Nickel Cadmium Batteries Technical Handbook `99 PDF File Technical

Nickel Cadmium Batteries Technical Handbook `99 PDF File Technical
Nickel Cadmium Batteries
Technical Handbook ’99
International English Version
PDF File Technical Handbook
Copyright 1999 Matsushita Battery Industrial Co., Ltd. All rights Reserved. No part of this technical
handbook pdf file may be changed, altered, reproduced in any form or by any means without the
prior written permission of Matsushita Battery Industrial Co., Ltd.
NOTICE TO READERS
It is the responsibility of each user to ensure that each battery application system is adequately
designed safe and compatible with all conditions encountered during use, and in conformance
with existing standards and requirements. Any circuits contained herein are illustrative only
and each user must ensure that each circuit is safe and otherwise completely appropriate for
the desired application.
This literature contains information concerning cells and batteries manufactured by Matsushita
Battery Industrial Co., Ltd. This information is generally descriptive only and is not intended to
make or imply any representation guarantee or warranty with respect to any cells and batteries.
Cell and battery designs are subject to modification without notice. All descriptions and
warranties are solely as contained in formal offers to sell or quotations made by Matsushita
Battery Industrial Co., Ltd., Panasonic Sales Companies and Panasonic Agencies.
NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERIES: TABLE OF CONTENTS
Nickel Cadmium Batteries: Table of Contents
Precautions for Designing Devices with NI-CD Batteries .............. 2
Rechargeable NI-Cd Batteries ........................................................... 6
Charge Methods for NI-CD Batteries .............................................. 10
Summary Specification Tables ......................................................... 24
Standard “N” Type ............................................................................26
High Capacity “S” Type ....................................................................28
Rapid Charge “R” Type ....................................................................30
High Rate Discharge and Rapid Charge “P” Type ........................32
Trickle Charge “H” and “K” Type ...................................................34
Battery Selection ...............................................................................37
• Charts
Individual Data Sheets ......................................................................40
• Specifications
• Dimensions
• Characteristics
Battery Packs ..................................................................................... 86
Glossary of Terms for NI-Cd Batteries ............................................89
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 1
SEPTEMBER 1999
PRECAUTIONS FOR DESIGNING DEVICES WITH NI-CD BATTERIES
In order to take full advantage of the properties of NiCd batteries and also to prevent problems due to
improper use, please note the following points during
the use and design of battery operated products.
Underlined sections indicate information
that is especially important
1. Charging
1.1 Charging temperature
• Charge batteries within an ambient temperature
range of 0°C to 45°C.
• Ambient temperature during charging affects
charging efficiency. As charging efficiency is best
within a temperature range of 10°C to 30°C,
whenever possible place the charger (battery
pack) in a location within this temperature range.
• At temperatures below 0°C the gas absorption
reaction is not adequate, causing gas pressure
inside the battery to rise, which can activate the
safety vent and lead to leakage of alkaline gas
and deterioration in battery performance.
• Charging efficiency drops at temperatures above
40°C. This can disrupt full charging and lead to
deterioration in performance and battery leakage.
1.2 Parallel charging of batteries
• Sufficient care must be taken during the design
of the charger when charging batteries connected in parallel.
Consult Panasonic when parallel charging is
required.
1.3 Reverse charging
• Never attempt reverse charging.
Charging with polarity reversed can cause a
reversal in battery polarity causing gas pressure
inside the battery to rise, which can activate the
safety vent, lead to alkaline electrolyte leakage,
rapid deterioration in battery performance,
battery swelling or battery rupture.
1.4 Overcharging
• Avoid overcharging. Repeated overcharging can
lead to deterioration in battery performance.
(“Overcharging” means charging a battery when
it is already fully charged.)
1.5 Rapid Charging
• To charge batteries rapidly, use the specified
charger (or charging method recommended by
Panasonic) and follow the correct procedures.
1.6 Trickle charging (continuous charging)
• Carry out trickle charge by applying the current
of 0.02 to 0.05 CmA. The correct current value
is determined depending on the features and
purpose of the equipment.
• Note : “CmA”
During charging and discharging, CmA is a
value indicating current and expressed as a
multiple of nominal capacity. Substitute “C” with
the battery’s nominal capacity when calculating.
For example, for a l500mAh battery of
0.033CmA, this value is equal to 1/30 × 1500, or
roughly 50mA.
2. Discharging
2.1 Discharge temperature
• Discharge batteries within an ambient temperature range of -20°C to +65°C.
• Discharge current level (i.e. the current at
which a battery is discharged) affects discharging efficiency. Discharging efficiency is good
within a current range of 0.1 CmA to 0.5 CmA.
• Discharge capacity drops at temperatures
below -20°C or above +65°C. Such decreases
in discharge capacity can lead to deterioration in
battery performance.
2.2 Overdischarge
• Since overdischarging damages the battery
characteristics, do not forget to turn off the
switch when discharging, and do not leave the
battery connected to the equipment for long
periods of time. Also, avoid shipping the battery
installed in the equipment.
2.3 High-current discharging
• As high-current discharging can lead to heat
generation and decreased discharging efficiency, consult Panasonic before attempting
continuous discharging or pulse discharging at
currents larger than 2 CmA.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 2
SEPTEMBER 1999
PRECAUTIONS FOR DESIGNING DEVICES WITH NI-CD BATTERIES-CONTINUED
3. Storage
3.1 Storage temperature and humidity (short-term)
• Store batteries in a dry location with low humidity,
no corrosive gases, and at a temperature range
of -20°C to +45°C.
• Storing batteries in a location where humidity is
extremely high or where temperatures fall below
-20°C or rise above +45°C can lead to the
rusting of metallic parts and battery leakage due
to expansion or contraction in parts composed of
organic materials.
3.2 Long-term storage (2 year, -20°C to +35°C)
• Because long-term storage can accelerate
battery self-discharge and lead to the deactivation of reactants, locations where the temperature ranges between +10°C and +30°C are
suitable for long-term storage.
• When charging for the first time after long-term
storage, deactivation of reactants may lead to
increased battery voltage and decreased battery
capacity. Restore such batteries to original
performance by repeating several cycles of
charging and discharging.
• When storing batteries for more than 1 year,
charge at least once a year to prevent leakage
and deterioration in performance due to selfdischarging. When using a rapid voltage detection type battery charger carry out charge and
discharge at least once every 6 months.
4. Service Life of Batteries
4.1 Cycle life
• Batteries used under proper conditions of charging and discharging can be used 500 cycles or
more.
Significantly reduced service time in spite of
proper charging means that the life of the battery
has been exceeded.
Also, at the end of service life, an unusual increase in internal resistance, or an internal shortcircuit failure may occur. Chargers and charging
circuits should therefore be designed to ensure
safety in the event of heat generated upon battery
failure at the end of service life.
Please contact Panasonic if you have any questions.
4.2 Service life with long-term use
• Because batteries are chemical products involving internal chemical reactions, performance
deteriorates not only with use but also during
prolonged storage.
Normally, a battery will last 3 to 5 years if used
under proper conditions and not overcharged or
overdischarged.
However, failure to satisfy conditions concerning
charging, discharging, temperature and other
factors during actual use can lead to shortened
life (or cycle life) damage to products and deterioration in performance due to leakage and
shortened service life.
5. Design of Products Which Use Batteries
5.1 Connecting batteries and products
• Never solder a lead wire and other connecting
materials directly to the battery, as doing so will
damage the battery’s internal safety vent, separator, and other parts made of organic materials.
To connect a battery to a product, spot-weld a tab
made of nickel or nickel-plated steel to the
battery’s terminal strip, then solder a lead wire to
the tab.
Perform soldering in as short a time as possible.
• Use caution in applying pressure to the terminals
in cases where the battery pack can be separated from the equipment.
• When rapid charging using the voltage detection
method with a large current (1C or more), or
when leaving the battery installed in the
equipment, be sure to follow connecting the
precaution listed above. Even for other uses, if
connecting the precaution listed above is used as
much as possible, contact defects in the
connection process can be reduced.
5.2 Material for terminals in products using the batteries
• Because small amounts of alkaline electrolyte
can leak out from the battery seal during extended
use or when the safety vent is activated during
improper use, use a highly alkaline-resistant
material for a product’s contact terminals in order
to avoid problems due to corrosion.
High Alkaline-resistant Metals
Nickel, stainless steel, nickelplated steel, etc.
Low Alkaline-resistant Metals
Tin, aluminum, zinc, copper,
brass, etc.
(Note that stainless steel generally results in higher contact resistance.)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 3
SEPTEMBER 1999
PRECAUTIONS FOR DESIGNING DEVICES WITH NI-CD BATTERIES-CONTINUED
5.3 Temperature related to the position of batteries in
products
• Excessively high temperatures (i.e. higher than
45°C) can cause alkaline electrolyte to leak out
from the battery, thus damaging the product and
shorten battery life by causing deterioration in the
separator or other battery parts. Install batteries
far from heat-generating parts of product. The
best battery position is a battery compartment
that is composed of an alkaline-resistant material
which isolates the batteries from the product’s
circuitry. This prevents damage caused by a
slight leakage of alkaline electrolyte from the
battery. Be careful particularly when trickle
charging is carried out (for continuous charging).
5.4 Discharge end voltage
• Overdischarge and reverse charge of the battery
deteriorate battery characteristics. This can be
caused by several actions, such as forgetting to
turn off the power. Installing an overdischarge
cutoff circuit is recommended in order to avoid
overdischarge and reverse charge.
• The discharge end voltage is determined by the
formula given below.
Number of Batteries Arranged Serially
1 to 6
(Number of batteries × 1.0) V
7 to 20
((Number of batteries - 1) × 1.2) V
5.5 Overdischarge (deep discharge) prevention
• Overdischarging (deep discharging) or reverse
charging damages the battery characteristics. In
order to prevent damage associated with forgetting to turn off the switch or leaving the battery in
the equipment for extended periods, it is hoped
that preventative options are incorporated in the
equipment. At the same time, it is recommended
that leakage current is minimized. Also, the
battery should not be shipped inside the equipment.
6. Prohibited Items Regarding the Battery
Handling
• Panasonic assumes no responsibility for problems resulting from batteries handled in the
following manner.
6.2 Short-circuiting
• Never attempt to short-circuit a battery. Doing
so can damage the product and generate heat
that can cause burns.
6.3 Throwing batteries into a fire or water
• Disposing of a battery in fire can cause the
battery to rupture. Also avoid placing batteries in
water, as this causes batteries to cease to
function.
6.4 Soldering
• Never solder anything directly to a battery. This
can destroy the safety features of the battery by
damaging the safety vent inside the cap.
6.5 Inserting the batteries with their polarities reversed
• Never insert a battery with the positive and
negative poles reversed, as this can cause the
battery to swell or rupture.
6.6 Overcharging at high currents and reverse
charging
• Never reverse charge or overcharge with high
currents (i.e. higher than rated). Doing so causes
rapid gas generation and increased gas pressure, thus causing batteries to swell or rupture.
• Charging with an unspecified charger or specified
charger that has been modified can cause
batteries to swell or rupture. Be sure to indicate
this safety warning clearly in all operating instructions as a handling restriction for ensuring safety.
6.7 Installation in equipment (with an airtight battery
compartment)
• Always avoid designing airtight battery compartments. In some cases, gases (oxygen, hydrogen) may be given off, and there is a danger of
the batteries bursting or rupturing in the presence
of a source of ignition_(sparks generated by a
motor switch, etc.).
6.8 Use of batteries for other purposes
• Do not use a battery in an appliance or purpose
for which it was not intended. Differences in
specifications can damage the battery or appliance.
6.1 Disassembly
• Never disassemble a battery, as the electrolyte
inside is strong alkaline and can damage skin and
clothes.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 4
SEPTEMBER 1999
PRECAUTIONS FOR DESIGNING DEVICES WITH NI-CD BATTERIES-CONTINUED
6.9 Short-circuiting of battery packs
• Special caution is required to prevent shortcircuits. Care must be taken during the design of
the battery pack shape to ensure batteries cannot
be inserted in reverse. Also, caution must be
given to certain structures or product terminal
shapes which can make short-circuiting more
likely.
6.10 Using old and new batteries together
• Avoid using old and new batteries together. Also
avoid using these batteries with ordinary dry-cell
batteries, Ni-MH batteries or with another
manufacturer’s batteries.
Differences in various characteristic values, etc.,
can cause damage to batteries or the product.
7. Other Precautions
• Batteries should always be charged prior to use.
Be sure to charge correctly.
8. Final Point to Bear in Mind
• In order to ensure safe battery use and to prolong
the battery performance, please consult
Panasonic regarding charge and discharge
conditions for use and product design prior to the
release of a battery-operated product.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 5
SEPTEMBER 1999
RECHARGEABLE NI-CD BATTERIES
Responding to the Technological Revolution with Consistent Reliability!
Overview
Rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries are one type of alkaline
storage battery, which is classified as a secondary
battery. Ni-Cd batteries use nickel hydroxide as the
positive electrode, cadmium as the negative electrode, and an alkaline electrolyte. They are designated by IEC 285 as alkaline secondary cells and
batteries “Sealed nickel-cadmium cylindrical rechargeable single cells”. First invented by Jungner of
Sweden in 1899, the basis for practical application of
rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries was made possible
about 50 years later by the development of the totally
sealed cell by Neumann of France.
Ever since our development and practical application
of rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries in 1961, for over 30
years Panasonic has continued to make innovations
and improvements in order to meet the ever-increasing needs and demands of the market. As a result,
our rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries are used for all
types of applications throughout the world. Panasonic
has also applied many original technological developments in our rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries, including
the fabrication of the negative electrode by a pasted
method, the fabrication of the positive electrode by a
sintered method or by using a new foamed metal
material, and the use of a new thin type separator,
thus achieving ever-higher levels of reliability and
performance. In particular, reflecting the needs of the
market, our SM120 and SM80 Series were developed
as a new High Capacity and Rapid Charge type,
challenging the limits of Ni-Cd batteries to provide
both rapid charge and approximately double the
capacity of our standard type.
Because Ni-Cd batteries are made using the scarce
natural resources of nickel and cadmium, Panasonic
is making a positive effort for recycling them from the
viewpoint of protecting the global environment and
ensuring the efficient utilization of the earth’s natural
resources.
Giving top priority to meeting the needs of our
customers, Panasonic will continue to develop new
products for providing power to the devices that are
so important to today’s comfortable, enjoyable, and
productive living.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 6
SEPTEMBER 1999
RECHARGEABLE NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Construction
Rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries are comprised of a
positive electrode plate which uses nickel hydroxide
as its main active material, a negative electrode plate
which uses a cadmium compound as its main active
material, a separator made of a thin non-woven
fabric, an alkaline electrolyte, a metal case, a sealing
plate provided with a self-sealing safety valve, and
other components. The positive and negative electrode plates, isolated from each other by the separator, are rolled in a spiral shape inside the case and
sealed by the sealing plate by means of an insulation
gasket. In battery types which are designed for highcurrent discharge, such as the “P” Series, our unique
collection system is used for the collectors of the
positive and negative electrode plates. By making the
side walls of the metal case thinner, it became
possible for the battery to be lighter in weight and to
have a larger internal volume than previous models.
Cap (+)
Safety Valve
Insulation Gasket
Sealing Plate
Insulation Ring
Positive
Electrode
Collector
Negative Electrode
Separator
Case
( )
Positive Electrode
Negative
Electrode
Collector
Figure 1 Construction
Battery Reactions
Generally, in rechargeable cells there are three
different electro-chemical reactions: the discharge
reaction which supplies electrical power to the load of
the battery, the charge reaction which restores that
electrical power, and the oxygen gas generation
reaction resulting from the electrolysis of water on
the positive electrode which occurs after the completion of charge, or, in other words, during overcharge.
For rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries, the charge and
discharge reactions are illustrated by the formula
shown below.
The special characteristic of these reactions is that
the alkaline electrolyte, for example, potassium
hydroxide (KOH), does not apparently contribute
directly to the reactions.
Positive
Negative
2NiOOH + Cd + 2H 2O
nickel
metal
Water
oxyhydroxide Cadmium
The battery is designed so that the capacity of the
negative electrode is larger than that of the positive
electrode, and the gas generated at the positive
electrode is absorbed by reacting with the unreacted
part of the negative electrode, thus making it possible
for the battery to be completely sealed. In this design,
the reactions become as follows.
Positive
Negative
2OH -
1
/2 O 2
+ H 2 O + 2e -
Cd + /2 O 2 + H 2 O
Cd(OH) 2 + 2e 1
Cd(OH) 2
Cd
+ 2OH -
Discharge
2Ni(OH) 2 + Cd(OH) 2
Charge
Nickel
hydroxide
(1st)
Cadmium
hydroxide
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 7
SEPTEMBER 1999
RECHARGEABLE NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Five Main Characteristics of Ni-Cd Batteries
1. Charge Characteristics
The charge characteristics of Ni-Cd batteries are
affected by the current, time, temperature, and other
factors. Increasing the charge current and lowering
the charge temperature causes the battery voltage to
rise. Charge generates heat, thus causing the battery
temperature to rise. Charge efficiency will also vary
according to the current, time, and temperature.
For rapid charge, a charge control system is required; refer to the following section on the charge
methods for Ni-Cd batteries.
2. Discharge Characteristics
The discharge characteristics of Ni-Cd batteries will
vary according to the current, temperature, and other
factors. Generally, in comparison with dry-cell batteries, there is less voltage fluctuation during discharge,
and even if the discharge current is high, there is
very little drop in capacity. Among the various types
of Ni-Cd batteries, there are models such as
Panasonic’s “P” type which are specifically designed
to meet the need for high-current discharge, such as
for power tools, and there are also models such as
our new High Capacity and Rapid Charge type which
are designed to meet the need for high capacity,
such as for high-tech devices.
Typical Charge Characteristics
Typical Self-discharge Characteristics
Ni-Cd batteries have five main characteristics:
charge, discharge, cycle life, storage, and safety.
1.8
Battery : P-50AA
Charge : 50mA (0.1C)x15hrs
100
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
45˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
0˚C
80
20˚C
60
Capacity test
Battery
Charge
Storage
conditions
: P-100AASJ
: 100mA (0.1C) X 15hrs.
: Each length of time at
each temperature
Discharge : 200mA (0.2 C),
cut-off voltage 1.0V
Temperature : 20˚C
40
1.0
20
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
45˚C
Charge Time (hours)
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Storage Time (months)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
(Comparison with Dry-cell)
1.6
1.0
Batteries : P-50AA Ni-Cd battery and
SUM-3 dry-cell battery
Discharge : 100mA Temp. : 20˚C
0.8
1.4
Ni-Cd batter y dis
charge voltage
0.6
1.2
0.4
ry
te ge
at lta
ll b vo
ce rge
yDr scha
di
1.0
Dry-cell battery
internal resistance
0.8
Interanl Resistance ( )
0.9
Voltage (V)
Voltage (V)
1.6
Capacity Ratio (%)
1.7
0.2
Ni-Cd battery internal resistance
0
0.6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Discharge Time (hours)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 8
SEPTEMBER 1999
RECHARGEABLE NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
3. Cycle Life Characteristics
The cycle life of Ni-Cd batteries will vary according to
the charge and discharge conditions, the temperature, and other usage conditions. When used in
accordance with the IEC charge and discharge
specifications, over 500 charge/discharge cycles are
possible. The actual cycle life will vary according to
which of the various charge formats is used, such as
for rapid charge, and also according to how the
device powered by the batteries is actually used.
5. Safety
If pressure inside the battery rises as a result of improper use, such as overcharge, short-circuit, or reverse charge, a resetable safety valve will function to
release the pressure, thus preventing bursting of the
battery.
Typical Cycle Life Characteristics
120
Capacity Ratio (%)
100
80
60
40
20
IEC Charge and Discharge Conditions
Battery : P-100AASJ
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Number of Cycles
4. Storage Characteristics
When Ni-Cd batteries are stored in a charged state,
the capacity will gradually decrease (self discharge),
and this tendency will be markedly greater at high
temperatures. However, the capacity can be subsequently restored by charge. Even if the batteries are
stored for an extended length of time, if the storage
conditions are appropriate, the capacity will be
restored by subsequent charge and discharge.
Typical Capacity Recovery After Storage
Capacity Ratio (%)
100
80
60
40
20
0
Capacity Test Conditions
Battery
: P-100AASJ
Charge
: 100mA (0.1C) X 15hrs.
Storage
: 20˚C X 6 months
Discharge : 200mA (0.2 C),
cut-off voltage 1.0V
Temperature : 20˚C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Number of Cycles
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 9
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES
If the charge conditions are not appropriate, not only
will the batteries not display their full performance
potential, but the cycle life could also be shortened,
and in extreme cases, electrolyte leakage could
damage the device in which the batteries are used.
Therefore, carefully select the appropriate charge
method, taking into consideration the type of battery,
the state of discharge, the charge current, and the
ambient temperature.
The charge methods for Ni-Cd batteries can be
generally classified into two types according to the
purpose for which the batteries are used: cycle use
and standby use.
(a) Cycle Use
Classified According to Usage.
(b) Standby Use
(a) Cycle Use
The battery is repeatedly charged and discharged.
This is the most common method for using Ni-Cd
batteries.
(b) Standby Use
Power is normally supplied to the load from an AC
power supply, and the Ni-Cd battery is used to
maintain the power supply to the load in the event
that the AC power supply is interrupted.
(1) Methods of Charge for Ni-Cd Battery
The methods of charge for Ni-Cd batteries can be classified as follows according to the purpose of use and the
charge time.
Charge Time
Cycle Use
1 to 2 hours
Charge Control Method
V Cut-off Charge System
dT/dt Charge System
Voltage-controlled Charge System
*See Note.
V-taper Controlled Charge System
Constant-voltage, Constant-current Controlled
Charge System
Standby Use
6 to 8 hours
Timer-controlled Charge System
15 hours
Semi-constant-current Charge System
Continuous Charge
Trickle Charge System
* Not a recommended charge method for Ni-Cd batteries
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 10
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
(2) General Comparison of the Various Charge Systems
Cycle (Repeated) Use
Charge System
Operation
VB: Battery Voltage
Ich: Charge Current
T: Battery Temperature
Features
Semi-constant
Current Charge
Timer Controlled
Charge
VB
VB
Ich
- ∆ V Cut-off Charge
VB
VB
dT/dt Cut off Charge
VB
VB
VB
Ich
Ich
VB
Standby Use
V
Ich
Ich
Ich
15(h)
* Most typical charge
system
* Simple and
economical
VB
T
Ich
0
VB
Ich
Ich
T
Trickle Charge
0
6 - 8(h)
* More reliable than
Semi-constant current
charge system
* Relatively simple and
economical
0
1-2 (h)
* Most popular
Ich
0
0
1-2 (h)
* Charging circuit
costs more than the
others but overcharge
can be avoided
enabling longer life
cycle than - ∆ V
charge method
No. of Output
Terminals
2
2
2
3
Charge Time
15 hours
6 to 8 hours
1 to 2 hours
1 to 2 hours
15
* Simple and
economical
* Applicable to the
equipment for
continuous long
charge
2
30 hours or longer
* frequent charge:0.050.033 CmA
* less frequent charge:
0.033-0.02 CmA
Charge Current
0.1 CmA
0.2 CmA
0.5 to 1 CmA
0.5 to 1 CmA
Trickel Current
---
0.05-0.033 CmA
0.05-0.033 CmA
0.05-0.033 CmA
Charge Level at
Charge Control
---
approx. 120%
approx. 110 to 120%
approx. 100 to 110%
---
"N" (Standard) Type
⊗
Ο
---
---
---
"S" Type
---
---
⊗
⊗
---
"R" Type
Ο
Ο
⊗
⊗
---
"P" Type
Ο
Ο
Ο
⊗
---
"H" Type
---
---
---
---
⊗
"K" Type
---
* Shavers
* Digital cordless
Application Examples
phones
* Toys
--* Cordless Phone
* Shavers
--* Data Terminals
* Camcorder
* Wireless equipment
* Cellular phones
--* Power Tools
* Electric Tools
* Notebook PC
* Cellular Phones
30(h)
⊗
* Emergency lights
* Guide lights
* Memory back-up
⊗: Most recommended
Ο: Acceptable
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 11
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
(2) General Comparison of the Various Charge Systems - Continued
For Reference Only (Not Recommended for the Main Charge Control System for Ni-Cd Batteries.)
Charge System
Operation
VB: Battery Voltage
Ich: Charge Current
T: Battery Temperature
CV: Constant Voltage
Features
No. of Output Terminals
Charge Time
Charge Current
Trickel Current
Charge Level at
Charge Control
"N" (Standard) Type
"S" Type
"R" Type
"P" Type
"H" Type
"K" Type
Application Examples
Voltage Controlled
Charge System
VB
V-taper Controlled Charge
System
VB
VB
VB
VB
Ich
Constant-voltage, Constant-current
Controlled Charge System
CV
VB
Ich
Ich
Ich
Ich
Ich
0
1(h)
* Not recommended for
the main charge control
system for Ni-Cd
batteries.
-------------------------
0
0
1(h)
* Not recommended for the
main charge control system
for Ni-Cd batteries.
* Recommended charge
control system for sealed
lead acid batteries.
---------
1(h)
* Not recommended for the main
charge control system for Ni-Cd
batteries.
---
-----------
--------------------Basic charge control system for sealed lead acid batteries.
---
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 12
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
(3) Details of Each Charge Method
Semi-constant-current Charge System
(1) Mechanism
(A) Mechanism
A resistance is positioned between the DC power
supply and the battery, thus stabilizing the charge
current. By keeping the charge current low enough
that the battery does not generate any heat, this
method performs charge without using any control.
VB : Battery Voltage
Ich : Charge Current
t : Charge Time
VB
VB = Battery voltage (Vc x N)
R = Charge current stabilizing resistance
Ich = Charge current
Ich =
Vo - VB VC × N × (K) - VC × N
=
R
R
(K) is the stabilizing constant and must be selected in
accordance with the purpose of the device in which
the battery pack is used.
(2) Features
• The standard charge method for Ni-Cd batteries.
• The charger construction is simple and
inexpensive.
Ich
VB
(3) General Specifications
Ich
0
t
Fig. 1 Charge Characteristics of the Semi-constant-current
Charge System
VO
Ich
VB
Battery Pack
DC Power Supply
to Charge
R
Fig. 2 Circuit Block Diagram of the Semi-constant-current
Charge-system
(B) Calculation Example
The calculation formula for the block diagram of the
semi-constant-current charge system shown in Fig.
1 is as follows.
Vo = Output voltage of the DC power supply for
charge
Vc = Single-cell battery voltage (1.45 V/cell: average
battery voltage during charge at 20°C, 0.1 CmA)
N = Number of cells used
Number of Charger Output Terminals
Charge Current
Charge Time
Applicable Battery Types
Typical General
Specifications
2
0.1CmA
15 hours
N R P
(4) Cautions
• If the specific conditions of the device require that
a charge rate higher than 0.1 CmA be used, the
overcharge performance and temperature rise
characteristics will vary according to the battery
type. Consult Panasonic for further details and
specifications.
• If a large number of battery cells are used, or if
batteries having a high nominal capacity are used,
or if the heat dissipation of the battery pack is
poor, the batteries may generate heat even when
charged at 0.1 CmA. In such cases, it is
necessary to re-design the construction for better
heat dissipation or to lower the charge current.
Design so that the battery temperature rise at
saturation is no higher than 50°C.
• The value of the above-mentioned stabilizing
constant (K) must be selected carefully. If the
value of K is too small, the fluctuation of the
charge current with respect to the fluctuation of
the power supply voltage will increase, and this
could cause insufficient charge or overcharge.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 13
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
•
When the batteries reach the end of their cycle
life, the usage time will become markedly shorter,
and eventually two malfunction modes will occur:
an internal short-circuit and the exhaustion of the
electrolyte (the internal resistance will increase).
Therefore, when designing the charger and the
charge circuit, these malfunction modes (output
short-circuit, etc.) at the end of the cycle life must
be taken into consideration. Special care is
required regarding the rated load of the charge
current stabilizing resistance R so that an
overload does not occur at the time of these
battery malfunction modes.
Timer-controlled Charge System
(1) Mechanism
At the start of charge, an IC timer is started (counts
up), and charge is continued at a current of 0.2 CmA
for a specified time until the timer stops. After the
timer stops, trickle charge continues at 0.05 CmA.
to : Timer Starts
tc : Timer Stops
VB
VB
Ich
tc
t
Typical General
Specifications
Number of Charger Output Terminals
Charge Current
Charge Time
Charge Level Until Timer Stops
Trickle
Applicable Battery Types
2
0.2CmA
6 hours
120%
Charge Current 0.05CmA
N S R P
(3) Cautions
•
This method is not appropriate for applications in
which the timer is frequently reset (charge is
restarted).
•
If frequent resetting of the timer is required, or if
the specific conditions of the device require that a
charge rate higher than 0.2 CmA be used (for
example, timer-controlled charge at 0.3 CmA), it
is necessary to combine this method with an
absolute temperature cut-off charge system.
•
The overcharge performance will vary according
to the battery type.
Current
Controller
Current
Detector
(1) Mechanism
If rapid charge Ni-Cd batteries are charged at a
constant current, the battery voltage will increase as
charge progresses, peak when charge is completed,
and then subsequently decrease. Because this
voltage drop occurs regardless of the discharge level
or ambient temperature, it can be effectively used to
detect the completion of charge. The -∆V cut-off
charge system controls charge by detecting the
voltage drop (-∆V) following the peak.
Battery Pack
DC Power Supply
to Charge
Fig. 3 Charge Characteristics of the Timer-controlled Charge
System
Timer
General Specifications
- ∆ V Cut-off Charge System
Ich
to
(2) Features
Compared with the semi-constant-current charge
system (non-controlled), the addition of a charge
timer improves the long-term reliability of charge.
•
The construction of the charge circuit is relatively
simple and inexpensive.
•
Fig. 4 Circuit Block Diagram of the Timer-controlled Charge
System
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 14
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
(2) Features
•
•
The most common control method for rapid
charge.
The most recommended and widely used
method for the rapid charge of Ni-Cd batteries for
use in high-tech devices (for example, portable
VCR, notebook PC, digital cordless and cellular
phones, etc.).
VB
V
VB
Ich
Ich
0
t
Fig. 5 Charge Characteristics of the - V Cut-off Charge
System
(3) General Specifications
Typical General Specifications
Number of Charger Output Terminals
Charge Current
Charge Time
Charge Level at -∆V Cut-off
Trickle Charge Current
-∆V Value
Charge Mode Switching (1)
(From Rapid Charge to Trickle Charge)
Charge Mode Switching (2)
(From Initial Charge to Rapid Charge)
Initial Charge Current
Total Timer Time
Initial Delay Timer
Safety Device
Applicable Battery Types
Remarks
2
0.5 to 1.0 CmA
1 to 2 hours
approx. 110 to 120%
0.05CmA
15 to 20 mV/cell
See (6) In Fig. 6.
See (3) in Fig. 6.
1.95 V/cell
See (2) in Fig. 6.
0.8 to 1.0 V/cell
See (4) in Fig. 6.
approx. 0.2 CmA
Time corresponding to a 150% charge level of
the nominal capacity at the rapid charge current
approx. 5 min.
Thermal protector (included in the battery pack)
S R P
See (7) in Fig. 6.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 15
See (5) in Fig. 6.
See (8) in Fig. 6.
See (1) in Fig. 6.
See Fig. 7 and 8.
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
(3) Precautions
•
This method is suitable for rapid charge Ni-Cd
batteries.
•
The charge current should be 0.5 CmA ~ 1 CmA.
If charged at less than 0.5 CmA, the voltage drop
after the peak voltage is reached might be too
small for the -∆V cut-off to function, resulting in
overcharge. The maximum charge current will
vary according to the specific type of battery, so it
is important to select the appropriate charge
current. (See (5) in Fig. 6)
•
A constant-current power supply circuit is
required. If fluctuations in the charge current
occur as a result of fluctuations in the power
supply voltage, the charge voltage will change,
and faulty operation (stopping of charge before
completion) of the charger might occur.
•
The voltage detector shown in the block diagram
must be provided with a noise canceller in order
to prevent external noise from causing faulty
operation (stopping of charge before completion)
of the charger.
•
An initial delay timer is needed in order to prevent
faulty operation (stopping of charge before
completion) of the charger from being caused by
any false -∆V phenomenon at the beginning of
charge.
False -∆V phenomenon: When Ni-Cd batteries
are left unused for a long period of time or
excessively discharged, the charge voltage (false
-∆V) may swing at the beginning of charge. (See
(1) in Fig 6)
Initial delay timer: Prevents the -∆V detection
circuit from functioning for a certain length of time
after rapid charge is begun.
•
Be sure that the -∆V value is correct. If it is not,
faulty operation (overcharge or insufficient
charge) of the charger might occur. (See (1) in
Fig. 6)
•
A voltage detection switch must be provided in
order to change from the rapid-charge current to
the trickle charge current when the charge voltage
reaches the predetermined level.
This predetermined level varies according to the
type of battery, so consult Panasonic for the
specific level. The trickle charge current should
be 0.05 CmA. (See (2) and (6) in Fig. 6)
•
If a voltage detection switch is provided in order to
switch the charger to the rapid charge mode, set
the voltage value to 0.8 to 1.0 V/cell. In addition,
for the period of initial charge (before the start of
rapid charge) until the battery voltage reaches the
predetermined level, set the charge current to
approximately 0.2 CmA. (See (5) and (7) in Fig. 6)
•
•
•
Provide a total timer in the charge circuit as a
double-safety control. (See (8) in Fig. 6)
A thermal protector (thermostat) and other safety
devices are needed inside the battery pack to
ensure the safety of rapid charge. (See Figs. 7
and 8.)
Especially for devices where charge is frequently
performed at high temperatures or low
temperatures (for example, chargers designed to
be used in an automobile), in order to increase
charge reliability, the charger is provided with a
function that detects the temperature of the
batteries and switches to trickle charge if the
temperature is not within the specified range for
rapid charge. Therefore, a thermistor or other
temperature-detecting element must be provided
inside the battery pack, and the battery pack will
have a 3-terminal construction. (See (9) in Fig. 6
and Fig. 7)
1 Voltage drop (- V) is not
detected for the first 5 min.
of charge
2 Charge mode switching (1)
Switches to trickle charge when voltage of 1.95V/cell is detected.
3 Switches to trickle charge
when voltage drop (- V) of
15-20mV/cell is detected
VB
Ich
VB
4 Charge mode
switching (2)
Swithes to rapid charge
at voltage of 0.8-1.0V/cell
4
7
Ich
5
5 Rapid charge current of
0.5 CmA or higher (maximum charge current deter mined according to
the specific type of battery).
7 Initial charge current of
approx. 0.2 CmA.
6 Trickle charge current
of 0.05 CmA for 15 hours
6
t
8 Rapid-charge total timer (counts up to time corresonding to 150% of
the nominal capacity).
9 Temperature range for rapid charge 10 to 40˚C
(Temperature detected by a thermistor.)
Fig. 6 Typical -
V Cut-off Charge System
+
Thermal Protector
Fig. 7 Basic Battery Pack Circuit
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 16
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
+
Thermal Protector
Thermistor
Temperature is detected by the thermistor
T
Fig. 8 Battery Pack Circuit for Low-temperature or Hightemperature Charge
Trickle Charge System
There are generally two types of uses for trickle
charge; As a standby power supply for devices such
as emergency lights, and for additional charge
following rapid charge. When used as a standby
power supply, the appropriate charge current varies
according to the frequency of discharge.
VB
I ch
VB
I ch
0
Fig. 9
t
Charge Characteristics of the Trickle Charge System
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 17
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
(1) Mechanism
While the AC power is being supplied, the battery is
disconnected from the load and is charged by a very
small current which only replenishes the self-discharge of the battery. Only in the event of an interruption in the AC power supply does power flow from the
battery to the load.
(2) Features
Mainly used as a standby power supply for
emergency lights and other disaster-prevention
equipment.
•
The main purpose of trickle charge is to replenish
the self-discharge of the battery, using a very
small charge current of 0.02 to 0.05 CmA.
It takes many hours to completely charge.
•
(3) General Specifications (Trickle Charge Current)
Trickle
Charge
Applications with Frequent
Discharge
Example: Back-up Power
Supply for Computers
0.033~
0.05CmA
Applications with Infrequent
Discharge
Example: Emergency Lights
0.02~
0.033CmA
Additional Charge
Following Rapid
Charge
(4) Precautions
The trickle charge current for use as a standby
power supply should be set to a level at which
charge will be completed by time of the next
discharge, taking into consideration the frequency
of discharge and the discharge current.
•
If recovery charge at a relatively large current (for
example, 0.1 CmA) is required, combine trickle
charge with some other suitable charge control
system (for example, timer-control charge).
•
0.05CmA
VB
I ch
VB
I ch
0
Fig. 10 Charge Characteristics of the Voltage-controlled
Charge System
Current
Controller
DC Power Supply
for Charge
Voltage-controlled Charge System (for
Reference Only)
(1) Mechanism
The charge voltage at the completion of charge is
detected (the detection voltage can be freely set) by a
voltage detection circuit inside the charger, and the
charger switches from rapid charge to trickle charge.
To compensate for temperature-related fluctuations in
the charge voltage of Ni-Cd batteries, temperature
compensation is added to detection voltage.
t
Voltage
Switch
Total Timer
T
T.P.
Battery Pack
Standby Power
Supply
T.: Thermistor
T.P.: Thermal Protector
Fig. 11 Circuit Block Diagram of the Voltage-controlled
Charge System
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 18
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
(2) Features
This method is rarely used today, and it is not appropriate for the charge control system for Ni-Cd batteries.
Matching the charger to the batteries is extremely
difficult, and if the detection voltage of the charger is
not set correctly, insufficient charge or overcharge
(thermal runaway) can easily occur.
V-taper Controlled Charge System
This is the charge control method recommended for
Sealed Lead Acid batteries, and it is not recommended for charge Ni-Cd batteries.
VB
VB
I ch
I ch
General Specifications
V-taper Controlled
Charge System
Typical General
Specifications
Charge Level at Voltage
Control
Trickle Charge Current
Detection Voltage
Safety Device
Applicable Battery Types
0.5~1.0 CmA
1 to 2 hours (complete charge is
difficult even with a longer charge
time)
Approx. 70%
0.05 CmA
(Detection voltage must be
compensated for the
temperature.)
Thermal protector + total timer
(Not recommended for use as the
main charge control system for NiCd batteries.)
(3) Precautions
•
The setting of the detection voltage is extremely
difficult. The setting of the detection voltage and
of the temperature compensation must be done
carefully, taking into consideration the variations
and fluctuations of the batteries and of the
charger as indicated below, and in order to avoid
overcharge (thermal runaway), the detection
voltage is generally set for insufficient charge.
Batteries: Single-cell and multi-cell (battery pack)
variations in the charge voltage, and fluctuation of
the charge voltage caused by the ambient
temperature.
Charger: Variations in the adjustment of the set
detection voltage, and fluctuation of the detection
voltage caused by the ambient temperature.
•
The charge voltage increases in batteries which
have been left unused for a long period of time,
and during charge the charge voltage will quickly
reach the charger’s detection voltage. Therefore,
if the voltage-controlled charge control system is
used to charge batteries which have not been
used for a long period of time, the charge level will
be low. Matching the charger to the batteries is
extremely difficult, and if the detection voltage of
the charger is not set correctly, insufficient charge
or overcharge (thermal runaway) can easily
occur. Therefore, this method should never be
used as the main charge control system for Ni-Cd
batteries.
0
t
Fig. 12 Charge Characteristics of the V-taper Controlled
Charge System
Current
Controller
T
V-1
Conver ter
CR
Timer
Total Timer
T.P.
Voltage
Switch
Battery Pack
Charge Time
Voltage-Controlled
Charge System
2
DC Power Supply
for Charge
Number of Charger
Output Terminals
Charge Current
T.: Thermistor
T.P.: Thermal Protector
Fig. 13 Circuit Block Diagram of the V-taper Controlled
Charge System
(1) Mechanism
This system is basically the same as the voltagecontrolled charge system already described. However,
in the V-taper controlled charge system, after the set
voltage is detected at the completion of charge, the
rapid charge current is supplied as a tapered current,
decreased at a predetermined rate over a predetermined length of time, and then switched to trickle current. Supplying the decreasing taper current makes it
possible to achieve a higher charge level than with the
voltage-controlled charge system.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 19
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
VB
VB
CV: Constant Voltage
I ch
I ch
0
(4) Precautions
This charge method is basically the same as the
voltage-controlled charge system, and it is not appropriate for charge Ni-Cd batteries.
Constant-voltage, Constant-current Controlled
Charge system
This is the basic charge system for Sealed Lead Acid
batteries, and it is not recommended for charge NiCd batteries.
(1) Mechanism
The charge voltage of Sealed Lead Acid batteries
rises sharply at the completion of charge and is
subsequently maintained at that level. The constantvoltage, constant-current controlled charge system
utilizes these charge voltage characteristics to
complete (control) charge using only a constantvoltage power supply with no external control. When
the battery voltage is lower than the constant voltage,
charge is carried out in the constant-current range,
and when the battery voltage reaches the level of the
constant-voltage, the charge current is decreased to
a trickle current.
t
Fig. 14 Charge Characteristics of the Constant-voltage,
Constant-current Controlled Charge System
DC Power Supply for
Charge (Constant Voltage,
Constant Current)
(3) General Specifications
Because this system is currently used only as a rapid
charge method for Sealed Lead Acid batteries, the
specifications are not included here.
CV
Sealed Lead Acid Battery
(2) Features
• This is the recommended charge control system
for Sealed Lead Acid batteries.
• In comparison with the voltage-controlled charge
system, this method is capable of increasing the
charge level by the amount indicated by the
shaded area in Fig. 12. However, just as for the
voltage-controlled charge system, the setting of
the detection voltage is extremely difficult when
charge Ni-Cd batteries.
Fig. 15 Circuit Block Diagram of the Constant-voltage,
Constant-current Controlled Charge System
(2) Features
Because this method is used only for charge Sealed
Lead Acid batteries, the features are not included
here.
(3) General Specifications
Because this method is used only for charge Sealed
Lead Acid batteries, the specifications are not included here.
(4) Cautions
The charge voltage characteristics of Ni-Cd batteries
exhibit a peak at the completion of charge, and
subsequently drop. Therefore, if the constant-voltage,
constant-current controlled charge system were to
be used to charge Ni-Cd batteries, the charge current would be increased again, and thermal runaway
would occur. This method is not suitable, and is not
recommended for charge Ni-Cd batteries.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 20
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Differences Between the Basic Charge
Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries and Sealed Lead
Acid Batteries
(1) Basic Charge Methods
A comparison of the charge voltage characteristics of
Ni-Cd batteries and Sealed Lead Acid batteries
shows major differences in the behavior of the
charge voltage, such as at the completion of charge.
With Ni-Cd batteries, the charge voltage reaches a
peak at the completion of charge and subsequently
drops, while with Sealed Lead Acid batteries, the
charge voltage is maintained at the high level
reached at the completion of charge and does not
subsequently drop. Due to such differences, the
overcharge voltage characteristics also differ greatly
between the two types of batteries. Therefore, if the
incorrect type of charge system is used, it will be
impossible to match the charger to the batteries, thus
leading to problems. The following is a summary of
the basic charge methods for the two types of batteries.
•
For Ni-Cd batteries: Constant-current controlled
charge system (Semi-constant-current charge
system).
•
For Sealed Lead Acid batteries: Constant-voltage,
constant-current control led charge system.
(2) General Comparison of the Basic Charge Methods
Batteries
Constant-current Controlled
Charge System
Ni-Cd Batteries
(Semi-constant-current Charge System)
VB
Sealed Lead Acid Batteries
Suitable
VB
I ch
VB
VB
I ch
I ch
I ch
0
t
Constant-voltage,
Constant-current Controlled
Charge System
0
t
Not Suitable
Suitable
VB
CV
VB
CV
I ch
VB
I ch
I ch
I ch
0
Charge Voltage
Characteristics (Summary)
VB
t
0
t
* The charge voltage of Ni-Cd batteries
* The charge voltage of Sealed Lead
reaches a peak at the completion of charge. Acid batter-ies rises sharply at the
Subsequently, however, the battery
completion of charge, and is subsequently
temperature rises as a result of the
maintained at a relatively high level.
overcharge reaction, causing the charge
voltage to drop. In addition, in comparison
with Sealed Lead Acid batteries, the slope
of the voltage at the completion of charge is
relatively moderate.
VB: Battery Voltage 1ch: Charge Current CV: Constant Voltage
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 21
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Typical Examples of Devices and Charge Methods
Recent trends in high-tech devices include smaller
sizes, lighter weights, and thinner configurations,
resulting in a demand for smaller, lighter, highercapacity Ni-Cd batteries for use in those devices.
One of the most important points in order to take
Device
Portable VCR
Rapid Charge
Quick Charge
Remarks
Rapid Charge
Quick Charge
Notebook PC
Remarks
Rapid Charge
Quick Charge
Overnight Charge
Cellular Phones and
Digital Cordless Phones
Remarks
maximum advantage of the characteristics of Ni-Cd
batteries is the charge method. The following is a list
of some typical examples of devices and of the most
commonly used charge methods.
Charge Method
-∆V cut off charge system, charge for 1 hour at 1 C mA
Timer-control charge system, charge for 8 hours at 0.2 CmA
Charge using a special charger
-∆V cut off charge system, charge for 1 hour at 1CmA or 2 hours at
0.5CmA.
Combination of a timer-control charge system and an temperature cutoff system, charge for 5 hours at 0.3 CmA
* With this type of device, sometimes a special charger is used and
sometimes the power supply (charger) is installed right into the device.
In the latter case, the power supply capacity is determined by the
amount of space available inside the device, and thus the charge time
(charge rate) will be determined by that capacity.
* If a timer-control charge system is used for this type of device, the
timer may be frequently reset (charge re-started). In many cases the
system is designed so that the timer is not started by the switching
on/off of the power switch on the device, but only by the disconnection
of the AC plug.
-∆V cut off charge system, charge for 1 hour at 1 CmA
Timer-control charge system, charge for 8 hours at 0.2 CmA
Semi-constant-current charge system, charge for 15 hours at 0.1 CmA
* Rapid chargers which use a car battery for the charge power supply
are commercially available. If the product is destined for a market with
a cold climate (for example, northern Europe) and charging at low
temperatures is anticipated, a circuit is often added to provide a trickle
charge at the beginning when the charge is started at a low
temperature. The same type of measure is also used for charging at
high temperatures.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 22
SEPTEMBER 1999
CHARGE METHODS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Confirming the Charge Specifications
In order to be able to fully display the characteristics
of Ni-Cd batteries, it is important to confirm the
specifications of the device. Below is a checklist of
Charge Specification Checklist
• Applicable batteries _________
• Number of cells used _________
• Charge power supply
[ ] AC__________V
[ ] DC car battery__________V
[ ] Other __________
• Charge temperature
°C to__ °C (Standard
charge: 0°C to 45°C); (rapid charge: 10°C to 40°C)
• Charge type
[ ] Cycle use
[ ] Standby use
[ ] Other ___________________________
[ ] Semi-constant-current charge
(non-controlled)
• Charge current
mA
[ ] Trickle charge
[ ] Timer-control charge
hrs.
• Timer time
• Trickle current following timer control
mA
• Timer reset method
[ ] When charge power supply is input
[ ] When battery pack is loaded
times/day
• Reset frequency
[ ] - ∆V cut-off charge
• Constant-current power supply
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
• Trickle current following - ∆V control
[ ] Yes
mA
[ ] No
• - ∆V value
mV/cell
• Charge mode switch (1) (See Fig. 7.)
[ ] Yes ±
V/cell
[ ] No
• Charge mode switch (2) (See Fig. 7.)
[ ] Yes
±
V/cell
[ ] No
• Initial charge current
mA
• Initial delay timer
[ ] Yes
min.
[ ] No
Two important points for obtaining maximum
performance from Ni-Cd batteries
(1) Select a type of battery suitable for the purpose.
(2) Set the charge characteristics correctly. In particular, if the charge conditions are not appropriate, not only
will the batteries not display their full performance
potential, but the cycle life could be shortened, and in
the points that need to be confirmed regarding the
charge specifications.
• Total timer
[ ] Yes
hrs.
[ ] No
• Battery temperature detection function
(Detects the battery temperature and switches to
trickle charge at beginning of charge.)
[ ] Yes, low temperature
°C
[ ] Yes, high temperature
°C
[ ] No
[ ] Absolute temperature cut-off charge
±
°C
• Control temperature
• Trickle current following absolute temperature
control
[ ] Yes
mA
[ ] No
• Temperature-detecting elements
[ ] Thermistor
B constant
±
%
R25°C
kW±
%
• Manufacturer’s name __________
Model No. ________
[ ] Thermostat (bimetal type)
±
°C
• Operating temperature
Manufacturer’s name __________
Model No. ________
[ ] Other temperature-detecting element
Element name __________
Manufacturer’s name _________
Model No. _________
• Retention circuit following completion of charge
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
• Total timer _________
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
[ ] Other rapid charge control system
• Trickle current
mA
Summary of the rapid charge system operation
extreme cases, electrolyte leakage could cause
damage to the device in which the batteries are
used. It is important to consult Panasonic from the
initial stages of charger design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 23
SEPTEMBER 1999
SUMMARY SPECIFICATION TABLES
Cycle Use
Diameter
Siz e
IEC
N
N
KR12/30
AAA
AAA
1/3AA
(2/3AA)
(AA)
AA
AA
L-AA
2/3A
A
4/5A
A
4/5SC
(SC)
SC
SC
(L-SC)
C
C
D
D
Model
Number
P-18N/FT
P-22AAA
P-22AAAR/FT
KR11/45
P-25AAA
P-25AAAR/FT
KR15/18 P-11AA/FT
--P-30AAR/FT
P-60AAR/FT
--P-70AARC/FT
P-80AAS/FT
P-60AA
P-70AA
KR15/51 P-100AASJ
P-100AASJ/FT
P-110AAS/FT
--P-120AAS/FT
KR17/29 P-60AS
P-110AS
P-120AS
KR17/43
P-130ASJ
P-150AS
P-140AS
KR17/50
P-160AS
P-120SCRJ
KR23/34
P-120SCPJ
P-130SCC
--P-140SCC
P-130SCR
P-140SCR
P-180SCR
KR23/43
P-120SCPM
P-170SCRP
NEW P -200S C P
--P-230SCS
P-240C
KR26/50
P-280CR
P-440D
KR33/62
P-500DR
Nominal
Type Voltage
(V)
N
N
R
N
R
N
R
R
R
S
N
N
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
R
P
R
R
R
R
R
P
P
P
S
N
R
N
R
1.2
Discharge Capacity* Dimension w ith Tube (mm)
Approx.
Rated
Weight
Average
(Min.)
Diameter
Height
(g)
(mAh) **
(mAh)
190
180
12.0 +0/-0.7
30.0 +0/-1.0
8
10
250
220
10
10.5 +0/-0.7
44.5 +0/-1.0
10
280
250
10
120
110
17.5 +0/-1.0
6.5
330
300
28.2 +0/-1.0
12
640
600
21
740
700
48.3 +0/-1.0
22
880
800
20
14.5 +0/-0.7
640
600
21
740
700
22
50.0 +0/-1.0
1,080
1,000
23
1,080
1,000
23
1,180
1,100
29
65.0 +0/-1.0
1,280
1,200
31
660
600
28.5 +0/-1.5
18
1,180
1,100
25
1,280
1,200
26
43.0 +0/-1.5
17.0 +0/-0.7
1,420
1,300
26.5
1,530
1,500
27
1,530
1,400
32
50.0 +0/-1.5
1,690
1,600
33
1,350
1,200
38
34.0 +0/-1.5
1,350
1,200
39
1,450
1,300
47
42.0 +0/-1.5
1,550
1,400
48
1,450
1,300
47
23.0 +0/-1.0
1,550
1,400
48
1,950
1,800
49
43.0 +0/-1.5
1,350
1,200
47
1,800
1,650
49
2,100
2,000
50.0 +0/-1.5
52
2,490
2,300
50.0 +0/-1.5
57
2,600
2,400
75
25.8 +0/-1.0
50.0 +0/-1.5
3,000
2,800
79
4,600
4,400
139
33.0 +0/-1.0
61.0 +0/-1.5
5,500
5,000
145
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how they are used.
In order to maximize battery safety, please consult Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 24
SEPTEMBER 1999
SUMMARY SPECIFICATION TABLES - CONTINUED
Stand-by Use
H type: Most suitable for high temperature trickle charge
D iameter
AA
A
SC
C
D
Siz e
IEC
1/3AA
(AA)
(L-A)
SC
C
D
KR15/18
----KR23/43
KR26/50
KR33/62
Model
N umber
P-11AAH/FT
P-50AAH/FT
P-120AH
P-120SC H
P-230C H
P-400D H
N ominal
Voltage
(V)
1.2
D ischarge C apacity*
R ated
Average
(Min.)
(mAh) **
(mAh)
120
110
580
500
1,250
1,100
1,350
1,200
2,500
2,300
4,400
4,000
D imension w ith Tube (mm)
D iameter
14.5 +0/-0.7
17.0
23.0
25.8
33.0
+0/-0.7
+0/-1.0
+0/-1.0
+0/-1.0
H eight
Approx.
Weight
(g)
17.5 +0/-1.0
48.3 +0/-1.0
67.0 +0/-1.5
43.0 +0/-1.5
50.0 +0/-1.5
61.0 +0/-1.5
6.5
21
43
48
78
139
K type: Most suitable for low temperature trickle charge
Diameter
Siz e
IEC
SC
C
D
SC
C
D
KR23/43
KR26/50
KR32/62
Model
Number
P-120SCK
P-200CK
P-400DK
Nominal
Voltage
(V)
1.2
Discharge Capacity*
Rated
Average
(Min.)
(mAh) **
(mAh)
1,350
1,200
2,300
2,000
4,400
4,000
Dimension w ith Tube (mm)
Diameter
Height
23.0 +0/-1.0
25.8 +0/-1.0
33.0 +0/-1.0
43.0 +0/-1.5
50.0 +0/-1.5
61.0 +0/-1.5
Approx.
Weight
(g)
48
78
139
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how they are used.
In order to maximize battery safety, please consult Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 25
SEPTEMBER 1999
STANDARD “N” TYPE
Responding to the Technological Revolution with Consistent Reliability
Summary
Panasonic rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries feature a
combination of superior positive and negative electrode plates made possible by our original electrode
plate production process, allowing us to provide the
highest levels of capacity and quality for each size.
These Ni-Cd batteries also feature low internal resistance, excellent discharge performance, and reliable
characteristics across a wide range of temperatures,
and they have been carefully designed for safety and
reliability. Ranging from compact sizes to large
sizes, the standard “N” type is available in a wide
selection of discharge capacities based on the
standard sizes specified by the IEC.
Battery Line-up (Standard “N” Type)
Siz e
N
AAA
1/3AA
AA
C
D
Model
N umber
P-18N/FT
P-22AAA
P-25AAA
P-11AA/FT
P-60AA
P-70AA
P-240C
P-440D
Individual
Specification
P age # 40
P age # 41
P age # 43
P age # 45
P age # 50
P age # 51
P age # 73
P age # 75
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 26
SEPTEMBER 1999
STANDARD “N” TYPE - CONTINUED
Application Examples
•
•
•
Shavers, portable stereos, and portable CD
players
Printers, portable copy machines, and Word
processors
•
Digital cordless phones, cellular phones, and
wireless equipment
Power tools, toys, and lights
Characteristics
Discharge Characteristics
Discharge Characteristics
1.5
Voltage (V)
1.3
1.2
1.1
2C
1C
0.5C
1.0
120
Capacity Ratio (%)
Battery
: P-60AA
Charge
: 0.1C x15hrs.
Temperature: 20˚C
1.4
80
20
40
60
80
100
120
: P-60AA
: 0.1Cx15hrs.
: Cut-off Voltage
1.0V
60
40
20
0
0
0.9
0
Battery
Charge
Discharge
100
140
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Discharge Rate (CmA)
Discharge Time (Minutes)
Temperature Characteristics
Temperature Characteristics
1.5
Voltage (V)
1.3
: P-60AA
: 20˚C, 0.1Cx15hrs.
: 0.2C
20˚C
120
Capacity Ratio (%)
Battery
Charge
Discharge
1.4
1.2
45˚C
1.1
1.0
0˚C
-20˚C
0
20
40
60
80
100
100
80
60
40
20
0
-40
Discharge Temp.(Charge : 20˚C)
Battery P-60AA
Charge Temp.(Discharge: 20˚C)
Charge : 0.1Cx15hrs.
Discharge : 0.2C, Cut-off Voltage 1.0V
-30 -20
-10
0
120
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Temperature (˚C)
Capacity Ratio to Rated Capacity (%)
Discharge Characteristics (Vs. Dry Battery)
1.6
0.8
1.4
20˚C
50
Capacity Test Condition
Battery
: P-60AA
Charge
: 0.1Cx15hrs.
Discharge : 0.2C,
Cut-off Voltage 1.0V
Temperature: 20˚C
45˚C
0
0
1
2
3
4
Storage Time (months)
5
Voltage (V)
Ni-Cd Batter y Dis
charge Voltag
e
0.6
1.2
1.0
Dry-cell Battery
Internal Resistance
0.8
6
0.4
ry
te ge
at lta
ll B e Vo
ce
y- arg
Dr sch
Di
Capacity Ratio (%)
0˚C
1.0
Batteries : P-50AA Ni-Cd Battery and
SUM-3 Dry-cell Battery
Discharge : 100mA Temp. : 20˚C
100
Internal Resistance ( )
Self-discharge Characteristics
0.2
Ni-Cd Battery Internal Resistance
0
0.6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Discharge Time (hours)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 27
SEPTEMBER 1999
HIGH CAPACITY “S” TYPE
High Capacity “S” Type Batteries for Today’s High-tech Devices
Summary
In addition to providing the increased capacity to meet
the needs of today’s high-tech devices, the High
Capacity SM120 and SM80 Series are also capable
of rapid charge in approximately 1 hour. In particular,
the SM120 Series features our highest energy den-
sity, 200 Wh/ , of any Panasonic Ni-Cd batteries.
With their exceptionally high reliability, these batteries
can be used under a wide range of ambient temperatures, and they provide excellent cycle life characteristics.
Application Examples
•
•
•
Portable VCR, Portable TVs
Portable CD players
Note book PC, Word processors, Portable Copy
machines
•
Cellular phones, wireless equipment and digital
Cordless phones
Battery Line-up (High Capacity “S” Type)
Siz e
(AA)
AA
L-AA
2/3A
4/5A
A
L-SC
Model Number
P-80AAS/FT
P-100AASJ
P-100AASJ/FT
P-110AAS/FT
P-120AAS/FT
P-60AS
P-110AS
P-120AS
P-130ASJ
P-150AS
P-140AS
P-160AS
P-230SCS
Individual Specification
P age # 49
P age # 52
P age # 53
P age # 54
P age # 55
P age # 56
P age # 57
P age # 58
P age # 59
P age # 60
P age # 61
P age # 72
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 28
SEPTEMBER 1999
HIGH CAPACITY “S” TYPE - CONTINUED
Typical Discharge Characteristics of the SM60,
SM80 and SM120 Series
Typical Cycle Characteristics of the SM80 Series
2000
Voltage (V)
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
Previous type
(P-70AR)
SM60 SM80 SM120
Batter y
: P130ASJX5cells
Charge
: 1.3A, - V control
Discharge
: 1.3A, Cut-off Voltage of 5V
Temperature: 20˚C
1800
1600
Capacity (mAh)
Size
: 17.0 X 43.0mm
Charge
: 1CmA X 1.5h
Discharge : 1CmA
Temperature: 20˚C
Previous type (P-70AR)
1400
1200
1000
0.8
800
600
400
200
0
300
600
900
1200
1500
0
100
Capacity (mAh)
1.2
1.0
0
300
600
900
1200
600
700
800
900
1000
Charge
: 1CmA X 1.5hrs.
Discharge : 1.3A
Temperature: -20˚C
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
P-130ASJ
(SM80)
Capacity (mAh)
500
1.6
Voltage (V)
Voltage (V)
1.4
P-120AS
(SM60)
400
Comparison of the High-rate Discharge
Characteristics of the SM80 and SM60 Series
Charge
: 1CmA X 1.5hrs.
Discharge : 3.9A
Temperature: 20˚C
0.8
300
Number of Cycles
Comparison of the High-rate Discharge
Characteristics of the SM80 and SM60 Series
1.6
200
P-120AS
(SM60)
1500
0
100
P-130ASJ
(SM80)
200
300
Capacity Index
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 29
SEPTEMBER 1999
RAPID CHARGE “R” TYPE
Meeting Today’s Needs
Summary
Rapid Charge “R” type batteries can be charged at a
current of 1 CmA, thus making rapid charge in
approximately 1 hour possible. The positive and
negative electrode plates and separator have been
improved from Panasonic’s original technology,
resulting in a higher level of reliability.
For rapid charge, because it is necessary to suppress the rise in temperature at the completion of
charge, the voltage and battery temperature during
charge should be monitored in order to control the
charge current.
Battery Line-up (Rapid Charge “R” Type)
Siz e
AAA
(2/3AA)
(AA)
4/5SC
(SC)
SC
C
D
Model Number
P-22AAAR/FT
P-25AAAR/FT
P-30AAR/FT
P-60AAR/FT
P-70AARC/FT
P-120SCRJ
P-130SCC
P-140SCC
P-130SCR
P-140SCR
P-180SCR
P-280CR
P-500DR
Individual Specification
P age # 42
P age # 44
P age # 46
P age # 47
P age # 48
P age # 62
P age # 64
P age # 65
P age # 66
P age # 67
P age # 68
P age # 74
P age # 76
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 30
SEPTEMBER 1999
RAPID CHARGE “R” TYPE - CONTINUED
Application Examples
•
•
Shavers
Wireless equipment, Portable VCR, etc.
Features
Rapid Charge Characteristics
Compared with the Standard Type
2.0
Rapid Charge Type
Standard Type
60
Charge Voltage
1.6
50
Vent Operation
1.4
40
1.2
30
0.5
0.4
70
Temperature
1.0
Internal Pressure
Temperature (˚C)
1.8
Voltage (V)
Rapid Charge in Approximately 1 Hour
A temperature detection system, which utilizes
the battery temperature to control the charge
current, is combined with a voltage-controlled
charge system that charges at a large current
until the battery is approximately fully charged.
This makes it is possible to charge “R” type
batteries in approximately 1 hour, with the battery
displaying virtually 100% of its capacity.
Internal Pressure (MPa)
•
20
0.3
0.2
0.8
10
0.1
0.0
0.6
0
0.5
0
1.5
1.0
Charge Time (hours)
•
Long Cycle Life and Economical
Combined with a correctly controlled charger, rapid
charge “R” type batteries provide hundreds of charge/
discharge cycles, making them very economical.
•
Excellent Temperature Characteristics
The charge efficiency is virtually unaffected by
changes in temperature.
Charge Acceptance
Cycle Life
0˚C
120
C
20˚
C
45˚
50
Charge
: 1CmA
Discharge : 0.2C
Temperature: 20˚C
0
0
50
0˚C
20˚C
Capacity Ratio (%)
Capacity Ratio (%)
100
100
Charge (%)
150
100
80
45˚C
60
40
200
Battery
: P-70AARC/FT
Charge
: 700mA (- V control)
Discharge
: 700mA, Cut-off voltage 1.0V/cell
20
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Number of Cycles
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 31
SEPTEMBER 1999
HIGH RATE DISCHARGE AND RAPID CHARGE “P” TYPE
Optimum Discharge Characteristics for Ni-Cd Batteries
Summary
High Rate Discharge & Rapid Charge “P” type batteries were developed through an integration of
Panasonic’s comprehensive Ni-Cd battery technology. Combined with the technology for rapid 1 hour
charge established for “R” type batteries, improvements in the positive and negative electrode
plates and in the collecting system have further
lowered the internal resistance and greatly improved
the 10-CmA discharge characteristics of these “P”
type batteries.
For rapid charge, because the rise in temperature at
the completion of charge has to be suppressed, the
voltage and battery temperature during charge should
be monitored in order to control the charge current.
Construction
Cap (+)
Safety Valve
Insulation Gasket
Positive Electrode
Collector Terminal
Insulation Ring
Positive Electrode
Collector
Separator
Positive Electrode
Ends
Negative Electrode
Positive Electrode
Case (-)
Negative Electrode
Ends
Negative Electrode
Collector
Negative Electrode
Collector Terminal
Battery Line-up (High Rate Discharge and Rapid Charge “P” Type)
Siz e
4/5SC
SC
NEW
Model Number
P-120SCPJ
P-120SCPM
P-170SCRP
P-200SCP
Individual Specification
P age # 63
P age # 69
P age # 70
P age # 71
Application Examples
•
•
•
•
Drills, screwdrivers, saws and other power tools
Toys such as radio-controlled cars and airplanes
Cordless vacuum cleaners
Other applications requiring high-current discharge
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 32
SEPTEMBER 1999
HIGH RATE DISCHARGE AND RAPID CHARGE “P” TYPE - CONTINUED
Features
Excellent High-Current Discharge
Characteristics
High rate discharge & rapid charge “P” type batteries
discharge a high-current of 30 A (approx. 25 CmA),
which is about 1.5 times higher than Rapid Charge
“R” type batteries.
Discharge Characteristics
1.5
Charge
: 1CmA x 1.5h
Discharge
: 30A
Temperature : 20˚C
1.4
Voltage (V)
•
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
P-130SCR
0.7
0
P-120SCPM
1.0
2.0
Discharge Time (minutes)
Cycle Life Characteristics
•
Duration Time (minutes)
Reliable, Long Cycle Life
With conditions of charge at 1 CmA and discharge at
10 CmA, High rate discharge & rapid charge “P” type
batteries provide hundreds of charge / discharge
cycles, displaying reliable cycle life characteristics
regarding both voltage characteristics and length of
use.
6
4
Battery
Charge
Discharge
: P-120SCPM
: 1200mA (- V Control)
: 0.1 (12A)
Cut-off Voltage 0.8V
Temperature : 20˚C
2
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Number of Cycles
Rapid Charge Characteristics
2.0
70
Compared with the Standard Type
Voltage (V)
1.8
Internal Pressure (MPa)
Rapid Charge in Approximately 1 Hour
By combining a temperature detection system which
utilizes the battery temperature to control the charge
current with a - ∆V cut-off charge system, it is possible to perform rapid charge in approximately 1 hour,
with the battery displaying virtually 100% of its capacity.
Rapid Charge Type
Standard Type
Charge Voltage
60
1.6
50
Vent Operation
1.4
40
1.2
30
Temperature
0.5
0.4
1.0
Internal Pressure
0.3
0.2
0.8
20
Temperature (˚C)
•
10
0.1
0.0
0.6
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0
Charge Time (hours)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 33
SEPTEMBER 1999
TRICKLE CHARGE “H” AND “K” TYPE
Ensuring Safety in Emergencies
Summary
With standard type rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries, the
smaller the charge current and the higher the charge
temperature, the more difficult it is to charge the
battery. However, for applications in which the batteries are charged continuously by a small current
under relatively high-temperature conditions, such as
guidance lights, emergency lights, and memory
backup, there is a need for superior high temperature
trickle charge performance.
By combining Panasonic’s original electrode plates
and electrolyte, high temperature trickle charge “H”
type batteries are far superior to the standard type NiCd batteries for use in high temperature trickle
charge applications. Furthermore, the use of a
specially processed, highly alkaline-resistant, nonwoven fabric as a separator provides stable trickle
charge life characteristics.
Application Examples
•
Power supply for emergency lighting: Emergency
lights and Guide lights
•
•
Memory back-up
Fire alarms (K type)
Battery Line-up (Trickle Charge “H” and “K” Type)
H Type: High Temperature Trickle Charge
Siz e
1/3AA
(AA)
(L-A)
SC
C
D
Model Number
P-11AAH/FT
P-50AAH/FT
P-120AH
P-120SCH
P-230CH
P-400DH
Individual Specification
P age # 45
P age # 78
P age # 79
P age # 80
P age # 81
P age # 82
K Type: Low Temperature Trickle Charge
Siz e
SC
C
D
Model Number
P-120SCK
P-200CK
P-400DK
Individual Specification
P age # 83
P age # 84
P age # 85
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 34
SEPTEMBER 1999
TRICKLE CHARGE “H” AND “K” TYPE - CONTINUED
Features
Excellent high temperature, trickle charge performance For emergency lighting batteries, the continuous discharge time at a discharge current of 1 CmA
until a final discharge voltage of 1.1 V is specified as
37 minutes or longer in an ambient temperature
range of 5°C to 45°C after being charged to a level of
160% by a charge current of 0.033 CmA. Under
these conditions, “H” type batteries have a capacity
that is approximately 1.5 times larger than that of the
standard type Ni-Cd batteries. The discharge characteristics remain flat across a wide range of temperatures.
Trickle Charge Characteristics
Discharge Temperature Characteristics
120
1.6
"H" Type P-120AH
Battery
Charge
Discharge
1.5
Voltage (V)
Capacity Ratio (%)
100
80
60
1.4
1.3
: P-230CH
: 75mA(0.033C) x 48hrs.
: 2300mA(1CmA)
45˚C
20˚C
1.2
1.1
1.0
40
Battery
Charge
Discharge
20
0
-10
0
10
20
30
: P-120AH
: 40mAx48hrs.
: 1200mA
Cut-off Voltage 1.1V
40
50
60
0˚C
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Discharge Time (minutes)
70
Ambient Temperature (˚C)
Trickle Charge Characteristics (1)
Trickle Charge Characteristics (2)
Guidance Lights
Emergency Lights
30
30
37 Minutes or Longer
20
0
Battery
Charge
Discharge
0
10
20
: P-230CH
: 75mA(0.033C) x 48hrs.
: 2300mA(1C)
Cut-off Voltage 1.1V
30
40
Temperature (˚C)
50
Duration Time (minutes)
Duration Time (minutes)
60
25 Minutes or Longer
20
10
0
Battery
Charge
Discharge
0
10
20
30
: P-230CH
: 92mA(0.04C) x 24hrs.
: 2300mA(1C)
Cut-off Voltage 1.1V
40
50
Temperature (˚C)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 35
SEPTEMBER 1999
TRICKLE CHARGE “H” AND “K” TYPE - CONTINUED
•
Long Service Life and High Reliability
Because high temperature trickle charge “H” type
batteries rarely discharge except in the event of an
interruption in the power supply, the service life is
represented as usage time rather than the number of
charge/discharge cycles. The service life during
trickle charge is affected by the ambient temperature,
the charge current, the discharge frequency, and
amount of discharge. The following are typical examples of the service life characteristics.
50
Ambient Temperature (˚C)
Capacity Ratio (%)
100
80
60
40
Battery
Charge
20
Discharge
Temp.
0
1
:
:
:
:
P-400DH
0.033Cx1 Month
1C Cut-off Voltage 1.1V
20˚C
2
3
4
5
0.1C
30
20
6
0.033C
40
7
0
Usage Time (years)
0.05C
Battery
Charge
Discharge
Temp.
: P-400DH
: Each Rate x 1 Month
: 1C Cut-off Voltage 1.1V
: Each Temperature
10
20
35
40 50
100
Service Life (%)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 36
SEPTEMBER 1999
BATTERY SELECTION
The steps for selecting the type of battery for use as
the power supply of a device are shown below.
•
Study of the Proposed Required
Specifications
Verify the battery specifications required for the
power supply of the device and use those conditions
as the standards for battery selection. For reference,
the technological factors concerning battery selection
are shown below.
•
Battery Selection
Using the catalogs and data sheets for the batteries
currently produced and marketed, narrow down the
number of candidates to a few battery types. From
those candidates, select the one battery that most
closely satisfies the ideal conditions required.
In actual practice, the selection of a battery is rarely
completed as easily as this. In most cases it is
necessary to consider eliminating or relaxing some of
the proposed specifications, and then select the most
suitable battery from among those currently available
to meet the adjusted conditions. This process makes
it possible to select more economical batteries. If you
have any doubts at this stage, consult closely with a
battery engineer. In some cases, newly improved or
newly developed batteries that are not yet listed in the
catalog may be available. Normally, the required
specifications are also finalized at this stage.
Technological Factors Concerning Battery Selection
Electrical Characteristics
Voltage range
_______V max _______ V min
Load pattern
Continuous load
_________________mA(max.)
_________________mA(av.)
_________________mA(min.)
Intermittent load or pulse
load
mA(max.)_________________
mA(av.)___________________
mA(min.)_________________
Intermittent time conditions
Operating time:_____________
Stopped time:______________
Charge Conditions
· Rapid charge
· Trickle float charge
· Charge time
· Charge temperature and
atmosphere
Temperature and
Humidity Conditions
Temperature and humidity
during use
_______˚Cmax _______˚Cmin
_______%max _______%min
Temperature and humidity
during storage
_______˚Cmax _______˚Cmin
_______%max _______%min
Battery Life
Usage Life
Storage period
Dimensions, Weight,
and Shape
Outer diameter (mm) ___ max
Height (mm) __________ max
Length (mm) __________ max
Width (mm) ___________ max
Weight (g) _____________ av
Terminal shape ____________
Other
Atmospheric pressure
Mechanical conditions
Safety
Interchangeability
Marketability
Price
Selection of the Battery
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 37
SEPTEMBER 1999
BATTERY SELECTION - CONTINUED
Battery Selection Charts
1. Fig.1 shows the data for Standard “N” type, Rapid
charge “R” type, High capacity “S” type, and High
rate discharge & rapid charge “P” type batteries,
and Fig. 2 shows the data for High temperature
trickle charge “H” type batteries. For further
details, refer to the individual data sheets for each
battery model.
2. Set conditions: Discharge current (vertical axis)
and discharge time (horizontal axis).
3.
Determination of the battery type: Use the battery
for which the plotted curve is above and closest to
the point of the set conditions.
Example: For a discharge current of lA and a
discharge time of 1 hour.
Battery: Use P-120SCRJ, which is between l00C
and 120SCRJ (marked in Fig. 1).
Fig.1
10
Charge
: 0.1CmAx15hrs.
Discharge : Cut-off Voltage 1.0V
Temperature: 20˚C
8
6
A
4
24
2
14
0S
CR
/14
13
0S
0A
0C
50
0D
R
44
0D
CC
20
SJ
13
1
12
800
0S
CR
CR
J,
1
Discharge Current
0S
0S
28
CP
/13
18
0S
20
600
0C
0S
CC
R
CR
SC
14
PJ
0A
S
10
400
12
0A
AS
T
AA
,7
60
AR
,6
CS
CR
P
20
AA
15
S/F
0A
T
S
0A
AA
0S
0S
S,
1
J/F
70
23
17
0A
0A
C/
FT
/FT
,6
0
AR
200
AS
30
AA
mA
R/
FT
AA
A,
25
A
25
100
22
AA
AA
R/
A,
FT
18
N/ 22AA
FT
AR
/FT
80
60
11
AA
/FT
40
20
10
10
20
40
1
1.5
(min)
2
4
6
8
10
(h)
Continuous Discharge Time
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 38
SEPTEMBER 1999
BATTERY SELECTION - CONTINUED
For use under high temperature conditions, High
temperature trickle charge “H” type batteries are
recommended.
Fig. 2 (The Data for the Standard “N” Type is Also Shown for Comparison.)
10
Charge
: 1/30CmAx48hrs.
Discharge
: Cut-off Voltage 1.1V
Temperature : 45˚C
8
6
A
4
2
40
23
0C
44
H
1
0D
0D
H
*
Discharge Current
800
600
12
0S
CH
,1
400
50
200
50
mA
AA
AA
H/
20
AH
FT
*
100
80
60
11
40
AA
H/
FT
20
10
10
20
40
1
1.5
(min)
2
4
6
8
10
(h)
Continuous Discharge Time
* : Standard "N" Type
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 39
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-18N/FT N size (KR12/30) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 18mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
+0
0.7
12.0 -
(+)
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
30.0 +- 01.0
1.8
Voltage (V)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Charge : 45mA(0.25C)x 6hrs.
1.7
( )
12.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
30.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
8g
1.6
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Charge Time (hours)
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Average**
190mAh
Rated (Min.)
180mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
24mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
18mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Short Time
45mA (0.25C)x 6hrs.
Max
Charge
9mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Current
Min
6mA (0.033C)x 45h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Standard
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.8
Discharge
36mA
(0.2C)
0.9
0°C to 45°C
Charge
Short Time
Charge : 18mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
0
1
2
10°C to 45°C
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
1.7
Charge : 18mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how they
are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult Panasonic
when determining charge / discharge specs, warning label contents
and unit design.
Voltage (V)
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
360mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8 0
10
20
30
180mA
(1C)
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 40
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-22AAA AAA size (KR11/45) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 22mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
10.5 +- 00.7
(+ )
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
44.5 +- 01.0
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 22mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
( )
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
10.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
44.5 +0 / -1.0 mm
10g
44mA
(0.2C)
0.9
0.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Average**
250mAh
Rated (Min.)
180mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
18mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
22mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Short Time
73mA (0.33C)x 4.5hrs.
Max
Charge
11mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Current
Min
7mA (0.033C)x 45h and over
Current
1.7
Charge : 22mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.8
0
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Short Time
Discharge
220mA
(1C)
440mA
(2C)
0.9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
10°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 41
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-22AAAR/FT AAA size (KR11/45) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 22mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
10.5 +- 00.7
(+)
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
44.5 +- 01.0
1.8
Charge : 220mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
( )
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
20
0
40
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
10.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
44.5 +0 / -1.0 mm
10g
80
100
120
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.2V
Average**
250mAh
Rated (Min.)
220mAh
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 45°C
Charge : 22mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
44mA
(0.2C)
0.9
0.8
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
18mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
22mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Rapid***
220mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Max
Charge
11mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Current
Min
7mA (0.033C)x 45h and over
Current
1.7
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge
Capacity*
60
Charge Time (minutes)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Discharge
1.7
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 22mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
-20°C to 65°C
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
220mA
(1C)
440mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 42
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-25AAA AAA size (KR11/45) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 25mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
10.5 +- 00.7
(+ )
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
44.5 +- 01.0
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 25mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Specifications
50mA
(0.2C)
0.9
Nominal Voltage
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
1.2V
Average**
280mAh
Rated (Min.)
250mAh
1.7
Charge : 25mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
17mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
25mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Short Time
83mA (0.33C)x 4.5hrs.
Max
Charge
13mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Current
Min
8mA (0.033C)x 45h and over
Current
Standard
0.8
10.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
44.5 +0 / -1.0 mm
10g
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge
Capacity*
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
250mA
(1C)
500mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
0°C to 45°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Short Time
Discharge
10°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 43
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-25AAAR/FT AAA size (KR11/45) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 25mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
10.5 +- 00.7
(+ )
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
44.5 +- 01.0
1.8
Charge : 250mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
( )
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Specifications
0.9 0
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
10.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
44.5 +0 / -1.0 mm
10g
Typical Discharge Characteristics
Average**
Discharge
Capacity*
Rated (Min.)
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
1.2V
1.7
280mAh
1.6
250mAh
17mΩ
25mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
250mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 45°C
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
50mA
(0.2C)
0.9
0.8
Charge
Ambient
Temperature
Charge : 25mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Discharge
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
1.7
Charge : 25mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Voltage (V)
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
250mA
(1C)
500mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 44
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-11AA/FT 1/3AA size (KR15/18) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 11mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
0˚C
20˚C
50˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
+0
0.7
14.5 -
0.9
0
2
4
(+)
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
17.5 +- 01.0
1.8
( )
Charge : 27.5mA(0.25C)x 6hrs.
10˚C
20˚C
45˚C
Voltage (V)
1.7
Specifications
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
17.5 +0 / -1.0 mm
6.5g
1.2V
Average**
120mAh
Rated (Min.)
110mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
50mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
11mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Rapid***
27.5mA (0.25C)x 6hrs.
Max
Charge
5.5mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Current
Min
3.7mA (0.033C)x 45h and over
Current
Standard
0.9 0
1
2
< 2 years
6
7
8
9
Charge : 11mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
22mA
(0.2C)
1.1
11mA
(0.1C)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0
2
4
0°C to 50°C
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Discharge Time (hours)
10°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
1.7
-20°C to 35°C
Storage
Charge : 11mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
< 6 months
5
1.7
-20°C to 45°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Discharge
4
Typical Discharge Characteristics
Charge
Rapid
3
Charge Time (hours)
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
220mA
(2C)
1.1
110mA
(1C)
55mA
(0.5C)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 45
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-30AAR/FT 2/3AA size Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 30mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
14.5 +- 00.7
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
(+)
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
28.2 +- 01.0
1.8
Charge : 300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
( )
0˚C
20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
Specifications
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
28.2 +0 / -1.0 mm
12g
1.2V
Average**
330mAh
Rated (Min.)
300mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
20mΩ
30mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
300mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
0.9
20
40
80
100
120
1.7
Charge : 30mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.8
-20°C to 65°C
30mA
(0.1C)
60mA
(0.2C)
1.0
Discharge
60
Typical Discharge Characteristics
Charge
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Discharge Time (hours)
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
1.7
Charge : 30mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
0
Charge Time (minutes)
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
600mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
20
40
300mA
(1C)
60
150mA
(0.5C)
80
100
120
140
160
180
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 46
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-60AAR/FT AA size Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 60mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
14.5 +- 00.7
(+)
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
48.3 +- 01.0
1.8
Charge : 600mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
Specifications
60
Nominal Voltage
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
48.3 +0 / -1.0 mm
21g
120
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
1.2V
Charge : 60mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Average**
640mAh
Rated (Min.)
600mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Standard
15mΩ
Voltage (V)
1.6
Rapid
Discharge
< 2 years
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
60mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
600mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.0
0°C to 45°C
0.8
120mA
(0.2C)
0.9
Charge
0
2
4
6
60mA
(0.1C)
8
10°C to 40°C
12
14
16
18
-20°C to 65°C
-20°C to 35°C
1.7
Storage
Charge : 60mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
< 6 months
10
Discharge Time (hours)
-20°C to 45°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
100
Charge Time (minutes)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge
Capacity*
80
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
1200mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
20
40
600mA
(1C)
60
300mA
(0.5C)
80
100
120
140
160
180
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 47
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-70AARC/FT AA size Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 70mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
+0
0.7
14.5 -
(+)
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
48.3 +- 01.0
1.8
Charge : 700mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
10˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
48.3 +0 / -1.0 mm
22g
1.2V
Average**
740mAh
Rated (Min.)
700mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Standard
Typical Discharge Characteristics
13mΩ
1.7
Charge : 70mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
70mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
700mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
140mA
(0.2C)
0.9
0.8
0°C to 45°C
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Rapid
Discharge
10°C to 40°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
1.7
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 70mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
700mA
(1C)
1400mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 48
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-80AAS/FT AA size Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 80mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
14.5 +- 00.7
(+)
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
48.3 +- 01.0
1.8
Charge : 800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
( )
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
48.3 +0 / -1.0 mm
20g
100
120
880mAh
Rated (Min.)
800mAh
Standard
1.7
1.2V
Average**
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
18mΩ
Rapid
Discharge
Charge : 800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
80mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
800mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.0
0°C to 45°C
0.8
160mA
(0.2C)
0.9
0
Charge
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
10°C to 40°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
1.7
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
80
Typical Discharge Characteristics
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge
Capacity*
60
Charge Time (minutes)
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
800mA
(1C)
1600mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 49
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-60AA AA size (KR15/51) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 60mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
14.5 +- 00.7
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
(+)
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
50.0 +- 01.0
1.7
Charge : 60mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
120mA
(0.2C)
0.9
Specifications
0.8
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
0
2
4
6
60mA
(0.1C)
8
10
12
14
16
18
Discharge Time (hours)
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
21g
1.7
Nominal Voltage
1.6
Average**
640mAh
1.5
Rated (Min.)
600mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
15mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
60mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Short Time
200mA (0.33C)x 4.5hrs.
Max
Charge
30mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Current
Min
20mA (0.033C)x 45h and over
Current
Standard
Voltage (V)
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Charge : 60mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
1200mA
(2C)
0.9
300mA
(0.5C)
600mA
(1C)
0.8
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Discharge Time (minutes)
0°C to 45°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Short Time
Discharge
10°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 50
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-70AA AA size (KR15/51) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 70mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
14.5 +- 00.7
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
(+)
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
50.0 +- 01.0
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 70mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
140mA
(0.2C)
0.9
Specifications
0.8
0
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
2
740mAh
Rated (Min.)
700mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
13mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
70mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Short Time
233mA (0.33C)x 4.5hrs.
Max
Charge
35mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Current
Min
23mA (0.033C)x 45h and over
Current
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
1.2V
Average**
Standard
1
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
22g
1.7
Charge : 70mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
700mA
(1C)
1400mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
0°C to 45°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Short Time
Discharge
10°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 51
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-100AASJ
P-100AASJ/FT
Typical Charge Characteristics
AA size (KR15/51) Type: S
1.8
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
Charge : 100mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
14.5 +- 00.7
(+)
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
(+)
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
P-100AASJ
P-100AASJ/FT
1.8
50.0 +- 01.0
Charge : 1000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
( )
( )
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
1080mAh
Rated (Min.)
1000mAh
Standard
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.2V
Average**
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
17mΩ
1.7
Charge : 1000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
100mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1000mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
200mA
(0.2C)
0.9
0.8
0°C to 45°C
0
1
2
Charge
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Rapid
Discharge
10°C to 40°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
1.7
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 1000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
23g
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
2000mA
(2C)
0.9
1000mA
(1C)
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 52
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-110AAS/FT L-AA size Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1100mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
14.5 +- 00.7
(+)
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
65.0 +- 01.0
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 1100mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
220mA
(0.2C)
550mA
(0.5C)
0.9
( )
0.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
65.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
29g
1.7
Charge : 1100mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Average**
Discharge
Capacity*
Rated (Min.)
Ambient
Temperature
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
1.2V
1180mAh
1100mAh
14mΩ
110mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1100mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Voltage (V)
1.6
Nominal Voltage
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
1100mA
(1C)
2200mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
Charge
Discharge
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 53
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-120AAS/FT L-AA size Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
+0
0.7
14.5 -
(+)
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
65.0 +- 01.0
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
240mA
(0.2C)
600mA
(0.5C)
0.9
( )
0.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
65.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
31g
1.7
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Voltage (V)
1.6
1.4
1.3
Average**
1280mAh
Rated (Min.)
1200mAh
1.1
16mΩ
0.9
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1200mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.2
1.0
2400mA
(2C)
1200mA
(1C)
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 54
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-60AS 2/3A size (KR17/29) Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 600mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
17.0 +- 00.7
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
(+)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
28.5 +- 01.5
1.7
Charge : 600mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
300mA
(0.5C)
0.9
Specifications
0.8
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
0
1
2
3
120mA
(0.2C)
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
28.5 +0 / -1.5 mm
18g
1.2V
1.7
660mAh
Rated (Min.)
600mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
25mΩ
60mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
600mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Charge : 600mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Discharge
Capacity*
Average**
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
1200mA
(2C)
0.9
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
0.8
0
Discharge
600mA
(1C)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 55
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-110AS 4/5A size (KR17/43) Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1100mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
1.5
10˚C
20˚C
1.4
40˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
+0
0.7
17.0 -
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
(+ )
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
43.0 +- 01.5
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 1100mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
220mA
(0.2C)
550mA
(0.5C)
1.0
0.9
Specifications
0.8
0
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
25g
1.2V
1.7
1180mAh
Rated (Min.)
1100mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
14mΩ
110mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1100mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Charge : 1100mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Discharge
Capacity*
Average**
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
2200mA
(2C)
1.0
1100mA
(1C)
0.9
Ambient
Temperature
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Charge
0.8
0
Rapid
Discharge
10°C to 40°C
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 56
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-120AS 4/5A size (KR17/43) Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
10˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
17.0 +- 00.7
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
(+ )
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
43.0 +- 01.5
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
600mA
(0.5C)
0.9
Specifications
0.8
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
0
1
2
3
240mA
(0.2C)
4
Rated (Min.)
1200mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Standard
16mΩ
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1200mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
0°C to 45°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Rapid
Discharge
10°C to 40°C
Voltage (V)
Discharge
Capacity*
7
8
9
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
1280mAh
6
1.7
1.2V
Average**
5
Discharge Time (hours)
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
26g
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
2400mA
(2C)
0.9
1200mA
(1C)
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 57
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-130ASJ 4/5A size (KR17/43) Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
17.0 +- 00.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
(+ )
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
43.0 +- 01.5
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 1300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
260mA
(0.2C)
0.9
Specifications
0.8
0
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
26.5g
1.2V
1.7
Average**
1420mAh
Rated (Min.)
1300mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
14mΩ
150mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1500mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
Charge : 1300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Discharge
Capacity*
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
3900mA
(3C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
1300mA
(1C)
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 58
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-150AS 4/5A size (KR17/43) Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1500mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
17.0 +- 00.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
(+ )
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
43.0 +- 01.5
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 1500mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
300mA
(0.2C)
0.9
Specifications
0.8
0
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
1
2
3
4
1.7
1.2V
1530mAh
Rated (Min.)
1500mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
14mΩ
Ambient
Temperature
9
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Standard
0°C to 45°C
0.8
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Discharge
8
1.4
150mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1500mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Charge
7
1.5
Voltage (V)
Discharge
Capacity*
6
Charge : 1500mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Average**
5
Discharge Time (hours)
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
27g
1500mA
(1C)
4500mA
(3C)
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (min)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 59
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-140AS A size (KR17/50) Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1400mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
17.0 +- 00.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
(+ )
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
50.0 +- 01.5
1.7
Charge : 1400mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.8
Nominal Voltage
Ambient
Temperature
2
3
4
Rated (Min.)
1400mAh
14mΩ
140mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1400mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
6
7
8
9
Charge : 1400mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
1400mA
(1C)
2800mA
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
Charge
5
1.7
1.6
1530mAh
Discharge
1
280mA
(0.2C)
Discharge Time (hours)
1.2V
Average**
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
0
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
32g
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge
Capacity*
700mA
(0.5C)
0.9
Specifications
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 60
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-160AS A size (KR17/50) Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1600mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
17.0 +- 00.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
(+ )
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
50.0 +- 01.5
1.7
Charge : 1600mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
( )
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.8
Nominal Voltage
1690mAh
Rated (Min.)
1600mAh
14mΩ
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Charge : 1600mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Standard
0°C to 45°C
0.8
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Charge
Ambient
Temperature
2
1.7
160mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1600mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Discharge
1
Discharge Time (hours)
1.2V
Average**
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
0
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
33g
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge
Capacity*
320mA
(0.2C)
0.9
Specifications
1600mA
(1C)
4800mA
(3C)
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 61
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-120SCRJ 4/5SC size (KR23/34) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 120mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
1.6
0˚C
20˚C
45˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
23.0 +- 01.0
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
(+)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
34.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 120mA(0.1C)x15hrs..,20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature.:20˚C
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
34.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
38g
1.2V
Average**
1350mAh
Rated (Min.)
1200mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Discharge Time (minutes)
( )
Ambient
Temperature
1
5mΩ
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1200mA (1C)x 1.5hrs
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
0.1
Charge
Discharge
10
1
10
100
Discharge Current(A)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
1.7
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
0.24A
1.3
1.2A
1.2
1.1
10A
1.0
2.0A
0.9
20A
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 62
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-120SCPJ 4/5SC size (KR23/34) Type: P
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
23.0 +- 01.0
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
(+)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
34.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 1200mA(0.1C)x15hrs., 20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature.:20˚C
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
34.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
39g
1.2V
Average**
1350mAh
Rated (Min.)
1200mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Discharge Time (minutes)
( )
10
1
5mΩ
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1200mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
0.1
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
1
10
-20°C to 65°C
1.7
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
Storage
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Discharge
100
Discharge Current(A)
Charge
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
0.24A
1.2A
1.4
2.0A
1.3
10A
1.2
1.1
1.0
30A
0.9
20A
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200 1400
1600 1800
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 63
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-130SCC (SC) size Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
23.0 +- 01.0
1.0
0.9
( +)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
42.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 1300mA(1C)x1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature:20˚C
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Average**
1450mAh
Rated (Min.)
1300mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Ambient
Temperature
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
42.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
47g
Discharge Time (minutes)
( )
10
1
6mΩ
130mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1300mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
0.1
1
10
Charge
Discharge
100
Discharge Current(A)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
1.7
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
Voltage (V)
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 1300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Storage
1.4
3.9A
1.3
1.3A
1.2
0.26A
1.1
7.8A
1.0
13A
0.9
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 64
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-140SCC (SC) size Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1400mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
1.6
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
23.0 +- 01.0
1.0
0.9
(+)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
42.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 1400mA(1C)x1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature:20˚C
( )
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
42.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
48g
1.2V
Average**
1550mAh
Rated (Min.)
1400mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Discharge Time (minutes)
10
6mΩ
140mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1400mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
0.1
1
10
100
Discharge Current(A)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
1.7
Storage
Charge : 1400mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
1
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
0.28A
1.4A
4.2A
1.3
1.2
1.1
8.4A
1.0
10A
0.9
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200 1400
1600 1800
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 65
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-130SCR SC size (KR23/43) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
23.0 +- 01.0
1.0
0.9
0
( +)
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
43.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 1300mA(1C)x1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature:20˚C
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
47g
1.2V
Average**
1450mAh
Rated (Min.)
1300mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Standard
Discharge Time (minutes)
( )
10
1
6mΩ
130mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1300mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
0.1
0°C to 45°C
1
10
100
Discharge Current(A)
Rapid
Discharge
10°C to 40°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
1.7
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 1300mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Storage
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
3.9A
1.3
1.3A
1.2
0.26A
1.1
7.8A
1.0
13A
0.9
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600 1800
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 66
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-140SCR SC size (KR23/43) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1400mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
23.0 +- 01.0
1.0
0.9
(+)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
43.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 1400mA(1C)x1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature:20˚C
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
48g
1.2V
Average**
1550mAh
Rated (Min.)
1400mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Discharge Time (minutes)
( )
1
6mΩ
140mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1400mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
0.1
Charge
1
Discharge
10
100
Discharge Current(A)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
1.7
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 1400mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
10
1.4
0.28A
1.4A
1.3
4.2A
1.2
1.1
8.4A
1.0
10A
0.9
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200 1400
1600 1800
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 67
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-180SCR SC size (KR23/43) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
+0
1.0
23.0 -
1.0
0.9
( +)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
120
43.0 +- 01.5
Discharge temperature characteristics
100
Charge temperature characteristics
Capacity Ratio (%)
80
( )
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
49g
1950mAh
Rated (Min.)
1800mAh
180mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1800mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Charge
Ambient
Temperature
Discharge : 1800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
Charge
: 360mA(0.2C), Cut-off voltage 1.0V
20
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Temperature (˚C)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
5mΩ
Standard
Discharge
40
1.2V
Average**
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Discharge : 20˚C
Charge
: 20˚C
0
-20°C to 65°C
Charge : 1800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
60
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
0.36A
1.3
1.8A
1.2
1.1
10A
1.0
0.8
0
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
5.4A
0.9
400
800
1200
1600
2000
2400
2800
3200
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 68
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-120SCPM SC size (KR23/43) Type: P
(mm)
Voltage (V)
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
+0
1.0
23.0 -
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
(+)
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
43.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 1200mA(1C)x1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature:20˚C
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
47g
10
1
1.2V
Average**
1350mAh
Rated (Min.)
1200mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Discharge Time (minutes)
( )
5mΩ
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1200mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
0.1
1
10
-20°C to 65°C
1.7
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
Storage
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 1200mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
100
Discharge Current(A)
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
3.6A
1.1
7.2A 12A
1.0
1.2A
0.9
30A
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200 1400
1600 1800
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 69
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-170SCRP SC size (KR23/43) Type: P
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 1700mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
23.0 +- 01.0
1.0
0.9
0
( +)
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
43.0 +- 01.5
100
Charge: 1700mA(1C)x1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge: Cut-off voltage 0.8V
Discharge Temperature:20˚C
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
49g
10
1
1.2V
Average**
1800mAh
Rated (Min.)
1650mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Discharge Time (minutes)
( )
4mΩ
170mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
1700mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
0.1
1
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
10
< 2 years
-20°C to 65°C
1.7
Charge : 1700mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
-20°C to 35°C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
Storage
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
100
Discharge Current(A)
1.4
0.34A
1.7A
1.3
1.2
5.1A
1.1
1.0
10A
0.9
20A
30A
0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 70
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
NEW
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-200SCP SC size (KR23/43) Type: P
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 2000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
23.0 +- 01.0
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
(+)
30
60
90
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
43.0 +- 01.5
1.7
Charge : 2000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C˚
Voltage (V)
1.5
( )
1.4
1.3
0.2C
1.2
1.1
1C
1.0
0.9
0.8
Specifications
0
400
800
1200
1600
2000
2400
2800 3200
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
52g
1.5
Nominal Voltage
Charge : 2000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.4
1.2V
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
Discharge
Capacity*
Average**
2100mAh
Rated (Min.)
2000mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
5mΩ
200mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
2000mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
Charge
Ambient
Temperature
1.2
1.1
1.0
10A(5C)
0.9
20A(10C)
30A(15C)
0.8
Standard
Discharge
Voltage (V)
1.3
0.7
0.6
0
500
1000
1500
2000
Discharge Capacity (mAh)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 71
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-230SCS L-SC size Type: S
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Voltage (V)
1.7
10˚C
1.6
20˚C
1.5
40˚C
1.4
1.3
Charge : 2000mAx 1.6hrs.
1.2
1.1
+0
1.0
23.0 -
1.0
0.9
( +)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
+0
1.5
50.0 -
1.7
Charge : 2000mA(1C)x 1.6hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
( )
1150mA
(0.5C)
0.9
0.8
0
1
2
3
460mA
(0.2C)
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
57g
1.7
Charge : 2000mA(1C)x 1.6hrs., 20˚C
Average**
Discharge
Capacity*
Rated (Min.)
Ambient
Temperature
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
1.2V
2490mAh
2300mAh
14mΩ
Voltage (V)
1.6
Nominal Voltage
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
2300mA
(1C)
4600mA
(2C)
0.9
230mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
2300mA (1C)
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
Charge
Discharge
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 72
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-240C C size (KR26/50) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 240mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
+0
1.0
25.8 -
1.0
0.9
( +)
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
Charge Time (hours)
1.8
50.0 +- 01.5
Charge : 800mA(0.33C)x 4.5hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
10˚C
20˚C
1.6
1.5
45˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9 0
( )
1
2
3
4
5
6
Charge Time (hours)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
25.8 +0 / -1.0 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
75g
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Average**
2600mAh
Rated (Min.)
2400mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Short Time
Max
Charge
Current
Min
Current
Standard
5mΩ
240mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
800mA (0.33C) x 4.5hrs.
120mA (0.05C)x 30hrs. and
over
80mA (0.033C)x 45hrs. and
over
Charge : 800mA(0.33C)x 4.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
7200mA 4800mA
(3C)
(2C)
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
2400mA
(1C)
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
0°C to 45°C
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Short Time
Discharge
10°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 73
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-280CR C size (KR26/50) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 2800mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
+0
1.0
25.8 -
1.0
0.9
(+)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
50.0 +- 01.5
1.7
Charge : 2800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Voltage (V)
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
( )
560mA
(0.2C)
1400mA
(0.5C)
0.9
0.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
25.8 +0 / -1.0 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
79g
1.7
Charge : 2800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Average**
3000mAh
Rated (Min.)
2800mAh
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
Voltage (V)
1.6
Rapid
10°C to 40°C
1.2
1.1
5600mA
(2C)
0.9
280mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
2800mA (1C)x 1.5hrs.
0°C to 45°C
1.4
1.3
1.0
4mΩ
Standard
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
2800mA
(1C)
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
Discharge
-20°C to 65°C
1.7
< 2 years
Storage
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
Charge : 2800mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
1.6
-20°C to 35°C
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
8400mA
(3C)
1400mA
(5C)
0.9
0.8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 74
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-440D D size (KR33/62) Type: N
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 440mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
33.0 +- 01.0
(+)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 440mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
61.0 +- 01.5
Voltage (V)
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
440mA
(0.1C)
880mA
(0.2C)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Discharge Time (hours )
( )
1.7
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
33.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
61.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
139g
1.2V
Average**
4600mAh
Rated (Min.)
4400mAh
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
Discharge
Capacity*
Charge : 440mA(0.1C)x 15hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
8800mA
(2C)
0
20
40
4400mA
(1C)
60
80
2200mA
(0.5C)
100
120
140
160
180
Discharge Time (minutes)
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
5mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
440mA (0.1C) x 16hrs.
Max
220mA (0.05C) x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
147mA (0.033C) x 45h and
Current
over
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
0°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 75
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-500DR D size (KR33/62) Type: R
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 500mA(0.1C)x 15hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
+0
1.0
33.0 -
0.9
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Charge Time (hours)
( +)
1.8
61.0 +- 01.5
Charge : 5000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Charge Time (minutes)
( )
Typical Discharge Characteristics
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Average**
5500mAh
Rated (Min.)
5000mAh
1.7
Charge : 5000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
Approx. Internal impedance at
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
Charge
Rapid***
1A(0.2C)
2.5A(0.5C)
0.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
5mΩ
500mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
5000mA (1C) x 1.5 hrs.
Standard
0°C to 45°C
Rapid
10°C to 45°C
Charge
1.7
Discharge
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
Charge : 5000mA(1C)x 1.5hrs., 20˚C
Discharge Temperature : 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Ambient
Temperature
33.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
61.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
145g
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
*** Refer to “Charge Methods for Ni-Cd Batteries” (pg 10).
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
10A(2C)
0.8
0
10
20
30
5A(1C)
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 76
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
P-11AAH/FT 1/3AA size (KR15/18) Type: H
Dimensions (with tube)
Typical Charge Characteristics
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 3.7mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
14.5 +- 00.7
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
50˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
(+)
0.9
0
10
20
+0
1.0
17.5 -
30
Charge : 3.7mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 22mA(0.2C)
Specifications
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
17.5 +0 / -1.0 mm
6.5g
Voltage (V)
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
20˚C
1.0
65˚C
0.9
1.2V
Average**
120mAh
Rated (Min.)
110mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
80mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
11mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
5.5mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
3.7mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
Storage
0°C to 50°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
< 1 month
-20°C to 55°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
0˚C 45˚C
0.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Discharge Time (hours)
Charge : 3.7mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : cut-off voltage 1.1V
10,000
Continuous Discharge Time (hours)
Discharge
Capacity*
60
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Nominal Voltage
50
Charge Time (hours)
( )
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
40
0˚C
20˚C
40˚C
1,000
60˚C
700
500
300
200
100
0.01
0.1
1.0
Discharge Current(mA)
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 77
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-50AAH/FT (AA) size Type: H
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 17mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
+0
0.7
14.5 -
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
50˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
(+)
1.0
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (minutes)
48.3 +- 01.0
120
( )
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
14.5 +0 / -0.7 mm
48.3 +0 / -1.0 mm
21g
Capacity Ratio (%)
100
"H" Type P-50AAH/FT
80
60
standard type P-50AA
40
20
Charge : 17mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Discharge : 500mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
0
-10
Discharge
Capacity*
580mAh
Rated (Min.)
500mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
20mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
50mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
25mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
17mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Discharge
10
1.2V
Average**
Charge
0
0°C to 50°C
-20°C to 65°C
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
30
40
50
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 17mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 500mA(1C)
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
20˚C
0˚C 45˚C
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
< 2 years
20
Temperature (˚C)
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 78
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-120AH (L-A) size Type: H
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
17.0 +- 00.7
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
1.3
50˚C
1.2
1.1
(+)
1.0
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (hours)
120
67.0 +- 01.5
Capacity Ratio (%)
100
( )
"H" Type P-120AH
80
60
standard type
40
20
Charge
Discharge
0
-10
Specifications
Nominal Voltage
Discharge
Capacity*
17.0 +0 / -0.7 mm
67.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
43g
1250mAh
Rated (Min.)
1100mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
10mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
60mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
40mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
20
30
40
50
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.2V
Average**
10
Temperature (˚C)
1.7
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 1200mA (1C)
1.6
Voltage (V)
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
0
: 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
: 1200mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
1.5
1.4
1.3
45˚C
1.2
20˚C
5˚C
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
0°C to 50°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 79
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-120SCH SC size (KR23/43) Type: H
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
+0
1.0
23.0-
1.0
0.9
(+ )
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (hours)
43.0 +- 01.5
120
100
( )
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
48g
Capacity Ratio (%)
"H" Type P-120SCH
80
standard type
60
40
20
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Discharge : 1200mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
0
-10
Discharge
Capacity*
Average**
1350mAh
Rated (Min.)
1200mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
10mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
60mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
40mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
0
10
0°C to 50°C
-20°C to 65°C
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
30
40
50
60
70
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 1200mA(1C)
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
45˚C
1.2
20˚C
1.1
5˚C
1.0
0.9
0.8
< 2 years
20
Temperature (˚C)
1.2V
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 80
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-230CH C size (KR26/50) Type: H
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 75mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
25.8 +- 01.0
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
50˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0
(+)
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (hours)
120
100
50.0 +- 01.5
"H" Type P-230CH
Capacity Ratio (%)
80
( )
standard type
60
40
20
Charge : 75mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Discharge : 2300mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
0
-10
25.8 +0 / -1.0 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
78g
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Temperature (˚C)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
Nominal Voltage
Average**
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
Charge : 75mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 2300mA(1C)
1.6
2300mAh
Trickle
Charge
Discharge
0°C to 50°C
Voltage (V)
Rated (Min.)
Approx. Internal impedance at
6mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
230mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
115mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
75mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
1.7
2500mAh
1.5
1.4
1.3
45˚C
20˚C
1.2
1.1
1.0
0˚C
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 81
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-400DH D size (KR33/62) Type: H
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 133mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
33.0 +- 01.0
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (hours)
(+)
120
100
"H" Type P-400DH
Capacity Ratio (%)
61.0 +- 01.5
80
60
40
20
( )
Charge : 133mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Discharge : 4000mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
0
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
Temperature (˚C)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
33.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
61.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
139g
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Discharge
Capacity*
Average**
4400mAh
Rated (Min.)
4000mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
7mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
400mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
200mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
133mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
Charge : 133mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 4000mA(1C)
1.6
1.2V
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
20˚C
1.1
0˚C
1.0
45˚C
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
0°C to 50°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 82
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-120SCK SC size (KR23/43) Type: K
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
1.7
Voltage (V)
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
45˚C
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
+0
1.0
23.0-
1.0
0.9
0
(+)
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (hours)
43.0 +- 01.5
120
100
( )
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
23.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
43.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
48g
Capacity Ratio (%)
"K" Type P-120SCK
80
standard type
60
40
20
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Discharge : 1200mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
0
-10
Discharge
Capacity*
Average**
1350mAh
Rated (Min.)
1200mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
10mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
120mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
60mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
40mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
< 2 years
0
10
0°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
-20°C to 35°C
20
30
40
50
60
70
Temperature (˚C)
1.2V
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Charge : 40mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
1.6
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
Discharge : 1200mA (1C)
1.5
1.4
20˚C
1.3
1.2
45˚C
1.1
0˚C
1.0
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
Storage
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 83
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-200CK C size (KR26/50) Type: K
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 67mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
25.8 +- 01.0
1.0
0.9
0
(+)
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (hours)
120
"K" Type P-200CK
100
+0
1.5
50.0 -
Capacity Ratio (%)
80
( )
60
40
20
Charge : 67mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Discharge : 2000mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
0
-10
25.8 +0 / -1.0 mm
50.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
78g
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Temperature (˚C)
Typical Discharge Characteristics
Nominal Voltage
Average**
Discharge
Capacity*
1.2V
1.7
2300mAh
Charge : 67mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 2000mA(1C)
1.6
2000mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
8mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
200mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
100mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
67mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
1.5
Voltage (V)
Rated (Min.)
1.4
1.3
20˚C
1.2
1.1
45˚C
1.0
0.8
0
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
0°C to 45°C
0˚C
0.9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 84
SEPTEMBER 1999
INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEETS
Typical Charge Characteristics
P-400DK D size (KR33/62) Type: K
Dimensions (with tube)
(mm)
1.8
Charge : 133mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Voltage (V)
1.7
1.6
0˚C
1.5
20˚C
1.4
45˚C
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
+0
1.0
33.0 -
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Charge Time (hours)
(+)
120
100
Capacity Ratio (%)
61.0 +- 01.5
"K" Type P-400DK
80
60
40
20
( )
Charge : 133mA(0.033C)x 48hrs.
Discharge : 4000mA(1C), Cut-off voltage 1.1V
0
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Temperature (˚C)
Specifications
Diameter
Height
Approximate Weight
33.0 +0 / -1.0 mm
61.0 +0 / -1.5 mm
139g
Typical Discharge Characteristics
1.7
Average**
Discharge
Capacity*
Rated (Min.)
1.2V
4400mAh
4000mAh
Trickle
Approx. Internal impedance at
7mΩ
1000Hz at charged state.
Standard
400mA (0.1C)x 16hrs.
Max
200mA (0.05C)x 30h and over
Charge
Current
Min
133mA (0.033C)x 48h and over
Current
Ambient
Temperature
Charge
Discharge
Charge : 133mA(0.033C)x 48hrs., 20˚C
Discharge : 4000mA(1C)
1.6
1.5
Voltage (V)
Nominal Voltage
1.4
1.3
20˚C
1.2
1.1
45˚C
1.0
0˚C
0.9
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Discharge Time (minutes)
0°C to 45°C
-20°C to 65°C
< 2 years
-20°C to 35°C
< 6 months
-20°C to 45°C
Storage
* 0.2C discharge capacity after charging at 0.1C for 16 hours.
** For reference only.
Battery performance and cycle life are strongly affected by how
they are used. In order to maximize battery safety, please consult
Panasonic when determining charge / discharge specs, warning
label contents and unit design.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 85
SEPTEMBER 1999
BATTERY PACKS
Purpose of Battery Packs
Ni-Cd cells are most commonly used in battery
packs. In using Ni-Cd batteries, the type of battery,
the number of cells, the shape of the battery pack,
and the components of the battery pack will be
determined by the ratings (voltage and load current)
of the device, the charging specifications, the amount
of space available inside the device, and the usage
conditions.
After consultation concerning specifications, if so
desired, Panasonic can also provide assembly
services for battery packs.
Configurations of Tube Battery Packs
The following are the standard pack configurations for
Ni-Cd batteries. Refer to these configurations when
designing the battery pack.
F Type
The required number of single cells are lined up in the
radial direction of the cells and connected by nickel
plates, and covered with an external heat-shrink PVC
tube.
Composite F Type
Single cells are connected in 2 to 5 rows, and then
packed in a heat-shrink PVC tube.
F Type
Composite F Type
L Type
The required number of single cells are lined up in
the axial direction of the batteries and connected by
nickel plates, and covered with an external heatshrink PVC tube.
Composite L type
Groups of single cells connected in an L type configuration are further connected in 2 to 5 rows, and
then packed in a heat-shrink PVC tube.
L Type
Composite L Type
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 86
SEPTEMBER 1999
BATTERY PACKS - CONTINUED
Construction of Battery Packs
The basic constructions for battery packs are as shown below.
"F" Type Construction
"L" Type Construction
External Heat Shrink PVC Tube
Terminal Plate (Nickel Plate)
Lead Plate (Nickel Plate)
Terminal Plate (Nickel Plate)
Insulating Paper
Thermal Protector*
External Heat Shrink PVC Tube
Heat Shrink PVC Tube for Cells
Connector Plate (Nickel Plate)
Cell
Insulating Paper
Lead Wire
Heat Shrink PVC Tube for Cells
Thermal Protector*
Protective components are used as described in section (4).
Special Battery Pack Configurations
Custom specifications (battery packs in plastic
cases, etc.) can also be prepared upon request.
Consult Panasonic for details.
Also feel free to consult Panasonic’s Design Department concerning specifications and production
schedules.
(1) Batteries in Injection-molded Plastic Cases
It is important to take into consideration the lead time
required for the preparation of production molds and
the procurement of custom parts.
(2) Battery Packs with Built-in Charge Level
Indicators and Charging Systems
If so desired, Panasonic can also provide technological assistance concerning battery packs with a builtin charge level indicator or a built-in charging system.
Parts for Battery Packs
(1) Terminal Plates
Because the lead wires are soldered to the terminal
plates, the terminal plates must be made of a material that has good solderability, that can be securely
spot-welded to the cells, and that is highly
electroconductive and alkaline-resistant. The most
common material used is high-quality nickel plate.
Recommended Terminal Plate Dimensions (Material: Nickel)
N o.
1
2
3
4
5
T
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
Dimensions (mm)
W
4
4
5
5
7
L
15
15
20
25
30
Applicable Battery Siz e
AA size and smaller
A size
SC size
C size
D size and larger
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 87
Configuration
W
T
L
SEPTEMBER 1999
BATTERY PACKS - CONTINUED
(2) Lead Wires
To connect the batteries to the device, vinyl-clad
electrical wire for heat-resistant device wiring conforming to UL-1007 is generally used. Red for the
positive side and black for the negative side are the
standard colors. The ends of the lead wires may be
bare cut ends or connected to connectors, etc.
Standard Lead Wires
Applicable
battery siz e
AA size and
smaller
A size
SC size
C size
D size and
larger
Siz e
UL1007
AWG24
UL1007
AWG22
UL1007
AWG20
UL1007
AWG20
UL1007
AWG18
Length (A) (mm)
approx. 200
approx. 200
approx. 200
approx. 300
approx. 300
(3) Heat-shrink PCV Tube
Heat-shrink tubes made of polyvinylchloride are used
on many packs as the external cover. Tube thickness
ranges from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm depending on battery
type and configuration.
(4) Protective Components
Thermal protectors to prevent overcharge and overheat, PTC elements, temperature fuses, current
fuses, and other protective components, either singly
or in combinations, are connected via a direct-line
circuit to the batteries. Upon request, Panasonic can
provide the necessary components for protecting
both the battery pack and the device in which it is
used.
Lead Wires
Color
+ Red
- Black
+ Red
- Black
+ Red
- Black
+ Red
- Black
+ Red
- Black
Reference Diagram
A
Lead Wire
Battery Pack
Example
(5) Others
Depending on the configuration of the battery pack,
adhesive materials, tape, paper cylinders, or other
parts or materials may be used. If so desired,
temperature sensors for charge control and other
electronic components can be installed inside the
battery pack.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 88
SEPTEMBER 1999
GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES
Structural-related Terms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Active Material
The electro-chemical materials of the electrodes.
In rechargeable Ni-Cd battery, nickel-hydroxide is
the active material of the positive electrode and
cadmium is the active material of the negative
electrode.
Cadmium
Expressed in chemical notation as Cd, this
indicates that the negative electrode material of
the Ni-Cd battery is in a charged state. When in
the discharged state, the negative electrode
material becomes cadmium hydroxide, or
Cd(OH)2.
Cell
Each of the individual batteries which comprise a
rechargeable battery.
Electrolyte
The medium through which ions are conducted
during the electro-chemical reaction inside a
rechargeable battery. In rechargeable Ni-Cd
batteries, a potassium hydroxide water solution is
generally used as the electrolyte.
Negative Electrode
The electrode that has a lower electrical potential
than the positive electrode to which electrical
current flows from the external circuit during the
discharge of a storage battery.
Nickel Oxyhydroxide
Expressed in chemical notation as NiOOH, this
indicates that the positive electrode material of
the Ni-Cd battery is in a charged state. When in
the discharged state, the positive electrode
material becomes nickel hydroxide, or Ni(OH)2.
Pasted Type Electrode Plate
An electrode plate made by applying as the active
material a cadmium compound in a paste form
onto a nickel-plated steel porous plate. Used as
the negative electrode.
Positive Electrode
The positive electrode that has a higher electrical
potential than the negative electrode from which
electrical current flows to the external circuit
during the discharge of a rechargeable battery.
•
•
•
•
Safety Vent
Functions to release the gas when the internal
pressure exceeds a predetermined level. In
addition to preventing the absorption of external
air into the rechargeable battery, this vent also
prevents the rupture of the rechargeable battery
that would result from the increase in the internal
pressure caused by the generation of gas during
charge or at other times.
Separator
A porous or micro-porous thin plate, cloth, bar, or
frame which is inserted as a spacer between the
positive and negative electrode plates for the
purpose of preventing short-circuits. The separator must be non-oxidizing, resistant to chemicals, and be an electrical insulator, and it must not
obstruct in any way the ionic conduction or diffusion of the electrolyte.
The separator also functions to retain the electrolyte.
Sintered Electrode Plate
An electrode plate in which the active material is
impregnated into a porous thin-plate substrate
prepared by sintering nickel powder to a porous
plate made of nickel or nickel-plated steel. Used
as the positive electrode plate.
Sintered Substrate (Plaque)
The substrate for the active material, made by
sintering nickel powder to a porous plate.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 89
SEPTEMBER 1999
GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Electrical-related Terms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Capacity
The electrical capacity of a rechargeable battery.
Normally used to mean the capacity as measured
in ampere-hours. Indicated in units of Ah
(ampere-hours) or C (coulombs).
Charge Efficiency
A general term meaning either ampere-hour
efficiency and watt-hour efficiency. More commonly used to mean ampere-hour efficiency.
Charge Level
The amount of electricity used for charge. For
constant current charge, it is the product of
multiplying the current value by the charge time.
Measured in units of ampere-hours (Ah).
C (Coulomb)
Used to express the amount of the charge or
discharge current. Expressed by attaching the
current units to a numerical multiple that represents the rated capacity of the battery. The
charge and discharge current are generally
expressed using a C multiple. For example, for a
battery having a rated capacity of 1500 mAh:
0.1 CmA = 0.1 x 1500 = 150 mA
0.2 CmA = 0.2 x 1500 = 300 mA
Cut-off Discharge Voltage
The voltage that indicates the limit at which
discharge is completed. In practical use, this
voltage is the limit to which the battery can be
used.
Electrolyte Leakage
The penetration of the electrolyte to the outside of
the battery.
Energy Density
The amount of energy that can be obtained per
unit weight or per unit volume of a rechargeable
battery. Unit: wh/kg, wh/
Excessive Discharge
The discharge of a rechargeable battery to a
lower than the specified cut-off discharge voltage.
High rate Discharge
Discharge at a relatively large current with respect to the battery capacity. Also called highefficiency discharge and high-current discharge.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Nominal Voltage
The voltage used to indicate the battery voltage.
Generally a value slightly lower than the electromotive force is used. For example, the nominal
voltage of rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries is 1.2 V
per cell.
Open Circuit Voltage
The voltage of a battery when that battery is
electrically cut-off from the external circuit.
Overcharge Current
Charge after the fully charged state has been
reached. In a rechargeable battery which requires
water replenishment, the electrolysis of the water
causes a sharp decrease in the amount of
electrolyte. Generally, the overcharge of a rechargeable battery will shorten the battery’s cycle
life.
Rapid Charge
Charge quickly using a large current.
Rated Capacity
The standard value for the amount of electricity
which can be obtained from the battery in a fully
charged state at the specified temperature,
discharge current, and cut-oft discharge voltage.
Measured in units of ampere-hours (Ah).Note that
CN is used as a symbol to express the rated
capacity at a rate of N hours.
Reverse Charge
Charge with the polarities reversed.
If the polarities are reversed, all of the electrical
energy will be used to generate gas.
Self-discharge
A decrease in the capacity of a rechargeable
battery without any discharge of current to the
external circuit.
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 90
SEPTEMBER 1999
GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR NI-CD BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Other Terms
•
•
•
•
Alkaline Storage Battery
A storage battery which uses an alkaline water
solution as its electrolyte. Generally refers to
nickel-metal hydride batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries.
Cycle Use
A method of use in which charge and discharge
are repeated over and over again.
Trickle Use
A method of use in which the battery is cut-off
from the load and constantly charged at a very
small current in order to replenish the self-discharge. Mostly used for emergency power supply
applications, such as in the event of an interruption in the normal power supply.
IEC Standards
The standards established by the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
NICKEL CADMINUM HANDBOOK, PAGE 91
SEPTEMBER 1999
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