Introduction to Ad hoc Networks - JHU CS

Introduction to Ad hoc Networks
CS-647: Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks
Drs. Baruch Awerbuch & Amitabh Mishra
Department of Computer Science
Johns Hopkins University
© Amitabh Mishra & Baruch Awerbuch 2008
1-1
Outline
❒ What is an ad hoc network?
❒ Challenges facing ad hoc networks
❒ History of Ad hoc Networks
❒ General Concepts
❒ Introduction to IEEE 802.11
❒ Physical Layers of 802.11
1-2
Reading
❒ C. K. Toh, Chapter 3, “Ad Hoc Wireless
Networks”, Prentice Hall, 2002
❒ D. P. Agrawal and Qing-An Zeng, Chapter
13, “Wireless & Mobile Systems”,
Thompson/Brooks Cole, 2003
❒ Refer one of the suggested textbooks
1-3
Types of Wireless Networks: infrastructure vs. adhoc networks
• Infrastructure
Networks
infrastructure
network
• Fixed, wired backbone
AP
AP
wired network
AP: Access Point
AP
• Mobile communicates
directly with access
points
• Suitable for locations
where access points can
be placed
ad-hoc network
• Cellular networks
1-4
Cellular Networks – UMTS (3G)
SS7
Network
GSM
Network
MAP
Circuit
Switched
Network
ISUP
UTRAN
Iu
UMTS Core
Network
Gi
Packet Data
Network
1-5
Why Ad Hoc Networks ?
❒ Ease of deployment
❒ Speed of deployment
❒ Decreased dependence on infrastructure
1-6
What is an Ad hoc Network?
❒ A network without any base
stations “infrastructure-less”
or multi-hop
❒ A collection of two or more
devices equipped with wireless
communications and networking
capability
❒ Supports anytime and
anywhere computing
❒ Two topologies:
❍
Heterogeneous (left)
• Differences in capabilities
❍
infrastructure
network
AP: Access Point
AP
AP
wired network
AP
ad-hoc network
Homogeneous or fully
symmetric (Right)
• all nodes have identical
capabilities and
responsibilities
Homogeneous network
1-7
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks?
1-8
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks?
❒ Mobility causes route changes
1-9
What is an Ad hoc Network?
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
Self-organizing and adaptive –
Allows spontaneous formation
and deformation of mobile
networks
Each mobile host acts as a
router
Supports peer-to-peer
communications
Supports peer-to-remote
communications
Reduced administrative cost
Ease of deployment
infrastructure
network
AP
AP
wired network
AP: Access Point
AP
ad-hoc network
1-10
Ad Hoc Networks – Operating
Principle
B
A
C
D
E
Example of an Ad Hoc Network
❒ Fig. depicts a peer-to-peer multihop ad hoc network
❒ Mobile node A communicates directly with B (single hop)
when a channel is available
❒ If Channel is not available, then multi-hop communication is
necessary e.g. A->D->B
❒ For multi-hop communication to work, the intermediate
nodes should route the packet i.e. they should act as a
router
❒ Example: For communication between A-C, B, or D & E,
should act as routers
1-11
Bringing up an Ad hoc Network
B
A
1.
2.
3.
C
D
E
Ad hoc network begins with at least two nodes broadcasting
their presence (beaconing) with their respective address
information
They may also include their location info if GPS equipped
Beaconing messages are control messages. If node A is able
to establish a direct communication with node B verified by
appropriate control messages between them, they both
update their routing tables
1-12
Bringing up an Ad hoc Network
B
A
C
D
E
4. Third node C joins the network with its beacon
signal. Two scenarios are possible:
(i) A & B both try to determine if single hop
communication is feasible
(ii) Only one of the nodes e.g. B tries to
determine if single hop communication is feasible
and establishes a connection
1-13
Bringing up an Ad hoc Network
B
A
C
D
E
5.
The distinct topology updates consisting of both
address and the route updates are made in three
nodes immediately.
5.
In first scenario, all routes are direct i.e. A->B,
B->C, and A->C (Lets assume bi-directional links)
1-14
Bringing up an Ad hoc Network
In the second
scenario, the routes
are updated
1. First between B & C,
2. then between B & A,
3. Then between B & C
again confirming that
A and C both can
reach each other via
B
❒
A
B
C
[topology
update]
[topology
update]
[topology
update]
[topology
update]
A
B
C
1-15
Topology Update Due to a Link
Failure
B
A
C
D
E
❒ Mobility of nodes may cause link breakage requiring route
❒
❒
❒
❒
updates
Assume link between B & C breaks because of some reason
Nodes A & C are still reachable via D and E
So old route between A &C was A->B->C is to be replaced by
A->D->E->C
All five nodes are required to incorporate this change in
their routing table
❍
❍
❍
This change will happen first in nodes B & C
Then A & E
Then D
1-16
Outline
❒ What is an ad hoc network?
❒ Challenges facing ad hoc networks
❒ History of Ad hoc Networks
❒ General Concepts
❒ Introduction to IEEE 802.11
❒ Physical Layers of 802.11
1-17
Traffic Characteristics
❒ Traffic characteristics may differ in
different ad hoc networks
bit rate
❍ timeliness constraints
❍ reliability requirements
❍ unicast / multicast / geocast
❍ host-based addressing / content-based
addressing / capability-based addressing
❍
❒ May co-exist (and co-operate) with an
infrastructure-based network
1-18
Traffic Profiles
❒ Three distinct types of
traffic patterns observed
in ad hoc networks
❒ Peer-to-peer between two
entities (Fig. a) – Bursty
❒ Two or more devices in a
group communication while
moving as a group
(correlated traffic) ->
remote to remote
communication
❒ Hybrid non-coherent
communication among nodes
-> uncorrelated traffic
1-19
Challenges in Ad hoc Mobile Networks (1)
❒ Host is no longer an end system - can also
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
be an acting intermediate system
Changing the network topology over time
Potentially frequent network partitions
Every node can be mobile
Limited power capacity
Limited wireless bandwidth
Presence of varying channel quality
1-20
Challenges in Ad hoc Mobile Networks (2)
❒ No centralized entity – distributed
❒ How to support routing?
❒ How to support channel access?
❒ How to deal with mobility?
❒ How to conserve power?
❒ How to use bandwidth efficiently?
1-21
Problems Facing Routing in Ad hoc
Networks
❒ Routers are now moving
❒ Link changes are happening quite often
❍ Packet losses due to transmission errors
❒ Event updates are sent often – a lot of
control traffic
❒ Routing table may not be able to, converge
❒ Routing loop may exist
❒ Current wired routing uses shortest path
metric
1-22
Problems facing channel access in Ad
hoc Networks
❒ Distributed channel access, i.e. no fixed
base station concept
❒ Very hard to avoid packet collisions
❒ Very hard to support QoS
❒ Early work on packet radio is based on
CSMA
1-23
Problems of Mobility in Ad hoc
❒ Mobility affects signal transmission ->
Affects communication
❒ Mobility affects channel access
❒ Mobility affects routing
Mobility-induced route changes
❍ Mobility-induced packet losses
❍
❒ Mobility affects multicasting
❒ Mobility affects applications
1-24
Mobility in Ad hoc Networks
❒
Mobility patterns may be different
❍
❍
❍
❍
❍
❒
people sitting at an airport lounge
New York taxi cabs
kids playing
military movements
personal area network
Mobility characteristics
❍
❍
speed
predictability
• direction of movement
• pattern of movement
❍
uniformity (or lack thereof) of mobility characteristics
among different nodes
1-25
Problems of Power in Ad hoc
❒ Ad hoc devices come in many different
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
forms
Most of them battery powered
Battery technology is not progressing as
fast as memory or CPU technologies
Wireless transmission, reception,
retransmission, beaconing, consume power!
Quest for power-efficient protocols
Quest for better power management
techniques
1-26
Research on Mobile Ad Hoc
Networks
❒
❒
❒
❒
Variations in capabilities & responsibilities
Variations in traffic characteristics, mobility
models, etc.
Performance criteria (e.g., optimize throughput,
reduce energy consumption)
Increased research funding -> Significant
research activity
1-27
Outline
❒ What is an ad hoc network?
❒ Ad hoc Network Applications
❒ Challenges facing ad hoc networks
❒ History of Ad hoc Networks
❒ General Concepts
❒ Introduction to IEEE 802.11
❒ Physical Layers of 802.11
1-28
Packet Radio – First Ad hoc
Network
❒ Packet switching was demonstrated by the
ARPANet in the 1960
❍
Key Advantage - Dynamic sharing of bandwidth
among multiple users
❒ DARPA initiated a packet radio network
(PRNet) research in 1972 recognizing
packet switching
❒ PRNet was to provide an efficient means of
sharing broadcast radio channel among
many radios
1-29
Architecture of PRNETs
The network architecture of PRNETs, which comprises mobile
devices/terminals, packet radios, and repeaters. The static station is
optional.
1-30
Early Packet Radio Networks Characteristics
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
Presence of mobile
repeaters
Mobile terminals
Static station for
routing
Technology ahead of
time
Not entirely
infrastructureless
1-31
PRNet
❒ Mobile repeater relays packet
❒
❒
❒
❒
from one repeater to other until
the packet makes it to destination
Bellman Ford (Distance-Vector)
type of routing algorithm running
in a static station
Static station has complete
topology
Routing table broadcasted to each
terminal
Shortest delay path for every
destination in the network
available to every terminal
1-32
PRNet
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
Periodic update for route
changes
ACK based flow control and
recovery from errors
CSMA based MAC
Low mobility
Low throughput (2 kbps per
subscriber)
1-33
The interface of a data terminal to
a packet radio
❒ The user computer interfaced to radio via terminal network
controller (TNC)
❒ LSI based therefore bulky architecture
❒ TNC and Radio constitute packet radio that handles layer 1
to layer 3 functionalities
❒ Now a laptop integrates packet radio within itself due to
VLSI
1-34
Outline
❒ What is an ad hoc network?
❒ Ad hoc Network Applications
❒ Challenges facing ad hoc networks
❒ History of Ad hoc Networks
❒ General Concepts
❒ Introduction to IEEE 802.11
❒ Physical Layers of 802.11
1-35
General Concepts (1) – Duplexing
Choices
❒
The duplexing mechanism refers to how the data
transmission and the reception channels are
multiplexed:
❍
❍
Can be multiplexed in different time slots
Can be multiplexed in different frequency bands
Time Division Duplex (TDD) refers to multiplexing
of transmission and reception in different time
periods in the same frequency band
❒ Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) refers to using
different frequency bands for uplink and downlink
transmissions
❒ FDD – Its possible to send and receive data
simultaneously
❒ TDD – Its not possible to send and receive data
simultaneously
❒
1-36
General Concepts (3) – Network
Architecture
❒ Distributed Wireless Networks
❍ Ad hoc networks fall in this category
❍ Wireless nodes communicating with each other
without any fixed infrastructure
❍ Terminals have an RF or infrared interface
❍ All data transmission and reception in the same
frequency band (there is no special node to do
the frequency translation)
❍ All ad hoc networks operate in TDD mode
❍ No centralized control for managing the
network e.g. node failures etc.
1-37
General Concepts (4) – Network
Architecture
❒ Centralized Wireless Networks
❍ Cellular networks fall in this category
❍ Also called last-hop networks
❍ Wireless nodes communicating with each other
using fixed infrastructure (Base Station)
❍ Base station acts as an interface to the wireline networks
❍ Downlink transmission is broadcast – all nodes in
the BS coverage can hear the transmission
1-38
General Concepts (5) – Network
Architecture
❒ Centralized Wireless Networks
❍ Uplink transmission is shared among nodes so
its multiple access
❍ Can operate in both the TDD or FDD mode
❍ Centralized control for managing the network
❍ BS provides flexibility in MAC design
(admission control, scheduling, QoS provisioning
etc.)
1-39
General Concepts (6) – Slotted
Systems
❒ A wireless channel is said to be slotted if
transmission attempts can take place at
discrete instants in time
❒ A slot is the basic time unit – large enough
to carry the smallest packet with overhead
(header + guard band)
❒ A slotted system requires network wide
synchronization – Base station facilitates it
by acting as a time reference
❒ Synchronization is difficult in Ad hoc
Networks
1-40
Outline
❒ What is an ad hoc network?
❒ Ad hoc Network Applications
❒ Challenges facing ad hoc networks
❒ History of Ad hoc Networks
❒ General Concepts
❒ Introduction to IEEE 802.11
❒ Physical Layers of 802.11
1-41
IEEE 802.11 - Introduction
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
❒
Well known and adopted standard for wireless
LANs
Operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHZ ISM
(Industrial & Scientific & Medical) Band
802.11 MAC works with different physical layers
(infra red as well as spread spectrum)
Compatible with other 802.x standards, e.g. 802.3
(Ethernet), 802.5 (Token ring)
Data rates 1 Mbps (mandatory), 2 Mbps (optional)
Supports real time as well as non-real time
applications
Has features for power management to save
battery
1-42
802.11 - Architecture of an infrastructure
❒ Station (STA): terminal with
network
access mechanisms to the wireless
medium and radio contact to the
802.x LAN access point
802.11 LAN
STA1
BSS1
Portal
Access
Point
Distribution System
Access
Point
ESS
❒ Access Point
❍ station integrated into the
wireless LAN and the
distribution system
❒ Portal:
bridge to other
(wired) networks
❒ Distribution System
BSS2
STA2
❒ Basic Service Set (BSS)
❍ group of stations using the
same radio frequency
802.11 LAN
STA3
❍
interconnection network to
form one logical network (EES:
Extended Service Set) based
1-43
on several BSS
IEEE standard 802.11
fixed terminal
mobile terminal
server
infrastructure network
access point
application
application
TCP
TCP
IP
IP
LLC
LLC
LLC
802.11 MAC
802.11 MAC
802.3 MAC
802.3 MAC
802.11 PHY
802.11 PHY
802.3 PHY
802.3 PHY
1-44
802.11 - Layers and functions
❒
MAC
❍
❒
❒
Convergence Protocol
access mechanisms,
fragmentation,
encryption
❍
MAC Management
❍
PLCP Physical Layer
❒
PMD Physical Medium
Dependent
synchronization,
roaming, MIB, power
management
❍
❒
PLCP
PMD
MAC Management
PHY Management
Station Management
DLC
PHY
MAC
❒
modulation, coding
PHY Management
❍
LLC
clear channel
assessment signal
(carrier sense)
channel selection, MIB
Station Management
❍
coordination of all
management functions
1-45
802.11 Physical Layers
Upper Layers
Logical Link Control
MAC Sublayer
802.11
Infrared
802.11
FHSS
802.11
DSSS
802.11a
OFDM
802.11b 802.11g
HR-DSSS OFDM
1-46
802.11 Physical Layer
❒ Physical layer corresponds to OSI stack
well
❒ Five different physical layers are proposed
❒ Data link layer split in two or more
sublayers e.g. MAC and Logical link control
sublayers
MAC allocates the channel
❍ LLC hides differences between different
physical layers to network layer
❍
1-47
802.11 Physical Layer - History
❒
In 1997, only three physical layer technologies
1.
2.
3.
‰
In 1999, two new techniques were introduced to
support higher data rates
‰
‰
‰
Infrared - Uses diffused light (not line of sight). Two
speeds: 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) – Uses
part of 2.4 GHz ISM band. Speed 1 – 2 Mbps
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) - Uses part
of 2.4 GHz ISM band. Speed 1 – 2 Mbps
OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing).
Speed 54 Mbps
HR – DSSS (High Rate Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum) – 11 Mbps
In 2001, a second OFDM modulation in a
different frequency band from the first one
1-48
IEEE 802.11a
❒ OFDM Based
❒ Can deliver up to 54 Mbps in the wider 5
❒
❒
❒
❒
GHz ISM band
52 Frequency bands (48 for data, 4 for
synchronization)
A form of spread spectrum yet different
from CDMA and FHSS
OFDM is compatible with the HiperLAN/2
Good spectrum efficiency bits/Hz, and
good immunity to multi-path fading
1-49
IEEE 802.11b
❒ HR-DSSS Based spread spectrum
technique
❒ Achieves 11 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band
(Data rates are 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps)
❒ Its not a follow up to 802.11a. It was
approved earlier than 802.11a and came to
market first
❒ Its slower than 802.11a but Its range is 7
times greater than 802.11 a
1-50
IEEE 802.11g
❒ Enhanced version of 802.11a
❒ Approved in Nov. 2001
❒ OFDM based but operates in 2.4 GHz band
❒ In theory can operate at 54 Mbps but lot
slower in practice
❒ 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g are called
high speed LANs (Broadband Wireless
LANs)
1-51
FHSS PHY Packet Format
❒
Synchronization
❍
❒
SFD (Start Frame Delimiter)
❍
❒
length of payload incl. 32 bit CRC of payload, PLW < 4096
PSF (PLCP Signaling Field)
❍
❒
0000110010111101 start pattern
PLW (PLCP_PDU Length Word)
❍
❒
synch with 010101... pattern
data of payload (1 or 2 Mbit/s)
HEC (Header Error Check)
❍
CRC with x16+x12+x5+1
80
synchronization
16
12
4
16
variable
SFD
PLW
PSF
HEC
payload
PLCP preamble
bits
PLCP header
1-52
DSSS PHY packet format
❒ Synchronization
❍
synch., gain setting, energy detection, frequency offset
compensation
❒ SFD (Start Frame Delimiter)
❍
1111001110100000
❒ Signal
❍
data rate of the payload (0A: 1 Mbit/s DBPSK; 14: 2 Mbit/s DQPSK)
❒ Service
❍
Length
future use, 00: 802.11 compliant
‰ length of the payload
❒ HEC (Header Error Check)
❍
protection of signal, service and length, x16+x12+x5+1
128
synchronization
16
SFD
PLCP preamble
8
8
16
16
signal service length HEC
variable
bits
payload
PLCP header
1-53