ECO50 North Dakota 4-H Youth Development Staff Kitchen Equipment and Recipes Revised December 2010 by Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., L.R.D., Food and Nutrition Specialist Reviewed by members of the 4-H Healthy Lifestyles Committee: Karen Armstrong, Carmen Rath-Wald, Stacey Heggen and Macine Lukach Learning Objectives: Identify and use kitchen equipment Correctly measure liquid and dry ingredients Know the meaning of creaming, whipping, beating, stirring, folding Be able to read and follow a simple recipe Let’s Get Acquainted With Kitchen Utensils A good cook needs good tools. He or she needs to know where to find them in the kitchen. Cooking tools are called utensils. ils Here are some of the utensils you will need: paring knife set of nested measuring cups for dry ingredients rubber scraper mixing spoons ds glass measuring cup for liquids (with space above “cup” line) measuring spoons cookie sheet mixing bowls rotary beater spatula Wash your Safety hands with First in the warm water and soap. Kitchen Scrub for at least 20 seconds. Wear clean clothes and an apron. If you have long hair, tie it back so hair does not get in the food. Be sure your work area is clean. Use warm, soapy water and a dishrag to clean up spills. Use a spray bottle with bleach (1 teaspoon of chlorine bleach per quart of water) to sanitize surf surfaces. Let the bleach solution air-d air dry. air-dry. Activity: Naming Kitchen Equipment Visit the NDSU Extension Service Center for 4-H website (www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/4h/Food/KitchenEquipment.pdf) and see “Can You Name This Kitchen Equipment?” You will see pictures of common kitchen tools, and you can try to name them. Or you can contact your local Extension office to borrow a binder with pictures of kitchen equipment (like flash cards) to try to name. Ingredients The things that go int o a recipe are called ingredients. Fo r example, the ingredients in muffins may be flour, sugar, salt, baking powder, vegetable oil, eggs an d milk. Learn where th e flour, sugar and ot he r ingredients are kept in your kitchen. Measuring Activities We use utensils to measure ingredients. When we measure ingredients, we need to be very exact, especially when we are baking. Otherwise, our product will not turn out right. Activity 1: Let’s Measure Flour Activity 3: How to Measure Fats Get out the flour and your utensils: flour sifter (optional), dry measuring cups, tablespoons, straight-edged utensil (such as a dinner knife with a straight edge). Utensils you need are measuring cups, rubber scraper and an utensil with a straight edge. Step 1: Since most flour is presifted, skip to Step 2. If it is not presifted, hold the sifter over waxed paper or a shallow pan and sift the flour. Flour is sifted because it packs together and you will get more flour than the recipe calls for. Step 2: Lightly heap the flour with a spoon into the correct-sized measuring cup. Do not shake down the flour in the cup because this will just repack it. Step 3: When the flour is piled high in the cup, level it off with a spatula or straight-edged knife. Using a dry measuring cup instead of a liquid measuring cup allows you to level the top and get the right amount of ingredient into your recipe. Remember: Pile, then level. Note: if you pack the flour into a cup, you will be adding too much flour to your recipe. You could end up with a dry baked product. Date completed: _____________________ Activity 2: How to Measure Sugar You will need a measuring cup, waxed paper or shallow pan, and a spatula or dinner knife. White sugar: Dip the cup into the sugar; level off with a straight-edged utensil. White sugar does not need to be sifted unless it is lumpy. Method 1. Have fat (butter, margarine, shortening) at room temperature. Pack firmly into a dry measuring cup with rubber scraper. Level off with a flat edge of a knife or spatula. Method 2. For cold, solid fats, fill a liquid measuring cup with cold water. Pour out as much water as the amount of shortening in the recipe. Then add the cold shortening, keeping it under the water line until the water rises to make 1 cup. Drain water. Example: For ½ cup of shortening, pour away ½ cup of water in a 1-cup measuring cup. Add shortening until the water rises to reach the 1-cup line. Date completed: _____________________ Activity 4: How to Measure Liquids Use a liquid measuring cup that has a space above the 1-cup mark so you won’t spill the liquid. If you were to use a dry 1-cup measuring cup, you would have to the fill the cup to the brim and you could spill some. If you spill, then you do not have an accurate measure. Set the cup on the table and pour in the liquid. Now lean down so your eyes are level with the cup and you can tell when you have exactly the right amount. Brown sugar: Pack the sugar firmly into the measuring cup. When it is taken out, it will hold the shape of the cup. Store brown sugar in a tightly covered container to keep it moist. Activity 5: How to Measure Liquid Spoonfuls Spoonfuls of Dry Ingredients Dip the spoon into the ingredients; level off with a straight-edged utensil. Dip the spoon into the ingredients and, being careful not to spill, put the liquid into the mixing bowl. Date completed: _____________________ You will need measuring spoons and a bowl. Can You Answer These Questions? Why does some flour need to be sifted? ________________________________ ________________________________ Why is a straight-edge utensil necessary for leveling when measuring? ________ ________________________________ ________________________________ How do you measure cold, solid fat? ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ How does measuring brown sugar and white sugar differ? ________________ ________________________________ Should you use a liquid cup for dry ingredients and dry cups for liquid ingredients? Explain. _______________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Date completed: _______________ Why do you lean down to see how much liquid is in a measuring cup? ________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Reading a Recipe Activity Try These Questions: Have you ever read a recipe? To make recipes easy, follow these suggestions: Read the entire recipe before you begin to cook. Ask someone to explain anything you don’t understand. Find the necessary ingredients listed. Decide what equipment will be needed. Do any special “beforehands,” such as preheating the oven or melting butter. akes Apple Panc ith apple 1 Granny Sm pancake mix pe 1 ¼ c. any ty on ½ tsp. cinnam 1 egg oil 2 tsp. canola ilk 1 c. low-fat m g spray t with cookin e ill sk r o le d grid nd thinly Lightly coat a edium heat. Peel, core a rm owl, and heat ove rings. In a large mixing b to Stir until in r. e le tt p cake ba slice ap n a p r fo ts n die s are combine ingre evenly moist. (Small lump r Fo re ingredients a makes pancakes tough.) riddle g g in e ix th n rm o ring OK. Ove ce an apple la p le ring, , p p ke a ca n n a a er over each p tt a b p cu /4 1 ple. ut and pour abo nter and covering the ap ther ko e ce starting in th les appear. Turn and coo b b u b til n u Cook tly brown. side until ligh each). Each wo pancakes of fat, 24 g (t s g in rv se Makes six 4 grams (g) 160 calories, ber. s a h g in rv se fi te and 1 g of of carbohydra 1. How much pancake mix do you need? __________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. What equipment do you need? ________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. To what temperature should you preheat the griddle? ______ ___________________________________________________ 4. How do you know when to flip the pancakes? _____________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. How do you know the pancakes are done? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Date completed: _____________________ Answers: 1. 1 ¼ cup; 2. Measuring cups, measuring spoons, knife, peeler and/or apple corer, bowl, griddle, pancake turner (others?); 3. Heat to medium heat; 4. Flip the pancakes when bubbles appear; 5. Pancakes are done when they are light brown on both sides. Activity: Let’s Read a Recipe Mixing Activities Activity: Let’s Explore Mixing Terms To Cream Fat This may be done with a spoon (a wooden spoon works well) or an electric mixer. Beat the shortening until it is smooth and fluffy. You often are directed to cream shortening and sugar. If you use a spoon, rub the ingredients against the side of the bowl to soften and mix. Then beat until fluffy. To Beat This direction means to vigorously mix ingredients together to make sure they are thoroughly combined. Sometimes it means to mix air with the ingredients. This can be done with a spoon, fork or beater. The recipe usually will tell you which to use. To Stir When a recipe tells you to “stir,” mix the ingredients around in a circle with a spoon to make sure they are combined well. When adding flour to a liquid mixture, the more you work it, the tougher the finished product will be. Stir flour as little as possible except when making products such as bread and pizza dough that need more mixing. To Whip Ingredients are whipped to incorporate air to make a lighter, fluffier product. This is done with a beater. Just think what cream looks like. Then imagine what whipped cream looks like. To Fold When a recipe says to “fold” in an ingredient, it means to mix gently. A clean rubber scraper or wooden spoon works well to fold in ingredients. Bring the scraper or spoon down through the mixture, across the bottom and up over the top until the ingredients are well-blended. Folding is done when a mixture is very delicate. For instance, if you want to add cheese to beaten egg white, the white would break down and lose all of the air if you handled it roughly. More Information and Recipes to Try See “Now Serving: Well-measured Recipes” available at: www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/foods/fn707.pdf Visit www.ndsu.edu/eatsmart (click on “For Kids” for fun links to learn more about food and nutrition) For snack recipes and video demonstrations, see www.ndsu.edu/eatsmart Quiz: Do you know the cooking term? 1. This word means you are to move ingredients around in a circle with a spoon: _______________________________ 2.This word is used when you are to mix fat (such as butter) and sugar until it is fluffy: _______________________________ 3. This word means you are to mix ingredients vigorously: _______________________________ 4. This word means you are to mix in an ingredient, such as egg whites, gently: _______________________________ 5. This word is used when you incorporate air, such as making a topping for pie. _______________________________ Date completed: _______________ Answers: 1. Stir; 2. Cream; 3. Beat; 4. Fold; 5. Whip We need to know one more thing before we can start to bake. We need to understand some of the directions found in recipes. Activity: Let’s Make Pancakes Now that you know how to measure and read a recipe, try making pancakes using the recipe in this handout. Be sure to get help from an adult. Date completed: _______________ Science Whys e heat ow that th even n k u o y Did ost n is the m in an ove nter of the oven? e ce right in th place foods on the Be sure to e center of the th racks so the center of is food in ven. the o The NDSU Extension Service does not endorse commercial products or companies even though reference may be made to tradenames, trademarks or service names. County commissions, North Dakota State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. North Dakota State University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender identity, marital status, national origin, public assistance status, sex, sexual orientation, status as a U.S. veteran, race or religion. Direct inquiries to the Vice President for Equity, Diversity and Global Outreach, 205 Old Main, (701) 231-7708. This publication will be made available in alternative formats for people with disabilities upon request, (701) 231-7881. Leaders Guide North Dakota 4-H Youth Development Staff Kitchen Equipment and Recipes To cook and bake successfully, measure carefully and follow the recipe steps closely. Lesson Outline 1. Safety first in the kitchen 2. Kitchen utensils 3. Dry measuring a. Flour b. Sugar 4. Liquid measuring a. Fats b. Liquids c. Liquid spoonfuls 5. Reading recipes 6. Mixing activities Materials You May Need ● ● ● ● ● ● May 2011 Designed by Chelsea Langfus, Student Dietitian, and Julie Garden-Robinson, Food and Nutrition Specialist Available kitchen or cooking area with a clean, accessible sink Kitchen safety materials: apron, hair net and/or hair tie if needed, soapy water, bleach water Kitchen utensils: paring knife, set of nested measuring cups, rubber scrapper, mixing spoons, glass measuring cup, measuring spoons, cookie sheet, mixing bowls, egg beater and spatula. See PowerPoint with pictures of common kitchen utensils: www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/4h/Food/ KitchenEquipment.pdf Products for measuring: flour, sugar, fat (butter, shortening or margarine softened at room temperature), water, wax paper, flour sifter (optional), dinner knife, bowl Ingredients for recipe listed: Granny Smith apple, pancake mix, cinnamon, egg, canola oil, low-fat milk. Have other recipes, ingredients and utensils on hand for additional activities. Mixing utensils and ingredients:: fat (butter, shortening or margarine softened at room temperature), sugar, flour, egg. Suggested Teaching Ideas/Activities ● Explain safety precautions to take in the kitchen or cooking area, especially when handling food. Washing hands and having a clean work environment is the first step in cooking. Briefly discuss how cross-contamination can contaminate the food and cause sickness. ● Discuss the different utensils and how they can be used with the PowerPoint slides. This can be used as a game with teams. Give each team a chance to name the equipment and award 1 point for each correct name. ● Complete Activity 1: “Let’s Measure Flour.” Discuss why flour is spooned into each measuring cup instead of being scooped. Show the difference in spooning the flour compared with scooping it out. If recipes are not measured with the appropriate amount of flour, the product may not rise properly (too little flour) or become dry (too much flour). Careful mixing is very important, especially for baking. ● Complete Activity 2: “How to Measure Sugar.” Discuss the difference between measuring granulated and brown sugar and explain when the different methods are used. a. Granulated sugar: made from tropical sugarcane beets; used for sweetening products. Commonly used with breads or as an addition to products such as coffee. b. Brown sugar: granulated sugar with thick syrup added; used for sweetening products while adding moisture and a richer flavor. Commonly used with cookies. It tends to harden faster than granulated sugar when being stored. Place a couple of slices of bread in the fresh container of sugar to prevent hardening. If it is hard and needed for immediate use, place the open bag in the microwave for 20 to 30 seconds with either a small bowl of water next to it or a damp paper towel placed over the bag. ● Complete Activities 3, 4 and 5 on how to measure liquids. a. Measuring fats: This shows how to measure fats different ways. Be sure to explain why this method works well because fats and water do not mix. Inform participants that volumes vary when adding the fat to the water. b. Measuring liquids: Demonstrate the correct method for viewing liquids at eye level. Show how using dry measuring cups to measure liquids will not yield accurate measurements. ● Explain the process for reading recipes: read completely and thoroughly, being careful not to miss any ingredients, procedures or steps. Emphasize why following the steps in the specific order is important. Test various recipes if cooking areas and materials are available. Be sure to point out nutrition information listed on recipes to help participants be more familiar with serving sizes and nutrients. ● Perform the different mixing activities. Have recipes on hand to point out where the different methods would be used. For example, whipping would be used to make whipped cream or egg white peaks. Optional Activities ● ● ● ● ● ● Complete the apple pancake mix recipe using the steps learned. The recipe is found under “Reading a Recipe” in the Learn About handout. Practice measuring ingredients with a scale as another way to get accurate measurements. Show how to tare the scale for liquid measuring: Be sure the scale is at zero. Next put an empty container on the scale to measure the ingredients and then set the weight back to zero. a. One cup white flour = 120 grams b. One cup wheat flour = 140 grams c. One cup bread flour = 130 grams d. One cup cake flour = 114 grams Experiment with amounts of sugar to see and taste the difference. Make four different tested products for each recipe: 1) using granulated sugar, 2) using brown sugar, 3) using “homemade brown sugar” by adding corn syrup or honey to granulated sugar and 4) replacing granulated sugar with brown sugar plus molasses. This also could be used as a recipe reading and demonstrating activity. Look at a diverse group of recipes to see different styles and variety of meals, and to compare nutrient content. Have participants pick different recipes for an entire meal, including an appetizer, entrée and dessert. View and discuss different handouts on “Now Serving.” See www.ndsu.edu/eatsmart and click on “For Parents/Caregivers” for more at-home cooking involvement. Have members create their own cookbook by putting favorite recipes in an organized binder or booklet. Leadership Ideas ● Have demonstrations of different utensils or cooking methods. ● Encourage members to bake something to share with a homeless shelter or geriatric community home. ● Have members demonstrate how to make their favorite healthful recipe, such as bean dip, smoothies or cookies. Have a “taste testing” snack day to allow members try all products. Examples of video demonstrations and recipes are available at www.ndsu.edu/ eatsmart. Tour or Guest Speaker Ideas ● Tour a school, hospital or facility kitchen to see how different cooking methods, including measuring, are used to follow recipes to make final products for customers. ● Invite a speaker such as a dietitian, chef or cook, food scientist or Extension agent for further information. Career Exploration Many career options are available In the area of nutrition and fitness, such as: ● Dietitian/nutritionist — Working in food service with the menu items and recipes ● Food scientist — Working with various ingredients to make improvements ● Cook, chef or baker — Preparing food products for customers ● Extension agent — Teaching people in community settings Do You Know Your Kitchen Utensils? Paring knife: used for peeling or detailed smaller cutting such as peeling an apple or cutting garlic cloves Dry measuring cups: used to measure solids such as flour or sugar Rubber scraper: used for scraping bowls or pans to get wet ingredients or products out; for example, transferring bread mixture into a baking pan Mixing spoons: used to mix ingredients together or to stir when baking or cooking Glass measuring cups: used to measure liquids such as oils or milk Measuring spoons: used to measure solids or liquids in smaller amounts such as baking soda or extracts Cookie sheets: used to bake or cook items such as cookies or pizzas Mixing bowls: containers in which ingredients for baking or cooking are mixed Egg beater: beats together ingredients such as whipped cream Spatula: used for transferring cooking products such as eggs, cookies or hamburgers from one surface to another NDSU encourages you to use and share this content, but please do so under the conditions of our Creative Commons license. You may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt this work as long as you give full attribution, don’t use the work for commercial purposes and share your resulting work similarly. For more information, visit www.ag.ndsu.edu/agcomm/creative-commons. County commissions, North Dakota State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. North Dakota State University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender identity, marital status, national origin, public assistance status, sex, sexual orientation, status as a U.S. veteran, race or religion. Direct inquiries to the Vice President for Equity, Diversity and Global Outreach, 205 Old Main, (701) 231-7708. This publication will be made available in alternative formats for people with disabilities upon request, (701) 231-7881.