an
indicator that the desiccant
packets need to be
changed. .
Left:
Full screen
view of an
image capture with
condensation
Below:
Close-up of the
same image
capture
If you start to see signs
that the desiccant needs to
be replaced, return the
camera to Diagnostic
Instruments, and we will
replace the desiccant for
you.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
281
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Appendix G
Third Party Software
Appendix G: Third Party Software
The following table lists major third party imaging software systems and their compatibility levels with the
SPOT, SPOT RT, and SPOT Insight cameras.
Drivers are offered by the
3rd Party software manufacturer
Company
Software
System
SPOT
(1401E & 0401E)
SPOT RT
Driver
Drivers are included with
the SPOT software
SPOT
TWAIN
3rd Party
Insight Driver (Windows) Interface (Mac)
Adobe
Photoshop
PC/Mac
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
Cerner
CoPathPlus
PC
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
Clemex
Vision
PC
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
Compix
C-Imaging
PC
YES
YES
NO
YES
N/A
Delta Sistemi
Biomed
PC
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
Empix
Northern
Eclipse
PC
YES
NO
NO
YES
N/A
IATIA
QPM
PC
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
Improvision
Open Lab
Mac
YES
YES
YES
N/A
YES
Intelligent
Imaging
Innovations
3i
PC
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
Media
Cybernetics
Image-Pro
(4.x or higher)
PC
YES
YES
YES
YES
N/A
Midwest Info.
Systems
Paxit
PC
NO
NO
PENDING
YES
NO
NIH - Public
Domain
NIH Image
PC/Mac
NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
Novovision
NovoPath
PC/Mac
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
QED
Camera
Plugin
PC/Mac
NO
YES
YES
NO
YES
Scanalytics
IP Labs
PC/Mac
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
Soft Imaging
System
AnalySIS
PC
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
Universal
Imaging
Metamorph
PC
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
283
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Appendix H
SPOT Cameras, RT Cameras, and Polarized Light Microscopy
Appendix H: SPOT Cameras, RT Cameras, and
Polarized Light Microscopy
In polarized light microscopy, there are two polarizers in the microscope’s light path. Because the color
filter on SPOT and RT cameras also uses a polarizer, the camera must have the correct rotational
orientation in order to accurately render colors in image captures.
To set up a SPOT or RT camera for use with a polarized light microscope, follow these steps:
1.
Focus on the specimen and adjust the microscope’s polarizers as needed.
2.
Using a hex key, loosen the connection between the microscope coupler and its bottom clamp. It
should be loosened enough so that a slight force is needed to rotate the camera. After you have
loosened the connection, leave the hex key in the camera head so that you can quickly lock in the
position.
3.
From the SPOT program, either open the Live Image window (RT cameras) or click on the Focus
button (SPOT cameras). If you are using a SPOT camera, ensure that the Focus speed is set to Fast..
4.
Slowly rotate the camera until the window goes black. This is the extinction point.
5.
Slowly rotate the camera back until the image reappears. Continue rotating the camera until the image
reaches its brightest point (the highest quality image).
6.
Rotate the camera halfway back toward the extinction point position.
7.
Lock in this position (i.e., use the hex key to tighten the connection).
8.
Capture the image.
The captured image serves as a reference point for tweaking the final position. You can use additional,
small rotational adjustments to achieve a good match between the colors in the captured image and those
seen through the microscope’s eyepieces. More than one attempt may be necessary to find the optimal
position.
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
285
INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Index
Index
1
12 bpp (monochrome), 84
2
24 bpp (RGB color), 84
3
36 bpp (RGB color), 84
8
8 bpp (monochrome), 84
A
acquire images
SPOT 3rd Party Interface for Macs, 246
Acquire images
TWAIN interface, 222
Add Calibration Mark, 158
Add Measurement, 159
Add Page (report mode), 208
adding
a currently open file, 155
a SPOT database image, 155
an image from file, 155
file type extensions to file name for Mac users, 34,
78
Adjust Brightness (additive), 141
Adjust Brightness (multiplicative), 142, 143
Adjust Contrast
HSL, 145
HSV, 145
RGB, 144
Adjust Gamma
HSL, 146
HSV, 146
RGB, 145
Adjust Histogram
HSL, 148
HSV, 148
RGB, 147
Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Luminance, 142
Adjust Hue, Saturation, and Value, 142
adjusting brightness/darkness of an image (Basic
mode), 52
adjustment
gamma, 98
live image, 111
Adjustment Factor, 90
Adust Image (Basic mode)
Brightness, 52
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Contrast, 52
Dark Level, 52
Gamma, 52
Advanced program mode, 25, 67
annotation
Add Calibration Mark, 158
attributes, 163
images
Advanced mode, 160
Basic mode, 54
annotation objects, 161
Connected Lines, 162
Images, 162
Lines, 162
Shapes, 162
Text, 163
annotations
editing, 165
area
defining for an image capture, 38, 95, 232, 256
defining for live image view, 110
artifacts in optical system, 39, 103, 233, 257
attributes
annotation, 163
report, 198
Basic mode, 58
Auto – Exposure, 85
Auto-Arrange Images, 215
Auto-Gain Limit, 89
relation between gain, exposure time, and
background noise, 89
Auto-Save Images, 33, 75
avi file format
exporting SPOT sequence files to, 31, 72
B
background subtraction, 101
Basic 3rd Party interface
taking a picture in, 261
Basic 3rd Party Interface
defining preferences for, 250
image settings for, 251
using live images to define capture settings in, 251
working in, 248
Basic 3rd Party interface defining capture area, 256
Basic program mode, 25, 28
menu bar, 28
navigating in, 28
quick start, xxi
reports, 55
status bar, 29
toolbar, 29
viewing and editing window, 28
Basic TWAIN interface, 224
defining preferences for, 226
287
Index
establishing, 224
image settings for, 228
taking a picture in, 237
using live images to define capture settings in, 228
working in, 225
Basic TWAIN interface defining capture area, 232
Binning, 88
live image option, 42, 110, 237, 260
Black Level Subtract (12 BPP), 97
blooming problems, 90
blurry images
sharpening, 150
borders
pixels, 48, 129
brightness
adjusting additive, 141
adjusting for captured images (Basic mode), 52
adjusting multiplicative, 142
Brightness
Image Setting for Basic 3rd Party Interface, 253
Image Setting for Basic mode, 37
Image Setting for Basic TWAIN mode, 229
live image Advanced mode exposure option, 112
brightness (multiplicative)
adjusting, 143
Bring to Front
annotation mode, 166
report mode, 207
buttons, toolbar
file view, save, and edit, 69
image capture, 69
C
Cache Images During Play (image sequences), 34, 77
calibration and measurement
Advanced mode, 158
Basic mode, 53
calibration mark, 158
calibration of microscope objectives, 32, 73
camera
changing the desiccant packets in, 281
connecting to a microscope, xix
connecting to your computer, xx
initializing, 43
special image capture techniques for use with
polarized light microscopy, 285
using more than one on a single computer, xx
captured images and live images
differences between, 108
capturing a region in an image, 121
capturing images
Get Image (exposure from setup), 117
Get Image (last used exposure), 117
Get Sequential Images, 46, 118
Set Chip Imaging Region, 121
capturing images (Basic mode)
Get Image, 46
catalog/ordering information - RT series, 269
CCD chip, 263
design methodologies, 264
Change Pixel Bit Depth, 154
288
changing the desiccant, 281
charged coupled device (CCD), 263
Chip Defect Correction, 98
chip defect specifications
KAI-2092M, 270
Chip Imaging Area, 38, 95, 232, 256
Close
image file, 31, 72
color
mathematical representation of, 100
Color Enhancement, 98
color matching
Advanced mode, 152
Basic 3rd Party Interface, 255
Basic mode, 53
Basic TWAIN mode, 232
Color Order, 88
color palettes
defining, 74, 220, 244
color rendition and white balance, 123
color space options, 100
color spaces, 139
HSL, 100, 139
HSV, 100, 140
RGB, 100, 139
colors
order in exposure process, 88
colors to be exposed
specifying, 87
Combine Images, 155
comparison of Basic and Advanced mode features, 25
compression
JPEG, 64, 176, 211
Compute White Balance Values menu option, 123
computing exposure times, 92, 122
computing white balance values, 45, 91
conditions, database search
defining, 185
saving and reusing, 188
configuring
printer, 213
connecting the camera to a microscope, xix
connecting the camera to your computer, xx
contents
shipping box, xiv
contrast
adjusting (HSL), 145
adjusting (HSV), 145
adjusting (RGB), 144
adjusting in Basic mode, 52
conventions
document, v
Convert to Gray Scale, 152
Copy to Clipboard
report mode, 207
copying
images to another program, 50, 136
correction
chip defect, 98
flatfield, 125
couplers
recommended models for RT cameras, xix
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Index
creating and modifying databases, 174
cropping images, 51, 137
Cut
annotation mode, 166
report mode, 207
D
Dark Level
Basic mode brightness adjustment, 52
database
converting a previous version, 279
creating, 174
displaying search results, 186
establishing a password for, 174
ordering search results, 186
sample, 171
saving images to, 180
search, 184
set up steps, 174
database fields
default values for, 179
defining, 177
Lookup, 178
Textual/Numeric, 177
database images
location and file path, 175
moving, 182
on multiple disks, 175
storage guidelines, 175
database records
editing, 181
editing from a search, 188
database search
conditions, 185
saving and reusing, 188
tabular display, 187
thumbnail display, 187
date and time
associating with an image, 49, 131
default values, 179
defects
CCD chip, 98
Delete
annotation mode, 166
image file, 31, 72
report mode, 207
Delete All
annotation mode, 166
report mode, 207
Delete Page (report mode), 63, 208
desktop shortcuts, xv
differences between live and captured images, 108
digital photography, 263
dim images
binning, 88
directory
software installation, xv
display grid
setting for report window, 197
distributing reports, 64, 212
document conventions, v
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
documentation
on-line, xx
download time for image captures
decreasing, 88
Duplicate
annotation mode, 166
E
edit
database records, 181
database records (from a search), 188
report objects, 207
report objects (Basic mode), 62
Edit
image memo, 55, 167
images
Advanced mode, 135
Basic mode, 50
Edit menu
options (Advanced mode), 135
options (Basic mode), 50
editing images (Basic mode)
Undo, 136
Editing options for image sequences, 134
electrons and wells on CCD chip, 89
enlarging image size, 136
error messages (selected), 275
errors, installation
Windows 95, xvi
exporting SPOT sequence files to avi movie format,
31, 72
exposure
available options, 85
specifying color(s) for, 87
exposure settings, 85
Adjustment Factor, 90
Auto-Exposure vs. User-Defined Exposure, 85
Auto-Gain Limit, 89
Binning, 88
Color Order, 88
Exposure Times, 92
External Shutter Lag, 94
Filter Color, 87
Gain, 93
Image Type, 89
live image options, 111
Minimum Exposure, 95
Use
Red Green Blue, 87
Use Filter, 86
White Balance, 91
White Balance (Basic 3rd Party Interface), 254
White Balance (Basic mode), 45
White Balance (Basic TWAINmode), 231
exposure time
reducing, 89
Exposure Time
live image exposure option, 38, 230, 254
Exposure Time(s)
automatically computing. See Compute Exposure
289
Index
recalling from previous capture, 93. See Recall
Previous Exposure
Exposure Times
live image exposure option, 113
extensions (file type)
adding to Mac file names, 34, 78
External Shutter Lag, 94
F
features
new, 26
fields
Lookup, 177
fields, database, 177
default values for, 179
Lookup, 178
Textual/Numeric, 177
file format
images, 176
File menu options
Advanced mode, 71
Basic mode, 30
files. See image files
.rpb (Basic mode report), 64, 211
.rpd (Run Report), 209
background, 102
database query (.qry), 188
flatfield, 40, 103, 234, 257
rpt (report template)
saving (Basic mode), 193
Filter (Edit menu options)
Sharpen, 150
Smooth, 150
Unsharp Mask, 151
Filter Color, 87
live image options, 110
Filter Noise, 151
First Page (report mode), 196
Fit to Window, 47
Flatfield
in Basic 3rd Party Interface, 257
in Basic TWAIN mode, 233
flatfield correction, 103, 125
Advanced Program Mode, 233, 257
Basic Program Mode, 39
flicker
correcting for in Live Image mode, 95
flipping image display
as a menu option (Advanced mode), 51, 137
fluorescence images
adjusting in Basic mode, 52
lightening dark areas of, 98
focusing images in real-time
Advanced mode, 106
Basic mode, 43
framing images in real-time
Advanced mode, 106
Basic mode, 43
full scale, 89
Full Screen view option, 49, 131
full well
290
concept of, 265
G
gain, 89
defined, 265
relationship to exposure time, 89
Gain, 93
live image exposure option, 38, 113, 230, 254
gamma
adjusting in Advanced mode, 145
adjusting in Basic mode, 52
types of adjustment
RGB, 145
types of adjustment
HSL, 146
HSV, 146
Gamma
Basic 3rd Party Interface, 253
Basic mode, 37, 230
live image option, 111
Gamma Adjust, 98
gamma curve, 99
Get Background Image menu option, 124
Get Flatfield Image menu option, 125
Get Image (Basic mode), 46
Get Image (exposure from setup), 117
Get Image (last used exposure), 117
Get Sequential Images, 46, 118
glints, 98
correcting, 90
grainy images
smoothing, 150
Graphics Acceleration setting in Windows, xvi
gray scale
converting color images to, 152
grids (report)
display, 197
object, 197
guidelines
installation, x
H
hardware
installation, xviii
histogram
HSL, 148
HSV, 148
RGB, 147
Horizontal Flip image setup option, 101
HSL color space, 100, 139
HSV color space, 100, 140
Hue, 139
adjusting, 142
I
ID
database image, 180
illumination
correcting for uneven, 39, 103, 233, 257
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Index
image capture
Basic mode, 46
Get Image (exposure from setup), 117
Get Image (last used exposure), 117
Recall Previous Exposure, 123
TWAIN interface, 221
image capture status messages, 46, 117
image captures
Advanced mode, 116
SPOT 3rd Party Interface for Macs, 245
image captures in other procedures, 121
Image Date/Time, 49, 131
image editing
basic functions, 50, 136
brightness, 139
color, 139
contrast, 139
copy, 50, 136
cropping, 51, 137
sizing and position, 51, 136
image files
closing, 31, 72
deleting, 31, 72
opening, 30, 71
previewing thumbnails of, 71
printing, 32
saving, 31, 72
saving in different formats or locations, 31, 72
saving multiple, 72
image IDs, 180
Image Index (image sequences), 133
image memo, 55, 167
associating with a database image, 180
image quality
enhancing, 138
image sequence files
adding an open, non-sequence image to, 32, 73
creating new, 31, 72
opening, 30, 71
image sequences
caching preferences, 34, 77
controls for playing, 133
Image Index, 133
Play Options, 133
displaying play controls, 130
editing, 134
Memory Usage Limit preference, 34, 77
printing, 216
Sequence menu options, 132
Image Settings (Basic 3rd Party Interface)
Brightness, 253
Color Enhancement, 258
Gamma, 253
Image Flip, 258
Image Rotate, 258
Image Type, 252
Noise Filter, 260
Use Color Filter, 259
Image Settings (Basic Interface)
Minimum Exposure, 259
Image Settings (Basic mode), 35
Brightness, 37
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Color Enhancement, 40
Flatfield, 39
Gamma, 37
Image Flip, 40
Image Rotate, 40
Image Type, 36
Minimum Exposure, 41, 235
Noise Filter, 41, 237
Use Color Filter, 42, 236
Image Settings (Basic TWAIN mode)
Brightness, 229
Color Enhancement, 234
Gamma, 230
Image Flip, 235
Image Rotate, 235
Image Type, 229
image setup options, 83
Image Setup window
accessing, 80
shortcuts to, 80
image setups, 73, 80
adding, 80
defining in the SPOT 3rd Party Interface program,
242
defining in TWAIN interface, 218
deleting, 80
locking, 104
modifying, 80
naming, 83
pre-configured settings for, 81
Image Size Double, 101
Image Type, 89
selecting (in Basic 3rd Party Interface), 252
selecting (in Basic mode), 36, 229
images
annotating
Advanced mode, 160
Basic mode, 54
arranging for printing, 216
changing pixel bit depth, 154
combining, 155
compressing, 64, 176, 211
converting to gray scale, 152
customizing, 154
editing, 135
flipping horizontally, 51, 137
flipping vertically, 51, 137
lightening and darkening, 141, 142, 143
merging, 154
merging multiple monochrome, 156
previewing in real time
Advanced mode, 106
Basic mode, 43
resizing, 136
rotating, 51, 101, 137
saving automatically, 33, 75
saving to a SPOT database, 180
sharpening appearance of, 150
smoothing grainy, 150
stretching, 148
too bright or too dark, 90
viewing, 128
291
Index
infrared light
effect on non-filtered image captures, 116
Initialize Camera, 43
installation
hardware, xviii
multiple SPOT cameras on one computer, xx
PCI board, xviii
SPOT software, xiv
on a Mac, xvii
on Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME, xv
interface
Basic 3rd Party, 248
Basic TWAIN, 224
TWAIN, 217
interpolation, 101
J
Jaz drives, xi
JPEG Quality, 64, 176, 211
K
KAI-2092M CCD chip
defect specifications, 270
quantum efficiency, 271
L
labels
volume, 175
lag time
external shutters, 94
Last Page (report mode), 196
light sensitivity of CCD chip
increasing, 88
light sources, xi, xiii, 41, 95, 235, 259
lightening dark areas (Basic mode), 52
Live Image Controls
Area, 110
Binning, 42, 110, 237, 260
exposure options, 111
Exposure options
Brightness, 112
Exposure Time, 38, 230, 254
Exposure Times, 113
Gain, 38, 113, 230, 254
Quality/Speed, 37, 112, 229, 253
Filter Color, 110
Gamma, 111
Live Image Interface
and different light sources, 259
Live Image mode
and different light sources, 41, 95, 235
live imaging
Advanced mode, 106
Basic mode, 43
differences between live and captured images, 108
different light sources, xi, xiii
Live Image Controls dialog, 108
split window appearance, 106
video card related problems, xvi, 106
292
view options, 107
locking
image setups, 104
Lookup fields, 178
low contrast image captures
halo effect on, 233, 257
low contrast images
increasing contrast in, 147
Luminance, 139
adjusting, 142
M
Mac 3rd party Interface
preparing to take a picture, 240
Mac 3rd Party Interface
backround images, 245
defining image setups in, 242
flatfield images, 245
setting chip imaging region, 245
Mac 3rd Party Interface
computing exposures, 245
defining file and save options, 240
live imaging, 245
recalling previous exposures, 245
white balance, 245
Mac OS
installing the SPOT software on, xvii
macroscopic objects with glints, 98
mage files
printing, 73
magnified images
navigating, 48, 130
Make Negative, 151
manual
organization of, vi
Match Color
Advanced mode, 152
Basic 3rd Party Interface, 255
Basic mode, 53
Basic TWAIN mode, 232
measurements
adding, 159
types of, 159
measuring specimens, 159
mechanical shutters
lag time associated with, 94
Memory Usage Limit for image sequences, 34, 77
memos
associating with a database image, 180
associating with an image, 55, 167
for image report objects, 205
menu bar
in the Basic program mode, 28
menus
Advanced program mode, 68
Basic program mode, 28
database, 170
Edit
Advanced mode, 135
Basic mode, 50
Sequence, 132
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Index
View
Advanced mode, 128
Basic mode, 47
Merge Images, 156
metallic objects, 90
microscope
connecting the SPOT camera to, xix
microscopy techniques, 36, 229, 252
and image types, 81
table of, 81
modes
Advanced program, 67
Basic program, 28
monitors, xi
Mac, xii
monochrome images
defining color palettes for, 74, 220, 244
Move Backward
annotation mode, 166
report mode, 207
Move Forward
annotation mode, 166
report mode, 207
moving database images from your hard drive, 182
N
navigating in zoomed images, 130
negative
creating, 151
new features, 26
Next Page (report mode), 196
noise
electrical and thermal, 98, 151
reducing in images, 98, 151
noise, electrical and thermal
reducing in images, 41, 237, 260
O
Object Grid
setting, 197
objects
report, 200
report (Basic mode), 60
offset (pedestal) value, 97
on-line documentation, xx
open
image files, 30, 71
operating systems
Mac, xii
Windows, xi
Order Run-Time Text Prompts (report mode), 209
ordering search results, 186
P
palette
using with an image setup, 84
Palette
using with an Image Setup, 84
palette, color
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
defining for monochrome images, 74, 220, 244
password protecting a database, 174
Paste
annotation mode, 166
PCI board
installing, xviii
PDF documentation, xx
photography
digital, 263
Photoshop
using with SPOT TWAIN interface, 217, 224
pixel bit depth, 83
changing (as an edit option), 154
pixel borders
displaying, 48, 129
pixellation, 101
pixels (picture elements), 263
combining on CCD chip, 88
play controls
displaying for image sequences, 130
Play Options (image sequences), 133
polarized light microscopy
image capture techniques, 285
Post-Processing options
Background Subtract, 101
Black Level Subtract (12 BPP), 97
Chip Defect Correction, 98
Color Enhancement, 98
Flatfield Correct, 103
Gamma Adjust, 98
Horizontal Flip, 101
Image Size Double, 101
Noise Filter, 98
Rotate, 101
Vertical Flip, 101
Preferences
Advanced mode
Image Sequences, 34, 77
Thumbnail Button Size, 78
Basic 3rd Party Interface
Monitor Camera Color Filter Position, 250
Basic mode, 33, 76
Add Extensions to File Names on Save (Mac),
34, 78
Captured Image Bit Depth, 33
Monitor Camera Color Filter Position, 34, 78,
220, 227
Open Images in Fit to Window Mode, 34
Thumbnail Button Size, 34
preview image captures
SPOT 3rd Party Interface for Macs, 246
TWAIN interface, 222
previewing
reports, 210
previews
thumbnail images, 30, 71
Previous Page (report mode), 196
Print
image files, 32, 73
printed circuit boards, 90
printer properties, 213
printer settings in Windows 98, xiii
293
Index
printer setup, 213
printing, 213
Auto-Arrange Images option, 215
image sequences, 216
multiple images on a page, 215
reports, 211
reports (Basic mode), 64
single images, 214
processor
Mac, xii
Windows, x
program modes
Advanced, 67
Basic, 28
properties
printer, 213
Q
quality of images
enhancing, 138
Quality/Speed
Advanced mode Live Image Controls option, 37,
112, 229
Live Image Controls option, 253
quantum efficiency of KAI-2092M, 271
quick start
capturing the initial image, xxii
preparing the microscope and camera, xxi
R
RAM, recommended, x, xii
real-time image preview
Advanced mode, 106
Basic mode, 43
Recall Previous Exposure, 123
records
database, 181
reducing image size, 136
region
defining for an image capture, 121
Reload, 72
report objects
Advanced mode
Connected Lines, 201
Lines, 201
Shapes, 201
Text, 204
Basic mode
Connected Lines, 61
Images, 61
Lines, 61
Shapes, 61
Text, 62
defining, 200
defining in Basic mode, 60
double-clicking on, 57, 196
editing, 207
editing (Basic mode), 62
right-clicking on, 57, 196
sizing and positioning, 195
294
report records
displaying multiple on a single page, 209
reports
attributes, 198
attributes (Basic Mode), 58
Basic mode, 55
creating new, 56
defining attributes, 58
defining view options, 57
editing objects, 62
right-click and double-click functionality, 57
sizing and positioning report objects, 56
creating new, 195
distributing, 64, 212
output format, 209
previewing, 210
printing, 211
printing (Basic mode), 64
running, 209
saving, 211
SPOT sample, 192
requirements
hardware, x
software, x
resizing images, 136
resolution
monitor, xi
RGB color space, 100, 139
Rotate, 101
Rotate Left, 51, 137
Rotate Right, 51, 137
RT Slider camera
unfiltered images, 116
running reports, 209
S
samples
SPOT database, 171
SPOT report, 192
Saturation, 139
adjusting, 142
save image thumbnails, 177
saving
image files (Advanced mode), 72
image files (Basic mode), 31
reports, 211
saving images automatically, 33, 75
search conditions, 185
search results
displaying, 186
ordering, 186
searching
databases, 184
selecting an image type (Basic 3rd Party Interface),
252
selecting an image type (Basic mode), 36, 229
Send to Back
annotation mode, 166
report mode, 207
sequence files
exporting to avi movie format, 31, 72
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Index
Sequence menu, 132
sequential images
capturing, 46, 118
number/timing options, 119
save and name options, 119
storage options, 119
types of, 46, 118
Set Display Grid Size, 197
Set Object Grid Size, 197
setting
image region, 122
settings
pre-image capture, 73
setup
calibration, 32, 73
Setup menu
Advanced program mode, 73
Basic program mode, 32
Sharpen, 150
shortcuts, desktop
adding or replacing, xv
Show Grid Lines, 48, 129
Show Image File Thumbnails, 71
Show Image Settings (Basic mode), 49
Show Pan Window, 48, 130
Show Results as Table, 187
Show Results as Thumbnails, 187
Show Sequence Controls, 130
Show Tools dialog box, 161
Advanced mode, 198
Basic mode, 58
shutters
using external with RT cameras, 94
Smooth, 150
snap to grid, 58, 197
software
loading, xiv
third party compatibility with SPOT cameras, 283
split appearance of live images, 106
SPOT 3rd Party Interface for Macs, 239, 248
SPOT cameras operating principles, 265
SPOT Insight
specifications, 267
SPOT program modes
comparison of Basic and Advanced features, 25
SPOT RT camera operating principles
automated exposure process, 266
gain, 265
pixel digitization, 265
SPOT RT specifications, 267
catalog information, 269
chip defect specifications – KAI-2092M, 270
hardware and software, 267
quantum efficiency of KAI-2092M, 271
transmission of RT Mono and RT Slider windows,
271
SPOT sample report, 192
opening, 192
running, 194
viewing objects in, 193
stage micrometer, 32, 73
status bar
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera
Advanced program mode, 70
Basic program mode, 29
status messages (image capture), 46, 117
storage
options for database images, 175
Stretch Bright and Dark Level
HSL, 147
HSV, 147
RGB, 146
stretching images, 148
style
report, 198
system requirements, x
T
taking a picture
Advanced mode, 116
Basic mode, 43
first time instructions, xxi
SPOT 3rd Party Interface for Macs, 245
TWAIN interface, 221
techniques
microscopy, 36, 229, 252
white balance, 91
white balance (Basic 3rd Party Interface), 255
white balance (Basic mode), 45, 231
Textual/Numeric fields, 177
theory
digital imaging, 263
third party software
compatibility with SPOT cameras, 283
thumbnails
defining preferences for
Advanced mode, 78
Basic mode, 34
displaying as previews, 30, 71
how to use for image editing, 138
saving with database, 177
time lapse photography, 46, 118
toolbar
Advanced program mode, 68
appearance when an image is open, 69
appearance when SPOT program is first opened, 69
Basic program mode, 29
transfer
an image to another application via the TWAIN
interface, 222
images from live image view to the editing
window, 108
transfer images to another application
SPOT 3rd Party Interface for Macs, 246
TWAIN interface
backround images, 221
computing exposures, 221
establishing, 218
flatfield images, 221
framing in, 221
live imaging, 221
recalling previous exposures, 221
setting chip imaging region, 221
white balance, 221
295
Index
TWAIN interface, Basic, 224
establishing, 224
U
Undo
annotation mode, 166
report mode, 207
unfiltered images
effect of infrared light on, 116
Unsharp Mask, 151
Use
Red Green Blue, 87
Use Color Filter
Basic 3rd Party Interface, 259
Basic mode, 42, 236
User – Defined Exposure, 85
User Filter, 86
V
Value
adjusting, 142
Vertical Flip image setup option, 101
video cards
Mac, xii
problems with in Windows, xvi
Windows, x
view full screen, 49, 131
View menu options
Advanced mode, 128
296
Basic mode, 47
viewing and editing window
in the Advanced program mode, 68
in the Basic program mode, 28
volume labels
defining for removable media, 175
W
wells on CCD chip, 263
white balance, 123
techniques, 91
techniques (Basic 3rd Party Interface), 255
techniques (Basic mode), 45, 231
White Balance, 91
Basic 3rd Party Interface, 254
Basic mode, 45
Basic TWAIN mode, 231
window, main viewing and editing
toobar, 68
Windows 95 related errors, xvi
Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME operating systems
installing the SPOT software on, xv
Windows XP, xi
Z
Zoom
report mode, 196
zoomed images
navigating around, 48
User Guide to the SPOT RT Camera