Learn About - Kitchen Equipment.indd

North Dakota 4-H Youth Development Staff
Kitchen Equipment
and Recipes
Revised December 2010 by Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., L.R.D., Food and Nutrition Specialist
Reviewed by members of the 4-H Healthy Lifestyles Committee: Karen Armstrong,
Carmen Rath-Wald, Stacey Heggen and Macine Lukach
Learning Objectives:
Identify and use kitchen equipment
Correctly measure liquid and dry ingredients
Know the meaning of creaming, whipping, beating, stirring, folding
Be able to read and follow a simple recipe
Let’s Get Acquainted With Kitchen Utensils
A good cook needs good tools. He or she needs to know
where to find them in the kitchen. Cooking tools
are called utensils.
Here are some of the utensils
you will need:
paring knife
set of nested measuring cups
for dry ingredients
rubber scraper
mixing spoons
glass measuring cup for liquids
(with space above “cup” line)
measuring spoons
cookie sheet
mixing bowls
rotary beater
Wash your
hands with
First in the
warm water
and soap.
Scrub for at
least 20 seconds.
Wear clean clothes and an
If you have long hair, tie it back
so hair does not get in the food.
Be sure your work area is
clean. Use warm, soapy water
and a dishrag to clean up spills.
Use a spray bottle with bleach
(1 teaspoon of chlorine bleach
per quart of water) to sanitize
surfaces. Let the bleach solution
Activity: Naming Kitchen Equipment
Visit the NDSU Extension Service Center for 4-H website
(www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/4h/Food/KitchenEquipment.pdf) and see
“Can You Name This Kitchen Equipment?” You will see pictures of
common kitchen tools, and you can try to name them. Or you can
contact your local Extension office to borrow a binder with pictures
of kitchen equipment (like flash cards) to try to name.
The things that go int
o a recipe are
called ingredients. Fo
r example, the
ingredients in muffins
may be flour, sugar,
salt, baking powder,
vegetable oil, eggs an
milk. Learn where th
e flour, sugar and ot
ingredients are kept
in your kitchen.
Measuring Activities
We use utensils to measure ingredients. When we measure ingredients, we need to be very exact, especially when we
are baking. Otherwise, our product will not turn out right.
Activity 1: Let’s Measure Flour
Activity 3: How to Measure Fats
Get out the flour and your utensils: flour sifter (optional),
dry measuring cups, tablespoons, straight-edged
utensil (such as a dinner knife with a
straight edge).
Utensils you need are measuring cups, rubber scraper
and an utensil with a straight edge.
Step 1: Since most flour is presifted,
skip to Step 2. If it is not presifted, hold
the sifter over waxed paper or a shallow pan and sift the flour. Flour is sifted
because it packs together and you will
get more flour than the recipe calls for.
Step 2: Lightly heap the flour with a
spoon into the correct-sized measuring cup. Do not shake down
the flour in the cup because this will just repack it.
Step 3: When the flour is piled high in the cup, level it off with a
spatula or straight-edged knife. Using a dry measuring cup instead
of a liquid measuring cup allows you to level the top and get the
right amount of ingredient into your recipe.
Remember: Pile, then level.
Note: if you pack the flour into a cup, you will be adding too much
flour to your recipe. You could end up with a dry baked product.
Date completed: _____________________
Activity 2: How to Measure Sugar
You will need a measuring cup, waxed paper or shallow pan, and
a spatula or dinner knife.
White sugar: Dip the cup into the sugar;
level off with a straight-edged utensil. White
sugar does not need to be sifted unless it is
Method 1. Have fat (butter, margarine, shortening) at
room temperature. Pack firmly into a dry measuring cup
with rubber scraper. Level off with a flat edge of a knife or
Method 2. For cold,
solid fats, fill a liquid
measuring cup with cold
water. Pour out as much
water as the amount of
shortening in the recipe.
Then add the cold
shortening, keeping it under
the water line until the water
rises to make 1 cup. Drain water.
Example: For ½ cup of shortening, pour away ½ cup of
water in a 1-cup measuring cup. Add shortening until the
water rises to reach the 1-cup line.
Date completed: _____________________
Activity 4: How to Measure Liquids
Use a liquid measuring cup that has a space above the
1-cup mark so you won’t spill the liquid. If you were to
use a dry 1-cup measuring cup, you would have to the fill
the cup to the brim and you could spill some. If you spill,
then you do not have an accurate measure.
Set the cup on the table and pour in the liquid. Now lean
down so your eyes are level with the cup and you can tell
when you have exactly the right amount.
Brown sugar: Pack the sugar firmly into
the measuring cup. When it is taken out, it will
hold the shape of the cup. Store brown sugar in a
tightly covered container to keep it moist.
Activity 5: How to Measure
Liquid Spoonfuls
Spoonfuls of Dry Ingredients
Dip the spoon into the ingredients; level off with a straight-edged
Dip the spoon into the ingredients
and, being careful not to spill, put
the liquid into the mixing bowl.
Date completed: _____________________
You will need measuring spoons and a bowl.
Can You Answer These Questions?
Why does some flour need to be sifted?
Why is a straight-edge utensil necessary
for leveling when measuring? ________
How do you measure cold, solid fat?
How does measuring brown sugar and
white sugar differ? ________________
Should you use a liquid cup for dry
ingredients and dry cups for liquid
ingredients? Explain. _______________
Date completed: _______________
Why do you lean down to see how much
liquid is in a measuring cup? ________
Reading a Recipe Activity
Try These Questions:
Have you ever read a recipe? To make recipes easy, follow
these suggestions:
Read the entire recipe before you begin to cook.
Ask someone to explain anything you don’t understand.
Find the necessary ingredients listed.
Decide what equipment will be needed.
Do any special “beforehands,” such as preheating the
oven or melting butter.
Apple Panc
ith apple
1 Granny Sm pancake mix
1 ¼ c. any ty
½ tsp. cinnam
1 egg
2 tsp. canola
1 c. low-fat m
g spray
t with cookin
nd thinly
Lightly coat a edium heat. Peel, core a
and heat ove rings. In a large mixing b
Stir until
cake ba
slice ap
s are
combine ingre evenly moist. (Small lump r
ingredients a makes pancakes tough.) riddle
OK. Ove
ce an apple
le ring,
er over
each p
and pour abo nter and covering the ap ther
e ce
starting in th les appear. Turn and coo
tly brown.
side until ligh
each). Each
wo pancakes of fat, 24 g
Makes six
4 grams (g)
160 calories, ber.
te and 1 g of
of carbohydra
1. How much pancake mix do you need? __________________
2. What equipment do you need? ________________________
3. To what temperature should you preheat the griddle? ______
4. How do you know when to flip the pancakes? _____________
5. How do you know the pancakes are done?
Date completed: _____________________
Answers: 1. 1 ¼ cup; 2. Measuring cups, measuring spoons, knife, peeler and/or
apple corer, bowl, griddle, pancake turner (others?); 3. Heat to medium heat;
4. Flip the pancakes when bubbles appear; 5. Pancakes are done when they are
light brown on both sides.
Activity: Let’s Read a Recipe
Mixing Activities
Activity: Let’s Explore Mixing Terms
To Cream Fat
This may be done with a spoon (a wooden spoon works well)
or an electric mixer. Beat the shortening until it is smooth
and fluffy. You often are directed to cream shortening and
sugar. If you use a spoon, rub the ingredients against the
side of the bowl to soften and mix. Then beat until fluffy.
To Beat
This direction means to vigorously mix ingredients
together to make sure they are thoroughly combined.
Sometimes it means to mix air with the ingredients. This
can be done with a spoon, fork or beater. The recipe
usually will tell you which to use.
To Stir
When a recipe tells you to “stir,” mix the ingredients around
in a circle with a spoon to make sure they are combined
When adding flour to a liquid mixture, the more you work it,
the tougher the finished product will be. Stir flour as little as
possible except when making products such as bread and pizza
dough that need more mixing.
To Whip
Ingredients are whipped to incorporate air to make a lighter,
fluffier product. This is done with a beater. Just think what
cream looks like. Then imagine what whipped cream looks like.
To Fold
When a recipe says to “fold” in an ingredient, it means to mix
gently. A clean rubber scraper or wooden spoon works
well to fold in ingredients. Bring the scraper or spoon down
through the mixture, across the bottom and up over the top
until the ingredients are well-blended. Folding is done when a
mixture is very delicate. For instance, if you want to add cheese
to beaten egg white, the white would break down and lose all of the air if you
handled it roughly.
More Information and Recipes to Try
See “Now Serving: Well-measured Recipes” available at:
Visit www.ndsu.edu/eatsmart
(click on “For Kids” for fun links to learn more about food and nutrition)
For snack recipes and video demonstrations, see www.ndsu.edu/eatsmart
Quiz: Do you know
the cooking term?
1. This word means you are to move
ingredients around in a circle with a
2.This word is used when you are to mix
fat (such as butter) and sugar until it is
3. This word means you are to mix
ingredients vigorously:
4. This word means you are to mix in an
ingredient, such as egg whites, gently:
5. This word is used when you
incorporate air, such as making a
topping for pie.
Date completed: _______________
Answers: 1. Stir; 2. Cream; 3. Beat; 4. Fold; 5. Whip
We need to know one more thing before we can start to bake. We need to
understand some of the directions found in recipes.
Activity: Let’s Make Pancakes
Now that you know how to measure
and read a recipe, try making pancakes
using the recipe in this handout. Be sure
to get help from an adult.
Date completed: _______________
e heat
ow that th even
n is the m
in an ove nter of the oven?
e ce
right in th place foods on the
Be sure to e center of the
racks so the center of
food in ven.
the o
The NDSU Extension Service does not endorse commercial products or companies even though reference may be made to tradenames, trademarks or service names.
County commissions, North Dakota State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. North Dakota State University does not discriminate on the basis
of age, color, disability, gender identity, marital status, national origin, public assistance status, sex, sexual orientation, status as a U.S. veteran, race or religion. Direct
inquiries to the Vice President for Equity, Diversity and Global Outreach, 205 Old Main, (701) 231-7708. This publication will be made available in alternative formats for
people with disabilities upon request, (701) 231-7881.
Leaders Guide
North Dakota 4-H Youth Development Staff
Kitchen Equipment and Recipes
To cook and bake successfully, measure carefully and follow the recipe steps closely.
Lesson Outline
1. Safety first in the
2. Kitchen utensils
3. Dry measuring
a. Flour
b. Sugar
4. Liquid measuring
a. Fats
b. Liquids
c. Liquid spoonfuls
5. Reading recipes
6. Mixing activities
Materials You May Need
May 2011
Designed by Chelsea Langfus,
Student Dietitian, and
Julie Garden-Robinson,
Food and Nutrition Specialist
Available kitchen or cooking area with a clean, accessible sink
Kitchen safety materials: apron, hair net and/or hair tie if
needed, soapy water, bleach water
Kitchen utensils: paring knife, set of nested measuring
cups, rubber scrapper, mixing spoons, glass measuring cup,
measuring spoons, cookie sheet, mixing bowls, egg beater
and spatula. See PowerPoint with pictures of common kitchen
utensils: www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/4h/Food/
Products for measuring: flour, sugar, fat (butter, shortening or
margarine softened at room temperature), water, wax paper,
flour sifter (optional), dinner knife, bowl
Ingredients for recipe listed: Granny Smith apple, pancake mix,
cinnamon, egg, canola oil, low-fat milk. Have other recipes,
ingredients and utensils on hand for additional activities.
Mixing utensils and ingredients:: fat (butter, shortening
or margarine softened at room
temperature), sugar, flour, egg.
Suggested Teaching Ideas/Activities
Explain safety precautions to take in the kitchen or cooking area, especially when
handling food. Washing hands and having a clean work environment is the first
step in cooking. Briefly discuss how cross-contamination can contaminate the food
and cause sickness.
Discuss the different utensils and how they can be used with the PowerPoint
slides. This can be used as a game with teams. Give each team a chance to name
the equipment and award 1 point for each correct name.
Complete Activity 1: “Let’s Measure Flour.” Discuss why flour is spooned into
each measuring cup instead of being scooped. Show the difference in spooning
the flour compared with scooping it out. If recipes are not measured with the
appropriate amount of flour, the product may not rise properly (too little flour)
or become dry (too much flour). Careful mixing is very important, especially
for baking.
Complete Activity 2: “How to Measure Sugar.” Discuss the difference between
measuring granulated and brown sugar and explain when the different methods
are used.
a. Granulated sugar: made from tropical sugarcane beets; used for sweetening
products. Commonly used with breads or as an addition to products such
as coffee.
b. Brown sugar: granulated sugar with thick syrup added; used for sweetening
products while adding moisture and a richer flavor. Commonly used with
cookies. It tends to harden faster than granulated sugar when being stored.
Place a couple of slices of bread in the fresh container of sugar to prevent
hardening. If it is hard and needed for immediate use, place the open bag in
the microwave for 20 to 30 seconds with either a small bowl of water next to
it or a damp paper towel placed over the bag.
Complete Activities 3, 4 and 5 on how to measure liquids.
a. Measuring fats: This shows how to measure fats different ways. Be sure to
explain why this method works well because fats and water do not mix. Inform
participants that volumes vary when adding the fat to the water.
b. Measuring liquids: Demonstrate the correct method for viewing liquids at eye
level. Show how using dry measuring cups to measure liquids will not yield
accurate measurements.
Explain the process for reading recipes: read completely and thoroughly, being
careful not to miss any ingredients, procedures or steps. Emphasize why following
the steps in the specific order is important. Test various recipes if cooking areas
and materials are available. Be sure to point out nutrition information listed on
recipes to help participants be more familiar with serving sizes and nutrients.
Perform the different mixing activities. Have recipes on hand to point out where
the different methods would be used. For example, whipping would be used to
make whipped cream or egg white peaks.
Optional Activities
Complete the apple pancake mix recipe
using the steps learned. The recipe is found
under “Reading a Recipe” in the Learn
About handout.
Practice measuring ingredients with a
scale as another way to get accurate
measurements. Show how to tare the scale
for liquid measuring: Be sure the scale is
at zero. Next put an empty container on the
scale to measure the ingredients and then
set the weight back to zero.
a. One cup white flour = 120 grams
b. One cup wheat flour = 140 grams
c. One cup bread flour = 130 grams
d. One cup cake flour = 114 grams
Experiment with amounts of sugar to
see and taste the difference. Make four
different tested products for each recipe: 1)
using granulated sugar, 2) using brown sugar,
3) using “homemade brown sugar” by adding
corn syrup or honey to granulated sugar and
4) replacing granulated sugar with brown
sugar plus molasses. This also could be
used as a recipe reading and demonstrating
Look at a diverse group of recipes to see
different styles and variety of meals, and to
compare nutrient content. Have participants
pick different recipes for an entire meal,
including an appetizer, entrée and dessert.
View and discuss different handouts on “Now
Serving.” See www.ndsu.edu/eatsmart and
click on “For Parents/Caregivers” for more
at-home cooking involvement.
Have members create their own cookbook
by putting favorite recipes in an organized
binder or booklet.
Leadership Ideas
Have demonstrations of different utensils
or cooking methods.
Encourage members to bake something to
share with a homeless shelter or geriatric
community home.
Have members demonstrate how to make
their favorite healthful recipe, such as bean
dip, smoothies or cookies. Have a “taste
testing” snack day to allow members try all
products. Examples of video demonstrations
and recipes are available at www.ndsu.edu/
Tour or Guest Speaker Ideas
Tour a school, hospital or facility kitchen to
see how different cooking methods, including
measuring, are used to follow recipes to make
final products for customers.
Invite a speaker such as a dietitian, chef or
cook, food scientist or Extension agent for
further information.
Career Exploration
Many career options are available In the
area of nutrition and fitness, such as:
— Working in food service with the menu
items and recipes
Food scientist
— Working with various ingredients to make
Cook, chef or baker
— Preparing food products for customers
Extension agent
— Teaching people in community settings
Do You Know Your Kitchen Utensils?
Paring knife: used for peeling or detailed smaller cutting such as peeling
an apple or cutting garlic cloves
Dry measuring cups: used to measure solids such as flour or sugar
Rubber scraper: used for scraping bowls or pans to get wet ingredients or
products out; for example, transferring bread mixture into a baking pan
Mixing spoons: used to mix ingredients together or to stir when baking or cooking
Glass measuring cups: used to measure liquids such as oils or milk
Measuring spoons: used to measure solids or liquids in smaller amounts
such as baking soda or extracts
Cookie sheets: used to bake or cook items such as cookies or pizzas
Mixing bowls: containers in which ingredients for baking or cooking are mixed
Egg beater: beats together ingredients such as whipped cream
Spatula: used for transferring cooking products such as eggs, cookies
or hamburgers from one surface to another
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County commissions, North Dakota State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. North Dakota State University does not discriminate on the basis
of age, color, disability, gender identity, marital status, national origin, public assistance status, sex, sexual orientation, status as a U.S. veteran, race or religion. Direct
inquiries to the Vice President for Equity, Diversity and Global Outreach, 205 Old Main, (701) 231-7708. This publication will be made available in alternative formats for
people with disabilities upon request, (701) 231-7881.