STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs) Stormwater

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs)
for
Stormwater Management
City of Kingsport, Tennessee
Table of Contents
ALL DEPARTMENTS
Waste Management
Fueling
Vehicle and Equipment Cleaning
Material Storage
Transporting Equipment
Vehicle and Equipment Storage
PARKS AND RECREATION
Pet Waste Management
Parks and Open Space Maintenance
STREETS AND SANITATION
Parking Lot Maintenance
Chemical Application Pesticides, Herbicides, Fertilizers – Grounds Maintenance
Mowing and Trimming – Grounds Maintenance
Planting Vegetation (Starters) – Grounds Maintenance
Planting Vegetation (Seeds) – Grounds Maintenance
Catch Basin Cleaning
Creek Management
Ditch Management
Chip Seal
Slurry Seal
Overlays and Patching
Crack Seal
Shouldering
Secondary Road Maintenance
Concrete Work
Snow Removal and De-icing
Street Sweeping
Transporting Soil and Gravel
Utility and Storm Drain System Repair and Maintenance
Salt Storage
Salt Application
Trash and Garbage Collection
Table of Content (continued.)
TRAFFIC
Painting
WATER/SEWER MAINTENANACE
Planned Excavation Repair/Replacement
Unplanned Excavation Repair/Replacement
Flushing for Routine Maintenance
FLEET
Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance
Outdoor Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance
STORMWATER
Complaint Response and Tracking
Illicit Discharge Investigation
Outfall Inspections
Tracing Illicit Discharges
Removing Illicit Discharges
Site Plan Review
Inspections
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Waste Management
All Departments
Description
All solid and liquid wastes must be disposed of properly. Some of the most common sources of
pollution at municipal facilities are a result of littering, improper collection of debris, and
improper disposal of solid or liquid waste. When services are contracted, this written procedure
should be provided to the contractor so they have the proper operational procedures. In
addition, the contract should specify that the contractor is responsible for abiding by all
applicable city, state, and federal codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
General
• Provide cover, if feasible, for all waste storage areas including keeping dumpster lids closed.
• Provide a low containment berm, if feasible, around waste storage areas.
• Conduct periodic inspections of solid and liquid waste storage areas to check for leaks and
spills.
• Conduct periodic inspections of work areas to ensure that all wastes are being disposed of
properly.
• Follow the Spill Prevention and Response procedure to respond to and clean up any spills or
leaks.
• Clean storage areas when necessary using dry cleanup methods (except in areas where the
wash water will enter the sanitary sewer and is an approved discharge).
• Return dumpsters to the supplier when cleaning is necessary or if the dumpster is leaking.
• Properly handle and dispose of all hazardous wastes. See the Outdoor Material Storage
procedure for more information.
Possible Pollutants
Construction Debris
Organics
Oil and Grease
Trash
Metals
Paint
Toxins
Good Housekeeping
Dumpster/waste management
Employee/Contractor Training
Proper cleanup and disposal procedures
Dry cleaning methods
Stormwater retrofits
Related Procedures
Large Outdoor Festivals and Events
Outdoor Material Storage
Spill Prevention and Response
Street Sweeper Cleaning and Waste
Standard Operating Procedure
Solid Waste
• Solid waste that cannot be recycled should be disposed of in the trash dumpster.
• Recycle solid wastes when possible, including the following:
o Glass
o Plastic containers
o Cardboard and Paper
o Organic material
o Scrap metal
o Wood debris
o Used batteries
o Used oil filters
o Light bulbs
• Follow the Street Sweeper Cleaning and Waste procedure for proper disposal of street
sweepings.
Liquid Waste
• Never place liquids in a dumpster.
• If unable to recycle, old latex paints should be mixed with floor dry or other adsorbent material
to solidify prior to disposal in the trash.
• If unable to recycle, enamels and other oil-based paints should be applied to cardboard,
newspaper, or similar materials and allowed to dry prior to disposal in the trash.
• Recycle liquid wastes, including the following:
o Used oil
o Used antifreeze
o Used solvents
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees who dispose of wastes on this written procedure. Information on
how to avoid and report spills will be presented during the training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who dispose of
wastes.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
Optional Additional Resources
Frequency of trash and recycling pick ups.
List of Recycling Sites:
List of Companies Accepting Hazardous Waste
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Fueling
All Departments
FUELING
1. Preparation
a. Train employees on proper fueling methods and spill cleanup techniques.
b. Install a canopy or roof over aboveground storage tanks and fuel transfer areas.
c. Absorbent spill clean-up materials and spill kits shall be available in fueling areas and
on mobile fueling vehicles and shall be disposed of properly after use.
2. Process
a. Shut off the engine.
b. Ensure that the fuel is the proper type of fuel for the vehicle.
c. Nozzles used in vehicle and equipment fueling shall be equipped with an automatic
shut off to prevent overfill.
d. Fuel vehicle carefully to minimize drips to the ground.
e. Fuel tanks shall not be ‘topped off’.
f. Mobile fueling shall be minimized. Whenever practical, vehicles and equipment shall
be transported to the designated fueling area in the Facilities area.
g. When fueling small equipment from portable containers, fuel in an area away from
storm drains and water bodies.
3. Clean Up
a. Immediately clean up spills using dry absorbent (e.g., kitty litter, sawdust, etc.) sweep
up absorbent material and properly dispose of contaminated clean up materials.
b. Large spills shall be contained as best as possible and the HazMat team should be
notified ASAP.
4. Documentation
a. Comply with underground storage tank records and monitoring requirements.
b. Document training of employees.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Material Storage
All Departments
Description
The responsible management of automotive products, fertilizers, pesticides, paints, chemicals,
and other materials at a city facility can significantly reduce polluted stormwater runoff. All
materials should be handled properly including unloading, use, storage, and disposal.
Proper management of materials can also reduce the likelihood of accidental spills or releases.
When services are contracted, this written procedure should be provided to the contractor so
they have the proper operational procedures. In addition, the contract should specify that the
contractor is responsible for abiding by all applicable city, state, and federal codes,
laws, and regulations.
Procedures
General
• Establish material storage and inventory controls to minimize the amount of materials used
and stored.
• Periodically inspect material storage areas to ensure that all materials are being stored
properly when not in use.
• Clean the material storage area when necessary using dry cleanup methods.
• Properly dispose of unused materials.
• Store materials in a manner that reduces the potential for transport in stormwater flows.
Materials Stored in Containers
• Whenever possible, containerize and cover stored materials to prevent stormwater from
coming in contact with materials. Secondary containment may be required.
• Store containers in a location where they will not be accidentally damaged by equipment or
vehicles.
• Provide tight-fitting lids for all containers.
Possible Pollutants
Sediment
Organics
Oil and Grease
Trash
Metals
Toxins
Good Housekeeping
Employee/Contractor Training
Proper cleanup and disposal procedures
Dry cleaning methods
Related Procedures
Salt and Sand Storage
Spill Prevention and Response
Waste Management
Standard Operating Procedure
• Follow the Spill Prevention and Response procedure to respond to and clean up any spills
or leaks.
• Inspect storage containers regularly for signs of leaking or deterioration.
• Replace or repair leaking storage containers.
• Use care to avoid spills when transferring materials from one container to another.
• Use powered equipment or get assistance when moving materials to and from a storage
area. Handle containers appropriately and get help if needed. Use care to prevent punctures in
the containers from equipment.
Loose Materials
• Consolidate loose material (gravel, mulch, etc.) and berm where needed to prevent run-on
of stormwater.
• Follow the Salt and Sand Storage procedure for piles of salt and sand.
• Large inert materials such as piping and road signs can be stored outside without a
protective covering. These materials do not impact stormwater quality.
• Rusting iron is a potential source for stormwater pollution and should not come in contact
with stormwater.
Hazardous Materials
• Identify all hazardous materials stored at the facility.
• Maintain a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each hazardous chemical.
• Clearly label all containers with the name, chemical, unit number, expiration date,
handling instructions, and health and environmental standards.
• Provide special handling, storage (e.g., metal lockers), and disposal for all hazardous
materials.
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees on this written procedure. Information on how to respond to spills
will be presented during the training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who perform
outdoor material storage activities.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
• MSDSs.
• Packing lists, purchasing records, inventory records.
Optional Additional Resources
City codes and ordinances that relate to outdoor materials storage.
Locations of hazardous materials.
Loading and unloading operations.
Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures Plan
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Vehicle and Equipment
Cleaning
All Departments
VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT WASHING
1. Preparation
a. Provide wash areas for small vehicles and equipment inside the maintenance building
that has a drain system which is attached to the sanitary sewer system.
b. Provide wash areas for large vehicles on an approved outside wash pad that has a drain
system which is attached to the sanitary sewer system.
c. No equipment and/or vehicle washing will be done where the drain system is
connected to the storm sewer system.
2. Process
a. Minimize water and soap use when washing vehicles inside the shop building.
b. Soap should not be used when washing vehicles outside the shop building. Water only.
c. Use hoses with automatic shut off nozzles to minimize water usage.
d. When washing outside the building, it is the operators’ responsibility to make sure all
wash water is contained on the wash pad and does not have access to the storm drain.
e. Never wash vehicles over or a storm drain.
3. Clean Up
a. Sweep wash areas after every washing to collect what solids can be collected to
prevent them from washing down the drain system.
b. Clean solids from the settling pits on an as needed basis.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Transporting Equipment
All Departments
TRANSPORTING EQUIPMENT
1. Preparation
a. Determine equipment needed for transport and method (trailer, truck bed) needed to
transport equipment.
b. Conduct pre- trip inspection of equipment
2. Process
a. Load and secure equipment on trailer or truck
b. Load and secure fuel containers for equipment usage
3. Clean-up
a. Off load equipment
b. Store equipment and trailer in proper locate on
c. Conduct post-trip inspection of equipment
d. Wash equipment, if needed, according to the SOP for Cleaning Equipment SOP
4. Documentation
a. Pre-trip and post trip inspection report
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Vehicle and Equipment
Storage
All Departments
VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT STORAGE
1. Preparation
a. Inspect parking areas for stains/leaks on a regular basis.
b. Provide drip pans or adsorbents for leaking vehicles.
2. Process
a. Whenever possible, store vehicles inside where floor drains have been connected
to sanitary sewer system.
b. When inside storage is not available, Vehicles and equipment will be parked in
the approved designated areas.
c. Maintain vehicles to prevent leaks as much as possible.
d. Address any known leaks or drips as soon as possible. When a leak is detected a
drip pan will be placed under the leaking vehicle to collect the drip.
e. The shop will provide a labeled location to empty and store drip pans.
f. If any leaks are discovered, a drip pan will be used to collect the fluids and
vehicle will be scheduled for repairs.
g. Clean up all spills using dry methods.
h. Never store leaking vehicles over a storm drain.
3. Clean Up
a. Any leaks that are spilled on the asphalt will be cleaned up with dry absorbent;
the dry absorbent will be swept up and disposed of in the garbage.
b. The paved surfaces around the building will be swept every two weeks, weather
permitting.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Vehicle and Equipment
Washing
All Departments
WASHING
1. Preparation
a. Provide wash areas for small vehicles inside the maintenance building that has a drain
system which is attached to the sanitary sewer system.
b. Provide wash areas for large vehicles on an approved outside wash pad that has a drain
system which is attached to the sanitary sewer system.
c. No vehicle washing will be done where the drain system is connected to the storm
sewer system.
2. Process
a. Minimize water and soap use when washing vehicles inside the shop building.
b. Soap should not be used when washing vehicles outside the shop building. Water
Only.
c. Use hoses with automatic shut off nozzles to minimize water usage.
d. When washing outside the building, it is the operators’ responsibility to make sure all
wash water is contained on the wash pad and does not have access to the storm drain.
e. Never wash vehicles over or a storm drain.
3. Clean Up
a. Sweep wash areas after every washing to collect what solids can be collected to
prevent them from washing down the drain system.
b. Clean solids from the settling pits on an as needed basis.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Pet Waste Management
Parks and Recreation
PET WASTE MANAGEMENT
1. Preparation
a. Adopt and enforce ordinances that require pet owners to clean up pet wastes and use
leashes in public areas. If public off-leash areas are designated, make sure they are clearly
defined. Avoid designating public off-leash areas near streams and water bodies.
b. Whenever practical and cost effective, install dispensers for pet waste bags and provide
disposal containers at locations such as trail heads or parks where pet waste has been a
problem. Provide signs with instructions for proper cleanup and disposal.
2. Process
a. Check parks and trails for pet waste as needed.
b. Check public open space for pet waste prior to mowing.
c. Provide ordinance enforcement as needed.
3. Clean up
a. Remove all pet waste; provide temporary storage in a covered waste container, and
dispose of properly. Preferred method of disposal is at a solid waste disposal facility.
4. Documentation
a. Document problem areas for possible increased enforcement and/or public education
signs.
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Parks and Open Space
Management
Parks and Recreation
Description
Parks and open space maintenance activities involves the disposal of clippings from mowing,
planting, weeding, trees, hedges and shrubs; raking of leaves; disposal of garbage and litter;
spraying of pesticides, fertilizing; and the cleaning and upkeep of park restrooms, buildings, and
tables. Refer to the Fertilizer, Pesticide, and Herbicide Application procedure for information on
the application of landscape chemicals. When services are contracted, this written procedure
should be provided to the contractor so they have the proper operational procedures. In
addition, the contract should specify that the contractor is responsible for abiding by all
applicable city, state, and federal codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
General
• Inspect newly landscaped areas on a regular basis after installed until the appropriate timing
of maintenance is established.
• Report damage to landscape areas or bare areas void of vegetation that may result in
sediment being transported off site.
• Collect and dispose of sediment from walkways and parking areas.
• Collect and dispose of trash from landscaped areas.
• Control run-off to limit soil erosion; do not use plastic under mulch, bark or wood chips, only
use permeable fabrics.
• Do not attempt to clean up any unidentified or possibly hazardous materials found on or
around landscaped areas during maintenance; notify the supervisor immediately upon discovery
of hazardous materials.
• Refer to the Fertilizer, Pesticide, and Herbicide Application procedure for information on the
application of landscape chemicals.
Possible Pollutants
Organics
Chemicals
Sediment
Fuel
Good Housekeeping
Secondary containment
Employee training
Related Procedures
Fertilizer, Herbicide, and
Pesticide Application
Material Storage
Vehicle Fueling
Standard Operating Procedure
Mowing
• Remove paper, debris, and trash from the landscaped and surrounding areas and dispose of
properly prior to mowing activities.
• Mulch-mow grasses whenever possible, do not allow any grass clippings to wash off into any
drainage ways.
• Properly dispose of vegetation and other wastes after mowing, pulling weeds, and trimming.
Irrigation
• Any obvious problems such as broken sprinkler heads, ponded water, and dry, un-watered
areas need to be reported immediately.
• Only irrigate at a rate which can infiltrate into the soil, limit run-off from watering lawns, and
landscaping.
Landscape Equipment
• Brush off mowers (reels and decks) and tractors over grassy areas. Leave clippings on grassy
areas or dispose of in trash or by composting. Do not hose off mowers over paved areas that
drain to the storm drain system.
• Fuel all equipment following the Vehicle Fueling procedure.
• Maintain (including washing) all equipment by following the Heavy Equipment and Vehicle
Maintenance procedure.
Potentially Hazardous Material
• Unidentifiable materials: DO NOT HANDLE OBJECT – CALL 911 or 9-911 from City facility
phone.
• Used vehicle oil
o Take to fleet maintenance and fill out log in foreman’s office.
• Used car batteries
o Take to fleet maintenance and fill out log in foreman’s office.
Other Activities
• Install pet waste stations with bags and trash receptors in locations where pet waste has
shown to accumulate.
• All port-a-potties should be placed in flat, secure locations where they are less likely to be
knocked over. All port-a-potties should be in a location that would retain any spillage opposed to
washing into storm sewer or waterway.
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees who are involved with parks and open space maintenance
activities on this written procedure. Information regarding proper storage practices and how to
prevent and report spills will be presented during the training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who are involved
with
parks and open space maintenance activities.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
Optional Additional Resources
City codes and ordinances that relate to parks and open space management, such as a noxious
weed
ordinance.
List of municipal properties to manage and frequency of management.
Instructions on how to operate equipment.
Integrated pest management techniques.
Landscape planning.
Procedures for using non-municipal (e.g., volunteer) personnel
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Parking Lot Maintenance
Streets and Sanitation
PARKING LOT MAINTENANCE
1. Preparation
a. Conduct regular employee training to reinforce proper housekeeping.
b. Restrict parking in areas to be swept prior to and during sweeping using regulations as
necessary.
c. Perform regular maintenance and services in accordance with the recommended
vehicle maintenance schedule on sweepers to increase and maintain efficiency.
2. Process
a. Sweep parking areas, as needed, or as directed.
b. Hand sweep sections of gutter if soil and debris accumulate.
c. Pick-up litter as required to keep parking areas clean and orderly.
3. Clean-up
a. Dispose of sweepings properly (appropriate solid waste facility).
b. Street sweepers to be cleaned out in a manner as instructed by the manufacturer and in
a location that swept materials cannot be introduced into a storm drain.
c. Swept materials will not be stored in locations where storm water could transport fines
into the storm drain system.
4. Documentation
a. Keep work orders to track swept parking areas and approximate quantities.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Chemical Application
(Pesticides, Herbicides and
Fertilizers)
Grounds Maintenance
CHEMICAL APPLICATION PESTICIDES, HERBICIDES, FERTILIZERS
1. Preparation
a. Make sure your state Chemical Handling Certification is complete and up-to-date
before handling any chemicals.
b. Calibrate fertilizer and pesticide application equipment to avoid excessive application.
c. Use pesticides only if there is an actual pest problem.
d. Time and apply the application of fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides to coincide with
the manufacturer’s recommendation for best results (“Read the Label”).
e. Know the weather conditions. Do not use pesticides if rain is expected within a 24hour period. Apply pesticides only when wind speeds are low(less than 5 mph).
2. Process
a. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for mixing, application and disposal.
(“Read the Label”).
b. Do not mix or prepare pesticides for application near storm drains, preferably mix
inside a protected area with impervious secondary containment (preferably indoors) so
that spills or leaks will not contact soils.
c. Employ techniques to minimize off-target application (e.g. spray drift, over
broadcasting.) of pesticides and fertilizers.
3. Clean-up
a. Sweep or blow pavements or sidewalks where fertilizers or other solid chemicals have
fallen, back onto grassy areas before applying irrigation water.
b. Triple rinse pesticide and herbicide containers, and use rinse water as product. Dispose
of unused pesticide as hazardous waste.
c. Always follow all federal and state regulations governing use, storage and disposal of
fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides and their containers. (“Read the Label”)
4. Documentation
a. Keep copies of MSD sheets for all pesticides, fertilizers and other hazardous products
used.
b. Record fertilizing and pesticide application activities, including date, individual who
did the application, amount of product used and approximate area covered.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Mowing and Trimming
Grounds Maintenance
MOWING AND TRIMMING
1. Preparation
a. Review the overall process with all employees.
b. Check the oil and fuel levels of the mowers and other equipment; fill if needed.
2. Process
a. Protect catch basins where applicable.
b. Put on eye and hearing protection.
c. Mow and trim the lawn.
d. Sweep or blow clippings to grass areas.
e. Remove inlet protection.
3. Clean-up
a. Mowers are to be scraped and brushed at shop – dry spoils are dry swept and disposed
of.
b. Wash equipment in approved wash station.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Planting Vegetation
(Starters)
Grounds Maintenance
PLANTING VEGETATION (STARTERS)
1. Preparation
a. Decide where any spoils will be taken.
2. Process
a. Dig holes; place spoils near the hole where they may easily be placed back around
roots. Avoid placing spoils in the gutter.
b. Bring each plant near the edge of the hole dug for it.
c. Check the depth of the hole, and adjust the depth if necessary. The depth of the hole for
a tree should be as deep as the root ball, so that the top of the root ball is level with the
top of the hole.
d. Carefully remove pot or burlap.
e. Place the plant in the hole.
f. Backfill the hole with existing spoils, compost, and a litter fertilizer if desired. Do not
use excessive amendments.
g. Water the plant.
h. Stake the plant, if necessary, to stabilize it.
3. Clean-up
a. Move any extra spoils into truck or trailer. Place the spoils on a tarp if there is
likelihood that some of the dirt would be lost through openings in the bed.
b. Sweep dirt from surrounding pavement(s) into the planter area
c. Transport spoils to their designated fill or disposal
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Planting Vegetation
(Seeds)
Grounds Maintenance
PLANTING VEGETATION (SEEDS)
1. Preparation
a. Decide on the application rate, method, water source, and ensure adequate materials
are on hand.
b. Grade and prepare the soil to receive the seed. Place any extra soil in a convenient
location to collect.
2. Process
a. Place the seed and any cover using the pre-determined application method (and rate).
b. Lightly moisten the seed.
3. Clean-up
a. Move any extra spoils into truck or trailer. Place the spoils on a tarp if there is
likelihood that some of the dirt would be lost through openings in the bed.
b. Sweep dirt, seed, and any cover material from surrounding pavement(s) into the planter
area.
c. Transport spoils to their designated fill or disposal area.
SOP Name:
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
Catch Basin Cleaning
Streets and Sanitation
CATCH BASIN CLEANING
1. Preparation
a. Clean sediment and trash off grate.
b. Do visual inspection on outside of grate.
c. Make sure nothing needs to be replaced.
d. Do inside visual inspection to see what needs to be cleaned.
2. Process
a. Clean using a high powered vacuum truck to start sucking out standing water and
sediment.
b. Use a high pressure washer to clean any remaining material out of catch basin, while
capturing the slurry with the vacuum.
c. After catch basin is clean, send the rodder of the vacuum truck downstream to clean
pipe and pull back sediment that might have gotten downstream of pipe.
d. Move truck downstream of pipe to next catch basin.
3. Clean-up
a. When vacuum truck is full of sediment take it to the designated location to dump all
the sediment out of truck into a drying bed.
b. When it evaporates, clean it up with a backhoe, put it into a dump truck and take it to
the landfill.
4. Documentation
a. Keep logs of number of catch basins cleaned.
b. Record the amount of waste collected.
c. Keep any notes or comments of any problems.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Creek Management
Streets and Sanitation
CREEK MANAGEMENT
1. Preparation
a. Monitor streams on a regular basis (Suggested interval?).
b. Check culverts and crossings after every storm.
c. Maintain access to stream channels wherever possible.
d. Identify areas requiring maintenance
e. Determine what manpower or equipment will be required.
f. Identify access and easements to area requiring maintenance.
g. Determine method of maintenance that will be least damaging to the channel.
h. Obtain Stream Alteration Permit.
2. Process
a. Remove unwanted material (debris, branches, soil) from the creek channel and place it
in a truck to be hauled away
3. Clean-up
a. Stabilize all disturbed soils.
b. Remove all tracking from paved surfaces near maintenance site, if applicable.
c. Haul all debris or sediment removed from area to approved dumping site.
4. Documentation
a. Keep log of actions performed including date and individuals involved.
b. Record the amount of materials removed or imported.
c. Keep any notes or comments of any problems.
d. Use “before” and “after” photographs to document activities as applicable.
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Ditch Management
Streets and Sanitation
DITCH MANAGEMENT
1. Preparation
a. Monitor ditches on a regular basis (Suggested interval?).
b. Maintain access to ditch channels wherever possible.
c. Contact affected property owners and utility owners.
2. Process
a. Identify areas requiring maintenance
b. Determine what manpower or equipment will be required.
c. Identify access and easements to area requiring maintenance.
d. Determine method of maintenance that will be least damaging to the channel and
adjacent properties or utilities.
3. Clean-up
a. Stabilize all disturbed soils.
b. Remove all tracking from paved surfaces near maintenance site, if applicable.
c. Haul all debris or sediment removed from area to approved dumping site.
4. Documentation
a. Keep log of actions performed including date and individuals involved.
b. Record the amount of materials removed or imported.
c. Keep any notes or comments of any problems.
d. Use “before” and “after” photographs to document activities as applicable.
SOP Name:
S TANDARD
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City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
Chip Seal
Streets and Sanitation
CHIP SEAL
1. Preparation
a. Clean and dry areas where materials are to be applied.
b. Apply temporary covers to manholes and catch basins to prevent oil and materials
from getting inside of them.
2. Process
a. Apply emulsion at recommended rate.
b. Spread chips closely behind emulsion distributor, slowly such that the chips do not roll
when they hit the surface.
c. Roll chips. Rollers follow closely behind the chip spreader. Roll entire surface twice.
d. Maximum speed 5 mph.
3. Clean-up
a. All loose aggregate is removed from the roadway by sweeping it up (see SOP for
Street Sweeping).
b. Excessive asphalt applications and spills are removed with shovels and scraping tools.
c. Remove the temporary covers from manholes and catch basins. If it appears that any
chip seal materials have gotten into the inlet boxes, remove the material according to the
SOP for inlet boxes.
d. Dispose of the waste material that has been swept and scraped up by taking it to the
landfill.
4. Documentation
a. Record location and date on the maintenance database and map
SOP Name:
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
Slurry Seal
Streets and Sanitation
SLURRY SEAL
1. Preparation
a. Remove weeds from the roads.
b. Sweep areas where materials are to be applied, and allow to dry, if necessary.
c. Verify that existing pavement has been inspected for detrimental effects of poor
drainage.
d. Cover/protect catch basins and manholes.
2. Process
a. Apply materials in a smooth and uniform manner. Slurry material should not run onto
adjacent pavement surface, curb and gutter or waterways.
3. Clean-up
a. If loose aggregate is remaining in street or curb, sweep it up.
b. Ensure that excess emulsion materials are removed from the site and stored for later
use in an area or container that is not exposed to the weather.
c. Remove covers/protection from catch basins and manholes, and valves.
4. Documentation
a. Record location and date on the maintenance database and map
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Overlays and Patching
Streets and Sanitation
OVERLAYS AND PATCHING
1. Preparation
a. Measure and mark locations of manholes and valves on the curb
b. Manholes and catch basins are covered as needed to prevent oil and materials from
getting inside the structures or system.
c. Cracks should be properly sealed. Alligator cracks and potholes should be removed
and patched. Rutting should be milled.
d. Surface should be clean and dry.
e. Uniform tack coat applied and cured prior to placement of overlay.
f. If milling is required, install inlet protection as needed.
2. Process
a. Check hot asphalt mix for proper temperature, percentage asphalt, gradation, air voids
and any other agency requirements.
b. Raise manhole lids and valves to elevation of new asphalt surface with riser rings.
c. Surface texture should be uniform, no tearing or scuffing.
d. Rolling should be done to achieve proper in-place air void specification.
3. Clean-up
a. Covering should be removed as soon as the threat of imported materials entering the
system is reduced and prior to a storm event.
b. After pavement has cooled, sweep gutters to remove loose aggregate.
4. Documentation
a. Record location and date on the maintenance database and map
SOP Name:
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
Crack Seal
Streets and Sanitation
CRACK SEAL
1. Preparation
a. Cover Manholes and catch basins to prevent oil and materials from getting inside the
structures or system.
b. Remove weeds from the road
c. Air-blast the cracks to remove sediments from the crack to allow for proper adhesion.
d. Ensure that surface is clean and dry.
2. Process
a. Proper temperature of material should be maintained.
b. Sufficient material is applied to form the specified configuration.
3. Clean-up
a. Excessive sealant application or spills are removed.
b. Sweep all loose debris from the pavement and dispose of it in the local landfill.
4. Documentation
a. Record location and date on the maintenance database and map
SOP Name:
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
Shouldering
Streets and Sanitation
SHOULDERING
1. Preparation
a. Set up temporary traffic control devices.
2. Process
a. Place import material as needed and perform grading to achieve proper drainage.
b. Mulch clippings to help reduce the amount of supplemental fertilizer required
3. Clean-up
a. Clean any loose material off asphalt or gutter.
4. Documentation
a. Record location and date on the maintenance database and map
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Secondary Road
Maintenance
Streets and Sanitation
SECONDARY ROAD MAINTENANCE
1. Preparation
a. Determine length amount and type of roadbase or gravel that will be needed.
b. Determine proper equipment to be used and or any safety hazards.
c. Design proper drainage: slopes, berms etc.
2. Process
a. Have truck drivers follow a designated route for hauling in the soil (See SOP for
Soil and Gravel).
b. If soil is too dry to achieve compaction, loosen surface material and moisture
condition.
c. Smooth or grade soil with the desired crown or cross-slope.
d. Compact soil.
3. Clean-up
a. Replace filter fabric with washed rock (if necessary) on monthly maintenance.
b. Clean up equipment according to the SOP for Cleaning Equipment
c. Clean up any debris on traveled roads, and dispose of it in the landfill.
4. Documentation
a. Fill out daily activity report in log book or journal. Include date, time, personnel, and
location.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Concrete Work
Streets/Water/Sewer
CONCRETE WORK
1. Preparation
a. Train employees and contractors in proper concrete waste management.
b. Store dry and wet materials under cover, away from drainage areas
c. Remove any damaged concrete that may need to be replaced.
d. Prepare and compact sub-base.
e. Set forms and place any reinforcing steel that may be required.
f. Determine how much new concrete will be needed.
g. Locate or construct approved concrete washout facility.
2. Process
a. Install inlet protection as needed.
b. Avoid mixing excess amounts of fresh concrete on-site.
c. Moisten subbase just prior to placing new concrete. This helps keep the soil from
wicking moisture out of the concrete into the ground.
d. Place new concrete in forms.
e. Consolidate new concrete
f. Screed off surface
g. Let concrete obtain its initial set
h. Apply appropriate surface finish
i. Remove forms when concrete will not slump
3. Clean-up
a. Perform washout of concrete trucks and equipment in designated areas only
b. Do not washout concrete trucks or equipment into stormdrains, open ditches, streets or
streams
c. Cement and concrete dust from grinding activities is swept up and removed from the
site.
d. Remove dirt or debris from street and gutter.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Snow Removal and Deicing
Streets and Sanitation
SNOW REMOVAL AND DE-ICING
1. Preparation
a. Store de-icing material under a covered storage area or in an area where water coming
off the de-icing materials is collected and delivered to the sanitary sewer or reused as salt
brine.
b. Slope loading area away from storm drain inlets
c. Design drainage from loading area to collect runoff before entering storm water system
d. Wash out vehicles (if necessary) in approved washout area before preparing them for
snow removal.
e. Calibrate spreaders to minimize amount of de-icing material used and still be effective
f. Provide vehicles with spill cleanup kits in case of hydraulic line rupture or other spills
g. Train employees in spill cleanup procedures and proper handling and storage of deicing materials
2. Process
a. Load material into trucks carefully to minimize spillage
b. Periodically dry sweep loading area to reduce the amount of de-icing materials
exposed to runoff
c. Distribute the minimum amount of de-icing material to be effective on roads
d. Do not allow spreaders to idle while distributing de-icing materials.
e. Park trucks loaded with de-icing material inside when possible
3. Cleanup
a. Sweep up all spilled de-icing material around loading area
b. Clean out trucks after snow removal duty in approved washout area
c. Provide maintenance for vehicles in covered area
d. If sand is used in de-icing operations, sweep up residual sand from streets when
weather permits
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Street Sweeping
Streets and Sanitation
STREET SWEEPING
1. Preparation
a. Prioritize cleaning routes to use at the highest frequency in areas with the highest
pollutant loading.
b. Restrict street parking prior to and during sweeping using regulations as necessary
c. Increase sweeping frequency just before the rainy season, unless sweeping occurs
continuously throughout the year.
d. Perform preventative maintenance and services on sweepers to increase and maintain
their efficiency
2. Process
a. Streets are to be swept as needed or specified by the city. Street maps are used to
ensure all streets are swept at a specified interval
b. Drive street sweeper safely and pickup debris
c. When full, take the sweeper to an approved street sweeper cleaning station.
3. Clean-up
a. Street sweepers are to be cleaned out in an approved street sweeper cleaning station
b. Street sweeping cleaning stations shall separate the solids from the liquids.
c. Once solids have dried out, haul them to the local landfill
d. Decant water is to be collected and routed to an approved wastewater collection system
area only.
e. Haul all dumped material to the landfill.
4. Documentation
a. Keep accurate logs to track streets swept and streets still requiring sweeping.
b. Log the amount of debris collected and hauled off.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Transporting Soil and
Gravel
Water/Sewer/Storm
TRANSPORTING SOIL AND GRAVEL
1. Preparation
a. Dry out wet materials before transporting.
b. Spray down dusty materials to keep from blowing.
c. Make sure you know and understand the SWPPP requirements for the site you will be
working at.
d. Determine the location that the truck and other equipment will be cleaned afterwards
2. Process
a. Use a stabilized construction entrance to access or leave the site where materials are
being transported to/from.
b. Cover truck bed with a secured tarp before transporting.
c. Follow the SWPPP requirements for the specific site to/from which the materials are
being hauled.
d. Make sure not to overfill materials when loading trucks.
3. Clean up
a. Use sweeper to clean up any materials tracked out on the roads from site.
b. Wash out truck and other equipment when needed in properly designated areas.
4. Documentation
a. Keep records of any material that is tracked out of site and what was done to clean it up
and how long it took to clean up and what the weather conditions were at the time.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Utility and Storm Sewer
System Maintenance
Streets/Water/Sewer
Description
This fact sheet addresses utility and storm sewer system maintenance. Utilities include sewer
and potable water conveyance systems. The storm sewer system includes pipes, catch basins,
inlets, outlets, culverts, detention and retention ponds, and drainageways. The storm sewer
system is cleaned as part of routine maintenance and on an emergency basis in the event of
flooding. Maintaining the storm sewer system on a regular basis will remove pollutants, prevent
clogging of the downstream conveyance system, restore the system’s sediment trapping
capability, and ensure the system functions properly to avoid flooding. Flooding, ponding,
and uncontrolled sheet flow can result in property damage and increase soil erosion and
tracking of soil onto city streets. When services are contracted, this written procedure should be
provided to the contractor so they have the proper operational procedures. In addition, the
contract should specify that the contractor is responsible for abiding by all applicable city, state,
and federal codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
General
• Follow the inspection and maintenance schedules for utility and storm sewer systems. Where
feasible, grading activities will be scheduled during dry weather.
• Where feasible, schedule maintenance activities during dry weather.
• Monitor the jet/vacuum truck closely for leaks and use a drip pan as needed.
• Wash and fuel the jet/vacuum truck per the Equipment/Vehicle Maintenance procedure.
• Stay alert for any signs of illicit discharges. This includes “dry weather” flows or pipes or hoses
emptying into the storm sewer system.
• Report any suspicious discharges or dumping to your supervisor.
Possible Pollutants
Sediment
Nutrients
Metals
Hydrocarbons
Trash
Good Housekeeping
Waste Management
Employee/Contractor Training
Proper Cleanup and Disposal
Procedures
Related Procedures
Heavy Equipment and Vehicle
Maintenance
Parks and Open Space
Maintenance
Spill Prevention and Response
Street, Curb, and Gutter
Replacement and
Construction
Utilities and Storm Sewer
System Replacement and
Construction
Vehicle Fueling
Standard Operating Procedure
• Storm sewer system maintenance wastes may be either non-hazardous or hazardous. Solid
nonhazardous waste may be disposed in a sanitary landfill or recycled. Liquid non-hazardous
wastes must be evaporated or discharged to the sanitary sewer system before disposing of it
into the landfill. Hazardous waste must be transported and disposed of at a permitted disposal
or treatment facility.
• Do not temporarily store collected storm system cleaning debris adjacent to any surface water,
storm drain inlet, or drainageway.
Storm Sewer System Pipes
• Clean storm sewer system pipes by jetting the pipes and using a jet/vacuum truck to remove
the material.
o Set the truck over the manhole downstream from the pipeline to be jetted.
o Jet water up against flow to the upstream manhole. Jet back downstream controlling
pressure to avoid service interruptions in low areas.
o Vacuum the debris and washwater.
o After jetting the pipe, hose down manhole and jetting nozzle inside of manhole before
bringing to surface.
o Spills and oversprays will be washed and vacuumed clean.
Catch Basins, Inlet and Outlet Structures, and Culverts
• Manual cleaning
o Bail out sediment-laden water with a shovel into the street then dispose of it into a truck. Or,
crew enters catch basin and fills buckets with sediment that are then carried to a dump truck.
Clean water is used to refill the catch basin.
• Vacuum cleaning
o Set the truck over the manhole downstream from the pipeline to be jetted.
o Jet water up against flow to the upstream manhole. Jet back downstream controlling
pressure to avoid service interruptions in low areas.
o Vacuum the debris and washwater.
o After jetting the pipe, hose down manhole and jetting nozzle inside of manhole before
bringing to surface.
o Spills and oversprays will be washed and vacuumed clean.
• Replace or maintain “no dumping” plaques as necessary.
• Remove trash from trash racks and grated openings.
Detention and Retention Ponds
• Inspect the outlet works and remove trash from the trash racks and grated openings. Also
remove vegetation adjacent to the outlet works to minimize clogging.
• Use a skimmer; a device that strains large debris, in front of the pump and filter to prevent
mostclogging problems. Remove and service the fountains and aerator motors as
recommended.
• Immediately report noticeable damage to the pond requiring additional maintenance.
• Report any suspected water quality problems if the water is suspected to be contaminated due
to a change in vegetation growth or appearance.
• Inspect side slopes of the pond for areas eroding or requiring vegetation. Seed and cover with
erosion control blanket to reestablish vegetation cover to prevent erosion.
• Inspect for plants on the state’s noxious weed list that need to be treated.
• Perform mosquito and vector control activities per municipal and state guidelines.
Drainageways
Drainageways include drainage channels, ditches, grass swales, and washes.
• Conduct maintenance of drainageways in a series of sections or phases over several years to
minimize erosion if extended drainageway lengths are involved.
• Insure all head gates, valves, and flumes are working properly.
• Inspect outfall pipes leading to drainageways for erosion and repair if necessary.
• Remove trash and debris from the drainageways, grates, flumes, and headgates and properly
dispose of material in a covered trash container or remove it to an approved landfill as soon as
possible.
• Flush out/dig out the drainageway, as necessary, to remove sediment which could impede the
flow. The entire drainageway may need to be regraded if the invert has filled in with silt.
• If feasible, repair any areas where rip rap has fallen out of place or collapsed. Schedule
maintenance
if additional repairs are needed.
• Trim trees and shrubs as necessary.
• Inspect the drainageways for any signs of erosion, leaking, and damage. Maintain and repair
damaged or washed out portions of drainageway embankments and easements.
• Inspect all signs and repair and replace as necessary.
• Leave a riparian fringe when mowing drainageways to catch pollutants before reaching the
drainageway. Do not leave grass clippings in the drainageway. Do not apply landscape
chemicals
in the channel area.
• Identify noxious weeds and apply treatment to eliminate as specified by the municipality.
Potable Line Flushing
• Remove any debris from the inlet that will be used for the flushed water.
• Connect the hydrant being flushed with a dechlorinating diffuser.
• Direct the flow downstream to the nearest inlet.
• Keep inlet clear of debris during the flushing operation.
Waterline Breaks
• Contain spoils away from the storm sewer systems (e.g., inlets, drainage way) by building
berms
around the excavation area.
• Install inlet protection downstream of waterline break to prevent sub-grade material from
entering
storm sewer system.
• Dewater the excavation by using a vacuum truck.
• Flush the pipe after the repair by using a dechlorinating diffuser.
• Clean streets from any debris and sediment deposited as a result of the waterline break.
Sanitary Sewer Backup
• Jet upstream from the first dry manhole.
• Clear line stoppage to prevent backup into house basements and manhole overflows.
• Contain overflows by blocking nearby storm sewer system inlets.
• Clean up spills by washing and vacuuming the affected areas.
Safety
• Safety training and awareness play a significant part in the maintenance of utility and storm
sewer systems.
• It is also important to be aware of the work environment as maintenance activities require
limited clearance to buildings, working near high wire electrical poles, underground utilities,
narrow ditch banks, standing water, other municipal staff, and many other safety related
concerns.
• Weather conditions also dictate safety as snow, rain, ice, mud, heat and cold can all contribute
to the working conditions.
• Subsurface inspections, if necessary, will be conducted in accordance with confined space
entry procedures.
• Applicable personal protective equipment will be worn at all times.
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees who perform utility and storm sewer system activities on this
written procedure. Information regarding how to avoid and report spills will be presented during
the training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who perform
utility and storm sewer system activities.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
Optional Additional Resources
City codes and ordinances that relate to utility or storm sewer system maintenance.
Inspection and maintenance frequency plan for the storm sewer system.
Specific instructions on how to operate applicable equipment.
Instructions on how to track the amount of debris collected
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Salt Storage
Streets and Sanitation
Description
Deicers, including salt and sand, are commonly used during snow removal activities. Improper
handling of deicers, salt and sand can contribute pollutants to waterways. When services are
contracted, this written procedure should be provided to the contractor so they have the proper
operational procedures. In addition, the contract should specify that the contractor is responsible
for abiding by all applicable city, state, and federal codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
Solid Deicer Storage
• Deicers should be stored under cover, such as inside a covered structure or under a tarp.
• Containment barriers should be placed to prevent transport of the material beyond the storage
area unless stored inside a structure.
• Whenever possible, storage areas should be outside of the 100-year floodplain for protection
against flooding.
• Any temporary salt and sand storage areas should be protected from erosive forces of wind
and rain.
• Do not overload material spreaders.
• Sweep the area outside of the material storage area after loading and unloading.
Liquid Deicer Storage
• Establish liquid deicer inventory controls to minimize the amount of deicer used and stored.
• Store tanks/containers in a location where they will not be accidentally damaged by equipment
or vehicles.
• Periodically inspect storage tanks/containers to ensure that all materials are being stored
properly when not in use.
• Clean the storage tank/container area when necessary using dry clean up methods.
• Follow all State and Federal above-ground and underground storage tank requirements.
Possible Pollutants
Sediment
Chemicals
Good Housekeeping
Covered outdoor storage areas
Dry clean up methods
Employee training
Related Procedures
Heavy Equipment and Vehicle
Maintenance
Material Storage
Salt and Sand Storage
Snow and Ice Control
Snow Storage
Spill Prevention and Response
Street Sweeping
Vehicle Fueling
Standard Operating Procedure
• When receiving bulk deliveries or when loading liquid deicers into truck mounted tanks,
minimize leaks and clean up spills as soon as they occur.
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees who are involved in salt and sand storage activities on this written
procedure. Information on proper storage practices and on how to prevent and report spills will
be presented during training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who are involved
in salt and sand storage activities.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Record of any major spills and the action taken.
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
Optional Additional Resources
City codes and ordinances that relate to salt and sand storage.
Chemical purchasing policies.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Salt Application
Streets and Sanitation
Description
Deicers can contaminate surface and ground water and damage vegetation adjacent to
roadways. Salt will change the chemical balance of local waterways and sand can be picked up
by stormwater resulting in higher dissolved and suspended sediment loads in waterways. Sand
also presents an air quality concern. When services are contracted, this written procedure
should be provided to the contractor so they have the proper operational
procedures. In addition, the contract should specify that the contractor is responsible for abiding
by all applicable city, state, and federal codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
Plowing
• Inspect plowing equipment for leaks prior to use. Follow the Equipment and Vehicle
Maintenance procedure for responding to leaking vehicles.
• Take care when connecting or releasing plow shovels and clean up any hydraulic fluid that
may leak onto the pavement.
• Wash snow removal equipment only at approved washing stations following the Outdoor
Vehicle Maintenance procedure.
• Do not pile snow in front of storm sewer inlets to allow inflow of snowmelt runoff.
Deicer Application
• Apply only the recommended amount of deicer to roadways.
• Spreaders should be calibrated at the beginning of each season and inspections for
maintenance or repair should be conducted after each storm.
• As soon as weather conditions allow, follow-up with street sweeping to remove remaining
deicer from roadways.
Possible Pollutants
Sediment
Toxics
Good Housekeeping
Dry cleanup methods
Employee training
Related Procedures
Heavy Equipment and Vehicle
Maintenance
Material Storage
Salt and Sand Storage
Snow Storage
Spill Prevention and Response
Vehicle fueling
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Trash and Garbage
Collection
Streets and Sanitation
Description
All solid and liquid wastes must be disposed of properly. Some of the most common sources of
pollution at municipal facilities are a result of littering, improper collection of debris, and
improper disposal of solid or liquid waste. When services are contracted, this written procedure
should be provided to the contractor so they have the proper operational procedures. In
addition, the contract should specify that the contractor is responsible for abiding by all
applicable city, state, and federal codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
General
• Provide cover, if feasible, for all waste storage areas including keeping dumpster lids closed.
• Provide a low containment berm, if feasible, around waste storage areas.
• Conduct periodic inspections of solid and liquid waste storage areas to check for leaks and
spills.
• Conduct periodic inspections of work areas to ensure that all wastes are being disposed of
properly.
• Follow the Spill Prevention and Response procedure to respond to and clean up any spills or
leaks.
• Clean storage areas when necessary using dry clean up methods (except in areas where the
wash water will enter the sanitary sewer and is an approved discharge).
• Return dumpsters to the supplier when cleaning is necessary or if the dumpster is leaking.
• Properly handle and dispose of all hazardous wastes. See the Outdoor Material Storage
procedure for more information.
Possible Pollutants
Construction Debris
Organics
Oil and Grease
Trash
Metals
Paint
Toxins
Good Housekeeping
Dumpster/waste management
Employee/Contractor Training
Proper cleanup and disposal procedures
Dry cleaning methods
Stormwater retrofits
Related Procedures
Large Outdoor Festivals and Events
Outdoor Material Storage
Spill Prevention and Response
Street Sweeper Cleaning and Waste
Standard Operating Procedure
Solid Waste
• Solid waste that cannot be recycled should be disposed of in the trash dumpster.
• Recycle solid wastes when possible, including the following:
o Glass
o Plastic containers
o Cardboard and Paper
o Organic material
o Scrap metal
o Wood debris
o Used batteries
o Used oil filters
o Light bulbs
• Follow the Street Sweeper Cleaning and Waste procedure for proper disposal of street
sweepings.
Liquid Waste
• Never place liquids in a dumpster.
• If unable to recycle, old latex paints should be mixed with floor dry or other adsorbent material
to solidify prior to disposal in the trash.
• If unable to recycle, enamels and other oil-based paints should be applied to cardboard,
newspaper, or similar materials and allowed to dry prior to disposal in the trash.
• Recycle liquid wastes, including the following:
o Used oil
o Used antifreeze
o Used solvents
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees who dispose of wastes on this written procedure. Information on
how to avoid and report spills will be presented during the training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who dispose of
wastes.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
Optional Additional Resources
Frequency of trash and recycling pick ups.
List of Recycling Sites:
List of Companies Accepting Hazardous Waste
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Painting
Traffic
CURB PAINTING
1. Preparation
a. Calculate the amount of paint required for the job
b. Use water based paints if possible.
c. Determine whether the wastes will be hazardous or not and the required proper
disposal of said wastes
d. Determine locations of storm drain inlets and sewer inlets that may need to be
protected
e. Prepare surfaces to be painted without generating wastewater by sandblasting and/or
scraping.
f. Thoroughly sweep up all sand, blasting, and/or paint scrapings
g. If paint stripping is needed, use a citrus-based paint remover whenever possible, which
is less toxic than chemical strippers?
h. If wastewater will be generated, use curb, dyke, etc. around the activity to collect the
filter and collect the debris.
2. Process
a. Paint curb.
b. Prevent over-spraying of paints and/or excessive sandblasting
c. Use drip pans and drop clothes in areas of mixing paints and painting
d. Store latex paint rollers and brushes in air tight bags to be reused later with the same
color.
e. Have available absorbent material and other BMP’s ready for an accidental paint spill.
3. Clean-up
a. Paint out brushes and rollers as much as possible. Squeeze excess paint from brushes
and rollers back into the containers prior to cleaning them.
b. Pour excess paint from trays and buckets back into the paint can containers and wipe
with cloth or paper towels. Dispose of the towels according to the recommendations on
the paint being used.
c. Rinse water-based paint brushes in the sink after pre-cleaning. Never pour excess paint
or wastewater from cleanup of paint in the storm drain.
d. Cleanup oil based paints with paint thinner. Never clean oil based brushes in a sink or
over a storm drain. Filter solvents for reuse if possible and/or store in approved drum for
recycling.
e. Dispose of waste collected by placing it in a garbage container. Left-over paint and
solvents should be stored for later use (do not place these liquids in the garbage).
4. Documentation
a. Write-up/report of any discharges into storm drain system
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Planned Excavation Repair
/ Replacement
Water/Sewer Maintenance
PLANNED EXCAVATION REPAIR / REAPLACEMENT
1. Preparation
a. Determine where discharge flow will go
b. Place inlet protection at nearest downstream storm drain inlet
c. Clean gutters leading to inlet
d. Isolate area to be worked on
e. Neutralize any chlorine residual/pathogens before discharging water
2. Process
a. Make efforts to keep water from pipeline from entering the excavation
b. Direct any discharge to pre-determined area
c. Backfill and compact excavation
d. Haul of excavated material or stock pile nearby
3. Clean up
a. Clear gutter/waterway where water flowed
b. Clean up all areas around excavation
c. Clean up travel path of trucked material
4. Documentation
a. Complete documentation
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Unplanned Excavation
Repair / Replacement
Water/Sewer Maintenance
UNPLANNED EXCAVATION REPAIR / REAPLACEMENT
1. Preparation
a. Make sure service trucks have wattles, gravel bags, or other materials for inlet
protection.
2. Process
a. Slow the discharge.
b. Inspect flow path of discharged water
c. Protect stormwater inlet areas
d. Follow planned repair procedures.
e. Haul off spoils of excavation
f. Consider use of silt filter bags on pumps
3. Clean-up
a. Repair eroded areas as needed
b. Follow planned repair procedures
c. Clean up the travel path of trucked excavated material
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Waterline Flushing for
Routine Maintenance
Water Maintenance
WATERLINE FLUSHING FOR ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
1. Preparation
a. Determine flow path of discharge to inlet of waterway.
b. Determine chlorine residual
c. Neutralize chlorine residual
2. Process
a. Clean flow path.
b. Protect inlet structures.
c. Use diffuser to dissipate pressure to reduce erosion possibilities.
3. Clean-up
a. Clean flow path
b. Remove inlet protection.
4. Documentation
a. Residual tests of discharge water.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Equipment and Vehicle
Maintenance
Fleet
Description
Regular maintenance of city vehicles and equipment, or city-contracted vehicles and equipment
prolongs the life of the city’s assets and prevents the leaking of hazardous fluids commonly
associated with normal wear and tear of vehicles and equipment. Potential pollutants generated
at vehicle maintenance facilities include oil, antifreeze, brake fluid and cleaner, solvents,
batteries and fuels. When services are contracted, this written procedure should be provided to
the contractor so they have the proper operational procedures. In addition, the contract should
specify that the contractor is responsible for abiding by all applicable city, state, and federal
codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
Maintenance activities should be performed inside a Municipal Services Center building unless
the equipment is too large to fit inside or temporary repairs need to be made before the
equipment can be moved to the maintenance building. Consult the Outdoor Fleet Maintenance
procedure when it is necessary to perform repairs outside of the facility (breakdowns,
service calls, etc.).
Vehicle Storage
• Monitor vehicles and equipment closely for leaks and use drip pans as needed until repairs
can be performed.
• When drip pans are used, check frequently to avoid overtopping and properly dispose of
fluids.
• Drain fluids from leaking or wrecked vehicles and from motor parts as soon as possible.
Dispose of fluids properly.
Possible Pollutants
Metals
Toxins
Solvents (degreasers, paint thinners, etc.)
Antifreeze
Brake fluid and brake pad dust
Battery acid
Motor oil
Fuel (gasoline, diesel, kerosene)
Lubricating grease
Good Housekeeping
Drip pans
Tarps
Covered outdoor storage areas
Secondary containment
Proper disposal of used fluids
Spill cleanup materials
Dry cleanup methods
Employee training
Related Procedures
Material Storage
Outdoor Fleet Maintenance
Spill Prevention and Response
Street Sweeper Cleaning and
Waste
Vehicle Fueling
Vehicle Washing
Standard Operating Procedure
Vehicle Maintenance
• Conduct routine inspections of heavy equipment and vehicles to proactively identify potential
maintenance needs.
• Perform routine preventive maintenance to ensure heavy equipment and vehicles are
operating optimally.
• Recycle or dispose of all wastes properly and promptly.
• Do not dump any liquids or other materials outside, especially near or in storm drains or
ditches. Sweep and pick up trash and debris as needed.
Body Repair and Painting
• Whenever possible, conduct all body repair and painting work indoors.
• Use dry cleanup methods such as vacuuming or sweeping to clean up all metal filings, dust,
and paint chips from grinding, shaving, and sanding, and dispose of the waste properly. Debris
from wet sanding can be allowed to dry overnight on the shop floor, then swept or vacuumed.
Never discharge these wastes to the storm or sanitary sewer system.
• Minimize waste from paints and thinners by carefully calculating paint needs based on surface
area and using the proper sprayer cup size.
• Do not use water to control over-spray or dust in the paint booth unless this wastewater is
collected. This water should be treated and permission must be granted by the wastewater
treatment plant prior to discharge into the sanitary sewer system.
• Do not dispose of spray gun cleaner waste in the storm drain.
• Use sanding tools equipped with vacuum capability (if available) to pick up debris and dust.
Material Management
• Store maintenance materials and waste containers (e.g., used oil and antifreeze) in labeled
containers under cover or in secondary containment (e.g., double-walled tanks). Chemicals
should not be combined in containers.
• All hazardous wastes must be labeled and stored according to hazardous waste regulations.
• Carefully transfer fluids from collection devices to designated storage areas as soon as
possible. Do not store the transferred fluids adjacent to the containers (for example, oil drip
pans with used oil in them should not be placed next to the used oil tank).
• Store new batteries securely to avoid breakage and acid spills.
• Store used batteries indoors or in secondary containment to contain potential leaks. Recycle
used batteries.
• Conduct periodic inspections of storage areas to detect possible leaks.
• Do not wash or hose down storage areas except where wash water will enter the sanitary
sewer as an approved discharge. Use dry clean-up methods whenever possible.
• Keep lids on waste barrels and containers, and store them indoors or under cover to reduce
exposure to rain.
• Periodically inspect and maintain all pretreatment equipment, including sumps, separators,
and grease traps to ensure proper functioning.
Parts Cleaning
• Use designated areas for engine, parts, or radiator cleaning. Do not wash or rinse parts
outdoors. If parts cleaning equipment is not available, use drip pans or other containment to
capture parts cleaning fluids.
• Use steam cleaning or pressure washing of parts whenever possible instead of solvent
cleaning.
• When steam cleaning or pressure washing, only discharge wastewater to an oil/water
separator connected to the sanitary sewer.
• When using solvents to clean parts, rinse and drain parts over the designated solvent tank so
that fluids will not drip or spill onto the floor. Use drip boards or pans to catch excess solutions
and divert them back to the tank. Allow parts to dry over the hot tank.
• Recycle cleaning solution when it becomes too dirty to use. Never discharge cleaning waste to
the sanitary sewer or storm sewer.
Vehicle and Equipment Washing
• Vehicles should be washed in the city’s vehicle and equipment wash area/bay or taken to a
commercial car wash.
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees who perform heavy equipment and vehicle maintenance on this
written procedure. Information regarding how to avoid and report spills will be presented during
the training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who perform
heavy equipment and vehicle maintenance.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Record of any major spills and the action taken.
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
• Heavy equipment and vehicle maintenance logs.
Optional Additional Resources
City codes and ordinances that relate to vehicle and equipment maintenance.
Chemical purchasing policies.
Loading and unloading bulk materials.
Guidelines for staff to dedicate a percentage of their time to vehicle and equipment
maintenance.
Specific directions on how to use the city’s vehicle wash area.
Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures Plan
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Outdoor fleet Maintenance
Fleet
Description
Although it is recommended that fleet maintenance activities be conducted indoors or under
cover, it is sometimes necessary to perform fleet maintenance outdoors (e.g., equipment is too
large to fit inside the maintenance building, temporary repairs need to be made before the
equipment can be moved to the maintenance building, breakdowns, service calls).
Some potential pollutants typically associated with outdoor fleet maintenance activities include
oil, antifreeze, brake fluid and cleaner, solvents, batteries, and fuels. Consult the Spill
Prevention and Response procedure and the Vehicle Fueling procedure for additional
information on those topics. When services are contracted, this written procedure should be
provided to the contractor so they have the proper operational procedures. In addition, the
contract should specify that the contractor is responsible for abiding by all applicable city, state,
and federal codes, laws, and regulations.
Procedures
Fleet Maintenance
• Fleet maintenance should be performed inside whenever possible.
• If indoor maintenance is not possible, ensure maintenance is performed in a location where
contact with stormwater is minimized, through berming and appropriate routing of drainage.
• Provide inlet protection (berms, weighted inlet covers, etc.) for all adjacent inlets when work is
occurring in close proximity to a storm drain inlet.
• Have absorbent pads and drip pans accessible to capture leaks and spills during maintenance
activities.
• Keep equipment clean and do not allow excessive build-up of oil and grease.
• Perform regular preventative maintenance to minimize the occurrence of leaks and major
repairs.
• Recycle and/or dispose of all wastes properly and promptly.
Possible Pollutants
Metals
Toxins
Solvents (degreasers, paint thinners, etc.)
Antifreeze
Brake fluid and brake pad dust
Battery acid
Motor oil
Fuel (gasoline, diesel, kerosene)
Lubricating grease
Good Housekeeping
Drip pans
Tarps
Covered outdoor storage areas
Secondary containment
Proper disposal of used fluids
Spill cleanup materials
Dry cleanup methods
Employee training
Related Procedures
Heavy Equipment and Vehicle Maintenance
Material Storage
Spill Prevention and Response
Vehicle Fueling
• Do not dump any liquids or other materials outside, especially near or in storm drains or
ditches. Sweep and pick up trash and debris as needed.
• Clean up spills promptly using dry methods (do not hose down). Consult the Spill Prevention
and Response procedure for more information. Cleanup is completed only after absorbent and
rags are disposed of properly.
Body Repair and Painting
• Whenever possible, conduct all body repair and painting work indoors.
• Use dry cleanup methods such as vacuuming or sweeping to clean up all metal filings, dust,
and paint chips from grinding, shaving, and sanding. Dispose of the waste properly. Debris
from wet sanding can be allowed to dry overnight, then swept and vacuumed. Liquid from wet
sanding should not be allowed to enter the storm drain. Never discharge these wastes to the
storm or sanitary sewer systems.
• Minimize waste from paints and thinners by carefully calculating paint needs based on surface
area and using the proper sprayer cup size.
• Clean spray guns in a self-contained cleaner. Do not dispose of cleaner waste in the storm
drain.
• Use sanding tools equipped with vacuum capability (if available) to pick up debris and dust.
Material Management
• Store maintenance materials and waste containers (e.g., used oil and antifreeze) in labeled
containers under cover or in secondary containment (e.g., double-walled tanks). Chemicals
should not be combined in containers.
• All hazardous wastes must be labeled and stored according to hazardous waste regulations.
• Carefully transfer fluids from collection devices to designated storage areas as soon as
possible.
Do not store the transferred fluids adjacent to the containers.
• Store new batteries securely to avoid breakage and acid spills.
• Store used batteries indoors or in secondary containment to contain potential leaks. Recycle
used batteries.
• Conduct periodic inspections of storage areas to detect possible leaks.
• Do not wash or hose down the storage area except in areas where the wash water will only
enter the sanitary sewer drain as an approved discharge. Use dry clean-up methods as often as
possible.
• Keep lids on waste barrels and containers, and store them indoors or under cover to reduce
exposure to rain.
• Periodically inspect and maintain all pretreatment equipment, including sumps, separators,
and
grease traps to ensure proper functioning.
Parts Cleaning
• Use designated areas for engine, parts, or radiator cleaning. Do not wash or rinse parts
outdoors. If parts cleaning equipment is not available, use drip pans or other containment to
capture parts cleaning fluids.
• Use steam cleaning or pressure washing of parts whenever possible instead of solvent
cleaning.
• When steam cleaning or pressure washing is used, only discharge wastewater to an oil/water
separator connected to the sanitary sewer.
• When using solvents, rinse and drain parts over the designated solvent tank so that fluids will
not drip or spill onto the floor. Use drip boards or pans to catch excess solutions and divert them
back to the tank. Allow parts to dry over the hot tank.
• Recycle cleaning solution when it becomes too dirty to use. Never discharge cleaning waste to
the storm or sanitary sewer systems.
Vehicle and Equipment Washing
• Vehicles should be washed, whenever possible, in the city’s vehicle and equipment wash
area/bay or taken to a commercial car wash.
Employee Training
• Train applicable employees on this written procedure. Information regarding how to avoid and
report spills will be presented during the training.
• Periodically conduct refresher training on the SOP for applicable employees who perform
outdoor vehicle maintenance.
Records
The following records could be used to document activities performed:
• Record of any major spills and the action taken.
• Records of employee training with sign-in sheet.
• Heavy equipment and vehicle maintenance logs.
Optional Additional Resources
City codes and ordinances that relate to fleet maintenance.
Chemical purchasing policies.
Guidelines for staff to dedicate a percentage of their time to vehicle and equipment
maintenance.
Specific directions on how to use the municipality’s vehicle wash area.
Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Complaint Response and
Tracking
Stormwater
1. Preparation
a. Have a system in place to receive phone calls and collect information regarding
suspected illicit discharges.
2. Process
a. Use the Incident Tracking Sheet to collect the appropriate information from the caller.
Then, transfer the Incident Tracking Sheet to the proper authority (ie. department head,
stormwater specialist, construction inspector, code enforcement officer, or other assigned
personnel).
b. Promptly investigate reported incident within 7 days.
3. Response
a. Clean catch basin, clean storm drain, or initiate spill response, as applicable. Follow
relevant SOPs.
4. Documentation
a. File all completed forms (ie. incident tracking, catch basins cleaning, storm drain
cleaning.
b. Document any further action taken.
c. Review incidents reported by citizens on an annual basis to evaluate the call-in
inspection program.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Illicit Discharge
Investigation
Stormwater
1. Preparation
a. Be alert for potential illicit discharges to the municipal storm water system while going
about normal work activities.
2. Process
a. Call the appropriate authority (ie. department head, stormwater specialist, construction
inspector, code enforcement officer or a supervisor) if you see evidence of an illicit
discharge.
b. Assess the general area of the illicit discharge to see if you can identify its source.
c. Whenever possible, take photographs of the suspected illicit discharge.
d. Responding stormwater department personnel or code enforcement officer will
complete the following:
e. Use the IDDE Incident Tracking Sheet to document observations.
f. Obtain sample for visual observation and complete an Outfall Inspection Form, if
applicable.
g. Follow the procedure of SOP IDDE - Tracing Illicit Discharges.
3. Clean-up
a. Clean catch basin, clean storm drain, or initiate spill response, as needed. Follow
relevant SOPs.
4. Documentation
a. File all completed forms (ie. Incident Tracking Form, Outfall Inspection Form, Catch
Basin Cleaning Form, and Storm Drain Cleaning Log).
b. Document any further action taken.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Outfall Inspections
Stormwater
1. Preparation
a. Know the past and present weather conditions. Conduct inspections during dry
weather periods.
b. Gather all necessary equipment including: tape measure, clear container,
clipboard with necessary forms, flashlight, and camera (optional).
c. Obtain maps showing outfall locations and identifiers.
d. Obtain outfall description and observations from previous inspections, so the
outfall can be accurately identified and observations compared.
2. Process
a. Perform an inspection of each outfall every permit cycle. Whenever, possible
use the same personnel for consistency in observations.
b. Identify each outfall with a consistent and unique identifier. Use maps and previous
inspection reports to confirm the outfall identity and location.
c. If dry weather flow is present at the outfall, then document and evaluate the
discharge by completing the following steps:
1. Collect field samples for visual observations in a clean, clear container and in a
manner that avoids stirring up sediment that might distort the observation.
2. Characterize and record observations on basic sensory and physical indicators
(e.g., outfall condition, flow, odor, color, oil sheen) on the Outfall
Inspection Form.
3. Compare observations to previous inspections.
4. If the flow does not appear to be an obvious illicit discharge (e.g., flow is clear,
odorless, etc.), attempt to identify the source of the flow (groundwater,
intermittent stream, etc.)
d. If an illicit discharge (such as raw sewage, petroleum products, paint, etc.) is
encountered or suspected, follow the procedure of SOP IDDE - Tracing Illicit
Discharges.
3. Cleanup - as necessary
4. Documentation
a. File completed outfall inspection forms.
b. Update maps if new outfalls are observed and inspected.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
SOP Name:
Illicit Discharge Removal
Stormwater Management
Stormwater
1. Preparation
a. Obtain available property ownership information for the source of the illicit discharge.
2. Process
a. Determine who is financially responsible; and follow associated procedures as given
below.
For Private Property Owner:
Contact Owner,
Issue Notice of Violation for violations of the municipal ordinance, and
Determine schedule for removal.
For Municipal Facility:
Notify appropriate municipal authority or department head,
Schedule removal, and
Remove illicit connection.
b. Suspend access to storm drain if threats of serious physical harm to humans or the
environment are possible.
c. Direct responsible party to initiate repairs/corrections/cleanup. Coordinate with
enforcement official for escalating penalties in accordance with the municipal ordinance.
d. Repair/correct cause of discharge if municipality is responsible. Schedule the work
through the appropriate municipal authority or department head..
e. Seek technical assistance from the TDEC Water Resources Division, if needed.
3. Clean up
a. Confirm illicit discharge is removed or eliminated by follow-up inspection.
4. Documentation
a. Maintain records of notice of violation and penalties.
b. Document repairs, corrections, and any other actions required.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Tracing Illicit Discharges
Stormwater
1. Preparation
a. Review / consider information collected when illicit discharge was initially identified
and document using Incident Tracking Form or Outfall Inspection Form.
b. Obtain storm drain mapping for the area of the reported illicit discharge.
c. Gather all necessary equipment including: tape measure, clear container, clipboard
with necessary forms, flashlight, and camera (optional).
2. Process
a. Survey the general area / surrounding properties to identify potential sources of the
illicit discharge as a first step.
b. Trace illicit discharges using visual inspections of upstream points as a second step.
Use available mapping to identify tributary pipes, catch basins, etc.
c. If the source of the illicit discharge cannot be determined by a survey of the area or
observation of the storm drain system, then consider the following additional steps:
1. Use weirs, sandbags, dams, or optical brightener monitoring traps to collect or
pool intermittent discharges during dry weather.
2. Smoke test or televise the storm drain system to trace high priority, difficult to
detect illicit discharges.
3. Dye test individual discharge points within suspected buildings.
4. Consider collecting bacterial samples of flowing discharges to confirm/refute
illicit discharge.
d. If the source is located, follow SOP IDDE - Removing Illicit Discharges.
e. If the source cannot be found, add the location to a future inspection program.
3. Clean up
a. Clean catch basin, clean storm drain, or initiate spill response, as applicable. Follow
relevant SOPs.
4. Documentation
a. Document tracing results for future reference.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Site Plan Review
Stormwater
1. Preparation
a. Receipt of concept or preliminary plan.
b. Obtain applicable checklists (SWPPP, Water Quality, Special Pollution Abatement
Plan, etc.).
2. Process
a. Review plan for completeness.
b. Provide comments to the developer and design professional regarding deficiencies.
c. Receive updated plans.
d. Review submittal for completeness.
e. Plan approval.
3. Documentation
a. Document approval with checklists, response letters, etc.
S TANDARD
O PERATING
P ROCEDURE
City of Kingsport, TN
Stormwater Management
SOP Name:
Inspections
Stormwater
1. Preparation
a. Obtain construction site or permanent maintenance form.
b. Gather all necessary information (construction plan sheets, as-builts, O&M documents,
etc.)
2. Process
a. Perform thorough inspection of site best management practices for compliance.
b. Note any deficiencies or changes.
c. Use the enforcement response plan to assess commensurate enforcement action.
d. Update the SWPPP if necessary.
e. Follow up on enforcement response to determine if further action is warranted.
3. Documentation
a. Document results on inspection form and update enforcement history.
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