Educational Messages Desk Reference

& LIGHTERS
home
smoke
alarms
CARBON
MONOXIDE
MATCHES
medical
oxygen
burns
cooking
smoking
FIREFIGHTING
NFPA EDUCATIONAL MESSAGES
2017 EDITION
DESK REFERENCE
candles
electrical
SPRINKLERS
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
NFPA, 1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02169-7471
www.nfpa.org/education
© 2017 National Fire Protection Association®
© 2017 National Fire Protection Association®
Table of Contents
Purpose of Educational Messages Advisory Committee
3
Educational Messages Advisory Committee Members 4
Regulations Governing Educational Messages
Desk Reference
5
Section 1
Educational Messages by Topic
Chapter 1 Home Smoke Alarms
Chapter 2 Home Fire Sprinklers
Chapter 3 Carbon Monoxide
Chapter 4 Home Fire Escape
Chapter 5 Hotels/Motels
Chapter 6 If You Are On Fire Chapter 7 Cooking
Chapter 8 Burns
Chapter 9 Heating
Chapter 10 Smoking Chapter 11 Electrical Chapter 12 Lightning
Chapter 13 Candles
Chapter 14 Matches and Lighters
Chapter 15 Outdoor Burning Chapter 16 Medical Oxygen
Chapter 17 Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Chapter 18 Lithium Ion Batteries
Chapter 19 Portable Fire Extinguishers & Firefighting
Chapter 20 Clothes Dryers
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8
9
10
12
13
14
14
17
18
21
22
23
24
25
25
25
26
26
28
28
Section 2
Educational Messages for Children
Messages for Preschoolers
Messages for Kindergarteners
Messages for Grade 1
Messages for Grade 2
29
29
30
31
32
Section 3
Educational Messages for audiences that have limited
English proficiency
Chapter 21 Easy-to-read messages
© 2017 National Fire Protection Association®
33
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2
PURPOSE OF EDUCATIONAL MESSAGES
ADVISORY COMMITTEE
The Educational Messages Advisory Committee meets periodically to
review NFPA’s fire and burn safety education messages and provide
recommendations to NFPA public education staff for updating and
revising the messages. The messages are used throughout NFPA’s
educational programs, curricula, and handouts and provide fire and life
safety educators with accurate and consistent language for use when
offering safety information to the public. When applicable, the messages
are made consistent with NFPA’s codes, standards, and related criteria.
Each topic area is self-contained, written so that all the information needed
on a certain subject is provided within that category. As a result, some
messaging may be repeated throughout topic areas.
3
Educational Messages Advisory Committee Members 2017
Ernest Grant, Chair
North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center
Marty Ahrens, NFPA
Karen Berard-Reed, NFPA
Brett Brenner, Electrical Safety Foundation International
Kwame Cooper, LA City Fire Department
Patty Davis, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
Amy LeBeau, NFPA
Jorge Mederos, Fort Lauderdale Fire/Rescue Department
Teresa Neal, United States Fire Administration
Maria Pelchar, Holyoke Fire Department
Nancy Trench, Oklahoma State University
American Red Cross
Safe Kids Worldwide
Lisa Braxton, Staff Liaison
4
Regulations Governing Educational Messages
Desk Reference
Purpose
The purpose of the Educational Messages
Advisory Committee is to provide nationally
recognized, consistent fire and life safety
messages.
Scope
The scope of the Educational Messages Desk
Reference is to provide NFPA, fire and life
safety educators, and other safety advocates
with nationally recognized, consistent fire and
life safety messages for the general public.
Application
The application of this document is to
establish messaging as a reference for fire
and life safety educators as they are designing
and delivering outreach, such as lessons,
programs, and presentations, and provide a
base so that fire and life safety educators can
tailor educational messages to fit the needs
of the target audience, considering age, ability,
familiarity with environment, and language, and
other matters.
Goals
• To prepare proposed fire and burn safety
educational messages
• To prepare and/or process comments to
amend existing or add new educational
messages
• To recommend reconfirmation,
withdrawal, or addition of messages
• To maintain NFPA’s philosophy of clear,
simple, accurate, technically sound, and–
whenever possible–positive messaging
• To use messages that support the most
recent edition of the applicable NFPA
code, standard, recommended practice,
or guide
• To produce an Educational Messages
Desk Reference to be made available on
the NFPA website
Membership
The NFPA division manager for public
education shall be responsible for determining
the size and membership of EMAC. NFPA
voting staff members shall not exceed 30
percent of the Committee.
Structure
EMAC shall have a Chair serving a 3-year term.
An NFPA public education staff person shall be
assigned as the liaison to EMAC. The liaison
holds a non-voting position.
Appointments of Members and Their
Tenure
The Chair shall be appointed by the NFPA
division manager for public education. All
Members of EMAC are subject to annual
review and reappointment by the NFPA.
Those Members who miss two meetings, or
otherwise exhibit lack of interest, knowledge,
or responsibility, shall not be reappointed and
may be removed for the stated causes at any
time.
Change of Status
When the status of a Member changes,
including employment, organization
represented, or funding source, the individual’s
membership automatically terminates.
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Role of the Staff Liaison
• To serve in an advisory capacity and
assist EMAC to achieve compliance
with these regulations
• On instruction and guidance from EMAC,
to process and edit text for the EMAC
messages
• To be responsible for the editorial
treatment of messages to ensure
compliance with the Manual of Style for
NFPA Technical Committee Documents
• To attend EMAC meetings
• To plan meetings, including meeting
notification, agenda, and incidentals
• To prepare detailed minutes of EMAC
meetings
• To prepare Comments received in a
format suitable for EMAC consideration
• To prepare the final Educational
Messages Desk Reference and post it
on NFPA’s website
Calling Meetings
The Chair shall call meetings at such times
as may be necessary and convenient for the
transaction of business.
Quorum
There shall be no quorum requirement for
EMAC meetings.
Participation
• Participation shall be limited to
Committee Members and NFPA staff,
except that a request by a guest to
address the committee on a subject
relevant to a specific item under
consideration shall be honored. Guests
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wishing to address EMAC shall notify
the staff liaison in writing at least
7 days before the meeting. When a
guest addresses the committee, equal
opportunity shall be afforded those
with opposing views. The Chair shall
designate the time allotted for any such
addresses.
• Videos, slides, overheads, and similar
visual aids shall be allowed during the
meeting of EMAC. The presenters of
the information shall be responsible
for all equipment arrangements and
associated fees pertaining to their
presentations.
• Physical demonstrations, experiments,
or simulations shall not be allowed
during EMAC meetings.
Minutes of Meetings
Minutes of each meeting shall be recorded and
issued without undue delay to Members by the
public education staff liaison. Minutes shall, at
a minimum, include the time and place of the
meeting, names and affiliations of all persons
attending, and the actions taken.
Voting Procedures and Privileges
Each voting Member, including the Chair, shall
have one vote in the affairs of EMAC.
Voting by Proxy
Voting by proxy shall not be permitted.
Voting at Meetings
Actions decided during EMAC meetings shall
be supported by at least a simple majority
of the voting Members at the meeting. In
calculating the vote, those who abstain shall be
omitted from the calculations.
Who May Submit a Comment
Anyone may submit a Comment, and the
submitter need not be a member of EMAC
or NFPA. Except for Comments submitted
by EMAC, all Comments must be submitted
in the name of an individual, with the
individual’s relevant organizational affiliation or
representation noted separately. The individual
shall be considered the submitter for purposes
of these Regulations.
Content of Comments
Each Comment shall be submitted to the
assigned NFPA public education staff
liaison and shall include the following:
• Identification of the submitter and his or
her affiliation where appropriate
• Identification of the educational
message to which the Comment is
directed
• Proposed text of the Comment,
including the wording to be added,
revised (and how revised), or deleted
• Statement of the problem and
substantiation for the Comment
• The signature of the submitter
• Two copies of any document(s) being
proposed as a reference standard or
publication
EMAC Action on Comments
EMAC shall act on all current Comments.
EMAC shall act on each Comment by
taking one of the following actions:
• Accept the Comment
• Reject the Comment
• Accept the Comment in principle but
with changes in the proposed wording
• Accept the Comment in part
• Hold the Comment for further
study pending receipt of additional
information
The EMAC action on a Comment “accept,”
“accept in principle,” “accept in part,” “hold
the comment,” and “reject” shall include a
statement, preferably technical in nature,
on the reason for the EMAC action. Such
statements shall be sufficiently detailed so as
to convey the EMAC rationale for its action.
A Comment that does not include all of the
information listed in “Content of Comments”
may be rejected by the Committee for that
reason and returned to the submitter in order
for the missing content to be provided.
Copyright © National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA) 2017. Liberal use of messages within NFPA’s
Educational Messages Desk Reference is allowable with
attribution. Please use the following: “Reproduced with
permission of the NFPA.”
Time for Submission
A Comment to revise or amend an existing
or proposed message shall be submitted up
to the published Comment closing date. A
Comment received after that date shall be
returned to the submitter.
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EDUCATIONAL MESSAGES BY TOPIC
CHAPTER 1 Home Smoke Alarms
1.1 Fire Deaths — Smoke Alarms Save Lives
1.1.1 Working smoke alarms save lives,
cutting the risk of dying in a home fire in
half. Smoke alarms should be installed
and maintained in every home.
1.2 Installation
1.2.1 Install smoke alarms in every
sleeping room, outside each separate
sleeping area, and on every level of the
home. Install alarms in the basement.
Larger homes may require additional
smoke alarms to provide a minimum
level of protection.
1.2.2 Interconnect all smoke alarms
throughout the home for the best
protection. When one sounds, they all
sound. Make sure you can hear the
sound of the smoke alarm.
1.2.8. Photoelectric type smoke alarms
are the best type of alarms to be
installed near the kitchen.
1.3 Testing and Maintenance
1.3.1 Test smoke alarms at least once a
month using the test button.
1.3.2 Make sure everyone in the home
understands the sound of the smoke
alarm and knows how to respond.
1.3.3 Follow the manufacturer’s
instructions for cleaning to keep smoke
alarms working. The instructions are
included in the package or can be found
on the internet.
1.4 People Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
1.2.2.1 It is especially important to have
interconnected smoke alarms, if you
sleep with doors closed.
1.4.1 Install smoke alarms and alert
devices that meet the needs of people
who are deaf or hard of hearing.
1.2.3 Smoke alarms can be
interconnected electrically by a qualified
electrician or by installing batteryoperated wireless interconnected smoke
alarms.
1.4.2 When the smoke alarm sounds,
strobe lights flash to alert people who
are deaf or hard of hearing of a possible
fire when they are awake.
1.2.4 For the best protection or where
extra time is needed to awaken or assist
others, both ionization smoke alarms
and photoelectric smoke alarms or
combination ionization-photoelectric
alarms, also known as dual sensor
smoke alarms, are recommended.
1.2.5 An ionization smoke alarm, in
general, is more responsive to flaming
fires, and a photoelectric smoke alarm,
in general, is more responsive to
smoldering fires.
1.2.6 Choose a smoke alarm that is
listed by a qualified testing laboratory.
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1.2.7 Install smoke alarms away from
the kitchen to prevent nuisance alarms.
They should be at least 10 feet (3
metres) from a cooking appliance.
1.4.2.1 When people who are deaf
are asleep, a pillow or bed shaker
should be used to wake them and
alert them to fire conditions so they
can escape. This device is activated
by the sound of a standard smoke
alarm. People who are deaf may
find the shaker along with a highintensity strobe light is helpful to
wake them.
1.4.2.2 When people who are hard
of hearing are asleep, a loud, mixed,
low-pitched sound alert device
should be used to wake them. They
may find a pillow or bed shaker is
helpful to wake them. These devices
are activated by the sound of the
standard smoke alarm.
1.4.3 Choose smoke alarms and
accessories for people who are deaf
or hard of hearing that are listed by a
qualified testing laboratory.
1.5 Battery Replacement
1.5.1 Smoke alarms with nonreplaceable
(long-life) batteries are designed to
remain effective for up to 10 years. If the
alarm chirps, warning that the battery is
low, replace the entire smoke alarm right
away.
1.5.2 For smoke alarms that don’t have
nonreplaceable (long-life) batteries,
replace batteries at least once a year.
If the alarm chirps, replace only the
battery.
1.6 Smoke Alarm Replacement
1.6.1 Replace all smoke alarms when
they are 10 years old.
1.6.2 Replace any smoke alarm that
does not respond after a new battery has
been installed.
1.6.3 Replace combination smokecarbon monoxide alarms according to
the manufacturer’s recommendations.
1.7 Rental Housing
1.7.1 All rental housing must have
working smoke alarms.
1.7.2 Be sure smoke alarms are
installed in all rental housing. Contact
your landlord, property manager, or fire
department for help.
1.7.3 Check with your local fire or
building department for information
about state and local ordinances
on smoke alarm installation and
maintenance in rental housing.
1.7.4 Maintenance of the smoke alarms
may be the responsibility of the landlord
or the renter, depending on the rental
agreement. Maintain the smoke alarm
in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
CHAPTER 2 Home Fire Sprinklers
2.1 General Tips
2.1.1 Home fire sprinklers protect lives
by keeping fires small. Sprinklers can
reduce the heat, flames, and smoke
produced in a fire, allowing people more
time to escape.
2.1.2 Home fire sprinklers activate on
an individual basis. Only the sprinkler
closest to the fire will activate, spraying
water on the fire and not the rest of the
home.
2.1.3 A home fire sprinkler can control or
put out a fire with a fraction of the water
that would be used by fire department
hoses.
2.1.4 Accidental sprinkler discharges are
rare.
2.1.5 Home fire sprinklers can be
installed in new or existing homes. If you
are remodeling or building your home,
install home fire sprinklers.
2.2 Installation
2.2.1 Have a qualified contractor
install your home fire sprinkler system
according to NFPA codes and standards
and local fire safety regulations.
2.2.2 Home fire sprinklers work along
with smoke alarms to save lives.
2.3 Maintenance
2.3.1 The home fire sprinkler installer
must provide instructions on inspecting,
testing, and maintaining the system, a
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simple process that can be performed by
the home occupant. A visual inspection
should be done each month to ensure
that the water valve on the sprinkler
system is open.
2.3.1.1 Make sure that your home
fire sprinkler system is working
properly by
(A) Conducting a visual inspection
of all home fire sprinklers to
make sure nothing is blocking
them and nothing is hung from
or attached to them. This should
be done each month.
(B) Doing a water flow test on
the sprinkler system every six
months or having a fire sprinkler
contractor do the test to ensure
all water flow devices are
working.
3.1.2 Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning
can result from malfunctioning or
improperly vented furnaces or other
heating appliances, portable generators,
water heaters, clothes dryers, or cars left
running in garages.
3.1.3 Headache, nausea, and drowsiness
are symptoms of carbon monoxide
poisoning.
3.1.4 Exposure to carbon monoxide can
be fatal.
3.2 Installation
3.2.1 Choose a carbon monoxide (CO)
alarm that is listed by a qualified
testing laboratory.
(C) Keeping home fire sprinklers
clear and free of objects that
can interfere with their proper
use.
3.2.2 Install and maintain carbon
monoxide (CO) alarms inside your home
to provide early warning of carbon
monoxide.
(D) Inspecting tanks, if present,
each month to make sure that
they are full.
3.2.2.1 When traveling or staying
away from home, bring a travel carbon
monoxide (CO) alarm.
(E) Starting the pump each month if
you have one to make sure that
it works and that it does not trip
any circuit breakers.
3.2.3 Install and maintain carbon
monoxide alarms (CO) outside each
separate sleeping area, on every level
of the home, and in other locations as
required by laws, codes, or standards.
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions
for placement and mounting height.
(F) Not painting fire sprinklers.
If you are painting, cover the
sprinkler head with a bag and
remove after the work is done.
CHAPTER 3 Carbon Monoxide
3.1 Dangers of Carbon Monoxide
3.1.1 Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas
you cannot see, taste, or smell. It is
often called “the invisible killer.” It is
created when fossil fuels, such as
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kerosene, gasoline, coal, natural gas,
propane, methane, or wood do not burn
completely. CO gas can kill people and
pets.
3.2.4 For the best protection, have
CO alarms that are interconnected
throughout the home. When one sounds,
they all sound.
3.2.5 If you have combination smokecarbon monoxide (CO) alarms, follow the
directions for smoke alarm installation.
3.2.6 Carbon monoxide (CO) alarms are
not substitutes for smoke alarms and
vice versa. Know the difference between
the sound of smoke alarms and the
sound of CO alarms.
3.3 Testing and Replacement
3.3.1 Test carbon monoxide (CO) alarms
at least once a month and replace them
if they fail to respond when tested. The
sensors in CO alarms have a limited
life. Replace the CO alarm according to
manufacturer’s instructions or when the
end-of-life signal sounds.
3.3.2 Know the difference between the
sound of the carbon monoxide (CO)
alarm and the smoke alarm, and the lowbattery signals. If the audible low-battery
signal sounds, replace the batteries
or replace the device. If the carbon
monoxide (CO) alarm still sounds, get to
a fresh air location and call 9-1-1 or the
fire department.
3.3.3 To keep carbon monoxide (CO)
alarms working, follow manufacturer’s
instructions for cleaning. The
instructions are included in the package
or can be found on the internet.
3.4 Inside the Home
3.4.1 Have fuel-burning heating
equipment (fireplaces, furnaces, water
heaters, wood stoves, coal stoves, space
heaters, and portable heaters) and
chimneys inspected by a professional
every year.
3.4.2 Open the damper for proper
ventilation before using a fireplace.
3.4.3 Never use an oven or stovetop to
heat your home.
3.4.4 Purchase heating and cooking
equipment that is listed by a qualified
testing laboratory.
3.4.5 Vent the exhaust from fuel-burning
equipment to the outside to avoid carbon
monoxide (CO) poisoning. Keep the
venting clear and unblocked.
3.4.6 Use only battery-powered lights in
confined areas, such as tents.
3.5 Motor Vehicle
3.5.1 Remove vehicles from the garage
right away after starting. The carbon
monoxide (CO) gas can kill people and
pets.
3.5.2 Never run a vehicle or other fueled
engine or motor in a garage, even if
garage doors are open. The carbon
monoxide (CO) gas can kill people and
pets.
3.5.3 Make sure the exhaust pipe of
a running vehicle is not blocked with
snow, ice, or other materials. The carbon
monoxide (CO) gas can kill people and
pets.
3.5.4 Check to make sure your vehicle
is off if it is in the garage and if you have
an automatic engine starter. The carbon
monoxide (CO) gas can kill people and
pets.
3.6 Appliances
3.6.1 Make sure vents for the dryer,
furnace, stove, and fireplace are clear of
snow and other debris.
3.6.2 Always use barbecue grills outside,
away from all doors, windows, vents,
and other building openings. Grills can
produce carbon monoxide (CO) gas.
Never use grills inside the home or the
garage, even if the doors are open.
3.7 Portable Generators
3.7.1 Use portable generators
outdoors in well-ventilated areas at least
5 feet (1.5 metres) away from all doors,
windows, and vent openings. Measure
the 5-foot (1.5 metres) distance from
the generator exhaust system to the
building.
3.7.2 Never use a generator in an
attached garage, even with the door
open.
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3.7.3 Place generators so that
exhaust fumes can’t enter the home
through windows, doors, or other
openings in the building. The exhaust
must be directed away from the building.
4.1.4 Teach your children how to
escape on their own in case you cannot
help them. Make sure they can open
windows, remove screens, and unlock
doors.
3.7.4 If you are using a portable
generator, make sure you have batteryoperated carbon monoxide (CO) alarms
or plug-in CO alarms with a battery
backup in the home.
4.1.5 Have a plan for everyone in your
home who has a disability.
3.8 If Your Carbon Monoxide (CO) Alarm
Sounds
3.8.1 Immediately move to a fresh air
location outdoors. Make sure everyone
is accounted for.
3.8.2 Call 9-1-1 or the fire
department from the fresh air location.
Remain there until emergency personnel
declare that it is safe to reenter the
home.
CHAPTER 4 Home Fire Escape
4.1 Planning
4.1.1 Install smoke alarms in every
sleeping room, outside each separate
sleeping area, and on every level of the
home, including the basement. Larger
homes may require additional smoke
alarms to provide a minimum level of
protection. Make sure everyone in your
home knows the sound and understands
the warning of the smoke alarm and
knows how to respond.
4.1.2 Make a home escape plan. Draw
a map of each level of the home. Show
all doors and windows. Go to each
room and point to the two ways out.
Practice the plan with everyone in your
household, including visitors.
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4.1.3 Children, older adults, and people
with disabilities may need assistance
to wake up and get out. Make sure that
someone will help them.
4.1.6 Practice your home fire drill with
overnight guests.
4.1.7 Know at least two ways out of
every room, if possible. Make sure all
doors and windows that lead outside
open.
4.1.8 If a room has a window air
conditioner, make sure there is still a
second way out of the room.
4.1.9 Windows with security bars, grills,
and window guards should have easyto-use quick-release devices from inside
the home if allowed in your community
and approved by code as a secondary
means of escape.
4.1.10 A closed door may slow the
spread of smoke, heat, and fire.
4.1.11 Install smoke alarms in every
sleeping room and outside each
separate sleeping area. For the best
protection, make sure all smoke alarms
are interconnected. When one smoke
alarm sounds, they all sound.
4.1.12 If you sleep with the bedroom
door closed, install smoke alarms inside
and outside the bedroom. For the best
protection, make sure all smoke alarms
are interconnected. When one smoke
alarm sounds, they all sound.
4.1.13 Make sure everyone in your home
knows how to call 9-1-1 or your local
emergency number from a cell phone or
from a neighbor’s phone.
4.1.14 Have an outside meeting place
(something permanent, like a tree, light
pole, or mailbox) a safe distance in front
of the home where firefighters will easily
find you.
4.1.15 Make sure your house number
can be seen from the street both day and
night.
4.2 Practicing the Home Fire Drill
4.2.1 Push the smoke alarm button to
start the drill.
4.2.2 Practice what to do in case there is
smoke. Get low and go. Get out fast.
4.2.3 Practice using different ways out.
4.2.4 Close doors behind you as you
leave.
4.2.5 Get out and stay out. Never go
back inside for people, pets, or things.
4.2.6 Go to your outside meeting place.
4.2.7 Practice your home fire escape
drill at least twice a year with everyone in
your home. Practice at night and during
the daytime.
4.3.8 After you have practiced your
home fire escape drill, evaluate it and
discuss what worked and what needs
to be improved. Improve it and practice
again.
4.3 If There Is a Fire
4.3.1 When the smoke alarm sounds,
get out and stay out. Go to the outside
meeting place. Call 9-1-1.
4.3.2 If there is smoke blocking the door
or first way out, use your second way
out.
4.3.3 Smoke is poisonous. If you must
escape through smoke, get low and go
under the smoke to your way out.
4.3.4 Before opening a door, feel the
doorknob and then the door. If either is
hot, leave the door closed and use your
second way out.
4.3.5 If there is smoke coming around
the door, leave the door closed and use
your second way out.
4.3.6 If you open a door, open it in a
slow manner. Be ready to shut it if heavy
smoke or fire is present.
4.3.7 If you cannot get out, close
the door and cover vents and cracks
around the door with cloth or tape to
keep smoke out. Call 9-1-1 or your fire
department. Say where you are and then
signal for help at the window with a lightcolored cloth or a flashlight.
4.3.8 If you cannot get to someone
needing assistance, leave the home and
call 9-1-1 or the fire department. Tell the
emergency operator where the person is
located.
4.3.9 If pets are trapped inside your
home, tell firefighters right away. Never
re-enter a burning building.
CHAPTER 5 Hotels/Motels
5.1.1 Choose a hotel that is protected by
both smoke alarms and fire sprinklers.
5.1.2 When you check in, ask the desk
clerk what the fire alarm sounds like. If
you are deaf or hard of hearing, ask for a
room equipped with a smoke alarm and
accessories that will awaken you or a
portable smoke alarm made specifically
for people who are deaf or hard of
hearing. You may want to consider
bringing one with you.
5.1.3 Read the escape plan posted in
your room.
5.1.4 Count the number of doors
between your room and the nearest
two fire exits. If they are not alarmed,
open the exit doors to be sure they are
unlocked.
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5.1.5 Keep your room key by your bed
and take it with you if there’s a fire. If you
cannot escape, you may have to return
to your room.
5.1.6 If you hear an alarm, leave, closing
all doors behind you.
5.1.7 Use the stairs to get out. Typically
you should not use the elevator unless
directed by the fire department. Some
buildings are equipped with elevators
intended for use during an emergency
situation. These types of elevators will
clearly be marked that they are safe to
use in the event of an emergency.
5.1.8 If you must escape through smoke,
get low and go under the smoke to the
exit.
5.1.9 If all escape routes are blocked,
return to your room. Shut off fans and
air conditioners. Stuff wet towels or
bedding in the cracks around the doors
and vents. Call the fire department to
let them know your location. Wait at
a window and signal for help with a
flashlight or light-colored cloth.
5.1.10 Bring a flashlight; keep it near
your bed.
CHAPTER 6 If You Are on Fire
6.1.1 If your clothes catch fire, stop,
drop, and roll. Stop, drop to the ground
and cover your face with your hands. Roll
over and over or back and forth until the
fire is out.
6.1.2 If you cannot stop, drop, and roll,
keep a blanket or towel nearby to help
you or others smother flames. Cover the
person with a blanket to smother the
fire. If you use a wheelchair, scooter, or
other device and are able to get to the
floor, lock the device first to stay in place
before getting on the floor to roll until the
flames are out.
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6.1.3 Immediately remove loose clothing
or clothing with elastic bands, belts, and
jewelry.
6.1.4 Treat a burn right away by putting
it in cool water for 3 to 5 minutes.
Cover with a clean, dry cloth. Do not
apply creams, ointments, sprays, or
other home remedies. Get medical help
right away by calling 9-1-1 or the fire
department.
CHAPTER 7 Cooking
7.1 Stay Alert
7.1.1 To prevent cooking fires, you must
be alert. You will not be alert if you are
sleepy, have consumed alcohol, or have
taken medicine or drugs that make you
drowsy.
7.2 Watch What You Heat!
7.2.1 The leading cause of fires in the
kitchen is unattended cooking.
7.2.2 Stay in the kitchen when you are
frying, boiling, grilling, or broiling food.
7.2.3 If you are simmering, baking, or
roasting food, check it regularly, stay in
the home. Use a timer to remind you that
you’re cooking.
7.3 Keeping Things That Can Catch Fire
Away from Heat Sources
7.3.1 Keep anything that can catch fire–
oven mitts, wooden utensils, food
packaging, towels, curtains–away from
your stovetop.
7.3.2 Keep the stovetop, burners, and
oven clean.
7.3.3 Wear short, close-fitting, or tightly
rolled sleeves when cooking. Loose
clothing can dangle onto stove burners
and can catch fire if it comes in contact
with a gas flame or an electric burner.
7.4 What to Do If You Have a Cooking Fire
7.4.1 Always keep a lid nearby when you
are cooking. If a small grease fire starts
in a pan, smother the flames by sliding
the lid over the pan. Turn off the burner.
Do not move the pan. To keep the fire
from restarting, leave the lid on until the
pan has cooled.
7.4.1.1 Never pour water on a
cooking pan grease fire.
7.4.1.2 Never discharge a portable
fire extinguisher into a grease fire
because it will spread the fire.
7.4.2 In case of an oven fire, turn off the
heat and keep the door closed until it
is cool. After a fire, the oven should be
checked and/or serviced before being
used again.
7.4.3 When in doubt, just get out! When
you leave, close the door behind you to
help contain the fire. After you leave, call
9-1-1 or the fire department from a cell
phone or a neighbor’s telephone.
7.5 Keeping Children and Pets Away from
the Cooking Area
7.5.1 Have a “kid-free zone” of at
least 3 feet (1 metre) around the stove
and areas where hot food or drink is
prepared or carried.
7.5.2 Never hold a child while you are
cooking, drinking a hot liquid, or carrying
hot foods or liquids.
7.5.3 Keep pets off cooking surfaces
and nearby countertops to prevent them
from knocking things onto the burner.
7.6 Safe Cooking Equipment
7.6.1 Always use cooking equipment
that is listed by a qualified testing
laboratory.
7.6.2 Follow the manufacturer’s
instructions and code requirements
when installing, using, or cleaning
cooking equipment. Follow the
manufacturer’s instructions when
cleaning and operating cooking
equipment.
7.6.3 Plug microwave ovens or other
cooking appliances directly into a wall
outlet. Never use an extension cord for
a cooking appliance—it can overload the
circuit and cause a fire.
7.6.4 Check electrical cords for cracks,
breaks, damage, or overheating. Have a
professional repair the appliance or cord
as needed, or replace the appliance.
7.7 Microwave Ovens
7.7.1 Place or install the microwave
oven at a safe height within easy reach
of all users. If possible, the face of
the person using the microwave oven
should be higher than the front of the
microwave oven door to reduce the risk
of a scald.
7.7.2 Always supervise children when
they are using the microwave oven.
7.7.3 Use only microwave-safe
cookware (containers or dishes). Never
use aluminum foil or metal objects in a
microwave oven.
7.7.4 Do not leave a microwave oven
unattended when microwaving popcorn,
since the heat buildup can cause fires.
Heat the popcorn according to the
written instructions.
7.7.5 Open microwaved food away from
the face. Hot steam escaping from a
container of microwaved food or the
food itself can cause burns.
7.7.6 Verify the cooking time when
using a microwave oven.
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7.7.7 Never heat a baby bottle in a
microwave oven because it heats liquids
unevenly. Heat baby bottles in warm
water from the faucet.
7.7.8 If your microwave oven is mounted
over your stove, use extra caution.
7.7.9 If you have a fire in your microwave
oven, turn it off immediately. This will
stop the fan so it won’t feed oxygen to
the flames. Never open the oven door
until the fire is out. If in doubt, call the
fire department.
7.8 Barbecue Grills
7.8.1 Propane, charcoal, and wood
pellet barbecue grills must only be used
outdoors. Indoor use can kill occupants
by causing a fire or carbon monoxide
poisoning.
7.8.2 Place the grill well away from
siding and deck railings and out from
under eaves and overhanging branches
according to the manufacturer’s
instructions. Do not store or use a grill
on a porch or balcony, including any
porch or balcony on an upper level of the
building.
7.8.3 Place the grill a safe distance from
lawn games, play areas, and foot traffic.
7.8.4 Keep children and pets away from
the grill area. Have a 3-foot (1 metre)
“kid-free zone” around the grill.
7.8.5 Use long-handled grilling tools to
give the chef plenty of clearance from
heat and flames.
7.8.6 Periodically remove grease or fat
buildup in the tray(s) below the grill so it
cannot be ignited by a hot grill.
7.8.7 Never leave a barbeque grill
unattended.
7.9 Charcoal Grills
7.9.1 Use one of the following methods
to start charcoal for cooking:
(A) If you use a charcoal chimney to
start charcoal for cooking, use a long
match to avoid burning your fingers
when lighting the paper.
(B) If you use an electrical charcoal
starter, be sure to use a grounded
extension cord.
(C) If you choose to use lighter fluid, use
only fluid intended for charcoal grills.
7.9.2 Never add charcoal starter fluid to
coals or kindling that has already been
ignited.
7.9.3 Never use gasoline or any other
flammable liquid except charcoal starter
or lighter fluid to start a charcoal fire.
7.9.4 Store the charcoal starter fluid out
of reach of children and away from heat
sources.
7.9.5 Dispose of charcoal coals only
after they are cool. Empty the coals into
a metal container with a tight-fitting
lid that is used only to collect coals.
Place the container outside away from
anything that can burn. Never empty
coals directly into a trash can.
7.10 Propane Grills
7.10.1 Check the gas tank hose for
leaks before using it for the first time
each year and after each time the
gas tank is reconnected. A soap-andwater solution (1/3 liquid dish soap
and 2/3 water) applied to the hose and
connection will quickly reveal escaping
propane by causing bubbles to form. If
you determine by smell or by the soap
bubble test that your gas tank hose
and connection has a gas leak, do the
following:
(1) Turn off the gas tank and grill.
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(2) If the leak stops, get the grill serviced
by a professional before using it
again.
(3) If the leak does not stop, call the fire
department.
7.10.2 Use only equipment that is listed
by a qualified testing laboratory. Follow
the manufacturer’s instructions on how
to set up the grill and maintain it.
7.10.3 Always store propane gas tanks
outside of buildings or garages. Vapors
leaked indoors can be easily ignited
by pilot lights or electrical equipment,
causing an explosion. If you store a gas
grill inside during the winter, disconnect
the tank or cylinder and leave it outside.
7.10.4 Light a propane grill only with the
cover open. If the flame on the propane
grill goes out, turn the grill and gas off
and wait at least 5 minutes before relighting.
7.11 Turkey Fryers
7.11.1 NFPA continues to believe that
turkey fryers that use cooking oil, as
currently designed, are not suitable for
safe use by even a well-informed and
careful consumer. These turkey fryers
use a substantial quantity of cooking oil
at high temperatures and units currently
available for home use pose a significant
danger that hot oil will be released at
some point during the cooking process.
In addition, the burners that heat the
oil can ignite spilled oil. The use of
turkey fryers by consumers can lead to
devastating burns, other injuries, and
the destruction of property. NFPA urges
those who prefer fried turkey to seek out
professional establishments, such as
grocery stores, specialty food retailers,
and restaurants, for the preparation of
the dish, or consider a new type of “oilless” turkey fryer.
CHAPTER 8 Burns
8.1 Preventing Scalds and Burns in the
Kitchen
8.1.1 Teach children that hot things
burn.
8.1.2 Place objects so they cannot be
pulled down or knocked over.
8.1.3 Turn pot handles away from the
stove’s edge.
8.1.4 Keep appliance cords coiled and
away from counter edges.
8.1.5 Keep hot foods and liquids away
from table and counter edges.
8.1.6 Use dry oven mitts or potholders.
Hot cookware or tableware can heat
moisture in a pot holder or hot pad,
resulting in a scald burn.
8.1.7 If you have young children in the
home, cook on the stove’s back burners.
8.1.8 When children are old enough,
teach them to cook safely.
8.2 Hot Tap Water and Scald Burns
8.2.1 Set your water heater to 120
degrees Fahrenheit (49 degrees Celsius).
8.2.2 For bathing and showering, the
temperature of the water should not
exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38
degrees Celsius).
8.2.3 If you do not install anti-scald
devices on tub faucets and shower
heads, adjust the thermostat setting
on your water heater to 120 degrees
Fahrenheit (49 degrees Celsius). The
lower temperature lowers the risk of
scalds and burns.
8.2.4 If you lower the temperature
setting on your water heater, you will
need to test the temperature at the
faucet. Allow water to run 3 to 5 minutes.
Test the water with a meat, candy, or
17
cooking thermometer. If the water is
hotter than 120 degrees Fahrenheit (49
degrees Celsius), adjust the temperature
of the water heater and wait a full day
to allow the temperature in the tank to
adjust. Retest and readjust as needed.
8.2.5 If children are in the home, do
not leave the bathroom while the tub is
filling.
8.2.6 Before placing a child in the bath
or getting into the tub yourself, test the
water.
8.2.7 Fill the tub or sink by running cool
water first and then adding hot water.
Turn the hot water off first. Mix the water
thoroughly and check the temperature
by moving your hand, wrist, and forearm
through the water. The water should feel
warm, not hot, to the touch.
8.2.8 When bathing a young child, seat
the child facing away from the faucets
so the child cannot reach the faucet.
Turn the faucet to the “COLD” position.
8.2.9 Consider installing anti-scald
devices on tub faucets and shower
heads to prevent scalds. These devices
reduce the water flow to a trickle as the
water temperature nears 120 degrees
Fahrenheit (49). Anti-scald devices are
available online and in some hardware
stores.
8.3 Treatment of Burns
8.3.1 Treat a burn right away by putting
it in cool water. Cool the burn for 3 to 5
minutes. Cover with a clean, dry cloth.
Do not apply creams, ointments, sprays,
or other home remedies.
8.3.2 Remove all clothing, diapers,
jewelry, and metal from the burned
area. These can hide underlying burns
and retain heat, thereby increasing skin
damage.
8.3.3 Go to your local emergency room,
18
call 9-1-1, or see your doctor if the burn
is:
(A) on the face, hands, feet, major joints,
or genital area and/or bigger than
the injured person’s palm
(B) white, tight, dry (leathery), or painless
(C) caused by chemicals or electricity
(D) causing difficulty breathing
8.3.4 See your doctor as soon as
possible if the burn:
(A) does not heal in 2 to 3 days
(B) becomes foul smelling
(C) develops thick drainage, redness, or
swelling
(D) causes a fever
(E) results in a large blister, wet weepy
wound and/ or severe pain.
CHAPTER 9 Heating
9.1 General Heating
9.1.1 Have a 3-foot (1 metre) “kid-free
zone” around open fires and space
heaters.
9.1.2 Supervise children whenever a
wood or oil stove or other space heater
is being used. Use a sturdy metal screen
to prevent contact burns, which are more
common than flame burns.
9.1.3 All heaters need space. Keep
anything that can burn at least 3 feet (1
metre) away from heating equipment.
9.1.4 Use heating equipment that is
listed by a qualified testing laboratory.
9.1.5 Never use your oven or stove
for heating. Ovens and stoves are not
designed to heat your home.
9.1.6 Install stationary space heating
equipment, water heaters, or central
heating equipment according to
local codes and the manufacturer’s
instructions.
9.1.7 Have a qualified professional
install the equipment.
9.1.8 Make sure fuel-burning equipment
is vented to the outside to avoid carbon
monoxide (CO) poisoning. Carbon
monoxide is created when fuels
burn incompletely. Carbon monoxide
poisoning can cause illness and even
death. Make sure the venting for exhaust
is kept clear and unobstructed. This
includes removal of snow and ice and
other debris around the outlet to the
outside.
9.1.9 Choose a carbon monoxide (CO)
alarm that is listed by a qualified testing
laboratory. Install and maintain CO
alarms inside your home to provide early
warning of carbon monoxide.
9.1.10 Maintain heating equipment
and chimneys by having them cleaned
and inspected annually by a qualified
professional.
9.2 Portable Electric Space Heaters
9.2.1 Turn heaters off when you go to
bed or leave the room.
9.2.2 Purchase and use only portable
space heaters listed by a qualified
testing laboratory.
9.2.3 Purchase and use space heaters
that have an automatic shut-off—if they
tip over, they shut off.
9.2.4 Place space heaters on a solid,
flat surface and keep them and their
electrical cords away from things
that can burn, high traffic areas, and
doorways.
9.2.5 Plug space heaters directly into
wall outlets and never into an extension
cord or power strip.
9.2.5.1 Do not plug anything else
into the same circuit as the one you
are using for your space heater.
Doing so could result in overheating.
9.2.5.2 Check often for a secure
plug/outlet fit. If the plug does not
fit snugly into the wall outlet or if the
plug becomes very hot, the outlet
may need to be replaced. Have a
qualified electrician replace the wall
outlet.
9.2.6 Inspect for cracked or damaged
cords, broken plugs, or loose
connections. Replace them before using
the space heater.
9.3 Fuel-Burning Space Heaters
9.3.1 Always use the proper fuel as
specified by the manufacturer.
9.3.2 When refueling, allow the appliance
to cool first and then refuel outside.
9.3.3 When using the space heater, open
a window to ensure proper ventilation.
9.3.4 Portable kerosene heaters are
illegal in some communities. Check with
your local fire department before using.
9.3.4.1 Use the proper grade of fuel in
portable kerosene or other liquid-fueled
space heaters.
9.3.5 All new unvented gas-fired space
heaters have an oxygen depletion
sensor that detects a reduced level of
oxygen in the area where the heater is
operating and shuts off the heater before
a hazardous level of carbon monoxide
accumulates. If you have an older heater
without this feature, replace it with one
that does.
9.3.6 If the pilot light of your gas heater
goes out, allow 5 minutes or more for
the gas to go away before trying to
relight the pilot. Follow manufacturer’s
instructions when relighting the pilot. Do
not allow gas to accumulate, and light
19
the match before you turn on the gas to
the pilot to avoid risk of flashback.
9.3.7 If you smell gas in your gas heater,
do not light the appliance. Leave the
building immediately and call 9-1-1, the
fire department, or the gas company.
9.4 Wood-Burning and Pellet Stoves
9.4.1 Have a qualified professional
install stoves, chimney connectors, and
chimneys following the manufacturer’s
instructions.
9.4.2 Wood stoves should be listed by a
qualified testing laboratory.
9.4.3 In wood stoves, burn only dry,
seasoned wood. Not only is it cleaner
for the environment, it also creates less
buildup in the chimney.
9.4.4 In pellet stoves, burn only dry,
seasoned wood pellets.
9.4.5 Start the fire with newspaper,
kindling, or fire starters. Never use a
flammable liquid, such as lighter fluid,
kerosene, or gasoline, to start a fire. They
produce invisible vapors that can easily
catch fire.
9.4.6 Keep the doors of your wood stove
closed unless loading or stoking the live
fire.
9.4.7 Allow ashes to cool before
disposing of them. Place ashes in a
tightly covered metal container and
keep the ash container at least 10 feet
(3 metres) away from the home and any
other nearby buildings. Never empty the
ash directly into a trash can. Douse and
saturate the ashes with water.
9.4.8 Chimneys and vents need to be
cleaned and inspected by a qualified
professional at least once a year.
9.5 Fireplaces
9.5.1 Always use a metal or heat20
tempered glass screen on a fireplace
and keep it in place. Gas fireplace doors
can reach excessive temperatures
(1300 degrees Fahrenheit / 705 degrees
Celsius). Serious burn injuries from
hot glass can happen in less than one
second. Install a screen barrier.
9.5.2 Burn only dry, seasoned wood.
Never burn trash in the fireplace. Not
only is it cleaner for the environment, it
also creates less buildup in the chimney.
9.5.3 Use artificial fire logs according to
manufacturer’s recommendations. Never
burn more than one log at a time.
9.5.4 Use only newspaper and kindling
wood or fire starters to start a fire. Never
use flammable liquids, such as lighter
fluid, kerosene, or gasoline, to start a fire.
They produce invisible vapors that can
easily catch fire.
9.5.5 Chimneys and vents need to be
cleaned and inspected by a qualified
professional at least once a year.
9.5.6 Keep children and pets away from
the outside vents. Have a “kid-free zone”
of at least 3 feet (1 metre) away from the
fireplace. Glass doors and screens can
remain dangerously hot for several hours
after the fire goes out.
9.5.7 Closely supervise young children
around fireplaces and use safety gates.
9.5.8 Make sure fireplace “on” switches
and remote controls are out of the reach
of children.
9.6 Recreational Heating and Lighting
9.6.1 Fire pots, personal fireplaces,
and patio torches are considered open
flames and use gel fuel. Gel fuel is highly
flammable. Extreme caution should be
taken when using or adding fuel.
9.6.2 Use chimineas, outdoor fireplaces,
and fire pits outdoors only and at least
10 feet (3 metres) away from the home
or anything that can burn.
remove the clothing and launder
immediately.
9.6.3 The use of sky lanterns is
prohibited by National Fire Protection
Association code requirement. The
lanterns are made of oiled rice paper
with a bamboo frame, materials that
can easily catch on fire. A candle or wax
fuel cell is used with the device. Once
lit and airborne, a sky lantern can travel
more than a mile. Wind can affect the
sky lantern, blowing the sides, forcing
the hot air out and sending the flaming
lantern back to the ground. A flaming
lantern can drop onto a rooftop, field,
trees or powerlines before the flame is
fully extinguished. A destructive fire can
result when a flaming lantern reaches
the ground during dry conditions.
9.6.14 Store the gel fuel in its tightly
sealed container away from heat
sources and out of reach of children and
pets.
9.6.4 Never leave a lit pot or personal
fire place, or torch unattended.
9.6.5 Keep lit fire pots, personal
fireplaces, and torches at least one foot
(30 centimetres) from anything that can
burn.
9.6.6 Place the fire pot or personal
fireplace on a sturdy surface.
9.6.7 Make sure patio torches are secure
and not in the path of people or pets.
9.6.8 Have a “kid-free zone” of at least
3 feet (1 metre) away from fire pots,
personal fireplaces, and torches.
9.6.15 Stop, drop, and roll may not
put out clothing that catches fire from
splattered or spilled gel fuel. A dry
chemical portable fire extinguisher can
be used to extinguish the fire.
9.7 Central Heating
9.7.1 Furnaces need to be inspected
and serviced at least once a year by a
qualified professional.
9.7.2 Keep things that can burn at least
3 feet (1 metre) away from the furnace.
Keep the furnace area clean and
uncluttered.
9.7.3 If you smell gas, do not light
the appliance. Leave the building
immediately and call 9-1-1, the fire
department, or the gas company.
CHAPTER 10 Smoking
10.1.1 If you smoke, use only fire-safe
cigarettes.
9.6.9 Be careful reaching over the
devices—clothing or hair could catch fire.
10.1.2 To prevent a deadly cigarette fire,
you must be alert. You will not be alert
if you are sleepy, have taken medicine
or drugs that make you drowsy, or have
consumed alcohol.
9.6.10 Use only gel fuel to refuel.
10.1.3 If you smoke, smoke outside.
9.6.11 Citronella fuel is intended for
outdoor use only.
10.1.4 Never smoke in bed.
9.6.12 Allow the device to cool for 30 to
45 minutes before refueling. Pouring gel
fuel in a device that is not completely
cool may result in a fire or injury.
9.6.13 If gel fuel is spilled on clothing,
10.1.5 Never smoke where medical
oxygen is used. Medical oxygen can
cause materials to ignite more easily
and make fires burn at a faster rate than
normal. It can make an existing fire burn
faster and hotter.
21
10.1.6 Wherever you smoke, use deep,
sturdy ashtrays. If ashtrays are not
available, use a metal can or pail. Never
empty smoking material directly into
a trash can. Place the ashtrays or metal
cans away from anything that can burn.
10.1.7 Do not throw out cigarettes into
vegetation, potted plants or landscaping,
peat moss, dried grasses, mulch, leaves,
and other similar items—they can easily
catch fire.
10.1.8 Before you throw out butts and
ashes, make sure they are out. Put them
out in water or sand.
10.1.9 Before going to bed, check under
furniture cushions and around places
where people smoke for cigarette butts
that may have fallen out of sight.
10.1.10 Keep cigarettes, lighters,
matches, and other smoking materials
up high out of the reach of children, in a
locked cabinet.
10.1.11 Fires have occurred while
e-cigarettes were being used, the battery
was being charged, or the device was
being transported. Never leave charging
e-cigarettes unattended. E-cigarettes
should be used with caution.
CHAPTER 11 Electrical
11.1 Inside the Home
11.1.1 Electrical work should be done
only by a qualified electrician. Some
communities require that a person doing
electrical work have a license. Find out
about the laws in your area.
11.1.2 Have your home electrical
system inspected by a qualified private
inspector or in accordance with local
requirements when buying, selling, or
renovating a home.
11.1.3 Keep lamps, light fixtures, and
22
light bulbs away from anything that
can burn, including furniture, bedding,
curtains, clothing, and flammable or
combustible gases and liquids.
11.1.4 Use light bulbs that match the
recommended wattage on the lamp or
fixture.
11.1.5 If a fuse blows or a circuit breaker
trips often, find out why and get the
problem corrected before turning the
breaker back on or replacing the fuse.
Have a qualified electrician inspect and
fix it.
11.1.6 Install tamper-resistant
receptacles where needed. Tamperresistant receptacles are required for
new and replacement receptacles inside
your home.
11.1.7 Major appliances
(refrigerators, stoves, washers, dryers,
microwave ovens, etc.) should be
plugged directly into a wall outlet. Never
use an extension cord with a major
appliance—it can easily overheat and
start a fire.
11.1.7.1 Small appliances should be
plugged directly into a wall outlet.
Unplug small appliances when not in
use.
11.1.8 Window air conditioners
should be plugged directly into a wall
outlet. Many manufacturers of room
air conditioners prohibit the use of
extension cords. If the manufacturer’s
instructions allow extension cords, follow
the instructions for the proper type.
11.1.9 Buy only appliances that are
listed by a qualified testing laboratory.
11.1.10 Check electrical cords often.
Replace cracked, damaged, and loose
electrical or extension cords. Do not try
to repair them.
11.1.11 Avoid putting cords where they
can be damaged or pinched by furniture,
under rugs and carpets, or across
doorways.
11.1.12 Use only surge protectors or
power strips that have internal overload
protection. Use surge protectors or
power strips that are listed by a qualified
testing laboratory.
11.1.13 Extension cords are for
temporary use only. Have a qualified
electrician determine if additional
circuits or wall outlets are needed.
11.1.14 Replace wall outlets if plugs do
not fit snugly or the wall outlet does not
accept plugs with one blade larger than
the other.
11.1.15 All wall outlets and switches
should be covered with wall plates to
prevent shocks.
11.1.16 Install tamper-resistant
receptacles where needed. Tamperresistant receptacles are required for
new and replacement receptacles inside
your home.
11.1.17 Call a qualified electrician if you
have any of the following:
(A) recurring problems with blowing
fuses or tripping circuit breakers
(B) a tingling feeling when you touch an
electrical appliance
(C) discolored or warm wall outlets or
switches
(D) a burning smell or rubbery odor
coming from an appliance
(E) flickering lights
(F) sparks from a wall outlet
(G) cracked or broken wall outlets
11.1.18 Arc-fault circuit interrupters
(AFCIs) shut off electricity when a
dangerous condition occurs. Have a
qualified electrician install AFCIs in your
home.
11.1.19 Ground-fault circuit interrupters
(GFCIs) reduce the risk of shock. GFCIs
shut off electricity when it becomes
a shock hazard. Make sure GFCIs are
installed in bathrooms, basements,
garages, outdoors, at kitchen counters,
and in other locations in the home where
electricity is near water.
11.1.20 Test AFCIs and
GFCIs once a month according to
manufacturer’s recommendations.
11.2 Outside the Home
11.2.1 Electrical work should be done by
a qualified electrician.
11.2.2 Keep ladders at least 10 feet
(3 metres) away from overhead power
lines. Use wooden or fiberglass ladders
outdoors.
11.2.3 Never touch a power line. You
could be injured or electrocuted. Assume
that all power lines are live. Stay at a
safe distance.
11.2.4 Never touch anyone or anything
in contact with a downed wire. You could
be injured or electrocuted.
11.2.5 Report downed power lines to
authorities.
11.2.6 Some power lines are
underground. Call your local authority to
have lines identified and marked before
digging. You can also call the national
8-1-1 “Call before you dig” number.
CHAPTER 12 Lightning
12.1 Indoor Safety
12.1.1 Follow these guidelines during a
lightning storm:
(A) Stay off corded phones, computers,
and other electronic equipment
23
that put you in direct contact with
electricity.
13.1.3 Protect candle flames with glass
chimneys or containers.
(B) Avoid washing your hands,
showering, bathing, doing laundry, or
washing dishes.
13.1.4 Keep candles at least 12 inches
(30 centimetres) from anything that can
burn.
(C) Stay away from windows and doors.
13.1.5 Never leave a burning candle
unattended. Burning candles can start a
fire.
12.2 Outdoor safety
12.2.1 Follow these guidelines during a
lightning storm:
(A) Seek shelter immediately in a
building or a hard-topped vehicle.
(B) If you are in or on open water, go to
land and seek shelter immediately.
(C) If you cannot get to shelter and
you feel your hair stand on end,
indicating that lightning is about to
strike, squat low to the ground on
the balls of your feet. Place your
hands over your ears and put your
head between your knees. Make
yourself the smallest target possible
and minimize your contact with the
ground. This is a last resort when a
building or hard-topped vehicle is not
available.
12.2.2 If a person is struck by lightning,
call 9-1-1 and get medical care
immediately. Victims of lightning strikes
carry no electrical charge, so attend to
them immediately. Administer CPR if you
know how and it is needed.
CHAPTER 13 Candles
13.1 General Candle Safety
13.1.1 Consider using battery-operated
flameless candles, which can look, smell,
and feel like real candles.
13.1.2 When using candles, place them
in sturdy, safe candleholders that will not
burn or tip over.
24
13.1.6 Avoid using candles in bedrooms,
bathrooms, and sleeping areas.
Extinguish candles when you leave a
room or the home or go to bed. Keep
children and pets away from burning
candles.
13.1.7 Be careful not to splatter wax
when extinguishing a candle.
13.1.8 Never use a candle where
medical oxygen is being used. The
two can combine to create a large,
unexpected fire. Medical oxygen can
cause materials to ignite more easily
and burn at a faster rate than normal. It
can make an existing fire burn faster and
hotter.
13.1.9 Always use a flashlight—not a
candle—for emergency lighting.
13.1.10 Use only battery-powered lights
in tents, trailers, motor homes, and
boats.
13.2 Candle Use in Home Worship
13.2.1 Lit candles are used in some
religious rites and ceremonies in the
home. Candles should be used with care.
13.2.2 Lit candles should not be placed
in windows, where blinds and curtains
can close over them, causing a fire.
13.2.3 Handheld candles should not be
passed from one person to another at
any time.
13.2.4 To lower the risk of fire, candles
should be used by only a few designated
adults.
13.2.5 Candles placed on or near tables,
altars, or shrines must be maintained
under the supervision of an adult.
13.2.6 Place candles in sturdy,
noncombustible candle holders that
do not allow dripping wax to escape
through the bottom of the holder.
13.2.7 If a sturdy, noncombustible
candle holder is not available, place the
candle on a noncombustible plate.
13.2.8 A handheld candle should be put
out before the person holding it moves
from the place of initial lighting. Once it
is put out, the candle should be placed in
an approved, noncombustible container.
13.2.9 The best way to avoid getting
burned from splashed wax is to use a
candle snuffer instead of blowing on the
flame.
CHAPTER 14 Matches and
Lighters
recreational, or outdoor cooking fire.
Obtain proper permits, if required. You
might not be permitted to do outdoor
burning in some municipalities and
during some seasons.
15.1.2 Closely supervise all outdoor
fires. Make sure the fire is out before
leaving.
15.1.3 Supervise children around any fire
outdoors, including campfires, fire pits,
chimineas, and outdoor fireplaces.
15.1.4 Permitted open fires, such as
bonfires or trash fires, need to be at least
50 feet (15 metres) from anything that
can burn.
15.1.5 Permitted recreational fires such
as campfires, need to be at least 25 feet
(8 metres) away from anything that can
burn.
15.1.6 Avoid burning on windy, dry days.
When conditions are windy or dry, it is
easy for open burning to spread out of
control.
14.1.1 Keep matches, lighters, and
novelty lighters high out of the reach of
children, in a locked cabinet.
15.1.7 Where outdoor burning is allowed,
never use gasoline or other flammable or
combustible liquids.
14.1.2 Purchase and use only childresistant lighters.
15.1.8 When burning, have a hose,
bucket of water, or shovel and dirt or
sand nearby to extinguish the fire.
14.1.3 Lighters that look like toys
can confuse children and cause fires,
injuries, and death. Do not buy or use
them.
14.1.4 Teach young children to tell a
grownup when they find matches or
lighters and to never touch matches or
lighters.
CHAPTER 15 Outdoor Burning
15.1.1 Check with your local fire
department or municipality for any
restrictions before starting an open-air,
CHAPTER 16 Medical Oxygen
16.1.1 A patient on oxygen should not
smoke.
16.1.2 Never smoke in a home where
medical oxygen is used. Medical oxygen
can cause material to ignite more easily
and make fires burn at a faster rate than
normal. It can make an existing fire burn
faster and hotter.
16.1.3 Post “No Smoking” and “No Open
Flames” signs inside and outside the
25
home to remind residents and guests
not to smoke.
16.1.4 Keep oxygen cylinders at least
5 feet (1.5 metres) from a heat source,
open flames, or electrical devices.
16.1.5 Body oil, hand lotion, and items
containing oil and grease can easily
burn. Keep oil and grease away from
where oxygen is in use.
16.1.6 Never use aerosol sprays
containing combustible materials near
the oxygen.
16.1.7 If medical oxygen or an oxygen
tank is used in the home, the amount
of oxygen in the air, furniture, clothing,
hair, and bedding can increase, making
it easier for a fire to spread. This means
that there is a higher risk of fires and
burns.
16.1.8 Never use a candle, match,
lighter, or other open flame; a fireplace,
stove, or other device fueled by gas,
kerosene, wood, or coal; or a sparking
toy when medical oxygen is in use.
Medical oxygen can cause material to
ignite more easily and make fires burn at
a faster rate than normal. It can make an
existing fire burn faster and hotter.
CHAPTER 17 Flammable and
Combustible Liquids
17.1.1 Flammable and combustible
liquids, which include gasoline, kerosene,
lacquers, paint thinner, some cleaning
fluids, hair spray, and paint solvents can
be fire hazards because their vapors
ignite easily. Even nail polish and nailpolish remover are flammable and
should not be used near an open flame.
17.1.2 Never smoke when you work with
flammable or combustible liquids.
17.1.3 Don’t store hazardous liquids near
26
any source of heat, sparks, or flame.
That includes electric motors, which can
spark when they switch on or off.
17.1.4 Store gasoline in a tightly capped
container, one specifically sold for the purpose, and store the container outside
the home in your garage or garden shed, never in your basement.
17.1.5 Use gasoline only as a motor fuel,
never as a solvent or a degreaser and
never as a substitute for charcoal lighter.
17.1.6 Never bring gasoline indoors,
even in small quantities.
17.1.7 Store oily and solvent-wet rags in
a tightly sealed metal container, or hang
them outside to dry and then discard
them.
17.1.8 If you spill a flammable liquid on
your clothing, place the clothing outside
to dry before laundering.
17.1.9 Keep oil-based paints and
flammable and combustible solvents
in their original containers and tightly
capped — never in breakable glass
containers.
CHAPTER 18 Lithium Ion
Batteries
18.1 General Tips
18.1.1Lithium ion batteries supply
power to many kinds of devices,
including smart phones, laptops,
scooters, e-cigarettes, smoke alarms,
and toys. Take care when using them. In
rare instances, they can cause a fire or
explosion.
18.1.2Purchase and use devices
that are listed by a qualified testing
laboratory.
18.1.3Always follow manufacturer’s
instructions that come with the device.
18.1.4Only use the battery that is
designed for the device.
18.1.5Put batteries in the device the
right way.
18.1.6Only use the charging cord that
came with the device.
18.1.7Do not charge a device under
your pillow, on your bed, or on a couch.
18.1.8Keep lithium ion batteries at room
temperature.
18.1.9Do not place lithium ion batteries
in direct sunlight or keep them in hot
vehicles.
18.1.10 Store lithium ion batteries away
from anything that can catch fire.
18.1.11 Stop using the lithium ion
battery if you notice signs of a problem:
(A) Odor
(B) Change in color
(C) Too much heat
(D) Change in shape
(E) Leaking
(F) Odd noises
If it is safe to do so, move the device
away from anything that can catch fire.
Call 9-1-1.
18.2 Battery Disposal
18.2.1Do not put lithium ion batteries in
the trash.
18.2.2Do not put discarded lithium ion
batteries in piles.
18.2.3Recycling lithium ion batteries is
always the best option.
18.2.3.1 Take lithium ion batteries to
a recycling location or contact your
community for disposal instructions.
18.3 High-Tech Luggage
18.3.1Take precautions if you are using
‘smart’ luggage with non-removable
lithium ion batteries. The powerful
batteries can potentially overheat and
pose a fire hazard during airplane flights.
Some airlines no longer accept this
luggage as checked or carry-on.
18.3.2In some instances, smart bags
with removable batteries will be allowed
on board if the battery can be removed
on site and taken on board with the
customer. Check with your airline for
restrictions.
18.4 Hover boards
18.4.1Many hover boards have been
linked to fires. Some of these fires have
involved the lithium battery charger.
Exercise caution if you are using these
devices.
18.4.2Choose a device that is listed by
a qualified testing laboratory.
18.4.3Read and follow manufacturer’s
directions.
18.4.4An adult should be responsible
for charging a hover board.
18.4.5Do not leave a charging hover
board unattended.
18.4.6Never leave the hover board
plugged in overnight.
18.4.7Only use the charging cord that
came with the hover board.
18.4.8Stop using the hover board if it
overheats.
18.4.9Signs that you could have a
problem with your hover board include:
(A) Leaking fluids
(B) Excessive heat
(C) Odor
(D) Sparking
27
(E) Smoke
If you notice any of these signs, stop
using the device right away and call
9-1-1. If it is safe to do so, move the
hover board outside away from anything
that can burn.
CHAPTER 19 Portable Fire
Extinguishers and Firefighting
19.1 General Tips
19.1.1 As a general rule, firefighting
should be left to the fire department.
19.1.2 Only adults who know how to use
portable fire extinguishers should use
them.
19.1.3 Adults who know how to use a
portable fire extinguisher should choose
one that is listed by a qualified testing
laboratory.
19.1.4 Before trying to fight a fire, be
sure that:
•You know how to use the fire
extinguisher and it is the correct type.
•Everyone else is leaving the home and
someone is calling the fire department.
•The fire is small, confined, and not
spreading.
•You have a clear escape route.
19.1.5 If the fire does not go out after
using one extinguisher, back out of the
room and get outside.
19.1.6 If you have portable fire
extinguishers, inspect them once a
month and have them serviced annually.
19.1.7 Where portable fire extinguishers
are installed in the home, follow
the manufacturer’s instructions for
placement and mounting height.
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19.1.8 As a general rule, where portable
fire extinguishers are installed, a person
should not have to travel far [more than
40 feet (12 metres) to reach one and
never have to travel up or down stairs to
reach it.
19.1.9 As a general rule, portable fire
extinguishers for the home should have
a rating of at least 2-A:10B
19.2 Portable Fire Extinguishers
and Children
19.2.1 NFPA believes that children
should not be trained how to
operate portable fire extinguishers.
Teaching children to use portable fire
extinguishers runs counter to NFPA
messaging to get out and stay out if
there is a fire. Furthermore, children
may not have the maturity to operate
a portable fire extinguisher properly or
decide whether or not a fire is small
enough to be put out by the extinguisher.
They may not have the physical ability
to handle the extinguisher or dexterity to
perform the complex actions required
to put out a fire. In the process of
extinguishing flames, children may
not know how to respond if the fire
spreads. NFPA continues to believe that
only adults who know how to operate
portable fire extinguishers should use
them.
CHAPTER 20 Clothes Dryers
20.1.1 Have your dryer installed and
serviced by a professional.
20.1.2 Do not use the dryer without a lint
filter.
20.1.3 Clean out the dryer’s lint filter
before each use of the dryer. Remove the
lint that has collected around the drum.
20.1.4 Clean lint out of the vent pipe
quarterly or more often if you notice
that it is taking longer than usual for
your clothes to dry, or have a dryer lint
removal service do it for you.
20.1.5 Rigid or flexible metal venting
material should be used to sustain
proper air flow and drying time to reduce
the risk of fire or fire spread.
20.1.6 Make sure the air exhaust vent
pipe is not restricted and the outdoor
vent flap will open when the dryer is
operating.
20.1.7 Make sure the right plug and wall
outlet are used and that the machine is
connected properly.
20.1.8 Keep dryers in good working
order. Gas dryers should be inspected by
a professional to make sure that the gas
line and connection are intact and free of
leaks.
20.1.9 Follow the manufacturer’s
operating instructions. Do not overload
the dryer.
20.1.10 Turn off the dryer when you
leave home or go to bed.
EDUCATIONAL MESSAGES
FOR CHILDREN
Messages for Preschoolers
These messages are written for children
ages 3 to 5.
Firefighters are Community Helpers
1. Firefighters help the community stay
safe from fire.
2. Firefighters wear special clothes and
equipment to help them stay safe from
fire and smoke.
4. We do not need to be afraid of
firefighters even though their equipment
can look and sound scary.
When You Hear a Smoke Alarm, Get Outside
and Stay Outside
1. Smoke alarms are very important.
2. A smoke alarm will let you know if
there is a fire in your home.
3. Most smoke alarms make a loud
“beep, beep, beep” sound if there is
smoke.
4. When you hear the smoke alarm, get
outside and stay outside until an adult
says it’s safe to go back inside.
Practice a Fire Drill with Your Family
1. The smoke alarm makes a “beep,
beep, beep” sound.
2. If you hear “beep, beep, beep,” get up
and walk. Do not run, but walk quickly.
3. Know two ways out of every room.
4. Get yourself outside quickly.
5. Go to your outside meeting place with
your family.
Stay Away from Hot Things
1. Stay away from hot things. Don’t
touch them.
2. Do not touch things that are
sometimes hot.
3. Do not touch matches or lighters.
Matches and lighters are dangerous and
can be hot.
4. Walk away and tell an adult if you see
matches and lighters.
5. Only adults should use matches and
lighters.
3. The equipment can look and sound
scary, but it keeps the firefighter safe.
29
Tell a Grown-up If you See Matches and
Lighters
1. Stay away from hot things. Don’t
touch them.
Fire Drills at School
2. Do not touch matches or lighters.
Matches and lighters are dangerous and
can be hot.
1. When the alarm sounds, stop what
you are doing and listen for instruction
from your teacher or principal.
3. Walk away and tell an adult if you find
matches or lighters.
2. Go quickly and quietly to your meeting
place outside the school. Stay outside.
4. Only adults should use matches and
lighters.
3. Be sure to stay with your classmates.
Your teacher will take attendance to
make sure all students are safe.
Messages for Kindergarteners
Smoke Alarms are Important
1. You need smoke alarms in your home.
2. Having a smoke alarm in your
bedroom is important so the alarm will
beep where you sleep.
3. A smoke alarm will let you know if
there is a fire in your home.
4. A smoke alarm will make a loud “beep,
beep, beep (pause), beep, beep, beep
(pause)” sound if there is smoke.
5. If the smoke alarm sounds, everyone
should get outside. Stay outside until an
adult says it is safe to go back inside.
Get Outside, Stay Outside
1. Here are four important things to do if
the smoke alarm sounds:
30
(E) Stay at the outside meeting place
until help arrives or an adult says it is
safe to go inside.
Stay Away from Hot Things
1. There are things inside and outside
the home that are hot or can get hot.
2. Things that are hot can burn and hurt
you.
3. Stay away from hot things. Don’t
touch them.
4. If an item might be hot, stay away and
ask a grown-up for help.
5. Things that are hot or could be
hot include bath water, soup, stoves,
radiators, flat irons, curling irons, or
fireplace irons, coffee, matches, lighters
and many other items.
6. Do not touch matches or lighters.
Tell a grown-up if you find matches or
lighters.
Matches and Lighters are for Grown-ups
(A) Get up and walk. Don’t run, but walk
briskly.
1. Stay away from hot things. Don’t touch
them.
(B) Be aware of two ways out of every
room. It may be two doors or a door and
a window.
2. Do not touch matches or lighters.
Matches and lighters are dangerous and
can be hot.
(C) Get yourself outside quickly. Do not
stop to pick up toys or pets.
3. Walk away and tell a grown-up if you
find matches or lighters.
(D) Wait at your outside meeting place
with your family.
4. Only grown-ups should use matches
and lighters.
Firefighters are Community Helpers
1. Firefighters help the community stay
safe from fire.
2. Firefighters wear special gear (clothes
and equipment) to help them stay safe
from fire.
Wait for your family to meet you. Grownups will know that everyone is safe.
6. It is important that after hearing the
smoke alarm you get outside and stay
outside.
Report an Emergency
3. The equipment can look and sound
scary, but it keeps the firefighter safe.
1. The fire department is a community
helper.
4. We do not need to be afraid of
firefighters even though their equipment
can look and sound scary.
2. The fire department will help if there is
an emergency. An emergency could be a
fire or it could be someone in your home
who is sick or hurt.
Messages for Grade 1
Smoke Alarms are Important
1. A smoke alarm will let you know if
there is a fire in your home.
2. It will make a loud “beep, beep, beep
(pause), beep, beep, beep (pause)”
sound if there is smoke.
3. Remember, you call the fire
department only in an emergency.
Calling the fire department when there is
no emergency could hurt someone who
really needs the firefighters’ help.
4. The number to call for our fire
department is ________________.
Stay Away from Hot Things
3. If the smoke alarm sounds, everyone
should leave the home right away.
1. There are things inside and outside
the home that are hot or can get hot.
4. You need smoke alarms in your home.
2. Things that are hot or can get hot
include bathtub water, soup, stoves,
radiators, fireplaces, matches, lighters,
flat irons, coffee, and many more things.
Get Outside, Stay Outside
1. Every room needs two ways out.
2. One way out would be the door and
the second way out might be a window.
3. Make sure your bedroom or where
you sleep has a smoke alarm so you will
wake up quickly and be able to use the
door to get outside. You must be able to
hear the “beep, beep, beep” of the smoke
alarm wherever you sleep.
4. It is important to have a meeting place
outside the home. A good meeting place
might be a neighbor’s home, a special
tree, a neighborhood store next door, a
mailbox, or a street light.
5. If the smoke alarm sounds, get
outside and go to your meeting place.
3. Stay away from anything that is hot
or could be hot. This means: Don’t touch
anything that could be hot.
4. If you are unsure if something is hot,
you should stay away from it and check
with a grown-up.
5. Things that are hot can burn and hurt
you.
Fire Drills at School
1. When the alarm sounds:
(A) Stop what you are doing.
(B) Listen for instructions from your
teacher or principal.
31
(C) Go quickly and quietly to your
meeting place outside the school.
“beep, beep, beep” of the smoke alarm
wherever they sleep.
(D) Be sure to stay with your classmates.
Your teacher will take attendance to
make sure all students are safe.
5. Here are the four important things to
do if the smoke alarm sounds:
Know When to Stop, Drop, and Roll
1. Stay away from fire. Fire from a
match, lighter, fireplace, or grill could
catch clothes on fire.
(B) Choose the best way out of the room.
(C) Get outside quickly.
(D) Go to your outside meeting place.
2. Clothes on fire can cause a bad burn
and hurt very much.
Plan and Practice Your Home Fire Drill
3. If your clothes catch fire:
2. One way out would be the door and
the second way out might be a window.
(A) Stop where you are.
(B) Drop to the ground – lay flat with
your legs out straight and cover your
eyes and mouth with your hands.
(C) Roll over and over and back and forth
until the flames are out.
(D) Get help from a grown-up who will
cool the burn and get medical help.
4. The most important thing to
remember is to stay away from fire. It
can catch your clothes on fire. Use “stop,
drop, and roll” only if your clothes are on
fire.
Messages for Grade 2
Smoke Alarms are Important
1. A smoke alarm will let people know if
there is a fire in their home.
2. Every home needs working smoke
alarms.
3. If there is smoke, the smoke alarm will
make a loud “beep, beep, beep (pause),
beep, beep, beep (pause)” sound.
4. Make sure there is a smoke alarm
where people sleep so they will wake
up quickly and be able to get outside.
Everyone must be able to hear the
32
(A) Stop what you are doing.
1. Every room needs two ways out.
3. It is important to have a meeting place
outside the home. A good meeting place
might be a neighbor’s home, a special
tree, a mailbox, or a street light.
4. A home fire escape plan is a plan to
get out of the home quickly in case there
is a fire.
5. Families should practice their home
fire drill at least twice a year.
6. It is important to know the home fire
escape plan in each home where you
sleep. It could be the home of a family
member or a friend’s house, but you
should know the two ways out of each
room and the outside meeting place in
case there is a fire while you are visiting.
Report an Emergency
1. The fire department will help if
there is an emergency. Examples of
an emergency include fire and serious
injury.
2. Remember, you call the fire
department only in an emergency.
Calling the fire department when there is
no emergency could hurt someone who
really needs the firefighters’ help. It can
also put firefighters in danger needlessly.
3. When the fire department answers the
phone, tell them:
(A) The type of emergency.
(B) Your name.
(C) The location that you are calling
from.
Know When to Stop, Drop, and Roll
1. “Stop, drop, and roll” is used when
clothing catches fire.
2. If your clothes catch fire:
(A) Stop where you are.
(D) The telephone number from where
you are calling.
(B) Drop to the ground and cover your
eyes and mouth with your hands.
4. Stay on the telephone until the fire
department tells you to hang up.
(C) Roll over and over and back and forth
until the flames are out.
Stay Away from Hot Things
1. There are things inside and outside
that are hot or can get hot.
2. Things that are hot or can get hot
include bath water, a stove, a fireplace,
coffee, soup, matches, lighters, and
many other things.
3. Stay away from hot things. Don’t touch
them. If you are unsure if something is
hot, stay away and check with a grownup.
4. Do not touch matches or lighters.
Matches and lighters are dangerous and
can be hot.
5. Walk away and tell a grown-up if you
find matches or lighters.
6. Only grown-ups should use matches
and lighters.
Kid-Free Zones at Home
1. Things that get hot can cause serious
burns.
2. There should be a 3-foot “kid-free
zone” around the stove, oven, and
heating sources.
3. Remind grown-ups to keep anything
that can burn at least 3 feet away from
hot things.
4. Only grown-ups should be around
items that are hot or could get hot.
(D) Get help from a grown-up who will
cool the burn and get medical help.
Easy-to-Read Messages
These messages are written for audiences that
have limited English proficiency.
Home Smoke Alarms
1. A smoke alarm will let you know there
is a fire in your home.
2. You need a smoke alarm in each
bedroom.
3. You need a smoke alarm on each level
of your home.
4. You need a smoke alarm outside each
sleeping area.
5. Push the test button at least once a
month to make sure the smoke alarm is
working.
6. If the smoke alarm sounds, get
outside the home right away. Call the fire
department from outside.
Carbon Monoxide
1. Carbon monoxide is a gas. You can’t
see it, taste it, or smell it. It is created
when fuels do not burn completely.
Kerosene, gasoline, coal, natural gas,
propane, and wood are examples of
fuels. Carbon monoxide can make you
very sick or kill you.
33
2. A carbon monoxide alarm will let you
know if high levels of the gas are in your
home.
3. You need a carbon monoxide alarm
outside bedrooms.
4. You need a carbon monoxide alarm on
each level of your home.
5. Push the test button each month to
make sure the alarm is working.
6. If you hear the carbon monoxide
alarm, get outside the home right away.
Call for help from outside.
Cooking
1. Stay in the kitchen when you are
frying, boiling, grilling, or broiling food.
2. Keep things that can catch fire away
from the stove.
3. Never cook when you are tired.
4. Keep kids and pets at least three feet
away from the stove area.
5. To put out a pan fire, slide a lid over
the pan. Turn off the stove and let the
pan cool.
6. If you have a fire in your oven, turn off
the heat. Keep the door closed until it is
cool.
7. If you have a fire that does not go out,
get outside the home right away. Call the
fire department from outside.
Heating
1. Have your furnace cleaned every year.
2. Have your chimney serviced every
year.
3. Keep space heaters at least three feet
from things that can burn.
34
6. Never use your oven to heat your
home.
7. Keep children at least three feet from
fires and space heaters.
8. Use the correct fuel for fuel-burning
space heaters.
9. Choose heaters that are listed by a
qualified testing laboratory.
Smoking
1. If you smoke, smoke outside.
2. Keep lighters, matches, and smoking
material out of the reach of children. Put
them in a locked cabinet.
3. Use a deep, sturdy ashtray. Place it
away from anything that can burn.
4. Do not drop cigarettes into plants,
grass, or mulch.
5. Before you throw away butts and
ashes, make sure they are out. Put them
in water or sand.
6. Never smoke where medical oxygen is
used.
7. E-cigarettes should be used with
caution.
8. Never leave charging e-cigarettes
unattended.
Electrical
1. Keep things that can burn, like
curtains, clothes, and paper, away from
lamps and light bulbs.
2. Plug appliances directly into a wall
outlet.
3. Use only one appliance in a wall outlet
at a time.
4. Turn space heaters off when you go to
bed or leave the room.
4. Heavy things placed on top of an
electrical cord can wear out the cord and
start a fire.
5. Plug space heaters directly into a wall
outlet.
5. Do not run cords under carpets where
people may walk on them.
6. Use a light bulb with the right number
of watts.
7. Have all electrical work done by a
qualified electrician.
35
This booklet includes educational messages that are used
throughout NFPA’s educational programs, curricula, and handouts.
This document provides safety educators with accurate and
consistent language for use when offering fire and burn safety
information to the public. The NFPA Regional Education Specialists
provide support to states and local communities interested in
implementing NFPA public education programs and materials.
NFPA Regional Education Specialists
Southern and New England Regions
Kelly Ransdell: kransdell@nfpa.org / 617-984-7235
Central and Mid-Atlantic Regions
Meredith Hawes: mhawes@nfpa.org / 617-984-7237
Western Region
Jeff Donahue: jdonahue@nfpa.org / 617-984-7277
For fire and life safety educators in Canada, please contact:
Canadian Public Education Representative, Laura King
CanadaCRR@nfpa.org/+1 289 838-5158
NFPA, 1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02169-7471
www.nfpa.org/education