VECTOR COMPACT GPS COMPASS
NMEA-0183 Version
GPS Compass
User Guide
Part No. 875-0346-0 Rev. A1
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and
(2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Patents
SI-TEX GNSS products may be covered by one or more of the following patents:
U.S. Patents
6111549
6876920
6397147
7142956
6469663
7162348
6501346
7277792
6539303
7292185
6549091
7292186
6711501
7373231
6744404
7388539
6865465
7400294
7400956
7429952
7437230
7460942
7689354
7808428
7835832
7885745
7948769
8000381
8018376
8085196
8102325
8138970
8140223
8174437
8184050
8190337
8214111
8217833
8265826
8271194
8307535
8311696
8334804
RE41358
Australia Patents
2002244539
2002325645
2004320401
Other U.S. and foreign patents pending.
Notice to Customers
Contact your local dealer for technical assistance. To find the authorized dealer near you:
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Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction
Overview.................................................................................................. 2
Parts List.................................................................................................. 3
Chapter 2
VECTOR COMPACT Installation
Mounting Location .................................................................................. 6
GPS Reception .................................................................................... 6
Vector Compact Environmental Considerations ......................................... 6
VHF Interference .......................................................................................... 7
Mounting Orientation ............................................................................. 9
Vector Compact Alignment ....................................................................... 11
Mounting Options ................................................................................. 12
Vector Compact Dimensions............................................................... 12
Power/Data Cable Considerations ...................................................... 14
Flush Mount ......................................................................................... 15
Pole Mount ....................................................................................... 17
Powering the Unit ................................................................................. 21
Power Considerations................................................................................ 21
Connecting to a Power Source .................................................................. 21
Electrical Isolation ..................................................................................... 21
Connecting the Vector to External Devices .......................................... 22
Power/Data Cable Considerations ............................................................ 22
Power/Data Cable Pin-out Specifications .................................................. 23
Serial Ports ........................................................................................... 24
Default Parameters .................................................................................... 25
iii
Contents
Chapter 3
Operation
GPS Overview ........................................................................................ 28
GPS Operation ..................................................................................28
Differential Operation.......................................................................... 29
Vector Overview.................................................................................... 30
Supplemental Sensors .......................................................................31
Time Constants .......................................................................................... 34
Watchdog ................................................................................................... 35
Common Commands and Messages .................................................... 36
Appendix A Troubleshooting............................................................ 41
Appendix B
Specifications ............................................................... 45
End User License Agreement ............................................................ 49
Warranty Notice ................................................................................. 52
iv
Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Overview Parts
List
1
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Overview
The Vector Compact™ GPS Compass is based upon SI-TEX GNSS’
exclusive Crescent® and Crescent Vector™ II technology.
The Vector Compact is a complete GPS compass and position system in a
single enclosure that requires only one power/data cable connection. With its
serial support and ease of installation, the Vector Compact is the perfect solution
for
marine-based applications.
The Vector Compact is an integrated system that houses the following:
•
Crescent and Crescent Vector II technology
•
Dual integrated GPS antennas
•
Power supply
•
Single axis gyro
•
Tilt sensor on each axis (X and Y axes)
The gyro and tilt sensors are present to improve system performance and to
provide backup heading information in the event that a GPS heading is not
available due to signal blockage.
Crescent Vector II technology supports multiple RF front ends - enabling
tighter coupling of measurements from separate antennas for use in
heading-based products. Users will achieve excellent accuracy and stability
due to Crescent’s more accurate code phase measurements, improved
multipath mitigation, and fewer components.
The Vector Compact’s GPS antennas are separated by 13.5 cm between their
phase centers, resulting in better than 2° rms heading performance. The
Vector Compact provides heading and position updates of up to 10 Hz and
delivers position accuracy of better than 1.0 m 95% of the time when using
differential GPS corrections from Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS).
The Vector Compact also features SI-TEX GNSS’ exclusive COAST™
technology that enables SI-TEX GNSS receivers to utilize old differential
GPS correction data for 40 minutes or more without significantly affecting
the position quality. The Vector Compact is less likely to be affected by
differential signal outages due to signal blockages, weak signals, or
interference when using COAST.
2
Chapter 1: Introduction
.
Parts List
Note: The Vector Compact’ parts comply with IEC 60945 Section 4.4: “exposed to
the weather.”
The Vector Compact GPS Compass and the power/data cable (accessory item) are
the only two required components
Table 1-1: Parts list for Serial version of the Vector Compact
Part Name
Qty
Part Number
Vector Compact GPS Compass (Serial)
1
804-0114-0
Screw Housing Caps
2
675-0173-0
Serial Cable, 5m
1
051-0372-0
Mounting Screws
2
675-1199-000#
Mounting Base
1
676-0035-0
Mounting Nut
1
676-1021-000#
Screw Housing Cap O-Rings
2
681-1066-0
This User Guide is available for download from the SI-TEX GNSS website at
www.si-tex.com
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Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
4
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Vector Compact Installation
Mounting Location
Mounting Orientation
Mounting Options
Powering the Vector
Compact
Connecting the Vector Compact to External Devices
5
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Mounting Location
This section provides information on determining the best location for the
Vector Compact.
GPS Reception
When considering where to mount the Vector Compact, consider the following
GPS reception recommendations:
•
Ensure there is a clear view of the sky available to the Vector
Compact so the GPS and SBAS satellites are not masked by
obstructions that may reduce system performance.
•
Since the Vector Compact computes a position based on the
internal GPS antenna element, mount the Vector Compact where
you desire a position with respect to the GPS antenna (located on
the side of the recessed arrow on the underside of the enclosure).
•
Locate any transmitting antennas away from the Vector Compact
by at least several feet to ensure tracking performance is not
compromised, giving you the best performance possible.
•
Make sure there is enough cable length to route into the vessel to
reach a breakout box or terminal strip.
•
Do not locate the antenna where environmental conditions exceed
those specified in Table B-5 on page 48.
Vector Compact Environmental Considerations
The Vector Compact is designed to withstand harsh environmental
conditions; however, adhere to the following limits when storing and using
the Vector Compact:
•
Operating temperature: -30°C to +70°C (-22°F to +158°F).
•
Storage temperature: -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to +185°F).
•
Humidity: 100% non-condensing.
6
Chapter 2: Installation
VHF Interference
VHF interference from devices such as cellular phones and radio
transmitters may interfere with GPS operation. For example, if installing the
Vector Compact near marine radios consider the following:
•
VHF marine radio working frequencies (Channels 1 to 28 and 84 to
88) range from 156.05 to 157.40 MHz. The L1 GPS working center
frequency is 1575.42 MHz. The bandwidth is +/- 2MHz to +/- 10 MHz,
which is dependent on the GPS antenna and receiver design (see
next page).
•
VHF marine radios emit strong harmonics. The 10th harmonic of
VHF radio, in some channels, falls into the GPS working frequency
band, which may cause the SNR of GPS to degrade significantly.
•
The radiated harmonic signal strength of different brands/models
varies.
•
Follow VHF radio manufacturers’ recommendations on how to
mount their radios and what devices to keep a safe distance away.
•
Hand-held 5W VHF radios may not provide suitable filtering and
may interfere with the Vector Compact’s operation if too close.
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Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Before installing the Vector Compact use the following diagram to ensure there
are no nearby devices that may cause VHF interference.
VHF Antenna
1.5 m radius at top
(minimum)
Use these minimum
distances to determine
where to place the Vector
Compact
1.0 m radius at base
(minimum)
Figure 2-1: Vector Compact distance from nearby VHF radios
8
Chapter 2: Installation
Mounting Orientation
The Vector Compact outputs heading, pitch, and roll readings regardless
of the orientation of the antennas. However, the relation of the antennas
to the boat’s axis determines whether you will need to enter a heading,
pitch, or roll bias. The primary antenna is used for position. The primary
and secondary antennas, working in conjunction, output heading, pitch,
and roll values.
Note: Regardless of which mounting orientation you use, the Vector
Compact provides the ability to output the heave of the vessel. This output is
available via the $GPHEV message. For more information on this message
refer to refer to GPS Technical Reference available from the SI-TEX GNSS
website at www.SI-TEXgnss.com.
Parallel Orientation: The most common installation is to orient the Vector
Compact parallel to, and along the centerline of, the axis of the boat. This
provides a true heading. In this orientation:
•
If you use a gyrocompass, you can enter a heading bias in the Vector
Compact to calibrate the physical heading to the true heading of
the vessel.
•
You may need to adjust the pitch/roll output to calibrate the
measurement if the Vector is not installed in a horizontal plane.
Perpendicular Orientation: You can also install the antennas so they are
oriented perpendicular to the centerline of the boat’s axis. In this orientation:
•
You will need to enter a heading bias of +90° if the primary antenna
is on the starboard side of the boat and -90° if the primary antenna
is on the port side of the boat.
•
You will need to configure the receiver to specify the GPS antennas
are measuring the roll axis using $JATT,ROLL,YES.
•
You will need to enter a roll bias to properly output the pitch and roll
values.
•
You may need to adjust the pitch/roll output to calibrate the
measurement if the Vector is not installed in a horizontal plane.
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Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Figure 2-2 and Figure 2-3 provide mounting orientation examples.
Forward
motion
Recessed arrow
located on
bottom of
enclosure
Figure 2-2: Recommended orientation and resulting signs of HPR values
Forward
motion
Figure 2-3: Alternate orientation and resulting signs of HPR values
10
Chapter 2: Installation
Vector Compact Alignment
The top of the Vector Compact enclosure incorporates sight design features
to help you align the enclosure with respect to an important feature on your
vessel.
To use the sights, center the small post on the opposite side of the enclosure
from you, within the channel made in the medallion located in the center of
the enclosure top as shown in Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-5. Alignment accuracy
when looking through the site (Figure 2-4)and (Figure 2-5) is approximately
+/- 1°.
Figure 2-4: Long site alignment channel
Figure 2-5: Long sight alignment center post
If you have another accurate source of heading data on your vessel, such as
a gyrocompass, you may use its data to correct for a bias in Vector Compact
alignment within the Vector Compact software configuration (PocketMax or
VectorPC).
Alternatively, you can physically adjust the heading of the Vector Compact
so that it renders the correct heading measurement; however, adding a
software offset is an easier process.
11
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Mounting Options
The Vector Compact allows for both pole or flush mounting. Follow
directions below for detailed mounting directions.
Vector Compact Dimensions
Figure 2-6 illustrates the physical dimensions of the Vector Compact.
Figure 2-6: Vector Compact dimensions
12
Chapter 2: Installation
Vector Compact dimensions with adapter
13
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Power/Data Cable Considerations
Before mounting the Vector Compact consider the following regarding
power/data cable routing:
•
Cable must reach an appropriate power source
•
Cable may connect to a data storage device, computer, or other
device that accepts GPS data
•
Avoid running the cable in areas of excessive heat
•
Keep cable away from corrosive chemicals
•
Do not run the cable through door or window jams
•
Keep cable away from rotating machinery
•
Do not crimp or excessively bend the cable
•
Avoid placing tension on the cable
•
Remove unwanted slack from the cable at the Vector Compact end
•
Secure along the cable route using plastic wraps
Improperly installed cable near machinery can be dangerous
14
Chapter 2: Installation
Flush Mount
The bottom of the Vector Compact contains two holes for flush mounting the
unit to a flat surface (Figure 2-7). The flat surface may be something you
fabricate per your installation, an off-the-shelf item (such as a radar
mounting plate), or an existing surface on your vessel.
Note: SI-TEX GNSS does not supply the mounting surface hardware. You
must supply the appropriate fastening hardware required to complete the
installation of the Vector Compact.
Figure 2-7: Flush mounting with holes in the Vector Compact
Note: You do not necessarily need to orient the antenna precisely as you
can enter a software offset to accommodate for any bias in heading
measurement due to installation.
15
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Before flush mounting the Vector Compact
•
Determine your mounting orientation. See “Mounting Orientation”
on page 9 for more information.
•
Choose a location that meets the mounting location requirements.
•
Using the fixed base as a template, mark and drill the mounting
holes as necessary for the mounting surface.
Flush mounting the Vector Compact
1.
Mark the mounting hole centers and connector center on the
mounting surface.
2.
Place the Vector Compact over the marks to ensure the planned
hole centers align with the true hole centers (adjusting as
necessary).
3.
Use a center punch to mark the hole centers.
4.
Drill the mounting holes to a diameter of 6.8mm (0.26 in)
appropriate for the surface.
5.
Drill the connector hole to a diameter of 28.6mm (1.13 in)
appropriate for the surface.
6.
Pull the cable through the center connector hole and attach the
cable directly to the Vector Compact, ensuring the connector
clicks.
7.
Place the Vector Compact over the mounting holes and insert the
mounting screws through the top of the Vector Compact and
through the mounting surface.
8.
Use two M6 washers and M6 nuts to secure the Vector
Compact to the mounting plate (washers and nuts not
included).
When installing the Vector Compact, hand tighten only.
Damage resulting from over-tightening is not covered by the warranty.
Note: See “Vector Compact Dimensions” on page 12 for information on routing
the power/data cable.
16
Chapter 2: Installation
Pole Mount
Before pole mounting the Vector Compact
•
Vector Compact provides roll measurements when mounted in any
preferred orientation. If accurate roll measurements are important
to your use case, we recommend mounting the Vector Compact
perpendicular to the vessel’s axis. If roll measurements are less
important, install the Vector Compact parallel with the vessel’s
axis.
•
Choose a location that meets the mounting location requirements.
•
Mark and drill the mounting holes as necessary for the threaded
pole.
17
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Pole mounting instructions for Vector Compact (Inside Pole)
Required tools: 5 mm Allen key for M6 screws and adjustable wrench to
tighten jam nut
1.
Insert mating cable through both the jam nut and 1” (25.4mm)
mounting adapter base
2.
Place the jam nut on the pole followed by the 1” (25.4mm) adapter
base. Hand tighten the base to the desired orientation.
3.
Adjust the jam nut to secure the orientation.
4.
Connect the mating end of the cable to the Vector Compact
connector located on the bottom of the unit.
5.
Insert the base adapter into Vector Compact by placing the tongue
of the base into the groove of the Vector Compact unit. When the
tongue is properly seated in the groove, the rest of the base can be
pressed into place to create a smooth seam between the base and
Vector Compact unit.
6.
Use 5 mm Allen key to fasten two M6 screws to secure Vector
Compact onto adapter. Use 15 in-lb torque
7.
Insert each o-ring onto a plastic cap
8.
Install plastic cap with o-ring onto Vector Compact unit
(rectangular notch faced towards the outside)
9.
Align and set the direction of Vector Compact unit, while using the
jam nut to secure the unit (hand-tighten).
Over-tightening may damage the system. This is not covered
under warranty.
18
Chapter 2: Installation
Pole mounting instructions for Vector Compact (Outside Pole)
Required tools: 5 mm Allen key for M6 screws and adjustable wrench to
tighten jam nut
1.
Place the jam nut on the pole followed by the 1” (25.4mm) adapter
base. Hand tighten the base to the desired orientation.
2.
Adjust the jam nut to secure the orientation.
3.
Run the cable throughout the vessel making sure to leave enough
slack to mate the NMEA 2000 cable to both the NMEA 2000
backbone and the Vector Compact unit.
4.
Run the NMEA 2000 cable through the opening in the side of the
pole mounting adapter. And then connect the mating end of the
cable to the V104 connector located on the bottom of the unit.
5.
Insert the base adapter into Vector Compact by placing the tongue
of the base into the groove of the Vector Compact unit. When the
tongue is properly seated in the groove, the rest of the base can be
pressed into place to create a smooth seam between the base and
Vector Compact unit.
6.
Use 5 mm Allen key to fasten two M6 screws to secure Vector
Compact onto adapter. Use 15 in-lb torque
7.
Insert each o-ring onto a plastic cap
8.
Install plastic cap with o-ring onto Vector Compact unit
(rectangular notch faced towards the outside)
9.
Align and set the direction of Vector Compact unit, while using the
jam nut to secure the unit (hand-tighten).
Over-tightening may damage the system. This is not covered
under warranty.
19
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Connecting the power/data cable
1.
Align the cable connector key-way with the Vector Compact connector key.
Key-way alignment
2.
Rotate the cable ring clockwise until it locks. The locking action is
firm, but you will feel a positive “click” when it has locked.
Note: See “Vector Compact Dimensions” on page 12 for information on routing
the power/data cable.
20
Chapter 2: Installation
Powering the Vector Compact
Power Considerations
For best performance use a clean and continuous power supply. The Vector
Compact power supply features reverse polarity protection but will not
operate with reverse polarity.
See Table B-3 on page 47 for complete power specifications.
Connecting to a Power Source
Before you power up the Vector Compact you must terminate the wires of
the power cable as required. There are a variety of power connectors and
terminals on the market from which to choose, depending on your specific
requirements.
Do not apply a voltage higher than 36 VDC. This will damage
the receiver and void the warranty.
To interface the Vector Compact power cable to the power source:
•
Connect the red wire of the cable’s power input to DC positive (+)
•
Connect the black wire of the cable’s power input to DC negative (-)
The Vector Compact will start when an acceptable voltage is applied to the
power leads of the extension cable.
Electrical Isolation
The Vector Compact’s power supply is isolated from the communication
lines and the PC-ABS plastic enclosure isolates the electronics
mechanically from the vessel (addressing the issue of vessel hull
electrolysis).
21
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Connecting the Vector Compact to External
Devices
Power/Data Cable Considerations
The Vector Compact uses a single 15 m (49 ft) cable for power and data
input/output.
Figure 2-8: Power/data cable, 15 m
The receiver end of the cable is terminated with an environmentally sealed
12-pin connection while the opposite end is unterminated and requires field
stripping and tinning.
Depending on the application and installation needs, you may need to
shorten this cable. However, if you require a longer cable run than 15 m, you
can bring the cable into a break-out box that incorporates terminal strips,
within the vessel.
When lengthening the cable keep the following in mind:
•
To lengthen the serial lines inside the vessel, use 20-gauge twisted
pairs and minimize the additional wire length.
•
When lengthening the power input leads to the Vector Compact,
ensure the additional voltage drop is small enough that your power
system can continue to power the system above the minimum
voltage of the system. Wire of 18-gauge or larger should also be
used.
•
Minimize RS-232 cable length to ensure reliable communication
22
Chapter 2: Installation
Power/Data Cable Pin-out Specifications
Figure 2-9 show the power/data cable pin-out, while Table 2-1 shows the
cable’s pin-out specifications.
Figure 2-9: Power/data cable pin assignment
Table 2-1: Power/data cable pin-out
Pin
Function
Wire Color
1
CH-GND
Drain
1
DGND
Brown
2
RXB
Blue
3
Power Input
Red
4
Power Ground
Black
5
TXB
Green
6
RXA
Orange
7
TXA
Purple
8
1PPS
Yellow
23
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Serial Ports
The Vector Compact offers position and heading data via two full-duplex
(bi- directional) RS-232 serial ports. In addition to outputting data, these
ports are used for firmware upgrades.
Selecting Baud Rates and Message Types
When selecting your baud rate and message types, use the following
calculation to determine your baud rate for your required data throughput.
Messages * Message output rate * Message length (bytes) * bits in byte
Ex: 5 * 10Hz * 40 bytes * 10 = 20,000 bits/sec
For information on message output rates refer to GPS Technical Reference
available from the SI-TEX GNSS website at www.SI-TEXgnss.com.
Configuring the Ports
You may configure Port A or Port B of the GPS receiver to output any
combination of data that you want. Port A can have a different configuration
from Port B in terms of data message output, data rates, and the baud rate of
the port. This allows you to configure the ports independently based upon
your needs. For example, if you want one generalized port and one
heading-only port, you can configure the ports as follows:
•
Port A to have GPGGA, GPVTG, GPGSV, GPZDA, and GPHDT all
output at 1 Hz over a 9600 baud rate
•
Port B to have GPHDT and GPROT output at their maximum rate of
10 Hz over a 19200 baud rate
A personal computer (PC) typically uses a DB9-male connector for RS-232
serial port communications.
Note: For successful communications use the 8-N-1 protocol and set the
baud rate of the Vector Compact’s serial ports to match that of the devices
to which they are connected. Flow control is not supported.
24
Chapter 2: Installation
Default Parameters
Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 provide details on the default port settings, available
baud rates, differential age, elevation mask, and default differential mode.
Note: Use the $JSAVE command to save changes you make to the Vector
Compact’s configuration for the changes to be present in subsequent
power cycles.
Table 2-2: Default port settings
Port
Baud Rate
NMEA Messages
Update Rate
Port A
(RS-232)
19200
GPGGA, GPVTG, GPGSV, GPZDA,
GPHDT, GPROT
1 Hz
Port B
(RS-232)
19200
GPGGA, GPVTG, GPGSV, GPZDA,
GPHDT, GPROT
1 Hz
Power
RED (+)
BLK (-)
6 - 36 VDC
Table 2-3: Additional default settings
Parameter
Specification
Max DGPS age (correction age)
2700 seconds
Elevation mask
5°
Differential mode
SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS)
25
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
26
Chapter 2: Installation
Chapter 3: Operation
GPS Overview
Vector Compact
Overview
Common Commands and Messages
27
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
GPS Overview
For your convenience, both the GPS and SBAS (WAAS, MSAS, GAGAN and
EGNOS) operation of the Vector Compact features automatic operational
algorithms. When powered for the first time, the Vector Compact performs
a "cold start," which involves acquiring the available GPS satellites in view
and the SBAS differential service.
If SBAS is not available in your area, an external source of RTCM SC-104
differential corrections may be used. If you use an external source of
correction data, it must support an eight data bit, no parity, one stop bit
configuration (8-N-1).
GPS Operation
The GPS receiver is always operating, regardless of the DGPS mode of
operation. The following sections describe the general operation of the
Vector Compact’s internal GPS receiver.
Note: Differential source and status have no impact on heading, pitch, or
roll. They only have an impact on position and heave.
Automatic Tracking
The Vector Compact’s internal GPS receiver automatically searches for GPS
satellites, acquires the signals, and manages the navigation information
required for position and tracking.
Receiver Performance
The Vector Compact works by finding four or more GPS satellites in the
visible sky. It uses information from the satellites to compute a position
within 3 m. Since there is some error in the GPS data calculations, the
Vector Compact also tracks a differential correction. The Vector Compact
uses these corrections to improve its position accuracy to better than 1.0
m.
There are two main aspects of GPS receiver performance:
•
Satellite acquisition
•
Position and heading calculation
28
Chapter 3: Operation
When the Vector Compact is properly positioned, the satellites transmit
coded information to the antennas on a specific frequency. This allows the
receiver to calculate a range to each satellite from both antennas. GPS is
essentially a timing system. The ranges are calculated by timing how long it
takes for the signal to reach the GPS antenna. The GPS receiver uses a
complex algorithm incorporating satellite locations and ranges to each
satellite to calculate the geographic location and heading. Reception of any
four or more GPS signals allows the receiver to compute three-dimensional
coordinates and a valid heading.
Differential Operation
The purpose of differential GPS (DGPS) is to remove the effects of selective
availability (SA), atmospheric errors, timing errors, and satellite orbit errors,
while enhancing system integrity. Autonomous position capabilities of the
Vector Compact will result in position accuracies of 3 m 95% of the time. In
order to improve position quality to better than 1.0 m 95%, the Vector
Compact is able to use differential corrections received through the
internal SBAS demodulator or externally-supplied RTCM corrections.
Automatic SBAS Tracking
The Vector Compact automatically scans and tracks SBAS signals without
the need to tune the receiver. The Vector Compact features two-channel
tracking that provides an enhanced ability to maintain a lock on an SBAS
satellite when more than one satellite is in view. This redundant tracking
approach results in more consistent tracking of an SBAS signal in areas
where signal blockage of a satellite is possible.
29
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Vector Compact Overview
The Vector Compact provides accurate and reliable heading and position
information at high update rates. To accomplish this task, the Vector
Compact uses a high performance GPS receiver and two antennas for GPS
signal processing. One antenna is designated as the primary GPS antenna
and the other is the secondary GPS antenna. Positions computed by the
Vector Compact are referenced to the phase center of the primary GPS
antenna. Heading data references the vector formed from the primary GPS
antenna phase center to the secondary GPS antenna phase center.
The heading arrow located on the bottom of the Vector Compact
enclosure defines system orientation. The arrow points in the
direction the heading measurement is computed (when the antenna is
installed parallel to the fore-aft line of the vessel). The secondary
antenna is directly above the arrow.
Primary antenna
0.135 m
baseline
Figure 3-1: Secondary antenna’s search volume
Note: The Vector Compact moving base station algorithm only uses GPS to
calculate heading. Differential corrections are not used in this calculation
and will not affect heading accuracy.
30
Chapter 3: Operation
Supplemental Sensors
The Vector Compact has an integrated gyro and two tilt sensors. The gyro
and tilt sensors are enabled by default. Both supplemental sensors are
mounted on the printed circuit board inside the Vector Compact.
The sensors act to reduce the search volume, which improves heading
startup and reacquisition times. This improves the reliability and accuracy of
selecting the correct heading solution by eliminating other possible,
erroneous solutions. Table 3-1 on page 32 provides a sensor operation
summary.
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Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Table 3-1: Sensor operation summary
Feature
Normal Operation
Coasting (no GPS)
Heading
GPS
Gyro
Pitch
GPS
Inertial sensor
Roll
Inertial sensor
Inertial sensor
SI-TEX GNSS’ GPS Technical Reference describes the commands and
methodology required to recalibrate, query, or change the sensors status.
Tilt Aiding
The Vector Compact’ accelerometers (internal tilt sensors) are factorycalibrated and enabled by default. This improves heading solution beyond
the volume associated with just a fixed antenna separation. This is because
the Vector Compact knows the approximate inclination of the secondary
antenna with respect to the primary antenna. The search space defined by
the tilt sensor will be reduced to a horizontal ring on the sphere’s surface
by reducing the search volume. This considerably decreases startup and
reacquisition times (see Figure 3-2).
Tilt angle
Figure 3-2: Vector Compact’s tilt aiding
Gyro Aiding
The Vector Compact’ internal gyro offers several benefits. It reduces the
sensor volume to shorten reacquisition times when a GPS heading is lost
because the satellite signals were blocked. The gyro provides a relative
change in
32
Chapter 3: Operation
angle since the last computed heading, and, when used in conjunction with
the tilt sensor, defines the search space as a wedge-shaped location (see
Figure 3-3).
Figure 3-3: Vector Compact’s gyro aiding
The gyro aiding accurately smoothes the heading output and the rate of
turn. It provides an accurate substitute heading for a short period depending
on the roll and pitch of the vessel, ideally seeing the system through to
reacquisition. The gyro provides an alternate source of heading, accurate to
within 1º per minute for up to three minutes, in times of GPS loss for either
antenna. If the outage lasts longer than three minutes, the gyro will have
drifted too far and the Vector Compact begins outputting null fields in
the heading output messages. There is no user control over the timeout
period of the gyro.
Calibration, which is set at the factory, is required for the gyro to remove
latency from the heading solution as well as provide backup heading when
GPS is blocked. The receiver will calibrate itself after running for a while but
it may be important to follow the manual calibration instructions if you want
to guarantee performance quickly after powering up the receiver.
With the gyro enabled, the gyro is also used to update the post HTAU
smoothed heading output from the GPS heading computation. This means
that if the HTAU value is increased while gyro aiding is enabled, there will be
no lag in heading output due to vehicle maneuvers. SI-TEX GNSS’ GPS
Technical Reference includes information on setting an appropriate HTAU
value for the application.
33
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Time Constants
The Vector Compact incorporates user-configurable time constants that can
provide a degree of smoothing to the heading, pitch, rate of turn (ROT),
course over ground (COG), and speed measurements. You can adjust these
parameters depending on the expected dynamics of the vessel. For
example, increasing the time is reasonable if the vessel is very large and
is not able to turn quickly or would not pitch quickly. The resulting values
would have reduced “noise,” resulting in consistent values with time.
However, if the vessel is quick and nimble, increasing this value can create
a lag in measurements. Formulas for determining the level of smoothing
are located in SI-TEX GNSS’ GPS Technical Reference. If you are unsure on
how to set this value, it is best to be conservative and leave it at the default
setting.
Note: For heading and rate of turn there is no lag once the gyro is calibrated
and enabled.
Heading time constant: Use the $JATT,HTAU command to adjust the level
of responsiveness of the true heading measurement provided in the
$GPHDT message. The default value of this constant is 20.0 seconds of
smoothing when the gyro is enabled. The gyro is enabled by default, but can
be turned off. By turning the gyro off, the equivalent default value of the
heading time constant would be 0.5 seconds of smoothing. This is not
automatically done and therefore you must manually enter it. Increasing the
time constant increases the level of heading smoothing and increases lag.
Pitch time constant: Use the $JATT,PTAU command to adjust the level
of responsiveness of the pitch measurement provided in the $PSAT,HPR
message. The default value of this constant is 0.5 seconds of smoothing.
Increasing the time constant increases the level of pitch smoothing and
increases lag.
Rate of Turn (ROT) time constant: Use the $JATT,HRTAU command to
adjust the level of responsiveness of the ROT measurement provided in the
$GPROT message. The default value of this constant is 2.0 seconds of
smoothing. Increasing the time constant increases the level of ROT
smoothing.
34
Chapter 3: Operation
Course Over Ground (COG) time constant: Use the $JATT,COGTAU
command to adjust the level of responsiveness of the COG measurement
provided in the $GPVTG message. The default value of this constant is
1.1 seconds of smoothing. Increasing the time constant increases the level
of COG smoothing. COG is computed using only the primary GPS antenna
and its accuracy depends upon the speed of the vessel (noise is proportional
to 1/speed). This value is invalid when the vessel is stationary, as tiny
movements due to calculation inaccuracies are not representative of a
vessel’s movement.
Speed time constant: Use the $JATT,SPDTAU command to adjust the
level of responsiveness of the speed measurement provided in the $GPVTG
message. The default value of this constant is 0.0 seconds of smoothing.
Increasing the time constant increases the level of speed measurement
smoothing.
Watchdog
The watchdog is a timer that is controlled by the software that monitors if
the heading is lost. The watchdog software is compliant with IEC 60945.
35
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Common Commands and Messages
Note: When selecting your baud rate and message types, use the following
calculation to determine your baud rate for your required data throughput.
Messages * Message output rate * Message length (bytes) * bits in byte
Ex: 5 * 10Hz * 40 bytes * 10 = 20,000 bits/sec
For information on message output rates refer to GPS Technical Reference
available from the SI-TEX GNSS website at www.SI-TEXgnss.com.
Table 3-2 below through Table 3-4 provide brief descriptions of common
commands and messages for the Vector Compact. Refer to the SI-TEX
GNSS’ GPS Technical Reference for more detailed information.
Table 3-2: Commands
Command
Description
$JAGE
Specify maximum DGPS (COAST) correction age (6 to 8100
seconds)
$JAPP
Query or specify receiver application firmware
$JASC
Specify ASCII messages to output to specific ports (see ASCII
messages in Table 3-3)
$JBAUD
Specify RS-232, RS-422 (output) communication rate
$JBIN
Specify binary messages to output to specific ports (see
Table 3-4)
$JDIFF
Query or specify differential correction mode
$JGEO
Query or specify SBAS for current location and SBAS satellites
$JI
Query unit’s serial number and firmware versions
$JOFF
Turn off all data messages
$JQUERY,GUIDE
Query accuracy suitability for navigation
$JRESET
Reset unit’s configuration to firmware defaults
$JSAVE
Save session’s configuration changes
36
Chapter 3: Operation
In Table 3-3 the Info Type value is one of the following:
•
P = Position
•
V = Velocity, Time
•
H = Heading, Attitude
•
S = Sats, Stats, Quality
Table 3-3: NMEA 0183 and other messages
Message
Info
Type
Description
IEC
Approved
Message
$GPDTM
P
Datum reference
Yes
$GPGGA
P
GPS position and fix data
Yes
$GPGLL
P
Geographic position - lat/long
Yes
$GPGNS
P
GNSS position and fix data
Yes
$GPGRS
S
GNSS range residual (RAIM)
Yes
$GPGSA
S
GNSS DOP and active satellites
Yes
$GPGST
S
GNSS pseudo range error statistics and
position accuracy
Yes
$GPGSV
S
GNSS satellites in view
Yes
*$GPHDG
H
Provides magnetic deviation and variation for
calculating magnetic or true heading
Yes
*see last bullet in Note at end of this table
*$GPHDM
H
Magnetic heading (based on GPS-derived
heading and magnetic declination)
No
*see last bullet in Note at end of this table
*$GPHDT
H
GPS-derived true heading
Yes
*see last bullet in Note at end of this table
$GPHEV
H
Heave value (in meters)
Yes
$GPRMC
P
Recommended minimum specific GNSS data
Yes
*$GPROT
H
GPS-derived rate of turn (ROT)
Yes
*see last bullet in Note at end of this table
37
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Table 3-3: NMEA 0183 and other messages (continued)
Message
Info
Type
Description
IEC
Approved
Message
$GPRRE
S
Range residual and estimated position error
Yes
$GPVTG
V
COG and ground speed
Yes
$GPZDA
V
Time and date
Yes
$PASHR
H
Time, heading, roll, and pitch data in one
message
No
$PSAT,GBS
S
Satellite fault detection (RAIM)
Yes
$PSAT,HPR
H
Proprietary NMEA message that provides
heading, pitch, roll, and time in single message
No
$PSAT,INTLT
H
Proprietary NMEA message that provides the
pitch and roll measurements from the internal
inclinometers (in degrees)
Yes
$RD1
S
SBAS diagnostic information
Yes
$TSS1
H
Heading, pitch, roll, and heave message in the
commonly used TSS1 message format
No
Notes:
•
The GP of the message is the talker ID.
•
You can change the message header for the HDG, HDM, HDT, and ROT
messages to either GP or HE using the $JATT,NMEAHE command. For more
information refer to GPS Technical Reference available from the SI-TEX GNSS
website at www.SI-TEXgnss.com.
•
GPGRS, GPGSA, GPGST, and GPGSV support external integrity checking.
They are to be synchronized with corresponding fix data (GPGGA or
GPGNS).
•
For information on outputting roll, pitch, and heave data in one message
refer to GPS Technical Reference available from the SI-TEX GNSS
website at www.SI-TEXgnss.com.
38
Chapter 3: Operation
Table 3-4: Binary messages
$JBIN
Message
Description
1
GPS position
2
GPS DOPs
80
SBAS
93
SBAS ephemeris data
94
Ionosphere and UTC conversion parameters
95
Satellite ephemeris data
96
Code and carrier phase
97
Processor statistics
98
Satellites and almanac
99
GPS diagnostics
Table 3-5: Parameters specific to $JATT command
Parameter
Description
Query
Specify
COGTAU
Set/query COG time constant (0.0 to 3600.0 sec)
X
X
CSEP
Query antenna separation
X
EXACT
Enable/disable internal filter reliance on the
entered antenna separation
X
X
FLIPBRD
Turn the flip feature on/off
X
X
GYROAID
Enable/disable gyro
X
X
HBIAS
Set/query heading bias (-180.0º to 180.0º)
X
X
HELP
Show the available commands for GPS heading
operation and status
X
HIGHMP
Set/query the high multipath setting for use in
poor GPS environments
X
X
HRTAU
Set/query ROT time constant (0.0 to 3600.0 sec)
X
X
39
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Table 3-5: Parameters specific to $JATT command (continued)
Parameter
Description
HTAU
Set/query heading time constant (0.0 to 3600.0
sec)
Query
Specify
X
X
Note: Higher HTAU values combined with disabling
the gyro will result in significant lag time
LEVEL
Enable/disable level operation
X
X
MSEP
Manually set or query antenna separation
X
X
NEGTILT
Enable/disable negative tilt
X
X
NMEAHE
Change the HDG, HDM, HDT, and ROT message
headers between Talker IDs (GP and HE)
X
X
PBIAS
Set/query pitch/roll bias (-15.0º to 15.0º)
X
X
PTAU
Set/query pitch time constant (0.0 to 3600.0 sec)
X
X
ROLL
Configure for roll or pitch GPS orientation
X
X
SEARCH
Force a new GPS heading search
SPDTAU
Set/query speed time constant (0.0 to 3600.0 sec)
X
SUMMARY
Display a summary of the current Crescent
Vector settings
X
TILTAID
Enable/disable accelerometer, pre-calibrated
X
TILTCAL
Calibrate accelerometers
40
X
X
X
X
Chapter 3: Operation
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
41
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Table A-1 provides troubleshooting for common problems.
Table A-1: Troubleshooting
Symptom
Possible Solution
Receiver fails to power
•
Verify polarity of power leads
•
Check integrity of power cable connectors
•
Check power input voltage (6 to 36 VDC)
•
Check current restrictions imposed by power
source (minimum available should be > 1.0 A)
•
Check receiver power status to ensure the receiver
is powered (an ammeter can be used for this)
•
Verify desired messages are activated (using
PocketMax, Vector PC or $JSHOW in any terminal
program)
•
Ensure the baud rate of the Vector Compact
matches that of the receiving device
•
Check integrity and connectivity of power and data
cable connections
•
Verify the RTCM or binary messages are not being
output accidentally (send a $JSHOW command)
•
Ensure the baud rate of the Vector Compact
matches that of the remote device
•
Potentially, the volume of data requested to be
output by the Vector Compact could be higher
than the current baud rate supports (try using
19200 as the baud rate for all devices or reduce
the amount of data being output)
•
Verify the Vector Compact has a clear view of the
sky
•
Verify the lock status of GPS satellites (this can be
done with PocketMax or VectorPC)
No data from Vector
Compact
Random data from
Vector Compact
No GPS lock
42
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
Table A-1: Troubleshooting (continued)
Symptom
Possible Solution
No SBAS lock
•
Verify the Vector Compact has a clear view of the
sky
•
Verify the lock status of SBAS satellites (this can be
done with PocketMax - monitor BER value)
•
Set SBAS mode to automatic with the
$JWAASPRN,AUTO command
No heading or incorrect
heading value
Note: SBAS lock is only possible if you are in an
appropriate SBAS region; currently, there is limited
SBAS availability in the southern SI-TEX.
• Check CSEP value is fairly constant without varying
more than 1 cm (0.39 in)—larger variations may
indicate a high multipath environment and require
moving the receiver location
•
Recalibrate the tilt sensor with $JATT,TILTCAL
command if heading is calculated then lost at
consistent time intervals
•
Heading is from primary GPS antenna to secondary
GPS antenna, so the arrow on the underside of the
Vector Compact should be directed to the bow side
•
$JATT,SEARCH command forces the Vector
Compact to acquire a new heading solution
(unless gyro is enabled)
•
Enable GYROAID to provide heading for up to three
minutes during GPS signal loss
•
Enable TILTAID to reduce heading search times
•
Monitor the number of satellites and SNR values
for both antennas within PocketMax—at least four
satellites should have strong SNR values
•
Potentially, the volume of data requested to be
output by the Vector Compact could be higher
than the current baud rate supports (try using
19200 as the baud rate for all devices or reduce
the amount of data being output)
•
Intermittent issues potentially caused by an incorrect
HBIAS.
43
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Table A-1: Troubleshooting (continued)
Symptom
Possible Solution
No DGPS position in
external RTCM mode
•
Verify the baud rate of the RTCM input port
matches the baud rate of the external source
•
Verify the pin-out between the RTCM source and
the RTCM input port (transmit from the source
must go to receive of the RTCM input port and
grounds must be connected)
•
Ensure corrections are being transmitted to the
correct port—using the $JDIFF,PORTB command on
Port A will cause the receiver to expect the
corrections to be input through Port B
44
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
Appendix B: Specifications
45
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Table B-1 through Table B-5 provide the Vector Compact’s GPS sensor,
communication, power, mechanical, and environmental specifications.
Table B-1: GPS sensor specifications
Item
Specification
Receiver type
Vector GPS L1 Compass
Channels
Two 12-channel, parallel tracking
(Two 10-channel when tracking SBAS)
SBAS tracking
2-channel, parallel tracking
Update rate
10 Hz standard (position and heading)
Position accuracy
Single Point1
1 m (95%)
SBAS2
3 m (95%)
Heading accuracy
2° (RMS)
Heave accuracy
< 30 cm (RMS)3
Pitch/Roll accuracy
2° (RMS)
Rate of turn
90°/s maximum
Cold start
< 60 s typical (no almanac or RTC)
Warm start
< 20 s typical (almanac and RTC)
Hot start
< 1 s typical (almanac, RTC, and position)
Heading fix
< 10 s typical (valid position)
Compass safe distance
30 cm (11.8 in)3
Maximum speed
1,850 kph (999 kts)
Maximum altitude
18,288 m (60,000 ft)
46
Appendix B: Specifications
Table B-2: Communication specifications
Item
Specification
Serial ports
2 full-duplex RS-232
Baud rates
4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200
Correction I/O protocol
RTCM SC-104
Data I/O protocol
NMEA 0183, Crescent binary4
Table B-3: Power specifications
Item
Specification
Input voltage
8 to 36 VDC
Power consumption
~ 2 W nominal
Current consumption
165 mA @ 12 VDC
Power isolation
Isolated to enclosure
Reverse polarity protection
Yes
Table B-4: Mechanical specifications
Item
Specification
Enclosure
UV resistant, white plastic, Geloy CR7520 (ASA)
Dimensions (not including
mount)
25.9 L x 12.9 W x 4.5 H (cm)
Dimensions (including mount)
25.9 L x 12.9 W x 12.8 H (cm)
10.2 L x 5.1 W x 1.8 H (in)
10.2 L x 5.1 W x 5.0 H (in)
Weight (not including mount)
0.42 kg (0.9 lb)
Weight (including mount)
0.51 kg (1.1 lb)
47
Vector Compact GPS Compass
User Guide
Table B-5: Environmental specifications
Item
Specification
Operating temperature
-30°C to +70°C (-22°F to +158°F)
Storage temperature
-40°C to +85°C (-40°F to +185°F)
Water and Dust
IP69
Humidity
100% non-condensing
Vibration
IEC 60945
EMC
CE (IEC 60945 Emissions and Immunity) FCC Part
15, Subpart B CISPR22F
1Depends on multipath environment, number of satellites in view, satellite
geometry, no SA, and ionospheric activity.
2Depends
on multipath environment, number of satellites in view, SBAS
coverage and satellite geometry.
3Based
on a 40-second time constant.
4SI-TEX
GNSS proprietary
48
Appendix B: Specifications
Index
A
alarm
watchdog 35
alignment 11
automatic
SBAS tracking 29
tracking 28
automatic tracking 28
operation 28
overview 28
receiver performance 28
reception 6
sensor specifications 46
gyro aiding 32
C
H
heading time constant 34
heave 9, 37
accuracy 46
HRTAU 34, 39
HTAU 34, 40
cable See power/data cable 14
COGTAU 35, 39
commands (common) 36
common commands and messages 36
communication specifications 47
connect
to a power source 21
to external devices 22
course over ground time constant 35
L
long sight alignment 11
M
E
mechanical specifications 47
message (common) 36
mounting
alignment 11
cable considerations 14
environmental considerations 6
flush mount 15
GPS reception 6
location 6
orientation 9
parallel orientation 9
perpendicular orientation 9
pole mount 17
VHF interference 7
electrical isolation 21
environmental
considerations 6
specifications 48
environmental considerations 6
external devices 22
F
flush mount 15
G
GPHEV 9, 37
GPS
automatic SBAS tracking 29
49
Index
O
HRTAU 34
HTAU 34
PTAU 34
SPDTAU 35
tracking
automatic 28
automatic SBAS 29
troubleshooting 42
orientation for mounting 9
P
parallel mounting 9
part numbers 3
parts list 3
perpendicular mounting 9
pitch time constant 34
pole mount 17
power
connecting to a power source 21
considerations 21
electrical isolation 21
specifications 47
PTAU 34, 40
V
VHF interference 7
W
watchdog 35
R
rate of turn (ROT) time constant 34
receiver performance 28
RS-232 22, 23, 24, 25, 36, 47
S
sensor specifications 46
short site alignment 11
SPDTAU 35, 40
specifications
communication 47
environmental 48
GPS sensor 46
mechanical 47
power 47
speed time constant 35
supplemental sensors 31
T
tilt aiding 32
time constants 34
COGTAU 35
50
Customer Service
If you encounter problems during the installation or operation of this product, or cannot
find the information you need, please contact Sitex Customer Service.
The contact numbers and e-mail address for Sitex Customer Service are:
Sitex Main Office…….………..+1-631-996-2690
Sitex Fax..………………….…..+1-631-996-2693
Sitex Service E-mail address: service@si-tex.com
Sitex Customer Support E-mail address: customerservice@si-tex.com
Sitex Main Office Address:
25 Enterprise Zone Drive, Ste 2
Riverhead, NY 11901
Technical Support is available from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, Monday
through Friday.
HOW TO OBTAIN SERVICE UNDER THIS WARRANTY
To provide greater flexibility, SI-TEX Marine Electronics gives you the option
to obtain service under the warranty by either:
(a) Contacting an authorized SI-TEX Marine Electronics service station
(The closest service station may be found by contacting your dealer of purchase)
OR
(b) Shipping your equipment prepaid via UPS, FED-EX or truck with insurance prepaid to SI-TEX Marine
Electronics. at the address provided below. SI-TEX Marine Electronics will whenever
possible, make all repairs covered by Limited Warranty within two weeks of receiving the equipment
in New York and return the same to you, freight prepaid.
Please do not use the Mail Service due to delays in tracing lost packages.
(c) You must present a copy of your Purchase Sales Slip at the time you request warranty service.
A product repair case can be started from the support section of our website at www.si-tex.com
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Providing you present valid proof of purchase, SI-TEX Marine Electronics warrants all parts of each
new product against defects in material and workmanship under normal use and will repair or exchange
any parts proven to be defective at no charge for a period of two years from the original date of purchase,
except as provided below under Limited Warranty Exceptions.
Defects will be corrected during normal working hours by an authorized SI-TEX Marine Electronics
dealer, service center, or at the SI-TEX office in Riverhead, NY. There will be no charge for repair labor
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(631) 996-2690
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