Installation and Upgrade Guide

Installation and Upgrade Guide
Oracle® Grid Infrastructure
Installation and Upgrade Guide
12c Release 2 (12.2) for Linux
E85686-02
February 2018
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation and Upgrade Guide, 12c Release 2 (12.2) for Linux
E85686-02
Copyright © 2013, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Aparna Kamath
Contributing Authors: Douglas Williams, Mark Bauer, Janet Stern
Contributors: Prakash Jashnani, Markus Michalewicz, Aneesh Khandelwal, James Williams, Ian Cookson,
Jonathan Creighton, Angad Gokakkar, Srinivas Poovala, Khethavath Singh, Prasad Bagal, Balaji Pagadala,
Neha Avasthy, Mark Scardina, Hanlin Chien, Anil Nair, Apparsamy Perumal, Samarjeet Tomar, Akshay
Shah, Kevin Jernigan, Eric Belden, Mark Fuller, Barbara Glover, Saar Maoz, Binoy Sukumaran
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Contents
Preface
Audience
xvii
Documentation Accessibility
xvii
Related Documentation
xviii
Conventions
xviii
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1
2
3
Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2)
xix
Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1)
xxviii
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Checklist
1.1
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-1
1.2
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
1-2
1.3
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-4
1.4
Network Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-5
1.5
User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-7
1.6
Storage Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-9
1.7
Cluster Deployment Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-11
1.8
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-12
Checking and Configuring Server Hardware for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
2.1
Logging In to a Remote System Using X Window System
2-1
2.2
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
2-2
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation
RPM
3.1
Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
3-1
3.2
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support
3-2
iii
4
3.3
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network
3-3
3.4
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
3-4
3.5
Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server Support
3-5
3.6
Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux Updates
3-6
3.7
Configure Additional Operating System Features
3-7
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Grid Infrastructure on
Linux
4.1
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
4.1.1
4.2
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
4-2
4-2
4.1.1.1
About Minimal Linux Installations
4-3
4.1.1.2
RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration
4-3
4.1.1.3
Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation
4-4
4.1.2
Completing a Default Linux Installation
4-4
4.1.3
About Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
4-4
4.1.4
About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM
4-5
4.1.5
Restrictions for HugePages and Transparent HugePages
Configurations
4-6
Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices
4-7
4.2.1
General Upgrade Best Practices
4-7
4.2.2
New Server Operating System Upgrade Option
4-8
4.2.3
Oracle ASM Upgrade Notifications
4-8
4.3
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
4-9
4.4
About Installation Fixup Scripts
4-9
4.5
About Operating System Requirements
4-10
4.6
Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z
4-10
4.7
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
4-11
4.8
4.7.1
Supported Oracle Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
4-12
4.7.2
Supported Oracle Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
4-14
4.7.3
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
4-16
4.7.4
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
4-17
4.7.5
Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for x86-64
4-19
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.9
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for IBM: Linux on
System z
4-21
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on
System z
4-22
Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for IBM: Linux
on System z
4-23
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
4.9.1
4-21
Installing PAM for Login Authentication on Linux
4-24
4-25
iv
4.9.2
Installation Requirements for OCFS2
4.9.2.1
About OCFS2 and Shared Storage
4-25
4.9.2.2
Installing OCFS2
4-26
4.9.3
Installation Requirements for ODBC and LDAP
4-26
4.9.3.1
About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database
4-26
4.9.3.2
Installing ODBC Drivers for Linux x86-64
4-26
4.9.3.3
About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins
4-26
4.9.3.4
Installing the LDAP Package
4-27
4.9.4
Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway
4-27
4.9.5
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux
4-27
4.9.5.1
4.9.6
5
4-25
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for
Linux x86-64
4-27
Installation Requirements for Web Browsers
4-28
4.10
Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux
4-28
4.11
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
4-29
4.12
Reviewing HugePages Memory Allocation
4-29
4.13
Disabling Transparent HugePages
4-30
4.14
Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon
4-31
4.15
Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
4-32
4.16
Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
4-33
4.17
Setting Network Time Protocol for Cluster Time Synchronization
4-33
Configuring Networks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle
RAC
5.1
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Network Configuration Options
5-2
5.2
Understanding Network Addresses
5-2
5.2.1
About the Public IP Address
5-3
5.2.2
About the Private IP Address
5-3
5.2.3
About the Virtual IP Address
5-4
5.2.4
About the Grid Naming Service (GNS) Virtual IP Address
5-4
5.2.5
About the SCAN
5-5
5.3
Network Interface Hardware Minimum Requirements
5-6
5.4
Private IP Interface Configuration Requirements
5-7
5.5
IPv4 and IPv6 Protocol Requirements
5-8
5.6
Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address Requirements
5-9
5.6.1
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Name Resolution Options
5-10
5.6.2
Cluster Name and SCAN Requirements
5-11
5.6.3
IP Name and Address Requirements For Grid Naming Service (GNS)
5-11
5.6.4
IP Name and Address Requirements For Multi-Cluster GNS
5-12
5.6.4.1
About Multi-Cluster GNS Networks
5-12
v
5.6.4.2
Configuring GNS Server Clusters
5-13
5.6.4.3
Configuring GNS Client Clusters
5-13
5.6.4.4
Creating and Using a GNS Client Data File
5-13
5.6.5
5.6.6
5-14
Confirming the DNS Configuration for SCAN
5-15
5.7
Broadcast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure
5-16
5.8
Multicast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure
5-16
5.9
Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
5-16
5.9.1
Choosing a Subdomain Name for Use with Grid Naming Service
5-17
5.9.2
Configuring DNS for Cluster Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
5-17
5.10
6
IP Name and Address Requirements for Manual Configuration of
Cluster
Configuration Requirements for Oracle Flex Clusters
5-18
5.10.1
Understanding Oracle Flex Clusters
5-18
5.10.2
About Oracle Flex ASM Clusters Networks
5-20
5.10.3
General Requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster Configuration
5-21
5.10.4
Oracle Flex Cluster DHCP-Assigned Virtual IP (VIP) Addresses
5-22
5.10.5
Oracle Flex Cluster Manually-Assigned Addresses
5-22
5.11
Grid Naming Service Cluster Configuration Example
5-23
5.12
Manual IP Address Configuration Example
5-24
5.13
Network Interface Configuration Options
5-25
5.14
Multiple Private Interconnects and Oracle Linux
5-26
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database
6.1
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
6-1
6.1.1
Determining If an Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exist
6-2
6.1.2
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not
Exist
6-3
6.1.3
About Oracle Installation Owner Accounts
6-3
6.1.4
Restrictions for Oracle Software Installation Owners
6-4
6.1.5
Identifying an Oracle Software Owner User Account
6-5
6.1.6
About the Oracle Base Directory for the Grid User
6-5
6.1.7
About the Oracle Home Directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software
6-6
6.1.8
6.2
About Creating the Oracle Home and Oracle Base Directory
6-7
Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
6-8
6.2.1
About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
6-8
6.2.2
Standard Oracle Database Groups for Database Administrators
6-9
6.2.3
Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
6-10
6.2.4
Creating an ASMSNMP User
6-11
vi
6.2.5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation
6-11
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7
Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
6-12
6.3.1
Creating the OSASM Group
6-12
6.3.2
Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group
6-13
6.3.3
Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group
6-13
6.3.4
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
6-13
6.3.5
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
6-13
6.3.6
Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations
6-14
6.3.7
Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations
6-14
6.3.8
Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations
6-14
6.3.9
Creating the OSRACDBA Group for Database Installations
6-14
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
6-14
6.4.1
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
6-15
6.4.2
Modifying Oracle Owner User Groups
6-15
6.4.3
Identifying Existing User and Group IDs
6-16
6.4.4
Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
6-16
6.4.5
Example of Creating Minimal Groups, Users, and Paths
6-18
6.4.6
Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths
6-19
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
6-22
6.5.1
Environment Requirements for Oracle Software Owners
6-23
6.5.2
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
6-23
6.5.3
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
6-25
6.5.4
Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
6-26
6.5.5
Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands
6-27
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
6-28
6.6.1
Requirements for Enabling IPMI
6-28
6.6.2
Configuring the IPMI Management Network
6-29
6.6.3
Configuring the Open IPMI Driver
6-30
6.6.4
Configuring the BMC
6-31
6.6.5
Example of BMC Configuration Using IPMItool
6-31
Determining Root Script Execution Plan
6-34
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
7.1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
7-1
7.2
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
7-3
7.3
7.2.1
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux x86–64
7-4
7.2.2
Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS
7-5
Storage Considerations for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
7-6
vii
8
7.4
Guidelines for Using Oracle ASM Disk Groups for Storage
7-7
7.5
Guidelines for Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups on NFS
7-8
7.6
Using Logical Volume Managers with Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle
RAC
7-9
7.7
Using a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
7-10
7.8
About NFS Storage for Data Files
7-10
7.9
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
7-10
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
8.1
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
8.1.1
8.2
Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
8-2
8.1.2
Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Requirements
8-7
8.1.3
About the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
8-9
8.1.4
Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group
8-10
8.1.5
About Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Instances
8-11
8.1.6
Selecting Disks to use with Oracle ASM Disk Groups
8-11
8.1.7
Specifying the Oracle ASM Disk Discovery String
8-12
8.1.8
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
8-12
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMFD
8.2.1
8.3
9
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
Using Disk Groups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM
8.3.1
8.4
8-2
8-13
8-14
8-14
Identifying and Using Existing Oracle Database Disk Groups on Oracle
ASM
8-15
8.3.2
Creating Disk Groups for Oracle Database Data Files
8-15
8.3.3
Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files
8-16
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
8-17
8.4.1
Configuring NFS Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Database
8-17
8.4.2
Checking TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client
8-18
8.4.3
Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client
8-18
8.4.4
Enabling and Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS
8-21
8.4.5
Enabling Hybrid Columnar Compression on Direct NFS Client
8-21
8.5
Creating Member Cluster Manifest File for Oracle Member Clusters
8-22
8.6
Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
8-23
8.7
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
8-24
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure
9.1
About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
9-2
9.2
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
9-2
viii
9.2.1
About Oracle Standalone Clusters
9-3
9.2.2
About Oracle Cluster Domain and Oracle Domain Services Cluster
9-3
9.2.3
About Oracle Member Clusters
9-4
9.2.4
About Oracle Extended Clusters
9-6
9.3
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster
9-7
9.3.1
Installing Oracle Standalone Cluster
9-7
9.3.2
Installing Oracle Domain Services Cluster
9-13
9.3.3
Installing Oracle Member Clusters
9-20
9.4
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Cluster Configuration File
9-25
9.5
Installing Only the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software
9-27
9.5.1
Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
9.5.2
Configuring Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
9-27
9-28
10
9.5.3
Configuring the Software Binaries Using a Response File
9-29
9.5.4
Setting Ping Targets for Network Checks
9-29
9.6
About Deploying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
9-30
9.7
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
9-31
9.8
Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files
9-32
9.9
Understanding Offline Processes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
9-32
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation Tasks
10.1
Required Postinstallation Tasks
10.1.1
10.2
Downloading and Installing Patch Updates
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
10-1
10-2
10-2
10.2.1
Tuning Semaphore Parameters
10-3
10.2.2
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
10-3
10.2.3
Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool
10-3
10.2.4
Creating a Fast Recovery Area
10-4
10.2.4.1
10.2.4.2
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk
Group
10-4
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
10-5
10.2.5
Checking the SCAN Configuration
10-5
10.2.6
Setting Resource Limits for Oracle Clusterware and Associated
Databases and Applications
10-6
10.3
About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle Database
10-7
10.4
Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
10-7
10.4.1
General Restrictions for Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases
10-8
10.4.2
Configuring Earlier Release Oracle Database on Oracle ACFS
10-8
10.4.3
Managing Server Pools with Earlier Database Versions
10-9
10.4.4
Making Oracle ASM Available to Earlier Oracle Database Releases
10-10
ix
10.4.5
10.4.6
10.5
11
Using ASMCA to Administer Disk Groups for Earlier Database
Releases
10-10
Using the Correct LSNRCTL Commands
10-10
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
10-11
Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
11.1
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
11-2
11.2
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrade and Downgrade
11-2
11.3
Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
11-3
11.4
Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
11-4
11.5
Preparing to Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
11-6
11.5.1
Upgrade Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
11-6
11.5.2
Checks to Complete Before Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
11-8
11.5.3
Moving Oracle Clusterware Files from NFS to Oracle ASM
11-9
11.5.4
Running the Oracle ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment
11-10
11.5.5
Using CVU to Validate Readiness for Oracle Clusterware Upgrades
11-10
11.5.5.1
About the CVU Upgrade Validation Command Options
11-11
11.5.5.2
Example of Verifying System Upgrade Readiness for Grid
Infrastructure
11-12
11.6
Understanding Rolling Upgrades Using Batches
11-12
11.7
Performing Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure
11-13
11.7.1
Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure from an Earlier Release
11-13
11.7.2
Completing an Oracle Clusterware Upgrade when Nodes Become
Unreachable
11-15
11.7.3
Joining Inaccessible Nodes After Forcing an Upgrade
11-16
11.7.4
Changing the First Node for Install and Upgrade
11-16
11.8
About Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
11-16
11.9
Applying Patches to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
11-17
11.9.1
About Individual (One-Off) Oracle Grid Infrastructure Patches
11-18
11.9.2
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Patch Levels
11-18
11.9.3
Patching Oracle Grid Infrastructure to a Software Patch Level
11-18
Updating Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Target Parameters
11-19
11.10
11.10.1
11.10.2
11.10.3
Updating the Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Target After
Upgrades
11-19
Updating the Enterprise Manager Agent Base Directory After
Upgrades
11-20
Registering Resources with Oracle Enterprise Manager After
Upgrades
11-20
11.11
Unlocking the Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
11-21
11.12
Checking Cluster Health Monitor Repository Size After Upgrading
11-22
11.13
Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade
11-22
11.13.1
Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Downgrades
11-23
x
11.13.2
Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Downgrades
11-24
11.13.3
Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1)
11-24
11.13.4
Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2)
11-26
11.13.5
Downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure after Upgrade Fails
11-27
11.13.6
Downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure after Upgrade Fails on
Remote Nodes
11-28
11.14
A
11-29
11.14.1
Completing Failed Installations and Upgrades
11-30
11.14.2
Continuing Incomplete Upgrade of First Nodes
11-30
11.14.3
Continuing Incomplete Upgrades on Remote Nodes
11-31
11.14.4
Continuing Incomplete Installation on First Node
11-31
11.14.5
Continuing Incomplete Installation on Remote Nodes
11-31
11.15
12
Completing Failed or Interrupted Installations and Upgrades
Converting to Oracle Extended Cluster After Upgrading Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
11-32
Removing Oracle Database Software
12.1
About Oracle Deinstallation Options
12-2
12.2
Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
12-4
12.3
Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database
12-6
12.4
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Cluster
12-7
12.5
Migrating Standalone Oracle Grid Infrastructure Servers to a Cluster
12-10
12.6
Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Binaries
12-12
12.7
Changing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Path
12-13
12.8
Unconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing Binaries
12-14
12.9
Unconfiguring Oracle Member Cluster
12-15
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A.1
How Response Files Work
A-1
A.2
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
A-2
A.3
Using Response Files
A-3
A.4
Preparing Response Files
A-3
A.4.1
Editing a Response File Template
A-3
A.4.2
Recording Response Files
A-5
A.5
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
A-6
A.6
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
A-8
A.7
A.6.1
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using Response Files
A-8
A.6.2
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using Response Files
A-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During
Installation
A-10
xi
A.8
B
A.7.1
Using the Installation Response File for Postinstallation Configuration
A-10
A.7.2
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File
A-11
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
A-12
A.8.1
About the Postinstallation Configuration File
A-13
A.8.2
Creating a Password Response File
A-14
A.8.3
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Password Response
File
A-15
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually
B.1
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
B.1.1
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System
B-2
B.1.2
Configuring SSH on Cluster Nodes
B-2
B.1.2.1
Create SSH Directory and Create SSH Keys On Each Node
B-2
B.1.2.2
Add All Keys to a Common authorized_keys File
B-3
B.1.3
B.2
C
B-4
B-5
B.2.1
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB
B-5
B.2.2
Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software
B-6
B.2.3
Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB
B-8
B.2.4
Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks
B-10
B.2.5
Configuring Oracle ASMLIB for Multipath Disks
B-11
B.2.5.1
About Using Oracle ASM with Multipath Disks
B-12
B.2.5.2
About Disk Scan Ordering
B-12
B.2.5.3
Configuring Disk Scan Ordering to Select Multipath Disks
B-13
B.2.5.4
Configuring Disk Order Scan to Exclude Single Path Disks
B-14
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
B.3.1
B.4
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Nodes
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
B.2.6
B.3
B-1
Configuring Device Persistence Manually for Oracle ASM
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
B-14
B-15
B-15
B-17
B.4.1
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
B-17
B.4.2
Changing Kernel Parameter Values
B-19
B.4.3
Configuring Additional Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
B-20
B.4.4
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually
B-21
Optimal Flexible Architecture
C.1
About the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
C-1
C.2
About Multiple Oracle Homes Support
C-2
C.3
About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation
C-3
C.4
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
C-4
C.5
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
C-5
xii
C.6
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
C-5
Index
xiii
List of Figures
9-1
Oracle Cluster Domain
9-4
xiv
List of Tables
1-1
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-2
1-2
Operating System General Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
1-3
1-3
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-4
1-4
Network Configuration Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
1-5
1-5
User Environment Configuration for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1-8
1-6
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Configuration Checks
1-9
1-7
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Cluster Deployment Checklist
1-11
1-8
Oracle Universal Installer Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
1-12
4-1
x86-64 Oracle Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-12
4-2
x86-64 Oracle Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-15
4-3
x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-17
4-4
x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-18
4-5
x86-64 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-19
4-6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-21
4-7
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-22
4-8
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System Requirements
4-23
4-9
Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux X86–64
4-28
5-1
Grid Naming Service Cluster Configuration Example
5-23
5-2
Manual Network Configuration Example
5-24
6-1
Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges
6-25
7-1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
7-2
7-2
Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
7-4
8-1
Oracle ASM Disk Space Minimum Requirements for Oracle Database
8-7
8-2
Oracle ASM Disk Space Minimum Requirements for Oracle Database (non-CDB)
8-7
8-3
Minimum Space Requirements for Oracle Domain Services Cluster with Four or
Fewer Oracle Member Clusters
8-8
8-4
Minimum Space Requirements for Oracle Member Cluster
8-8
8-5
Minimum Space Requirements for Oracle Standalone Cluster
8-9
9-1
Oracle ASM Disk Group Redundancy Levels for Oracle Extended Clusters
9-6
11-1
Upgrade Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
A-1
Response Files for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
A-4
B-1
Device Name Formats Based on Disk Type
B-9
B-2
Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM
B-10
B-3
Minimum Operating System Resource Parameter Settings
B-18
B-4
Commands to Display Kernel Parameter Values
B-19
11-6
xv
C-1
Examples of OFA-Compliant Oracle Base Directory Names
C-4
C-2
Optimal Flexible Architecture Hierarchical File Path Examples
C-6
xvi
Preface
This guide explains how to configure a server in preparation for installing and
configuring an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management).
It also explains how to configure a server and storage in preparation for an Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) installation.
•
Audience
•
Documentation Accessibility
•
Related Documentation
•
Conventions
Audience
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide provides configuration information for
network and system administrators, and database installation information for database
administrators (DBAs) who install and configure Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management in an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
installation.
For customers with specialized system roles who intend to install Oracle RAC, this
book is intended to be used by system administrators, network administrators, or
storage administrators to configure a system in preparation for an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster installation, and complete all configuration tasks that require
operating system root privileges. When Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation and
configuration is completed successfully, a system administrator should only need to
provide configuration information and to grant access to the database administrator to
run scripts as root during an Oracle RAC installation.
This guide assumes that you are familiar with Oracle Database concepts.
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?
ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support
through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/
lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs
if you are hearing impaired.
xvii
Preface
Related Documentation
For more information, see the following Oracle resources:
Related Topics
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
•
Oracle Database Installation Guide
•
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
•
Oracle Database Concepts
•
Oracle Database New Features Guide
•
Oracle Database Licensing Information
•
Oracle Database Readme
•
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide
•
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
•
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
•
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
•
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
xviii
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
This new release of Oracle Grid Infrastructure provides improvements to the
installation process, performance, and automation.
•
Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2)
•
Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1)
Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2)
The following are changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2):
•
New Features
•
Deprecated Features
•
Desupported Features
New Features
Following are the new features for Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 2 (12.2) and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 2 (12.2):
New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2)
•
Simplified Image-based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software is available as an image file for download and installation.
This feature greatly simplifies and enables quicker installation of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
Note:
You must extract the image software into the directory where you want your
Grid home to be located, and then run the gridSetup.sh script to start
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
See Also:
About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
xix
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
Support for Oracle Domain Services Clusters and Oracle Member Clusters
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installer supports the option of deploying Oracle Domain Services
Clusters and Oracle Member Clusters.
See Also:
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
Note:
Oracle Domain Services Clusters and Oracle Member Clusters are not
supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
•
Support for Oracle Extended Clusters
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installer supports the option of configuring cluster nodes in different
locations as an Oracle Extended Cluster. An Oracle Extended Cluster consists of
nodes that are located in multiple locations called sites.
See Also:
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
•
Global Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
Oracle Grid Infrastructure deployment now supports a global off-cluster Grid
Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR). This repository is a multitenant
database with a pluggable database (PDB) for the GIMR of each cluster. The
global GIMR runs in an Oracle Domain Services Cluster. A global GIMR frees the
local cluster from dedicating storage in its disk groups for this data and permitting
longer term historical data storage for diagnostic and performance analysis.
See Also:
About the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
Note:
This feature is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
•
Rapid Home Provisioning of Oracle Software
Rapid Home Provisioning enables you to create clusters, and provision, patch, and
upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database homes. You can also
provision Oracle Database on 11.2 clusters.
xx
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Rapid Home Provisioning leverages a new file system capability for separation of
gold image software from the site-specific configuration changes. This separation
ensures that the home path remains unchanged throughout updates. This feature
combines the benefits of in-place and out-of-place patching. This capability is
available with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2).
See Also:
About Deploying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
Note:
Rapid Home Provisioning is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
•
Parallel NFS Support in Oracle Direct NFS Client
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Direct NFS
Client supports parallel NFS. Parallel NFS is an NFSv4.1 option that allows direct
client access to file servers, enabling scalable distributed storage.
See Also:
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
•
Direct NFS Dispatcher Support
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Direct NFS
Client supports adding a dispatcher or I/O slave infrastructure. For very large
database deployments running Oracle Direct NFS Client, this feature facilitates
scaling of sockets and TCP connections to multi-path and clustered NFS storage.
See Also:
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
•
Kerberos Authentication for Direct NFS
Oracle Database now supports Kerberos implementation with Direct NFS
communication. This feature solves the problem of authentication, message
integrity, and optional encryption over unsecured networks for data exchange
between Oracle Database and NFS servers using Direct NFS protocols.
See Also:
Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client for information about
setting up Kerberos authentication for Direct NFS Client
•
Support for IPv6 Based IP Addresses for the Oracle Cluster Interconnect
xxi
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can use either
IPv4 or IPv6 based IP addresses to configure cluster nodes on the private
network. You can use more than one private network for the cluster.
•
Shared Grid Naming Service (GNS) High Availability
Shared GNS High Availability provides high availability of lookup and other
services to the clients by running multiple instances of GNS with primary and
secondary roles.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
•
Cluster Health Advisor
The Cluster Health Advisor provides system administrators and database
administrators early warning of pending performance issues and root causes and
corrective actions for Oracle RAC databases and cluster nodes. This advanced
proactive diagnostic capability enhances availability and performance
management.
Note:
Cluster Health Advisor is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
•
Enhancements to Cluster Verification Utility
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) assists in the installation and configuration of
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). CVU
performs a range of tests, covering all intermediate stages during the installation
and configuration of a complete Oracle RAC stack. In this release, CVU provides
several enhancements, such as information about the progress of each check and
allowing you to specify an output format such as XML or HTML on request.
•
Postinstallation Configuration of Oracle Software using the executeConfigTools option
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can perform
postinstallation configuration of Oracle products by running the Oracle Database
or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer with the -executeConfigTools option.
You can use the same response file created during installation to complete
postinstallation configuration.
See Also:
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During
Installation
•
Separation of Duty for Administering Oracle Real Application Clusters
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Database provides
support for separation of duty best practices when administering Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) by introducing the SYSRAC administrative
xxii
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
privilege for the clusterware agent. This feature removes the need to use the
powerful SYSDBA administrative privilege for Oracle RAC.
SYSRAC, like SYSDG, SYSBACKUP and SYSKM, helps enforce separation of
duties and reduce reliance on the use of SYSDBA on production systems. This
administrative privilege is the default mode for connecting to the database by the
clusterware agent on behalf of the Oracle RAC utilities such as srvctl.
•
SCAN Listener Supports HTTP Protocol
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), SCAN listener enables
connections for the recovery server coming over HTTP to be redirected to different
machines based on the load on the recovery server machines.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters Reader Nodes
Oracle RAC Reader Nodes facilitate Oracle Flex Cluster architecture by allocating
a set of read/write instances running Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)
workloads and a set of read-only database instances across Hub Nodes and Leaf
Nodes in the cluster. In this architecture, updates to the read-write instances are
immediately propagated to the read-only instances on the Leaf Nodes, where they
can be used for online reporting or instantaneous queries.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
•
Service-Oriented Buffer Cache Access
Cluster-managed services are used to allocate workloads across various Oracle
RAC database instances running in a cluster. These services are used to access
database objects cached in the buffer caches of the respective database
instances. Service-oriented Buffer Cache Access optimization allows Oracle RAC
to cache or pre-warm instances with data blocks for objects accessed through a
service. This feature improves access time of Oracle RAC Database instances.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
•
Server Weight-Based Node Eviction
Server weight-based node eviction acts as a tie-breaker mechanism in situations
where Oracle Clusterware needs to evict a particular node or a group of nodes
from a cluster, in which all nodes represent an equal choice for eviction. The
server weight-based node eviction mechanism helps to identify the node or the
group of nodes to be evicted based on additional information about the load on
those servers. Two principle mechanisms, a system inherent automatic
mechanism and a user input-based mechanism exist to provide respective
guidance.
xxiii
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
•
Load-Aware Resource Placement
Load-aware resource placement prevents overloading a server with more
applications than the server is capable of running. The metrics used to determine
whether an application can be started on a given server, either as part of the
startup or as a result of a failover, are based on the anticipated resource
consumption of the application as well as the capacity of the server in terms of
CPU and memory.
New Features for Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 2 (12.2)
•
Automatic Configuration of Oracle ASM Filter Driver
Oracle ASMFD simplifies the configuration and management of disk devices by
eliminating the need to rebind disk devices used with Oracle ASM each time the
system is restarted. The configuration for Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle
ASMFD) can now be enabled with a check box to be an automated process during
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Note:
Oracle ASMFD is supported on Linux x86–64 and Oracle Solaris operating
systems.
See Also:
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
•
Oracle IOServer
Oracle IOServer (IOS) provides connectivity for Oracle Database instances on
nodes of member clusters that do not have connectivity to Oracle ASM managed
disks. Oracle IOServer provides network-based file access to Oracle ASM disk
groups.
See Also:
About Oracle Flex ASM Clusters Networks
•
Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups and File Groups
Oracle ASM provides database-oriented storage management with flex disk
groups. Flex disk groups support Oracle ASM file groups and quota groups.
xxiv
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Snapshot-Based Replication
The new Oracle ACFS snapshot-based replication feature uses ACFS snapshot
technology to transfer the differences between successive snapshots to the
standby file system using standard ssh transport protocol. ACFS Snapshot-based
replication is more efficient with higher performance,lower overhead, and ease of
management.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Compression
Oracle ACFS provides file system compression functionality reducing storage
requirement, resulting in lowering cost. Oracle ACFS compression is managed
using the new acfsutil compress commands and updates to the acfsutil info
command.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Defragger
Databases that share storage with snapshots or with the base of the file system
can become fragmented under active online transaction processing (OLTP)
workloads. This fragmentation can cause the location of the data in the volume to
be discontiguous for sequential scans. Oracle ACFS automatically defragments
these files in the background.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Support for 4K Sectors
Oracle ACFS supports I/O requests in multiples of 4K logical sector sizes as well
as continued support for 512-byte logical sector size I/O requests. The i 4096
option is provided with the acfsformat command on Windows and the mkfs
command in Linux and Oracle Solaris environments.
xxv
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Automatic Resize
Oracle ACFS provides an automatic resize option with the acfsutil size
command. This command enables you to specify an increment by which an Oracle
ACFS file system grows automatically if the amount of available free space in the
file system falls below a specified amount. There is also an option to specify the
maxiOracle ACFS plugins support file content data collection. Both polling and
interval based capture are supported with the file content collection.mum size
allowed when using the automatic resize option. The output of the acfsutil info
fs command displays the automatic resize increment and maximum amounts.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Metadata Acceleration
Oracle ACFS supports accelerator metadata storage. This support enables many
critical Oracle ACFS metadata structures, including extent metadata, storage
bitmaps, volume logs, and some snapshot metadata to be placed on accelerator
storage.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Plugins for File Content Data Collection
Oracle ACFS plugins support file content data collection. Both polling and interval
based capture are supported with the file content collection.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Sparse Files
Oracle ACFS provides support for sparse files. Oracle ACFS sparse files greatly
benefit NFS client write operations which are commonly received out of order by
the NFS server and the associated Oracle ACFS file system.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
xxvi
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
Oracle ACFS Scrubbing Functionality
Oracle ACFS provides scrubbing functionality with the acfsutil scrub command to
check for and report any inconsistencies in the metadata or file data.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
High Availability Common Internet File System (HACIFS)
Oracle ACFS Common Internet File System (CIFS) features are enhanced to
provide high availability for the exported file systems, with the Oracle ACFS NAS
Maximum Availability eXtensions (NAS MAX) technology. High Availability
Common Internet File System (HACIFS) and High Availability Network File System
(HANFS) now both provide comprehensive Network Attach Storage solutions for
Oracle ACFS customers.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Deprecated Features
The following feature is deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in another
release. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for a complete list of deprecated
features in this release.
•
Deprecation of configToolAllCommands script
The configToolAllCommands script runs in the response file mode to configure
Oracle products after installation and uses a separate password response file.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the
configToolAllCommands script is deprecated and is subject to desupport in a
future release.
To perform postinstallation configuration of Oracle products, you can now run the
Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer with the executeConfigTools option. You can use the same response file created
during installation to complete postinstallation configuration.
Desupported Features
The following feature is desupported in this release. See Oracle Database Upgrade
Guide for a complete list of features desupported in this release.
•
Desupport of Direct File System Placement for Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and
Voting Files
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), the placement of
Oracle Clusterware files: the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR), and the Voting Files,
directly on a shared file system is desupported in favor of having Oracle
Clusterware files managed by Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
xxvii
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
ASM). You cannot place Oracle Clusterware files directly on a shared file system.
If you need to use a supported shared file system, either a Network File System,
or a shared cluster file system instead of native disk devices, then you must create
Oracle ASM disks on supported network file systems that you plan to use for
hosting Oracle Clusterware files before installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure. You
can then use the Oracle ASM disks in an Oracle ASM disk group to manage
Oracle Clusterware files.
If your Oracle Database files are stored on a shared file system, then you can
continue to use shared file system storage for database files, instead of moving
them to Oracle ASM storage.
Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1)
The following are changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1):
•
New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2)
•
New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1)
•
Deprecated Features
•
Desupported Features
New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2)
•
Automated Root Privilege Delegation to Scripts During Installation
You can continue to run scripts as root manually during installation, or you can
enable OUI to run root scripts as needed during installation, using one of three
methods: 1) providing the root password to the installer; 2) configuring Sudo
access to the Oracle installation owner; 3) configuring PowerBroker access to the
Oracle Installation owner.
•
Oracle ASM Filter Driver
The Oracle ASM filter driver (Oracle ASMFD) is a kernel module that resides in the
I/O path of the Oracle ASM disks. It is used by Oracle ASM to specify the
parameters to validate all I/O requests.
The filter driver rejects any I/O requests that are not determined to be valid. This
action eliminates accidental overwrites of Oracle ASM disks that would cause
corruption in an Oracle ASM disk and files within the disk group. For example, the
driver filters out all non-Oracle I/O requests that could cause accidental overwrites.
See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more
information about configuration and administration of Oracle ASMFD.
•
Rapid Home Provisioning
Rapid Home Provisioning is a method of deploying software homes to nodes in a
cloud computing environment from a single cluster where you store home images
(called gold images) of Oracle software, such as databases, middleware, and
applications. Rapid Home Provisioning Server clusters provide gold images to
Rapid Home Provisioning Clients.
xxviii
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
•
Cluster and Oracle RAC Diagnosability Tools Enhancements
The Trace File Analyzer (TFA) Collector is installed automatically with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation. The Trace File Analyzer Collector is a diagnostic
collection utility to simplify diagnostic data collection on Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle RAC systems.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information
about using Trace File Analyzer Collector
•
Automatic Installation of Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
The Grid Infrastructure Management Repository is automatically installed with
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
•
Oracle RAC Cache Fusion Accelerator
Oracle RAC uses its Cache Fusion protocol and Global Cache Service (GCS) to
provide fast, reliable, and efficient inter-instance data communication in an Oracle
RAC cluster, so that the individual memory buffer caches of multiple instances can
function as one global cache for the database. Using Cache Fusion provides a
nearly linear scalability for most applications. This release includes accelerations
to the Cache Fusion protocol that provide enhanced scalability for all applications.
New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1)
•
Automated Root Privilege Delegation to Scripts During Installation
You can continue to run scripts as root manually during installation, or you can
enable OUI to run root scripts as needed during installation, using one of three
methods: 1) providing the root password to the installer; 2) configuring Sudo
access to the Oracle installation owner; 3) configuring PowerBroker access to the
Oracle Installation owner.
•
Database Upgrade Automation Using DBUA
There are three areas that are being enhanced for upgrade ease-of-use. First, in
the pre-upgrade phase, the existing manual steps are eliminated and give more
explicit advice or even generate a fix-up script to find issues identified in the preupgrade phase. Second, in the post-upgrade phase, there is a post-upgrade
health check that indicates that the upgrade was successful. Finally, partner
documents (such as SAP) and major customer upgrade documents are used to
further identify manual steps that may be automated and generalized to a wider
customer base.
Automating the upgrade process provides major improvements in usability and
ease-of-use. There is also better integration of database upgrade with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
xxix
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
DBCA Support for Multitenant Container Database and Pluggable Database
Configurations
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant (DBCA) allows you to create either a multitenant container
database (CDB) or a non-CDB. You can create the CDB with zero, one, or more
pluggable databases (PDBs).
You can also create a CDB with one PDB during the database installation.
See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
•
Enhancements to Cluster Health Monitor (CHM)
CHM has been enhanced to be more efficient to support Oracle Flex Clusters
implementations. These enhancements ensure that Oracle Flex Clusters run
smoothly while minimizing the required resources to monitor the stack.
See Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.
•
Oracle Flex ASM Servers
Oracle Flex ASM enables the Oracle ASM instance to run on a separate physical
server from the database servers. Many Oracle ASM instances can be clustered to
support a large number of database clients.
Note that Oracle Flex ASM can apply to a collection of databases, each one a
single instance but running in an Oracle Flex ASM Cluster.
See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide.
•
Oracle Flex Clusters
Oracle Flex Cluster is a new concept, which joins together a traditional closely
coupled cluster with a modest node count with a large number of loosely coupled
nodes. To support various configurations that can be established using this new
concept, SRVCTL provides new commands and command options to ease the
installation and configuration.
See Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.
•
IPv6 Support for Public Networks
Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 1 (12.1) supports IPv6-based public IP and VIP
addresses.
IPv6-based IP addresses have become the latest standard for the information
technology infrastructure in today's data centers. With this release, Oracle RAC
and Oracle Grid Infrastructure support this standard. You can configure cluster
nodes during installation with either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses on the same network.
Database clients can connect to either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. The Single Client
Access Name (SCAN) listener automatically redirects client connects to the
appropriate database listener for the IP protocol of the client request.
See Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide.
•
Multiprocess Multithreaded Oracle Database
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database may use operating system
threads to allow resource sharing and reduce resource consumption.
See Oracle Database Concepts.
•
Oracle ACFS Auditing and Support for Importing Auditing Data into Oracle Audit
Vault Server
xxx
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
This feature provides auditing for Oracle ACFS security and encryption. In
addition, this feature also generates an XML file containing Oracle ACFS audit trail
data which can be imported by Oracle Audit Vault Server.
See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide.
•
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c
Oracle Database 12c introduces Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express, a
web management product built into Oracle Database without any need for special
installation or management. Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express,
you can perform administrative tasks such as managing user security, and
managing database memory and storage. You can also view performance and
status information about your database.
Note that starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control is deprecated.
See Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
•
Policy-Based Cluster Management and Administration
Oracle Grid Infrastructure allows running multiple applications in one cluster. Using
a policy-based approach, the workload introduced by these applications can be
allocated across the cluster using a policy. In addition, a policy set enables
different policies to be applied to the cluster over time as required. Policy sets can
be defined using a web-based interface or a command-line interface.
Hosting various workloads in the same cluster helps to consolidate the workloads
into a shared infrastructure that provides high availability and scalability. Using a
centralized policy-based approach allows for dynamic resource reallocation and
prioritization as the demand changes.
See Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.
•
Simplified Oracle Database Vault Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Vault is installed by default
as part of the Oracle Database installation. However, you can configure, enable, or
disable Oracle Database Vault after the Oracle Database installation, either using
DBCA, or by running SQL statements.
See Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.
•
Support for Separation of Database Administration Duties
Oracle Database 12c provides support for separation of administrative duties for
Oracle Database by introducing task-specific and least-privileged administrative
privileges that do not require the SYSDBA administrative privilege. These new
privileges are: SYSBACKUP for backup and recovery, SYSDG for Oracle Data
Guard, and SYSKM for encryption key management.
See Oracle Database Security Guide.
•
Unified Database Audit Configuration
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, you can create named audit policies. An audit
policy contains a set of audit options, which is stored in the database as an object.
The advantage of creating a named audit policy is that it reduces the number of
commands that are required to create a database audit policy, and it simplifies the
implementation of an audit configuration for security and compliance with
conditional auditing. This new audit policy framework is included with the database
installation.
xxxi
Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
See Oracle Database Security Guide.
Deprecated Features
The following features are deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in
another release. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for a complete list of
deprecated features in this release.
•
Deprecation of single-letter SRVCTL command-line interface (CLI) options
All SRVCTL commands have been enhanced to accept full-word options instead
of the single-letter options. All new SRVCTL command options added in this
release support full-word options, only, and do not have single-letter equivalents.
The use of single-letter options with SRVCTL commands might be desupported in
a future release.
•
Change for Standalone Deinstallation Tool
The deinstallation tool is now integrated with the database installation media.
•
Deprecation of -cleanupOBase
The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is deprecated in this release.
There is no replacement for this flag.
•
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control is replaced by Oracle Enterprise
Manager Database Express.
•
The deinstall standalone utility is replaced with a deinstall option using Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI).
Desupported Features
The following features are no longer supported by Oracle. See Oracle Database
Upgrade Guide for a complete list of features desupported in this release.
•
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
•
CLEANUP_ORACLE_BASE property removed and does not support an Oracle base
removal during silent or response file mode deinstalls.
xxxii
1
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Checklist
Use checklists to plan and carry out Oracle Grid Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware
and Oracle Automatic Storage Management).
Oracle recommends that you use checklists as part of your installation planning
process. Using this checklist can help you to confirm that your server hardware and
configuration meet minimum requirements for this release, and can help you to ensure
you carry out a successful installation.
•
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review server hardware requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
•
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Review the checklist for operating system requirements for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation.
•
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Use this checklist to check minimum server configuration requirements for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installations.
•
Network Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this network checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation to ensure
that you have required hardware, names, and addresses for the cluster.
•
User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Use this checklist to plan operating system users, groups, and environments for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
•
Storage Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review the checklist for storage hardware and configuration requirements for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
•
Cluster Deployment Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review the checklist for planning your cluster deployment Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation.
•
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review the checklist for planning your Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before
starting Oracle Universal Installer.
1.1 Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review server hardware requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
1-1
Chapter 1
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Table 1-1
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Check
Task
Server make
and
architecture
Confirm that server makes, models, core architecture, and host bus adaptors
(HBA) are supported to run with Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC.
Runlevel
3 or 5
Server Display At least 1024 x 768 display resolution for Oracle Universal Installer. Confirm
Cards
display monitor.
Minimum
Random
Access
Memory
(RAM)
At least 8 GB RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
Intelligent
Platform
Management
Interface
(IPMI)
IPMI cards installed and configured, with IPMI administrator account
information available to the person running the installation.
Ensure baseboard management controller (BMC) interfaces are configured,
and have an administration account username and password to provide when
prompted during installation.
1.2 Operating System Checklist for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Review the checklist for operating system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation.
1-2
Chapter 1
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Table 1-2 Operating System General Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle RAC
Check
Task
Operating system
general
requirements
OpenSSH installed manually, if you do not have it installed already as
part of a default Linux installation.
Review the system requirements section for a list of minimum package
requirements. Use the same operating system kernel and packages on
each cluster member node.
•
•
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-35.3.1.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7.2 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-32.2.3.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2:
2.6.39-400.211.1.el6uek.x86_64or later
Oracle Linux 6.6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-44.1.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.8 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-37.6.2.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7: 3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4: 2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11.1 or later
•
•
•
Review the system requirements section for a list of minimum package
requirements.
IBM: Linux on
System z operating
system
requirements
The following IBM: Linux on System z kernels are supported:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2: 3.10.0-327.el7.s390x or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6: 2.6.32-504.el6.s390x or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11-default s390x
or later
Review the system requirements section for a list of minimum package
requirements.
Oracle
If you use Oracle Linux, then Oracle recommends that you run an Oracle
Preinstallation RPM preinstallation RPM for your Linux release to configure your operating
for Oracle Linux
system for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
Oracle RPM
Checker utility for
IBM: Linux on
System z
Oracle recommends that you use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify
that you have the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages
installed on your IBM: Linux on System z operating system before you
start the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Disable Transparent Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages and use
HugePages
standard HugePages for enhanced performance.
1-3
Chapter 1
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1.3 Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Use this checklist to check minimum server configuration requirements for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installations.
Table 1-3
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Check
Task
Disk space allocated
to the temporary file
system
At least 1 GB of space in the temporary disk space (/tmp) directory
Swap space allocation
Between 4 GB and 16 GB: Equal to RAM
relative to RAM
More than 16 GB: 16 GB
Note: If you enable HugePages for your Linux servers, then
you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages from
the available RAM before calculating swap space.
HugePages memory
allocation
Allocate memory to HugePages large enough for the System Global
Areas (SGA) of all databases planned to run on the cluster, and to
accommodate the System Global Area for the Grid Infrastructure
Management Repository.
Mount point paths for
the software binaries
Oracle recommends that you create an Optimal Flexible Architecture
configuration.
Ensure that the Oracle The ASCII character restriction includes installation owner user names,
home (the Oracle
which are used as a default for some home paths, as well as other
home path you select directory names you may select for paths.
for Oracle Database)
uses only ASCII
characters
Set locale (if needed)
Specify the language and the territory, or locale, in which you want to
use Oracle components. A locale is a linguistic and cultural
environment in which a system or program is running. NLS (National
Language Support) parameters determine the locale-specific behavior
on both servers and clients. The locale setting of a component
determines the language of the user interface of the component, and
the globalization behavior, such as date and number formatting.
Set Network Time
Protocol for Cluster
Time Synchronization
Oracle Clusterware requires the same time zone environment variable
setting on all cluster nodes.
Check Shared
Memory File System
Mount
By default, your operating system includes an entry in /etc/fstab to
mount /dev/shm. However, if your Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) or
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) checks fail, ensure that the /dev/shm
mount area is of type tmpfs and is mounted with the following options:
Ensure that you set the time zone synchronization across all cluster
nodes using either an operating system configured network time
protocol (NTP) or Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service.
rw and exec permissions set on it
•
•
Without noexec or nosuid set on it
Note: These options might not be listed as they are usually set as the
default permissions by your operating system.
1-4
Chapter 1
Network Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Related Topics
•
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules are a set of configuration
guidelines created to ensure well-organized Oracle installations, which simplifies
administration, support and maintenance.
1.4 Network Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this network checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation to ensure that
you have required hardware, names, and addresses for the cluster.
During installation, you designate interfaces for use as public, private, or Oracle ASM
interfaces. You can also designate interfaces that are in use for other purposes, such
as a network file system, and not available for Oracle Grid Infrastructure use.
If you use a third-party cluster software, then the public host name information is
obtained from that software.
Table 1-4 Network Configuration Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and
Oracle RAC
Check
Task
Public network
hardware
•
Public network switch (redundant switches recommended)
connected to a public gateway and to the public interface ports for
each cluster member node.
•
Ethernet interface card (redundant network cards
recommended, bonded as one Ethernet port name).
•
•
The switches and network interfaces must be at least 1 GbE.
The network protocol is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and
Internet Protocol (IP).
•
Private dedicated network switches (redundant switches
recommended), connected to the private interface ports for each
cluster member node.
Private network
hardware for the
interconnect
•
•
•
Oracle Flex ASM
Network Hardware
Note: If you have more than one private network interface card for
each server, then Oracle Clusterware automatically associates
these interfaces for the private network using Grid Interprocess
Communication (GIPC) and Grid Infrastructure Redundant
Interconnect, also known as Cluster High Availability IP (HAIP).
The switches and network interface adapters must be at least 1
GbE.
The interconnect must support the user datagram protocol (UDP).
Jumbo Frames (Ethernet frames greater than 1500 bits) are not
an IEEE standard, but can reduce UDP overhead if properly
configured. Oracle recommends the use of Jumbo Frames for
interconnects. However, be aware that you must load-test your
system, and ensure that they are enabled throughout the stack.
Oracle Flex ASM can use either the same private networks as Oracle
Clusterware, or use its own dedicated private networks. Each network
can be classified PUBLIC or PRIVATE+ASM or PRIVATE or ASM.
Oracle ASM networks use the TCP protocol.
1-5
Chapter 1
Network Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Table 1-4 (Cont.) Network Configuration Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle RAC
Check
Task
Cluster Names and
Addresses
Determine and configure the following names and addresses for the
cluster:
•
Cluster name: Decide a name for the cluster, and be prepared to
enter it during installation. The cluster name should have the
following characteristics:
Globally unique across all hosts, even across different DNS
domains.
At least one character long and less than or equal to 15
characters long.
•
•
Consist of the same character set used for host names, in
accordance with RFC 1123: Hyphens (-), and single-byte
alphanumeric characters (a to z, A to Z, and 0 to 9). If you use
third-party vendor clusterware, then Oracle recommends that you
use the vendor cluster name.
Grid Naming Service Virtual IP Address (GNS VIP): If you plan
to use GNS, then configure a GNS name and fixed address in
DNS for the GNS VIP, and configure a subdomain on your DNS
delegated to the GNS VIP for resolution of cluster addresses.
GNS domain delegation is mandatory with dynamic public
networks (DHCP, autoconfiguration).
Single Client Access Name (SCAN) and addresses
Using Grid Naming Service Resolution: Do not configure SCAN
names and addresses in your DNS. SCAN names are managed
by GNS.
Using Manual Configuration and DNS resolution: Configure a
SCAN name to resolve to three addresses on the domain name
service (DNS).
1-6
Chapter 1
User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Table 1-4 (Cont.) Network Configuration Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle RAC
Check
Task
Hub Node Public,
If you are not using GNS, then configure the following for each Hub
Private and Virtual IP Node:
names and Addresses •
Public node name and address, configured in the DNS and
in /etc/hosts (for example, node1.example.com, address
192.0.2.10). The public node name should be the primary host
name of each node, which is the name displayed by the
hostname command.
•
Private node address, configured on the private interface for
each node.
•
The private subnet that the private interfaces use must connect all
the nodes you intend to have as cluster members. Oracle
recommends that the network you select for the private network
uses an address range defined as private by RFC 1918.
Public node virtual IP name and address (for example, node1vip.example.com, address 192.0.2.11).
If you are not using dynamic networks with GNS and subdomain
delegation, then determine a virtual host name for each node. A
virtual host name is a public node name that is used to reroute
client requests sent to the node if the node is down. Oracle
Database uses VIPs for client-to-database connections, so the
VIP address must be publicly accessible. Oracle recommends that
you provide a name in the format hostname-vip. For example:
myclstr2-vip.
If you are using GNS, then you can also configure Leaf Nodes on both
public and private networks, during installation. Leaf Nodes on public
networks do not use Oracle Clusterware services such as the public
network resources and VIPs, or run listeners. After installation, you can
configure network resources and listeners for the Leaf Nodes using
SRVCTL commands.
Related Topics
•
Understanding Oracle Flex Clusters
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid
Infrastructure cluster configurations are Oracle Flex Clusters deployments.
•
About Oracle Flex ASM Clusters Networks
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), as part of an Oracle
Flex Cluster installation, Oracle ASM is configured within Oracle Grid
Infrastructure to provide storage services.
•
General Requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster Configuration
Review this information about network requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster
configuration.
1.5 User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
Use this checklist to plan operating system users, groups, and environments for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
1-7
Chapter 1
User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Table 1-5
User Environment Configuration for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Check
Task
Review Oracle Inventory
The Oracle Inventory directory is the central inventory of
(oraInventory) and OINSTALL Oracle software installed on your system. It should be the
Group Requirements
primary group for all Oracle software installation owners. Users
who have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group
are granted the OINSTALL privilege to read and write to the
central inventory.
•
If you have an existing installation, then OUI detects the
existing oraInventory directory from the /etc/
oraInst.loc file, and uses this location.
•
If you are installing Oracle software for the first time, then
OUI creates an Oracle base and central inventory, and
creates an Oracle inventory using information in the
following priority:
– In the path indicated in the ORACLE_BASE
environment variable set for the installation owner
user account
– In an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) path (u[01–
99]/app/owner where owner is the name of the user
account running the installation), if that user account
has permissions to write to that path
– In the user home directory, in the path /app/owner,
where owner is the name of the user account running
the installation
Ensure that the group designated as the OINSTALL group is
available as the primary group for all planned Oracle software
installation owners.
Create operating system
groups and users for standard
or role-allocated system
privileges
Create operating system groups and users depending on your
security requirements, as described in this installation guide.
Set resource limits settings and other requirements for Oracle
software installation owners.
Group and user names must use only ASCII characters.
Unset Oracle Software
Environment Variables
If you have an existing Oracle software installation, and you
are using the same user to install this installation, then unset
the following environment
variables: $ORACLE_HOME; $ORA_NLS10; $TNS_ADMIN.
If you have set $ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable,
then unset it before starting an installation or upgrade. Do not
use $ORA_CRS_HOME as a user environment variable, except as
directed by Oracle Support.
Configure the Oracle Software Configure the environment of the oracle or grid user by
Owner Environment
performing the following tasks:
•
•
Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in
the shell startup file.
Set the DISPLAY environment variable.
1-8
Chapter 1
Storage Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Table 1-5 (Cont.) User Environment Configuration for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Check
Task
Determine root privilege
delegation option for
installation
During installation, you are asked to run configuration scripts
as the root user. You can either run these scripts manually as
root when prompted, or during installation you can provide
configuration information and passwords using a root privilege
delegation option.
To run root scripts automatically, select Automatically run
configuration scripts. during installation. To use the
automatic configuration option, the root user credentials for all
cluster member nodes must use the same password.
•
Use root user credentials
•
Provide the superuser password for cluster member node
servers.
Use sudo
sudo is a UNIX and Linux utility that allows members of
the sudoers list privileges to run individual commands as
root. Provide the user name and password of an operating
system user that is a member of sudoers, and is
authorized to run sudo on each cluster member node.
To enable sudo, have a system administrator with the
appropriate privileges configure a user that is a member of
the sudoers list, and provide the user name and password
when prompted during installation.
1.6 Storage Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review the checklist for storage hardware and configuration requirements for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation.
Table 1-6
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Configuration Checks
Check
Task
Minimum disk space
(local or shared) for
Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Software
•
At least 12 GB of space for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a cluster home (Grid home).
Oracle recommends that you allocate 100 GB to allow
additional space for patches.
At least 9 GB for Oracle Database Enterprise Edition
•
Allocate additional storage space as per your cluster
configuration, as described in Oracle Clusterware Storage Space
Requirements.
1-9
Chapter 1
Storage Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Table 1-6
(Cont.) Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Configuration Checks
Check
Task
Select Oracle ASM
Storage Options
During installation, based on the cluster configuration, you are asked
to provide Oracle ASM storage paths for the Oracle Clusterware files.
These path locations must be writable by the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation owner (Grid user). These locations must be shared across
all nodes of the cluster on Oracle ASM because the files in the Oracle
ASM disk group created during installation must be available to all
cluster member nodes.
•
For Oracle Standalone Cluster deployment, shared storage, either
Oracle ASM or Oracle ASM on NFS, is locally mounted on each of
the Hub Nodes.
•
For Oracle Domain Services Cluster deployment, Oracle
ASM storage is shared across all nodes, and is available to
Oracle Member Clusters.
Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases can either
use storage services from the Oracle Domain Services
Cluster or local Oracle ASM storage shared across all the
nodes.
Oracle Member Cluster for Applications always use storage
services from the Oracle Domain Services Cluster.
Before installing Oracle Member Cluster, create a Member
Cluster Manifest file that specifies the storage details.
Voting files are files that Oracle Clusterware uses to verify cluster
node membership and status. Oracle Cluster Registry files (OCR)
contain cluster and database configuration information for Oracle
Clusterware.
Select Grid
Infrastructure
Management
Repository (GIMR)
Storage Option
Depending on the type of cluster you are installing, you can choose to
either host the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR) for
a cluster on the same cluster or on a remote cluster.
For Oracle Standalone Cluster deployment, you can specify the same
or separate Oracle ASM disk group for the GIMR.
For Oracle Domain Services Cluster deployment, the GIMR must be
configured on a separate Oracle ASM disk group.
Oracle Member Clusters use the remote GIMR of the Oracle Domain
Services Cluster. You must specify the GIMR details when you create
the Member Cluster Manifest file before installation.
Remove encryption of To avoid data corruption, ensure that encryption of Oracle ACFS file
Oracle ACFS File
systems is removed before installation.
Systems Before
Installation
Related Topics
•
Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Requirements
Use this information to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum
disk space requirements based on the redundancy type, for installing Oracle
Clusterware files, and installing the starter database, for various Oracle Cluster
deployments.
1-10
Chapter 1
Cluster Deployment Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Related Topics
•
About the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
Every Oracle Standalone Cluster and Oracle Domain Services Cluster contains a
Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), or the Management Database
(MGMTDB).
•
Creating Member Cluster Manifest File for Oracle Member Clusters
Create a Member Cluster Manifest file to specify the Oracle Member Cluster
configuration for the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), Grid
Naming Service, Oracle ASM storage server, and Rapid Home Provisioning
configuration.
•
About Oracle Standalone Clusters
An Oracle Standalone Cluster hosts all Oracle Grid Infrastructure services and
Oracle ASM locally and requires direct access to shared storage.
•
About Oracle Cluster Domain and Oracle Domain Services Cluster
An Oracle Cluster Domain is a choice of deployment architecture for new clusters,
introduced in Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 2.
•
About Oracle Member Clusters
Oracle Member Clusters use centralized services from the Oracle Domain
Services Cluster and can host databases or applications.
•
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
Review these topics to understand the cluster configuration options available in
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2.
1.7 Cluster Deployment Checklist for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Review the checklist for planning your cluster deployment Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation.
Table 1-7
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Cluster Deployment Checklist
Check
Task
Configure an Oracle
Cluster that hosts all
Oracle Grid
Infrastructure services
and Oracle ASM
locally and accesses
storage directly
Deploy an Oracle Standalone Cluster.
Configure an Oracle
Cluster Domain to
standardize,
centralize, and
optimize your Oracle
Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC)
deployment
Deploy an Oracle Domain Services Cluster.
Use the Oracle Extended Cluster option to extend an Oracle RAC
cluster across two, or more, separate sites, each equipped with its own
storage.
To run Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) or Oracle RAC
One Node database instances, deploy Oracle Member Cluster for
Oracle Databases.
To run highly-available software applications, deploy Oracle Member
Cluster for Applications.
1-11
Chapter 1
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Related Topics
•
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
Review these topics to understand the cluster configuration options available in
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2.
1.8 Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review the checklist for planning your Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before
starting Oracle Universal Installer.
Table 1-8 Oracle Universal Installer Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installation
Check
Task
Read the Release Notes
Review release notes for your platform, which are available for
your release at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/
index.html
Review the Licensing
Information
You are permitted to use only those components in the Oracle
Database media pack for which you have purchased licenses.
Refer to Oracle Database Licensing Information for more
information about licenses.
Run OUI with CVU and use
fixup scripts
Oracle Universal Installer is fully integrated with Cluster
Verification Utility (CVU), automating many CVU prerequisite
checks. Oracle Universal Installer runs all prerequisite checks
and creates fixup scripts when you run the installer. You can
run OUI up to the Summary screen without starting the
installation.
You can also run CVU commands manually to check system
readiness. For more information, see:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
Download and run ORAchk for The ORAchk utility provides system checks that can help to
runtime and upgrade checks, prevent issues after installation. These checks include kernel
or runtime health checks
requirements, operating system resource allocations, and
other system requirements.
Use the ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment to obtain an
automated upgrade-specific system health check for upgrades.
For example:
./orachk -u -o pre
The ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment automates
many of the manual pre- and post-upgrade checks described
in Oracle upgrade documentation.
ORAchk is supported on Windows platforms in a Cygwin
environment only.
For more information refer to the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1268927.1
1-12
Chapter 1
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Table 1-8 (Cont.) Oracle Universal Installer Checklist for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure Installation
Check
Task
Ensure cron jobs do not run
during installation
If the installer is running when daily cron jobs start, then you
may encounter unexplained installation problems if your cron
job is performing cleanup, and temporary files are deleted
before the installation is finished. Oracle recommends that you
complete installation before daily cron jobs are run, or
disable daily cron jobs that perform cleanup until after the
installation is completed.
Obtain Your My Oracle
Support account information.
During installation, you require a My Oracle Support user
name and password to configure security updates, download
software updates, and other installation tasks. You can register
for My Oracle Support at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/
Check running Oracle
processes, and shut down
processes if necessary.
•
•
•
On a node with a standalone database not using Oracle
ASM: You do not need to shut down the database while
you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
On a node with a standalone Oracle Database using
Oracle ASM: Stop the existing Oracle ASM instances. The
Oracle ASM instances are restarted during installation.
On an Oracle RAC Database node: This installation
requires an upgrade of Oracle Clusterware, as Oracle
Clusterware is required to run Oracle RAC. As part of the
upgrade, you must shut down the database one node at a
time as the rolling upgrade proceeds from node to node.
1-13
2
Checking and Configuring Server
Hardware for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Verify that servers where you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure meet the minimum
requirements for installation
This section provides minimum server requirements to complete installation of Oracle
Grid Infrastructure. It does not provide system resource guidelines, or other tuning
guidelines for particular workloads.
•
Logging In to a Remote System Using X Window System
Use this procedure to run Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) by logging on to a
remote system where the runtime setting prohibits logging in directly to a graphical
user interface (GUI).
•
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
Use this procedure to gather information about your server configuration.
2.1 Logging In to a Remote System Using X Window
System
Use this procedure to run Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) by logging on to a remote
system where the runtime setting prohibits logging in directly to a graphical user
interface (GUI).
OUI is a graphical user interface (GUI) application. On servers where the runtime
settings prevent GUI applications from running, you can redirect the GUI display to a
client system connecting to the server.
Note:
If you log in as another user (for example, oracle or grid), then repeat this
procedure for that user as well.
1.
Start an X Window System session. If you are using an X Window System terminal
emulator from a PC or similar system, then you many need to configure security
settings to permit remote hosts to display X applications on your local system.
2.
Enter a command using the following syntax to enable remote hosts to display X
applications on the local X server:
# xhost + RemoteHost
RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:
# xhost + somehost.example.com
somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
2-1
Chapter 2
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
3.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh
command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:
# ssh -Y RemoteHost
RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. The -Y flag ("yes") enables
remote X11 clients to have full access to the original X11 display. For example:
# ssh -Y somehost.example.com
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user, and you are performing configuration
steps that require root user privileges, then switch the user to root.
Note:
For more information about remote login using X Window System, refer to your
X server documentation, or contact your X server vendor or system
administrator. Depending on the X server software that you are using, you may
have to complete the tasks in a different order.
2.2 Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
Use this procedure to gather information about your server configuration.
1.
Use the following command to determine physical RAM size on the server:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required
size, then you must install more memory before continuing.
2.
Determine the size of the configured swap space:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, see your operating system documentation for information about how
to configure additional swap space.
3.
Determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory:
# df -h /tmp
If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then
complete one of the following steps:
4.
•
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
•
When you set the Oracle user's environment, also set the TMP and TMPDIR
environment variables to the directory you want to use instead of /tmp.
Determine the amount of free RAM and disk swap space on the system:
# free
5.
Determine if the system architecture can run the software:
# uname -m
2-2
Chapter 2
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release to
install. For example, you should see the following for a x86-64 bit system:
x86_64
If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this
system.
6.
Verify that shared memory (/dev/shm) is mounted properly with sufficient size:
df -h /dev/shm
The df-h command displays the filesystem on which /dev/shm is mounted, and
also displays in GB the total size and free size of shared memory.
2-3
3
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux
with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
Use Oracle Linux RPMs to simplify operating system configuration in preparation for
Oracle software installations.
Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Linux 7 or Oracle Linux 6 and use Oracle
RPMs to configure your operating systems for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installations. For Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7, run the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM.
•
Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
Use Oracle Preinstallation RPM to simplify operating system configuration, and to
ensure that you have required kernel packages.
•
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support
Use this procedure to subscribe to Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) Oracle Linux
channels for your Oracle software.
•
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network
Use this procedure to subscribe to Oracle Linux channels, and to add the Oracle
Linux channel that distributes the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
•
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
Use this procedure to install a new Oracle Linux installation and to perform system
configuration with the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
•
Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server Support
Use this procedure to install Oracle Linux and configure your Linux installation for
security errata or bug fix updates using the Oracle Linux yum server.
•
Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux Updates
You can configure Oracle Ksplice to perform zero downtime updates for your
operating system if you have an Oracle Linux Premier Support subscription and an
access key, which is available on Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
•
Configure Additional Operating System Features
Oracle recommends that you configure your operating system before starting
installation with additional features, such as IPMI or additional programming
environments.
3.1 Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle
Preinstallation RPM
Use Oracle Preinstallation RPM to simplify operating system configuration, and to
ensure that you have required kernel packages.
Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Linux 6 or Oracle Linux 7 and use Oracle
Preinstallation RPM to configure your operating systems for Oracle Database and
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
3-1
Chapter 3
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your Oracle Linux distributions and Oracle RDBMS
releases automatically install any additional packages needed for installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and configure your server operating system
automatically, including setting kernel parameters and other basic operating system
requirements for installation. For more information about Oracle Linux and Oracle
Preinstallation RPM, refer to:
http://docs.oracle.com/en/operating-systems/linux.html
Configuring a server using Oracle Linux and the Oracle Preinstallation RPM consists
of the following steps:
1.
Install Oracle Linux.
2.
Register your Linux distribution with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) or
download and configure the yum repository for your system using the Oracle Linux
yum server for your Oracle Linux release.
3.
Install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with the RPM for your Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database releases, and update your Linux release.
4.
Create role-allocated groups and users with identical names and ID numbers.
5.
Complete network interface configuration for each cluster node candidate.
6.
Complete system configuration for shared storage access as required for each
standard or Core node cluster candidate.
After these steps are complete, you can proceed to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle Database.
3.2 Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN
Support
Use this procedure to subscribe to Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) Oracle Linux
channels for your Oracle software.
To obtain Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) support, subscribe to Oracle Linux
channels, and to add the Oracle Linux channel that distributes the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM:
1.
Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
2.
Log in to Unbreakable Linux Network:
https://linux.oracle.com
3.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server.
The System Details window opens and displays the subscriptions for the server.
4.
Click Manage Subscriptions to open the System Summary window.
5.
From the Available Channels list, select the latest and update patch channels
corresponding to your Oracle Linux distribution. For example, if your distribution is
Oracle Linux 7 for x86_64, then select Oracle Linux 7 Latest (x86_64).
6.
Click Subscribe.
3-2
Chapter 3
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network
7.
Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
•
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7:
# yum install oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall
Note:
Use the -y option if you want yum to skip the package confirmation
prompt.
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
8.
Check the RPM log file to review the system configuration changes. For example,
on Oracle Linux 7:
/var/log/oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall/backup/timestamp/orakernel.log
9.
Repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.
3.3 Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From
Unbreakable Linux Network
Use this procedure to subscribe to Oracle Linux channels, and to add the Oracle Linux
channel that distributes the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
1.
Complete a default Oracle Linux workstation installation.
You can download Oracle Linux from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
3.
Log in to Unbreakable Linux Network:
https://linux.oracle.com
4.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server.
The System Details window opens and displays the subscriptions for the server.
5.
Click Manage Subscriptions to open the System Summary window.
6.
From the Available Channels list, select the Latest and update patch channels
corresponding to your Oracle Linux distribution. For example, if your distribution is
Oracle Linux 7 for x86_64, then select Oracle Linux 7 Latest (x86_64).
7.
Click Subscribe.
8.
Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
•
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7:
3-3
Chapter 3
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
# yum install oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall
Note:
Use the -y option if you want yum to skip the package confirmation
prompt.
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed.
Oracle Linux automatically creates standard (not role-allocated) Oracle installation
owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as required for
Oracle installations.
9.
Enter the following command as root to update the sysctl.conf settings:
# sysctl -p
Note:
The RPM packages set the Oracle software user to oracle by default.
Before installing Oracle Database, you can update the Oracle user name in
the /etc/security/limits.d/oracle-database-server-12cR2preinstall.conf file and other configuration files.
10. Check the RPM log file to review the system configuration changes. For example,
on Oracle Linux 7:
/var/log/oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall/backup/timestamp/orakernel.log
Repeat these steps on all other servers in your cluster.
3.4 Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or
Images
Use this procedure to install a new Oracle Linux installation and to perform system
configuration with the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
1.
Obtain Oracle Linux either by ordering the Oracle Linux media pack from Oracle
Store, or by downloading disk images from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud
website for Oracle Linux and Oracle VM.
•
Oracle Store
https://shop.oracle.com
•
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Start the Oracle Linux installation and respond to installation screens with values
appropriate for your environment.
3.
Review the first software selection screen, which lists task-specific software
options. At the bottom of the screen, there is an option to customize now or
customize later. Select Customize now, and click Next.
3-4
Chapter 3
Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server Support
4.
On Oracle Linux, select Servers on the left of the screen and System
administration tools on the right of the screen (options may vary between
releases).
The Packages in System Tools window opens.
5.
Select the Oracle Preinstallation RPM package box from the package list. For
example, for Oracle Linux 7, select a package similar to the following:
oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall-1.0-4.el7.x86_64.rpm
If you do not have an Oracle Preinstallation RPM package option that is current for
your Oracle Database release, because you are using an Oracle Linux installation
that is previous to your Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure release,
then install the RPM for your release manually after completing the operating
system installation.
6.
Close the optional package window and click Next.
7.
Complete the other screens to finish the Oracle Linux installation.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
8.
Repeat steps 2 through 6 on all other cluster member nodes.
3.5 Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server
Support
Use this procedure to install Oracle Linux and configure your Linux installation for
security errata or bug fix updates using the Oracle Linux yum server.
1.
Obtain Oracle Linux DVDs from Oracle Store, or download Oracle Linux from the
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:
Oracle Store:
https://shop.oracle.com
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Install Oracle Linux from the ISO or DVD image.
3.
Log in as root.
4.
Download the yum repository file for your Linux distribution from the following URL
using the instructions you can find on the Oracle Linux yum server website:
http://yum.oracle.com/
For example:
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
wget http://yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo
Ensure that the public_olrelease_latest file (for example, public_ol6_latest for
Oracle Linux 6) is enabled, because this is the repository that contains the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM.
3-5
Chapter 3
Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux Updates
5.
(Optional) Edit the repo file to enable other repositories. For example, enable the
repository public_ol6_latest by setting enabled=1 in the file with a text editor.
6.
Run the command yum repolist to verify the registered channels.
7.
Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7:
# yum install oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall
Note:
Use the -y option if you want yum to skip the package confirmation prompt.
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations. If you plan to use job-role separation, then create
the extended set of database users and groups depending on your requirements.
After installation, run the command yum update as needed to obtain the most
current security errata and bug fixes for your Oracle Linux installation.
3.6 Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux
Updates
You can configure Oracle Ksplice to perform zero downtime updates for your operating
system if you have an Oracle Linux Premier Support subscription and an access key,
which is available on Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
For more information about Ksplice (including trial versions), refer to the Ksplice site:
http://ksplice.oracle.com/
To use Ksplice, you must register your system and create a Ksplice repository.
1.
Check for your kernel distribution at the following URL:
http://ksplice.oracle.com/legacy#supported-kernels
2.
Log in as root.
3.
Ensure that you have access to the Internet on the server where you want to use
Ksplice. For example, if you are using a proxy server, then set the proxy server
and port values in the shell with commands similar to the following:
# export http_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
# export https_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
4.
Download the Ksplice Uptrack repository RPM package:
https://www.ksplice.com/yum/uptrack/ol/ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
5.
Run the following commands:
3-6
Chapter 3
Configure Additional Operating System Features
rpm -i ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
yum -y install uptrack
3.7 Configure Additional Operating System Features
Oracle recommends that you configure your operating system before starting
installation with additional features, such as IPMI or additional programming
environments.
Review the preinstallation chapters to ensure that you have completed configuration
as needed for the features you want.
3-7
4
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure on Linux
Complete operating system configuration requirements and checks for Linux operating
systems before you start installation.
•
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Operating system guidelines to be aware of before proceeding with an Oracle
installation.
•
Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices
These topics provide general planning guidelines and platform-specific information
about upgrades and migration.
•
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security.
•
About Installation Fixup Scripts
Oracle Universal Installer detects when the minimum requirements for an
installation are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts, to finish
incomplete system configuration steps.
•
About Operating System Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you have the
required operating system kernel and packages installed.
•
Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z
Use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify that you have the required Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages installed on the operating system before you
start the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
•
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this
release on x86-64.
•
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this
release on IBM: Linux on System z.
•
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Information about optional drivers and software packages.
•
Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux
To check your kernel and packages to see if they meet minimum requirements for
installation, perform the following steps:
•
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
If you do not use an Oracle Preinstallation RPM, and you want to use the Cluster
Verification Utility, then you must install the cvuqdisk RPM.
•
Reviewing HugePages Memory Allocation
Review this information if your operating system has HugePages enabled.
4-1
Chapter 4
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
•
Disabling Transparent HugePages
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages before you start
installation.
•
Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon
To allow Oracle Clusterware to better tolerate network failures with NAS devices
or NFS mounts, enable the Name Service Cache Daemon (nscd).
•
Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
For best performance for Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you use the
Deadline I/O Scheduler.
•
Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
To install Oracle software, configure secure shell (SSH) connectivity between all
cluster member nodes.
•
Setting Network Time Protocol for Cluster Time Synchronization
Use either the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization or network time protocol
(NTP) option for time synchronization.
4.1 Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Operating system guidelines to be aware of before proceeding with an Oracle
installation.
This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution.
Complete the minimum hardware configuration before you install the operating
system.
•
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
Review information about minimal Linux operating system installation.
•
Completing a Default Linux Installation
If you do not install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then Oracle recommends that
you install your Linux operating system with the default software packages
(RPMs).
•
About Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux provides the latest
innovations from upstream development to customers who run Oracle Linux in the
data center.
•
About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are
an Oracle Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation
configuration tasks by using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your release.
•
Restrictions for HugePages and Transparent HugePages Configurations
Review the following guidelines for HugePages and Transparent HugePages.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Linux Operating System Documentation
4.1.1 Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
Review information about minimal Linux operating system installation.
Review the topics in this section if you intend to complete a minimal Linux installation.
4-2
Chapter 4
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
•
About Minimal Linux Installations
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select one of the minimal installation
options.
•
RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration
You can use the following RPM packages to complete basic operating system
configuration.
•
Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation
OpenSSH is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
4.1.1.1 About Minimal Linux Installations
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select one of the minimal installation options.
A minimal Linux installation option is either a custom installation where you select the
Minimal option from Package Group Selection, or where you deselect all packages
except for the Base pack. A minimal Linux installation lacks many RPMs required for
database installation, so you must use an RPM package for your Oracle Linux release
to install the required packages. The package you use depends on your Linux release,
and your support status with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
Note:
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM installs the X11 client libraries, but it does not
install the X Window System server packages. To use graphical user interfaces
such as OUI, configuration assistants, and Oracle Enterprise Manager, set the
display to a system with X Window System server packages.
Refer to the following URL for documentation regarding installation of a reduced set of
packages:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=579101.1
If you are not a member of Unbreakable Linux Network or Red Hat Support network,
and you are a My Oracle Support customer, then you can download instructions to
configure a script that documents installation of a reduced set of packages from the
same My Oracle Support Note.
You can also search for "Linux reduced set of packages" to locate the instructions.
4.1.1.2 RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration
You can use the following RPM packages to complete basic operating system
configuration.
Oracle Linux Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support
Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your Oracle Linux 6 or Oracle Linux 7 kernel (oracledatabase-server-12cR2-preinstall).
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM by using yum.
4-3
Chapter 4
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Oracle Linux Preinstallation RPM Without ULN Support
Oracle Linux packages on the Oracle Linux yum server website:
http://yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/latest/x86_64//
http://yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL7/latest/x86_64
4.1.1.3 Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation
OpenSSH is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
OpenSSH should be included in the Linux distribution minimal installation. To confirm
that SSH packages are installed, enter the following command:
# rpm -qa | grep ssh
If you do not see a list of SSH packages, then install those packages for your Linux
distribution.
4.1.2 Completing a Default Linux Installation
If you do not install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then Oracle recommends that you
install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs).
A default Linux installation includes most of the required packages and helps you limit
manual verification of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do not
customize the RPMs during installation.
For information about a default installation, log on to My Oracle Support:
https://support.oracle.com
Search for "default rpms linux installation," and look for your Linux distribution. For
example:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=401167.1
After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you
have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks
required for your distribution and system configuration.
4.1.3 About Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux provides the latest innovations
from upstream development to customers who run Oracle Linux in the data center.
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is included and enabled by default starting with
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 and later Oracle Linux kernels. It is based on a recent stable
mainline development Linux kernel, and also includes optimizations developed in
collaboration with Oracle Database, Oracle middleware, and Oracle hardware
engineering teams to ensure stability and optimal performance for the most
demanding enterprise workloads.
Oracle highly recommends deploying the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel in your
Oracle Linux environment, especially if you run enterprise applications. However,
using Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is optional. If you require strict Red Hat
4-4
Chapter 4
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Enterprise Linux (RHEL) kernel compatibility, then Oracle Linux also includes a kernel
compatible with the RHEL Linux kernel, compiled directly from the RHEL source code.
You can obtain more information about the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle
Linux at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/us/technologies/linux
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux is the standard kernel used with
Oracle products. The build and QA systems for Oracle Database and other Oracle
products use the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux exclusively. The
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux is also the kernel used in Oracle
Exadata and Oracle Exalogic systems. Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle
Linux is used in all benchmark tests on Linux in which Oracle participates, as well as in
the Oracle Preinstallation RPM program for x86-64.
Oracle Ksplice, which is part of Oracle Linux, updates the Linux operating system (OS)
kernel, while it is running, without requiring restarts or any interruption. Ksplice is
available only with Oracle Linux.
4.1.4 About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are an
Oracle Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation configuration tasks
by using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your release.
Oracle Preinstallation RPMs are available from the Oracle Linux Network or available
on the Oracle Linux DVDs. Using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM is not required, but
Oracle recommends you use it to save time in setting up your cluster servers.
When installed, the Oracle Preinstallation RPM does the following:
•
Automatically downloads and installs any additional RPM packages needed for
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and resolves any
dependencies
•
Creates an oracle user, and creates the oraInventory (oinstall) and OSDBA (dba)
groups for that user
•
As needed, sets sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, and driver
parameters to values based on recommendations from the Oracle RDBMS PreInstall program
•
Sets hard and soft resource limits
•
Sets other recommended parameters, depending on your kernel version
Note:
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM does not install OpenSSH, which is required
for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you perform a minimal Linux
installation and install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your release, then you
must also install the OpenSSH client manually. Using RSH is no longer
supported.
4-5
Chapter 4
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
To become an Oracle Linux Network customer, contact your sales representative or
purchase a license from the Oracle Linux store:
https://shop.oracle.com/product/oraclelinux
To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more
information, see the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
If you are using Oracle Linux 5.2 or a higher release, then the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM is included on the install media.
Note:
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM designated for each Oracle Database release
sets kernel parameters and resource limits only for the user account oracle. To
use multiple software account owners, you must perform system configuration
for other accounts manually.
4.1.5 Restrictions for HugePages and Transparent HugePages
Configurations
Review the following guidelines for HugePages and Transparent HugePages.
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages, because they may
causes delays in accessing memory that can result in node restarts in Oracle RAC
environments, or performance issues or delays for Oracle Database single instances.
Oracle continues to recommend using standard HugePages for Linux.
Transparent HugePages memory is enabled by default with Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, SUSE 11, Oracle Linux 6, and Oracle Linux 7 with
earlier releases of Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2 (UEK2)
kernels. Transparent HugePages memory is disabled by default in later releases of
UEK2 and later UEK kernels.
Note:
Although Transparent HugePages is disable on UEK2 and later UEK kernels,
Transparent HugePages may be enabled by default on your Linux system.
Transparent Hugepages are similar to standard HugePages. However, while standard
HugePages allocate memory at startup, Transparent Hugepages memory uses the
khugepaged thread in the kernel to allocate memory dynamically during runtime, using
swappable HugePages.
HugePages allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memorymapped files. HugePages are not enabled by default. If you enable HugePages, then
you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages from the available RAM before
calculating swap space. Refer to your distribution documentation and to Oracle
Technology Network and My Oracle Support for more information.
4-6
Chapter 4
Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the Grid Infrastructure Management
Repository (GIMR) is configured to use HugePages. Because the Grid Infrastructure
Management Repository database starts before all other databases installed on the
cluster, if the space allocated to HugePages is insufficient, then the System Global
Area (SGA) of one or more databases may be mapped to regular pages, instead of
Hugepages, which can adversely affect performance. Configure the HugePages
memory allocation to a size large enough to accommodate the sum of the SGA sizes
of all the databases you intend to install on the cluster, as well as the Grid
Infrastructure Management Repository.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems
4.2 Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade
Best Practices
These topics provide general planning guidelines and platform-specific information
about upgrades and migration.
•
General Upgrade Best Practices
Be aware of these guidelines as a best practice before you perform an upgrade.
•
New Server Operating System Upgrade Option
You can upgrade your operating system by installing a new operating system on a
server, and then migrating your database using one of the following options:
•
Oracle ASM Upgrade Notifications
Be aware of the following issues regarding Oracle ASM upgrades:
4.2.1 General Upgrade Best Practices
Be aware of these guidelines as a best practice before you perform an upgrade.
If you have an existing Oracle installation, then do the following:
•
Record the version numbers, patches, and other configuration information
•
Review upgrade procedures for your existing installation
•
Review Oracle upgrade documentation before proceeding with installation, to
decide how you want to proceed
Caution:
Always create a backup of existing databases before starting any configuration
change.
Refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about required
software updates, pre-upgrade tasks, post-upgrade tasks, compatibility, and
interoperability between different releases.
4-7
Chapter 4
Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices
Related Topics
•
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
4.2.2 New Server Operating System Upgrade Option
You can upgrade your operating system by installing a new operating system on a
server, and then migrating your database using one of the following options:
Note:
Confirm that the server operating system is supported, and that kernel and
package requirements for the operating system meet or exceed the minimum
requirements for the Oracle Database release to which you want to migrate.
Manual, Command-Line Copy for Migrating Data and Upgrading Oracle Database
You can copy files to the new server and upgrade it manually. If you use this
procedure, then you cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant. However, you
can revert to your existing database if you encounter upgrade issues.
1.
Copy the database files from the computer running the previous operating system
to the one running the new operating system.
2.
Re-create the control files on the computer running the new operating system.
3.
Manually upgrade the database using command-line scripts and utilities.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide to review the procedure for upgrading the
database manually, and to evaluate the risks and benefits of this option
Export/Import Method for Migrating Data and Upgrading Oracle Database
You can install the operating system on the new server, install the new Oracle
Database release on the new server, and then use Oracle Data Pump Export and
Import utilities to migrate a copy of data from your current database to a new database
in the new release. Data Pump Export and Import are recommended for higher
performance and to ensure support for new data types.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide to review the Export/Import method for
migrating data and upgrading Oracle Database
4.2.3 Oracle ASM Upgrade Notifications
Be aware of the following issues regarding Oracle ASM upgrades:
4-8
Chapter 4
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
•
You can upgrade Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) 11g
release 2 (11.2) and later without shutting down an Oracle RAC database by
performing a rolling upgrade either of individual nodes, or of a set of nodes in the
cluster. However, if you have a standalone database on a cluster that uses Oracle
ASM, then you must shut down the standalone database before upgrading.
•
The location of the Oracle ASM home changed in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g
release 2 (11.2) so that Oracle ASM is installed with Oracle Clusterware in the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home).
•
Two nodes of different releases cannot run in the cluster. When upgrading from
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2) or Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c
release 1 (12.1) to a later release, if there is an outage during the rolling upgrade,
then when you restart the upgrade, ensure that you start the earlier release of
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and bring the Oracle ASM cluster back in the rolling
migration mode.
4.3 Reviewing Operating System Security Common
Practices
Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security.
Ensure that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common security
practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.
4.4 About Installation Fixup Scripts
Oracle Universal Installer detects when the minimum requirements for an installation
are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system
configuration steps.
If Oracle Universal Installer detects an incomplete task, then it generates fixup scripts
(runfixup.sh). You can run the fixup script and click Fix and Check Again. The fixup
script modifies both persistent parameter settings and parameters in memory, so you
do not have to restart the system.
The Fixup script does the following tasks:
•
Sets kernel parameters, if necessary, to values required for successful installation,
including:
–
Shared memory parameters.
–
Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters.
•
Creates and sets permissions on the Oracle Inventory (central inventory) directory.
•
Creates or reconfigures primary and secondary group memberships for the
installation owner, if necessary, for the Oracle Inventory directory and the
operating system privileges groups.
•
Sets shell limits, if necessary, to required values.
4-9
Chapter 4
About Operating System Requirements
Note:
Using fixup scripts does not ensure that all the prerequisites for installing
Oracle Database are met. You must still verify that all the preinstallation
requirements are met to ensure a successful installation.
Oracle Universal Installer is fully integrated with Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)
automating many prerequisite checks for your Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) installation. You can also manually perform
various CVU verifications by running the cluvfy command.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
4.5 About Operating System Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you have the required
operating system kernel and packages installed.
Requirements listed in this document are current as of the date listed on the title page.
To obtain the most current information about kernel requirements, see the online
version at the following URL:
http://docs.oracle.com
Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on your system to verify that it meets the
listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete
successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.
Note:
Oracle does not support running different operating system versions on cluster
members, unless an operating system is being upgraded. You cannot run
different operating system version binaries on members of the same cluster,
even if each operating system is supported.
4.6 Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z
Use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify that you have the required Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages installed on the operating system before you start
the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility from the link in the My Oracle Support note
1574412.1:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1574412.1
Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility for your IBM: Linux on System z distribution,
unzip the RPM, and install the RPM as root. Then, run the utility as root to check your
operating system packages. For example:
4-10
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:
# rpm -ivh ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:
# rpm -ivh ora-val-rpm-RH7-DB-12.1.0.2-1.s390x.rpm
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the utility checks and also installs all required RPMs. For
example:
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:
# yum install ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:
# yum install ora-val-rpm-RH7-DB-12.1.0.2-1.s390x.rpm
4.7 Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux
Platforms
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this
release on x86-64.
Identify the requirements for your Linux distribution, and ensure that you have a
supported kernel and required packages installed before starting installation.
Note:
•
Oracle Universal Installer requires an X Window System (for example,
libx). The libx packages are part of a default Linux installation. If you
perform an install on a system with a reduced set of packages, then you
must ensure that libx or a similar X Window System package is installed.
•
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux can be installed on
x86-64 servers running either Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux. As
of Oracle Linux 5 Update 6, the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is the
default system kernel. An x86 (32-bit) release of Oracle Linux including the
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is available with Oracle Linux 5 update 7
and later.
•
32-bit packages in these requirements lists are needed only if you intend to
use 32-bit client applications to access 64-bit servers.
•
Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) and later does not require the
compiler packages gcc and gcc-c++ on Oracle Linux and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux for Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations.
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide were
current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions may be certified after this guide is published,
4-11
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-todate list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions:
https://support.oracle.com/
•
Supported Oracle Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 7 distributions:
•
Supported Oracle Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 6 distributions:
•
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
distributions:
•
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
distributions:
•
Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
12 distributions:
See Also:
If you currently use, or plan to upgrade to, Oracle Linux 7.2 or Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 7.2, then see information about the RemoveIPC settings:
•
My Oracle Support Note 2081410.1:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=2081410.1
•
Oracle Linux 7 Update 2 Release Notes:
http://docs.oracle.com/en/operating-systems/
4.7.1 Supported Oracle Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 7 distributions:
Table 4-1
x86-64 Oracle Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
4-12
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-1 (Cont.) x86-64 Oracle Linux 7 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Oracle Linux 7
Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 7 channel on the Unbreakable Linux
Network, or configure a yum repository from the Oracle Linux yum
server website, and then install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM. This
RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle Database installations, and performs other system
configuration.
Supported distributions:
•
•
•
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-35.3.1.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7.2 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-32.2.3.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
4-13
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-1 (Cont.) x86-64 Oracle Linux 7 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for Oracle
Linux 7
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
bc
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-12.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-3.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (i686)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
ksh
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (i686)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (i686)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (i686)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (x86_64)
make-3.82-19.el7 (x86_64)
nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.21.el7.x86_64 (for Oracle ACFS)
net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 (x86_64) (for Oracle RAC
and Oracle Clusterware)
smartmontools-6.2-4.el7 (x86_64)
sysstat-10.1.5-1.el7 (x86_64)
4.7.2 Supported Oracle Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 6 distributions:
4-14
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-2
x86-64 Oracle Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Oracle Linux 6
Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 6 channel on the Unbreakable Linux
Network, or configure a yum repository from the Oracle Linux yum
server website, and then install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM. This
RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle Database installations, and performs other system
configuration.
Supported distributions:
•
•
•
•
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2:
2.6.39-400.211.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-44.1.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.8 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-37.6.2.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
4-15
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-2 (Cont.) x86-64 Oracle Linux 6 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for Oracle
Linux 6
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
bc
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.36.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)
e2fsprogs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
e2fsprogs-libs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
ksh
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (i686)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (i686)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (i686)
make-3.81-19.el6
net-tools-1.60-110.el6_2.x86_64 (for Oracle RAC and Oracle
Clusterware)
nfs-utils-1.2.3-15.0.1 (for Oracle ACFS)
sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)
smartmontools-5.43-1.el6.x86_64
4.7.3 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
distributions:
4-16
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-3 x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 7
Supported distributions:
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7: 3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Packages for Red Hat The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
Enterprise Linux 7
bc
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-12.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-3.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (i686)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
ksh
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (i686)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (x86_64)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (i686)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (i686)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
make-3.82-19.el7 (x86_64)
net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 (x86_64) (for Oracle RAC
and Oracle Clusterware)
nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.21.el7.x86_64 (for Oracle ACFS)
smartmontools-6.2-4.el7 (x86_64)
sysstat-10.1.5-1.el7 (x86_64)
4.7.4 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
distributions:
4-17
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-4 x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6
Supported distributions:
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4: 2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
Packages for Red Hat The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
Enterprise Linux 6
bc
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.36.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)
e2fsprogs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
e2fsprogs-libs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.107.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.107.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.107.el6 (i686)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.107.el6 (x86_64)
ksh
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (i686)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (x86_64)
libXi-1.6.1-3.el6 (i686)
libXi-1.6.1-3.el6 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.2.1-2.el6 (i686)
libXtst-1.2.1-2.el6 (x86_64)
libgcc-4.4.7-3.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.7-3.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.7-3.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-4.4.7-3.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.7-3.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.7-3.el6 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (i686)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (x86_64)
make-3.81-20.el6 (x86_64)
net-tools-1.60-110.el6_2 (x86_64) (for Oracle RAC and Oracle
Clusterware)
nfs-utils-1.2.3-36.el6 (x86_64) (for Oracle ACFS)
smartmontools-5.43-1.el6 (x86_64)
sysstat-9.0.4-20.el6 (x86_64)
4-18
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
4.7.5 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for
x86-64
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
distributions:
Table 4-5 x86-64 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server
Supported distributions:
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11.1 or later
4-19
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-5 (Cont.) x86-64 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating
System Requirements
Item
Requirements
Package requirements The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
for SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 12 bc
binutils-2.24-2.165.x86_64
gcc-c++-32bit-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-c++-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc48-c++-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
gcc-32bit-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-info-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-locale-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc48-32bit-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
gcc48-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
gcc48-info-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.noarch
gcc48-locale-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
glibc-2.19-17.72.x86_64
glibc-devel-2.19-17.72.x86_64
libaio-devel-0.3.109-17.15.x86_64
libaio1-0.3.109-17.15.x86_64
libaio1-32bit-0.3.109-17.15.x86_64
libgfortran3-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libX11-6-1.6.2-4.12.x86_64
libX11-6-32bit-1.6.2-4.12.x86_64
libXau6-1.0.8-4.58.x86_64
libXau6-32bit-1.0.8-4.58.x86_64
libXtst6-1.2.2-3.60.x86_64
libXtst6-32bit-1.2.1-2.4.1.x86_64
libcap-ng-utils-0.7.3-4.125.x86_64
libcap-ng0-0.7.3-4.125.x86_64
libcap-ng0-32bit-0.7.3-4.125.x86_64
libcap-progs-2.22-11.709.x86_64
libcap1-1.10-59.61.x86_64
libcap1-32bit-1.10-59.61.x86_64
libcap2-2.22-11.709.x86_64
libcap2-32bit-2.22-11.709.x86_64
libgcc_s1-32bit-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libgcc_s1-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libpcap1-1.5.3-2.18.x86_64
libstdc++6-32bit-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libstdc++6-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
make-4.0-2.107.x86_64
mksh-50-2.13.x86_64
net-tools-1.60-764.185.x86_64 (for Oracle RAC and Oracle
Clusterware)
nfs-kernel-server-1.3.0-6.9.x86_64 (for Oracle ACFS)
smartmontools-6.2-4.33.x86_64
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1.x86_64
xorg-x11-libs-7.6-45.14
4-20
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
4.8 Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on
System z
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this
release on IBM: Linux on System z.
Identify the requirements for your IBM: Linux on System z distribution, and ensure that
you have a supported kernel and required packages installed before starting
installation.
Note:
32-bit packages in these requirements lists are needed only if you intend to use
32-bit client applications to access 64-bit servers.
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide were
current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions may be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-todate list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions:
https://support.oracle.com/
•
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
distributions:
•
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
distributions:
•
Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for IBM: Linux on
System z
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
12 distributions:
4.8.1 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for IBM:
Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
distributions:
Table 4-6 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
4-21
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Table 4-6 (Cont.) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 7
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2: 3.10.0-327.el7.s390x or later
Packages for Red Hat The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
Enterprise Linux 7
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-55.el7 (s390x)
compat-libcap1-1.10-7.el7 (s390x)
gcc-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
glibc-2.17-105.el7 (s390)
glibc-2.17-105.el7 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.17-105.el7 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.17-105.el7 (s390x)
ksh-20120801-22.el7_1.2 (s390x)
libXaw-1.0.12-5.el7 (s390)
libXft-2.3.2-2.el7 (s390)
libXi-1.7.4-2.el7 (s390)
libXi-1.7.4-2.el7 (s390x)
libXmu-1.1.2-2.el7 (s390)
libXp-1.0.2-2.1.el7 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.109-13.el7 (s390)
libaio-0.3.109-13.el7 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7 (s390x)
libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390)
libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
libgfortran-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
make-3.82-21.el7 (s390x)
sysstat-10.1.5-7.el7 (s390x)
4.8.2 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM:
Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
distributions:
Table 4-7 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6: 2.6.32-504.el6.s390x or later
4-22
Chapter 4
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Table 4-7 (Cont.) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for Red Hat The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
Enterprise Linux 6
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.42.el6 (s390x)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390x)
gcc-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
glibc-static-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390x)
glibc-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390)
glibc-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390x)
ksh-20120801-21.el6 (s390x)
libXaw-1.0.11-2.el6 (s390)
libXft-2.3.1-2.el6 (s390)
libXi-1.7.2-2.2.el6 (s390)
libXi-1.7.2-2.2.el6 (s390x)
libXmu-1.1.1-2.el6 (s390)
libXp-1.0.2-2.1.el6 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el6 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el6 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libgcc-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390)
libgcc-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390)
libstdc++-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
make-3.81-20.el6 (s390x)
sysstat-9.0.4-27.el6 (s390x)
4.8.3 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for
IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
distributions:
Table 4-8 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
4-23
Chapter 4
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Table 4-8 (Cont.) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 12
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11-default s390x or
later
Packages for SUSE
Linux Enterprise
Server 12
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.25.0-13.1 (s390x)
gcc-4.8-6.189 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.8-6.189 (s390x)
glibc-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
glibc-32bit-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
glibc-devel-32bit-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-17.15 (s390x)
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.109-17.15
libaio1-0.3.109-17.15 (s390x)
libaio1-32bit-0.3.109-17.15 (s390x) (DOUBT)
libX11-6-1.6.2-4.12 (s390x)
libX11-6-32bit-1.6.2-4.12 (s390x)
libXau6-1.0.8-4.58 (s390x)
libXau6-32bit-1.0.8-4.58 (s390x)
libXaw7-1.0.12-3.62 (s390x)
libXext6-1.3.2-3.61 (s390x)
libXext6-32bit-1.3.2-3.61 (s390x)
libXft2-2.3.1-9.32 (s390x)
libXft2-32bit-2.3.1-9.32 (s390x)
libXi6-1.7.4-9.2.s390x libXi6-1.7.4-9.2 (s390x )
libXi6-32bit-1.7.4-9.2 (s390x)
libXmu6-1.1.2-3.60 (s390x)
libXp6-1.0.2-3.58 (s390x)
libXp6-1.0.2-3.58.s390x (32bit)
libXtst6-1.2.2-3.60 (s390x)
libXtst6-32bit-1.2.2-3.60 (s390x)
libXmu6-1.1.2-3.60 (s390x) (32bit)
libcap2-2.22-11.709 (s390x)
libstdc++48-devel-32bit-4.8.5-24.1 (s390x) (DOUBT)
libstdc++48-devel-4.8.5-24.1 (s390x)
libstdc++6-32bit-5.2.1+r226025-4.1 (s390x)
libstdc++6-5.2.1+r226025-4.1 (s390x)
libxcb1-1.10-1.21 (s390x)
libxcb1-32bit-1.10-1.21 (s390x)
make-4.0-4.1 (s390x)
mksh-50-2.13 (s390x)
4.9 Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Information about optional drivers and software packages.
You are not required to install additional drivers and packages, but you may choose to
install or configure these drivers and packages.
4-24
Chapter 4
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
•
Installing PAM for Login Authentication on Linux
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is a system of libraries that handle user
authentication tasks for applications.
•
Installation Requirements for OCFS2
Review the following sections to install OCFS2.
•
Installation Requirements for ODBC and LDAP
Review these topics to install Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
•
Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with Enterprise Edition of Oracle
Database. However, you may require a CSD or Fix Packs.
•
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux
Review the following section to install programming environments:
•
Installation Requirements for Web Browsers
Web browsers are required only if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Web browsers
must support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards.
4.9.1 Installing PAM for Login Authentication on Linux
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is a system of libraries that handle user
authentication tasks for applications.
On Linux, external scheduler jobs require PAM. Oracle strongly recommends that you
install the latest Linux-PAM library for your Linux distribution.
Use a package management system (yum, up2date, YaST) for your distribution to install
the latest pam (Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux) library.
4.9.2 Installation Requirements for OCFS2
Review the following sections to install OCFS2.
•
About OCFS2 and Shared Storage
You can use Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2) with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure. However, you are not required to use OCFS2.
•
Installing OCFS2
OCFS2 Release 1.6 is included with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel available
with Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7.
4.9.2.1 About OCFS2 and Shared Storage
You can use Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2) with Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
However, you are not required to use OCFS2.
OCFS2 is a POSIX-compliant general purpose shared disk cluster file system for
Linux. OCFS2 is supported for this release only with Oracle Linux 7 and Oracle Linux
6.
4-25
Chapter 4
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
4.9.2.2 Installing OCFS2
OCFS2 Release 1.6 is included with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel available with
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7.
See the OCFS2 project page for additional information:
https://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
4.9.3 Installation Requirements for ODBC and LDAP
Review these topics to install Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
•
About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs that
connect to the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on the database.
•
Installing ODBC Drivers for Linux x86-64
If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for
Linux.
•
About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for
accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over IP
networks.
•
Installing the LDAP Package
LDAP is included in a default Linux operating system installation.
4.9.3.1 About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs that connect to
the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on the database.
An application that uses an ODBC driver can access non-uniform data sources, such
as spreadsheets and comma-delimited files.
4.9.3.2 Installing ODBC Drivers for Linux x86-64
If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for
Linux.
Download and install the ODBC Driver Manager and Linux RPMs from the following
website:
http://www.unixodbc.org
Review the minimum supported ODBC driver releases, and install ODBC drivers of the
following or later releases for all Linux distributions:
unixODBC-2.3.1 or later
4.9.3.3 About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for accessing
and maintaining distributed directory information services over IP networks.
4-26
Chapter 4
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
You require the LDAP package if you want to use features requiring LDAP, including
the Oracle Database scripts odisrvreg and oidca for Oracle Internet Directory, or
schemasync for third-party LDAP directories.
4.9.3.4 Installing the LDAP Package
LDAP is included in a default Linux operating system installation.
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, and you intend to use Oracle scripts
requiring LDAP, then use a package management system (up2date, YaST) for your
distribution to install a supported LDAP package for your distribution, and install any
other required packages for that LDAP package.
4.9.4 Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database.
However, you may require a CSD or Fix Packs.
If you require a CSD or Fix Packs for IBM WebSphere MQ, then see the following
website for more information:
http://www.ibm.com
Note:
Oracle Messaging Gateway does not support the integration of Advanced
Queuing with TIBCO Rendezvous on IBM: Linux on System z.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide
4.9.5 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for
Linux
Review the following section to install programming environments:
•
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux x86-64
Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming
environment you want to configure:
4.9.5.1 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux
x86-64
Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming environment
you want to configure:
4-27
Chapter 4
Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux
Table 4-9
Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux X86–64
Programming Environments
Support Requirements
Java Database Connectivity
(JDBC) / Oracle Call Interface
(OCI)
JDK 8 (Java SE Development Kit) with the JNDI extension
with Oracle Java Database Connectivity.
Oracle C++
Intel C/C++ Compiler 14.0.3 or later, or the version of GNU
C and C++ compilers listed in the software requirements
section in this document for your platform.
Oracle C++ Call Interface
Pro*C/C++
Oracle XML Developer's Kit
(XDK)
Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) applications can be built
only with Intel C++ Compiler 14.0.3 used with the standard
template libraries of the gcc versions listed in the software
requirements section in this document for your platform.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same
compilers as OCCI.
Pro*COBOL
•
•
Micro Focus Server Express 5.1
Micro Focus Visual COBOL for Eclipse 2.2 - Update 2
4.9.6 Installation Requirements for Web Browsers
Web browsers are required only if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Web browsers must
support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards.
https://support.oracle.com
Related Topics
•
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Basic Installation Guide
4.10 Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux
To check your kernel and packages to see if they meet minimum requirements for
installation, perform the following steps:
1.
To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter one of the
following commands:
#
#
#
#
2.
cat /etc/oracle-release
cat /etc/redhat-release
cat /etc/SuSE-release
lsb_release -id
To determine if the required kernel errata is installed, enter the following
command:
# uname -r
The following is an example of the output this command displays on an Oracle
Linux 6 system:
2.6.39-100.7.1.el6uek.x86_64
Review the required errata level for your distribution. If the errata level is previous
to the required minimum errata update, then obtain and install the latest kernel
update from your Linux distributor.
4-28
Chapter 4
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
3.
To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands
similar to the following:
# rpm -q package_name
Alternatively, if you require specific system architecture information, then enter the
following command:
# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n" | grep
package_name
You can also combine a query for multiple packages, and review the output for the
correct versions. For example:
# rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++ gcc glibc libaio libgcc libstdc++ \
make sysstat unixodbc
If a package is not installed, then install it from your Linux distribution media or
download the required package version from your Linux distributor's website.
4.11 Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
If you do not use an Oracle Preinstallation RPM, and you want to use the Cluster
Verification Utility, then you must install the cvuqdisk RPM.
Without cvuqdisk, Cluster Verification Utility cannot discover shared disks, and you
receive the error message "Package cvuqdisk not installed" when you run Cluster
Verification Utility. Use the cvuqdisk rpm for your hardware (for example, x86_64).
1.
Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package, which is located in the directory
Grid_home/cv/rpm. Where Grid_home is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home
directory.
2.
Copy the cvuqdisk package to each node on the cluster. You should ensure that
each node is running the same version of Linux.
3.
Log in as root.
4.
Use the following command to find if you have an existing version of the cvuqdisk
package:
# rpm -qi cvuqdisk
If you have an existing version of cvuqdisk, then enter the following command to
deinstall the existing version:
# rpm -e cvuqdisk
5.
Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that owns
cvuqdisk, typically oinstall. For example:
# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
6.
In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk rpm, use the command rpm -iv
package to install the cvuqdisk package. For example:
# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.10-1.rpm
4.12 Reviewing HugePages Memory Allocation
Review this information if your operating system has HugePages enabled.
4-29
Chapter 4
Disabling Transparent HugePages
On Linux platform installations, Oracle recommends that you use HugePages to obtain
the best performance for Oracle Databases. When you upgrade Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Databases on servers that have HugePages enabled, Oracle
recommends that you review your HugePages memory allocation requirements.
GIMR and HugePages Memory
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations include the Grid Infrastructure Management
Repository (GIMR). When HugePages is configured on cluster member nodes, the
GIMR system global area (SGA) is installed into HugePages memory. The GIMR SGA
occupies up to 1 GB of HugePages memory. Oracle Grid Infrastructure starts up
before Oracle Databases installed on the cluster.
If your cluster member node operating system memory allocations to HugePages are
insufficient for the size of the SGAs for all of the Oracle Database instances on the
cluster, then you may find that one or more of your Oracle Database SGAs are
mapped to regular pages, instead of Huge Pages, which reduces expected
performance. To avoid this issue, when you plan your upgrade, ensure that the
memory you reserve for HugePages is large enough to accommodate your memory
requirements.
Allocate memory to HugePages large enough for all databases planned to run SGA on
the cluster, and to accommodate the SGA for the Grid Infrastructure Management
Repository.
4.13 Disabling Transparent HugePages
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages before you start
installation.
Transparent HugePages memory differs from standard HugePages memory because
the kernel khugepaged thread allocates memory dynamically during runtime. Standard
HugePages memory is pre-allocated at startup, and does not change during runtime.
Note:
Although Transparent HugePages is disabled on UEK2 and later UEK kernels,
Transparent HugePages may be enabled by default on your Linux system.
Transparent HugePages memory is enabled by default with Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, SUSE 11, Oracle Linux 6, and Oracle Linux 7 with
earlier releases of Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2 (UEK2)
kernels.
Transparent HugePages can cause memory allocation delays during runtime. To avoid
performance issues, Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages on
all Oracle Database servers. Oracle recommends that you instead use standard
HugePages for enhanced performance.
To check if Transparent HugePages is enabled, run one of the following commands as
the root user:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernels:
# cat /sys/kernel/mm/redhat_transparent_hugepage/enabled
4-30
Chapter 4
Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon
Other kernels:
# cat /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
The following is a sample output that shows Transparent HugePages are being used
as the [always] flag is enabled.
[always] never
Note:
If Transparent HugePages is removed from the kernel, then neither /sys/
kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage nor /sys/kernel/mm/
redhat_transparent_hugepage files exist.
To disable Transparent HugePages:
1.
For Oracle Linux 6 or earlier releases, add the following entry to the kernel boot
line in the /etc/grub.conf file:
transparent_hugepage=never
For example:
title Oracle Linux Server (2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64 ro root=LABEL=/
transparent_hugepage=never
initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64.img
The file name may vary for Oracle Linux 7 or later operating systems. Check your
operating system documentation for the exact file name and the steps to disable
Transparent HugePages.
For example, for Oracle Linux 7.3, the procedure to disable Transparent
HugePages involves editing the /etc/default/grub file and then running the
command grub2-mkconfig.
2.
Restart the system to make the changes permanent.
4.14 Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon
To allow Oracle Clusterware to better tolerate network failures with NAS devices or
NFS mounts, enable the Name Service Cache Daemon (nscd).
To check to see if nscd is set to load when the system is restarted, enter the command
chkconfig --list nscd. For example:
# chkconfig --list nscd
nscd
0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on
4:off 5:off
6:off
nscd is turned on for run level 3, and turned off for run level 5. The nscd should be
turned on for both run level 3 and run level 5.
To change the configuration to ensure that nscd is on for both run level 3 and run level
5, enter the following command as root:
4-31
Chapter 4
Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
# chkconfig --level 35 nscd on
To start up nscd in the current session, enter the command as root:
# service nscd start
To restart nscd with the new setting, enter the following command as root:
# service nscd restart
nscd
systemctl --all |grep nscd
nscd.service loaded active running Name Service Cache Daemon
4.15 Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
For best performance for Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you use the Deadline
I/O Scheduler.
Disk I/O schedulers reorder, delay, or merge requests for disk I/O to achieve better
throughput and lower latency. Linux has multiple disk I/O schedulers available,
including Deadline, Noop, Anticipatory, and Completely Fair Queuing (CFQ).
On each cluster node, enter the following command to verify that the Deadline disk I/O
scheduler is configured for use:
# cat /sys/block/${ASM_DISK}/queue/scheduler
noop [deadline] cfq
In this example, the default disk I/O scheduler is Deadline and ASM_DISK is the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) disk device.
On some virtual environments (VM) and special devices such as fast storage devices,
the output of the above command may be none. The operating system or VM bypasses
the kernel I/O scheduling and submits all I/O requests directly to the device. Do not
change the I/O Scheduler settings on such environments.
If the default disk I/O scheduler is not Deadline, then set it using a rules file:
1.
Using a text editor, create a UDEV rules file for the Oracle ASM devices:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/60-oracle-schedulers.rules
2.
Add the following line to the rules file and save it:
ACTION=="add|change", KERNEL=="sd[a-z]", ATTR{queue/rotational}=="0", ATTR{queue/
scheduler}="deadline"
3.
On clustered systems, copy the rules file to all other nodes on the cluster. For
example:
$ scp 60-oracle-schedulers.rules [email protected]:/etc/udev/rules.d/
4.
Load the rules file and restart the UDEV service. For example:
a.
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
# udevadm control --reload-rules
b.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
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Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
5.
Verify that the disk I/O scheduler is set as Deadline.
4.16 Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
To install Oracle software, configure secure shell (SSH) connectivity between all
cluster member nodes.
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) uses the ssh and scp commands during installation to
run remote commands on and copy files to the other cluster nodes. You must
configure SSH so that these commands do not prompt for a password.
Note:
Oracle configuration assistants use SSH for configuration operations from local
to remote nodes. Oracle Enterprise Manager also uses SSH. RSH is no longer
supported.
You can configure SSH from the OUI interface during installation for the user account
running the installation. The automatic configuration creates passwordless SSH
connectivity between all cluster member nodes. Oracle recommends that you use the
automatic procedure if possible.
To enable the script to run, you must remove stty commands from the profiles of any
existing Oracle software installation owners you want to use, and remove other
security measures that are triggered during a login, and that generate messages to the
terminal. These messages, mail checks, and other displays prevent Oracle software
installation owners from using the SSH configuration script that is built into OUI. If they
are not disabled, then SSH must be configured manually before an installation can be
run.
In rare cases, Oracle Clusterware installation may fail during the "AttachHome"
operation when the remote node closes the SSH connection. To avoid this problem,
set the following parameter in the SSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config
on all cluster nodes to set the timeout wait to unlimited:
LoginGraceTime 0
4.17 Setting Network Time Protocol for Cluster Time
Synchronization
Use either the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization or network time protocol (NTP)
option for time synchronization.
Oracle Clusterware requires the same time zone environment variable setting on all
cluster nodes. During installation, the installation process picks up the time zone (TZ)
environment variable setting of the Grid installation owner on the node where Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI) runs, and uses that time zone value on all nodes as the
default TZ environment variable setting for all processes managed by Oracle
Clusterware. The time zone default is used for databases, Oracle ASM, and any other
managed processes. You have two options for time synchronization:
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Setting Network Time Protocol for Cluster Time Synchronization
•
An operating system configured network time protocol (NTP) such as chronyd or
ntpd
•
Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service
Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service is designed for organizations whose
cluster servers are unable to access NTP services. If you use NTP, then the Oracle
Cluster Time Synchronization daemon (ctssd) starts up in observer mode. If you do
not have NTP daemons, then ctssd starts up in active mode and synchronizes time
among cluster members without contacting an external time server.
Note:
•
Before starting the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, Oracle
recommends that you ensure the clocks on all nodes are set to the same
time.
•
By default, the NTP service available on Oracle Linux 7 and Red Hat Linux
7 is chronyd and the NTP service available on Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat
Linux 6 or lower is ntpd.
If you have NTP daemons on your server but you cannot configure them to
synchronize time with a time server, and you want to use Cluster Time
Synchronization Service to provide synchronization service in the cluster, then
deactivate and deinstall the NTP.
Deactivating the ntpd Service
To deactivate the NTP service, you must stop the existing ntpd service, disable it from
the initialization sequences, and remove the ntp.conf file.
Complete these step on Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Linux 6 or earlier, and Asianux
systems:
1.
Run the following commands as the root user:
# /sbin/service ntpd stop
# chkconfig ntpd off
# mv /etc/ntp.conf /etc/ntp.conf.org
2.
Remove the following file:
/var/run/ntpd.pid
This file maintains the pid for the NTP daemon.
When the installer finds that the NTP protocol is not active, the Cluster Time
Synchronization Service is installed in active mode and synchronizes the time across
the nodes. If NTP is found configured, then the Cluster Time Synchronization Service
is started in observer mode, and no active time synchronization is performed by Oracle
Clusterware within the cluster.
Deactivating the chronyd Service
To deactivate the chronyd service, you must stop the existing chronyd service, and
disable it from the initialization sequences.
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Setting Network Time Protocol for Cluster Time Synchronization
Complete these step on Oracle Linux 7 and Red Hat Linux 7:
1.
Run the following commands as the root user:
# systemctl stop chronyd
# systemctl disable chronyd
Confirming Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service After Installation
To confirm that ctssd is active after installation, enter the following command as the
Grid installation owner:
$ crsctl check ctss
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5
Configuring Networks for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Check that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP) addresses
required for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation.
•
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Network Configuration Options
Ensure that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP)
addresses required for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation.
•
Understanding Network Addresses
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
interface that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects on your cluster node.
•
Network Interface Hardware Minimum Requirements
Review these requirements to ensure that you have the minimum network
hardware technology for Oracle Grid Infrastructure clusters
•
Private IP Interface Configuration Requirements
Requirements for private interfaces depend on whether you are using single or
multiple Interfaces.
•
IPv4 and IPv6 Protocol Requirements
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC support the standard IPv6 address
notations specified by RFC 2732 and global and site-local IPv6 addresses as
defined by RFC 4193.
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address Requirements
Review this information for Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address
requirements.
•
Broadcast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Broadcast communications (ARP and UDP) must work properly across all the
public and private interfaces configured for use by Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Multicast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure
For each cluster member node, the Oracle mDNS daemon uses multicasting on all
interfaces to communicate with other nodes in the cluster.
•
Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
If you are configuring Grid Naming Service (GNS) for a standard cluster, then
before installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure you must configure DNS to send to
GNS any name resolution requests for the subdomain served by GNS.
•
Configuration Requirements for Oracle Flex Clusters
Understand Oracle Flex Clusters and their configuration requirements.
•
Grid Naming Service Cluster Configuration Example
Review this example to understand Grid Naming Service configuration.
•
Manual IP Address Configuration Example
If you choose not to use GNS, then before installation you must configure public,
virtual, and private IP addresses.
5-1
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About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Network Configuration Options
•
Network Interface Configuration Options
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
adapter (or network interface) that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects on your
cluster node.
•
Multiple Private Interconnects and Oracle Linux
Review this information for settings for the rp_filter parameter for Oracle RAC
systems that use multiple NICs for the private interconnect.
5.1 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Network Configuration
Options
Ensure that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP) addresses
required for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation.
Oracle Clusterware Networks
An Oracle Clusterware configuration requires at least two interfaces:
•
A public network interface, on which users and application servers connect to
access data on the database server
•
A private network interface for internode communication.
You can configure a network interface to use either the IPv4 protocol, or the IPv6
protocol on a given network. If you use redundant network interfaces (bonded or
teamed interfaces), then be aware that Oracle does not support configuring one
interface to support IPv4 addresses and the other to support IPv6 addresses. You
must configure network interfaces of a redundant interface pair with the same IP
protocol.
All the nodes in the cluster must use the same IP protocol configuration. Either all the
nodes use only IPv4, or all the nodes use only IPv6. You cannot have some nodes in
the cluster configured to support only IPv6 addresses, and other nodes in the cluster
configured to support only IPv4 addresses.
The VIP agent supports the generation of IPv6 addresses using the Stateless Address
Autoconfiguration Protocol (RFC 2462), and advertises these addresses with GNS.
Run the srvctl config network command to determine if Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP) or stateless address autoconfiguration is being used.
Note:
The Certify pages on My Oracle Support for the most up-to-date information
about supported network protocols and hardware for Oracle RAC:
https://support.oracle.com
5.2 Understanding Network Addresses
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
interface that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects on your cluster node.
5-2
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Understanding Network Addresses
Identify each interface as a public or private interface, or as an interface that you do
not want Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle ASM to use. Public and virtual internet
protocol (VIP) addresses are configured on public interfaces. Private addresses are
configured on private interfaces.
Refer to the following sections for detailed information about each address type.
•
About the Public IP Address
The public IP address is assigned dynamically using DHCP, or defined statically in
a DNS or in a hosts file.
•
About the Private IP Address
Oracle Clusterware uses interfaces marked as private for internode
communication.
•
About the Virtual IP Address
The virtual IP (VIP) address is registered in the grid naming service (GNS), the
DNS, or in a hosts file.
•
About the Grid Naming Service (GNS) Virtual IP Address
The GNS virtual IP address is a static IP address configured in the DNS.
•
About the SCAN
Oracle Database clients connect to the database using a single client access
name (SCAN).
5.2.1 About the Public IP Address
The public IP address is assigned dynamically using DHCP, or defined statically in a
DNS or in a hosts file.
The public IP address is assigned dynamically using Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP), or defined statically in a Domain Name System (DNS) or in a hosts
file. It uses the public interface (the interface with access available to clients). The
public IP address is the primary address for a cluster member node, and should be the
address that resolves to the name returned when you enter the command hostname.
If you configure IP addresses manually, then avoid changing host names after you
complete the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, including adding or deleting
domain qualifications. A node with a new host name is considered a new host, and
must be added to the cluster. A node under the old name appears to be down until it is
removed from the cluster.
5.2.2 About the Private IP Address
Oracle Clusterware uses interfaces marked as private for internode communication.
Each cluster node must have an interface that you identify during installation as a
private interface. Private interfaces must have addresses configured for the interface
itself, but no additional configuration is required. Oracle Clusterware uses the
interfaces you identify as private for the cluster interconnect. If you identify multiple
interfaces during information for the private network, then Oracle Clusterware
configures them with Redundant Interconnect Usage. Any interface that you identify as
private must be on a subnet that connects to every node of the cluster. Oracle
Clusterware uses all the interfaces you identify for use as private interfaces.
For the private interconnects, because of Cache Fusion and other traffic between
nodes, Oracle strongly recommends using a physically separate, private network. If
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Understanding Network Addresses
you configure addresses using a DNS, then you should ensure that the private IP
addresses are reachable only by the cluster nodes.
You can choose multiple interconnects either during installation or postinstallation
using the oifcfg setif command.
After installation, if you modify the interconnect for Oracle Real Application Clusters
(Oracle RAC) with the CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS initialization parameter, then you must
change the interconnect to a private IP address, on a subnet that is not used with a
public IP address, nor marked as a public subnet by oifcfg. Oracle does not support
changing the interconnect to an interface using a subnet that you have designated as
a public subnet.
You should not use a firewall on the network with the private network IP addresses,
because this can block interconnect traffic.
5.2.3 About the Virtual IP Address
The virtual IP (VIP) address is registered in the grid naming service (GNS), the DNS,
or in a hosts file.
Select an address for your VIP that meets the following requirements:
•
The IP address and host name are currently unused (it can be registered in a
DNS, but should not be accessible by a ping command)
•
The VIP is on the same subnet as your public interface
If you are not using Grid Naming Service (GNS), then determine a virtual host name
for each node. A virtual host name is a public node name that reroutes client requests
sent to the node if the node is down. Oracle Database uses VIPs for client-to-database
connections, so the VIP address must be publicly accessible. Oracle recommends that
you provide a name in the format hostname-vip. For example: myclstr2-vip.
5.2.4 About the Grid Naming Service (GNS) Virtual IP Address
The GNS virtual IP address is a static IP address configured in the DNS.
The DNS delegates queries to the GNS virtual IP address, and the GNS daemon
responds to incoming name resolution requests at that address. Within the subdomain,
the GNS uses multicast Domain Name Service (mDNS), included with Oracle
Clusterware, to enable the cluster to map host names and IP addresses dynamically
as nodes are added and removed from the cluster, without requiring additional host
configuration in the DNS.
To enable GNS, you must have your network administrator provide a set of IP
addresses for a subdomain assigned to the cluster (for example, grid.example.com),
and delegate DNS requests for that subdomain to the GNS virtual IP address for the
cluster, which GNS serves. DHCP provides the set of IP addresses to the cluster;
DHCP must be available on the public network for the cluster.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information
about GNS
5-4
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Understanding Network Addresses
5.2.5 About the SCAN
Oracle Database clients connect to the database using a single client access name
(SCAN).
The SCAN and its associated IP addresses provide a stable name for clients to use for
connections, independent of the nodes that make up the cluster. SCAN addresses,
virtual IP addresses, and public IP addresses must all be on the same subnet.
The SCAN is a virtual IP name, similar to the names used for virtual IP addresses,
such as node1-vip. However, unlike a virtual IP, the SCAN is associated with the entire
cluster, rather than an individual node, and associated with multiple IP addresses, not
just one address.
The SCAN resolves to multiple IP addresses reflecting multiple listeners in the cluster
that handle public client connections. When a client submits a request, the SCAN
listener listening on a SCAN IP address and the SCAN port is made available to a
client. Because all services on the cluster are registered with the SCAN listener, the
SCAN listener replies with the address of the local listener on the least-loaded node
where the service is currently being offered. Finally, the client establishes connection
to the service through the listener on the node where service is offered. All of these
actions take place transparently to the client without any explicit configuration required
in the client.
During installation, listeners are created. These SCAN listeners listen on the SCAN IP
addresses. The SCAN listeners are started on nodes determined by Oracle
Clusterware. Oracle Net Services routes application requests to the least-loaded
instance providing the service. Because the SCAN addresses resolve to the cluster,
rather than to a node address in the cluster, nodes can be added to or removed from
the cluster without affecting the SCAN address configuration. The SCAN listener also
supports HTTP protocol for communication with Oracle XML Database (XDB).
The SCAN should be configured so that it is resolvable either by using Grid Naming
Service (GNS) within the cluster, or by using Domain Name Service (DNS) resolution.
For high availability and scalability, Oracle recommends that you configure the SCAN
name so that it resolves to three IP addresses. At a minimum, the SCAN must resolve
to at least one address.
If you specify a GNS domain, then the SCAN name defaults to clusternamescan.cluster_name.GNS_domain. Otherwise, it defaults to clusternamescan.current_domain. For example, if you start Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation
from the server node1, the cluster name is mycluster, and the GNS domain is
grid.example.com, then the SCAN Name is mycluster-scan.mycluster.grid.example.com.
Clients configured to use IP addresses for Oracle Database releases prior to Oracle
Database 11g release 2 can continue to use their existing connection addresses;
using SCAN is not required. When you upgrade to Oracle Clusterware 12c release 1
(12.1), the SCAN becomes available, and you should use the SCAN for connections to
Oracle Database 11g release 2 or later databases. When an earlier release of Oracle
Database is upgraded, it registers with the SCAN listeners, and clients can start using
the SCAN to connect to that database. The database registers with the SCAN listener
through the remote listener parameter in the init.ora file. The REMOTE_LISTENER
parameter must be set to SCAN:PORT. Do not set it to a TNSNAMES alias with a single
address for the SCAN, for example, using HOST= SCAN_name.
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Network Interface Hardware Minimum Requirements
The SCAN is optional for most deployments. However, clients using Oracle Database
11g release 2 and later policy-managed databases using server pools must access the
database using the SCAN. This is required because policy-managed databases can
run on different servers at different times, so connecting to a particular node by using
the virtual IP address for a policy-managed database is not possible.
Provide SCAN addresses for client access to the cluster. These addresses must be
configured as round robin addresses on the domain name service (DNS), if DNS is
used. Oracle recommends that you supply three SCAN addresses.
Identify public and private interfaces. Oracle Universal Installer configures public
interfaces for use by public and virtual IP addresses, and configures private IP
addresses on private interfaces. The private subnet that the private interfaces use
must connect all the nodes you intend to have as cluster members. The SCAN must
be in the same subnet as the public interface.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
5.3 Network Interface Hardware Minimum Requirements
Review these requirements to ensure that you have the minimum network hardware
technology for Oracle Grid Infrastructure clusters
Public Network for Each Node
Public networks provide access to clients for database services. Public networks must
meet these minimum requirements:
•
Adapters: Each node must have at least one public network adapter or network
interface cards (NIC).
Oracle supports the use of link aggregations, bonded, trunked or teamed networks
for improved bandwidth and high availability.
•
Protocol: Each public interface must support TCP/IP.
Private Network for Each Node
Private networks (also called interconnects) are networks that only cluster member
nodes can access. They use switches for connections. Private networks must meet
these minimum requirements:
•
Adapters: Each node must have at least one private network adapter or network
interface cards (NIC).
Oracle recommends that you configure interconnects using Redundant
Interconnect Usage, in which multiple network adaptors are configured with
addresses in the link-local range to provide highly available IP (HAIP) addresses
for the interconnect. You can configure Redundant Interconnect Usage either
during installation, or after installation by using Oracle Interface Configuration Tool
(OIFCFG), to provide improved bandwidth and high availability.
Oracle also supports the use of link aggregations, bonded, trunked or teamed
networks for improved bandwidth and high availability.
•
Protocol: User datagram protocol (UDP) using high-speed network adapters and
switches that support TCP/IP, or Reliable Datagram Sockets (RDS) with Infiniband
5-6
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Private IP Interface Configuration Requirements
Switches: You must use switches for interconnects that support TCP/IP. Oracle
recommends that you use dedicated switches. The minimum switch speed is 1
Gigabit Ethernet.
Local Area Network Technology
Oracle does not support token-rings or crossover cables for the interconnect. Oracle
supports Jumbo Frames and Infiniband. When you use Infiniband on the interconnect,
Oracle supports using the RDS protocol.
If you have a shared Ethernet VLAN deployment, with shared physical adapter, ensure
that you apply standard Ethernet design, deployment, and monitoring best practices to
protect against cluster outages and performance degradation due to common shared
Ethernet switch network events
Storage Networks
Oracle Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Real Application Clusters require
network-attached storage.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM): The network interfaces used
for Oracle Clusterware files are also used for Oracle ASM.
Third-party storage: Oracle recommends that you configure additional interfaces for
storage.
5.4 Private IP Interface Configuration Requirements
Requirements for private interfaces depend on whether you are using single or
multiple Interfaces.
Network Requirements for Single Interface Private Network Clusters
•
Each node's private interface for interconnects must be on the same subnet.
•
The subnet must connect to every node of the cluster.
For example, if the private interfaces have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, then
your private network is in the range 192.168.0.0--192.168.0.255, and your private
addresses must be in the range of 192.168.0.[0-255]. If the private interfaces have
a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0, then your private addresses can be in the range of
192.168.[0-255].[0-255]
•
Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are supported.
Network Requirements for Redundant Interconnect Usage Clusters
With Redundant Interconnect Usage, you can identify multiple interfaces to use for the
cluster private network, without the need of using bonding or other technologies.
When you define multiple interfaces, Oracle Clusterware creates from one to four
highly available IP (HAIP) addresses. Oracle RAC and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) instances use these interface addresses to ensure highly
available, load-balanced interface communication between nodes. The installer
enables Redundant Interconnect Usage to provide a high availability private network.
By default, Oracle Grid Infrastructure software uses all of the HAIP addresses for
private network communication, providing load-balancing across the set of interfaces
you identify for the private network. If a private interconnect interface fails or become
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IPv4 and IPv6 Protocol Requirements
non-communicative, then Oracle Clusterware transparently moves the corresponding
HAIP address to one of the remaining functional interfaces.
•
Each private interface should be on a different subnet.
•
Each cluster member node must have an interface on each private interconnect
subnet, and these subnets must connect to every node of the cluster.
For example, you can have private networks on subnets 192.168.0 and 10.0.0, but
each cluster member node must have an interface connected to the 192.168.0 and
10.0.0 subnets.
•
Endpoints of all designated interconnect interfaces must be completely reachable
on the network. There should be no node that is not connected to every private
network interface.
You can test if an interconnect interface is reachable using ping.
•
You can use IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for the interfaces with Oracle Clusterware
Redundant interconnects.
Note:
During installation, you can define up to four interfaces for the private network.
The number of HAIP addresses created during installation is based on both
physical and logical interfaces configured for the network adapter. After
installation, you can define additional interfaces. If you define more than four
interfaces as private network interfaces, then be aware that Oracle Clusterware
activates only four of the interfaces at a time. However, if one of the four active
interfaces fails, then Oracle Clusterware transitions the HAIP addresses
configured to the failed interface to one of the reserve interfaces in the defined
set of private interfaces.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information
about HAIP addresses
5.5 IPv4 and IPv6 Protocol Requirements
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC support the standard IPv6 address
notations specified by RFC 2732 and global and site-local IPv6 addresses as defined
by RFC 4193.
Configuring Public VIPs
Cluster member node interfaces can be configured to use IPv4, IPv6, or both types of
Internet protocol addresses. During installation, you can configure VIPs for a given
public network as IPv4 or IPv6 types of addresses. You can configure an IPv6 cluster
by selecting VIP and SCAN names that resolve to addresses in an IPv6 subnet for the
cluster, and selecting that subnet as public during installation. After installation, you
can also configure cluster member nodes with a mixture of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
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Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address Requirements
If you install using static virtual IP (VIP) addresses in an IPv4 cluster, then the VIP
names you supply during installation should resolve only to IPv4 addresses. If you
install using static IPv6 addresses, then the VIP names you supply during installation
should resolve only to IPv6 addresses.
During installation, you cannot configure the cluster with VIP and SCAN names that
resolve to both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. You cannot configure VIPs and SCANS on
some cluster member nodes to resolve to IPv4 addresses, and VIPs and SCANs on
other cluster member nodes to resolve to IPv6 addresses. Oracle does not support
this configuration.
Configuring Private IP Interfaces (Interconnects)
You can configure the private network either as an IPv4 network or IPv6 network.
Redundant Network Interfaces
If you configure redundant network interfaces for a public or VIP node name, then
configure both interfaces of a redundant pair to the same address protocol. Also
ensure that private IP interfaces use the same IP protocol. Oracle does not support
names using redundant interface configurations with mixed IP protocols. You must
configure both network interfaces of a redundant pair with the same IP protocol.
GNS or Multi-Cluster Addresses
Oracle Grid Infrastructure supports IPv4 DHCP addresses, and IPv6 addresses
configured with the Stateless Address Autoconfiguration protocol, as described in RFC
2462.
Note:
Link-local and site-local IPv6 addresses as defined in RFC 1884 are not
supported.
5.6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address
Requirements
Review this information for Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address
requirements.
For small clusters, you can use a static configuration of IP addresses. For large
clusters, manually maintaining the large number of required IP addresses becomes
too cumbersome. Use Oracle Grid Naming Service with large clusters to ease network
administration costs.
•
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Name Resolution Options
Before starting the installation, you must have at least two interfaces configured on
each node: One for the private IP address and one for the public IP address.
•
Cluster Name and SCAN Requirements
Review this information before selecting the cluster name and SCAN.
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Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address Requirements
•
IP Name and Address Requirements For Grid Naming Service (GNS)
Review this information for IP name and address requirements for Grid Naming
Service (GNS).
•
IP Name and Address Requirements For Multi-Cluster GNS
Multi-cluster GNS differs from standard GNS in that Multi-cluster GNS provides a
single networking service across a set of clusters, rather than a networking service
for a single cluster.
•
IP Name and Address Requirements for Manual Configuration of Cluster
For Oracle Flex Clusters and Oracle Member Cluster for Applications, configure
static cluster node names and addresses if you do not enable GNS.
•
Confirming the DNS Configuration for SCAN
Use the nslookup command to confirm that the DNS is correctly associating the
SCAN with the addresses.
5.6.1 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Name Resolution Options
Before starting the installation, you must have at least two interfaces configured on
each node: One for the private IP address and one for the public IP address.
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
interface that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects on your cluster node. Identify
each interface as a public or private interface, or as an interface that you do not want
Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle ASM to use. Public and virtual internet protocol
(VIP) addresses are configured on public interfaces. Private addresses are configured
on private interfaces.
Configure IP addresses with one of the following options:
Dynamic IP address assignment using Multi-cluster or standard Oracle Grid
Naming Service (GNS)
If you select this option, then network administrators delegate a subdomain to be
resolved by GNS (standard or multicluster). Requirements for GNS are different
depending on whether you choose to configure GNS with zone delegation (resolution
of a domain delegated to GNS), or without zone delegation (a GNS virtual IP address
without domain delegation).
For GNS with zone delegation:
•
For IPv4, a DHCP service running on the public network the cluster uses
•
For IPv6, an autoconfiguration service running on the public network the cluster
uses
•
Enough addresses on the DHCP server to provide one IP address for each node,
and three IP addresses for the cluster used by the Single Client Access Name
(SCAN) for the cluster
Use an existing GNS configuration
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), a single GNS instance
can be used by multiple clusters. To use GNS for multiple clusters, the DNS
administrator must have delegated a zone for use by GNS. Also, there must be an
instance of GNS started somewhere on the network and the GNS instance must be
accessible (not blocked by a firewall). All of the node names registered with the GNS
instance must be unique.
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Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address Requirements
Static IP address assignment using DNS or host file resolution
If you select this option, then network administrators assign a fixed IP address for each
physical host name in the cluster and for IPs for the Oracle Clusterware managed
VIPs. In addition, either domain name server (DNS) based static name resolution is
used for each node, or host files for both the clusters and clients have to be updated,
resulting in limited SCAN functionality. Selecting this option requires that you request
network administration updates when you modify the cluster.
For GNS without zone delegation, configure a GNS virtual IP address (VIP) for the
cluster. To enable Oracle Flex Cluster, you must at least configure a GNS virtual IP
address.
5.6.2 Cluster Name and SCAN Requirements
Review this information before selecting the cluster name and SCAN.
Cluster Name and SCAN Requirements
Cluster Name must meet the following requirements:
•
The cluster name is case-insensitive, must be unique across your enterprise, must
be at least one character long and no more than 15 characters in length, must be
alphanumeric, cannot begin with a numeral, and may contain hyphens (-).
Underscore characters (_) are not allowed.
•
The SCAN and cluster name are entered in separate fields during installation, so
cluster name requirements do not apply to the name used for the SCAN, and the
SCAN can be longer than 15 characters. If you enter a domain with the SCAN
name, and you want to use GNS with zone delegation, then the domain must be
the GNS domain.
Note:
Select your cluster name carefully. After installation, you can only change the
cluster name by reinstalling Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
5.6.3 IP Name and Address Requirements For Grid Naming Service
(GNS)
Review this information for IP name and address requirements for Grid Naming
Service (GNS).
IP Name and Address Requirements For Grid Naming Service (GNS)
If you enable Grid Naming Service (GNS), then name resolution requests to the cluster
are delegated to the GNS, which is listening on the GNS virtual IP address. The
domain name server (DNS) must be configured to delegate resolution requests for
cluster names (any names in the subdomain delegated to the cluster) to the GNS.
When a request comes to the domain, GNS processes the requests and responds with
the appropriate addresses for the name requested. To use GNS, you must specify a
static IP address for the GNS VIP address.
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Note:
The following restrictions apply to vendor configurations on your system:
•
You cannot use GNS with another multicast DNS. To use GNS, disable any
third party mDNS daemons on your system.
5.6.4 IP Name and Address Requirements For Multi-Cluster GNS
Multi-cluster GNS differs from standard GNS in that Multi-cluster GNS provides a
single networking service across a set of clusters, rather than a networking service for
a single cluster.
•
About Multi-Cluster GNS Networks
The general requirements for multi-cluster GNS are similar to those for standard
GNS. Multi-cluster GNS differs from standard GNS in that multi-cluster GNS
provides a single networking service across a set of clusters, rather than a
networking service for a single cluster.
•
Configuring GNS Server Clusters
Review these requirements to configure GNS server clusters.
•
Configuring GNS Client Clusters
To configure a GNS client cluster, check to ensure all of the following
requirements are completed.
•
Creating and Using a GNS Client Data File
Generate a GNS client data file and copy the file to the GNS client cluster member
node on which you are running the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
5.6.4.1 About Multi-Cluster GNS Networks
The general requirements for multi-cluster GNS are similar to those for standard GNS.
Multi-cluster GNS differs from standard GNS in that multi-cluster GNS provides a
single networking service across a set of clusters, rather than a networking service for
a single cluster.
Requirements for Multi-Cluster GNS Networks
To provide networking service, multi-cluster Grid Naming Service (GNS) is configured
using DHCP addresses, and name advertisement and resolution is carried out with the
following components:
•
The GNS server cluster performs address resolution for GNS client clusters. A
GNS server cluster is the cluster where multi-cluster GNS runs, and where name
resolution takes place for the subdomain delegated to the set of clusters.
•
GNS client clusters receive address resolution from the GNS server cluster. A
GNS client cluster is a cluster that advertises its cluster member node names
using the GNS server cluster.
•
If you choose to use GNS, then the GNS configured at the time of installation is
the primary. A secondary GNS for high availability can be configured at a later
time.
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5.6.4.2 Configuring GNS Server Clusters
Review these requirements to configure GNS server clusters.
To configure a GNS server cluster, check to ensure all of the following requirements
are completed:
•
Your network administrators must have delegated a subdomain to GNS for
resolution.
•
Before installation, create a static IP address for the GNS VIP address, and
provide a subdomain that your DNS servers delegate to that static GNS IP
address for resolution.
5.6.4.3 Configuring GNS Client Clusters
To configure a GNS client cluster, check to ensure all of the following requirements are
completed.
•
A GNS server instance must be running on your network, and it must be
accessible (for example, not blocked by a firewall).
•
All of the node names in the GNS domain must be unique; address ranges and
cluster names must be unique for both GNS server and GNS client clusters.
•
You must have a GNS client data file that you generated on the GNS server
cluster, so that the GNS client cluster has the information needed to delegate its
name resolution to the GNS server cluster, and you must have copied that file to
the GNS client cluster member node on which you are running the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation.
5.6.4.4 Creating and Using a GNS Client Data File
Generate a GNS client data file and copy the file to the GNS client cluster member
node on which you are running the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
On a GNS server cluster member, run the following command, where path_to_file is
the name and path location of the GNS client data file you create:
srvctl export gns -clientdata path_to_file -role client
For example:
$ srvctl export gns -clientdata /home/grid/gns_client_data -role client
Copy the GNS Client data file to a secure path on the GNS Client node where you run
the GNS Client cluster installation. The Oracle installation user must have permissions
to access that file. Oracle recommends that no other user is granted permissions to
access the GNS Client data file. During installation, you are prompted to provide a
path to that file.
srvctl add gns -clientdata path_to_file
For example:
$ srvctl add gns -clientdata /home/grid/gns_client_data
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Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address Requirements
See Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information
about GNS server and GNS client administration
5.6.5 IP Name and Address Requirements for Manual Configuration of
Cluster
For Oracle Flex Clusters and Oracle Member Cluster for Applications, configure static
cluster node names and addresses if you do not enable GNS.
IP Address Requirements for Static Clusters
Public and virtual IP names must conform with the RFC 952 standard, which allows
alphanumeric characters and hyphens ("-"), but does not allow underscores ("_").
Oracle Clusterware manages private IP addresses in the private subnet on interfaces
you identify as private during the installation interview.
Public IP Address Requirements
The cluster must have a public IP address for each node, with the following
characteristics:
•
Static IP address
•
Configured before installation for each node, and resolvable to that node before
installation
•
On the same subnet as all other public IP addresses, VIP addresses, and SCAN
addresses in the cluster
Virtual IP Address Requirements
The cluster must have a virtual IP address for each node, with the following
characteristics:
•
Static IP address
•
Configured before installation for each node, but not currently in use
•
On the same subnet as all other public IP addresses, VIP addresses, and SCAN
addresses in the cluster
Single Client Access Name Requirements
The cluster must have a Single Client Access Name (SCAN) for the cluster, with the
following characteristics:
•
Three static IP addresses configured on the domain name server (DNS) before
installation so that the three IP addresses are associated with the name provided
as the SCAN, and all three addresses are returned in random order by the DNS to
the requestor
•
Configured before installation in the DNS to resolve to addresses that are not
currently in use
•
Given addresses on the same subnet as all other public IP addresses, VIP
addresses, and SCAN addresses in the cluster
•
Given a name conforms with the RFC 952 standard, which allows alphanumeric
characters and hyphens ("-"), but does not allow underscores ("_")
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Oracle Grid Infrastructure IP Name and Address Requirements
Private IP Address Requirements
The cluster must have a private IP address for each node, with the following
characteristics:
•
Static IP address
•
Configured before installation, but on a separate, private network, with its own
subnet, that is not resolvable except by other cluster member nodes
The SCAN is a name used to provide service access for clients to the cluster. Because
the SCAN is associated with the cluster as a whole, rather than to a particular node,
the SCAN makes it possible to add or remove nodes from the cluster without needing
to reconfigure clients. It also adds location independence for the databases, so that
client configuration does not have to depend on which nodes are running a particular
database. Clients can continue to access the cluster in the same way as with previous
releases, but Oracle recommends that clients accessing the cluster use the SCAN.
Note:
The SCAN and cluster name are entered in separate fields during installation,
so cluster name requirements do not apply to the SCAN name.
Oracle strongly recommends that you do not configure SCAN VIP addresses in
the hosts file. Use DNS resolution for SCAN VIPs. If you use the hosts file to
resolve SCANs, then the SCAN can resolve to one IP address only.
Configuring SCANs in a DNS or a hosts file is the only supported configuration.
Configuring SCANs in a Network Information Service (NIS) is not supported.
5.6.6 Confirming the DNS Configuration for SCAN
Use the nslookup command to confirm that the DNS is correctly associating the SCAN
with the addresses.
The following example shows how to use the nslookup command to confirm that the
DNS is correctly associating the SCAN with the addresses:
[email protected]]$ nslookup mycluster-scan
Server:
dns.example.com
Address:
192.0.2.001
Name: mycluster-scan.example.com
Address: 192.0.2.201
Name: mycluster-scan.example.com
Address: 192.0.2.202
Name: mycluster-scan.example.com
Address: 192.0.2.203
After installation, when a client sends a request to the cluster, the Oracle Clusterware
SCAN listeners redirect client requests to servers in the cluster.
Oracle strongly recommends that you do not configure SCAN VIP addresses in the
hosts file. Use DNS resolution for SCAN VIPs. If you use the hosts file to resolve
SCANs, then the SCAN can resolve to one IP address only.
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Broadcast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Configuring SCANs in a DNS or a hosts file is the only supported configuration.
Configuring SCANs in a Network Information Service (NIS) is not supported.
5.7 Broadcast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
Broadcast communications (ARP and UDP) must work properly across all the public
and private interfaces configured for use by Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
The broadcast must work across any configured VLANs as used by the public or
private interfaces.
When configuring public and private network interfaces for Oracle RAC, you must
enable Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). Highly Available IP (HAIP) addresses do
not require ARP on the public network, but for VIP failover, you need to enable ARP.
Do not configure NOARP.
5.8 Multicast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
For each cluster member node, the Oracle mDNS daemon uses multicasting on all
interfaces to communicate with other nodes in the cluster.
Multicast Requirements for Networks Used by Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Multicasting is required on the private interconnect. For this reason, at a minimum, you
must enable multicasting for the cluster:
•
Across the broadcast domain as defined for the private interconnect
•
On the IP address subnet ranges 224.0.0.0/24 and optionally 230.0.1.0/24
You do not need to enable multicast communications across routers.
5.9 Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
If you are configuring Grid Naming Service (GNS) for a standard cluster, then before
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure you must configure DNS to send to GNS any name
resolution requests for the subdomain served by GNS.
The subdomain that GNS serves represents the cluster member nodes.
•
Choosing a Subdomain Name for Use with Grid Naming Service
To implement GNS, your network administrator must configure the DNS to set up
a domain for the cluster, and delegate resolution of that domain to the GNS VIP.
•
Configuring DNS for Cluster Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
If you plan to use Grid Naming Service (GNS) with a delegated domain, then
before Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, configure your domain name server
(DNS) to send to GNS name resolution requests for the subdomain GNS serves,
which are the cluster member nodes.
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Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
5.9.1 Choosing a Subdomain Name for Use with Grid Naming Service
To implement GNS, your network administrator must configure the DNS to set up a
domain for the cluster, and delegate resolution of that domain to the GNS VIP.
Requirements for Choosing a Subdomain Name for Use with GNS
You can use a separate domain, or you can create a subdomain of an existing domain
for the cluster. The subdomain name can be any supported DNS name such as salescluster.rac.com.
Oracle recommends that the subdomain name is distinct from your corporate domain.
For example, if your corporate domain is mycorp.example.com, the subdomain for GNS
might be rac-gns.mycorp.example.com.
If the subdomain is not distinct, then it should be for the exclusive use of GNS. For
example, if you delegate the subdomain mydomain.example.com to GNS, then there
should be no other domains that share it such as lab1.mydomain.example.com.
5.9.2 Configuring DNS for Cluster Domain Delegation to Grid Naming
Service
If you plan to use Grid Naming Service (GNS) with a delegated domain, then before
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, configure your domain name server (DNS) to
send to GNS name resolution requests for the subdomain GNS serves, which are the
cluster member nodes.
GNS domain delegation is mandatory with dynamic public networks (DHCP,
autoconfiguration). GNS domain delegation is not required with static public networks
(static addresses, manual configuration).
The following is an overview of the steps to be performed for domain delegation. Your
actual procedure may be different from this example.
Configure the DNS to send GNS name resolution requests using delegation:
1.
In the DNS, create an entry for the GNS virtual IP address, where the address
uses the form gns-server.clustername.domainname. For example, where the cluster
name is mycluster, and the domain name is example.com, and the IP address is
192.0.2.1, create an entry similar to the following:
mycluster-gns-vip.example.com A 192.0.2.1
The address you provide must be routable.
2.
Set up forwarding of the GNS subdomain to the GNS virtual IP address, so that
GNS resolves addresses to the GNS subdomain. To do this, create a BIND
configuration entry similar to the following for the delegated domain, where
cluster01.example.com is the subdomain you want to delegate:
cluster01.example.com NS mycluster-gns-vip.example.com
3.
When using GNS, you must configure resolve.conf on the nodes in the cluster (or
the file on your system that provides resolution information) to contain name
server entries that are resolvable to corporate DNS servers. The total timeout
period configured—a combination of options attempts (retries) and options timeout
(exponential backoff)—should be less than 30 seconds. For example, where
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xxx.xxx.xxx.42 and xxx.xxx.xxx.15 are valid name server addresses in your
network, provide an entry similar to the following in /etc/resolv.conf:
options attempts: 2
options timeout: 1
search cluster01.example.com example.com
nameserver xxx.xxx.xxx.42
nameserver xxx.xxx.xxx.15
/etc/nsswitch.conf controls name service lookup order. In some system
configurations, the Network Information System (NIS) can cause problems with
SCAN address resolution. Oracle recommends that you place the NIS entry at the
end of the search list. For example:
/etc/nsswitch.conf
hosts:
files
dns
nis
Be aware that use of NIS is a frequent source of problems when doing cable pull tests,
as host name and user name resolution can fail.
5.10 Configuration Requirements for Oracle Flex Clusters
Understand Oracle Flex Clusters and their configuration requirements.
•
Understanding Oracle Flex Clusters
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid
Infrastructure cluster configurations are Oracle Flex Clusters deployments.
•
About Oracle Flex ASM Clusters Networks
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), as part of an Oracle
Flex Cluster installation, Oracle ASM is configured within Oracle Grid
Infrastructure to provide storage services.
•
General Requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster Configuration
Review this information about network requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster
configuration.
•
Oracle Flex Cluster DHCP-Assigned Virtual IP (VIP) Addresses
Configure cluster node VIP names for both Hub and Leaf Nodes.
•
Oracle Flex Cluster Manually-Assigned Addresses
Review this information to manually assign cluster node VIP names for both Hub
and Leaf Nodes.
5.10.1 Understanding Oracle Flex Clusters
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid
Infrastructure cluster configurations are Oracle Flex Clusters deployments.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installed in an Oracle Flex Cluster configuration is a
scalable, dynamic, robust network of nodes. Oracle Flex Clusters provide a platform
for Oracle Real Application Clusters databases with large numbers of nodes, to
support massive parallel query operations. Oracle Flex Clusters also provide a
platform for other service deployments that require coordination and automation for
high availability.
All nodes in an Oracle Flex Cluster belong to a single Oracle Grid Infrastructure
cluster. This architecture centralizes policy decisions for deployment of resources
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Configuration Requirements for Oracle Flex Clusters
based on application needs, to account for various service levels, loads, failure
responses, and recovery.
Oracle Flex Clusters contain two types of nodes arranged in a hub and spoke
architecture: Hub Nodes and Leaf Nodes. The number of Hub Nodes in an Oracle Flex
Cluster can be as many as 64. The number of Leaf Nodes can be many more. Hub
Nodes and Leaf Nodes can host different types of applications and perform parallel
query operations.
Hub Nodes in Oracle Flex Clusters are tightly connected, and have direct access to
shared storage. In an Oracle Flex Cluster configuration, Hub Nodes can also provide
storage service for one or more Leaf Nodes. Three Hub Nodes act as I/O Servers for
storage access requests from Leaf Nodes. If a Hub Node acting as an I/O Server
becomes unavailable, then Oracle Grid Infrastructure starts another I/O Server on
another Hub Node.
Leaf Nodes in Oracle Flex Clusters do not require direct access to shared storage, but
instead request data through Hub Nodes. Hub Nodes can run in an Oracle Flex
Cluster configuration without having any Leaf Nodes as cluster member nodes, but
Leaf Nodes must be members of a cluster with a pool of Hub Nodes.
Oracle RAC database instances running on Leaf Nodes are referred to as far Oracle
ASM client instances. Oracle ASM metadata is never sent to the far client database
instance. Instead, the far Oracle ASM client database sends the I/O requests to I/O
Server instances running on Hub Nodes over the Oracle Flex ASM network.
You configure servers for Hub Node and Leaf Node roles. You can designate servers
for manual or automatic configuration.
If you select manual configuration, then you must designate each node in your cluster
as a Hub Node or a Leaf Node. Each role requires different access to storage. To be
eligible for the Hub Node role, a server must have direct access to storage. To be
eligible for the Leaf Node role, a server may have access to direct storage, but it does
not require direct access, because leaf nodes access storage as clients through Hub
Nodes.
If you select automatic configuration of roles, then cluster nodes that have access to
storage and join are configured as Hub Nodes, up to the number that you designate as
your target. Other nodes that do not have access to storage or that join the cluster
after that target number is reached join the cluster as Leaf Nodes. Nodes are
configured as needed to provide Hub Nodes configured with Local or Near ASM to
provide storage client services, and Leaf Nodes that are configured with direct access
to Oracle ASM disks can be reconfigured as needed to become Hub Nodes. Oracle
recommends that you select automatic configuration of Hub and Leaf node roles.
About Reader Nodes
You can use Leaf Nodes to host Oracle RAC database instances that run in read-only
mode, which become reader nodes. You can optimize these nodes for parallel query
operations by provisioning nodes with a large amount of memory so that data is
cached in the Leaf Node.
A Leaf Node sends periodic heartbeat messages to its associated Hub Node, which is
different from the heartbeat messages that occur between Hub Nodes. During planned
shutdown of the Hub Nodes, a Leaf Node attempts to connect to another Hub Node,
unless the Leaf Node is connected to only one Hub Node. If the Hub Node is evicted,
then the Leaf Node is also evicted from the cluster.
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Configuration Requirements for Oracle Flex Clusters
5.10.2 About Oracle Flex ASM Clusters Networks
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), as part of an Oracle Flex
Cluster installation, Oracle ASM is configured within Oracle Grid Infrastructure to
provide storage services.
Oracle Flex ASM enables an Oracle ASM instance to run on a separate physical
server from the database servers. Many Oracle ASM instances can be clustered to
support numerous database clients. Each Oracle Flex ASM cluster has its own name
that is globally unique within the enterprise.
You can consolidate all the storage requirements into a single set of disk groups. All
these disk groups are managed by a small set of Oracle ASM instances running in a
single Oracle Flex Cluster.
Every Oracle Flex ASM cluster has one or more Hub Nodes on which Oracle ASM
instances are running.
Oracle Flex ASM can use either the same private networks as Oracle Clusterware, or
use its own dedicated private networks. Each network can be classified PUBLIC, ASM &
PRIVATE, PRIVATE, or ASM.
The Oracle ASM network can be configured during installation, or configured or
modified after installation.
About Oracle Flex ASM Cluster Configuration on Hub Nodes
Oracle Flex ASM cluster Hub Nodes can be configured with the following
characteristics:
•
Are similar to prior release Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster member nodes, as all
servers configured with the Hub Node role are peers.
•
Have direct connections to the Oracle ASM disks.
•
Run a Direct ASM client process.
•
Run an Oracle ASM Filter Driver, part of whose function is to provide cluster
fencing security for the Oracle Flex ASM cluster.
•
Access the Oracle ASM disks as Hub Nodes only, where they are designated a
Hub Node for that storage.
•
Respond to service requests delegated to them through the global Oracle ASM
listener configured for the Oracle Flex ASM cluster, which designates three of the
Oracle Flex ASM cluster member Hub Node listeners as remote listeners for the
Oracle Flex ASM cluster.
•
Can provide database clients that are running on Hub nodes of the Oracle ASM
cluster remote access to Oracle ASM for metadata, and allow database clients to
perform block I/O operations directly to Oracle ASM disks. The hosts running the
Oracle ASM server and the remote database client must both be Hub Nodes.
About Oracle Flex ASM Cluster Configuration on Leaf Nodes
Oracle Flex ASM cluster Leaf Nodes can be configured with the following
characteristics:
•
Use Indirect access to the Oracle ASM disks, where I/O is handled as a service for
the client on a Hub Node.
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Configuration Requirements for Oracle Flex Clusters
•
Submit disk service requests through the Oracle ASM network
About Oracle Flex ASM Cluster with Oracle IOServer (IOS) Configuration
An Oracle IOServer instance provides Oracle ASM file access for Oracle Database
instances on nodes of Oracle Member Clusters that do not have connectivity to Oracle
ASM managed disks. IOS enables you to configure Oracle Member Clusters on such
nodes. On the storage cluster, the IOServer instance on each node opens up network
ports to which clients send their I/O. The IOServer instance receives data packets from
the client and performs the appropriate I/O to Oracle ASM disks similar to any other
database client. On the client side, databases can use direct NFS (dNFS) to
communicate with an IOServer instance. However, no client side configuration is
required to use IOServer, so you are not required to provide a server IP address or
any additional configuration information. On nodes and clusters that are configured to
access Oracle ASM files through IOServer, the discovery of the Oracle IOS instance
occurs automatically.
To install an Oracle Member Cluster, the administrator of the Oracle Domain Services
Cluster creates an Oracle Member Cluster using a crsctl command that creates a
Member Cluster Manifest file. During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, if you
choose to install an Oracle Member Cluster, then the installer prompts you for the
Member Cluster Manifest file. An attribute in the Member Cluster Manifest file specifies
if the Oracle Member Cluster is expected to access Oracle ASM files through an
IOServer instance.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
5.10.3 General Requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster Configuration
Review this information about network requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster
configuration.
Network Requirements for Oracle Flex Cluster Configuration
•
You must use Grid Naming Service (GNS) with an Oracle Flex Cluster
deployment.
•
You must configure the GNS VIP as a static IP address for Hub Nodes.
•
On Multi-cluster configurations, you must identify the GNS client data file location
for Leaf Nodes. The GNS client data files are copied over from the GNS server
before you start configuring a GNS client cluster.
•
All public network addresses for both Hub Nodes and Leaf Nodes, whether
assigned manually or automatically, must be in the same subnet range.
•
All Oracle Flex Cluster addresses must be either static IP addresses, DHCP
addresses assigned through DHCP (IPv4) or autoconfiguration addresses
assigned through an autoconfiguration service (IPv6), registered in the cluster
through GNS.
•
When using GNS, you can also configure Leaf Nodes on both public and private
networks, during installation. Leaf Nodes on public networks cannot use Oracle
Clusterware services such as the public network resources and VIPs, or run
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listeners. After installation, you can configure network resources and listeners for
the Leaf Nodes using SRVCTL commands.
5.10.4 Oracle Flex Cluster DHCP-Assigned Virtual IP (VIP) Addresses
Configure cluster node VIP names for both Hub and Leaf Nodes.
Requirements for DHCP-Assigned VIP Addresses
If you want to configure DHCP-assigned VIPs, then during installation, configure
cluster node VIP names for both Hub and Leaf Nodes as follows:
•
Automatically Assigned Names: Select the Configure nodes Virtual IPs
assigned by the Dynamic Networks option to allow the installer to assign names
to VIP addresses generated through DHCP automatically. Addresses are assigned
through DHCP, and resolved by GNS. Oracle Clusterware sends DHCP requests
with client ID nodename-vip and without a MAC address. You can verify the
availability of DHCP addresses using the cluvfy comp dhcp command.
5.10.5 Oracle Flex Cluster Manually-Assigned Addresses
Review this information to manually assign cluster node VIP names for both Hub and
Leaf Nodes.
Requirements for Manually-Assigned Addresses
If you choose to configure manually-assigned VIPs, then during installation, you must
configure cluster node VIP names for both Hub and Leaf Nodes using one of the
following options:
•
Manual Names: Enter the host name and virtual IP name for each node manually,
and select whether it is a Hub Node or a Leaf Node. The names you provide must
resolve to addresses configured on the DNS. Names must conform with the RFC
952 standard, which allows alphanumeric characters and hyphens ("-"), but does
not allow underscores ("_").
•
Automatically Assigned Names: Enter string variables for values corresponding to
host names that you have configured on the DNS. String variables allow you to
assign a large number of names rapidly during installation. Configure addresses
on the DNS with the following characteristics:
–
Hostname prefix: a prefix string used in each address configured on the DNS
for use by cluster member nodes. For example: mycloud.
–
Range: A range of numbers to be assigned to the cluster member nodes,
consisting of a starting node number and an ending node number, designating
the end of the range. For example: 001 and 999.
–
Node name suffix: A suffix added after the end of a range number to a public
node name. For example: nd.
–
VIP name suffix: A suffix added after the end of a virtual IP node name. For
example: -vip.
Syntax
You can create manual addresses using alphanumeric strings.
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Grid Naming Service Cluster Configuration Example
Example 5-1
Examples of Manually-Assigned Addresses
mycloud001nd; mycloud046nd; mycloud046-vip; mycloud348nd; mycloud784-vip
5.11 Grid Naming Service Cluster Configuration Example
Review this example to understand Grid Naming Service configuration.
To use GNS, you must specify a static IP address for the GNS VIP address, and you
must have a subdomain configured on your DNS to delegate resolution for that
subdomain to the static GNS IP address.
As nodes are added to the cluster, your organization's DHCP server can provide
addresses for these nodes dynamically. These addresses are then registered
automatically in GNS, and GNS provides resolution within the subdomain to cluster
node addresses registered with GNS.
Because allocation and configuration of addresses is performed automatically with
GNS, no further configuration is required. Oracle Clusterware provides dynamic
network configuration as nodes are added to or removed from the cluster. The
following example is provided only for information.
With IPv6 networks, the IPv6 auto configuration feature assigns IP addresses and no
DHCP server is required.
With a two node cluster where you have defined the GNS VIP, after installation you
might have a configuration similar to the following for a two-node cluster, where the
cluster name is mycluster, the GNS parent domain is gns.example.com, the subdomain
is cluster01.example.com, the 192.0.2 portion of the IP addresses represents the cluster
public IP address subdomain, and 192.168 represents the private IP address
subdomain:
Table 5-1
Grid Naming Service Cluster Configuration Example
Identity
Home Node Host Node
Given
Name
GNS VIP
None
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
Node 1
Public
Node 1
Node 1 VIP
Type
Address
Address
Assigned
By
Resolved
By
myclustervirtual
gnsvip.example.
com
192.0.2.1
Fixed by net DNS
administrato
r
node1
node1
public
192.0.2.101
Fixed
GNS
Node 1
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node1-vip
virtual
192.0.2.104
DHCP
GNS
Node 1
Private
Node 1
node1
node1-priv
private
192.168.0.1
Fixed or
DHCP
GNS
Node 2
Public
Node 2
node2
node2
public
192.0.2.102
Fixed
GNS
Node 2 VIP
Node 2
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node2-vip
virtual
192.0.2.105
DHCP
GNS
5-23
Chapter 5
Manual IP Address Configuration Example
Table 5-1
(Cont.) Grid Naming Service Cluster Configuration Example
Identity
Home Node Host Node
Given
Name
Type
Address
Address
Assigned
By
Resolved
By
Node 2
Private
Node 2
node2
node2-priv
private
192.168.0.2
Fixed or
DHCP
GNS
SCAN VIP 1 none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclustervirtual
scan.myclus
ter.cluster01
.example.co
m
192.0.2.201
DHCP
GNS
SCAN VIP 2 none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclustervirtual
scan.myclus
ter.cluster01
.example.co
m
192.0.2.202
DHCP
GNS
SCAN VIP 3 none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclustervirtual
scan.myclus
ter.cluster01
.example.co
m
192.0.2.203
DHCP
GNS
5.12 Manual IP Address Configuration Example
If you choose not to use GNS, then before installation you must configure public,
virtual, and private IP addresses.
Check that the default gateway can be accessed by a ping command. To find the
default gateway, use the route command, as described in your operating system's
help utility.
For example, with a two-node cluster where each node has one public and one private
interface, and you have defined a SCAN domain address to resolve on your DNS to
one of three IP addresses, you might have the configuration shown in the following
table for your network interfaces:
Table 5-2
Manual Network Configuration Example
Identity
Home Node Host Node
Given
Name
Type
Address
Address
Assigned
By
Resolved
By
Node 1
Public
Node 1
node1
node1
public
192.0.2.101
Fixed
DNS
Node 1 VIP
Node 1
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node1-vip
virtual
192.0.2.104
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file
Node 1
Private
Node 1
node1
node1-priv
private
192.168.0.1
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file, or
none
5-24
Chapter 5
Network Interface Configuration Options
Table 5-2
(Cont.) Manual Network Configuration Example
Identity
Home Node Host Node
Given
Name
Type
Address
Address
Assigned
By
Resolved
By
Node 2
Public
Node 2
node2
node2
public
192.0.2.102
Fixed
DNS
Node 2 VIP
Node 2
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node2-vip
virtual
192.0.2.105
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file
Node 2
Private
Node 2
node2
node2-priv
private
192.168.0.2
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file, or
none
SCAN VIP 1 none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclusterscan
virtual
192.0.2.201
Fixed
DNS
SCAN VIP 2 none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclusterscan
virtual
192.0.2.202
Fixed
DNS
SCAN VIP 3 none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclusterscan
virtual
192.0.2.203
Fixed
DNS
You do not need to provide a private name for the interconnect. If you want name
resolution for the interconnect, then you can configure private IP names in the hosts
file or the DNS. However, Oracle Clusterware assigns interconnect addresses on the
interface defined during installation as the private interface (eth1, for example), and to
the subnet used for the private subnet.
The addresses to which the SCAN resolves are assigned by Oracle Clusterware, so
they are not fixed to a particular node. To enable VIP failover, the configuration shown
in the preceding table defines the SCAN addresses and the public and VIP addresses
of both nodes on the same subnet, 192.0.2.
Note:
All host names must conform to the RFC–952 standard, which permits
alphanumeric characters, but does not allow underscores ("_").
5.13 Network Interface Configuration Options
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network adapter
(or network interface) that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects on your cluster
node.
Each NIC can be configured to perform only one of the following roles:
•
Public
•
Private
•
Do Not Use
5-25
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Multiple Private Interconnects and Oracle Linux
Network Interface Configuration Options
You must use the same private adapters for both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.
The precise configuration you choose for your network depends on the size and use of
the cluster you want to configure, and the level of availability you require. Network
interfaces must be at least 1 GbE, with 10 GbE recommended. Alternatively, use
InfiniBand for the interconnect.
If certified Network-attached Storage (NAS) is used for Oracle RAC and this storage is
connected through Ethernet-based networks, then you must have a third network
interface for NAS I/O. Failing to provide three separate interfaces in this case can
cause performance and stability problems under load.
Redundant interconnect usage cannot protect network adapters used for public
communication. If you require high availability or load balancing for public adapters,
then use a third party solution. Typically, bonding, trunking or similar technologies can
be used for this purpose.
You can enable redundant interconnect usage for the private network by selecting
multiple network adapters to use as private adapters. Redundant interconnect usage
creates a redundant interconnect when you identify more than one network adapter as
private.
5.14 Multiple Private Interconnects and Oracle Linux
Review this information for settings for the rp_filter parameter for Oracle RAC
systems that use multiple NICs for the private interconnect.
With Oracle Linux kernel 2.6.31, which also includes Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise
Kernel 2.6.32, a bug has been fixed in the Reverse Path Filtering. As a consequence
of this correction, Oracle RAC systems that use multiple NICs for the private
interconnect now require specific settings for the rp_filter parameter. This requirement
also applies to all Exadata systems that are running Linux kernel 2.6.32 and above.
Without these rp_filter parameter settings systems, interconnect packets can be
blocked or discarded.
The rp_filter values set the Reverse Path filter to no filtering (0), to strict filtering (1),
or to loose filtering (2). Set the rp_filter value for the private interconnects to either 0 or
2. Setting the private interconnect NIC to 1 can cause connection issues on the private
interconnect. It is not considered unsafe to disable or relax this filtering, because the
private interconnect should be on a private and isolated network.
For example, where eth1 and eth2 are the private interconnect NICs, and eth0 is the
public network NIC, set the rp_filter of the private address to 2 (loose filtering), the
public address to 1 (strict filtering), using the following entries in /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.eth2.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.eth1.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 1
My Oracle Support Note 1286796.1 rp_filter for multiple private interconnects and
Linux Kernel 2.6.32+, which is available at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1286796.1
5-26
6
Configuring Users, Groups and
Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle Database
Before installation, create operating system groups and users, and configure user
environments.
•
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle
Inventory group, and create a software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and
directories for Oracle home.
•
Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
A job role separation configuration of Oracle Database and Oracle ASM is a
configuration with groups and users to provide separate groups for operating
system authentication.
•
Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
The following sections describe how to create operating system groups for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database:
•
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
Before starting installation, create Oracle software owner user accounts, and
configure their environments.
•
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
Understand the software owner user environments to configure before installing
Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) provides a set of common
interfaces to computer hardware and firmware that system administrators can use
to monitor system health and manage the system.
•
Determining Root Script Execution Plan
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the installer requires you to run
scripts with superuser (or root) privileges to complete a number of system
configuration tasks.
6.1 Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle
Inventory group, and create a software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and
directories for Oracle home.
Oracle software installations require an installation owner, an Oracle Inventory group,
which is the primary group of all Oracle installation owners, and at least one group
designated as a system privileges group. Review group and user options with your
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Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
system administrator. If you have system administration privileges, then review the
topics in this section and configure operating system groups and users as needed.
•
Determining If an Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exist
Determine if you have existing Oracle central inventory, and ensure that you use
the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations. Also ensure that all
Oracle software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write
to this directory.
•
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group.
•
About Oracle Installation Owner Accounts
Select or create an Oracle installation owner for your installation, depending on the
group and user management plan you want to use for your installations.
•
Restrictions for Oracle Software Installation Owners
Review the following restrictions for users created to own Oracle software.
•
Identifying an Oracle Software Owner User Account
You must create at least one software owner user account the first time you install
Oracle software on the system. Either use an existing Oracle software user
account, or create an Oracle software owner user account for your installation.
•
About the Oracle Base Directory for the Grid User
Review this information about creating the Oracle base directory on each cluster
node.
•
About the Oracle Home Directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software
Review this information about creating the Oracle home directory location on each
cluster node.
•
About Creating the Oracle Home and Oracle Base Directory
Create Grid home and Oracle base home directories on each cluster node.
6.1.1 Determining If an Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group
Exist
Determine if you have existing Oracle central inventory, and ensure that you use the
same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations. Also ensure that all Oracle
software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this
directory.
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, OUI creates the
oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (by default,
oinstall), and the path of the Oracle central inventory directory. If you have an
existing Oracle central inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle Inventory
for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software users you
intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.
oraInst.loccentral_inventory_locationgroup
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
Use the more command to determine if you have an Oracle central inventory on your
system. For example:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
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inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
Use the command grep groupname /etc/group to confirm that the group
specified as the Oracle Inventory group still exists on the system. For example:
$ grep oinstall /etc/group
oinstall:x:54321:grid,oracle
Note:
Do not put the oraInventory directory under the Oracle base directory for a new
installation, because that can result in user permission errors for other
installations.
6.1.2 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does
Not Exist
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group.
Members of the OINSTALL group are granted privileges to write to the Oracle central
inventory (oraInventory), and other system privileges for Oracle installation owner
users.
An Oracle installation owner should always have the group you want to have
designated as the OINSTALL group (oinstall) as its primary group. Ensure that this
group is available as the primary group for all planned Oracle software installation
owners. By default, if an oraInst.loc file does not exist and an Oracle central inventory
(oraInventory) is not identified, then the installer designates the primary group of the
installation owner running the installation as the OINSTALL group.
The following example creates the oraInventory group oinstall, with the group ID
number 54321.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
Note:
For installations on Oracle Clusterware, group and user IDs must be identical
on all nodes in the cluster. Ensure that the group and user IDs you want to use
are available on each cluster member node, and confirm that the primary group
for each Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation owner has the same
name and group ID.
6.1.3 About Oracle Installation Owner Accounts
Select or create an Oracle installation owner for your installation, depending on the
group and user management plan you want to use for your installations.
You must create a software owner for your installation in the following circumstances:
6-3
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Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system.
•
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to separate Oracle Grid
Infrastructure administrative privileges from Oracle Database administrative
privileges.
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle Grid Infrastructure
software installations is called the Grid user (grid). This user owns both the Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management binaries. A user created to
own either all Oracle installations, or one or more Oracle database installations, is
called the Oracle user (oracle). You can have only one Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation owner, but you can have different Oracle users to own different
installations.
Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group,
so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the central inventory
(oraInventory), and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are set
correctly. The database software owner must also have the OSDBA group and (if you
create them) the OSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA, OSRACDBA, and
OSKMDBA groups as secondary groups.
6.1.4 Restrictions for Oracle Software Installation Owners
Review the following restrictions for users created to own Oracle software.
•
If you intend to use multiple Oracle software owners for different Oracle Database
homes, then Oracle recommends that you create a separate software owner for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure software (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM), and use
that owner to run the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
•
During installation, SSH must be set up between cluster member nodes. SSH can
be set up automatically by Oracle Universal Installer (the installer). To enable SSH
to be set up automatically, create Oracle installation owners without any stty
commands in their profiles, and remove other security measures that are triggered
during a login that generate messages to the terminal. These messages, mail
checks, and other displays prevent Oracle software installation owner accounts
from using the SSH configuration script that is built into the installer. If they are not
disabled, then SSH must be configured manually before an installation can be run.
•
If you plan to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then Oracle recommends
that you create separate users for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and the Oracle
Database installations. If you use one installation owner, then when you want to
perform administration tasks, you must change the value for $ORACLE_HOME to
the instance you want to administer (Oracle ASM, in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home, or the database in the Oracle home), using command syntax such as the
following example, where /u01/app/12.2.0/grid is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid;
export ORACLE_HOME
•
If you try to administer an Oracle home or Grid home instance using sqlplus,
lsnrctl, or asmcmd commands while the environment variable $ORACLE_HOME is set
to a different Oracle home or Grid home path, then you encounter errors. For
example, when you start SRVCTL from a database home, $ORACLE_HOME should be
set to that database home, or SRVCTL fails. The exception is when you are using
6-4
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Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
SRVCTL in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. In that case, $ORACLE_HOME is
ignored, and the Oracle home environment variable does not affect SRVCTL
commands. In all other cases, you must change $ORACLE_HOME to the instance that
you want to administer.
•
•
To create separate Oracle software owners and separate operating system
privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, note that each of these
users must have the Oracle central inventory group (oraInventory group) as their
primary group. Members of this group are granted the OINSTALL system
privileges to write to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory) directory, and are
also granted permissions for various Oracle Clusterware resources, OCR keys,
directories in the Oracle Clusterware home to which DBAs need write access, and
other necessary privileges. Members of this group are also granted execute
permissions to start and stop Clusterware infrastructure resources and databases.
In Oracle documentation, this group is represented as oinstall in code examples.
Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory
oraInventory group, and they must have this group as their primary group, so that
all Oracle software installation owners share the same OINSTALL system
privileges. Oracle recommends that you do not have more than one central
inventory for Oracle installations. If an Oracle software owner has a different
central inventory group, then you may corrupt the central inventory.
6.1.5 Identifying an Oracle Software Owner User Account
You must create at least one software owner user account the first time you install
Oracle software on the system. Either use an existing Oracle software user account, or
create an Oracle software owner user account for your installation.
To use an existing user account, obtain the name of an existing Oracle installation
owner from your system administrator. Confirm that the existing owner is a member of
the Oracle Inventory group.
oinstalloinstall
$ grep "oinstall" /etc/group
oinstall:x:54321:grid,oracle
You can then use the ID command to verify that the Oracle installation owners you
intend to use have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group. For example:
$ id oracle
uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),54322(dba),
54323(oper),54324(backupdba),54325(dgdba),54326(kmdba),54327(asmdba),54330(racdba)
$ id grid
uid=54331(grid) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),54322(dba),
54327(asmdba),54328(asmoper),54329(asmadmin),54330(racdba)
For Oracle Restart installations, to successfully install Oracle Database, ensure that
the grid user is a member of the racdba group.
After you create operating system groups, create or modify Oracle user accounts in
accordance with your operating system authentication planning.
6.1.6 About the Oracle Base Directory for the Grid User
Review this information about creating the Oracle base directory on each cluster node.
6-5
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The Oracle base directory for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation is the location
where diagnostic and administrative logs, and other logs associated with Oracle ASM
and Oracle Clusterware are stored. For Oracle installations other than Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster, it is also the location under which an Oracle home is
placed.
However, in the case of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you must create a
different path, so that the path for Oracle bases remains available for other Oracle
installations.
For OUI to recognize the Oracle base path, it must be in the form u[00-99][00-99]/app,
and it must be writable by any member of the oraInventory (oinstall) group. The OFA
path for the Oracle base is u[00-99][00-99]/app/user, where user is the name of the
software installation owner. For example:
/u01/app/grid
6.1.7 About the Oracle Home Directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Software
Review this information about creating the Oracle home directory location on each
cluster node.
The Oracle home for Oracle Grid Infrastructure software (Grid home) should be
located in a path that is different from the Oracle home directory paths for any other
Oracle software. The Optimal Flexible Architecture guideline for a Grid home is to
create a path in the form /pm/v/u, where p is a string constant, m is a unique fixedlength key (typically a two-digit number), v is the version of the software, and u is the
installation owner of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software (grid user). During Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation, the path of the Grid home is changed to the
root user, so any other users are unable to read, write, or execute commands in that
path. For example, to create a Grid home in the standard mount point path format
u[00-99][00-99]/app/release/grid, where release is the release number of the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure software, create the following path:
/u01/app/12.2.0/grid
During installation, ownership of the entire path to the Grid home is changed to root (/
u01, /u01/app, /u01/app/12.2.0, /u01/app/12.2.0/grid). If you do not create a unique
path to the Grid home, then after the Grid install, you can encounter permission errors
for other installations, including any existing installations under the same path. To
avoid placing the application directory in the mount point under root ownership, you
can create and select paths such as the following for the Grid home:
/u01/12.2.0/grid
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Caution:
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installations, note the following
restrictions for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure binary home (Grid home directory
for Oracle Grid Infrastructure):
•
It must not be placed under one of the Oracle base directories, including
the Oracle base directory of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation
owner.
•
It must not be placed in the home directory of an installation owner. These
requirements are specific to Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
installations.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle Restart) can be
installed under the Oracle base for the Oracle Database installation.
6.1.8 About Creating the Oracle Home and Oracle Base Directory
Create Grid home and Oracle base home directories on each cluster node.
Oracle recommends that you create Oracle Grid Infrastructure Grid home and Oracle
base homes manually, particularly if you have separate Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster and Oracle Database software owners, so that you can separate log files for
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner in a separate Oracle base, and
prevent accidental placement of the Grid home under an Oracle base path. For
example:
#
#
#
#
#
#
mkdir
mkdir
mkdir
chown
chown
chmod
-p /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
-p /u01/app/grid
-p /u01/app/oracle
-R grid:oinstall /u01
oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
-R 775 /u01/
Note:
Placing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster binaries on a cluster file system
is not supported.
If you plan to install an Oracle RAC home on a shared OCFS2 location, then
you must upgrade OCFS2 to at least version 1.4.1, which supports shared
writable mmaps.
Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure locally, on each
cluster member node. Using a shared Grid home prevents rolling upgrades,
and creates a single point of failure for the cluster.
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Related Topics
•
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules are a set of configuration
guidelines created to ensure well-organized Oracle installations, which simplifies
administration, support and maintenance.
6.2 Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role
Separation Groups and Users
A job role separation configuration of Oracle Database and Oracle ASM is a
configuration with groups and users to provide separate groups for operating system
authentication.
Review the following sections to understand more about a Job Role Separation
deployment:
•
About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
Job role separation requires that you create different operating system groups for
each set of system privileges that you grant through operating system
authorization.
•
Standard Oracle Database Groups for Database Administrators
Oracle Database has two standard administration groups: OSDBA, which is
required, and OSOPER, which is optional.
•
Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and later releases provide an extended set
of database groups to grant task-specific system privileges for database
administration.
•
Creating an ASMSNMP User
The ASMSNMP user is an Oracle ASM user with privileges to monitor Oracle ASM
instances. You are prompted to provide a password for this user during
installation.
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation
Oracle Grid Infrastructure operating system groups provide their members taskspecific system privileges to access and to administer Oracle Automatic Storage
Management.
6.2.1 About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
Job role separation requires that you create different operating system groups for each
set of system privileges that you grant through operating system authorization.
With Oracle Grid Infrastructure job role separation, Oracle ASM has separate
operating system groups that provide operating system authorization for Oracle ASM
system privileges for storage tier administration. This operating system authorization is
separated from Oracle Database operating system authorization. In addition, the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner provides operating system user
authorization for modifications to Oracle Grid Infrastructure binaries.
With Oracle Database job role separation, each Oracle Database installation has
separate operating system groups to provide authorization for system privileges on
that Oracle Database. Multiple databases can, therefore, be installed on the cluster
without sharing operating system authorization for system privileges. In addition, each
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Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
Oracle software installation is owned by a separate installation owner, to provide
operating system user authorization for modifications to Oracle Database binaries.
Note that any Oracle software owner can start and stop all databases and shared
Oracle Grid Infrastructure resources such as Oracle ASM or Virtual IP (VIP). Job role
separation configuration enables database security, and does not restrict user roles in
starting and stopping various Oracle Clusterware resources.
You can choose to create one administrative user and one group for operating system
authentication for all system privileges on the storage and database tiers. For
example, you can designate the oracle user to be the installation owner for all Oracle
software, and designate oinstall to be the group whose members are granted all
system privileges for Oracle Clusterware; all system privileges for Oracle ASM; all
system privileges for all Oracle Databases on the servers; and all OINSTALL system
privileges for installation owners. This group must also be the Oracle Inventory group.
If you do not want to use role allocation groups, then Oracle strongly recommends that
you use at least two groups:
•
A system privileges group whose members are granted administrative system
privileges, including OSDBA, OSASM, and other system privileges groups.
•
An installation owner group (the oraInventory group) whose members are granted
Oracle installation owner system privileges (the OINSTALL system privilege).
Note:
To configure users for installation that are on a network directory service such
as Network Information Services (NIS), refer to your directory service
documentation.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
6.2.2 Standard Oracle Database Groups for Database Administrators
Oracle Database has two standard administration groups: OSDBA, which is required,
and OSOPER, which is optional.
•
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have
database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege).
If you do not create separate OSDBA, OSOPER, and OSASM groups for the
Oracle ASM instance, then operating system user accounts that have the SYSOPER
and SYSASM privileges must be members of this group. The name used for this
group in Oracle code examples is dba. If you do not designate a separate group as
the OSASM group, then the OSDBA group you define is also by default the
OSASM group.
•
The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)
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OSOPER grants the OPERATOR privilege to start up and shut down the database
(the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.
6.2.3 Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and later releases provide an extended set of
database groups to grant task-specific system privileges for database administration.
The extended set of Oracle Database system privileges groups are task-specific and
less privileged than the OSDBA/SYSDBA system privileges. They are designed to
provide privileges to carry out everyday database operations. Users granted these
system privileges are also authorized through operating system group membership.
You do not have to create these specific group names, but during interactive and silent
installation, you must assign operating system groups whose members are granted
access to these system privileges. You can assign the same group to provide
authorization for these privileges, but Oracle recommends that you provide a unique
group to designate each privilege.
The subset of OSDBA job role separation privileges and groups consist of the
following:
•
OSBACKUPDBA group for Oracle Database (typically, backupdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of database backup and recovery related administrative privileges
(the SYSBACKUP privilege).
•
OSDGDBA group for Oracle Data Guard (typically, dgdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of privileges to administer and monitor Oracle Data Guard (the
SYSDG privilege). To use this privilege, add the Oracle Database installation
owners as members of this group.
•
The OSKMDBA group for encryption key management (typically, kmdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of privileges for encryption key management such as Oracle Wallet
Manager management (the SYSKM privilege). To use this privilege, add the
Oracle Database installation owners as members of this group.
•
The OSRACDBA group for Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration
(typically, racdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) administrative privileges
(the SYSRAC privilege). To use this privilege:
–
Add the Oracle Database installation owners as members of this group.
–
For Oracle Restart configurations, if you have a separate Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation owner user (grid), then you must also add the grid
user as a member of the OSRACDBA group of the database to enable Oracle
Grid Infrastructure components to connect to the database.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
•
Oracle Database Security Guide
6-10
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Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
6.2.4 Creating an ASMSNMP User
The ASMSNMP user is an Oracle ASM user with privileges to monitor Oracle ASM
instances. You are prompted to provide a password for this user during installation.
In addition to the OSASM group, whose members are granted the SYSASM system
privilege to administer Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you create a less
privileged user, ASMSNMP, and grant that user SYSDBA privileges to monitor the
Oracle ASM instance. Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the ASMSNMP user to monitor
Oracle ASM status.
During installation, you are prompted to provide a password for the ASMSNMP user.
You can create an operating system authenticated user, or you can create an Oracle
Database user called asmsnmp. In either case, grant the user SYSDBA privileges.
6.2.5 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role
Separation
Oracle Grid Infrastructure operating system groups provide their members taskspecific system privileges to access and to administer Oracle Automatic Storage
Management.
•
The OSASM group for Oracle ASM Administration (typically, asmadmin)
Create this group as a separate group to separate administration privileges groups
for Oracle ASM and Oracle Database administrators. Members of this group are
granted the SYSASM system privileges to administer Oracle ASM. In Oracle
documentation, the operating system group whose members are granted
privileges is called the OSASM group, and in code examples, where there is a
group specifically created to grant this privilege, it is referred to as asmadmin.
Oracle ASM can support multiple databases. If you have multiple databases on
your system, and use multiple OSDBA groups so that you can provide separate
SYSDBA privileges for each database, then you should create a group whose
members are granted the OSASM/SYSASM administrative privileges, and create
a grid infrastructure user (grid) that does not own a database installation, so that
you separate Oracle Grid Infrastructure SYSASM administrative privileges from a
database administrative privileges group.
Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM
instance as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM
privileges permit mounting and dismounting disk groups, and other storage
administration tasks. SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an
RDBMS instance.
If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, but you do define
an OSDBA group for database administration, then by default the OSDBA group
you define is also defined as the OSASM group.
•
The OSOPER group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmoper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle instance administrative
privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping
the Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.
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Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
6.3 Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
The following sections describe how to create operating system groups for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database:
•
Creating the OSASM Group
If the OSASM group does not exist, or if you require a new OSASM group, then
create it.
•
Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group
You must designate a group as the OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) group during
installation. Members of this group are granted access privileges to Oracle
Automatic Storage Management.
•
Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group
You can choose to designate a group as the OSOPER for ASM group (asmoper)
during installation. Members of this group are granted startup and shutdown
privileges to Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
•
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
Each Oracle Database requires an operating system group to be designated as
the OSDBA group. Members of this group are granted the SYSDBA system
privileges to administer the database.
•
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system
users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator
privileges).
•
Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSBACKUPDBA group during installation.
Members of this group are granted the SYSBACKUP privileges to perform backup
and recovery operations using RMAN or SQL*Plus.
•
Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSDGDBA group during installation. Members
of this group are granted the SYSDG privileges to perform Data Guard operations.
•
Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSKMDBA group during installation. Members
of this group are granted the SYSKM privileges to perform Transparent Data
Encryption keystore operations.
•
Creating the OSRACDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSRACDBA group during database
installation. Members of this group are granted the SYSRAC privileges to perform
day–to–day administration of Oracle databases on an Oracle RAC cluster.
6.3.1 Creating the OSASM Group
If the OSASM group does not exist, or if you require a new OSASM group, then create
it.
Use the group name asmadmin unless a group with that name already exists. For
example:
# groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin
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6.3.2 Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group
You must designate a group as the OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) group during installation.
Members of this group are granted access privileges to Oracle Automatic Storage
Management.
Create an OSDBA for ASM group using the group name asmdba unless a group with
that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
6.3.3 Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group
You can choose to designate a group as the OSOPER for ASM group (asmoper) during
installation. Members of this group are granted startup and shutdown privileges to
Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
If you want to create an OSOPER for ASM group, use the group name asmoper unless
a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
6.3.4 Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
Each Oracle Database requires an operating system group to be designated as the
OSDBA group. Members of this group are granted the SYSDBA system privileges to
administer the database.
You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
•
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
•
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database
installation
Create the OSDBA group using the group name dba, unless a group with that name
already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54322 dba
6.3.5 Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system
users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator
privileges).
For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. However, to use
an OSOPER group, create it in the following circumstances:
•
If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
•
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
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Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
If the OSOPER group does not exist, or if you require a new OSOPER group, then
create it. Use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists. For
example:
# groupadd -g 54323 oper
6.3.6 Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSBACKUPDBA group during installation.
Members of this group are granted the SYSBACKUP privileges to perform backup and
recovery operations using RMAN or SQL*Plus.
Create the OSBACKUPDBA group using the group name backupdba, unless a group
with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54324 backupdba
6.3.7 Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSDGDBA group during installation. Members of
this group are granted the SYSDG privileges to perform Data Guard operations.
Create the OSDGDBA group using the group name dgdba, unless a group with that
name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54325 dgdba
6.3.8 Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSKMDBA group during installation. Members of
this group are granted the SYSKM privileges to perform Transparent Data Encryption
keystore operations.
If you want a separate group for Transparent Data Encryption, then create the
OSKMDBA group using the groups name kmdba unless a group with that name already
exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54326 kmdba
6.3.9 Creating the OSRACDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSRACDBA group during database installation.
Members of this group are granted the SYSRAC privileges to perform day–to–day
administration of Oracle databases on an Oracle RAC cluster.
Create the OSRACDBA group using the groups name racdba unless a group with that
name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54330 racdba
6.4 Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User
Accounts
Before starting installation, create Oracle software owner user accounts, and configure
their environments.
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Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
Oracle software owner user accounts require resource settings and other environment
configuration. To protect against accidents, Oracle recommends that you create one
software installation owner account for each Oracle software program you install.
•
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
If the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) does not exist, or if you require a
new Oracle software owner user, then create it as described in this section.
•
Modifying Oracle Owner User Groups
If you have created an Oracle software installation owner account, but it is not a
member of the groups you want to designate as the OSDBA, OSOPER, OSDBA
for ASM, ASMADMIN, or other system privileges group, then modify the group
settings for that user before installation.
•
Identifying Existing User and Group IDs
To create identical users and groups, you must identify the user ID and group IDs
assigned them on the node where you created them, and then create the user and
groups with the same name and ID on the other cluster nodes.
•
Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
Oracle software owner users and the Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER
groups must exist and be identical on all cluster nodes.
•
Example of Creating Minimal Groups, Users, and Paths
You can create a minimal operating system authentication configuration as
described in this example.
•
Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths
Understand this example of how to create role-allocated groups and users that is
compliant with an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) deployment.
6.4.1 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
If the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) does not exist, or if you require a
new Oracle software owner user, then create it as described in this section.
The following example shows how to create the user oracle with the user ID 54321;
with the primary group oinstall; and with secondary groups dba, asmdba, backupdba,
dgdba, kmdba, and racdba:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,backupdba,dgdba,kmdba,racdba
oracle
You must note the user ID number for installation users, because you need it during
preinstallation.
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations, user IDs and group IDs must be identical
on all candidate nodes.
6.4.2 Modifying Oracle Owner User Groups
If you have created an Oracle software installation owner account, but it is not a
member of the groups you want to designate as the OSDBA, OSOPER, OSDBA for
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Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
ASM, ASMADMIN, or other system privileges group, then modify the group settings for
that user before installation.
Warning:
Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory
group. Do not modify the primary group of an existing Oracle software owner
account, or designate different groups as the OINSTALL group. If Oracle
software owner accounts have different groups as their primary group, then you
can corrupt the central inventory.
During installation, the user that is installing the software should have the OINSTALL
group as its primary group, and it must be a member of the operating system groups
appropriate for your installation. For example:
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,backupdba,dgdba,kmdba,racdba[,oper]
oracle
6.4.3 Identifying Existing User and Group IDs
To create identical users and groups, you must identify the user ID and group IDs
assigned them on the node where you created them, and then create the user and
groups with the same name and ID on the other cluster nodes.
1.
Enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine a user ID for
the oracle user):
# id oracle
The output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=54321(oracle) gid=54421(oinstall) groups=54322(dba),54323(oper),54327(asmdba)
2.
From the output, identify the user ID (uid) for the user and the group identities
(gids) for the groups to which it belongs.
Ensure that these ID numbers are identical on each node of the cluster. The user's
primary group is listed after gid. Secondary groups are listed after groups.
6.4.4 Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster
Nodes
Oracle software owner users and the Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER groups
must exist and be identical on all cluster nodes.
To create users and groups on the other cluster nodes, repeat the following procedure
on each node:
You must complete the following procedures only if you are using local users and
groups. If you are using users and groups defined in a directory service such as NIS,
then they are already identical on each cluster node.
1.
Log in to the node as root.
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2.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the asmadmin, asmdba, backupdba,
dgdba, kmdba, asmoper, racdba, and oper groups, and if not configured by the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM or prior installations, then the oinstall and dba groups.
Use the -g option to specify the correct group ID for each group.
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
54421
54322
54323
54324
54325
54326
54327
54328
54329
54330
oinstall
dba
oper
backupdba
dgdba
kmdba
asmdba
asmoper
asmadmin
racdba
Note:
You are not required to use the UIDs and GIDs in this example. If a group
already exists, then use the groupmod command to modify it if necessary. If
you cannot use the same group ID for a particular group on a node, then
view the /etc/group file on all nodes to identify a group ID that is available
on every node. You must then change the group ID on all nodes to the
same group ID.
3.
To create the Oracle Grid Infrastructure (grid) user, enter a command similar to
the following:
# useradd -u 54322 -g oinstall -G asmadmin,asmdba,racdba grid
•
The -u option specifies the user ID, which must be the user ID that you
identified earlier.
•
The -g option specifies the primary group for the Grid user, which must be the
Oracle Inventory group (OINSTALL), which grants the OINSTALL system
privileges. In this example, the OINSTALL group is oinstall.
•
The -G option specifies the secondary groups. The Grid user must be a
member of the OSASM group (asmadmin) and the OSDBA for ASM group
(asmdba).
Note:
If the user already exists, then use the usermod command to modify it if
necessary. If you cannot use the same user ID for the user on every node,
then view the /etc/passwd file on all nodes to identify a user ID that is
available on every node. You must then specify that ID for the user on all of
the nodes.
4.
Set the password of the user.
For example:
# passwd grid
5.
Complete user environment configuration tasks for each user.
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6.4.5 Example of Creating Minimal Groups, Users, and Paths
You can create a minimal operating system authentication configuration as described
in this example.
This configuration example shows the following:
•
Creation of the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall)
•
Creation of a single group (dba) as the only system privileges group to assign for
all Oracle Grid Infrastructure, Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database system privileges
•
Creation of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner (grid), and one Oracle
Database owner (oracle) with correct group memberships
•
Creation and configuration of an Oracle base path compliant with OFA structure
with correct permissions
Enter the following commands to create a minimal operating system authentication
configuration:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
groupadd -g 54421 oinstall
groupadd -g 54422 dba
useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba oracle
useradd -u 54322 -g oinstall -G dba grid
mkdir -p /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
mkdir -p /u01/app/grid
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
chmod -R 775 /u01/
After running these commands, you have the following groups and users:
•
An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall). Members who
have the central inventory group as their primary group, are granted the
OINSTALL permission to write to the oraInventory directory.
•
One system privileges group, dba, for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, Oracle ASM and
Oracle Database system privileges. Members who have the dba group as their
primary or secondary group are granted operating system authentication for
OSASM/SYSASM, OSDBA/SYSDBA, OSOPER/SYSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA/
SYSBACKUP, OSDGDBA/SYSDG, OSKMDBA/SYSKM, OSDBA for ASM/
SYSDBA for ASM, and OSOPER for ASM/SYSOPER for Oracle ASM to
administer Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database, and are
granted SYSASM and OSOPER for Oracle ASM access to the Oracle ASM
storage.
•
An Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster owner, or Grid user (grid), with the
oraInventory group (oinstall) as its primary group, and with the OSASM group
(dba) as the secondary group, with its Oracle base directory /u01/app/grid.
•
An Oracle Database owner (oracle) with the oraInventory group (oinstall) as its
primary group, and the OSDBA group (dba) as its secondary group, with its Oracle
base directory /u01/app/oracle.
•
/u01/app owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions before installation, and by
root after the root.sh script is run during installation. This ownership and
permissions enables OUI to create the Oracle Inventory directory, in the
path /u01/app/oraInventory.
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•
/u01 owned by grid:oinstall before installation, and by root after the root.sh script
is run during installation.
•
/u01/app/12.2.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions. These
permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation
process.
•
/u01/app/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions. These permissions
are required for installation, and are changed during the installation process.
•
/u01/app/oracle owned by oracle:oinstall with 775 permissions.
Note:
You can use one installation owner for both Oracle Grid Infrastructure and any
other Oracle installations. However, Oracle recommends that you use separate
installation owner accounts for each Oracle software installation.
6.4.6 Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths
Understand this example of how to create role-allocated groups and users that is
compliant with an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) deployment.
This example illustrates the following scenario:
•
An Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation
•
Two separate Oracle Database installations planned for the cluster, DB1 and DB2
•
Separate installation owners for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and for each Oracle
Database
•
Full role allocation of system privileges for Oracle ASM, and for each Oracle
Database
•
Oracle Database owner oracle1 granted the right to start up and shut down the
Oracle ASM instance
Create groups and users for a role-allocated configuration for this scenario using the
following commands:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
groupadd -g 54322 dba1
groupadd -g 54332 dba2
groupadd -g 54323 oper1
groupadd -g 54333 oper2
groupadd -g 54324 backupdba1
groupadd -g 54334 backupdba2
groupadd -g 54325 dgdba1
groupadd -g 54335 dgdba2
groupadd -g 54326 kmdba1
groupadd -g 54336 kmdba2
groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin
groupadd -g 54330 racdba1
groupadd -g 54340 racdba2
useradd -u 54322 -g oinstall -G asmadmin,asmdba,racdba1,racdba2 grid
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# useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G
dba1,backupdba1,dgdba1,kmdba1,asmdba,racdba1,asmoper oracle1
# useradd -u 54323 -g oinstall -G dba2,backupdba2,dgdba2,kmdba2,asmdba,racdba2
oracle2
# mkdir -p /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle1
# mkdir -p u01/app/oracle2
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
# chmod -R 775 /u01/
# chown oracle1:oinstall /u01/app/oracle1
# chown oracle2:oinstall /u01/app/oracle2
After running these commands, you have a set of administrative privileges groups and
users for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and for two separate Oracle databases (DB1 and
DB2):
Example 6-1
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups and Users Example
The command creates the following Oracle Grid Infrastructure groups and users:
•
An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall), whose
members that have this group as their primary group. Members of this group are
granted the OINSTALL system privileges, which grants permissions to write to the
oraInventory directory, and other associated install binary privileges.
•
An OSASM group (asmadmin), associated with Oracle Grid Infrastructure during
installation, whose members are granted the SYSASM privileges to administer
Oracle ASM.
•
An OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba), associated with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
storage during installation. Its members include grid and any database installation
owners, such as oracle1 and oracle2, who are granted access to Oracle ASM. Any
additional installation owners that use Oracle ASM for storage must also be made
members of this group.
•
An OSOPER for ASM group for Oracle ASM (asmoper), associated with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure during installation. Members of asmoper group are granted limited
Oracle ASM administrator privileges, including the permissions to start and stop
the Oracle ASM instance.
•
An Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner (grid), with the oraInventory group
(oinstall) as its primary group, and with the OSASM (asmadmin) group and the
OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) group as secondary groups.
•
/u01/app/oraInventory. The central inventory of Oracle installations on the cluster.
This path remains owned by grid:oinstall, to enable other Oracle software
owners to write to the central inventory.
•
An OFA-compliant mount point /u01 owned by grid:oinstall before installation, so
that Oracle Universal Installer can write to that path.
•
An Oracle base for the grid installation owner /u01/app/grid owned by
grid:oinstall with 775 permissions, and changed during the installation process
to 755 permissions.
•
A Grid home /u01/app/12.1.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 (drwxdrwxr-x)
permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and are changed
during the installation process to root:oinstall with 755 permissions (drwxr-xr-x).
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Example 6-2
Oracle Database DB1 Groups and Users Example
The command creates the following Oracle Database (DB1) groups and users:
•
An Oracle Database software owner (oracle1), which owns the Oracle Database
binaries for DB1. The oracle1 user has the oraInventory group as its primary
group, and the OSDBA group for its database (dba1) and the OSDBA for ASM
group for Oracle Grid Infrastructure (asmdba) as secondary groups. In addition, the
oracle1 user is a member of asmoper, granting that user privileges to start up and
shut down Oracle ASM.
•
An OSDBA group (dba1). During installation, you identify the group dba1 as the
OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of dba1 are
granted the SYSDBA privileges for the Oracle Database DB1. Users who connect
as SYSDBA are identified as user SYS on DB1.
•
An OSBACKUPDBA group (backupdba1). During installation, you identify the group
backupdba1 as the OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1.
Members of backupdba1 are granted the SYSBACKUP privileges for the database
installed by the user oracle1 to back up the database.
•
An OSDGDBA group (dgdba1). During installation, you identify the group dgdba1 as
the OSDGDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of
dgdba1 are granted the SYSDG privileges to administer Oracle Data Guard for the
database installed by the user oracle1.
•
An OSKMDBA group (kmdba1). During installation, you identify the group kmdba1 as
the OSKMDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of
kmdba1 are granted the SYSKM privileges to administer encryption keys for the
database installed by the user oracle1.
•
An OSOPER group (oper1). During installation, you identify the group oper1 as the
OSOPER group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of oper1
are granted the SYSOPER privileges (a limited set of the SYSDBA privileges),
including the right to start up and shut down the DB1 database. Users who
connect as OSOPER privileges are identified as user PUBLIC on DB1.
•
An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle1 owned by oracle1:oinstall with 775
permissions. The user oracle1 has permissions to install software in this directory,
but in no other directory in the /u01/app path.
Example 6-3
Oracle Database DB2 Groups and Users Example
The command creates the following Oracle Database (DB2) groups and users:
•
An Oracle Database software owner (oracle2), which owns the Oracle Database
binaries for DB2. The oracle2 user has the oraInventory group as its primary
group, and the OSDBA group for its database (dba2) and the OSDBA for ASM
group for Oracle Grid Infrastructure (asmdba) as secondary groups. However, the
oracle2 user is not a member of the asmoper group, so oracle2 cannot shut down or
start up Oracle ASM.
•
An OSDBA group (dba2). During installation, you identify the group dba2 as the
OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of dba2 are
granted the SYSDBA privileges for the Oracle Database DB2. Users who connect
as SYSDBA are identified as user SYS on DB2.
•
An OSBACKUPDBA group (backupdba2). During installation, you identify the group
backupdba2 as the OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2.
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Members of backupdba2 are granted the SYSBACKUP privileges for the database
installed by the user oracle2 to back up the database.
•
An OSDGDBA group (dgdba2). During installation, you identify the group dgdba2 as
the OSDGDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of
dgdba2 are granted the SYSDG privileges to administer Oracle Data Guard for the
database installed by the user oracle2.
•
An OSKMDBA group (kmdba2). During installation, you identify the group kmdba2 as
the OSKMDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of
kmdba2 are granted the SYSKM privileges to administer encryption keys for the
database installed by the user oracle2.
•
An OSOPER group (oper2). During installation, you identify the group oper2 as the
OSOPER group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of oper2
are granted the SYSOPER privileges (a limited set of the SYSDBA privileges),
including the right to start up and shut down the DB2 database. Users who
connect as OSOPER privileges are identified as user PUBLIC on DB2.
•
An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle2 owned by oracle1:oinstall with 775
permissions. The user oracle2 has permissions to install software in this directory,
but in no other directory in the /u01/app path.
6.5 Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User
Environments
Understand the software owner user environments to configure before installing
Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
You run the installer software with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner
user account (oracle or grid). However, before you start the installer, you must
configure the environment of the installation owner user account. If needed, you must
also create other required Oracle software owners.
•
Environment Requirements for Oracle Software Owners
You must make the following changes to configure Oracle software owner
environments:
•
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
Configure each Oracle installation owner user account environment:
•
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
For each installation software owner user account, check the resource limits for
installation.
•
Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
If you are on a remote terminal, and the local system has only one visual (which is
typical), then use the following syntax to set your user account DISPLAY
environment variable:
•
Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands
and copy files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the
system (for example, .bashrc or .cshrc) can cause makefile and other installation
errors if they contain terminal output commands.
6-22
Chapter 6
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
6.5.1 Environment Requirements for Oracle Software Owners
You must make the following changes to configure Oracle software owner
environments:
•
Set the installation software owner user (grid, oracle) default file mode creation
mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that
the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.
•
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the installation software
owner (grid, oracle).
•
Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for running an Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI) installation.
Caution:
If you have existing Oracle installations that you installed with the user ID that
is your Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner, then unset all Oracle
environment variable settings for that user.
6.5.2 Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
Configure each Oracle installation owner user account environment:
1.
Start an X terminal session (xterm) on the server where you are running the
installation.
2.
Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on
this system, where hostname is the fully qualified name of the local host from
which you are accessing the server:
$ xhost + hostname
3.
If you are not logged in as the software owner user, then switch to the software
owner user you are configuring. For example, with the user grid:
$ su - grid
On systems where you cannot run su commands, use sudo instead:
$ sudo -u grid -s
4.
To determine the default shell for the user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
5.
Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:
•
Bash shell (bash):
$ vi .bash_profile
•
Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):
$ vi .profile
•
C shell (csh or tcsh):
6-23
Chapter 6
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
% vi .login
6.
Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode
creation mask:
umask 022
7.
If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variables are set in the
file, then remove these lines from the file.
8.
Save the file, and exit from the text editor.
9.
To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
•
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
•
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
•
C shell:
% source ./.login
10. Use the following command to check the PATH environment variable:
$ echo $PATH
Remove any Oracle environment variables.
11. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command
similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:
•
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0
•
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your
workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.
12. If the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free space, then identify a file system
with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables
to specify a temporary directory on this file system:
Note:
You cannot use a shared file system as the location of the temporary file
directory (typically /tmp) for Oracle RAC installations. If you place /tmp on a
shared file system, then the installation fails.
a.
Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free
space.
b.
If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
6-24
Chapter 6
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
$
#
#
#
c.
sudo - s
mkdir /mount_point/tmp
chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
exit
Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment
variables:
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TMP TMPDIR
C shell:
% setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
13. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following
commands:
$ umask
$ env | more
Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the
environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.
6.5.3 Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
For each installation software owner user account, check the resource limits for
installation.
On Oracle Linux systems, Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Preinstallation
RPMs to meet preinstallation requirements like configuring your operating system to
set the resource limits in the limits.conf file. Oracle Preinstallation RPM only
configures the limits.conf file for the oracle user. If you are implementing Oracle
Grid Infrastructure job role separation, then copy the values from the oracle user to the
grid user in the limits.conf file.
Use the following ranges as guidelines for resource allocation to Oracle installation
owners:
Table 6-1
Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges
Resource Shell Limit
Resource
Soft Limit
Hard Limit
Open file descriptors
nofile
at least 1024
at least 65536
Number of processes
available to a single user
nproc
at least 2047
at least 16384
Size of the stack segment stack
of the process
at least 10240 KB
at least 10240 KB, and at
most 32768 KB
Maximum locked memory memlock
limit
at least 90 percent of the
current RAM when
HugePages memory is
enabled and at least
3145728 KB (3 GB) when
HugePages memory is
disabled
at least 90 percent of the
current RAM when
HugePages memory is
enabled and at least
3145728 KB (3 GB) when
HugePages memory is
disabled
6-25
Chapter 6
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
To check resource limits:
1.
Log in as an installation owner.
2.
Check the soft and hard limits for the file descriptor setting. Ensure that the result
is in the recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Sn
1024
$ ulimit -Hn
65536
3.
Check the soft and hard limits for the number of processes available to a user.
Ensure that the result is in the recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Su
2047
$ ulimit -Hu
16384
4.
Check the soft limit for the stack setting. Ensure that the result is in the
recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Ss
10240
$ ulimit -Hs
32768
5.
Repeat this procedure for each Oracle software installation owner.
If necessary, update the resource limits in the /etc/security/limits.conf
configuration file for the installation owner. However, the configuration file may be
distribution specific. Contact your system administrator for distribution specific
configuration file information.
Note:
If you make changes to an Oracle installation user account and that user
account is logged in, then changes to the limits.conf file do not take effect until
you log these users out and log them back in. You must do this before you use
these accounts for installation.
6.5.4 Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
If you are on a remote terminal, and the local system has only one visual (which is
typical), then use the following syntax to set your user account DISPLAY environment
variable:
Remote Display
Bourne, Korn, and Bash shells
$ export DISPLAY=hostname:0
C shell
$ setenv DISPLAY hostname:0
6-26
Chapter 6
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
For example, if you are using the Bash shell and if your host name is local_host, then
enter the following command:
$ export DISPLAY=node1:0
X11 Forwarding
To ensure that X11 forwarding does not cause the installation to fail, use the following
procedure to create a user-level SSH client configuration file for Oracle installation
owner user accounts:
1.
Using any text editor, edit or create the software installation owner's ~/.ssh/config
file.
2.
Ensure that the ForwardX11 attribute in the ~/.ssh/config file is set to no. For
example:
Host *
ForwardX11 no
3.
Ensure that the permissions on ~/.ssh are secured to the Oracle installation owner
user account. For example:
$ ls -al .ssh
total 28
drwx------ 2
drwx------ 19
-rw-r--r-- 1
-rwx------ 1
-rwx------ 1
-rwx------ 1
grid
grid
grid
grid
grid
grid
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
4096
4096
1202
668
601
1610
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
21
21
21
21
21
21
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
authorized_keys
id_dsa
id_dsa.pub
known_hosts
6.5.5 Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output
Commands
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands and
copy files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the system (for
example, .bashrc or .cshrc) can cause makefile and other installation errors if they
contain terminal output commands.
To avoid this problem, you must modify hidden files in each Oracle installation owner
user home directory to suppress all output on STDOUT or STDERR (for example, stty,
xtitle, and other such commands) as in the following examples:
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
if [ -t 0 ]; then
stty intr ^C
fi
C shell:
test -t 0
if ($status == 0) then
stty intr ^C
endif
6-27
Chapter 6
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
Note:
If the remote shell can load hidden files that contain stty commands, then OUI
indicates an error and stops the installation.
6.6 Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface
(IPMI)
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) provides a set of common interfaces
to computer hardware and firmware that system administrators can use to monitor
system health and manage the system.
Oracle Clusterware can integrate IPMI to provide failure isolation support and to
ensure cluster integrity. You can configure node-termination with IPMI during
installation by selecting IPMI from the Failure Isolation Support screen. You can also
configure IPMI after installation with crsctl commands.
•
Requirements for Enabling IPMI
You must have the following hardware and software configured to enable cluster
nodes to be managed with IPMI:
•
Configuring the IPMI Management Network
You can configure the BMC for DHCP, or for static IP addresses. Oracle
recommends that you configure the BMC for dynamic IP address assignment
using DHCP. To use this option, you must have a DHCP server configured to
assign the BMC IP addresses.
•
Configuring the Open IPMI Driver
On Linux systems, the OpenIPMI driver is the supported driver for Oracle
Clusterware deployments with IPMI. You can install and configure the driver
dynamically by manually loading the required modules.
•
Configuring the BMC
Configure BMC on each node for remote control using LAN for IPMI-based node
fencing to function properly.
•
Example of BMC Configuration Using IPMItool
The following is an example of configuring BMC using ipmitool (version 1.8.6).
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about
how to configure IPMI after installation.
6.6.1 Requirements for Enabling IPMI
You must have the following hardware and software configured to enable cluster
nodes to be managed with IPMI:
6-28
Chapter 6
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
•
Each cluster member node requires a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC)
running firmware compatible with IPMI version 1.5 or greater, which supports IPMI
over LANs, and configured for remote control using LAN.
•
The cluster requires a management network for IPMI. This can be a shared
network, but Oracle recommends that you configure a dedicated network.
•
Each cluster member node's port used by BMC must be connected to the IPMI
management network.
•
Each cluster member must be connected to the management network.
•
Some server platforms put their network interfaces into a power saving mode
when they are powered off. In this case, they may operate only at a lower link
speed (for example, 100 MB, instead of 1 GB). For these platforms, the network
switch port to which the BMC is connected must be able to auto-negotiate down to
the lower speed, or IPMI will not function properly.
Note:
IPMI operates on the physical hardware platform through the network interface
of the baseboard management controller (BMC). Depending on your system
configuration, an IPMI-initiated restart of a server can affect all virtual
environments hosted on the server. Contact your hardware and OS vendor for
more information.
6.6.2 Configuring the IPMI Management Network
You can configure the BMC for DHCP, or for static IP addresses. Oracle recommends
that you configure the BMC for dynamic IP address assignment using DHCP. To use
this option, you must have a DHCP server configured to assign the BMC IP
addresses.
For Oracle Clusterware to communicate with the BMC, the IPMI driver must be
installed permanently on each node, so that it is available on system restarts. The
IPMI driver is available on the Asianux Linux, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server distributions supported with this release.
Configuring the BMC with dynamic addresses (DHCP) is not supported on HP-UX and
AIX platforms.
Note:
If you configure IPMI, and you use Grid Naming Service (GNS) you still must
configure separate addresses for the IPMI interfaces. As the IPMI adapter is
not seen directly by the host, the IPMI adapter is not visible to GNS as an
address on the host.
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Chapter 6
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
6.6.3 Configuring the Open IPMI Driver
On Linux systems, the OpenIPMI driver is the supported driver for Oracle Clusterware
deployments with IPMI. You can install and configure the driver dynamically by
manually loading the required modules.
Contact your Linux distribution vendor for information about how to configure IPMI for
your distribution. Configure the Open IPMI driver manually on Oracle Linux as follows:
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Run the following commands:
# /sbin/modprobe ipmi_msghandler
# /sbin/modprobe ipmi_si
# /sbin/modprobe ipmi_devintf
3.
(Optional) Run the command /sbin/lsmod |grep ipmi to confirm that the IPMI
modules are loaded. For example:
# /sbin/lsmod | grep ipmi
ipmi_devintf 12617 0
ipmi_si 33377 0
ipmi_msghandler 33701 2
ipmi_devintf,ipmi_si
You can install the modules whether or not a BMC is present.
4.
Open the /etc/rc.local file using a text editor, navigate to the end of the file, and
enter lines similar to the following, to run the modprobe commands in step 2
automatically on system restart:
# START IPMI ON SYSTEM RESTART
/sbin/modprobe ipmi_msghandler
/sbin/modprobe ipmi_si
/sbin/modprobe ipmi_devintf
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, add the modprobe commands above
to /etc/init.d/boot.local.
5.
Check to ensure that the Linux system is recognizing the IPMI device, using the
following command:
ls -l /dev/ipmi0
If the IPMI device is dynamically loaded, then the output must be similar to the
following:
# ls -l /dev/ipmi0 crw------- 1 root root 253, 0 Sep 23 06:29 /dev/ipmi0
If you do see the device file output, then the IPMI driver is configured, and you can
ignore the following step.
If you do not see the device file output, then the udevd daemon is not set up to
create device files automatically. Proceed to the next step.
6.
Determine the device major number for the IPMI device using the command grep
ipmi /proc/devices. For example:
# grep ipmi /proc/devices 253 ipmidev
The device major number is 253.
6-30
Chapter 6
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
7.
Run the mknod command to create a directory entry and i-node for the IPMI device,
using the device major number. For example:
# mknod /dev/ipmi0 c 253 0x0
The permissions on /dev/ipmi0 in the example allow the device to be accessible
only by root. The device should only be accessed by root, to prevent a system
vulnerability.
6.6.4 Configuring the BMC
Configure BMC on each node for remote control using LAN for IPMI-based node
fencing to function properly.
You can configure BMC from the BIOS prompt, using a distribution-specific
management utility, or you can configure BMC using publicly available utilities, such as
the following:
IPMItool, which is available for Linux:
http://ipmitool.sourceforge.net
IPMIutil, which is available for Linux and Windows:
http://ipmiutil.sourceforge.net
Refer to the documentation for the configuration tool you select for details about using
the tool to configure the BMC.
When you configure the BMC on each node, you must complete the following:
1.
Enable IPMI over LAN, so that the BMC can be controlled over the management
network.
2.
Enable dynamic IP addressing using DHCP or GNS, or configure a static IP
address for the BMC.
3.
Establish an administrator user account and password for the BMC.
4.
Configure the BMC for VLAN tags, if you will use the BMC on a tagged VLAN.
The configuration tool you use does not matter, but these conditions must be met for
the BMC to function properly.
6.6.5 Example of BMC Configuration Using IPMItool
The following is an example of configuring BMC using ipmitool (version 1.8.6).
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Verify that ipmitool can communicate with the BMC using the IPMI driver by using
the command bmc info, and looking for a device ID in the output. For example:
# ipmitool bmc info
Device ID
.
.
.
: 32
If ipmitool is not communicating with the BMC, then review the section
“Configuring the BMC” and ensure that the IPMI driver is running.
3.
Enable IPMI over LAN using the following procedure
6-31
Chapter 6
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
a.
Determine the channel number for the channel used for IPMI over LAN.
Beginning with channel 1, run the following command until you find the
channel that displays LAN attributes (for example, the IP address):
# ipmitool lan print 1
. . .
IP Address Source
IP Address
. . .
b.
: 0x01
: 140.87.155.89
Turn on LAN access for the channel found. For example, where the channel is
1:
# ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 access on
4.
Configure IP address settings for IPMI using the static IP addressing procedure:
•
Using static IP Addressing
If the BMC shares a network connection with ILOM, then the IP address must
be on the same subnet. You must set not only the IP address, but also the
proper values for netmask, and the default gateway. For example, assuming
the channel is 1:
# ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 ipaddr 192.168.0.55
# ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 netmask 255.255.255.0
# ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 defgw ipaddr 192.168.0.1
Note that the specified address (192.168.0.55) is associated only with the
BMC, and does not respond to normal pings.
5.
Establish an administration account with a username and password, using the
following procedure (assuming the channel is 1):
a.
Set BMC to require password authentication for ADMIN access over LAN. For
example:
# ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 auth ADMIN MD5,PASSWORD
b.
List the account slots on the BMC, and identify an unused slot less than the
maximum ID and not listed, for example, ID 4 in the following example. Note
that some slots may be reserved and not available for reuse on some
hardware.
# ipmitool user summary 1
Maximum IDs
: 20
Enabled User Count : 3
Fixed Name Count
: 2
# ipmitool user list 1
ID Name
Enabled Callin
1
true
false
2 root
true
false
3 sysoper true
true
12 default true
true
13
true
false
Link Auth
false
false
false
false
true
IPMI Msg
true
true
true
true
false
Channel Priv Lim
USER
ADMINISTRATOR
OPERATOR
NO ACCESS
CALLBACK
In the example above, there are 20 possible slots, and the first unused slot is
number 4.
c.
Assign the desired administrator user name and password and enable
messaging for the identified slot. (Note that for IPMI v1.5 the user name and
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Chapter 6
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
password can be at most 16 characters). Also, set the privilege level for that
slot when accessed over LAN (channel 1) to ADMIN (level 4). For example,
where username is the administrative user name, and password is the password:
#
#
#
#
#
#
d.
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
user set name 4 username
user set password 4 password
user enable 4
channel setaccess 1 4 privilege=4
channel setaccess 1 4 link=on
channel setaccess 1 4 ipmi=on
Verify the setup using the command lan print 1. The output should appear
similar to the following. Note that the items in bold text are the settings made
in the preceding configuration steps, and comments or alternative options are
indicated within brackets []:
# ipmitool lan print 1
Set in Progress
Auth Type Support
Auth Type Enable
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Set Complete
NONE MD2 MD5 PASSWORD
Callback : MD2 MD5
User
: MD2 MD5
Operator : MD2 MD5
Admin
: MD5 PASSWORD
OEM
: MD2 MD5
DHCP Address [or Static Address]
192.168.0.55
255.255.255.0
00:14:22:23:fa:f9
public
TTL=0x40 Flags=0x40 Precedence=…
192.168.0.1
00:00:00:00:00:00
IP Address Source
IP Address
Subnet Mask
MAC Address
SNMP Community String
IP Header
Default Gateway IP
Default Gateway MAC
.
.
.
# ipmitool channel getaccess 1 4
Maximum User IDs
: 10
Enabled User IDs
: 2
User ID
User Name
Fixed Name
Access Available
Link Authentication
IPMI Messaging
Privilege Level
6.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
4
username [This is the administration user]
No
call-in / callback
enabled
enabled
ADMINISTRATOR
Verify that the BMC is accessible and controllable from a remote node in your
cluster using the bmc info command. For example, if node2-ipmi is the network
host name assigned the IP address of node2's BMC, then to verify the BMC on
node node2 from node1, with the administrator account username, enter the following
command on node1:
$ ipmitool -H node2-ipmi -U username lan print 1
You are prompted for a password. Provide the IPMI password.
If the BMC is correctly configured, then you should see information about the BMC
on the remote node. If you see an error message, such as Error: Unable to
establish LAN session, then you must check the BMC configuration on the remote
node.
6-33
Chapter 6
Determining Root Script Execution Plan
7.
Repeat this process for each cluster member node. If the IPMI administrator
account credentials on each cluster member node are not identical, then IPMI will
fail during configuration.
6.7 Determining Root Script Execution Plan
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the installer requires you to run scripts
with superuser (or root) privileges to complete a number of system configuration tasks.
You can continue to run scripts manually as root, or you can delegate to the installer
the privilege to run configuration steps as root, using one of the following options:
•
Use the root password: Provide the password to the installer as you are providing
other configuration information. The password is used during installation, and not
stored. The root user password must be identical on each cluster member node.
To enable root command delegation, provide the root password to the installer
when prompted.
•
Use Sudo: Sudo is a UNIX and Linux utility that allows members of the sudoers list
privileges to run individual commands as root.
To enable Sudo, have a system administrator with the appropriate privileges
configure a user that is a member of the sudoers list, and provide the user name
and password when prompted during installation.
6-34
7
Supported Storage Options for Oracle
Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review supported storage options as part of your installation planning process.
•
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
The following table shows the storage options supported for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure binaries and files:
•
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
This section contains information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM).
•
Storage Considerations for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
For all installations, you must choose the storage option to use for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM), and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC) databases.
•
Guidelines for Using Oracle ASM Disk Groups for Storage
Plan how you want to configure Oracle ASM disk groups for deployment.
•
Guidelines for Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups on NFS
During installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you can choose to configure
Oracle ASM disk groups on NFS file systems on a supported Network Attached
Storage (NAS) device.
•
Using Logical Volume Managers with Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC only support cluster-aware volume
managers.
•
Using a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you must use Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) to store voting files and OCR files.
•
About NFS Storage for Data Files
Review this section for NFS storage configuration guidelines.
•
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
Direct NFS Client integrates the NFS client functionality directly in the Oracle
software to optimize the I/O path between Oracle and the NFS server. This
integration can provide significant performance improvements.
7.1 Supported Storage Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
The following table shows the storage options supported for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
binaries and files:
7-1
Chapter 7
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Table 7-1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Storage
Option
OCR and
Voting Files
Oracle
Yes
Automatic
Storage
Management
(Oracle ASM)
Oracle
Clusterware
Binaries
Oracle RAC
Database
Binaries
Oracle
Oracle RAC
RAC
Database
Database Recovery Files
Data Files
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes for
Oracle
Database
11g Release
2 (11.2) and
for Hub
Nodes for
Oracle
Database
12c Release
1 (12.1) and
later.
Yes for
Oracle
Database
12c
Release 1
(12.1) and
later
Yes for Oracle
Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1)
and later
Note:
Loopback
devices are
not supported
for use with
Oracle ASM
Oracle
Automatic
Storage
Management
Cluster File
System
(Oracle
ACFS)
No
No for
running
Oracle
Database on
Leaf Nodes.
Local file
system
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
OCFS2
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Network file
No
system (NFS)
on a certified
networkattached
storage
(NAS) filer
Note: Direct
NFS Client
does not
support
Oracle
Clusterware
files
Directattached
storage
(DAS)
No
7-2
Chapter 7
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Table 7-1
(Cont.) Supported Storage Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Storage
Option
OCR and
Voting Files
Oracle
Clusterware
Binaries
Oracle RAC
Database
Binaries
Oracle
Oracle RAC
RAC
Database
Database Recovery Files
Data Files
Shared disk
partitions
(block
devices or
raw devices)
No
No
No
No
No
Guidelines for Storage Options
Use the following guidelines when choosing storage options:
•
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type provided that you satisfy all requirements listed for the chosen storage
options.
•
You can only use Oracle ASM to store Oracle Clusterware files.
•
Direct use of raw or block devices is not supported. You can only use raw or block
devices under Oracle ASM.
See:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about how to prepare for
upgrading an existing database
Note:
For information about OCFS2, see the following website:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
For OCFS2 certification status, and for other cluster file system support, see
the Certify page on My Oracle Support.
7.2 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
This section contains information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM).
Oracle ACFS extends Oracle ASM technology to support of all of your application data
in both single instance and cluster configurations. Oracle ADVM provides volume
management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System communicates with Oracle ASM
through the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager
interface.
7-3
Chapter 7
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
•
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux x86–64
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
•
Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS
Review these topics as part of your storage plan for using Oracle ACFS for single
instance and cluster configurations.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
7.2.1 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux x86–64
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
Table 7-2
Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Platform / Operating System Kernel
Oracle Linux 7
•
•
•
Oracle Linux 6
•
•
•
•
Oracle Linux 7 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel:
3.8.13-35 and later UEK 3.8.13 kernels
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel:
4.1.12-32 and later 4.1.12 kernels
Oracle Linux 6 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel
Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
Release 2: 2.6.39-100 and later UEK 2.6.39 kernels
Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
Release 3: 3.8.13 and later UEK 3.8.13 kernels
Oracle Linux 6 with Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel:
4.1.12-32 and later 4.1.12 kernels
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux compatible kernels
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux compatible kernels
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server All SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 kernels
12
Linux Containers
Not supported
Note:
If you use Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) in enforcing mode with Oracle
ACFS, then ensure that you mount the Oracle ACFS file systems with an
SELinux default context. Refer to your Linux vendor documentation for
information about the context mount option.
7-4
Chapter 7
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
See Also:
•
My Oracle Support Note 1369107.1 for more information and a complete
list of platforms and releases that support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1369107.1
•
Patch Set Updates for Oracle Products (My Oracle Support Note 854428.1)
for current release and support information:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=854428.1
7.2.2 Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS
Review these topics as part of your storage plan for using Oracle ACFS for single
instance and cluster configurations.
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
provides a general purpose file system.
•
You can only use Oracle ACFS when Oracle ASM is configured.
•
Note the following general guidelines and restrictions for placing Oracle Database
and Oracle Grid Infrastructure files on Oracle ACFS:
•
–
You can place Oracle Database binaries, data files, and administrative files
(for example, trace files) on Oracle ACFS.
–
Oracle ACFS does not support replication or encryption with Oracle Database
data files, tablespace files, control files, and redo logs.
–
You can place Oracle Database homes on Oracle ACFS only if the database
release is Oracle Database 11g Release 2, or more recent releases. You
cannot install earlier releases of Oracle Database on Oracle ACFS.
–
For installations on Oracle Clusterware, you cannot place Oracle Clusterware
files on Oracle ACFS.
–
For policy-managed Oracle Flex Cluster databases, Oracle ACFS can run on
Hub Nodes, but cannot run on Leaf Nodes. For this reason, Oracle RAC
binaries cannot be placed on Oracle ACFS located on Leaf Nodes.
Oracle Restart does not support root-based Oracle Clusterware resources. For
this reason, the following restrictions apply if you run Oracle ACFS on an Oracle
Restart Configuration:
–
Oracle Restart does not support Oracle ACFS resources on all platforms.
–
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Restart configurations do not
support the Oracle ACFS registry.
–
You must manually load Oracle ACFS drivers after a system restart.
–
You must manually mount an Oracle ACFS file system, and unmount it after
the Oracle ASM instance has finished running.
–
Creating Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported in
Oracle Restart configurations. Creating Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS
file system is supported on Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
configurations.
7-5
Chapter 7
Storage Considerations for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
•
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are not supported on IBM AIX Workload
Partitions (WPARs).
Related Topics
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
7.3 Storage Considerations for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle RAC
For all installations, you must choose the storage option to use for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM), and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC) databases.
Storage Considerations for Oracle Clusterware
Oracle Clusterware voting files are used to monitor cluster node status, and Oracle
Cluster Registry (OCR) files contain configuration information about the cluster. You
must store Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files in Oracle ASM disk groups.
You can also store a backup of the OCR file in a disk group. Storage must be shared;
any node that does not have access to an absolute majority of voting files (more than
half) is restarted.
If you use Oracle ASM disk groups created on Network File System (NFS) for storage,
then ensure that you follow the recommendations for mounting NFS described in the
topic Guidelines for Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups on NFS.
Storage Considerations for Oracle RAC
Oracle ASM is a supported storage option for database and recovery files. For all
installations, Oracle recommends that you create at least two separate Oracle ASM
disk groups: One for Oracle Database data files, and one for recovery files. Oracle
recommends that you place the Oracle Database disk group and the recovery files
disk group in separate failure groups.
•
If you do not use Oracle ASM for database files, then Oracle recommends that you
place the data files and the Fast Recovery Area in shared storage located outside
of the Oracle home, in separate locations, so that a hardware failure does not
affect availability.
•
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type provided that you satisfy all requirements listed for the chosen storage
options.
•
If you plan to install an Oracle RAC home on a shared OCFS2 location, then you
must upgrade OCFS2 to at least version 1.4.1, which supports shared writable
mmaps.
•
To use Oracle ASM with Oracle RAC, and if you are configuring a new Oracle
ASM instance, then your system must meet the following conditions:
–
All nodes on the cluster have Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM 12c
Release 2 (12.2) installed as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
installation.
–
Any existing Oracle ASM instance on any node in the cluster is shut down.
7-6
Chapter 7
Guidelines for Using Oracle ASM Disk Groups for Storage
–
To provide voting file redundancy, one Oracle ASM disk group is sufficient.
The Oracle ASM disk group provides three or five copies.
You can use NFS, with or without Direct NFS, to store Oracle Database data files. You
cannot use NFS as storage for Oracle Clusterware files.
7.4 Guidelines for Using Oracle ASM Disk Groups for
Storage
Plan how you want to configure Oracle ASM disk groups for deployment.
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can create one or two Oracle ASM
disk groups. After the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can create additional
disk groups using Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA), SQL*Plus, or Automatic Storage Management Command-Line Utility
(ASMCMD).
Choose to create a second disk group during Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
The first disk group stores the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR), voting files, and the
Oracle ASM password file. The second disk group stores the Grid Infrastructure
Management Repository (GIMR) data files and Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) backup
files. Oracle strongly recommends that you store the OCR backup files in a different
disk group from the disk group where you store OCR files. In addition, having a
second disk group for GIMR is advisable for performance, availability, sizing, and
manageability of storage.
Note:
•
You must specify the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR)
location at the time of installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure. You cannot
migrate the GIMR from one disk group to another later.
•
For Oracle Domain Services Clusters, you must configure two separate
Oracle ASM disk groups, one for OCR and voting files and the other for the
GIMR.
If you install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC after you install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, then you can either use the same disk group for database files, OCR,
and voting files, or you can use different disk groups. If you create multiple disk groups
before installing Oracle RAC or before creating a database, then you can do one of the
following:
•
Place the data files in the same disk group as the Oracle Clusterware files.
•
Use the same Oracle ASM disk group for data files and recovery files.
•
Use different disk groups for each file type.
If you create only one disk group for storage, then the OCR and voting files, database
files, and recovery files are contained in the one disk group. If you create multiple disk
groups for storage, then you can place files in different disk groups.
7-7
Chapter 7
Guidelines for Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups on NFS
With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and later releases, Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant (DBCA) does not have the functionality to create disk groups
for Oracle ASM.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information
about creating disk groups
7.5 Guidelines for Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups on
NFS
During installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you can choose to configure Oracle
ASM disk groups on NFS file systems on a supported Network Attached Storage
(NAS) device.
You can create Oracle ASM disk groups on block devices or NFS (Network File
System) on a supported Network Attached Storage (NAS) device. Understand the
following guidelines for configuring Oracle ASM disk groups on NFS:
Note:
All storage products must be supported by both your server and storage
vendors.
Guidelines for Deploying Oracle ASM Disk Groups Without Quorum Disks
•
To use an NFS file system, it must be on a supported NAS device. Log in to My
Oracle Support at the following URL, and click Certifications to find the most
current information about supported NAS devices:
https://support.oracle.com/
•
NFS file systems must be mounted and available over NFS mounts before you
start installation. Refer to your vendor documentation to complete NFS
configuration and mounting.
•
Direct NFS requires hard mounts. Hard mounting NFS filers prevents corruption
which could occur if the client connection were to time out. If an NFS filer hangs on
an I/O operation to a mirrored file, then the database and Oracle ASM cannot
failover to the surviving mirror copy. Therefore, Oracle recommends that you use
external redundancy when you deploy Oracle ASM disk groups on NFS storage.
•
Oracle ASM Filter Driver and Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are not supported
with NFS. These features are incompatible because of the nature of the operating
system interface for NFS-based storage.
•
The performance of Oracle software and databases stored on Oracle ASM disk
groups on NFS depends on the performance of the network connection between
the Oracle server and the NAS device. Oracle recommends that you connect the
7-8
Chapter 7
Using Logical Volume Managers with Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
server to the NAS device using a private dedicated network connection, which
should be Gigabit Ethernet or better.
•
You can configure Oracle ASM on NFS when you deploy an Oracle Standalone
Cluster configuration.
•
You can specify separate NFS locations for Oracle ASM disk groups for Oracle
Clusterware files and the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR).
•
The user account with which you perform the installation (oracle or grid) must
have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.
•
When you choose Oracle ASM on NFS, you cannot use Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) for storage. This cluster
configuration cannot be used as a Rapid Home Provisioning Server.
Guidelines for Deploying Oracle ASM Disk Groups With Quorum Disks
•
SAN-attached storage or iSCSI-attached devices are the preferred ways to
connect to quorum disks. If your standard deployment requires NFS to be used as
storage, then use soft mounts for NFS-based Oracle ASM quorum disks and hard
mounts for other Oracle ASM disks.
•
You can use Direct NFS (dNFS) for storage of Oracle Database data files. dNFS
does not support soft mounts, so you cannot use dNFS for quorum failure groups.
Alternatively, use kernel-based NFS with a soft mount for NFS storage residing in
a quorum failure group.
•
The quorum failure group feature in Oracle ASM enables use of NFS storage in an
Oracle ASM disk group without requiring a hard mount for NFS storage in the
quorum failure group. This capability is useful for Oracle Extended Clusters where
a third site is required for establishing quorum.
Related Topics
•
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zero-padded files
in an NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM
disk group.
7.6 Using Logical Volume Managers with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC only support cluster-aware volume
managers.
Using Logical Volume Managers
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC only support cluster-aware volume
managers. Some third-party volume managers are not cluster-aware, and so are not
supported. To confirm that a volume manager you want to use is supported, click
Certifications on My Oracle Support to determine if your volume manager is certified
for Oracle RAC. My Oracle Support is available at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com
7-9
Chapter 7
Using a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
7.7 Using a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you must use Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) to store voting files and OCR files.
For new installations, use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) to
store voting files and OCR files. For Linux x86 (32-bit), Linux86-64 (64-bit) and Linux
Itanium platforms, Oracle provides a cluster file system, OCFS2. However, Oracle
does not recommend using OCFS2 for Oracle Clusterware files.
If your database files are stored on a shared file system, then you can continue to use
the same for database files, instead of moving them to Oracle ASM storage.
7.8 About NFS Storage for Data Files
Review this section for NFS storage configuration guidelines.
Network-Attached Storage and NFS Protocol
Network-attached storage (NAS) systems use the network file system (NFS) protocol
to to access files over a network, which enables client servers to access files over
networks as easily as to storage devices attached directly to the servers. You can
store data files on supported NFS systems. NFS is a shared file system protocol, so
NFS can support both single instance and Oracle Real Application Clusters
databases.
Note:
The performance of Oracle software and databases stored on NAS devices
depends on the performance of the network connection between the servers
and the network-attached storage devices.For better performance, Oracle
recommends that you connect servers to NAS devices using private dedicated
network connections. NFS network connections should use Gigabit Ethernet or
better.
Refer to your vendor documentation to complete NFS configuration and mounting.
Requirements for Using NFS Storage
Before you start installation, NFS file systems must be mounted and available to
servers.
7.9 About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage
Devices
Direct NFS Client integrates the NFS client functionality directly in the Oracle software
to optimize the I/O path between Oracle and the NFS server. This integration can
provide significant performance improvements.
7-10
Chapter 7
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
Direct NFS Client supports NFSv3, NFSv4, NFSv4.1, and pNFS protocols to access
the NFS server. Direct NFS Client also simplifies, and in many cases automates, the
performance optimization of the NFS client configuration for database workloads.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2, when you enable Direct NFS, you can
also enable the Direct NFS dispatcher. The Direct NFS dispatcher consolidates the
number of TCP connections that are created from a database instance to the NFS
server. In large database deployments, using Direct NFS dispatcher improves
scalability and network performance. Parallel NFS deployments also require a large
number of connections. Hence, the Direct NFS dispatcher is recommended with
Parallel NFS deployments too.
Direct NFS Client can obtain NFS mount points either from the operating system
mount entries, or from the oranfstab file.
Direct NFS Client Requirements
•
NFS servers must have write size values (wtmax) of 32768 or greater to work with
Direct NFS Client.
•
NFS mount points must be mounted both by the operating system kernel NFS
client and Direct NFS Client, even though you configure Direct NFS Client to
provide file service.
If Oracle Database cannot connect to an NFS server using Direct NFS Client, then
Oracle Database connects to the NFS server using the operating system kernel
NFS client. When Oracle Database fails to connect to NAS storage though Direct
NFS Client, it logs an informational message about the Direct NFS Client connect
error in the Oracle alert and trace files.
•
Follow standard guidelines for maintaining integrity of Oracle Database files
mounted by both operating system NFS and by Direct NFS Client.
Direct NFS Mount Point Search Order
Direct NFS Client searches for mount entries in the following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
Direct NFS Client uses the first matching entry as the mount point.
Note:
You can have only one active Direct NFS Client implementation for each
instance. Using Direct NFS Client on an instance prevents another Direct NFS
Client implementation.
7-11
Chapter 7
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
See Also:
•
Oracle Database Reference for information about setting the
enable_dnfs_dispatcher parameter in the initialization parameter file to
enable Direct NFS dispatcher
•
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for performance benefits of
enabling Parallel NFS and Direct NFS dispatcher
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
guidelines about managing Oracle Database data files created with Direct
NFS Client or kernel NFS
7-12
8
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Complete these procedures to configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management
(Oracle ASM) for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster provides system support for Oracle Database.
Oracle ASM is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that
supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters
(Oracle RAC) configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage Management also supports a
general purpose file system for your application needs, including Oracle Database
binaries. Oracle Automatic Storage Management is Oracle's recommended storage
management solution. It provides an alternative to conventional volume managers and
file systems.
Note:
Oracle ASM is the supported storage management solution for Oracle Cluster
Registry (OCR) and Oracle Clusterware voting files. The OCR is a file that
contains the configuration information and status of the cluster. The installer
automatically initializes the OCR during the Oracle Clusterware installation.
Database Configuration Assistant uses the OCR for storing the configurations
for the cluster databases that it creates.
•
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Identify storage requirements and Oracle ASM disk group options.
•
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMFD
Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) maintains storage file path persistence
and helps to protect files from accidental overwrites.
•
Using Disk Groups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM
Review this information to configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management
(Oracle ASM) storage for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database Files.
•
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
Complete these procedures to use file system storage for Oracle Database.
•
Creating Member Cluster Manifest File for Oracle Member Clusters
Create a Member Cluster Manifest file to specify the Oracle Member Cluster
configuration for the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), Grid
Naming Service, Oracle ASM storage server, and Rapid Home Provisioning
configuration.
•
Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
Review this information to configure Oracle ACFS for an Oracle RAC Oracle
Database home.
•
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
Use the following command to check your OCFS2 version manually.
8-1
Chapter 8
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
8.1 Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
Identify storage requirements and Oracle ASM disk group options.
•
Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine
the number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require.
•
Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Requirements
Use this information to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum
disk space requirements based on the redundancy type, for installing Oracle
Clusterware files, and installing the starter database, for various Oracle Cluster
deployments.
•
About the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
Every Oracle Standalone Cluster and Oracle Domain Services Cluster contains a
Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), or the Management Database
(MGMTDB).
•
Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or the Oracle ASM command line
tool (asmcmd) to identify existing disk groups, and to determine if sufficient space is
available in the disk group.
•
About Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) upgrades are carried out
during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
•
Selecting Disks to use with Oracle ASM Disk Groups
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group.
•
Specifying the Oracle ASM Disk Discovery String
When an Oracle ASM instance is initialized, Oracle ASM discovers and examines
the contents of all of the disks that are in the paths that you designated with values
in the ASM_DISKSTRING initialization parameter.
•
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zero-padded files
in an NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM
disk group.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
8.1.1 Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the
number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require.
To complete this task, follow these steps:
8-2
Chapter 8
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
1.
Plan your Oracle ASM disk groups requirement, based on the cluster configuration
you want to deploy. Oracle Domain Services Clusters store Oracle Clusterware
files and the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR) on separate
Oracle ASM disk groups and hence require configuration of two separate Oracle
ASM disk groups, one for OCR and voting files and the other for the GIMR.
2.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, and Oracle Database binaries. Oracle Database files include data
files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file.
Note:
3.
•
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for Oracle
Database files and recovery files. You can use a shared file system for
one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.
•
There are two types of Oracle Clusterware files: OCR files and voting
files. You must use Oracle ASM to store OCR and voting files.
•
If your database files are stored on a shared file system, then you can
continue to use the same for database files, instead of moving them to
Oracle ASM storage.
Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level to use for the Oracle ASM disk group.
Except when using external redundancy, Oracle ASM mirrors all Oracle
Clusterware files in separate failure groups within a disk group. A quorum failure
group, a special type of failure group, contains mirror copies of voting files when
voting files are stored in normal or high redundancy disk groups. The disk groups
that contain Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and voting files) have a higher
minimum number of failure groups than other disk groups because the voting files
are stored in quorum failure groups in the Oracle ASM disk group.
A quorum failure group is a special type of failure group that is used to store the
Oracle Clusterware voting files. The quorum failure group is used to ensure that a
quorum of the specified failure groups are available. When Oracle ASM mounts a
disk group that contains Oracle Clusterware files, the quorum failure group is used
to determine if the disk group can be mounted in the event of the loss of one or
more failure groups. Disks in the quorum failure group do not contain user data,
therefore a quorum failure group is not considered when determining redundancy
requirements in respect to storing user data.
The redundancy levels are as follows:
•
High redundancy
In a high redundancy disk group, Oracle ASM uses three-way mirroring to
increase performance and provide the highest level of reliability. A high
redundancy disk group requires a minimum of three disk devices (or three
failure groups). The effective disk space in a high redundancy disk group is
one-third the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
For Oracle Clusterware files, a high redundancy disk group requires a
minimum of five disk devices and provides five voting files and one OCR (one
primary and two secondary copies). For example, your deployment may
consist of three regular failure groups and two quorum failure groups. Note
that not all failure groups can be quorum failure groups, even though voting
8-3
Chapter 8
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
files need all five disks. With high redundancy, the cluster can survive the loss
of two failure groups.
While high redundancy disk groups do provide a high level of data protection,
you should consider the greater cost of additional storage devices before
deciding to select high redundancy disk groups.
•
Normal redundancy
In a normal redundancy disk group, to increase performance and reliability,
Oracle ASM by default uses two-way mirroring. A normal redundancy disk
group requires a minimum of two disk devices (or two failure groups). The
effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the
disk space in all of its devices.
For Oracle Clusterware files, a normal redundancy disk group requires a
minimum of three disk devices and provides three voting files and one OCR
(one primary and one secondary copy). For example, your deployment may
consist of two regular failure groups and one quorum failure group. With
normal redundancy, the cluster can survive the loss of one failure group.
If you are not using a storage array providing independent protection against
data loss for storage, then Oracle recommends that you select normal
redundancy.
•
External redundancy
An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device.
The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of
the disk space in all of its devices.
Because Oracle ASM does not mirror data in an external redundancy disk
group, Oracle recommends that you use external redundancy with storage
devices such as RAID, or other similar devices that provide their own data
protection mechanisms.
•
Flex redundancy
A flex redundancy disk group is a type of redundancy disk group with features
such as flexible file redundancy, mirror splitting, and redundancy change. A
flex disk group can consolidate files with different redundancy requirements
into a single disk group. It also provides the capability for databases to change
the redundancy of its files. A disk group is a collection of file groups, each
associated with one database. A quota group defines the maximum storage
space or quota limit of a group of databases within a disk group.
In a flex redundancy disk group, Oracle ASM uses three-way mirroring of
Oracle ASM metadata to increase performance and provide reliability. For
database data, you can choose no mirroring (unprotected), two-way mirroring
(mirrored), or three-way mirroring (high). A flex redundancy disk group
requires a minimum of three disk devices (or three failure groups).
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more
information about file groups and quota groups for flex disk groups
8-4
Chapter 8
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Note:
You can alter the redundancy level of the disk group after a disk group is
created. For example, you can convert a normal or high redundancy disk
group to a flex redundancy disk group. Within a flex redundancy disk group,
file redundancy can change among three possible values: unprotected,
mirrored, or high.
4.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for Oracle Clusterware
files, and for the database files and recovery files.
If an Oracle ASM instance is running on the system, then you can use an existing
disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to
an existing disk group during the database installation.
See Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Requirements to determine the minimum
number of disks and the minimum disk space requirements for installing Oracle
Clusterware files, and installing the starter database, where you have voting files
in a separate disk group.
5.
Determine an allocation unit size.
Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation unit is
the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group. You can select the AU Size
value from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB, depending on the specific disk group
compatibility level. For flex disk groups, the default value for AU size is set to 4
MB. For external, normal, and high redundancies, the default AU size is 1 MB.
6.
For Oracle Clusterware installations, you must also add additional disk space for
the Oracle ASM metadata. You can use the following formula to calculate the disk
space requirements (in MB) for OCR and voting files, and the Oracle ASM
metadata:
total = [2 * ausize * disks] + [redundancy * (ausize * (all_client_instances +
nodes + disks + 32) + (64 * nodes) + clients + 543)]
redundancy = Number of mirrors: external = 1, normal = 2, high = 3, flex = 3.
ausize = Metadata AU size in megabytes
nodes = Number of nodes in cluster.
clients - Number of database instances for each node.
disks - Number of disks in disk group.
For example, for a four-node Oracle RAC installation, using three disks in a normal
redundancy disk group, you require an additional 5293 MB of space: [2 * 4 * 3]
+ [2 * (4 * (4 * (4 + 1)+ 30)+ (64 * 4)+ 533)] = 5293 MB
7.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices
in a custom failure group. By default, each device is included in its failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same Host Bus Adapter (HBA), then the disk group becomes unavailable if the
adapter fails. The HBA in this example is a single point of failure.
For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you can use two HBA fabric paths, each
with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each adapter.
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Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one HBA
fabric path.
Note:
You can define custom failure groups during installation of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure. You can also define failure groups after installation using the
GUI tool ASMCA, the command line tool asmcmd, or SQL commands. If
you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two
failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups
for high redundancy disk groups.
8.
9.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following
guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
•
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation.
•
All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group must be the same size and have
the same performance characteristics.
•
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group
device. Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate
physical disk.
•
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk
group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of
complexity that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. Oracle recommends that if
you choose to use a logical volume manager, then use the logical volume
manager to represent a single logical unit number (LUN) without striping or
mirroring, so that you can minimize the effect on storage performance of the
additional storage layer.
If you use Oracle ASM disk groups created on Network File System (NFS) for
storage, then ensure that you follow recommendations described in Guidelines for
Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups on NFS.
Related Topics
•
Storage Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review the checklist for storage hardware and configuration requirements for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
•
Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Requirements
Use this information to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum
disk space requirements based on the redundancy type, for installing Oracle
Clusterware files, and installing the starter database, for various Oracle Cluster
deployments.
8-6
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Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
8.1.2 Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Requirements
Use this information to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum disk
space requirements based on the redundancy type, for installing Oracle Clusterware
files, and installing the starter database, for various Oracle Cluster deployments.
Total Storage Space for Database Files Required by Redundancy Type
The following tables list the space requirements for Oracle RAC Database data files
for multitenant and non-CDB deployments.
Table 8-1
Oracle ASM Disk Space Minimum Requirements for Oracle Database
Redundancy Level
Minimum number of Data Files
disks
Recovery Files
Both File Types
External
1
4.5 GB
12.9 GB
17.4 GB
Normal
2
8.6 GB
25.8 GB
34.4 GB
High
3
12.9 GB
38.7 GB
51.6 GB
Flex
3
12.9 GB
38.7 GB
51.6 GB
Table 8-2
Oracle ASM Disk Space Minimum Requirements for Oracle Database (non-CDB)
Redundancy Level
Minimum number of Data Files
disks
Recovery Files
Both File Types
External
1
2.7 GB
7.8 GB
10.5 GB
Normal
2
5.2 GB
15.6 GB
20.8 GB
High
3
7.8 GB
23.4 GB
31.2 GB
Flex
3
7.8 GB
23.4 GB
31.2 GB
Total Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Required by Oracle Cluster Deployment
Type
During installation of an Oracle Standalone Cluster, if you create the MGMT disk group
for Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), then the installer requires that
you use a disk group with at least 35 GB of available space.
Based on the cluster configuration you want to install, the Oracle Clusterware space
requirements vary for different redundancy levels. The following tables list the space
requirements for each cluster configuration.
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Chapter 8
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Table 8-3 Minimum Space Requirements for Oracle Domain Services Cluster with Four or
Fewer Oracle Member Clusters
Cluster
Redun Space Required
Configura dancy for DATA Disk
tion
Level Group containing
Oracle
Clusterware Files
(OCR and Voting
Files)
Space Required for
MGMT Disk Group
containing the GIMR
and Oracle
Clusterware Backup
Files
MGMT Disk
Group Space
Required for
Additional
Services, If
Selected
Two
Extern
nodes, 4
al
MB
Allocation
Unit (AU),
one Oracle
ASM disk
1.4 GB
188 GB
RHP: 100 GB
Two
Normal 2.5 GB
nodes, 4
MB
Allocation
Unit (AU),
three
Oracle
ASM disks
376 GB
RHP: 200 GB
Two
High
nodes, 4
MB
Allocation
Unit (AU),
five Oracle
ASM disks
3.6 GB
564 GB
RHP: 300 GB
Two
Flex
nodes, 4
MB
Allocation
Unit (AU),
three
Oracle
ASM disks
2.5 GB
376 GB
RHP: 200 GB
Total Storage
189.4 GB for an Oracle
Domain Services Cluster
PDB for each
Oracle Member with four Oracle Member
Cluster beyond Clusters
four: 35 GB
378.5 GB for an Oracle
Domain Services Cluster
PDB for each
Oracle Member with four Oracle Member
Cluster beyond Clusters
four: 70 GB
567.6 GB for an Oracle
Domain Services Cluster
PDB for each
Oracle Member with four Oracle Member
Cluster beyond Clusters
four: 105 GB
378.5 GB for an Oracle
Domain Services Cluster
PDB for each
Oracle Member with four Oracle Member
Cluster beyond Clusters
four: 70 GB
The storage space calculations assume an Oracle Domain Services Cluster
configuration with four Oracle Member Clusters and two nodes. The Rapid Home
Provisioning (RHP) size is 100 GB.
Table 8-4
Minimum Space Requirements for Oracle Member Cluster
Cluster
Configuration
OCR
Voting Files
Additional Storage
Requirements
Total Storage
Oracle Member
Clusters with remote
Oracle ASM
configuration
1.4 GB
300 MB
None, since Oracle
1.7 GB
Member Cluster uses
the remote GIMR and
other services from the
Oracle Domain
Services Cluster
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Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Table 8-4
(Cont.) Minimum Space Requirements for Oracle Member Cluster
Cluster
Configuration
OCR
Voting Files
Additional Storage
Requirements
Total Storage
Oracle Member
Clusters with local
Oracle ASM
configuration.
Same as the
requirements
for Oracle
Standalone
Cluster for
each
redundancy
level.
Same as the
requirements for
Oracle Standalone
Cluster for each
redundancy level.
Same as the
requirements for
Oracle Standalone
Cluster for each
redundancy level.
Same as the
requirements for
Oracle Standalone
Cluster for each
redundancy level.
Table 8-5
Minimum Space Requirements for Oracle Standalone Cluster
Cluster
Configuration
Redundancy Level
Space Required for
DATA Disk Group
containing Oracle
Clusterware Files
(OCR and Voting
Files)
Space Required for Total Storage
MGMT Disk Group
containing the GIMR
and Oracle
Clusterware Backup
Files
Two nodes, 4 MB
External
Allocation Unit (AU),
one Oracle ASM
disks
1.4 GB
At least 37.6 GB for a 39 GB
cluster with 4 nodes
or less. Additional 4.7
GB space required for
clusters with 5 or
more nodes.
Two nodes, 4 MB
Normal
Allocation Unit (AU),
three Oracle ASM
disks
2.5 GB
75.5 GB
78 GB
Two nodes, 4 MB
High
Allocation Unit (AU),
five Oracle ASM
disks
3.6 GB
113.4 GB
117 GB
Two nodes, 4 MB
Flex
Allocation Unit (AU),
three Oracle ASM
disks
2.5 GB
75.5 GB
78 GB
8.1.3 About the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
Every Oracle Standalone Cluster and Oracle Domain Services Cluster contains a Grid
Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), or the Management Database
(MGMTDB).
The Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR) is a multitenant database with
a pluggable database (PDB) for the GIMR of each cluster. The GIMR stores the
following information about the cluster:
•
Real time performance data the Cluster Health Monitor collects
•
Fault, diagnosis, and metric data the Cluster Health Advisor collects
•
Cluster-wide events about all resources that Oracle Clusterware collects
8-9
Chapter 8
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
•
CPU architecture data for Quality of Service Management (QoS)
•
Metadata required for Rapid Home Provisioning
The Oracle Standalone Cluster locally hosts the GIMR on an Oracle ASM disk group;
this GIMR is a multitenant database with a single pluggable database (PDB).
The global GIMR runs in an Oracle Domain Services Cluster. Oracle Domain Services
Cluster locally hosts the GIMR in a separate Oracle ASM disk group. Client clusters,
such as Oracle Member Cluster for Database, use the remote GIMR located on the
Domain Services Cluster. For two-node or four-node clusters, hosting the GIMR for a
cluster on a remote cluster reduces the overhead of running an extra infrastructure
repository on a cluster. The GIMR for an Oracle Domain Services Cluster is a
multitenant database with one PDB, and additional PDB for each member cluster that
is added.
When you configure an Oracle Domain Services Cluster, the installer prompts to
configure a separate Oracle ASM disk group for the GIMR, with the default name as
MGMT.
Related Topics
•
About Oracle Standalone Clusters
An Oracle Standalone Cluster hosts all Oracle Grid Infrastructure services and
Oracle ASM locally and requires direct access to shared storage.
•
About Oracle Cluster Domain and Oracle Domain Services Cluster
An Oracle Cluster Domain is a choice of deployment architecture for new clusters,
introduced in Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 2.
•
About Oracle Member Clusters
Oracle Member Clusters use centralized services from the Oracle Domain
Services Cluster and can host databases or applications.
8.1.4 Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or the Oracle ASM command line tool
(asmcmd) to identify existing disk groups, and to determine if sufficient space is available
in the disk group.
1.
Connect to the Oracle ASM instance and start the instance if necessary:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd
ASMCMD> startup
2.
Enter one of the following commands to view the existing disk groups, their
redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
ASMCMD> lsdg
or
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd -p lsdg
3.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and
note the free space that it contains.
4.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements for your installation.
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Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Note:
If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then Oracle recommends
that you use devices that have the same size and performance characteristics
as the existing devices in that disk group.
8.1.5 About Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Instances
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) upgrades are carried out during
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
If you are upgrading from Oracle ASM 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) or later, then Oracle
ASM is always upgraded with Oracle Grid Infrastructure as part of the upgrade, and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) is
started by the root scripts during upgrade. Subsequently, you can use Oracle ASMCA
(located in Grid_home/bin) to configure failure groups, Oracle ASM volumes, and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
Oracle ASMCA cannot perform a separate upgrade of Oracle ASM from a prior
release to the current release.
Upgrades of Oracle ASM from releases prior to 11g Release 2 (11.2) are not
supported.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
8.1.6 Selecting Disks to use with Oracle ASM Disk Groups
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or
identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group.
Use the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
•
All of the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group should be the same size and have
the same performance characteristics.
•
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group device.
Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.
•
Nonshared logical partitions are not supported with Oracle RAC. To use logical
partitions for your Oracle RAC database, you must use shared logical volumes
created by a logical volume manager such as fdisk.
•
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk
group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of complexity
that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. In addition, Oracle RAC requires a cluster
logical volume manager in case you decide to use a logical volume with Oracle
ASM and Oracle RAC.
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Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
8.1.7 Specifying the Oracle ASM Disk Discovery String
When an Oracle ASM instance is initialized, Oracle ASM discovers and examines the
contents of all of the disks that are in the paths that you designated with values in the
ASM_DISKSTRING initialization parameter.
The value for the ASM_DISKSTRING initialization parameter is an operating system–
dependent value that Oracle ASM uses to limit the set of paths that the discovery
process uses to search for disks. The exact syntax of a discovery string depends on
the platform, ASMLib libraries, and whether Oracle Exadata disks are used. The path
names that an operating system accepts are always usable as discovery strings.
The default value of ASM_DISKSTRING might not find all disks in all situations. If your site
is using a third-party vendor ASMLib, then the vendor might have discovery string
conventions that you must use for ASM_DISKSTRING. In addition, if your installation uses
multipathing software, then the software might place pseudo-devices in a path that is
different from the operating system default.
See Also:
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more
information about the initialization parameter ASM_DISKSTRING
•
See "Oracle ASM and Multipathing" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for information about configuring
Oracle ASM to work with multipathing, and consult your multipathing
vendor documentation for details.
8.1.8 Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic
Storage Management
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zero-padded files in an
NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk
group.
Ensure that you specify the ASM discovery path for Oracle ASM disks.
During installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) can create files in the NFS mounted directory you specify. The following
procedure explains how to manually create files in an NFS mounted directory to use
as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk group.
1.
If necessary, create an exported directory for the disk group files on the NAS
device.
2.
Switch user to root.
3.
Create a mount point directory on the local system.
For example:
# mkdir -p /mnt/oracleasm
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Chapter 8
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMFD
4.
To ensure that the NFS file system is mounted when the system restarts, add an
entry for the file system in the mount file /etc/fstab.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to mount the NFS on the local system:
# mount /mnt/oracleasm
6.
Choose a name for the disk group to create, and create a directory for the files on
the NFS file system, using the disk group name as the directory name.
For example, if you want to set up a disk group for a sales database:
# mkdir /mnt/oracleasm/sales1
7.
Use commands similar to the following to create the required number of zeropadded files in this directory:
# dd if=/dev/zero
of=/mnt/oracleasm/sales1/disk1 bs=1024k
count=1000
This example creates 1 GB files on the NFS file system. You must create one,
two, or three files respectively to create an external, normal, or high redundancy
disk group.
Note:
Creating multiple zero-padded files on the same NAS device does not
guard against NAS failure. Instead, create one file for each NAS device and
mirror them using the Oracle ASM technology.
8.
Enter commands similar to the following to change the owner, group, and
permissions on the directory and files that you created:
# chown -R grid:asmadmin /mnt/oracleasm
# chmod -R 660 /mnt/oracleasm
In this example, the installation owner is grid and the OSASM group is asmadmin.
9.
During Oracle Database installations, edit the Oracle ASM disk discovery string to
specify a regular expression that matches the file names you created.
For example:
/mnt/oracleasm/sales1/
Related Topics
•
My Oracle Support Note 359515.1
8.2 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using
Oracle ASMFD
Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) maintains storage file path persistence and
helps to protect files from accidental overwrites.
The following references introduce you to Oracle ASMFD:
8-13
Chapter 8
Using Disk Groups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM
•
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can choose to install and
configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD).
Oracle ASMFD helps prevent corruption in Oracle ASM disks and files within the
disk group.
8.2.1 About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can choose to install and configure
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD). Oracle ASMFD
helps prevent corruption in Oracle ASM disks and files within the disk group.
Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) rejects write I/O requests that are not issued
by Oracle software. This write filter helps to prevent users with administrative
privileges from inadvertently overwriting Oracle ASM disks, thus preventing corruption
in Oracle ASM disks and files within the disk group. For disk partitions, the area
protected is the area on the disk managed by Oracle ASMFD, assuming the partition
table is left untouched by the user.
Oracle ASMFD simplifies the configuration and management of disk devices by
eliminating the need to rebind disk devices used with Oracle ASM each time the
system is restarted.
If Oracle ASMLIB exists on your Linux system, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB before
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, so that you can choose to install and configure
Oracle ASMFD during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Note:
Oracle ASMFD is supported on Linux x86–64 and Oracle Solaris operating
systems.
Related Topics
•
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Grid Infrastructure
If Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) is installed but you do not use it for
device path persistence, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB.
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
8.3 Using Disk Groups with Oracle Database Files on
Oracle ASM
Review this information to configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM) storage for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database Files.
•
Identifying and Using Existing Oracle Database Disk Groups on Oracle ASM
Identify existing disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
8-14
Chapter 8
Using Disk Groups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM
•
Creating Disk Groups for Oracle Database Data Files
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group.
•
Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files
Perform this procedure to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a
separate file system from the Oracle base directory.
8.3.1 Identifying and Using Existing Oracle Database Disk Groups on
Oracle ASM
Identify existing disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in
a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its own failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to the
same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails.
The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
To protect against failures of this type, you could use two SCSI controllers, each with
two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This
configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.
Note:
If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two
failure groups for normal redundancy and three failure groups for high
redundancy.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information
about Oracle ASM disk discovery.
8.3.2 Creating Disk Groups for Oracle Database Data Files
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or
identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group.
Use the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
•
All of the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group should be the same size and have
the same performance characteristics.
•
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group device.
Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.
•
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk
group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of complexity
that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. In addition, Oracle RAC requires a cluster
8-15
Chapter 8
Using Disk Groups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM
logical volume manager in case you decide to use a logical volume with Oracle
ASM and Oracle RAC.
8.3.3 Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files
Perform this procedure to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate
file system from the Oracle base directory.
1.
Use the following command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file
system:
# df -h
2.
Identify the file systems to use, from the display:
Option
Database Files
Description
Select one of the following:
•
•
Recovery Files
A single file system with at least 1.5 GB
of free disk space
Two or more file systems with at least
3.5 GB of free disk space in total
Choose a file system with at least 2 GB of
free disk space
If you are using the same file system for multiple file types, then add the disk
space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.
3.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
4.
If the user performing installation has permissions to create directories on the
disks where you plan to install Oracle Database, then DBCA creates the Oracle
Database file directory, and the Recovery file directory. If the user performing
installation does not have write access, then you must create these directories
manually.
For example, given the user oracle and Oracle Inventory Group oinstall, and
using the paths /u03/oradata/wrk_area for Oracle Database files,
and /u01/oradata/rcv_area for the recovery area, these commands create
the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the
appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
•
Database file directory:
# mkdir /u01/oradata/
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/oradata/
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
The default location for the database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/
oradata.
•
Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):
# mkdir /u01/oradata/rcv_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area
# chmod 775 /u01/oradata/rcv_area
The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/fast_recovery_area.
8-16
Chapter 8
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
Oracle recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate
physical disk than that of the database file directory. This method enables you
to use the fast recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is
unusable for any reason.
8.4 Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
Complete these procedures to use file system storage for Oracle Database.
If you plan to place storage on Network File System (NFS) protocol devices, then
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle Direct NFS (dNFS) to take advantage of
performance optimizations built into the Oracle Direct NFS client.
For optimal database organization and performance, Oracle recommends that you
install data files and the Oracle Database software in different disks.
•
Configuring NFS Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Database
Set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to 32768.
•
Checking TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client
Check your TCP network buffer size to ensure that it is adequate for the speed of
your servers.
•
Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client
Direct NFS uses a configuration file, oranfstab, to determine the available
mount points.
•
Enabling and Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS
Use these commands to enable or disable Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager
Control of NFS.
•
Enabling Hybrid Columnar Compression on Direct NFS Client
Perform these steps to enable Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) on Direct
NFS Client:
8.4.1 Configuring NFS Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Database
Set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to 32768.
For example, to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value 32768 for an
Oracle Database data files mount point, set mount point parameters to values similar
to the following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Direct NFS Client issues writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server.
Related Topics
•
My Oracle Support note 359515.1
8-17
Chapter 8
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
8.4.2 Checking TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client
Check your TCP network buffer size to ensure that it is adequate for the speed of your
servers.
By default, the network buffer size is set to 1 MB for TCP, and 2 MB for UDP. The TCP
buffer size can set a limit on file transfers, which can negatively affect performance for
Direct NFS Client users.
To check the current TCP buffer size, enter the following command:
# sysctl -a |grep -e net.ipv4.tcp_[rw]mem
The output of this command is similar to the following:
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096
87380
16384
1048576
1048576
Oracle recommends that you set the value based on the link speed of your servers.
For example, perform the following steps:
1.
As root, use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change the
following:
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096
2.
87380
16384
4194304
4194304
Apply your changes by running the following command:
# sysctl -p
3.
Restart the network:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart
8.4.3 Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client
Direct NFS uses a configuration file, oranfstab, to determine the available mount
points.
Create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server that you want
to access using Direct NFS Client:
•
server
The NFS server name.
•
local
Up to four paths on the database host, specified by IP address or by name, as
displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database host.
•
path
Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address, or by
name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the NFS server.
•
export
The exported path from the NFS server.
•
mount
8-18
Chapter 8
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.
•
mnt_timeout
Specifies (in seconds) the time Direct NFS Client should wait for a successful
mount before timing out. This parameter is optional. The default timeout is 10
minutes (600).
•
nfs_version
Specifies the NFS protocol version used by Direct NFS Client. Possible values are
NFSv3, NFSv4, NFSv4.1, and pNFS. The default version is NFSv3. If you select
NFSv4.x, then you must configure the value in oranfstab for nfs_version.
Specify nfs_version as pNFS, if you want to use Direct NFS with Parallel NFS.
•
security_default
Specifies the default security mode applicable for all the exported NFS server
paths for a server entry. This parameter is optional. sys is the default value. See
the description of the security parameter for the supported security levels for
the security_default parameter.
•
security
Specifies the security level, to enable security using Kerberos authentication
protocol with Direct NFS Client. This optional parameter can be specified per
export-mount pair. The supported security levels for the security_default and
security parameters are:
sys: UNIX level security AUTH_UNIX authentication based on user identifier
(UID) and group identifier (GID) values. This is the default value for security
parameters.
krb5: Direct NFS runs with plain Kerberos authentication. Server is
authenticated as the real server which it claims to be.
krb5i: Direct NFS runs with Kerberos authentication and NFS integrity. Server
is authenticated and each of the message transfers is checked for integrity.
krb5p: Direct NFS runs with Kerberos authentication and NFS privacy. Server
is authenticated, and all data is completely encrypted.
The security parameter, if specified, takes precedence over the
security_default parameter. If neither of these parameters are specified, then
sys is the default authentication.
For NFS server Kerberos security setup, review the relevant NFS server
documentation. For Kerberos client setup, review the relevant operating system
documentation.
•
dontroute
Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the operating system,
but instead sent using the IP address to which they are bound.
Note:
The dontroute option is a POSIX option, which sometimes does not work
on Linux systems with multiple paths in the same subnet.
•
management
8-19
Chapter 8
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
Enables Direct NFS Client to use the management interface for SNMP queries.
You can use this parameter if SNMP is running on separate management
interfaces on the NFS server. The default value is the server parameter value.
•
community
Specifies the community string for use in SNMP queries. Default value is public.
The following examples show three possible NFS server entries in oranfstab. A single
oranfstab can have multiple NFS server entries.
Example 8-1
Using Local and Path NFS Server Entries
The following example uses both local and path. Because they are in different
subnets, you do not have to specify dontroute.
server: MyDataServer1
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.1
local: 192.0.100.0
path: 192.0.100.1
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
Example 8-2
Using Local and Path in the Same Subnet, with dontroute
Local and path in the same subnet, where dontroute is specified:
server: MyDataServer2
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.128
local: 192.0.2.1
path: 192.0.2.129
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2
Example 8-3 Using Names in Place of IP Addresses, with Multiple Exports,
management and community
server: MyDataServer3
local: LocalPath1
path: NfsPath1
local: LocalPath2
path: NfsPath2
local: LocalPath3
path: NfsPath3
local: LocalPath4
path: NfsPath4
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4
export: /vol/oradata5
export: /vol/oradata6
management: MgmtPath1
community: private
Example 8-4
mount:
mount:
mount:
mount:
/mnt/oradata3
/mnt/oradata4
/mnt/oradata5
/mnt/oradata6
Using Kerberos Authentication with Direct NFS Export
The security parameter overrides security_default:
server: nfsserver
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.2
local: 192.0.2.3
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Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
path: 192.0.2.4
export: /private/oracle1/logs mount: /logs security: krb5
export: /private/oracle1/data mount: /data security: krb5p
export: /private/oracle1/archive mount: /archive security: sys
export: /private/oracle1/data1 mount: /data1
security_default: krb5i
8.4.4 Enabling and Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS
Use these commands to enable or disable Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager
Control of NFS.
By default, Direct NFS Client is installed in an enabled state. However, if Direct NFS
Client is disabled and you want to enable it, complete the following steps on each
node. If you use a shared Grid home for the cluster, then complete the following steps
in the shared Grid home:
1.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner.
2.
Change directory to Grid_home/rdbms/lib.
3.
Enter the following command:
$ make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_on
Note:
If you remove an NFS path that an Oracle Database is using, then you must
restart the database for the change to take effect.
8.4.5 Enabling Hybrid Columnar Compression on Direct NFS Client
Perform these steps to enable Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) on Direct NFS
Client:
1.
Ensure that SNMP is enabled on the ZFS storage server. For example:
$ snmpget -v1 -c public server_name .1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.225.1.4.2.0
SNMPv2-SMI::enterprises.42.2.225.1.4.2.0 = STRING: "Sun Storage 7410"
2.
If SNMP is enabled on an interface other than the NFS server, then configure
oranfstab using the management parameter.
3.
If SNMP is configured using a community string other than public, then configure
oranfstab file using the community parameter.
4.
Ensure that libnetsnmp.so is installed by checking if snmpget is available.
8-21
Chapter 8
Creating Member Cluster Manifest File for Oracle Member Clusters
8.5 Creating Member Cluster Manifest File for Oracle
Member Clusters
Create a Member Cluster Manifest file to specify the Oracle Member Cluster
configuration for the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), Grid Naming
Service, Oracle ASM storage server, and Rapid Home Provisioning configuration.
Oracle Member Clusters use Oracle ASM storage from the Oracle Domain Services
Cluster. Grid Naming Service (GNS) without zone delegation must be configured so
that the GNS virtual IP address (VIP) is available for connection.
1.
(Optional) If the Oracle Member Cluster accesses direct or indirect Oracle ASM
storage, then, enable access to the disk group. Connect to any Oracle ASM
instance as SYSASM user and run the command:
ALTER DISKGROUP diskgroup_name SET ATTRIBUTE 'access_control.enabled' = 'true';
2.
From the Grid home on the Oracle Domain Services Cluster, create the member
cluster manifest file:
cd Grid_home/bin
./crsctl create member_cluster_configuration member_cluster_name
-file cluster_manifest_file_name -member_type database|application [-version
member_cluster_version
[-domain_services [asm_storage local|direct|indirect][rhp]]
member_cluster_name is the client cluster name.
-file specifies the full path of the xml file to export the credentials, -version is
the five digit Client Cluster version, for example, 12.2.0.1.0, if it is different from
the Storage Server version. The Storage Server version is used if -version is
not specified.
In the options for -domain_services, specifying rhp generates credentials and
configuration for a RHP Client Cluster, and asm_storage generates credentials and
configuration for an Oracle ASM Client Cluster. direct if specified, signifies direct
storage access, otherwise indirect.
This command creates a member cluster manifest file containing configuration
details about Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), Storage
services, and Rapid Home Provisioning for the Oracle Member Cluster.
3.
GNS client data is required if the Oracle Member Cluster uses dynamic networks
and the server cluster has GNS with zone delegation. Provide the GNS client data
as follows:
a.
As root or grid user, export the Grid Naming Service (GNS) client data, to the
member cluster manifest file created earlier:
srvctl export gns -clientdata manifest_file_name -role CLIENT
The GNS configuration is appended to the member cluster manifest file.
4.
Copy the manifest file to a location on the Oracle Member Cluster, and select the
file during the installation and configuration of the Oracle Member Cluster.
8-22
Chapter 8
Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
Related Topics
•
Installing Oracle Member Clusters
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Member Cluster for Oracle Database and Oracle Member Cluster for Applications.
8.6 Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System
Review this information to configure Oracle ACFS for an Oracle RAC Oracle Database
home.
Oracle ACFS is installed as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation 12c
release 2 (12.2).
You can also create a General Purpose File System configuration of ACFS using
ASMCA.
To configure Oracle ACFS for an Oracle Database home for an Oracle RAC database:
1.
Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster.
2.
Change directory to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. For example:
$ cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
3.
Ensure that the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner has read and write
permissions on the storage mountpoint you want to use. For example, if you want
to use the mountpoint /u02/acfsmounts/:
$ ls -l /u02/acfsmounts
4.
Start Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant as the grid installation owner. For
example:
./asmca
5.
The Configure ASM: ASM Disk Groups page shows you the Oracle ASM disk
group you created during installation. Click the ASM Cluster File Systems tab.
6.
On the ASM Cluster File Systems page, right-click the Data disk, then select
Create ACFS for Database Use.
7.
In the Create ACFS for Database window, enter the following information:
•
Volume Name: Enter the name of the database home. The name must be
unique in your enterprise. For example: dbase_01
•
Mount Point: Enter the directory path for the mount point. For
example: /u02/acfsmounts/dbase_01
Make a note of this mount point for future reference.
•
Size (GB): Enter in gigabytes the size you want the database home to be. The
default is 12 GB and the minimum recommended size.
•
Owner Name: Enter the name of the Oracle Database installation owner you
plan to use to install the database. For example: oracle1
•
Owner Group: Enter the OSDBA group whose members you plan to provide
when you install the database. Members of this group are given operating
8-23
Chapter 8
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
system authentication for the SYSDBA privileges on the database. For
example: dba1
Select Automatically run configuration commands to run ASMCA configuration
commands automatically. To use this option, you must provide the root credentials
on the ASMCA Settings page.
Click OK when you have completed your entries.
8.
If you did not select to run configuration commands automatically, then run the
script generated by Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant as a privileged user
(root). On an Oracle Clusterware environment, the script registers the ACFS as a
resource managed by Oracle Clusterware. Registering ACFS as a resource helps
Oracle Clusterware to mount ACFS automatically in proper order when ACFS is
used for an Oracle RAC Oracle Database home.
9.
During Oracle RAC installation, ensure that you or the DBA who installs Oracle
RAC selects for the Oracle home the mount point you provided in the Mount Point
field (in the preceding example, /u02/acfsmounts/dbase_01).
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more
information about configuring and managing your storage with Oracle ACFS
8.7 Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
Use the following command to check your OCFS2 version manually.
Ensure that ocfs2console and ocfs2-tools are at least version 1.2.7, and that the other
OCFS2 components correspond to the pattern ocfs2-kernel_version-1.2.7 or greater.
If you want to install Oracle RAC on a shared home, then the OCFS2 version must be
1.4.1 or greater.
modinfo ocfs2
rpm -qa |grep ocfs2
For information about OCFS2, refer to the following website:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
8-24
9
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this information for installation and deployment options for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation software is available in
multiple media, and can be installed using several options. The Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software is available as an image, available for download from the
Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal. In
most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal
Installer to install the software. You can also use Oracle Universal Installer to complete
silent mode installations, without using the GUI. You can also use Rapid Home
Provisioning for subsequent Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database
deployments.
•
About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), installation and
configuration of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is simplified with image-based
installation.
•
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
Review these topics to understand the cluster configuration options available in
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2.
•
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster
Review these procedures to install the cluster configuration options available in
this release of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Cluster Configuration File
During installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you have the option of either of
providing cluster configuration information manually, or of using a cluster
configuration file.
•
Installing Only the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software
This installation option requires manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure software.
•
About Deploying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
Rapid Home Provisioning is a software lifecycle management method for
provisioning and patching Oracle homes. Rapid Home Provisioning enables mass
deployment of standard operating environments for databases and clusters.
•
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
After Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, confirm that your Oracle Clusterware
installation is installed and running correctly.
•
Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files
Confirm Oracle ASM is running after installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Understanding Offline Processes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
After the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, some components may be listed
as OFFLINE. Oracle Grid Infrastructure activates these resources when you
choose to add them.
9-1
Chapter 9
About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
9.1 About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installation
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), installation and
configuration of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is simplified with image-based
installation.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, create the new Grid home with the necessary
user group permissions, and then extract the image file into the newly-created Grid
home, and run the setup wizard to register the Oracle Grid Infrastructure product.
Using image-based installation, you can do the following:
•
Install and upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure for cluster configurations.
•
Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle Restart).
•
Install only Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, and register the software with
Oracle inventory.
•
Add nodes to your existing cluster, if the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is
already installed or configured.
This installation feature streamlines the installation process and supports automation
of large-scale custom deployments. You can also use this installation method for
deployment of customized images, after you patch the base-release software with the
necessary Patch Set Updates (PSUs) and patches.
Note:
You must extract the image software into the directory where you want your
Grid home to be located, and then run the gridSetup.sh script to start the Grid
Infrastructure setup wizard. Ensure that the Grid home directory path you
create is in compliance with the Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture
recommendations.
Related Topics
•
Installing Oracle Domain Services Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Domain Services Cluster.
•
Installing Oracle Standalone Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Standalone Cluster.
•
Installing Oracle Member Clusters
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Member Cluster for Oracle Database and Oracle Member Cluster for Applications.
9.2 Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
Review these topics to understand the cluster configuration options available in Oracle
Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2.
9-2
Chapter 9
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
•
About Oracle Standalone Clusters
An Oracle Standalone Cluster hosts all Oracle Grid Infrastructure services and
Oracle ASM locally and requires direct access to shared storage.
•
About Oracle Cluster Domain and Oracle Domain Services Cluster
An Oracle Cluster Domain is a choice of deployment architecture for new clusters,
introduced in Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 2.
•
About Oracle Member Clusters
Oracle Member Clusters use centralized services from the Oracle Domain
Services Cluster and can host databases or applications.
•
About Oracle Extended Clusters
An Oracle Extended Cluster consists of nodes that are located in multiple locations
called sites.
9.2.1 About Oracle Standalone Clusters
An Oracle Standalone Cluster hosts all Oracle Grid Infrastructure services and Oracle
ASM locally and requires direct access to shared storage.
Oracle Standalone Clusters contain two types of nodes arranged in a hub and spoke
architecture: Hub Nodes and Leaf Nodes. The number of Hub Nodes in an Oracle
Standalone Cluster can be as many as 64. The number of Leaf Nodes can be many
more. Hub Nodes and Leaf Nodes can host different types of applications. Oracle
Standalone Cluster Hub Nodes are tightly connected, and have direct access to
shared storage. Leaf Nodes do not require direct access to shared storage. Hub
Nodes can run in an Oracle Standalone Cluster configuration without having any Leaf
Nodes as cluster member nodes, but Leaf Nodes must be members of a cluster with a
pool of Hub Nodes. Shared storage is locally mounted on each of the Hub Nodes, with
an Oracle ASM instance available to all Hub Nodes.
Oracle Standalone Clusters host Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR)
locally. The GIMR is a multitenant database, which stores information about the
cluster. This information includes the real time performance data the Cluster Health
Monitor collects, and includes metadata required for Rapid Home Provisioning.
When you deploy an Oracle Standalone Cluster, you can also choose to configure it
as an Oracle Extended cluster. An Oracle Extended Cluster consists of nodes that are
located in multiple locations or sites.
9.2.2 About Oracle Cluster Domain and Oracle Domain Services
Cluster
An Oracle Cluster Domain is a choice of deployment architecture for new clusters,
introduced in Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 2.
Oracle Cluster Domain enables you to standardize, centralize, and optimize your
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) deployment for the private database
cloud. Multiple cluster configurations are grouped under an Oracle Cluster Domain for
management purposes and make use of shared services available within that Oracle
Cluster Domain. The cluster configurations within that Oracle Cluster Domain include
Oracle Domain Services Cluster and Oracle Member Clusters.
The Oracle Domain Services Cluster provides centralized services to other clusters
within the Oracle Cluster Domain. These services include:
9-3
Chapter 9
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
•
A centralized Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (housing the MGMTDB
for each of the clusters within the Oracle Cluster Domain)
•
Trace File Analyzer (TFA) services, for targeted diagnostic data collection for
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database
•
Consolidated Oracle ASM storage management service
•
An optional Rapid Home Provisioning (RHP) Service to install clusters, and
provision, patch, and upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database
homes. When you configure the Oracle Domain Services Cluster, you can also
choose to configure the Rapid Home Provisioning Server.
An Oracle Domain Services Cluster provides these centralized services to Oracle
Member Clusters. Oracle Member Clusters use these services for centralized
management and to reduce their local resource usage.
Figure 9-1
Oracle Cluster Domain
Oracle Cluster Domain
Oracle Member
Cluster for
Oracle Databases
Oracle Member
Cluster for
Applications
Oracle Member
Cluster for
Oracle Databases
Oracle Member
Cluster for Oracle
Database
Uses local Oracle
ASM
Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
only
Uses Oracle ASM
IO service of the
Oracle Domain
Services Cluster
Uses Oracle ASM
service of the
Oracle Domain
Services Cluster
Oracle Domain Services Cluster
Management
Repository
(GIMR)
Service
Trace File
Analyzer
(TFA)
Service
Rapid Home
Provisioning
(RHP)
Service
Additional
Optional
Services
Oracle
ASM
Service
Oracle ASM
IO Service
Shared Oracle ASM
Private Network
SAN
Oracle ASM Network Storage
Related Topics
•
About Oracle Member Clusters
Oracle Member Clusters use centralized services from the Oracle Domain
Services Cluster and can host databases or applications.
9.2.3 About Oracle Member Clusters
Oracle Member Clusters use centralized services from the Oracle Domain Services
Cluster and can host databases or applications.
9-4
Chapter 9
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
Oracle Member Clusters can be of two types — Oracle Member Clusters for Oracle
Databases or Oracle Member Clusters for applications.
Oracle Member Clusters do not need direct connectivity to shared disks. Using the
shared Oracle ASM service, they can use network connectivity to the IO Service to
access a centrally managed pool of storage. To use shared Oracle ASM services from
the Oracle Domain Services Cluster, the member cluster needs connectivity to the
Oracle ASM networks of the Oracle Domain Services Cluster.
Oracle Member Clusters cannot provide services to other clusters. For example, you
cannot configure and use a member cluster as a GNS server or Rapid Home
Provisioning Server.
Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases
An Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases supports Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC) or Oracle RAC One Node database instances. This cluster
registers with the management repository service and uses the centralized TFA
service. It can use additional services as needed. An Oracle Member Cluster for
Oracle Databases can be configured with local Oracle ASM storage management or
make use of the consolidated Oracle ASM storage management service offered by the
Oracle Domain Services Cluster.
An Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Database always uses remote Grid
Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR) from its Oracle Domain Services
Cluster. For two-node or four-node clusters, hosting the GIMR on a remote cluster
reduces the overhead of running an extra infrastructure repository on a cluster.
Oracle Member Cluster for Applications
Oracle Member Cluster for Applications hosts applications other than Oracle
Database, as part of an Oracle Cluster Domain. The Oracle Member Cluster requires
connectivity to Oracle Cluster Domain Services for centralized management and
resource efficiency. The Oracle Member Cluster uses remote Oracle ASM storage and
does not require direct shared storage access. This cluster configuration enables high
availability of any software application.
Note:
Before running Oracle Universal Installer, you must specify the Oracle Domain
Services Cluster configuration details for the Oracle Member Cluster by
creating the Member Cluster Manifest file.
Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Database does not support Oracle Database
12.1 or earlier, where Oracle Member Cluster is configured with Oracle ASM
storage as direct or indirect.
Related Topics
•
Creating Member Cluster Manifest File for Oracle Member Clusters
Create a Member Cluster Manifest file to specify the Oracle Member Cluster
configuration for the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), Grid
Naming Service, Oracle ASM storage server, and Rapid Home Provisioning
configuration.
9-5
Chapter 9
Understanding Cluster Configuration Options
9.2.4 About Oracle Extended Clusters
An Oracle Extended Cluster consists of nodes that are located in multiple locations
called sites.
When you deploy an Oracle Standalone Cluster, you can also choose to configure the
cluster as an Oracle Extended Cluster. You can extend an Oracle RAC cluster across
two, or more, geographically separate sites, each equipped with its own storage. In the
event that one of the sites fails, the other site acts as an active standby.
Both Oracle ASM and the Oracle Database stack, in general, are designed to use
enterprise-class shared storage in a data center. Fibre Channel technology, however,
enables you to distribute compute and storage resources across two or more data
centers, and connect them through Ethernet cables and Fibre Channel, for compute
and storage needs, respectively.
You can configure an Oracle Extended Cluster when you install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure. You can also do so post installation using the ConvertToExtended script.
You manage your Oracle Extended Cluster using CRSCTL.
Oracle recommends that you deploy Oracle Extended Clusters with normal
redundancy disk groups. You can assign nodes and failure groups to sites. Sites
contain failure groups, and failure groups contain disks. For normal redundancy disk
groups, a disk group provides one level of failure protection, and can tolerate the
failure of either a site or a failure group.
The following conditions apply when you select redundancy levels for Oracle Extended
Clusters:
Table 9-1
Clusters
Oracle ASM Disk Group Redundancy Levels for Oracle Extended
Redundancy Level
Number of OCR and Voting
Files Disk Groups
Number of OCR Backup and
GIMR Disk Groups
Normal redundancy
1 failure group per data site, 1 1 failure group per data site
quorum failure group
Flex redundancy
1 failure group per data site, 1 Three failure groups, with 1
quorum failure group
failure group per site
High redundancy
Not supported
Three failure groups, with 1
failure group per site
Related Topics
•
Converting to Oracle Extended Cluster After Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this information to convert to an Oracle Extended Cluster after upgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Extended Cluster enables you to deploy Oracle
RAC databases on a cluster, in which some of the nodes are located in different
sites.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
9-6
Chapter 9
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster
9.3 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster
Review these procedures to install the cluster configuration options available in this
release of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Installing Oracle Standalone Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Standalone Cluster.
•
Installing Oracle Domain Services Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Domain Services Cluster.
•
Installing Oracle Member Clusters
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Member Cluster for Oracle Database and Oracle Member Cluster for Applications.
9.3.1 Installing Oracle Standalone Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Standalone Cluster.
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), the installation media is
replaced with a zip file for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer. Run the installation
wizard after extracting the zip file into the target home path.
At any time during installation, if you have a question about what you are being asked
to do, or what input you are required to provide during installation, click the Help
button on the installer page.
You should have your network information, storage information, and operating system
users and groups available to you before you start installation, and you should be
prepared to run root scripts.
As the user that owns the software for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (grid) on
the first node, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster. Note that the installer uses
Secure Shell (SSH) to copy the binary files from this node to the other nodes during
the installation. During installation, in the Cluster Node Information window, when you
specify the nodes in your cluster, you can click SSH Connectivity and the installer
configures SSH connectivity between the specified nodes for you.
Note:
These installation instructions assume you do not already have any Oracle
software installed on your system. If you have already installed Oracle ASMLIB,
then you cannot install Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) until you
uninstall Oracle ASMLIB. You can use Oracle ASMLIB instead of Oracle
ASMFD for managing the disks used by Oracle ASM.
To install the software for Oracle Standalone Cluster:
1.
As the grid user, download the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files and extract
the files into the Grid home. For example:
9-7
Chapter 9
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster
mkdir -p /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
chown grid:oinstall /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
unzip -q download_location/grid.zip
grid.zip is the name of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image zip file. For example,
on Linux systems, the name of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image zip file is
linuxx64_12201_grid_home.zip.
Note:
2.
•
You must extract the zip image software into the directory where you
want your Grid home to be located.
•
Download and copy the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files to the
local node only. During installation, the software is copied and installed
on all other nodes in the cluster.
Configure the shared disks for use with Oracle ASM Filter Driver:
a.
Verify that the device rules file to set the permissions and ownership is created
at /etc/udev/rules.d/. See Configuring Device Persistence Manually for
Oracle ASM for the procedure to create the device rules file.
b.
Log in as the root user and set the environment variable ORACLE_HOME to the
location of the Grid home.
For C shell:
su root
setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
For bash shell:
su root
export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid
c.
Use Oracle ASM command line tool (ASMCMD) to provision the disk devices
for use with Oracle ASM Filter Driver.
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_label DATA1 /dev/sdb1 --init
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_label DATA2 /dev/sdc1 --init
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_label DATA3 /dev/sdd1 --init
d.
Verify the device has been marked for use with Oracle ASMFD.
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdb1
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdc1
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdd1
3.
Log in as the grid user, and start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer by running
the following command:
Grid_home/gridSetup.sh
The installer starts and the Select Configuration Option window appears.
4.
Choose the option Configure Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster, then click
Next.
The Select Cluster Configuration window appears.
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5.
Choose the option Configure an Oracle Standalone Cluster, then click Next.
Select the Configure as Extended Cluster option to extend an Oracle RAC
cluster across two or more separate sites, each equipped with its own storage.
The Grid Plug and Play Information window appears.
6.
In the Cluster Name and SCAN Name fields, enter the names for your cluster and
cluster scan that are unique throughout your entire enterprise network.
You can select Configure GNS if you have configured your domain name server
(DNS) to send to the GNS virtual IP address name resolution requests for the
subdomain GNS serves, as explained in this guide.
For cluster member node public and VIP network addresses, provide the
information required depending on the kind of cluster you are configuring:
•
If you plan to use automatic cluster configuration with DHCP addresses
configured and resolved through GNS, then you only need to provide the GNS
VIP names as configured on your DNS.
•
If you plan to use manual cluster configuration, with fixed IP addresses
configured and resolved on your DNS, then provide the SCAN names for the
cluster, and the public names, and VIP names for each cluster member node.
For example, you can choose a name that is based on the node names'
common prefix. The cluster name can be mycluster and the cluster SCAN
name can be mycluster-scan.
Click Next.
The Cluster Node Information screen appears.
7.
In the Public Hostname column of the table of cluster nodes, you should see your
local node, for example node1.example.com.
The following is a list of additional information about node IP addresses:
•
For the local node only, OUI automatically fills in public and VIP fields. If your
system uses vendor clusterware, then OUI may fill additional fields.
•
Host names and virtual host names are not domain-qualified. If you provide a
domain in the address field during installation, then OUI removes the domain
from the address.
•
Interfaces identified as private for private IP addresses should not be
accessible as public interfaces. Using public interfaces for Cache Fusion can
cause performance problems.
•
When you enter the public node name, use the primary host name of each
node. In other words, use the name displayed by the /bin/hostname command.
a.
Click Add to add another node to the cluster.
b.
Enter the second node's public name (node2), and virtual IP name (node2-vip),
then click OK.
You are returned to the Cluster Node Information window. You should now
see all nodes listed in the table of cluster nodes. Make sure the Role column is
set to HUB for both nodes. To add Leaf Nodes, you must configure GNS.
c.
Make sure all nodes are selected, then click the SSH Connectivity button at
the bottom of the window.
The bottom panel of the window displays the SSH Connectivity information.
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d.
Enter the operating system user name and password for the Oracle software
owner (grid). Select the option If you have configured SSH connectivity
between the nodes, then select the Reuse private and public keys existing
in user home option. Click Setup.
A message window appears, indicating that it might take several minutes to
configure SSH connectivity between the nodes. After a short period, another
message window appears indicating that passwordless SSH connectivity has
been established between the cluster nodes. Click OK to continue.
e.
When returned to the Cluster Node Information window, click Next to continue.
The Specify Network Interface Usage page appears.
8.
Select the usage type for each network interface displayed.
Verify that each interface has the correct interface type associated with it. If you
have network interfaces that should not be used by Oracle Clusterware, then set
the network interface type to Do Not Use. For example, if you have only two
network interfaces, then set the public interface to have a Use For value of Public
and set the private network interface to have a Use For value of ASM & Private.
Click Next. The Storage Option Information window appears.
9.
Select the Oracle ASM storage configuration option:
a.
If you select Configure ASM using block devices, then specify the NFS
mount points for the Oracle ASM disk groups, and optionally, the GIMR disk
group in the Specify NFS Locations for ASM Disk Groups window.
b.
If you select Configure ASM on NAS, then click Next. The Grid Infrastructure
Management Repository Option window appears.
10. Choose whether you want to store the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository
in a separate Oracle ASM disk group, then click Next.
The Create ASM Disk Group window appears.
11. Provide the name and specifications for the Oracle ASM disk group.
a.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a name for the disk group, for example
DATA.
b.
Choose the Redundancy level for this disk group. Normal is the recommended
option.
c.
In the Add Disks section, choose the disks to add to this disk group.
In the Add Disks section you should see the disks that you labeled in Step 2. If
you do not see the disks, click the Change Discovery Path button and
provide a path and pattern match for the disk, for example, /dev/sd*
During installation, disks labelled as Oracle ASMFD disks or Oracle ASMLIB
disks are listed as candidate disks when using the default discovery string.
However, if the disk has a header status of MEMBER, then it is not a
candidate disk.
d.
If you want to use Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) to manage your
Oracle ASM disk devices, then select the option Configure Oracle ASM Filter
Driver.
If you are installing on Linux systems, and you want to use Oracle ASM Filter
Driver (Oracle ASMFD) to manage your Oracle ASM disk devices, then you
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must deinstall Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) before starting
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
When you have finished providing the information for the disk group, click Next.
12. If you selected to use a different disk group for the GIMR, then the Grid
Infrastructure Management Repository Option window appears. Provide the name
and specifications for the GIMR disk group.
a.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a name for the disk group, for example
DATA.
b.
Choose the Redundancy level for this disk group. Normal is the recommended
option.
c.
In the Add Disks section, choose the disks to add to this disk group.
When you have finished providing the information for the disk group, click Next.
The Specify ASM Password window appears.
13. Choose the same password for the Oracle ASM SYS and ASMSNMP account, or
specify different passwords for each account, then click Next.
The Failure Isolation Support window appears.
14. Select the option Do not use Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI),
then click Next.
The Specify Management Options window appears.
15. If you have Enterprise Manager Cloud Control installed in your enterprise, then
choose the option Register with Enterprise Manager (EM) Cloud Control and
provide the EM configuration information. If you do not have Enterprise Manager
Cloud Control installed in your enterprise, then click Next to continue.
The Privileged Operating System Groups window appears.
16. Accept the default operating system group names for Oracle ASM administration
and click Next.
The Specify Install Location window appears.
17. Specify the directory to use for the Oracle base for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation, then click Next. The Oracle base directory must be different from the
Oracle home directory.
If you copied the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation files into the Oracle Grid
home directory as directed in Step 1, then the default location for the Oracle base
directory should display as /u01/app/grid.
If you have not installed Oracle software previously on this computer, then the
Create Inventory window appears.
18. Change the path for the inventory directory, if required. Then, click Next.
If you are using the same directory names as the examples in this book, then it
should show a value of /u01/app/oraInventory. The group name for the
oraInventory directory should show oinstall.
The Root Script Execution Configuration window appears.
19. Select the option to Automatically run configuration scripts. Enter the
credentials for the root user or a sudo account, then click Next.
Alternatively, you can Run the scripts manually as the root user at the end of the
installation process when prompted by the installer.
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The Perform Prerequisite Checks window appears.
20. If any of the checks have a status of Failed and are not Fixable, then you must
manually correct these issues. After you have fixed the issue, you can click the
Check Again button to have the installer recheck the requirement and update the
status. Repeat as needed until all the checks have a status of Succeeded. Click
Next.
The Summary window appears.
21. Review the contents of the Summary window and then click Install.
The installer displays a progress indicator enabling you to monitor the installation
process.
22. If you did not configure automation of the root scripts, then you are required to run
certain scripts as the root user, as specified in the Execute Configuration Scripts
window appears. Do not click OK until you have run the scripts. Run the scripts on
all nodes as directed, in the order shown.
For example, on Oracle Linux you perform the following steps (note that for clarity,
the examples show the current user, node and directory in the prompt):
a.
As the oracle user on node1, open a terminal window, and enter the following
commands:
[[email protected] oracle]$ cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected] oraInventory]$ su
b.
Enter the password for the root user, and then enter the following command to
run the first script on node1:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# ./orainstRoot.sh
c.
After the orainstRoot.sh script finishes on node1, open another terminal
window, and as the oracle user, enter the following commands:
[[email protected] oracle]$ ssh node2
[[email protected] oracle]$ cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected] oraInventory]$ su
d.
Enter the password for the root user, and then enter the following command to
run the first script on node2:
[[email protected] oraInventory]#./orainstRoot.sh
e.
After the orainstRoot.sh script finishes on node2, go to the terminal window you
opened in part a of this step. As the root user on node1, enter the following
commands to run the second script, root.sh:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected] grid]# ./root.sh
Press Enter at the prompt to accept the default value.
Note:
You must run the root.sh script on the first node and wait for it to finish.
You can run root.sh scripts concurrently on all other nodes except for
the last node on which you run the script. Like the first node, the
root.sh script on the last node must be run separately.
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f.
After the root.sh script finishes on node1, go to the terminal window you
opened in part c of this step. As the root user on node2, enter the following
commands:
[[email protected] oraInventory]#cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected] grid]#./root.sh
After the root.sh script completes, return to the Oracle Universal Installer
window where the Installer prompted you to run the orainstRoot.sh and
root.sh scripts. Click OK.
The software installation monitoring window reappears.
23. Continue monitoring the installation until the Finish window appears. Then click
Close to complete the installation process and exit the installer.
Caution:
After installation is complete, do not remove manually or run cron jobs that
remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle directories or their files while Oracle
software is running on the server. If you remove these files, then the Oracle
software can encounter intermittent hangs. Oracle Clusterware installations can
fail with the error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
After your Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation is complete, you can install Oracle
Database on a cluster node for high availability, or install Oracle RAC.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide or Oracle Database
Installation Guide for your platform for information on installing Oracle
Database
9.3.2 Installing Oracle Domain Services Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Domain Services Cluster.
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), the installation media is
replaced with a zip file for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer. Run the installation
wizard after extracting the zip file into the target home path.
At any time during installation, if you have a question about what you are being asked
to do, or what input you are required to provide during installation, click the Help
button on the installer page.
You should have your network information, storage information, and operating system
users and groups available to you before you start installation, and you should be
prepared to run root scripts.
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As the user that owns the software for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (grid) on
the first node, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster. Note that the installer uses
Secure Shell (SSH) to copy the binary files from this node to the other nodes during
the installation. During installation, in the Cluster Node Information window, when you
specify the nodes in your cluster, you can click SSH Connectivity and the installer
configures SSH connectivity between the specified nodes for you.
Note:
These installation instructions assume you do not already have any Oracle
software installed on your system. If you have already installed Oracle ASMLIB,
then you cannot install Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) until you
uninstall Oracle ASMLIB. You can use Oracle ASMLIB instead of Oracle
ASMFD for managing the disks used by Oracle ASM.
To install the software for Oracle Domain Services Cluster:
1.
As the grid user, download the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files and extract
the files into the Grid home. For example:
mkdir -p /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
chown grid:oinstall /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
unzip -q download_location/grid.zip
grid.zip is the name of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image zip file. For example,
on Linux systems, the name of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image zip file is
linuxx64_12201_grid_home.zip.
Note:
2.
•
You must extract the zip image software into the directory where you
want your Grid home to be located.
•
Download and copy the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files to the
local node only. During installation, the software is copied and installed
on all other nodes in the cluster.
Configure the shared disks for use with Oracle ASM Filter Driver:
a.
Verify that the device rules file to set the permissions and ownership is created
at /etc/udev/rules.d/. See Configuring Device Persistence Manually for
Oracle ASM for the procedure to create the device rules file.
b.
Log in as the root user and set the environment variable ORACLE_HOME to the
location of the Grid home.
For C shell:
su root
setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
For bash shell:
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su root
export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid
c.
Use Oracle ASM command line tool (ASMCMD) to provision the disk devices
for use with Oracle ASM Filter Driver.
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_label DATA1 /dev/sdb1 --init
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_label DATA2 /dev/sdc1 --init
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_label DATA3 /dev/sdd1 --init
d.
Verify the device has been marked for use with Oracle ASMFD.
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdb1
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdc1
./u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdd1
3.
Log in as the grid user, and start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer by running
the following command:
Grid_home/gridSetup.sh
The installer starts and the Select Configuration Option window appears.
4.
Choose the option Configure Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster, then click
Next.
The Select Cluster Configuration window appears.
5.
Choose the option Configure an Oracle Domain Services Cluster, then click
Next.
The Grid Plug and Play Information window appears.
6.
In the Cluster Name and SCAN Name fields, enter the names for your cluster and
cluster scan that are unique throughout your entire enterprise network.
You can select Configure GNS if you have configured your domain name server
(DNS) to send to the GNS virtual IP address name resolution requests for the
subdomain GNS serves, as explained in this guide.
For cluster member node public and VIP network addresses, provide the
information required depending on the kind of cluster you are configuring:
•
If you plan to use automatic cluster configuration with DHCP addresses
configured and resolved through GNS, then you only need to provide the GNS
VIP names as configured on your DNS.
•
If you plan to use manual cluster configuration, with fixed IP addresses
configured and resolved on your DNS, then provide the SCAN names for the
cluster, and the public names, and VIP names for each cluster member node.
For example, you can choose a name that is based on the node names'
common prefix. This example uses the cluster name mycluster and the cluster
SCAN name of mycluster-scan.
Click Next.
The Cluster Node Information screen appears.
7.
In the Public Hostname column of the table of cluster nodes, you should see your
local node, for example node1.example.com.
The following is a list of additional information about node IP addresses:
•
For the local node only, OUI automatically fills in public and VIP fields. If your
system uses vendor clusterware, then OUI may fill additional fields.
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•
Host names and virtual host names are not domain-qualified. If you provide a
domain in the address field during installation, then OUI removes the domain
from the address.
•
Interfaces identified as private for private IP addresses should not be
accessible as public interfaces. Using public interfaces for Cache Fusion can
cause performance problems.
•
When you enter the public node name, use the primary host name of each
node. In other words, use the name displayed by the /bin/hostname command.
a.
Click Add to add another node to the cluster.
b.
Enter the second node's public name (node2), and virtual IP name (node2-vip),
then click OK.
You are returned to the Cluster Node Information window. You should now
see all nodes listed in the table of cluster nodes. Make sure the Role column is
set to HUB for both nodes. To add Leaf Nodes, you must configure GNS.
c.
Make sure all nodes are selected, then click the SSH Connectivity button at
the bottom of the window.
The bottom panel of the window displays the SSH Connectivity information.
d.
Enter the operating system user name and password for the Oracle software
owner (grid). Select the option If you have configured SSH connectivity
between the nodes, then select the Reuse private and public keys existing
in user home option. Click Setup.
A message window appears, indicating that it might take several minutes to
configure SSH connectivity between the nodes. After a short period, another
message window appears indicating that passwordless SSH connectivity has
been established between the cluster nodes. Click OK to continue.
e.
When returned to the Cluster Node Information window, click Next to continue.
The Specify Network Interface Usage page appears.
8.
Select the usage type for each network interface displayed.
Verify that each interface has the correct interface type associated with it. If you
have network interfaces that should not be used by Oracle Clusterware, then set
the network interface type to Do Not Use. For example, if you have only two
network interfaces, then set the public interface to have a Use For value of Public
and set the private network interface to have a Use For value of ASM & Private.
Click Next. The Create ASM Disk Group window appears.
9.
Provide the name and specifications for the Oracle ASM disk group.
a.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a name for the disk group, for example
DATA.
b.
Choose the Redundancy level for this disk group. Normal is the recommended
option.
c.
In the Add Disks section, choose the disks to add to this disk group.
In the Add Disks section you should see the disks that you labeled in Step 2. If
you do not see the disks, click the Change Discovery Path button and
provide a path and pattern match for the disk, for example, /dev/sd*.
During installation, disks labelled as Oracle ASMFD disks or Oracle ASMLIB
disks are listed as candidate disks when using the default discovery string.
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However, if the disk has a header status of MEMBER, then it is not a
candidate disk.
d.
Check the option Configure Oracle ASM Filter Driver.
If you are installing on Linux systems, and you want to use Oracle ASM Filter
Driver (Oracle ASMFD) to manage your Oracle ASM disk devices, then you
must deinstall Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) before starting
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
When you have finished providing the information for the disk group, click Next.
The Grid Infrastructure Management Repository Option window appears
10. Provide the name and specifications for the GIMR disk group.
a.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a name for the disk group, for example
DATA1.
b.
Choose the Redundancy level for this disk group. Normal is the recommended
option.
c.
In the Add Disks section, choose the disks to add to this disk group.
d.
Select the Configure Rapid Home Provisioning Server option to configure a
Rapid Home Provisioning Server as part of the Oracle Domain Services
Cluster. Rapid Home Provisioning enables you to install clusters, and
provision, patch, and upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database
homes.
When you have finished providing the information for the disk group, click Next.
The Specify ASM Password window appears.
11. Choose the same password for the Oracle ASM SYS and ASMSNMP account, or
specify different passwords for each account, then click Next.
The Failure Isolation Support window appears.
12. Select the option Do not use Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI),
then click Next.
The Specify Management Options window appears.
13. If you have Enterprise Manager Cloud Control installed in your enterprise, then
choose the option Register with Enterprise Manager (EM) Cloud Control and
provide the EM configuration information. If you do not have Enterprise Manager
Cloud Control installed in your enterprise, then click Next to continue.
You can manage Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) using Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. To
register the Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster with Oracle Enterprise Manager,
ensure that Oracle Management Agent is installed and running on all nodes of the
cluster.
The Privileged Operating System Groups window appears.
14. Accept the default operating system group names for Oracle ASM administration
and click Next.
The Specify Install Location window appears.
15. Specify the directory to use for the Oracle base for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation, then click Next. The Oracle base directory must be different from the
Oracle home directory.
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If you copied the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation files into the Oracle Grid
home directory as directed in Step 1, then the default location for the Oracle base
directory should display as /u01/app/grid.
If you have not installed Oracle software previously on this computer, then the
Create Inventory window appears.
16. Change the path for the inventory directory, if required. Then, click Next.
If you are using the same directory names as the examples in this book, then it
should show a value of /u01/app/oraInventory. The group name for the
oraInventory directory should show oinstall.
The Root Script Execution Configuration window appears.
17. Select the option to Automatically run configuration scripts. Enter the
credentials for the root user or a sudo account, then click Next.
Alternatively, you can Run the scripts manually as the root user at the end of the
installation process when prompted by the installer.
The Perform Prerequisite Checks window appears.
18. If any of the checks have a status of Failed and are not Fixable, then you must
manually correct these issues. After you have fixed the issue, you can click the
Check Again button to have the installer recheck the requirement and update the
status. Repeat as needed until all the checks have a status of Succeeded. Click
Next.
The Summary window appears.
19. Review the contents of the Summary window and then click Install.
The installer displays a progress indicator enabling you to monitor the installation
process.
20. If you did not configure automation of the root scripts, then you are required to run
certain scripts as the root user, as specified in the Execute Configuration Scripts
window appears. Do not click OK until you have run the scripts. Run the scripts on
all nodes as directed, in the order shown.
For example, on Oracle Linux you perform the following steps (note that for clarity,
the examples show the current user, node and directory in the prompt):
a.
As the oracle user on node1, open a terminal window, and enter the following
commands:
[[email protected] oracle]$ cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected] oraInventory]$ su
b.
Enter the password for the root user, and then enter the following command to
run the first script on node1:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# ./orainstRoot.sh
c.
After the orainstRoot.sh script finishes on node1, open another terminal
window, and as the oracle user, enter the following commands:
[[email protected] oracle]$ ssh node2
[[email protected] oracle]$ cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected] oraInventory]$ su
d.
Enter the password for the root user, and then enter the following command to
run the first script on node2:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# ./orainstRoot.sh
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e.
After the orainstRoot.sh script finishes on node2, go to the terminal window you
opened in part a of this step. As the root user on node1, enter the following
commands to run the second script, root.sh:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected] grid]# ./root.sh
Press Enter at the prompt to accept the default value.
Note:
You must run the root.sh script on the first node and wait for it to finish.
f your cluster has three or more nodes, then root.sh can be run
concurrently on all nodes but the first. Node numbers are assigned
according to the order of running root.sh. If you want to create a
particular node number assignment, then run the root scripts in the
order of the node assignments you want to make, and wait for the
script to finish running on each node before proceeding to run the script
on the next node. However, Oracle system identifier, or SID, for your
Oracle RAC databases, do not follow the node numbers.
f.
After the root.sh script finishes on node1, go to the terminal window you
opened in part c of this step. As the root user on node2, enter the following
commands:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected] grid]# ./root.sh
After the root.sh script completes, return to the OUI window where the
Installer prompted you to run the orainstRoot.sh and root.sh scripts. Click OK.
The software installation monitoring window reappears.
When you run root.sh during Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the Trace File
Analyzer (TFA) Collector is also installed in the directory.grid_home/tfa.
21. After root.sh runs on all the nodes, OUI runs Net Configuration Assistant (netca)
and Cluster Verification Utility. These programs run without user intervention.
22. During the installation, Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration
Assistant (asmca) configures Oracle ASM for storage.
23. Continue monitoring the installation until the Finish window appears. Then click
Close to complete the installation process and exit the installer.
Caution:
After installation is complete, do not remove manually or run cron jobs that
remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle directories or their files while Oracle
software is running on the server. If you remove these files, then the Oracle
software can encounter intermittent hangs. Oracle Clusterware installations can
fail with the error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
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After your Oracle Domain Services Cluster installation is complete, you can install
Oracle Member Clusters for Oracle Databases and Oracle Member Clusters for
Applications.
9.3.3 Installing Oracle Member Clusters
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Member Cluster for Oracle Database and Oracle Member Cluster for Applications.
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), the installation media is
replaced with a zip file for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer. Run the installation
wizard after extracting the zip file into the target home path.
At any time during installation, if you have a question about what you are being asked
to do, or what input you are required to provide during installation, click the Help
button on the installer page.
You should have your network information, storage information, and operating system
users and groups available to you before you start installation, and you should be
prepared to run root scripts. Ensure that you have created a Member Cluster Manifest
File as explained in this guide.
As the user that owns the software for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (grid) on
the first node, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster. Note that the installer uses
Secure Shell (SSH) to copy the binary files from this node to the other nodes during
the installation. During installation, in the Cluster Node Information window, when you
specify the nodes in your cluster, you can click SSH Connectivity and the installer
configures SSH connectivity between the specified nodes for you.
Note:
These installation instructions assume you do not already have any Oracle
software installed on your system. If you have already installed Oracle ASMLIB,
then you cannot install Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) until you
uninstall Oracle ASMLIB. You can use Oracle ASMLIB instead of Oracle
ASMFD for managing the disks used by Oracle ASM.
To install the software for Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases or
Applications:
Create a Member Cluster Manifest File as explained in this guide.
Use this procedure to install an Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases or
Oracle Member Cluster for Applications.
1.
As the grid user, download the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files and extract
the files into the Grid home. For example:
mkdir -p /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
chown grid:oinstall /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
unzip -q download_location/grid.zip
grid.zip is the name of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image zip file. For example,
on Linux systems, the name of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image zip file is
linuxx64_12201_grid_home.zip.
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Note:
2.
•
You must extract the zip image software into the directory where you
want your Grid home to be located.
•
Download and copy the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files to the
local node only. During installation, the software is copied and installed
on all other nodes in the cluster.
Log in as the grid user, and start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer by running
the following command:
Grid_home/gridSetup.sh
The installer starts and the Select Configuration Option window appears.
3.
Choose the option Configure Grid Infrastructure for a New Cluster, then click
Next.
The Select Cluster Configuration window appears.
4.
Choose either the Configure an Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases
or Configure an Oracle Member Cluster for Applications option, then click
Next.
The Cluster Domain Services window appears.
5.
Select the Manifest file that contains the configuration details about the
management repository and other services for the Oracle Member Cluster.
For Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases, you can also specify the Grid
Naming Service and Oracle ASM Storage server details using a Member Cluster
Manifest file.
Click Next.
6.
If you selected to configure an Oracle Member Cluster for applications, then the
Configure Virtual Access window appears. Provide a Cluster Name and optional
Virtual Host Name.
The virtual host name serves as a connection address for the Oracle Member
Cluster, and to provide service access to the software applications that you want
the Oracle Member Cluster to install and run.
Click Next.
The Cluster Node Information screen appears.
7.
In the Public Hostname column of the table of cluster nodes, you should see your
local node, for example node1.example.com.
The following is a list of additional information about node IP addresses:
•
For the local node only, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) automatically fills in
public and VIP fields. If your system uses vendor clusterware, then OUI may
fill additional fields.
•
Host names and virtual host names are not domain-qualified. If you provide a
domain in the address field during installation, then OUI removes the domain
from the address.
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•
Interfaces identified as private for private IP addresses should not be
accessible as public interfaces. Using public interfaces for Cache Fusion can
cause performance problems.
•
When you enter the public node name, use the primary host name of each
node. In other words, use the name displayed by the /bin/hostname command.
a.
Click Add to add another node to the cluster.
b.
Enter the second node's public name (node2), and virtual IP name (node2-vip),
then click OK.
You are returned to the Cluster Node Information window. You should now
see all nodes listed in the table of cluster nodes. Make sure the Role column is
set to HUB for both nodes. To add Leaf Nodes, you must configure GNS.
c.
Make sure all nodes are selected, then click the SSH Connectivity button at
the bottom of the window.
The bottom panel of the window displays the SSH Connectivity information.
d.
Enter the operating system user name and password for the Oracle software
owner (grid). Select the option If you have configured SSH connectivity
between the nodes, then select the Reuse private and public keys existing
in user home option. Click Setup.
A message window appears, indicating that it might take several minutes to
configure SSH connectivity between the nodes. After a short period, another
message window appears indicating that passwordless SSH connectivity has
been established between the cluster nodes. Click OK to continue.
e.
When returned to the Cluster Node Information window, click Next to continue.
The Specify Network Interface Usage page appears.
8.
Select the usage type for each network interface displayed, then click Next.
Verify that each interface has the correct interface type associated with it. If you
have network interfaces that should not be used by Oracle Clusterware, then set
the network interface type to Do Not Use. For example, if you have only two
network interfaces, then set the public interface to have a Use For value of Public
and set the private network interface to have a Use For value of ASM & Private.
Click Next. The ASM Client Storage window appears.
9.
Choose the disk group to store Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files for
the cluster on the Oracle Domain Services Cluster.
Click Next.
The Operating System Groups window appears.
10. Accept the default operating system group names for Oracle ASM administration
and click Next.
The Specify Install Location window appears.
11. Specify the directory to use for the Oracle base for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation, then click Next. The Oracle base directory must be different from the
Oracle home directory.
If you copied the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation files into the Oracle Grid
home directory as directed in Step 1, then the default location for the Oracle base
directory should display as /u01/app/grid.
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If you have not installed Oracle software previously on this computer, then the
Create Inventory window appears.
12. Change the path for the inventory directory, if required. Then, click Next.
If you are using the same directory names as the examples in this book, then it
should show a value of /u01/app/oraInventory. The group name for the
oraInventory directory should show oinstall.
The Root Script Execution Configuration window appears.
13. Select the option to Automatically run configuration scripts. Enter the
credentials for the root user or a sudo account, then click Next.
Alternatively, you can Run the scripts manually as the root user at the end of the
installation process when prompted by the installer.
The Perform Prerequisite Checks window appears.
14. If any of the checks have a status of Failed and are not Fixable, then you must
manually correct these issues. After you have fixed the issue, you can click the
Check Again button to have the installer recheck the requirement and update the
status. Repeat as needed until all the checks have a status of Succeeded. Click
Next.
The Summary window appears.
15. Review the contents of the Summary window and then click Install.
The installer displays a progress indicator enabling you to monitor the installation
process.
16. If you did not configure automation of the root scripts, then you are required to run
certain scripts as the root user, as specified in the Execute Configuration Scripts
window appears. Do not click OK until you have run the scripts. Run the scripts on
all nodes as directed, in the order shown.
For example, on Oracle Linux you perform the following steps (note that for clarity,
the examples show the current user, node and directory in the prompt):
a.
As the oracle user on node1, open a terminal window, and enter the following
commands:
[[email protected] oracle]$ cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected] oraInventory]$ su
b.
Enter the password for the root user, and then enter the following command to
run the first script on node1:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# ./orainstRoot.sh
c.
After the orainstRoot.sh script finishes on node1, open another terminal
window, and as the oracle user, enter the following commands:
[[email protected] oracle]$ ssh node2
[[email protected] oracle]$ cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected] oraInventory]$ su
d.
Enter the password for the root user, and then enter the following command to
run the first script on node2:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# ./orainstRoot.sh
e.
After the orainstRoot.sh script finishes on node2, go to the terminal window you
opened in part a of this step. As the root user on node1, enter the following
commands to run the second script, root.sh:
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[[email protected] oraInventory]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected] grid]# ./root.sh
Press Enter at the prompt to accept the default value.
Note:
You must run the root.sh script on the first node and wait for it to finish.
f your cluster has three or more nodes, then root.sh can be run
concurrently on all nodes but the first. Node numbers are assigned
according to the order of running root.sh. If you want to create a
particular node number assignment, then run the root scripts in the
order of the node assignments you want to make, and wait for the
script to finish running on each node before proceeding to run the script
on the next node. However, Oracle system identifier, or SID, for your
Oracle RAC databases, do not follow the node numbers.
f.
After the root.sh script finishes on node1, go to the terminal window you
opened in part c of this step. As the root user on node2, enter the following
commands:
[[email protected] oraInventory]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected] grid]# ./root.sh
After the root.sh script completes, return to the OUI window where the
Installer prompted you to run the orainstRoot.sh and root.sh scripts. Click OK.
The software installation monitoring window reappears.
When you run root.sh during Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the Trace File
Analyzer (TFA) Collector is also installed in the directory.grid_home/tfa.
17. After root.sh runs on all the nodes, OUI runs Net Configuration Assistant (netca)
and Cluster Verification Utility. These programs run without user intervention.
18. During installation of Oracle Member Cluster for Oracle Databases, if the Member
Cluster Manifest file does not include configuration details for Oracle ASM, then
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (asmca) configures
Oracle ASM for storage.
19. Continue monitoring the installation until the Finish window appears. Then click
Close to complete the installation process and exit the installer.
Caution:
After installation is complete, do not remove manually or run cron jobs that
remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle directories or their files while Oracle
software is running on the server. If you remove these files, then the Oracle
software can encounter intermittent hangs. Oracle Clusterware installations can
fail with the error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
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Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Cluster Configuration File
After your Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation is complete, you can install Oracle
Database on a cluster node for high availability, other applications, or install Oracle
RAC.
Related Topics
•
Creating Member Cluster Manifest File for Oracle Member Clusters
Create a Member Cluster Manifest file to specify the Oracle Member Cluster
configuration for the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), Grid
Naming Service, Oracle ASM storage server, and Rapid Home Provisioning
configuration.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide or Oracle Database
Installation Guide for your platform for information on installing Oracle
Database
9.4 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Cluster
Configuration File
During installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you have the option of either of
providing cluster configuration information manually, or of using a cluster configuration
file.
A cluster configuration file is a text file that you can create before starting gridSetup.sh,
which provides the installer with cluster node addresses that it requires to configure
the cluster.
Oracle recommends that you consider using a cluster configuration file if you intend to
perform repeated installations on a test cluster, or if you intend to perform an
installation on many nodes. A sample cluster configuration file is available in the
directory Grid_home/install/response/sample.ccf.
To create a cluster configuration file manually, start a text editor, and create a file that
provides the name of the public and virtual IP addresses for each cluster member
node, in the following format:
node1 node1-vip /node-role
node2 node2-vip /node-role
.
.
.
node-role can have either HUB or LEAF as values. Specify the different nodes,
separating them with either spaces or colon (:).
For example:
mynode1 mynode1-vip /HUB
mynode2 mynode2-vip /LEAF
Or, for example:
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mynode1:mynode1-vip:/HUB
mynode2:mynode2-vip:/LEAF
Example 9-1
Sample Cluster Configuration File
The following sample cluster configuration file is available in the directory
Grid_home/install/response/sample.ccf:
#
# Cluster nodes configuration specification file
#
# Format:
# node [vip] [role-identifier] [site-name]
#
# node
- Node's public host name
# vip
- Node's virtual host name
# role-identifier - Node's role with "/" prefix - should be "/HUB" or "/LEAF"
# site-name
- Node's assigned site
#
# Specify details of one node per line.
# Lines starting with '#' will be skipped.
#
# (1) vip and role are not required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure software only
#
installs and Oracle Member cluster for Applications
# (2) vip should be specified as AUTO if Node Virtual host names are Dynamically
#
assigned
# (3) role-identifier can be specified as "/LEAF" only for "Oracle Standalone
Cluster"
# (4) site-name should be specified only when configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure
with "Extended Cluster" option
#
# Examples:
# -------# For installing GI software only on a cluster:
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# node1
# node2
#
# For Standalone Cluster:
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# node1 node1-vip /HUB
# node2 node2-vip /LEAF
#
# For Standalone Extended Cluster:
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# node1 node1-vip /HUB sitea
# node2 node2-vip /LEAF siteb
#
# For Domain Services Cluster:
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# node1 node1-vip /HUB
# node2 node2-vip /HUB
#
# For Member Cluster for Oracle Database:
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# node1 node1-vip /HUB
# node2 node2-vip /HUB
#
# For Member Cluster for Applications:
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# node1
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# node2
#
9.5 Installing Only the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software
This installation option requires manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software.
If you use the Set Up Software Only option during installation, then Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) installs the software binaries on multiple nodes. You can then perform
the additional steps of configuring Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM.
•
Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
Use this procedure install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster software on
multiple nodes at a time.
•
Configuring Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
Configure the software binaries by starting Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration
wizard in GUI mode.
•
Configuring the Software Binaries Using a Response File
When you install or copy Oracle Grid Infrastructure software on any node, you can
defer configuration for a later time. Review this procedure for completing
configuration after the software is installed or copied on nodes, using the
configuration wizard (gridSetup.sh).
•
Setting Ping Targets for Network Checks
Receive notification about network status by setting the Ping_Targets parameter
during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about
cloning an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation to other nodes that were not
included in the initial installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and then adding
them to the cluster
9.5.1 Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Cluster
Use this procedure install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster software on multiple
nodes at a time.
1.
Download the Grid home image files.
2.
Run the gridSetup.sh command and select the Configuration Option as Set Up
Software Only.
3.
Complete installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software on one or more nodes
by providing information in the installer screens in response to your configuration
selection. You can install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software on multiple nodes at
a time.
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4.
When the software is configured, run the orainstRoot.sh script on all nodes, when
prompted.
5.
On all nodes, the root.sh script output provides information about how to proceed,
depending on the configuration you plan to complete in this installation. Make note
of this information.
6.
Ensure that you have completed all storage and server preinstallation
requirements.
7.
Verify that all of the cluster nodes meet the installation requirements:
runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node_list
8.
Configure the cluster using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) configuration
wizard or response files.
Related Topics
•
Configuring Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
Configure the software binaries by starting Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration
wizard in GUI mode.
•
Configuring the Software Binaries Using a Response File
When you install or copy Oracle Grid Infrastructure software on any node, you can
defer configuration for a later time. Review this procedure for completing
configuration after the software is installed or copied on nodes, using the
configuration wizard (gridSetup.sh).
•
Installing Oracle Domain Services Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Domain Services Cluster.
•
Installing Oracle Standalone Cluster
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Standalone Cluster.
•
Installing Oracle Member Clusters
Complete this procedure to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure software for Oracle
Member Cluster for Oracle Database and Oracle Member Cluster for Applications.
9.5.2 Configuring Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Cluster
Configure the software binaries by starting Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration
wizard in GUI mode.
1.
Log in on a cluster node as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner, and
change directory to Grid_home.
2.
Start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration wizard:
$ ./gridSetup.sh
3.
Provide information as needed for configuration. OUI validates the information and
configures the installation on all cluster nodes.
4.
When you complete providing information, OUI shows you the Summary page,
listing the information you have provided for the cluster. Verify that the summary
has the correct information for your cluster, and click Install to start configuration
of the local node.
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When configuration of the local node is complete, OUI copies the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure configuration file to other cluster member nodes.
5.
When prompted, run root scripts.
6.
When you confirm that all root scripts are run, OUI checks the cluster
configuration status, and starts other configuration tools as needed.
9.5.3 Configuring the Software Binaries Using a Response File
When you install or copy Oracle Grid Infrastructure software on any node, you can
defer configuration for a later time. Review this procedure for completing configuration
after the software is installed or copied on nodes, using the configuration wizard
(gridSetup.sh).
To configure the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software binaries using a response file:
1.
As the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner (grid), start Oracle Universal
Installer in Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration wizard mode from the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure software-only home using the following syntax, where
Grid_home is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, and filename is the response
file name:
Grid_home/gridSetup.sh [-debug] [-silent -responseFile filename]
For example:
$ cd /u01/app/grid/
$ ./gridSetup.sh -responseFile /u01/app/grid/response/response_file.rsp
The configuration script starts Oracle Universal Installer in Configuration Wizard
mode. Each page shows the same user interface and performs the same
validation checks that OUI normally does. However, instead of running an
installation, the configuration wizard mode validates inputs and configures the
installation on all cluster nodes.
2.
When you complete configuring values, OUI shows you the Summary page, listing
all information you have provided for the cluster. Verify that the summary has the
correct information for your cluster, and click Install to start configuration of the
local node.
When configuration of the local node is complete, OUI copies the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure configuration file to other cluster member nodes.
3.
When prompted, run root scripts.
4.
When you confirm that all root scripts are run, OUI checks the cluster configuration
status, and starts other configuration tools as needed.
9.5.4 Setting Ping Targets for Network Checks
Receive notification about network status by setting the Ping_Targets parameter during
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
For environments where the network link status is not correctly returned when the
network cable is disconnected, for example, in a virtual machine, you can receive
notification about network status by setting the Ping_Targets parameter during the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Run the installer:
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About Deploying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
./gridSetup.sh oracle_install_crs_Ping_Targets=Host1|IP1,Host2|IP2
The ping utility contacts the comma-separated list of host names or IP addresses
Host1|IP1,Host2|IP2 to determine whether the public network is available. If none of
the hosts respond, then the network is considered to be offline. Addresses outside the
cluster, like of a switch or router, should be used.
For example:
/gridSetup.sh oracle_install_crs_Ping_Targets=192.0.2.1,192.0.2.2
9.6 About Deploying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid
Home Provisioning
Rapid Home Provisioning is a software lifecycle management method for provisioning
and patching Oracle homes. Rapid Home Provisioning enables mass deployment of
standard operating environments for databases and clusters.
Rapid Home Provisioning (RHP) enables you to install clusters, and provision, patch,
and upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database homes. The supported
versions are 11.2, 12.1, and 12.2. You can also provision applications and middleware
using Rapid Home Provisioning. A single cluster, known as the Rapid Home
Provisioning Server, stores and manages standardized images, called gold images,
which can be provisioned to any number of nodes. You can install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure cluster configurations such as Oracle Standalone Clusters, Oracle
Member Clusters, and Oracle Application Clusters. After deployment, you can expand
and contract clusters and Oracle RAC Databases.
You can provision Oracle Grid Infrastructure on a remote set of nodes in a cloud
computing environment from a single cluster where you store templates of Oracle
homes as images (called gold images) of Oracle software, such as databases,
middleware, and applications.
Rapid Home Provisioning leverages a new file system capability which allows for
separation of gold image software from the site-specific configuration changes, so the
home path remains unchanged throughout updates. This capability of persistent home
path is available for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) and combines the
benefits of in-place and out-of-place patching.
Note:
Rapid Home Provisioning supports provisioning, patching, and upgrade of
single-instance databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server, or Oracle Restart.
Rapid Home Provisioning
Deploying Oracle software using Rapid Home Provisioning has the following
advantages:
•
Ensures standardization and enables high degrees of automation with gold images
and managed lineage of deployed software.
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•
Supports change management. With standardized Oracle homes, an administrator
has better control of the hosted Oracle software and can easily manage the mass
deployment and maintenance of the software through a single location for change
management.
•
Minimizes downtime during patching and upgrades, eases rollbacks, and makes
provisioning for large systems easier and more efficient.
•
Reduces the cumulative time to patch software images, since a single Oracle
home may be used for many database instances.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about
setting up the Rapid Home Provisioning Server and Client, creating and using
gold images for provisioning and patching Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle
Database homes.
9.7 Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
After Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, confirm that your Oracle Clusterware
installation is installed and running correctly.
After installation, log in as root, and use the following command syntax to confirm that
your Oracle Clusterware installation is installed and running correctly:
crsctl check cluster -all
For example:
$ crsctl check cluster -all
**************************************************************
node1:
CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online
CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online
CRS-4533: Event Manager is online
**************************************************************
node2:
CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online
CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online
CRS-4533: Event Manager is online
**************************************************************
node3:
CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online
CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online
CRS-4533: Event Manager is online
**************************************************************
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Note:
After installation is complete, do not remove manually or run cron jobs that
remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle or its files while Oracle
Clusterware is up. If you remove these files, then Oracle Clusterware could
encounter intermittent hangs, and you will encounter error CRS-0184: Cannot
communicate with the CRS daemon.
9.8 Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware
Files
Confirm Oracle ASM is running after installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
After Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, Oracle Clusterware files are stored on
Oracle ASM. Use the following command syntax as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation owner (grid) to confirm that your Oracle ASM installation is running:
srvctl status asm
For example:
srvctl status asm
ASM is running on node1,node2, node3, node4
Note:
To manage Oracle ASM or Oracle Net 11g Release 2 (11.2) or later
installations, use the srvctl binary in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a
cluster (Grid home). If you have Oracle Real Application Clusters or Oracle
Database installed, then you cannot use the srvctl binary in the database
home to manage Oracle ASM or Oracle Net.
9.9 Understanding Offline Processes in Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
After the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, some components may be listed as
OFFLINE. Oracle Grid Infrastructure activates these resources when you choose to
add them.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure provides required resources for various Oracle products and
components. Some of those products and components are optional, so you can install
and enable them after installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure. To simplify postinstall
additions, Oracle Grid Infrastructure preconfigures and registers all required resources
for all products available for these products and components, but only activates them
when you choose to add them. As a result, some components may be listed as
OFFLINE after the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
Resources listed as TARGET:OFFLINE and STATE:OFFLINE do not need to be
monitored. They represent components that are registered, but not enabled, so they
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Understanding Offline Processes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
do not use any system resources. If an Oracle product or component is installed on
the system, and it requires a particular resource to be online, then the software
prompts you to activate the required offline resource.
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10
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation
Tasks
Complete configuration task after you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
You are required to complete some configuration tasks after Oracle Grid Infrastructure
is installed. In addition, Oracle recommends that you complete additional tasks
immediately after installation. You must also complete product-specific configuration
tasks before you use those products.
Note:
This chapter describes basic configuration only. Refer to product-specific
administration and tuning guides for more detailed configuration and tuning
information.
•
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Download and apply required patches for your software release after completing
your initial installation.
•
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you complete these tasks after installation.
•
About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle Database
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1), by default, permissions to
read and write to the System Global Area (SGA) are limited to the Oracle software
installation owner.
•
Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review the following topics for information about using earlier Oracle Database
releases with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) installations:
•
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
After installation, if you need to modify the Oracle Clusterware configuration, then
you must unlock the Grid home. Review this information about unlocking the Grid
home.
10.1 Required Postinstallation Tasks
Download and apply required patches for your software release after completing your
initial installation.
•
Downloading and Installing Patch Updates
Download and install patch updates for your Oracle software after you complete
installation.
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Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
10.1.1 Downloading and Installing Patch Updates
Download and install patch updates for your Oracle software after you complete
installation.
Check the My Oracle Support website for required patch updates for your installation.
1.
Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:
https://support.oracle.com
2.
Log in to My Oracle Support website.
Note:
If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, then click Register for
My Oracle Support and register.
3.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click Patches & Updates.
4.
In the Patch Search region, select Product or Family (Advanced).
5.
On the Product or Family (Advanced) display, provide information about the
product, release, and platform for which you want to obtain patches, and click
Search.
The Patch Search pane opens, displaying the results of your search.
6.
Select the patch number and click ReadMe.
The README page is displayed. It contains information about the patch set and
how to apply the patches to your installation.
7.
Use the unzip utility provided with the software to uncompress the Oracle patch
updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is located
in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
10.2 Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you complete these tasks after installation.
•
Tuning Semaphore Parameters
Refer to the following guidelines if the default semaphore parameter values are too
low to accommodate all Oracle processes.
•
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation.
•
Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool
Download and install the ORAchk utility to perform proactive heath checks for the
Oracle software stack.
•
Creating a Fast Recovery Area
During an Oracle Restart installation, you can create only one disk group. During
an Oracle Clusterware installation, you can create multiple disk groups. If you plan
to add an Oracle Database for a standalone server or an Oracle RAC database,
then you should create the fast recovery area for database files.
10-2
Chapter 10
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
•
Checking the SCAN Configuration
The Single Client Access Name (SCAN) is a name that is used to provide service
access for clients to the cluster. Because the SCAN is associated with the cluster
as a whole, rather than to a particular node, the SCAN makes it possible to add or
remove nodes from the cluster without needing to reconfigure clients.
•
Setting Resource Limits for Oracle Clusterware and Associated Databases and
Applications
After you have completed Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can set
resource limits in the Grid_home/crs/install/s_crsconfig_nodename_env.txt file.
10.2.1 Tuning Semaphore Parameters
Refer to the following guidelines if the default semaphore parameter values are too low
to accommodate all Oracle processes.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you refer to the operating system documentation for
more information about setting semaphore parameters.
1.
Calculate the minimum total semaphore requirements using the following formula:
2 * sum (process parameters of all database instances on the system) + overhead
for background processes + system and other application requirements
2.
Set semmns (total semaphores systemwide) to this total.
3.
Set semmsl (semaphores for each set) to 250.
4.
Set semmni (total semaphores sets) to semmns divided by semmsl, rounded up to the
nearest multiple of 1024.
10.2.2 Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation.
If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory subsequent to this
installation, then Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing
root.sh script during the installation. If you require information contained in the
original root.sh script, then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.
10.2.3 Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool
Download and install the ORAchk utility to perform proactive heath checks for the
Oracle software stack.
ORAchk replaces the RACCheck utility. ORAchk extends health check coverage to the
entire Oracle software stack, and identifies and addresses top issues reported by
Oracle users. ORAchk proactively scans for known problems with Oracle products and
deployments, including the following:
•
Standalone Oracle Database
10-3
Chapter 10
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters
•
Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) Validation
•
Upgrade Readiness Validations
•
Oracle Golden Gate
Oracle is continuing to expand checks, based on customer requests.
ORAchk is supported on Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2016 on a
Cygwin environment only.
Oracle recommends that you download and run the latest version of ORAchk from My
Oracle Support. For information about downloading, configuring and running ORAchk
utility, refer to My Oracle Support note 1268927.2:
https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/DocContentDisplay?
id=1268927.2&parent=DOCUMENTATION&sourceId=USERGUIDE
Related Topics
•
Oracle ORAchk and EXAchk User’s Guide
10.2.4 Creating a Fast Recovery Area
During an Oracle Restart installation, you can create only one disk group. During an
Oracle Clusterware installation, you can create multiple disk groups. If you plan to add
an Oracle Database for a standalone server or an Oracle RAC database, then you
should create the fast recovery area for database files.
•
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files
related to recovery. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to
system administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
•
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
Procedure to create the fast recovery area disk group.
10.2.4.1 About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk
Group
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related
to recovery. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system
administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to the
path for the fast recovery area to enable on disk backups and rapid recovery of data.
When you enable fast recovery in the init.ora file, Oracle Database writes all RMAN
backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies to the fast
recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting
obsolete backups and archiving files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle
Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group,
and you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle
recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage
device contention.
10-4
Chapter 10
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
The fast recovery area is enabled by setting the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
parameter. The size of the fast recovery area is set with
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a general rule, the larger the fast recovery
area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle recommends that you
create a fast recovery area disk group on storage devices that can contain at least
three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast recovery area is large enough to
hold a copy of all of your data files and control files, the online redo logs, and the
archived redo log files needed to recover your database using the data file backups
kept under your retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you
have created a fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared
by 3 different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database
depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your
least important database, database2 is of greater importance, and database3 is of
greatest importance, then you can set different DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE
settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for
database1, 50 GB for database2, and 70 GB for database3.
10.2.4.2 Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
Procedure to create the fast recovery area disk group.
1.
Go to the Grid_home/bin directory, and start Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA).
For example:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/bin
$ ./asmca
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab.
2.
Click Create to create a new disk group.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
3.
Provide configuration information for the fast recovery area as prompted:
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area
group. For example: FRA.
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use. For
example: Normal
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks you want to add to the fast
recovery area, and click OK.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens and provides disk group creation status.
4.
When the Fast Recovery Area disk group creation is complete, click OK, and then
click Exit.
10.2.5 Checking the SCAN Configuration
The Single Client Access Name (SCAN) is a name that is used to provide service
access for clients to the cluster. Because the SCAN is associated with the cluster as a
whole, rather than to a particular node, the SCAN makes it possible to add or remove
nodes from the cluster without needing to reconfigure clients.
10-5
Chapter 10
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
The Single Client Access Name (SCAN) also adds location independence for the
databases, so that client configuration does not have to depend on which nodes are
running a particular database instance. Clients can continue to access the cluster in
the same way as with previous releases, but Oracle recommends that clients
accessing the cluster use the SCAN.
You can use the command cluvfy comp scan (located in Grid home/bin) to confirm that
the DNS is correctly associating the SCAN with the addresses. For example:
$cluvfy comp scan
Verifying Single Client Access Name (SCAN) ...
Verifying DNS/NIS name service 'rws127064-clu-scan.rws127064clu.rws12706410644.example.com' ...
Verifying Name Service Switch Configuration File Integrity ...PASSED
Verifying DNS/NIS name service 'rws127064-clu-scan.rws127064clu.rws12706410644.example.com' ...PASSED
Verifying Single Client Access Name (SCAN) ...PASSED
Verification of SCAN was successful.
CVU operation performed: SCAN
Date: Jul 29, 2016 1:42:41 AM
CVU home: /u01/crshome/
User: crsusr
After installation, when a client sends a request to the cluster, the Oracle Clusterware
SCAN listeners redirect client requests to servers in the cluster.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information
about system checks and configurations
10.2.6 Setting Resource Limits for Oracle Clusterware and Associated
Databases and Applications
After you have completed Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can set resource
limits in the Grid_home/crs/install/s_crsconfig_nodename_env.txt file.
The resource limits apply to all Oracle Clusterware processes and Oracle databases
managed by Oracle Clusterware. For example, to set a higher number of processes
limit, edit the file and set the CRS_LIMIT_NPROC parameter to a high value.
--#Do not modify this file except as documented above or under the
#direction of Oracle Support Services.
#########################################################################
TZ=PST8PDT
NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8ISO8859P1
CRS_LIMIT_STACK=2048
CRS_LIMIT_OPENFILE=65536
CRS_LIMIT_NPROC=65536
TNS_ADMIN=
10-6
Chapter 10
About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle Database
10.3 About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle
Database
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1), by default, permissions to
read and write to the System Global Area (SGA) are limited to the Oracle software
installation owner.
In previous releases, both the Oracle installation owner account and members of the
OSDBA group had access to shared memory. The change in Oracle Database 12c
Release 2 (12.2) to restrict access by default to the Oracle installation owner account
provides greater security than previous configurations. However, this change may
prevent DBAs who do not have access to the Oracle installation owner account from
administering the database.
The Oracle Database initialization parameter ALLOW_GROUP_ACCESS_TO_SGA
determines if the Oracle Database installation owner account (oracle in Oracle
documentation examples) is the only user that can read and write to the database
System Global Area (SGA), or if members of the OSDBA group can read the SGA. In
Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the default value for this parameter is FALSE,
so that only the Oracle Database installation owner has read and write permissions to
the SGA. Group access to the SGA is removed by default. This change affects all
Linux and UNIX platforms.
If members of the OSDBA group require read access to the SGA, then you can
change the initialization parameter ALLOW_GROUP_ACCESS_TO_SGA setting from
FALSE to TRUE. Oracle strongly recommends that you accept the default permissions
that limit access to the SGA to the oracle user account.
Related Topics
•
Oracle Database Reference
10.4 Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases with Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
Review the following topics for information about using earlier Oracle Database
releases with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) installations:
•
General Restrictions for Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases
You can use Oracle Database 12c releases 1 and 2 and Oracle Database 11g
release 2 (11.2.0.3 or later) with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c release 2 (12.2).
•
Configuring Earlier Release Oracle Database on Oracle ACFS
Review this information to configure a 11.2 release Oracle Database on Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
•
Managing Server Pools with Earlier Database Versions
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c, Oracle Database server categories
include roles such as Hub and Leaf that were not present in earlier releases.
10-7
Chapter 10
Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
Making Oracle ASM Available to Earlier Oracle Database Releases
To use Oracle ASM with Oracle Database releases earlier than Oracle Database
12c, you must use Local ASM or set the cardinality for Oracle Flex ASM to ALL,
instead of the default of 3.
•
Using ASMCA to Administer Disk Groups for Earlier Database Releases
Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) to create and modify disk
groups when you install earlier Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases on
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
•
Using the Correct LSNRCTL Commands
To administer Oracle Database 12c Release 2 local and scan listeners using the
lsnrctl command, set your $ORACLE_HOME environment variable to the path for the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home).
10.4.1 General Restrictions for Using Earlier Oracle Database
Releases
You can use Oracle Database 12c releases 1 and 2 and Oracle Database 11g release
2 (11.2.0.3 or later) with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c release 2 (12.2).
Do not use the versions of srvctl, lsnrctl, or other Oracle Grid infrastructure home
tools to administer earlier version databases. Only administer earlier Oracle Database
releases using the tools in the earlier Oracle Database homes. To ensure that the
versions of the tools you are using are the correct tools for those earlier release
databases, run the tools from the Oracle home of the database or object you are
managing.
Oracle Database homes can only be stored on Oracle ASM Cluster File System
(Oracle ACFS) if the database version is Oracle Database 11g release 2 or later.
Earlier releases of Oracle Database cannot be installed on Oracle ACFS because
these releases were not designed to use Oracle ACFS.
When installing 11.2 databases on an Oracle Flex ASM cluster, the Oracle ASM
cardinality must be set to All.
Note:
If you are installing Oracle Database 11g release 2 with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c release 2 (12.2), then before running Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) for Oracle Database, run the following command on the local
node only:
Grid_home/oui/bin/runInstaller -ignoreSysPrereqs -updateNodeList
ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home "CLUSTER_NODES={comma_separated_list_of_hub_nodes}"
CRS=true LOCAL_NODE=local_node [-cfs]
Use the -cfs option only if the Grid_home is on a shared location.
10.4.2 Configuring Earlier Release Oracle Database on Oracle ACFS
Review this information to configure a 11.2 release Oracle Database on Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
10-8
Chapter 10
Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
1.
Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) as described in this guide.
2.
Start Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) as the grid installation owner.
For example:
./asmca
Follow the steps in the configuration wizard to create Oracle ACFS storage for the
earlier release Oracle Database home.
3.
Install Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2) software-only on the Oracle ACFS
file system you configured.
4.
From the 11.2 Oracle Database home, run Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant (DBCA) and create the Oracle RAC Database, using Oracle ASM as
storage for the database data files.
./dbca
5.
Modify the Oracle ACFS path dependency:
srvctl modify database -d my_112_db -j Oracle_ACFS_path
Related Topics
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
10.4.3 Managing Server Pools with Earlier Database Versions
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c, Oracle Database server categories
include roles such as Hub and Leaf that were not present in earlier releases.
For this reason, you cannot create server pools using the Oracle RAC 11g Release 2
(11.2) version of Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). To create server pools for
earlier release Oracle RAC installations, use the following procedure.
1.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner (Grid user).
2.
Change directory to the 12.2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure binaries directory in the
Grid home. For example:
# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin
3.
Use the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c version of srvctl to create a server pool
consisting of Hub Node roles. For example, to create a server pool called p_hub
with a maximum size of one cluster node, enter the following command:
srvctl add serverpool -serverpool p_hub -min 0 -max 1 -category hub;
4.
Log in as the Oracle RAC installation owner, start DBCA from the Oracle RAC
Oracle home. For example:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin
$ dbca
DBCA discovers the server pool that you created with the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c srvctl command. Configure the server pool as required for your
services.
10-9
Chapter 10
Using Earlier Oracle Database Releases with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information
about managing resources using policies
10.4.4 Making Oracle ASM Available to Earlier Oracle Database
Releases
To use Oracle ASM with Oracle Database releases earlier than Oracle Database 12c,
you must use Local ASM or set the cardinality for Oracle Flex ASM to ALL, instead of
the default of 3.
After you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c, if you want to use Oracle ASM to
provide storage service for Oracle Database releases that are earlier than Oracle
Database 12c, then you must use the following command to modify the Oracle ASM
resource (ora.asm):
$ srvctl modify asm -count ALL
This setting changes the cardinality of the Oracle ASM resource so that Oracle Flex
ASM instances run on all cluster nodes. You must change the setting even if you have
a cluster with three or less than three nodes to ensure database releases earlier than
11g Release 2 can find the ora.node.sid.inst resource alias.
10.4.5 Using ASMCA to Administer Disk Groups for Earlier Database
Releases
Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) to create and modify disk groups
when you install earlier Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases on Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installations.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2, Oracle ASM is installed as part of an
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, with Oracle Clusterware. You can no longer use
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to perform administrative tasks on Oracle
ASM.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for details about
configuring disk group compatibility for databases using Oracle Database 11g
or earlier software with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c (12.2)
10.4.6 Using the Correct LSNRCTL Commands
To administer Oracle Database 12c Release 2 local and scan listeners using the
lsnrctl command, set your $ORACLE_HOME environment variable to the path for the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home).
10-10
Chapter 10
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
Do not attempt to use the lsnrctl commands from Oracle home locations for previous
releases, as they cannot be used with the new release.
10.5 Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
After installation, if you need to modify the Oracle Clusterware configuration, then you
must unlock the Grid home. Review this information about unlocking the Grid home.
For example, if you want to apply a one-off patch, or if you want to modify an Oracle
Exadata configuration to run IPC traffic over RDS on the interconnect instead of using
the default UDP, then you must unlock the Grid home.
Caution:
Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables that run in
the Oracle home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut down
applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.
Unlock the home using the following procedure:
1.
Change directory to the path Grid_home/crs/install, where Grid_home is the path
to the Grid home, and unlock the Grid home using the command rootcrs.sh unlock. For example, with the Grid home /u01/app/12.2.0/grid, enter the following
command:
# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/crs/install
# rootcrs.sh -unlock
2.
Change user to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner, and relink binaries
using the command syntax make -f Grid_home/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk target,
where Grid_home is the Grid home, and target is the binaries that you want to
relink. For example, where the grid user is grid, $ORACLE_HOME is set to the Grid
home, and where you are updating the interconnect protocol from UDP to IPC,
enter the following command:
# su grid
$ make -f $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk ipc_rds ioracle
Note:
To relink binaries, you can also change to the grid installation owner and
run the command Grid_home/bin/relink.
3.
Relock the Grid home and restart the cluster as follows:
# rootcrs.sh -lock
# crsctl start crs
Repeat steps 1 through 3 on each cluster member node.
10-11
Chapter 10
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
Note:
Do not delete directories in the Grid home. For example, do not delete the
directory Grid_home/OPatch. If you delete the directory, then the Grid
infrastructure installation owner cannot use OPatch to patch the Grid home,
and OPatch displays the error message "checkdir error: cannot create
Grid_home/OPatch".
10-12
11
Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade consists of upgrade of Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrades can be rolling upgrades, in which a subset of
nodes are brought down and upgraded while other nodes remain active. Starting with
Oracle ASM 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM upgrades can be rolling upgrades.
You can also use Rapid Home Provisioning to upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster.
•
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
Review this information about out-of-place upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrade and Downgrade
Review this information about upgrade and downgrade of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
•
Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
Understand the upgrade options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure in this release.
When you upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you
upgrade to an Oracle Flex Cluster configuration.
•
Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
Review the following information for restrictions and changes for upgrades to
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations, which consists of Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
•
Preparing to Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
If you have an existing Oracle Clusterware installation, then you upgrade your
existing cluster by performing an out-of-place upgrade. You cannot perform an inplace upgrade.
•
Understanding Rolling Upgrades Using Batches
Review this information to understand rolling upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Performing Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this information to perform rolling upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
About Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
Rapid Home Provisioning is a software lifecycle management method for
provisioning and patching Oracle homes.
•
Applying Patches to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
After you have upgraded Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can
install individual software patches by downloading them from My Oracle Support.
•
Updating Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Target Parameters
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, upgrade the Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control target.
11-1
Chapter 11
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
•
Unlocking the Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
After upgrade from previous releases, if you want to deinstall the previous release
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Grid home, then you must first change the permission
and ownership of the previous release Grid home.
•
Checking Cluster Health Monitor Repository Size After Upgrading
If you are upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure from a prior release using IPD/OS
to the current release, then review the Cluster Health Monitor repository size (the
CHM repository).
•
Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade
After a successful or a failed upgrade, you can restore Oracle Clusterware to the
previous release.
•
Completing Failed or Interrupted Installations and Upgrades
If Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) exits on the node from which you started the
upgrade, or the node reboots before you confirm that the rootupgrade.sh script was
run on all nodes, then the upgrade remains incomplete.
•
Converting to Oracle Extended Cluster After Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this information to convert to an Oracle Extended Cluster after upgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Extended Cluster enables you to deploy Oracle
RAC databases on a cluster, in which some of the nodes are located in different
sites.
Related Topics
•
About Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
Rapid Home Provisioning is a software lifecycle management method for
provisioning and patching Oracle homes.
11.1 Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
Review this information about out-of-place upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
With an out-of-place upgrade, the installer installs the newer version in a separate
Oracle Clusterware home. Both versions of Oracle Clusterware are on each cluster
member node, but only one version is active.
Rolling upgrade avoids downtime and ensure continuous availability while the software
is upgraded to a new version.
If you have separate Oracle Clusterware homes on each node, then you can perform
an out-of-place upgrade on all nodes, or perform an out-of-place rolling upgrade, so
that some nodes are running Oracle Clusterware from the earlier version Oracle
Clusterware home, and other nodes are running Oracle Clusterware from the new
Oracle Clusterware home.
An in-place upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure is not supported.
11.2 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrade and
Downgrade
Review this information about upgrade and downgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
You can upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure in any of the following ways:
11-2
Chapter 11
Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
•
Rolling Upgrade which involves upgrading individual nodes without stopping
Oracle Grid Infrastructure on other nodes in the cluster
•
Non-rolling Upgrade which involves bringing down all the nodes except one. A
complete cluster outage occurs while the root script stops the old Oracle
Clusterware stack and starts the new Oracle Clusterware stack on the node where
you initiate the upgrade. After upgrade is completed, the new Oracle Clusterware
is started on all the nodes.
Note that some services are disabled when one or more nodes are in the process of
being upgraded. All upgrades are out-of-place upgrades, meaning that the software
binaries are placed in a different Grid home from the Grid home used for the prior
release.
You can downgrade from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) to Oracle
Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1) and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2
(11.2). Be aware that if you downgrade to a prior release, then your cluster must
conform with the configuration requirements for that prior release, and the features
available for the cluster consist only of the features available for that prior release of
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM.
You can perform out-of-place upgrades to an Oracle ASM instance using Oracle ASM
Configuration Assistant (ASMCA). In addition to running ASMCA using the graphical
user interface, you can run ASMCA in non-interactive (silent) mode.
Note:
You must complete an upgrade before attempting to use cluster backup files.
You cannot use backups for a cluster that has not completed upgrade.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide for additional information about upgrading existing Oracle
ASM installations
11.3 Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
Understand the upgrade options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure in this release. When
you upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you upgrade to an
Oracle Flex Cluster configuration.
Supported upgrade paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for this release are:
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade from releases 11.2.0.3 and 11.2.0.4 to Oracle
Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2).
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1
(12.1) to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2).
11-3
Chapter 11
Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
Upgrade options from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
12c Release 1 (12.1) to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) include the
following:
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure rolling upgrade which involves upgrading individual
nodes without stopping Oracle Grid Infrastructure on other nodes in the cluster
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure non-rolling upgrade by bringing the cluster down and
upgrading the complete cluster
Note:
•
When you upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you
upgrade to an Oracle Standalone Cluster configuration.
•
If storage for OCR and voting files is other than Oracle ASM, you need to
migrate OCR and voting files to Oracle ASM before upgrading to Oracle
Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2).
11.4 Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
Review the following information for restrictions and changes for upgrades to Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installations, which consists of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrades are always out-of-place upgrades. You cannot
perform an in-place upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure to existing homes.
•
The same user that owned the earlier release Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
must perform the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) upgrade.
•
Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware both run in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home.
•
When you upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you
upgrade to an Oracle Flex Cluster configuration.
•
Do not delete directories in the Grid home. For example, do not delete the
directory Grid_home/Opatch. If you delete the directory, then the Grid
infrastructure installation owner cannot use Opatch to patch the grid home, and
Opatch displays the error message "'checkdir' error: cannot create Grid_home/
OPatch".
•
To upgrade existing Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you must first verify if you need to apply any
mandatory patches for upgrade to succeed.
Oracle recommends that you use the Cluster Verification Utility tool (CVU) to
check if there are any patches required for upgrading your existing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure or Oracle RAC database installations. See Using CVU to Validate
Readiness for Oracle Clusterware Upgrades for steps to check readiness.
•
The software in the 12c Release 2 (12.2) Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is not
fully functional until the upgrade is completed. Running srvctl, crsctl, and other
commands from the new Grid homes are not supported until the final
rootupgrade.sh script is run and the upgrade is complete across all nodes.
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Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
To manage databases in existing earlier release database homes during the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade, use the srvctl from the existing database
homes.
•
To change a cluster member node role to Leaf, you must have completed the
upgrade on all Oracle Grid Infrastructure nodes so that the active version is Oracle
Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1) or later.
•
To upgrade existing Oracle Clusterware installations to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
12c cluster, your release must be greater than or equal to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3).
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for additional information about preparing for
upgrades
About Storage Restrictions for Upgrade
•
If the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting file locations for your current
installation are on raw or block devices, or shared file systems, then you must
migrate them to Oracle ASM disk groups before upgrading to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2).
•
If you want to upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure releases before Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2), where the OCR and voting files are on raw or
block devices or shared file system, then you must upgrade to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2), and move the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
and voting files to Oracle ASM, before you upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
12c Release 2 (12.2).
•
If you have Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle
ACFS) file systems on Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1), you
upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure to any later release, and you take advantage of
Redundant Interconnect Usage and add one or more additional private interfaces
to the private network, then you must restart the Oracle ASM instance on each
upgraded cluster member node.
About Upgrading Shared Grid Homes
•
If the existing Oracle Clusterware home is a shared home, then you can use a
non-shared home for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster home for Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM 12c Release 2 (12.2).
•
You can perform upgrades on a shared Oracle Clusterware home.
About Single-Instance Oracle ASM Upgrade
•
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation or upgrade, if there is a single
instance Oracle ASM release on the local node, then it is converted to an Oracle
Flex ASM 12c Release 2 (12.2) installation, and Oracle ASM runs in the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home on all nodes.
•
If a single instance (non-clustered) Oracle ASM installation is on a remote node,
which is a node other than the local node (the node on which the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation or upgrade is being performed), then it remains a single
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instance Oracle ASM installation. However, during the installation or upgrade,
when the OCR and voting files are placed on Oracle ASM, then an Oracle Flex
ASM installation is created on all nodes in the cluster. The single instance Oracle
ASM installation on the remote node becomes nonfunctional.
Related Topics
•
Using CVU to Validate Readiness for Oracle Clusterware Upgrades
Oracle recommends that you use Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to help to
ensure that your upgrade is successful.
11.5 Preparing to Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware
Installation
If you have an existing Oracle Clusterware installation, then you upgrade your existing
cluster by performing an out-of-place upgrade. You cannot perform an in-place
upgrade.
The following topics list the steps you can perform before you upgrade Oracle Grid
Infrastructure:
•
Upgrade Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this checklist before upgrading an existing Oracle Grid Infrastructure. A
cluster is being upgraded until all cluster member nodes are running the new
installations, and the new clusterware becomes the active version.
•
Checks to Complete Before Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Complete the following tasks before upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Moving Oracle Clusterware Files from NFS to Oracle ASM
If Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files are stored on Network File
System (NFS), then move these files to Oracle ASM disk groups before upgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Running the Oracle ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment
Download and run the ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment before upgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Using CVU to Validate Readiness for Oracle Clusterware Upgrades
Oracle recommends that you use Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to help to
ensure that your upgrade is successful.
11.5.1 Upgrade Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this checklist before upgrading an existing Oracle Grid Infrastructure. A cluster
is being upgraded until all cluster member nodes are running the new installations, and
the new clusterware becomes the active version.
Table 11-1
Upgrade Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Check
Task
Review Upgrade Guide for
deprecation and desupport
information that may affect
upgrade planning.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
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Preparing to Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
Table 11-1
(Cont.) Upgrade Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Check
Task
Patch set (recommended)
Install the latest patch set release for your existing installation. Review My Oracle
Support note 2180188.1 for the list of latest patches before upgrading Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
Install user account
Confirm that the installation owner you plan to use is the same as the installation
owner that owns the installation you want to upgrade.
Create a Grid home
Create a new Oracle Grid Infrastructure Oracle home (Grid home) where you can
extract the image files. All Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrades (upgrades of
existing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM installations) are out-of-place
upgrades.
Instance names for Oracle
ASM
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) instances must use
standard Oracle ASM instance names.
The default ASM SID for a single-instance database is +ASM.
Cluster names and Site
names
Cluster names must have the following characteristics:
•
At least one character but no more than 15 characters in length.
•
Hyphens (-), and single-byte alphanumeric characters (a to z, A to Z, and 0 to
9).
•
It cannot begin with a numeric character.
•
It cannot begin or end with the hyphen (-) character.
Operating System
Confirm that you are using a supported operating system, kernel release, and all
required operating system packages for the new Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation.
Network addresses for
standard Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
For standard Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations, confirm the following network
configuration:
•
•
•
The private and public IP addresses are in unrelated, separate subnets. The
private subnet should be in a dedicated private subnet.
The public and virtual IP addresses, including the SCAN addresses, are in the
same subnet (the range of addresses permitted by the subnet mask for the
subnet network).
Neither private nor public IP addresses use a link local subnet (169.254.*.*).
OCR on raw or block devices
Migrate OCR files from RAW or Block devices to Oracle ASM or a supported file
system. Direct use of RAW and Block devices is not supported.
Run the ocrcheck command to confirm Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file integrity.
If this check fails, then repair the OCR before proceeding.
CVU Upgrade Validation
Use Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to assist you with system checks in
preparation for starting an upgrade.
Unset Environment variables
As the user performing the upgrade, unset the environment
variables $ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_SID.
Check that the ORA_CRS_HOME environment variable is not set. Do not use
ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable, except under explicit direction
from Oracle Support.
Refer to the Checks to Complete Before Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
complete list of environment variables to unset.
RACcheck Upgrade
Readiness Assessment
Download and run the RACcheck Upgrade Readiness Assessment to obtain
automated upgrade-specific health check for upgrades to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure. See My Oracle Support note 1457357.1, which is available at the
following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1457357.1
Back Up the Oracle Software
Before Upgrades
Before you make any changes to the Oracle software, Oracle recommends that
you create a backup of the Oracle software and databases.
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Table 11-1
(Cont.) Upgrade Checklist for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Check
Task
HugePages memory
allocation
Allocate memory to HugePages large enough for the System Global Areas (SGA)
of all databases planned to run on the cluster, and to accommodate the System
Global Area for the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository.
Related Topics
•
Checks to Complete Before Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Complete the following tasks before upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
Related Topics
•
Moving Oracle Clusterware Files from NFS to Oracle ASM
If Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files are stored on Network File
System (NFS), then move these files to Oracle ASM disk groups before upgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Checks to Complete Before Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Complete the following tasks before upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
My Oracle Support Note 2180188.1
11.5.2 Checks to Complete Before Upgrading Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Complete the following tasks before upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
1.
For each node, use Cluster Verification Utility to ensure that you have completed
preinstallation steps. It can generate Fixup scripts to help you to prepare servers.
In addition, the installer helps you to ensure all required prerequisites are met.
Ensure that you have the information you need during installation, including the
following:
2.
•
An Oracle base location for Oracle Clusterware.
•
An Oracle Grid Infrastructure home location that is different from your existing
Oracle Clusterware location.
•
SCAN name and addresses, and other network addresses.
•
Privileged user operating system groups.
•
root user access, to run scripts as root during installation.
For the installation owner running the installation, if you have environment
variables set for the existing installation, then unset the environment
variables $ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_SID, as these environment variables are used
during upgrade. For example, as grid user, run the following commands on the
local node:
For bash shell:
$ unset ORACLE_BASE
$ unset ORACLE_HOME
$ unset ORACLE_SID
For C shell:
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$ unsetenv ORACLE_BASE
$ unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
$ unsetenv ORACLE_SID
3.
If you have set ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable, following instructions
from Oracle Support, then unset it before starting an installation or upgrade. You
should never use ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable except under
explicit direction from Oracle Support.
4.
Check to ensure that the user profile for the installation user, for example, .profile
or .cshrc, does not set any of these environment variables.
5.
If you have an existing installation on your system, and you are using the same
user account to install this installation, then unset the following environment
variables: ORA_CRS_HOME, ORACLE_HOME, ORA_NLS10, TNS_ADMIN and
any other environment variable set for the Oracle installation user that is
connected with Oracle software homes.
6.
Ensure that the $ORACLE_HOME/bin path is removed from your PATH
environment variable.
Related Topics
•
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and
Oracle Database
Before installation, create operating system groups and users, and configure user
environments.
•
Configuring Networks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
Check that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP) addresses
required for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation.
11.5.3 Moving Oracle Clusterware Files from NFS to Oracle ASM
If Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files are stored on Network File System
(NFS), then move these files to Oracle ASM disk groups before upgrading Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
1.
As Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner (grid), create the Oracle ASM disk
group using ASMCA.
./asmca
Follow the steps in the ASMCA wizard to create the Oracle ASM disk group, for
example, DATA.
2.
As grid user, move the voting files to the Oracle ASM disk group you created:
crsctl replace votedisk +DATA
The output of this command is as follows:
CRS-4256: Updating the profile
Successful addition of voting disk 24c6d682874a4f1ebf54f5ab0098b9e4.
Successful deletion of voting disk 1b5044fa39684f86bfbe681f388e55fb.
Successfully replaced voting disk group with +DATA_DG_OCR_VDSK.
CRS-4256: Updating the profile
CRS-4266: Voting file(s) successfully replaced
3.
As grid user, check the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) status:
./ocrcheck
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The output of the command is as follows:
Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
Version
:
4
Total space (kbytes)
:
409568
Used space (kbytes)
:
1380
Available space (kbytes) :
408188
ID
: 288871063
Device/File Name
: /oradbocfs/storage/12101/ocr
Device/File integrity check succeeded
Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
4.
As root user, move the OCR files to the Oracle ASM disk group you created:
./ocrconfig -add +DATA
5.
As root user, delete the Oracle Clusterware files from the NFS location:
./ocrconfig -delete ocr_file_ path_previously_on_nfs
11.5.4 Running the Oracle ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment
Download and run the ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment before upgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
ORAchk is an Oracle RAC configuration audit tool. ORAchk Upgrade Readiness
Assessment can be used to obtain an automated upgrade-specific health check for
upgrades to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11.2.0.3, 11.2.0.4, 12.1.0.1, 12.1.0.2, and 12.2.
You can run the ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment tool and automate many of
the manual pre-upgrade and post-upgrade checks.
Oracle recommends that you download and run the latest version of ORAchk from My
Oracle Support. For information about downloading, configuring, and running ORAchk,
refer to My Oracle Support note 1457357.1.
See Also:
•
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1457357.1
•
Oracle ORAchk and EXAchk User’s Guide
11.5.5 Using CVU to Validate Readiness for Oracle Clusterware
Upgrades
Oracle recommends that you use Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to help to ensure
that your upgrade is successful.
You can use CVU to assist you with system checks in preparation for starting an
upgrade. CVU runs the appropriate system checks automatically, and either prompts
you to fix problems, or provides a fixup script to be run on all nodes in the cluster
before proceeding with the upgrade.
•
About the CVU Upgrade Validation Command Options
Review this information about running upgrade validations.
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•
Example of Verifying System Upgrade Readiness for Grid Infrastructure
You can verify that the permissions required for installing Oracle Clusterware have
been configured on the nodes node1 and node2 by running a command similar to
the following.
11.5.5.1 About the CVU Upgrade Validation Command Options
Review this information about running upgrade validations.
•
Run Oracle Universal Installer (OUI), and allow the Cluster Verification Utility
(CVU) validation built into OUI to perform system checks and generate fixup
scripts.
•
Run the CVU manual script cluvfy.sh to perform system checks and generate
fixup scripts.
To use OUI to perform pre-install checks and generate fixup scripts, run the installation
as you normally would. OUI starts CVU, and performs system checks as part of the
installation process. Selecting OUI to perform these checks is particularly appropriate
if you think you have completed preinstallation checks, and you want to confirm that
your system configuration meets minimum requirements for installation.
To use the cluvfy.sh command-line script for CVU, navigate to the new Grid home
where you extracted the image files for upgrade, that contains the runcluvfy.sh script,
and run the command runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -upgrade to check the
readiness of your Oracle Clusterware installation for upgrades. Running runcluvfy.sh
with the -pre crsinst -upgrade options performs system checks to confirm if the cluster
is in a correct state for upgrading from an existing clusterware installation.
The command uses the following syntax, where variable content is indicated by italics:
runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -upgrade [-rolling]
-src_crshome src_Gridhome ]-dest_crshome dest_Gridhome -dest_version dest_release
[-fixup][-fixupnoexec][-method sudo -user user_name [-location dir_path][-method
root][-verbose]
The options are:
•
-rolling
Use this option to verify readiness for rolling upgrades.
•
-src_crshome src_Gridhome
Use this option to indicate the location of the source Oracle Clusterware or Grid
home that you are upgrading, where src_Gridhome is the path to the home that
you want to upgrade.
•
-dest_crshome dest_Gridhome
Use this option to indicate the location of the upgrade Grid home, where dest_
Gridhome is the path to the Grid home.
•
-dest_version dest_release
Use the -dest_version option to indicate the release number of the upgrade,
including any patchset. The release number must include the five digits
designating the release to the level of the platform-specific patch. For example:
12.2.0.1.0.
•
-fixup [-method sudo -user user_name [-location dir_path][method root]
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Use the -fixup option to indicate that you want to generate instructions for any
required steps you need to complete to ensure that your cluster is ready for an
upgrade. The default location is the CVU work directory.
The -fixup -method option defines the method by which root scripts are run. The method flag requires one of the following options:
–
sudo: Run as a user on the sudoers list.
–
root: Run as the root user.
If you select sudo, then enter the -location option to provide the path to Sudo on
the server, and enter the -user option to provide the user account with Sudo
privileges.
•
-fixupnoexec
If the option is specified, then on verification failure, the fix up data is generated
and the instruction for manual execution of the generated fix ups is displayed.
•
-verbose
Use the -verbose flag to produce detailed output of individual checks.
11.5.5.2 Example of Verifying System Upgrade Readiness for Grid
Infrastructure
You can verify that the permissions required for installing Oracle Clusterware have
been configured on the nodes node1 and node2 by running a command similar to the
following.
$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -upgrade -rolling -src_crshome
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid -dest_crshome /u01/app/12.2.0/grid -dest_version
12.2.0.1 -fixup -verbose
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
11.6 Understanding Rolling Upgrades Using Batches
Review this information to understand rolling upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
When you upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you upgrade the entire cluster. You
cannot select or de-select individual nodes for upgrade. Oracle does not support
attempting to add additional nodes to a cluster during a rolling upgrade. Oracle
recommends that you leave Oracle RAC instances running when upgrading Oracle
Clusterware. When you start the root script on each node, the database instances on
that node are shut down and then the rootupgrade.sh script starts the instances again.
You can use root user automation to automate running the rootupgrade.sh script
during the upgrade. When you use root automation, you can divide the nodes into
groups, or batches, and start upgrades of these batches. Between batches, you can
move services from nodes running the previous release to the upgraded nodes, so
that services are not affected by the upgrade. Oracle recommends that you use root
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automation, and allow the rootupgrade.sh script to stop and start instances
automatically. You can also continue to run root scripts manually.
Restrictions for Selecting Nodes for Batch Upgrades
The following restrictions apply when selecting nodes in batches for upgrade:
•
You can pool nodes in batches for upgrade, up to a maximum of three batches.
•
The local node, where Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) is running, must be
upgraded in batch one.
•
Hub and Leaf Nodes cannot be upgraded in the same batch.
•
All Hub Nodes must be upgraded before starting the upgrade of Leaf Nodes.
11.7 Performing Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Review this information to perform rolling upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
•
Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure from an Earlier Release
Complete this procedure to upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure (Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management) from an earlier release.
•
Completing an Oracle Clusterware Upgrade when Nodes Become Unreachable
If some nodes become unreachable in the middle of an upgrade, then you cannot
complete the upgrade, because the upgrade script (rootupgrade.sh) did not run on
the unreachable nodes. Because the upgrade is incomplete, Oracle Clusterware
remains in the previous release.
•
Joining Inaccessible Nodes After Forcing an Upgrade
Use this procedure to join inaccessible nodes after a force cluster upgrade.
•
Changing the First Node for Install and Upgrade
If the first node becomes inaccessible, you can force another node to be the first
node for installation or upgrade.
11.7.1 Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure from an Earlier Release
Complete this procedure to upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware
and Oracle Automatic Storage Management) from an earlier release.
At any time during the upgrade, if you have a question about what you are being
asked to do, or what input you are required to provide during upgrade, click the Help
button on the installer page.
You should have your network information, storage information, and operating system
users and groups available to you before you start upgrade, and you should be
prepared to run root scripts.
1.
As grid user, download the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files and extract the
files to the Grid home.
For example:
mkdir -p /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
chown grid:oinstall /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
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cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
unzip -q download_location/grid_home.zip
download_location/grid_home.zip is the path of the downloaded Oracle Grid
Infrastructure image file.
Note:
2.
•
You must extract the image software into the directory where you want
your Grid home to be located.
•
Download and copy the Oracle Grid Infrastructure image files to the
local node only. During upgrade, the software is copied and installed
on all other nodes in the cluster.
Start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure wizard by running the following command:
Grid_home/gridSetup.sh
3.
Select the following configuration option:
•
Upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure: Select this option to upgrade Oracle
Grid Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM).
Note:
Oracle Clusterware must always be the later release, so you cannot
upgrade Oracle ASM to a release that is more recent than Oracle
Clusterware.
4.
5.
On the Node Selection page, select all nodes.
Select installation options as prompted. Oracle recommends that you configure
root script automation, so that the rootupgrade.sh script can be run automatically
during the upgrade.
6.
Run root scripts, using either automatically or manually:
•
Running root scripts automatically:
If you have configured root script automation, then use the pause between
batches to relocate services from the nodes running the previous release to
the new release.
•
Running root scripts manually
If you have not configured root script automation, then when prompted, run
the rootupgrade.sh script on each node in the cluster that you want to upgrade.
If you run root scripts manually, then run the script on the local node first. The
script shuts down the earlier release installation, replaces it with the new Oracle
Clusterware release, and starts the new Oracle Clusterware installation. After the
script completes successfully, you can run the script in parallel on all nodes except
for one, which you select as the last node. When the script is run successfully on
all the nodes except the last node, run the script on the last node. When upgrading
from 12.1 Oracle Flex Cluster, Oracle recommends that you run the
rootupgrade.sh script on all Hub Nodes before running it on Leaf Nodes.
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7.
Because the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is in a different location than the
former Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM homes, update any scripts or
applications that use utilities, libraries, or other files that reside in the Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM homes.
8.
Update the Oracle Enterprise Manager target parameters as described in the topic
Updating Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Target Parameters.
Note:
•
At the end of the upgrade, if you set the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
backup location manually to the earlier release Oracle Clusterware home
(CRS home), then you must change the OCR backup location to the new
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home). If you did not set the OCR
backup location manually, then the backup location is changed for you
during the upgrade.
•
Because upgrades of Oracle Clusterware are out-of-place upgrades, the
previous release Oracle Clusterware home cannot be the location of the
current release OCR backups. Backups in the old Oracle Clusterware
home can be deleted.
•
If the cluster being upgraded has a single disk group that stores the OCR,
OCR backup, Oracle ASM password, Oracle ASM password file backup,
and the Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR), then Oracle
recommends that you create a separate disk group or use another existing
disk group and store the OCR backup, the GIMR and Oracle ASM
password file backup in that disk group.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for the commands to
create a disk group.
11.7.2 Completing an Oracle Clusterware Upgrade when Nodes
Become Unreachable
If some nodes become unreachable in the middle of an upgrade, then you cannot
complete the upgrade, because the upgrade script (rootupgrade.sh) did not run on the
unreachable nodes. Because the upgrade is incomplete, Oracle Clusterware remains
in the previous release.
You can confirm that the upgrade is incomplete by entering the command crsctl query
crs activeversion.
To resolve this problem, run the rootupgrade.sh command with the -force flag using
the following syntax:
Grid_home/rootupgrade -force
For example:
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About Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using Rapid Home Provisioning
# /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/rootupgrade -force
This command forces the upgrade to complete. Verify that the upgrade has completed
by using the command crsctl query crs activeversion. The active release should be
the upgrade release.
The force cluster upgrade has the following limitations:
•
All active nodes must be upgraded to the newer release
•
All inactive nodes (accessible or inaccessible) may be either upgraded or not
upgraded
•
For inaccessible nodes, after patch set upgrades, you can delete the node from
the cluster. If the node becomes accessible later, and the patch version upgrade
path is supported, then you can upgrade it to the new patch version.
11.7.3 Joining Inaccessible Nodes After Forcing an Upgrade
Use this procedure to join inaccessible nodes after a force cluster upgrade.
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c, after you complete a force cluster
upgrade, you can use the procedure described here to join inaccessible nodes to the
cluster as an alternative to deleting the nodes, which was required in earlier releases.
To use this option, you must already have Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2
(12.2) software installed on the nodes.
1.
Log in as the root user on the node that you want to join to the cluster.
2.
Change directory to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c release 2 (12.2) Grid_home
directory. For example:
$ cd /u01/12.2.0/grid/
3.
Run the following command, where upgraded_node is the inaccessible or
unreachable node that you want to join to the cluster:
$ rootupgrade.sh -join -existingnode upgraded_node
11.7.4 Changing the First Node for Install and Upgrade
If the first node becomes inaccessible, you can force another node to be the first node
for installation or upgrade.
During installation, if root.sh fails to complete on the first node, run the following
command on another node using the -force option:
root.sh -force -first
For upgrade:
rootupgrade.sh -force -first
11.8 About Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using
Rapid Home Provisioning
Rapid Home Provisioning is a software lifecycle management method for provisioning
and patching Oracle homes.
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Applying Patches to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Rapid Home Provisioning (RHP) enables you to install clusters, and provision, patch,
and upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database homes. The supported
versions are 11.2, 12.1, and 12.2. You can also provision applications and middleware
using Rapid Home Provisioning. A single cluster, known as the Rapid Home
Provisioning Server, stores and manages standardized images, called gold images,
which can be provisioned to any number of nodes. You can install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure cluster configurations such as Oracle Standalone Clusters, Oracle
Member Clusters, and Oracle Application Clusters. After deployment, you can expand
and contract clusters and Oracle RAC Databases.
You can provision Oracle Grid Infrastructure on a remote set of nodes in a cloud
computing environment from a single cluster where you store templates of Oracle
homes as images (called gold images) of Oracle software, such as databases,
middleware, and applications.
Note:
Rapid Home Provisioning is not supported for provisioning, patching, or
upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, or Oracle
Restart.
Rapid Home Provisioning
Deploying Oracle software using Rapid Home Provisioning has the following
advantages:
•
Ensures standardization and enables high degrees of automation with gold images
and managed lineage of deployed software.
•
Supports change management. With standardized Oracle homes, an administrator
has better control of the hosted Oracle software and can easily manage the mass
deployment and maintenance of the software through a single location for change
management.
•
Minimizes downtime during patching and upgrades, eases rollbacks, and makes
provisioning for large systems easier and more efficient.
•
Reduces the cumulative time to patch software images, since a single Oracle
home may be used for many database instances.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about
setting up the Rapid Home Provisioning Server and Client, creating and using
gold images for provisioning and patching Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle
Database homes.
11.9 Applying Patches to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
After you have upgraded Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can
install individual software patches by downloading them from My Oracle Support.
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Applying Patches to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
About Individual (One-Off) Oracle Grid Infrastructure Patches
Download Oracle ASM one-off patch and apply it to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
using the OPatch Utility.
•
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Patch Levels
Review this topic to understand how to apply patches for Oracle ASM and Oracle
Clusterware.
•
Patching Oracle Grid Infrastructure to a Software Patch Level
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), a new cluster state
called "Rolling Patch" is available. This mode is similar to the existing "Rolling
Upgrade" mode in terms of the Oracle ASM operations allowed in this quiesce
state.
11.9.1 About Individual (One-Off) Oracle Grid Infrastructure Patches
Download Oracle ASM one-off patch and apply it to Oracle Grid Infrastructure using
the OPatch Utility.
Individual patches are called one-off patches. An Oracle ASM one-off patch is
available for a specific released release of Oracle ASM. If a patch you want is
available, then you can download the patch and apply it to Oracle ASM using the
OPatch Utility. The OPatch inventory keeps track of the patches you have installed for
your release of Oracle ASM. If there is a conflict between the patches you have
installed and patches you want to apply, then the OPatch Utility advises you of these
conflicts.
11.9.2 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Patch Levels
Review this topic to understand how to apply patches for Oracle ASM and Oracle
Clusterware.
The software patch level for Oracle Grid Infrastructure represents the set of all one-off
patches applied to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software release, including Oracle
ASM. The release is the release number, in the format of major, minor, and patch set
release number. For example, with the release number 12.1.0.1, the major release is
12, the minor release is 1, and 0.0 is the patch set number. With one-off patches, the
major and minor release remains the same, though the patch levels change each time
you apply or roll back an interim patch.
As with standard upgrades to Oracle Grid Infrastructure, at any given point in time for
normal operation of the cluster, all the nodes in the cluster must have the same
software release and patch level. Because one-off patches can be applied as rolling
upgrades, all possible patch levels on a particular software release are compatible with
each other.
11.9.3 Patching Oracle Grid Infrastructure to a Software Patch Level
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), a new cluster state
called "Rolling Patch" is available. This mode is similar to the existing "Rolling
Upgrade" mode in terms of the Oracle ASM operations allowed in this quiesce state.
1.
Download patches you want to apply from My Oracle Support:
https://support.oracle.com
Select the Patches and Updates tab to locate the patch.
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Updating Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Target Parameters
Oracle recommends that you select Recommended Patch Advisor, and enter
the product group, release, and platform for your software. My Oracle Support
provides you with a list of the most recent patch set updates (PSUs) and critical
patch updates (CPUs).
Place the patches in an accessible directory, such as /tmp.
2.
Change directory to the /opatch directory in the Grid home. For example:
$ cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/opatch
3.
Review the patch documentation for the patch you want to apply, and complete all
required steps before starting the patch upgrade.
4.
Follow the instructions in the patch documentation to apply the patch.
11.10 Updating Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
Target Parameters
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, upgrade the Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control target.
Because Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) is an out-of-place upgrade of
the Oracle Clusterware home in a new location (the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster home, or Grid home), the path for the CRS_HOME parameter in some parameter
files must be changed. If you do not change the parameter, then you encounter errors
such as "cluster target broken" on Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
To resolve the issue, update the Enterprise Manager Cloud Control target, and then
update the Enterprise Manager Agent Base Directory on each cluster member node
running an agent.
•
Updating the Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Target After Upgrades
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, update the Enterprise Manager Target
with the new Grid home path.
•
Updating the Enterprise Manager Agent Base Directory After Upgrades
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, update the Enterprise Manager Agent
Base Directory on each cluster member node running an agent.
•
Registering Resources with Oracle Enterprise Manager After Upgrades
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, add the new resource targets to Oracle
Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
11.10.1 Updating the Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Target After
Upgrades
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, update the Enterprise Manager Target with
the new Grid home path.
1.
Log in to Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
2.
Navigate to the Targets menu, and then to the Cluster page.
3.
Click a cluster target that was upgraded.
4.
Click Cluster, then Target Setup, and then Monitoring Configuration from the
menu.
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5.
Update the value for Oracle Home with the new Grid home path.
6.
Save the updates.
11.10.2 Updating the Enterprise Manager Agent Base Directory After
Upgrades
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, update the Enterprise Manager Agent Base
Directory on each cluster member node running an agent.
The Agent Base directory is a directory where the Management Agent home is
created. The Management Agent home is in the path Agent_Base_Directory/core/
EMAgent_Version. For example, if the Agent Base directory is /u01/app/emagent, then
the Management Agent home is created as /u01/app/emagent/core/13.1.1.0.
1.
Navigate to the bin directory in the Management Agent home.
2.
In the /u01/app/emagent/core/13.1.1.0/bin directory, open the file emctl with a text
editor.
3.
Locate the parameter CRS_HOME, and update the parameter to the new Grid home
path.
4.
Repeat steps 1-3 on each node of the cluster with an Enterprise Manager agent.
11.10.3 Registering Resources with Oracle Enterprise Manager After
Upgrades
After upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure, add the new resource targets to Oracle
Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
Discover and add new resource targets in Oracle Enterprise Manager after Oracle
Grid Infrastructure upgrade. The following procedure provides an example of
discovering an Oracle ASM listener target after upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
1.
Log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
2.
From the Setup menu, select Add Target, and then select Add Targets
Manually.
The Add Targets Manually page is displayed.
3.
In the Add Targets page, select the Add Using Guided Process option and
Target Type as Oracle Database, Listener and Automatic Storage
Management.
For any other resource to be added, select the appropriate Target Type in Oracle
Enterprise Manager discovery wizard.
4.
Click Add Using Guided Process.
The Target Discover wizard is displayed.
5.
For the Specify Host or Cluster field, click on the Search icon and search for
Target Types of Hosts, and select the corresponding Host.
6.
Click Next.
7.
In the Target Discovery: Results page, select the discovered Oracle ASM Listener
target, and click Configure.
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8.
In the Configure Listener dialog box, specify the listener properties and click OK.
9.
Click Next and complete the discovery process.
The listener target is discovered in Oracle Enterprise Manager with the status as
Down.
10. From the Targets menu, select the type of target.
11. Click the target name to navigate to the target home page.
12. From the host, database, middleware target, or application menu displayed on the
target home page, select Target Setup, then select Monitoring Configuration.
13. In the Monitoring Configuration page for the listener, specify the host name in the
Machine Name field and the password for the ASMSNMP user in the Password field.
14. Click OK.
Oracle ASM listener target is displayed with the correct status.
Similarly, you can add other clusterware resources to Oracle Enterprise Manager after
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
11.11 Unlocking the Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
After upgrade from previous releases, if you want to deinstall the previous release
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Grid home, then you must first change the permission and
ownership of the previous release Grid home.
Unlock the Oracle Clusterware installation using the following procedure:
1.
Log in as root, and change the permission and ownership of the previous release
Grid home using the following command syntax, where oldGH is the previous
release Grid home, swowner is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner,
and oldGHParent is the parent directory of the previous release Grid home:
#chmod -R 755 oldGH
#chown -R swowner oldGH
#chown swowner oldGHParent
For example:
#chmod -R 755 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
#chown -R grid /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
#chown grid /u01/app/11.2.0
2.
After you change the permissions and ownership of the previous release Grid
home, log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation owner (grid, in the
preceding example), and use the same release Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c
standalone deinstallation tool to remove the previous release Grid home (oldGH).
Caution:
You must use the deinstallation tool from the same release to remove Oracle
software. Do not run the deinstallation tool from a later release to remove
Oracle software from an earlier release. For example, do not run the
deinstallation tool from the 12.2.0.1 installation media to remove Oracle
software from an existing 12.1.0.2 Oracle home.
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You can obtain the standalone deinstallation tool from the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/downloads/index.html
Click the See All link for the downloads for your operating system platform, and scan
the list of downloads for the deinstall utility.
Related Topics
•
About Oracle Deinstallation Options
You can stop and remove Oracle Database software and components in an Oracle
Database home with Oracle Universal Installer.
11.12 Checking Cluster Health Monitor Repository Size
After Upgrading
If you are upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure from a prior release using IPD/OS to
the current release, then review the Cluster Health Monitor repository size (the CHM
repository).
1.
Review your CHM repository needs, and determine if you need to increase the
repository size to maintain a larger CHM repository.
Note:
Your previous IPD/OS repository is deleted when you install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
By default, the CHM repository size is a minimum of either 1GB or 3600 seconds
(1 hour), regardless of the size of the cluster.
2.
To enlarge the CHM repository, use the following command syntax, where
RETENTION_TIME is the size of CHM repository in number of seconds:
oclumon manage -repos changeretentiontime RETENTION_TIME
For example, to set the repository size to four hours:
oclumon manage -repos changeretentiontime 14400
The value for RETENTION_TIME must be more than 3600 (one hour) and less
than 259200 (three days). If you enlarge the CHM repository size, then you must
ensure that there is local space available for the repository size you select on each
node of the cluster. If you do not have sufficient space available, then you can
move the repository to shared storage.
11.13 Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade
After a successful or a failed upgrade, you can restore Oracle Clusterware to the
previous release.
Downgrading Oracle Clusterware restores the Oracle Clusterware configuration to the
state it was in before the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) upgrade. Any
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configuration changes you performed during or after the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c
Release 2 (12.2) upgrade are removed and cannot be recovered.
To restore Oracle Clusterware to the previous release, use the downgrade procedure
for the release to which you want to downgrade.
Note:
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can
downgrade the cluster nodes in any sequence. You can downgrade all cluster
nodes except one, in parallel. You must downgrade the last node after you
downgrade all other nodes.
Note:
When downgrading after a failed upgrade, if the rootcrs.sh or rootcrs.bat file
does not exist on a node, then instead of the executing the script use the
command perl rootcrs.pl . Use the perl interpreter located in the Oracle Home
directory.
•
Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Downgrades
Understand the downgrade options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure in this release.
•
Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Downgrades
Review the following information for restrictions and changes for downgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
•
Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1)
Use this procedure to downgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1
(12.1).
•
Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2)
Use this procedure to downgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2
(11.2) .
•
Downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure after Upgrade Fails
If upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure fails before setting the active version of
Oracle Clusterware, then follow these steps to downgrade Oracle Grid
Infrastructure to the earlier release.
•
Downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure after Upgrade Fails on Remote Nodes
If upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure fails on remote nodes, then you can follow
these steps to downgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure to the earlier release.
11.13.1 Options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Downgrades
Understand the downgrade options for Oracle Grid Infrastructure in this release.
Downgrade options from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c to earlier releases include the
following:
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure downgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1
(12.1).
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•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure downgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2
(11.2). Because all cluster configurations in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release
2 (12.2) are Oracle Flex Clusters, when you downgrade to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2), you downgrade from an Oracle Flex cluster
configuration to a Standard cluster configuration.
Note:
When you downgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure to an earlier release, for
example from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), the later release RAC databases already
registered with Oracle Grid Infrastructure will not start after the downgrade.
Related Topics
•
My Oracle Support Note 2180188.1
11.13.2 Restrictions for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Downgrades
Review the following information for restrictions and changes for downgrading Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installations.
•
When you downgrade from an Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) to
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2), you downgrade from an Oracle
Flex cluster configuration to a Standard cluster configuration since all cluster
configurations in releases earlier than Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c are Standard
cluster configurations. Leaf nodes from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release
2 (12.2) cluster are not be a part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2
(11.2) standard cluster after the downgrade.
•
You can only downgrade to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure release you upgraded
from. For example, if you upgraded from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2
(11.2) to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.2), you can only downgrade
to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2).
•
If the cluster has Hub and Leaf Nodes, then the last node to be downgraded must
be a Hub Node.
11.13.3 Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1
(12.1)
Use this procedure to downgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.
Delete the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) Management
Database:
dbca -silent -deleteDatabase -sourceDB -MGMTDB
2.
Use the command syntax rootcrs.sh -downgrade to downgrade Oracle Grid
Infrastructure on all nodes, in any sequence. For example:
# /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.sh -downgrade
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Run this command from a directory that has write permissions for the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation user. You can run the downgrade script in parallel on all
cluster nodes, but one.
3.
Downgrade the last node after you downgrade all other nodes:
# /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.sh -downgrade
4.
Remove Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) Grid home as the active
Oracle Clusterware home:
a.
On any of the cluster member nodes where the rootupgrade.sh script has
run successfully, log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner.
b.
Use the following command to start the installer, where /u01/app/12.2.0/
grid is the location of the new (upgraded) Grid home:
cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/oui/bin
./runInstaller -nowait -waitforcompletion -ignoreSysPrereqs
-updateNodeList -silent CRS=false
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid
"CLUSTER_NODES=node1,node2,node3"
-doNotUpdateNodeList
Add the flag -cfs if the Grid home is a shared home.
5.
Set Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1) Grid home as the active
Oracle Clusterware home:
a.
On any of the cluster member nodes where the rootupgrade script has run
successfully, log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner.
b.
Use the following command to start the installer, where the path you provide
for ORACLE_HOME is the location of the home directory from the earlier Oracle
Clusterware installation.
$ cd /u01/app/12.1.0/grid/oui/bin
$ ./runInstaller -nowait -waitforcompletion -ignoreSysPrereqs
-updateNodeList -silent CRS=true
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.1.0/grid
"CLUSTER_NODES=node1,node2,node3"
6.
Start the 12.1 Oracle Clusterware stack on all nodes.
crsctl start crs
7.
On any node, remove the MGMTDB resource as follows:
121_Grid_home/bin/srvctl remove mgmtdb
8.
If you are downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), run
the following commands to configure the Grid Infrastructure Management
Database:
a.
Run DBCA in the silent mode from the 12.1.0.2 Oracle home and create the
Management Database container database (CDB) as follows:
12102_Grid_home/bin/dbca -silent -createDatabase -createAsContainerDatabase
true
-templateName MGMTSeed_Database.dbc -sid -MGMTDB -gdbName _mgmtdb
-storageType ASM -diskGroupName ASM_DG_NAME
-datafileJarLocation 12102_Grid_home/assistants/dbca/templates
-characterset AL32UTF8 -autoGeneratePasswords -skipUserTemplateCheck
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b.
Run DBCA in the silent mode from the 12.1.0.2 Oracle home and create the
Management Database pluggable database (PDB) as follows:
12102_Grid_home/bin/dbca -silent -createPluggableDatabase -sourceDB
-MGMTDB -pdbName cluster_name -createPDBFrom RMANBACKUP
-PDBBackUpfile 12102_Grid_home/assistants/dbca/templates/mgmtseed_pdb.dfb
-PDBMetadataFile 12102_Grid_home/assistants/dbca/templates/mgmtseed_pdb.xml
-createAsClone true -internalSkipGIHomeCheck
9.
If you are downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1), run
DBCA in the silent mode from the 12.1.0.1 Oracle home and create the
Management Database as follows:
12101_Grid_home/bin/dbca -silent -createDatabase
-templateName MGMTSeed_Database.dbc -sid -MGMTDB -gdbName _mgmtdb
-storageType ASM -diskGroupName ASM_DG_NAME
-datafileJarLocation 12101_Grid_home/assistants/dbca/templates
-characterset AL32UTF8 -autoGeneratePasswords
10. Configure the Management Database by running the Configuration Assistant from
the location 121_Grid_home/bin/mgmtca.
11.13.4 Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2
(11.2)
Use this procedure to downgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2) .
1.
Delete the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) Management
Database:
dbca -silent -deleteDatabase -sourceDB -MGMTDB
2.
Use the command syntax Grid_home/crs/install/rootcrs.sh -downgrade to stop the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) resources, and to shut down the
stack. Run this command from a directory that has write permissions for the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation user.
You can run the downgrade script in parallel on all cluster nodes, but one.
3.
Downgrade the last node after you downgrade all other nodes:
# /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.sh -downgrade
4.
Follow these steps to remove Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) Grid
home as the active Oracle Clusterware home:
a.
On any of the cluster member nodes where the rootupgrade.sh script has
run successfully, log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner.
b.
Use the following command to start the installer, where /u01/app/12.2.0/
grid is the location of the new (upgraded) Grid home:
$ cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/oui/bin
$ ./runInstaller -nowait -waitforcompletion -ignoreSysPrereqs -updateNodeList
-silent CRS=false ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid
"CLUSTER_NODES=node1,node2,node3" -doNotUpdateNodeList
Add the -cfs option if the Grid home is a shared home.
5.
Follow these steps to set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2) Grid
home as the active Oracle Clusterware home:
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a.
On any of the cluster member nodes where the rootupgrade script has run
successfully, log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner.
b.
Use the following command to start the installer, where the path you provide
for the ORACLE_HOME is the location of the home directory from the earlier Oracle
Clusterware installation.
$ cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/oui/bin
$ ./runInstaller -nowait -waitforcompletion -ignoreSysPrereqs -updateNodeList
-silent CRS=true ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
Add the -cfs option if the Grid home is a shared home.
6.
Start the Oracle Clusterware stack manually from the earlier release Oracle
Clusterware home using the command crsctl start crs. For example, where
the earlier release home is /u01/app/11.2.0/grid, use the following
command on each node:
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crsctl start crs
11.13.5 Downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure after Upgrade Fails
If upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure fails before setting the active version of Oracle
Clusterware, then follow these steps to downgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure to the
earlier release.
Run this procedure to downgrade Oracle Clusterware only when the upgrade fails
before root script runs the crsctl set crs activeversion command on the last node.
Use this procedure for downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure if there is a need to
avoid downtime of the whole cluster. This procedure downgrades the cluster to the
previous release. Because Oracle ASM and database operations are limited in this
state, it is recommended to move the cluster from this state as soon as possible.
Complete the downgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure as per the procedure
documented in Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1) or
Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2) for your software
release.
1.
Shut down the Oracle Grid Infrastructure stack on the first node:
crsctl stop crs
2.
From any node where the Grid Infrastructure stack from the earlier release is
running, unset the Oracle ASM rolling migration mode as follows:
a.
Log in as grid user, and run the following command as SYSASM user on the
Oracle ASM instance:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM STOP ROLLING MIGRATION;
3.
If you are upgrading from 11.2.0.4 or 12.1.0.1, then apply the latest available
patches on all nodes in the cluster. If the pre-upgrade version is 12.1.0.2 or later,
then patch is not required.
a.
On all other nodes except the first node, where the earlier release Grid
Infrastructure stack is running, apply the latest patch using the opatch auto
procedure.
b.
On the first node where the earlier release Grid Infrastructure stack is stopped,
apply the latest patch using the opatch apply procedure.
For the list of latest available patches, see My Oracle Support at the following
link:
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https://support.oracle.com/
i.
Unlock the Grid Infrastructure home from the earlier release:
rootcrs.pl -unlock -crshome pre-upgrade-grid-home
pre-upgrade-grid-home is the previous release Grid home.
ii.
Apply the patch:
opatch apply -local -oh pre-upgrade-grid-home
iii. Relock the Grid home from the earlier release:
rootcrs.pl -lock
c.
4.
From any other node where the Grid Infrastructure stack from the earlier
release is running, unset the Oracle ASM rolling migration mode as explained
in step 2.
On any node running Oracle Grid Infrastructure other than the first node, from the
Grid home of the earlier release, run the command:
clscfg -nodedowngrade -h hostname
hostname is the host name of the first node.
5.
From the later release Grid home, run the command to downgrade Oracle
Clusterware:
rootcrs.sh -downgrade -online
If rootcrs.sh is not present, then use rootcrs.pl.
6.
Start Oracle Grid Infrastructure stack on the first node from the earlier release Grid
home:
crsctl start crs
Note:
You can downgrade the cluster nodes in any sequence.
Related Topics
•
Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1)
•
Downgrading to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2)
11.13.6 Downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure after Upgrade Fails on
Remote Nodes
If upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure fails on remote nodes, then you can follow
these steps to downgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure to the earlier release.
Run this procedure from an already upgraded node where the Grid Infrastructure stack
of the latest release is running, and downgrade each node where upgrade has failed
or completed.
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1.
Shut down the Oracle Grid Infrastructure stack on the remote node that is being
downgraded:
crsctl stop crs
2.
From the later release Grid home, run the command:
clscfg -nodedowngrade -h hostname
hostname is the host name of the remote node that is being downgraded.
3.
From the remote node that is being downgraded, run the command:
rootcrs.pl -downgrade -online
4.
Start Oracle Grid Infrastructure stack on the remote node from the earlier release
Grid home:
crsctl start crs
5.
After all remote nodes are downgraded, downgrade the last remaining node using
the procedure described in Downgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure after Upgrade
Fails.
Note:
You can downgrade the cluster nodes in any sequence.
11.14 Completing Failed or Interrupted Installations and
Upgrades
If Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) exits on the node from which you started the
upgrade, or the node reboots before you confirm that the rootupgrade.sh script was run
on all nodes, then the upgrade remains incomplete.
In an incomplete installation or upgrade, configuration assistants still need to run, and
the new Grid home still needs to be marked as active in the central Oracle inventory.
You must complete the installation or upgrade on the affected nodes manually.
•
Completing Failed Installations and Upgrades
Understand how to join nodes to the cluster after installation or upgrade fails on
some nodes.
•
Continuing Incomplete Upgrade of First Nodes
Review this information to complete the upgrade, if upgrade of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure fails on the first node.
•
Continuing Incomplete Upgrades on Remote Nodes
Review this information to continue incomplete upgrade on remote nodes.
•
Continuing Incomplete Installation on First Node
Review this information to continue an incomplete installation of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, if installation fails on the first node.
•
Continuing Incomplete Installation on Remote Nodes
Review this information to continue incomplete installation on remote nodes.
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11.14.1 Completing Failed Installations and Upgrades
Understand how to join nodes to the cluster after installation or upgrade fails on some
nodes.
If installation or upgrade of Oracle Grid Infrastructure on some nodes fails, then the
installation or upgrade completes with only successful nodes in the cluster. Follow this
procedure to add the failed nodes to the cluster.
1.
Remove the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software from the failed nodes:
Grid_home/deinstall/deinstall -local
2.
As root user, from a node where Oracle Clusterware is installed, delete the failed
nodes using the delete node command:
Grid_home/bin/crsctl delete node -n node_name
node_name is the node to be deleted.
3.
Run the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation wizard and follow the steps in the
wizard to add the nodes:
Grid_home/gridSetup.sh
Alternatively, you can also add the nodes by running the addnode script:
Grid_home/addnode/addnode.sh
The nodes are added to the cluster.
11.14.2 Continuing Incomplete Upgrade of First Nodes
Review this information to complete the upgrade, if upgrade of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure fails on the first node.
1.
If the root script failure indicated a need to reboot, through the message
CLSRSC-400, then reboot the first node (the node where the upgrade was started).
Otherwise, manually fix or clear the error condition, as reported in the error output.
2.
If necessary, log in as root to the first node. Change directory to the new Grid
home on the first node, and run the rootupgrade.sh script on that node again. For
example:
[[email protected]]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected]]# ./rootupgrade.sh
3.
Complete the upgrade of all other nodes in the cluster.
[[email protected]]# ./rootupgrade.sh
4.
5.
Configure a response file, and provide passwords for the installation.
To complete the upgrade, log in as the Grid installation owner, and run
gridSetup.sh, located in the Grid_home, specifying the response file that you
created. For example, where the response file is gridinstall.rsp:
[[email protected]]$ gridSetup.sh -executeConfigTools -responseFile
Grid_home/install/response/gridinstall.rsp
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Completing Failed or Interrupted Installations and Upgrades
11.14.3 Continuing Incomplete Upgrades on Remote Nodes
Review this information to continue incomplete upgrade on remote nodes.
1.
If the root script failure indicated a need to reboot, through the message
CLSRSC-400, then reboot the first node (the node where the upgrade was started).
Otherwise, manually fix or clear the error condition, as reported in the error output.
2.
If root automation is being used, click Retry on the OUI instance on the first node.
3.
If root automation is not being used, log into the affected node as root. Change
directory to the Grid home, and run the rootupgrade.sh script on that node. For
example:
[[email protected]]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected]]# ./rootupgrade.sh
11.14.4 Continuing Incomplete Installation on First Node
Review this information to continue an incomplete installation of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, if installation fails on the first node.
1.
If the root script failure indicated a need to reboot, through the message
CLSRSC-400, then reboot the first node (the node where the installation was started).
Otherwise, manually fix or clear the error condition, as reported in the error output.
2.
If necessary, log in as root to the first node. Run the orainstRoot.sh script on that
node again. For example:
$ sudo -s
[[email protected]]# cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected]]# ./orainstRoot.sh
3.
Change directory to the Grid home on the first node, and run the root script on that
node again. For example:
[[email protected]]# cd /u01/app/12.1.0/grid
[[email protected]]# ./root.sh
4.
Complete the installation on all other nodes.
5.
Configure a response file, and provide passwords for the installation.
6.
To complete the installation, log in as the Grid installation owner, and run
gridSetup.sh, located in the Grid_home, specifying the response file that you
created. For example, where the response file is gridinstall.rsp:
[[email protected]]$ gridSetup.sh -executeConfigTools -responseFile Oracle_home/install/
response/gridinstall.rsp
11.14.5 Continuing Incomplete Installation on Remote Nodes
Review this information to continue incomplete installation on remote nodes.
1.
If the root script failure indicated a need to reboot, through the message
CLSRSC-400, then reboot the affected node. Otherwise, manually fix or clear the
error condition, as reported in the error output.
2.
If root automation is being used, click Retry on the OUI instance on the first node.
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Converting to Oracle Extended Cluster After Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
3.
If root automation is not being used, follow these steps:
a.
Log into the affected node as root, and run the orainstRoot.sh script on that
node. For example:
$ sudo -s
[[email protected]]# cd /u01/app/oraInventory
[[email protected]]# ./orainstRoot.sh
b.
Change directory to the Grid home, and run the root.sh script on the affected
node. For example:
[[email protected]]# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid
[[email protected]]# ./root.sh
4.
Continue the installation from the OUI instance on the first node.
11.15 Converting to Oracle Extended Cluster After
Upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review this information to convert to an Oracle Extended Cluster after upgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Extended Cluster enables you to deploy Oracle RAC
databases on a cluster, in which some of the nodes are located in different sites.
Ensure that you have upgraded to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2) as
described in this chapter.
1.
As root user, log in to the first node, and run the command:
rootcrs.sh -converttoextended -first -sites list_of_sites -site node_site
list_of_sites is the comma-separated list of sites in the extended cluster, and
node_site is the node containing the site.
For example:
rootcrs.sh -converttoextended -first -sites newyork,newjersey,conn -site newyork
2.
As root user, on all other nodes, run the following command:
rootcrs.sh -converttoextended -site node_site
node_site is the node containing the site.
For example:
rootcrs.sh -converttoextended -site newjersey
3.
Delete the default site after the associated nodes and storage are migrated.
crsctl delete cluster site site_name
For example:
[[email protected]]#crsctl delete cluster site mycluster
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12
Removing Oracle Database Software
These topics describe how to remove Oracle software and configuration files.
You can remove Oracle software in one of two ways: Use Oracle Universal Installer
with the deinstall option, or use the deinstallation tool (deinstall) that is
included in Oracle homes. Oracle does not support the removal of individual products
or components.
Caution:
If you have a standalone database on a node in a cluster, and if you have
multiple databases with the same global database name (GDN), then you
cannot use the deinstall tool to remove one database only.
•
About Oracle Deinstallation Options
You can stop and remove Oracle Database software and components in an Oracle
Database home with Oracle Universal Installer.
•
Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
The deinstall tool is a script that you can run separately from Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI).
•
Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database
Use these examples to help you understand how to run deinstallation using OUI
(runinstaller) or as a standalone tool (deinstall).
•
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
You can run the deinstallation tool with the -paramfile option to use the values you
specify in the response file.
•
Migrating Standalone Oracle Grid Infrastructure Servers to a Cluster
If you have an Oracle Database installation using Oracle Restart (that is, an
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation for a standalone server), and you want to
configure that server as a cluster member node, then complete the following tasks:
•
Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Binaries
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle ASM configured for a cluster), if you need to modify the binaries, then use
the following procedure, where Grid_home is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster home:
•
Changing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Path
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle ASM configured for a cluster), if you need to change the Grid home path,
then use the following example as a guide to detach the existing Grid home, and
to attach a new Grid home:
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About Oracle Deinstallation Options
•
Unconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing Binaries
Running the rootcrs.sh command flags -deconfig -force enables you to
unconfigure Oracle Clusterware on one or more nodes without removing installed
binaries.
•
Unconfiguring Oracle Member Cluster
Run this procedure to unconfigure Oracle Member Cluster.
12.1 About Oracle Deinstallation Options
You can stop and remove Oracle Database software and components in an Oracle
Database home with Oracle Universal Installer.
You can remove the following software using Oracle Universal Installer or the Oracle
deinstallation tool:
•
Oracle Database
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure, which includes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
•
Oracle Database Client
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, the deinstallation tool is integrated with the
database installation media. You can run the deinstallation tool using the
runInstaller command with the -deinstall and -home options from the base
directory of the Oracle Database or Oracle Database Client installation media.
The deinstallation tool is also available as a separate command (deinstall) in Oracle
home directories after installation. It is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall
directory.
The deinstallation tool creates a response file by using information in the Oracle home
and using the information you provide. You can use a response file that you generated
previously by running the deinstall command using the -checkonly option. You
can also edit the response file template.
If you run the deinstallation tool to remove an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation,
then the deinstaller prompts you to run the deinstall script as the root user. For Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a cluster, the script is rootcrs.sh, and for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle Restart), the script is roothas.sh.
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About Oracle Deinstallation Options
Note:
•
You must run the deinstallation tool from the same release to remove
Oracle software. Do not run the deinstallation tool from a later release to
remove Oracle software from an earlier release. For example, do not run
the deinstallation tool from the 12.2 installation media to remove Oracle
software from an existing 11.2.0.4 Oracle home.
•
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the roothas.sh
script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home for Oracle Restart, and the rootcrs.sh script replaces the
rootcrs.pl script in the Grid home for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster.
If the software in the Oracle home is not running (for example, after an unsuccessful
installation), then the deinstallation tool cannot determine the configuration, and you
must provide all the configuration details either interactively or in a response file.
In addition, before you run the deinstallation tool for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations:
•
Dismount Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle
ACFS) and disable Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume
Manager (Oracle ADVM).
•
If Grid Naming Service (GNS) is in use, then notify your DNS administrator to
delete the subdomain entry from the DNS.
Files Deleted by the Deinstallation Tool
When you run the deinstallation tool, if the central inventory (oraInventory) contains no
other registered homes besides the home that you are deconfiguring and removing,
then the deinstall command removes the following files and directory contents in the
Oracle base directory of the Oracle Database installation owner:
•
admin
•
cfgtoollogs
•
checkpoints
•
diag
•
oradata
•
fast_recovery_area
Oracle strongly recommends that you configure your installations using an Optimal
Flexible Architecture (OFA) configuration, and that you reserve Oracle base and
Oracle home paths for exclusive use of Oracle software. If you have any user data in
these locations in the Oracle base that is owned by the user account that owns the
Oracle software, then the deinstallation tool deletes this data.
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Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
Caution:
The deinstallation tool deletes Oracle Database configuration files, user data,
and fast recovery area (FRA) files even if they are located outside of the Oracle
base directory path.
12.2 Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
The deinstall tool is a script that you can run separately from Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI).
Purpose
The deinstall tool stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle software and
configuration files on the operating system for a specific Oracle home.
Syntax
The standalone deinstallation tool uses the following syntax:
(./deinstall [-silent] [-checkonly] [-paramfile complete path of input response
file]
[-params name1=value name2=value . . .]
[-o complete path of directory for saving files]
[-tmpdir complete path of temporary directory to use]
[-logdir complete path of log directory to use] [-skipLocalHomeDeletion] [skipRemoteHomeDeletion] [-help]
The deinstall tool run as a command option from OUI uses the following syntax,
where path is the complete path to the home or file you specify:
./runInstaller -deinstall -home path [-silent] [-checkonly]
[-paramfile path] [-params name1=value name2=value . . .]
[-o path] [-tmpdir complete path of temporary directory to use]
[-logdir complete path of log directory to use] [-skipLocalHomeDeletion] [skipRemoteHomeDeletion] [-help]
Parameters
Parameter
Description
-home
Use this flag to indicate the home path of the
Oracle home to check or deinstall.
To deinstall Oracle software using the
deinstall command, located in the Oracle
home you plan to deinstall, provide a response
file located outside the Oracle home, and do
not use the -home flag.
If you run the deinstallation tool from
the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall path,
then the -home flag is not required because
the tool identifies the location of the home
where it is run. If you use runInstaller
-deinstall from the installation media,
then -home is mandatory.
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Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
Parameter
Description
-silent
Use this flag to run the deinstallation tool in
noninteractive mode. This option requires one
of the following:
•
A working system that it can access to
determine the installation and
configuration information. The -silent
flag does not work with failed installations.
•
A response file that contains the
configuration values for the Oracle home
that is being deinstalled or deconfigured.
You can generate a response file to use or
modify by running the tool with the checkonly flag. The tool then discovers
information from the Oracle home to deinstall
and deconfigure. It generates the response file
that you can then use with the -silent
option.
You can also modify the template file
deinstall.rsp.tmpl, located in
the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/
response directory.
-checkonly
Use this flag to check the status of the Oracle
software home configuration. Running the
deinstallation tool with the -checkonly flag
does not remove the Oracle configuration. The
-checkonly flag generates a response file
that you can use with the deinstallation tool
and -silent option.
-paramfile complete path of input
Use this flag to run the deinstallation tool with
a response file in a location other than the
default. When you use this flag, provide the
complete path where the response file is
located.
response file
The default location of the response file
depends on the location of the deinstallation
tool:
•
•
From the installation media or stage
location: /response
After installation from the installed Oracle
home: $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/
response
-params [name1=value name2=value
name3=value . . .]
Use this flag with a response file to override
one or more values to change in a response
file you have created.
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Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database
Parameter
Description
-o complete path of directory for saving
Use this flag to provide a path other than the
default location where the response file
(deinstall.rsp.tmpl) is saved.
response files
The default location of the response file
depends on the location of the deinstallation
tool:
•
•
From the installation media or stage
location: /response
After installation from the installed Oracle
home: $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/
response
-tmpdircomplete path of temporary
directory to use
Use this flag to specify a non-default location
where Oracle Deinstallation Tool writes the
temporary files for the deinstallation.
-logdircomplete path of log directory to
use
Use this flag to specify a non-default location
where Oracle Deinstallation Tool writes the log
files for the deinstallation.
-local
Use this flag on a multinode environment to
deinstall Oracle software in a cluster.
When you run deinstall with this flag, it
deconfigures and deinstalls the Oracle
software on the local node (the node where
deinstall is run). On remote nodes, it
deconfigures Oracle software, but does not
deinstall the Oracle software.
-skipLocalHomeDeletion
Use this flag in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations on a multinode environment to
deconfigure a local Grid home without deleting
the Grid home.
-skipRemoteHomeDeletion
Use this flag in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations on a multinode environment to
deconfigure a remote Grid home without
deleting the Grid home.
-help
Use this option to obtain additional information
about the command option flags.
12.3 Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database
Use these examples to help you understand how to run deinstallation using OUI
(runinstaller) or as a standalone tool (deinstall).
If you run the deinstallation tool from the installation media using runInstaller deinstall, then help is displayed that guides you through the deinstallation process.
You can also use the -home flag and provide a path to the home directory of the
Oracle software to remove from your system. If you have a response file, then use the
optional flag -paramfile to provide a path to the response file.
You can generate a deinstallation response file by running the deinstallation tool with
the -checkonly flag. Alternatively, you can use the response file template located
at $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/response/deinstall.rsp.tmpl.
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Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
In the following example, the runInstaller command is in the path/directory_path,
where /directory_path is the path to the database directory on the installation media,
and /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/ is the path to the Oracle
home you want to remove:
$ cd /directory_path/
$ ./runInstaller -deinstall -home /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/
The following example uses a response file called my_db_paramfile.tmpl in the
software owner location /home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /directory_path/
$ ./runInstaller -deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
If you run the deinstallation tool using deinstall from the $ORACLE_HOME/
deinstall directory, then the deinstallation starts without prompting you for the
Oracle home path.
In the following example, the deinstall command is in the path/u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall. It uses a response file called
my_db_paramfile.tmpl in the software owner location /home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
To remove the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, use the deinstallation script in the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
In this example, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is /u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/grid:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/deinstall$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/
oracle/my_grid_paramfile.tmpl
12.4 Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Cluster
You can run the deinstallation tool with the -paramfile option to use the values you
specify in the response file.
The following is an example of a response file for a cluster on nodes node1 and node2,
in which the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster software binary owner is grid, the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home) is in the path /u01/app/12.2.0/grid, the
Oracle base (the Oracle base for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, containing Oracle ASM
log files, Oracle Clusterware logs, and other administrative files) is /u01/app/grid/, the
central Oracle Inventory home (oraInventory) is /u01/app/oraInventory, the virtual IP
addresses (VIP) are 192.0.2.2 and 192.0.2.4, the local node (the node where you run
the deinstallation session from) is node1:
# Copyright (c) 2005, 2016 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid
CDATA_AUSIZE=4
BIG_CLUSTER=true
ISROLLING=true
LOCAL_NODE=node1
OCR_VD_DISKGROUPS="+DATA1"
MGMTDB_DIAG=/u01/app/grid
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Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
OCRID=
MGMTDB_SPFILE="+DATA1/_MGMTDB/PARAMETERFILE/spfile.271.923210081"
ObaseCleanupPtrLoc=/tmp/deinstall2016-10-06_09-36-04AM/utl/orabase_cleanup.lst
CDATA_BACKUP_QUORUM_GROUPS=
ASM_CREDENTIALS=
MGMTDB_NODE_LIST=node1,node2
EXTENDED_CLUSTER=false
LISTENER_USERNAME=cuser
local=false
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid
ASM_HOME=/u01/app/grid
ASM_DISK_GROUPS="+DATA1"
HUB_NODE_VIPS=AUTO,AUTO
PING_TARGETS=
ORA_DBA_GROUP=oinstall
ASM_DISCOVERY_STRING=/dev/rdsk/*
CDATA_DISKS=/dev/rdsk/c0t600144F0C4A01A3F000056E6A12A0022d0s3
MinimumSupportedVersion=11.2.0.1.0
NEW_HOST_NAME_LIST=
ORACLE_HOME_VERSION=12.2.0.1.0
PRIVATE_NAME_LIST=
MGMTDB_DB_UNIQUE_NAME=_mgmtdb
ASM_DISKSTRING=/dev/rdsk/*,AFD:*
CDATA_QUORUM_GROUPS=
CRS_HOME=true
ODA_CONFIG=
JLIBDIR=/u01/app/jlib
CRFHOME="/u01/app/"
USER_IGNORED_PREREQ=true
MGMTDB_ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/grid/
DROP_MGMTDB=true
RHP_CONF=false
OCRLOC=
GNS_TYPE=local
CRS_STORAGE_OPTION=1
CDATA_SITES=
GIMR_CONFIG=local
CDATA_BACKUP_SIZE=0
GPNPGCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
MGMTDB_IN_HOME=true
CDATA_DISK_GROUP=+DATA2
LANGUAGE_ID=AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8
CDATA_BACKUP_FAILURE_GROUPS=
CRS_NODEVIPS='AUTO/255.255.254.0/net0,AUTO/255.255.254.0/net0'
ORACLE_OWNER=cuser
GNS_ALLOW_NET_LIST=
silent=true
INSTALL_NODE=node1.example.com
ORACLE_HOME_VERSION_VALID=true
inst_group=oinstall
LOGDIR=/tmp/deinstall2016-10-06_09-36-04AM/logs/
EXTENDED_CLUSTER_SITES=
CDATA_REDUNDANCY=EXTERNAL
CDATA_BACKUP_DISK_GROUP=+DATA2
APPLICATION_VIP=
HUB_NODE_LIST=node1,node2
NODE_NAME_LIST=node1,node2
GNS_DENY_ITF_LIST=
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid/
JREDIR=/u01/app/12.2.0/grid/jdk/jre/
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ASM_LOCAL_SID=+ASM1
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/
GNS_CONF=true
CLUSTER_CLASS=DOMAINSERVICES
ORACLE_BINARY_OK=true
CDATA_BACKUP_REDUNDANCY=EXTERNAL
CDATA_FAILURE_GROUPS=
ASM_CONFIG=near
OCR_LOCATIONS=
ASM_ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/12.2.0/
OLRLOC=
GIMR_CREDENTIALS=
GPNPCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
ORA_ASM_GROUP=asmadmin
GNS_CREDENTIALS=
CDATA_BACKUP_AUSIZE=4
GNS_DENY_NET_LIST=
OLD_CRS_HOME=
NEW_NODE_NAME_LIST=
GNS_DOMAIN_LIST=node1.example.com
ASM_UPGRADE=false
NETCA_LISTENERS_REGISTERED_WITH_CRS=LISTENER
CDATA_BACKUP_DISKS=/dev/rdsk/
ASMCA_ARGS=
CLUSTER_GUID=
CLUSTER_NODES=node1,node2
MGMTDB_NODE=node2
ASM_DIAGNOSTIC_DEST=/u01/app/
NEW_PRIVATE_NAME_LIST=
AFD_LABELS_NO_DG=
AFD_CONFIGURED=true
CLSCFG_MISSCOUNT=
MGMT_DB=true
SCAN_PORT=1521
ASM_DROP_DISKGROUPS=true
OPC_NAT_ADDRESS=
CLUSTER_TYPE=DB
NETWORKS="net0"/IP_Address:public,"net1"/IP_Address:asm,"net1"/
IP_Address:cluster_interconnect
OCR_VOTINGDISK_IN_ASM=true
HUB_SIZE=32
CDATA_BACKUP_SITES=
CDATA_SIZE=0
REUSEDG=false
MGMTDB_DATAFILE=
ASM_IN_HOME=true
HOME_TYPE=CRS
MGMTDB_SID="-MGMTDB"
GNS_ADDR_LIST=mycluster-gns.example.com
CLUSTER_NAME=node1-cluster
AFD_CONF=true
MGMTDB_PWDFILE=
OPC_CLUSTER_TYPE=
VOTING_DISKS=
SILENT=false
VNDR_CLUSTER=false
TZ=localtime
GPNP_PA=
DC_HOME=/tmp/deinstall2016-10-06_09-36-04AM/logs/
CSS_LEASEDURATION=400
REMOTE_NODES=node2
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Migrating Standalone Oracle Grid Infrastructure Servers to a Cluster
ASM_SPFILE=
NEW_NODEVIPS='n1-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0,n2-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0'
SCAN_NAME=node1-cluster-scan.node1-cluster.com
RIM_NODE_LIST=
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
Note:
Do not use quotation marks with variables except in the following cases:
•
Around addresses in CRS_NODEVIPS:
CRS_NODEVIPS='n1-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0,n2-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0'
•
Around interface names in NETWORKS:
NETWORKS="eth0"/192.0.2.1\:public,"eth1"/10.0.0.1\:cluster_interconnect
VIP1_IP=192.0.2.2
12.5 Migrating Standalone Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Servers to a Cluster
If you have an Oracle Database installation using Oracle Restart (that is, an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation for a standalone server), and you want to configure that
server as a cluster member node, then complete the following tasks:
1.
Inspect the Oracle Restart configuration with srvctl using the following syntax,
where db_unique_name is the unique name for the database, and lsnrname is the
name of the listener:
srvctl config database -db db_unique_name
srvctl config service -db db_unique_name
srvctl config listener -listener lsnrname
Write down the configuration information for the server.
2.
Stop all of the databases, services, and listeners that you discovered in step 1.
3.
If present, unmount all Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File
System (Oracle ACFS) file systems.
4.
Log in as root, and change directory to Grid home/crs/install. For example:
# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/crs/install
5.
Unconfigure the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation for a standalone server
(Oracle Restart), using the following command:
# roothas.sh -deconfig -force
6.
Prepare the server for Oracle Clusterware configuration, as described in this
document. In addition, you can install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster in the
same location as Oracle Restart, or in a different location.
Installing in the Same Location as Oracle Restart
a.
Proceed to step 7.
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Migrating Standalone Oracle Grid Infrastructure Servers to a Cluster
Installing in a Different Location than Oracle Restart
7.
a.
Set up Oracle Grid Infrastructure software in the new Grid home software
location as described in Installing Only the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software.
b.
Proceed to step 7.
Set the environment variables as follows:
export
export
export
export
export
8.
oracle_install_asm_UseExistingDG=true or false
oracle_install_asm_DiskGroupName=disk_group_name
oracle_install_asm_DiskDiscoveryString=asm_discovery_string
oracle_install_asm_ConfigureGIMRDataDG=true or false
oracle_install_asm_GIMRDataDGName=disk_group_name
As the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner, run the installer.
You can complete the installation either interactively or in the silent mode. If you
perform a silent installation, save and stage the response file as described in
Recording Response Files.
9.
After saving the response file, run the command:
$ Grid_home/gridSetup.sh -silent -responseFile $ORACLE_HOME/GI.rsp
10. Run root.sh.
11. Mount the Oracle ASM disk group used by Oracle Restart.
12. If you used Oracle ACFS with Oracle Restart, then:
a.
Start Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA). Run the volenable
command to enable all Oracle Restart disk group volumes.
b.
Mount all Oracle ACFS file systems manually.
13. Add back Oracle Clusterware services to the Oracle Clusterware home, using the
information you wrote down in step 1, including adding back Oracle ACFS
resources. For example:
/u01/app/grid/product/12.2.0/grid/bin/srvctl add filesystem -device
/dev/asm/db1 -diskgroup ORestartData -volume db1 -mountpointpath
/u01/app/grid/product/12.2.0/db1 -user grid
14. Add the Oracle Database for support by Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster,
using the configuration information you recorded in step 1. Use the following
command syntax, where db_unique_name is the unique name of the database on
the node, and nodename is the name of the node:
srvctl add database -db db_unique_name -spfile -pwfile oraclehome $ORACLE_HOME -node nodename
a.
For example, first verify that the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set to the
location of the database home directory.
b.
Next, to add the database name mydb, enter the following command:
srvctl add database -db mydb -spfile -pwfile -oraclehome $ORACLE_HOME -node
node1
c.
Add each service to the database, using the command srvctl add service.
For example, add myservice as follows:
srvctl add service -db mydb -service myservice
15. Add nodes to your cluster, as required, using the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installer.
12-11
Chapter 12
Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Binaries
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about
adding nodes to your cluster.
12.6 Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
Binaries
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
ASM configured for a cluster), if you need to modify the binaries, then use the
following procedure, where Grid_home is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
home:
Caution:
Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables that run in
the Oracle home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut down
applications linked with Oracle shared libraries. If present, unmount all Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
filesystems.
As root:
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# rootcrs.sh -unlock
As the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster owner:
$ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
$ Grid_home/bin/relink
As root again:
#
#
#
#
cd Grid_home/rdbms/install/
./rootadd_rdbms.sh
cd Grid_home/crs/install
rootcrs.sh -lock
You must relink the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM binaries every time you apply
an operating system patch or after you perform an operating system upgrade that
does not replace the root file system. For an operating system upgrade that results in
a new root file system, you must remove the node from the cluster and add it back into
the cluster.
For upgrades from previous releases, if you want to deinstall the prior release Grid
home, then you must first unlock the prior release Grid home. Unlock the previous
release Grid home by running the command rootcrs.sh -unlock from the previous
release home. After the script has completed, you can run the deinstallation tool.
12-12
Chapter 12
Changing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Path
12.7 Changing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Path
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
ASM configured for a cluster), if you need to change the Grid home path, then use the
following example as a guide to detach the existing Grid home, and to attach a new
Grid home:
Caution:
Before changing the Grid home, you must shut down all executables that run in
the Grid home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut down
applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.
1.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner (grid).
2.
Change directory to Grid_home/bin and, as root, run the command crsctl stop
crs. For example:
$ cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin
$ ./crsctl stop crs
3.
As grid user, detach the existing Grid home by running the following command,
where /u01/app/12.2.0/grid is the existing Grid home location:
$ /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/oui/bin/runInstaller -silent -waitforcompletion\
-detachHome ORACLE_HOME='/u01/app/12.2.0/grid' -local
4.
As root, move the Grid binaries from the old Grid home location to the new Grid
home location. For example, where the old Grid home is /u01/app/12.2.0/grid and
the new Grid home is /u01/app/12c/:
# mkdir /u01/app/12c
# cp -pR /u01/app/12.2.0/grid /u01/app/12c
5.
Unlock the destination Grid home:
# cd /u01/app/12c/grid/crs/install
# rootcrs.sh -unlock -dstcrshome /u01/app/12c/grid
6.
Clone the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, using the instructions provided in
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.
When you navigate to the Grid_home/clone/bin directory and run the clone.pl
script, provide values for the input parameters that provide the path information for
the new Grid home.
The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM binaries are relinked when you clone the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
7.
As root again, enter the following command to start up in the new home location:
# cd /u01/app/12c/grid/crs/install
# rootcrs.sh -move -dstcrshome /u01/app/12c/grid
8.
Repeat steps 1 through 8 on each cluster member node.
12-13
Chapter 12
Unconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing Binaries
Caution:
While cloning, ensure that you do not change the Oracle home base, otherwise
the move operation fails.
12.8 Unconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing
Binaries
Running the rootcrs.sh command flags -deconfig -force enables you to unconfigure
Oracle Clusterware on one or more nodes without removing installed binaries.
This feature is useful if you encounter an error on one or more cluster nodes during
installation when running the root.sh command, such as a missing operating system
package on one node. By running rootcrs.sh -deconfig -force on nodes where you
encounter an installation error, you can unconfigure Oracle Clusterware on those
nodes, correct the cause of the error, and then run root.sh again.
Note:
Stop any databases, services, and listeners that may be installed and running
before deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware. In addition, dismount Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and
disable Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager
(Oracle ADVM) volumes.
Caution:
Commands used in this section remove the Oracle Grid infrastructure
installation for the entire cluster. If you want to remove the installation from an
individual node, then see Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment
Guide.
To unconfigure Oracle Clusterware:
1.
Log in as the root user on a node where you encountered an error.
2.
Change directory to Grid_home/crs/install. For example:
# cd /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/crs/install
3.
Run rootcrs.sh with the -deconfig and -force flags. For example:
# rootcrs.sh -deconfig -force
Repeat on other nodes as required.
4.
If you are deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware on all nodes in the cluster, then on the
last node, enter the following command:
12-14
Chapter 12
Unconfiguring Oracle Member Cluster
# rootcrs.sh -deconfig -force -lastnode
The -lastnode flag completes deconfiguration of the cluster, including the OCR
and voting files.
Caution:
Run the rootcrs.sh -deconfig -force -lastnode command on a Hub Node.
Deconfigure all Leaf Nodes before you run the command with the -lastnode
flag.
12.9 Unconfiguring Oracle Member Cluster
Run this procedure to unconfigure Oracle Member Cluster.
1.
Run the deinstall tool to unconfigure Oracle Member Cluster:
Grid_home/deinstall/deinstall.sh
2.
Complete the deinstallation by running the root script on all the nodes when
prompted.
# rootcrs.sh -deconfig
3.
Delete the Member Cluster Manifest File for the Oracle Member Cluster and
stored on the Oracle Domain Services Cluster:
crsctl delete member_cluster_configuration member_cluster_name
Related Topics
•
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
12-15
A
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database
Using Response Files
Review the following topics to install and configure Oracle products using response
files.
•
How Response Files Work
Response files can assist you with installing an Oracle product multiple times on
multiple computers.
•
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
Review this section for use cases for running the installer in silent mode or
response file mode.
•
Using Response Files
Review this information to use response files.
•
Preparing Response Files
Review this information to prepare response files for use during silent mode or
response file mode installations.
•
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
After creating the response file, run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line,
specifying the response file you created, to perform the installation.
•
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
You can run configuration assistants in response file or silent mode to configure
and start Oracle software after it is installed on the system. To run configuration
assistants in response file or silent mode, you must copy and edit a response file
template.
•
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation
Use response files to configure Oracle software after installation. You can use the
same response file created during installation to also complete postinstallation
configuration.
•
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
You can create and run a response file configuration after installing Oracle
software. The configToolAllCommands script requires users to create a
second response file, of a different format than the one used for installing the
product.
A.1 How Response Files Work
Response files can assist you with installing an Oracle product multiple times on
multiple computers.
When you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI), you can use a response file to
automate the installation and configuration of Oracle software, either fully or partially.
OUI uses the values contained in the response file to provide answers to some or all
installation prompts.
A-1
Appendix A
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
Typically, the installer runs in interactive mode, which means that it prompts you to
provide information in graphical user interface (GUI) screens. When you use response
files to provide this information, you run the installer from a command prompt using
either of the following modes:
•
Silent mode
If you include responses for all of the prompts in the response file and specify the
-silent option when starting the installer, then it runs in silent mode. During a
silent mode installation, the installer does not display any screens. Instead, it
displays progress information in the terminal that you used to start it.
•
Response file mode
If you include responses for some or all of the prompts in the response file and
omit the -silent option, then the installer runs in response file mode. During a
response file mode installation, the installer displays all the screens, screens for
which you specify information in the response file, and also screens for which you
did not specify the required information in the response file.
You define the settings for a silent or response file installation by entering values for
the variables listed in the response file. For example, to specify the Oracle home
name, provide the Oracle home path for the ORACLE_HOME environment variable:
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
Another way of specifying the response file variable settings is to pass them as
command-line arguments when you run the installer. For example:
-silent directory_path
In this command, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the installation
media, or the path of the directory on the hard drive.
A.2 Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
Review this section for use cases for running the installer in silent mode or response
file mode.
Mode
Uses
Silent
Use silent mode for the following installations:
•
Complete an unattended installation, which you schedule using
operating system utilities such as at.
•
Complete several similar installations on multiple systems without user
interaction.
•
Install the software on a system that does not have X Window System
software installed on it.
The installer displays progress information on the terminal that you used to
start it, but it does not display any of the installer screens.
Response file
Use response file mode to complete similar Oracle software installations on
more than one system, providing default answers to some, but not all of the
installer prompts.
A-2
Appendix A
Using Response Files
A.3 Using Response Files
Review this information to use response files.
Use the following general steps to install and configure Oracle products using the
installer in silent or response file mode:
Note:
You must complete all required preinstallation tasks on a system before
running the installer in silent or response file mode.
1.
Prepare a response file.
2.
Run the installer in silent or response file mode.
3.
Run the root scripts as prompted by Oracle Universal Installer.
4.
If you completed a software-only installation, then run Net Configuration Assistant
and Oracle DBCA in silent or response file mode to create the database listener
and an Oracle Database instance respectively.
A.4 Preparing Response Files
Review this information to prepare response files for use during silent mode or
response file mode installations.
•
Editing a Response File Template
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and
for each configuration tool.
•
Recording Response Files
You can use OUI in interactive mode to record response files, which you can then
edit and use to complete silent mode or response file mode installations. This
method is useful for Advanced or software-only installations.
A.4.1 Editing a Response File Template
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and for
each configuration tool.
For Oracle Database, the response file templates are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/
inventory/response directory. For Oracle Grid Infrastructure, the response file
templates are located in the Grid_home/install/response directory.
Where, Grid_home is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory path.
A-3
Appendix A
Preparing Response Files
Note:
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response files are located in
the /response directory.
All response file templates contain comment entries, sample formats, examples, and
other useful instructions. Read the response file instructions to understand how to
specify values for the response file variables, so that you can customize your
installation.
The following table lists the response files provided with this software:
Table A-1
Response Files for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Response File
Description
db_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Database.
dbca.rsp
Silent creation and configuration of Oracle Database using Oracle DBCA.
netca.rsp
Silent configuration of Oracle Net using Oracle NETCA.
grid_setup.rsp
Silent configuration of Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
Caution:
When you modify a response file template and save a file for use, the response
file may contain plain text passwords. Ownership of the response file should be
given to the Oracle software installation owner only, and permissions on the
response file should be changed to 600. Oracle strongly recommends that
database administrators or other administrators delete or secure response files
when they are not in use.
To copy and modify a response file:
1.
Copy the response file from the response file directory to a directory on your
system:
For example, for Oracle Database:
$ cp $ORACLE_HOME/install/response/product_timestamp.rsp local_directory
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/response_file.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
A-4
Appendix A
Preparing Response Files
Note:
The installer or configuration assistant fails if you do not correctly configure
the response file. Also, ensure that your response file name has the .rsp
suffix.
4.
Secure the response file by changing the permissions on the file to 600:
$ chmod 600 /local_dir/response_file.rsp
Ensure that only the Oracle software owner user can view or modify response files
or consider deleting them after the installation succeeds.
Note:
A fully-specified response file for an Oracle Database installation contains
the passwords for database administrative accounts and for a user who is a
member of the OSDBA group (required for automated backups).
Related Topics
•
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide
A.4.2 Recording Response Files
You can use OUI in interactive mode to record response files, which you can then edit
and use to complete silent mode or response file mode installations. This method is
useful for Advanced or software-only installations.
You can save all the installation steps into a response file during installation by clicking
Save Response File on the Summary page. You can use the generated response file
for a silent installation later.
When you record the response file, you can either complete the installation, or you can
exit from the installer on the Summary page, before OUI starts to copy the software to
the system.
If you use record mode during a response file mode installation, then the installer
records the variable values that were specified in the original source response file into
the new response file.
Note:
You cannot save passwords while recording the response file.
To record a response file:
1.
Complete preinstallation tasks as for a standard installation.
When you run the installer to record a response file, it checks the system to verify
that it meets the requirements to install the software. For this reason, Oracle
A-5
Appendix A
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
recommends that you complete all of the required preinstallation tasks and record
the response file while completing an installation.
2.
Ensure that the Oracle software owner user (typically oracle) has permissions to
create or write to the Oracle home path that you specify when you run the installer.
3.
On each installation screen, specify the required information.
4.
When the installer displays the Summary screen, perform the following steps:
a.
Click Save Response File. In the window, specify a file name and location for
the new response file. Click Save to write the responses you entered to the
response file.
b.
Click Finish to continue with the installation.
Click Cancel if you do not want to continue with the installation. The
installation stops, but the recorded response file is retained.
Note:
Ensure that your response file name has the .rsp suffix.
5.
If you do not complete the installation, then delete the Oracle home directory that
the installer created using the path you specified in the Specify File Locations
screen.
6.
Before you use the saved response file on another system, edit the file and make
any required changes. Use the instructions in the file as a guide when editing it.
A.5 Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response
File
After creating the response file, run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line,
specifying the response file you created, to perform the installation.
Run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line, specifying the response file you
created. The Oracle Universal Installer executables, runInstaller and
gridSetup.sh, provide several options. For help information on the full set of these
options, run the gridSetup.sh or runInstaller command with the -help option.
For example:
•
For Oracle Database:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/runInstaller -help
•
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
$ Grid_home/gridSetup.sh -help
The help information appears in a window after some time.
To run the installer using a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks for a normal installation.
2.
Log in as the software installation owner user.
3.
If you are completing a response file mode installation, then set the operating
system DISPLAY environment variable for the user running the installation.
A-6
Appendix A
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
Note:
You do not have to set the DISPLAY environment variable if you are
completing a silent mode installation.
4.
To start the installer in silent or response file mode, enter a command similar to
the following:
•
For Oracle Database:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/runInstaller [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
•
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
$ Grid_home/gridSetup.sh [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
Note:
Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you specify a relative
path, then the installer fails.
In this example:
5.
•
-silent runs the installer in silent mode.
•
-noconfig suppresses running the configuration assistants during
installation, and a software-only installation is performed instead.
•
responsefilename is the full path and file name of the installation response file
that you configured.
•
Grid_home is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home path
If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system, then
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the orainstRoot.sh script.
Log in as the root user and run the orainstRoot.sh script:
$ su root
password:
# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
Note:
You do not have to manually create the oraInst.loc file. Running the
orainstRoot.sh script is sufficient as it specifies the location of the
Oracle Inventory directory.
6.
When the installation completes, log in as the root user and run the root.sh
script. For example
$ su root
password:
# $ORACLE_HOME/root.sh
A-7
Appendix A
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
A.6 Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
You can run configuration assistants in response file or silent mode to configure and
start Oracle software after it is installed on the system. To run configuration assistants
in response file or silent mode, you must copy and edit a response file template.
Note:
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response file template is
located in the /response directory.
•
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using Response Files
You can run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in response
file mode to configure and start an Oracle database on the system.
•
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using Response Files
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net Listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure
Oracle Net service names.
A.6.1 Running Database Configuration Assistant Using Response
Files
You can run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in response file
mode to configure and start an Oracle database on the system.
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, you must copy and
edit a response file template. Oracle provides a response file template named
dbca.rsp in the ORACLE_HOME/assistants/dbca directory and also in the /
response directory on the installation media. To run Oracle DBCA in response file
mode, you must use the -responseFile flag in combination with the -silent flag.
You must also use a graphical display and set the DISPLAY environment variable.
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode:
1.
Copy the dbca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/dbca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD.
If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
As an alternative to editing the response file template, you can also create a
database by specifying all required information as command line options when you
run Oracle DBCA. For information about the list of options supported, enter the
following command:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca -help
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
A-8
Appendix A
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
$ vi /local_dir/dbca.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit the file.
Note:
Oracle DBCA fails if you do not correctly configure the response file.
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
To run Oracle DBCA in response file mode, set the DISPLAY environment variable.
6.
Use the following command syntax to run Oracle DBCA in silent or response file
mode using a response file:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca {-silent} -responseFile \
/local_dir/dbca.rsp
In this example:
•
-silent option indicates that Oracle DBCA runs in silent mode.
•
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the dbca.rsp
response file template.
During configuration, Oracle DBCA displays a window that contains status
messages and a progress bar.
A.6.2 Running Net Configuration Assistant Using Response Files
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net Listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure Oracle
Net service names.
To run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode, you must copy and edit a response
file template. Oracle provides a response file template named netca.rsp in the response
directory in the database/response directory in the installation media.
Note:
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response file template is
located in the database/response directory.
To run Net Configuration Assistant using a response file:
1.
Copy the netca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/netca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD. If
you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the response
directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
A-9
Appendix A
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation
$ vi /local_dir/netca.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Note:
Net Configuration Assistant fails if you do not correctly configure the
response file.
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Net Configuration Assistant in
silent mode:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca -silent -responsefile /local_dir/netca.rsp
In this command:
•
The -silent option indicates to run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
•
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the netca.rsp
response file template.
A.7 Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File
Created During Installation
Use response files to configure Oracle software after installation. You can use the
same response file created during installation to also complete postinstallation
configuration.
•
Using the Installation Response File for Postinstallation Configuration
Starting with Oracle Database 12c release 2 (12.2), you can use the response file
created during installation to also complete postinstallation configuration.
•
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
executeConfigTools command.
A.7.1 Using the Installation Response File for Postinstallation
Configuration
Starting with Oracle Database 12c release 2 (12.2), you can use the response file
created during installation to also complete postinstallation configuration.
Run the installer with the -executeConfigTools option to configure configuration
assistants after installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle Database. You can use
the response file located at Oracle_home/install/response/
product_timestamp.rsp to obtain the passwords required to run the configuration tools.
You must update the response file with the required passwords before running the executeConfigTools command.
Oracle strongly recommends that you maintain security with a password response file:
A-10
Appendix A
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation
•
Permissions on the response file should be set to 600.
•
The owner of the response file should be the installation owner user, with the
group set to the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
Example A-1
Response File Passwords for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
oracle.install.crs.config.ipmi.bmcPassword=password
oracle.install.asm.SYSASMPassword=password
oracle.install.asm.monitorPassword=password
oracle.install.config.emAdminPassword=password
If you do not have a BMC card, or you do not want to enable IPMI, then leave the
ipmi.bmcPassword input field blank.
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager for management, then leave
the emAdminPassword password field blank.
Example A-2 Response File Passwords for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server
oracle.install.asm.SYSASMPassword=password
oracle.install.asm.monitorPassword=password
oracle.install.config.emAdminPassword=password
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager for management, then leave
the emAdminPassword password field blank.
Example A-3
Response File Passwords for Oracle Database
This example illustrates the passwords to specify for use with the database
configuration assistants.
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYS=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYSTEM=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.DBSNMP=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.PDBADMIN=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.emAdminPassword=password
oracle.install.db.config.asm.ASMSNMPPassword=password
You can also specify oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.ALL=password to
use the same password for all database users.
Oracle Database configuration assistants require the SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP
passwords for use with DBCA. You must specify the following passwords, depending
on your system configuration:
•
If the database uses Oracle ASM for storage, then you must specify a password
for the ASMSNMPPassword variable. If you are not using Oracle ASM, then leave the
value for this password variable blank.
•
If you create a multitenant container database (CDB) with one or more pluggable
databases (PDBs), then you must specify a password for the PDBADMIN variable. If
you are not using Oracle ASM, then leave the value for this password variable
blank.
A.7.2 Running Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
executeConfigTools command.
A-11
Appendix A
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
1.
Edit the response file and specify the required passwords for your configuration.
You can use the response file created during installation, located at
ORACLE_HOME/install/response/product_timestamp.rsp. For example:
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
oracle.install.asm.SYSASMPassword=password
oracle.install.config.emAdminPassword=password
2.
Change directory to the Oracle home containing the installation software. For
example, for Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
cd Grid_home
3.
Run the configuration script using the following syntax:
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
gridSetup.sh -executeConfigTools -responseFile Grid_home/install/response/
product_timestamp.rsp
For Oracle Database:
runInstaller -executeConfigTools -responseFile ORACLE_HOME/install/response/
product_timestamp.rsp
For Oracle Database, you can also run the response file located in the directory
ORACLE_HOME/inventory/response/:
runInstaller -executeConfigTools -responseFile ORACLE_HOME/inventory/
response/db_install.rsp
The postinstallation configuration tool runs the installer in the graphical user
interface mode, displaying the progress of the postinstallation configuration.
Specify the [-silent] option to run the postinstallation configuration in the
silent mode.
For example, for Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
$ gridSetup.sh -executeConfigTools -responseFile /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/install/
response/grid_2016-01-09_01-03-36PM.rsp [-silent]
For Oracle Database:
$ runInstaller -executeConfigTools -responseFile ORACLE_HOME/inventory/
response/db_2016-01-09_01-03-36PM.rsp [-silent]
A.8 Postinstallation Configuration Using the
ConfigToolAllCommands Script
You can create and run a response file configuration after installing Oracle software.
The configToolAllCommands script requires users to create a second response
file, of a different format than the one used for installing the product.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the configToolAllCommands
script is deprecated and may be desupported in a future release.
A-12
Appendix A
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
•
About the Postinstallation Configuration File
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide information about
your servers in a response file that you otherwise provide manually during a
graphical user interface installation.
•
Creating a Password Response File
Review this information to create a password response file.
•
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Password Response File
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
configToolAllCommands script.
Related Topics
•
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation
Use response files to configure Oracle software after installation. You can use the
same response file created during installation to also complete postinstallation
configuration.
A.8.1 About the Postinstallation Configuration File
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide information about your
servers in a response file that you otherwise provide manually during a graphical user
interface installation.
However, the response file does not contain passwords for user accounts that
configuration assistants require after software installation is complete. The
configuration assistants are started with a script called configToolAllCommands. You can
run this script in response file mode by using a password response file. The script
uses the passwords to run the configuration tools in succession to complete
configuration.
If you keep the password file to use for clone installations, then Oracle strongly
recommends that you store the password file in a secure location. In addition, if you
have to stop an installation to fix an error, then you can run the configuration
assistants using configToolAllCommands and a password response file.
The configToolAllCommands password response file has the following syntax options:
•
oracle.crs for Oracle Grid Infrastructure components or oracle.server for Oracle
Database components that the configuration assistants configure
•
variable_name is the name of the configuration file variable
•
value is the desired value to use for configuration.
The command syntax is as follows:
internal_component_name|variable_name=value
For example:
oracle.crs|S_ASMPASSWORD=myPassWord
Oracle Database configuration assistants require the SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP
passwords for use with DBCA. You may need to specify the following additional
passwords, depending on your system configuration:
•
If the database is using Oracle ASM for storage, then you must specify a
password for the S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD variable. If you are not using Oracle ASM, then
leave the value for this password variable blank.
A-13
Appendix A
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
•
If you create a multitenant container database (CDB) with one or more pluggable
databases (PDBs), then you must specify a password for the S_PDBADMINPASSWORD
variable. If you are not using Oracle ASM, then leave the value for this password
variable blank.
Oracle strongly recommends that you maintain security with a password response file:
•
Permissions on the response file should be set to 600.
•
The owner of the response file should be the installation owner user, with the
group set to the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
A.8.2 Creating a Password Response File
Review this information to create a password response file.
To create a password response file to use with the configuration assistants, perform
the following steps:
1.
Create a response file that has a name of the format filename.properties, for
example:
$ touch pwdrsp.properties
2.
Open the file with a text editor, and cut and paste the sample password file
contents, as shown in the examples, modifying as needed.
3.
Change permissions to secure the password response file. For example:
$ ls -al pwdrsp.properties
-rw------- 1 oracle oinstall 0 Apr 30 17:30 pwdrsp.properties
Example A-4
Password response file for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
oracle.crs|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_OMSPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_BMCPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
If you do not have a BMC card, or you do not want to enable IPMI, then leave the
S_BMCPASSWORD input field blank.
Example A-5 Password response file for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server
oracle.crs|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_OMSPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
Example A-6
Password response file for Oracle Database
This example provides a template for a password response file to use with the
database configuration assistants.
oracle.server|S_SYSPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_SYSTEMPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_EMADMINPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_DBSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_PDBADMINPASSWORD=password
A-14
Appendix A
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager for management, then leave
those password fields blank.
A.8.3 Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Password
Response File
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
configToolAllCommands script.
1.
Create a password response file as described in Creating a Password File.
2.
Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs.
3.
Run the configuration script using the following syntax:
configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/path/name.properties
For example:
$ ./configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/home/oracle/pwdrsp.properties
A-15
B
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually
Use these instructions to complete configuration tasks manually.
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle Universal Installer and Cluster Verification
Utility fixup scripts to complete minimal configuration settings. If you cannot use fixup
scripts, then complete minimum system settings manually.
•
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
Passwordless SSH configuration is a mandatory installation requirement. SSH is
used during installation to configure cluster member nodes, and SSH is used after
installation by configuration assistants, Oracle Enterprise Manager, Opatch, and
other features.
•
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
To use Oracle ASMLIB to configure Oracle ASM devices, complete the following
tasks.
•
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
You can maintain storage file path persistence by creating a rules file.
•
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
These topics explain how to configure kernel parameters manually for Linux if you
cannot complete them using the fixup scripts.
B.1 Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
Passwordless SSH configuration is a mandatory installation requirement. SSH is used
during installation to configure cluster member nodes, and SSH is used after
installation by configuration assistants, Oracle Enterprise Manager, Opatch, and other
features.
Automatic Passwordless SSH configuration using OUI creates RSA encryption keys
on all nodes of the cluster. If you have system restrictions that require you to set up
SSH manually, such as using DSA keys, then use this procedure as a guide to set up
passwordless SSH. If SSH is not available, then Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
attempts to use rcp instead. However, these services are disabled by default on most
Linux systems.
Note:
The supported version of SSH for Linux distributions is OpenSSH.
•
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System
To determine if SSH is running, enter the following command.
•
Configuring SSH on Cluster Nodes
You must configure SSH separately for each Oracle software installation owner
that you intend to use for installation.
B-1
Appendix B
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
•
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Nodes
After you have copied the authorized_keys file that contains all keys to each node
in the cluster, complete the following procedure.
B.1.1 Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System
To determine if SSH is running, enter the following command.
$ pgrep sshd
If SSH is running, then the response to this command is one or more process ID
numbers. In the home directory of the installation software owner (grid, oracle), use
the command ls -al to ensure that the .ssh directory is owned and writable only by
the user.
You need either an RSA or a DSA key for the SSH protocol. RSA is used with the SSH
1.5 protocol, while DSA is the default for the SSH 2.0 protocol. With OpenSSH, you
can use either RSA or DSA. The instructions that follow are for SSH1. If you have an
SSH2 installation, and you cannot use SSH1, then refer to your SSH distribution
documentation to configure SSH1 compatibility or to configure SSH2 with DSA.
B.1.2 Configuring SSH on Cluster Nodes
You must configure SSH separately for each Oracle software installation owner that
you intend to use for installation.
To configure SSH, you must first create RSA or DSA keys on each cluster node, and
then copy all the keys generated on all cluster node members into an authorized keys
file that is identical on each node. Note that the SSH files must be readable only by
root and by the software installation user (oracle, grid), as SSH ignores a private key
file if it is accessible by others. In the examples that follow, the DSA key is used.
To configure SSH, complete the following:
•
Create SSH Directory and Create SSH Keys On Each Node
To configure SSH, you must first create RSA or DSA keys on each cluster node.
•
Add All Keys to a Common authorized_keys File
To configure SSH, copy all the generated keys on all cluster node members into
an authorized keys file that is identical on each node.
B.1.2.1 Create SSH Directory and Create SSH Keys On Each Node
To configure SSH, you must first create RSA or DSA keys on each cluster node.
Complete the following steps on each node:
1.
Log in as the software owner (in this example, the grid user).
2.
To ensure that you are logged in as grid, and to verify that the user ID matches
the expected user ID you have assigned to the grid user, enter the commands:
$ id
$ id grid
Ensure that Oracle user group and user and the user terminal window process you
are using have group and user IDs are identical.
For example:
B-2
Appendix B
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
uid=54322(grid) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),
54322(grid,asmadmin,asmdba)
$ id grid uid=54322(grid) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),
54322(grid,asmadmin,asmdba)
3.
If necessary, create the .ssh directory in the grid user's home directory, and set
permissions on it to ensure that only the oracle user has read and write
permissions:
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
$ chmod 700 ~/.ssh
Note that the SSH configuration fails if the permissions are not set to 700.
4.
Enter the following command:
$ /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t dsa
At the prompts, accept the default location for the key file (press Enter).
Never distribute the private key to anyone not authorized to perform Oracle
software installations.
This command writes the DSA public key to the ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub file and the
private key to the ~/.ssh/id_dsa file.
5.
Repeat steps 1 through 4 on each node that you intend to make a member of the
cluster, using the DSA key.
B.1.2.2 Add All Keys to a Common authorized_keys File
To configure SSH, copy all the generated keys on all cluster node members into an
authorized keys file that is identical on each node.
Complete the following steps:
1.
On the local node, change directories to the .ssh directory in the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure owner's home directory (typically, either grid or oracle). Then, add
the DSA key to the authorized_keys file using the following commands:
$ cat id_dsa.pub >> authorized_keys
$ ls
In the .ssh directory, you should see the id_dsa.pub keys that you have created,
and the file authorized_keys.
2.
On the local node, use SCP (Secure Copy) or SFTP (Secure FTP) to copy the
authorized_keys file to the oracle user .ssh directory on a remote node. The
following example is with SCP, on a node called node2, with the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure owner grid, where the grid user path is /home/grid:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ scp authorized_keys node2:/home/grid/.ssh/
a.
You are prompted to accept a DSA key. Enter Yes, and you see that the node
you are copying to is added to the known_hosts file.
b.
When prompted, provide the password for the grid user, which should be the
same on all nodes in the cluster. The authorized_keys file is copied to the
remote node.
Your output should be similar to the following, where xxx represents parts of a
valid IP address:
B-3
Appendix B
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
[[email protected] .ssh]$ scp authorized_keys node2:/home/grid/.ssh/
The authenticity of host 'node2 (xxx.xxx.173.152) can't be established.
DSA key fingerprint is 7e:60:60:ae:40:40:d1:a6:f7:4e:zz:me:a7:48:ae:f6:7e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1,xxx.xxx.173.152' (dsa) to the list
of known hosts
[email protected]'s password:
authorized_keys
100%
828
7.5MB/s
00:00
3.
Using SSH, log in to the node where you copied the authorized_keys file. Then
change to the .ssh directory, and using the cat command, add the DSA keys for
the second node to the authorized_keys file, clicking Enter when you are prompted
for a password, so that passwordless SSH is set up:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ ssh node2 [[email protected] grid]$ cd .ssh [[email protected] ssh]
$ cat id_dsa.pub >> authorized_keys
4.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 from each node to each other member node in the cluster.
5.
When you have added keys from each cluster node member to the
authorized_keys file on the last node you want to have as a cluster node member,
then use scp to copy the authorized_keys file with the keys from all nodes back to
each cluster node member, overwriting the existing version on the other nodes. To
confirm that you have all nodes in the authorized_keys file, enter the command
more authorized_keys, and determine if there is a DSA key for each member node.
The file lists the type of key (ssh-dsa), followed by the key, and then followed by
the user and server. For example:
ssh-dsa AAAABBBB . . . = [email protected]
The grid user's /.ssh/authorized_keys file on every node must contain the
contents from all of the /.ssh/id_dsa.pub files that you generated on all cluster
nodes.
B.1.3 Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Nodes
After you have copied the authorized_keys file that contains all keys to each node in
the cluster, complete the following procedure.
In this example, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner is named grid.
Do the following:
1.
On the system where you want to run OUI, log in as the grid user.
2.
Use the following command syntax, where hostname1, hostname2, and so on, are the
public host names (alias and fully qualified domain name) of nodes in the cluster to
run SSH from the local node to each node, including from the local node to itself,
and from each node to each other node:
[[email protected]]$ ssh hostname1 date [[email protected]]$ ssh hostname2
date
.
.
.
At the end of this process, the public host name for each member node should be
registered in the known_hosts file for all other cluster nodes. If you are using a
remote client to connect to the local node, and you see a message similar to
"Warning: No xauth data; using fake authentication data for X11 forwarding,"
then this means that your authorized keys file is configured correctly, but your SSH
configuration has X11 forwarding enabled. To correct this issue, see Setting
Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration.
B-4
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
3.
Repeat step 2 on each cluster node member.
If you have configured SSH correctly, then you can now use the ssh or scp commands
without being prompted for a password. For example:
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh
Mon Feb 26 23:34:42
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh
Mon Feb 26 23:34:48
node2 date
UTC 2009
node1 date
UTC 2009
If any node prompts for a password, then verify that the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file on
that node contains the correct public keys, and that you have created an Oracle
software owner with identical group membership and IDs.
B.2 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using
Oracle ASMLIB
To use Oracle ASMLIB to configure Oracle ASM devices, complete the following
tasks.
•
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB
Oracle ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are persistent on the
storage device, so that the label is available even after an operating system
upgrade.
•
Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software
Review this information to install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver software manually.
•
Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB
Configure disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group.
•
Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks
Review this information to administer the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver and disks.
•
Configuring Oracle ASMLIB for Multipath Disks
Additional configuration is required to use the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library Driver (ASMLIB) with third party vendor multipath disks.
•
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Grid Infrastructure
If Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) is installed but you do not use it for
device path persistence, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB.
B.2.1 About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB
Oracle ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are persistent on the
storage device, so that the label is available even after an operating system upgrade.
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver simplifies the configuration
and management of block disk devices by eliminating the need to rebind block disk
devices used with Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) each time the
system is restarted.
With Oracle ASMLIB, you define the range of disks you want to have made available
as Oracle ASM disks. Oracle ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are
B-5
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
persistent on the storage device, so that the label is available even after an operating
system upgrade.
Note:
If you configure disks using Oracle ASMLIB, then you must change the disk
discovery string to ORCL:*. If the diskstring is set to ORCL:*, or is left empty (""),
then the installer discovers these disks.
B.2.2 Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software
Review this information to install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver software manually.
Oracle ASMLIB is included with the Oracle Linux packages, and with SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server. If you are a member of the Unbreakable Linux Network, then you
can install the Oracle ASMLIB RPMs by subscribing to the Oracle Linux channel, and
using yum to retrieve the most current package for your system and kernel. For
additional information, see the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/linux/asmlib/index-101839.html
To install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver
software manually, perform the following steps:
1.
Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of
the system:
# uname -rm
2.
Depending on your operating system version, download the required Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver packages and driver:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/server-storage/linux/asmlib/
index-101839.html
See Also:
My Oracle Support note 1089399.1 for information about Oracle ASMLIB
support with Red Hat distributions:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1089399.1
3.
Switch to the root user:
$ su -
4.
Depending on your operating system, you must install the oracleasmlib and
oracleasm-support packages for all Oracle ASMLIB installations.
Method 1: After you have downloaded the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver packages as described in Step 2, run the following yum
commands to install the oracleasmlib and oracleasm-support packages
B-6
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
# yum install -y oracleasm
# yum install -y oracleasm-support
# yum install oracleasmlib
Method 2: Alternatively, install the following packages in sequence, where version
is the version of the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is
the system architecture, and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:
# rpm -ivh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 AS kernel on an
AMD64 system, then enter a command similar to the following:
# rpm -ivh oracleasm-support-2.1.3-1.el5.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasm-2.6.18-194.26.1.el5xen-2.0.5-1.el5.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasmlib-2.0.4-1.el5.x86_64.rpm
5.
Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the
configure option:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm configure -i
Note:
The oracleasm command in /usr/sbin is the command you should use.
The /etc/init.d path is not deprecated, but the oracleasm binary in that
path is now used typically for internal commands.
6.
Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script displays:
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default user to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the Oracle
software owner user (for example,
oracle)
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the Grid
Infrastructure software owner (for
example, grid)
B-7
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default group to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSDBA
group for the database (for example,
dba).
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSASM
group for storage administration (for
example, asmadmin).
Start Oracle ASM Library driver on boot (y/n):
Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver when
the system starts.
Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n)
Enter y to scan for Oracle ASM disks
when the system starts.
The script completes the following tasks:
•
Creates the /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm configuration file
•
Creates the /dev/oracleasm mount point
•
Mounts the ASMLIB driver file system
Note:
The Oracle ASMLIB file system is not a regular file system. It is used
only by the Oracle ASM library to communicate with the Oracle
ASMLIB.
7.
Enter the following command to load the oracleasm kernel module:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm init
B.2.3 Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB
Configure disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group.
To configure the disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group, perform the following steps:
1.
If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then perform the following steps:
a.
Install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the disk group
and restart the system.
b.
Enter the following command to identify the device name for the disks to use:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary.
B-8
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Table B-1
Device Name Formats Based on Disk Type
Disk Type
Device Name Format
Description
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
In this example, x is a letter
that identifies the IDE disk,
and n is the partition
number. For
example, /dev/hda is the
first disk on the first IDE
bus.
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
In this example, x is a letter
that identifies the IDE disk,
and n is the partition
number. For
example, /dev/hda is the
first disk on the first IDE
bus.
RAID disk
/dev/rd/cxdypz
/dev/ida/cxdypz
Depending on the RAID
controller, RAID devices
can have different device
names. In the examples
shown, x is a number that
identifies the controller, y is
a number that identifies the
disk, and z is a number that
identifies the partition. For
example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is
the second logical drive on
the first controller.
To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device
names or partition device names.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk partition on
each disk to use.
c.
2.
Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the disk
devices.
Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
In this example, DISK1 is a name assigned to the disk.
B-9
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Note:
3.
•
The disk names you specify can contain uppercase letters, numbers,
and the underscore character. They must start with an uppercase
letter.
•
To create a database during the installation using the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver, you must change the disk
discovery string to ORCL:*.
•
If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Oracle ASM, then make
sure that you specify the correct logical device name for the disk.
To make the disk available on the other nodes in the cluster, enter the following
command as root on each node:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm scandisks
This command identifies shared disks attached to the node that are marked as
Oracle ASM disks.
B.2.4 Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks
Review this information to administer the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver and disks.
To administer the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use
the /usr/sbin/oracleasm initialization script with different options, as described in the
following table:
Table B-2
Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM
Task
Command Example
Description
Configure or reconfigure
ASMLIB
oracleasm configure -i
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver, if
necessary.
To see command options, enter oracleasm
configure without the -i flag.
Change system restart load
options for ASMLIB
oracleasm enable
Load or unload ASMLIB
oracleasm restart
without restarting the system
Options are disable and enable.
Use the disable and enable options to change the
actions of the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver when the system starts.
The enable option causes the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver to load when the
system starts.
Options are start, stop, and restart.
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or
unload the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver without restarting the system.
B-10
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Table B-2
(Cont.) Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM
Task
Command Example
Description
Mark a disk for use with
ASMLIB
oracleasm createdisk
VOL1 /dev/sda1
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for
use with the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver and give it a name,
where labelname is the name you want to use to
mark the device, and devicepath is the path to the
device:
oracleasm createdisk labelname devicepath
Unmark a named disk device oracleasm deletedisk VOL1
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk
device, where diskname is the name of the disk:
oracleasm deletedisk diskname
Caution: Do not use this command to unmark disks
that are being used by an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group. You must delete the disk
from the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk group before you unmark it.
Determine if ASMLIB is
using a disk device
oracleasm querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine if a disk
device or disk name is being used by the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver,
where diskname_devicename is the name of the
disk or device that you want to query:
oracleasm querydisk diskname_devicename
List Oracle ASMLIB disks
oracleasm listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of
marked Oracle ASM library driver disks.
Identify disks marked as
ASMLIB disks
oracleasm scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes
to identify which shared disks have been marked as
ASMLIB disks on another node.
Rename ASMLIB disks
oracleasm renamedisk VOL1
VOL2
Use the renamedisk option to change the label of
an Oracle ASM library driver disk or device by using
the following syntax, where manager specifies the
manager device, label_device specifies the disk
you intend to rename, as specified either by
OracleASM label name or by the device path, and
new_label specifies the new label you want to use
for the disk:
oracleasm renamedisk [-l manager] [-v]
label_device new_label
Use the -v flag to provide a verbose output for
debugging.
Caution: You must ensure that all Oracle Database
and Oracle ASM instances have ceased using the
disk before you relabel the disk. If you do not do
this, then you may lose data.
B.2.5 Configuring Oracle ASMLIB for Multipath Disks
Additional configuration is required to use the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library Driver (ASMLIB) with third party vendor multipath disks.
B-11
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
•
About Using Oracle ASM with Multipath Disks
Oracle ASM requires that each disk is uniquely identified. If the same disk appears
under multiple paths, then it causes errors.
•
About Disk Scan Ordering
The ORACLEASM_SCANORDER variable specifies disks to be scanned first.
•
Configuring Disk Scan Ordering to Select Multipath Disks
To configure ASMLIB to select multipath disks first, complete the following
procedure.
•
Configuring Disk Order Scan to Exclude Single Path Disks
To configure ASMLIB to exclude particular single path disks, complete the
following procedure.
See Also:
My Oracle Support site for updates to supported storage options:
https://support.oracle.com/
B.2.5.1 About Using Oracle ASM with Multipath Disks
Oracle ASM requires that each disk is uniquely identified. If the same disk appears
under multiple paths, then it causes errors.
In a multipath disk configuration, the same disk can appear three times: the initial path
to the disk, the second path to the disk, and the multipath disk access point.
For example: If you have one local disk, /dev/sda, and one disk attached with external
storage, then your server shows two connections, or paths, to that external storage.
The Linux SCSI driver shows both paths. They appear as /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc. The
system may access either /dev/sdb or /dev/sdc, but the access is to the same disk.
If you enable multipathing, then you have a multipath disk (for example, /dev/
multipatha), which can access both /dev/sdb and /dev sdc; any I/O to multipatha can
use either the sdb or sdc path. If a system is using the /dev/sdb path, and that cable is
unplugged, then the system shows an error. But the multipath disk will switch from
the /dev/sdb path to the /dev/sdc path.
Most system software is unaware of multipath configurations. They can use any paths
(sdb, sdc or multipatha). ASMLIB also is unaware of multipath configurations.
By default, ASMLIB recognizes the first disk path that Linux reports to it, but because it
imprints an identity on that disk, it recognizes that disk only under one path.
Depending on your storage driver, it may recognize the multipath disk, or it may
recognize one of the single disk paths.
Instead of relying on the default, you should configure Oracle ASM to recognize the
multipath disk.
B.2.5.2 About Disk Scan Ordering
The ORACLEASM_SCANORDER variable specifies disks to be scanned first.
B-12
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
The ASMLIB configuration file is located in the path /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm. It
contains all the startup configuration you specified with the command /etc/init.d/
oracleasm configure. That command cannot configure scan ordering.
The configuration file contains many configuration variables. The
ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE variable specifies the disks that are to be ignored.
Configure values for ORACLEASM_SCANORDER using space-delimited prefix
strings. A prefix string is the common string associated with a type of disk. For
example, if you use the prefix string sd, then this string matches all SCSI devices,
including /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc and so on. Note that these are not globs. They
do not use wild cards. They are simple prefixes. Also note that the path is not a part of
the prefix. For example, the /dev/ path is not part of the prefix for SCSI disks that are
in the path /dev/sd*.
For Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5, when scanning, the kernel
sees the devices as /dev/mapper/XXX entries. By default, the device file naming scheme
udev creates the /dev/mapper/XXX names for human readability. Any configuration
using ORACLEASM_SCANORDER should use the /dev/mapper/XXX entries.
B.2.5.3 Configuring Disk Scan Ordering to Select Multipath Disks
To configure ASMLIB to select multipath disks first, complete the following procedure.
1.
Using a text editor, open the ASMLIB configuration file /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm.
2.
Edit the ORACLEASM_SCANORDER variable to provide the prefix path of the
multipath disks.
For example, if the multipath disks use the prefix multipath (/dev/mapper/
multipatha, /dev/mapper/multipathb and so on), and the multipath disks mount
SCSI disks, then provide a prefix path similar to the following:
ORACLEASM_SCANORDER="multipath sd"
3.
Save the file.
When you have completed this procedure, then when ASMLIB scans disks, it first
scans all disks with the prefix string multipath, and labels these disks as Oracle ASM
disks using the /dev/mapper/multipathX value. It then scans all disks with the prefix
string sd. However, because ASMLIB recognizes that these disks have already been
labeled with the /dev/mapper/multipath string values, it ignores these disks. After
scanning for the prefix strings multipath and sd, Oracle ASM then scans for any other
disks that do not match the scan order.
In the example in step 2, the key word multipath is actually the alias for multipath
devices configured in /etc/multipath.conf under the multipaths section. The
default device name is in the format /dev/mapper/mpath* (or a similar path). For
example:
multipaths {
multipath {
wwid
alias
...
}
multipath {
...
alias
...
}
3600508b4000156d700012000000b0000
multipath
mympath
B-13
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
...
}
B.2.5.4 Configuring Disk Order Scan to Exclude Single Path Disks
To configure ASMLIB to exclude particular single path disks, complete the following
procedure.
1.
Using a text editor, open the ASMLIB configuration file /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm.
2.
Edit the ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE variable to provide the prefix path of the
single path disks.
For example, if you want to exclude the single path disks /dev sdb and /dev/
sdc, then provide a prefix path similar to the following:
ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE="sdb sdc"
3.
Save the file.
When you have completed this procedure, then when ASMLIB scans disks, it scans all
disks except for the disks with the sdb and sdc prefixes, so that it ignores /dev/sdb
and /dev/sdc. It does not ignore other SCSI disks, nor multipath disks. If you have a
multipath disk (for example, /dev/multipatha), which accesses both /dev/sdb
and /dev/sdc, but you have configured ASMLIB to ignore sdb and sdc, then ASMLIB
ignores these disks and instead marks only the multipath disk as an Oracle ASM disk.
B.2.6 Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Grid Infrastructure
If Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) is installed but you do not use it for
device path persistence, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB.
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Stop Oracle ASM and any running database instance on the node:
$ srvctl stop instance -d db_unique_name-node node_name
$ srvctl stop asm -node node_name
To stop the last Oracle Flex ASM instance on the node, stop the Oracle
Clusterware stack:
Grid_home/bin/crsctl stop crs
3.
Stop Oracle ASMLIB:
/etc/init.d/oracleasm disable
4.
Remove the oracleasm library and tools RPMs:
# rpm -e oracleasm-support
# rpm -e oracleasmlib
5.
Check if any oracleasm RPMs are remaining:
# rpm -qa| grep oracleasm
6.
If any oracleasm configuration files are remaining, remove them:
# rpm -qa| grep oracleasm | xargs rpm -e
Oracle ASMLIB and associated RPMs are now removed.
B-14
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
Start the Oracle Clusterware stack. Optionally, you can install and configure Oracle
ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) before starting the Oracle Clusterware stack.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
B.3 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
You can maintain storage file path persistence by creating a rules file.
By default, the device file naming scheme udev dynamically creates device file names
when the server is started, and assigns ownership of them to root. If udev applies
default settings, then it changes Oracle device file names and owners for the disks,
making the disks inaccessible when the server is restarted. For example, a voting disk
on a device named /dev/sdd owned by the user grid may be on a device
named /dev/sdf owned by root after restarting the server.
If you use Oracle ASMFD, then you do not have to ensure permissions and device
path persistence in udev.
If you do not use Oracle ASMFD, then you must create a custom rules file. Linux
vendors customize their udev configurations and use different orders for reading rules
files. For example, on some Linux distributions when udev is started, it sequentially
carries out rules (configuration directives) defined in rules files. These files are in the
path /etc/udev/rules.d/. Rules files are read in lexical order. For example, rules
in the file 10-wacom.rules are parsed and carried out before rules in the rules file 90ib.rules.
When specifying the device information in the udev rules file, ensure that the OWNER,
GROUP, and MODE are specified before all other characteristics in the order shown.
For example, to include the characteristic ACTION on the UDEV line, specify ACTION
after OWNER, GROUP, and MODE.
Where rules files describe the same devices, on the supported Linux kernel versions,
the last file read is the one that is applied.
•
Configuring Device Persistence Manually for Oracle ASM
Complete these tasks to create device path persistence manually for Oracle ASM.
B.3.1 Configuring Device Persistence Manually for Oracle ASM
Complete these tasks to create device path persistence manually for Oracle ASM.
1.
On existing systems (single instance or clustered), to obtain current mount paths,
run the command scsi_id (/sbin/scsi_id) on storage devices on a server to
obtain their unique device identifiers. When you run the command scsi_id with
the -s argument, the device path and name you provide should be relative to the
sysfs directory /sys (for example, /block/device) when referring to /sys/
block/device.
For example:
# /sbin/scsi_id -g -s /block/sdb/sdb1
360a98000686f6959684a453333524174
# /sbin/scsi_id -g -s /block/sde/sde1
360a98000686f6959684a453333524179
Record the unique SCSI identifiers, so you can provide them when required.
B-15
Appendix B
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
Note:
The command scsi_id should return the same device identifier value for
a given device, regardless of which node the command is run from.
2.
Configure SCSI devices as trusted devices (white listed), by editing the /etc/
scsi_id.config file and adding options=-g to the file. For example:
# cat > /etc/scsi_id.config
vendor="ATA",options=-p 0x80
options=-g
3.
Using a text editor, create a UDEV rules file for the Oracle ASM devices, setting
permissions to 0660 for the installation owner and the operating system group you
have designated the OSASM group, whose members are administrators of the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure software. For example, on Oracle Linux, to create a rolebased configuration rules.d file where the installation owner is grid and the
OSASM group asmadmin, enter commands similar to the following:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
KERNEL=="sdb1, OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660",
BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id", RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000"
KERNEL=="sdc1", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660",
BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id", RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000001"
KERNEL=="sdd1", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660",
BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id", RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000002"
4.
On clustered systems, copy the rules.d file to all other nodes on the cluster. For
example:
# scp 99-oracle-asmdevices.rules [email protected]:/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracleasmdevices.rules
5.
As root, run the partprobe command using the syntax /sbin/partprobe
devicename.
For example:
#
#
#
#
6.
/sbin/partprobe
/sbin/partprobe
/sbin/partprobe
/sbin/partprobe
/dev/sdc1
/dev/sdd1
/dev/sde1
/dev/sdf1
Run the command udevtest (/sbin/udevtest) to test the UDEV rules
configuration you have created. The output should indicate that the devices are
available and the rules are applied as expected. For example, for /dev/ssd1:
# udevtest /block/sdd/sdd1
main: looking at device '/block/sdd/sdd1' from subsystem 'block'
udev_rules_get_name: add symlink
'disk/by-id/scsi-360a98000686f6959684a453333524174-part1'
udev_rules_get_name: add symlink
'disk/by-path/ip-192.168.1.1:3260-iscsi-iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.887085-part1'
udev_node_mknod: preserve file '/dev/.tmp-8-17', because it has correct dev_t
run_program: '/lib/udev/vol_id --export /dev/.tmp-8-17'
run_program: '/lib/udev/vol_id' returned with status 4
run_program: '/sbin/scsi_id'
run_program: '/sbin/scsi_id' (stdout) '360a98000686f6959684a453333524174'
run_program: '/sbin/scsi_id' returned with status 0
udev_rules_get_name: rule applied, 'sdd1' becomes 'data1'
B-16
Appendix B
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
udev_device_event: device '/block/sdd/sdd1' validate currently present symlinks
udev_node_add: creating device node '/dev/data1', major = '8', minor = '17',
mode = '0640', uid = '0', gid = '500'
udev_node_add: creating symlink
'/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-360a98000686f6959684a453333524174-part1' to '../../data1'
udev_node_add: creating symlink
'/dev/disk/by-path/ip-192.168.1.1:3260-iscsi-iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.84187085
-part1' to '../../data1'
main: run: 'socket:/org/kernel/udev/monitor'
main: run: '/lib/udev/udev_run_devd'
main: run: 'socket:/org/freedesktop/hal/udev_event'
main: run: '/sbin/pam_console_apply /dev/data1
/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-360a98000686f6959684a453333524174-part1
/dev/disk/by-path/ip-192.168.1.1:3260-iscsi-iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.84187085part1'
In the example output, note that applying the rules renames OCR device /dev/
sdd1 to /dev/data1.
7.
Load the rules and restart the UDEV service. For example:
•
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
# udevadm control --reload-rules
•
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
Verify that the device permissions and ownerships are set correctly.
B.4 Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
These topics explain how to configure kernel parameters manually for Linux if you
cannot complete them using the fixup scripts.
•
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
Use this table to set parameters manually if you cannot use the fixup scripts.
•
Changing Kernel Parameter Values
Use these instructions to display and change the kernel parameter values if they
are different from the minimum recommended value.
•
Configuring Additional Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
Additional kernel parameter settings configuration is required on SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server systems.
•
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually
If you do not use a Fixup script or CVU to set ephemeral ports, then set TCP/IP
ephemeral port range parameters to provide enough ephemeral ports for the
anticipated server workload.
B.4.1 Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
Use this table to set parameters manually if you cannot use the fixup scripts.
B-17
Appendix B
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Note:
•
Unless otherwise specified, the kernel parameter and shell limit values
shown in the following table are minimum values only. For production
database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to
optimize the performance of the system. See the operating system
documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.
•
If the current value for any parameter is greater than the value listed in this
table, then the Fixup scripts do not change the value of that parameter.
Table B-3
Minimum Operating System Resource Parameter Settings
Parameter
Value
File
semmsl
250
/proc/sys/kernel/sem
semmns
32000
semopm
100
semmni
128
shmall
40 percent of the size of
physical memory in pages
/proc/sys/kernel/
shmall
Note: If the server supports
multiple databases, or uses a
large SGA, then set this
parameter to a value that is
equal to the total amount of
shared memory, in 4K pages,
that the system can use at one
time.
shmmax
Half the size of physical
memory in bytes
/proc/sys/kernel/
shmmax
See My Oracle Support Note
567506.1 for additional
information about configuring
shmmax.
shmmni
4096
/proc/sys/kernel/
shmmni
panic_on_oops
1
/proc/sys/kernel/
panic_on_oops
file-max
6815744
/proc/sys/fs/filemax
aio-max-nr
1048576
/proc/sys/fs/aiomax-nr
Note: This value limits
concurrent outstanding
requests and should be set to
avoid I/O subsystem failures.
ip_local_port_range
Minimum: 9000
Maximum: 65500
rmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/
ip_local_port_range
/proc/sys/net/core/
rmem_default
B-18
Appendix B
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Table B-3
(Cont.) Minimum Operating System Resource Parameter Settings
Parameter
Value
File
rmem_max
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/
rmem_max
wmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/
wmem_default
wmem_max
1048576
/proc/sys/net/core/
wmem_max
B.4.2 Changing Kernel Parameter Values
Use these instructions to display and change the kernel parameter values if they are
different from the minimum recommended value.
Use the following commands to display the current values of the kernel parameters:
Table B-4
Commands to Display Kernel Parameter Values
Parameter
Command
semmsl, semmns, semopm, and semmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
This command displays the value of the
semaphore parameters in the order listed.
shmall, shmmax, and shmmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
This command displays the details of the
shared memory segment sizes.
file-max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
This command displays the maximum number
of file handles.
ip_local_port_range
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep
ip_local_port_range
This command displays a range of port
numbers.
rmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
rmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
wmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
wmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
aio-max-nr
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep aio-max-nr
If you used the Oracle Preinstallation RPM to complete you preinstallation
configuration tasks, then the Oracle Preinstallation RPM sets these kernel parameters
for you. However, if you did not use the Oracle Preinstallation RPM or the kernel
parameters are different from the minimum recommended value, then to change these
kernel parameter values:
1.
Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.d/97-oracledatabase-sysctl.conf file, and add or edit lines similar to:
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
B-19
Appendix B
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 4294967295
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.d/97-oracle-databasesysctl.conf file, the values persist on system restarts.
2.
To change the current values of the kernel parameters:
# /sbin/sysctl --system
Review the output. If the values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.d/97oracle-database-sysctl.conf file, then enter this command again.
3.
Confirm that the values are set correctly:
# /sbin/sysctl -a
4.
Restart the computer, or run sysctl --system to make the changes in
the /etc/sysctl.d/97-oracle-database-sysctl.conf file available in the
active kernel memory.
Guidelines for Setting Kernel Parameter Values
•
If you used the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then your kernel parameter settings
reside in the /etc/sysctl.d/99-oracle-database-server-18cpreinstall-sysctl.conf file.
•
Include lines only for the kernel parameter values to change. For the semaphore
parameters (kernel.sem), you must specify all four values. If any of the current
values are larger than the minimum value, then specify the larger value.
•
The /etc/sysctl.conf file has been deprecated.
•
Avoid setting kernel parameter values in multiple files under /etc/sysctl.d/.
The file with a lexically later name under /etc/sysctl.d/ takes precedence,
followed by /etc/sysctl.conf. Oracle recommends that you use the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM which, among other preinstallation tasks, also sets the kernel
parameter values for your database installation.
See Also:
sysctl.conf(5) and sysctl.d(5) man pages for more information
B.4.3 Configuring Additional Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
Additional kernel parameter settings configuration is required on SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server systems.
Perform these steps on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems only:
1.
Enter the following command to enable the system to read the /etc/
sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
B-20
Appendix B
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
2.
Enter the GID of the oinstall group as the value for the parameter /
proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
Use vi to add the following text to /etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the
boot.sysctl script to run on system restart:
vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
Note:
Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_group.
B.4.4 Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually
If you do not use a Fixup script or CVU to set ephemeral ports, then set TCP/IP
ephemeral port range parameters to provide enough ephemeral ports for the
anticipated server workload.
Ensure that the lower range is set to at least 9000 or higher, to avoid Well Known
ports, and to avoid ports in the Registered Ports range commonly used by Oracle and
other server ports. Set the port range high enough to avoid reserved ports for any
applications you may intend to use. If the lower value of the range you have is greater
than 9000, and the range is large enough for your anticipated workload, then you can
ignore Oracle Universal Installer warnings regarding the ephemeral port range.
For example, with IPv4, use the following command to check your current range for
ephemeral ports:
$ cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
32768 61000
In the preceding example, the lowest port (32768) and the highest port (61000) are set
to the default range.
If necessary, update the UDP and TCP ephemeral port range to a range high enough
for anticipated system workloads, and to ensure that the ephemeral port range starts
at 9000 and above. For example:
# echo 9000 65500 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
Oracle recommends that you make these settings permanent. For example, as root,
use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change to the following:
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500, and then restart the network:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart
Refer to your Linux distribution system administration documentation for information
about automating ephemeral port range alteration on system restarts.
B-21
C
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules are a set of configuration guidelines
created to ensure well-organized Oracle installations, which simplifies administration,
support and maintenance.
•
About the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules help you to organize database
software and configure databases to allow multiple databases, of different
versions, owned by different users to coexist.
•
About Multiple Oracle Homes Support
Oracle Database supports multiple Oracle homes. You can install this release or
earlier releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different
Oracle home directories.
•
About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation
The directory that you designate as the Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory)
stores an inventory of all software installed on the system.
•
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
This section describes what the Oracle base is, and how it functions.
•
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
By default, Oracle Universal Installer configures Oracle home directories using
these Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions.
•
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
This topic shows examples of hierarchical file mappings of an Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation.
C.1 About the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules help you to organize database
software and configure databases to allow multiple databases, of different versions,
owned by different users to coexist.
In earlier Oracle Database releases, the OFA rules provided optimal system
performance by isolating fragmentation and minimizing contention. In current releases,
OFA rules provide consistency in database management and support, and simplifies
expanding or adding databases, or adding additional hardware.
By default, Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle Database components in directory
locations and with permissions in compliance with OFA rules. Oracle recommends that
you configure all Oracle components on the installation media in accordance with OFA
guidelines.
Oracle recommends that you accept the OFA default. Following OFA rules is
especially of value if the database is large, or if you plan to have multiple databases.
C-1
Appendix C
About Multiple Oracle Homes Support
Note:
OFA assists in identification of an ORACLE_BASE with its Automatic
Diagnostic Repository (ADR) diagnostic data to properly collect incidents.
C.2 About Multiple Oracle Homes Support
Oracle Database supports multiple Oracle homes. You can install this release or
earlier releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different
Oracle home directories.
Careful selection of mount point names can make Oracle software easier to
administer. Configuring multiple Oracle homes in compliance with Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) rules provides the following advantages:
•
You can install this release, or earlier releases of the software, more than once on
the same system, in different Oracle home directories. However, you cannot install
products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a
different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 12c software
into an existing Oracle 11g Oracle home directory.
•
Multiple databases, of different versions, owned by different users can coexist
concurrently.
•
You must install a new Oracle Database release in a new Oracle home that is
separate from earlier releases of Oracle Database.
You cannot install multiple releases in one Oracle home. Oracle recommends that
you create a separate Oracle Database Oracle home for each release, in
accordance with the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines.
•
In production, the Oracle Database server software release must be the same as
the Oracle Database dictionary release through the first four digits (the major,
maintenance, and patch release number).
•
Later Oracle Database releases can access earlier Oracle Database releases.
However, this access is only for upgrades. For example, Oracle Database 12c
release 2 can access an Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2.0.4) database if the
11.2.0.4 database is started up in upgrade mode.
•
Oracle Database Client can be installed in the same Oracle Database home if both
products are at the same release level. For example, you can install Oracle
Database Client 12.2.0.1 into an existing Oracle Database 12.2.0.1 home but you
cannot install Oracle Database Client 12.2.0.1 into an existing Oracle Database
12.1.0.2 home. If you apply a patch set before installing the client, then you must
apply the patch set again.
•
Structured organization of directories and files, and consistent naming for
database files simplify database administration.
•
Login home directories are not at risk when database administrators add, move, or
delete Oracle home directories.
•
You can test software upgrades in an Oracle home in a separate directory from
the Oracle home where your production database is located.
C-2
Appendix C
About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation
C.3 About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation
The directory that you designate as the Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory)
stores an inventory of all software installed on the system.
All Oracle software installation owners on a server are granted the OINSTALL
privileges to read and write to this directory. If you have previous Oracle software
installations on a server, then additional Oracle software installations detect this
directory from the /etc/oraInst.loc file, and continue to use that Oracle Inventory.
Ensure that the group designated as the OINSTALL group is available as a primary
group for all planned Oracle software installation owners.
If you are installing Oracle software for the first time, then OUI creates an Oracle base
and central inventory, and creates an Oracle inventory using information in the
following priority:
•
In the path indicated in the ORACLE_BASE environment variable set for the
installation owner user account
•
In an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) path (u[01–99]/app/owner where
owner is the name of the user account running the installation), and that user
account has permissions to write to that path
•
In the user home directory, in the path /app/owner, where owner is the name of
the user account running the installation
For example:
If you are performing an Oracle Database installation, and you set ORACLE_BASE for
user oracle to the path /u01/app/oracle before installation, and grant 755
permissions to oracle for that path, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle
Inventory directory one level above the ORACLE_BASE in the path
ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory, so the Oracle Inventory path is /u01/app/
oraInventory. Oracle Universal Installer installs the software in the ORACLE_BASE
path. If you are performing an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster installation, then
the Grid installation path is changed to root ownership after installation, and the Grid
home software location should be in a different path from the Grid user Oracle base.
If you create the OFA path /u01, and grant oracle 755 permissions to write to that
path, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path /u01/app/
oraInventory, and Oracle Universal Installer creates the path /u01/app/oracle,
and configures the ORACLE_BASE environment variable for the Oracle user to that
path. If you are performing an Oracle Database installation, then the Oracle home is
installed under the Oracle base. However, if you are installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster, then be aware that ownership of the path for the Grid home
is changed to root after installation and the Grid base and Grid home should be in
different locations, such as /u01/grid for the Grid home path, and /u01/app/
grid for the Grid base. For example:
/u01/app/oraInventory, owned by grid:oinstall
/u01/app/oracle, owned by oracle:oinstall
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/, owned by oracle:oinistall
/u01/app/grid, owned by grid:oinstall
/u01/app/12.2.0/grid, owned by root
C-3
Appendix C
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
If you have neither set ORACLE_BASE, nor created an OFA-compliant path, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing
the installation, and the Oracle software is installed in the path /app/owner, where
owner is the Oracle software installation owner. For example:
/home/oracle/oraInventory
/home/oracle/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
C.4 Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
This section describes what the Oracle base is, and how it functions.
The Oracle Base directory is the database home directory for Oracle Database
installation owners, and the log file location for Oracle Grid Infrastructure owners.
Name Oracle base directories using the syntax /pm/h/u, where pm is a string mount
point name, h is selected from a small set of standard directory names, and u is the
name of the owner of the directory.
You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple installations. If different
operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then you must
create a separate Oracle base directory for each installation owner. For ease of
administration, Oracle recommends that you create a unique owner for each Oracle
software installation owner, to separate log files.
Because all Oracle installation owners write to the central Oracle inventory file, and
that file mountpoint is in the same mount point path as the initial Oracle installation,
Oracle recommends that you use the same /pm/h path for all Oracle installation
owners.
Table C-1
Examples of OFA-Compliant Oracle Base Directory Names
Example
/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/grid
Description
Oracle Database Oracle base, where the Oracle Database software
installation owner name is oracle. The Oracle Database binary home is
located underneath the Oracle base path.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Oracle base, where the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
software installation owner name is grid.
Caution:
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure Oracle base
should not contain the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
binaries for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster installation. Permissions for the file path
to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure binary home is
changed to root during installation.
C-4
Appendix C
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
C.5 Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
By default, Oracle Universal Installer configures Oracle home directories using these
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions.
The directory pattern syntax for Oracle homes is /pm/s/u/product/v/type_[n]. The
following table describes the variables used in this syntax:
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name.
s
A standard directory name.
u
The name of the owner of the directory.
v
The version of the software.
type
The type of installation. For example: Database (dbhome), Client (client),
or Oracle Grid Infrastructure (grid)
n
An optional counter, which enables you to install the same product more
than once in the same Oracle base directory. For example: Database 1 and
Database 2 (dbhome_1, dbhome_2)
For example, the following path is typical for the first installation of Oracle Database on
this system:
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
C.6 Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
This topic shows examples of hierarchical file mappings of an Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation.
/u02/u03 /u04
Note:
•
The Grid homes are examples of Grid homes used for an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server deployment (Oracle Restart), or a
Grid home used for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster deployment
(Oracle Clusterware). You can have either an Oracle Restart deployment,
or an Oracle Clusterware deployment. You cannot have both options
deployed at the same time.
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is included as part of
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Oracle recommends that you use
Oracle ASM to provide greater redundancy and throughput.
C-5
Appendix C
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
Table C-2
Optimal Flexible Architecture Hierarchical File Path Examples
Directory
Description
/
Root directory
/u01/
User data mount point 1
/u01/app/
Subtree for application software
/u01/app/
oraInventory
/u01/app/oracle/
Central OraInventory directory, which maintains information about
Oracle installations on a server. Members of the group designated as
the OINSTALL group have permissions to write to the central
inventory. All Oracle software installation owners must have the
OINSTALL group as their primary group, and be able to write to this
group.
Oracle base directory for user oracle. There can be many Oracle
Database installations on a server, and many Oracle Database
software installation owners.
Oracle software homes that an Oracle installation owner owns should
be located in the Oracle base directory for the Oracle software
installation owner, unless that Oracle software is Oracle Grid
Infrastructure deployed for a cluster.
/u01/app/grid
Oracle base directory for user grid. The Oracle home (Grid home) for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation is located outside of
the Grid user. There can be only one Grid home on a server, and only
one Grid software installation owner.
The Grid home contains log files and other administrative files.
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/TAR
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/db_sales/
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/db_dwh/
/u01/app/oracle/
fast_recovery_area/
/u01/app/oracle/
fast_recovery_area/
db_sales
Subtree for database administration files
Subtree for support log files
admin subtree for database named “sales”
admin subtree for database named “dwh”
Subtree for recovery files
Recovery files for database named “sales”
C-6
Appendix C
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
Table C-2
(Cont.) Optimal Flexible Architecture Hierarchical File Path Examples
Directory
/u01/app/oracle/
fast_recovery_area/
db_dwh
/u02/app/oracle/
oradata
/u03/app/oracle/
oradata
/u04/app/oracle/
oradata
/u01/app/oracle/
product/
/u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/
dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/
dbhome_2
/u01/app/oracle2/
product/12.2.0/
dbhome_2
/u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/grid
Description
Recovery files for database named “dwh”
Oracle data file directories
Common path for Oracle software products other than Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database 1, owned by Oracle
Database installation owner account oracle
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database 2, owned by Oracle
Database installation owner account oracle
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database 2, owned by Oracle
Database installation owner account oracle2
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server, owned by Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation owner oracle.
/u01/app/12.2.0/grid Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster (Grid
home), owned by user grid before installation, and owned by root
after installation.
C-7
Index
A
adding Oracle ASM listener, 11-20
ASM_DISKSTRING, 8-12
ASMCA
Used to create disk groups for older Oracle
Database releases on Oracle ASM,
10-10
asmdba groups
creating, 6-13
asmoper group
creating, 6-13
ASMSNMP, 1-5
Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), C-1
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File
System
See Oracle ACFS.
B
backupdba group
creating, 6-14
Bash shell
default user startup file, 6-23
bash_profile file, 6-23
batch upgrade, 11-12
binaries
relinking, 10-11
binary files
supported storage options for, 7-1
BMC
configuring, 6-31
BMC interface
preinstallation tasks, 6-28
Bourne shell
default user startup file, 6-23
C
C shell
default user startup file, 6-23
central inventory, 1-7, C-5
See also Oracle inventory directory
See also OINSTALL directory
changing kernel parameter values, B-19
checkdir error, 10-11, 11-4
checklists, 1-1
client-server configurations, C-2
clients
and upgrades, 5-5
connecting to SCAN, 5-5
using SCAN, 5-5
cluster configuration
Oracle Domain Services Cluster, 9-3
Oracle Extended Clusters, 9-6
Oracle Member Clusters, 9-4
Oracle Standalone Clusters, 9-3
cluster file system
storage option for data files, 7-6
cluster name, 1-5
requirements for, 1-5
cluster nodes
private network node interfaces, 1-5
private node names, 5-5
public network node names and addresses,
1-5
virtual node names, 1-5, 5-4
Cluster Time Synchronization Service, 4-33
CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS parameter, 5-3
clusterware
requirements for third party clusterware, 1-5
commands
asmca, 8-23
asmcmd, 8-10
crsctl, 11-4
df -h, 2-2
free, 2-2
grep MemTotal, 2-2
grep SwapTotal, 2-2
gridSetup.sh, 9-27
ipmitool, 6-31
lsmod, 6-30
modprobe, 6-30
nscd, 4-31
root.sh, 10-3
rootcrs.pl
and deconfig option, 12-14
rootcrs.sh, 10-11
rootupgrade.sh, 11-4
runcluvfy.sh, 9-27
Index-1
Index
commands (continued)
srvctl, 11-4
sysctl, 8-18
umask, 6-23
uname —m, 2-2
unset, 11-8
useradd, 6-15
cron jobs, 1-12
ctsdd, 4-33
custom database
failure groups for Oracle ASM, 8-2
requirements when using Oracle ASM, 8-2
D
data files
storage options, 7-6
supported storage options for, 7-1
data loss
minimizing with Oracle ASM, 8-2, 8-15
Database Configuration Assistant
running in silent mode, A-8
databases
Oracle ASM requirements, 8-2
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST, 10-4
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE, 10-4
dba group
creating, 6-13
description, 6-9
SYSDBA privilege, 6-9
dba groups
creating, 6-14
DBCA
no longer used for Oracle ASM disk group
administration, 10-10
Used to create server pools for earlier Oracle
Database releases, 10-9
dbca.rsp file, A-3
default file mode creation mask
setting, 6-23
default Linux installation
recommendation for, 4-4
deinstall, 12-1
Oracle Member Cluster, 12-15
See also removing Oracle software
deinstallation, 12-2
examples, 12-6
deinstallation tool, 12-2
Deinstallation tool
Restriction for Oracle Flex Clusters and lastnode flag, 12-14
device names
IDE disks, B-8
RAID, B-8
SCSI disks, B-8
df command, 6-23
dgdba group
creating, 6-14
DHCP
and GNS, 5-10
diagnostic data, C-1
Direct NFS
disabling, 8-21
enabling, 8-21
oranfstab file, 8-18
directory
creating separate data file directories, 8-16
disk group
Oracle ASM, 8-2
recommendations for Oracle ASM disk
groups, 8-2
disk group corruption
preventing, 8-14
disk groups
checking, 8-10
recommendations for, 8-2
disk space
requirements for preconfigured database in
Oracle ASM, 8-2
disks
checking availability for Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, B-8
displaying attached disks, B-8
selecting for use with Oracle ASM, 8-11
display variable, 1-7
downgrade, 11-22
downgrade after failed installation, 11-27, 11-28
downgrade after failed upgrade, 11-27, 11-28
downgrades, 11-24, 11-27, 11-28
downgrades restrictions, 11-24
downgrading
Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 11-24
to 12.1, 11-24
E
enterprise.rsp file, A-3
environment
configuring for Oracle user, 6-22
environment variables
ORACLE_BASE, 6-23
ORACLE_HOME, 6-23, 11-8
ORACLE_SID, 6-23, 11-8
removing from shell startup file, 6-23
SHELL, 6-23
TEMP and TMPDIR, 6-23
errors
X11 forwarding, 6-26, B-4
errors using Opatch, 11-4
errors using OPatch, 10-11
Index-2
Index
Exadata
relinking binaries example for, 10-11
examples
Oracle ASM failure groups, 8-2
executeConfigTools, A-11
F
failed install, 11-30
failed upgrade, 11-30
failure group
characteristics of Oracle ASM failure group,
8-2, 8-15
examples of Oracle ASM failure groups, 8-2
Oracle ASM, 8-2
fast recovery area
filepath, C-5
Grid home
filepath, C-5
fdisk command, B-8
fencing
and IPMI, 6-28
file mode creation mask
setting, 6-23
file system
storage option for data files, 7-6
files
bash_profile, 6-23
dbca.rsp, A-3
editing shell startup file, 6-23
enterprise.rsp, A-3
login, 6-23
profile, 6-23
response files, A-3
filesets, 4-10
G
GIMR, 8-9
globalization, 1-12
GNS
about, 5-11
configuration example, 5-23
configuring, 5-10
GNS client clusters
and GNS client data file, 5-13
GNS client data file required for installation,
5-12
name resolution for, 5-12
GNS client data file
how to create, 5-13
GNS virtual IP address, 1-5
grid home
unlocking, 10-11
grid infrastructure management repository, 9-3
Grid Infrastructure Management Repository, 8-9
global, 8-9
local, 8-9
Grid user
creating, 6-15
gridSetup script, 9-7, 9-13, 9-20
groups
creating the asmdba group, 6-13
creating the asmoper group, 6-13
creating the backupdba group, 6-14
creating the dba group, 6-13
creating the dgdba group, 6-14
creating the kmdba group, 6-14
creating the Oracle ASM group, 6-12
creating the racdba group, 6-14
OINSTALL, 6-3
OINSTALL group, 1-4
OSBACKUPDBA (backupdba), 6-10
OSDBA (dba), 6-9
OSDBA group (dba), 6-9
OSDGDBA (dgdba), 6-10
OSKMDBA (kmdba), 6-10
OSOPER (oper), 6-9
OSOPER group (oper), 6-9
H
hardware requirements
display, 1-1
IPMI, 1-1
local storage for Oracle homes, 1-1
network, 1-1
RAM, 1-1
tmp, 1-1
highly available IP addresses (HAIP), 5-6, 5-7
host names
legal host names, 1-5
Hub Nodes, 5-18, 5-20
hugepages, 1-4
Hugepages,, 4-6
I
IDE disks
device names, B-8
image
install, 9-2
image-based installation of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, 9-7, 9-13, 9-20
inaccessible nodes
upgrading, 11-16
incomplete installations, 11-31
init.ora
and SGA permissions, 10-7
installation
3
Index
installation (continued)
cloning a Grid infrastructure installation to
other nodes, 9-28
response files, A-3
preparing, A-3, A-5
templates, A-3
silent mode, A-6
installation planning, 1-1
installation types
and Oracle ASM, 8-2
installer screen
Specify NFS Locations for ASM Disk Groups,
7-8
Storage Option Information, 7-8
installer screens
ASM Storage Option, 8-14
Cluster Node Information, 5-22
Grid Plug and Play Information, 5-11, 5-22
Network Interface Usage, 5-20
Node Selection screen, 11-13
installing Oracle Member Cluster, 9-20
interconnect, 1-5
interconnects
single interface, 5-7
interfaces, 1-5
requirements for private interconnect, 5-3
IPMI
addresses not configurable by GNS, 6-29
preinstallation tasks, 6-28
IPv4 requirements, 5-2, 5-8
IPv6 requirements, 5-2, 5-8
J
JDK requirements, 4-10
K
kernel parameters
changing, B-19
displaying, B-19
SUSE Linux, B-20
tcp and udp, B-21
kernel parameters configuration, B-17
kmdba group
creating, 6-14
Korn shell
default user startup file, 6-23
L
Leaf Nodes, 5-18, 5-20
legal host names, 1-5
licensing, 1-12
Linux kernel parameters, B-17
login file, 6-23
lsdev command, B-8
LVM
recommendations for Oracle ASM, 8-2
M
Management Database, 8-9
management repository service, 9-3
manifest file, 8-22
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 6-23
mixed binaries, 4-10
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 6-23
multipath disks, B-12
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
advantages, C-2
multiversioning, C-2
N
Name Service Cache Daemon
enabling, 4-31
Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA)
response files, A-9
running at command prompt, A-9
netca.rsp file, A-3
network interface cards
requirements, 5-6
network requirements, 1-5
network, minimum requirements, 1-1
networks
configuring interfaces, 5-25
for Oracle Flex Clusters, 5-18, 5-20
hardware minimum requirements, 5-6
IP protocol requirements for, 5-2, 5-8
manual address configuration example, 5-24
Oracle Flex ASM, 1-5
required protocols, 5-6
NFS
and data files, 7-10
buffer size requirements, 8-17
for data files, 7-10
NFS mounts
Direct NFS Client
requirements, 7-10
mtab, 7-10
oranfstab, 7-10
noninteractive mode
See response file mode
O
OCR
Index-4
Index
See Oracle Cluster Registry
OFA, C-1
See also Optimal Flexible Architecture
oifcfg, 5-3
OINSTALL directory, C-5
OINSTALL group
creating the oraInventory group, 6-3
system privileges granted by, 6-3
OINSTALL groupl, 1-7
See also Oracle Inventory directory
Opatch, 11-4
OPatch, 10-11
oper group
description, 6-9
operating system
different on cluster members, 4-10
parameters, B-17
requirements, 4-10
operating system privileges groups, 1-7
operating system requirements, 1-2
Optimal Flexible Architecture, C-1
about, C-1
ORAchk
and Upgrade Readiness Assessment, 1-12
Oracle ACFS
Installing Oracle RAC binaries not supported
on Oracle Flex Cluster, 7-5
restrictions for Oracle Restart, 7-5
supported Linux x86-64 kernels, 7-4
Oracle ASM
characteristics of failure groups, 8-2, 8-15
disk groups, 8-2
failure groups, 8-2
examples, 8-2
identifying, 8-2
guidelines, 7-7
installing, 9-7, 9-13, 9-20
recommendations for disk groups, 8-2
space required for preconfigured database,
8-2
Oracle ASM Filter Driver
about, 8-14
Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD), 9-13,
9-20
Oracle ASM group
creating, 6-12
Oracle ASM library driver (oracleasm)
installing, B-6
Oracle ASM on NFS, 7-8
Oracle ASM password file, 7-7
Oracle ASMLIB, B-5
about, B-5
configuring, B-5
deinstalling on Oracle Grid Infrastructure,
B-14
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
checking disk availability, B-8
displaying attached disks, B-8
identifying available disks, B-8
identifying disks, B-8
part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation,
8-11
performance, 4-32
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library
driver
See Oracle ASMLIB
Oracle base, C-1, C-5
Oracle base directory, 6-7
Oracle Cluster Registry, 1-9
configuration of, 1-9
Oracle Clusterware Files
NFS to Oracle ASM, 11-9
Oracle Database
data file storage options, 7-6
requirements with Oracle ASM, 8-2
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, A-8
response file, A-3
Oracle Disk Manager
and Direct NFS, 8-21
Oracle Domain Services Cluster, 9-3, 9-4
Oracle Enterprise Manager, 11-20
Oracle Extended Cluster, 9-7, 11-32
converting to, 11-32
Oracle Extended Clusters, 9-6
Oracle Flex ASM
and Oracle ASM clients, 1-5
networks, 1-5
Oracle Flex Clusters
about, 5-18
and Hub Nodes, 10-9
and Leaf Nodes, 10-9
and Oracle Flex ASM, 5-20
and Oracle Flex ASM cluster, 5-18
Oracle Restart
restrictions for, 7-5
restrictions for Oracle ACFS, 7-5
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
restrictions for Oracle ACFS, 7-5
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrading, 11-16
Oracle home
ASCII path restriction for, 1-4
file path, C-5
Grid home
filepath, C-5
naming conventions, C-5
Oracle home directory, 6-7
Oracle Inventory, 1-7
identifying existing, 6-2
Oracle Inventory Directory
OINSTALL group, C-3
5
Index
Oracle Inventory group, 6-3
creating, 6-3
Oracle IO Server, 5-20
Oracle Layered File System, 9-30, 11-16
Oracle Member Clusters, 9-4
for applications, 9-4
for databases, 9-4
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
response file, A-3
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture
See Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Software Owner user
creating, 6-5, 6-15
Oracle Software Owner users
configuring environment for, 6-22
determining default shell, 6-23
Oracle Standalone Cluster, 9-7
storage option, 7-8
Oracle Standalone Clusters, 9-3
Oracle Universal Installer
response files
list of, A-3
Oracle Upgrade Companion, 4-7
oracle user, 1-7
creating, 6-5
Oracle user
configuring environment for, 6-22
determining default shell, 6-23
modifying, 6-15
ORACLE_BASE environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 6-23
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 6-23
ORACLE_SID environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 6-23
oracle-database-server preinstallation RPM, 3-2
oracleasm RPM
installing, B-6
oraInventory, 6-3, C-5
See also Oracle Inventory group
oranfstab configuration file, 8-18
oranfstab file, 8-21
OSASM group
creating, 6-12
OSBACKUPDBA group
creating, 6-14
OSBACKUPDBA group (backupdba), 6-10
OSDBA, 1-7
OSDBA for ASM
creating for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 6-13
OSDBA groups
creating, 6-13
creating for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 6-13
description for database, 6-9
SYSDBA privilege, 6-9
OSDGDBA group
creating, 6-14
OSDGDBA group (dgdba), 6-10
OSKMDBA group
creating, 6-14
OSKMDBA group (kmdba), 6-10
OSOPER group
creating, 6-13
OSOPER groups
description for database, 6-9
SYSOPER privilege, 6-9
OSRACDBA group
creating, 6-14
P
packages
oracle-database-server preinstallation
package, 3-2
parameter file
and permissions to read and write the SGA,
10-7
partition
using with Oracle ASM, 8-2
patch updates, 10-2
policy-managed databases
and SCAN, 5-5
postinstallation
recommended tasks
root.sh script, backing up, 10-3
postinstallation -executeConfigTools option, A-10
postinstallation configToolAllCommands script,
A-13
preconfigured database
Oracle ASM disk space requirements, 8-2
requirements when using Oracle ASM, 8-2
primary host name, 1-5
profile file, 6-23
proxy realm, 1-12
public node name
and primary host name, 1-5
Q
quorum disks, 7-8
NFS mount, 7-8
R
racdba group
creating, 6-14
RAID
device names, B-8
Index-6
Index
RAID (continued)
recommended Oracle ASM redundancy
level, 8-2
Rapid Home Provisioning, 9-30, 11-16
Rapid Home Provisioning Server, 9-3
recommendations
client access to the cluster, 10-5
number of IP address for SCAN resolution,
5-5
private network, 5-3
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 8-2
Redundant Interconnect Usage, 5-6
IPv4 requirement, 5-7
registering resources, 11-20
releases
multiple, C-2
relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure home
binaries, 10-11, 12-12, 12-13
removing Oracle software, 12-1, 12-2
examples, 12-6
requiremenets
interconnects, 5-7
requirements, 8-2
for networks, 5-6
resource parameters, B-17
response file, A-8
response file installation
preparing, A-3
response files
templates, A-3
silent mode, A-6
response file mode, A-1
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
See also response files, silent mode
response files, A-1
about, A-1
creating with template, A-3
database configuration assistant, A-8
dbca.rsp, A-3
enterprise.rsp, A-3
general procedure, A-3
Net Configuration Assistant, A-9
netca.rsp, A-3
passing values at command line, A-1
specifying with Oracle Universal Installer, A-6
See also silent mode.
root user
logging in as, 2-1
root.sh script
backing up, 10-3
rootcrs.pl
rootcrs.pl (continued)
restriction for Oracle Flex Cluster
deinstallation, 12-14
rootcrs.sh, 12-2
roothas.sh, 12-2
RPMS
for completing operating system
configuration, 4-3
running gridSetup.sh, 11-13
running multiple Oracle releases, C-2
S
SCAN
required for clients of policy-managed
databases, 5-5
understanding, 5-5
SCAN address, 1-5
SCAN addresses, 5-5
SCAN listeners, 5-5
SCANs, 1-5, 5-14
client access, 10-5
configuring, 1-5
description, 10-5
SCSI disks
device names, B-8
SELinux
restrictions on Oracle ACFS, 7-4
shell
determining default shell for Oracle user,
6-23
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 6-23
shell startup file
editing, 6-23
removing environment variables, 6-23
silent mode
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
silent mode installation, A-6
single client access names
See SCAN addresses
software requirements, 4-10
space requirements, 8-7
ssh
and X11 Forwarding, 6-26
configuring, B-1
Standard cluster
upgrades result in, 11-4
standard operating environment, 9-30
startup file
for shell, 6-23
stty
suppressing to prevent installation errors,
6-27
7
Index
swap space
allocation, 1-4
switches
minimum speed, 5-6
SYSBACKUPDBA system privileges, 6-10
SYSDBA privilege
associated group, 6-9
SYSDGDBA system privileges, 6-10
SYSKMDBA system privileges, 6-10
SYSOPER privilege
associated group, 6-9
system global area
permissions to read and write, 10-7
system privileges
SYSBACKUPDBA, 6-10
SYSDGDBA, 6-10
SYSKMDBA, 6-10
system requirements, 1-1
T
tcp_rmem, 8-18
tcp_wmem, 8-18
TCP/IP, 5-6
TEMP environment variable
commands
env, 6-23
env command, 6-23
environment
checking settings, 6-23
setting, 6-23
umask, 6-23
umask command, 6-23
terminal output commands
suppressing for Oracle installation owner
accounts, 6-27
TMPDIR environment variable
setting, 6-23
token-rings
unsupported, 5-6
Transparent Hugepages
disable for Oracle Database servers, 4-6,
4-30
troubleshooting
cron jobs and installation, 1-12
disk space errors, 1-4
environment path errors, 1-4
garbage strings in script inputs found in log
files, 6-27
I/O lags, 4-30
inventory corruption, 6-15
nfs mounts, 4-31
ocssd.log threads blocked, 4-30
public network failures, 4-31
root.sh errors, 12-14
troubleshooting (continued)
ssh, B-2, B-4
ssh errors, 6-27
stty errors, 6-27
unconfiguring Oracle Clusterware to fix
causes of root.sh errors, 12-14
unset environment variables, 1-4
user equivalency, B-2, B-4
user equivalency errors, 6-3
Troubleshooting
DBCA does not recognize Oracle ASM disk
size and fails to create disk groups,
10-10
typographic conventions, xviii
U
umask command, 6-23
unconfiguring Oracle Clusterware, 12-14
uninstall
See removing Oracle software
UNIX commands
fdisk, B-8
lsdev, B-8
xhost, 2-1
UNIX workstation
installing from, 2-1
unreachable nodes
upgrading, 11-16
upgrade, 4-8, 11-16
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 8-11
running gridSetup.sh, 11-13
upgrade tasks, 11-20
upgrades
and Leaf Nodes, 11-4
and SCAN, 5-5
best practices, 4-7
restrictions for, 11-4
unsetting environment variables for, 11-8
upgrading
and ORAchk Upgrade Readiness
Assessment, 1-12
inaccessible nodes, 11-16
options, 4-8
useradd command, 6-15
users
creating the oracle user, 6-5
V
vendor clusterware
and cluster names for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, 1-5
voting files
configuration of, 1-9
Index-8
Index
X
X Window System
enabling remote hosts, 2-1
X11 forwarding errors, 6-26, B-4
xhost command, 2-1
xtitle
suppressing to prevent installation errors,
6-27
9
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