Heads Up! for Safety

Heads Up! for Safety
Ministry of Education
HEADS UP! for Safety
Table of Contents
List of Resource Materials ......................................................................................................................... ii
Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................................iii
Preface........................................................................................................................................................ 1
Introduction................................................................................................................................................ 2
Implementing Safety in a Technology Education Program ....................................................................... 3
Suggested Strategies ..................................................................................................................... 5
Shop Responsibilities.................................................................................................................... 9
Assessment Tools........................................................................................................................ 10
Assessing the Risks.................................................................................................................................. 11
Liability.................................................................................................................................................... 13
Case Studies ............................................................................................................................................. 16
Instructional Materials ............................................................................................................................. 20
Additional Resources ............................................................................................................................. 109
WCB Resources ........................................................................................................................ 109
Disclaimer
Ministry of Education (MEd) and the Workers’ Compensation Board of BC (WCB) developed this
instructional guide and materials. The aim is to assist in the prevention and reduction of injury and
disease in technical education shops in BC secondary schools. However, MEd and WCB cannot and do
not warrant the accuracy or the completeness of this instructional guide and materials, and as a result,
they will not be liable to any person or organization for any loss or damage of any nature, whether
arising out of negligence or otherwise, which may be occasioned as a result of the use of this
instructional guide and materials.
June 2002
i
List of Resource Materials
Workshop Safety...................................................................................................................................... 40
Tools and Materials Safety ...................................................................................................................... 42
WHMIS Safety......................................................................................................................................... 44
Combustibles and Toxic Substances Safety............................................................................................. 46
Power Tools Safety .................................................................................................................................. 48
Portable Power Tools Safety.................................................................................................................... 50
Electrical Safety ....................................................................................................................................... 52
Band Saw Safety ...................................................................................................................................... 54
Electric Hand Drill Safety........................................................................................................................ 56
Jointer Safety ........................................................................................................................................... 58
Planer Safety ............................................................................................................................................ 60
Portable Circular Saw Safety ................................................................................................................... 62
Radial Arm Saw Safety............................................................................................................................ 64
Router Safety ........................................................................................................................................... 66
Table Saw Safety ..................................................................................................................................... 68
Wood Lathe Safety................................................................................................................................... 70
Arc Welding Safety.................................................................................................................................. 72
Bench Grinder Safety............................................................................................................................... 74
Buffer/Wire Wheel Safety ....................................................................................................................... 76
Drill Press Safety ..................................................................................................................................... 78
Foundry Safety......................................................................................................................................... 80
Metal Cut Off Saws Safety ...................................................................................................................... 82
Metal Lathe Safety................................................................................................................................... 84
Oxy-Acetylene Safety .............................................................................................................................. 86
Right Angle Grinder Safety ..................................................................................................................... 88
Automotive Shop Safety .......................................................................................................................... 90
Safety Around Vehicles ........................................................................................................................... 92
Safety Around Engines ............................................................................................................................ 94
Battery Handling Safety........................................................................................................................... 96
Class Safety Instruction Record............................................................................................................... 97
Machine Operator Cards .......................................................................................................................... 99
Student Incident Report ......................................................................................................................... 100
Shop Safety Inspection Checklist .......................................................................................................... 101
Personal Safety Assessment................................................................................................................... 105
Class Safety Assessment........................................................................................................................ 106
Band Saw Crossword Puzzle ................................................................................................................. 107
Table Saw Crossword Puzzle................................................................................................................. 108
ii
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Acknowledgements
HEADS UP! for Safety is a safety manual for technology educators in BC. It was prepared with the
assistance of Workers’ Compensation Board, Risk Management Branch of the Ministry of Finance, and
Curriculum Branch of the Ministry of Education. The goal of the project (as envisioned by the BC
Technology Education Association) was to create a standard guide for occupational health and safety in
technology education and trades training facilities in BC. Technical expertise was provided by:
Steve Anderson
School District #8
Phil Broadhead
School District #35
Ron Currie
College of the Rockies
June 2002
iii
HEADS UP! for Safety
Preface
In 2001 the Schools Protection Program and the Workers’ Compensation Board identified a need to
provide an acceptable standard of safety throughout technology education classes in BC.
For the Schools Protection Program, this recognition came as a result of a report on the number of
accidents in public schools throughout the province. Even though the majority of accidents occurred on
the playground or in the gym, the accidents which took place in shop classes were more likely to result
in serious injuries and litigation.
Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB)
studies reveal that young workers between
the ages of 15 and 24 are at the highest risk
for injury. This is attributed to
overconfidence, lack of training and
experience, a reluctance to appear ‘stupid’ or
scared, lack of maturity to make sound
judgements about safety, and a sense of
invincibility. Workers’ Compensation
Board statistics show that, in BC, on
average:
•
44 young workers are injured every
working day;
•
5 young workers are permanently
disabled each week as a result of
accidents at work; and
•
In 2000, 1 in 23 young workers were
injured on the job.
Based on the analysis of their reports, the
Schools Protection Program and the
Workers’ Compensation Board sought the
cooperation of the BC Ministry of Education
and the BC Technology Education
Association in the development of this safety handbook.
June 2002
1
Introduction
Educators have a responsibility, to both students and their parents, to provide a safe learning
environment in which the risk of personal injury is low. For technology educators, however, this
responsibility is compounded by the fact that students generally have little or no experience working
in hazardous environments where the knowledge of risks and the need for safe work practises are
crucial.
This handbook was designed to provide you, the instructor, with assistance in your efforts to teach
specific skills and best practises within the context of a broader shop safety program. In support of
the safety-related learning outcomes prescribed by the Technology Education Integrated Resource
Package, this handbook outlines best practises and minimum standards required in shop classes
throughout BC in an effort to keep students safe and to provide them with an awareness of the
importance of safety in the workplace.
The title “HEADS UP! for Safety” was designed to attract the attention of people who deal with
their own and other’s safety—people who are in a position to reduce the number of accidents by
following safe work practises. It symbolizes a need for awareness and caution about the
environment they are in, and for the well-being of themselves and others.
The words “Heads Up” are used throughout the English-speaking world to draw people’s attention to
something that is happening around them—someone passing close by, an object moving within close
range, a signal of danger ahead, etc. Whenever and wherever the words are used, it is generally in
relation to safety.
For this shop safety handbook, the words “HEADS UP!” have been adopted as an acronym to
represent the following:
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Students are, or soon will be, part of the workforce. Technology education classes provide a perfect
opportunity to teach them about the importance of safety in the work place while providing them
with skills they need to get ahead.
2
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Implementing Safety in a Technology Education Program
Educating students about shop safety can be a challenge—how do you provide them with enough
information to ensure their safety without overwhelming them or losing their interest? And what do
you do about those students who are inclined to disregard safety instructions with a wave of bravado
and misplaced confidence? Unfortunately, we can’t solve the problems in your shop area, but we
can offer you some suggestions on how to build safety into your current and future programs.
We suggest that a technology education safety program be organized into manageable units that
focus on the important safety points and repeat the crucial ones. Following is an outline of the
process we recommend for integrating safety into your shop program:
1. Provide an introductory lesson about safety in shop settings for all students entering a
technology education program. Alert students to the health and safety issues that arise, the
roles and responsibilities of everyone involved, as well as appropriate attitudes in the work
place.
2. Supply basic safety instruction on the general use of hand tools and the handling of industrial
materials. This lesson could be given to students before they move from the design phase of
a project to the implementation stage.
3. Give a general overview on the safe use of portable power tools for all students enrolled in
shop programs.
4. Discuss generic safety considerations and procedures that apply to the use of all stationary
power tools and equipment. This lesson could be given to students as they approach the
phase of their project work that requires the use of power tools.
5. Provide instruction and testing on the safe use of each power tool before qualifying students
to use the tool in the school shop.
When giving a lesson on a particular tool, describe (simply and briefly) and demonstrate the tool and
how it operates. Each lesson should cover the following areas:
•
purpose of the tool;
•
operation of the tool;
•
potential hazards of the tool; and
•
controlling the hazards.
June 2002
3
In teaching about potential hazards, students should be encouraged to think about the action/reaction
that takes place between the tool and the material—does the action of the tool threaten kickback?
eject debris? generate heat? If students learn to ask and answer these kinds of questions for
themselves, they will have acquired a valuable skill in regards to their own and others’ safety—the
ability to predict and control hazards.
When a teacher makes safety an integral part of the instructional program, it is learned in much the
same manner as skills and operations. However, safety can also be ‘caught’ as readily as ‘taught,’
implying that proper safety attitudes and practices are contagious and their development strongly
influenced by the teacher’s attitude and conduct in the shop. Safety does not just happen, but is the
result of a well-planned program administered and modeled by the technology education teacher.
Table Saw Accident
Student using a table saw had three fingers severed when the
dado blade caught on the wood and the wood slipped away
from the blade exposing the hand to the saw. Student was not
using a push stick and a proper guard was not in place. Safety
tip: Students need to be instructed to use a push stick or
feather stick and proper guards need to be installed and used.
4
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Suggested Strategies
Teaching and implementing safety in a technology education program does not have to be dry or
boring. You want your students to be attentive to what you are teaching them, for it may mean their
life and/or the lives of those around them, including yours!
From an instructional perspective, there are two main approaches to teaching safety in the shop
area—separated and integrated. You will likely include elements of both styles in your safety
program.
•
The separated approach is where you design and teach individual units on specific safety
topics such as lab conduct, general use of hand and power tools, proper clothing, eye safety,
hearing protection, use of fire extinguishers, reporting of unsafe conditions and accidents,
etc.
•
The integrated approach is where you design and teach units on skill development and/or
machine operation that include safe use and practise. This approach allows you to integrate
safety as ‘part and parcel’ of the skill being taught.
Following are some recommended strategies for implementing safety training into your existing shop
programs.
Demonstration
“Actions speak louder than words” is a phrase that is well suited to classroom instruction about
safety, particularly for shop students who chose your class because they want to “do” something
rather than listen to another lecture. A variety of means can be used to demonstrate safety:
•
Demonstrate the set-up and operation of each machine.
•
Set up the shop to replicate a hazardous work area (e.g. spills on the floor, locker doors left
open, power tools left turned on, extension cords where they can trip people, safety guards
detached from the equipment, improper storage of hazardous materials, empty fire
extinguishers, emergency exit blocked). Then ask the students to carefully conduct a health
and safety inspection of the shop, and have them explain what is wrong and why. When the
exercise is over, they can all work together to make the shop a safe place to work again.
•
Demonstrate the danger of a small, fast moving object. Have the students huddle in a tight
group directly in front of you. Using a medicine ball and a bat, hit the ball directly at them.
Then switch to a hardball—but don’t hit it! Your students should get the point.
•
Demonstrate the average person’s reaction time in relation to the speed of a blade or cutter.
•
Take your students out into the shop area and demonstrate mock accidents to show them
what can go wrong if they neglect to follow the safety rules in the shop.
•
Keep evidence of accidents and demonstrate or explain to students what went wrong at the
time the accident occurred and the injuries suffered.
June 2002
5
Student Participation
People generally remember more of what they learn if they are actively involved during the learning
process. So, whenever possible, offer students an activity where they can actually do something to
demonstrate safe work practises. The most obvious, of course, is to ask them to perform a new task
modeling the safe work practises you have taught them. Other methods include:
•
Ask students to research a certain
aspect of safety in the shop area.
Then ask them to present a mock
demonstration of the correct and
incorrect ways to perform the task and
explain the consequences.
•
For those who have a talent for art,
you might suggest they research and
design a poster about safety that will
appeal to their age group.
•
Following a simulated work accident,
have students fill out an accident
report and discuss as a group.
•
Ask students to share with the class
their own experiences of accidents
that occurred because safety was not
practised.
The issue of safety in the workplace has necessitated the development of a number of initiatives to
encourage people to think about and practise safe work habits on the job. Some of these same
initiatives could be implemented into your shop program:
6
•
Pledges – have students sign a pledge form or a statement of commitment stating that they
are familiar with the safety practises and procedures required in the shop.
•
Committee – have students form a safety committee to monitor the activities in the shop.
•
Competitions – implement inter-class competitions for accident-free days.
•
Bonus Marks/Awards – give bonus marks/awards to students who maintain good safety
records.
•
Operator’s Card – provide each student with a card identifying which machines they can
work on independently based on having met the required safety standards.
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Community Resources
Take advantage of the resources in your community to demonstrate to students that safety is a very
important part of working in the ‘real’ world.
•
Arrange for an industrial tour to promote the importance of a good safety program in the
workplace.
•
Invite accident victims to speak directly with students.
•
Invite people from the community to speak to your class about the benefits of working safely
(industrial safety supervisor, WCB safety officer, rehabilitation counselor, physiotherapist,
paramedic, shop manager, etc.).
June 2002
7
Classroom Resources
•
bulletin boards
•
charts, posters
•
safety rules
•
library
•
WCB resources
Testing for Comprehension
As an instructor, you must test to make certain that your students have learned the importance of safety
in the shop area, and that they are willing and able to practise the safe work habits that you have taught
them. Some methods of evaluating their knowledge include:
•
Performance tests where each student must pass a written exam identifying how to perform
certain skills or operate specific equipment safely.
•
Demonstration tests where each student must demonstrate the ability to perform the skill or
operate the equipment safely before you give them permission to work independently in that
area.
Jointer Accident
Student A showed Student B how to use a table-mounted
jointer. Student B engaged the equipment’s start
mechanism causing severe injuries to the hand of Student A
resulting in partial amputation to his fingers. Safety tip:
Students need to be properly instructed and tested on all
equipment.
8
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Shop Responsibilities
Safety in the shop is everyone’s business. Following is a list of responsibilities as adapted from the
Workers’ Compensation Board in their WorkSafe Online document entitled, “Safety on the job is everyone’s
business.” (website: http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/Health_and_Safety_Information/by_industry/
assets/pdf/safetyonthejob.pdf)
Employer (School District)
•
provide a safe environment
•
take action immediately when the worker or supervisor tells you about a potentially hazardous
situation
•
initiate an immediate investigation into accidents
•
report serious staff accidents to WCB; report student accidents to the school district office and the
Schools Protection Program (see Schools Protection Program Manual)
•
provide adequate First Aid facilities and services
•
provide personal protective equipment where required
Supervisor (Shop Teacher)
•
instruct new students in safe work procedures
•
train students for all tasks assigned to them and check their progress
•
ensure that only authorized, adequately trained students operate tools and equipment
•
enforce safety regulations
•
correct unsafe acts and conditions
•
identify students with problems such as drugs or alcohol that could affect their safety and the
safety of others; follow up with interviews and referrals where necessary
•
formulate safety rules and inspect for hazards in your own area
•
keep accurate safety and training records
•
complete a Schools Protection Program Incident Report each time an accident occurs
Employee (Student)
•
know and follow safety and health procedures affecting your work
•
if you don’t know, ask for training before you begin work
•
work safely and encourage your classmates to do the same
•
correct or immediately report any unsafe conditions to your teacher
•
take the initiative—make suggestions for improved safety conditions
Note: Students are not employees and, therefore, if injured, are not entitled to Workers’
Compensation Benefits.
June 2002
9
Assessment Tools
Record Keeping
In order to qualify students to work with minimal supervision on shop equipment, you will need to keep
accurate records to verify that they have met the necessary criteria:
•
Did they attend the demonstrations on how to use the equipment?
•
Did they complete and pass the safety test?
•
Did they attend/pass a make-up if they missed the demonstration or test?
The importance of maintaining this information cannot be stressed enough. Not only will it give you
some ‘peace of mind’ knowing who qualifies to use the equipment, but it will provide you with the
required information should an issue of liability arise.
In BC, a student or their family has the right to make a claim for an injury that occurred during a school
activity up until the student reaches the age of 21. All class records must be kept for seven years; in the
case of an accident, they must be kept for ten years. As you will see in the sample case studies provided
in this handbook, in a court of law, the shop teacher may be expected to identify the student’s skill level
and training up to the point when the accident occurred. Without accurate class records, your chances
of remembering this information is poor.
Circular Saw Accident
A student was using a circular saw and contacted the saw blade
with his right hand. There was no safety guard over the blade
and significant injuries to the student’s thumb and fingers
resulted in a permanent disability. If a safety guard had been in
place it would have been impossible for the accident to have
occurred the way it did. Safety tip: Equipment without safety
guards should be withdrawn from use until proper safety guards
are installed.
10
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Assessing the Risks
Shop teachers have a duty to conduct risk assessments to ensure protection against hazards in the shops.
Conducting risk assessments is fundamental to preventing and reducing injuries and diseases.
What Does a Risk Assessment Involve?
Assessing the risks involves identifying the hazards that exist and assessing the impact of the identified
hazards on those that work in the area. A hazard is a thing or condition that may expose a person to a
risk of injury or occupational disease. Assessing the risk means determining the likelihood that the
hazard may lead to injury and/or disease. In other words, determine if the risk is low, medium or high.
For example, a tripping hazard is present when an extension cord is placed across an area in the shop.
The risk, however, may be low or high dependent on a number of factors. The risk may be low if no
one ever walks in that area. The risk may be high if any one of the following is present: the area is used
frequently by students and/or teachers, the lighting in the area is poor, and/or there are no warning signs
or devices to indicate there is a hazard.
Controlling the Risks
Once hazards are identified and risks are assessed, the risks need to be controlled. To ensure protection
against a hazard, a hierarchy of risk control planning is used within the health and safety professional
community:
1. Reduce the risk
•
Can the task be avoided?
•
Can the hazardous part of the task be removed?
•
Can it be done in such a way that students are not exposed to the hazard?
2. Substitute with something else to produce a less hazardous situation
•
Can a different machine or tool be used?
•
Can less hazardous materials or chemicals be substituted?
•
Can different work practices be developed to reduce exposure to the hazard?
3. Implement an engineering control
June 2002
•
Can the layout arrangements, equipment, materials, or other aspects of the physical work
environment be re-designed?
•
Can the hazard be controlled at its source (e.g. local ventilation)?
•
Can the hazard be enclosed (e.g. noise control)?
•
Can a physical barrier be provided (e.g. guarding)?
11
4. Apply an administrative solution
•
Can tasks be organized, scheduled and coordinated differently (e.g. two students do the lift
instead of one)?
•
Can the shop be reorganized to provide distance between the hazard and the students?
•
Can tasks be scheduled to reduce the individual exposure to the hazard (e.g. providing
regular breaks, rotating work assignments)?
5. Provide personal protective equipment (PPE)
•
PPE should only be used when the other four options discussed above have been considered
and found to be impracticable.
•
Is PPE provided?
•
Are students trained in the proper use of PPE?
•
Are students following safe work procedures when using PPE?
To summarize, assessing and controlling risks
is a continuous and fluid process. The four
key elements are:
•
Identifying hazards;
•
Assessing the likely consequences of
the hazards;
•
Assessing exposure to the hazards;
and
•
Assessing probability of injury and/or
disease.
The goal is to prevent or reduce the risk of
injury and disease.
12
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Liability
The law places a very strict ‘duty of care’ upon School Districts and teachers with respect to students in
shop classes. School Districts are required to provide safe equipment and teachers must provide proper
instruction in the use of dangerous machinery. According to legal principles, the duty of care required
is determined by the following factors:
1. The probability of an accident happening;
2. The potential severity of such an accident; and
3. The costs of reducing risk.
Judges have determined that there is a high probability of risk if safety instructions are not given clearly
and carefully to students receiving instruction in the use of power tools and machinery. Consequently,
if an accident happens and a student is injured, the courts may judge relatively minor omissions in
instruction to be an act of negligence and find the teacher (and thus the School District, as employer)
responsible, or partially responsible, for the student’s injuries.
Source: Industrial Education – Safety is Everyone’s Responsibility, Risk Ed, Vol., Issue 3, May 1994
Vicarious Liability
Normally, it is the school board who will be held to be liable for the negligence of teachers,
administrators, or other employees. This liability arises under the doctrine of vicarious liability which
provides that an employer is liable for the torts committed by an employee while acting in the course of
employment. The phrase ‘in the course of employment’ generally encompasses those authorized acts of
an employee which are wrongful, and unauthorized ways of performing an authorized task. Therefore a
board will not only be liable if a teacher is negligent in carrying out an assigned task, but may also be
liable where the negligent acts occur during the course of unauthorized conduct. But see Beauporlant et
al. v. Board of Trustees of Separate School Section No. 1 of Appley (1995) 4 D.L.R. 558, where the
Court held that even though a school board is liable for the negligent acts of its teachers, such acts must
fall within the ‘scope of employment.’ The court concluded that a teacher who gave students half a
holiday for a field trip to a nearby town without obtaining consent from the school board, and who was
negligent in arranging the type of transportation, exceeded his authority and there was no basis for
assigning responsibility to the school board.
June 2002
13
Duty of Care
Historically, the courts have imposed a special duty of care on teachers and school districts commonly
referred to as the rule of the careful parent. It was modified by a decision of the Supreme Court in
Myers et al v. Peel County Board of Education. The court identified a number of factors which would
be considered to determine if the standard of care had been met in a particular case:
1. The number of students being supervised at any given time;
2. The nature of the exercise of activity in progress;
3. The age and degree of skill and training which students may have received in connection with
such activity;
4. The nature and condition of the equipment in use at the time;
5. The competency and capacity of the students involved; and
6. A host of other matters which may be widely varied but which, in a given case, may effect the
application of the prudent parent standard to the conduct of the school authority in the
circumstances.
Source: Jennifer Canas, Langley School District
Safety
Safety comes from man’s mastery of his environment and himself.
It is won by individual effort and group cooperation.
It can be achieved only by informed, alert,
skillful people who respect themselves
and have a regard for the welfare of others.
Author Unknown
14
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Teacher’s Duty of Care Checklist
If you can answer yes to the following questions, you should feel confident that you have met the duty of
care required by law:
‰ Do you know and understand your health and safety responsibilities?
‰ Do you have systems in place to identify and control hazards?
‰ Have you integrated health and safety into all aspects of your teaching?
‰ Do you make health and safety a part of a student’s overall mark?
‰ Have you committed appropriate resources to health and safety?
‰ Have you assigned health and safety responsibilities to the students?
‰ Have students been given sufficient instruction and training so they can successfully discharge their
health and safety responsibilities?
‰ Do you keep records of the instruction each student has received, especially in regards to health and
safety?
‰ Do you keep records of your program activities and improvements?
‰ Do your records show that you take disciplinary action when necessary?
‰ Do you review your safety instructions, procedures and policies at least once a year and make
improvements, as needed?
‰ Do you make adequate accommodations for students with special needs?
‰ Do you properly supervise each student to ensure they are carrying out their class activities as
required?
June 2002
15
Case Studies
A number of school accidents have resulted in litigation in the BC court system. The following case
studies have been provided to give you some insight into how the courts view the issue of liability, and
to reinforce the need for precautions to protect your students from injury and yourself from liability.
Case No. 1
Loss of Arm
Location
Metal Shop
Incident
A grade 10 student lost his lower arm while assisting the operator of a metal lathe.
Circumstances
Student A was operating a metal lathe in an after-school Stagecraft class. He was turning the
end of a long piece of round metal stock that protruded through the head stock. Student A
asked Student B to put on a pair of leather gloves and cradle the end of the stock as it turned to
minimize wobbling from the protruding end. Student B did as he was asked.
The stock grabbed Student B’s gloves and an unbuttoned sleeve of his jean jacket. Even
though the machine was shut off almost immediately, Student B’s arm was twisted from its
socket at the shoulder and broken in two places. It was held together only by sinews.
One of the two shop teachers present at the time was qualified in Industrial First Aid. He laid
the student on a bench and used pressure points to prevent Student B from bleeding to death.
An ambulance arrived shortly thereafter.
During extensive surgery the arm was reattached but efforts to restore circulation to the lower
arm were not successful. The arm had to be amputated at the elbow. Student B was
eventually fitted with a prosthesis.
Liability
16
After a thorough investigation, it was found that there was no negligence on the part of the
teachers. Although both were present in the shop, the procedure that resulted in the accident
happened without their prior knowledge or permission. It was found that adequate instruction
and supervision was in place.
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Case No. 2
Hand Injury
Location
Wood Shop
Incident
A student in a grade 9 shop class severely cut three fingers on her left hand while using an
electrically operated wood planer.
Circumstances
The student testified that the injury occurred when she experienced a problem while operating
the planer—it was clogging up with chips and sawdust as she was using it. During her first
attempt to solve the problem, she shut off the planer, lifted the rubber flap with her dominant left
hand, and scraped the chips and sawdust into the dust collector at the back of the table with
her right hand. However, the problem continued.
During her second attempt to solve the problem, she lifted the safety flap and scraped the chips
and sawdust towards the dust collector while the machine was running. Her left hand came
into direct contact with the planer’s cutting head. Three fingers were severely cut.
Before the accident, the student had received safety instruction in grades 8 and 9 on the use of
power tools and machinery. She was also instructed to never make any adjustments of any
kind while a machine was running, to keep her hands away from moving parts, and to ask for
help when she had a problem. The teacher, who had over 10 years of experience as a shop
teacher, emphasized the importance of safety and tested his students in this area. Only those
who achieved high marks were allowed to operate all the woodworking machinery. In regards
to the planer, the teacher could not remember any particular instructions on what to do if the
planer was clogged, as this was a very rare occurrence. His advice in the past was to bang on
the dust collector from the outside.
Liability
The student’s parents sued the teacher, claiming that he was negligent in failing to properly
instruct the student in the use of a planer, i.e., to clearly advise the student that it was highly
dangerous to attempt to clear chips and sawdust from the planer while it was still running. They
also alleged that the School District was negligent in that it did not provide a properly guarded
planer (a screwed-on metal guard vs. the existing rubber flap).
During the two years following the accident, the student underwent nine surgical procedures.
Although she made a good recovery, she will be permanently limited in performing manual
tasks that require dexterity in both hands. Consequently, her ability to earn income could be
negatively impacted.
After hearing the evidence, the court concluded that:
•
the teacher omitted to give adequate instruction on the dangers of lifting the flap and
manually unclogging the planer while it was operating. This omission amounted to
negligence.
•
the student, in failing to heed the instructions to turn off the machine before lifting the
flap and clearing the shavings, was also negligent.
•
the School District, in failing to install a metal guard over the opening of the cover, was
also negligent.
The court split financial responsibility of negligence three ways: teacher – 20%;
School District – 20%; and student – 60%. Because the School District was vicariously liable
for the negligence of the teacher, it paid 40% of the damages. The student did not receive
compensation for her share of the damages.
June 2002
17
Case No. 3
Hand Injury
Location
Wood Shop
Incident
A student was injured when the push stick he was using slipped off the end of the wood
causing his left hand to go over the front of the board and come in contact with the knives of the
jointer.
Circumstances
The student was familiar with the operation of the jointer, having received proper instruction in
its safe operation. There was no defect in the jointer, but the push stick was defective.
Liability
The court concluded that the student was 65% contributorily negligent because the student
should have examined the push stick before using it. The teacher was assessed 35% negligent
as proper precautions had not been taken to ensure that defective or damaged push sticks
were not available for student use.
Case No. 4
Leg Injury
Location
Wood Shop
Incident
While two students were standing talking in front of a revolving sanding wheel, one student
flicked a chisel blade up and down close to the sanding wheel. The chisel blade hit the
perimeter of the sanding wheel and became temporarily embedded in the wood. Centrifugal
force caused the chisel to spring downward. It penetrated the student’s right thigh, severing his
femoral artery.
Circumstances
The student’s parents sued the teacher and the School District for negligence. They suggested
that the teacher was not in the classroom at the time of the accident, and that the sanding
wheel was revolving at too high a speed.
During the proceedings, the court found that:
•
the teacher had warned the student, many times, to return to his bench after obtaining
a tool;
•
the sanding machine was not dangerous and did not require a guard;
•
a wood chisel is not needed while using a sanding machine;
•
the student had used the machine15 to 20 times without incident;
•
the student had been given sufficient warning as to the nature of the machines in the
shop;
•
the operation of the sander did not lead to the injury; and
•
the injury had been caused by the student holding the tool too close to the revolving
wheel.
The court found that the teacher had met the standard of care required of him. It also
dismissed the allegation that the sanding wheel was revolving at an excessive speed (840
rpm).
Liability
18
The court determined that the student was solely responsible for his injury. Case dismissed.
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Case No. 5
Hand Injury
Location
Wood Shop
Incident
An 18-year old deaf student suffered serious injury to his left hand when he touched the
unguarded blade of a circular power table saw that he was using.
Circumstances
The student was directed by the teacher to trim some chest drawers. The operation was not
normally done on chest drawers, however, and required the removal of the safety guard. The
teacher showed the student two cuts and watched him make one or two as well. The teacher
then moved about 15-25 feet away to work on another bench where he could keep his eye on
the student. After a short period of time, the student let his attention drift and his hand struck
the saw.
Liability
The judge held that performing the operation with an unguarded saw was dangerous and that
the duty of care required of the teacher was not met in these circumstances where the student
had special needs. The judge reasoned that a higher duty of care is owed to such students
because one cannot warn them quickly enough of what may be wrong. The responsibility of
negligence was split two ways: teacher – 60%, student – 40%.
On appeal, the Appellate Court overturned the trial judge’s decision. On further appeal, the
Supreme Court of Canada concluded that the Appeal Court’s decision was incorrect. It applied
a higher duty of care and supervision for deaf students who are subject to a greater risk of
injury than other students who could be warned quickly enough to avoid such an injury.
This case suggests that closer supervision may be necessary for special needs students who
are more vulnerable to risk of injury because the usual precautions may be ineffective.
Case No. 6
Hand Injury
Location
Wood Shop
Incident
A 17-year old student lost the tips of three fingers on a jointer.
Circumstances
The accident occurred while the student was taking Construction 11. At the beginning of the
course, the teacher had provided students with a 15-page set of safety instructions detailing the
rules for each machine. They were also given a textbook that included a description and
illustration of a jointer and safety tips on its use. Throughout the course, the importance of
safety was stressed. During demonstrations by the teacher of the various tools in the shop,
including the jointer, the student had been absent due to illness. However, this same student
passed all the tests administered during the course, including those on safety. There was also
evidence to suggest that the student had used the jointer in a previous woodworking course, as
well as about 15 times in the current course before the accident occurred.
Liability
The trial judge found that even though the student used the jointer in an improper fashion the
teacher was negligent because he failed to ensure that the student received the necessary
instructions required to operate the equipment safely through teacher demonstration.
The Court of Appeal agreed with the trial judge in finding the teacher negligent. There was
evidence to support the need for make-up instruction to students who were absent during
teacher demonstrations.
June 2002
19
Instructional Materials
Since resource information is hard to come by on the subject of safety in the shop environment, we have
put together a series of lesson plans, student information sheets and tests on shop-related subjects. We
have also added a few other documents that may be useful in the shop classroom such as a class safety
instruction record, safety pledge, and crossword puzzles.
Please feel free to use this material in your shop programs. The handouts and tests, in particular, will
help draw students’ attention to the potential hazards of working around dangerous equipment.
20
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Workshop Safety
Training on personal protective equipment, Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, and lockout
must be provided as the first order of business prior to operating tools, machinery or equipment. Also involve
students in routine shop/equipment inspections.
Topic
Notes
Student Information
Accidents
Make sure you have First Aid supplies on hand at
all times, conduct accident/ incident investigations
and keep records.
• immediately report all accidents or injuries so
that proper treatment can be given and the
dangers removed or dealt with
Behaviour
Providing for the safety of the students in your
care is your most important role. Expectations
about student behaviour should be clearly defined,
explained and enforced. Horseplay will not be
tolerated.
• workshops are hazardous environments; adopt
a calm, careful attitude at all times
Expectations about student attire should be clearly
defined, explained and enforced.
• tuck in loose clothing, tie back long hair,
remove jewelry
Clothing
• walk, don’t run; avoid pushing or bumping
• horseplay (e.g., throwing things) is not allowed
• wear sturdy shoes, appropriate clothing for
activity; wear protective gear when required
Make sure you have adequate emergency
equipment on hand at all times, and teach your
students what to do if an emergency occurs.
Practice emergency routines regularly. Ensure all
switch gear is marked as to the equipment it
belongs to. Post emergency procedures. Explain
the risk of contacting blood or other bodily fluids.
• know what to do in an emergency
Eye protection
Ensure eye protection is available and in good
condition. Students should wear eye protection at
all times when in the shop.
• wear eye protection when required, e.g., when
using power tools, or hammering metal, stone
or other hard materials
Housekeeping
Develop, implement and oversee an effective
‘clean up’ routine. Also provide adequate storage
for tools, materials, projects and waste. Students
will not keep the shop clean without your
insistence.
• clutter poses unnecessary slipping and tripping
hazards; keep the floor and work surfaces
clean and clear
Emergencies
• be familiar with emergency equipment
including fire extinguishers, power shut off
buttons, fire blankets, and eye wash stations
• tools, materials and projects should all be
stored safely and securely
• aisles and exits should be unobstructed at all
times; keep cupboard doors closed, unused
vises closed, etc.
Mental
condition
Do not assign students work if they will endanger
self or others
• most accidents occur to people who are tired,
rushed or under the influence of alcohol or
drugs, so avoid working in these states
Personal
responsibilities
Encourage students to take responsibility for
themselves and their classmates at all times.
• if you feel unsafe about a particular activity,
consult with your instructor before proceeding
Encourage students to regularly conduct safety
checks on themselves, their material and the tool.
Working
conditions
This is a good time to teach about ergonomics,
repetitive strain injuries, etc.
• if you see something dangerous, report it so it
can be fixed
• be aware of the risks your work may pose to
others, especially when using equipment like
arc welders, compressed air, and grinders
• make sure your work area is well lit
• ensure adequate ventilation
• set your work up so that you are in a
comfortable position and can avoid strains
June 2002
21
Tools and Materials Safety
Topic
Notes
Compressed
air
Refer to Occupational Health and Safety
Regulations (WCB) Book 1, Part 1, Section 42
(4.42 on p. 4-6)
Student Information
• compressed air should not be used to clean
clothing except in carefully controlled
circumstances (WCB regulation)
• compressed air should not be used for cleaning
off equipment if someone could be exposed to
the jet or to the material it expels (WCB
regulation)
• use vacuums to clean clothing and shop areas
Condition of
tools
Remove all dull, broken and maladjusted tools from
the workshop area until they have been repaired.
• only use tools that are in good working order
Material
handling
If students are lifting heavy objects, give a separate
lesson on proper lifting techniques.
• move heavy objects using proper lifting
techniques
• if a tool is dull, broken or out of adjustment, give
it to your instructor or ask for permission to fix it
• when moving heavy objects, be aware of others
in the room
• make sure materials are safely and securely
stored, if necessary, ask for help
Protect your
hands
Statistics identify that most injuries in school
workshops occur to students’ hands.
• keep your hands behind the blade on any
cutting tool
• test tools for sharpness on wood or paper, not
with your fingers
• to test for heat, place your hand near, but not
on, the object
• make sure the piece you are working on is
stable
Secure your
work
• secure the piece you are working on by putting
it in a vise or clamp on the workbench
• never hold stock with one hand while trying to
cut, chisel or drill it with the other hand
• do not carry sharp objects such as nails,
chisels, etc., in your pockets or mouth
Sharp objects
• carry them with the pointed end facing
downward
Use tools as
intended
22
Emphasize the importance of using tools properly
and setting a good example.
• using tools improperly can lead to injury of self
or damage to the tool, e.g., hammering with a
wrench, prying with a chisel, using files without
handles
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) Safety
Topic
Notes
Identification/
Classification
Explain how being informed about hazardous
material can save your life.
Student Information
• check with the teacher before using any
substance that may be harmful
• if in doubt ask
Labels and
Material
Safety Data
Sheets
(MSDS)
Information is given to us in three ways: labels,
MSDS, and training.
• you must familiarize yourself in how things can
harm you
Explain the types of labels and what information is
on each.
• always read the label and the MSDS, and follow
the safe handling procedures before you use
any product for the first time or cannot
remember how to use it correctly
Explain what MSDS are and what information is
found in them. Show the students where they are
kept and how to find the proper MSDS for each
product.
• always use the proper safety equipment and
procedures
Handling
• know where all the protective equipment is kept
(respirators, dust mask, gloves, face shields,
etc.)
Storage and
disposal
Have the class do an inventory of all controlled
products, either as individuals, pairs or in small
groups. On their inventory list, have them explain:
- where and how it is stored,
- whether or not it has an MSDS
- whether or not it is properly labeled
- how to dispose of it
• make sure you find all the controlled products in
the shop; now where you can get rid of them
safely and correctly
At the same time it is a good idea to have the class
write a report explaining emergency evacuation
procedures and map out the shop showing the fire
alarm pulls, fire extinguishers, eye was station
location and first aid station location.
June 2002
23
Combustibles and Toxic Substances Safety
Topic
Notes
Combustibles
and toxic
substances
Monitor the use of combustibles and toxic
substances and provide adequate storage. Explain
and follow procedures for safe handling, use,
storage, and disposal, including emergency and
spill cleanup procedures.
• note that many industrial supplies are
flammable, explosive or subject to spontaneous
combustion
Explain the Workplace Hazardous Materials
Information System (WHMIS) including safe use,
storage, handling, supplier labels, workplace
labels, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS),
disposal and emergency and spill clean up
procedures for products used in shops.
• follow procedures for safe handling, use,
storage, and disposal, including emergency
procedures and spill clean up
Label container if you transfer product from original
(e.g., when transferring product into another
container).
• be able to answer the following questions for
each product used:
1. What are the hazards of the product you
are using?
2. How do you protect yourself from the
hazards of the product?
3. What would you do if an emergency
occurred?
4. Where can you find out more information
about the product you are using?
Chemicals /
hazardous
substances
See WCB publication ‘WHMIS at Work’ for more
information.
Student Information
• store combustible supplies and waste in fire
safe containers
• label containers if you transfer product from
original
• know where to find Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS)
Acids and caustics can burn skin and eyes causing
permanent damage and corrode metals. Use
protective equipment: goggles, face shield if
needed, gloves, shop coat and apron. Emergency
eyewash and skin washing facilities are required.
• acids and caustics can burn skin and eyes
causing permanent damage; they can also
corrode metals
Monitor the use of flammables and combustibles
and provide adequate storage.
• note that many industrial supplies are
flammable, explosive or subject to spontaneous
combustion
Supply only the minimum quantity required for daily
use. Explain and follow procedures for safe
handling, use, storage and disposal, including
emergency and spill clean up procedures.
• store combustible supplies and waste in fire
safe, closed containers
Hazardous
waste
Ensure procedures are in place and explain
handling and disposing of hazardous waste (e.g.,
antifreeze, used oil)
• follow procedures for handling and disposing of
hazardous waste
Poisons
Poisons can be ingested, inhaled or absorbed
through skin, therefore it is important to wear
appropriate protective equipment.
• follow procedures for safe use
Corrosives
Flammables
and
combustibles
• wear goggles, gloves, and protective clothing
• keep flammables and combustibles away from
ignition sources
• label containers if you transfer product from
original
Avoid accidental poisoning by labelling containers
(e.g., when transferring product into another
container).
24
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Combustibles and Toxic Substances Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Substances
under
pressure
Protect substances under pressure from sparks,
flames, heat, physical damage, electrical contact,
and corrosion.
(e.g.,
compressed
gas cylinders)
Explain procedures for safe handling, use, storage
and emergency procedures.
Student Information
• cylinders can explode if dropped or heated
• follow procedures for safe use
• keep cylinders away from ignition sources
Ensure:
• pressure testing is current
• cylinder indicates type of gas
• cylinders are secured to prevent falling or rolling
and kept upright
• valves are kept closed when empty or not in
use
• flashback arresters and uniflow valves are used
• the valve cover is in position when not
connected for use or guarded
• regulators are regularly maintained (clean, no
broken glass, missing screws or grease)
• procedures for safe use are followed
Wood dust
June 2002
Some wood dusts cause allergies, fore example:
oak, mahogany, Western red cedar, and California
redwood. Avoid using these woods.
• some wood dusts cause allergies (e.g., oak,
mahogany, Western red cedar, California
redwood).
25
Power Tools Safety
Topic
Notes
Student Information
Authorization
How strict you are about students asking for
permission to use power tools depends on a
number of variables: age and experience of the
student, power tool in question, and the operation
to be performed. The safest approach is to have
them ask you for permission each time they want to
use a power tool. Students should not run tools
unless they are trained or under direct supervision.
• you must have authorization before using any
power tools
Condition of
tools
Remove broken machines and damaged electrical
cords from the workshop until they have been
adequately repaired.
• only use tools that are in good operating
condition
• check out any unusual vibrations or noises
before using a machine
Make sure all guards are in place and in good
working order. In unusual circumstances where a
guard cannot be used, the instructor must be
present.
Personal
protective
equipment
High noise areas should be identified and signs
posted to require hearing protection. Eye and
hearing protection should be required in all shops
when conditions warrant it.
• long hair must be contained before using any
power equipment
• know which direction your tool will go when you
run material through it and which way the
material will go; in other words, make sure you
know what is going to happen before you
operate a machine so you can be ready to
control those forces
Know how
your machine
works
Lockout
• wear hearing protection when operating all
power tools
Conduct specific lockout training. Refer to
Occupational Health and Safety Regulation, Book
2, Part 10, for industrial lockout procedures. If the
unexpected energization or startup of machinery or
equipment, or the unexpected release of an energy
source could cause injury, the energy source must
be isolated and effectively controlled.
• when doing any maintenance work on a power
tool, isolate the source of power (unplug it,
switch the breaker off and follow written lockout
procedures)
Post written lockout procedures. Refer to WCB
publication on lockout for more information.
Operator
• the power tool operator must be qualified to use
the tool
• the machine operator must concentrate on the
task at hand
• avoid distracting, bumping or rushing anyone
using a machine
26
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Power Tools Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Student Information
• whatever tool you are using, make sure it will
cut, drill or grind only what you want to cut, drill
or grind—you do not want the saw blade
sticking out the bottom of the stock, the cutter
hitting the top of a vise, or the drill bit breaking
through the stock
Path of the tool
• be aware of the cutting path of the tool—keep
your hands away from this area
• make sure the cutting part is not going to come
in contact with the power cord
Power cord
damage
• check all power cords daily for tears or cuts in
the insulation, loose connections (plug to wire,
wire to tool) and poor ground connections
Secure your
work
• when working with portable power tools, make
sure the material stays in place—put stock in a
vice or clamp it to a workbench before
approaching it with a power tool
• when operating a power tool, maintain a firm
grip at all times
• check to ensure that all guards and safety
devices are in place and functioning properly
Start-up
• check to make sure the power switch is in the
off position before plugging in a portable power
tool
• only the operator is to turn the tool on
• do not walk away from a machine you have
been using until it comes to a complete stop—it
takes only a few seconds for a power tool to
‘wind down’ after it has been shut off
Stay beside
running power
tools
Stop to make
adjustments
June 2002
Adjustments should never be made to a power tool
while it is running. The operator’s full attention
should be on the cutter or active part of the
machine.
• always unplug or lockout the tool before making
any adjustments or changing settings where
there is a danger of being injured in the event of
a start up of the tool
27
Electrical Safety
Topic
Notes
Student Information
Avoid burns
• electricity generates heat, so take care to
avoid burning yourself on hot components like
resistors or light bulbs, or hot tools such as
soldering irons or torches
Avoid cuts
• handle small components with care to avoid
scratches or stab wounds.
Blown fuse
• if a breaker or fuse blows, disconnect the
power source, then identify and fix the
problem before resetting the breaker or
replacing the fuse
Capacitors
• some capacitors can store a large electric
charge, so discharge the capacitor
appropriately using correct discharge method
Clothing
• wear rubber gloves and dry, non-conductive
clothing
De-energize
circuits
Students can build circuits but not troubleshoot
while plugged in.
• to prevent getting a shock, de-energize circuits
before working on them—pull the plug, turn off
the breaker or disconnect the battery—follow
lockout procedures
• check with your teacher before doing any work
on live circuits
Emergency
response
• if someone gets elect shock, shut off the power
before trying to help them.
Footwear
• wear shoes with insulating soles and/or stand
on a non-conducting mat
Hot circuits
All plugged-in projects must be inspected and
tested for the first time by the instructor.
• be careful not to become part of the circuit
(stay out of the loop)
Knowledge of
live circuits
Explain hazards of live circuits. Any voltage in
excess of 50 volts is potentially lethal.
• make sure you know what you are doing when
working around live circuits--ask when in doubt
• do not use solder containing cadmium or lead
Soldering
• check the MSDSs for the solder and flux;
effective local ventilation or respiratory
protection may be required
Start up
circuits
Wear safety glasses.
• stand back when turning on a circuit or project
for the first time, just in case there are sparks,
flames, smoke, etc.
Switch gear
Demonstrate correct way to turn on switch gear.
• stand to the right hand side if the switches are
on the right
Tools
• only use tools that are insulated against
electric shock (e.g., plastic or rubber handles)
Wet conditions
• water is a great conductor of electricity, so do
not work in wet conditions; when this is
unavoidable use a ground fault circuit
interrupter (GFCI)
28
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Wood Shop Safety
Topic
Notes
Band saw
Sometimes students can ‘hear’ if they are
overloading the saw.
• set the upper guide and blade guard so it is just
above the stock. Set the upper guide within
3mm of the stock
Many accidents occur as the blade comes out at
the end of the cut. Explain why the blade may
come off.
• first option—use a push stick
The need for relief cuts depends on the width of the
blade.
Student Information
• keep your fingers at least 5cm away from blade
• feed stock with light pressure, especially
towards the end of the cut; avoid excessive
twisting of the blade
• plan your work to avoid backing out of long cuts
• use relief cuts on sharp corners
Don’t leave the machine while the blade is still in
motion.
Eye protection is required. Hearing protection is
recommended.
• never cut round or irregular stock unless it is
held in a jig of some sort to stabilize it
• if the blade breaks, turn off the saw and inform
your teacher
• do not stand to the right of the band saw when
someone else is using it (if the blade breaks, it
may flip out to the right)
• eye and hearing protection are required
Electric hand
drill
Eye and hearing protection are required.
• secure the stock; be especially careful with
small pieces
• centre punch metals before drilling
• make sure the bit is tight in the chuck
• be especially careful with long hair that can get
caught in the chuck or drawn into the motor
vents
• maintain a good grip on the drill, especially as
the bit breaks through the back of your stock
• keep cord away from drill area
• eye and hearing protection are required
Jointer
Most jointer accidents are caused by “trying to mill
stock that is too small.” (Fine Woodworking, #42, p.
76)
Open jackets, untucked shirts and loose cuffs are
especially dangerous on the jointer.
Eye and hearing protection are required.
• after set up, ensure that all guards are in place
and functional before turning on the jointer
• minimum length of stock: 300mm
• maximum depth of cut when edge jointing:
3mm; when surface jointing: 1.5mm
• joint with the grain
• beware of staples, grit or other debris in the
wood, as well as loose knots and severe checks
• step hands over cutter head
• use a push stick if the stock is lower than the
fence
• never change the depth of the outfeed table
• eye and hearing protection are required
June 2002
29
Wood Shop Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Planer
Never allow students to use the planer without the
dust cover in place and the cutter head fully
protected.
Keep the rollers and pressure boards well adjusted
to provide smooth operation and prevent kickback.
An accident is more likely if students have to
struggle to get wood through the planer.
Eye and hearing protection are required.
Student Information
• minimum length of stock: 300mm; maximum
depth of cut: 3mm
• stand to the side in case of kickback
• never look into a running planer
• never brush shavings off the table unless the
planer is at a full stop; always use a brush to
remove the shavings
• beware of staples, grit or other debris in the
wood, as well as loose knots and severe checks
• beware of pinching your fingers or clothes
between the stock and the table
• use a backing board when planing stock less
than 10 cm thick
• if your wood gets stuck, disengage the clutch
and turn off the planer. Do not use your hand to
clear the blockage—ask your instructor for
assistance
• eye and hearing protection are required
Portable
circular saw
The most frequent mishaps when using portable
circular saws involve kickback, the blade getting
pinched, or the blade guard not returning properly.
• make sure your stock is stable; put it in a vice or
clamp, if necessary
Eye and hearing protection are required.
• never use the saw if the blade guard is sticking
• position stock so that it will not pinch the blade
as the cut proceeds
• make sure the line of cut is clear underneath
• the blade must be clear of the stock before the
saw is turned on
• keep a firm grip on the saw as a pinch or bind
will thrust it back towards the operator
• eye and hearing protection are required
Router
Routers are very noisy, so wear hearing protection.
• unplug the router to change bits; put at least
15mm inside the collet
Suggest students check each setup using scrap
wood.
• check that the switch is off before plugging in
the router
• secure stock
Eye and hearing protection are required.
• hold router firmly with two hands, and make
sure the cord stays clear
• ensure the bit is clear of the stock before turning
on the router
• for best control, cut against the rotation of the bit
• make sure the bit has stopped rotating before
putting the router down
30
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Wood Shop Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Radial arm
saw
Because the blade can pull itself forward, the area
in front of the blade is always dangerous and hands
should be kept clear. Consider painting this danger
zone on the saw table.
Rip cutting is hazardous on the radial arm saw.
You might mention that it is possible, but suggest
students use the table saw instead. Give a
separate lesson on this operation, if needed.
Eye and hearing protection are required.
Student Information
• minimum length, 300mm supported by a fence
• make sure blade guard is in place and working
properly
• make sure all stock is stable and well supported
• keep hands 150mm on either side of the blade;
push small scraps clear with another piece of
wood
• check wood for knots and non-wood material
such as gravel, nails, etc.
• anticipate a tendency of the saw to pull itself
into the cut
• when finished, lock the carriage behind the
fence
• never cross your arms when using the radial
arm saw
• do not cut round or irregular stock unless it is
carefully secured
• support the ends of long boards
• if a stop is being used, hold the wood against
the fence between the stop and the blade
• eye and hearing protection are required
Table saw
“By far and away, the table saw is involved in more
serious hand injuries than any other woodworking
tool or machine. . . Hardly anybody, however,
reported a serious table saw accident that occurred
with a blade cover, kickback pawls and splitter all in
place.” (Fine Woodworking, #42, p. 76)
The board must be larger than the chord of the
blade that is exposed.
Trying to use the fence when crosscutting is a
common cause of accidents on the table saw.
• minimum length: 300mm
• use a push stick, especially if your fingers will
come within 100mm of the blade
• stand to the side in case of kickback
• use the fence for rip cutting only, never for
crosscutting
• use a mitre gage or cross cut jig for crosscutting
• always control the stock between the blade and
the fence until it has passed the blade
• shut off the saw, then reach around the blade,
never over it
The stock outside the blade rarely, if ever, kicks
back.
• do not make freehand or unguided cuts; always
use either the fence or the mitre gauge
Authorize and supervise students who remove
guards, splitters or kickback fingers.
• always use the guards, splitter and kickback
fingers unless you have authorization to remove
them for special circumstances and then
reinstall them immediately
Eye and hearing protection are required.
June 2002
• adjust blade to 5mm above stock
• eye and hearing protection are required
31
Wood Shop Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Wood lathe
Most lathe mishaps involve stock coming off the
machine or chisels catching.
Large, heavy and especially irregular stock increase
the likelihood of accidents on the lathe.
Student Information
• mount stock securely, tighten all locks
• begin each turning on low speed
• beware of staples, grit or other debris in the
wood, as well as loose knots, weak glue joints
and severe checks
• keep tool rest close to your work
Eye protection is required.
• rotate stock by hand before turning on the lathe
• hold the chisel close to each end, not in the
middle; your front hand should control the cut by
riding against the tool rest; your backhand
should steady the chisel by holding the butt
against your hip
• remove the tool rest when sanding and applying
a finish
• eye protection is required
32
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Metal Shop Safety
Topic
Notes
Arc welder
Ensure equipment is correctly installed.
All protective gear must be in good condition,
including helmets and gloves which must be worn
whenever operating an arc welder. All exposed
skin must also be protected.
Student Information
• wear appropriate protective clothing to protect
against electric shock, metal splatter and UV
rays
• do not weld in wet conditions
• ensure that cables will not interfere with your
work
• wear a welding helmet with a #10 lens or darker
Ensure effective local ventilation—respirators may
also be required.
Explain that hot work must be marked “hot” or
effectively guarded to prevent contact.
Bench grinder
• wear eye protection when chipping or grinding
• ensure effective local ventilation
• suspect everything in a welding area of being
hot
• never weld where flammable fumes or liquids
may be present, especially tanks or containers
Explain location and use of fire extinguisher.
• use screens to protect others from flash
Explain rest <= 1.5mm clearance from grinding the
wheel.
• full face shield, leather apron and hearing
protection are required
No grinding on side of wheel.
Explain types of wheels for types of metals.
Explain wheel dressing procedure.
Buffer and
wire wheel
The buffer can be very dangerous so the safety
rules are very important to understand and follow.
• hold the work just below the center of the wheel
and always buff “off” the edge
Eye protection is required.
• a build-up of heat while buffing can be
dangerous
• eye protection is required
Drill press
Long hair must be tied back, and strings or jewelry
that could get caught must be removed.
Explain set up, drill speed and tightening
precautions.
Eye protection is required.
• secure the stock in a drill vice or clamps
• center punch hard materials before drilling
• make sure the chuck key is clear before starting
the drill
• make sure the bit is clear of stock before
moving the stock
• set up your operation to avoid drilling the vice or
the table
• eye protection is required
June 2002
33
Metal Shop Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Foundry
operations
Moisture is a constant hazard when pouring molten
metal. If there is moisture in the ingots, casting
stock, concrete or mold, it can instantly vaporize
and explode from the heat of the molten metal.
Student Information
• do not light or adjust the furnace unless you
have been authorized to do so
• preheat metal before adding it to a pot of molten
metal
• wear a mesh face guard and burn-proof gloves
and leggings when pouring a cast
• stand to the side as you pour a casting
• molten metal falling on cold concrete can cause
it to fracture and pop
• use caution to avoid burning yourself when
opening up a recent casting
• freshly poured castings must be marked “HOT”
Metal cut off
saws
There are a variety of cut off saws in use—power
hack saws, horizontal band saws, chop saws—but
the safety procedures for all are similar. If your cut
off saw has an unusual feature or characteristic,
remember to add it to this lesson.
• make sure the stock is securely clamped in
place
• keep your hands clear of the path of the blade
at all times
• let the cut proceed at a comfortable pace—do
not force it
• monitor the cut as it progresses to ensure that it
proceeds smoothly and the saw shuts off on
completion
• be careful when handling freshly cut pieces as
they may be very hot and/or have sharp burrs
on them
• clean the machine with a brush, not your hand
• wear hearing protection, eye protection and
appropriate gloves when handling stock
Metal lathe
Common accidents on the metal lathe involve
clothing caught in moving parts and long pieces of
stock extending through the headstock and
whipping around.
Explain the hazards involved in using cutting fluids.
• make sure the stock is secure and the locks are
tight before turning on the lathe
• never leave the chuck key in the chuck
• any material that extends more than twice its
diameter from the chuck should be supported by
the tailstock or a steady rest
• use extreme caution whenever material extends
through the headstock
• tuck in shirt-tails or they may get caught in the
lead screw
• wear eye protection
• use gloves when handling stock but not while
handling the lathe
34
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Metal Shop Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Oxy-acetylene
torch
Explain that hot work must be marked “hot” or
effectively guarded to prevent contact.
• never use grease or oil to lubricate fittings
Explain location and use of fire extinguisher.
• check for leaks by listening or brushing with
soapy water
Ensure flashback arrestors and uniflow valves are
included.
• open cylinders slowly, ½ turn at a time
Ensure effective local ventilation—respirators may
be required.
Ensure acetylene cylinders are kept upright.
Student Information
• never weld where flammables may be present,
especially tanks or containers
• always wear leather gloves and welding goggles
• ensure effective local ventilation, especially with
galvanized metal, brass or bronze
• be aware of the location of the hoses are all
times
• light with a striker, acetylene first
• suspect everything in a welding area of being
hot
• always be conscious of where you are pointing
the torch; do not put it down unsecured or
flaming
• when finished, turn off torch valves, turn off the
cylinder valve, then go back to the torch and
bleed the lines
Right angle
grinder
Ensure no flammables are in the area.
• inspect grinder to ensure no cracks in the
abrasive disc
Guard must be installed.
• never remove the guard
• secure the stock before grinding it
Explain rpm of disk must match rpm of grinder.
• grind with light to moderate pressure only
• be conscious of where the sparks expelled by
the grinder are going and avoid endangering
others
• beware of burns, as the material being ground
will get hot
• wear ear and eye protection and flame resistant
clothing
June 2002
35
Automotive Shop Safety
Topic
Notes
Batteries
Sulphuric acid is very corrosive. Personal
protective clothing requirements are goggles and/or
face shield, gloves, and coveralls and/or apron.
• batteries contain sulfuric acid, so wear personal
protective equipment and avoid contact with the
acid
Batteries are heavy. Caution students to take care
in moving them.
• battery action produces explosive gas, so take
precautions to keep sparks away from batteries,
especially when charging
A metal tool shorting across battery terminals can
get hot very quickly.
Student Information
• to start charging a battery, connect the leads
first, then turn the charger on
• to finish charging a battery, turn the charger off,
then disconnect the leads
• while charging a battery, monitor the
temperature; stop charging if the battery gets
really hot
• always disconnect the ground cable first
• never attempt to charge or jump start a frozen
battery
• never attempt to charge or jump start a
maintenance-free battery if the charge indicator
shows low electrolyte (clear or yellow)
Spill clean-up
Many absorbent materials are hazardous and
contain silica. Use respiratory protection for cleanup, after teaching hours.
Safety in the
shop
The conditions in a mechanics shop present some
hazards not common to other shop settings.
Students should be informed of these special
circumstances
• keep the floor clear to minimize the risk of
tripping
Ensure MSDS sheets are accessible and up to
date.
• wipe up all spills and dispose of rags in the
identified, covered, metal container
Identify appropriate respiratory protection required.
Refer to WCB’s Breath Safer manual for further
information on respirator selection, care, use and
maintenance.
Explain procedures for handling, use, storage,
disposal and emergency and spill clean up of
gasoline.
36
• gasoline is very powerful and its vapours are
extremely flammable; handle according to safe
work procedures
• know where fire extinguishers are and how to
use them
• protect your lungs from dust and toxic
substances—wear appropriate respiratory
protection
• wear goggles and gloves when handling
solvents or other caustic chemicals
• protect your ears from continual loud noise
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Automotive Shop Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Safety around
engines
These points are valid in either a small engine or
automotive class.
Student Information
• remove rings, metal watches and bracelets
before working on any engine
• keep your hands away from moving parts
Explain how to check the radiator hose for
pressure.
• use extreme caution around engine fans which
may strike you, fling things at you, start
unexpectedly, or catch dangling leads or strings
• avoid touching hot engine parts; never open the
radiator on a hot engine
• do not run engines in enclosed, indoor spaces
and always guard against carbon monoxide
poisoning
• avoid electric shock from battery or ignition
systems
• protect your ears from excess engine or shop
noise
• on small engines, make sure you can’t start the
engine by moving the crank
• after repair, and prior to startup, ensure that
engine is safe to start
Safety around
vehicles
Students must receive authorization to use a hoist,
based on their demonstrated level of competence.
Refer to “Lifting it Right,” a safety manual from the
Automotive Lift Institute for more information—
www.autolift.org
• before beginning work on any vehicle, put the
transmission in park (automatic) or neutral or
low (standard), as appropriate, set the parking
brake, remove keys from ignition, then chock
the wheels
• if you need to jack up a vehicle, chock the
wheels and position the jack carefully
• support any vehicle that you will be working
underneath of on approved jack stands located
in the correct position for the appropriate repair
(e.g., running engines)
• never start a vehicle unless you are sure no one
will be injured by the motion of the engine
• hoist pads must be placed under solid,
horizontal frame parts
• do not use a hoist that is jerky, leaking oil or
settling, once in place
June 2002
37
Automotive Shop Safety (continued)
Topic
Notes
Safety around
brakes and
clutches
Brake and clutch linings may contain asbestos.
Exposure to asbestos must be kept as low as
possible.
Student Information
• brake and clutch linings may contain asbestos
• follow procedures for safe handling and disposal
Safe work procedures for removing and installing
brake and clutch linings must be followed:
display signs, wear HEPA filter respirator and
disposable coveralls, use wet clean up methods,
label asbestos waste, and provide training.
Refer to the requirements for friction materials in
Part 6 of the Occupational Health & Safety
Regulation. For further information on asbestos,
refer to the WCB booklet “Safe Work Practices for
Handling Asbestos”.
Spray
painting
38
Do not use paints that contain isocyanates.
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
WORKSHOP SAFETY
Topic
Information
Accidents
Immediately report all accidents or injuries to your teacher so that proper treatment can be
given and the dangers removed or dealt with.
Behaviour
Workshops are hazardous environments—adopt a calm, careful attitude at all times. Walk,
don’t run, avoid pushing, bumping or startling others, and don’t throw things.
Clothing
Dressing appropriately for the job is a very important consideration when working in a shop
area. Tuck in loose clothing, remove all jewelry and tie back long hair to prevent them from
getting caught in machinery. Wear sturdy, protective shoes and use the protective gear
provided, i.e., eye and hearing protection. Students wearing high heels or sandals will not be
permitted in the shop.
Emergencies
Know what to do in an emergency! Be familiar with all emergency equipment in the shop,
including fire extinguishers, power shut off buttons, fire blankets, first aid kits, and eye wash
stations.
Eye protection
Eye protection must be worn if there is any chance of injury or irritation of the eye.
Housekeeping
Clutter and spills pose unnecessary hazards—tripping, slipping, bumping into things, dropping
things off messy work surfaces—so keep the floor and work areas clear and clean, store your
tools, materials and projects away safely and securely, and keep aisles and exits free of
obstructions at all times.
Mental condition
Most accidents occur when people are tired, rushed or under the influence of alcohol or drugs,
so think SAFETY. If you are tired, stop and rest. If you are rushed, slow down. If you are
under the influence of alcohol or drugs—DO NOT WORK in the shop area.
Personal
When working in a shop environment, be aware of the risks your work may pose to others,
responsibilities
especially when using equipment such as arc welders, compressed air, and grinders. If you see
something dangerous or consider your work environment to be unsafe, report it so that it can
be fixed. If you feel unsafe about a particular activity, consult with your instructor before
proceeding. Conduct regular safety checks on yourself, your material and your tool.
Working
Set up your work area so that it is well-organized, well-lit, and adequately ventilated. To
conditions
prevent unnecessary strain, make sure that you are in a comfortable working position.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
39
Test
WORKSHOP SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. How should you behave while in the workshop?
2. What kind of accidents can be caused by a cluttered work place?
3. How should you dress while working in the workshop?
a.
b.
c.
4. When is eye protection required?
a.
b.
c.
5. What are three conditions necessary in a good working environment?
a.
b.
c.
6. Why is it important to report all accidents?
a.
b.
7. What should you do if there is a serious accident or other emergency?
8. Most accidents happen to people who are ______________________, ___________________________
or ________________________________________________________________________.
9. What are three things you can and should do to keep yourself and your classmates safe?
a.
b.
c.
40
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
TOOLS AND MATERIALS SAFETY
Topic
Information
Compressed air
Occupational Health and Safety Regulation (WCB) states that compressed air should not be
used to clean clothing, except in carefully controlled circumstances (e.g., where the pressure
is limited to 10 psig), or for cleaning off equipment if someone could be exposed to the jet of
air or to the material it expels. Use a vacuum cleaner to clean clothes and the shop area.
Condition of
Only use tools that are in good working order. If a tool is dull, broken or out of adjustment,
tools
give it to your instructor or ask for permission to fix it.
Material
Back injuries are common among people who work in shop areas, so handle large and/or heavy
handling
materials with care using proper lifting techniques. Also make sure that you don’t run into
other people when you are moving things, and ensure that all large and/or heavy objects are
safely and securely stored. Ask for help if materials are heavy.
Protect your
Most accidents in school workshops involve students’ hands. To prevent injuries, adhere to the
hands
following rules: a) keep your hands behind the blade when using a cutting tool, b) do not use
your fingers to test tools for sharpness and c) place your hand near, but not on, an object
when testing for heat.
Secure your
If the object you are working on is stable, it is less likely to slip and cause an injury; so use
work
the vice or clamp on your workbench to secure the object. Never hold stock with one hand
while trying to cut, chisel or drill it with the other hand.
Sharp objects
Do not carry sharp objects such as nails, chisels, etc., in your pockets or your mouth! Carry
them with the pointed end facing downward.
Use tools as
Using tools improperly can lead to frustration, injury of self or damage to the tool, e.g.,
intended
hammering with a wrench, prying with a chisel, or using files without handles. Take the time to
get the right tool for the job.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
41
Test
TOOLS AND MATERIALS SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What should you do with a tool that is dull, broken or out of adjustment?
2. What part of your body is most likely to be injured if you have an accident?
3. Why is it important to secure the object you are working on?
4. What could happen if you use the wrong tool for the job?
a.
b.
5. What kind of hazards should be avoided when moving large or heavy objects around the shop?
a.
b.
6. What should you do if you are unclear about how to safely use or store a dangerous product?
a.
b.
7. You should never carry sharp things in your __________________________________________ or your
__________________________________________.
8. What do the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation (WCB) say about using compressed air?
a.
b.
42
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
WHMIS SAFETY
Topic
Information
Identification /
Check with the teacher before using any substance that may be harmful. If in doubt, ask.
Classification
You must familiarize yourself in how things can harm you.
Label and
Always read the label and the MSDS, and follow the safe handling procedures before you use
Material Safety
any product for the first time or cannot remember how to use it correctly.
Data Sheet
(MSDS)
Handling
Always use the proper safety equipment and procedures. Know where all the protective
equipment is kept (respirators, dust mask, gloves, face shields, etc.).
Storage and
Make sure you find all the controlled products in the shop. Know where you can get rid of
Disposal
them safely and correctly.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
43
Test
WHMIS SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What does the acronym MSDS stand for?
2. What information can be found on an MSDS?
3. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
44
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
COMBUSTIBLES AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES SAFETY
Topic
Information
Combustibles
Many industrial supplies are flammable, explosive or subject to spontaneous combustion.
and Toxic
Store combustible supplies and waste in fire safe containers.
Substances
Chemicals/
Follow procedures for safe handling, use, storage, and disposal of chemicals/hazardous
Hazardous
substances, including emergency procedures and spill clean up. Label containers if you
Substances
transfer the product from the original container. Know where to find Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS) and be able to answer the following questions for each product used:
What are the hazards of the product you are using?
How do you protect yourself from the hazards of the product?
What would you do if an emergency occurred?
Where can you find out more information about the product you are using?
Corrosives
Acids and caustics can burn skin and eyes causing permanent damage; they can also corrode
metals—wear goggles, gloves, and protective clothing.
Flammables and
Many industrial supplies are flammable, explosive or subject to spontaneous combustion, so
Combustibles
store combustible supplies and waste in fire safe, closed containers, and keep them away from
ignition sources.
Hazardous
Follow procedures for handling and disposing of hazardous waste.
Waste
Poisons
Follow procedures for the safe use of poisons and label the containers if you transfer the
product from the original container.
Substances
Cylinders can explode if dropped or heated, so keep them away from ignition sources. Always
Under Pressure
follow procedures for safe use.
(e.g.
compressed gas
cylinders)
Wood Dust
Note that some wood dusts cause allergies (e.g., oak, mahogany, Western red cedar, California
redwood).
Name:
June 2002
Date:
45
Test
COMBUSTIBLES AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What is spontaneous combustion?
2. What questions must you be able to answer when using chemicals/hazardous substances?
a.
b.
c.
d.
3. What should you wear when working with corrosives?
4. How should you store flammable or combustible materials?
5. What should you do if you transfer a substance from one container to another?
6. Why is it important to keep cylinders away from ignition sources?
7. Why is wood dust considered a toxic substance?
46
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
POWER TOOLS SAFETY
Topic
Information
Authorization
You must have authorization from your teacher before using any power tools.
Condition of tools
Only use tools that are in good operating condition. If anything seems wrong with a
machine—unusual vibrations or noises—check it out before using the machine.
Personal protective
Wear ear and eye protection when operating all power tools. Long hair must be
equipment
contained before operating any power equipment.
Know how your machine
Know which direction your tool will go when you run material through it, and which way
works
the material will go. In other words, make sure you know what is going to happen
before you operate a machine so that you can be ready to control those forces.
Lockout
When doing any maintenance work on a power tool, isolate the source of power (unplug
it, switch the breaker off and follow written lockout procedures) to ensure that the
machine does not start running when you are working on it.
Operator
The power tool operator must be qualified to use the tool. Each power tool is designed
for only one operator. This person must always concentrate on the task at hand, so
never distract, bump or rush them when they are using a machine—no horseplay!
Path of the tool
Whatever tool you are using, make sure it will cut, drill or grind only what you want to
cut, drill or grind—you do not want the saw blade sticking out the bottom of the stock,
the cutter hitting the top of a vice, or the drill bit breaking through the stock. Be
aware of the cutting path of the tool—keep your hands away from this area. Make
sure the cutting part is not going to come in contact with the power cord.
Power cord damage
Check all power cords daily for tears or cuts in the insulation, loose connections (plug
to wire, wire to tool) and good ground connections.
Secure your work
When working with portable power tools, make sure the material stays in place—put
stock in a vice, or clamp it to a workbench before approaching it with a power tool.
While operating the tool, maintain a firm grip at all times.
Start-up
Check to ensure all guards and safety devices are in place and functioning properly.
Make sure the power switch is in the off position before plugging in a portable power
tool. Only the operator is to turn the tool on.
Stay beside running
Do not walk away from a machine you have been using until it comes to a complete
power tools
stop—it takes only a few seconds for a power tool to ‘wind down’ after it has been shut
off.
Stop to make
Always unplug or lockout the tool before making any adjustments or changing settings
adjustments
where there is danger of being injured in the event of start up of the tool.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
47
Test
POWER TOOLS SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Why do you need your teacher’s permission before using a power tool?
2. Why should you stay clear of someone who is using a power tool?
3. What should you always check before plugging in a power tool?
4. What should you do if there is a problem with a machine (e.g. unusual vibration or noises, damaged
cord)?
5. What should you do before making adjustments to the settings on any machine?
6. Why is it important to secure the material when using portable power tools?
7. Why do you need to maintain a firm grip on the tool when operating it?
8. What does it mean to ‘make sure the path of the tool is clear’?
9. What personal protective equipment should you wear when using noisy, portable tools?
10. How long should you stay beside a machine after turning it off?
11. What are ‘lockout procedures’ and when should you follow them?
48
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
PORTABLE POWER TOOLS SAFETY
Topic
Information
Damaged power cord
Do not use tools if the power cord is damaged. The insulation should be intact and
without tears, the ground connection should be working if the tool is designed with a
ground, and the connections plug to wire and wire to tool should be solid. Fix or
replace damaged cords
Direction of the tool
Understand which way the action of the tool will push the material and the tool itself.
and material
Usually they try to go in opposite directions. Power planers push the stock away and
the tool towards the operator. Belt sanders do the opposite. Right angle grinders
depend on which part of the wheel you grind with. The point is to make sure you know
what is going to happen and are ready to control those forces. Hold that tool with a
firm grip.
Ear and eye protection
Many portable power tools run at very high speeds and scream in operation. Wear
hearing protection if the tool is noisy or you have to raise your voice to speak to
others. Wear eye protection when using portable power tools.
Path of the tool
Make sure the path of the tool is clear. Saw blades stick out the bottom of the stock.
Will they cut anything unintentionally? Is the cutter on your router or power planer
going to hit the top of the vice? When the drill bit breaks through, where is it going?
Whatever tool you are using, make sure it will cut, drill or grind only what you want to
cut, drill or grind! Make sure the cutting part is not going to come in contact with the
power cord.
Power switch
Check that the power switch is in the off position before plugging in any portable
power tool.
Secure your work
Large machines stay in place while the material moves. With portable machines, the
tool moves and the material is supposed to stay in place—make sure it does! Put the
stock in a vice, clamp it to a work bench or wedge it in a corner, but don’t try to hold a
small piece of material in one hand while you approach it with a power tool held in the
other.
Unplug the tool
Unplug the tool whenever you are changing bits, replacing blades or fixing something on
the tool. You could easily bump the trigger unintentionally while handling the tool.
Keep the plug within your sight and control so that it doesn’t get inadvertently plugged
in while you are working on the tool.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
49
Test
PORTABLE POWER TOOLS SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Why is it important to secure the material when using portable power tools?
2. Why do you need to maintain a firm grip on the tool at all times?
3. What does it mean to say “make sure the path of the tool is clear?”
4. What should you do if you find a damaged cord on a power tool?
5. What extra safety gear should you wear when using high speed portable tools?
6. What should you do when changing blades or bits?
7. Why must you keep the unplugged cord within your sight and control when changing blades or bits?
8. What should you always check before plugging in any power tool?
50
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Topic
Information
Avoid burns
Electricity generates heat. Take care to avoid burning yourself on hot components like
resistors or light bulbs, or hot tools such as soldering irons or torches.
Avoid cuts
Handle small components with care to avoid scratches or stab wounds.
Blown fuse
If a breaker or fuse blows, disconnect the power source, then identify and fix the
problem before resetting the breaker or replacing the fuse.
Capacitors
Some capacitors can store a large electric charge, so short them out before working
around them.
Clothing
Wear rubber gloves and dry, non-conductive clothing.
De-energize circuits
To prevent getting a shock, de-energize circuits before working on them—pull the plug,
turn off the breaker or disconnect the battery. Check with your teacher before doing
any work on live circuits.
Emergency response
If someone gets an electric shock, shut off the power before trying to help them.
Footwear
Wear shoes with insulating soles and stand on a non-conducting mat.
Hot circuits
Be careful—don’t become part of the circuit.
Knowledge of live
Make sure you know what you are doing when working around live circuits—ask if you
circuits
are in doubt.
Start up circuits
Stand back when turning on a circuit or project for the first time, just in case there
are sparks, flames, smoke, etc. Wear appropriate eye protection.
Tools
Only use tools that are insulated to protect against electric shock (e.g., with plastic or
rubber handles).
Wet conditions
Water is a great conductor of electricity, so do not work in wet conditions unless you
are using a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) breaker.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
51
Test
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. How do you de-energize circuits before working on them?
2. Why is it important to short-out large capacitors before working around them?
3. Why is it dangerous to work with electricity in wet conditions?
4. If someone gets a serious shock, what should you do first?
5. Why should you stand back when you turn on a circuit or project for the first time?
6. Why is it really important not to work around live electricity unless you know what you are doing?
7. How do you prevent current flowing through you to the ground?
8. Why is water so dangerous around live circuits?
9. As an extra precaution, what is the advantage of working with one hand in your pocket?
10. If a circuit breaker or fuse trips, what do you do before resetting the breaker or replacing the fuse?
52
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
BAND SAW SAFETY
ƒ Set the upper guide and blade guard so they are just above the stock. This guards the blade and helps to
keep the cut straight. The upper guide should be within 3mm of the wood.
ƒ While cutting, use a push stick and keep your fingers at least 5cm away from the blade at all times. You can’t
cut your fingers if you don’t touch the blade!
ƒ Always feed the stock with light pressure and avoid excessive twisting of the blade. If you push too hard or
twist too much, you will hear the saw slow down. This is your cue to lighten up. Too much pressure or
twisting can break the blade. Use even less pressure as you near the end of a cut because the blade will
come out the last millimetre or so.
ƒ If you have a number of cuts to make, plan your work so you can proceed in a sensible order. Never back out
of long, curved cuts.
ƒ Use relief cuts on sharp corners. Thinner blades can cut sharper corners without relief cuts.
ƒ Round or irregular shaped wood presents special dangers because the force of the blade can twist it out of
your control. Never cut round or odd shaped pieces unless you use a jig to stabilize them.
ƒ If the machine has a brake, use it to stop the blade after the power has been switched off; otherwise, stay
with the machine until the blade stops moving. Recognize that a blade is sharp enough to cut even when it is
not in motion.
ƒ If the blade breaks, turn off the machine and tell your teacher.
ƒ Do not stand to the right of the band saw while someone else is using it. If the blade breaks, it might flip out
in that direction.
ƒ Both eye and hearing protection are required when using a band saw.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
53
Test
BAND SAW SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. How close to the stock should you set the upper guide?
2. What is the minimum distance you should keep your fingers from the blade?
3. How can you tell if you are using too much pressure or twisting the blade excessively?
4. If you have a number of cuts to make, what should you do before you start?
5. When are ‘relief cuts’ needed?
6. Why is it dangerous to cut round or odd shaped pieces on the band saw?
7. What should you do if the blade breaks?
8. Why should you stay away from the right hand side of the saw while it is running?
9. Identify three steps for shutting down a band saw?
10. What personal protective equipment is required when operating a band saw?
54
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
ELECTRIC HAND DRILL SAFETY
ƒ Secure your stock before drilling. Large pieces may be stable on their own, but smaller pieces should be held
in a vice. If there is any chance that the stock could catch on the bit and spin around, secure it in a vice or
clamp. Keep the cord away from the drilling area.
ƒ Centre punch metals before drilling. Many of you have had the experience of trying to use a hand drill on a
piece of metal only to find the bit scooting all over the surface. A small dimple made with a punch will keep
the bit in place.
ƒ Make sure the bit is properly sharpened, and straight and tight in the chuck.
ƒ Tie long hair back—otherwise power equipment must not be used. Bending over your work or lifting the drill in
the air are perfect opportunities for the electric hand drill to grab a strand or two.
ƒ Large drills are powerful enough to break your arm, so make sure you have a good grip on the drill and be
prepared to hold it if it ‘kicks,’ especially as the bit passes through the far side of a piece of metal.
ƒ Both eye and hearing protection are required when using an electric hand drill.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
55
Test
ELECTRIC HAND DRILL SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What could happen if the stock you are drilling is not secured?
2. What do you need to do before you try to drill a piece of metal?
3. Drill bits must be ____________________________ and __________________________ in the chuck.
4. Why is long hair a particular hazard when using drills?
5. When is an electric hand drill most likely to ‘kick’?
6. What personal protective equipment is required when using an electric hand drill?
7. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
56
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
JOINTER SAFETY
ƒ After set up, ensure that all guards are in place and functional before turning on the jointer.
ƒ Most jointer accidents are caused by trying to joint wood that is too small—the wood flips up and back, often
breaking the operator’s thumb. Never joint stock that is less than 300mm long.
ƒ On the jointer, you push the wood through the cut. If you try to cut too much, a kickback is likely to result.
The maximum depth of cut when jointing an edge is 3mm. Maximum depth of the cut when jointing a surface
(anything wider than 50mm) is 1.5mm.
ƒ Always joint with the grain. This will give you a smoother cut and a better finish.
ƒ Check your stock for staples, grit or other junk in the wood, and also look for loose knots and severe checks.
Defects in the wood could damage the machine and cause kickback.
ƒ Step your hands passed the cutter head. If the wood were to kick out when your hand was above the cutter,
your hand would drop onto the knives.
ƒ You must use a push stick if the stock you are jointing is lower than the fence. It is hard to get a good grip on
wood below the fence.
ƒ Don’t change the depth of the outfeed table. Adjustments must be made by a qualified person. Your teacher
probably spent hours getting it just right and the setting is critical. If you change it, you will mess up your cut
and create a hazard.
ƒ Wear eye and hearing protection when using a jointer.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
57
Test
JOINTER SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What is the minimum length of stock that should be cut on the jointer?
2. What is the maximum depth of cut that should be used when:
a. jointing an edge
b. jointing a surface
3. Why do you always joint with the grain?
4. Why are bad checks in the wood or loose knots dangerous on the jointer?
5. Why should you never pass your hands directly over the cutter head?
6. When do you have to use a push stick?
7. Is it okay to adjust the height of the outfeed table? Why or why not?
8. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
58
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
PLANER SAFETY
ƒ After set up, ensure all guards are in place and functional before turning on the planer.
ƒ Never plane stock that is less than 300mm long. Short stock can get hung up between the power rollers
inside the planer.
ƒ Most planers have a shear pin that will break if the machine is overloaded. This protects more expensive
machine parts from damage. Do not plane more than 3mm per pass.
ƒ As with many power tools, wood can kick back out of the planer. Stand to the side so you won’t get ‘kicked’ if
the wood does shoot out. Never look into a running planer.
ƒ Sometimes, if the vacuum system is plugged, shavings build up on the table of the planer. Never brush them
off the table with your hand. If you need to clear the table, you should shut the planer off, wait for it to stop
and use a brush.
ƒ Check your stock for staples, grit or other junk in the wood, and also look for loose knots and severe checks.
Defects in the wood could damage the machine and cause kickback.
ƒ The rollers on this machine push the wood down against the table, hard. Tuck all loose clothing in and don’t get
your fingers pinched between the wood and the table.
ƒ You can plane really thin wood but, because it has a tendency to flex under the rollers, it is recommended that
you use a backing board when planning stock that is less than 10mm thick.
ƒ If your wood gets stuck, disengage the clutch and turn off the planer. Do not use your hand to clear the
blockage—ask your instructor for assistance.
ƒ Because the planer is a very noisy machine, wear hearing protection while operating it.
ƒ Protect your eyes—wear eye protection.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
59
Test
PLANER SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What is the minimum length of stock that should be cut on the planer?
2. What is the maximum depth of cut that should be made on a planer?
3. Why should you never look into a running planer or stand to the side as you operate it?
4. What should you do if you need to clear shavings off the table of the planer?
5. Why are severe checks in the wood or loose knots dangerous on the jointer?
6. What is dangerous about having your fingers or shirt-tail close to the table of the planer?
7. You need to use a backing board if you are planing stock that is less than _______ thick.
8. What should you do if your wood gets stuck in the planer?
9. What personal protective equipment should you wear when using a planer?
60
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
PORTABLE CIRCULAR SAW SAFETY
ƒ Position the stock so that it is stable and stationary and can be cut from a balanced and comfortable
position by the operator. Smaller pieces should be secured in a vice or clamped to a bench.
ƒ Pinching the blade is probably the most common mistake made when using a portable circular saw. To
prevent it, make sure the two ends fall apart when the wood falls at the end of the cut. If the two ends
fall together, they will pinch the blade and cause the saw to kick back towards you.
ƒ Never use a portable circular saw if the blade guard is sticking. It is too easy to forget about the guard
and set the saw down while the blade is spinning unprotected. If you do this, the saw will run in a circle on
the floor towards you.
ƒ Make sure the line of cut is clear underneath because you can’t see the bottom of the blade. It will cut
through anything it runs into. Lots of people have been shocked when their saw cut its own cord, or when the
sawhorse they were working on split in half.
ƒ Let the saw reach full speed before you begin your cut. If the blade is touching the wood when you pull the
trigger, the saw will kick back towards you.
ƒ The rotation of the blade on a portable circular saw is such that if there is a problem, the saw will jump back
towards you. So keep a firm grip on the saw at all times. Keep in mind that things behind the saw, like feet
or fingers, are in more danger than things in front of the saw—it never jumps forward!
ƒ Because the portable circular saw is a very noisy machine, hearing protection must be worn when operating it.
ƒ Protect your eyes—wear eye protection.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
61
Test
PORTABLE CIRCULAR SAW SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Before making a cut with the portable circular saw, you should position the stock so it is
2. What will happen if the ends of the wood you are cutting fall together as you finish a cut with the portable
circular saw?
3. What could happen if the blade guard on a portable circular saw is sticking open?
4. Why is it important to keep the line of the cut clear underneath the wood?
5. What will happen if the blade is touching the wood when you pull the trigger to start the saw?
6. Why is it important to keep a firm grip on the saw at all times?
7. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
62
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
RADIAL ARM SAW SAFETY
ƒ Make sure the blade guard is in place and works properly.
ƒ It is not safe to cut wood that is less than 300mm long on the radial arm saw because your fingers will end up
too close to the blade.
ƒ Make sure the wood you are cutting is well supported, and not stacked above the fence. If you are cutting a
bunch of pieces at once (gang cutting) make sure they are piled securely, otherwise the blade could find a
loose piece and snap it towards the fence. This would take the cut out of your control.
ƒ Check wood for knots and non-wood material such as gravel, nails, etc.
ƒ Keep your hands at least 150mm to either side of the blade at all times. The area in front of the blade is
always dangerous because the carriage could come forward at any time, e.g., if the blade hooked a small piece
of scrap. Use another piece of wood to push cuts clear of this area—don’t use your hand.
ƒ The radial arm saw has a tendency to pull itself into the cut because of the way the blade rotates. Anticipate
this and control the rate of feed carefully.
ƒ When you have finished with the saw, lock the carriage behind the fence so that the blade is secured safely
out of the way when the next person comes to use it.
ƒ Never cross your arms when using the radial arm saw.
ƒ Do not cut round or irregular stock unless it is secured. The force of the blade can twist the wood around and
pull your hand into its path.
ƒ If a stop is being used, hold the wood against the fence between the stop and the blade.
ƒ Some radial arm saws have a small table. Make sure the ends of long boards are supported to prevent the
middle from flipping as you finish a cut.
ƒ Wear both eye and hearing protection when using a radial arm saw.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
63
Test
RADIAL ARM SAW SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What is the minimum length of stock that should be cut on the radial arm saw?
2. Why is it important to make sure all the stock being cut is well supported?
3. How far to either side of the blade should you keep your hands?
4. Why does the radial arm saw tend to pull itself into the cut?
5. When you have finished using the radial arm saw, what should you do with the carriage?
6. Is it safe to cross your arms when using the radial arm saw?
7. Why is it dangerous to cut round or odd shaped wood?
8. What will happen as you cut long boards that are not supported by a long table?
9. What personal protective equipment must be worn when operating a radial arm saw?
64
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
ROUTER SAFETY
ƒ Unplug the router before changing the bits—you don’t want to bump the switch when your hand is on the
cutter!
ƒ Install bits with at least 15mm of the shaft in the collet chuck. Any less and the bit could vibrate loose
during use.
ƒ After you have changed the bit, make sure the switch is off before you plug in the router, otherwise you
might get an unwanted surprise.
ƒ Unless the object you are going to route is really big and heavy, and won’t move around, you need to secure the
stock with a vice or clamps. Never hold the stock with one hand while routing with the other.
ƒ When you are ready to go, make sure the bit is clear of the stock before you turn the router on. Once the
router is up to speed, cut with even pressure at a steady pace. Don’t force the cut or overload the router.
ƒ Always cut against the rotation of the bit. This gives you better control as you push the router into the cut.
If you go the other way, the router will pull itself along.
ƒ When you have finished your cut, let the bit stop before you put the router down.
ƒ Because the router is a very noisy machine, hearing protection must be worn when operating it.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
65
Test
ROUTER SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What should you always do before changing bits on a router?
2. What is the minimum shaft length on a bit that is inserted in the chuck?
3. What should you check before you plug in the router?
4. Under what conditions are you allowed to use the router without securing it in clamps or a vice?
5. What should you check before you turn the router on?
6. What should you do before setting the router down after you have finished a cut?
7. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
66
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
TABLE SAW SAFETY
ƒ Prior to use, ensure all guards, anti-kickback fingers and splitters are in place and functional.
ƒ Always use the guards, splitter and anti-kickback fingers unless you have authorization to remove them.
Under special circumstances, e.g., dadoing or undercutting, and then they are to be reinstalled immediately.
ƒ Set the blade height to clear the wood by about 5mm. If you set it higher, you may create a hazard. Only
set it lower for special circumstances such as undercutting or partial cutting.
ƒ Never cut stock that is less than 300mm long. Small stock is dangerous because: a) it brings your fingers
closer to the blade and, b) it can kick back more easily because it is lighter.
ƒ Always use a push stick if your fingers will come within 100mm of the blade.
ƒ Wood can ‘kick back’ out of the table saw. In fact, this is one of the most common table saw accidents.
Stand to the side when rip cutting so that you won’t get ‘kicked.’
ƒ When cutting on the table saw, always support the wood on its longest side. Use the fence when rip cutting,
and use a miter gage or cross cut jig for cross cutting. Never use the fence when crosscutting—you will have
an accident!
ƒ Always push the stock between the blade and the fence until it has passed the back of the blade; otherwise,
the wood inside the fence could easily be caught by the blade and kicked back.
ƒ If you are taking stock off the back of the saw, reach around the blade, not over it. If possible, have
someone help you or let the stock drop to the floor. Never reach around or over a running saw. Shut it off
first.
ƒ Never make free hand cuts on the table saw. It is too easy to twist the wood or pinch the blade. Always use
either the fence or the mitre gauge.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
67
Test
TABLE SAW SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. How high should the blade be set above the wood?
2. What is the minimum length of stock that should be cut on the table saw?
3. You must use a push stick if your fingers will come within ___________________________ of the blade.
4. Where should you stand when rip cutting on the table saw?
5. What device should you use to guide the wood when:
a. rip cutting
b. cross cutting
6. Which of the following conditions would produce kickback: a) the piece of wood between the blade and
the fence, or b) the wood outside the blade?
7. Is it okay to reach over the blade?
8. Why is it dangerous to make freehand cuts on the table saw?
9. What three safety devices should always be used when working with a table saw?
a.
b.
c.
68
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
WOOD LATHE SAFETY
ƒ When setting up a turning in the lathe, make sure the wood is solidly mounted and all locks are secure.
Many lathe accidents result when wood jumps off the machine.
ƒ Inspect the stock for bad glue joints, loose knots or severe checks. Any of these defects could cause an
accident.
ƒ Keep the tool rest close to the work at all times—within 12mm, if possible. As you turn a project and the gap
between the wood and the tool rest increases, so does the chance of the chisel catching.
ƒ Make it a habit to rotate the stock by hand before turning on the lathe. This will let you know if anything is
going to bump when you turn on the power.
ƒ Begin turning the lathe at a low speed. The wood may be unbalanced (especially large, rough stock) and
could vibrate badly at high speed.
ƒ Hold the chisel close to each end, not in the middle. Your front hand should control the cut by riding against
the tool rest. Your backhand should steady the chisel by holding the butt against your hip.
ƒ Remove the tool rest from the lathe when sanding or finishing your project so there is no danger of pinching
your fingers.
ƒ Wear eye protection when operating a wood lathe.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
69
Test
WOOD LATHE SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What could happen if the wood and the locks on the lathe were not tightened down when you turned the
machine on?
2. Why should you always begin your turnings at low speed?
3. What kinds of defects in the wood could cause a problem on the lathe?
4. Why is it important to keep the tool rest close the work at all times?
5. What should you do before you turn on the power to activate the lathe?
6. Explain how to hold the chisel when turning.
7. What should you do before sanding a project on the lathe?
8. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
70
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
ARC WELDING SAFETY
ƒ Arc welding can burn or shock you! Wear protective clothing to protect exposed skin from welding splatter
and UV rays, and wear leather gloves (without holes) to protect against burns and shock.
ƒ Use screens to protect others from flash.
ƒ Do not weld in wet conditions or while wearing wet clothing. Water is a good conductor and could cancel out
the protective qualities of your clothing and gloves.
ƒ Always wear an approved arc welding helmet with a no. 10 lens or darker. The light from arc welding is bright
enough to damage your eyes permanently. Gas welding goggles or sunglasses are not good enough. Do not
watch the arc when someone else is welding and make sure they don’t watch you work unless they also have a
helmet on.
ƒ Wear clear eye protection when chipping, brushing or grinding your welds.
ƒ Ensure that cables will not interfere with your work.
ƒ Arc welding makes a lot of smoke. Make sure you have effective local ventilation to clear away the fumes.
ƒ Make a habit of feeling, not touching, for heat before you grab anything. Vices, tools or steel near your weld
can give a serious burn even though they may not look hot.
ƒ Vapours or fumes from solvents, fuels or other flammable liquids can be explosive. Never weld a container
that has held flammables unless it has been steam cleaned or is filled with water.
ƒ Mark hot work “Hot” or guard it so it can’t be contacted.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
71
Test
ARC WELDING SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. When arc welding, your clothing must protect you against what three potential hazards?
a.
b.
c.
2. Why is it dangerous to arc weld in wet conditions?
3. Do gas welding goggles or sunglasses provide enough eye protection for arc welding? Why or why not?
4. Clear eye protection must be worn when _________________________________________________ or
____________________________________.
5. Why is it important to have lots of ventilation when arc welding?
6. In addition to the material you are welding, what else can get hot enough to burn you?
7. Why is it extremely dangerous to weld containers that have held flammable materials?
72
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
BENCH GRINDER SAFETY
ƒ Inspect the grinder prior to use to ensure there are no cracks in the abrasive disc.
ƒ Check there are no flammables in the area of the grinder.
ƒ Use wheel dressing procedures when required.
ƒ Keep the tool rest within 1.5mm of the stone at all times. If there is too much room between the stone and
the rest, your work could jam causing the stone to shatter. At the speed it is turning, you don’t want that
to happen.
ƒ If the stone has a flaw, it is most likely to fly apart as it speeds up, just after you start it. Always stand to
the side when starting the grinder, just in case.
ƒ Only grind on the face of the stone, never on the side—it could explode in your face.
ƒ Work should be moved back and forth across the face of the stone to avoid creating a groove in the center.
ƒ Use moderate pressure when grinding. If you push too hard, you will stress the machine and the stone, and
generate unnecessary heat in the material you are grinding.
ƒ Avoid grinding small pieces or, if necessary, hold them firmly in pliers or vice grips. Small pieces could easily
be pulled out of your grasp and cause problems.
ƒ Do not grind either sheet metal or soft metals like brass or aluminum on the grinder. Sheet metal vibrates
too much and can easily get caught, and non-ferrous metals such as aluminum can quickly plug up the stones.
ƒ Grinding generates a lot of heat in the metal being ground. Cool your material regularly and take care not to
burn yourself when it is hot. If you are using the grinder to sharpen tools, be aware that too much heat can
ruin the temper in tool steel—this is not good for your tools.
ƒ Full face shield, leather apron and hearing protection are required.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
73
Test
BENCH GRINDER SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What is the maximum distance allowed between the tool rest and the stone on a grinder?
2. What could happen if you were to grind on the side of a grinding stone?
3. Where should you stand when starting up the bench grinder?
4. Why should you avoid using excessive pressure when working on the bench grinder?
5. Why is it especially dangerous to grind small pieces on the bench grinder?
6. What kind of materials should not be worked on the bench grinder?
7. Why is there a danger of burning yourself when using the bench grinder?
8. What personal protective equipment do you need when operating a bench grinder?
74
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
BUFFER/WIRE WHEEL SAFETY
ƒ The biggest danger on the buffer or wire wheel is having the wheel grab your work. This could happen if the
wheel were to hook on a corner or the edge of your work. To prevent this from happening, hold your work so
the wheel is spinning off the corners.
ƒ Hold your work against the wheel just below the middle point. If the wheel should grab it, it will throw it
down and away from you.
ƒ Buffing can generate a fair amount of heat, so handle your work with care to avoid getting burnt.
ƒ Strands of wire from the wire wheel can come loose. Be sure to wear eye protection.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
75
Test
BUFFER/WIRE WHEEL SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. How do you prevent the buffer or wire wheel from grabbing your work out of your hands?
2. Why should you hold your work just below the centre of the wheel?
3. Why is there a danger of burning yourself when using the buffer or wire wheel?
4. Why is eye protection especially important when using the wire wheel?
5. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
76
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
DRILL PRESS SAFETY
ƒ Tie long hair back.
ƒ Remove all strings and/or jewelry that could get caught in the drill press.
ƒ The material you intend to drill must be held in the drill vice or be clamped to the drill table. This will
prevent it from spinning around and hurting you if the drill bit were to catch as it went through.
ƒ Be sure to ‘centre punch’ hard materials like metals before you drill them. The punch mark will prevent the
drill bit from slipping around as you try to start the hole.
ƒ Set appropriate drill speed for the drill bit.
ƒ Make sure the chuck key is out of the chuck every time you go to start the drill.
ƒ If you are drilling a series of holes or are in a rush to get onto the next job, slow down to make sure the bit is
clear of the stock before you move it. If you do move the stock when the bit is still in the hole, you could
break the bit.
ƒ Set up your operation to avoid drilling into the vice or table. Put some scrap wood under your work, or position
it in the vice so that the bit will come through in the centre or at the side of the vice.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
77
Test
DRILL PRESS SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Why is it important to secure the material you plan to drill on the drill press?
2. How do you prevent the bit from slipping off target and possibly breaking when drilling hard materials
like metal?
3. What should you check each time you are about to start the drill press?
4. What could happen if you move the stock before the bit is completely clear of the hole?
5. How can you avoid making unwanted holes in the drill press vice?
6. Why do you need to tie long hair back and remove jewelry and/or strings when working around the drill
press?
78
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
FOUNDRY SAFETY
ƒ Do not light the furnace unless you have permission. The gas used to heat it is very explosive and a serious
accident could result from someone trying to light it if they didn’t really know how.
ƒ Preheat cold metal before adding it to a pot of molten metal to reduce its moisture content. If you were to
drop cold metal into molten metal, the intense heat could vaporize the moisture instantly and cause an
explosion of molten metal.
ƒ Wear a mesh facemask, burn-proof gloves and leggings when pouring a cast. The molten metal you are
working with will quickly melt or burn through standard safety gear so you need special protective clothing
that can withstand extremely high heat.
ƒ Stand to the side as you pour a casting. Again, moisture is the problem. If steam gets trapped inside a tightly
packed mold, the resulting pressure could blow the mold apart.
ƒ Put the flask on a bed of sand or fire bricks while you pour the casting. Concrete has moisture in it, so if you
accidentally drop liquid metal on it, the concrete could fracture and send chips flying unpredictably.
ƒ Castings take a long time to cool down. Use extreme caution when opening up a recent casting to avoid burning
yourself. Freshly poured castings must be marked “HOT.”
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
79
Test
FOUNDRY SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Why is it dangerous to try lighting the furnace if you don’t really know how and don’t have permission?
2. What should you do to a piece of metal before adding it to a pot of molten metal?
3. What safety gear should be worn when casting?
4. Why should you stand to the side when pouring a casting?
5. What might happen to concrete if molten metal is dropped on it?
6. What do you need to be careful about when opening up a recent casting?
7. What does the acronym HEADS UP! stand for?
80
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
METAL CUT OFF SAWS SAFETY
ƒ Make sure the stock is tightly clamped in place before starting your cut. If it isn’t, the blade will grab it and
roll it around.
ƒ Keep your hands clear of the path of the blade at all times. Some of these saws cut automatically; on others,
you control the cut. In either case, keep your hands clear and out of danger.
ƒ Do not force the cut. There is often a temptation to speed things up by pushing on the saw but this could
overload the machine or damage the blade.
ƒ Although these saws cut automatically, you should always watch the cut as it proceeds. The blade could twist
or jam, the stock could twist free, or the saw could fail to stop when it should. Be there.
ƒ Take care in handling fresh cut pieces of metal—they could be sharp and hot. Cool and deburr them right
away.
ƒ If metal chips or filings build up in the saw, turn it off and clean it with a brush—never use your hand. Metal
slivers really hurt.
ƒ Wear eye and hearing protection.
ƒ Wear appropriate gloves when handling the stock.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
81
Test
METAL CUT OFF SAWS SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What will happen if the stock is not tightly clamped in the metal cut off saw before you start your cut?
2. Keep your hands ____________________________________________________________at all times.
3. What could happen if you try to force the cut while using a metal cut off saw?
4. Why do you need to keep an eye on the cut as it proceeds?
5. What makes freshly cut pieces of metal dangerous?
6. If filings build up on the machine, how should you clean them off?
7. What personal protective equipment is required when operating the metal cut off saw?
82
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
METAL LATHE SAFETY
ƒ Make sure the stock is secure and that all locks are tight before turning on the lathe. Otherwise the piece
of steel might shift or fly out when it starts to spin or when you start to cut it.
ƒ Never leave the chuck key in the chuck. It should either be in your hand, if you are using it, or on the tool
rack. Leaving it in the chuck will lead to an accident.
ƒ Material that extends more than twice its diameter out of the chuck should be supported on the tailstock
end. If unsupported, the stock could flex as it spins or as you cut, causing vibration, chatter and a hazardous
situation.
ƒ Use extreme caution if your stock extends through the headstock end. Many accidents have resulted when an
operator, while concentrating on the cut, failed to notice the end of the stock whip around. Others have been
injured by trying to steady the protruding end (don’t do this), or by bumping into it accidentally as they pass
by.
ƒ Tuck in your shirt-tail to prevent it from getting caught in the feed and lead screws which are right by your
hips.
ƒ Wear eye protection.
ƒ Wear appropriate gloves when handling stock, but not when operating the lathe.
ƒ Ensure the stock has completely stopped rotating before attempting to handle it.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
83
Test
METAL LATHE SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What two things should you secure before starting the metal lathe?
a.
b.
2. Why should you never leave the chuck key in the lathe chuck?
3. Any material that extends more than ______________________ its diameter out of the chuck should be
supported on the tailstock end.
4. Why is stock that sticks out of the headstock end of the lathe dangerous?
5. Why is it important to remove open coats and tuck in your shirt-tails when using the lathe?
6. What personal protective equipment is required when operating a metal lathe and handling the stock?
84
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
OXY-ACETYLENE SAFETY
ƒ You must be trained and authorized before you are allowed to use the oxy-acetylene equipment.
ƒ Ensure acetylene cylinders are kept upright at all time.
ƒ When setting up oxy-acetylene equipment, never use grease or oil to lubricate the fittings. Oil and grease
are very flammable in the presence of oxygen.
ƒ Vapours or fumes from solvents, fuels or other flammable liquids can be explosive. Never weld a container
that has held flammables unless it has been steam cleaned or is filled with water or an inert gas.
ƒ Always watch for gas leaks by listening to or brushing the connections with soapy water.
ƒ Open the cylinders slowly, one half turn only at a time. This releases pressure gently into the system and
lets you shut the cylinders off quickly if there is a problem at start up.
ƒ Always wear leather gloves and approved welding goggles. Make sure anyone who watches or helps also wears
proper protective gear.
ƒ Make sure your work area has effective local ventilation. Galvanized metal, brass or bronze emit toxic fumes
when heated. Respiratory protection may also be required.
ƒ Be aware of the location of the hoses are all times.
ƒ Purge with acetylene. Light the acetylene first with a striker (not matches), then add oxygen. This will
ensure that there is no mixed gas in the lines that could burn back up inside.
ƒ Mark recently welded work “Hot” or guard it to prevent it from being contacted.
ƒ Make a habit of feeling for heat before you grab hold of anything. Vices, bricks, or tools can give a serious
burn even though they may not look hot.
ƒ The oxy-acetylene flame burns at about 3000°C. Always watch where you put the tip and only set the torch
down in a proper holder so it doesn’t fall.
ƒ When finished, turn off the torch valves, turn off the cylinder valve at the cylinder, then go back to the
torch and bleed both lines.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
85
Test
OXY-ACETYLENE SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. What is the danger in using grease or oil to lubricate welding fittings?
2. Describe at least two ways of checking for leaks on gas welding equipment.
a.
b.
3. How far should you open the tank valves?
4. What protective equipment should always be worn when working with oxy-acetylene welding
equipment?
5. What extra danger exists when welding brass, bronze or galvanized metal?
6. Why is it important to purge with acetylene before lighting the torches and adding oxygen?
7. In addition to the material you are welding, what else can get hot enough to burn you?
8. Which of the following is the correct lighting device for an oxy-acetylene torch?
a. striker
b. match
c. cigarette lighter
d. all of above
9. Why is it extremely dangerous to weld containers that have held flammable materials?
86
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
RIGHT ANGLE GRINDER SAFETY
ƒ Inspect the grinder prior to use to ensure there are no cracks in the abrasive disc.
ƒ Check there are no flammables in the area before grinding.
ƒ Secure the stock you are going to grind so that it does not move around. Unless the material is large and
very steady, you should put it in a vice or clamp it to a workbench to prevent the grinder from pushing it
aside.
ƒ Grind with moderate pressure only. Excessive pressure generates excessive heat and puts unnecessary
strain on the grinding disk, the motor and the operator.
ƒ Grinders shoot out a stream of cool sparks. Be conscious of where the sparks are going and take care to
avoid endangering yourself and others.
ƒ Any time you are grinding, things will get hot. Make it a habit to test things for heat before you grab onto
them.
ƒ Because the right angle grinder is very noisy, wear hearing protection.
ƒ Wear eye protection and flame resistant clothing.
ƒ Never remove the guard.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
87
Test
RIGHT ANGLE GRINDER SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Why is it important to secure the material you want to grind?
2. Why should you use only moderate pressure when working with the grinder?
3. How is the grinder dangerous to others nearby?
4. What should you do before picking up things that you have been grinding?
5. What personal protective equipment do you need to wear when operating a right angle grinder?
88
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
AUTOMOTIVE SHOP SAFETY
ƒ Minimize the risk of tripping in a mechanical shop— keep parts and tools off the floor, leave the handles of
floor jacks in an upright position, stand creepers up against the wall when not in use, etc.
ƒ Be aware of the power of gasoline and always handle it with care—minimize gasoline vapours (they are
extremely flammable) by immediately wiping up spills and hanging the rags outside; keep all sparks and flames
well away; do not use gasoline around hot engines and do not use it as a cleaning solvent.
ƒ Wipe up all spills right away, dispose of rags in identified fire safe containers, and keep tool handles and the
like free of oil.
ƒ Because many of the supplies used in a mechanical shop are flammable, you should know where the fire
extinguishers are and how to use them.
ƒ Many of the products and processes mechanics use contaminate the air with flammable vapours, toxic fumes or
fine dust. Effective ventilation will reduce these hazards. Approved respiratory protection appropriate to the
hazard must be worn when there is exposure to dusts, mists, fumes or vapours.
ƒ Wear goggles, appropriate gloves, shop coat and apron when handling solvents or other caustic chemicals.
ƒ Wear a face shield if there is risk of injury to the face (e.g., when charging a battery or connecting it to any
power).
ƒ Wear hearing protection when exposed to loud noise or when you need to raise your voice to speak to others.
ƒ Brake and clutch lining may contain asbestos. Follow procedures for safe handling and disposal.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
89
Test
AUTOMOTIVE SHOP SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Air hoses and electrical extension cords present a tripping hazard. List four other potential tripping
hazards:
a.
b.
c.
d.
2. Draw a connecting line to match the following situation/items with the correct procedure/equipment.
loud banging or grinding caustic chemicals oily rags gasoline soaked rags goggles and approved gloves
fire safe containers
outside fresh air
hearing protection
3. There are different types of fire ________________________ for different types of _________________.
4. Where are the fire extinguishers located in your auto shop?
5. Circle the correct answer for the following true and false questions:
a. Gasoline is a recommended cleaning solvent.
b. When working in areas with dust and fumes, you she wear approved breathing protection.
c. Hearing loss can result from working in noisy environments.
d. Potential danger with charging batteries suggests you should wear eye/face protection.
T
T
T
T
or
or
or
or
F
F
F
F
6. What other personal protective equipment is required in an automotive shop?
90
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
SAFETY AROUND VEHICLES
ƒ Before you begin any work on a vehicle, make sure it can’t roll. Put the transmission in park for an
automatic transmission, and neutral or low, as appropriate, for a standard transmission. Set the parking
brake, remove the keys from ignition and then chock the wheels.
ƒ When positioning a jack, make sure it is stable. Place it under a solid part of the frame—something that
won’t crumple or slip as the vehicle is raised. Also chock two of the wheels that will remain on the ground
just in case the vehicle shifts as it is raised.
ƒ Use approved jack stands to support any vehicle you are working underneath. Lifting jacks are less stable
and can collapse.
ƒ Never start a vehicle unless you are 100% sure that the motion of the engine will not endanger anyone. Your
friend may ask you to crank the engine while they are under the hood—double check to make sure that their
hands are clear before you turn the key. And if you are under the hood, make sure your friend at the ignition
knows never to crank it until they are sure you are clear.
ƒ Never move a vehicle unless you are 100% sure the motion of the vehicle will not endanger anyone—look
around carefully, beep the horn, wait, and start moving slowly. Give anyone crouching by a wheel or bumper
time to move to safety or shout before they get hurt. If the space is tight, get someone to stand outside
the vehicle and direct you.
ƒ Only use a hoist if you are authorized to do so.
ƒ Place hoist pads under solid frame parts that will not shift as the vehicle is lifted (a few suspension parts can
shift as the weight of the vehicle comes off the wheels). Check the hoist pads when the wheels are just a
few inches off the ground to make sure they remain stable and secure. Get everyone out of the car and close
the hood, trunk and all doors.
ƒ Do not use a hoist that is jerky, leaking oil or slowly settling. With a car hanging over your head, you want to
make sure it is going to stay up there.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
91
Test
SAFETY AROUND VEHICLES
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. How do you make sure a vehicle will not roll when you are working on it?
2. Why should you chock the wheels of a vehicle if you plan to jack it up?
3. When would you need to use jack stands?
4. Before starting any vehicle, what should you check?
5. How can you safeguard the people who may be near a vehicle you are about to move?
6. When lifting a vehicle on the hoist, what should you check when the wheels are just a few inches off the
ground?
7. What symptoms might suggest that there is a problem with a hoist and indicate that you shouldn’t use it
until it is fixed?
92
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
SAFETY AROUND ENGINES
ƒ Take off all rings and bracelets before doing any mechanical work. Jewelry can get caught up in machinery
and cause an injury, or even create a short circuit between electrical parts leading to a burn.
ƒ Keep your hands away from all moving parts when working on an engine, i.e., belts, shafts, fans, blowers.
ƒ Be especially careful around engine fans. Some of the hazards to watch out for include: a) having your hand
clipped, b) having something fire back at you if dropped in the area of the fan, c) an unexpected start up of
an electric fan on a hot engine, and d) dangling items swinging into the fan.
ƒ Mechanics can easily get burnt on hot cylinders, exhaust parts, radiators, or engine coolant. Never open the
radiator cap on a hot engine! Check the radiator hose—if you can feel pressure, don’t open the radiator cap.
ƒ Engine exhaust contains carbon monoxide, a colourless and odourless gas that can kill you. So do not run an
engine in an enclosed, indoor space unless the exhaust is vented to the outside.
ƒ Handle electrical parts with care so that you don’t become part of the circuit. An ignition shock will hurt but
not harm you. A shock from a battery, however, can be very dangerous.
ƒ Engine noise can cause permanent hearing loss. Don’t run an engine without a muffler. And wear hearing
protection when working around loud engine noise or in a noisy shop.
ƒ When working on a small engine, make sure it won’t start if the crankshaft is accidentally moved. Disconnect
all spark plug leads if the engine does not have a kill switch.
ƒ After repair and prior to start-up, ensure engine is clear and safe to start.
Hands are the most vulnerable part of the body.
Eyes and ears also need protection.
Ask when you are not sure!
Dress safely using the appropriate protection.
Safety devices must always be used as intended.
UP!
Name:
June 2002
Date:
93
Test
SAFETY AROUND ENGINES
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. Name two ways jewelry is dangerous around engines.
a.
b.
2. What moving engine parts pose a danger to your hands?
3. Describe the special hazards of engine fans.
4. What engine parts are most likely to cause burns?
5. Why is it so important to vent the exhaust outside when working around running engines?
6. Which two engine systems can cause electric shock?
a.
b.
7. Why should you use hearing protection around loud engine or shop noise?
8. How can you prevent a small engine from starting accidentally?
94
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Information Sheet
BATTERY HANDLING SAFETY
ƒ A lead/acid battery contains sulfuric acid that will eat your clothing and burn your skin. Protect yourself by
wearing eye protection, a face shield if there is risk of injury to the face, appropriate gloves, shop coat and
an apron. Clean the battery before you handle it; then handle it carefully. You can neutralize and clean the
acid with a solution of baking soda and water. If you get acid on yourself, flush it off with lots of water.
ƒ The chemical reaction in a lead/acid battery produces hydrogen gas—a very explosive substance. Keep all
sparks or flames away from batteries, especially if they are being charged.
ƒ When connecting a battery to a charger, attach the leads to the battery, then turn the charger on. To
disconnect, turn the charger off; then unclip the leads. Wear a face shield when charging a battery or
connecting it to any power.
ƒ When a battery is charging, you should monitor the temperature by putting your hand on the side of it every
half-hour or so. If the battery gets really hot, it is defective and must be replaced; do not continue to charge
it. Don’t leave a battery charging when you can’t monitor it.
ƒ When pulling a battery out of a vehicle, disconnect the ground lead first. This reduces the chances of
accidentally causing a short circuit as you work around the battery.
ƒ Never attempt to charge or jump-start a frozen battery. The battery could explode.
ƒ Never attempt to charge or jump-start a maintenance free battery if the charge indicator shows that the
battery’s electrolytes are low—the battery could explode. It is time to replace it.
Name:
June 2002
Date:
95
Test
BATTERY HANDLING SAFETY
Name:
Date:
Class:
Section:
1. How do you protect yourself from acid burns when working with automotive batteries?
2. Why is it important to keep all sparks or flames away from lead/acid batteries?
3. List all the personal, protective equipment required when charging or connecting a battery to power.
4. In what order should you connect and disconnect a battery from a charger?
Steps
Connect
a. hook up the leads
b. unhook the leads
c. turn on the charger
d. turn off the charger
Disconnect
5. What should you do if you are charging a battery and it starts to get hot?
6. When pulling a battery out of a vehicle, which lead should you disconnect first?
7. What could happen if you try to charge or jump-start a frozen battery?
8. What could happen if you try to charge a maintenance free battery that has low electrolyte?
96
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
CLASS SAFETY
INSTRUCTION
RECORD
Course:
Block:
Machine:
Student Name
Demo
Date
Machine:
Test
Date
Make-up
Date
Qualified
Date
Demo
Date
Test
Date
Make-up
Date
Qualified
Date
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
June 2002
97
SAFETY PLEDGE
I, ______________________________________________________________, certify that I was present for the
demonstration of the _______________________________________________________________________ on
________________________________, and that I understand the correct setup and use of this machine. I hereby
pledge to practise the correct safety procedures for this machine, report any unsafe conditions, and ask for
assistance if in any doubt.
Student’s Signature
Date
SAFETY PLEDGE
I, ______________________________________________________________, certify that I was present for the
demonstration of the _______________________________________________________________________ on
________________________________, and that I understand the correct setup and use of this machine. I hereby
pledge to practise the correct safety procedures for this machine, report any unsafe conditions, and ask for
assistance if in any doubt.
Student’s Signature
Date
SAFETY PLEDGE
I, ______________________________________________________________, certify that I was present for the
demonstration of the _______________________________________________________________________ on
________________________________, and that I understand the correct setup and use of this machine. I hereby
pledge to practise the correct safety procedures for this machine, report any unsafe conditions, and ask for
assistance if in any doubt.
Student’s Signature
98
Date
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
MACHINE OPERATOR CARDS
Student:
Machine
June 2002
Machine
Student:
Teacher
Date:
Teacher
Machine
Teacher
QUALIFIED
Machine Operator
Machine Operator
Machine
Student:
Teacher
Machine
Date:
Teacher
Machine
Teacher
QUALIFIED
QUALIFIED
Machine Operator
Machine Operator
Machine
Student:
Teacher
Machine
Date:
Teacher
Machine
Teacher
QUALIFIED
QUALIFIED
Machine Operator
Machine Operator
Student:
Date:
Teacher
Machine
QUALIFIED
Date:
Teacher
Student:
Machine
Machine Operator
Date:
Teacher
Student:
Machine
QUALIFIED
Machine Operator
Date:
Teacher
Student:
Machine
QUALIFIED
Machine
Teacher
Machine
Date:
Teacher
Machine
Teacher
99
STUDENT INCIDENT REPORT
Student:
Date of incident:
Course:
Period:
Time:
1. Describe, in detail, how the incident occurred:
2. What was the nature of the injury?
3. To whom did you report the incident?
4. Who witnessed the incident?
5. What First Aid treatment did you receive at the school?
6. Were you treated by a doctor?
7. What is the name of your family doctor?
8. Upon reflection, how could this incident have been prevented?
Student’s signature:
100
Date:
June 2002
SHOP SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST
General Condition of the Shop
Work Room
Condition Required
Subject
Floors
Clean, free of slipping/tripping hazards, free of oil, water, dirt, etc.
Corners
Clean, uncluttered, no sharp edges
Stairways
Clean, free of slipping/tripping hazards, good lighting, hand rails
Exits
Sufficient, well-identified, unobstructed, clearly marked
Walls
Clean, clear of objects that might fall
Windows
Clean
Ceiling
Clean, overhead sprinklers free of obstructions
Lighting
Safe, sufficient, well-placed, all fixtures on and operating
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Air Quality
Condition Required
Subject
Air
Free from excessive dust, smoke, etc.
Ventilation (e.g., small
engine)
Adequate, proper for current activities
Local exhaust for dust,
vapour and fume
Provided where required
Equipment
Condition Required
Subject
Ladders
Free of defects, no loose, broken or missing parts
Machines, benches, etc.
Location conforms to good safety practices
Storage Facilities
Condition Required
Subject
Storage units
Correctly labeled, free of slipping/tripping hazards
Lockers
Clean, contain no fire hazards
For tools and materials
Appropriate and adequate
For waste and oil rags
Container with spring-loaded lid, emptied regularly
For dangerous materials
Labeled storage provided outside the main building
For flammable liquids
Safety cans provided
For scrap
Adequate storage provided
Emergency Preparedness
Condition Required
Subject
Emergency procedures
Posted and in place for all emergencies
Emergency lighting
Provided where required
Fire extinguishers
Appropriate, well-maintained—service date on tag is current,
provided where required
Name:
June 2002
Date:
101
Housekeeping
Storage
Subject
Condition Required
Tools
Stored in orderly and safe fashion in the areas provided
Scrap
Stored promptly in the containers provided
Workshop materials
Stored in an orderly and safe fashion
Waste materials, oily rags
Stored promptly in designated, labeled, non-flammable containers
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Mezzanine
Subject
Condition Required
Toe board, guard rail
Top rail is about 1 metre above the work surface
Mid rail
Mid rail is between the top rail and the toe board
Cleanliness
Subject
Condition Required
Shop
Clean, uncluttered, free of refuse, oil, water, dirt, slipping and
tripping hazards
Work surfaces
Clean, uncluttered, free of refuse, oil, water, dirt, etc.
Flammable liquids
Not used for manual cleaning
Equipment
Required Procedures
Subject
Machines locked out
Condition Required
While unattended, when the instructor is out of the room, and during
maintenance and/or cleaning; Lockout procedures are located in
proximity to the machines
Safety
Subject
Condition Required
Control switches
Easily available to operator at all times
Guards
Used on all equipment, without exception
Enclosure guards
All gears, moving belts, etc., protected by permanent guards
Brushes
Used for cleaning equipment
Non-skid areas
Provided on floor areas where machines are used
Asbestos removal equip.
Provided for use on auto brakes; written procedures available
Machines
Arranged to protect workers from other hazards
Danger zones
Properly identified and guarded
Maintenance
Subject
Condition Required
Machines
Receive regular preventative maintenance; in safe working order
Tools
Kept sharp, clean and in safe working order
Hoisting devices
Maintained in safe working order
Storage
Subject
Tools, equipment, etc.
102
Condition Required
Adequate storage provided and used when tools, equipment, etc., not
in use
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Electrical
Switches
Condition Required
Subject
Master control switch
One master for all electrical installations
Electrical switches
All switches are enclosed; proper lockouts available
Machine switches
Within easy reach of the operator at all times
Lock out switches
Individual lock out switches are provided for each machine
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Safety
Condition Required
Subject
Control switches
Easily available to operator at all times
CSA Code
All electrical motors and equipment comply with the Code
Magnetic controls
All machines are provided with controls for overload and underload
protection, and protection against inadvertent startup in the event of
a power outage
Electrical outlets and
circuits
Properly identified
Extension cords
Safe condition; not carrying excessive loads
Temporary wiring
None evident
Lock-out procedures
Instructions posted in appropriate area
Hazardous Materials
Safety
Subject
Condition Required
Chemical substances
Properly stored, labeled and handled
Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS)
Up-to-date and readily available
Gas
Subject
Condition Required
Gas flow
Properly regulated to each appliance
Cylinders
Upright, caps on and secured to prevent falling and/or rolling;
pressure testing is valid and current; valve kept closed when empty
or not in use; gas cylinders are correctly labeled; MSDS sheets are
readily available; procedures for safe use, storage and handling are
followed
Insulation
Appliance properly insulated from all flammable materials (walls,
benches, etc.)
Lighting
Appliance properly adjusted to avoid problems when ignited
Leaks
No leaks or gas odours anywhere in the shop
Pipe connections
Piping is correctly labeled; gas hoses not in use where pipe
connections are required
Name:
June 2002
Date:
103
First Aid
Safety
Condition Required
Subject
Eye wash station
Provided nearby, directions for use posted, testing conducted
monthly
Body wash station
Provided nearby when using acids or other corrosives
First Aid cabinet
On site and adequately stocked
First Aid attendant
Qualified personnel on site
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Satisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Corrected by:
Personal Protection
Safety
Subject
Condition Required
Jewelry
Rings and other jewelry are removed before working in the shop
Clothing and footwear
Personal clothing and footwear is suitable for the work being done
and worn appropriately
Eye protection
Goggles or protection shields are used where eye hazards exist
Hearing protection
Hearing protection is worn when working around noisy equipment
Respiratory protection
Respirators are selected according to the hazard; students using half
or full-face respirators with cartridges have been properly fit-tested
to ensure the respirator seals the face; respirators are worn when
spraying materials hazardous to one’s health (dust, toxic substances,
etc.)
Protective gloves
Proper type for the hazard, good condition
Other
Subject
104
Condition Required
June 2002
PERSONAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT
Student:
No.
Date:
Competency
Skill set
Level
1-a
Respond to potential hazards using problem-solving strategies.
Example:
1-b
Recognize the impact of their decisions on the safety of themselves and others, as well as
on the environment.
Example:
1-c
Demonstrate responsibility and acceptance for their decisions in work situations.
Example:
1-d
Identify and follow recognized practises and principles that will keep themselves and
others safe in a variety of situations.
Example:
1-e
Participate in activities that promote a safe environment (school and/or community).
Example:
Competency Rating Scale
4
Independent – Thorough and innovative; outstanding achievement
3
Capable – Needs minimal support; shows consistent achievement
2
Developing – Needs frequent support; shows partial achievement
1
Beginning – Needs continual support; shows minimal achievement
Source: Adapted from the WCB WorkSafe Manual
June 2002
105
CLASS SAFETY ASSESSMENT
Course:
Block:
1-a
Respond to
potential hazards
Student Name
1-b
Recognize the
impact of their
decisions
1-c
Demonstrate
responsibility and
acceptance for
their decisions
1-d
Identify and
follow recognized
practises and
principles
1-e
Participate in
activities that
promote a safe
environment
Avg.
Rating
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
4
3
2
1
106
Competency Rating Scale
Independent – Thorough and innovative; outstanding achievement
Capable – Needs minimal support; shows consistent achievement
Developing – Needs frequent support; shows partial achievement
Beginning – Needs continual support; shows minimal achievement
June 2002
BAND SAW CROSSWORD PUZZLE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
Name:
June 2002
13
15
Across
4
7
11
12
14
15
Only one of these at a time. (8)
A relaxed blade needs some of this. (7)
Keeps the blade from wandering. (5,6)
Don’t use the band saw without this. (10)
Don’t make adjustments until blade has __. (7)
Hands should never be __ with the blade (2,4)
Down
1
2
3
5
6
8
9
10
13
This covers for you. (5)
Step on this before stepping away. (5)
Not a good idea to reach here. (6)
These give you a way out when you’re in trouble. (6,4)
Your eyes deserve this. (10)
No cutting until blade moves like this. (4,5)
These can disappear very quickly! (7)
Don’t do this to small pieces while blade is moving. (6)
Backing out of a cut can cause the blade to __ off the wheels. (4)
Date:
107
TABLE SAW CROSSWORD PUZZLE
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
108
Across
2
5
7
8
9
12
13
In relation to the blade, the stock should be here before you release pressure. (4)
No one should operate the table saw without this. (11)
Cutting this way may cost you. (8)
These should always to be well away from the blade. (5)
This allows you to apply pressure from a distance (4,5)
This covers a lot of teeth. (5)
This will get you where it hurts - don’t let it! (4,4)
Down
1
3
4
6
7
9
10
11
This keeps the wood from binding on the blade. (8)
The blade shouldn’t be much higher than the __ of the stock. (9)
Never do this to the blade. (5,4)
This supports your work when cross-cutting. (5,5)
To rip stock, this guides your work. (5)
The gift of sight depends on this. (9)
To support long pieces, you should have one of these. (6)
You must do this to the saw before changing the blade. (4,3)
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
Additional Resources
Following is a list of some of the websites available to assist you in the development of your shop
programs:
American Association of Vocational Instructional Materials
www.aavim.com
Automotive Lift Institute
www.autolift.org
BC Safety Council
www.safetycouncil.bc.ca
BC Technology Education Association
www.bctf.bc.ca/psas/bctea
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
www.ccohs.ca
Canadian Standards Association
www.csa.ca
Schools Protection Program
www.bcspp.org
Workers’ Compensation Board
www.worksafebc.com
Industrial Accident Prevention Association
www.iapa.on.ca
Occupational Health and Safety Administration (US Department of
Labour)
www.osha.gov
WCB Resources
A wide range of information and materials are available from the WCB. The following list of stickers,
posters and publications are suitable for industrial education workshop safety. Complete the order form
and fax or send it to:
Publications and Videos
Workers’ Compensation Board
PO Box 5350 Stn Terminal
Vancouver, BC V6B 5L5
Phone: 604 276-3068
Fax: 604 279-7406
Toll-free: 1 800 66 1-2112, local 3068
Web: http: //www.worksafebc.com
WCB Stickers - 5 X 6 inches:
Sticker
June 2002
Message
Order No.
Price
Danger Area Stay Alert
PS 1
$0.30
Get Authority Before Operating
PS 3
$0.30
109
Sticker
110
Message
Order No.
Price
Put Them Away
PS 8
$0.30
Keep Aisle Clear
PS 9
$0.30
Keep Guard On
PS 20
$0.30
Lift with the Knees
PS 22
$0.30
Wipe It Up
PS 23
$0.30
Wear Them
PS 24
$0.30
Keep this Door Closed
PS 25
$0.30
Pinch Point Danger
PS 40
$0.30
Keep Hands Off End of Board – Use Push Stick
PS 41
$0.30
Wear Hearing Protection
PS 42
$0.30
Tripping Hazard – Watch Your Step
PS 45
$0.30
Eliminate a Hazard – Prevent an Accident
PS 57
$0.30
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
WCB Posters – 17.5 x 23 inches:
Poster
Message
Which would you rather get around on? (A Bicycle
or a Wheelchair?)
Order No.
Price
9805
$0.35
9901
$0.35
Replacing a Finger isn’t Easy
8904
$0.35
What do you know about WHMIS?
2005
$0.35
Wants to play short stop . . . Wants to play 3rd base . .
. Wants to play catcher . . . Wants to play left field . .
. Wants to play again
Tyson Koch was 22 when a workplace injury cost
him most of his right arm
WCB Publications:
Publication
June 2002
Subject
Order No.
Price
Back Talk: An Owners Manual for Backs
BK 4
$0.65
Working Safely on and around Electricity
BK 19
$0.90
Lockout: defines lockout and explains lockout policy
and procedures
BK 21
$0.75
111
Publication
112
Subject
Order No.
Price
Safety on the Job is Everyone’s Business: The
Responsibilities of Employers, Supervisors and
Workers
PH 39
$0.25
WHMIS at Work
BK 40
$0.75
Breathe Safer: How to Use Respirators Safely and
Implement a Respirator Program
BK 75
$1.50
Understanding the Risks of Musculoskeletal Injury
(MSI)
BK 78
$0.45
June 2002
HEADS UP! for Safety
WCB Order Form
Stickers, Posters, Publications
Order
No.
Message/Subject
Price
No. of
Copies
Total Cost
Subtotal
GST
Total
Name:
Company:
Address:
Telephone:
Fax:
E-mail:
GST Exemption No.:
Payment:
Cheque (payable to: Workers’ Compensation Board)
Visa/Mastercard No:
Mail to:
Publications and Videos, Workers’ Compensation Board,
PO Box 5350 Stn Terminal, Vancouver, BC V6B 5L5
Fax to:
604-279-7406
June 2002
Expiry Date:
113
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement