Gas Metal Arc Welding
Product and Procedure Selection
Gas Metal Arc Welding
• GMAW has higher electrode efficiencies, usually between
93% and 98%, when compared to other welding processes.
The gas metal arc process is dominant today as a
joining process among the world’s welding fabricators. Despite its sixty years of history, research and
development continue to provide improvements to
this process, and the effort has been rewarded with
high quality results.
• Higher welder efficiencies and operator factor, when compared
to other open arc welding processes.
• GMAW is easily adapted for high-speed robotic, hard
automation and semiautomatic welding applications.
This publication’s purpose is to provide the reader
with the basic concepts of the gas metal arc welding
(GMAW) process, and then provide an examination of
more recent process developments. Additionally, the
reader will find technical data and direction, providing
the opportunity to optimize the operation of the
GMAW process and all of its variants.
• All-position welding capability.
• Excellent weld bead appearance.
• Lower hydrogen weld deposit — generally less than
5 mL/100 g of weld metal.
• Lower heat input when compared to other welding processes.
• A minimum of weld spatter and slag makes weld clean up fast
and easy.
Process Definition
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), by definition, is an
arc welding process which produces the coalescence
of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuously fed filler metal electrode and the work. The
process uses shielding from an externally supplied
gas to protect the molten weld pool. The application
of GMAW generally requires DC+ (reverse) polarity to
the electrode.
• Less welding fumes when compared to SMAW (Shielded
Metal Arc Welding) and FCAW (Flux-Cored Arc Welding)
processes.
Benefits of GMAW
• Generally, lower cost per length of weld metal deposited when
compared to other open arc welding processes.
In non-standard terminology, GMAW is commonly
known as MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding and it is less
commonly known as MAG (Metal Active Gas) welding.
In either case, the GMAW process lends itself to weld
a wide range of both solid carbon steel and tubular
metal-cored electrodes. The alloy material range for
GMAW includes: carbon steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, silicon
bronze and tubular metal-cored surfacing alloys.
The GMAW process lends itself to semiautomatic,
robotic automation and hard automation welding
applications.
• Lower cost electrode.
• Less distortion with GMAW-P (Pulsed Spray Transfer Mode),
GMAW-S (Short-Circuit Transfer Mode) and STT™ (Surface
Tension Transfer™).
• Handles poor fit-up with GMAW-S and STT modes.
• Reduced welding fume generation.
• Minimal post-weld cleanup.
Limitations of GMAW
Advantages of GMAW
• The lower heat input characteristic of the short-circuiting
mode of metal transfer restricts its use to thin materials.
The GMAW process enjoys widespread use because
of its ability to provide high quality welds, for a wide
range of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys, at a low price.
GMAW also has the following advantages:
• The higher heat input axial spray transfer generally restricts its
use to thicker base materials.
• The higher heat input mode of axial spray is restricted to flat
or horizontal welding positions.
• The ability to join a wide range of material types and
thicknesses.
• The use of argon based shielding gas for axial spray and
pulsed spray transfer modes is more expensive than 100%
carbon dioxide (CO2).
• Simple equipment components are readily available
and affordable.
GMAW
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Gas Metal Arc Welding Guidelines
Editor:
Jeff Nadzam, Senior Application Engineer
Contributors:
Frank Armao, Senior Application Engineer
Lisa Byall, Marketing GMAW Products
Damian Kotecki, Ph.D., Consumable Research and Development
Duane Miller, Design and Engineering Services
Important Information on our Website
Consumable AWS Certificates:
www.lincolnelectric.com/products/certificates/
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS):
www.lincolnelectric.com/products/msds/
ANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting and Arc Welding
Safety Checklist:
www.lincolnelectric.com/community/safely/
Request E205 Safety Booklet:
www.lincolnelectric.com/pdfs/products/literature/e205.pdf
GMAW
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Contents
Page
History of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Modes of Metal Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-10
Short-Circuit Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Globular Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Axial Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Pulsed Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Components of the Welding Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Shielding Gases for GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-15
Inert Shielding Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Reactive Shielding Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-13
Binary Shielding Gas Blends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-14
Ternary Shielding Gas Blends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
GMAW Shielding Gas Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Effects of Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16-17
Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Electrode Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Deposition Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16-17
Electrode Extension and CTWD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Advanced Welding Processes for GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-19
Waveform Control Technology™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-19
The Adaptive Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-21
Advanced Waveform Control Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Surface Tension Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-21
Tandem GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-23
Features of Tandem GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Modes of Metal Transfer for Tandem GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-23
Equipment for GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-31
The Power Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
The Wire Drive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26-27
Special Wire Feeding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-29
Shielding Gas Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Bulk Electrode Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Typical GMAW Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30-31
Semiautomatic GMAW System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Automatic GMAW System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Portable Engine Driven GMAW System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
GMAW Torches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-33
For Semiautomatic GMAW Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-32
For Hard and Robotic Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
GMAW
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Contents
Page
GMAW of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34-39
Selecting Carbon and Low Alloy Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Types of GMAW Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35-36
Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
AWS Specifications for Manufacturing GMAW Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Selecting Carbon and Low Alloy Electrodes for GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38-39
GMAW of Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40-57
Types of Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40-42
Sensitization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43-44
Hot Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44-45
Precipitation Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Duplex Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Physical and Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47-49
Selecting Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels in Various Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Design for Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Selecting Stainless Steel Electrodes for GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52-54
GMAW of Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54-56
GMAW of Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57-64
Properties of Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Aluminum GMAW Modes of Metal Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Power Supplies and Wire Drives for Aluminum GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58-59
Shielding Gases for Aluminum GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Filler Alloy for Aluminum GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Aluminum GMAW Welding Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60-61
Filler Metal Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62-63
Chemical Composition for Aluminum Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Selecting Aluminum Electrodes for GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Aluminum Filler Metal Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
General Welding Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65-77
Current vs. Wire Feed Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65-66
General Welding Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67-77
STT II Welding Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78-81
For Carbon Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78-79
For Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
For Nickel Alloy and Silicon Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
For Pipe Root Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Rapid-Arc Welding Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82-87
For Solid Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82-84
For Metal-Cored Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84-86
Application Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86-87
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88-89
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90-93
GMAW
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History of Gas Metal Arc Welding
The history of GMAW, gas metal arc welding, had its industrial
introduction in the late 1940’s. The site was the Battelle
Memorial Institute, and it was there that Hobart and Devers,
sponsored by the Air Reduction Company, researched and
developed the first use of a continuously fed aluminum wire
electrode, shielded with 100% argon gas.
In the 1990’s, research and development in welding power
source technology continued to evolve. The Lincoln Electric
Company took the lead in developing a wide range of power
source platforms designed with the optimized arc in mind.
Widely recognized as Waveform Control Technology™ the
Lincoln Electric welding systems incorporate an inverter based
transformer design with a high speed, computerized control
circuit. Software developed programs provide an expansive
array of synergic and non-synergic optimized arc welding
programs for the following welding processes:
GMAW — Gas Metal Arc Welding
FCAW — Flux-Cored Arc Welding
GTAW — Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
SMAW — Shielded Metal Arc Welding
CAC-A — Carbon Arc Cutting Process
Axial spray transfer for aluminum was the earliest metal transfer
mode for the process. This eventually led to the use of argon
plus small additions of oxygen. The oxygen improved arc stability
and finally permitted the use of axial spray transfer on ferrous
materials. The process was limited because of the high energy
level of axial spray transfer to plate thickness material.
In the early 1950’s, the work of Lyubavshkii and Novoshilov
initiated the development of the GMAW process to include the
use of large diameters of steel electrode shielded with carbon
dioxide, a reactive gas. The process development at this stage
was high in weld spatter, and the level of heat generated by the
arc made the process uninviting to welders.
Among the newer advanced Waveform Control Technology™
processes is Surface Tension Transfer™, or STT™. STT is a
low heat input mode of weld metal transfer, which incorporates
a high-speed reactive power source to meet the instantaneous
needs of the arc. The power source is a waveform generator,
which is therefore neither a constant current nor constant
voltage power source.
In the late 1950’s improvements in power source technology
and the interface of small diameter electrodes, in the 0.035" 0.062" (0.9 - 1.6 mm) diameter range, permitted the implementation of the discrete mode known as short-circuiting transfer.
This development permitted the use of lower heat input welding
on thin sections of base material, and it provided the opportunity
for all-position welding.
Unique to STT, is the application of applying welding current
independent of the wire feed speed. This feature has the benefit
of increasing or decreasing the welding current to increase or
decrease heat input. Fundamentally, STT provides an answer
for controlling the welding conditions, that can produce
incomplete fusion. The STT welding mode has the dual benefit
of increasing productivity, and improving overall weld quality.
See Advanced Welding Processes for GMAW on page 18.
In the early 1960’s, power source research and development led
to the introduction of pulsed spray in the GMAW mode. The
idea for pulsed spray transfer, GMAW-P, occurred in the 1950’s
and it conceptually involved the use of a high-speed transition
between a high-energy peak current to a low background
current. The motivation behind the idea was the need to
decrease spatter and eliminate incomplete fusion defects. The
pulsed arc process incorporated the benefits of axial spray
transfer — clean, spatter-free welds having excellent fusion,
with lower heat input. The lower average current provided by
GMAW-P allowed for out-of-position welding capability with
improved weld quality, when compared with short-circuit
transfer.
The GMAW process is flexible in its ability to provide sound
welds for a very wide base material type and thickness range.
Central to the application of GMAW is a basic understanding of
the interplay between several essential variables:
• The thickness range of the base material to be welded
will dictate the electrode diameter, and the useable current
range.
• The shielding gas selection will influence the selection of the
mode of metal transfer, and will have a definite effect on the
finished weld profile.
The 1970’s introduced power source technology, which further
enhanced the development of the GMAW process and GMAW-P
in particular. This period saw the incorporation of the earliest
thyristor power sources for pulsed GMAW. The Welding
Institute of the United Kingdom is largely responsible for
determining the linear relationship between pulsed frequency
and wire feed speed. The algorithm for this mathematical relationship permitted a fundamental base for subsequent synergic
transistor controlled power sources. The new high speed
electronic controls improved the interface between welding
sophistication and the welding shop floor. The new descriptor
for this development was the word "Synergic." As it relates,
synergy means: one knob control – as the welder increases or
decreases wire feed speed, a predetermined pulsed energy is
automatically applied to the arc. Synergic power sources made
it easier to use GMAW-P.
GMAW
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Modes of Metal Transfer
Short-Circuit Metal Transfer
Description of Short-Circuiting Transfer
The transfer of a single molten droplet of electrode occurs
during the shorting phase of the transfer cycle (See Figure 2).
Physical contact of the electrode occurs with the molten weld
pool, and the number of short-circuiting events can occur up to
200 times per second. The current delivered by the welding
power supply rises, and the rise in current accompanies an
increase in the magnetic force applied to the end of the
electrode. The electromagnetic field, which surrounds the
electrode, provides the force, which squeezes (more commonly
known as pinch) the molten droplet from the end of the electrode.
Current (A)
Electrode
Pinch effect force, P
Because of the low-heat input associated with short-circuiting
transfer, it is more commonly applied to sheet metal thickness
material. However, it has frequently found use for welding the
root pass in thicker sections of material in open groove joints.
The short-circuiting mode lends itself to root pass applications
on heavier plate groove welds or pipe.
FIGURE 1: Pinch Effect During Short-Circuiting Transfer
Short-circuiting metal transfer, known by the acronym GMAW-S,
is a mode of metal transfer, whereby a continuously fed solid or
metal-cored wire electrode is deposited during repeated electrical
short-circuits.
Solid wire electrodes for short-circuiting transfer range from
0.025” - 0.045” (0.6 –1.1 mm). The shielding gas selection
includes 100% CO2, and binary blends of argon + CO2 or
argon + O2. Occasionally ternary blends, (three part mixes), of
argon + CO2 + oxygen are sometimes employed to meet the
needs of a particular application.
The short-circuiting metal transfer mode is the low heat input
mode of metal transfer for GMAW. All of the metal transfer
occurs when the electrode is electrically shorted (in physical
contact) with the base material or molten puddle. Central to the
successful operation of short-circuiting transfer is the diameter
of electrode, the shielding gas type and the welding procedure
employed. This mode of metal transfer typically supports the use
of 0.025” - 0.045” (0.6 - 1.1 mm) diameter electrodes shielded
with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 75-80% argon, plus
25-20% CO2. The low heat input attribute makes it ideal for
sheet metal thickness materials. The useable base material
thickness range for short-circuiting transfer is typically considered
to be 0.024” – 0.20” (0.6 – 5.0 mm) material. Other names
commonly applied to short-circuiting transfer include short arc
microwire welding, fine wire welding, and dip transfer.
Current
Current
FIGURE 2: Oscillograms and Sketches of Short
Circuiting Transfer
Time
Time
Advantages of Short-Circuiting Transfer
Arcing Period
Arcing
Period
Extinction
Extinction
Voltage
Voltage
Zero
Zero
Reignition
Reignition
P ∝ A2
Short
Short
Zero
Zero
• All-position capability, including flat, horizontal, vertical-up,
vertical-down and overhead.
• Handles poor fit-up extremely well, and is capable of root
pass work on pipe applications.
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
E
E
A
The solid or metal-cored electrode makes physical contact with the molten puddle.
The arc voltage approaches zero, and the current level increases. The rate of rise to
the peak current is affected by the amount of applied inductance.
B
• Restricted to sheet metal thickness range and open roots of
groove joints on heavier sections of base material.
This point demonstrates the effect of electromagnetic forces that are applied
uniformly around the electrode. The application of this force necks or pinches the
electrode. The voltage very slowly begins to climb through the period before
detachment, and the current continues to climb to a peak value.
C
• Poor welding procedure control can result in incomplete
fusion. Cold lap and cold shut are additional terms that serve
to describe incomplete fusion defects.
This is the point where the molten droplet is forced from the tip of the electrode.
The current reaches its maximum peak at this point. Jet forces are applied to the
molten puddle and their action prevents the molten puddle from rebounding and
reattaching itself to the electrode.
D
• Poor procedure control can result in excessive spatter, and
will increase weldment cleanup cost.
This is the tail-out region of the short-circuit waveform, and it is during this downward excursion toward the background current when the molten droplet reforms.
E
The electrode at this point is, once again, making contact with the molten puddle,
preparing for the transfer of another droplet. The frequency of this varies between
20 and 200 times per second. The frequency of the short-circuit events is
influenced by the amount of inductance and the type of shielding gas. Additions of
argon increase the frequency of short-circuits and it reduces the size of the molten
droplet.
• Lower heat input reduces weldment distortion.
• Higher operator appeal and ease of use.
• Higher electrode efficiencies, 93% or more.
Limitations of Short-Circuiting Transfer
• To prevent the loss of shielding gas to the wind, welding outdoors may require the use of a windscreen(s).
GMAW
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move towards the contact tip. Cathode jet forces, that move
upwards from the work-piece, are responsible for the irregular
shape and the upward spinning motion of the molten droplets.
Inductance Control
Keywords:
Rate of Current Rise
Henries
The process at this current level is difficult to control, and spatter
is severe. Gravity is instrumental in the transfer of the large
molten droplets, with occasional short-circuits.
Variable Inductance
Fixed Inductance
During the 1960’s and 1970’s, globular transfer was a popular
mode of metal transfer for high production sheet metal fabrication. The transfer mode is associated with the use of 100% CO2
shielding, but it has also seen heavy use with argon/CO2 blends.
For general fabrication on carbon steel, it provides a mode of
transfer, just below the transition to axial spray transfer, which
has lent itself to higher speed welding.
The application of an inductance control feature is typical for
most GMAW power sources. Inductance has effects only in the
short-circuit transfer mode. Usually, inductance is either fixed or
variable; and this depends upon the design of the power source.
A fixed inductance power source indicates that an optimum level
of inductance is built into the power source, and variable
inductance indicates that the amount of inductance applied to
the arc is adjustable. Inductance controls the rate of current rise
following the short-circuit condition. Consequently, its use is
beneficial because its adjustment facilitates adding or decreasing
energy to the short-circuit condition. Inductance plays a role in
the frequency of droplet transfer per unit of time: as the
inductance increases, the frequency of short-circuit metal
transfer decreases. Each droplet contains more energy and toe
wetting improves. As the inductance decreases, the shortcircuit events increase, and the size of the molten droplet
decreases. The objective for the variable inductance control
feature, on any given power source, is to transfer the smallest
molten droplet possible with the least amount of spatter, and
with sufficient energy to ensure good fusion. Additions of
inductance will provide the essential energy to improve toe wetting.
The use of globular transfer in high production settings is being
replaced with advanced forms of GMAW. The change is being
made to GMAW-P, which results in lower fume levels, lower or
absent spatter levels, and elimination of incomplete fusion
defects.
Advantages of Globular Transfer
• Uses inexpensive CO2 shielding gas, but is frequently used
with argon/CO2 blends.
• Is capable of making welds at very high travel speeds.
• Inexpensive solid or metal-cored electrodes.
• Welding equipment is inexpensive.
Limitations of Globular Transfer:
• Higher spatter levels result in costly cleanup.
Inductance is measured in Henries, and in a variable inductance
power source it is the resulting arc performance characteristic
that results from the interplay of a combination of electrical
components. These components typically include the choke
filter, capacitors, and power resistors.
• Reduced operator appeal.
Globular Transfer
• High spatter level reduces electrode efficiency to a range of
87 – 93%.
• Prone to cold lap or cold shut incomplete fusion defects,
which results in costly repairs.
• Weld bead shape is convex, and welds exhibit poor wetting at
the toes.
Globular Transfer
FIGURE 3: Globular Weld Metal Transfer Characteristics
Globular metal transfer is a GMAW mode of metal transfer,
whereby a continuously fed solid or metal-cored wire electrode
is deposited in a combination of short-circuits and gravity-assisted
large drops. The larger droplets are irregularly shaped.
During the use of all metal-cored or solid wire electrodes for
GMAW, there is a transition where short-circuiting transfer ends
and globular transfer begins. Globular transfer characteristically
gives the appearance of large irregularly shaped molten droplets
that are larger than the diameter of the electrode. The irregularly
shaped molten droplets do not follow an axial detachment from
the electrode, instead they can fall out of the path of the weld or
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•
•
•
•
•
Axial Spray Transfer
Keywords:
Globular to Axial Spray Transition Current
Weld Interface
High operator appeal and ease of use.
Requires little post weld cleanup.
Absence of weld spatter.
Excellent weld fusion.
Lends itself to semiautomatic, robotic, and hard automation
applications.
Limitations of Axial Spray Transfer
• Restricted to the flat and horizontal welding positions.
• Welding fume generation is higher.
• The higher-radiated heat and the generation of a very bright
arc require extra welder and bystander protection.
• The use of axial spray transfer outdoors requires the use of a
windscreen(s).
• The shielding used to support axial spray transfer costs more
than 100% CO2.
FIGURE 4: Axial Spray Weld Metal Transfer Characteristics
Axial spray metal transfer is the higher energy mode of metal
transfer, whereby a continuously fed solid or metal-cored wire
electrode is deposited at a higher energy level, resulting in a
stream of small molten droplets. The droplets are propelled
axially across the arc.
TABLE 1 — Transition Currents for Axial Spray Transfer
GMAW Axial Spray Transition Currents for Solid and Composite
Carbon Steel Electrodes and Stainless Steel Solid Wire Electrodes
Axial spray transfer is the higher energy form of GMAW metal
transfer. To achieve axial spray transfer, binary blends containing
argon + 1-5 % oxygen or argon + CO2, where the CO2 levels
are 18% or less. Axial spray transfer is supported by either the
use of solid wire or metal-cored electrodes. Axial spray transfer
may be used with all of the common alloys including: aluminum,
magnesium, carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel alloys, and
copper alloys.
Filler Metal
Type
For most of the diameters of filler metal alloys, the change to
axial spray transfer takes place at the globular to spray transition
current. A stream of fine metal droplets that travel axially from
the end of the electrode characterizes the axial spray mode of
metal transfer. The high puddle fluidity restricts its use to the
horizontal and flat welding positions.
Carbon and
Low Alloy
Solid Steel
For carbon steel, axial spray transfer is applied to heavier section
thickness material for fillets and for use in groove type weld
joints. The use of argon shielding gas compositions of 95%, with
a balance of oxygen, creates a deep finger-like penetration
profile, while shielding gas mixes that contain more than 10%
CO2 reduce the finger-like penetration profile and provide a
more rounded type of penetration.
Carbon and
Low Alloy
Composite
Steel
The selection of axial spray metal transfer is dependent upon the
thickness of base material and the ability to position the weld
joint into the horizontal or flat welding positions. Finished weld
bead appearance is excellent, and operator appeal is very high.
Axial spray transfer provides its best results when the weld joint
is free of oil, dirt, rust, and millscale.
Stainless
Steel
Electrode
Diameter
Inches (mm)
Shielding
Gas
Approximate
Current
(Amps)
0.030
0.035
0.045
0.052
0.062
(0.8)
(0.9)
(1.2)
(1.3)
(1.6)
90% Argon, 10% CO2
90% Argon, 10% CO2
90% Argon, 10% CO2
90% Argon, 10% CO2
90% Argon, 10% CO2
155 - 165
175 - 185
215 - 225
265 - 275
280 - 290
0.035
0.045
0.052
0.062
(0.9)
(1.2)
(1.3)
(1.6)
98% Argon, 2% O2
98% Argon, 2% O2
98% Argon, 2% O2
98% Argon, 2% O2
130 - 140
205 - 215
240 - 250
265 - 275
0.040
0.045
0.052
0.062
(1.0)
(1.2)
(1.3)
(1.6)
90% Argon, 10% CO2
90% Argon, 10% CO2
90% Argon, 10% CO2
90% Argon, 10% CO2
140 - 150
160 - 170
170 - 180
220 - 230
0.030
0.035
0.045
0.062
(0.8)
(0.9)
(1.2)
(1.6)
98% Argon, 2% O2
98% Argon, 2% O2
98% Argon, 2% O2
98% Argon, 2% O2
120 - 130
140 - 150
185 - 195
250 - 260
0.030
0.035
0.045
0.062
(0.8)
(0.9)
(1.2)
(1.6)
98% Argon, 2% CO2
98% Argon, 2% CO2
98% Argon, 2% CO2
98% Argon, 2% CO2
130 - 140
200 - 210
145 - 155
255 - 265
Advantages of Axial Spray Transfer
• High deposition rates.
• High electrode efficiency of 98% or more.
• Employs a wide range of filler metal types in an equally wide
range of electrode diameters.
• Excellent weld bead appearance.
GMAW
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Pulsed Spray Transfer
FIGURE 5: A Single Pulsed Event
Keywords:
Period
(1) Front Flank Ramp-up Rate
Peak Current
(2) Overshoot
(4)
4
Background Current
(3) Peak Current
(2)
2
(4) Peak Time
Frequency
(5) Tail-out
Pulsed spray metal transfer, known by the acronym GMAW-P,
is a highly controlled variant of axial spray transfer, in which the
welding current is cycled between a high peak current level to a
low background current level. Metal transfer occurs during the
high energy peak level in the form of a single molten droplet.
Current
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
GMAW-P was developed for two demanding reasons: control of
weld spatter and the elimination of incomplete fusion defects
common to globular and short-circuiting transfer. Its earliest
application included the welding of high strength low alloy base
material for out-of-position ship hull fabrication. The advantages
that it brought to the shipbuilding industry included: higher
efficiency electrodes than FCAW, and the ability to deliver lower
hydrogen weld deposits. The mode employs electrode diameters
from 0.030” – 1/16” (0.8 – 1.6 mm) solid wire electrodes and
metal-cored electrodes from 0.045” – 5/64” (1.1 – 2.0 mm)
diameter. It is used for welding a wide range of material types.
Argon based shielding gas selection with a maximum of 18%
CO2 supports the use of pulsed spray metal transfer with
carbon steels.
(3)
3
(6) Tail-out Speed
(7) Step-off Current
(6)
6
(1)1
(8) Background Current
(5)
5
(9) Period and Frequency
(7)
7
(8)
8
(9)
9
Time
TIME(mS)
(mS)
Advantages of Pulsed Spray Transfer
• Absent or very low levels of spatter.
• More resistant to lack of fusion defects than other modes of
GMAW metal transfer.
• Excellent weld bead appearance.
• High operator appeal.
• Offers an engineered solution for the control of weld fume
generation.
• Reduced levels of heat induced distortion.
• Ability to weld out-of-position.
• Lower hydrogen deposit.
• Reduces the tendency for arc blow.
• Handles poor fit-up.
• When compared to FCAW, SMAW, and GMAW-S, pulsed
spray transfer provides a low cost high-electrode efficiency
of 98%.
• Lends itself to robotic and hard automation applications.
• Is combined for use with Tandem GMAW Twinarc™ or other
multiple arc scenarios.
• Capable of arc travel speeds greater than 50 inches per
minute (1.2 M/min.).
The welding current alternates between a peak current and a
lower background current, and this controlled dynamic of the
current results in a lower average current than is found with axial
spray transfer. The time, which includes the peak current and
the background current, is a period, and the period is known as
a cycle (Hz). The high current excursion exceeds the globular to
spray transition current, and the low current is reduced to a
value lower than is seen with short-circuiting transfer. Ideally,
during the peak current, the high point of the period, a single
droplet of molten metal is detached and transferred across the
arc. The descent to the lower current, known as the background
current, provides arc stability and is largely responsible for the
overall heat input into the weld. The frequency is the number of
times the period occurs per second, or cycles per second. The
frequency of the period increases in proportion to the wire feed
speed. Taken together they produce an average current, which
leverages its use in a wide material thickness range.
Limitations of Pulsed Spray Transfer
• Equipment to support the process is more expensive than
traditional systems.
GMAW Mode of Metal Transfer Selector
Pulsed Spray Transfer
• Blends of argon based shielding gas are more expensive than
carbon dioxide.
Surface Tension Transfer™
• Higher arc energy requires the use of additional safety
protection for welders and bystanders.
Axial Spray Transfer
Short-Circuit Transfer
• Adds complexity to welding.
• Requires the use of windscreens outdoors.
Material Thickness Range
UT(1)
19.0mm
3/4”
12.5mm
1/2”
6.4mm
1/4”
3.2mm
1/8”
1.6mm
1/16”
0.9mm
0.035”
(1) UT = Unlimited Base Material Thickness.
GMAW
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Components of the Welding Arc
Keywords:
Electromagnetic Forces
When current flows through a conductor, a magnetic field builds
and surrounds the conductor. In GMAW the electro-magnetic
forces, which are mathematically proportional to the square of
the applied current, affect the mode of metal transfer. The most
common term applied to the electromagnetic force is the pinch
effect. As the molten drop forms, it is uniformly squeezed from
the electrode anode end by the electromagnetic force. The size
of the droplet transferred depends upon this force, the applied
welding current, and the shielding gas.
Anode Region
Cathode Region
Arc Plasma Region
Electromagnetic Forces
Gravity – Droplet Weight
Surface Tension Forces
Jet Forces
The area of the welding arc is a region of high complexity that is
comprised of physical forces and chemical reactions. The
interaction of the components of the arc affects metal transfer
and the quality of the finished weld. The behavior of the arc is
influenced by:
Surface Tension Forces
Surface tension forces are those forces, which are normal to the
surface of a molten droplet. They act on both the interior and
the exterior surface of the droplet. Together they serve to
support the form of a molten droplet. There is always an inward
pull of the forces applied to the surface.
• The type and diameter of the filler metal.
• The base metal conditions — clean or millscale.
• The shielding gas.
Jet Forces
• The welding parameters — voltage and current.
In the short-circuiting mode of metal transfer, during the shorting
portion of the metal transfer cycle, higher currents cause the
electrode to heat to the point of melting. The high current drives
an increase in the electromagnetic force, which causes the
molten metal to detach from the electrode. As the droplet
meets the weld pool, the surface tension forces supporting the
molten droplet release and the molten droplet then adds itself to
the molten weld pool.
• The interaction of physical forces — gravity, surface tension,
jet forces, and electromagnetic force.
The character of the mode of metal transfer, the penetration
profile, and the bead shape are influenced by the forces applied
to the metal as it moves from the electrode end to the work-piece.
In the globular transfer mode, a large molten droplet develops.
Surface tension forces support the formation of the molten
droplet, and jet forces push against the large droplet. The jet
forces are responsible for supporting, spinning, and pushing the
large droplet in an irregular fashion within the arc. The transfer
occurs by the occasional shorting of the large droplet to the
weld pool and the force of gravity. Once the droplet contacts
the molten pool or work-piece, the surface tension forces in the
droplet collapse, and the volume of weld metal is absorbed by
the puddle.
Anode (+)
Anode
(+)
The shielding gas employed in a welding application has an
effect on the surface tension forces. If the energy level within the
arc is high, as is the case with a 100% argon gas employed with
a carbon steel electrode, then the bead shape will be extremely
convex. If the surface tension value is low, because of the addition of carbon dioxide or oxygen, then the bead shape will be
less convex, and more acceptable. So the addition of active gas
components will result in improved weld bead and overall arc
performance with carbon steel electrodes.
{
Gas
Ionized
Gas
Plasma Ionized
Plasma
Metal
Vapor
Metal
Vapor
Cathode
Cathode(-)(—)
FIGURE 6: Cross Section of a GMAW Arc
GMAW
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Shielding Gases for GMAW
The selection of the correct shielding gas for a given application
is critical to the quality of the finished weld. The criteria used to
make the selection includes, but is not restricted to, the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
argon will result in a penetration profile with a finger-like
projection into the base material, and this is due to the lower
thermal conductivity of argon.
Alloy of wire electrode.
Desired mechanical properties of the deposited weld metal.
Material thickness and joint design.
Material condition – the presence of millscale, corrosion,
resistant coatings, or oil.
The mode of GMAW metal transfer.
The welding position.
Fit-up conditions.
Desired penetration profile.
Desired final weld bead appearance.
Cost.
Inert Shielding Gases
Argon is the most commonly used inert gas. Compared to
helium its thermal conductivity is low. Its energy required to
give up an electron, ionization energy, is low, and this results in
the finger-like penetration profile associated with its use. Argon
supports axial spray transfer. Nickel, copper, aluminum, titanium,
and magnesium alloyed base materials use 100% argon
shielding. Argon, because of its lower ionization energy, assists
with arc starting. It is the main component gas used in binary
(two-part) or ternary (three-part) mixes for GMAW welding. It
also increases the molten droplet transfer rate.
Helium is commonly added to the gas mix for stainless and
aluminum applications. Its thermal conductivity is very high,
resulting in the broad but less deep penetration profile.
When in use, arc stability will require additions of arc voltage.
Helium additions to argon are effective in reducing the dilution of
base material in corrosion resistant applications. Helium/argon
blends are commonly used for welding aluminum greater than 1”
(25 mm) thick.
Under the heat of the arc, shielding gases respond in different
ways. The flow of current in the arc, and its magnitude, has a
profound effect on the behavior of the molten droplet. In some
cases, a given shielding gas will optimally lend itself to one
transfer mode, but will be incapable of meeting the needs of
another. Three basic criteria are useful in understanding the
properties of shielding gas:
• Ionization potential of the gas components
• Thermal conductivity of the shielding gas components
• The chemical reactivity of the shielding gas with the molten
weld puddle
Reactive Shielding Gases
Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide (CO2) are
reactive gases. Reactive gases combine chemically with the
weld pool to produce a desirable effect.
The following discussion details the arc physics associated with
specific shielding gases, and permits the selection of the best
shielding gas for the application.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is inert at room temperature. In the
presence of the arc plasma and the molten weld puddle it is
reactive. In the high energy of the arc plasma the CO2 molecule
breaks apart in a process known as dissociation. In this
process, free carbon, carbon monoxide, and oxygen release
from the CO2 molecule. This occurs at the DC+ anode region
of the arc. At the DC- cathode region, which is invariably the
work piece for GMAW, the released elements of the CO2
molecule undergo the process of recombination. During recombination higher energy levels exist and are responsible for the
deep and broad penetration profile that characterizes the use of
carbon dioxide.
Shielding Gases
Argon and helium are the two inert shielding gases used for
protecting the molten weld pool. The inert classification indicates
that neither argon nor helium will react chemically with the
molten weld pool. However, in order to become a conductive
gas, that is, a plasma, the gas must be ionized. Different gases
require different amounts of energy to ionize, and this is
measured in terms of the ionization energy. For argon, the
ionization energy is 15.7 eV. Helium, on the other hand, has an
ionization energy of 24.5 eV. Thus, it is easier to ionize argon
than helium. For this reason argon facilitates better arc starting
than helium.
Dissociation and Recombination
During the process of dissociation, the free elements of the CO2
molecule (carbon, carbon monoxide, and oxygen) mix with the
molten weld pool or recombine at the colder cathode region of
the arc to form, once again, carbon dioxide. The free oxygen
combines chemically with the silicon, manganese, and iron to
form oxides of silicon, manganese and iron. Formed oxides,
commonly referred to as silica islands, float to the surface of the
weld pool, then solidify into islands on the surface of the finished
weld or collect at the toes of a weld. Higher levels of carbon
dioxide (higher oxidation potential) increases the amount of slag
formed on the surface of the weld. Lower levels of carbon
dioxide (lower oxidation potential) increase the amount of alloy,
The thermal conductivity, or the ability of the gas to transfer
thermal energy, is the most important consideration for selecting
a shielding gas. High thermal conductivity levels result in more
conduction of the thermal energy into the workpiece. The
thermal conductivity also affects the shape of the arc and the
temperature distribution within the region. Argon has a lower
thermal conductivity rate — about 10% of the level for both
helium and hydrogen. The high thermal conductivity of helium
will provide a broader penetration pattern and will reduce the
depth of penetration. Gas mixtures with high percentages of
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silicon and manganese retained in the weld. As a result, lower
carbon dioxide levels, in a binary or ternary shielding gas blend,
increase the yield and ultimate tensile strength of a finished weld
(see Shielding Gas section on page 12).
Common Argon + Helium Blends
75% Argon + 25% Helium — this binary blend is frequently
applied to improve the penetration profile for aluminum, copper,
and nickel applications. The puddle is more fluid than with 100%
argon.
Oxygen (O2) is an oxidizer that reacts with components in the
molten puddle to form oxides. In small additions (1-5%), with a
balance of argon, it provides good arc stability and excellent
weld bead appearance. The use of deoxidizers within the
chemistry of filler alloys compensates for the oxidizing effect of
oxygen. Silicon and manganese combine with oxygen to form
oxides. The oxides float to the surface of the weld bead to form
small islands, and are more abundant under CO2 shielding than
with blends of argon and oxygen gas.
75% Helium + 25% Argon — the higher helium content increases
the thermal conductivity and puddle fluidity. The penetration
profile is broad, and it exhibits excellent sidewall penetration.
Argon + CO2
The most commonly found binary gas blends are those used for
carbon steel GMAW welding. All four traditional modes of
GMAW metal transfer are used with argon/CO2 binary blends.
They have also enjoyed success in pulsed GMAW applications
on stainless steel where the CO2 does not exceed 4%.
Hydrogen (H2) in small percentages (1-5%), is added to argon
for shielding stainless steel and nickel alloys. Its higher thermal
conductivity produces a fluid puddle, which promotes improved
toe wetting and permits the use of faster travel speeds.
Axial spray transfer requires CO2 contents less than 18%.
Argon/CO2 combinations are preferred where millscale is an
unavoidable welding condition. As the CO2 percentage increases,
so does the tendency to increase heat input and risk burnthrough. Argon/CO2 blends up to 18% CO2 support pulsed
spray transfer.
Binary Shielding Gas Blends
Two-part shielding gas blends are the most common and they
are typically made up of either argon + helium, argon + CO2, or
argon + oxygen.
Short-circuiting transfer is a low heat input mode of metal
transfer that can use argon/CO2 combinations. Optimally, these
modes benefit from CO2 levels greater than or equal to 20%.
Use caution with higher levels of argon with short-circuit metal
transfer.
Argon + Helium
Argon/helium binary blends are useful for welding nickel based
alloys and aluminum. The mode of metal transfer used is either
axial spray transfer or pulsed spray transfer. The addition of
helium provides more puddle fluidity and flatter bead shape.
Helium promotes higher travel speeds. For aluminum GMAW,
helium reduces the finger-like projection found with pure argon.
Helium is also linked to reducing the appearance of hydrogen
pores in welds that are made using aluminum magnesium fillers
with 5XXX series base alloys. The argon component provides
excellent arc starting and promotes cleaning action on
aluminum.
FIGURE 7: Bead contour and penetration patterns for various shielding gases
Argon
Argon
Argon -– Helium
Helium
Argon
Helium
Helium
CO2
CO
2
FIGURE 8: Relative effect of Oxygen versus CO2 additions to the argon shield
Argon
Argon- –Oxygen
Oxygen
Argon
CO22
Argon –- CO
CO
CO
2 2
GMAW
13
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Common Short-Circuiting Transfer Shielding Gas Blends
75% Argon + 25% CO2 — reduces spatter and improves weld
bead appearance on carbon steel applications.
80% Argon + 20% CO2 — another popular blend, which further
reduces spatter and enhances weld bead appearance on carbon
steel applications.
95% Argon + 5% Oxygen — general purpose axial spray or
pulsed spray transfer shielding gas applied to heavier sections of
carbon steel. The base material is usually required to be free of
contaminants with a low level of millscale.
Ternary Gas Shielding Blends
Three-part shielding gas blends continue to be popular for
carbon steel, stainless steel, and, in restricted cases, nickel
alloys. For short-circuiting transfer on carbon steel the addition
of 40% helium, to argon and CO2, as a third component to the
shielding gas blend, provides a broader penetration profile.
Helium provides greater thermal conductivity for short-circuiting
transfer applications on carbon steel and stainless steel base
materials. The broader penetration profile and increased
sidewall fusion reduces the tendency for incomplete fusion.
Common Axial Spray Transfer shielding gas blends
98% Argon + 2% CO2 — for axial or pulsed spray with stainless
steel electrodes and carbon steel electrodes. This blend has
seen repeated success on high-speed sheet metal applications.
There is excellent puddle fluidity and fast travel speeds associated
with this shielding gas blend.
95% Argon + 5% CO2 — for pulsed spray with carbon steel
electrodes. The addition of 5% CO2 provides for additional
puddle fluidity, and it lends itself to heavier fabrication than
blends with 2% CO2.
92% Argon + 8% CO2 — for both axial and pulsed spray
applications on carbon steel. Higher energy in axial spray
transfer increases puddle fluidity.
90% Argon + 10% CO2 — for either axial spray or GMAW-P
applications on carbon steel. The penetration is broader and it
reduces the depth of the finger-like penetration exhibited by
argon + oxygen mixes.
85% Argon + 15% CO2 — the higher CO2 level in axial or
pulsed spray transfer increases sidewall fusion on sheet metal or
plate thickness material. Generally produces improved toe
wetting on carbon steel with low levels of millscale. In GMAW-S,
short circuiting transfer, the lower CO2 level translates to less
heat for welding parts with less risk of burnthrough.
82% Argon + 18% CO2 — the effective limit for axial spray with
CO2. Popular European blend used for a wide range of welding
thicknesses. Broad arc enhances penetration profile along the
weld interface. Also lends itself well for use in short-circuiting
transfer or STT applications.
For stainless steel applications, three-part mixes are quite
common. Helium additions of 55% to 90% are added to argon
and 2.5% CO2 for short-circuiting transfer. They are favored for
reducing spatter, improving puddle fluidity, and for providing a
flatter weld bead shape.
Common Ternary Gas Shielding Blends
90% Helium + 7.5% Argon + 2.5% CO2 — is the most popular
of the short-circuiting blends for stainless steel applications. The
high thermal conductivity of helium provides a flat bead shape
and excellent fusion. This blend has also been adapted for use
in pulsed spray transfer applications, but it is limited to stainless
or nickel base materials greater than .062" (1.6 mm) thick. It is
associated with high travel speeds on stainless steel applications.
55% Helium + 42.5% Argon + 2.5% CO2 — although less
popular than the 90% helium mix discussed above, this blend
features a cooler arc for pulsed spray transfer. It also lends itself
very well to the short-circuiting mode of metal transfer for
stainless and nickel alloy applications. The lower helium
concentration permits its use with axial spray transfer.
38% Helium + 65% Argon + 7% CO2 — this ternary blend is for
use with short-circuiting transfer on mild and low alloy steel
applications. It can also be used on pipe for open root welding.
The high thermal conductivity broadens the penetration profile
and reduces the tendency to cold lap.
90% Argon + 8% CO2 + 2% Oxygen — this ternary mix is
applied to short-circuiting, pulsed spray, and axial spray modes
of metal transfer on carbon steel applications. The high inert
gas component reduces spatter.
Argon + Oxygen
Argon/oxygen blends attain axial spray transfer at lower currents
than argon/CO2 blends. The droplet sizes are smaller, and the
weld pool is more fluid. The use of argon + oxygen has
historically been associated with high travel speed welding on
thin materials. Both stainless steel and carbon steel benefit from
the use of argon/oxygen blends.
99% Argon + 1% Oxygen — used for stainless steel applications.
The use of oxygen as an arc stabilizer enhances the fine droplet
transfer and maintains the puddle fluidity for this gas blend.
Stainless steel welds will appear gray because of the oxidizing
effect on the weld pool.
98% Argon + 2% Oxygen — used as a shielding gas for either
carbon or stainless steel applications. The earliest use of
argon/oxygen blends for axial spray transfer on carbon steel
employed 2% oxygen level. It is typically applied to applications
that require high travel speed on sheet metal. Applied with
either axial spray or pulsed spray transfer modes. Stainless
deposits are dull gray in appearance. This blend is often used
when superior mechanical properties are required from low alloy
carbon steel electrodes.
GMAW
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GMAW SHIELDING GAS SELECTION GUIDE
Base
Material
Carbon Steel
Low Alloy
Steel
Aluminum
Austenitic
Stainless Steel
Electrode
Type
Lincoln GMAW
Product Name
ER70S-3
ER70S-4
ER70S-6
or
E70C-6M
SuperArc®
®
SuperGlide
ER80S-Ni1
ER80S-D2
ER100S-G
ER110S-G
E90C-G
E110C-G
ER1100
ER4043, ER4047
ER5183, ER5356
ER5554, ER5556
ER308LSi
ER309LSi
ER316LSi
Metalshield®
SuperArc
and
Metalshield
Mode of
Metal Transfer
Shielding Gas Blends
GMAW-S or
STT
100% CO2
75-90% Argon + 10-25% CO2
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
82-98% Argon + 2-18% CO2
95-98% Argon + 2-5% Oxygen
90% Argon + 7.5% CO2 + 2.5% Oxygen
GMAW-S or
STT
100% CO2
75-80% Argon + 20-25% CO2
Axial Spray or
GMAW-P
SuperGlaze®
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
(No GMAW-S)
100% Argon
75% Helium + 25% Argon
75% Argon + 25% Helium
100% Helium
GMAW-S
or
STT
98-99% Argon + 1-2% Oxygen
90% Helium + 7.5% Argon + 2.5% CO2
55% Helium + 42.5% Argon + 2.5 CO2
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
98-99% Argon + 1-2% Oxygen
98% Argon + 2% CO2
97-99% Argon + 1-3% Hydrogen
55% Helium + 42.5% Argon + 2.5% CO2
Blue Max®
GMAW-S
or
Nickel
Alloys
Duplex
Stainless Steel
(Second Generation)
ERNiCr-3
ERNiCrMo-4
ERNiCrMo-3
ERNiCrMo-10
ERNiCrMo-14
ERNiCrMo-17
2209
2304
90/10 Copper
Nickel Alloys
ERCuNi
Type 70/30
Copper Alloys
ERCu
(Deoxidized)
Silicon Bronze
and
Brasses
Aluminum
Bronze
Blue Max
95% Argon + 5% CO2
95-98% Argon + 2-5% Oxygen
STT
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
90% Helium + 7.5% Argon + 2.5% CO2
89% Argon + 10.5% Helium + .5% CO2
66.1% Argon + 33% Helium + .9% CO2
75% Argon + 25% Helium
75% Helium + 25% Argon
100% Argon
89% Argon + 10.5% helium + .5% CO2
66.1% Argon + 33% Helium + .9% CO2
75% Helium + 25% Argon
75% Argon + 25% Helium
97-99% Argon + 1-3% Hydrogen
GMAW-S
or
STT
66.1% Argon + 33% Helium + .9% CO2
90% Helium + 7.5% Argon + 2.5% CO2
98-99% Argon + 1-2% Oxygen
98% Argon + 2% CO2
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
75% Argon + 25% Helium
75% Helium + 25% Argon
100% Argon
100% Helium
66.1% Argon + 33% helium + .9% CO2
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
(No GMAW-S)
100% Argon
75% Argon + 25% Helium
75% Helium + 25% Argon
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
100% Argon
75% Argon + 25% Helium
75% Helium + 25% Argon
GMAW-S,
STT,
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
100% Argon
Blue Max
ERCuSi
Axial Spray
or
GMAW-P
Limited GMAW-S
ERCuAl-A1
ERCuAl-A2
ERCuAl-A3
100% Argon
GMAW
15
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Effects of Variables
Current Density
Electrode Efficiencies
Electrode efficiency is a term that is applied to the percentage of
electrode that actually ends up in the weld deposit. Spatter
levels, smoke, and slag formers affect the electrode efficiency in
GMAW. The electrode efficiency is a numeric value that is
assigned to the particular mode of metal transfer:
Keywords:
Current Density
Cross-Sectional Area
Saturated
• GMAW-S, short-circuit transfer, shielded with an argon + CO2
gas blend, will typically operate with an electrode efficiency
equal to or greater than 93%. Shielded by 100% CO2, the
electrode efficiency will range from 90 to 93%. Typically, CO2
increases spatter levels to some extent, and argon blends are
typically useful in reducing, but not completely eliminating,
spatter.
Current density is defined as the current employed with a
particular electrode diameter divided by its current carrying
cross-sectional area. If the wire feed speed is low, then the current density will be low, and vice versa. From this you can determine that:
• Lower current density applied to a given electrode is associated
with the short-circuit mode of metal transfer.
• STT™, a dynamically controlled form of GMAW-S, will attain
electrode efficiencies of 98% .
• Higher current density is associated with the higher energy
modes of metal transfer: globular, axial spray transfer or the
more advanced pulsed spray metal transfer.
• Globular transfer is associated with higher spatter levels that
profoundly impact electrode efficiency. The efficiency of
globular transfer can vary from 85 to 88%, when shielded with
100% CO2. Under argon blends the efficiency may vary from
88 to 90%.
The current for a given GMAW solid or metal-cored electrode
will reach a maximum density level. Once this level of current
density is attained, no additional current can be carried by the
electrode. In other words, the electrode has reached its maximum current density. In particular, Figure 9 demonstrates this
phenomenon for 0.035” (0.9 mm) diameter solid wire. It can be
seen that the current is relatively linear to approximately 200
ampere, but as the current reaches just beyond 210 ampere,
the rise in current becomes exponential. At approximately 280
ampere [720 ipm (18.3 M/min.) wire feed speed], the electrode
reaches its maximum current density. The electrode at this
point becomes saturated with current and no more current can
be added to the electrode. Therefore, the maximum current
density for a given electrode diameter is synonymous with the
concept of current saturation. So it can be speculated that this
phenomenon occurs for all diameters and material types of
electrodes used for GMAW.
• Axial spray has a higher electrode efficiency. This higher energy mode of metal transfer is associated with electrode efficiencies of 98%.
• The electrode efficiency for GMAW-P varies depending upon
the welding application and the sophistication of the power
source. Generally, the efficiency factor applied for GMAW-P is
98%, like that for axial spray, but there may be the need for a
higher travel speed application that requires shorter arc
lengths. High speed pulsed spray transfer types of applications generally introduce higher spatter levels. This necessarily
reduces the electrode efficiency to some lower value.
All of this is related to the amount of electrode that actually ends
up in the weld. If 100 lbs. (45 kg) of 0.035” (0.9 mm) diameter
electrode is purchased for use on a particular project, and the
project calls for the use of GMAW-S, then the effective amount
of electrode that will be expected to end up in the welds will be:
EE x (lbs. Electrode)
= 0.93 x 100 lbs.
= 93 lbs.
FIGURE 9: Typical Welding Currents vs. Wire Feed Speeds
in.
)
2
5
04
0.
300
n.
2i
5
0.0
200
in.
.
(1
3
(1.
m
m
10
m)
m
6
0.0
.
2 in
)
(1.6
mm
5
100
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
400
35
30
500
15
0.0
in. (
600
(0.
0.8
9m
mm
)
700
m)
20
0.0
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
800
NOTE: The calculation assumes no loss of material due to wire clipping.
Deposition Rate
Keywords:
Deposition Rate
Melt-off Rate
0
0
0
50
100
150 200 250 300 350
Welding current, A (DCEP)
400
The melt-off rate for a particular electrode does not include consideration for the efficiency of the mode of metal transfer or the
process. Its interest is in how much electrode is being melted.
450
It is important to note that once the electrode reaches its
maximum current density, the saturation point, any added wire
feed speed will provide a higher deposition rate with no increase
in current.
Deposition rate is applied to the amount of electrode, measured
in wire feed speed per unit of time, that is fed into the molten
puddle. Importantly, its value reflects the use of the factor for
electrode efficiency.
GMAW
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Depending upon the mode of metal transfer, as indicated in the
Electrode Efficiency section on page 16, the factor for the
particular mode of metal transfer employed is applied to the
melt-off rate.
Contact tip to work distance (CTWD) is a term that lends itself
well to the electrode extension for mechanized or robotic
welding applications. It is measured from the end of the contact
tip to the work piece.
To determine the deposition rate for a given diameter of solid
carbon or low alloy steel wire electrode the following mathematical formula will be useful:
13.1 (D2)(WFS)(EE)
where:
D = electrode diameter
WFS = wire feed speed (inches per minute)
EE = electrode efficiency
13.1 = is a constant that is based upon the density
of steel and its cross-sectional area.
CTWD (Contact Tip
CTWD
to
toContact
WorkTipDistance)
Work Distance
If the melt off rate is all that is required, then use the same
formula and remove the factor for EE.
Aluminum is approximately 33% the density of carbon steel, and
its constant will be 13.1 x .33, or 4.32. Stainless steel, typically,
is only slightly greater in density than carbon steel, 0.284 lbs/in3
versus 0.283 lbs/in.3, and therefore the 13.1 constant is sufficient.
FIGURE 11: Contact Tip to Work Distance (CTWD)
In a non-adaptive constant voltage (CV) system the electrode
extension or the CTWD acts as a resistor. Varying the length of
the electrode affects the current applied to the arc:
• Increasing electrode extension increases the resistance to the
flow of current in the electrode, and the current in the arc is
decreased.
Electrode Extension and Contact Tip to Work Distance
Keywords:
Electrode Extension
• Decreasing the electrode extension decreases the resistance
to the flow of current in the electrode, and the current in the
arc increases.
Electrical Stickout (ESO)
Contact Tip to Work Distance (CTWD)
The electrode extended from the end of the contact tip to the
arc is properly known as electrode extension. The popular
non-standard term is electrical stickout (ESO). In GMAW, this is
the amount of electrode that is visible to the welder. The
electrode extension includes only the length of the electrode, not
the extension plus the length of the arc. The use of the term
electrode extension is more commonly applied for semiautomatic
welding than it is for robotic or mechanized welding operations.
Contact tip to work distance (CTWD) is the standard term used
in the latter.
Because the current can vary with an increase or decrease in
extension, the consistency of the extension is important to the
consistency of weld penetration. It is important to maintain a
very steady hand during semiautomatic welding. It is equally as
important to establish and maintain the correct CTWD for
mechanized or robotic welding.
For short-circuiting metal transfer or GMAW-S, semiautomatic
welding, the electrode extension should be held between
3/8”-1/2” (10 – 12 mm). For either axial spray or GMAW-P,
pulsed spray metal transfer, the electrode extension should be
held between 3/4” – 1” (19 – 25 mm). Maintaining the correct
electrode extension is important to the uniformity of the
penetration profile along the length of a weld, and it is considered
to be an important variable for any GMAW procedure.
Electrode
Extension
Electrode Extension
Arc
ArcLength
Length
FIGURE 10: Electrical Stickout (ESO)
GMAW
17
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Advanced Welding Processes for GMAW
Keywords:
Waveform Control Technology™
The adaptive arc is an arc that quickly adjusts to changes in the
electrode extension to maintain the same arc length. The
objective for adaptive control is to improve arc performance and
maintain finished weld quality.
Output Modulation
Waveform Control
Adaptive Control
Components of GMAW-P Waveform
Synergic Control
Keywords:
Real-Time
Front Flank Ramp-up Rate
Waveform Control Technology
Percent Overshoot
The inverter power source in the early 1980’s introduced a new
era in the development of arc welding power sources. They
affected the development of the full range of welding processes,
but in the specific areas of GMAW the results from intense
research and development are staggering.
Peak Current
Peak Time
Tail-out
Tail-out Speed
The unique concept of Waveform Control Technology™ features
an inverter transformer power supply and a central processing
unit. The welding power output is produced by a high speed
amplifier. The software developed to drive the output is
enhanced to provide superior optimized welding output for a
variety of GMAW modes of metal transfer. The most notable of
these developments is the Surface Tension Transfer™, (STT™),
Constant Power™, and a variety of special pulsed spray transfer
modes of metal transfer.
Step-off Current
Background Current
Pulse Frequency
Input
Power
Power
Input
Inverter
Inverter
Arc
Arc
The newer power sources feature the ability of the power source
to interact with the end-user and permit the worker to create
their own GMAW-P welding software program. Wave Designer
2000™ software is a commercially available Windows® software
program that provides real-time output control of the power
source. RS232 connectivity to the power source establishes a
communication link with the computer. For pulsed spray transfer,
short-circuiting transfer and STT, the output is modulated in
response to changes made to the components of the waveform.
High Speed
High
Speed
Amplifier
Amplifier
Waveform
Waveform
Generator
Generator
CPU
- Central
CPU - Central
ProcessingUnit
Processing
Unit
The use of waveform control software allows further optimization
for a given mode of metal transfer. Templates for pulsed spray
transfer, short-circuiting transfer and STT are available for
adjustment to meet critical weld requirements. The objective for
the development may be to improve toe wetting action, reduce
dilution levels or to improve high travel speed performance of a
pulsed waveform. In any case, the interaction between the arc
performance and the adaptable output are central to the
success of Waveform Control Technology.
FIGURE 12: Wave Designer 2000 Pulse Editor
Nine essential components are useful for manipulating the output
character of the GMAW-P waveform. The interaction of the
components determines the specific outcome character of the
waveform. Important in this basic understanding is the effect
that shielding gas (see shielding gases for GMAW on page 12),
electrode diameter, and electrode type have on the finished
weld.
Data acquisition tools that are an important part of the software
allow the further ability to monitor the waveform during its
development. The information collected permits alteration and
or final documentation of the suitability of the waveform for the
application.
The Wave Designer 2000™ graphical user interface provides a
visual image for the theoretical waveform. It is plotted on a
“Current vs. Time” grid which reproduces changes made to the
waveform. The changes made to a given pulsed waveform
either add to, or subtract from, the area under the waveform. As
the area under the waveform increases, there will be an increase
in energy to the arc. The reverse is also true, when the area
under the waveform decreases, the energy to the arc decreases.
Synergic control is designed to support all GMAW modes of
metal transfer. One knob control permits the welder to select the
wire feed speed, and then the voltage/trim value automatically
follows. For all of the synergic modes of metal transfer the concept of synergy eases the use of higher technology on the shop
floor.
GMAW
18
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GMAW-P Waveform Components
Peak Current Time (4)
Peak current time describes the length of time that the current is
at its peak. It is associated with droplet size. Peak time is
expressed in terms of milliseconds. As the peak time increases,
the droplets decrease in size. As the peak time decreases, the
droplet size increases. The traditional expectation is that a single
molten droplet is transferred with each pulse peak. The effective
time at peak can range from less than 1 millisecond to 3 or more
milliseconds. An increase in peak time increases average current,
and it also increases weld penetration.
Front Flank Ramp-up Rate (1)
The ramp-up rate determines how rapidly the current will
increase from the background current to the peak current. The
ramp-up rate assists in the formation of the molten droplet at
the end of the electrode. The rate is measured in terms of
amps/millisecond. The rate of rise can reach 1000
amps/millisecond. As the slope of the ramp-up rate increases,
the stiffness of the arc also increases. A fast ramp-up rate is
associated with arc stiffness and louder arc noise. Decreasing
the rate of rise contributes to a softer sounding arc.
Tail-out (5)
Tail-out is associated with current decay from the peak to the
background current. It generally follows an exponential path to
the background current. The increase in tail-out time increases
the average current and marginally increases penetration.
Tail-out time is increased to provide an increase in droplet fluidity.
This results in improved toe wetting, a softer arc sound, and
increased puddle fluidity.
Overshoot (2)
Overshoot describes the condition where the front flank increases
to a predetermined level beyond the level of the peak current. It
is expressed in units of percent. Increasing overshoot is
associated with a more rigid arc that is less prone to deflection.
Overshoot adds to the pinch current and it increases the electromagnetic pinch force applied to the molten droplet.
Tail-out Speed (6)
Tail-out speed defines the rate at which the waveform moves
from the peak current to either the step-off current or the
background current. Manipulation of this portion of the waveform
increases or decreases the exponential fall to the background
current.
(1) Front Flank Ramp-up Rate
(4)
4
(2) Overshoot
(2)
2
(3) Peak Current
(4) Peak Time
(5) Tail-Out
Current
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
Step-off Current (7)
Step-off current defines the current level at the portion of the
waveform where tail-out ends. It can add to, or take away from,
the area under the waveform. It is associated with stabilizing the
arc with stainless or nickel alloy filler metals.
(6) Tail-Out Speed
(3)
3
(7) Step-off Current
(6)
6
(1)
1
(5)
5
(8) Background Current
(9) Period and Frequency
Background Current (8)
Background current refers to the lower nominal current of the
output. The unit of measure for the background current is
ampere. Increases in background current will increase penetration.
(7)
7
(8)
8
(9)
9
Pulse Frequency (9)
Pulse frequency is responsible for how often the pulse cycle
occurs in one second. As the frequency increases, the arc narrows, the average current increases, and the molten droplets
become smaller. As the frequency decreases, the weld bead
and the arc become wider. Frequency is generally proportional
to the wire feed speed.
Time
TIME (mS)
(mS)
FIGURE 13: Waveform Development Editor
Peak Current (3)
Peak current is the nominal current for the high energy pulse. It
is adjusted to a level that is set consistently above the globular
to spray transition current. Peak current is expressed in units of
ampere. During the time when the peak current is delivered, the
molten droplet detaches from the electrode. An increase in
peak current increases the average welding current and the
weld penetration.
GMAW
19
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The Adaptive Loop
Keywords:
Advanced Waveform Control Technology
Scale Factor
Surface Tension Transfer™ (STT™)
Adaptive Loop
Keywords:
Arc Length Regulation
Peak Current
Constant Current
Background Current
In a constant current scenario, as the CTWD is increased, the
arc length also increases. As the CTWD decreases, the arc
length also decreases. To control the length of the arc despite
changes in CTWD, an adaptive control is necessary. The
adaptive control will add energy to the arc as the CTWD
decreases, and it will take energy out of the waveform as the
CTWD is increased. This provides stability to the arc length, and
increases the overall usability of the waveform.
Tail-Out Current
Reactive Power Source
Sensing Lead
The Surface Tension Transfer (STT) welding mode of metal
transfer is a low heat input welding mode. It specializes in its
ability to provide smooth even rippled weld beads, free of weld
spatter, and with consistently good fusion. It is ideal for sheet
metal applications requiring excellent weld bead appearance
and it is successfully applied for root pass welding of open root
pipe joints.
Frequency, background current, peak time, and peak current
are the typical components of the waveform used to regulate the
arc length. Scale factor is the term attached to arc length
regulation, and percentage is the term applied for its relative
magnitude. If the background current is set to a value of 100
amps and the corresponding scale factor is expressed as 10%,
then as the CTWD decreases, 10% more background current
will be added to the present level for background current. If the
CTWD increases, then up to 10% background current will
decrease from the original 100 amps. This is how the arc length
regulation operates, and it is coordinated to include the values
for the other scale factor components detailed above. The
regulation of the arc length occurs automatically, and it is
functional within limits of the CTWD. The effective CTWD range
for the adaptive loop is 0.50” – 1.25” (12 – 30 mm).
The STT welding mode is reactive. The power source monitors
the arc and responds instantaneously to the changes in the arc
dynamics. A sensing lead attaches to the work piece to provide
feedback information to the power source. Uniquely, the STT
power source provides current to the electrode independent of
the wire feed speed. This feature permits the ability to add or
reduce current to meet application requirements.
The power source that supports STT is neither constant current
nor constant voltage. It provides controls for the essential
components of the STT waveform. Among these are controls
for peak current, background current, and tail-out current.
See Figure 14 on page 21.
The adjustment of trim relates directly to the scale factors
employed in the adaptive loop. As the trim decreases from a
nominal value of 1.00, then the scale factors apply themselves
together to decrease the arc length. As the trim is increased to a
value greater than 1.00, then the scale factors work together to
increase the arc length. Additionally, the "arc control" feature in
the GMAW-P mode is directly tied to the adaptive loop. As the
arc control is moved to +1 through +10, then frequency
increases while background current decreases. The result is that
the arc column narrows. If the "arc control" feature is moved to
–1 through –10, then the result is a wider arc column and a
wider finished weld.
The absence of the use of scale factors assumes that the arc is
stable for a given wire feed speed or for a wide range of wire
feed speeds. Arc stability means that the arc will not vary in
length with a consistent CTWD. In this scenario, the welding
program is non-adaptive, and only by adjusting the length of the
CTWD, will there be a variance in arc length. When using a true
non-adaptive program, trim and arc control will produce no
changes in arc performance or level of arc energy.
GMAW
20
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Surface Tension Transfer™ (STT™)
STT Arc Controls
Tailout
Tailout
Control
FIGURE 14: Typical Waveform for STT
.035/.045
Electrode
SwitchSwitch
.035/.045 Electrode
Control
Time
TIME(mS)
(mS)
Hot Hot
Start Control
Start
Control
Peak
Peak
Time
Time
Pinch
Pinch
Start
Start
Background
Background
Current
Current
(1)
1
A
A
BB
Peak
Peak
Current
Current
(2)
2
Peak
Current
Peak Current
Background Current Contro
Background
Current Control
(4)
4
Tailout
Tail-out
Prediction
ShortShort
ExitExit
Prediction
C
C
uU
rR
rR
eE
nN
tT
(3)
3
Peak
Time 1mS
or or
2mS Sw
Peak
Time
1mS
2mS Switch
CC
Power
Power Switch
Switch
D
E
FF
The peak current control is responsible for establishing the arc
length, and it provides sufficient energy to preheat the work
piece to insure good fusion. If it is set too high, the molten
droplets will become too large. The molten droplet formed
should be equal to 1-1/2 of the electrode diameter.
G
A. The molten tip of the electrode makes physical contact with the molten pool
at the background current level.
B. The background current is reduced to a lower level to prevent the occurrence
of a premature molten droplet detachment.
Background current is the essential component responsible for
providing weld penetration into the base material, and it is largely
responsible for the overall heat input into the weld. Manipulation
of this component controls the level of weld penetration, and it
effects the size of the molten droplet.
C. The current then ramps up quickly to a point where the pinch force associated
with the rise in current (electromagnetic force) starts to neck down the
molten column of the electrode. The power source at this point begins to
monitor the changes in voltage over time as it relates to the necking of the
molten droplet. The molten metal is still in contact with the molten weld
pool. Via the sensing lead, the power source references the observed
voltage, and continuously compares the new voltage value to the previous
voltage value.
Tail-out current is responsible for adding energy to the molten
droplet to provide increased droplet fluidity. It applies added
energy without effecting droplet size. Increasing the tail-out
current permits faster travel speeds and improves weld toe
wetting action. The use of tail-out has proven to be a great
value in increasing puddle fluidity, and this translates into higher
arc travel speeds.
D. At the point where the molten metal is about to disconnect from the end of
the electrode, the power source reduces the current to a lower than background current level. At this point in the waveform, surface tension forces
collapse and the molten droplet transfers to the weld pool. This controlled
detachment of the molten droplet is free of spatter.
E. The power source then rises to the peak current level where a new droplet
begins to form. Anode jet forces depress the molten weld puddle to prevent
it from reattaching to the electrode. On its descent to the background
current, the tail-out current provides the molten droplet with additional
energy. The added energy increases puddle fluidity, and the result is
improved wetting at the toes of the weld.
F. A plasma boost is applied which provides the energy to re-establish the arc
length, provide a new molten droplet, and force the molten puddle away
from the molten droplet. The length of time is nominally 1 mS for carbon
steel electrodes and 2 mS for both stainless and nickel alloyed filler metals.
G. The tail-out region is employed in applications where the energy added to
the molten droplet provides faster travel speeds and improved finished weld
wetting action at the toes. In most pipe root applications, this value is kept
to a minimum.
GMAW
21
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Tandem GMAW
Keywords:
• Lower hydrogen weld deposit.
• Lower spatter levels when compared to other processes and
modes of metal transfer.
• Capable of high deposition welding for heavy plate fabrication.
• May be used for out-of-position welding.
High Deposition
Higher Travel Speed
The Tandem GMAW system was developed to take advantage
of the potential for higher travel speeds and higher deposition
rates when using two electrodes in the same molten puddle.
The system employs two power sources, two wire drives, and a
system control. It is adapted for either repetitive side-beam type
applications or it is employed with a welding robot. This variant
of the gas metal arc welding process is capable of higher travel
speeds, 1-1/2 to 2 times the speed of a single electrode. Some
travel speeds may exceed 150”/min. (3.81 m/min). Deposition
rates to 42 lbs/hr (19.1 kg/hr) are achievable for heavier plate
welding.
Modes of Metal Transfer for Tandem GMAW
The modes of metal transfer used for the tandem GMAW
variant are axial spray metal transfer or pulsed spray metal
transfer. The combinations of the modes that are popularly
employed include:
• Spray + Pulse — Axial spray transfer on the lead arc followed
by pulsed spray transfer on the trail arc.
• Pulse + Pulse — Pulsed spray transfer on both the lead and
the trail arc.
• Spray + Spray — Axial spray transfer on both the lead and
the trail arc.
The software programs designed to support the Pulse + Pulse
configuration require that the wire feed speed setting for each
the lead and the trail are the same. Trim values can be adjusted
to account for arc length requirements.
The arc components are broken into two parts: the lead arc and
the trail arc. Generally, two electrodes of the same diameter are
fed into the same puddle. Typical applications include the use of
0.035” – 1/16” (0.9 – 1.6 mm) diameter electrodes. The arcs
are employed in a single barrel torch, and each electrode is fed
through its own conductor tube. Similarly, there are two contact
tips and two diffusers, see page 23.
The higher energy spray + spray configuration is used for
special heavy plate welding where deeper penetration is
required. Pulse + pulse allows for heavy welding or high speed
sheet metal welding.
Features of Tandem GMAW
• Capable of higher travel speeds on sheet metal than
conventional single electrode GMAW.
PLC
Motion Control
PF 10R
Wire Drive
Dual Torch
(or)
Integrated Torch
Power Wave
455R/655R
PLC
Controller
Filed Bus Interface
FIGURE 15: Tandem GMAW System
GMAW
22
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Tandem Torch Alignment and Contact Tip to Work
Distance
Sheet Metal Applications
Central to the successful operation of tandem GMAW is an
understanding of the set up of the special tandem GMAW
welding torch. In all cases, the central axis of the torch should
be normal to the weld joint. The lead arc has a built in 6° lagging
electrode angle, and the trail has a built in 6° leading electrode
angle.
FIGURE 16: Tandem GMAW Torch Cutaway
The CTWD for higher speed sheet metal type applications
should be set to 0.625” (16 mm). The electrode spacing is
critical, and the shorter CTWD establishes the correct spacing.
When the CTWD is held to this position the two arcs become
more distinct from one another, and shorter arc lengths are used
to provide higher travel speeds.
Heavy Plate Fabrication
The use of tandem GMAW for heavy plate fabrication requires a
longer CTWD, 1” (25 mm). The longer CTWD provides the correct spacing between the two arcs, and in this scenario, the arcs
tend to move very closely together. When held to the longer
CTWD the arcs lend themselves for use with much higher wire
feed speeds.
GMAW
23
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Equipment for GMAW
The basic design of an industrial, GMAW system includes four
principle components:
• Constant voltage fixed power sources with a selection of wire
drives and accessories for three-phase input power. They
range from 250 – 655 amps of welding output. For example,
see Figure 19.
1. Power source.
2. Wire drive and accessories (drive rolls, guide tubes,reel
stand, etc.).
3. GMAW gun and cable assembly designed to deliver the
shielding gas and the electrode to the arc.
4. Shielding gas apparatus and accessories.
Shielding Gas
Regulator
Wire Drive
Electrode
Supply
Welding Gun
Power Source
Shielding Gas
Supply
FIGURE 17: Basic GMAW System
FIGURE 19: CV-400 with LN-10 GMAW System
There is a very wide range of GMAW components available from
The Lincoln Electric Company. Each system’s design provides
optimum arc performance for the mode of metal transfer
selected. The selection includes:
• Multiprocess power sources capable of the full range of gas
metal arc modes of transfer with additional process
capabilities. These range from single-phase 300 amps to
three-phase 655 amp systems. For example, see Figure 20.
• Combination power sources and wire drives, which range in
current capacity from 135 – 350 amp. The lower output range
power source/wire feeder combinations are intended for limited
sheet metal applications. For example, see Figure 18.
FIGURE 20: PowerWave™ 355M with Power Feed 10M
GMAW System
FIGURE 18: Power MIG 350MP System
GMAW
24
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• Advanced process power sources dedicated to Surface
Tension Transfer™ and GMAW-P. They range in output from
225 - 655 amps, and all of these systems require three-phase
input power. For example see Figure 21.
Voltage, V
• Engine driven power sources that range from 200 - 600 amps
of output. See page 31 for an example of a portable engine
driven GMAW system.
Operating point
∆V
∆A
Current, A
FIGURE 22: CC (Constant Current) Power Source
Volt-Amp Characteristics
Typically, constant current applications were confined to large
diameter/large weld puddle aluminum GMAW applications or
large diameter/large weld puddle carbon steel applications.
Constant voltage power source designs provide a specific arc
voltage for a given pre-selected wire feed speed. The volt-amp
curve, or slope, is comparatively flat. As the CTWD increases
with these types of power sources, there is a decrease in the
welding current. As the CTWD decreases there is an increase
in the welding current. The arc in this case becomes a series
circuit, and the CTWD provides resistance to current. In either
scenario, the voltage remains the same and the arc length
remains the same, see Figure 24 on page 26.
FIGURE 21: PowerWave® 455M/STT GMAW System with
Power Feed 10M
The Power Source
Power sources incorporate output characteristics designed to
optimize the arc performance for a given welding process. For
GMAW, the output characteristics fall into two main categories:
• constant current
• constant voltage
Each of these two terms references the volt-ampere characteristics of the power source, and in each case, the volt-ampere
relationship references the slope of the output. See Figures 22
and 23 for comparison output curves of CC (constant current)
and CV (constant voltage).
Voltage, V
Operating point
Dedicated constant current power sources were more widely
used in the early days of GMAW than they are today, but they
see continued use in the welding of aluminum. The design uses
a drooping output curve, see Figure 22. In constant current, the
CTWD (contact tip to work distance) determines the arc length.
As the CTWD increases the arc length increases, and as the
CTWD decreases the arc length decreases. This presented a
problem for semiautomatic welding because it is difficult to
maintain the same CTWD. To compensate for this problem an
arc voltage controlled wire feeder was designed to compensate
for changes in arc length. In this scenario, as the CTWD
decreases, the wire feed speed would increase; and as the
CTWD increases, the wire feed speed would decrease.
∆V
∆A
Current, A
FIGURE 23: CV (Constant Voltage) Power Source
Volt-Amp Characteristics
GMAW
25
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The Wire Drive and Accessories
FIGURE 24: Unaffected Arc Length with Constant Voltage
Power Sources
GMAW wire drive designs provide for the use of a wide range of
solid or metal-cored electrodes, 0.025” – 1/16” (0.6 – 1.6 mm).
The wire feed speed may be pre-settable via a digital readout or
a calibrated marking system on the wire feed speed control.
The ability to provide a precise wire speed is important to good
welding procedure control. Most standard wire drives for
GMAW provide a permanent magnet motor, which in turn
provides for fast starting and stopping of the feed system.
Gun
Gun
CTWD
1” (25mm)
CTWD
3/4” (19mm)
Arc Length
The effective range of wire feed speed is important, and most
wires drives will provide a range of 70 – 800 ipm (inches per
minute), (2 – 20 M/min.) of wire feed speed. Higher wire feed
speed wire drives are available for applications requiring the
delivery of wire feed speed up to 1200 ipm (30 M/min.).
Arc Length
Optional considerations for wire drive controls include
timers for setting pre-flow and post-flow for the shielding gas. A
burn-back control may be added to prevent the electrode from
sticking to the crater at the end of the weld. Some wire drives
may provide a cold inch control for safely inching wire electrode
through a GMAW torch to the work. An optional purge control
for the shielding gas system, provides gas flow in advance of the
arc, and displaces the air that may have entered the system.
Power sources designed for GMAW require a feature for
providing inductance. Inductance is a necessary component for
short-circuiting transfer and low wire feed speed globular
transfer. It is of little use for spray arc transfer and the advanced
processes such as Surface Tension Transfer™ or GMAW-P.
A variable inductance control is important for short-circuiting
transfer because it will permit fine-tuning of the arc to minimize
spatter and improve weld toe wetting.
The wire drive system provides a gas solenoid, which activates
when the GMAW torch trigger is depressed. Shielding gas
pre-flow and post-flow conditions control the solenoid circuit
and add gas before and after the arc is established. Optional
water connections are available for use with water-cooled
GMAW guns.
The traditional GMAW power source will provide either analog or
digital meters used to quantify voltage and current. These are
essential variables and their accuracy is central to the quality of a
finished weld.
Developments in transformer design permit the use of smaller
inverter transformers, which increases the portability and
reduces the required space needed for the power source. This
in turn provides relief for valuable manufacturing space. Inverter
designs characteristically provide smooth efficient output to the
arc. Many of the designs incorporate the use of welding
software to drive the output and quality of the arc, see
Waveform Control Technology™ section on page 18.
GMAW Wire Drives
LF-72 Series and LF-74
LN-10
LN-15
GMAW
26
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Two- or four-roll drive systems deliver the electrode to the
welding torch. Two-roll systems are standard with smaller
non-industrial systems, but the four-roll system is popular for
industrial applications.
A mounting block for the power cable permanently fixes to the
GMAW torch receiver of the wire drive.
The use of a wire straightening device incorporates the ability of
the wire drive to provide three important features for the arc:
1. The straightening device reduces the cast of the spooled,
coiled, or bulk electrode used for welding. This is especially
important for nickel alloys.
2. Reducing the cast improves electrode placement of the arc in
the weld joint.
3. Reducing the cast helps reduce drag in the liner (conduit) of
the GMAW torch, and, therefore, will reduce premature wear.
Typical platform mount installations, where the wire drive is
located on the top of the power source, will require the selection
of a wire reel stand. There are a variety of enclosures designed
to provide protection for the electrode in use. The spool mounting spindle design provides variable tension for the electrode
package in use, and it incorporates a braking action to prevent
unspooling of the electrode at the reel stand. A lift bale provides
a mounting feature for extending the reach in a work cell using
boom type arms.
Two-Roll Drive System
Four-Roll Drive System
Accessories for Wire Drives
Two Roll Wire Drive Kit
Wire Straightener
Four Roll Wire Drive Kit
U-Groove, V-Groove and Knurled Rolls
Drive Roll Kit for Cobramatic®
GMAW
27
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Special Wire Feeding Considerations
Spool guns are designed to provide a means for delivering
aluminum, and other small 1 and 2 lb. (0.45 and 0.90 kg)
packages of electrode to the arc. The spool gun incorporates a
wire drive motor, a wire feed speed control, and an electrode
enclosure in a comfortable lightweight design.
Binzel™ Push-Pull System for Aluminum Feeding
Shielding Gas Regulation
Spool Gun
The delivery of a shielding gas to the arc is important to the
quality of the finished weld. GMAW requires a regulator for
measuring the flow rate of gas either from a manifold system,
which incorporates several pressurized gas cylinders; a bulk
inert gas distribution system, which is then piped to the welding
work cells; or from a single gas cylinder. Flow meter regulator
designs provide two readings to the welder: the first reading is
from a meter that measures internal cylinder pressure, and it
allows the welder to recognize how much gas remains in the
cylinder. The second measures the rate of flow of the shielding
gas as it exits the cylinder. The rate of gas flow is measured in
either cubic feet per hour (cfh) or liters per minute (L/min). A
hose connects the regulating device to the gas solenoid contained in the wire drive. A connecting hose extends from the
front of the wire drive to a brass nipple located at the GMAW
torch.
Aluminum fillers are characterized as softer than steel electrodes,
and they have lower column strength (stiffness). The smaller the
diameter of aluminum electrode, 0.030 - 0.047” (0.8 – 1.2 mm),
the more difficult it is to feed. As a result of the softer and less
stiff characteristics, they generally benefit from either a push-pull
or a spool gun feeding system. A spool gun only has to push
the electrode 8” - 10” (200 - 250 mm) to the arc, and a pushpull system is designed with the same principle in mind. In either
case, these systems more reliably feed aluminum filler metals
than a standard hand held GMAW gun.
Both robotic and hard automation applications benefit from
push-pull systems. Reliable feeding is best accomplished with
an assist type of system that reduces the distance that the
electrode has to travel from the wire drive to the arc.
A standard GMAW gun will require the use of teflon or nylon gun
liners to permit the delivery of the electrode to the work. The
GMAW gun cable should be kept short, usually 10 ft. (3 m) to
promote electrode delivery. Pushing aluminum through a
GMAW gun is usually restricted to 5XXX type aluminum filler
alloys 3/64” (1.2 mm) diameter or greater.
Bulk gas systems or manifold systems connected to piped-in
mixes of shielding gas usually include a pressure regulator,
which controls line pressure. An adjustable flow meter is then
added as a separate item.
The rate of flow for short-circuiting transfer with either CO2 or a
mixed shielding gas is usually 25 - 30 cfh, (12-17 L/min). For
globular transfer or axial spray transfer, the
flow rate is nominally set at 35 - 50 cfh (17 21 L/min). Special procedures designed to
meet the requirements for electrode diameters greater than 1/16” (1.6 mm) will require
a higher rate of flow. Helium, because of its
lower density, requires a higher flow rate
than those indicated above.
Adjustable Flow Meter
Python™ Push-Pull System
GMAW
28
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Bulk Electrode Packaging
Horizontal Reels - Moving Reel Type are used with reels of
electrode that require the rotation of the entire spool. The
mechanical advantage of this type of dispensing system allows
reduced pulling of the electrode from the reel to the wire drive.
Longer feeding distances sometimes require an assist motor.
In order to minimize the electrode packaging changes, GMAW
welding stations may incorporate bulk electrode dispensing
systems. In general, there are four types of packages:
• Vertical Reels
Accu-Trak® and Speed-Feed® Drums of electrode are
increasingly popular for use in either semiautomatic or automatic
welding applications. They are available in 250 lb. (113 kg), 500
lb. (227 kg), 600 lb. (272 kg) and 1000 lb. (454 kg) packages for
use with semiautomatic or full automatic applications. The accurate placement of the electrode into the weld joint is a principal
objective of their design. The electrode feeds through a cone or
hat that sits on top of the drum, which connects to the conduit.
Longer feeding distances sometimes require an assist motor.
• Horizontal Reels (fixed or moving)
• Drums
• Boxes
Each bulk package requires the use of an electrode conduit,
orbital arm or other mechanical dispensing device(s) to get the
electrode to the wire drive.
Vertical Reels depend on a mechanical delivery system
designed, through a system of pulleys, to ease the delivery of the
electrode from the vertically mounted reel. When long conduit
distances are involved, the use of a system of pulleys and or an
assist motor will ease the burden placed on the wire drive.
Vertical reels are available in 600 lb. (272 kg) packaging.
Accu-Pak® Boxes of electrode are similar to the Accu-Trak
drums and they are available in 500 lb. (227 kg) and 1000 lb.
(454 kg) packaging The box provides easier transport from weld
station to weld station. A cone or hat sits on top of the box and
the electrode passes through the top center of the cone. The
conduit connects to the top of the cone or hat and it then connects to the wire drive.
Horizontal Reels - Fixed Reel Type depend on an orbiting
arm, which rotates around the top of the reel, to deliver the
electrode to the wire drive. Longer feeding distances sometimes
require an assist motor. Horizontal reels are available in 600 lb.
(272 kg) and 1000 lb. (454 kg) packaging.
Accu-Trak Drum
• Wire protection — completely
enclosed package.
Accu-Pak Box
• Wire protection — completely
enclosed package.
• Ease of Handling — Handling
Devices Commercially
Available.
• Recyclable
• Ease of Lifting (Lifting Straps).
INER
S INCL
NE PA INAR
CL
NO IN
DO NOT TIP
NE PAS INCLINER
NO INCLINAR
• Vapor Barrier (Plastic Bag
Surrounds Wire).
• Excellent Wire Placement.
• Excellent Wire Placement.
www.lincolnele
ctric.com
www.l
incol
nelect
om
ric.c
Accu-Pak Box shown with a
K2175 Payoff Kit
Accu-Trak Drum shown with
a K884 Payoff Kit
Accu-Trak Reels
• Lower Cost Bulk Package
Solution.
• Excellent Wire Placement.
• Reel Cover Protection
Commercially Available.
Horizontal Reel shown with a
K895-2 Rotary Wire Dispenser
GMAW
29
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FIGURE 25: Automatic GMAW System
Electrode
Supply
Power Feed 10R
Wire Drive
DO NOT TIP
NE PAS INCLINER
NO INCLINAR
www.lincoln
electric.com
Gas Cylinder with
Flow Meter
NER
INCLI
NE PAS NAR
CLI
NO IN
.com
lectric
.lincolne
www
Travel Carriage
Welding
Torch
Power Wave 455M Robotic
Power Source
Welding Control
Touchscreen
FIGURE 26: Semiautomatic GMAW System
Electrode
Supply
LN-10 Wire Drive
Gas Cylinder with
Flow Meter
CV-400 Power Supply
Welding
Torch
Workpiece
GMAW
30
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FIGURE 27: Portable Engine Driven GMAW System
Gas Cylinder with
Flow Meter
Ranger 305D
Power Supply
Workpiece
LN-25 Wire Feeder
Welding Torch
GMAW Torches
Gun Housing
Power Cable
Insulation
Conductor
Tube
Keywords:
Torch Nozzle
Water-Cooled Torch
Contact Tip
Air-Cooled Torch
Torch Barrel
Water Cooler
Gas Diffuser
Braided Copper
Power Cable
Nozzle
Hanger
Torch Duty Cycle
Trigger
Leads
Cable to
Conductor Tube
Connection
Torch Liner
The selection of the proper GMAW torch, commonly
called a MIG gun, depends upon the following
factors:
Trigger
Gas Diffuser
Contact Tip
• Type of welding: semiautomatic, hard automation
or robotic automation.
• Level of current (amps) required by the welding
application and capacity of the torch.
FIGURE 28: GMAW Torch Cutaway
The electrode is fed through an internal liner usually located
internal to the power cable. The shielding gas connections are
located at the welding gun mounting block on the wire drive.
• Shielding gas selected.
• Duty cycle of the torch.
Semiautomatic GMAW Welding
They connect to the output side of the gas solenoid. The gas
flows to the gas diffuser, which uniformly delivers the gas to the
arc. The nozzle size is selected depending on the electrode
diameter and the shielding gas rate of flow.
The GMAW torch provides a conduit for the welding current, the
shielding gas, and the electrode. The welding current is picked up
at the torch power block located on the wire drive. Current
transfers from the welding cable to the electrode through the
contact tip. Contact tips are available in a range of sizes
designed to accommodate the electrode diameter in use, and
they usually attach to the gas diffuser via a threaded connection.
Most of the welding with the GMAW process requires a
selection of a torch that will meet the anticipated comfort level
of the welder and simultaneously meet the wear requirement
imposed by the welding operation. The welding current used in
the application is primary to the selection, and the durability of
the torch under conditions of the arc dictates the appropriate
GMAW torch size.
• Preference of an air-cooled or water-cooled torch.
GMAW
31
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FIGURE 29: GMAW Torch Cutaway
The selection of a water-cooled torch for GMAW has several
advantages. They are rated 100% duty cycle for their given
capacity. They increase the life of the consumable components
of the torch by approximately 50%. Water–cooled torches have
operator appeal because they reduce the heat transferred to the
GMAW torch handle. The downside of a water-cooled torch is
that they tend to require more maintenance. Additionally, the use
of a water-cooled torch requires the purchase of a water cooler,
see photo below. Implementation of a water-cooled GMAW
torch depends largely upon the size of the electrode used, the
amount of time a welder spends at the arc, and the projected
cost of welding torch consumables.
Insulated
Conductor Tube
Travel
Electrode Conduit
Shielding Gas
Gas Diffuser
Contact Tip
Arc
Electrode
Solidified
Weld Metal
Work
Molten Weld Metal
All GMAW torches for semiautomatic welding provide a duty
cycle rating. The heat generated and transferred to the torch
handle needs to be considered. The duty cycle of the GMAW
torch selected relates to the shielding gas and the maximum
current that is specific to the welding application. Most
air-cooled torches are rated at a 60% duty cycle for a specific
current, and their operation is based upon the use of 100% CO2
shielding. If argon based blends are indicated, then the torch
duty cycle should be reduced by 50%.
Magnum® Cool-Arc Water Cooler
Most GMAW torches come in lengths of 10 - 25 ft. (3 – 8 m) and
the length selected should provide no compromise for delivery of
the shielding gas and the electrode to the arc.
TABLE 2: Magnum® Air-Cooled Torch Ratings and
Diameter Ranges
MAGNUM GUNS
Magnum
Gun
Rating
(Amps)
Diameter Range
Inches (mm)
Duty
Cycle
Magnum 200
200
0.025 - 0.045
(0.6 - 1.1)
60
Magnum 300
300
0.035 - 5/64
(0.9 - 2.0)
60
Magnum 400
400
0.035 - 5/64
(0.9 - 2.0)
60
Magnum 550
550
0.035 - 1/8
(0.9 - 3.2)
60
FIGURE 30: Semiautomatic GMAW Welding System
GMAW
32
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GMAW Torches for Hard Automation
Fixed Length Automatic Torch for Hard Automation
Hard automation requires the torches meet the demands of high
productivity. The choice of water-cooled torches versus an
air-cooled torch depends on the same criteria applied to the
selection of a torch for semiautomatic welding. Most hard
automation systems incorporate a system design that provides
the need for a torch no longer than 3 ft. (1 m). This aids in
feeding, and reduces maintenance time and cost.
Robotic Automation GMAW Welding System
Data should be collected regarding appropriate maintenance
levels for guns. Maintaining the performance on an arc welding
system requires changing the GMAW consumable parts. Torch
liners, torch barrels, diffusers, nozzles, and contact tips, require
replacement and they are essential to maintaining weld quality.
The information collected can provide a schedule for preventive
maintenance.
GMAW Torches for Robotic Automation
The criteria for selecting GMAW torches employed for robotic
applications follow the same pattern as used for both semiautomatic and hard automation. The torch must be of a physical
size to move between tooling, holding clamps, and it must also
be flexible enough to access hard to reach locations. To meet
the demanding needs of robotic applications, a number of torch
configurations are available that incorporate long torch barrels,
small diameter nozzles, and torch exchange systems.
Collision Sensor
Whether or not to proceed with a water-cooled or air-cooled
torch depends, again, on the demands of productivity, and the
preventive maintenance program employed. A collision sensor
and a breakaway mounting to the end of the robot arm are
standard for all robotic applications. Each of these two
components are designed to limit damage to a system in the
event of a crash.
GMAW
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GMAW of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
Electrode Selection Checklist
The following are suggestions for selecting the proper GMAW
steel electrode for a given application:
Selecting Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Selecting the proper filler metal for use with GMAW is similar to
the process that must be employed when determining the
applicable electrode for any welding process:
A. Determine the required mechanical property requirement
The primary mechanical properties of interest are the yield and
tensile strength, and Charpy V-Notch. For most steels with a
tensile strength of 70 ksi or less, matching strength filler metal
will be used for all welds. For higher strength steels, and
especially when the tensile strength exceeds 100 ksi, under
matching filler metal may be selected for fillet and partial joint
penetration groove welds.
• The electrode must deposit welds that will have the mechanical
and chemical properties needed for the proper performance
of the welded connection.
• The electrode must be suitable to address the unique
circumstances associated with the particular application.
• The electrode must meet the welder’s expectations in terms
of arc action and puddle control.
The Charpy V-Notch (CVN) properties may be specified in
contract documents, or in applicable codes.
• The selected electrode should result in the total overall lowest
cost of welding. This is not to say that the lowest cost
electrode will always lead to the total overall lowest cost; in
many cases, a higher purchase priced electrode will result in
decreased overall costs.
When the mechanical property requirements have been
determined, available filler metals can be compared to
requirements. Typically, the AWS classification properties are
compared to the application requirements.
Tables 3 and 4 on page 36 can be helpful in determining the
suitable electrodes for matching tensile strength requirements.
A Two Component System
GMAW is a two-component welding process, in terms of the
consumables that will be used: both a gas and an electrode are
required. The electrode selection process cannot be made
separate from consideration of the type of shielding gas that will
be used. The most efficient means of selection of the proper
filler metal for GMAW is to consider electrode/gas combinations
when making comparisons. For example, a more expensive
shielding gas, with a less expensive electrode, may or may not
be more economical than a low cost gas and more expensive
electrode. Thus, the electrode/gas combination must be
considered.
B. Determine the weld deposit chemistry requirements
Under some conditions, it is important for the deposited weld
metal to have a specific chemistry in order to meet service
conditions. For example, when the weld is to have atmospheric
corrosion resistance similar to "weathering" steels (such as A588),
the weld is typically required to have a nickel content of 1%.
C. Evaluate the production conditions
The surface condition is a key condition to consider. Mill scale,
rust, and other surface contaminants may justify the use of an
electrode with a higher level of deoxidizers.
The gas selection can have an effect on mechanical properties
as well. Changes in shielding gas may increase or decrease
Charpy V-Notch properties of the deposit, for example. The
effect of shielding gas on weld properties is more significant for
the higher strength, and more alloyed, filler metals.
D. Determine final weld appearance requirements
Where toe wetting, flat weld faces, low levels of spatter and
other visual criteria are important, higher levels of silicon in the
electrode may be helpful.
E. Determine the appropriate electrode diameter
Before the electrode diameter can be determined, a basic
understanding of the welding procedure variables must be
known. Larger diameter electrodes usually cost less, feed better,
and can carry more current. Smaller diameters are appropriate
for minimizing melt through on thinner materials, as well as to
maximize deposition rates per amp of output.
Electrode Diameter
As with other processes, the diameter of the electrode used with
GMAW is an important decision. Considerations have to be
made for the various welding positions, the material thickness
and the selected mode of metal transfer.
Production Conditions
The type of conditions that are encountered in production
welding influences the electrode selection. A key factor is
material cleanliness: the more oxide on the base metal surface,
the higher the need for deoxidizers in the electrode.
GMAW
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Types of Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
pipe. Due to the deoxidizers, the ER70S-2 is indicated for use
on steels with moderate levels of mill scale. The use of this
electrode has decreased in recent years, and it is replaced,
typically, by either ER70S-3 or ER70S-6 carbon steel electrode.
Keywords:
AWS A5.18
AWS A5.28
ER70S-3 (SuperArc® L-50)
The ER70S-3 GMAW electrode contains medium levels of silicon
and manganese. It is popularly employed in both single and
multiple pass welding applications. It is the most popular
GMAW electrode. Lincoln Electric’s premium GMAW wire
electrodes conforming to this classification include SuperArc™
L-50, a copper coated wire, and SuperGlide™ S3, a
non-copper coated wire.
Deoxidizers
GMAW solid carbon steel wire electrodes are also known as fine
wires or microwires because they tend to be smaller in diameter
when compared to electrodes used in other arc welding
processes. GMAW wire is defined as a solid or composite
metal-cored electrode ranging in wire diameter from 0.023” 1/16” (0.6 - 1.6 mm). They are also defined according to their
AWS (American Welding Society) classification, AWS A5.18,
Specification for Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc
Welding, and AWS A5.28, Specification for Low Alloy Steel Filler
Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding. The general requirements
applied to GMAW consumables are:
• Chemical composition
• Mechanical properties
• Solid wire diameters
• Packaging requirements
ER70S-4 (SuperArc® L-54)
The ER70S-4 GMAW electrode has higher levels of silicon and
manganese than an ER70S-3. Its intended use is for those
applications requiring higher deoxidizer levels than an ER70S-3.
It is used for both single and multiple pass welding. The ER70S-4
classification does not require Charpy impact conformance
testing. Lincoln Electric’s premium GMAW wire electrode
conforming to this classification is SuperArc L-54.
ER70S-6 (SuperArc® L-56)
The ER70S-6 carbon steel GMAW electrode contains high levels
of silicon and manganese deoxidizers, and is best suited for
welding on base materials with moderate to high levels of mill
scale. It can be used in both single and multiple pass welding
applications. Also, due to the higher silicon level, the puddle
fluidity increases and results in a flat weld bead with excellent
weld toe wetting. Lincoln Electric’s premium GMAW wire
electrodes conforming to this classification include SuperArc
L-56, a copper coated wire, and SuperGlide S6, a non-copper
coated wire electrode.
The first classifications discussed pertain to solid carbon steel
electrode wires with differing deoxidizing alloy levels. The
remaining classifications pertain to composite metal-cored
electrodes classified under the GMAW process.
The American Welding Society uses an alphanumerical system
for GMAW wire classification. For example, a solid wire electrode
may have the AWS classification ER70S-3, sometimes referred
to as an S-3 wire. Each letter and number represents a specific
defining characteristic. The "E" stands for electrode, the current
carrying device. The "R" stands for rod, meaning that the
electrode can also be used as a filler rod for GTAW applications.
The number "70" indicates the minimum as-welded tensile
strength measure in thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi).
The "S" refers to a solid electrode wire. The "3" refers to the
level of specific alloy, deoxidizer(s) that makes up the carbon
steel electrodes chemical composition.
ER70S-7
The ER70S-7 GMAW electrode has higher levels of manganese
than an ER70S-6 electrode, but it has lower levels of silicon.
The silicon levels, however, are higher than an ER70S-3
electrode. It can be used with argon/CO2 binary gas mixtures
as well. Due to chemical composition, this electrode also has
intermediate hardness levels between an ER70S-3 and an
ER70S-6 electrode.
A deoxidizer is an element in the wire that helps to remove
oxygen and nitrogen from the weld, thus reducing the occurrence
of weld metal porosity. Typically for carbon steel, the deoxidizers
include manganese and silicon. Other deoxidizers, although
rare, may include aluminum, zirconium, and titanium. Generally,
the higher the silicon deoxidizer level the more fluid the molten
puddle becomes – this enhances toe wetting and finished weld
bead appearance.
ER70S-G
The ER70S-G AWS classification for solid wire electrodes having
a "G" indicates it is of a general classification. This classification
does not have AWS chemical composition, testing, or mechanical
property requirements. This is not to say, however, that these
electrodes do not meet nor exceed the properties of otherwise
AWS classified electrodes. Weld chemistries or testing results
for application of the ER70S-G electrode should be obtained by
the manufacturer prior to use.
Tables 5 and 6 on page 37 show the AWS chemical
composition requirements for solid electrodes per AWS A5.18
and A5.28.
AWS A5.18 GMAW-C Carbon Steel Composite Electrodes
GMAW Carbon Steel Solid Wire Classifications
E70C-6M (Metalshield® MC-6 and Metalshield MC-706)
The E70C-6M electrode has high levels of deoxidizers in silicon
and manganese and is an excellent choice for welding on base
materials with high levels of mill scale. It is better suited for this
application than solid wires due to its composite design. This
electrode is also a preferred choice for welding on automated
thin base material at fast travel speeds and has fantastic operator
appeal due to ease of use, puddle fluidity and good wash in.
AWS A5.18 GMAW Carbon Steel Electrodes
ER70S-2
The ER70S-2 carbon steel electrode is a triple deoxidized
product. It contains high silicon and manganese levels, but also
contains deoxidizers such as aluminum, titanium and zirconium.
This GMAW electrode is used for both single and multiple pass
welding, and historically, for root pass welds on carbon steel
GMAW
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AWS A5.28 GMAW Low Alloy Solid Steel Wires
chemical compositions or mechanical property requirements.
Lincoln Electric’s SuperArc LA-100 premium GMAW wire
electrode meets the ER100S-G, ER110S-G, and the Military
Specification MIL-100S-1 classification requirements. This
electrode meets a minimum tensile strength of 100 ksi and
minimum yield strengths of 82 ksi. It contains 0.5%
molybdenum and 1-2% nickel, making it an excellent choice
for welding HY-80 and ASTM A514 steels.
(SuperArc® LA-75)
ER80S-Ni1
The ER80S-Ni1 AWS classification is a high silicon, high
manganese low alloy steel GMAW electrode containing 1% nickel.
This wire also contains small levels of chromium, molybdenum,
and vanadium. These elements combine to provide higher
strength levels, higher impact properties, and the 1% nickel
provides corrosion resistance for ASTM A588 weathering steels.
ER80S-Ni1 welds must exhibit a CVN value of 20 ft-lbs @ -50°F
(27J @ -29°C). Lincoln Electric’s premium ER80S-Ni1 GMAW
low alloy electrode is SuperArc LA-75.
AWS A5.28 GMAW-C Low Alloy Composite Electrodes
E90C-G (Metalshield® MC-900)
E90C-G electrodes are high silicon, high manganese electrodes
well suited to weld over high levels of mill scale on base materials.
The high alloy in this wire is suited to weld on HSLA, HY80,
ASTM A710 and other high strength steels. Expect high
deposition rates with little slag and spatter from these electrodes.
ER80S-D2 (SuperArc® LA-90)
An ER80S-D2 GMAW wire electrode is higher silicon, higher
manganese low alloy product containing a 0.50% level of
molybdenum. Molybdenum strengthens the weld metal and
improves toughness. Lincoln Electric’s premium ER80S-D2
product is SuperArc LA-90 and also satisfies requirements for
classification as an ER90S-D2 and an ER90S-G, providing an
as-welded tensile strength in excess of 90 ksi.
E110C-G (Metalshield® MC-1100)
E110C-G electrodes are high silicon, high manganese electrodes
well suited to weld over high levels of mill scale on base materials.
The alloy balance and high strength of these electrodes are
designed to weld on many HSLA steels such as ASTM A514, HY100 and “T-1” steels as well as other high alloy steels. High deposition rates with little slag and spatter can be expected.
ER100S-1 and ER100S-G (SuperArc® LA-100)
As the "G" suffix indicates, the ER100S-G AWS classification of
GMAW wire electrode is used for single and multiple pass
welding, and it is a general classification. There are no AWS
TABLE 3 — Mechanical Properties Requirements for AWS A5.18 GMAW Carbon Solid and Composite Steel Electrodes
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIREMENTS
AWS
Classification
Tensile Strength
ksi (MPa)
Yield Strength
ksi (MPa)
Elongation
(%)
Charpy V-Notch, ft-lbs (J)
@ 0°F (-18°C) @-20°F (-29°C)
ER70S-2
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
Not Required
20 (27)
ER70S-3
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
20 (27)
Not Required
ER70S-4
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
Not Required
Not Required
ER70S-6
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
Not Required
20 (27)
ER70S-7
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
Not Required
20 (27)
ER70S-G
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
Not Required
Not Required
E70C-3X
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
20 (27)
Not Required
E70C-6X
70 (480)
58 (400)
22
Not Required
20 (27)
NOTE: Mechanical properties as determined from an all-weld metal specimen. Single values are minimum levels.
TABLE 4 — Mechanical Properties Requirements for AWS A5.28 GMAW Low Alloy Solid and Composite Steel Electrodes
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIREMENTS
AWS
Classification
Tensile Strength
ksi (MPa)
Yield Strength
ksi (MPa)
Elongation
(%)
80 (550)
68 (470)
24
ER80S-D2
80 (550)
68 (470)
ER100S-1
100 (690)
88 (610)
ER90S-D2
90 (620)
E90C-G
E110C-G
ER80S-Ni1
Charpy V-Notch, ft-lbs (J)
@-20°F (-29°C) @-50°F (-46°C) @-60°F (-51°C)
Not Required
20 (27)
Not Required
17
20 (27)
Not Required
Not Required
16
Not Required
Not Required
50 (68)
78 (540)
17
20 (27)
Not Required
Not Required
90 (620)
Not Specified
Not Specified
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
110 (760)
Not Specified
Not Specified
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
NOTE: Mechanical properties as determined from an all-weld metal specimen. Single values are minimum levels.
GMAW
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Solid & Composite Steel Wire Electrode Chemical
Composition
as total copper in the finished product. Benefits of copper
coating include better conductivity, and therefore, better arc
starts, and longer contact tip life.
Carbon (C) – Carbon is a critical element found in GMAW solid
wire electrodes. It is added in precise amounts to provide
strength and ductility in the weldment.
Titanium (Ti) – Titanium is found in ER70S-2 mild steel GMAW
wire electrode and is added as a deoxidizer. ER70S-2 GMAW
electrodes are often referred to as "triple deoxidized" due to the
addition of three other deoxidizers in addition to silicon and
manganese. Some deoxidizers aid in removing both oxygen
and nitrogen from the weld, reducing the occurrence of weld
metal porosity.
Manganese (Mn) – Manganese is another element that adds
strength to the weld. It is added to GMAW electrodes to act as
a deoxidizer, removing oxygen from the weld, and reducing the
chance of weld metal porosity.
Silicon (Si) – Silicon is also added to GMAW electrodes to act
as a deoxidizer, removing oxygen from the weld, and reducing
the chance of weld metal porosity. In general, the higher the
level of silicon in the metal, the more fluid the weld puddle.
Additions of silicon increase tensile and yield strength.
Zirconium (Zr), Aluminum (Al), Nickel (Ni) – Zirconium,
aluminum and nickel are found in ER70S-2 mild steel GMAW
electrodes and are added as deoxidizers. ER70S-2 GMAW
electrodes are often referred to as "triple deoxidized" due to the
addition of 3 other deoxidizers in addition to silicon and
manganese. Deoxidizers aid in removing oxygen and nitrogen
from the weld, reducing the occurrence of weld metal porosity.
Phosphorus (P) – AWS restricts the level of phosphorus in a
GMAW wire electrode, as it is generally undesirable to the weld
deposit. It can contribute to weld cracking
Molybdenum (Mo) – Molybdenum is also found in many low
alloy GMAW wire electrodes. It is added for strength and
improved impact properties, even when the weld is subject to
stress relieving post-weld heat treatment.
Sulfur (S) – AWS restricts the level of sulfur in GMAW electrodes
as it is generally undesirable for weldability and can contribute to
weld cracking. However, in limited amounts, it improves fluidity
and wetting.
Chromium (Cr) – Chromium is added to some low alloy GMAW
wire electrodes for corrosion resistance. It is also a primary
element found in stainless steel wire electrodes.
Copper (Cu) – Copper is found in solid wire electrodes, however,
the majority of the copper comes from the coating of the wire
electrode (if copper-coated). AWS limits surface copper as well
TABLE 5 — Chemical Composition Requirements for AWS A5.18 GMAW Carbon Solid Steel and Composite Electrodes
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIREMENTS
AWS Classification
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
%C
%Mn
%Si
%S
%P
%Cu
%Ti
%Zr
%Al
ER70S-2
0.07
0.90 - 1.40
0.40 - 0.70
0.025
0.035
0.50
0.05 - 0.15
ER70S-3
0.06 - 0.15
0.90 - 1.40
0.45 - 0.70
0.025
0.035
0.50
—
—
—
ER70S-4
0.07 - 0.15
1.00 - 1.50
0.65 - 0.85
0.025
0.035
0.50
—
—
—
ER70S-6
0.07 - 0.15
1.40 - 1.85
0.80 - 1.15
0.025
0.035
0.50
—
—
—
ER70S-7
0.07 - 0.15
1.50 - 2.00(1) 0.50 - 0.80
—
—
—
—
—
—
E70C-3X
0.12
1.75
0.90
0.03
0.03
0.50
—
—
—
E70C-6X
0.12
1.75
0.90
0.03
0.03
0.50
—
—
—
0.02 - 0.12 0.05 - 0.15
Maximum Mn may exceed 2.0%. If it does, the maximum C must be reduced 0.01% for each 0.05% increase in Mn or part thereof.
All solid electrode classifications have the following maximum requirements: Ni- 0.15, Cr- 0.15, Mo- 0.15, V- 0.03.
All composite electrodes have the following maximum requirements: Ni- 0.50, Cr- 0.20, Mo- 0.30, V- 0.08.
All composite electrode chemical compositions refer to weld metal compositions.
TABLE 6 — Chemical Composition Requirements for AWS A5.28 GMAW Low Alloy Solid Steel and Composite Electrodes
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIREMENTS
AWS
Classification
%C
%Mn
ER80S-Ni1
0.12
%P
%S
%Ni
%Cr
%Mo
%V
%Ti
%Zr
%Al
%Cu
(1)
1.25
0.40-0.80 0.025
0.025
0.80-1.10
0.15
0.35
0.05
—
—
—
0.35
0.50
ER80S-D2,(2)
0.07-0.12
ER90S-D2
1.60-2.10
0.50-0.80 0.025
0.025
0.15
—
0.40-0.60
—
—
—
—
0.50
0.50
ER100S-1
1.25-1.80
0.20-0.55 0.010
0.010
1.40-2.10
0.05
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.25
0.50
E90C-G,
E110C-G
(1)
(2)
%Si
0.08
0.30 0.25-0.55
(In order to meet the requirements of the “G” classification the electrode must have a mimimum of
Not Specified
one or more of the following: 0.50% Ni, 0.30% Cr, 0.20% Mo.)
Total of other elements. Other elements, if intentionally added, shall be reported.
This composition was formerly classified E70S-1B in AWS Specification A5.18-69.
GMAW
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AWS Specifications for Manufacturing GMAW Wires
Coil Style Packaging Winding Check
Keywords:
Cast
Helix
Heat or Lot
Cast
The American Welding Society has manufacturing specifications
and acceptance standards for GMAW electrodes. In addition to
chemical composition and mechanical property requirements,
AWS also has specifications for:
Wire Loop
• Method of manufacture
Helix
• Wire electrode diameter
• Electrode surface finish
• Packaging
Floor
• Winding requirements
FIGURE 31: Cast and Helix in a GMAW Wire Electrode
Carbon steel wire electrode diameter tolerances are:
.045” (1.1 mm) and smaller diameters ±.001”
.052” (1.4 mm) diameter
±.002”
.062” (1.6 mm) diameter
±.002”
to provide consistent twist-free "straight" wire. Wire from these
packages will not form a loop when cut and therefore, standard
cast and helix measurements can not take place. Individual
manufacturers shall inspect this product to meet customer
requirements.
AWS specifies the surface finish of GMAW wire electrodes to be
smooth, uniform, free of scratches, scales, and any depressions
that could adversely affect the welding characteristics of the wire
electrode and/or the properties of the deposited weld metal.
Also, the wire on the spool (or other packaging) must be from
one "heat" or "lot" of raw material. This helps to minimize
changes in chemical composition within a spool.
GMAW Wire Package Selection Guidelines
When choosing a GMAW wire electrode for a welding application, there are many factors to consider, such as mechanical
properties of the base material, chemistry of the base material,
surface condition of the base material, and packaging
requirements.
There is also a specification on standard welding electrode packaging and the identification used on packaging. AWS identifies
standard packaging for GMAW wire electrodes as coils with
supports, coils without supports, spools and drums. Sizes and
dimensions of these packages are specified to help manufacturers
design equipment with wire holding devices that are appropriately
sized. The next page shows various packages. Each package
of wire electrode must have the appropriate product information
easily identified along with the required warnings and
precautionary information. Each spool, coil, reel or drum must
be individually identified along with the outer packaging.
Once the mechanical properties and chemical makeup of the
base material are known, it is fairly easy to choose a GMAW
solid wire electrode. The tensile strength of the wire should, at
minimum, match the tensile strength of the base material in
order to get the full strength of the weld joint.
Alloyed base materials are generally higher strength steels and
therefore not only are mechanical properties a consideration but
also the chemistry of the electrode. Many of these requirements
have already been discussed when defining each individual AWS
classification of GMAW wire electrodes.
Finally, AWS specifies winding requirements for GMAW solid
wire electrodes. Cast and helix are two key requirements.
Figure 31 shows a graphic depiction of cast and helix in a
GMAW wire electrode. To measure cast and helix, a sample of
wire electrode should be taken from the spool large enough to
form a loop when it is cut from the package, and then left unrestrained on the floor. Cast is essentially the diameter of the loop
(if the shape is an oval, it is the largest diameter circle that will fit
within the oval). AWS requires the cast to be not less than 15”
for 0.035” (0.9 mm) and larger diameter electrodes and not less
than 12” for 0.030” (0.8 mm) and smaller diameters on all spool
packaging larger than a 4” spool, [1 lb. and 2 lb. (0.5 and 0.9 kg)
spools]. Helix is the rise of the wire electrode off of a flat surface. AWS specifies that the helix be less than 1” (25 mm) at
any location.
Package selection, however, can be based upon user preference,
welding application, volume consumption, floor space and cost.
The photo on page 39 shows a variety of GMAW solid wire
packages from 2 lb. (0.9 kg) spools through 1000 lb. (450 kg)
drums and reels. Lincoln Electric’s SuperArc® and SuperGlide®
GMAW wire can be found in a full range of these packages to
suit a wide variety of requirements.
A 2 lb. (0.9 kg) spool of solid GMAW wire electrode is a four inch
diameter package that is generally used for self-contained small
wire feed welders, such as Lincoln Electric’s SP-135T or in
spool guns. They are generally used for occasional use for
hobbyists, tack welding, or for applications where weld joints are
restricted and the spool gun is the preferred option.
Specific bulk packages, such as Accu-Trak® and Accu-Pak®
utilize a unique winding technique that elastically twists the wire
GMAW
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The next size spool is an eight inch diameter spool that holds
ten lbs. (5 kg) through 12.5 lbs. (6 kg) of GMAW solid wire
electrode. This package is also primarily used on self-contained
wire feeder welders, but due to the increase in consumable
weight, it has also found use in industrial applications. It is an
excellent choice for use with the Lincoln’s LN-15 across-the-arc
portable wire feeder.
Most spool packages readily have a 2” (50 mm) inside diameter
center hole for mounting on to a wire mounting platform. Other
packages, such as the steel spool, features a basket which
contains 30 lbs (14 kg) of filler electrode. It requires a permanent centering adapter for mounting the wire electrode basket.
A 14” (355 mm) inside diameter package generally referred to as
a coil usually holds 60 lbs. (27 kg) of solid wire filler. It is found in
higher productivity semiautomatic welding applications. This
package requires a centering wire reel basket for mounting to a
wire feeder. Coils of GMAW electrode are a good transition
package from 30 lb. (14 kg) spools. They frequently lead to bulk
packaged solid wire electrode such as speed feed reels, drums,
or boxes. Request publication C4.10 for more information on
SuperArc and SuperGlide premium GMAW wires.
The most commonly used packaging of GMAW wire electrodes
is the 12” (305 mm) spool that contains 30 lbs. (13.6 kg) through
44 lbs. (20 kg) of filler electrode. This packaging is used in a
wide range of welding applications, but is usually confined to
sheet metal or thin plate welding.
CARBON AND LOW ALLOY PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE
AWS
Classification
Carbon Steel
Lincoln
Product Name
Low Alloy Steel
AWS
Classification
Lincoln
Product Name
ER80S-Ni1
SuperArc LA-75
ER70S-3
SuperArc® L-50
SuperGlide® S3
ER70S-4
SuperArc L-54
ER80S-D2
ER90S-D2
SuperArc LA-90
ER70S-6
SuperArc L-56
SuperGlide S6
ER100S-G
ER110S-G
SuperArc LA-100
E70C-6M
Metalshield® MC-6
Metalshield MC-710XL
Metalshield MC-715
E90C-G
Metalshield MC-900
E110C-G
Metalshield MC-110
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Lincoln’s Premium GMAW Electrode Wire
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GMAW of Stainless Steels
Stainless steels are defined as iron base alloys which contain at
least 10.5% chromium. The thin but dense chromium oxide film
which forms on the surface of a stainless steel provides corrosion
resistance and prevents further oxidation. There are five types
of stainless steels depending on the other alloying additions
present, and they range from fully austenitic to fully ferritic types.
The coefficient of thermal expansion for the austenitic types is
50% greater than that of carbon steel and this must be
considered to minimize distortion. The low thermal and electrical
conductivity of austenitic stainless steel is generally helpful. Less
welding heat is required to make a weld because the heat is not
conducted away from a joint as rapidly as in carbon steel. In
resistance welding, lower current can be used because resistivity
is higher. Stainless steels which require special welding
procedures are discussed in later sections.
Type of Stainless Steels
Austenitic stainless steels include the 200 and 300 series of
which type 304 is the most common. The primary alloying
additions are chromium and nickel. Ferritic stainless steels
are non-hardenable Fe-Cr alloys. Types 405, 409, 430, 422 and
446 are representative of this group. Martensitic stainless
steels are similar in composition to the ferritic group but contain
higher carbon and lower chromium to permit hardening by heat
treatment. Types 403, 410, 416 and 420 are representative of
this group. Duplex stainless steels are supplied with a
microstructure of approximately equal amounts of ferrite and
austenite. They contain roughly 24% chromium and 5% nickel.
Their numbering system is not included in the 200, 300 or 400
groups. Precipitation hardening stainless steels contain
alloying additions such as aluminum which allow them to be
hardened by a solution and aging heat treatment. They are
further classified into sub groups as martensitic, semiaustenitic
and austenitic precipitation hardening stainless steels. They are
identified as the 600-series of stainless steels (e.g., 630, 631, 660).
Ferritic Stainless Steels
The ferritic stainless steels contain 10.5 to 30% Cr, up to 0.20% C
and sometimes ferrite promoters Al, Nb (Cb), Ti and Mo. They
are ferritic at all temperatures and, therefore, do not transform to
austenite and are not hardenable by heat treatment. This group
includes the more common types 405, 409, 430, 442 and 446.
Table 7 lists the nominal composition of a number of standard
and several non-standard ferritic stainless steels. They are
characterized by weld and heat affected zoned (HAZ) grain
growth which can result in low toughness of welds.
To weld the ferritic stainless steels, filler metals should be used
which match or exceed the chromium level of the base alloy.
Type 409 is available as metal cored wire and Type 430 is available in all forms. Austenitic Types 309 and 312 may be used for
dissimilar joints. To minimize grain growth, weld heat input
should be minimized, preheat should be limited to 300 - 450°F
(149 - 232°C) and used only for the higher carbon ferritic stainless steels (e.g., 430, 434, 442 and 446). Many of the highly
alloyed ferritic stainless steels are only available in sheet and tube
forms and are usually welded by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding) or TIG welding without filler metal.
Special Alloying Elements
The alloying elements which appear in stainless steels are
classed as ferrite promoters and austenite promoters and are
listed below:
Ferrite Promoters
Chromium – provides basic corrosion resistance.
Molybdenum – provides high temperature strength and
increases corrosion resistance.
Niobium (Columbium), Titanium – strong carbide formers.
Martensitic Stainless Steels
The martensitic stainless steels contain 11 to 18% Cr, up to
1.20% C and small amounts of Mn and Ni and, sometimes, Mo.
These steels will transform to austenite on heating and, therefore, can be hardened by formation of martensite on cooling.
This group includes Types 403, 410, 414, 416, 420, 422, 431
and 440. Both standard and non-standard martensitic stainless
steels are listed in Table 8. They have a tendency toward weld
cracking on cooling when hard brittle martensite is formed.
Austenite Promoters
Nickel – provides high temperature strength and ductility.
Carbon – carbide former, strengthener.
Nitrogen – increases strength, reduces toughness.
Chromium and carbon content of the filler metal should generally
match these elements in the base metal. Type 410 filler is available as covered electrode, solid wire and cored wire and can be
used to weld types 402, 410, 414 and 420 steels. Type
410 NiMo filler metal can also be used. When it is necessary to
match the carbon in Type 420 steel, Type 420 filler, which is
available as solid wire and cored wire, should be used. Types
308, 309 and 310 austenitic filler metals can be used to weld
the martensitic steels to themselves or to other steels where
as-deposited toughness is required.
Neutral Effect
Regarding Austenite & Ferrite.
Manganese – sulfide former.
Silicon – wetting agent.
Sulfur and Selenium – improve machinability, but may cause
hot cracking in welds.
Weldability of Stainless Steels
Most stainless steels are considered to have good weldability
and may be welded by several welding processes including the
arc welding processes, resistance welding, electron and laser
beam welding, friction welding and brazing. For any of these
processes, joint surfaces and any filler metal must be clean.
Preheating and interpass temperatures in the 400 - 600°F
(204 - 316°C) range is recommended for most martensitic
stainless steels. Steels with over 0.20% carbon often require a
post weld heat treatment to soften and toughen the weld.
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TABLE 7 — Nominal Compositions of Ferritic Stainless Steels
NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS
Composition - Percent *
Cr
Ni
11.5-14.5
10.5-11.75
14.0-16.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-19.5
0.75
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
Type
405
409
429
430
430F**
430FSe**
430Ti
434
436
UNS
Number
S40500
S40900
S42900
S43000
S43020
S43023
S43036
S43400
S43600
C
0.08
0.08
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.10
0.12
0.12
Mn
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.25
1.25
1.00
1.00
1.00
Si
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
442
444
S44200
S44400
0.20
0.025
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
18.0-23.0
17.5-19.5
446
18-2FM**
18SR
26-1
(E-Brite)
26-1Ti
S44600
S18200
S44625
0.20
0.08
0.04
0.01
1.50
2.50
0.3
0.40
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.40
23.0-27.0
17.5-19.5
18.0
25.0-27.5
S44626
0.06
0.75
0.75
29-4
29-4-2
Monit
S44700
S44800
S44635
0.01
0.01
0.25
0.30
0.30
1.00
Sea-cure/
Sc-1
S44660
0.025
1.00
*Single values are maximum values.
P
0.04
0.045
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.06
0.04
0.04
0.04
S
0.03
0.045
0.03
0.03
0.15 min.
0.06
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.15 min.
0.50
0.02
0.02
25.0-27.0
0.5
0.04
0.02
0.20
0.20
0.75
28.0-30.0
28.0-30.0
24.5-26.0
0.15
2.0-2.5
3.5-4.5
0.025
0.025
0.04
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.75
25.0-27.0
1.5-3.5
0.04
0.03
**These grades are generally
considered to be unweldable.
1.00
Other
0.10-0.30 Al
6 x %C min. TI
0.06 Mo
0.15 min. Se
5 x %C - Ti min.
0.75-1.25 Mo
0.75-1.25 Mo;
5 x %C min.
Nb(Cb) + Ta
1.75-2.5 Mo, 0.035 N
0.2 + 4 (%C + %N);
(Ti +Nb(Cb) )
0.25 N
2.0 Al; 0.4 Ti
0.75-1.5 Mo; 0.015N;
0.2 Cu; 0.5 (Ni+Cu)
0.75-1.5 Mo; 0.04 N;
0.2 Cu; 0.2-1.0 Ti
3.5-4.2 Mo
3.5-4.2 Mo
3.5-4.5 Mo;
0.3-0.6 (Ti + Nb(Cb) )
2.5-3.5 Mo;
0.2 + 4 (%C + %N)
(Ti + Nb(Cb) )
(From ASM Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 3)
TABLE 8 — Nominal Compositions of Martensitic Stainless Steels
NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS
Type
403
410
410Cb
410S
414
414L
416
416Se**
416 Plus X**
420
420F**
422
431
440A
440B
440C
UNS
Number
S40300
S41000
S41040
S41008
S41400
S41600
S41623
S41610
S42000
S42020
S42200
C
0.15
0.15
0.18
0.08
0.15
0.06
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15 min.
0.15 min.
0.20-0.25
Mn
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.50
1.25
1.25
1.5-2.5
1.00
1.25
1.00
S43100
S44002
S44003
S44004
0.20
0.60-0.75
0.75-0.95
0.95-1.20
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
*Single values are maximum values.
Composition - Percent *
Si
Cr
Ni
0.50
11.5-13.0
1.00
11.5-13.0
1.00
11.5-13.5
1.00
11.5-13.5
0.6
1.00
11.5-13.5
1.25-2.50
0.15
12.5-13.0
2.5-3.0
1.00
12.0-14.0
1.00
12.0-14.0
12.0-14.0
1.00
1.00
12.0-14.0
1.00
12.0-14.0
0.75
11.0-13.0
0.5-1.0
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
15.0-17.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
**These grades are generally
considered to be unweldable.
1.25-2.50
P
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.06
0.04
0.06
0.025
S
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.15 min.
0.03
0.15 min.
0.025
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
Other
0.05-0.3 Nb(Cb)
0.5 Mo; 0.03 Al
0.6 Mo
0.15 min. Se
0.6 Mo
0.6 Mo
0.75-1.25 Mo;
0.75-1.25 W;
0.15-0.3 V
0.75 Mo
0.75 Mo
0.75 Mo
(From ASM Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 3)
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composition of these and other austenitic stainless steels are
listed in Table 9. Filler metals for these alloys should generally
match the base metal but for most alloys, provide a
microstructure with some ferrite to avoid hot cracking as will be
discussed further. To achieve this, Type 308 is used for Type
302 and 304 and Type 347 for Type 321. The others should be
welded with matching filler. Type 347 can also be welded with
Type 308H filler. These filler materials are available as coated
electrodes, solid bare wire and cored wire. Type 321 is available
on a limited basis as solid and cored wire.
Austenitic Stainless Steels
The austenitic stainless steels contain 16 - 26% Cr, 8 - 24% Ni +
Mn, up to 0.40% C and small amounts of a few other elements
such as Mo, Ti, Nb (Cb) and Ta. The balance between the Cr
and Ni + Mn is normally adjusted to provide a microstructure of
90 - 100% austenite. These alloys are characterized by good
strength and high toughness over a wide temperature range and
oxidation resistance to over 1000°F (538°C). This group
includes Types 302, 304, 310, 316, 321 and 347. Nominal
TABLE 9 — Nominal Compositions of Austenitic Stainless Steels
NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS
Type
201
202
205
216
301
302
302B
303**
303Se**
304
304H
304L
304LN
S30430
304N
304HN
305
308
308L
309
309S
309S Cb
309 Cb + Ta
310
310S
312
254SMo
UNS
Number
S20100
S20200
S20500
S21600
S30100
S30200
S30215
S30300
S30323
S30400
S30409
S30403
S30453
S30430
S30451
S30452
S30500
S30800
Composition - Percent *
Si
Cr
Ni
1.00
16.0-18.0
3.5-5.5
1.00
17.0-19.0
4.0-6.0
1.00
16.5-18.0
1.0-1.75
1.00
17.5-22.0
5.0-7.0
1.00
16.0-18.0
6.0-8.0
1.00
17.0-19.0
8.0-10.0
2.0-3.0
17.0-19.0
8.0-10.0
1.00
17.0-19.0
8.0-10.0
1.00
17.0-19.0
8.0-10.0
1.00
18.0-20.0
8.0-10.5
1.00
18.0-20.0
8.0-10.5
1.00
18.0-20.0
8.0-12.0
1.00
18.0-20.0
8.0-10.5
1.00
17.0-19.0
8.0-10.0
1.00
18.0-20.0
8.0-10.5
1.00
18.0-20.0
8.0-10.5
1.00
17.0-19.0
10.5-13.0
1.00
19.0-21.0
10.0-12.0
1.00
19.0-21.0
10.0-12.0
1.00
22.0-24.0
12.0-15.0
1.00
22.0-24.0
12.0-15.0
1.00
22.0-24.0
12.0-15.0
1.00
22.0-24.0
12.0-15.0
1.50
24.0-26.0
19.0-22.0
1.50
24.0-26.0
19.0-22.0
1.00
30.0 nom.
9.0 nom.
0.80
19.5-20.5
17.50-18.5
P
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.20
0.20
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.03
S
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.15 min.
0.06
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.010
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.5-3.0
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.75-1.5
1.00
23.0-26.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
16.0-18.0
18.0-20.0
18.0-20.0
18.0-20.0
17.0-19.0
17.0-19.0
25.0-30.0
17.0-20.0
20.0-22.0
19.0-22.0
10.0-14.0
10.0-14.0
10.0-14.0
10.0-14.0
10.0-14.0
10.0-14.0
11.0-15.0
11.0-15.0
12.0-16.0
9.0-12.0
9.0-12.0
3.0-6.0
34.0-37.0
23.5-25.5
0.045
0.045
0.20
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.10 min.
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
S34700
S34709
S34800
S34809
S38400
S24100
S24000
S21900
S20910
0.40
0.04
0.08
0.04-0.10
0.08
0.04-0.10
0.08
0.10
0.06
0.08
0.06
1.50
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
12.0
13.0
8.0-10.0
4.0-6.0
1.25
0.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.50
0.5
1.00
1.00
19.0 nom.
21.5 nom.
17.0-19.0
17.0-19.0
17.0-19.0
17.0-19.0
15.0-17.0
18.0
18.0
18.0-20.0
20.5-23.5
35.0 nom.
32.0 nom.
9.0-13.0
9.0-13.0
9.0-13.0
9.0-13.0
17.0-19.0
1.6
3.0
5.0-7.0
11.5-13.5
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
10 x %C min. Nb(Cb) +Ta
10 x %C min. Nb(Cb) + Ta
0.2 Cu; 10 x %C min. Nb(Cb) + Ta(c)
0.2 Cu; 10 x %C min. Nb(Cb) + Ta
0.06
0.04
0.03
0.03
S21800
0.10
7.0-9.0
3.5-4.5
16.0-18.0
8.0-9.0
0.04
0.03
0.35 N
0.30 N
0.15-0.40 N
1.5-3.0 Mo; 0.2-0.4 N;
0.1-0.3 Cb; 0.1-0.3 V
1.5-3.0 Mo; 0.2-0.4 N;
S31254
C
0.15
0.15
0.12-0.25
0.08
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.08
0.04-0.10
0.03
0.03
0.08
0.08
0.04-0.10
0.12
0.08
0.03
0.20
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.25
0.08
0.15
0.020
Mn
5.5-7.5
7.5-10.0
14.0-15.5
7.5-9.0
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
S31400
S31600
S31620
S31609
S31603
S31653
S31651
S31700
S31703
S31725
S32100
S32109
S32900
N08330
N80367
0.25
0.08
0.08
0.04-0.10
0.03
0.03
0.08
0.08
0.03
0.03
0.08
0.04-0.10
0.10
0.08
0.030
330HC
332
347
347H
348
348H
384
Nitronic 32
Nitronic 33
Nitronic 40
Nitronic 50
Nitronic 60
314
316
316F**
316H
316L
316LN
316N
317
317L
317M
321
321H
329
330
AL6-XN
S30900
S30908
S30940
S31000
S31008
* Single values are maximum. ** These values are general considered to be unweldable.
Information from AWS Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 3
42
Other
0.25 N
0.25 N
0.32-0.40 N
2.0-3.0 Mo; 0.25-0.5 N
0.6 Mo
0.15 min. Se
0.10-0.15 N
3.0-4.0 Cu
0.10-0.16 N
0.10-0.16 N
8 x %C - Nb(Cb)
8 x %C (Nb(Cb) + Ta)
6.00-6.50Mo; 0.18-0.22N;
Cu=0.5-1.00
2.0-3.0 Mo
1.75-2.5 Mo
2.0-3.0 Mo
2.0-3.0 Mo
2.0-3.0 Mo; 0.10-0.30 N
2.0-3.0 Mo; 0.10-0.16 N
3.0-4.0 Mo
3.0-4.0 Mo
4.0-5.0 Mo
5 x %C min. Ti
5 x %C min. Ti
1.0-2.0 Mo
6.00-7.00Mo; 0.18-0.25N;
Cu=0.75
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Sensitization
The degree of carbide precipitation increases with:
Two problems are associated with welds in the austenitic stainless steels: 1) sensitization of the weld heat affected zone, and
2) hot cracking of weld metal.
1. Higher carbon content (for example, because 301 and 302
grades have a maximum carbon content of 0.15% they are
more susceptible to carbon precipitation than grade 304 which
has a maximum carbon content of only 0.08%).
Sensitization leads to intergranular corrosion in the heat affected
zone as shown in Figure 32. Sensitization is caused by chromium
carbide formation and precipitation at grain boundaries in the
heat affected zone when heated in the 800 - 1600°F
(427 - 871°C) temperature range. Since most carbon is found
near grain boundaries, chromium carbide formation removes
some chromium from solution near the grain boundaries, thereby reducing the corrosion resistance of these local areas. This
problem can be remedied by using low carbon base material
and filler material to reduce the amount of carbon available to
combine with chromium. Welds should be made without
preheat and with minimum heat input to shorten the time in the
sensitization temperature range.
2. Time at the critical mid-range temperatures – a few seconds
at 1200°F (649°C) can do more damage than several minutes at
850°F (454°C) or 1450°F (788°C).
Welding naturally produces a temperature gradient in the steel.
It ranges from melting temperature at the weld to room
temperature some distance from the weld. A narrow zone on
each side of the weld remains in the sensitizing temperature
range for sufficient time for precipitation to occur. If used in
severely corrosive conditions, lines of damaging corrosion
appear alongside each weld.
FIGURE 32: Intergranular Corrosion in the Heat Affected Zone
Control of Carbide Precipitation
The amount of carbide precipitation is reduced by promoting
rapid cooling. Fortunately, copper chill bars, skip welding and
other techniques needed to control distortion in sheet metal
help reduce carbide precipitation. Annealing the weldment at
1900°F (1038°C) or higher, followed by water quench, eliminates
carbide precipitation, but this is an expensive and often
impractical procedure. Therefore, when weldments operate in
severe corrosive applications or within the sensitizing temperature range, either ELC (extra low carbon) or stabilized grades are
needed.
ELC – Extra Low Carbon – Grades (304L, 308L)
The 0.04% maximum carbon content of ELC grades helps
eliminate damaging carbide precipitation caused by welding.
These grades are most often used for weldments which operate
in severe corrosive conditions at temperatures under 800°F
(427°C).
ELC steels are generally welded with ELC electrode, e.g., AWS
E308L-XX. Although the stabilized electrodes AWS E347-XX
produce welds of equal resistance to carbide precipitation and
similar mechanical properties, the ELC electrode welds tend to
be less crack sensitive on heavy sections and have better low
temperature notch toughness.
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The low carbon content in ELC grades leaves more chromium
to provide resistance to intergranular corrosion.
If welding is necessary, special E312-XX or E309-XX electrodes
are recommended because their high ferrite reduces cracking
tendencies. Use techniques that reduce admixture of base
metal into the weld metal and produce convex bead shapes.
Stabilized Grades (321, 347, 348)
Another remedy is to use stabilized stainless steel base metal
and filler materials which contain elements that will react with
carbon, leaving all the chromium in solution to provide corrosion
resistance. Stabilized grades contain small amounts of titanium
(321), niobium (columbium) (347), or a combination of niobium
and tantalum (347, 348). These elements have a stronger affinity for carbon then does chromium, so they combine with the
carbon leaving the chromium to provide corrosion resistance.
Hot Cracking
Hot cracking is caused by low melting materials such as metallic
compounds of sulfur and phosphorous which tend to penetrate
grain boundaries. When these compounds are present in the
weld or heat affected zone, they will penetrate grain boundaries
and cracks will appear as the weld cools and shrinkage stress
develops.
These grades are most often used in severe corrosive conditions
when service temperatures reach the sensitizing range. They
are welded with the niobium stabilized electrodes, i.e., AWS
E347-XX.
Hot cracking can be prevented by adjusting the composition of
the base material and filler material to obtain a microstructure
with a small amount of ferrite in the austenite matrix. The ferrite
provides ferrite-austenite grain boundaries which are able to
control the sulfur and phosphorous compounds so they do not
permit hot cracking. This problem could be avoided by reducing
the sulfur and phosphorus to very low amounts, but this would
increase significantly the cost of making the steel.
Type 321 electrodes are not generally made because titanium is
lost in the arc. AWS E347-XX is usually quite satisfactory for
joining type 321 base metal.
Molybdenum Grades (316, 316L, 317, 317L, D319)
Molybdenum in stainless steel increases the localized corrosion
resistance to many chemicals. These steels are particularly
effective in combatting pitting corrosion. Their most frequent
use is in industrial processing equipment. Types 316 and 316L
are welded with AWS E316L-XX electrodes.
Normally, a ferrite level of 4 FN minimum is recommended to
avoid hot cracking. Ferrite is best determined by measurement
with a magnetic instrument calibrated to AWS A4.2 or ISO 8249.
It can also be estimated from the composition of the base
material and filler material with the use of any of several constitution
diagrams. The oldest of these is the 1948 Schaeffler Diagram.
The Cr equivalent (%Cr + %Mo + 1.5 x % Si + 0.5 x %Cb) is
plotted on the horizontal axis and the nickel equivalent
(%Ni + 30 x %C + 0.5 x %Mn) on the vertical axis. Despite long
use, the Schaeffler Diagram is now outdated because it does
not consider nitrogen effects and because it has not proven
possible to establish agreement among several measurers as to
the ferrite percent in a given weld metal.
The 316L and 317L are ELC grades that must be welded with
ELC type electrodes to maintain resistance to carbide precipitation. Both 317 and 317L are generally welded with E317 or
E317L electrodes respectively. They can be welded with AWS
E316-XX electrode, but the welds are slightly lower in
molybdenum content than the base metal with a corresponding
lower corrosion resistance.
When hot oxidizing acids are encountered in service, E316, E316L,
E317 or E317L welds may have poor corrosion resistance in the
as-welded condition. In such cases, E309 or E309Cb electrodes
may be better. As an alternative, the following heat treatment
will restore corrosion resistance to the weld:
An improvement on the Schaeffler Diagram is the 1973
WRC-DeLong Diagram, which can be used to estimate ferrite
level. The main differences are that the DeLong Diagram
includes nitrogen (N) in the Ni equivalent (%Ni + 30 x %C x 30 x
%N + 0.5 x %Mn) and shows Ferrite Numbers in addition to
“percent ferrite.” Ferrite Numbers at low levels may approximate
“percent ferrite.” The most recent diagram, the WRC-1992
Diagram, Figure 33 on page 45, is considered to be the most
accurate predicting diagram at present. The WRC-1992
Diagram has replaced the WRC-DeLong Diagram in the ASME
Code with publication of the 1994-95 Winter Addendum. Its Ni
equivalent (%Ni + 35 x %C + 20 x %N + 0.25 Cu) and chromium
equivalent (%Cr + %Mo + 0.7 x %Cb) differ from those of
Schaeffler and WRC-DeLong.
1. For 316 or 317 – full anneal at 1950 - 2050°F (1066 - 1121°C).
2. For 316L and 317L – stress relieve at 1600°F (871°C).
High Temperature Grades (302B, 304H, 309, 309S, 310, 310S)
These high alloy grades maintain strength at high temperatures
and have good scaling resistance. They are primarily used in
industrial equipment at high service temperatures – sometimes
over 2000°F (1093°C).
AWS E310-XX electrodes are needed to match the high temperature properties and scaling resistance of grades 310 and 310S.
Ferrite Number may be estimated by drawing a horizontal line
across the diagram from the nickel equivalent number and a
vertical line from the chromium equivalent number. The Ferrite
Number is indicated by the diagonal line which passes through
the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines.
Both 302B and 309 grades are generally welded with E309-XX
electrodes. 304H is generally welded with E308H-XX electrodes.
E310-XX electrodes can be used on light plate. E310-XX welds
on heavy plate tend to be more crack sensitive than E309-XX
weld metals.
Free Machining Grades (303, 303Se)
Production welding of these grades is not recommended
because the sulfur or selenium and phosphorus cause severe
porosity and hot short cracking.
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FIGURE 33 — New 1992 WRC diagram including solidification mode boundaries.
Updated from T.A. Siewert, C.N. McCowan and D.L. Olson – Welding Journal,
December 1988 by D.J. Kotecki and T.A. Siewert - Welding Journal, May 1992.
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
18
4
A
16
8
16
20
14
14
14
24
10
AF
16
6
12
2
18
28
22
35
45
26
= Ni
+ 35C
20N +
+ 0.25Cu
Nieq =NiNi
35C
+ +20N
0.25Cu
eq +
0
18
30
FA
12
55
65
40
50
F
60
12
75
70
85
95
80
90
10
10
100
18
20
22
24
26
Creq =CrCr
+ +0.7Cb
+ Mo
0.7Cb
eq =+CrMo
Predictions by the WRC-1992 and WRC-DeLong diagrams for
common grades like 308 are similar, but the WRC-1992
diagram generally is more accurate for higher alloy and less
common grades like high manganese austenitic or duplex
ferritic-austenitic stainless steels.
28
30
The amount of ferrite normally should not be greater than necessary to prevent hot cracking with some margin of safety. The
presence of ferrite can reduce corrosion resistance in certain
media and excess ferrite can impair ductility and toughness.
Ferrite Number can be measured directly on weld deposits from
the magnetic properties of the ferrite. Several instruments are
available commercially, including the Magnet Gage, the Severn
Gage, the Inspector Gage and the Ferritescope which can be
calibrated to AWS A4.2 or ISO 8249 and provide readings in
Ferrite Number.
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The austenitic precipitation hardening stainless steels remain
austenitic after quenching from the solutioning temperature even
after substantial amounts of cold work. They are hardened only
by the aging reaction. This would include solution treating
between 1800 and 2050°F (982 to 1121°C), oil or water
quenching and aging at 1300 to 1350°F (704 to 732°C) for up to
24 hours. Examples of these steels include A286 and 17-10P.
Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
There are three categories of precipitation hardening stainless
steels – martensitic, semiaustenitic and austenitic.
The martensitic stainless steels can be hardened by quenching
from the austenitizing temperature [around 1900°F (1038°C)]
then aging between 900 - 1150°F (482 - 621°C). Since these
steels contain less than 0.07% carbon, the martensite is not very
hard and the main hardening is obtained from the aging
(precipitation) reaction. Examples of this group are 17-4PH,
15-5PH and PH13-8Mo. Nominal compositions of precipitation
hardening stainless steels are listed in Table 10.
If maximum strength is required in martensitic and semiaustenitic precipitation hardening stainless steels, matching or
nearly matching filler metal should be used and the component,
before welding, should be in the annealed or solution annealed
condition. Often, Type 630 filler metal, which is nearly identical
with 17-4PH base metal, is used for martensitic and semiaustenitic PH stainlesses. After welding, a complete solution
heat treatment plus an aging treatment is preferred. If the post
weld solution treatment is not feasible, the components should
be solution treated before welding then aged after welding.
Thick sections of highly restrained parts are sometimes welded
in the overaged condition. These would require a full heat
treatment after welding to attain maximum strength.
The semiaustenitic stainless steels will not transform to
martensite when cooled from the austenitizing temperature
because the martensite transformation temperature is below
room temperature. These steels must be given a conditioning
treatment which consists of heating in the range of 1350 to
1750°F (732 to 954°C) to precipitate carbon and/or alloy elements as carbides or intermetallic compounds. This removes
alloy elements from solution, thereby destabilizing the austenite,
which raises the martensite transformation temperature so that a
martensite structure will be obtained on cooling to room
temperature. Aging the steel between 850 - 1100°F (454 - 593°C)
will stress relieve and temper the martensite to increase toughness, ductility, hardness and corrosion resistance. Examples of
this group are 17-7PH, PH 15-7 Mo and AM 350.
The austenitic precipitation hardening stainless steels are the
most difficult to weld because of hot cracking. Welding should
preferably be done with the parts in the solution treated
condition, under minimum restraint and with minimum heat
input. Nickel base alloy filler metals of the NiCrFe type or
conventional austenitic stainless steel type are often preferred.
TABLE 10 — Nominal Compositions of Precipitation Hardening and Duplex Stainless Steels
NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS
UNS
Type
Number
C
Precipitation-Hardening Types
PH 13-8 Mo S13800
0.05
Mn
Si
0.10
0.10
Composition - Percent *
Cr
Ni
12.25-13.25
7.5-8.5
P
0.01
S
ASTM
A
GRADE
0.008
Other
2.0-2.5 Mo;
0.90-1.35 Al; 0.01 N
2.5-4.5 Cu;
0.15-0.45 Nb(Cb) + Ta
3.0-5.0 Cu;
0.15-0.45 Nb(Cb) + Ta
0.75-1.15 Al
2.0-3.0 Mo; 0.75-1.5 Al
15-5 PH
S15500
0.07
1.00
1.00
14.0-15.5
3.5-5.5
0.04
0.03
17-4 PH
S17400
0.07
1.00
1.00
15.5-17.5
3.0-5.0
0.04
0.03
630
17-7 PH
PH 15-7 Mo
17-10 P
A286
AM350
AM355
AM363
Custom 450
S17700
S15700
0.09
0.09
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
16.0-18.0
14.0-16.0
6.5-7.75
6.5-7.75
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
631
0.07
0.08
0.07-0.11
0.75
2.00
0.5-1.25
0.50
1.00
0.50
17.0
13.5-16.0
16.0-17.0
10.5
24.0-27.0
4.0-5.0
0.28
0.040
0.04
0.030
0.03
660
0.5-1.25
0.15
1.00
0.50
0.05
1.00
15.0-16.0
11.0
14.0-16.0
4.0-5.0
4.0
5.0-7.0
0.04
0.03
S45000
0.10-0.15
0.04
0.05
0.03
0.03
Custom 455
S45500
0.05
0.50
0.50
11.0-12.5
7.5-9.5
0.04
0.03
Stainless W
S17600
0.08
1.00
1.00
16.0-17.5
6.0-7.5
0.04
0.03
8 x %C - Nb(Cb)
0.5 Mo; 1.5-2.5 Cu;
0.8-1.4 Ti; 0.1-0.5 Nb(Cb)
0.4 Al; 0.4-1.2 Ti
0.03
2.0
1.0
22.0
5.5
0.03
0.02
3.0 Mo; 0.18 N
0.03
0.04
0.067
2.5
1.5
1.7
1.0
1.0
0.44
23.0
25.5
21.6
4.0
5.5
4.9
0.03
1.2
0.8
25
5.5
S66286
S35000
S35500
Duplex Types
S32205
2205
2304
S32304
255
NU744LN
2507
S32750
*Single values are maximum values.
1.0-1.5 Mo; 2 Ti; 0.3 V
2.5-3.25 Mo; 0.07-0.13 N
2.5-3.25 Mo
0.25 Ti
1.25-1.75 Cu; 0.5-1.0 Mo
0.1 N
3.0 Mo; 0.17 N; 2.0 Cu
2.4 Mo; 0.10 N; 0.2 Cu
0.035
0.020
4 Mo; 0.28 N
(From ASM Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 3) and ASTM A638
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Duplex Stainless Steels
permeability and melting range. These values should be close
enough for most engineering purposes. If more precise data is
required for a particular type of stainless steel, it can be found in
the ASM Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 3.
Duplex Ferritic – Austenitic Stainless Steels
Duplex stainless steels solidify as 100% ferrite, but about half of
the ferrite transforms to austenite during cooling through
temperatures above approximately 1900°F (1040°C). This
behavior is accomplished by increasing chromium and
decreasing nickel as compared to austenitic grades. Nitrogen is
deliberately added to speed up the rate of austenite formation
during cooling. Duplex stainless steels are ferromagnetic. They
combine both the higher strength and fabrication properties of
austenitics with the resistance to chloride stress corrosion
cracking of ferritic stainless steels. The most common grade is
2205 (UNS S32205), consisting of 22%Cr, 5%Ni, 3%Mo and
0.15% N.
Mechanical Properties
Nominal mechanical properties of ferritic and austenitic stainless
steels in the annealed condition are listed in Table 12 and Table
13 respectively. The austenitic stainless steels generally have
higher tensile strengths and elongation than the ferritic stainless
steels but lower yield strengths. Reduction in area is about the
same for both groups. Nominal mechanical properties of
martensitic stainless steels in both the annealed and tempered
condition are listed in Table 14. The tempered condition
involves heating to austenitize, cooling to form martensite and
reheating to the indicated temperature to increase toughness.
Table 15 lists the mechanical properties of the precipitation
hardening stainless steels as solution annealed and after aging
treatments at the temperature indicated. Properties of three
duplex stainless steels are included.
Physical Properties
Average physical properties for each of the main groups of
stainless steel are listed in Table 11. This includes elastic
modulus, density, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal
conductivity, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetic
TABLE 11 — Physical Properties of Groups of Stainless Steels
NOMINAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Property
Elastic Modulus; 106 psi
GPa
Density; lb./in.3
g/cm3
Coefficiency of Thermal Expansion: µin./in. °F
µm/m °C
Thermal Conduct.; Btu/hrft. °F
w/mk
Specific Heat; Btu/lb. °F
J/k °K
Electrical Resistivity, µΩcm
Magnetic Permeability
Melting Range °F
°C
Austenitic
Types
Ferritic
Types
Martensitic
Types
Precipitation
Hardening Types
28.3
195
0.29
8.0
9.2
16.6
9.1
15.7
0.12
500
74
1.02
2,500-2,650
1,375-1,450
29.0
200
0.28
7.8
5.8
10.4
14.5
25.1
0.11
460
61
600-1,100
2,600-2,790
1,425-1,530
29.0
200
0.28
7.8
5.7
10.3
14.0
24.2
0.11
460
61
700-1000
2,600-2,790
1,425-1,530
29.0
200
0.28
7.8
6.0
10.8
12.9
22.3
0.11
460
80
95
2,560-2,625
1,400-1,440
TABLE 12 — Nominal Mechanical Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steels
NOMINAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Type
405
409
429
430
430F
430Ti
434
436
442
444
446
26-1EBrite
26-1Ti
29-4
29-4-2
18SR
Monit
Sea-cure/SC-1
M = Maximum
Condition
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Tensile Strength
MPa
ksi
70
480
65
450
490
71
515
75
80
550
75
515
77
530
77
530
80
550
60
415
80
550
450
65
470
68
80
550
80
550
90
620
94
650
80
550
0.2% Yield Strength
ksi
MPa
40
275
35
240
310
45
45
310
55
380
45
310
53
365
53
365
45
310
40
275
50
345
275
40
45
310
60
415
60
415
65
450
80
550
55
380
Elong.
%
30
25
30
30
25
30
23
23
25
20
23
22
20
20
20
25
20
20
R.A.
%
60
65
60
60
65
50
50
Hardness
Rockwell
B80
B75M
B88M
B82
B86
B83M
B83M
B85
B95M
B86
B90M
B95M
B98M
B98M
B90
B100M
B100M
(From ASM Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, Volume 1; and 9th Edition, Volume 3)
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TABLE 13 — Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels
NOMINAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Type
201
201
202
301
301
302
302B
303
304
304L
304N
304LN
305
308
308L
309
310
312
314
316
316L
316F
317
317L
321
347/348
329
330
330HC
332
384
Tensile Strength
ksi
MPa
115
793
185
1275
105
724
110
758
185
1275
90
620
95
655
90
620
85
586
80
552
85
586
80
552
85
586
85
586
80
551
90
620
95
655
95
655
100
689
85
586
78
538
85
586
90
620
85
586
87
599
92
634
105
724
80
550
85
586
80
552
80
550
Condition
Anneal
Full Hard
Anneal
Anneal
Full Hard
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
0.2% Yield Strength
ksi
MPa
55
379
140
965
55
379
40
276
140
965
37
255
40
276
35
241
35
241
30
207
35
241
30
207
37
255
35
241
30
207
40
276
40
276
50
35
30
35
40
35
35
35
80
35
42
35
345
241
207
241
276
241
241
241
552
241
290
241
Elong.
%
55
4
55
60
8
55
50
50
55
55
30
R.A.
%
65
65
55
65
65
Hardness
Rockwell
B90
C41
B90
B85
C41
B82
B85
B84
B80
B76
55
55
55
45
45
20
45
55
55
55
50
50
55
50
25
30
45
45
70
65
65
65
65
B82
B80
B76
B85
B87
60
70
65
70
55
55
65
65
50
B87
B80
B76
B80
B85
B80
B80
B84
B98
B80
65
70
(From ASM Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, Volume 1; and 9th Edition, Volume 3 and ASTM standards)
TABLE 14 — Nominal Mechanical Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steels
NOMINAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Type
403
403
410
410
410S
410Cb
410Cb
414
414
414L
416 Plus X
420
420
422
431
431
440A
440A
440B
440B
440C
440C
Condition
Anneal
*Temp. 800°F
Anneal
*Temp. 800°F
Anneal
Anneal
*Temp. (Int.)
Anneal
*Temp. 800°F
Anneal
Anneal
Anneal
*Temp. 600°F
Temp., Int.
Anneal
*Temp. 800°F
Anneal
*Temp. 600°F
Anneal
*Temp. 600°F
Anneal
*Temp. 600°F
Tensile Strength
ksi
MPa
75
517
195
1344
75
517
195
1344
60
414
70
483
125
862
120
827
200
1379
115
793
75
517
655
95
230
1586
140
965
862
125
205
1413
105
724
260
1793
107
738
280
1931
758
110
285
1965
*Tempered after austentizing and cooling to room temperature.
0.2% Yield Strength
ksi
MPa
40
276
150
1034
40
276
150
1034
30
207
40
276
100
689
95
655
150
1034
80
552
40
276
50
345
195
1344
110
758
655
95
155
1069
60
414
240
1655
62
427
270
1862
65
448
275
1896
Elong.
%
30
17
30
17
22
13
13
17
16
20
30
25
8
13
20
15
20
5
18
3
13
2
R.A.
%
65
55
65
55
45
45
55
58
60
60
55
25
30
60
60
45
20
35
15
25
10
Hardness
Rockwell
B82
C41
B82
C41
B95M
C22
C43
B92
C50
C24
C43
B95
C51
B96
C55
B97
C57
M = Maximum (600°F = 315°C), Int. = Intermediate temper hot finished (800°F = 427°C)
(From ASM Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, Volume 1; and 9th Edition, Volume 3)
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TABLE 15 — Nominal Mechanical Properties of Precipitation Hardening and Duplex Stainless Steels
NOMINAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Condition
Type
Precipitation Hardening Types
Ph13-8 Mo
H950
15-5PH
H900
15-5PH
H1150
17-4PH
Sol. Ann.
17-4PH
H900
Sol. Ann.
17-7PH
RH950
17-7PH
Sol. Ann.
PH15-7 Mo
RH950
PH15-7 Mo
Sol. Ann.
17-10P
H1300
17-10P
H1350
A286
Sol. Ann.
AM350
DA
AM350
Sol. Ann.
AM355
AM355
DA
Custom 450
Anneal
H900
Custom 450
Custom 455
H900
Stainless W
Sol. Ann.
Stainless W
H950
Duplex Types
2205
2304
255
2507
Tensile Strength
ksi
MPa
0.2% Yield Strength
ksi
MPa
220
190
135
150
200
130
235
130
240
89
143
130
160
195
175
195
125
180
235
120
195
1517
1310
931
1034
1379
896
1620
896
1655
613
986
896
1103
1344
1207
1344
862
1241
1620
827
1344
205
170
105
110
178
40
220
55
225
37
98
85
55
155
65
155
95
170
220
75
180
1413
1172
724
758
1227
276
1517
379
1551
255
676
586
379
1069
448
1069
655
1172
1517
517
1241
120
110
110
116
827
758
758
800
65
60
80
80
448
414
552
550
Elong.
%
R.A.
%
Hardness
Rockwell
8
10
16
10
12
35
6
35
6
70
20
15
40
10.5
30
10
10
10
8
7
7
45
35
50
45
48
C45
C44
C32
C33
C44
B85
C48
B88
C48
B82
C32
25
76
32
40
40
30
25
B95
C41
B95
C41
C30
C40
C47
C30
C46
25
25
15
15
From ASM Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, Volume 1; and 9th Edition, Volume 3
Selection of a Stainless Steel
page 50, lists corrosion resistance of several standard types of
stainless steel to a number of corrosive media. This indicates
that austenitic types and higher chromium types generally are
more corrosion resistant than the martensitic and lower
chromium ferritic types. A great deal of test data has been
generated on the corrosion behavior of many metals and alloys
in many kinds of corrosive media.
The selection of a particular type stainless steel will depend on
what is required by the application. In most cases the primary
consideration is corrosion resistance, tarnish resistance or
oxidation resistance at elevated temperature. In addition to
these requirements, the selected stainless steel must have some
minimum mechanical properties such as strength, toughness,
ductility and fatigue strength. Several types and grades of
stainless steel may provide the corrosion resistance and
mechanical properties required. In this case, the final selection
should be made on the basis of the lowest cost available alloy
which will fulfill the service requirements. Generally, selection of
the type of stainless steel is made by the designer of the equipment or component based on his knowledge, experience and
data on corrosion behavior of various alloys in the environment
of interest. The responsibility of the welding engineer normally
does not include selection of the base alloy, only selection of the
filler material, welding process and welding procedure.
Other factors which must be considered in selecting a stainless
steel are resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and intergranular
attack. Intergranular attack is caused by carbide precipitation in
weld heat affected zones and methods of preventing this
problem were discussed previously. If the application involves
service at elevated temperature, then elevated temperature
mechanical properties such as creep strength, stress rupture
strength and oxidation resistance must be considered.
With the corrosion and oxidation test data derived from the
handbooks and other references, a stainless steel or other alloy
may be selected for a particular application. Once the stainless
steel is selected, it is the welding engineer’s responsibility to
design the joints, select the weld filler metal, welding process
and welding procedure.
If it becomes necessary for the welding engineer to select a
base alloy, information should be gathered on the service
environment, expected life of the part and extent of corrosion
which is acceptable. To assist in this selection, Table 16, on
GMAW
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TABLE 16 — Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel in Various Environments
CORROSION RESISTANCE
Type
Stainless
Austenitic
Industrial
201
5
202
5
205
5
301
5
302
5
302B
5
303
5
303Se
5
304
5
304H
5
304L
5
304N
5
305
5
5
308
309
5
5
309S
5
310
310S
5
314
5
316
3
316F
3
316H
3
316L
3
316N
3
317
3
317L
3
321
5
321H
5
329
3
330
3
347
5
347H
5
348
5
348H
5
384
Ferritic Types
405
6
409
6
429
3
430
3
430F
3
430FSe
3
434
3
436
3
442
3
446
3
Martensitic Types
403
6
410
6
6
414
416
6
6
416Se
6
420
Atmospheric
Marine
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
City
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Rural
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Fresh
Water
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Salt
Water
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
6
Code: 1 – No rust, staining or pitting,
2 – Light rust or stains, no pitting,
3 – Light rust or stains, light pitting,
4 – Rust covered or stained,
5 – Rust covered and pitted,
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
3
Soil
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Chemical
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
3
6 – Rust and severe pitting,
7 – Corrosion and pitting in chemical media varies widely with media, concentration,
temperature and agitation. Consult literature and handbooks for data on specific
application.
GMAW
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Design for Stainless Steels
Joint location and weld sequence should be considered to
minimize distortion.
Since the coefficient of thermal expansion for austenitic stainless
steels is relatively high, the control of distortion must be
considered in designing weldments of these alloys. The volume
of weld metal in joints must be limited to the smallest size which
will provide the necessary properties. In thick plate, a “U”
groove, Figure 34(c), which gives a smaller volume than a “V”
groove, should be used. If it is possible to weld from both sides
of a joint, a double “U” or “V” groove joint preparation should be
used. This not only reduces the volume of weld metal required
but also helps to balance the shrinkage stresses. Accurate joint
fitup and careful joint preparation which are necessary for high
quality welds also help minimize distortion.
Strong tooling and fixturing should be employed to hold parts in
place and resist tendencies for components to move during
welding. The tooling should also provide an inert gas backup to
the root of the weld to prevent oxidation when the root pass is
being made.
FIGURE 34 — Typical joint designs for welding austenitic stainless steel pipe.
A = 37-1/2°± 2-1/2°
B = 10° ± 1°
C = 1/16 in. ± 1/32 in. (1.6 mm ± 0.8 mm)
D = 2 times amount of offset
E = 30° max
R = 1/4 in. (6.4 mm)
From AWS D10.4
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Selecting Solid and Metal-Cored Stainless Steel
Electrodes for GMAW
TABLE 17 — Solid, Metal-Cored Wires for Welding Austenitic Stainless Steels
ELECTRODES
Base Stainless Steel
Wrought
Cast
201
202
205
216
301
302
CF-20
304
CF-8
304H
304L
CF-3
304LN
304N
304HN
305
308
308L
309
CH-20
309S
CH-10
309SCb
309CbTa
310
CK-20
310S
312
CE-30
314
316
CF-8M
316H
CF-12M
316L
CF-3M
316LN
316N
317
CG-8M
317L
321
321H
329
330
HT
330HC
332
347
CF-8C
347H
348
348H
Nitronic 33
Nitronic 40
Nitronic 50
Nitronic 60
254SMo
AL-6XN
Recommended Solid, Metal-Cored
Stainless Steel GMAW Wire
ER209, ER219, ER308, ER308S
ER209, ER219, ER308, ER308S
ER240
ER209
ER308, ER308S, ER308LSi
ER308, ER308S, ER308LSi
ER308, ER308S, ER308LSi, ER309, ER309S, ER309LSi
ER308H
ER308L, ER308LS, ER347, ER308LSi
ER308L, ER308LS, ER347, ER308LSi
ER308, ER308S, ER308LSi, ER309, ER309S, ER309LSi
ER308H
ER308, ER308S, ER308LSi, ER309, ER309S, ER309LSi
ER308, ER308S, ER308LSi, ER309, ER309S, ER309LSi
ER308L, ER308LS, ER308LSi, ER347
ER309, ER309S, ER309LSi, ER310
ER309L, ER309LS, ER309LSi
ER310
ER310
ER312
ER310
ER316, ER308Mo
ER316H, ER16-8-2
ER316L, ER316LSi, ER308MoL
ER316L, ER316LSi
ER316
ER317
ER317L
ER321
ER321
ER312
ER330
ER330
ER330
ER347, ER347Si
ER347, ER347Si
ER347, ER347Si
ER347, ER347Si
ER240
ER219
ER209
ER218
ERNiCrMo-3
ERNiCrMo-10
From AWS Filler Metal Specifications: A5.4, A5.9, A5.22
GMAW
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TABLE 18 — Solid, Metal-Cored Wires for Welding Ferritic Stainless Steels
ELECTRODES
Base Stainless Steel
Wrought
Cast
405
409
429
430
CB-30
430F
430FSe
434
442
444
446
CC-50
26-1
Recommended Solid, Metal-Cored
Stainless Steel GMAW Wire
ER410NiMo, ER430
ER409, AM363, EC409
ER409Cb
ER430
ER430
ER430
ER434
ER442
ER316L
ER446
ER26-1
From AWS Filler Metal Specifications: A5.4, A5.9, A5.22
TABLE 19 — Solid, Metal-Cored Wires for Welding Martensitic and Duplex Stainless Steels
ELECTRODES
Base Stainless Steel
Wrought
Cast
403
410
CA-15
410S
414
416
416Se
416PlusX
420
CA-90
420F
431
CB-30
440A
440B
440C
CA-6NM
CA-15
2205
2304
255
Recommended Solid, Metal-Cored
Stainless Steel GMAW Wire
ER410
ER410, ER410NiMo
ER410NiMo
ER410
ER312, ER410
ER312
ER312
ER420, ER410
ER312
ER410
Not recommended for Arc Welding
Not recommended for Arc Welding
Not recommended for Arc Welding
ER410NiMo
ER430
ER2209
ER2209
ER2553
From AWS Filler Metal Specifications: A5.4, A5.9, A5.22
STAINLESS STEEL PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE
AWS
Classification
ER308LSi
ER308Si
ER309LSi
ER309Si
ER316LSi
ER316Si
ER347Si
ER2209
ER385
Stainless Steel
Lincoln
Product Name
Blue Max® MIG 308LSi
Blue Max MIG 308Si
Blue Max MIG 309LSi
Blue Max MIG 309Si
Blue Max MIG 316LSi
Blue Max MIG 316Si
Blue Max LNM 347Si
Blue Max LNM 4462
Blue Max LNM 4500
Nickel-Based Alloy
AWS
Classification
Lincoln
Product Name
ERNiCrMo-3
Blue Max LNM NiCro 60/20
ERNiCr-3
Blue Max LNM NiCro 70/19
Request publications C6.10 and C6.1 for more information on Blue Max stainless steel premium GMAW electrode wires.
GMAW
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TABLE 20 — Solid, Metal-Cored Wires for Welding Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels
ELECTRODES
Designation
Martensitic Types
17-4PH
and
15-5 PH
Stainless W
UNS No.
S17400
S15500
S17600
Semiaustenitic Types
17-7PH
PH 15-7Mo
AM350
AM355
Austenitic Types
A-286
Bare
Welding
Wire
Dissimilar
PH Stainless
Steels
AMS 5826
(17-4 PH) or
ER308
AMS 5805C
(A-286) or
ERNiMo-3b
E or ER309,
E or ER309 Cb
E or ERNiMo-3,
E or ER309
S17700
AMS 5824A
(17-7 PH)
S15700
S35000
S35500
AMS 5812C (PH 15-7Mo)
AMS 5774B (AM350)
AMS 5780A (AM355)
E or ER310,
ENiCrFe-2, or
ERNiCr-3
E or ER309, E or ER310
E or ER308, E or ER309
E or ER308, E or ER309
K66286
ERNiCrFe-6 or
ERNiMo-3
E or ER309,
E or ER310
TABLE 21 — Standard Sizes for Stainless Steel Electrodes
ELECTRODES
Form
Electrode in coils, with or
without support
Electrode wound on standard
12-in. O.D. spools
Electrodes wound on lightweight
1-1/2 and 2-1/2 lb., 4-in O.D. spools
Diameter, in.
0.045, 1/16, 5/64, 3/32, 7/64
1/8, 5/32, 3/16, 1/4
0.030, 0.035, 0.045, 1/16
5/64, 3/32, 7/64
0.020, 0.025, 0.030
0.035, 0.045
Diameter, mm,
1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 2.8
3.2, 4.0, 4.8, 6.4
0.8, 0.9, 1.2, 1.6
2.0, 2.4, 2.8
0.5, 0.6, 0.8
0.9, 1.2
from certain PH filler metals during transfer across the arc as a
result of oxidation. Response of the weld metal to heat treatment
might be less because of this action.
GMAW of Stainless Steel
If the production application involves long joints in relatively thick
material or a large number of parts, the GMAW process with
solid or metal cored electrodes may be the best choice.
Stainless steels may be welded by the gas metal arc process,
using either spray arc, short-circuiting or pulsed arc transfer.
For flat position welding, spray transfer is usually preferred. For
other welding positions, short-circuiting transfer is often used
with helium-rich gas such as 90% He, 7.5% Ar, 2.5% CO2.
Pulsed spray transfer can be employed using argon or an
argon/helium mixture with a small addition of oxygen or carbon
dioxide.
Solid or metal cored electrodes will provide the fastest deposition rates with the GMAW process but wire feeding equipment,
power supplies and the requirement for inert gas shielding add
to the cost of using these fillers. However, there is little need to
remove slag between passes. Solid and metal cored electrodes
can be used in short-circuiting, globular and spray modes of arc
operation which gives a wide range of deposition rates and heat
input levels. Solid and metal cored electrodes can therefore be
used for welding a wide range of thicknesses.
Copper backup strips are necessary for welding stainless steel
sections up to 1/16” (1.6 mm) thick. Backup is also needed
when welding 1/4” (6.4 mm) and thicker plate from one side
only. No air must be permitted to reach the underside of the
weld while the weld puddle is solidifying.
Gas metal arc welding with spray transfer is used to join sections
thicker than about 1/4” (6.4 mm) because deposition rates are
higher than with other transfer modes. Welding procedures are
similar for conventional austenitic and PH stainless steels.
Oxygen picked up by the molten metal may reduce the
corrosion resistance and ductility of the stainless steel as it
cools. To prevent this, the underside of the weld should be
shielded by an inert gas such as argon. The shielding gas
source can be built into the welding fixture(s).
The shielding gas is generally argon with 1 to 2% oxygen added
for arc stability. Mixtures of argon and helium are employed if a
hotter arc is desired. A small oxygen addition can be added to
provide a stable arc, but some aluminum or titanium can be lost
GMAW
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Electrode diameters as large as 3/32” (2.4 mm), but usually less
than 1/16” (1.6 mm), are used with relatively high currents to
create the spray arc transfer. A current of approximately
300 - 350 amps is required for a 1/16” (1.6 mm) electrode,
depending on the shielding gas and type of stainless wire being
used. The degree of spatter is dependent upon the composition
and flow rate of the shielding gas, wire feed speed and the
characteristics of the welding power supply. DC+ is used for
most stainless steel GMAW and an argon with 1-2% oxygen gas
mixture is recommended. Suggested welding guidelines for 200
and 300 series stainless steels in the spray transfer mode are
given below. On square butt welds, a backup strip should be
used to prevent weld metal drop-through. When fitup is poor or
copper backing cannot be used, drop-through may be minimized by short-circuiting transfer welding the first pass.
A slight backward and forward motion along the axis of the joint
should be used. The following charts summarize the welding
guidelines recommended for stainless steel.
Short-circuiting transfer welds on stainless steel made with a
shielding gas of 90% He, 7.5% Ar, 2.5% CO2 show good corrosion resistance and coalescence. Butt, lap and single fillet welds
in material ranging from 0.060 inch to 0.125 inch in 304, 310,
316, 321, 347, 410 and similar stainless steels can be made
successfully.
The pulsed arc process, as normally used, is a spray transfer
process wherein one small drop of molten metal is transferred
across the arc for each high current pulse of weld current. The
high current pulse must be of sufficient magnitude and duration
to cause at least one small drop of molten metal to form and be
propelled by the pinch effect from the end of the electrode to the
weld puddle. During the low current portion of the weld cycle,
the arc is maintained and the wire electrode is heated, but the
heat developed is not adequate to transfer any metal. For this
reason, the time duration at the low current value must be limited
otherwise metal would be transferred in the globular transfer
mode.
When welding with a semiautomatic gun, forehand (“pushing”)
techniques are beneficial. Although the operator’s hand is
exposed to more radiated heat, better visibility is obtained.
For welding plate 1/4” (6.4 mm) and thicker, the welding gun
should be moved back and forth in the direction of the joint and
at the same time moved slightly from side to side. On thinner
metal, only back and forth motion along the joint is used. The
more economical short-circuiting transfer process for thinner
material should be employed in the overhead and horizontal
position for at least the root and first passes. Although some
operators use a short digging spray arc to control the puddle,
the weld may be abnormally porous.
Wire diameters of 0.035” and 0.045” (0.9 and 1.1 mm) are most
commonly used with this process. Gases for spray pulsed arc
welding, such as argon with 1% oxygen are popular, the same
as used for axial spray arc welding. These and other electrode
sizes can be welded in the spray transfer mode at a lower
average current with pulsed current than with continuous weld
current. The advantage of this is that thin material can be welded
in the spray transfer mode which produces a smooth weld with
less spatter than the short-circuiting transfer mode. Another
advantage is that for a given average current, spray transfer can
be obtained with a larger diameter wire than could be obtained
with continuous currents. Larger diameter wires are less costly
than smaller sizes, and the lower ratio of surface to volume
reduces the amount of deposit contamination.
Power supply units with slope, voltage and inductance controls
are recommended for the welding of stainless steel with shortcircuiting transfer. Inductance, in particular, plays an important
part in obtaining proper puddle fluidity.
The shielding gas often recommended for short-circuiting welding
of stainless steel contains 90% helium, 7.5% argon and 2.5%
carbon dioxide. The gas gives the most desirable bead contour
while keeping the CO2 level low enough so that is does not
influence the corrosion resistance of the metal. High inductance
in the power supply output is beneficial when using this gas
mixture.
The electrode diameters for gas metal arc welding are generally
between 0.030” and 3/32” (0.8 and 2.4 mm). For each electrode diameter, there is a certain minimum welding current that
must be exceeded to achieve spray transfer. For example,
when welding stainless steel in an argon/oxygen atmosphere
with 0.045” (1.1 mm) diameter stainless steel electrode, spray
transfer will be obtained at a welding current of about 220 amp
DC+. Along with the minimum current, a minimum arc voltage
must also be obtained. This is generally between 22 and 30
volts.
Single pass welds may also be made using argon/oxygen and
argon/CO2 gas mixes. However, arc voltage for steady shortcircuiting transfer may be as much as 6 volts lower than for the
helium based gas. The colder arc may lead to lack of fusion
defects. The CO2 in the shielding gas will affect the corrosion
resistance of multi-pass welds made with short-circuiting transfer due to carbon pickup.
Electrodes come on spools varying in weight between 2 and
60 lbs. Also available are electrodes for welding the straight
chromium stainless steels and austenitic electrodes that contain
more than the usual amount of silicon. The latter have
particularly good wetting characteristics when used with the
short-circuiting transfer process.
Wire extension or CTWD (contact tip to work distance) should
be kept as short as possible. Backhand welding is usually
easier on fillet welds and will result in a neater weld. Forehand
welding should be used for butt welds. Outside corner welds
may be made with a straight motion.
GMAW
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Some stainless steel weld metals during welding have a
tendency toward hot cracking or tearing when they contain little
or no ferrite — Type 347, for example. When welding these,
more welding passes than indicated in the procedures may be
needed. Stringer bead techniques are also recommended
rather than weaving or oscillating from side to side. Hot cracking may be eliminated by stringer bead techniques since there is
a reduction in contraction stresses, hence cooling is more rapid
through the hot short temperature range. A procedure that
tends to produce a more convex bead than normal can be very
helpful, and care should be taken to fill craters.
When welding magnetic stainless steels (ferritic and martensitic
types) to the relatively non-magnetic types (austenitic types), it is
desirable to:
1. Use a single bevel joint to obtain minimum joint
reinforcement.
2. Use low heat input short-circuiting transfer to minimize the
arc deflection encountered when welding magnetic to
non-magnetic steels.
3. For uniform fusion, be sure the wire is kept centered over the
non-beveled edge of the joint.
Weld metal hot cracking may be reduced by short-circuiting
transfer welding, because of the lower dilution from the base
metal. Excessive dilution may produce a completely austenitic
weld metal having strong cracking characteristics.
Blue Max® Stainless Steel GMAW Electrode
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GMAW of Aluminum Alloys
Axial spray and pulsed spray metal transfers are the preferred
metal transfer modes for aluminum, each of these are capable
of providing the required energy levels for base metal melting to
assure good fusion.
GMAW of Aluminum Alloys
Keywords:
Thermal Conductivity
Axial Spray Transfer
Table 22 supplies the typical axial spray transfer transition
currents related to specific aluminum electrode diameters (note
that argon gas is the shielding gas associated with the transition
currents). In those cases where helium additions are made to
the argon, the required watt energy level (current x voltage) to
achieve the transition to axial spray will have to increase. Axial
spray is the higher energy transfer mode for GMAW, and
aluminum requires the use of higher energy modes of transfer to
compensate for the higher thermal conductivity. Because of
these two central facts, axial spray is generally applied to
aluminum base materials 0.125” (3.2 mm) or greater in material
thickness.
Pulsed Spray Transfer
Properties of Aluminum
The engineering use of wrought and cast aluminum base materials
continues to increase, and it does so because of the basic
properties of this unique material. The more prominent features
of aluminum and its alloys are:
• Aluminum is lightweight – it weighs about one third that of
steel. A cubic inch of aluminum weighs 0.098 lbs./in.3 compared to steel, which weighs 0.283 lbs/in3.
• Aluminum has a wide range of strength properties that vary
from 13,000 tensile for pure aluminum up to 90,000 tensile for
the heat treatable aluminum alloys.
• Aluminum provides excellent corrosion resistance in many
environments. The thin refractory oxide that forms on the
surface of aluminum provides a protective barrier.
• Aluminum is an excellent conductor of heat. It is up to five
times more thermally conductive than steel.
• Aluminum is reflective of radiant heat, and the surface finish of
aluminum is frequently used to take advantage of this feature.
• Aluminum is widely available in either extruded shapes or
wrought sheet in an equally wide range of alloy compositions.
• Aluminum is widely available as a die cast base material.
TABLE 22
AXIAL SPRAY TRANSITION CURRENT
Aluminum Electrode
Diameter
Inches (mm)
0.030
0.035
0.047
0.062
For welding purposes, an important consideration for welding
aluminum is its thermal conductivity. This property has an
important facet:
(0.8)
(0.9)
(1.2)
(1.6)
Shielding
Gas
Transition
Current
100% Argon
100% Argon
100% Argon
100% Argon
90 ± 5 Amps
110 ± 5 Amps
135 ± 5 Amps
180 ± 5 Amps
If available, GMAW-P is able to join thin and thick sections of
aluminum. For those materials that are less than or equal to
0.125” (3 mm), pulsed spray transfer is the preferred choice.
Pulsed spray transfer is more easily able to join materials less
than 0.125” (3.2 mm), and this is due to the fact that the average current is lower in magnitude for GMAW-P than axial spray
transfer welding current. When compared to axial spray transfer
GMAW-P has the following advantages when used for welding
aluminum:
• To compensate for the high rate of thermal conductivity,
aluminum requires the use of higher energy modes of metal
transfer. Axial Spray and Pulsed Spray are the two accepted
and recommended GMAW modes of metal transfer for
Aluminum. The use of the lower energy forms of metal
transfer will usually result in incomplete fusion defects.
Aluminum GMAW Modes of Metal Transfer
• Lower heat input – less distortion.
Keywords
Short-Circuit Transfer
• Ability to handle poor fit-up.
Axial Spray Transfer
• Ability to handle thinner materials.
Pulsed Spray Transfer
• The lower heat input of GMAW-P reduces the size of the
heat affected zone.
Nearly all of the same modes of metal transfer that are
described earlier in this document for carbon steel, stainless
steel, and nickel alloys apply to the application of aluminum
solid wire electrode. What is important to note when welding
aluminum base material is that the thermal conductivity of the
aluminum base material is higher than it is for carbon steel, and
because of this the lower energy modes of metal transfer are
unable to provide sufficient melting of the base material to
ensure good fusion.
• Out-of-position welding is greatly enhanced.
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Power Supplies and Wire Drives for Aluminum
GMAW
The software developed specifically for these newer power
sources provides a wide selection for a range of filler types,
diameters, and shielding gas compositions. In most cases the
newer power sources provide a wide selection of pulsed spray
transfer, synergic CV, and special Pulse on Pulse™ programs
for use with aluminum electrodes.
Keywords:
Constant Current (CC)
Constant Voltage (CV)
Synergic
Wire Drives and Controls
Push-Pull System
Reliable feeding of the softer aluminum solid wire electrodes
through a welding torch presents more of a challenge than
feeding carbon steel electrodes. First of all, the aluminum is
much less rigid than steel wire and it is harder to push through a
GMAW torch. Special wire drives and GMAW guns are available
to enhance the feedability of aluminum electrode. They fall into
four main categories:
Push System
The history of the development of power sources for aluminum
GMAW welding relates to the development of CC, constant
current, or CV, constant voltage output characteristics. Prior to
the development of CV power sources the use of CC or "drooper"
type power sources were used exclusively for welding aluminum.
Special techniques were required for arc striking and special
variable speed wire drives were developed as a solution for the
unstable arc length associated with CC.
1. Push Type Feeders
Standard wire feeders, employed for carbon steel solid wire
electrodes, can also be referred to as "push type feeders." In
this type of equipment, a spool of wire electrode is mounted on
a spindle located to the rear of the drive. A shielding gas
pre-flow and post-flow timer/control should be available. There
is a set of drive rolls (two-roll or four-roll), on the feeder which
pushes the wire through from the spool mounting device
through the torch cable and then through the contact tip. For
aluminum electrode the use of highly polished "U" groove
drive rolls, is recommended. In all of the ensuing scenarios
the use of hard shell nylon or Teflon type liners is strongly
recommended. This type of system, with some modifications
described below, can also be used to feed softer aluminum wire
under the following circumstances:
Constant current power sources provided excellent penetration
uniformity, and they reacted slowly to changing conditions. The
slower dynamic response to changes in arc length were desirable
for welding thicker sections of aluminum with electrodes diameters
3/32" (2.4 mm) and larger. The primary disadvantage of CC
power sources is arc starting and the ability to regulate arc
length.
In the late 1950s, when selenium rectifiers were employed to
provide the CV output characteristic, many aluminum fabricators
soon realized there was a problem. The output of the early CV
power sources produced wide welding current fluctuations due
to changes in arc length, and this was compounded by changes
in output due to fluctuations in input power. Because of the
higher thermal conductivity of aluminum the current changes
that occurred produced variations in weld penetration.
Incomplete fusion defects often accompanied the penetration
problems. Because of this, many aluminum fabricators went
back to CC power supplies for consistent penetration. As a
result of these early difficulties, much of the available aluminum
welding literature continues to advocate the use of CC supplies.
• The gun cable must be kept short. 10 - 12 ft. (3.0 - 3.6 m) is
the practical maximum length – the shorter the GMAW gun
cable the better the overall performance. Teflon or hard
shelled nylon electrode liners must also be employed.
• If 1/16” (1.6 mm) diameter wire is used, either 4043 or 5356
filler alloys can be pushed. The thicker electrodes have higher
column strength. Again, Teflon or hard shell nylon electrode
liners must be employed.
• 3/64” (1.2 mm) 5356 filler metal can generally be pushed, but
3/64” (1.2 mm) 4043 filler metal will usually result in wire
feeding problems if pushed.
Constant voltage power supplies produced since the 1990s
demonstrate more consistent output. These newer CV power
sources are line voltage compensated, which assures consistent
delivery of output. CV enjoys widespread use, and is highly
recommended for aluminum gas metal arc welding.
• Plastic or aluminum specific inlet and outlet guides and
special aluminum contact tips are highly recommended.
• U-grooved type drive rolls should be used. See optional
accessories for wire drive systems on page 27.
GMAW-P Power Supplies for Aluminum Welding
Pulsed arc power supplies have become much more sophisticated than those of only a few years ago. Early pulsed power
supplies had a fixed pulsing frequency based upon multiples of
input frequencies, and they usually were 60 and 120Hz. These
systems were non-synergic, and they were difficult to set up.
2. Push–Pull Type Feeders
A solution to the problem of feeding either small diameter or
softer aluminum wire is to use a "push–pull" feeder. These feeders combine a push motor in the cabinet which holds the wire
spool with a pull motor in the handle of the welding torch.
The 1990s introduced newer pulsed power sources that provided
synergic control (one knob control) with a high speed amplifier
used to control output. (See Waveform Control Technology™
Section on page 18). In the newer pulsed arc power sources,
either an inverter transformer or related Chopper Technology™
provide power for the arc, and software is used to direct the
output of the power source.
Figure 37 shows the feeder cabinet and slave type push drive
system. Figure 38 shows a push-pull torch. The bulged area
houses the pull drive motor. Wire feed speed is controlled by
the motor on the torch handle, and the cabinet contains a slave
motor system designed to provide a slack wire reducing effect
on the electrode. The push-pull type of aluminum wire drive
provides the most consistent daily performance when compared
to the other type systems.
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The push-pull systems handle aluminum diameters from 0.030"
to 1/16” (0.8 - 1.6 mm), and they reliably feed aluminum wire
electrode up to 50 ft. (15.2 m) from the control cabinet.
FIGURE 39: Spool Gun
Aluminum Feeding Enhancements
• Drive Rolls should always be highly polished "U" groove type
for aluminum. The ‘U" groove is designed to cradle the softer
electrode without altering its shape and the high polish prevents
the accumulation of aluminum oxide in the drive roll groove.
Steel electrodes use either knurled rolls or a "V" groove
configuration. Drive rolls designed for carbon steel electrodes
should not be used for feeding aluminum
• Inlet and outlet guides for steel wire are usually made from
steel. These should not be used to feed aluminum. Inlet and
outlet guides to feed aluminum should be made from teflon,
nylon, or other suitable plastic which will not scrape the wire.
FIGURE 37: Complete Push Drive System
• Both push and push–pull torches are available in air- and
water-cooled versions. It is recommended that water-cooled
torches be used for applications calling for welding current
greater than 150 amps or when higher volume production is a
factor.
• Torches are available in straight barrel pistol grip, curved
barrel pistol grip, or gooseneck styles. All are acceptable for
welding aluminum. However, if angled barrels are used,
anything greater than 45° should be avoided. They will
contribute to wire feeding difficulties.
FIGURE 38: Push-Pull GMAW Aluminum Torch
• Liners for torches made to feed steel are usually made from
spirally wound small diameter steel wire. These types of liners
should not be used for feeding aluminum wire. They will
shave the aluminum wire and then quickly clog the path.
Instead, consider the use of either teflon or nylon liners for
aluminum electrode. Some of these types of aluminum liners
will have a short coiled brass liner section located at the front
of the plastic liner.
3. Special Push–Pull GMAW Torches for Aluminum
There are a few "after market" push-pull GMAW aluminum
torches, which will retrofit onto most standard wire drives. This
permits the use of a more integrated approach for feeding
aluminum. The motor in the torch handle is variable torque,
constant speed, which permits the use of the wire feed speed
control at the standard drive. Figure 38 details one of these.
• Contact tips for welding steel are not suitable for welding
aluminum. Aluminum readily expands as it absorbs the heat
of the arc. Aluminum contact tips for a given size aluminum
wire are designed to accommodate the thermal expansion of
the electrode – the inside diameter of the contact tip is slightly
larger than those for the same size steel wire. Most manufacturers make contact tips specifically for aluminum wire.
These add–on torches usually function such that the pull torch in
the gun is the slave and the push motor in the feeder is the
master. There is evidence that the gun (master) and feeder
(slave) arrangement gives more consistent results, but these
add–on pull torches have also been shown to be effective.
4. Spool Guns
Another solution for lighter duty welding is the spool gun shown
in Figure 39. In this system, a 1 lb. (0.5 kg) spool of filler wire is
mounted directly on the rear of the GMAW gun, so that it is only
pushed a few inches past the drive rolls. These torches are
usually air-cooled, so they are not recommended for higher
current or higher duty cycle welding.
• The contact tip should be positioned either flush with the end
of the gas nozzle or slightly recessed [approximately 1/8”
(3 mm)]. The contact tip should never extend beyond the gas
nozzle.
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Shielding Gas for Aluminum GMAW
Aluminum GMAW Welding Technique
The shielding gas section of this document provides a more
expansive presentation of shielding gases for aluminum and
other filler alloys (see Shielding Gas section on page 12).
Keywords:
Aluminum Oxide
Hydrated Aluminum Oxide
The recommended shielding gas for welding aluminum up to
approximately 1/2” (12 mm) in thickness is 100% argon. Above
this thickness, where additional energy is needed to melt the
material, it is common to use gas mixtures of 75% argon + 25%
helium or 75% helium + 25% argon. The use of helium in the arc
provides additional energy used to accommodate heavier section
thickness welding. It also expands the cross sectional shape of
the finished weld giving it a more rounded appearance.
Shielding gas flow rates range from 30 to 100 cubic feet/hour
(cfh), (14 to 47 L/min). Higher flow rates are employed for wider
diameter gas nozzles and when using higher helium two-part
blends.
Hydrogen Porosity
Smut (Soot)
Contact Tip to Work Distance (CTWD)
Hot Start
Push Angle
Drag Angle
Arc Decay
Feathering Technique
Aluminum Oxides and Base Material Contaminants
Before the onset of welding any weld joint configuration it is
important to understand that the surface of aluminum, in all cases,
is comprised of a hard, thin, tightly bonded layer of aluminum
oxide (Al2O3). The oxide film, in high humidity environments,
because it is porous will absorb moisture. Aluminum oxide can
have an affect on the finished weld appearance, and the hydrated
aluminum oxide, under the heat of the arc, will contribute to the
formation of hydrogen porosity within the finished weld. The
characteristics of aluminum oxide are as follows:
Shielding gas components such as oxygen, hydrogen, or CO2
should never be employed for aluminum GMAW, even in trace
amounts these gases will adversely affect the weld.
Filler Alloys for Aluminum GMAW
It is critical to aluminum GMAW that the filler alloy is of high
quality. It provides not only the material that forms the finished
weld, but it also conducts the electrical current necessary to
form the welding arc. The surface of the wire must be smooth
and free from scratches, metal laps, excessive surface oxides,
and contaminants that might add hydrogen to the weld.
• The melting point for aluminum oxide is higher, 3725°F,
(2042°C), than the base aluminum alloy. The melting point of
aluminum is 1220°F (660°C).
• Aluminum oxide normally continues to grow in thickness over
time – usually this occurs at a very slow rate, but it accelerates
under higher ambient temperatures coupled with higher
humidity.
• Aluminum oxide forms immediately following cleaning, and
over time, it will nearly regain its former density. It is advisable
to weld aluminum soon after it is brushed.
It is for those reasons that aluminum oxide should be removed
from the weld joint prior to welding. Stainless steel power brushes
or hand brushes will remove the heavier oxides, but care should
be taken not to burnish the surfaces to be welded — burnishing
will drive the oxide into the base material. Prior cleaning is not
always required, but the removal of the oxide will contribute to
improved finished weld quality.
Filler Alloy Electrode Surface Contaminants
All aluminum wire must be lubricated during the process of its
manufacture. It is the job of the wire manufacturer to assure
that the lubricants used in wire drawing manufacture are
removed before the electrode is packaged. Usually, this is not a
problem, but occasionally, some spools of wire are found that
have unacceptable levels of residual lubricant on them.
Excessive residual lubricant may result in an erratic arc
performance or produce hydrogen porosity within the weld.
Storage of Aluminum Electrode
Care must be taken in the storage of spooled filler wire. It is
best to store it between uses in its original packing in a low
humidity environment. Some users assure low humidity in the
storage area by installing a 100 watt light bulb in a closed
cabinet. A heated cabinet or an air conditioned environment
that removes humidity from the vicinity of the electrode is critical.
Wire stored in this manner can be stored for several years without deterioration.
The 5XXX base alloys usually have heavier aluminum oxide films
than other base materials. Generally, the thicker oxide layer is
made up of finely divided oxides of both magnesium and
aluminum. Because of the heavy oxide layer the surface of the
5XXX series base alloy is more prone to hydration, and care
must be taken with respect to storing it in a low humidity
environment.
Storage of Aluminum Electrode Mounted on the Wire Drive
Some wire feeders incorporate a cover for the wire spool while
on the wire drive. If the feeder has no such cover, the wire
should be removed and stored when it is between uses,
otherwise shop dust, dirt, and airborne oil can contaminate the
electrode.
Welding through residual oils, those that remain on the surface
of aluminum parts after shearing, stamping, or machining
operations, will also contribute to hydrogen porosity. It is
important that the surfaces of the aluminum base materials are
clean: free of oil, shop dust, airborne oils, and moisture.
Preparing the weld joint prior to welding should include the
following:
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• Remove oils from the surface using non-petroleum based
solvents first. Then wipe the parts dry using a clean (unused)
shop towel. Acetone is commonly used.
• Weld tabs can be used and the weld may be started and
terminated on them.
• A power supply with an arc decay control allows the electrode
and current to tail off for a predetermined wire feed speed per
unit of time. This permits a controlled fill of the aluminum weld
crater.
• Near the end of the weld, progressively increase the travel
speed. The effect here is to reduce the size of the weld bead
and diminish the overall size of the crater. This is known as a
"feathering” or “back step” technique.
• At the end of the weld, reverse the direction of the torch to
place the crater within the body of the weld bead.
• Remove the oxides from the weld joint using a stainless steel
power or hand brush. If the brush is air driven, be certain that
the compressed air used to clean the material does not
contain oil. Never use stainless steel brushes that have been
previously used on carbon steels, and never use carbon steel
brushes for removing aluminum oxide.
Welding Techniques
The formation of black soot on the surface, or the adjacent
areas of a weld, is referred to as smut. It is made up of finely
divided oxides of aluminum and magnesium. They usually
indicate that adjustments in technique are necessary.
Some welders learn aluminum GMAW by keeping a very steady,
constant motion in the travel direction to make a very smooth
weld with a minimum of weld ripples, this is known as a straight
progression type weld bead, see Figure 40. Other welders learn
to weld by using the back step technique, see Figure 41. Each
of these techniques produce a weld with distinct, evenly spaced
ripples. Each technique produces acceptable finished welds.
At the onset of learning to weld using aluminum GMAW the
most common mistake made is to hold too long a contact tip to
work distance (CTWD). Shorter CTWDs, 1/2” to 5/8”
(13 - 16 mm), are required when welding aluminum. If the CTWD
is too long, then the gas shielding will be insufficient. In the
absence of adequate shielding gas the weld will become gray,
and in the most severe case, the arc may bore into the work
piece.
The finished weld should be bright and free from oxides and
smut. A “frost line” or cleaning stripe approximately 1/16” to 1/8”
(1.6 to 3.2 mm) wide should be visible along each edge of the
weld. These stripes show the area where the reverse polarity
arc has removed the oxide from the aluminum surface. If the
weld metal is black or gray, or if the cleaning stripes are not
present, something is wrong. The most likely causes are either
the arc length is too long or the torch angle is wrong. If some
weld smut is present outside these areas - this is expected.
There will also be some weld smut present at weld starts, stops
and at internal and external corners. More smut will be present
when using 5XXX filler than with 4XXX filler.
At the start of an aluminum weld it is not uncommon to get a
cold looking weld bead for the first 1/2” (13 mm). This is due to
the high thermal conductivity of aluminum. This condition can be
minimized by using a power supply with a hot start. A common
alternative used in the absence of a hot start control is to strike
the arc about 1” (25 mm) ahead of the nominal weld starting
point, and quickly maneuver the arc back to the desired starting
point. This action has the effect of providing preheat to the
aluminum base material, and it provides improved fusion at the
beginning of the weld.
While welding, the torch must be held with a push angle of 5° to
10° (also known as a leading torch angle). If the torch is applied
using a drag angle (also known as a lagging torch angle), then
the gas shielding will be absent from the molten puddle and the
finished weld will appear gray or black.
Care must be taken in extinguishing the arc. Terminating the arc
abruptly will result in a deep weld crater that may contain a
shrinkage crack in the crater. There are a number of ways to
minimize the size and depth of the crater.
FIGURE 41: A Back Step Technique Weld
Filler Metal Selection
Most common aluminum filler alloys fall into the 4XXX and 5XXX
families, with a few coming from the 1XXX, 2XXX, and the casting
alloys. The chemical composition of the common aluminum filler
alloys is shown in Table 23 on page 64.
There are a number of characteristics which determine the best
filler metal choice for a given base material, or combination of
base materials. Among these are:
• Freedom from hot cracking.
FIGURE 40: Straight Progression Weld
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Weld metal ductility.
Weld metal corrosion resistance.
Weld metal shear strength in fillet and lap joints.
Ease of welding (i.e., weldability).
Wire electrode feedability.
For applications requiring postweld anodizing, color matching
with parent metal.
• For high temperature applications the Al-Mg alloys with Mg
content over 3% are unsuitable for service temperatures over
150°F (66°C). They are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking at higher temperatures. This is also true for the filler alloys,
and should be taken into account when selecting the proper
filler alloys
• 5454 – This alloy is a lower Mg alloy specifically developed to
be immune to the stress corrosion cracking noted above.
Filler alloy 5554 is designed as a matching filler alloy for the
5454 base alloy and it should be used whenever possible.
There are a number of filler metal selection charts which take
these variables into account, and they provide recommendations
for filler metal selection. A composite of these charts covering
most alloy combinations are shown on Table 24 on page 65.
• 5083 and 5456 – These high Mg, high strength alloys can be
successfully welded using 5356. However, most structural
welding codes require that the tensile strength of these welds
have a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 40 ksi. When
welded using 5356, welds in these alloys often will not meet
this requirement. For this reason, 5183 or 5556 are the recommended filler materials for these alloys
In general, filler alloy recommendations for the various alloy
families of base materials can be summarized as follows
1XXX alloys – These base materials are usually used for their
electrical conductivity and/or corrosion resistance. Their tendency to hot cracking is very low. They are usually welded using
1100 or 1188 fillers, but matching filler metals are also available
for specialized alloys such as 1350. If electrical conductivity of
the finished weld joint is not of primary importance, then 4043
may be used
6XXX alloys – These Al-Mg-Si alloys are primarily used for
extrusion alloys, although they can also often be found as sheet
and plate. The chemistry of these alloys makes them very
sensitive to hot cracking. Autogenous welds (i.e., welds made
without adding filler metal) are susceptible to cracking. But,
these alloys are readily weldable using either 4043 or 5356 filler
metal. The chemistry of 4043, aluminum with 5% silicon, or
5356 aluminum with 5% magnesium, when combined with
6061, provide a crack resistant chemistry.
2XXX alloys – Many base materials in this series are not recommended for arc welding. Those that are weldable include: 2219,
2014, 2519, 2008, and 2036. Alloy 2319 is a matching filler alloy
for 2219 and 2519 and can also be used on the other weldable
alloys. Alloys 4043 and 4145, which contain copper, can also
be used. 5XXX fillers should not be used to weld 2XXX parent
materials; otherwise weld cracking will result.
• The decision whether to use 4043 or 5356 depends upon a
number of factors. Below is a comparison of these two common filler metals and shows the advantages and disadvantages of each:
3XXX alloys – These moderate strength aluminum-manganese
base materials are relatively crack resistant and can be welded
easily using either 4043 or 5356 filler alloys.
Comparison of 4043 and 5356
4XXX alloys – These base materials are usually found as welding
or brazing fillers. In the rare event they are encountered as
parent materials, 4047 is usually the best choice as a filler metal
ER4043
5XXX alloys – These higher strength aluminum-magnesium
base materials, are the most commonly found structural
aluminum sheet and plate alloys. The general rule, except for
5052, is to choose a 5XXX filler metal with slightly higher
magnesium content than the parent material being welded. For
all alloys except 5052, 5XXX alloys should not be welded using
4XXX filler alloys. The high Mg content of the parent material
when combined with the high silicon content of the 4XXX fillers
will result in a high level of Mg2Si (magnesium silicide), a brittle
intermetallic compound that will cause the weld to have very
poor ductility and toughness. In choosing filler alloys for 5XXX
alloys, there are several specific recommendations as follows:
ER5356
• Smooth Bead, Good Wetting
• Black Smut, Distinct Ripples
• Low Column Strength
• Best Feedability
• Higher Penetration
• Lower Penetration
• Lower Ductility
• Higher Ductility
• Lower Tensile
• Higher Tensile
• Less Prone to Porosity
• More Prone to Porosity
• Anodizes a Dark Gray
• Anodizes w/good Colormatch
• Much Lower Shear Strength
• Higher Cracking Sensitivity
• Lower Cracking Sensitivity
• Higher Melting Point
• Lower Melting Point
• Wider Melting Range
• Narrower Melting Range
To summarize, ER4043 is easier for the welder to use than
ER5356, it is more fluid and therefore it wets into the base
material better. It is also more crack resistant. ER5356 feeds
better and gives welds that are both stronger, especially in lap
welds and fillet welds, and more ductile. While 5356 should be
used to weld the 6XXX alloys to any of the 5XXX alloys, 4043
should be used to weld the 6XXX alloys to the common 3XXX
casting alloys.
• 5052 – The magnesium content of this alloy contributes to its
high crack sensitivity. If it is welded with 5052 filler alloy, it will
often crack. In order to avoid the tendency to crack, 5052 is
usually welded with a filler alloy of much higher Mg content,
such as 5356. The result is that the weld metal, which is an
alloy of the 5356 and 5052, has magnesium contents high
enough to be crack resistant. Additionally, the magnesium
content of 5052 is low enough so that it can be successfully
welded using 4043.
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One other point worth making here is the recommendation to
use 5356 for making welds in 6XXX alloys that are to be
anodized. If 4043 is used in these applications, it will turn dark
grey on anodizing. Since the 6XXX parent materials anodize to a
clear color, a 4043 weld is very visible and not desirable. 5356
will anodize to a color very similar to the parent material and is
therefore the filler alloy of choice.
7XXX alloys – as mentioned previously, most of these alloys are
not arc weldable. However, 7005, 7003, and 7039 are weldable,
and they should be welded using a 5356 filler alloy.
SuperGlaze® Aluminum GMAW Wire
TABLE 23
WIRE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR ALUMINUM WIRES
AWS A5.10-92
ASME SFA-5.1
Classification
%Be %Others(1)
%Mn
%Si
%Fe
%Mg
%Cr
%Cu
%Ti
%Zn
0.05
—
—
—
—
0.05-0.20
—
0.10
ER2319
0.20-0.40
0.20
0.30
0.02
—
5.8-6.8
0.10-0.20
0.10
(2)
0.05(3)
Balance
ER4043
0.05
4.5-6.0
0.8
0.05
—
0.30
0.20
0.10
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER4047
0.15
11.0-13.0
0.8
0.10
—
0.30
—
0.20
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER4643
0.05
3.6-4.6
0.8
0.10-0.30
—
0.10
0.15
0.10
(2)
0.05
Balance
Alloy 5052
0.10
0.25
0.40
2.2-2.8
0.15-0.35
0.10
—
0.10
(2)
0.05
Balance
Alloy 5056
0.05-0.20
0.30
0.40
4.5-5.6
0.05-0.20
0.10
—
0.10
(2)
0.05
Balance
Alloy 5087
0.6-1.0
0.25
0.40
4.3-5.2
0.05-0.25
0.05
0.15
0.25
(2)
0.10-0.20
Balance
Alloy 5154
0.10
0.25
0.40
3.1-3.9
0.15-0.35
0.10
0.20
0.20
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER5183
0.50-1.0
0.40
0.40
4.3-5.2
0.05-0.25
0.10
0.15
0.25
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER5356
0.05-0.20
0.25
0.40
4.5-5.5
0.05-0.20
0.10
0.06-0.20
0.10
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER5554
0.50-1.0
0.25
0.40
2.4-3.0
0.05-0.20
0.10
0.05-0.20
0.25
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER5556
0.50-1.0
0.25
0.40
4.7-5.5
0.05-0.20
0.10
0.05-0.20
0.25
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER5654
0.01
—
—
3.1-3.9
0.15-0.35
0.05
0.05-0.15
0.20
(2)
0.05
Balance
—
0.25
0.40
2.6-3.6
0.05-0.30
0.05
0.15
0.20
(2)
0.05
Balance
ER1100 &
Alloy 1050
Alloy 5754
0.05
%Al
99.0
NOTE: Single values are maximum, except aluminum.
(2) Beryllium shall not exceed 0.0008%.
(1) Total of “others” shall not exceed 0.15%.
(3) Vanadium content shall be 0.05 - 0.15% and Zirconium content shall be 0.10 - 0.25%.
ALUMINUM PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE
Aluminum
AWS
Classification
Lincoln
Product Name
ER1100
ER4043
ER4047
ER5183
ER5356
ER5554
ER5556
SuperGlaze® 1100
SuperGlaze 4043
SuperGlaze 4047
SuperGlaze 5183
SuperGlaze 5356
SuperGlaze 5554
SuperGlaze 5556
Request publication C8.05 for more information on SuperGlaze
aluminum GMAW electrode wires.
GMAW
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TABLE 24: Aluminum Filler Metal Guide
319.0
333.0
354.0
355.0
380.0
356.0
357.0
359.0
413.0
444.0
443.0
511.0
512.0
513.0
514.0
7005 k
7039
710.0
711.0
712.0 6070
6061
6063
6101
6201
6151
6351
6951
1060
1070
1080
1350
4145
c, i
4043
i, f
5356
c,e,i
5356
c,e,i
4043
i
4043
i
5356
c
4043
i
5356
c,e,i
5356
c
5356
c
4043
i
1100
3003
4145
c,i
4043
i,f
5356
c,e,i
5356
c,e,i
4043
i
4043
i
5356
c
4043
e,i
5356
c,e,i
5356
c
5356
c
4043
e,i
2014
2036
4145
g
4145
4145
4145
2219
2519
4145
g,c,i
4145
c,i
4043
i
4043
i
4043
f,i
4043
f,i
4043
4043
i
4043
i
4043
4043
4043
i
4043
4043
3004
4043
i
4043
i
5654
b
5356
e
4043
e
4043
b
5356
e
5654
b
5654
b
5356
e
5356
e
4043
e,i
4043
e
4043
e
5005
5050
4043
i
4043
i
5654
b
5356
e
4043
e
4043
b
5356
e
5654
b
5654
b
5356
e
5356
e
4043
e,i
4043
d,e
5052
5652
4043
i
4043
b,i
5654
b
5356
e
5356
b,c
5356
b,c
5356
b
5654
b
5654
b
5356
e
5356
e
5654
a,b,c
5083
5356
c,e,i
5356
e
5183
e
5356
e
5356
e
5183
b
5356
e
5356
e
5356
e
5183
e
5086
5356
c,e,i
5356
e
5356
e
5356
e
5356
e
5356
e
5356
b
5356
b
5356
e
5154
5254 a
4043
b,i
5654
b
5356
b
5356
b,c
5356
b,c
5356
b
5654
a
5654
a,b
4043
b,i
5654
b
5356
b
5356
b,c
5356
b,c
5356
b
5554
c,e
5356
c,e,i
5356
e
5556
e
5356
e
5356
e
5556
e
4145
c,i
4043
f,i
5356
b,c
5356
b,c,i
4043
b,i
4043
b,i
4145
c,i
4043
f,i
5356
c,e
5356
c,e,i
4043
e,i
4043
b,i
5356
b
5356
e
Base
Metal
5454
4043
i
5456
6061
6063
6101
6201
6151
6351
6951
6070
7005 k
7039
710.0 4043
711.0
i
712.0
511.0
512.0
513.0
514.0
356.0
357.0
359.0
413.0
444.0
443.0
319.0
333.0
354.0
355.0
380.0
2014
2036
1100
3003
1100
c
4043
4145
4145
1100
c
1188
j
4043
e
4043
e
4145
4145
1100
c
4145
g
4145
g
5454
5154
5254 a 5086
5083
5052 5005
5652 a 5050
2319
c,f,i
Notes: All filler materials are listed in AWS specification A5.10.
a. Base metal alloys 5652 and 5254 are used for hydrogen
peroxide service, 5654 filler metal is used for welding both
alloys for low temperature [150°F (65°C)] service.
b. 5183, 5356, 5454, 5556 and 5654 may be used. In some
cases they provide improved color match after anodizing,
highest weld ductility and higher weld strength. 5554 is
suitable for elevated temperature service.
c. 4043 may be used for some applications.
d. Filler metal with the same analysis as the base metal is
sometimes used.
e. 5183, 5356 or 5556 may be used.
f. 4145 may be used for some applications.
g. 2319 may be used for some applications.
i. 4047 may be used for some applications.
j. 1100 may be used for some applications.
k. This refers to 7005 extrusions only.
ADDITIONAL GUIDELINES
5654
b,d
2.
4145
c,i
2219
2519
5456
1.
4043
b,i
3004
1060
1070
1080
1350
3.
4043
d,i
Service conditions such as immersion in fresh or salt water,
exposure to specific chemicals, or exposure sustained high
temperature [over 150°F (65°C)] may limit the choice of filler
metals. Filler alloys 5356, 5183, 5556 and 5654 are not
recommended for sustained elevated temperature service.
Guide lines in this table apply to gas shielded arc welding
processes.
Where no filler metal is listed, the base metal combination is
not recommended for welding.
4145
d,c,i
GMAW
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Current vs Wire Feed Speed
FIGURE 43: Welding Current vs WFS for Carbon Steel and
Low Alloy Electrodes at a Fixed Stickout
FIGURE 42: Typical Melting Rates for Carbon and
Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
800
4
i
3
6
2
4
1
2
8
.2 m
. (1
in
45
2
4
3
mm)
in. (0.9
0.035
m)
. (0.8 m
0.030 in
4
0
(0.
9m
m)
)
mm
35
in.
in. (
0.8
50
100
0.0
150 200 250 300 350
Welding current A (DCEP)
400
450
900
2
1
20
m)
800
700
500
15
)
600
m
5
0.0
6
5
FIGURE 45: Welding Current vs WFS for ER4043 Aluminum
Electrodes at a Fixed Stickout
6
m)
0.
m
0
.6
.6 m
. (1
0
0
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
10
(1
n.
2i
.06
in
062
8m
m)
4m
n.
0.0
93
i
12
)
mm
(1.
m)
100
7
(2.
14
in.
10
m)
3m
(0.
16
2
.05
)
0.
9
800
0
200
in.
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
200
300
400
500
600
700
0
300
.
(1
0
Melting rate, kg/h
100
in.
5
20
FIGURE 44: Typical Melting Rates for Aluminum Electrodes
0
m
m
2
.(
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
15
4
.0
30
5
0
30
400
0
0
Melting rate, lb/h
500
0.0
m)
)
in
m
0.8
n. (
600
0.0
30
5
700
m
0.
03
5
(1
0.
0.0
9
(0.
6
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
)
m
m
.2
3m
04
5
in
.
in.
52
8
in.
35
0.0
)
mm
Melting rate, kg/h
10
(1.
. (1
.6 m
0.0
Melting rate, lb/h
12
0.0
62
in
14
20
7
m)
m)
16
400
2
1.
m
in
0.
300
.
0.0
200
10
.(
5
04
in
62
m)
6m
(1.
0.093
)
.4 mm
in. (2
5
100
0
0
5
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
100
20
0
0
0
50
100
150 200 250 300 350
Welding current A (DCEP)
400
450
GMAW
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Wire feed speed, meters per minute
0
FIGURE 46: Welding Current vs WFS for ER5356 Aluminum
Electrodes at a Fixed Stickout
0.0
300
200
0.093
)
.4 mm
in. (2
5
100
10
m
)
2
1.
.(
in
5
0.
04
in.
35
0.0
6
)
mm
0.9
(
5
m)
.8 m
4
(0
in.
30
0.0
8
3
6
2
4
0
0
0
50
100
150 200 250 300 350
Welding current A (DCEP)
400
1
2
450
0
0
0
20
6
0.0
200
2 in
.6
. (1
)
mm
5
100
0
0
0
50
100
150 200 250 300 350
Welding current A (DCEP)
400
20
20
2
m
m
)
700
5
in.
(1
.
600
.(
52
.0
400
3
1.
04
500
0.
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
in
.(
300
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
800
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
)
m
m
1.
2
35
04
5
10
0.
400
0.0
500
15
in.
0.03
0 in
. (0.
600
(0.
9
8m
mm
m)
700
)
800
5
FIGURE 49: Welding Current vs WFS for Carbon Steel
Composite Electrodes
FIGURE 48: Welding Current vs WFS for 300 Series
Stainless Steel Electrodes at a Fixed Stickout
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
7
m
m)
.6 m
2 in
. (1
12
900
Melting rate, kg/h
in.
10
14
800
m
m
in
0
62
15
)
.6
. (1
)
mm
in
300
200
5
100
0
450
10
0.0
0
50
100
150 200 250 300 350
Welding current A (DCEP)
400
450
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
62
6m
(1.
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
200
300
400
500
600
700
0.0
6
2
1.
.(
in
m)
0.
04
5
400
100
16
Melting rate, lb/h
m
m
)
15
0
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
9m
0.0
35
500
in.
0 in
600
(0.
. (0
700
m)
.8 m
m)
20
0.0
3
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
800
FIGURE 47: Typical Melting Rates for 300 Series Stainless
Steel Electrodes
0
500
FIGURE 50: Typical Melting Rates for Carbon Composite
Steel Electrodes
0
100
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
24
22
900
m
6
1.
.(
3
06
2
in
16
14
0.
Melting rate, lb/h
)
m
12
05
0.
2
in
1.
.(
m
in
45
0.0
.2
. (1
)
mm
8
6
10
4
8
Melting rate, kg/hr
m
)
10
20
18
6
2
4
2
0
0
0
5
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
20
GMAW
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General Welding Guidelines
Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Short-Circuiting Transfer — Horizontal Fillets and Flat Butt Joints
CTWD(1) : 1/2” (13mm)
Gas: 100% CO2
Gas flow: 25 to 35 cfh
(12 to 17 L/min.)
R = 0 - 1/16”
(0 - 1.6mm)
Plate Thickness - (mm)
Electrode Dia. - in.
(mm)
WFS - in./min
(M/min.)
Amps (Approximate)
Travel Speed - in./min
(M/min.)
Voltage (2) (DC+)
(1)
24 ga (0.6)
20 ga (0.9)
16 ga (1.5)
14 ga (2)
0.025 0.030 0.030 0.035 0.030 0.035
(0.6) (0.8) (0.8) (0.9)
(0.8) (0.9)
12 ga (3)
10 ga (4)
3/16” (5)
1/4” (6)
0.045
(1.1)
0.045
(1.1)
0.030 0.035 0.030 0.035 0.030 0.035 0.045
(0.8) (0.9)
(0.8)
(0.9) (0.8) (0.9) (1.1)
100
(2.5)
75
(1.9)
125
(3.2)
100
(2.5)
175
(4.4)
150
(3.8)
225
(5.7)
175
(4.4)
275
(7.0)
225
(5.7)
300
(7.6)
250
(6.4)
125
(3.2)
150
(3.8)
200
(5.0)
35
35
55
80
80
120
100
130
115
160
130
175
145
165
200
15
(0.38)
13
(0.33)
19-21
20-22
10
10
14
13
(0.25) (0.25) (0.35) (0.33)
17
17
18
13
20
(0.33) (0.50)
18
19
18
18
20
(0.45) (0.45) (0.50)
19
20
20
21
20
17
20
18
(0.50) (0.43) (0.50) (0.45)
21
22
22
18-20
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Decrease 2 volts for Argon/CO2 blend.
(2)
Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Short-Circuiting Transfer — Vertical Down Fillets and Square Butt Joints
CTWD(1) : 1/2” (13mm)
Gas: 100% CO2
Gas flow: 25 to 35 cfh
(12 to 17 L/min.)
Plate Thickness - (mm)
Electrode Dia. - in.
(mm)
WFS - in./min
(M/min.)
Amps (Approximate)
Travel Speed - in./min
(M/min.)
Voltage (2) (DC+)
(1)
(2)
R
R = 0 - 1/16”
(0 - 1.6mm)
24 ga (0.6)
18 ga (1)
14 ga (2)
10 ga (4)
3/16” (5)
1/4” (6)
0.025
(0.6)
0.030
(0.8)
0.030
(0.8)
0.035
(0.9)
0.030
(0.8)
0.035
(0.9)
0.030
(0.8)
0.035
(0.9)
0.045
(1.1)
0.045
(1.1)
0.045
(1.1)
100
(2.5)
75
(1.9)
150
(3.8)
125
(3.2)
225
(5.7)
175
(4.4)
300
(7.6)
250
(6.4)
125
(3.2)
150
(3.8)
200
(5.0)
35
35
70
100
100
130
130
175
145
165
200
10
(0.25)
10
(0.25)
15
(0.38)
19
(0.48)
20
(0.50)
20
(0.50)
20
(0.50)
20
(0.50)
20
(0.50)
17
(0.43)
17
(0.43)
17
17
18
18
20
20
22
22
19
20
21
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Decrease 2 volts for Argon/CO2 blend.
GMAW
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Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Short-Circuiting Transfer — Vertical Up Fillets
CTWD(1): 1/2” (13mm)
Gas: 75% Argon, 25% CO2
Gas flow: 25 to 35 cfh
(12 to 17 L/min.)
Technique:
Use vee weave or triangle weave
Plate Thickness - in. (mm)
5/16 (8)
3/8 (10)
Leg Size - in. (mm)
1/4 (6.4)
5/16 (7.9)
Electrode Dia. - in. (mm)
.035 (0.9)
.045 (1.1)
.035 (0.9)
.045 (1.1)
WFS - in./min (M/min.)
225 (5.7)
150 (3.8)
250 (6.4)
150 (3.8)
160
165
175
165
5 - 6 (0.13 - 0.15)
4 - 5 (0.10 - 0.13)
4 - 4.5 (0.10 - 0.11)
4 - 5 (0.10 - 0.11)
18
19
20
19
Amps (Approximate)
Travel Speed - in./min (M/min.)
Voltage (DC+)
(1)
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Axial Spray Transfer — Flat and Horizontal Fillets
CTWD(1): 5/8”-3/4” (16-19mm)
Gas: 90% Argon, 10% CO2
Gas flow: 35 to 45 cfh
(17 to 21 L/min.)
Technique:
Use push angle
Plate Thickness - in. (mm)
Leg Size - in. (mm)
(1)
(2)
(3)
3/16 (5)
1/4 (6)
5/16 (8)
3/8 (10)
1/2 (13)
5/32 (4.0)
3/16 (4.8)
1/4 (6.4)
5/16 (7.9)
3/8 (9.5)
0.035(2) 0.045
(0.9)
(1.1)
1/16
(1.6)
0.052
(1.3)
1/16
(1.6)
475
(12)
235
(6.0)
485
(12.3)
235
(6.0)
275
10
(0.25)
335
13
(0.33)
350
12
(0.30)
430
13
(0.33)
350
9
(0.23)
27
30
30
27
32
Electrode Dia. - in.
(mm)
0.035
(0.9)
0.035
(0.9)
0.045
(1.1)
0.035
(0.9)
0.045
(1.1)
0.052
(1.3)
1/16
(1.6)
WFS - in./min
(M/min.)
375(3)
(9.5)
400(3)
(10)
350
(8.9)
500
(12.7)
375
(9.5)
320
(8.1)
235
(6.0)
600
(15.2)
Amps (Approximate)
Travel Speed - in./min
(M/min.)
195
24
(0.60)
200
19
(0.48)
285
25
(0.63)
230
14
(0.35)
300
18
(0.45)
320
18
(0.45)
350
19
(0.48)
Voltage (DC+)
23
24
27
29
28
29
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Flat position only.
Not a true spray transfer.
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Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Axial Spray Transfer — Flat Butt Joints
CTWD(1): 5/8”-3/4” (16-19mm)
Gas: 90% Argon, 10% CO2
Gas flow: 40 to 45 cfh
(19 to 21 L/min.)
60°
°
45
1/2” (13mm)
Arc
Gouge
2
1
1/2” - 1”
(12-25mm)
60°
1/4”
(6mm)
3/16-1/4”
(5-6mm)
Arc
Gouge
Technique:
Use push angle
3/4” amd up
(19mm)
60°
Electrode Dia. - in. (mm)
WFS - in./min
(M/min.)
0.035 (0.9)
500 - 600
(12.7 - 15.2)
0.045 (1.1)
375 - 500
(9.5 - 12.7)
0.052 (1.3)
300 - 485
(7.6 - 12.3)
1/16 (1.6)
210 - 290
(5.3 - 7.4)
Amps (Approximate)
Travel Speed - in./min
(M/min.)
230 - 275
10 - 15
(0.25 - 0.38)
300 - 340
12 - 18
(0.30 - 0.45)
300 - 430
14 - 24
(0.35 - 0.60)
325 - 430
14 - 23
(0.35 - 0.58)
Voltage (DC+)
Deposit Rate - lb/hr
(kg/hr)
(1)
12
29 - 30
29 - 30
30 - 32
25 - 28
8.0 - 9.6
(3.6 - 4.4)
9.9 - 13.2
(4.5 - 6.0)
10.6 - 17.1
(4.8 - 7.8)
10.7 - 14.8
(4.8 - 6.7)
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Pulsed Spray Transfer — Flat or Horizontal Fillets
CTWD(1): 5/8”-3/4” (16-19mm)
Gas: See below
Gas flow: 30 to 40 cfh
(17 to 19 L/min.)
45°
45 - 50°
Technique:
Use push angle
Electrode Dia. - in. (mm)
Plate Thickness - in. (mm)
Leg Size - in. (mm)
WFS - in./min (M/min.)
Travel Speed - in./min
(M/min.)
Voltage (DC+)
95% Ar/5% CO2(2)
90% Ar/10% CO2(2)
75-80%Ar/25-20% CO2
Deposit Rate - lb/hr (kg/hr)
(1)
(2)
0.045 (1.1)
1/4 (6)
5/16 (8)
3/8 (10)
3/16 (4.8)
1/4 (6.4)
5/16 (7.9)
300 (7.6)
13 - 14
(0.33 - 0.36)
325 (8.3)
14 - 15
(0.35 - 0.38)
375 (9.5)
10 - 11
(0.25 - 0.28)
23 - 24
24.5 - 25.5
28 - 29
24 - 25
25.5 - 26.5
28.5 - 30
27 - 28
28 - 29
30 - 31
8.1 (3.6)
8.8 (4.0)
10.1 (4.5)
Contact Tip to Work Distance
For use on descaled plate only.
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Welding Guidelines for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
Pulsed Spray Transfer — Vertical Up Fillets - Using PowerWave® 455 Power Source
CTWD(1): 5/8”-3/4” (16-19mm)
Gas: 90% Argon, 10% CO2
Gas flow: 30 to 40 cfh
(17 to 19 L/min.)
First
Pass
Trim nominally set at 1.0(2)
Technique:
Use push angle
Plate Thickness - in. (mm)
(1)
(2)
Second
Pass
3/8 (10)
1/2 (13) and up
Leg Size - in. (mm)
5/16 (7.9)
pass 2 and up
Electrode Dia. - in. (mm)
0.045 (1.1)
0.045 (1.1)
WFS - in./min (M/min.)
125 (3.2)
130 - 145 (3.3 - 3.7)
Deposit Rate - lb/hr (kg/hr)
3.4 (1.5)
3.5 - 3.9 (1.6 - 1.8)
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Trim can be a function of travel speed, weld size and quality of work connection. Adjusting the Trim Value controls the arc
length, thus values set below 1.0 produce shorter arc lengths than those above 1.0.
GMAW
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Welding Guidelines for Stainless Steels
Welding Guidelines for Blue Max® GMAW ERXXXLSi Stainless Steel Electrodes
Diameter, in (mm)
Polarity, CTWD(1)
Shielding Gas
Electrode Weight
Wire Feed Speed
(in/min)
(M/min.)
Approximate
Current
(Amps)
Arc
Voltage
(Volts)
Deposition Rate
(lbs/hr)
(kg/hr)
Short-Circuit Transfer
120
150
180
205
230
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
3.0
3.8
4.6
5.2
5.8
6.9
7.6
8.3
8.9
9.5
10.2
10.8
55
75
85
95
105
110
125
130
140
150
160
170
19 - 20
19 - 20
19 - 20
19 - 20
20 - 21
20 - 21
20 - 21
20 - 21
21 - 22
21 - 22
22 - 23
22 - 23
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.4
3.9
4.6
5.0
5.4
5.9
6.3
6.7
7.1
0.9
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
100
125
160
175
220
250
275
2.5
3.2
3.8
4.4
5.6
6.4
7.0
100
120
135
140
170
175
185
19 - 20
19 - 20
21
21
22
22 - 23
22 - 23
2.8
3.5
4.2
4.8
6.1
6.9
7.6
1.1
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.6
2.9
3.2
0.035 (0.9)
DC+, 5/8” (16mm)
96% Ar/2% O2
0.279lbs/1000”, (5.11 g/m)
400
425
450
475
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.1
180
190
200
210
23
24
24
25
6.7
7.1
7.5
8.0
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
0.045 (1.1)
DC+, 3/4” (19mm)
98% Ar/2% O2
0.461 lbs/1000”, (7.63 g/m)
240
260
300
325
360
6.1
6.6
7.6
8.3
9.1
195
230
240
250
260
24
25
25
26
26
6.6
7.2
8.3
9.0
10.0
2.8
3.0
3.5
3.8
4.2
1/16 (1.6)
DC+, 3/4” (19mm)
98% Ar/2% O2
0.876 lbs/1000”, (16.14 g/m)
175
200
250
275
300
4.4
5.1
6.4
4.0
7.6
260
310
330
360
390
26
29
29
31
32
9.2
10.5
13.1
14.4
15.8
4.3
4.9
6.2
6.8
7.4
0.035 (0.9)
DC+, 1/2” (13mm)
90% He/7-1/2% Ar/2-1/2% CO2
0.279 lbs/1000” (5.11 g/m)
0.045 (1.1)
DC+, 1/2” (13mm)
90% He/7-1/2% Ar/2-1/2% CO2
0.461 lbs/1000” (7.63 g/m)
Axial Spray Transfer
(1)
Contact Tip to Work Distance.
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Welding Guidelines for 200 and 300 Series Stainless Steel
Short-Circuiting Transfer — Butt and Lap Joints
CTWD(1): 3/8”-1/2” (9.5-12.7mm)
Gas: Helium, + 7-1/2% Argon,
+2-1/2% C02
Gas flow 15 to 20 cfh
(7.1 - 9.4 L/min.)
1/16 - 1/8”
(1.6 - 3.2 mm)
1/16 - 5/64”
(1.6 - 2.0 mm)
Electrode Dia: 0.030 in. (0.8mm)
1/16 - 1/8”
(1.6 - 3.2 mm)
Plate Thickness in.
Plate Thickness (mm)
Electrode Diameter in.
Electrode Size
(mm)
Current (DC+)
Voltage
Wire Feed Speed - ipm
Wire Feed Speed (mm/sec.)
Welding Speed - ipm
Welding Speed( (mm/sec.)
Electrode Required - lb/ft.
Electrode Required (kg/mm)
Total Time - hr/ft of weld
Total Time (hr/m of weld)
(1)
0.063
(2)
0.030
(0.8)
85
21 - 22
184
(78)
17 -19
(7.2 - 8.0)
0.025
(0.037)
0.0111
(0.0364)
0.078
(2)
0.030
(0.8)
90
21 - 22
192
(81)
13 - 15
(5.5 - 6.3)
0.034
(0.051)
0.0143
(0.0469)
0.093
(2)
0.030
(0.8)
105
21 - 22
232
(98)
14 - 16
(5.9 - 6.8)
0.039
(0.058)
0.0133
(0.0436)
0.125
(3)
0.030
(0.8)
125
21 - 22
280
(119)
14 - 16
(5.9 - 6.8)
0.046
(0.069)
0.0133
(0.0436)
0.063
(2)
0.030
(0.8)
85
21 - 22
184
(78)
19 - 21
(8.0 - 8.9)
0.023
(0.034)
0.0100
(0.0328)
0.078
(2)
0.030
(0.8)
90
21 - 22
192
(81)
11.5 - 12.5
(4.9 - 5.3)
0.039
(0.058)
0.0167
(0.0548)
Contact Tip to Work Distance.
Welding guidelines for Stainless Steel
Short-circuit transfer — Vertical up fillets
(Using Blue Max MIG Stainless Steel Electrode)
CTWD(1): 1/2” (13mm)
Gasflow 30 cfh (14 L/min.)
90% He lium, +7-1/2% Argon,
+2-1/2% CO2
DC+
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
Electrode Dia., in. (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (M/min.)
Voltage
Current (Amps)
Travel Speed, in/min (M/min.)
(1)
Technique:
Use push angle - 5° - 10°
(6)
(0.9)
(4.4)
1/4
.035
175
21.5
90
4
(0.10)
Contact Tip to Work Distance.
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Welding Guidelines for Stainless Steel
Short-circuit transfer — Horizontal, flat and vertical down fillets
(Using Blue Max MIG Stainless Steel Electrode)
CTWD(1): 1/2” (13mm)
Gas: 90% Helium, +7-1/2% Argon
+2-1/2% CO2
Gas flow 30 cfh (14 L/min.)
DC+
Technique:
Use push angle - 5° - 20°
45°
45 - 50°
45°
Plate Thickness
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (M/min.)
Voltage
Current (Amps)
Travel Speed, in/min (M/min.)
18 ga
(1 mm)
120 - 150 (3.0 - 3.8)
19 - 20
55 - 75
10 - 16
(0.25 - 0.41)
.035” (0.9mm) Electrode Dia.
16 ga
(1.5 mm)
14 ga
(2 mm)
180 - 205
(4.6 - 5.2)
230 - 275 (5.8 - 7.0)
19 - 20
20 - 21
85 - 95
105 - 110
15 - 22
(0.38 - 0.56)
18 - 21 (0.46 - 0.53)
Plate Thickness
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (M/min.)
Voltage
Current (Amps)
Travel Speed, in/min (M/min.)
12 ga
(3 mm)
300 - 325
(7.6 - 8.3)
20 - 21
125 - 130
15 - 21
(0.38 - 0.53)
10 ga
(4 mm)
300 - 325
(7.6 - 8.3)
20 - 21
125 - 130
14 - 20
(0.36 - 0.51)
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (M/min.)
Voltage
Current (Amps)
Travel Speed, in/min (M/min.)
12 ga
(3 mm)
100 - 125
(2.5 - 3.2)
19 - 20
100 - 120
14 - 21
(0.36 - 0.53)
.045” (1.1mm) Electrode Dia.
10 ga
(4 mm)
3/16”
(5 mm)
1/4”
(6 mm)
150 - 175
(3.8 - 4.4)
220 - 250 (5.6 - 6.4) 250 - 275 (6.4 - 7.0)
21
22
22 - 23
135 - 150
170 - 175
175 -185
19 - 20
(0.48 - 0.51)
20 - 21 (0.51 - 0.53) 13 - 14 (0.33 - 0.36)
(1)
3/16
(5 mm)
1/4”
(6 mm)
350 - 375 (8.9 - 9.5) 400 - 425 (10.2 - 10.8)
21 - 22
22 - 23
140 - 150
160 - 170
18 - 22 (0.46 - 0.56)
12 - 13 (0.30 - 0.33)
Contact Tip to Work Distance.
Welding Guidelines For 200 and 300 Series Stainless Steels
Axial Spray Transfer — Butt Joints
CTWD(1): 5/8”-3/4” (16-19mm)
Gas-Argon + 1% Oxygen.
Gas flow 35 cfh (16.5L/min.)
60°
60°
1/8” (3.2 mm)
1/4” (6.4 mm)
Plate Thickness (in.)
Plate Thickness mm.
Electrode Dia. (in.)
Electrode Size mm.
Pass
Current DC (+)
Wire Feed Speed in/min.
Wire Feed Speed (M/min.)
Arc Speed - in.min
Arc Speed (M/min.)
Electrode Required (lb/ft)
Electrode Required kg/m
Total Time (hr/ft of weld)
Total Time hr/m of weld.
(1)
1/8
3
1/16
1.6
1
225
140
(3.6)
19 - 21
(0.48 - 0.53)
0.075
0.112
0.010
0.033
1/4
6
1/16
1.6
2
275
175
(4.4)
19 - 21
(0.48 - 0.53)
0.189
0.282
0.020
0.066
1/16”
(1.6 mm)
3/8 - 1/2” (9.5 - 12 mm)
3/8
10
1/16
1.6
2
300
200
(5.8)
15 - 17
(0.38 - 0.43)
0.272
0.405
0.025
0.082
1/2
13
3/32
2.4
4
325
225
(5.7)
15 - 17
(0.38 - 0.43)
0.495
0.737
0.050
0.164
Contact Tip to Work Distance
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Welding Guidelines for Stainless Steel
Axial Spray Transfer — Horizontal or Flat Fillets and Flat Butt Joints
(Using Blue Max GMAW Stainless Steel Electrode)
CTWD(1): 5/8”-3/4” (16-19mm)
Gas: 90% Argon, + 2% Oxygen
Gas flow 30 to 40 cfh
(14 to 19 L/min.)
DC+
Technique:
Use push angle - 5°
45°
45 - 50°
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (M/min.)
Voltage
Current (Amps)
Travel Speed, in/min (M/min.)
3/16
(5)
400 - 425 (10.2 - 10.8)
23 - 24
180 - 190
18 - 19
(0.46 - 0.48)
.035” (0.9 mm) Electrode Dia.
1/4
(6)
5/16 (8) and up
450 - 475 (11.4 - 12.1)
475
(12.1)
24 - 25
25
200 - 210
210
11 - 12
(0.28 - 0.30)
10 - 11 (0.25 - 0.28)
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (M/min.)
Voltage
Current (Amps)
Travel Speed, in/min (M/min.)
3/16
(5)
240 - 260
(6.1 - 6.6)
24 - 25
195 - 230
17 - 19
(0.43 - 0.48)
.045” (1.1 mm) Electrode Dia.
1/4
(6)
5/16 (8) and up
300 - 325
(7.6 - 8.3)
360
(9.1)
25 - 26
26
240 - 250
260
15 - 18
(0.38 - 0.46)
14 - 15 (0.36 - 0.38)
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (M/min.)
Voltage
Current (Amps)
Travel Speed, in/min (M/min.)
(1)
3/16
175
(5)
(4.4)
26
260
19 - 23
(0.48 - 0.58)
1/16” (1.6 mm) Electrode Dia.
1/4
(6)
5/16 (8) and up
200 - 250
(5.1 - 6.4)
275
(7.0)
29
31
310 - 330
360
23 - 25
(0.58 - 0.64)
16
(0.41)
3/8 (10) and up
300
(7.6)
32
390
16
(0.41)
Contact Tip to Work Distance.
Welding Guidelines for Stainless Steel
Pulsed Spray Transfer — Flat or Horizontal Fillets
(For Use with PowerWave 455)
Electrode Dia: 0.045” (1.1mm)
CTWD(1): 5/8”-3/4” (16-19mm)
Gas: 98% Argon, + 2% Oxygen
Gas flow 25 to 40 cfh
(12-19 L/min.)
Drag Angle 0 - 5 Degrees
Use Push Angle
Technique:
Use push angle (up to 5°)
45°
45 - 50°
Trim Value Nominally set at 1.0(2)
Plate Thickness
Leg Size, in. (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, ipm (M/min.)
Mode Selector
Deposition Rate, lbs/hr (kg/hr)
14 ga (2 mm)
12 ga (3 mm)
3/16” (5 mm)
1/4” (6 mm)
5/16” (8 mm)
—
—
—
3/16 (4.8)
1/4 (6.4)
150 (3.8)
180 (4.6)
200 (5.0)
275 (7.0)
300 (7.6)
62
63
65
66
67
4.2 (1.9)
5.0 (2.3)
5.5 (2.5)
7.6 (3.4)
8.3 (3.8)
For out-of-position welding, start with settings for one thickness smaller.
(1)
(2)
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Trim can be a function of travel speed, weld size and quality of work connection. Adjusting the Trim Value controls the arc length,
thus, values set below 1.0 produce shorter arc lengths than those above 1.0.
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Welding Guidelines for Aluminum
Welding Joint Designs for Aluminum MIG Welding
Groove Welding — Flat, Horizontal, Vertical and Overhead
Joint Spacing
Joint Spacing
t
(B)
Temporary
Backing
2t
t/4
(A)
60° - 90°
or
110°
60° - 90°
/ ” (4.8mm)
3 16
Joint Spacing
Joint Spacing
(D)
(C)
1/16” - 3/32”
(1.6 - 2.4mm)
60°
90°
Joint Spacing
t
/ ” - 3/32”
1 16
(1.6 - 2.4mm)
Temporary
Backing
Joint Spacing
1/2”
(12.7mm)
1/16” - 3/32”
(1.6 - 2.4mm)
t/4
(F)
(E)
60°
Joint Spacing
/ ”
1 16
(1.6mm)
t
t
11/2” (38mm)
11/2” (38mm)
t up to 3/8” (9.5mm)
3/8” for t> 3/8” (9.5mm)
t up to 3/8” (9.5mm)
3/8” for t> 3/8” (9.5mm)
Permanent
Backing
Permanent
Backing
(H)
(G)
60°
t
t2
(J)
(K)
(I)
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Welding Guidelines for Aluminum GMAW
Groove Welding — Flat, Horizontal, Vertical and Overhead
Plate
Weld
Thickness Position(1)
1/16”
(2 mm)
3/32”
(2 mm)
1/8”
(3 mm)
3/16”
(5 mm)
1/4”
(6 mm)
3/8”
(10 mm)
3/4”
(19 mm)
Edge
Prep(2)
Joint
Spacing
In. (mm)
Weld
Passes
Electrode
Diameter
In. (mm)
Welding
Current(3)
(Amps)
(DC+)
Arc
Voltage(3)
(Volts)
F
A
None
1
0.030 (0.8)
70-110
15-20
F
G
3/32 (2.4)
1
0.030 (0.8)
70-110
15-20
F
A
None
1
0.030-3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
90-150
18-22
F, V, H, O
G
1/8 (3.2)
1
0.030 (0.8)
110-130
18-23
F, V, H
A
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
1
120-150
20-24
F, V, H, O
G
3/16 (4.8)
1
110-135
19-23
F, V, H
B
130-175
22-26
F, V, H
F
140-180
23-27
O
F
140-175
23-27
F, V
H
140-185
23-27
H, O
H
130-175
23-27
F
B
175-200
24-28
F
F
185-225
24-29
V, H
F
165-190
25-29
O
F
180-200
25-29
F, V
H
175-225
25-29
O, H
H
170-200
25-29
F
C - 90°
225-290
26-29
F
F
210-275
26-29
V, H
F
190-220
26-29
O
F
200-250
26-29
F, V
H
210-290
26-29
O, H
H
190-260
26-29
F
C-60°
340-400
26-31
F
F
325-375
26-31
V, H, O
F
240-300
26-30
F
E
270-330
26-30
V, H, O
E
230-280
26-30
0 - 1/16
(0 - 1.6)
0-1/16
(0 - 1.6)
0-1/16
(0 - 1.6)
3/32 - 3/16
(2.4 - 4.8)
3/16
(4.8)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
1/8 - 1/4
(3.2 - 6.4)
1/4
(6.4)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
1/4 - 3/8
(6.4 - 9.5)
3/8
(9.5)
0 - 3/32
(0 - 2.4)
0 - 1/8
(0 - 3.2)
0 - 1/16
(0 - 1.6)
0 - 1/16
(0 - 1.6)
0 - 1/16
(0 - 1.6)
1F, 1R
1
2F
2
3
1F, 1R
2
3F, 1R
3F, 1R
2-3
4-6
1F, 1R
2F, 1R
3F, 1R
5F, 1R
4
8 - 10
3F, 1R
4F, 1R
8F, 1R
3F, 3R
6F, 6R
0.030 - 3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
0.030 - 3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
0.030 - 3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
3/64
(1.2)
3/64
(1.2)
3/64 - 1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
3/64
(1.2)
3/64-1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
3/64-1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
3/64
(1.2)
3/64, 1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
3/64-1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
3/64-1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
3/32
(2.4)
3/32
(2.4)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
Argon
Gas Flow
CFH
(L/min.)
Travel
Speed
ipm
(M/min.)
Approx.
Electrode
Consump.
(lbs/100 ft)
25
(12)
25
(12)
25 - 45
(0.64 - 1.14)
25 - 45
(0.64 - 1.14)
1.5
30
(14)
30
(14)
25 - 45
(0.64 - 1.14)
25 - 30
(0.64 - 0.76)
1.8
30
(14)
30
(14)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
18 - 28
(0.45 - 0.71)
2
35
(16)
35
(16)
60
(28)
35
(16)
60
(28)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
25 - 35
(0.63 - 0.89)
40
(19)
40
(19)
45
(21)
60
(28)
40
(19)
60
(28)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
25 - 35
(0.63 - 0.89)
25 - 35
(0.63 - 0.89)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
25 - 40
(0.63 - 1.02)
50
(24)
50
(24)
55
(26)
80
(38)
50
(24)
80
(38)
20 - 30
(0.51 - 0.76)
24 - 35
(0.60 -0.89)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
25 - 40
(0.63 - 1.02)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
25-40
(0.63 - 1.02)
60
(28)
60
(28)
80
(38)
60
(28)
80
(38)
14 - 20
(0.36 - 0.51)
16 - 20
(0.41 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
16 - 24
(0.41 - 0.61)
16 - 24
(0.41 - 0.61)
2
2
3
4
5
5
8
10
6
8
10
10
12
12
16
18
20
20
35
50
50
70
75
70
75
(1) F = Flat; V = Vertical; H = Horizontal; O = Overhead. (2) See joint designs on page 75. (3) For 5xxx series electrodes, use a welding current in the high side of the range
and an arc voltage in the lower portion of the range. 1XXX, 2XXX and 4XXX series electrodes would use the lower currents and higher arc voltages.
GMAW
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Welding Guidelines for Aluminum GMAW
Fillet and Lap Welding — Flat, Horizontal, Vertical and Overhead
Plate
Thickness(1)
Weld
Position(2)
Weld
Passes(3)
3/32”
(2 mm)
F, V, H, O
1
1/8”
(3 mm)
F
1
V, H
1
O
1
F
1
V, H
1
O
1
F
1
V, H
1
O
1
F
1
H, V
3
O
3
F
4
H, V
4-6
O
10
3/16”
(5 mm)
1/4”
(6 mm)
3/8”
(10 mm)
3/4”
(19 mm)
Electrode
Diameter
In. (mm)
0.030
(0.8)
0.030 - 3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
.030
(0.8)
0.030 - 3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
3/64
(1.2)
0.030 - 3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
0.030 - 3/64
(0.8 - 1.2)
3/64 - 1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
3/64
(1.2)
3/64 - 1/16
(1.2 - 1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
3/32
(2.4)
1/16
(1.6)
1/16
(1.6)
Welding
Current(4)
(Amps)
(DC+)
Arc
Voltage(4)
(Volts)
100-130
18-22
125-150
20-24
110-130
19-23
115-140
20-24
180-210
22-26
130-175
21-25
130-190
22-26
170-240
24-28
170-210
23-27
190-220
24-28
240-300
26-29
190-240
24-27
200-240
25-28
360-380
26-30
260-310
25-29
275-310
25-29
Argon
Gas Flow
CFH
(L/min.)
Travel Speed
ipm
(M/min.)
Approx.
Electrode
Consump.
(lbs/100 ft)
30
(14)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
1.8
30
(14)
30
(14)
40
(19)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
2
30
(14)
35
(16)
45
(21)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
40
(19)
45
(21)
60
(28)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
7
50
(24)
60
(28)
85
(40)
18 - 25
(0.46 - 0.64)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
17
60
(28)
70
(33)
85
(40)
18 - 25
(0.46 - 0.64)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
24 - 30
(0.60 - 0.76)
2
2
4.5
4.5
4.5
7
7
17
17
66
66
66
(1) Metal thickness of 3/4” or greater for fillet welds sometimes employ a double vee bevel of 50° or greater included vee with 3/32” to 1/8” land thickness on the abutting
(2) F = Flat; V = Vertical; H = Horizontal; O = Overhead. (3) Number of weld passes and electrode consumption given for weld on one side only. (4) For 5xxx
member.
series electrodes, use a welding current in the high side of the range and an arc voltage in the lower portion of the range. 1xxx, 2xxx and 4xxx series electrodes would use
the lower currents and higher arc voltages.
GMAW
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STT® II Welding Guidelines
STT II Welding Guidelines
Background Current controls penetration and is responsible for
the overall heat input of the weld.
The ensuing procedure guidelines are intended to provide a
starting point for the development of welding procedures using
the STT II power source and STT 10 wire drive and control. The
use of pre-flow, post-flow, and run-in speed are variables that
are established based upon the needs of the application.
Vertical down fillets are set at the suggested guideline setting,
but require an additional 30% to the travel speed.
Peak Current provides arc length – a shorter arc length is
required for higher travel speeds. The peak current also provides
preheat and melts the surface of the base material prior to a
return to background current.
Tail-out Current is applied to add energy to the molten droplet.
Adding tail-out may result in faster travel speeds and improved
toe wetting.
Carbon Steel Sheetmetal - Uncoated
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Tailout (1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.030” (0.8 mm), ER70S-3,
ER70S-4, ER70S-6
3/8” (9 mm)
80% Ar + 20 %CO2
10
12
14
16
3.2
2.4
2.0
1.6
250
240
225
180
(6.4)
(6.1)
(5.7)
(4.6)
250
245
245
225
75
70
70
60
0-3
0-3
0-3
0-3
10
10
12
13
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
110
107
105
85
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
18
20
1.1
0.9
160
135
(4.1)
(3.4)
215
200
55
50
0-3
0-3
14
15
(0.4)
(0.4)
75
65
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Carbon Steel Sheetmetal - Uncoated
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Tailout (1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.035” (0.9 mm), ER70S-3,
ER70S-4, ER70S-6
3/8” (9 mm)
80%Ar + 20%CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
245
230
200
190
(6.2)
(5.8)
(5.1)
(4.8)
340
330
320
300
90
90
80
75
0-5
0-5
0-5
0-5
8
10
12
13
(0.2)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
150
145
135
125
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
18
20
1.6
1.1
0.9
150
125
100
(3.8)
(3.2)
(2.5)
260
250
220
50
45
40
0-5
0-5
0-5
14
15
15
(0.4)
(0.4)
(0.4)
95
80
65
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Carbon Steel Sheetmetal - Uncoated
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
(1)
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Tailout (1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.035” (0.9 mm), ER70S-3,
ER70S-4, ER70S-6
3/8” (9 mm)
54%He + 38%Ar + 8%CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
205
175
145
130
(5.2)
(4.4)
(3.7)
(3.3)
310
300
265
240
85
75
60
55
0-6
0-6
0-7
0-8
12
10
12
12
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
125
110
90
85
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
18
20
1.6
1.1
0.9
120
110
100
(3.0)
(2.9)
(2.5)
235
230
225
50
45
40
0-8
0-8
0-8
11
12
15
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.4)
75
65
55
Tail-out is adjusted according to end-user acceptance requirements. Increasing tail-out can result in an increase in travel speed and improved wetting
at the toes of a weld.
GMAW
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Carbon Steel Sheetmetal - Uncoated
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Tailout (1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.035” (0.9 mm), ER70S-3,
ER70S-4, ER70S-6
3/8” (9 mm)
100% CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
215
210
190
175
(5.5)
(5.3)
(4.8)
(4.4)
300
300
290
270
80
80
70
60
0-3
0-3
0-3
0-3
7
11
12
12
(0.2)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
145
140
120
105
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
18
20
1.6
1.1
0.9
120
100
100
(3.0)
(2.5)
(2.5)
250
220
220
55
30
30
0-3
0-3
0-3
16
15
15
(0.4)
(0.4)
(0.4)
85
70
70
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Carbon Steel Sheetmetal - Uncoated
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Tailout (1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.045” (1.1 mm), ER70S-3,
ER70S-4, ER70S-6
3/8” (9 mm)
80%Ar + 20%CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
190
140
125
115
(4.8)
(3.6)
(3.2)
(2.9)
400
330
300
270
85
75
65
60
0-6
0-6
0-6
0-6
10
12
13
12
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
155
145
125
115
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
1.6
100
(2.5)
250
55
0-6
12
(0.3)
90
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Carbon Steel Sheetmetal - Uncoated
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Tailout (1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.045” (1.1 mm), ER70S-3,
ER70S-4, ER70S-6
3/8” (9 mm)
54%He + 38%Ar + 8%CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
150
135
120
115
(3.8)
(3.4)
(3.0)
(2.9)
350
330
295
285
90
80
70
65
0-8
0-6
0-6
0-6
12
12
12
12
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
155
130
120
110
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
18
20
1.6
1.1
0.9
100
75
65
(2.5)
(1.9)
(1.7)
275
260
250
60
55
50
0-6
0-5
0-5
12
12
14
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.4)
100
90
75
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Carbon Steel Sheetmetal - Uncoated
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
(1)
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Tailout(1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.045” (1.1 mm), ER70S-3,
ER70S-4, ER70S-6
3/8” (9 mm)
100% CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
175
145
120
110
(4.4)
(3.7)
(3.0)
(2.8)
390
350
320
270
75
55
50
45
0-5
0-5
0-5
0-5
9
10
11
13
(0.2)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
170
150
125
115
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
1.6
80
(2.0)
250
35
0-5
15
(0.4)
95
Tail-out is adjusted according to end-user acceptance requirements. Increasing tail-out can result in an increase in travel speed and improved wetting
at the toes of a weld.
GMAW
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Stainless Steel Guidelines for STT II
Stainless Steel Sheetmetal
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Tailout
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.035” (0.9 mm), Blue Max
308LSi, 309LSi, 316LSi
3/8” (9 mm)
90%He+ 7.5%Ar+ 2.5%CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
170
160
140
130
(4.3)
(4.1)
(3.6)
(3.3)
210
200
200
190
60
55
55
50
3-7
3-7
2
2
9
10
11
14
(0.2)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.4)
95
85
80
70
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
18
20
1.6
1.1
0.9
120
110
100
(3.0)
(2.8)
(2.5)
180
170
165
45
40
35
2
2
2
14
13
15
(0.4)
(0.3)
(0.4)
65
55
50
Stainless Steel Sheetmetal
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Tailout
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.035” (0.9 mm), Blue Max
308LSi, 309LSi, 316LSi
3/8” (9 mm)
98%Ar + 2%O2
10
12
14
16
3.2
2.4
2.0
1.6
190
165
155
140
(4.8)
(4.2)
(3.9)
(3.6)
200
190
180
160
80
70
65
65
9
7
7
7
9
10
10
14
(0.2)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.4)
115
100
95
85
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
18
20
1.1
0.9
115
100
(2.9)
(2.5)
150
145
55
45
7
7
14
14
(0.4)
(0.4)
70
60
Stainless Steel Sheetmetal
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Tailout
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.035” (0.9 mm), Blue Max
308LSi, 309LSi, 316LSi
3/8” (9 mm)
90%He+ 7.5%Ar+ 2.5%CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
180
150
140
130
(4.6)
(3.8)
(3.6)
(3.3)
235
225
225
200
90
85
80
75
3
3
3
3
18
14
17
18
(0.5)
(0.4)
(0.4)
(0.5)
140
130
130
115
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
18
20
1.6
1.1
0.9
120
100
90
(3.0)
(2.5)
(2.3)
190
170
160
70
60
50
3
3
3
21
16
17
(0.5)
(0.4)
(0.4)
100
85
80
Stainless Steel Sheetmetal
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Tailout
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
0.045” (1.1 mm), Blue Max
308LSi, 309LSi, 316LSi
3/8” (9 mm)
55%He+ 42.5%Ar+ 2.5%CO2
7
10
12
14
5.0
3.2
2.4
2.0
170
160
150
140
(4.3)
(3.8)
(4.1)
(3.6)
230
220
220
210
95
90
90
80
5
5
5
5
14
15
18
17
(0.4)
(0.4)
(0.5)
(0.4)
140
140
135
125
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
18
20
1.6
1.1
0.9
120
100
90
(3.0)
(2.5)
(2.3)
200
180
170
70
60
60
5
5
5
20
15
14
(0.5)
(0.4)
(0.4)
105
95
85
GMAW
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Nickel Alloy STT II Welding Guidelines
C276 Nickel Alloy Sheetmetal
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
0.035” (0.9 mm)
C-22, 625, C2000
10
3/8” (9 mm)
12
90%He + 7.5%Ar + 2.5%CO2 14
Lap, T-Joints,
Horizontal Fillets
16
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
Tailout
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Average
Current
3.2
2.4
2.0
180
170
160
(4.6)
(4.3)
(4.1)
220
210
200
75
70
65
5
5
5
13
14
12
(0.3)
(0.4)
(0.3)
90
85
80
1.6
150
(3.8)
190
60
5
15
(0.4)
70
Silicon Bronze STT II Welding Guidelines
Carbon Steel Sheetmetal
Diameter, Wire
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Joint Types
0.035” (0.9 mm)
Silicon Bronze Filler
3/8” (9 mm)
100% Ar
Lap Joints
Material
Thickness
Gauge (mm)
14
16
18
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
2.0
1.6
1.1
180
170
170
(4.6)
(4.3)
(4.3)
Peak
Amps
Background
Amps
190
180
180
60
55
55
Tailout
4
2
2
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
13
13
15
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.4
Average
Current
90
80
80
STT II Pipe Root Welding Guidelines
Carbon Steel Pipe - Root Pass Procedures
Diameter, Wire
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Root, Land
Included Angle
Wall
Thickness
Inches (mm)
0.045” (1.1 mm), L-56
1/2” (12.7 mm)
100% CO2
1/8
3/16
1/4
(3.2)
(4.8)
(6.4)
125
135
135
3/32” (2.4 mm),
1/16” (1.6 mm)
60°
5/16 (7.9)
3/8 (9.5)
1/2 (12.7)
135
145
145
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Current
Background
Current
(3.2)
(3.4)
(3.4)
380
380
380
35
45
45
0
0
0
(3.4)
(3.7)
(3.7)
380
380
400
45
45
50
0-2
0-3
0-3
Tailout
Stainless Steel Pipe - Root Pass Procedures
Diameter, Wire
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Root, Land
Included Angle
Wall
Thickness
Inches (mm)
.0.045” (1.1 mm), Blue Max
308LSi, 309LSi, 316LSi
1/2” (12.7 mm)
90%He + 7.5%Ar + 2.5%CO2
1/8
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/32” (2.4 mm),
1/16” (1.6 mm)
60°
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Peak
Current
Background
Current
Tailout
(3.2)
(4.8)
(6.4)
(7.9)
115
120
120
120
(2.9)
(3.0)
(3.0)
(3.0)
190
215
215
215
50
55
55
55
5
5
5
5
3/8 (9.5)
1/2 (12.7)
130
130
(3.3)
(3.3)
220
220
62
62
5
4
GMAW
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Rapid Arc® Welding Guidelines
Rapid Arc Welding Guidelines
for use with hard automation and robotic applications. It may be
applied to semiautomatic applications, but the travel speeds will
be far less than those employed with automated applications.
The ensuing guidelines provide procedure settings for the use of
Rapid Arc programs available on the Power Wave® 455. Rapid
Arc™ is a higher travel speed GMAW-P program set developed
Welding Guidelines for Super Arc® L-56 solid wire.
HORIZONTAL LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.035” (0.9 mm) L-56
5/8” (15.9 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
800
800
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(0.8)
(1.1)
0.90
0.85
24
23
243
242
235
(20.3)
(20.3)
30
45
800
(20.3)
55
(1.4)
0.85
23.5
750
(19.1)
60
(1.5)
0.90
23.8
237
615
(15.6)
60
(1.5)
0.90
22.5
210
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(1.0)
(1.3)
0.90
0.90
24
23.2
250
240
240
3 O’CLOCK LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.035” (0.9 mm) L-56
5/8” (15.9 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
800
780
(20.3)
(19.8)
40
50
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
740
(18.8)
70
(1.8)
0.90
23
700
(17.8)
80
(2.0)
0.85
21.7
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
233
615
(15.6)
90
(2.3)
0.85
20.3
210
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
0.90
0.90
24.4
24
265
245
220
VERTICAL DOWN LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
0.035” (0.9 mm) L-56
5/8” (15.9 mm)
90% Ar/10% CO2
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
780
780
(19.8)
(19.8)
35-40
50
(0.9-1.0)
(1.3)
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
650
(16.5)
50
(1.3)
0.90
23
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
650
(16.5)
60
(1.5)
0.90
23
221
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
600
(15.2)
70
(1.8)
0.90
22.4
200
GMAW
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HORIZONTAL LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.045” (1.1 mm) L-56
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
550
525
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(1.0)
(1.3)
0.90
0.85
23
21.3
280
276
280
(14.0)
(13.3)
40
50
500
(12.7)
60
(1.5)
0.85
21.4
450
(11.4)
60
(1.5)
0.80
19.5
260
375
(9.5)
60
(1.5)
0.80
19
211
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
3 O’CLOCK LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.045” (1.1 mm) L-56
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
500
475
(12.7)
(12.1)
45
50
(1.1)
(1.3)
0.85
0.85
21.7
21.2
265
258
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
450
(11.4)
70
(1.8)
0.80
19.5
255
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
425
(10.8)
80
(2.0)
0.80
19.4
240
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
375
(9.5)
90
(2.3)
0.70
17
236
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(0.9)
(1.3)
0.90
0.95
22
23.5
260
274
242
VERTICAL DOWN LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.045” (1.1 mm) L-56
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
475
475
(12.1)
(12.1)
35
50
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
400
(10.2)
50
(1.3)
0.95
22
400
(10.2)
60
(1.5)
0.95
22.5
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
245
360
(9.1)
70
(1.8)
0.90
20.5
223
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(0.9)
(1.1)
0.85
0.85
21
21.5
320
310
298
HORIZONTAL LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.052” (1.3 mm) L-56
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
400
400
(10.2)
(10.2)
35
45
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
370
(9.4)
55
(1.4)
0.80
19.5
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
330
(8.4)
60
(1.5)
0.80
18
290
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
270
(6.9)
60
(1.5)
0.85
17
250
GMAW
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3 O’CLOCK LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
(9.4)
(9.1)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
40
50
Trim
Volts
Amps
(1.0)
(1.3)
0.85
0.85
20.6
20.3
295
293
280
0.052” (1.3 mm) L-56
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
370
360
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
330
(8.4)
70
(1.8)
0.80
18.5
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
310
(7.9)
80
(2.0)
0.85
18.5
273
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
280
(7.1)
90
(2.3)
0.80
16.6
252
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(0.9-1.0)
(1.3)
0.90
0.90
21.7
21.1
289
277
260
VERTICAL DOWN LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.052” (1.3 mm) L-56
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
360
360
(9.1)
(9.1)
35-40
50
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
300
(7.6)
50
(1.3)
0.90
19.9
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
300
(7.6)
60
(1.5)
0.95
20
260
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
275
(7.0)
70
(1.8)
0.95
19
250
Welding guidelines for Metalshield® MC-6 metal-cored wire.
HORIZONTAL LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
0.045” (1.1 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
550
525
(14.0)
(13.3)
35
50
(0.9)
(1.3)
0.95
0.85
26
22
300
280
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
450
(11.4)
70
(1.8)
0.80
20
241
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
375
(9.5)
70
(1.8)
0.80
19.5
214
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
350
(8.9)
70
(1.8)
0.90
21
200
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
3 O’CLOCK LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
0.045” (1.1 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
90% Ar/10% CO2
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Amps
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
525
500
(13.3)
(12.7)
40
50
(1.0)
(1.3)
0.90
0.85
24
21
275
256
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
400
(10.2)
70
(1.8)
0.80
19.5
223
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
375
(9.5)
80
(2.0)
0.80
19
211
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
350
(8.9)
90
(2.3)
0.85
19.5
203
GMAW
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VERTICAL DOWN LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
(12.7)
(12.7)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
35-40 (0.9-1.0)
50
(1.3)
Trim
Volts
Amps
0.95
0.98
24
24.5
290
297
245
0.045” (1.1 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
500
500
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
400
(10.2)
50
(1.3)
0.95
22.5
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
400
(10.2)
60
(1.5)
0.98
23
245
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
360
(19.1)
70
(1.8)
0.98
23
222
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(0.9)
(1.1)
1.00
0.85
26
21.4
336
312
275
HORIZONTAL LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.052” (1.3 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
415
400
(10.5)
(10.2)
35
45
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
340
(8.6)
65
(1.7)
0.80
19.5
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
285
(7.2)
70
(1.8)
0.80
18.5
250
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
265
(6.7)
70
(1.8)
0.85
18.5
242
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
3 O’CLOCK LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
0.052” (1.3 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
400
375
(10.2)
(9.5)
40
50
(1.0)
(1.3)
0.90
0.85
23
21.5
318
287
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
300
(7.6)
70
(1.8)
0.85
20.2
242
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
285
(7.2)
80
(2.0)
0.85
20
232
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
260
(6.6)
90
(2.3)
0.85
19.2
218
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
VERTICAL DOWN LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
325
325
(8.3)
(8.3)
35
40
(0.9)
(1.0)
1.00
1.00
24
24.2
275
277
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
300
(7.6)
50
(1.3)
1.00
23.4
254
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
285
(7.2)
60
(1.5)
1.00
23.3
246
260
(6.6)
70
(1.8)
0.95
21
236
0.052” (1.3 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
90% Ar/10% CO2
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
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HORIZONTAL LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
300
290
(7.6)
(7.4)
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
35
45
Trim
Volts
Amps
(0.9)
(1.1)
1.00
0.90
24
21
351
327
292
1/16” (1.6 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
240
(6.1)
65
(1.7)
0.85
19.3
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
210
(5.3)
70
(1.8)
0.85
18
266
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
190
(4.8)
70
(1.8)
0.90
18.5
252
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
(1.0)
(1.3)
0.90
0.85
20.5
19.5
347
336
288
3 O’CLOCK LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
300
290
(7.6)
(7.4)
40
50
1/16” (1.6 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
240
(6.1)
70
(1.8)
0.80
18.5
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
210
(5.3)
80
(2.0)
0.85
18
260
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
190
(4.8)
90
(2.3)
0.90
18
255
Travel Speed
in/min (M/min.)
Trim
Volts
Amps
VERTICAL DOWN LAP WELD
Diameter, Wires
CTWD
Shielding Gas
Material
Thickness
1/4”
3/16”
Wire Feed Speed
in/min (M/min.)
1/16” (1.6 mm) MC-6
3/4” (19.1 mm)
(6.4 mm)
(4.8 mm)
215
215
(5.5)
(5.5)
35
40
(0.9)
(1.0)
1.00
1.00
21.8
21.5
275
275
10 Ga. (3.2 mm)
200
(5.1)
50
(1.3)
1.00
21.4
254
90% Ar/10% CO2
12 Ga. (2.4 mm)
190
(4.8)
60
(1.7)
1.00
20.5
243
14 Ga. (2.0 mm)
170
(4.3)
70
(1.8)
1.05
20.5
227
Rapid Arc welding guideline considerations
As the travel speed is increased in fast follow applications
[1/4” (6.4 mm) to 14 gauge (2.0 mm)], a tighter, shorter arc must
be maintained so that the puddle properly follows the arc.
Operators typically reduce the arc length control (Trim), to
achieve this. At faster travel speeds, the bead shape will not
wet as well, and will become very convex and ropey. There is a
point at which the arc is set so short that the arc will become
unstable and stubbing will occur. This forms a limitation of just
how fast the travel speed can be taken. Since Rapid Arc is
stable at very low voltages, the travel speed can be significantly
increased.
All listed welding guidelines are starting points and may require
some adjustment depending on specific applications. Torch
angle, electrode placement, contamination, mill scale, joint fitup, and joint consistency are factors that may require special
consideration depending on the specific application. At higher
travel speeds, joint fit-up, wire placement and contamination all
become more significant factors. The result of welding at higher
travel speeds is a tendency to produce more spatter, less
penetration, more undercut, and a less desirable bead shape.
Depending on the limitation of the actual application, slower
travel speeds and higher trim settings may be required.
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The improved Rapid Arc program features a modified wave
control that acts as a fine tune adjustment of the arc. Similar to
conventional pulse programs, an increase in wave control will
results in a higher frequency and a more focused arc plasma.
The results will be especially noticeable in the metal core rapid
arc programs. Increasing wave control will improve welding
performance in robotic applications.
The preferred electrode diameter depends on the application.
As a guideline, use the following rule of thumb:
Solid Wire Electrode (Super Arc L-56)
• 0.035” (0.9 mm) diameter for 14 gauge ( 2.0 mm) and
12 gauge (2.4 mm)
• 0.045” & 0.052” (1.1-1.3 mm) diameter for 10 gauge (3.2 mm)
and thicker.
Metal Core Wire (Metalshield MC-6)
• 0.045” (1.1 mm) diameter for 14 gauge (2.0 mm); minimal
heat input and good puddle control.
• 0.052” (1.3 mm) diameter for 12 gauge (2.4 mm).
• 1/16” (1.6 mm) diameter for 10 gauge (3.2 mm) and thicker;
increases edge wetting and improves fit-up tolerance.
• Metal Core can make smaller weld beads, especially on
10 gauge (3.2 mm) and thinner base materials that tend to be
over welded with solid wire electrode.
Wave Control
-10.0
Off
• Semiautomatic operation.
• Reduced travel speeds.
• More fluid puddle.
+10.0
• Automated operation.
• Increased travel speeds.
• Tighter arc.
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Glossary
Inductance An essential component for the successful operation of short-circuiting transfer. Inductance provides control of the
rate of rise of short-circuit current. Inductance control has the
effect of reducing spatter loss and controlling the level of spatter
generated by traditional short-circuiting metal transfer. Adding
inductance to the arc increase the amount of time that the arc is
on, increases the transferred metal droplet size, and adds to the
puddle fluidity. The finished weld bead appears flatter,
smoother, and exhibits excellent weld toe wetting.
Anode The positive end of the welding circuit for a given arc
welding process. Anode may reference the particular positive
pole of a power source or it may reference the direct current
positive region of the welding arc.
Axial Spray Transfer The high-energy mode of metal transfer in
GMAW, which is characterized by a fine, axial stream of molten
droplets from the end of the electrode.
MIG A non-standard term used to describe GMAW or its variants.
The acronym refers to Metal Inert Gas welding and it references
the use of inert gases such as argon and helium.
CAC-A A carbon arc cutting process variation that removes
molten metal with a jet of air.
Cathode The negative end of the welding circuit for a given arc
welding process. Cathode may reference the negative pole of
the power source or it may reference the negative cathode
region of the welding arc.
Metal-Cored Electrode Composite tubular filler metal electrode
consisting of a metal sheath and a core of powdered metals,
scavengers, and deoxidizers. The finished weld has the appearance of a gas metal arc weld, but with larger slag islands.
External gas shielding is required.
Current Density The electrode current divided by the cross
sectional area of the electrode. Important here is the concept
that there is maximum current that can be applied to a given
electrode diameter. Wire feed speeds beyond the maximum
current density result in additional deposition rate.
MAG Used to describe GMAW or its variants, the acronym
refers to Metallic Active Gas, and it references the use of carbon
dioxide shielding gas. The term is common in Europe.
Pinch Current The electromagnetic force relates to the
magnitude of the welding current responsible for a given mode
of metal transfer. The pinch current is larger in magnitude for
axial spray transfer than it is for globular transfer, and globular
transfer has a higher pinch current than does short-circuiting
transfer.
GMAW American Welding Society acronym for gas metal arc
welding. GMAW is an arc welding process that employs an arc
between continuous filler metal and the molten weld pool. The
electrode is either a solid or a tubular metal-cored electrode.
Externally supplied shielding gas is required to protect the
molten weld pool.
Power Lead The welding current cable, which carries the
welding current to the electrode.
Globular Transfer A mode of metal transfer in GMAW characterized by large irregularly shaped metal drops from the end of
the electrode, and it is commonly associated with high spatter
levels. The globular transfer metal transfer mode occurs at arc
voltages above those used for short-circuiting transfer, but below
axial spray transfer.
Power Source An electrical apparatus designed to supply
current and voltage suitable for welding, thermal cutting, or
thermal spraying.
Pulsed Spray Transfer GMAW-P is a metal transfer mode of
GMAW, which uses the advantages of the axial spray transfer
mode. The pulsed transfer mode relies on current excursions
beyond axial spray, which alternate with low current, to produce
an average current. The frequency of the pulsed current cycle
occurs many times per second. Designed to overcome lack of
fusion defects, pulsed spray transfer provides higher average
currents than the short-circuiting mode of metal transfer.
GMAW-S Gas metal arc short-circuiting transfer is a low heat
input mode of metal transfer in which the molten metal transfers
from the electrode to the work piece during repeated short
circuiting events. This process variation of GMAW lends itself to
the joining of sheet metal range of base material.
GMAW-P Metal transfer modes of GMAW, which uses the
advantages of the axial spray transfer mode. The pulsed
transfer mode relies on current excursions beyond axial spray,
which alternate with low current, to produce an average current.
The frequency of the pulsed current cycle occurs many times
per second. Designed to overcome lack of fusion defects,
reduce weld spatter levels, and weld out-of-position, the pulsed
spray transfer provides higher average currents than the shortcircuiting mode of metal transfer. The average current is less
than is seen in axial spray transfer.
Reactive Power Source A power source designed to provide
output, based upon feedback from the welding arc. This type of
power source design is primary for the Surface Tension Transfer™
welding process. The reactive power source for Surface Tension
Transfer is neither constant current nor constant voltage.
Reactive Shielding Gas Shielding gases such as carbon
dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are reactive because they have a
chemical interaction with the molten weld pool.
Inert Shielding Gas Shielding gas for GMAW such as argon
and helium, which do not react chemically with the molten pool.
Aluminum, magnesium, copper, and titanium filler alloys require
the use of 100% inert gases. Carbon steel, stainless steel, and
nickel alloys usually provide improved arc performance with
small additions of reactive gases.
Short-Circuit in arc welding, is the physical contact between the
electrode and the work piece.
Short-Circuiting Transfer A low heat input mode of metal
transfer in which the molten metal transfers from the electrode to
the work piece during repeated short-circuit. This process
variation of GMAW lends itself to the joining a range of sheet
metal base materials.
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Spray Arc A non-standard term used to describe the high-energy
mode of metal transfer known as axial spray transfer.
Waveform Generator A specific term applied to inverter transfer
power sources, which depend upon internal software to
modulate the output of the power source. These types of power
sources are unique to STT and other modes of GMAW transfer.
Surface Tension The forces that act in a molten droplet of weld
metal to prevent it from flowing. The surface tension forces exist
at a molecular level below the surface of the molten droplet and
act upon those molecules at the surface of the molten drop.
Wire Welding A non-standard term used to describe any
welding process, which employs continuously fed filler metal.
The electrode used may be tubular or solid electrodes.
Surface Tension Transfer™ A proprietary process developed
by the Lincoln Electric Company, which provides a low heat
input form of metal transfer. The process uses a reactive power
source, which monitors the arc and is able to respond
instantaneously to the changing arc requirements. The process
relies on surface tension to transfer the molten metal from the
electrode to the work piece.
Work Piece Lead The electrical conductor located between the
power source and the work piece. In the GMAW process, the
work-piece lead is usually DC-.
STT™ The acronym used for Surface Tension Transfer.
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diate vicinity of the helper’s breathing zone. The principle composition or particulate matter (welding fume) which may be present
within the welder’s breathing zone are listed in the Supplement of
Safe Practices. Sampling should be in accordance with ANSI/ AWS
F1.1, Method for Sampling Airborne Particulates Generated by
Welding and Allied Processes.
SAFE PRACTICES
Introduction. The general subject of safety and safety practices in
welding, cutting, and allied processes is covered in ANSI Z49.18,
“Safety in Welding and Cutting,” and ANSI Z49.29. “Fire Prevention
in the Use of Welding and Cutting Processes.” The handling of
compressed gases is covered in CGA P-110.
Personnel should be familiar with the safe practices discussed in
these documents, equipment operating manuals, and Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDS) for consumables.
In addition to the hazards discussed in the Arc Welding Safety
Precautions following this section, be familiar with the safety concerns discussed below.
Gases. The major toxic gases associated with GMAW welding are
ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Phosgene gas could
also be present as a result of thermal or ultraviolet decomposition of
chlorinated hydrocarbon cleaning agents located in the vicinity of
welding operations, such as trichlorethylene and perchlorethylene.
DEGREASING OR OTHER CLEANING OPERATIONS
INVOLVING CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS SHOULD BE
SO LOCATED THAT VAPORS FROM THESE OPERATIONS
CANNOT BE REACHED BY RADIATION FROM THE WELDING ARC.
Safe Handling of Shielding Gas Cylinders and Regulators.
Compressed gas cylinders should be handled carefully and should be
adequately secured when in use. Knocks, falls, or rough handling
may damage cylinders, valves, or fuse plugs and cause leakage or
accident. Valve protecting caps, when supplied, should be kept in
place (handtight) until the connecting of container equipment.
Ozone. The ultraviolet light emitted by the GMAW arc acts on the
oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere to produce ozone, the amount
of which will depend upon the intensity and the wave length of the
ultraviolet energy, the humidity, the amount of screening afforded by
any welding fumes, and other factors. The ozone concentration will
generally be increased with an increase in welding current, with the
use of argon as the shielding gas, and when welding highly reflective
metals. If the ozone cannot be reduced to a safe level by ventilation
or process variations, it will be necessary to supply fresh air to the
welder either with an air supplied respirator or by other means.
Cylinder Use. The following should be observed when setting up
and using cylinders of shielding gas:
1. Properly secure the cylinder.
2. Before connecting a regulator to the cylinder valve, the valve
should momentarily be slightly opened and closed immediately
(opening) to clear the valve of dust or dirt that otherwise might
enter the regulator. The valve operator should stand to one side of
the regulator gauges, never in front of them.
3. After the regulator is attached, the adjusting screw should be
released by turning it counter-clockwise. The cylinder valve
should then be opened slowly to prevent a too-rapid surge of high
pressure gas into the regulator.
4. The source of the gas supply (i.e., the cylinder valve) should be
shut off if it is to be left unattended.
Nitrogen Dioxide. Some test results show that high concentra-tions
of nitrogen dioxide are found only within 6 in. (152 mm) of the arc.
With normal natural ventilation, these concentrations are quickly
reduced to safe levels in the welder’s breathing zone, so long as the
welder keeps his head out of the plume of fumes (and thus out of the
plume of welding-generated gases). Nitrogen dioxide is not thought
to be a hazard in GMAW.
Metal Fumes. The welding fumes generated by GMAW can be controlled by general ventilation, local exhaust ventilation, or if the
exposure cannot be adequately controlled using ventilation, by respiratory protective equipment as described in ANSI Z49.1. The
method of ventilation required to keep the level of toxic substances
within the welder’s breathing zone below acceptable concentrations
is directly dependent upon a number of factors. Among these are the
material being welded, the size of the work area, and the degree of the
confinement or obstruction to normal air movement where the welding
is being done. Each operation should be evaluated on an individual
basis in order to determine what ventilation, exhaust or personal protective equipment will be required. Legally required exposure limits
for hazardous substances are called Permissible Exposure Limits
(PEL) and are established by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA). Exposure guidelines for hazardous substances are established by the American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and are called
Threshold Limit Values (TLV). The TLVs® represent conditions
under which ACGIH ® believes that nearly all workers may be
repeatedly exposed without adverse health effects. These values are
intended for use in the practice of industrial hygiene as guidelines or
recommendations to assist in the control of potential workplace
health hazards and are not fine lines between safe and dangerous.
Exposure of a worker to harzardous substances can be measured by
sampling the atmosphere under the welder’s helmet or in the imme-
Carbon Monoxide. CO shielding used with the GMAW process will
be dissociated by the heat of the arc to form carbon monoxide. Only
a small amount of carbon monoxide is created by the welding process,
although relatively high concentrations are formed temporarily in the
plume of fumes. However, the hot carbon monoxide oxidizes to CO
so that the concentrations of carbon monoxide become insignificant
at distances of more than 3 or 4 in. (76 or 102 mm) from the welding
plume.
Under normal welding conditions there should be no hazard from
this source. When the welder must work with his head over the welding arc, or with the natural ventilation moving the plume of fumes
towards his breathing zone, or where welding is performed in a confined space, ventilation adequate to deflect the plume or remove the
fumes and gases must be provided. Because shielding gases can displace air, use special care to insure that breathing air is safe when
welding in a confined space. (See ANSI Z49.1.)
8
ANSI Z49.1 is available from the American Welding Society, 550
N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126, or the AWS website.
9
ANSI Z49.2 is available from the American National Standards
Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036.
10
CGA P-1 is available from the Compressed Gas Association, Inc.,
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 501, Arlington, VA 22202.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUGGESTED READING
AWS F1.1, Method for Sampling Airborne Particulates Generated by
Welding and Allied Processes.
ANSI Z87.1, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face
Protection, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd
Street, New York, NY 10036.
AWS F1.2, Laboratory Method for Measuring Fume Generation
Rates and Total Fume Emission of Welding and Allied Processes.
Arc Welding and Your Health: A Handbook of Health Information for
Welding. Published by The American Industrial Hygiene Association,
2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031-4319.
AWS F1.3, Evaluating Contaminants in the Welding Environment: A
Strategic Sampling Guide.
NFPA Standard 51B, Cutting and Welding Processes, National Fire
Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9146, Quincy,
MA 02269-9959.
AWS F1.5, Methods for Sampling and Analyzing Gases from
Welding and Allied Processes.
OSHA General Industry Standard 29 CFR 1910 Subpart Q. OSHA
Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200. Available from
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration at
http://www.osha.org or contact your local OSHA office.
AWS F3.2, Ventilation Guide for Welding Fume Control
AWS F4.1, Recommended Safe Practices for the Preparation for
Welding and Cutting of Containers and Piping That Have Held
Hazardous Substances.
The following publications are published by The American Welding
Society, P.O. Box 351040, Miami, Florida 33135. AWS publications
may be purchased from the American Welding society at
http://www.aws.org or by contacting the AWS at 800-854-7149.
AWS SHF, Safety and Health Facts Sheets.
ANSI, Standard Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied
Processes. Z49.1 is now available for download at no charge at
http://www.lincolnelectric.com/community/safety/ or at the AWS
website http://www.aws.org.
LISTED BELOW ARE SOME TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN WELDING ELECTRODES AND
THEIR TLV (ACGIH) GUIDELINES AND PEL (OSHA) EXPOSURE LIMITS
INGREDIENTS
CAS No.
Aluminum and/or aluminum alloys (as Al)*****
Aluminum oxide and/or Bauxite*****
7429-90-5
1344-28-1
TLV mg/m3
10
10
PEL mg/m3
15
5**
Barium compounds (as Ba)*****
513-77-9
****
****
Chromium and chromium alloys or compounds (as Cr)*****
Fluorides (as F)
7440-47-3
7789-75-5
0.5(b)
2.5
1.0(b)
2.5
Iron
7439-89-6
10*
10*
Limestone and/or calcium carbonate
Lithium compounds (as Li)
1317-65-3
554-13-2
10
10*
15
10*
Magnesite
1309-48-4
10
15
Magnesium and/or magnesium alloys and compounds (as Mg)
Manganese and/or manganese alloys and compounds (as Mn)*****
Mineral silicates
Molybdenum alloys (as Mo)
Nickel*****
Silicates and other binders
Silicon and/or silicon alloys and compounds (as Si)
Strontium compounds (as Sr)
Zirconium alloys and compounds (as Zr)
7439-95-4
7439-96-5
1332-58-7
7439-98-7
7440-02-0
1344-09-8
7440-21-3
1633-05-2
12004-83-0
10*
0.2
5**
10
1.5
10*
10*
10*
5
10*
5.0(c)
5**
10
1
10*
10*
10*
5
Supplemental Information:
(*)
Not listed. Nuisance value maximum is 10 milligrams per cubic meter.
PEL value for iron oxide is 10 milligrams per cubic meter. TLV value
for iron oxide is 5 milligrams per cubic meter.
(c)
Values are for manganese fume. STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) is
3.0 milligrams per cubic meter. Values are those proposed by OSHA
in 1989. Present PEL is 5.0 milligrams per cubic meter (ceiling value).
(**)
As respirable dust.
(****)
There is no listed value for insoluble barium compounds. The TLV for
soluble barium compounds is 0.5 mg/m3.
(*****) Subject to the reporting requirements of Sections 311, 312, and 313 of
the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986
and of 40CFR 370 and 372.
(b)
TLV and PEL values are as of 2005. Always check Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS) with product or on the Lincoln Electric website at
http://www.lincolnelectric.com
TLV-PEL for water soluble chromium (VI) is 0.05 milligrams per cubic
meter. The OSHA PEL is a ceiling value that shall not be exceeded at
any time. The TLV for insoluble chromium (VI) is 0.01 milligrams per
cubic meter.
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SAFETY
WARNING
CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNINGS
The engine exhaust from this product contains
chemicals known to the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm.
The Above For Gasoline Engines
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
The Above For Diesel Engines
ARC WELDING CAN BE HAZARDOUS. PROTECT YOURSELF AND OTHERS FROM POSSIBLE SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH.
KEEP CHILDREN AWAY. PACEMAKER WEARERS SHOULD CONSULT WITH THEIR DOCTOR BEFORE OPERATING.
Read and understand the following safety highlights. For additional safety information, it is strongly recommended that you
purchase a copy of “Safety in Welding & Cutting - ANSI Standard Z49.1” from the American Welding Society, P.O. Box
351040, Miami, Florida 33135 or CSA Standard W117.2-1974. A Free copy of “Arc Welding Safety” booklet E205 is available
from the Lincoln Electric Company, 22801 St. Clair Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44117-1199.
BE SURE THAT ALL INSTALLATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PROCEDURES ARE
PERFORMED ONLY BY QUALIFIED INDIVIDUALS.
FOR ENGINE
powered equipment.
1.h. To avoid scalding, do not remove the
radiator pressure cap when the engine is
hot.
1.a. Turn the engine off before troubleshooting and maintenance
work unless the maintenance work requires it to be running.
____________________________________________________
1.b. Operate engines in open, well-ventilated
areas or vent the engine exhaust fumes
outdoors.
ELECTRIC AND
MAGNETIC FIELDS
may be dangerous
____________________________________________________
1.c. Do not add the fuel near an open flame
welding arc or when the engine is running.
Stop the engine and allow it to cool before
refueling to prevent spilled fuel from vaporizing on contact with hot engine parts and
igniting. Do not spill fuel when filling tank. If
fuel is spilled, wipe it up and do not start
engine until fumes have been eliminated.
____________________________________________________
1.d. Keep all equipment safety guards, covers and devices in
position and in good repair.Keep hands, hair, clothing and
tools away from V-belts, gears, fans and all other moving
parts when starting, operating or repairing equipment.
____________________________________________________
2.a. Electric current flowing through any conductor causes
localized Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF). Welding
current creates EMF fields around welding cables and
welding machines
2.b. EMF fields may interfere with some pacemakers, and
welders having a pacemaker should consult their physician
before welding.
2.c. Exposure to EMF fields in welding may have other health
effects which are now not known.
2.d. All welders should use the following procedures in order to
minimize exposure to EMF fields from the welding circuit:
1.e. In some cases it may be necessary to remove safety
guards to perform required maintenance. Remove
guards only when necessary and replace them when the
maintenance requiring their removal is complete.
Always use the greatest care when working near moving
parts.
___________________________________________________
1.f. Do not put your hands near the engine fan.
Do not attempt to override the governor or
idler by pushing on the throttle control rods
while the engine is running.
2.d.1. Route the electrode and work cables together - Secure
them with tape when possible.
2.d.2. Never coil the electrode lead around your body.
2.d.3. Do not place your body between the electrode and
work cables. If the electrode cable is on your right
side, the work cable should also be on your right side.
2.d.4. Connect the work cable to the workpiece as close as
possible to the area being welded.
___________________________________________________
1.g. To prevent accidentally starting gasoline engines while
turning the engine or welding generator during maintenance
work, disconnect the spark plug wires, distributor cap or
magneto wire as appropriate.
2.d.5. Do not work next to welding power source.
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ii
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SAFETY
ARC RAYS can burn.
ELECTRIC SHOCK can
kill.
4.a. Use a shield with the proper filter and cover
plates to protect your eyes from sparks and
the rays of the arc when welding or observing
open arc welding. Headshield and filter lens
should conform to ANSI Z87. I standards.
3.a. The electrode and work (or ground) circuits
are electrically “hot” when the welder is on.
Do not touch these “hot” parts with your bare
skin or wet clothing. Wear dry, hole-free
gloves to insulate hands.
4.b. Use suitable clothing made from durable flame-resistant
material to protect your skin and that of your helpers from
the arc rays.
3.b. Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulation.
Make certain the insulation is large enough to cover your full
area of physical contact with work and ground.
4.c. Protect other nearby personnel with suitable, non-flammable
screening and/or warn them not to watch the arc nor expose
themselves to the arc rays or to hot spatter or metal.
In addition to the normal safety precautions, if welding
must be performed under electrically hazardous
conditions (in damp locations or while wearing wet
clothing; on metal structures such as floors, gratings or
scaffolds; when in cramped positions such as sitting,
kneeling or lying, if there is a high risk of unavoidable or
accidental contact with the workpiece or ground) use
the following equipment:
• Semiautomatic DC Constant Voltage (Wire) Welder.
• DC Manual (Stick) Welder.
• AC Welder with Reduced Voltage Control.
FUMES AND GASES
can be dangerous.
5.a. Welding may produce fumes and gases
hazardous to health. Avoid breathing these
fumes and gases.When welding, keep
your head out of the fume. Use enough
ventilation and/or exhaust at the arc to keep
fumes and gases away from the breathing zone. When
welding with electrodes which require special
ventilation such as stainless or hardfacing (see
instructions on container or MSDS) or on lead or
cadmium plated steel and other metals or coatings
which produce highly toxic fumes, keep exposure as
low as possible and below Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
using local exhaust or mechanical ventilation. In
confined spaces or in some circumstances, outdoors, a
respirator may be required. Additional precautions are
also required when welding on galvanized steel.
3.c. In semiautomatic or automatic wire welding, the electrode,
electrode reel, welding head, nozzle or semiautomatic
welding gun are also electrically “hot”.
3.d. Always be sure the work cable makes a good electrical
connection with the metal being welded. The connection
should be as close as possible to the area being welded.
3.e. Ground the work or metal to be welded to a good electrical
(earth) ground.
5.b. Do not weld in locations near chlorinated hydrocarbon vapors
coming from degreasing, cleaning or spraying operations.
The heat and rays of the arc can react with solvent vapors
to form phosgene, a highly toxic gas, and other irritating
products.
3.f. Maintain the electrode holder, work clamp, welding cable and
welding machine in good, safe operating condition. Replace
damaged insulation.
3.g. Never dip the electrode in water for cooling.
5.c. Shielding gases used for arc welding can displace air and
cause injury or death. Always use enough ventilation,
especially in confined areas, to insure breathing air is safe.
3.h. Never simultaneously touch electrically “hot” parts of
electrode holders connected to two welders because voltage
between the two can be the total of the open circuit voltage
of both welders.
5.d. Read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions for this
equipment and the consumables to be used, including the
material safety data sheet (MSDS) and follow your
employer’s safety practices. MSDS forms are available from
your welding distributor or from the manufacturer.
3.i. When working above floor level, use a safety belt to protect
yourself from a fall should you get a shock.
3.j. Also see Items 6.c. and 8.
5.e. Also see item 1.b.
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SAFETY
WELDING SPARKS can
cause fire or explosion.
CYLINDER may explode
if damaged.
6.a. Remove fire hazards from the welding area.
If this is not possible, cover them to prevent
the welding sparks from starting a fire.
Remember that welding sparks and hot
materials from welding can easily go through small cracks
and openings to adjacent areas. Avoid welding near
hydraulic lines. Have a fire extinguisher readily available.
7.a. Use only compressed gas cylinders
containing the correct shielding gas for the
process used and properly operating
regulators designed for the gas and
pressure used. All hoses, fittings, etc. should be suitable for
the application and maintained in good condition.
7.b. Always keep cylinders in an upright position securely
chained to an undercarriage or fixed support.
6.b. Where compressed gases are to be used at the job site,
special precautions should be used to prevent hazardous
situations. Refer to “Safety in Welding and Cutting” (ANSI
Standard Z49.1) and the operating information for the
equipment being used.
7.c. Cylinders should be located:
• Away from areas where they may be struck or subjected to
physical damage.
6.c. When not welding, make certain no part of the electrode
circuit is touching the work or ground. Accidental contact
can cause overheating and create a fire hazard.
• A safe distance from arc welding or cutting operations and
any other source of heat, sparks, or flame.
7.d. Never allow the electrode, electrode holder or any other
electrically “hot” parts to touch a cylinder.
6.d. Do not heat, cut or weld tanks, drums or containers until the
proper steps have been taken to insure that such procedures
will not cause flammable or toxic vapors from substances
inside. They can cause an explosion even though they have
been “cleaned”. For information, purchase “Recommended
Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding and Cutting of
Containers and Piping That Have Held Hazardous
Substances”, AWS F4.1 from the American Welding Society
(see address above 1.a. [Safety]).
7.e. Keep your head and face away from the cylinder valve outlet
when opening the cylinder valve.
7.f. Valve protection caps should always be in place and hand
tight except when the cylinder is in use or connected for
use.
7.g. Read and follow the instructions on compressed gas
cylinders, associated equipment, and CGA publication P-l,
“Precautions for Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in
Cylinders,” available from the Compressed Gas Association
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202.
6.e. Vent hollow castings or containers before heating, cutting or
welding. They may explode.
6.f. Sparks and spatter are thrown from the welding arc. Wear oil
free protective garments such as leather gloves, heavy shirt,
cuffless trousers, high shoes and a cap over your hair. Wear
ear plugs when welding out-of-position or in confined places.
Always wear safety glasses with side shields when in a
welding area.
FOR ELECTRICALLY
powered equipment.
8.a. Turn off input power using the disconnect
switch at the fuse box before working on
the equipment.
6.g. Connect the work cable to the work as close to the welding
area as practical. Work cables connected to the building
framework or other locations away from the welding area
increase the possibility of the welding current passing
through lifting chains, crane cables or other alternate
circuits. This can create fire hazards or overheat lifting
chains or cables until they fail.
8.b. Install equipment in accordance with the U.S. National
Electrical Code, all local codes and the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
8.c. Ground the equipment in accordance with the U.S. National
Electrical Code and the manufacturer’s recommendations.
6.h. Also see item 1.c.
Mar ‘95
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Notes
CUSTOMER ASSISTANCE POLICY
The business of The Lincoln Electric Company is manufacturing and selling high quality welding equipment, consumables, and cutting equipment. Our challenge is to meet the
needs of our customers and to exceed their expectations. On occasion, purchasers may ask Lincoln Electric for advice or information about their use of our products. We respond
to our customers based on the best information in our possession at that time. Lincoln Electric is not in a position to warrant or guarantee such advice, and assumes no liability,
with respect to such information or advice. We expressly disclaim any warranty of any kind, including any warranty of fitness for any customer’s particular purpose, with respect to
such information or advice. As a matter of practical consideration, we also cannot assume any responsibility for updating or correcting any such information or advice once it has
been given, nor does the provision of information or advice create, expand or alter any warranty with respect to the sale of our products.
Lincoln Electric is a responsive manufacturer, but the selection and use of specific products sold by Lincoln Electric is solely within the control of, and remains the sole responsibility
of the customer. Many variables beyond the control of Lincoln Electric affect the results obtained in applying these types of fabrication methods and service requirements.
Subject to Change – This information is accurate to the best of our knowledge at the time of printing. Please refer to www.lincolnelectric.com for any updated information.
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www.lincolnelectric.com
Publication C4.200 | Issue Date 08/14
© Lincoln Global Inc. All Rights Reserved
THE LINCOLN ELECTRIC COMPANY
22801 Saint Clair Avenue • Cleveland, OH • 44117 • U.S.A.
Phone: +1 216.481.8100 • www.lincolnelectric.com
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