# Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics

```Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics
List of Chapters:
Chapter 1 — INTRODUCTION
Dawn of the Motor Vehicle Age
Introduction to Vehicle Dynamics
Fundamental Approach to Modeling
Lumped Mass
Vehicle Fixed Coordinate System
Motion Variables
Earth Fixed Coordinate System
Euler Angles
Forces
Newton’s Second Law
Low-Speed Acceleration
Example Problems
References
Chapter 2 — ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE
Power-Limited Acceleration
Engines
Power Train
Automatic Transmissions
Example Problems
Traction-Limited Acceleration
Transverse Weight Shift due to Drive
Torque
Traction Limits
Example Problems
References
Chapter 3 — BRAKING PERFORMANCE
Basic Equations
Constant Deceleration
Deceleration with Wind Resistance
Energy/Power
Braking Forces
Rolling Resistance
Aerodynamic Drag
Driveline Drag
Brakes
Brake Factor
Velocity
Inflation Pressure
Example Problems
Federal Requirements for Braking
Performance
Brake Proportioning
Anti-Lock Brake Systems
Braking Efficiency
Rear Wheel Lockup
Pedal Force Gain
Example Problem
References
Aerodynamics
Mechanics of Air Flow Around a
Vehicle
Pressure Distribution on a Vehicle
Aerodynamic Forces
Drag Components
Aerodynamics Aids
Bumper Spoilers
Air Dams
Deck Lid Spoilers
Window and Pillar Treatments
Optimization
Drag
Air Density
Drag Coefficient
Side Force
Lift Force
Pitching Moment
Yawing Moment
Rolling Moment
Crosswind Sensitivity
Rolling Resistance
Factors Affecting Rolling Resistance
Tire Temperature
Velocity
Tire Material and Design
Tire Slip
Typical Coefficients
Fuel Economy Effects
Example Problems
References
Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics
Chapter 5 — RIDE
Excitation Sources
Tire/Wheel Assembly
Driveline Excitation
Engine/Transmission
Vehicle Response Properties
Suspension Isolation
Example Problem
Suspension Stiffness
Suspension Damping
Active Control
Wheel Hop Resonances
Suspension Nonlinearities
Rigid Body Bounce/Pitch Motions
Bounce/Pitch Frequencies
Special Cases
Example Problem
Perception of Ride
Tolerance to Seat Vibrations
Other Vibration Forms
Conclusion
References
Introduction
Low-Speed Turning
High-Speed Cornering
Tire Cornering Forces
Cornering Equations
Characteristic Speed
Critical Speed
Lateral Acceleration Gain
Yaw Velocity Gain
Sideslip Angle
Static Margin
Suspension Effects on Cornering
Roll Moment Distribution
Camber Change
Roll Steer
Lateral Force Compliance Steer
Aligning Torque
Effect of Tractive Forces on Cornering
Summary of Understeer Effects
Experimental Measurement of Understeer
Constant Speed Method
Example Problems
References
Chapter 7 — SUSPENSIONS
Solid Axles
Hotchkiss
De Dion
Independent Suspensions
Trailing Arm Suspension
SLA Front Suspension
MacPherson Strut
Trailing-Arm Rear Suspension
Semi-Trailing Arm
Swing Axle
Anti-Squat and Anti-Pitch Suspension
Geometry
Equivalent Trailing Arm Analysis
Rear Solid Drive Axle
Independent Rear Drive
Front Solid Drive Axle
Independent Front-Drive Axle
Four-Wheel Drive
Anti-Dive Suspension Geometry
Example Problems
Roll Center Analysis
Solid Axle Roll Centers
Hotchkiss Suspension
Independent Suspension Roll Centers
Positive Swing Arm Geometry
Negative Swing Arm Geometry
MacPherson Strut
Swing Axle
Active Suspensions
Suspension Categories
Functions
Performance
References
Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics
Chapter 8 — THE STEERING SYSTEM
Introduction
Steering Geometry Error
Toe Change
Roll Steer
Front Wheel Geometry
Steering System Forces and Moments
Vertical Force
Lateral Force
Tractive Force
Aligning Torque
Rolling Resistance and Overturning
Moments
Steering System Models
Examples of Steering System Effects
Steering Ratio
Understeer
Braking Stability
Influence of Front-Wheel Drive
Driveline Torque About the Steer Axis
Influence of Tractive Force on Tire
Cornering Stiffness
Influence of Tractive Force on Aligning
Moment
Summary of FWD Understeer
Influences
Four-Wheel Steer
Low-Speed Turning
High-Speed Cornering
References
Chapter 9 — ROLLOVER
Quasi-Static Rollover of a Rigid Vehicle
Quasi-Static Rollover of a Suspended Vehicle
Transient Rollover
Simple Roll Models
Yaw-Roll Models
Tripping
Accident Experience
References
Chapter 10 – TIRES
Tire Construction
Terminology and Axis System
Mechanics of Force Generation
Tractive Properties
Inflation Pressure
Surface Friction
Speed
Relevance to Vehicle Performance
Cornering Properties
Slip Angle
Tire Type
Inflation Pressure
Size and Width
Other Factors
Relevance to Vehicle Performance
Camber Thrust
Tire Type
Inflation Pressure
Other Factors
Relevance to Vehicle Performance
Aligning Moment
Slip Angle
Path Curvature
Relevance to Vehicle Performance
Combined Braking and Corning
Friction Circle
Variables
Relevance to Vehicle Performance
Conicity and Ply Steer
Relevance to Vehicle Performance
Durability Forces
Tire Vibrations
References
Appendix A — SAE J670e - Vehicle Dynamics
Terminology
Appendix B — SAE J6a - Ride and Vibration Data
Manual
Index
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