Engine - The Rolls-Royce and Bentley Technical Library

Chapter E
Engine
Senim
~nlmduction
E2 Spacification
E3 Dimensional dara
E4
Crankcase and Cylinder linen
E5 Crankshaft and Main bearings
E6 Connecting rods and Pistolls
R Camshaf; and Valve mechanism
E8 CyfinderheadsandValves
E9 Cmnkcase breather system
E10 Engine lubrication system
.
Ell Hydraulic systems pumps
E12 Engine removal and installadon
E13 Fault diagnosis
Et4 Workshop tools
€1
b t e c t i m of paimwork
Before commencing work within the engine
cmpanment, always fir new finers.bDf2685 to the
inside of .the wing covers RH 2684 and position
them m the front wings of the vehide.
Chapter E
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Engine
Sections
Contents
Silver Spirit Silver Spur Mulsanne
Tutbo
Mulsanne
Bendey
Cornichd
Eight
Continental
Introduction
Et
El
E1
EI
El
Specification
E2
E2
E2
E2
E2
Dimensional data
E3
E3
E3
E3
E3
Crankcase and Cylinder liners
E4
E4
Crankshaft and Main bearings
E5
E4
E5
Connecting rods and Pistons
E6
E6
E6
Camshaft and Valve mechanism
E7
E7
Cylinder heads and Valves
E8
E8
E7
E8
Crankcase breather system
E9
E9
Engine lubrication sysrem
Et0
E10
E5
E9
E1 0
Hydraulic pump push rod
assemblies
Engine removal and installation
Engine drive belts
Fault diagnosis
Special torque tighren~ngfigures
Workshop toots
Protection of paintwork
Before commencing work within the engine
compartment always fir new liners RH 2685 to the
inside of the wing covers RH 2684 and position them
on the front wings of the vehicle.
---
-
l S D 4006
August 1984
TSD 4400
:Chapter E
WORKSHOP MANUAL
-
~
Issue record sheet 2
August 1984
Tbe dates quoted below refer to the issue date of
individual pages within this chapter.
Page NO.
Contents
1
2
3
I
1
F
I
I
Aug 84
Aug 84
Aug 84
Aug84
Aug 84
Aug 84 Aug 84
Aug 84 Aug 84
Aug 84 Aug 84
Aug 84
Aug 84
Aug 84
Senian E l
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Introduction
The power unit is an aver square, eight cylinder four
stroke. designed in a 9VVee formation.
The two banks (each of four cylinders) are
designated 'A' bank and 'B' bank. 'A' bank of cylinders
is 25,40mm (1.Oin) funher f o m r d than the cylinders
of 'B' bank and situated on ttre right-hand side when
viewed from the driveis seat
The engine has a bore of 104.1 4mm (4.10inJ and
a stroke of 99,06mm (3.90in). giving a total capacity
of 6.75 litres (411.91 in3). The compression ratio is
Fig. Et
- 1 Cut-away view of engine
either 9:f or 8:1 depending upon the specification of
the engine.
The crankcase is manufactured from cast
aluminium alloy. tt is fmed with detachable, full length.
wet cylinder liners of centrifugally spun cast iron.
Rubber '0'rings are used at the top and bottom of
each liner to seal in engine coolant which is allowed to
cirtutate dire& onto and around the centre portion of
the liners.
'Ihe crankshsft is forged from chrome molykdenum
steel which is subsequently nitride hardened.
Five main bear~ngssuppdrl the crankshaft. The
bearings are split steel backed shells. lined with an
Fig. E l 2 Position of ths engine build cods
number (other than turbocharged
engines)
Thermostat housing
2 Front hydraulic pump
3 Refrigeration compressor
1
-
Fig. E l 3 Position of the sngine serial number
(other thm turbchargsd engines)
1 Alternacr
2 Oii filter
3 'B' bank exhaust manifold
aluminium-tin material: they are remind in position by
forged aluminium bearing caps. Crankshaft end-float is
controlled by thrust washers firted on each side of the
centre main bearing.
- The 'H' section connecting rods and caps are
forged from chrome molybdenum steel. The smart-end
bushes are lead-bronze with a steel backing. The
bushes are pressed into the connecting rods and
machined to size. The big-end bearings are split steel
backed shells with an aluminium-tin lining.
The pistons are rnanufanured from aluminium
alloy and are tin plated. They are carried on fully
floating. hardened steel gudgeon pins which are
slightly off-set from the centre line of the piston
towards the thrust face.
On turbocharged engines, sreei struts are cast into
the wall of each piston.
The pistons have two compression rings and an
oil control ring.
The two afuminium alloy cylinder heads each have
four separate inlet and exhaust ports. The cylinder
heads are fmed with phosphor bronze exhaust valve
guides. cast iron inlet valve guides and heat treated
alloy cast iron valve seat inserts.
The exhaust valves are austenitic sreel with stellite
tips and valve seat faces. The inlet vaives are alloy
steel with induction hardened tips.
On turbocharged engines the inlet valves are
manufactured from austenitic steel.
The overhead valve mechanrsm is operated by
push rods, rocker arms, and self adjusting hydraulic
tappers from a centrally positioned camshaft which is
carried directly in bores machined in the crankcase.
The hydraulic tappers are carried in detachable btucks
located in the crankcase.
Two eccentrics on the camshah drtve the
hydraulic pumps mounted on the tappel cover. These
Pumps provide the hydraulic pressure for the braking
and height control systems,
Engine tubrication is provided by a pressurized
system First stage filteration is accomplished through
a fine mesh strainer and pick-up located in rhe engine
oil sump. Oil from the sump strainer passes into a gear
t y p e dump situated ar the front of ?he crankcase. The
pump is driven by skew gean from the crankshaft. A
relief vahre in the oil pump regulates the oil pressure at
approximately 2,76 bar (40 lbf/in2), Final filteration of
the oil is through a disposable 'full flw' filter. prior to
its circulation around the engine.
High pressure oil is delivered to the turbocharger
assembly {if fmed), crankshaft connecting rods.
camshaft bearing surfaces. timing gears. tappets, push
rods. and rocker bal end seatings.
Low pressure oil is fed through the front camshaft
bearing to the rocker shaft. rocker arms, and valve tips.
Tbe tonnecling rod small-ends, gudgeon pins, and
cytinder walls are splash fed with oil from the
crankcase.
The engine is cooled by a mixture of anti-freeze
and water cireularing around the coolant passages. A
coolant pump which is mounted at the from of the
power unit and bett driven from the crankshaft
.
TSD 4400
Section E2
WORKSHOP MANUAL
E-?
Specification
Number of cylinders
Bore
Stroke
Cubic ca~scity
Compression ratio
Firing order
Cylinder block
Tvpe
Material
Over square 90' Vee
formation liquid cooled.
Eight in WO banks of four.
104.14mm (4.1Oin).
99.06mrn (3.90in).
6,75 litres (41 1-91in3)
nominal.
9: 1 or 8: 1 dependent upon
the specifiiation of the
ve hiek.
A l . 61. A4, 34, 82. A3.33.
A2.
-
Monobloc casting.
Cast aluminium alloy.
Connecting rods
Type
Material
Big-end bearings
Gudgeon pin bushes
Material
Gudgeon pins
Material
Pistons
Tvpe
Cylindmr liners
TVPE
Material
Detachable wet tiners.
Centrifugally spun cast iron.
Marerial
Cylinder heads
Description
Material
Crankshaft
Description
Material
Damper
Direction of rotation
End thrust
Rings
Two detachable heads, each
having four separate inlet and
exhaust wns.
Aluminium alloy, with
phosphor-bronze exhaust
valve guides and east iron
inlet valve guides. Valve seat
insens of heat treated alloy
wst iron.
Dynamically balanced. five
puma1 crankshaft with four
crankpins (incorporating
integral baIance weights and
sludge traps).
Chrome molybdenum steel
with nittide hardened journals
and crankpink
Metalastik rubber vibration
dampcr.
Clockwise [viewed from the
front of the engine).
Taken on cemre main bearing.
'H' sdaion. Forged to size.
Weighed and colour coded
into sets.
Chrome molybdenum steel.
Steel backed shells with a tin-
atum~niumlining.
Pressed into connecting rod
smalbend bosses and
macttined to size.
Lead-bronze. steul backed.
Folly floating.
EN 32 B.
Cam ground. full skirt design
reIiwed for crankweb
clearance. Recessed crown
and offset gudgeon pin.
Turbocharged engines
have neel struts cast into the
wall of the pistons.
Aluminium allqv Tin plated.
Three
a) Two compression internal
s~eppedand manufactured
from cast iron top ring
molybdenum sprayed onto
-
-
-
periphery.
b) One oil control (scraper).
Othmr than turbochsrgmd
engines. Top and bottom
steel mils have a chromium
plged periphery. Equalizer
(expander and centre
spacer) is manufactuted
from =&on steel.
Turbocharged engines.
Single piece east iron ring
with chromium plated
lands and a coiled internal
control spring.
Valva gear
Valves
Material
Inlet valve
Overhead push rod operated.
Seat angle 45'.
.
Tutbachaiged engines.
2t
Main bsrrings
Material
Number
May 1982
Steei backed shells with a tinaluminium lining.
Fm.
- 4N. Stellited tips.
Other than turbocharged
engines. EN24 with
induction hardened tips.
-
Exhaust valve
-
2 1 4N. Stellited tips and
valve seats
Nota
All valves have tufftriding on
sterns [early turbocharged
engines and fuel injection
engines have valves with
PTFE (Xylan) sprayed on
stems].
Valve timing
Tappets
Marks on gears.
%&adjusting hydraulic
Material
Push rods
Material
tappets with spherical base.
Heat tremed chilled cast iron.
Batl-ended tubes.
Copper ptated bundy tube.
Camshaft
Material
Cams
Number of jourtlats
Bearings
Thrust taken
Drive
Material
Lubrication y r t s m
General
High pressure supply
Relief valve
Oil pump
Drive
Oil filter
Chilled cast iron.
5' to 7' longitudinal tapar.
Four.
Runs direct in crankcase.
On front end.
Through helical tooth gears.
Crankshaft gear steel.
Camshaft gear aluminium.
-
High pressure oil feed to
turbocharger (iffirted),
crankshaft connecting rods.
camsha* bearings. camshaft
timing gears, tappets. ~ u s h
mds. and rocker h a H end
seatings. Low oil pressure fed
through the front camshaff
bearing to rocker shafts.
rocker arms, and valve tips.
Splash feed to connecting rod
.small-ends, gudgeon pins,
and cylinder walls.
Pressufired wet sump
system.
2.8 f kgf/cm (40 lbf/in2) at
2000 rw/min.
2.8 1 kgf/cm 2(40 1bf/in2].
Helical gear type with fine
mesh strainer pick-up.
By gears from cmnkshah
Full ftow. disposable canister
type.
Associmted systems
Fuel systems
Refer to Chapter K or
Chapter U.
Cooling system
Exhaust system
Ignition system
Refer to Chapter L.
Refer to Chapter Q
Refer to Chapter M or
Chapter U.
WORKSHOP MANUAL
E3
E3-1
Semion
Dimensional data
Description
Dimension
Permissible
worn
Remarks
dimensions
Crankcase and Cylindsra
Cylinder liner bare grading
S 4.1 0040 in to 4.1 0095 in
0.004 in
wear
T 4.10095 in to 4.70150 in
If these measurements ate
exceeded a new assembly of
liner and piston must be fitted
New liners must be sekectively
fined or ground an the end to
Cylinder finer 'nip'
give this dimension
Pistons
Piston grading
Other than turbocharged
engines
S 4.0985 in to 4.0990 in
Turb~hargedengines
S 4.0986 in D 4.0992 in
Compression ring groove
widths
Compression ring widths
Clearance
Compression rings closed
QaP
Oil control (scraper] ring
groove width
Oil wnml (scrawflring
c9od p p
Pistons measured between
1.31 2 in and 1.S63 in from
the botrom of the skin across
the thrust axis
Pistons measured 0.960 inch
from the bonom of the skin
across the thrust axis
The rings should be assembled
with staggered gaps
Dimension
Psrmirsibie
worn
dimensions
Remarks
Crankshaft and Connecting rods
Connecting rod small-end
bush internal diameter
1.0003 in to 1 .D005 in
Gudgeon pin eleaiance in
smaltend bush
Size to 0.0004 in
At room temperature 20.C to
22'C
Big-end bearing housing,
internal diameter
2.395 in to 2.3955 in
Big-end bearing shell.
intemal diameter
2.2505 in to 2.25 15 in
This diameter should be
checked with the big-end htts
in position and the nuts Torque
tightened to 47,08 Nm
(4.8 kgf m. 35 IM ft)
Crankpin diameter
2.2485 in to 2.249 in
2.2475 in
0.004 in
Small-end bush housing
internal diameter
.
Clearance measured vertically
1.l 40 in to t .l 405 in
Connecting rod wist
Maximum of 0.003 inch per
inch in length
Connecting rod vertical
alignment
Maximum of 0.001 inch per inch
in length
Connecting rod and cap bolt
holes diameter for location
0.375
in to 0.3755 in
On location diameter
Connecting rod bolt
diameter for location
0.3745 in to 0.375 in
On locarion diamerer
Clearance
Size to 0.001 in
Connecring rod bolt
interference on knurled
diameter
Size to 0.0069 in
Bolts should not be removed
from rods unless they are to be
.
Connecting rod end-float
renewed
0.008 in to 0.0 17 in
bntrolled by clearance
between rods and crankpin end.
faces
Main bearing diametral
clearance
0.00 1 1 in to 0.0026 in
Crankshaft end-float
0.004 in to 0.01 0 in
Connecting rod bolt metch
Refer to Section E6
Crankshaft bow
0.01 in
Regrind crankshaft if this figure
is exceeded
Crankshaft journals and
crankpins
0.001 in
Regrind crankshaft if this figure
is exceeded
Seaion E3
WORKSHOP MANUAL
hrmissiblo
Dimension
Aamarlu
worn
dimensions
Gudgson pins
t .0003 in to 1.0004 in
Colour code marked on the
underside of the piston boss
Green
1-0001 in to 1.0002 in
Colour code marked on the end
of the gudgeon pin
Green
Bore diameter in piston
Gudgeon pin diameter
Fled
1.0002 in to 1.W03 in
0.0061 in re 0.0003 in
Clearance in boss
Main bearing housings
2.8735 in to 2.8740 in
Bore diameter
This diameter should ba
checked with the main bearing
caps in position and the
retaining nuts tightened to the
following 78.64 Nrn to
84.06 Nm (8.0 kgf m to
8.5 kgf m. 58 Ibf ft to
62 Ibf ft)
Main bearing cap
Width of cap
5.1005 in tp 5.1010 in
Crankcase tocation gap
5.1000 in to 5.1010 in
-
Fit Interference
0.001 in
Clearance
0.0005 in
Crankshaft joumaI diameter
Main shell bearing diameter
2.6388 in + 0.00 1 in
0.01 0 in undersize
- 0.0005 in
2.6278 in - 0,0005 in
2.6288 in + 0.00 1 in
0.020 in undersize
2.61 78 in
- 0,0005 in
2.6 t 88 in 9 0.00 1 in
Crankshaft sum
Crankpin
Crankshaft diameter
Crankshaft grinding dimensions
Standard
2.6378 in
Crankshaft grinding dimensions
-
Standard
2.249 in 0.0005 in
0.010 in undersize
2.239 in 0.0005 in
0.020 in undersixe
2.229 in 0.0005 in
-
-
Bipend bearing
Dimension
Parmirsibla
worn
Remarks
dimensions
Camshaft riming gear
backlash
Camshah gear face run-out
Camshaft end-float
Camshaft journal diamcrtsr
Camshaft bearing bore
Camshaft journal clearance
1.457 in
Cam base circle (inlet and
Dimensions apply on centre
line of cam at the small end
exhaust)
Height of cam (inlet and
exhaust)
Tapper block bore diameter
Colour code white
Colour code red
Groove(s) etched onto the top
face of the tappet barrel.
Tappets marked with one
Tappet external diameter
groove should be used with
tappet black bores colour
coded whits and tappets
marked with two grooves
should be used with tappet
block bores colour coded red
One groove
0.9040 in to 0.90425 in
Two grooves
0.90425 in to 0.9045 in
Clearance
0.0005 in to 0.001 in
Exhaust valve guide
external diameter
-
0.6275 in to 0.628 in
Blue + 0.002 in
Green 0.005 in
Yellow 0.0 10 in
+
+
Cytindsr head bore diameter
fw exhaust vake guide
0.625 in to 0.626 in
Imrference in head
0.0015 in to 0.003 in
Exhaust vaks guide
internal diameter
-
Inlet whre stern diameter
Clearance
Standard
0.375 in to 0.3755 in
Finish reamed aber fitting.
0.3775 in
'Be!lmovth' at the h r end is
permissible up to 0.006 in for
a depth of 0.3725 in
. 0.37375
in to 0.374 in
0.00'1 in to 0.00175 in
0.37275 in
0.0035 in
*
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Parmiuiblo
worn
dimensions
Description
Inlet mhle spring poundage
Type A
test
74,4 kgf to 81 kgf to compress
spring to 30.5 mm
( l 6 4 Ibf to 179 Ibf to compress
spring to 1.ZOO in)
-
Remarks
Type A = inlet vaive sptings a n
shorrer than exhaust valve
springs
Type B = both inlet valve
springs and exhaust valve
springs generally appear the
Type B
t st test 37.9 kgf to 42 kgf to
compress spring to 34 m m
(83.5 Ibf to 92.5 IM to
compress spring to 1.340 in)
same length
2nd test 7 1.7 kgf to 7 7 2 kgf
to compress spring to 23.9 mm
(1 58 Ibf to 170 Ibf to
compress spring ro 0.940 in)
Gland spring compressed to
12,7 mm (0.5 in)
-
Other than turbcharged
engines and fuel injection
engines
10.4 kgf to 13.17 kgf
9.08 kgf
(24 Ibf to 29 Ibf)
(20
Exhaust wive overall
Other than turbocharged
length
engines
4.886 in m 4.896 in
Turbocharged engines
4.9 15 in to 4.930 in
Exhaust valve stem diameter
0.37375 in to 0.374 in
0.37275 in
Clearance
0.00 1 in to 0.00 1 75 in
0.0035 in
Exhaust v a k spring
poundage test
TW
A
l st test 39.01 kgf to 42.68 kgf
to compress spring to 43.8 mm
(86 IM to 94 lbf to cornpress
spring to 1.725 in)
Type A = exhaust valve springs
are longer than inlet valve
springs
2nd test 7 1.7 kgf to 77.2 kgf
to compress spring to
33.6 mm [l 58 Ibf to 170 Ibf to
compress spring to 1.325 in)
Tvpe B
Type B = bath exbust valve
lsttest 37.9 kgfto 42 kgfto
compress spring to 34 mm
I83.5 Ibf m 9 2 5 IM to
compress spring to 1.340 in)
springs and inlet valve s ~ n g s
generally appear ,the same
length
2nd tes? 71.7 kgf to 7 7 3 kgf
to compress spring to 23,9 mm
(l S8 Ibf to 170 Ibf to cocompmss
spring to 0.940 in)
July 1904
Dimension
Exhaust and inlet valve seat
45'
After -Ending the e!xhaud
valve seat can be 'crowned with
30' curter m avoid packeting
1.7540 in to 1.7545 in
Standard
Green 0.005 in
angle
Exhaust vahre seat inserl
external diameter
-
Cylinder head bore diameter
for exhaust seat insen
't .750 in to 1 -751 in
Interference
0.003 in to 0.0045 in
Inlet valve seat insert
-
+
Yellow + 0.0 10 in
Blue + 0.01 5 in
2.0290 in to 2.0295 in
Standard
+
Green 0.005 in
Yellow + 0.0 10 in
Blue + 0.015 in
external diameter
Cylinder head bore diameter
2.025 in to 2.026 in
Interference
0.003 in to 0.0045 in
-
lnlet valve guide external
diameter
0.62 75 in m 0.628 in
Standard
Blue + 0.002 in
Green + 0.005 in
Yellow 0.01 0 in
+
Cylinder head bore diameter
for inlet valve guide
Interference in head
-
lnier valve guide internal
0.3775 in
Finish reamed after fitting
diameter
-
lnlet valve weratl length
Other than turbocharged
engines
4.91 7 in to 4.933 in
Turbocharged engines
4.863 in to 4.897 in
Distribuwr gear backlash
Rocker bore diameter
0.002 in to 0.008 in
0.009 in
Measured by turning small gear
on distributor drive-shaft
0.74925 in to 0.74975 in
0.751 in
Rocker shaft diameter
Clearance
Hydraulic brake pump push
rod lift
Hydraulic brake pump shim
sizes
fhis measurement is taken
from the top face of the
mounting flange to the top of
the push d
-
0.003 in and 0.007 in
Secrion E3
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Ponnissibk
Dimension
Remarks
worn
dimamions
Oil pump
.-
Driving shaft diameter
0-4990 in to 0.4995 in
Shaft b r e diameter
0.500 in to 0.5005 in
Shaft clearance in casing
bore
0.0005 in to 0.0015 in
Stationary spindle diamerer
0.499 in to 0.4995 in
Driven gear internal diameter
0.500 in to 0.5005 in
Clearance on spindle
0.0005 in to 0.001 S in
Diametrical clearance
h e e n gears and side of
chamber
0.002 in to 0.0035 in
Pump gears backlash
0.003in to 0.007 in
Pump gears end-float
0.00 1 in to 0.004 in
Drive gear backlash
Drive gear end-float
0.003in
Permissible only when the
radial clearance of the gears in
the case exceeds this figure
0.0085 in
Oil pump internal gears
0.001 in to 0.008 in
0.012 in
Measured by turning small
gear on oil pump
0.001 in to 0.004 in
0.005 in
-.
,
July T 984
tSDuOO
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Section E4
€41
Crankcase and Cylinder liners
The crankcase and cylinders form a monobloc casting
of aluminium alloy that carries 'wet-type' cylinder
liners.
The centrifugally spun cast iron liners are sealed
by a single rubber '0'ring at the top and bytwo
~ b b e r ' O rings
'
at the bottom (see fig. €4-2).
The main bearing caps are an aluminium forging
and have an interference fit in the crankcase of up to
0.0254 m m (0.001 in).
The camshaft runs in bores machined directly in
the crankcase.
Each cast iron tappet block is located by WO
doweis f i e d into the crankcase. One of the locating
holes in .the t a p p e t block is elongated and forms a slot
to allow for the differenr rates of expansion between
the iwo metab.
The bores of the tapper blocks are graded into two
sizes and colour coded either Mite or red.
Some setscrew holes in the crankcase are wed
with heli-coil insem. The threads in the crankcase (into
which these helkoil inserts screw) are non-standard
sizes. therefore. setscrews should not be frtted until
Fig. E 4 1 Crankcasm
TSD uOQ
July 1984
the heli-eoik have been correctly installed.
Studs (colour coded for size) screw directly into
the crankcase. their threads having an interference fit
of up to 0,0508 mm (0.002 in).
Cylinder liners and saals
The cylinder bore dimensions should an@ be
checked with all the Iiners from any ona bank in
position. Any deviation from this rule could resuh
in false wading&
-From the measurements taken of the cylinder bore
calculate the wear and wality. If the figures exceed
those quoted in Section €3. Dimensional data. a new
liner (with new sealing rings) and piston assembly
should be fMed.
Cylinder liner seal leakage can be detected by 'telC
tale' holes in the side of the ctankease.
If engine coolant issues from the 'tell-tale' hole the
upper, of the rwo bortom rings is leaking; if oil issues
fro= the 'tell-tale* hole, the lower sealing ring is
leaking. tn either case. the appropriate liner shouM be
removed and new sealing rings fitted into the
crankwse (see fig. E4-2).
Note
The seaiing ring lubricant used during engine
assembly. will mett when the engine is initially run and
may flow from the 'tektale' holes. staining the
crankcase. This situation is normal and must not be
confused with a sealing ring leak
-
Cylinder Iiner To remove
This operation can be achieved whether or not the
crankcase is fitted into the vehicle. One cylinder liner
or a complete set of cylinder liners can be remwed
from the crankcase in the following manner.
1. Dismande the engine as necessary.
2, Using the cylinder Iiner extraction tool RH 7095'
as shoG in figure E4-3, withdraw the liner from the
top face of the crankcase.
Note
In certain instances it may be beneficial to carry out
Operation 2 with the crankcase heated.
-
Cylinder Iiner To fit
1. Ensure that the coolant drain hole in the crankease
wall is clean and unobstructed.
2. Ensure that the seal leakage 'tell-tale* holes in the
crankcase wall are clean and unobstructed.
3. Ensure that the sealing ring grooves are absolutely
clean.
4. Inspect the cylinder finer. the Iiner location bore in
the crankcase and the crankcase counterbore. Remove
any burrs and thoroughly clean the parts {particulariy
the mating faces) wirh 'Genklene' or a similar
alternative.
Fig. €4-2 Cylinder liner in position
1
Crankcase
2 Bore reference number and piston grade
letter
3 Rubber '0'ring
4
Upper sealing ring
5 Lower sealing ring
6 Cylinder liner
7 Tell-tale hole (8 off)
8 Crankcase
9 Cylinder liner
A Position of eormsion build-up on cylinder
liner and crankcase
X Cylinder liner nip
Maticulaus care should be taken when
w r y i n g out these operations. Any dirt o r burrs
ailawed to remain will have an adverse affect on
the fit of the liner in the crankcase and mmy
distort the liner born.
5. When a cylinder liner is fitted into the crankcase it
should stand proud of the crankcase top face by the
amount stated in Section E3. Dirnqsianal data This is
to provide a 'nip' when the cylinder head and gaska
are fitted.
To obtain the correct 'nip' carry out Operations 6
to 9 inclusive {see fig. €4-2).
6. Measure the depth of rhe cyfinder liner collar and
also that of the counterbore in the crankcase,
7. Subtract the counterbore measurement from the
collar measurement to obtain the 'nip' figure.
8. If the figure obtained does nat currespond wSth
the figure quoted in Section E3, either
a grind the excess metal off the top face of the liner
(always clean the liner after grinding).
b or try another liner.
9. Before fming a cylinder liner into a cnnkcase
always ensure that the bore number is etched -onto she
top face as shown in figure E4-2. Other inforr&tion
that is etched onto the top of the liner includes the
piston grade letter (always ensure that the cylinder
- W
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Ssericn E4
E4-3
Fig. E4-3 Cylinder liner extraction
A
Afternative nut to allow cylinder Iiners to
be removed with the engine remaining in
the vehicle
tiner is the required grade) and on a very limited
number of engines the lerters O/L adjacent m the
piston grade.
The letters O/L refer to oversize liners (outside
diameter) and these liners may be fitted to same
reconditioned engines.
10. Fit three new rubber sealing rjngs into the
crankcase. Thinly smear the rings and tocation
diameters with Palmolive grease or its equivalent
11. Ensure that the crankcase counterbore and liner
coltar are clean.
12. Fit the cylinder Iher into the crankcase bore
ensuring that the cylinder bore reference etched on the
top face of the liner is positioned at the top (i.e.
nearest point to the camshah) as s h m in figure €4-2.
13. Using a plastic headed mallet, tap evenly around
the top face of the liner to ensure that it is seating
correctly-
Note
In certain instances it may be beneficial to carry out
Operations 12 and 13 with the erankcase heated
14. Using a depth micrometet. measure the amount
that the liner stands proud abarre the c r a n k s s feec
(refer to Setxion E3. Dimensional data).
1 S. If the liner stands proud of the cmnkcase by more
than the specified limits. again tap around the rop face
of the liner using a plastic headed mallet
16. Should the liner either remain in evess of the
stand proud limit or b? belaw the limit the liner
should be withdrawn and the muse investigated.
January 1983
Sealon E5
E5-1
WORKSHOP MACYUAL
Crankshaft and Main bearings
The crankshaft is forged from chrome molybdenum
steel. There are five main journals and four crankpins,
each crankpin carries mu connecting rods. The main
journals and crankpins nrn in split, steel backed shell
bearings that have an aluminium-tin lining.
The crankpins are drilled and plugged m form
sludge traps that prevent dirt from reaching the
bearings.
To improve the wear charaaeristics, the
crankshaft is nitride hardened.
Crankshaft end-float is controlled by split thrust
washers fitted on either side of the centre main
bearing assembly.
The crankshaft has integral balance weights and is
dynamically balanced before it is fitted to the engine.
When the engine is partially buiit the etankshaft
connecting rods, and pistons are dynamically balanced
in the crankcase.
A 'lip- type of oil seal is fitted t o rhe front and rear
of the crankshaft
It is important that the position of any
component removed from the engine is noted so
that it can be returned to its original position,
otherwise. wear characteristics and engine
balance may be impaired.
-
Crankshaft To remwe
'I. Remove rhe engine from the vehicle (see Section
E 1 2).
2. Fit the engine to a turnover stand.
3. Ensure that the engine ail has been drained.
4. Turn the engine over.
5. Unscrew the retaining setscrews and withdraw
the sump. Discard the gasket.
6. Unscrew the setscrews and withdraw the ail
pedestai and strainer assembly.
7. Remove the cmlant pump [see Chapter L).
8. Locate the lock-plate situated in the centre of the
crankshaft pulley.
9. Unscrew the setscrews and withdraw.the lockplate.
1 0. Using the special spanner RH 7 t 3 1 unscrew the
serrated nut from the crankshaft
l 1. Withdraw the pully and damper.
1 2. Using an extractor RH 9765 withdraw the pulley
dr~vingflange and collm the W d r u H e key.
13. On turbocharged engines, remove the
turbocharger heatshields and disconnect the oil return
pipe at the joint an the front cwer.
14. Ensure that all weight is removed from the engine
front mounting foot and remwe the setscrews from
the engine mounting situated below the timing cover.
15. Unscrew and remove the necessary nuts.
'
setscrews, and studs retaining the lower timing cover
(see fig. ES-2).
16: Carefully withdraw the lower timing cwer (the
cover is dowelled to the crankcase). ensuring that the
rubber bung situated inside rhe casing is not lost
17. Unscrew the three setscrews retaining the oil
pump. Withdraw the assembly and dowel insern
together with the pipe and rubber 'D'ring.
18. Unscrew the setscrews securing the flexplate
assembly (flywheel) to the crankshaft.
19. Withdraw the flexplate assembly.
20. Unscrew the setscrews and withdraw the
backplate (see fig. E5-2).The backplate is dowelled ro
the crankcase. Discard the gasket.
21. Unscrew the nuts from the connecting rod bolts
and then withdraw the conneaing rod caps.
22. Fit protective rubber tubing over the connecting
rod botts to prevent damage to the crankpins (see fig.
E6-4).
23. Remove the shell bearlngs from both the
connecnng rod and cap.
24. Push the pisron and connecrtng rod assemblies to
the top of their respective bores.
25. Unscrew the main bearrng cap nurs and withdraw
the caps using the extractor RH 7208 and atrachment
RH 7498 as shown in figure €5-3.
26. Remove the crankshaft thrust washers from the
centre main bearlng.
27. Fit protective rubber tubing over the maan bear~ng
studs to prevenr damage rc the crankshaft journals.
28; Carefully lift the crankshaft from the crankcase.
-
Crankshaft To dismantle
1, Using the special spanner RH 7 110 unscrew and
remove the serrated nut and washer from the front of
the cranksha* (the nut has a !eh-hand thread).
Withdraw the spacer washer.
2. Ensure that the front face of the oil pump drive
gear is identified (so that the gear can be fined in its
original position when assembling the crankshaft).
3. Withdraw the oil pump driving gear.
4. Using a soft d r i f t ramove the Wcmdruffe key.
5. Withdraw the space washer.
6. Withdraw the riming gear and Woodruffe key.
7. Dismantle the sludge traps by remaving the
retaining circjip and withdrawing the plug.
-
Crankshaft To insprct
1. Thoroughly clean the crankshaft This can usually
be achiwed by washing the shaft in a paraffin baPh
then drying it with compressed air. A sst of s m l !
brushes may be useful to temwe obstinate dirt
2. Mount the crankshaft in 'Vee' blocks on an
inspection table.
3. Using a micromerer check the crankshaft journais
and crankpins for size. waliry, paralelism. and bow
(see fig. E5-4). Refer to Section E3. Dimensional data.
for the service dimensions. If necessary, regrind the
.
4. lnspecr rhe taper on the front of the crankshaft for
crankshaft.
E5-1 Crankshaft assembiy
fig.
'
1 Woodruffe key
2 Main shell bearing
Washer
Nu:
3 Circlip
Rubber 'O' ring
Drrving flange (other than turbocharged engines)
4
5
6
7
8
9
Plug
Crankshaft
Blanking disc
Timing gear
'
Distance piece (large)
Oil pump driving gear
Nut
Damper
Pulley
Loek-plate
Driving flange (turbocharged engines)
January 1983
Section E5
WORKSHOP MANUAL
-.
Fig. E 5 2 Cmnkrhkft smal rmngsmsnts
1 Early type of rear seal
2 Late t y p t of rear seal
€5-3
A Front seal
B Rear seal
C
TSD a
0
0
wssr and damage. If the taper shows &ous signs of
m r or damwe. a replacement crankshaft should b
flat&,
5. Inspect the Woodruffs keys and keyways for wear.
mdze keys a n waitable. However. if wear b
apparent with the largest size Woodnrffe keys
installd. a replacernem crankshaft should be fitted.
-
C n n t u M to ragrind
I . The crankshaft should be reground whim wear or
ovali a d s 0,025 mm (0.001 in), when the
crankpins and journals are heavily scored or when the
b w in the crankshaft exceeds 0,25 m m (0.010 in).
2 Rsplactrnent b r i n g s are available in the
fdlbwing sizes standard, minus 0 2 5 mm (0.010 in)
and minus 0.50 mm {0.020 in).
3. The crankpins and journals should be ground and
lapped to suit the nearest undersize bearing. Refer to
-ion
E3. Dimensional data
4. When grinding, use a stone having a grit and
grade aquivalem to a NORTON A 46 MV or one grade
softer. A harder stone must not be usad.
5. For 'plunge' grinding, the width of the stone must
be 0,50 m m (0-020 in) Iws than the dimension
b e e n the journa! or crankpin end faces and the
machine must be fined with hydraulic stops. for
traverse grinding a suitable widrh of stone should be
selected (see fig. E5-51.
6. Care must be raken to ensure that no sharp edges
are left in the radii where ttte grinding wheel traverse
ends and the radii of the grinding wheel musf be
wrefully controlled to ensure that the grinding fades
out not mare than half-way up the radius of the
crankshalt.
On no account must ?hagrinding whad tauch
tha rid* h a s of the crankpin or joumml.
7. Lubrication must be continuous during regrinding
and the lubricant should be fed liberally onto the
mgdng side of the grinding wheel. The grinding whwl
must not be allowed to contact the journal or crankpin
until the shaft is thoroughly wet Any approved
lubricant can be used.
8. Grind the crankpins and journals until they are
0.025 mm [0.00'1 in) larger b a n the required finished
size. This will rrllow for lapping and Wishing.
9. Crankshafts must be rehardened by the nitriding
praccss after each m-grind.
1Q. Aher hardening, test the hardness ofthe journals
and crankpins. The minimum acceptance figure for the
hardened crankshaft is 570 VPN/BO kg using a
Uckers Diamond Pyramid Machine.
11. After grinding and if the necessary equipment is
available, the &aft should h magnetically crack
tested. It should then be lapped and polished to the
finished size
-
Cnnkrhafi To lap
1. The crankshaft journals and crankpins should be
lapped to pmduce a perfectly smooth finish after
grinding and hardening.
2. Cast iron laps should be used and the machine set
to run at between 220 rev/min and 250 redmin.
3. The lapping compound should consisr of a mixrure
of grade M 303% grit and vegetable oil in approximate
proportion of 7,O kg (2.5 lb] of grit to 4.5 litres [l Imp
gallon. 1.2 US gallons] of the oil. The compound must
be mixed to a smooth consistency and injected inro
the laps at frequent intervals.
4. The crankpins and journals must be lapped
parallel re within 0.01 0 m m (0.0004 in). Whilst
lapping. The size of the crankpins and journals should
be checked frequently: allowances must be made for
the slight contraction which will rake place as the shaft
cools.
5. Atrer lapping. wash the shaft thoroughly in a high
pressure paraffin wash: blow off any surplus paraffin
with compressed air and dry the shaft with a soft lint
free cloth.
6. Whenthsshahisdry.polish thecrankpinsand
journals with Corolite 320 grade abrasive tape 2.5 cm
( 1 in) wide liberally lubricated with vegetable oil.
7. After polishing. again wash the shaft and repeat
the cleaning procedure.
-
Fig. E5-3 Removing the main bornring capa
Crankshaft To assemble
1. Ensure that the crankshaft is thoroughly clean.
2. If the sludge traps have been dismantled ensure
that new plugs are firted.
Fit each plug using a punch similar to that shown
in figure E5-6. Each plug must be retained with a
cirelip.
3. Fit !fie Wobdruffe key to the crankshah then fit
the timing gear.
Ensure that the timing gear locates correctly OOKO
the Woodtuffe key.
5. Fit the larger of the two spacers
~SecrianE5
€5-6
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Obtained on crankshaft main journal, cmnkpins. and
rwo planes one at right angles to the other.
{b) Ensure that tfie sheli beatings are firted in position
and the remining nuts comedy tightened.
Measure rhe bore of the bearing in three places
2 Add the m o journal or crankpin madings together (three
1.
Obtain mean size of she!! bearing.
2. Obtain mwn size of crankshaft main journavcrankpin.
3. Subtract rneasurernern obtained in 2 from measurement
obtained m 1 to give bearing clearance.
Measurement
2.
Position the indicator gauge on the side of the cenrre
twa planes one at right angles to the other.
2. Subtract the smaller reading from the larger reading to
This operation should be carried out at several points to
establish the Largest and smallest d;arnerers.
2
Fig. €5-4 Mathod of messurin~the cmnkshrft
the same plane.
Subvaa the smaller reading from the larger readinb
to give the raper.
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Section E5
€5-7
dislodgad. The cap n w should be torque t~ghtenedto
the figures quoted in Section E l 5.
6, Check that the uankshaft rotates freely.
7. Check the crankshaft end-ftoat as s h w n in figure
ES-8. Refer to Section E3,Dimensional data
8. fit the bearing shells to the connecting rods and
eaps. dren lightly smear the shells with clean oil.
9. Locste the lowest crankpin (with the engine
inverted this will be-the crankpin that is uppeWn0~~).
1.0. Pull the two connecting rods upwards and
position the big-ends around the crankpin.
11, Remove the protective rubber sleeve from each
bolt
12. Assemble the connecting rod big-ends (see
Section €6).
13. Fit the oil pump and oil filter delivery pipe, using
the new rubber '0'rings.
14. Fit the oil strainer pick-up and pedestal (see fig.
E5-9).
15. Assemble the fronr of the engine. using a new
gasket.
Fit a new Neoprene seal between the lower
front cover and the coolanr pump.
16. On turbocharged engines fit the turbocharger oil
return pipe into the lower front cover. Remove the oil
feed pipe and prime the turbocharger with engine oil.
Fir the feed pipe.
17. Fit a new rubber '0'ring into the pulley drrvlng
Fig. E5-7
Fitting the centre main bearing cap
flange.
18. Fit the pulley driving Range.
19. Fir the damper and crankshaft pulley.
20. Fit the serrated nut and torque tighten to the
figure given in Section E l 5 using The special spanner
RH 7131.
21. Check That the lock-plate aiigns w ~ t hthe five
setscrew holes. if necessary, funher tighten the
serrated nut to align The setscrew holes.
22. Fit the serscrews and torque tighten them to the
figures given in Sec?ior El 5.
fig. E5-6
Fining the sludge trap plugs
Fig. E 5 8 Checking the crankshaft end-float
T5D 4400
Janury 1983
23. Fit the driving beits. ensuring that they are
w n d y tigherwd (see -ion
E l 3).
24. Fit the engine backplate and flexplate assembly.
25. Wsually inspect the big-end and main bearings
(see fig. E5-9) and fit the engine sump. using a new
gasket
26. F
it the dipstick
27. Fit the engine into the engine compament (see
Section E 12).
-
Crankshaft damper To remwe
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2 Slacken the driving betts.
3. Remove the fwe setscrews and the locking plate
from the crankshaft pulley.
4. Withdraw the pulley and the damper.
-
Crankshaft damper To fit
To fit the damper. reverse the procedure given for its
removal, noting the following.
1. The damper and crankshaft pulley can only be
fitred one way due to the positioning of rhe locating
dowel(s).
2. Fir the serscrews and torque tighten them t o the
figures given in Section E?5.
;3. F I the
~ driving belts and tension them as
described in Seesion E7 3.
-
Crankshaft front oil seal To remove and fit
(see fig. E5-2)
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2. Remove the coolant pump {see Chapter L\.
3. Remove the crankshaft pulley and damper.
4. Using e
w RH 9765 W m w the pulley
driving flange and collect the Woodntffe
5. Unscrew the setscrews that secure the sump !o
the front lower timing cover.
6. Remove
.all weight from the engine h n t mounting
fmt
7. Unscrew the setscrews from the engine mounting
siwated below the timing wver.
8. Remove the necessary nuts. setscrews, and studs
mining the front lower riming cwer (see fig. €5-2).
9. Carefully thread a fteler gauge or similar object
been the bottom of the ewer and the sump gasket
Slowfy work the feeler gauge amund tfie joint to
'break' the seal.
10. Wmhdraw the lower timing cover (the cover is
dowelled to the crankcase). ensuring that the rubber
bung situated inside the casing does not become
mislaid. Discard the gasket
l l. Rernuve the OR seal from the front cwer.
12 inspect both the cover oil seal bore and the
crankshaft driving flange for score marks and/or wear.
13. Coat the outside of the new seat with PBlmolive .
grease and press the seal into the housing umil it is
correctly positioned (see fig. E5-21.
10. Fir the cwer to the engine by reversing the
removal procedure, noting that a new gasket and
neoprene seal should be fined.
m.
Crankshaft rear o i l seal - T o remove and fit (see
%g. €5-2)
1. Ensure that the usual workshop safety precaurions
are carried out
2. Remove the tansmission (see Chapter q.
3, Remove the setscrews securing the flexplate and
withdraw the assembly from The rear of the engine.
4. Locate the engine backplate and unscrew the
retaining setscrews.Collect the washers and withdraw
the backplate. The backplate is dowelled to the
crankcase.
5. Discard the crankcase gasket.
6. Using a hammer and drift carefully tap the seal
out af the rear of the housing.
7. Fit the new seal into a anworn pan of the
backplate bore noting the following. points.
Two different types of seal am fined
a. One type of seal has the instructions install dry
stamped on10 it and this instruction must be strictly
adhered m. fit the seal into the backplate bore and fit'
the backplate assembly carefully over the end of the
crankshaft imo position.
b The alternative seal arrangement should be fined
into the backplate using the special insenion tool
RH 9646. Seal protection sleeve RH 9655 should be
fitted onto the end of the crankshaft Both the seal and
sleeve should be lubricated with dean engine oil
before the backplate assembly is fined into position.
Wrthdraw the seal protection sleeve
c Always ensure that a new gasket is fined to the
crankcase prior to !he.+ installation of the backplate
Fig. E5-9 View with the sump removed
assembly.
8. Secure !he backplate and cornplere the assembly
by reversing the removal procedure.
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Semion E6
Connecting rods and Pistons
Connecting rods
The connecting rods (see fig. E6-1)are 'H'section
forgings of chrome molWenum steel. fhey are
accurately balanced befbn,fitting to the engine by
machining excess metal from the balance pad an the
big-end and from the boss on rhe small-end.
Drillings in the crankshaft webs carry oil from the
main bearings to the big-end journals, for the
lubrication of the bigend bearings. Oil splash and mist
collecting under the crown of the piston falls onto the
connecting rod small-end boss and then passes
ohrough a recessed drilling in the boss and a hole in
the bush to provide lubrication for the gudgeon pin
and smali-end bush.
The detachable big-end bearings are split steel
backed shells with a tin-aluminium lining.
The small-end bush which is pressed into the
small-end boss, is split and has a steel backing lined
with laad-bronze. A*er being pressed into the smallend boss. the bush is machine bored to the final
diameter.
Pistons
The pistons are manufactured from 12% sitcon
aluminium alloy. They are cam ground to provide an
ideal bearing surface that will maintain an adequate oil
film and minimise the possibifity of 'scuffing' under
adverse operating conditions.
On turbocharged engines. rhe pistons.are
diamond turned.
The pistons are finally tin-plated to a depth of
0.0076 mm (0.0003in).
Each piston has three.rings (two compression and
one oil control). a gudgeon pin that is off-set from the
centre line of the piston and a full skirt which is
shaped to allow for clearance with the crankshaft web
Turbxharged engines have steel struts cast into
the sides of the pistons.
. The top piston ring is an internally stepped type
of wmpression ring. manufactured from cast-iron. The
mp ring is molybdenum sprayed for a depth of
0.10 mm (0.004 in). This provides the ring with a
hard wear resistant face
The second ring is basically a compression ring
although it does combine these duties with that of an
auxiliary oil scraper ring. This ring is 'internally
stepped' and manufactured from cast iron. It is
gmnolite treated to provide additional lubrication for
the ring during rhe initial running-in period.
The oil cuj-ttrol (scraper) ring comprises top and
bottom steel tails that are chromium plated on the
periphery to a minimum depth of 0.13 mm (0.005 in).
The equalizer (expander and centre spacer] is
June t 983
Fig. E6-1 Connecting rod and piston assembty
manufactured from carbon steel.
On turbocharged engrnes. the oil control ring is a
lands
single piece cast iron ring with chrome
and a coiled internal control spring.
Further details of the piston rings are given in
figure E6-2.
Other h n Australir. Japan, and North America
9: l
8: 1 (Bentley Mulsanne Turbo)
Pistons
Piston
Compression ratio
A 50,80 mm (2.00 in)
B
3,60mm{0.142in)
A 62.23 mm (2.450 in)
B 6.35 mm (0.250 in)
n
A
8:l (Turbo)
B
1
67.99 mm (2.677 in)
8.30 mm (0,327in)
Piston rings
/
Ist Compression ring
-2nd
Compression ring
Edge of ring molybdenum sprayed to
a depth of Q.10 mm 10.004 in] min.
Produced from east iron and Granolite
treated
Steel rails chromium plated to a deprh
of 0.13 mm (0.005 in) min.
Centre equalizer produced from high
Carbon steel
\hlcontrol ring (Turbo)
I
i
Cast iron ring with chromium plated
periphery.
Coiled internal control spring
I
Note The compression ratio is changed by the shape of the pisron C
Fig. E6-2 Details of pistons
m .
-
I
Section E6
WORmHOP MANUAL
E6-3
Fig. ES-3 Removing the engine sump (other than turbocharged engines)
4 Steering rack
f Transmission oil cooler pipe
2 Front engine mount
5 Sump setscrew
3 fuel drain valve
6 Dil level tmnsmitter shield
Gudgeon pin
The piston is carried on the connecting rod by a
gudgeon pin This pin is fully floating when the engine
is running under normal conditions.
Two Seeger clips are used to retain the gudgeon
pin (see fig. €6-11.
The gudgeon pin is case hardened ta a depth of
between 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm (0.010 in and
0.020 in).
-
Connecting rod bearings To romovs
The big-end bearing can be renewed whilst the engine
is fitted in the car. To undertake this exercise, carry out
the usual workshop safety precautions and proceed as
follows.
1. Place the ear on a ramp beneath an ovehead
pulley.
2. Firmly apply the patking brake and chock the road
wheels.
3. Diswnnea the battery.
4. Drain The engine oil into a suitable container. Fit
the sump plug.
Refer to figure €6-3 or E 6 4 for identification
of the components t o br removed.
5.
Remove the sreering rack assembly (see Chapter
Chapter N).
6. Suitably position a sting around the upper front of
the engine. Connect the sling to the overhead pulley
and 'take the weight' of the engine.
On turbocharged cars. fit the front section of the
lifting eye RH 9730 and connect to the overhead
pulley via the front sling. Take the weigh of the
englne.
7. Detach the front engine mounc noting the
number of spacer shims.
8. Remove the engine oil level transmitter shield and
disconnea the electricak lead.
9. Remove the setscrews securing the transmission
oil cooler pipes to the sump (if applicable).
10. Remove rtre sump setscrews retaining the fuel
dram valve in positron (if fitted).Secure the valve away
from the area af the engine sump.
11. Unscrew and remove the nut. bolt and setscrew
securing the di~sticktube to the engine. Withdraw the
TSD 4400
June 19B3
dipstick a d tube assembly.
1 2 h i e the engine and wing a suitable universal
pint type of socket spanner unscrew the mining
setscrews from the mr af the engine ail sump
Some difficuw may be encountered when
nmwing the setscrews due to the close proximity d
the subframe crassmember.
13. R e m m the remainder of the sump retaining
setscrews, ensuring that the sump is supported before
all the crews are withdawn.
14. 'Break'the seal that will have formed between the
engine oil sump and the crankcase bomm face.
15. Carefully withdraw the sump assembly.
16. Remove the oil pedestal and fine mesh srrainer.
17. Remove the sparking plugs (this wilt facilitate
easier rotation of the crankshaft assembly).
18. Rotare the crankshaft until ane pair of connecting
rod caps an at their law- point
1 9. Unscrew the cap #mining nun and camfulb 'ease
off thecap
20. Fit protective rubber sleeving over the conndng
rod bolts to p m n t damage to the crankshaft (seefig.
€6-5). Do not ramova the eonnmcting d bob.
2 1. Push the connecting rod and piston assembly
upwards away from the crankshaft to facilitate
removal of the shell bearing.
22. Collect the shell bearing from the connecting rod
and cap
23. Repeat Operations 20 to 22 inclusive to the other
connecting rod big-end bearings on the crankpin
Only one pair of bigend bearings should be
dismantled at any one time. The position of the
bearing shells should be noted so that if the bearings
sre to be used again. they can h fitted in their original
p0skb0h
Fig. E 6 4 Removing the engine sump (turbocharged engines)
1 Steering rack
4 Sump setscrew
2 From engine mount
5 Dipsrick tube
3 Exhaust pipe
6 Oil level transmiaer shield
WORKSHOP MANUAL
-
mnkpins mnd bearings To inspect
1. Thoroughly clean each crankpin with a lint free
cloth. Measure each crankpin diameter for w a r and
ovality (see Section E5, Crankshaft To regrind).
2. The running clearance-betweenthe connecting
rod big-end bearing and the crankpin is 0,038 mm to
0,076 mm (0.0015 in to 0.003 in). The size and wear
tolerances are given in Section €3, Dimensional data.
New bearing shells should'be fitted if the
spcftd limits af the originals are exceeded due 'to.
wear, or if the bearing shells are scored
-
-
Connecting rod bearings To fit
1. Fit protective sleeves to the eonnecring rod halts.
2. If the upper and lower halves of a shell bearing
are considered serviceable they can be used again
provided that asch is kept in iYs original position.
However, if the shell bearings have seen considemblt
sewice. it is advisable to replace with new anus.
3. Before fming new bearings to the connecting rods
and caps. etch the cylinder numbi; onto the outside of
the loeating tang of each bearing shell.
4. Thoroughty clean the shells and the crankpin.
Ensure rhat the crankpin oil feed holes from the main
bearings are not blocked by sludge or d i h
5. Lightb smear the upper half of the shell bearing
surface with dean engine oil and fit it into the
connecting rod.
6. Pull the connecting rod downwards onto the
crankpin. Ensure that the rod bolts do not damage the
crankpin
7. Remove the protective sleeving from the
connecting rod bolts.
8. Fit rhe lower half of the shell bearing into rhe
connecting rod and lightly smear it with clean engine oil.
9. Ensure that the tang on each half of the shell
bearing is located correctly in its respective recess.
10. Place the cap onto the rod. ensuring that the two
tangs are on the same side of the crankpin (see fig.
Fig. E6-5
Removing the big-end bearing shells
1 Connecting rod bott fined with p r o t e ~ i v e
rubber sleeve
2 Connecring rod bolt pushed away from
the crankshaft
€6-9).
If necessary, carefully tap the cap into position
until it is fully seated. Take care t o ensure that
neither the shell nor the connecting red bolts
become displaced during this operation.
1 1. Using a micrometer, measure the overall length of
the connecting tod bolra These should have an overall
length of berween 7'1.g5 mm and 72-01 mm
(2.833 in and 2.835 in).
Any bott not conforming to the dimensions
quoted. should be carefully rernwed from the
connecting rod (use a hide mallet) and a new bolt
fmed.
12. Ensure that the shell bearings are correctly
positioned. then fitthe cap to me connecting rod.
13. Lubricate the connecting rod bolt threads with
engine oil and screw the retaining nuts 'onto the bolts.
Each nut should be screwed on by hand and lightly
'nipped' using a handbrace and socket
The nuts-should be easy to screw on, if any effom
is required, the threads should be examined tor burrs.
damage. or malformation and the offending parts
replaced.
June l 903
Fig. €6-6 Checking connecting rod bolt stretch
14. Torque tighten the nuts to o h i n a bott stretch of
between 0.1 5 mm and 0.38 mm (0.006 in and 0.015
in). This bolt stretch range should be achieved
between 4.84 kgf m and 6.22 kgf m (35 Ibf fr and
45 IW ft).
15- H any Loit has not been stretched sufficiently,
increase the torque tightness to 6.91 kgf m (50 tbf ft)
and again check the bolt stretch.
conforms it is acceptable. if not slaeken bofh nuts and
replace the suspect boh with a new o m
Repeat Operations 1 1 w 14 inclusive.
17. If any bolt has been over stretched when
tightening. slacken both nuts on the connecting rod
and reptace the offending bok
18. Repeat Operations 11 to 17 inclusive to the
remainder of the connecting rod bigend bearings.
19. Fit the engine rump using a new gasket
20. Fit all other parts by reversing the procedure given
for their remwaL
21. Set tbe engine stop plate gap (see Section E1 2,
Engine removal and installation).
f 6. H my bolt is still under m h e d , slacken both
nuer ef rhe connecting rod and mtvlsure the free
kngth ofthe &ending bolt if this measurement is
w i d e the limits quoted in Operation 1 l , fit a new
bobt:
Should chi measurement be inside the limits
quoted in Operation 1l . repeat Operations 13 and 14.
Again measure the bott metch. If rtre bolt now
-
Connecting rod and piston To rsmws
1 Remove the cylinder head (see Section E8).
2 Remove the connecting rod cap from the big-end
baring (see Connecting rod bearing To remove).
3. Push the connecting rod upwards so that the
piston and mnneeting rod assembly can be withdrawn
from the top face of the crankcase.
4. f epsat these operations on the remaining piston
and connecting rod assemblies.
-
-
.
Connecting rod and piston To dismamle
1. Remove the circlip from the piston. The circlips
are'tocatedone at either end of the gudgeon pin bore.
2. Thoroughly warm the piston assembty. This can
be achieved by either immersing the piston in a bath
of hot oil or placing the piston crown on a hot plate.
3. When the piston is thoroughly warm, push the
gudgeon pin out using a suitable guide.
-
Piston To inspect
1. Remove the rings from the piston using a suitable
expander 1001.
2. Remove the carbon deposits from the rings and
pistons. Ensure that all the deposit IS removed from
the piston ring grooves.
3. Thoroughly clean all components.
4. Check that the clearance of the piston rings in
their respective grooves is as given in Section E3.
Dimensional .data (see fig. E6-7).
5. Check the compression rings in' either a
104.14 mm (4.10 in) diameter ring gauge, or an
unworn pan of the cylinder (see fig. E6-8). after first
ensuring that no carbon deposits exist in the unworn
bore. Ifthe rings are in good condition no light should
show around the circumference of the rings.
6. Check the closed gap of each compression ring
whilst it is fitted into either the ring gauge or the
unworn paR of the cylinder bore (see Secrion E3).
7. Visually check the condition of the oil control ring.
8. Check the dimension of the piston across the
thrust axis. The measurement should be taken at the
pinon grading point which is 23.0 mm (0.906 in)
above the bottom of the skirt The measurements and
grades of the pistons are giwn in Section E3.
Fig. E6-7 Checking the piston ring clearance
;m
Fig. E6-8 Checking the piston ring gap
-
-
Small-end bush To inspea and renew
1. Check the diameter of both the gudgeon pin and
the small-end bush If the clearance exceeds
June 1983
Section E6
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Et7
-
Fig. E&-1 0 Checking the connecting rod alignment
Fig. E6-9 Position of small-and bush
1 Tangs
2 Split in bush
0.013 m m (0.0005 in) renew the bush.
2. Using a suitable drik remove-the small-end bush.
3. Visually inspect the condition of the connecting
rod small-end
4. Measure the internal diameter of the connecting
rod small-end.
5. Measure the external diameter of the new smallend bush.
6. Compare the measurements obtained in
Operations 4 and 5. An interference fn behveen the
new bush and small-end bore of 0.05 1 mm to
0.089 m m {0.002 in to 0.0035 in) is essential.
7. Position the new bush so that the chamfered
edge is towards the wnnecring rod. Also ensure that
the split in the bush is 45' away from the centre axis
of the rod and on the same side of the rod as the
locating recesses for the big-end bearing shells (see
fig. E6-9).In this position the oil hole in the bush
should line up with the oil hde in the S-maltend boss.
8. Press the srna!l-and bush into position until it is
flush with the connecting rod boss.
9. Finally, either diamend bore or ream the bush to
June 7383
Fig. E6-1 1 Checking the connecting rod for twist
rhe finished diameter quoted in Section E3.
Dimensional data, The gudgeon pin fit in the small-end
bush should be from a size fit to 0,00635 mm
(0.00025 in) clearance.
-
-
Connecting rods To check alignment and twist
Tbe correct alignment of a connecting rod is of the
utmost importance and any connecting rod that has
had a new bush fined and bored must be checked for
alignment using a reliable alignment fixture.
Connecting rods that am bent will cause uneven
and premature wear between the cylinder walls and
pistons
If an alignment fixture is not available the
alignment twist of the connecting rods can be
checked ss follows.
Alignment
1- Fit the gudgeon pin to the small-end bush.
2. Fit a mandrel m the big-end.
3. Mount the connecting rod on an inspection
surface table as shown in figure E6-10.
Using a & i t indicator gauge. take a reading at
bah ends of the gudgeon pin.
The d i n n c e between the nm, readings must
not exceed 0.02 mm i0.001 in) per 25.40 mm
4.
( l .O in) length of the gudgeon pin.
Twist
1. Fit the gudgeon pin to the small-end bush.
2. Fit a mandrel to the big-end. . .
3. Mount the cunnecting rod on an inspection
surface table as shown in figure €6-1 1.
Fig. E6-'12 Position of the connecting rod tangs
1 'A' bank connecting rod
2 Position of tangs
3 Camshaft
4 'B' bank connecting rod
Fig. E6-13 Fitting a piston
4. Using a dial test indicator gauge, take a reading at
both ends of the gudgeon pin.
5. The difference between the two readings must
not exceed 0.07 m m {0.003in) per 25.40 mm
(1 .O in) length of gudgeon p i n .
.Connecting mds and pistons - T o assemble
To assemble rhe confleering rods to the potons
reverse the procedure given for dismantling noting the
following.
1. Pistons and gudgeon pins are supplied as an
assembly, the gudgeon pin being a setecrive f i t On no
account must pistons and gudgeon pins be
interchanged.
2. When fitting the rings to the piston, fit the oil
wmrol (scraper) ring assembly firsr.
Commence by fitting either the centre spacer
(other than turbocharged engines) or internal control
spring (turbochargedengines).
fit the rail assembly. taking care that it seats
comctb m r the centre equalizer or internal oontrol
spring. Ensure rhst the gaps in the various
components of the oil control ring are spaced as far
away from each other as possible. around the
circumference of the pisron.
Fit the rwo dompression rings as shown in
figure €6-2.
3. To ensure that the gudgeon pin. piston. and
connecting rod are always assembled the same way, fit
the pin to the piston so thar the cylinder number on
the pin is on the same side as the cylinder number on
the pistons. The tangs on the connecting rod and cap
should always be nearest the camshaft (see fig.
€6-1 2).
-
Connecting rods and piston 1o fit
To fit the connecting rods and piston assemblies to
the engine reverse the procedure for removal noting
the following.
l . Space the ring gaps around the piston.
2. Liberally cover the pistons with either graphogen
or clean engine oil and then fit a ring compressor over
the piston rings
~ ~ the herd of each connecting rod bolt
3. E R S Uthat
is seated on the connect~ngrod, if not, earefulty tap
the head of the bolt into position. Fit a protective
rubtmr sleeve to each bolt before firting the piston and
connecting rod assembly to the engine.
4. Ensure that the shell bearings are correctly
located in both the cunnecting rod and cap.
5. Fit rhe piston and eonneming rod assembly into
the cylinder bore from the top.
6. fighren the piston ring compressor. hold it
against the cylinder liner and push the piston into the
bore (see fig. E6-13).
7. Carefully position the connecting rod onto the
crankshaft big-end journal. Remove the protective
sleeving from he bolts, finally check the l w t i o n of
the big-end bearing shells and fit the cap
B. Fit the nuts to the connecting rod bolts and
tighten them in accordance with the procedure given
in Connecting rod bearings To fit
-
June 1983
Section E7
WORKSHOP MANUAL
n-1
Camshaft and Valve
mechanism
Tfiis section contains information relating to the
camshaft timing gear, dwbutw drive gear. hydraulic
tappets, push rods, a d rmkers
Refer to Section E8,for information relating to the
valves and their assoeiaed components
The camshaft is manufactured fmm cast iron and
fig. E7-l
Camshaft and Valve mechanism
has chilled cast corn peaks. t t is centrally positioned
between the two banks of cylinders and runs directly
in bores machined in the crankcase.
The amshaft is driven through helical gears from
the crankshaft. The camwheel is aluminium and the
crankshaft gear is steel.
End thrusr is taken on a thrust collar and is
contrulled by the thrust plate situated at the front of
the camshah
Lubrication of the camshah timing gear and the
crankshah gear is effected by the high pressure oil jet
sprayed directly onto rhe two gears. The feed for this
is via a tapping block adapter secured to the camshaft
thrust plate. This ptate is also the oil gallery cover
plate.
A skew gear secured by two setscrews to the rear
of the camshaft provides the drive for the distributor.
The rwo setscrews are off-set to ensure correct
positioning.
The wmshsfr incorporates two eccentrics to drive
the hydnulic system pumps (see Section E l l ) .
The hydraulic tappets are carried in detachable
blocks fitted into the crankcase on either side of the
camshEk The tappets an self-adjusting and require no
maintenance. The tappet barrels are produced from
cast iron and have a spherical base These seat onto
the camshaft where the cams have a slight longitudinal
taper that rotates the tappets thus ensuring even m a r
of the tappet barrel and base:
A longitudinal flat is machined on the tappet
barrel, this supplies oil from the groove in the tappet
body to the cam face.
The hydraulic tappet (seefig. E7-4) comprises a
cylindrical barrel. closed at the bottom end which seats
onto The camshaft. Inserted into this body is a plunger
that is free to slide up and down; the clearance
between the body and plunger is very small. At the
lower end of the plunger is a one-way valve. The vake
is held closed by a wave washer that is housed in a
retsiner spigot clipped onto the end of the plunger.
The upper end of the plunger carries a cap into
which fits the push rod. The complete piunger
assembly is spring-loaded away from the base of the
tappet body and is retained by a circIip.
The push rods a n holiow tubes with spherical
ends. They transmit the mwement of the tappets m
the rocker arms. Engine oil passes along the hollow
push rod to lubricate the ball end at the rocker arm.
The rocker shafts. rocker arms. and spacing
springs are cartied on five pedestals on each cylinder
head. The pedestals are secured by setscrews.
The rocker arms are drilled to provide oii delivery
from the rocker shafts to the valve tips and stems.
For details of the valve assemblies see Section E8.
-
Fig. €7-2 Rocker shah assembly
Fig. Ef-3 Severmly scuffed tappet base
Rocker shah assembly To remove and dismantle
(see fig. E7-2)
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2. Unscrew the two cap nuts retaining the ignirion
harness to the rocker cover.
3. Unscrew the three reach nuts securing the rocker
cover to the cylinder head.
4. Carefully prise around the jo~ntface of the rocker
cover. Once the jolnt has been freed, lift the rocker
cover from the engine.
5. Unscrew the five setscrews securing the rocker
shaft in position. Do not withdrarrJ the setscrews.
6. Carefully withdraw the rocker shaft from its
position. Leave the setscrews positioned through the
pedestals to retain the rocker arms and springs In
position on the shaft
7. Place the rocker shaft assembly on a bench and
withdraw the end setscrew whilsr holding the pedestal
in posit~on.Ensure that the sprlng does not force any
components off the end of the shaft
Slowly release the hand pressure applied ro the
end of the rocker shaft and allow the spring to push
The pedestal off the rocker shaft
8. Collect the end pedestal. first rocker arm. spring.
and second rocker a r m Ensure that the rocker arms
are identified so that they can be returned to their
original positions.
9. Repeat Operations 7 and 8 to the next pedestal
and continue repeating the exercise until both rocker
shahs are dismantled.
June l983
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Rg. E 7 4
1
Hydraulic tappet
Circlip
5 Waw washer
7 Spring
8 Tappet barrel
4 Valve
-
Rocker shaft assembly To inspect
1. Examine the pads on rhe.roekerarms for wear
and renew any mat are badly worn.
Slight 'scuffing' or pitting on the pads may be
remwed with r smooth stona
2. Rocker pads are case hardened to s depth of
between 0,63 mm and 0.76 mm (0.025 in and
0.030 in) and the rockwell hardness vabe should be
between CS7 and C65.
3. If tfte hardness value is below these figures, the
rocker arms should be renewed.
Rocker shaft assembly To assemble and fit
Assemble and fit the rocker shaft by reversing the
rernwai and dismantling procedures. nating the
following.
1. The rockem are handed and should be fined in
pairs so that the arms point inwards to the Minder
bore.
2. The cylinder heads have rocker shaft dowel pins
fmed Ensure that the rocker shah is correctly located
on the pins so that the oil feed holes afign.
3. When tightening, commence with the centre
setscrew and alternate on either side towards the end
setscrew.
4. Torque tighten the rocker shaft retaining
setscrews to the figures quoted in Sectiori E t S.
-
Push rods To remove. inspect, and fii
1.
Seaion E7
6 Retainer
2 Cap
3 Plunger
Carry out the usqal workshop safety precautions.
Remwe the racker E w e r and rocker s b k
3. Withdraw the push rods. Label each one for
2.
,,
identification purposes during assembly. noting top
and bottom.
4. Check the push rods for bow. If any push rod has
a total indicator reading- or more than 0.51 mm
(0.020 in) it should be discarded and a new push rod
fined.
5. Ensure that the holes in the bell ends are not
blocked by dirt etc.
6. When fitting the push rbds reverse the removal
procedure. Always ensure that the push rods are
returned m their original positions and the? they are
correctly seated in both the hydraulic tappets and the
rcrcker arms.
-
Hydraulic tappets
A tappet which is found to be defective in service
should be replaced by a comple?eassembly.
Individual components must not h renawod.
When a tappet is noisy but otherwise appean to
be servicesble and replacement tappets are naf readily
available, it may be worthwhile dismanding the
existing tappet and thoroughly washing it in clean
paraffin Afcer cleaning, refit the tappet
Tappet noise
A defective tappet makes a noise like a ' M e crack' and
is usuatly caused by one or more tappets collapsing, it
can be heard with each rwolution of the camshaft
This could be caused by din which has infiltrated into
the tappetls). in which case tfte lappeds) should be
dismantled and deaned. tf cleaning the tappet does
not cure the h u g the tappet should h renewed.
--
-
TSD UOO
June 1983
fhe tappet can be isolated by the fact that the
noise changes as the rocker arm is depressed
manuatly to take up any 'sponge' while the engine is
running.
If the noise is not eaustd by collapsed tappet(s)
one of the following causes should be suspected.
1. Sometimes air is drawn into the tappets after
standing overnight and one of the tappets may be
reluctant to clear itself even after 30 minutes hot
running.
2. Occasionally a tapwt leaks dawn too quickly at
high temperatures causing a knock This tappet is
really a milder case of rhe 'rifle c m ' failure and
should be renewed.
3. OccasionaHy a tappet will stick in the bore of rhe
tappcr block at high temperatures causing a knock
tt may k harmful to replace a mildly worn tappet
with r new one unless the camshaft is also changed.
For this reason only the mppets which are aaualb
causing a problem should be changed.
If it is found necessary to fit a new camshaft to an
engine, one complete set of sixteen new tappets must
also be fitted.
-
Hydraulic tappets To fernwe
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions
2. Remwe either the carburstfen, fuel i n j e e i i
system equipment or turbocharging equipment as
appbcabk (see either Chapter K or Chapter U).
3. Drain the engine coolant {see Chapter L).
This will show itself by being consistently noisy when
the engine is very hot but quiet at other times.
Should this situation be encountered (and all
other tappet rectification measures failed to effect a
cure), the suspect tappet block should be checked for
incorrect crankcase bedding. Lightly smear the seating
face with engineers blue and fit the block in the
crankcase. If the check proves conctusiwly that the
tappet block bedding is faulty, the crankease can be
scraped to improve the situation.
Extreme cars must be exercised when
-lying out this aperstion and the minimum
amount of metal removed from the crankcase.
Depressufize the hydraulic systems (see
Chapter G].
5. Remove the induction manifold.
6. Progressively unscrew the setscrews securing the
tappet chest cover to the crankcase. The setscrews
must be removed progressively. If the brake pump
operating cams happen to be at their peak,distortion
could occur to the tappet chest cwer.
7. Remove the rocker ewers.
8. Progressively unscrew the five setscrews securing
the rocker pedestals to each cylinder head, then
remove the m k e r shaft assemblies.
9. Remwe the push rods.
10.Withdraw the hydraulic tappets from the tapper
blocks.
Tappet wear
There is sekdom a cause for rejecting tappets due to an
appearance of wear on the bottom face unless the cam
peak on the camshaft is also badly worn.
Hydraulic tappets To dismantle
1. Press down the spherical cap situa~edin the top
of the tappet and rernwe the tirclip holding thecap in
place. After gradually releasing the pressure from the
fig.
E7-5 Crankemso t o tappet ewer joint
1 Crankcase tappm cover face
4.
-
2 Silk sealing thread
June 1983
WORKSHOP MANUAL
sph6ri-l cap. the tappet can be disrrrantled {see
fig. E74).
2. Remove the plunger and valve from the tappet
bml. The tappet barrel should be examined for any
signs ef wear on the base.
-
ttydtwlic tappets To assemble and prim6
in-orderto obtain the high degree of accuracy
necessary for efficient operation of the hydraulic
tappets. it is essential that extreme precautions are
taken rrvhenmssembling,thecomponents to ensure
complete cleanliness
It is therefore most impormnt that particular
mention is given to the following points before
commencing the assembly procedure.
Due to the highly critical surFaces and dimensions
of the hydraulic tappets. great care and cleanliness are
of the utmost importance when handling tappet
components. If a cloth has to be used, ensure that it is
lint frse.
Ensure that the assembly rank is perfectly clean
before adding paraffin: only clean fresh paraffin must
b used
Wash all tappet components in clean paraffin,
taking care that the components of each tappet are
retained as an assembly and are not interchanged with
parts of another raupet.
1. Commence assembly of the tappet by fitting the
wave washer [see fig. E7-4) and valve in the retainer.
2. Using 'fingei pressure. carefully press the
retainer assembly onto the spigot ofthe plunger.
3. Fit the spring onto the retainer assembly.
4. Fit the valve assembly (plunger. valve. wave
washer, retainer. and spring). into the tappet barrel.
5. Fit the cap into the top of the plunger.
Using an old push rod press the cap downwards
~tis possible to fit the retaining circlip Into the
g r a v e located inside the top of the barrel.
7. Release the pressure.
8. Submerge the tappet assembly in clean Esso
TSD 1047 run inhibiting paraffin.
9. Using a small probe push the valve off its seat
The probe should be carefully positioned through the
small hale in the tapper cap and pushed duwn into the
tappet until it contacts the valve. A slight increase in
pressure will then be required to wercorne the wave
washer loading and open the vaive.
10. Cominue to hold the value open and place a small
screwdriver into the cap adjacent to the probe.
11. Apply pressure to both the probe and screwdriver.
Press the cap downwards in the tapper barrel.
compressing the Spring Note the air bubbles that are
expelled from the tappet barrel oil inlet hole.
12. When the air bubbles cease. release the pressure
from the cap and M&.
13. Repeat Operations 9 to 12 inclusive, until the air
bubbles have ceased to appear throughout the cycle of
opemions.
14. Withdraw the pmbe from the small hole in the
centre of the cap.
15. Again apply pressure m the cap with a small
screwdriver. tf the assembly feels solid ir can be
6.
until
.
Fig. E7-6 Distributdr driving g m a ~(other than
turbacherged engines. and all anginas
conforming t o 1983 modal year
1
2
3
4
5
specifications and onwards)
Locating plug
Distributor driving shaft
Thrust washer
Driving spindle end integral gear
Skew gear
assumed that it is operating satisfactorily, therefore it
can be removed from the paraffin.
When tappets are t o be firthd immediately
after overtraui. t h y should be primed with clean
engine oil.
-
Hydraulic tappets To f i t
1. Oil the bores of the tabpet blocks.
2. Check that if new tappets are being fined. the
grade of each tappet corresponds with the bore of the
tappet block. The rappet barrel grading marks are
etched onto the top lip ofthe barrel.
3. F
it the tappets.
4- Fit the push rods to the engine. into the same
position from which They were removed.
5, Fa the rocker shafrs. then progressively tighten
the securing nuts.
6. Fit the tappet chest cover.
-
Tappat chest cover to fit
1. Rotate the camshaft until the brake pump
eccentrics are at approximately batmm dead centre
(.MC).
2. To prwent the passibility of hydraulic lock. ensure
the brake pumps are drained of fluid.
3. If necessary. check that the position of the two
h k e pump rods is correct and fit the brake pumps
(see Section E l l ).
4. Apply Wellseat to the crankcase tspper cwer joint
face, then fir a new length of sealing thread to the
face. Fit the thread so that its two ends overlay and it
surrounds all the tapped hdes in the crankcase (see
fig. €7-5).
5. Complete the engine build by reversing the
pmeedure given for dismantling. noting the following.
6. Fit new joints and sealing rings.
7. Refer to Chapter P and Section E1S for torque
tightening figures.
8. Ensure that the brake pipes are not ovenightened.
otherwise damage m the conical seatings may occur.
9. Any hoses showing signs of deterioration should
be tenwecl
10. Ensure that the driving belts are adjusted to the
correct tension.
-
Camshaft To nmavs
1. Remwe the hydraulic tappets.
2. Remove the transmission (see Chapter 3.
3. Remove the flexplate assembly.
4. Remwe the distributor. together with its pedestal
iffitted Refer to Chapter M.
5. Remove the pressed steel cwer from the rear end
of the crankcase to expose the distributor driving gears
(see fig E7-5).
6. Withdraw the distributor driving shaft rcgerher
with the locating plug and '0'ring.
"..
7. Wnhdraw the distributor driving spindle and
integral gear together with the thrun washer.
8. Remwe the skew gear from the rear end of the
camshaft.
9. Remwe the radiator grille. refrigeration
condenser, and radiator matriw On turbocharged cars.
also remow the oil cooler.
10. Remove the coolant pump and lower front cover
from the front of the engine.
ll . Unscrew the setscrews f m m the camshaft and
withdraw the cam gear.
12. Remove the camshaft thrust plate together with
the timing gear lubricating oil pipe assembly.
Withdraw the camshaft through the front end of the
crankcase. Take care that the bearing bores are not
damaged by rhe cam lobes.
-
Camshaft To inspect
1. Inspect the cams for wear and pitting. The cam
lift dimensions are given in Section E3. Dimensional
data.
2. If wear is in excess of the figures given, the
camshah must be renewed.
-
Fig. E7-7
Checking the camshaft end-float
Camshaft To fit
1 . Ltghtly smear the camshaft bearings with clean
engine oil. Lubricate the camshah lobes with EP
{extreme pressure) oil such as ~ a s f r b fH v ~ r e s s
t 40. Fit the &shaft through the front end of the
crankcase. taking care that the cam lobes do not
sc
damage the camshaft bearing boxes.
2. Fit the timing gear lubricatingjet to the thrust
pbte and secure it with two setscrews and tab
washers.
3. Fit and secure the camshaft rhrust plate to the
crankcase: use new tabwasherr Torque tighten the
setscrews to the figures quoted in Chapter P: lock the
tabwas hen.
-
Fig. €7-8 Vahre timing marks
Camshaft end-float To cheek (see fig. €7.7)
1 Fit a dial test indicaror to the crankcase and
position the indicator onto the end of the camshaft' set
the scale to zero.
2. Fit two setscrews to the end of the camshaft
3. Grip the setscrews, then move the camshaft
backward and forward and note the reading on the dial
test indicator.
4. The camshaft end-float should be between the
figures quoted in Section €3, Dimensional dma.
June 1 983
WORKSHOP MANUAL
-
Valve gear TO time {see fig. E7-8)
1. R m e the crankshaft until the mark on !he
mnkshaft timing 9-t is venicsl and towards the top
of the crankcase.
2 Fit the camshaft timing gear to the camshaft m
that the mark on the gear is aligned with the mark on
the c'ranbhsft timing qear; do not fit any setscrews at
this stage.
Carefilly rotate the camshaft until the holes in the
camshaft timing gear align exactty with the threaded
holes in the camshaft (one hole is offset}.
4. - Fit the end plate cover and secure the timing gear
and cover to the camshft with eight setsctews
Torque tighten the setscrews to the figures quoted in
Senion E 1 5.
3.
-
Camshaft timing gear backlash and runsut
To check
1. Fit a dial test indicator to the crankcase and
pasition the indicator onto the timing gear as shown in
figure E7-8: set the scale to zero.
2. Rock the cam gear and check the backlash. The
backlash should be between the figures quoted in
Section E3. Dimensronal data.
3. Check the backlash on various teeth around the
circumference of the gear.
4. Check the timing gear run-out as follows (see
fig. E7- 10).
51 Move the indieator pointer so that it touches the
front face of The cam gear.
6. Rotate the crankshaft and check the run-our
shown on the indicator dial. The run-out should not
exceed the figures quoted in Section E3.
Fig. €7-9 Checking the timing gear ,backlash
-
Distributot driving gear To fit (other than
turbocharged enginus. and all engines conforming
to 1983 model year specifications and onwards)
1. Fit the camshaft distribrttor driving gear.
2. Rotate the crankshaft until the timing marks on
the camshaft and crankshaft gesrs are in line (see
fig. E7-8).
3. Fit the thrust washer to the distributor driving
gear spindle. then fit the gear into the recess in the
crankcase. It will help in fining this gear if the washer
is held to the gear with a light smear of grease.
4. When thegear is fined. rhe slot in the top of the
gear spindle should be in line with the camshaft (see
fig. E7-6).
On no account should the setting of the
crankshaft and camshaft be disturhd whilst f i i n g
this gear.
5. Fit the distributor driving shaft to the driving
spindle, then fit the locating plug.
6. If necessary. renew the rubber '0' ring on the
Locating plug.
7. Using a dial test indicator in a similar manner to
that shown in figure €7-9. ctieck the backlash of the
distributor driving gear. This should be between the
figures quoted in section €3.Dimensional data.
8. Fit the camshaft rear cover using a new paper
joint
Jum 1983
Fig. E7-10
Checking the timing gear tun-out
-
Distributor driving goat To fit (turbotharged
engines. and all engines conforming to 1 903
model year spoeifications and onwards)
1. Fit the camshaft distributor driving gear.
2. Rmate the cmnkshaft until the riming marks on
the camshaft and crankshaft gears are aligned (see
f i ~ €7-8).
.
3. Fit the disnibutor ss described in Chapter M.
ensuring that the r m r arm is pointing towards A1
cylinder contact in the distributor cap
4. Using a dial test indicator in a similar manner to
that shown in figure €7-9. check the backlash of the
d i i b u t o r driving gear. This should be htween the
figures quoted in Section E3, Dimensional data.
5. fit the camshaft rear cover using a new paper
joint
-
Engine assembly To compl@ta
Complete .xhe engine assembly by reversing rhe
procedure given for camshaft remwal. noting the
following
l. AH setscrews. nurs. and bolts must be torque
tightened to rhe figures quoted in tfie appropriate
section
2. Renew all joim.
3. Fit a new Neoprene seal between the lower from
casing and the a n t pump.
4. Ensure that the rappet cwer is f i correctly.
5. Fit the distributor and rime the ignition as
described in Chapter M.
6. tf a new camshaft is fitted to an engine. one
complete set of sivreen new tappets must also be
fined.
June 1983
Section E8
WaRKSHOP MANUAL
€8-1
Cylinder heads and Vahres
The two detachable cylinder heads are produced from
cast aluminium alloy. each having four sepamte inlet
and exhaust ports. The cylinder heads are fmed with
phosphor bronze-exhaustvalve guides and cast iron
inlet valve guides. The valve seat inserts are aHoy cast
iron.
The inlet vatves are produced from alloy steel with
induction hardened tips. The exhaust valves are
austenitic steel with a Stellite tip and valve seat face.
The vstve stem oil seal is either a 'waxed string'
typeof grommet w a moulded rubber ewer; the two
arc not intercbngeable.
The valves fitled witfl the rubber cover type of
stem seal arhngement have an additional treatment
that is m aid to running-in. This was originally in the
form of a P.T.F.E. {blue] coating on the valve stem but
subsequently changed to Tufkriding treatment which
appears as a black coating on the stem.
In either case do not remove the coating from
the vsbe stem refer ro Valves To fit
-
-
Cylinder heads To remove
The operations listed form the basic procedure to be
follow^ In service, minor variations to this procedure
will k encountered due W the specification of the
vehicle.
1. Carry out the usual workshop safetyprecautions.
2. Drain the cooling system (see Chapter L).
3. Depressurize the hydtaulic systems
(see Chapter G).
4. Sbcken the dfiw belts shared at the frontof the
engine.
S. Remwe the fuel metering equipment f m d r b v e
the induction manifold as follows
a CarbumttmT(s) and weakening system refer to
Chapter K (Part 1).
For can pmdueed to an Austmiian or Middle
Easr specificatrbn referto Chapter U.
b. F u d injection system refer 10 Chapter U.
c. Turbocharged system refer to Chaprer K (Part 2).
Induction manifold
6. Detach the refrigeration compressor from its
mountings and move it from the viciniw of '8' bank
cylinder head.
7. R e m m the alternator (see Chapter M).
l1
Aolr3J
Fig. €8-1 Cyiindsr head assembly
8. Disconnect the ball joint at the top cf the throttle
linkage long comrol rod.
9. Detach the throttle linlrsge trapeze mourning
bracket from the b d y longeron
10. Disconnsct the coolant hose from the thermosrat
housing outlet connection.
1l Unscrew the setscrews securing the heater feed
pipe to the side of the thermostat housing. Free the
joint
12. Detach all electrical eannections from the
thermostat housing Mlit~healabel each one to
facilitate assembly.
13. Unscrew the setscrews securing the thermostat
by-*S pipe to the cwlanr. pump.
14. Unscrew the transmission modulator pipe from
the union situated in the induction manifold.
15. On turbocharged engines. disconnect the knock
sensor lead.
16. Disconnect the pipes from the hydraulic brake
.
pumps.
17. Rotate the front hydraulic pump until the inlet
connection is situated adjacent to the thermostat
housing.
t 8. Unscrew the induction manifold setscrews.
Withdraw the setscrews and collect xhe washers.
19. Carefully withdraw the induction manifold. Discard
the gaskets.
Rocker ewers
20. Unscrew h t h the cap and reach nuts from the
rocker covers.
2 1. Remove the speed control bellows assembly
situated towards the rear of 'B' bank rocker cover (if
not removed previously].
22. Disconnect the leads from the sparking plugs.
23. Withdraw both the sparking plugs harnesdconduit
and englne loom ('A' bank) irom the mounting sruds on
the rocker covers
24. Carefully free the sea! and withdraw rhe rocker cover.
25. Repeat Operations 20 to 24 inclusive to the other
rocker cover.
26. Remove the hydraulic reservoir (see Chapter G).
27. Remove the steering pump (see Chapter N). On
turbocharged engines it is sufficient to detach the
sreering pump reservoir from its mountings.
Cylinder h a d
28. Unscrew the rocker shah retaining setscrews.
Ensure that the setscrews sltuated at both ends of the
shaft are unscrewed but remain through the shaft
Failure to observe this instruction will result in rhe
springs forcing the rocker arms. etc.. off the.end of the
shaft as it is withdrawn.
29. Withdraw the rocker shaft assembly.
30. Repeat Operations 28 and 29 on ?he other rocker
shak
3 1. Withdraw the push rods.
.32.Remwe the exhaust manifolds (see Chapter Q.
33. Using the special box spanner RH 7 126 unscrew
the cylinder head nuts. Commence unscrewing the
nuts at each end of the assemblies and progressively
work inwards Coliect any nuts and washers that
would otherwise fall off as the cylinder headls) is
removed34. Carefulty free the cylinder haadls) and withdraw it
from the engina Take care ro ensure that the studs do
not damage the face of the cylinder head(s) or that xhe
threads of the suds are not damaged as the cylinder
hesd(s) is withdrawn.
35. Withdraw and discard the cylinder head gasket@).
-
Cylinder head To fit
Fit the cyfinder head(s) by reversing the procedure
given for removal, noting the following.
1. Always ensure thar the cylinder head gasketIs) is
fitted the correct way around. otherwise. incorrect
alignment of the codant holes in the gasketls) and
cylinder headis) may occur.
2. All cylinder head gaskets {exeepr rhose fitted to
turbocharged engines which are of a different material
and design) should be coated with Wellseaf jointing
compound on borh sides. They should then be lett for
approximately 5 minutes before being fttted to the
engine.
3. If any core plugs are to be fined. ensure thar a
new aluminium washer is used and the rhread of the
plug is coated wlth Loctite Superfast 572. The core
plug should be torque tightened to the figures glven in
Section E1 5.
4. Before fitting the cylinder head nuts, ensure that
the stud rhteads are clean and lubricated with clean
engine oil. Screw the nuts onto the threads -finger
tight' and then torque tighten them in the correct
sequence. These details are given in Seerion El 5.
-
Valves To remove
Fig. E8-2 Rernwing/Firting a valve using RH 7094
Label the parts as they are removed; this will ensure
that they can be re-assembled into their original
position.
To remove the valves, special tool RH 7094 1s
required (see fig. EB-21.
1. Remove the cylinder heads.
2. Fir a valve tool pedestal ar each end of the
cylinder head. The pedestals locate in the recesses
used for the rocker pedesrals and are secured by nuts
and bolts.
3. Place rhe cylinder head on a suitable bare. Ensure
that four wooden block fit into the combustion
August 1984
Smion E8
WORKSHOP MANUAL
€8-3
chamberk The block suppon the Valves whilst the
springs are compressed.
4. Insert the fulcrum bar through the hoks in the
under the fulcrum bar and fit the stirrup m r the valve
pdestais.
top washer.
6. Canpress the valve spring and r e m m the
collet%
7. Gradually release the pressurn from the spring
5.
ccrmpressing tool.
Fit the hook ofthe valve spring compressing tool
Fig. €8-3 Vake and valve spring assemblies
4 Bottom washer
1 Collets
2 Top washer
5 Gland spring
3 Vatve spring
6 Grommet housing
A
7 Grommet
8 Valve stem seal
9 Valve
B Usually fined on engines
Usually fitted on engines
with carburetters
{except Turbo)
-
.
C All engines [carburetter(s).
fuel injection system, or
with a fuel injecrion
system
turbocharged system]
A and B arrangements are fifted to cars prior to the following vehicle identification numbers
C arrangmment is fitted to cars from the bllowing vehicle identification numbers
Countries other than Nofih America and Japan
Sitver Spirit and Mulsanne (except Turbo) SCAZS000'1 DCHQ6751
Sitver Spur *SCAf N0003DCHO6645
Mulsanne Turbo cars (i.e. SCBZSOT05CCH04233S onwards)
Bentiey Eight SCBZS8004ECH08862
Corniche/Conrinental SCAZD0003DCX06662 t
Ronh America and Japan
Silver Spirit and Mulsanne (except Turbo) *SCAZS42A3DCX06338
Silver Spur SCAZN42A3DCX06364 ( 1):SCAZN42A90CX06305* has later valve arrangement)
Comiche/Continental SCAYD42A6DCX05700
*
*
August 1984
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
B.
9.
Move the stirrup from the vake top washer.
Dismantle the assembly as f o l l m (refer to
fig. E8-3).
a Withdraw the top washer. valve spring. bortom
washer. gland spring. grommet housing. and grommet
b. Withdraw the top washer, vafve spring, valve stem
seal. and bottom washer.
10. Rewat Operations 5 to 9 inclusive to the other
valves in the cylinder head.
1l . Turn the cylinder head aver and withdraw the
valves. .
Valves and valve seat insem To inspect and
reface
1. Rernwe the vatves from the engine. Note that
each valve has its cylinder number etched onto the
side of the tip.
2. Visually check that each valve head and seating
area is sewiceable. If a valve appears to be burnt away
or cracked in the seating area fit a new valve.
3. Clean alI carbon from each valve head and cylinder
head combustion area, using a wire brush.
4. Wash the valves and cylinder head in clean
paraffin and dry them using compressed air.
5. Check That each valve searing area in the cylinder
head (valve insert) is serviceable. Fit a new valve insen
if any ate badly worn, butnf. or cracked.
6. Ensure that the stem and head of each value is
not bent
7: Reface the seating area on each mhre and vaive
seat insett using the appropriate reconditioning
equipment The seat angle should be 45".
When refacing the valve seats. remove the
min~mumamount of material possible to give a 'ctean'
seating.
Note
If new valve guides have been fitted. the vatve gutdes
should be rearned before the vaive seat insens are
faced.
8. If necessary. the exhaust valve seat insens may be
crowned with a 30' cutter to prevent pocketing.
9. Using a fine. good quality lapping paste, lightly lap
each valve to its seat Check the seating using
Prussian blue.
10. Thoroughly wash the cylinder headts) and valves
in paraffin to remove all grinding dust and lapping
paste. Dry using compressed air.
-
Valves To fit
To fit the valves reverse the procedure given for
removal noting the following.
1. If any parts are serviceable, always ensure that
they are fined t o their original positions.
2. Check that the valves operate smoorhty in their
respective guides and that they are seating correctly.
3. On cars produced prior to the vehacle identification
numbers quoted in figure €8-3, note that the jniet
vatve spring is slightly shorter than the exhaust vatve
spring.
4. On engines fined wirh 'waied string' type
grommet valve stem seals, the grommets should be
soaked in engine oil prior to fitting. The valve stems
and guides should also be lubricated as detailed in
Operation S.
5. On engines firted with a 'rubbet rypc of valve
stem seat the vatve stems are specially treated to aid
running-in (refer to the start of the section). These
vahes wirh blue coloured srems we= usually Wed to
fuel injection engines prior to rhe vehicle identification
numbers quoted in figure E8-3. All engines have
treated srems atter the vehicle identification numbers
quoted in figure €8-3although, rhe colour of this
mating appears black. The black appearance will wear
ofF in service. however. this will not affect the surface
hardness.
Under no circumstances must this coating be
removed. However. if the coating has worn off or if
new rubber vahe stem seals are fitted, the valve stems
and guides should be lubricated as detailed in
Operation 6.
6. When lubrication of the valves is required, the
valve stems should be well lubricated with an
assembly lubricant such as either Molykote G Rapid or
Rocol MTS 1000. I n addition the valve guides should
be lubricated with clean engine oil,
7. On engines witha valve stem seal arrangement
incorporating the 'waxed string*type of grommet carry
out rhe following.
Prior to fitting the collets and top washer, ensure
that they are degreased and the valve tip area around
the collet locating groove is wiped clean. Arrange rhe
Collet5 in pairs On a clean surface and apply Silastic
732 ATV sealant along one edge of each collet so that
when assembled the coared edge of one collet abuts
the uncoated edge of the orher.
Allow 10 minutes to elapse before assembly.
Keep the gaps between !he collets equal and wipe any
excessive sealant from the valve rip and lop washer.
Aljow a further perlod of at least twelve hours to
elapse from applv~ngthe sealant to running the engine.
-
Valve guides To inspect
The vajve guides should be inspected whilst they are
still fitted into the cylinder head.
1. Obtain a new valve guide. Examine the existing
valve guides for wear using the neG guide for
comparison.
2. The maximum perrntssible wear on the valve
guides is given rn Section €3, Dimensional data. If the
wear tolerznce is exceeded. the valve guides should be
removed from the cylinder head and new ones fined
as described in Valve guides To remwe and Valve
guides To f i t
3. 'Bellmouthing' at the bottom end of the valve
guides IS permissible wrthin the tolerances specified in
Section E3, Dimensional data.
4. Check for clearance in the bore between each
valve stem and its respective guide. The maximum
permissible clearance is given in Section €3.
Dimenaonal data.
-
-
-
--
Valve springs To inspect and test
l . Dismantle the valve arrangement refer to Valves
To remove.
-
August 1984
WORKSHOP MANUAL
2. Wash the springs in dean paraffin and dry using
compressed air.
3. Visually examine the valve springs for defects.
4. Check the poundage of each spring on a valve
spring tester. Data for this poundage check a n be
found in Section E3. Dimerisional data Pou'ndage
check for rwb types of valve spring arrangements are
quoted
Type A springs are those where the inlet valve
springs [new free length approximately 50.8 mm
(2.0in)] are slightly shoner than the exhaust valve
springs [new free length approximately 55.57 mm
(2.188 in)].
Type B springs are those where the inlet and
exhaust vahre springs are identical [new free length
approximately 46.99 mm 113 5 0 in)].
The two t y p s of valve springs are not
interchangeable.
-
Valve guides TOmmove
1. Remwe the cylinder heaqs).
2. Dismantle the valve assemblies.
3. Remave the valve guides as shown in figure EB-4.
Withdraw the guides from the top (rocker side) of the
cylinder head using the speciaI tool RH 7207.
-
To fit
Thoroughly clean the valve guide bores in the
cylinder head and accurarely measure the bore
diameters.
2. Select a new set of oversize guides that will give
the correct interference fit when installed in the
cylinder head (see Section E3. Dimensional data).
Valve guides
1.
3. Using the special tool RH 7207 assembled as
shown in figure E8-4, draw the valve guides into the
cylinder head from the top {rocker side). Ensure that
the shdulder of the guide abuts the cylinder head
4. Using the special reamer RH 7825 or the
tungsten earbide ripped version RH 7827, ream both
the inlet and exhaust valve guides to the finished saze.
-
V a h reat inserts To remwe
1. The valve seat inserts should be machined out of
the cylinder head, leaving a thin skin of the insert
mmerial approximately 0.25 mm 10.010 in) thick
remaining in the cylinder head.
2. After machining. carefully lift the insert shell from
the bore in the cylinder head
-
Valve seat inserts To fit
1. Compare the size of the insen bore in the cylinder
head with the standard figures given in Section E3.
Dimensional data
2 I f the bores do not conform to the size quoted it
will be necessary to machine h e m to a larger.diameter
and to fit oversue seat inserts (refer to the Pans List).
3. Ensure that the correct interference fit is
mainmined when the insem are firted into the cylinder
head (see Sesion E3. Dimensional data).
4. To fir the sears, place the cylinder head in an oven
or heat evenly to a temperature of 150'C (302'F) for a
period of one hour.
5. The cylinder head should be quickly removed from
the oven and the inserr(s) driven into position using a
soft drift
6. Ensure that the shoulder of each valve guide is in
Fig. E8-4 VaIve guide renewal using RH 7207
A
Removing
B Fitring
w n w with the cylinder head (i.e. that it has not
mwed during rhe time that the Ninder head was in
the even or when the v a k seat insem were driven
imo position).
Not.
Do not finish machinethe vahre seats until after the
v a k guides have been teamed,
If the necessary service facilities are not available.
is recommended that the cylinder heads be returned
to RolkRoyce Motors Limited for this work to be
it
carried out.
Decarbonizing
b r b n deposits form in the combustion chambers and
affect the cylinder heads. valws. and piston crowns.
To decarbonize the engine it will be necessary to
remm and dismantle the Minder heads, then
pmced as foflows.
1. Ensure fithat the piston is at tde. Using a blunt tool
carefully remove the .carbondeposit from the piston
crown and the top face of the liner. POnot use a wire
brush.
2. Carry out a similar exercise with the blunt tool on
the valves. Complete the removal of the carbon deposit
using a wire brush.
Take care not to damage the valve seat or to make
heavy score marks in the cylinder heads. Heavy score
marks will quickly accumulate carbon and seriously
impair engine performante.
3. Ensure that as the carbon is removed. it does nor
enter the coolant passages of the crankcase and
cylinder heads.
4. Discard rhs sparking plugs for new ones or
alternatively, clean the existin9 plugs and set the gaps.
5. Repeat Operations 1 to 4 inclusive on the
remaining combusrion chambers and their respective
components.
6. Wash the cylinder heads and valves in paraffin
and d v with compressed air.
7 . Inspectthevalveguides.
8. inspec: the valves, the valve seats. and the vahre
seat inserts.
9. Inspect the valve springs.
10. Assemble the engine by reversing the procedure
given for disrnanrling, noting the following.
a. Use new gaskets and seals.
b. Torque tighten all nuts and serscrews to the
figures quoted in either Section E 15 or Chapter P.
c Tune the fuel metering equipment of the engine
as stated in the relevant chapter listed in Operation 5.
Cylinder heads To remwa
-
Senion E9
E9-f
WORKSHOP MAHUAL
- .
Crankcase breather system
-
For details of the crankcase emission control system
fiwto cars produced to the Australian. Japanese,
Middle East or No* Ameriean specification refer to
the appropriare section of Chapter U.
Crankcase emissions are controlled by a
recirculating closed breather system Basically, three
different systems are used depending upon the type of
carburetter and air induction system
Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit Silver Spur, Bentley
Eight and Muloanno [excluding Turbo)
SW HIF7 carburatters
The engine crankcase is ventilated from the rear of 'A'
bank cylinder head to an adapter on the choke
butterfly housing. via a moulded rubber hose (see
fig. E9-1).At the specified timdmileage intervals the
system should be dismantled and cleaned as fotlaws.
-
1, Withdraw the windscreen wiper motor relay
(preferably number three} and remove the wiper
mechanism cover.
2. Disconnect the breather hose from the flame trap
housing on the rear of 'A' bank cylinder head.
3. Unscrew the three setscrews from the housing
cover and remove the cover.
4. Remove the circfip retaining the gauze fitter
situated on the underside of ?he housing cover.
5- Thoroughly clear: the gauze assembly with a
suitable cleaning soivent and dry wjth compressed air.
6. Ensure that the breather pipe and housing are
also clean.
7. To clean the adaprer fitted to the choke housing
remove the single setscrew from the breather pipe end
connection and detach the pipe.
8- Clean the adapter fitted to the choke housing and
ensure thar the holes in the adapter are cleat.
9. Assemble the flame trap. adapter. and breather
pipe in the reverse order.
Fig. €9-1 Crankcase breather (SU H l W
carburetters)
-
Rolls-Royce Corniche and Bentley Continental
Solex 4 A l carburetter
T h e engine crankcase is ventilated from rhe engine oil
filler housing on 'B' bank cylinder head to a connection
on h e underside of the air intake cieaner assembly
(see fig. E9-2). At the specified timdmileage intervals
the system shouid be dismantled and cleaned as
follows.
1. Slacken the worm drive clip situated at borh ends
of the moulded rubber breather tube. Withdraw the
breather tube.
2. Remove the setscrew securing the breather tube
adapter and fiame trap assembly to the oil filler
pedestaL
3. W~thdrawthe adapter.
Fig. E9-2
Crankcase breather (Solax 4 A l
cartruratters other than Mulsanne Turbo)
4.
Withdraw the flame trap assembty.
Colleet the fiarne trap gauze assembly.
6. Thoroughly clean the components in a suitable
cleaning soivent and dry them with compressed air.
5.
TSD 4400
Fig. E9-3 Crankcase breather [Solax 4 A 1
earburettnrr Mulsanne Turbo)
7. Whilst the engine air fitter slemenr is rammed
during the service operations. also ensure that the
breather pipe connection in the base of the air filter
housing is cleaned.
8. If necessav renew the sealing rings on the oil
.filler pedestal connections and fit the components by
reversing the dismantling procedure.
9. Ensure that the earth braid (if fitted] is located
under the head of the securing setscrew.
-
Bentley Mulsanncr Turbo Solex 4 A 1 carburetter
The engine crankcase is ventilated from the rear of 'A'
bank cylinder head to a connection on the air dump
pipe, via a moulded rubber hose (see fig. €9-3). Ar the
specified timdrnileage intervafs the system should b e
dismantled and cleaned as follows.
1. Withdraw rhe windscreen wiper motor relay
(preferably number three) and remove the wiper
mechanism cover.
Disconnect the breather hose from the connection
on the air dump pipe.
3. Remove the two setscrews securing the speed
control bellows mounting bracket to the crankcase
brearher/flame trap housing at the rear of 'A' bank
cylinder head. Move the bellows away from the
2.
housing.
4.
Remwe the remaining setscrew from the housing
cover. This setscrew also secures the ignition harness
clamp. Carefully remove the housing cwer and hose.
5. Invert the ewer and remove the circfip retaining
the fiher gauze assembly. Withdraw the filter gauze
and washer.
6. Thoroughly clean the components in s suitable
cleani,ng solvent and dry them with compressed air.
7. Fit the components by reversing the removal
procedure.
8. Ensure that the eanh cable (if fined) is located
under the head of the housing securing setscrew.
Section E 10
WORKSHOP MANUAL
,
Engine lubrication system
Oil is circulated around the various pans of the engine
lubrication system under pressure. supplied by a
helicat gear type of pump, driven from the crankshaft
Oil drawn h m the sump efiters the suction side
of the pump via a pick-up t u b fined wirh a fins mesh
saainer. A relief valve incorporated in the oil pump is
designed to relieve pressure whenever it exceeds
2.76 bar (40 Ibf/i$).
The discharge side of the pump is connected to
the full flow filter, this is a disposable canister type.
-The oil, pressurized and fihemd then passes along
the various galleries and pipes to lubricate the engine
components.
On turbocharged engines. when the oil reaches a
predetermined temperature a diverter valve direets the
pressurized lubricant rhrough a cooler before it is
filtered.
Certain camponents of the engine are not
pressure lubricated: rhese are lubricated by either oil
splash or mist
-
Oil pump To remove
The operations listed form the basic procedure to be
followed. In service, minor variations may be
eneou nrered due t o the specification of the engine.
AII cars
1. Drive the vehicle onto a ramp and chock the road
wheels.
2. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
3. Drain the engine coolant (see Chapter L).
4. Drain the engine oit
5. Remove the bonnet and radiator grille (see
Chapter S).
6. Remove the engine drive belrs (see Section E1 3).
7. Remove the alternator (see Chapter M).
Mulsanne Turbo onfy
8. Remove the oil cooler and pipes.
All cars
9. Remove the auxiliary cooling fan($) {see
Chapter M).
l 0. Rernwe the refrigeration condenser {see
Chapter C). radiator matrix and cowl, header tank (if
fmsd). viscous coupling, and cooling fan (see
Chapter L).
M u l w n n e Turbo only
11. Remove the exhaust downtake manifold pipe
between the turhcharger and the flexible bellows (see
Chapter Q). Also remove the brge heatshield: this is
retained by two setscrews (nowashers) to the
t u k h a r g e r and a nut and washer t o the top left
mounting stud on the lower front cover.
12. Remove the heatshield from beneath the sump.
Fig. Et 0.1
Engine oil pump
13. Remove the lower section of rhe turbocharger oil
return pipe to the front cover. This pipe is secured at
the top by a worm drive clip, whilst two setscrews
retain the lower connection to the front cover, collect
the washers and gasket.
14. Detach the W O engine: oil cooler prpes from the
crankcase (below the oil filter assembly). Each pipe is
secured by two setscrews. collect the washers and the
gasket.
15. Disconnect the pipe support brackets located
beneath the steering pump. Move the oil cooler pipes
from the viciniry of the lo'wer front cover.
Silver Spirit. Silver Spur, and Mrrlsanns
f except Turbo]
16. Slacken the steady bracket outer mounting bolt
Wmcrew and remove the socket headed screw from
ttte inner end of the steady bracket. swing the steady
bracket downwards away from ttte lower front cover.
Ensure that the distance piece is retained in the inner
mount
17. Unscrew and remove the two setscrews retaining
the steady bracket mounting to the engine. Collect the
washers and the bracket
AI1 cars {artcspt Turbo)
18. Unscrew the pivot nut and adjusrmem bracket
setscrew from the jockey pulley, collect the washers
and withdraw the jockey pulley assembly.
Cats fmmd whh an air injection syatmm
19. Remove the air injection pump (see Chapter U).
The pump adjustment strut will be removed with
High pressure oil
W
El
IA
.-
. ...
'l........
.. . I_..
-1...._.__.. . .. W
'
Fig. E10-2 Engine lubrication system
A Turbocharger lubrication
B Oil filter (Turbocharged engines)
...%.
. ,k?d
LOW pressure
oil
Crankcase oif or splash
WORKSHOP MANUAL
the steering pump tension adjusting bracket and the
pivot bracket wijJ be removed with the' refrigeration
compressor mounting bracket
All cars
20. Unscrew the setscrews retaining the refrigeratim
compressor mounting bracket to the engine. Collect
the washers and move the compressor and mounting
bracket from the vicinity of the cmlanr pump
2 l. Remove rhe steering pump {see Chapter N).
22. Disconnect the engine coolant pipes (including
the heater pipes) from the coolant pump.
23. Disconnect the thermostat by-pass pipc at the
wdant pomp
24. Unscrew and remove the setscrews securing the
coolant pump to the crankcase: withdraw the coolant
pump.
25. Discard the Neoprene seal which fits between the
coolant pump and front lower cover.
26. Remove the lockplate and setscrews securing the
pulley and damper to the drive flange; withdraw the
pulley and damper.
27. Using the special spanner RH 7 131, unscrew the
serrated nut from the crankshaft
28. Using tha special withdrawal tool RH 9765.
withdraw the putty driving flange (see fig. E l 0-4).
29. Support the weight a t the front of the engine.
aote
This can be achieved by pkcing the base of the jack
on a support across the ramp and positioning the head
of the jack below the sump towards the front of the
engine. Always position a piece of soft wood between
the head of the jack and engine sump. Carefully allow
the jack to take the weigh at the front of the engine.
30. Unscrew and remove the two setscrews securing
the front engine mounting to the bottom of the front
lower cover.
31. Carefully slide any packing pieces from between
the bottom of the front I m e r cover and the mounting
foot Slightly raise the engine if necessary. Take note
of the packing pieces so that they can be returned ro
The correct positions.
32. Unscrew and remove the setscrews securing the
front lower cover to the front of the crankcase. Collect
the washer fitted to each setscrew.
33. The casing is dowelled to the crankcase in W o
places. Carefully prise the dowels from their positions
and withdraw the cover. Take care not to lose the
rubber bung from inside the cover.
34- Detach the oil pipe connecting the pump to the
filter intake, ensuring that the rubber '0'ring fined at
the filter end of the pipe is also removed.
35. Remove the setscrews securing the pump to the
crankcase and withdraw the pump together with the
dowel insee.
When withdrawing the oil pump it may be
necessary to either turn the assembly from side to side
as it is removed. or in extreme cases. remove the drive
gear.
-,
-
Oil pump driving gear To remove
The gear is situated at the front of the crankshak
Therefore. it will be necessary to remove the front
Fig. E10-3 Engine oil cooler and associated piper
(Turbochargad engines)
-
lower ewer (refer to Oil Pump To remove) and rhen
to proceed as follows.
1. Using the special spanner RH 71 t 0.unscrew the
serrated nut from the crankshaft. The nut has a lefthand thread therefore. it is unscrewed by turning it in
a clockwise direerion.
2. Withdraw the small spacer washer and the bronze
oil pump driving gear.
-
-
Oil pump To test
The pump must be tesred on a rig which has a
variable orifice so that the oil delivery pressure from
the pump can be restricted The rig should also be
able to drive the pump at a cornro~ledspeed and be
capable of maintaining a constant temperature of BO'C
(1 76.F) for the duration of the test
If these facilities are available. the pump should
be tested as follows.
1. Driw the pump at 200 redmin. then adjust the
variable orifice until the pump is delivering oil a!
1.30 bar ( 15 Ibf/i@). With the orifice at this setting
the oil pump delivery should be at l e a s 4.55 litred
min I1 gavmin).
2. Maintain the orifice at this setting then increase
the speed to 1S00 redmin. the pump should deliver
no less than 9.0 litredmin (2 gaVmin at 2.89 bar
(42 Ibff~n?).
Oil pump -.Todirrnantlm ( w e fig. E10-5)
1. HoM the external dtiving gear in s suirabte fixture.
taking Wr8 that sufficient protection is provided m
3. fhe did vshre should blow at approximately
2.89 bar (42 IbVin').
If the performance of the pump does not wnform to
these figures. proceed as f d l m
4. Examine the working faces of the pump cover and
i f necessary. remove light w s a r marks by machining.
5. Compare the pump clearance with the figures
given in Smion E3 Dimensional data.lf necessary
renew the pump casing and fit a new matched set of
g==
6. If the condition of the pump is poor, the complete
pump should be renewed
-
msurt that the teeth of the gear are not damaged
Z Remove $Ie split pin, nut and washer seeuring the
driving gear to the driving strafc carefully withdraw the
gear using the extraetor RH 8141. Remove the
Wood& b y from the shatt
3. Unscrew the six setscrews. remove the end cover
a d withdfnw the two gears from the casing.
-
Oil pump To assemblm (see fig. E10-5)
1. Assemble the oil pump by reversing the
pmedure given for dismantling noting the folIowing.
2. Examine all working parts for wear and inspect
the end cover and casing for distortion; renew if
necessary. If the end cover is tightly scored the marks
may be removed by machining.
3. If the drive gear is serviceable. always ensure thar
it is fined into position the same way around as h was
wmwd
Check that the end-float in rhe gears and the
backlash b e m e n the pump driving gear and driven
gear (internal gears) is correct (see Section €3,
Dimensional data).
5. Torque righten the setscrews. nuts. and bolts to
me figures specified in Chapter P.
4.
Fig. E 1 0 4 Withdrawing the pulley driving flange
1
3
l
Oil pump To fit
l. Fit the oil pump by reversing the procedure given
for removal. noting the following.
2. Always ensure that the oil pump gear is of a
different material to the mating gear on the crankshaft.
The oil pump gear should be steel and the crankshaft
gear bronze.
Under no circumstances should gsars of like
metals be fined.
If a new oil pump driven gear is to be fined. also
fit a new oil pump driving gear to the crankshaft
3. If the drive gear is serviceable. always ensure that
it is fitted into position the same way around as it was
removed.
Ensure that all setscrews, nuts,and bolts are
torque tightened to the figures specified in Chapter P.
5. Ensure that the backlash between the driving gear
on the crankshaft and the gear on the pump is correct
(refer to Section E3. Dimensional data and figure
E 1 0-61.
4.
6. When fining the setscrews securing the pump to
Fig.
E1 0-5
Cut-away view of oil pump
1 Crankshaft driven gear
2 Oil pump driven gear
3 Oil filter delivery pipe
4 Oil pump driving gear
5 Oil pump body
6 Relief valve
the engine, ensure that the dowel insens are fitted to
the holes from which they were removed.
7. The filter delivery pipe is held in pasition by
means of a rubber pad attached to the front cover.
Ensure thar this pad is in position before fitting the
cover. Renew the delivery pipe '0' rings.
8. Fit new joints to the lower front cover and the oil
pump. If-the front cover to sump joint is damaged or
in poor condition it will be necessary to remove the
sump to enable a new joint to be fitted [refer to
Section E6).
9. On Comicha, Muloanno Turbo, and
Continental cmrs, set the engine mounting stop plate
Section E 10
WORKSHOP MANUAL
gap This procedure is described in Section E12.
10. Fir a new Neoprene seal bcween the embnt
pump casing and the lower front cover; also renew the
molant pump '0'ring% 11. Examine aH coolant hoses for deterioration and
replace any that are considered unsewiceabk.
12. Ensure that the driving belts are fined and
adjusted correctly (refer to Section E l 3).
13. Fill the engine cooling system with the corrm
antifreeze mixture (refer to Chapter L).
14. Fill the engine yith an apprwed oil (refer to
Engine oiL Sump To fitr).
-
-
Oil filter canister To renew (see fig. €1 0.7)
l. Drain the oil from the engine by carrying out
Operations 1 to B inclusive, under the heading Engine
oil, Sump To drain.
2. Position a suitable container beneath the oil filter.
3. Support the fitter and unscrew, using a suitable
strap spanner.
4. Discard the complete fitter canister assembly.
5. Examine the new canister to ensure that it is a
suitable approved replacement and that the rubber
-
Fig. E10-6
Checking backlash of oil pump gears
sealing ring is positioned correctly.
6. Lightly smear the seating ring with clean engine
oil.
7. Fit the new canister and tighten, using hand
pressure.
Note
On left-hand drive Mulsanne Turbo cars it will be
necessary to remove the steering column to &teering
unk linkage (refer to Chapter N) before the engine oil
fitter canister is removed.
-
Oil pressure gauge transmitter To renew (see
fig. E10-7)
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2. Disconnect the electrical cable at the 'Locat'
connection adjacent to the transmitter assembly.
3. Using the appropriate size of spanner unscrew the
transmirter anti-dockwise.
4. Fit the assembly in the reverse order. noting that
the 'Lucai connection must be positioned toward the
top and within 30' either side of vertical.
The correet position for the transmitter can be
achieved by fining an additional copper washer onto
the threaded semion that screws into the filter
housing.
Note
On Mulsanne Turbo engines the position of the 'Lucar'
is nor critical but in addition, it wiIl be necessary to
remwe the small heatshield positioned around the oil
filter pedestal prior to carrying our the work
-
Oil pressurs switchas To renew (seefig. E l 0-7)
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2. Disconnec! the electrical cable at the appropriate
' t u c a i connection adjacent to rhe oil pressure
switches.
3. Using the appropriate site spanner unscrew the
pressure switch anti-clockwise.
4, Fit the assembly in the reverse order.
Fig. E10-7 Oil filter and elbow assembly
t Oil pressure transmitter (facia ail gauge)
2 Oil pressure switch (warning lamp)
3 Oil pressure switch (fuel pump relay)
4
Oil filter canister
Nots
Either one or W O pressure switches are fitted
depending upon the specification of the vehicle.
On Mulsanne Turbo engines, it wil[ be necessary
to remwe the small heatshield positioned around the
oil fitter pedestal prior to carrying out the work.
-
Oil tamperaturs switch To renew
On certain engines an oil temperature switch replaces
one of the oil pressure switches. The oil temperature
switch should k renewed as follows.
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2, Using the appropriate size spanner unscrew the
swicch anri-clockwise.
3. Fit the assembly in the reverse order, noting that
the aluminium sealing washer fitred under the
hexagon of the untt is in good condition. Coat the
threads with Loctite Superfad 572 prior to fitting rhe
witch.
4. Toque tighten the switch to the figure given in
Section El 5.
oil thermostat To renew
On Mutsanne Turbo cars a thermomt is f ~ e d
into the
oif filter elbow. The fundon of the t h e m s b t is to
allow oil to flow thruugh the engine .ailcooler when it
reaches a predetermined mmperature. To remw the
assembly proceed as follows
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2. Remove the small hewshield situated adjacent to
'B' bank exhaust downtake pipe, This heatshield
covers the oil filter Jbow.
3. Unscrew the ttiermosmt. from the elbow.
4. Fit the assembly in the rmcse order. noting that
the aluminium washer is in g o d condition and that
the threads are coated with Loctite Superfast 572.
-
Oil level sender unit To renew
- 1. Carry out the usual workshop safe*/ precautions.
2. Drain the engine oil (refer to Sump To drain).
3. Locate the assembly situated in the side of the
-
.sump.
4. Remove the hearshield.
51 Disconnect the electrical connection.
6. Unscrew the screws securing the unit in position
and collect the spring washer from under the head of
each screw.
7 . Carefully 'free' the joinr and withdraw the sender
unit
Fit the assembly in the reverse order, noting that
the joint faces must always be clean. Always fit a new
gasket Check that the word Top' stamped on the
assembly is rowards the top of the engine. Ensure that
a spring washer is fined under the head of each screw.
Fill the sump with oil (refer to Sump To fill).
8.
-
Engine oil
Sump To drain
1. Position t h e car on a ramp and carry out the usual
workshop safety precautions.
2. Raise the ramp.
3. Position a suitable container beneath the sump
drain plug.
4. Clean the drain plug. seating washer. and a small
area of the sump around the drain hok
5. Unscrew the drain plug. collect the aiuminium
sealing washer and allow the oil to dain into the
container.
6. Examine the condition of the aluminium seating
washer and renew if necessary.
7. Ensure that the plug and washer seating area on
the sump is both clean and dry.
8. Fit ?hesealing washer and plug to the sump and
tighten.
9. Fit a new oil fiher caniner -if necessary by carrying
out Operation 2 to 7 inclusive, under the heading Oil
filter caniser To renew.
-
Sump To RI1
It is most important that only engine oil of an approved
grade and manufacture is used, refer to Chapter D.
10. Raise the bonnet and open the filler cap.
l1. Pour 8,4 litres ( l4.8 Imp p t 17.7 US U?) of fresh
approved oil into the system via ;he filler, 9,4 litres
( l 6.5 Imp pt 19.8 US pt) if the filter has been
changed.
12. Check the oil level by carrying out Operations
t 3 to 17 inclusive.
-
Sump oil Iavel to chock
The vehicle must be standing on level ground and he
engine'swirehed off.
t 3. li the sump has just been filled with fresh oil or if
the engine has been switched off,allow m least four
minutes for the oil to drain into the sump
14. Wnhdraw the engine oil dipstick and wipe it clean
15. lnsen the dipstick into its position.
16. Wfihdmw the dipstick and read the oil level.
Maximum and mimirnum oil level marks an indicated
on the dipstick
17. Topup the oil level if necessary by carrying out
Operations 18 to 2 t indusive.
-
Sump To topup
tt is moM imponant 'that only engine oil of an approved
grade and manufacture is used, refer to C h a ~ e D.
r
18. Carry out Operations 13 to 1 6 inclusive.
19. If necessary. topup by pouring a small quantity of
fresh engine oil through the filler.
20. Repeat Opetarions 13 to 1S' inclusive until the oil
level reaches the maximum mark on the dipstick.
Do not overfill the engine.
21. After lopping-up ensure that the filler cap and
bonnet are properly closed.
Important
a Do nor operate the engine if the oil level is below
the minimum mark of the dipstick Failure to observe
this precaution could resub in serious damage to the
engine.
b. lf the filter canister and/or the sump drain plug
have been disturbed, check for oil le_aksaround the
two components, immediateiy after the engine has
been staned.
-ion
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Ell
Et 1-1
Hydraulic pump push rod
assemblies
The two hydraulic pumps are fined to the tappet chest
cover and activated by camshatt operated push rod
assemblies.
Each push rod assembly is secured to the
underside of the tappet chest cover with two setscrews.
-
Hydraulic pump push rod assembly To remove
1. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
2. Remove either the carbureners, fuel injection
system equipment or turbocharging equipment as
applicabk (see either Chapter K or Chapter U).
3. Drain the engine -lam (see Chapter L).
4. Depressurize the hydraulic system and remove the
hydraulic systems pumps (seeChapter G).
5. Remove the indunion manifold.
5. Progressively unscrew the setscrews securing the
tappet chest cover to the crankcase. The setscrews
must be removed progressiveIy. otherwise if the
brake pump operating cams are at their peak,
distomion could occur to the tappet chest cover.
7. Withdraw the tappet chest cover.
8. prom the underside of the tappet chest cover tap
back the tabs of the lock-washers.
9, Unscrew the two setscrew securing the push-rod
guides to the tappet chest covers. Collect rhe iockwas hers.
10. Remove the guides. Collect the shims (iffined) as
the pump flange and push rod guide are detached.
Hydrauric pump push rod assembly
Push rod
2 Guide
3 '0'ring
4 Cam follower
Fig. El 1-1
l
-
Push rod guides To dismantle and assemble (see
fig. E t 1-11
1. Siide the push rod through the hole in the guide
flange.
2. Press the cam follower into the-centre chamber of
the guide. Lift out the cam follower.
3. Discard the '0'ring.
4. Examine the components for wear.
5. Clean the groove in the cam follower and fit a new
'U' ring.
6, Wash all componenrs in clean paraffin.
7. Assemble the components be reversing the
dismantling procedure.
-
Hydraulic pump push rod and guide assembly
To fit (seefig. E l l -l )
1. Ensure that all components are clean,panicularly
the mating faces of thefappet chest cover and the
crankcase.
Fit the push md guide assemblies to the
underside of the cover.
3. Fit the pump flange and shim(s) on top of the
cover and secure in position with two setscrews and
lock-washers.
Fig. E1 1-2 Measuring the pump flange t o push rod
2.
+
1
dimension
Push md
2 Shims
A
Depth micrometer measurement
To check that the push rods are wnectly set
m e the camshaft until both hydraulic pump
are at approximately bottom dead centre
4.
(WC).
5. Temporarily fit the tappet cover and progressively
tighten the setscrews.
6. Rotate the engine to find the exact bdc position of
the hydraulic pump push md.
7. Using a depth micrometer placed across the
-pumpflange measure the dimension to the top of the
push rod (see fig. E t 1-21. This dimension should be
between the figures quoted in Section E3,
Dimensional data
8. If the dimension is incorrect it will be necessary to
aker the shims under the pump mounting flange [see
fig E l 1*2). The shims are available in two sizes, refer
to Section €3. Dimensionet data
9, To atrsr the number of shims. carry out the
following operations.
10. Remwc'rhe tappet chen cwcr.
1 l. Unscrew the twr, setscrews securing the push md
guide to the hydraulic pump Range. Remove the guide
and flange, together with the shim(s).
1 2 Care should be taken to ensure thar no dirt or
other foreign matter is allowed to come into contact
with the exposed components. especially the
eccenrrics or the cam face of the followers.
1 3. Add or subtract the necessary shim washers.
14. Fir thc push rod guide, shims, and pump flange to
the tappet chest cover.
15. Fit the push d.
16. Temporarily fit the tappet chest cover assembly to
the crankcase. Using a depth micrometer, confirm that
the dimension from the pump flange to the top face of
the push rod is correct (see fig. El 1-2) refer to
Seaion E3. Dimensional data.
17. When the dimension from the pump flange to the
mp face of the push rod is correct. remove the tappet
chest cover. secure the retaining setscrews with the
rabs of the lock-washers, and then permanently fit the
cover as described in Section E7.
18. Fit the hydraulic pump(s) as described in
Chap~erG.
'
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Section E1 2
E l 2-1
Engine removal and
installation
This section describes the removal of the engine
*rough the bonnet apenure. Details for the remwal of
Phe engine, torque mnvener transmission. and front
subframe ss one unit from beneath the car. are given
in Chapter H.
The operations Osted in this section are the basic
Heps to be fo#&
when removing the engine and
shou Id enable a skilled mechanic to c a q out the
exercise The sequence of operations may vary slightly
as the operator becomes more familiar with the work
t t should also be noted that the specification of
the engine can vary-slightly dependent upon the
destination of the car and it is ahvays advisable ro
check that all cables, looms, pipes, etc.. have been
disconnected before lifting the engine out of the
vehicle.
Note
Whenever an operation refers to another chapter [e.g.
Drain the cooling system (see Chapter L]], it should be
noted that the full procedure to carry out the operation
will be found within that particular chapter.
-
Engine To remove
1. Drive the car onto a ramp.
2. Carry out the usual workshop safety precautions.
3. Chock both the front and rear road wheek.
4. Disconnect the battev leads.
5. Raise the bonnet and ensure that rhe wing covers
RH 2684 and liners RH 2685 are fitted.
6. Remove the bonnet (see Chaprer S).
7. Drain the engine cooling system (see Chapter L).
8. Depressurize the hydraulic systems (see
Chapter G).
9. Drain the engine oil (see Section E1 0).
10. Discharge the refrigerant (see Chapter C).
1 l . Remove the windscreen wiper mechanism (see
Chapter M).
12. Remove the top and bottom radiator hoses and
blank the open connections. Half fill the radiator with
coolant
13. On Comiche and Continental ears. remove the
header tank and top half of the fan cowl (see Chapter L).
14. Rernwe the engine fan assembly (see Chapter L).
15. Disconnect the feed hose from the heater tap and
also the return hose from the engine connection.
1 6. Disconnect the refrigerant pipes from the rear of
the compressor.
17. Remove the air intake duaing (see Chapter K or U).
18. Disconnect the steering pump to oil cooler hoses.
Allow the oil to drain into a container and then blank
the connections.
August 1984
Fig. E12-1 A typical engine t o subframe damper
mounting
*
Fig. E l 2-2 Engine t o subframe damper frttad to
early fuel injseion engines aniy
Prlnred m England
@ Rolls-Roe@Motors L~rnnedl 984
19. Dismnert and remove the exhaust gas
recirculation (EGR) feed pipe (iffitted to the exhaust
system balance pipe).
20. Suppon the weight of the exhaust system under
the front silencet/catalyiic converter. Remove the
exhaust system balance pipe and dawntake pipes (see
Chapter Q or U).
2 1. Disconnect the body to the engine fuel hoses.
22. Cbmp the hydraulic system reservoir to brake
pump hoses to prevent reservoir drainage. Then.
disconnect the hoses from the pump inlet pipes.
Fir the blanks to the open connections.
23. Remow the smmr motor (see Chapter M).
24. P ~ i t i o an jack under the rear of the engine sump.
Place a piece of wood b e m e n the head of the jack
and the sump. Take the weight of the engine.
25. Remove the toque converter transmission (see
Chapter
26. On cars fmed with small dampers adjacent to the
engine mr mourn. disconnect the top of the dampers
from the mansmission adapter plate (see figs E12-1
and E1 2-21,
27. ~ e m the
A steady bar (if f i e d ) from the front of
the engine (see fig. E1 2-3).
28. Disconnect the accumulator to body hoses (see
fig.' E12-4).On Mufsanne Turbo cars, these hoses are
situated on the leh-hand side of the engine
compartment (see fig. E l 2-5).
29. Temporarily clamp the
accumulators low
pressure return to r e s e ~ o i hoses.
r
Detach rhe hoses
and suitably blank the open ends. Secure each blank
v.
Fig. El 2-3 Engine front mount and steady bar
twb
using a hose retaining dip.
30. On Mulsanne Turbo cars. disconnect the two
flexible engine oil pipes situated in front of the
Fig- E12 4
Fig. E l 2-5
Hydraulic accumulator t o body hoses
(other than turbocharged engines)
Hydraulic ~ccumulatort o body hoses
(turbocharged engines)
crankshaft puliey.
31. Disconnect the fuel evaporative hoses {if fined).
Refer to Chapter K or U.
32. Disconnect the vacuum hose ro the alr blend valve
(if f i e d ) .
33. On Mulsanne Turbo cars. disconnect the hose for
the vacuum motor.
34. Disconnect the accelerater linkage at the long rod
and detach the isolator trapeze from the body.
35. Locare the engine loom where it leaves the engine
at the rear of 'A' bank rocker cover. Trace along the
loom and free it from the securing clips. Detach the
engine loom from its connections below the right-hand
blower motor. label each connection to assist
identification.
On cars firted with a fuel injection system. detach
rhe additional connection situated below the left-hand
blower motor.
36. Detgch the electrical connections to the ignition
coil and distributor.
On Mulsanne Tu r h cars, disconnecr the additional
caMe from the knock sensor that is fined towards the
rear of the induction manifold on '0' bank side.
37. Ta lift the engine fit the stings around the front
and rear of the engine. Ensure that the front sling is
not positioned under the front pulley. Using an overhead hoist connect it to the slings using t h e
special lift sling RH 9732.
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Nota
On Mdsanne T u r b cars do not use slings around the
front and rear of rhe engine. Instead, use the special
adapter brackets RH 9730 {front) and RH 9731 (rear).
38. Take the weight of the engine.
39. Disconnm the engine front mounting (see
fig Et 2-3).On Corniche. Mulsanne Turbo. and
Continental cars refer to figure E l 2-6.
40. Disconn- the twa engine tear mountings.
41. Check to ensure that no wires. cables, pipes, etc.
remain connected to the engine.
42. Carefully lift the engine upwards and slightly
forwards checking to ensure that it does not foul any
point of the engine comparrment
43. Continue to carefully lift the engine out of the
vehicle. Once it is clear, iwver it down onur a suitable
stand and secure it in the upright position.
Engine -70fn
Fit the engine by reversing the prctcedure given for
removal. noting the following.
t
When lowering the engine into position, ensure
the flywheel assembly and rear of the engine do not
become trapped against the rear crossmember of The
front sub-frame.
Also ensure that the sump fits into the space
between the steering rack pipes and the subframe.
2. On Corniche, Mulsanne Turbo. and Conthentar
cars. with the engine front mounting setscrews siack,
adjust rhe posirion of the engine mounting slop plare
so that there is a gap of 1 .S2 mm (0.060 in) between
the bonded rubber srrip on the stop plate and
crossmember stop bracket (see fig. E 12-6). The stop
plate has elongated holes to allow adjustment.
3. Connect all pipes. hoses. and cables as described
in the relevant chapters.
4. Fill all necessary systems *with fluids as described
.
Fig. E12-6 Front engine mount stop plate gap
m the &want
5. Immediately ths engine marts fur the first time.
inspect for obvious teak. Whilst the engine k
warming up cany out a mwc detailed inspection of ail
pipes. hoses. and pints for leak
6. Ahei the engine is fully warmdup check all fluid
levels and correct as necessary.
7. Road test the vehicle and make any minor
adjutxmenrs that are found necessary.
Section E l 3
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Engine drive belts
Befora commencing to adjust the drive belts inspect
them for signs of wmr or cracking. Any blrs found
unsatisfactow should be renewed.
If after adjuament a marched pair of beh have a
marked variation in tension, a new pair shauld be
fined Always renew h t h belts in r matched pair, even
if only one belt is faulty.
When tensioning the belts W O loads are
specified; a new betr load for replacement (new) beits
and a retensioning load for belts which are satisfactory
for fCrrther service.
The belt tension must be checked at a point
midway berween two pulleys by use of a bell tension
A h y s ensure that the correct approved
replacement is obtained and fined.
2. Inspect the pulleys and pulley g m s .
3. Before fitting the belts a h y s ensure that they are
in good condition with no marked variation in size.
meter.
New belt Load
Bek tension meter
Belt dressing mum not be applied to prevent belt
-
Drive belt tensioning Cars other than
Mulsanne Turbo
C r a n k r M to steering pump/refrigeration
compmswr
Load m u a be applied on the top run of the belts. Each
bek to be checked individually.
slip.
On cars produced to the Nonh American and
Australian specifications an additional belt is fined to
drive the air injection pump. For details refer to the
appropriate section of Chapter U.
Drive b o b To renew
1. Release the tension from the parricular belt{s) and
remove the behis) from the pulleys.
Spring balance
40.8 kgf to 45.4 kgf
(90 Ibf to TO0 Ibf)
6.3 kgf ro 7.7 kgf
(I4Ibf to 17 Ibf)
Retensioning Load
Bett tension meter
36.3 kgf to 40,8 kgf
Spring balance
(80 Ibf ta 90 Ibfj
4.1 kgf to 6,3 kgf
(9 1M to 14 lbf)
Fig. E13-1 Engine drive belts arangsmont
A Other than Mulsanne Turbo
B Mulsanne T u b
Inset
-
Refrigeration compressor rear pivot
Printed in f nphnd
August 1984
@ Rolls-Roee Maorr Limited 1984
this m B t c M pair Of belts is adjusted by
altering the position of the Reering pump (see fig. E 13-1).
1. Slacken the setscrew in the steering pump
mounting bracket slot situared below the pump pullw.
2. Slaeken the pump pivot setscrew and the union
on the supply hose at the rear of the pump.
3. Pivot the pump to adjun the belt tension then
t i g m the setscrew in the adjustmem slot
4. Checkthe bett tension and adjust again if
T)le tension of
necessary.
5. When the tension is correct tighten the pivot
s e t s c m and again check the belt tension.
6. Finally tighten the supply hose mnnection
ensuring that the hose does not foul on other
components.
7. On left-hand drive cars position the hose so that
the soft rubber protective sleeve has clearance or
minimal contact with the coolant pump to manifold
elbow.
Crankshaft t o coolant pump
Load may be applied on either side of the belt run.
New belt toad
8elt tension meter
Spring balance
Retensioning load
Belt tension meter
Spring balance
27.2 kgf so 31.7 kgf
(60 Ibf to 70 lbf)
7.5 kgf to 8.2 kgf
(1 6.5 Ibf to 18 Ibf)
22.7 kgf ta 27.2 kgf
(50 lbf to 60 lbf)
6.8 kgf to 7.5 kgf
( 1 5 Ibf to 16.5 lbf)
The tension of this matched pair of betts is
adjusted by altering the position of the jockey pulley
(see fig. El 3-1 ).
l. Slacken the nut and setscrew securing the jockey
pulley arm.
2. Pivot the jockey pulley to adjust the beh tension
then tighten the nut and setscrew.
3. Check the belt tension and repeat the adjustment
procedure i f necessary.
Coolant pump t o alternator
Load may be appiied on either side of the belt run.
New belt load
Belt tension meter
Spring balance
36.3 kgf to 40,8 kgf
{80 Ibf m 90 lbf)
5.0 kgf to 5.9 kgf
l . Slacken the setscrew securing the alternator at
the upper mounting point
2. Slacken the setscrew securing the adjustment
srrut to the front mounting plate. also the nut and bok
in the adjustment slot
3. Pivot the alternator to adjust the belt tension then
tighten the nut and bolt in the adjustment slot
4. Cheek the belt tension and repeat adjustment if
necessary.
5. When the tension is correct finally tight& the
remaining setscrews and check the tension again.
-
Drive belt tensioning Mulsanne Turbo
Crankshaft to coolant purnp/steering pump
The belt tension meter reading should be as follows
New beb 36,3 kgf to 40.8 kgf (80 tbf t o 90
Retensioned kit 31.7 kgf to 36.3 kgf (70 Ibf m
80 Ibr).
Thc tension of this marched pair of betts is
adjusted by attering the position of the steering pump.
1. Slacken the setscrew securing the steering pump
mounting bracket pivot and the clamping setscrew on
the belt tensioner situated below the steering pump
1w.
(seefig. El 3-1).
2. Carefully adjust the tensioner until the correct belt
tension is attained.
3. When the bett tension is correet tighten the
tensioner clamp and mounting bracket pivot
setscrews.
4. Ifthe alternator bek is t o be adjusted the
mounting bracket pivot setscrew can remain slack until
adjustment has been carried out
5. Ensure the belt tension is still correct when the
steering pump is fully secured.
Crankshaft to coolant pump/alternator
The belt tension merer reading should be as follows.
New belt 36.3 kgf to 40 kgf (80lbf to 90 Ibf).
Retensioned belt 3 t,7 kgf to 36,3 kgf ( 7 0 IM to
80 Ibf).
The belt tension is adjusted by afrering the
position of the alternator.
l. Slacken the alternator mounting setscrew and the
clamping setscrew on the belt tensioner situated
above the alternator (see fig. Et 3- 11.
2. Carefully adjust the tensioner until the correct belt
tension is attained.
3. When the belt tension is correcr. tighten the belt
tensioner clamping setscrew and alternator mounting
setscrew.
4. Ensure the belt tension is still correct when the
alternator is fully secured.
[ l 1 IMto 13 Ibf)
~etensioningload
B e f tension merer
Spring balance
-
31,7 kgf to 36.3 kgf
(70 Ibf to 80 Ibfj
4.1 kgf to 5.0 kgf
(9 tbf to l l Ibf)
The tension of the belt is adjusted by altering the
position ofthe alternator (see fig E l 3-3).
Crankshaft to refrigeration compressor
The belt tension meter reading sh~uldbe as follows.
New belt 36,3 kgf to 40.8 kgf (80 Ibf to 90 Ibf).
Rerensionad beh 31.7 kgf t o 36,3 kgf (70 lW to80 Ibf).
The belt tension is adjusted by altering the
position of the refrigeration compressor.
1. Slacken the compressor piwt bolts at the front
and rear of the compressor and the belt tensioner
setscrew (seefig. El 3-1).
August 1984
WORKSHOP MANUAL
2. fiddly adjust %hetensioner un?il the tomet beft
tension Is amtinecl
3. When ?he ktttension is tamn tighten
bslt
tensioner damping sctsenw and the compressor pivot
.bob.
4. Ensurn the bab tension is still correct when the
wrnpressrrr is fully secured.
Senion E 1 4
WORKSHOP MANUAL
E l 4-1
Fault diagnosis
Possible cause
Symptoms
2.
Engine fails m stsrt (stsmrmotor inopsratiw)
1. {a) Gear range selector out of 'Neutral' or 'Park'
position.
(b) Ignition fuse blown.
(c) Battery discharged.
(d) Break or high resistance in battery
connections and starter relay connections.
(0) Auxiliary starter relay fauity.
(f) Faulty starter motor.
Engine faiis to stan (starttr motor operstes but
fails to turn engine)
2. (a) Battery discharged.
(b) Faulty starter motor circuit (refer to
Chapter M).
(c) Faulty starter motor.
(d) Faulty starter solenoid (refer to Chapter M].
3.
3. (a) No fuel delivered t o engine (refer to
Engine fails to fire
Chapter K and/or Chapter U).
(b) Fautry ignition system (refer to Chapter M).
(c) Excess fuel in engine {refer to Chapter K
and/or Chapter U).
(d) lncorrecr metering of fuel {refer TO Chapter K
and/or Chapter U).
4.
Poor engine idling
4.
(a] Incorrect metering of fuel (refer to Chapter K
andlor Chapter U).
(b) Incorrect ignition timing [refer to Chapter K.
Chapter M, and/or Chapter U].
(c] Air leaks in induction system (refer to Chapter
K and/or Chapter U).
(d) Air leaks in exhaust system on engines fined
with a fuel injection system (refer to
Chapter U).
.
5, {a) Incorrect metering of fuel (refer to Chapter K
5. Incorrect engine idle speed
and/or Chapter U).
(b) Throttle controls sticking (refer to Chapter K
and/or Chapter U).
{c) Air leaks in induction system (refer to
Chapter K and/or Chapter U).
6. Irregular running
6.
-
(a) Fautty sparking plug(s) (refer to Chapter M
and/or Chapter U).
(b) Faulty ignition system (refer to Chapter K.
Chapter M, a n d o r Chapter U).
{C] Air leaks in induexion system (refer to
Chapter K and/or Chapter U).
(d) Air leaks in exhaust system on engines fined
with a fuel injection system (refer to
Chapter U).
(e) Incorrect metering af fuel (refer to Chapter K
anWor Chapter U).
Symptoms
Porsiblr causa
'6.
(f) Inlet and exhaust valves not seating correctly
(refar to Seaion €8). Examine valve seats and
Irregular running {continued)
springs.
(g) Defective cylinder head gaskets(~){refer to
Section E8). Examine the cylinder head
gasket(s).
.-
7. (a) Faulty sparking plug(s) (refer to Chapter M
a W o r Chapter U).
tb) Faulty ignition system (refer to Chapter K.
Chapter M, and/or Chapter U).
(c) Air leak in induction system {refer to
Chapter K and/or Chapter U].
(d) Air leaks in exhaust system on engines fitted
with a fuel injection system (refer to
Chapter U).
(e] Bloeked air cleaner filter (refer to Chapter K
and/or Chapter U).
( f ) Incorrect metering of fuel (refer to Chapter K
a n d o r Chapter U).
(g) Thronle linkage sticking or incorrectly
adjusted (refer to Chapter K and/or
Chapter U).
(h] Worn or burnt valves. Broken or weak vaive
springs (refer to Section E8).
(i) Defective cylinder head gaskeqs) (refer to
Section E8).
8. Engine 'spits back'
9. Engine 'runs on' (diesels)
.
.
8. {a) lncorreet metering of fuel (refer to Chapter K
and.or Chapter U).
(b) Inlet vakres not seating correctly (refer ro
Secrion E8).
(c) lncorrecr grade of fuel.
(d) Faulty ignition system {refer to Chapter K.
Chapter M. a n d o r Chapter U).
(e) Heavily carbaned engine.
9.
(a] Engine overheating.
(bJ Faulty ignition timing.
(c) Faulty weakening system
( i ) Engines fined with w i n SU HlF7 or a
Solex 4 A l [except Turbo) carburerter(s1
refer to Chapter K (Part 1) or Chapter U.
(ii) Engines fitted with a fuel injection system
refer to Chapter U.
(iii) Engines fitted with s turbocharging
sysrem refer to Chapter K (Pan 2).
10. Detonations insilencer
10. (a) Incorrect metering of fuei (refer to Chapter K
andfor Chapter U.
(b) Faulty ignition system (refer to Chapter K,
Chapter M, and/or Chapter U).
(c) Air leaks in exhaust system (refer to
Chapter Q and/or Chapter U).
(d). Faulty temperature controlled air intake
system (refer to Chapter K and/or
Chapter U].
(e) Exhausr valve(s) s~icking[refer to Section €8).
August 1984
skion E 14
WORKSHOP MANUAL
E10-3
SVmpcoms
Possible muse
I l . (a) Loss of coolant.
(b} 'Faulty thetmosm
(c) Broken or slipping drive belt
(d) Faulty coolant pump
(t) Weak fueVair mixture.
(q Inadequate engine kbrication.
(g] Faulty ignition system (refer to Chapter K
Chapter M, and/or Chapter U).
{h) BImktd eoofing system
{iJ Redetad air flow thmugh matrix
12. L o w oil pmssure
12. (a) Inadequate oil supply.
Low oil level in sump (see Section E10).
Icl Defective oil pressure gauge.
id) Worn or defective oil pump [refer to
Section E1 0).
Bloeked oil pickmup strainer.
befectivt seal(s) on oil pick-up assembly.
Defective ssal(s) in main oil galleries
{core plugs).
Engine overheating.
13. Excessive fuel consumption
13. (a) Leaks from fuel system.
(b) Incorrect metering of fuel (refer to Chapter K
and/or Chapter U).
(c) Blocked air cieaner fiker (refer 10 Chapter K
and/or Chapter U).
(d) Faulty ignition system (refer to Chapter K
Chapter M, and/or Chapter, U).
(e) Loss of engine cylinder compression.
kknd in England
@ k l l s . R o ~ eMotors L ~ m i t d1984
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Section E1 5
E1 5-1
Special torque tightening
--
figures
vehiilc have different t h r d formations (Metric. UNF,
UNC, etc). Therefore. when fitting nuts, bolts and
screws it b important to ensure that the correm type
and site of thread formacion is used
Introduction
This section contains the special toque tightening
figures applicable to Chapter E
For the standard torque figures refer to Chapter P.
Components used during the manufacture of the
Nm
Ref. Component
-
1
Nut Main bearing cap
2
Nut Big end
3
CasreIlated nut Oil pump
79
- 84
-
intake strainer
kd m
Ibf ft
8.N.5
58
- 62
24
- 30
See Section E6
-
-
4
Setscrew Camshaft gear
5
Serrated nut Crankshaft
-
3
0,3
fbf in
11-13
380
- 434
-
1.1-1.4
8-10
38.7-44.2
280
1.1-1.4
8 - 10
0.6
48
- 320
pinion (L H thread)
-
6
Setscrew Tappet block
7
Bolt Distributor damp plate
-
17
-13
6
- 52
Ibf in
E
-
Setscrew Drive plate to
40
- 43
4.M,4
29
- 32
crankshafr
Printed in England
@ Rolls-Rowe Motors L~mitad1 984
E l 5.2
Nm
Ref. Component
9
- Alternator pulley
L=k-nut
t0
-
-
Serrated nut Crankshaft
damper drive flange
-
.55 57
129
- 203
kGf m
Ibf ft
5.5-5,8
40 42
13.1-20.7
95 150
-
-
Serrated nut to be initially tightened to l29 Nm ( t 3.1 kgf m. 95 lbf ft].
further tightening of the nut to align the castellations with the lockwasher is pennissabk. However. the h a 1 torque figure must not exceed
203 Nm {20,7 kgf m, 150 Ibf 6).
-
l1
Cap nut Rocker ewer
12
Setscrew Rocker shaft
-
1
0.1
10- 12
Ibf in
17-13
1.1-1.4
8- 10
- 23
1,&-2.3
1 3 - 17
pedestal
18
13
Sparking plug
14
Setscrew Exhaust
Other than Mutsanna Turbo
manifold
31
-
- 34
3.2-3.4
Mulsanne Turbo only
19-21
1s 2 . 2
1
---
-
1
15
-
Cheesehead screw Oil
0.2
2
levei indicator
m -- - m
K
-
!O
*
0 .
- - . - - --
'
m iQ.
Tightening sequence
(
16
m
0
Nut Cyiinder head
Stage I
In~tialtlghrening
Srage 2
a0310
FtnaI t~gh:ening
!7
,
-
Core plug brass
Core plug aluminium
- 34
core pjug - brass
Core picg - aluminium
2.7-3.4
20
- 25
- 74
37 - 39
41
- 47
-
42
Core plug brass
Core plug alum~n~um
-
20 22
68
-
19
20
27
93 97
9 5 - 101
Core plug brass
Core plug alumin~um
-
14 16
Ibf in
-
18
-
23 25
55
65
68
- 44
-
61
- 70
- 74
a0331 i
Augua 1984
section E1 6
WORKSHOP MANUAL
Workshop tools
Tool Number
Description
RH 2684
Wing ewer set
RH 2685
Wing cover liners
RH 7094
Valve spring compressor
RH 7095
Extractor cylinder liner
RH 71 10
Spanner crankshaft serrated nut
(small)
-
-
Spanner cylinder head nuts
-
Spanner crankshaft serrated nut
(large1
Extramion and Insertion tool
and exhaust vake guides
- iniet
-
Earactor main bearing caps
-
Extractor anaehment main
bearing caps
-
Reamer inlet and exhaust valve
guides
-
fipped reamer inlet and exhaust
valve guides
-
Extractor oil pump driven gear
Insertion -I
- crankshaft rear seal
Protecrive sleeve - crankshaft rear seal
-
Engine lifting bracket front
Engine lifting bracket rear
Engine lifting sling
-
Extractor front pulley driving flange
August 1 98d