ラトヴィア語のアスペクト対立とその表現の選択性

ラトヴィア語のアスペクト対立とその表現の選択性
KRABAT [EFE] F 15 5 (2010.3), 131-150
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7 A-Crd Endaelias DET ONS. PLEO ARR ILLA FÉES.
Ul’janov, G.K.1895,Znacenija glagol'nyx osnov v litovsko-slavjanskom jazyke.II VarSava.
Fortunatov, F.F.1897, Kriticeskij razbor socinenija G. K. Uljanova « Znaëenija glagol'nyx osnov у
litovsko-slavjanskom jazyke » Sankt-Peterburg.
Endzelin, Ja. 1908, K voprosu o vidovom znacenii laty3skix sloZnyx glagolov. « Izvestija Otdelenija
— 131 —
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veids MX 9727 hH 74 7 ENTE CADA DER AE ANDAS.
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(RHEE IE 1:564-582) E L, 727 HAXIEDT IV —ELTEMIOLI
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russkogo jazyka i slovesnosti Imp. akd. nauk.» XIII, kn.4.
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veids XBT viest IAI<, ÉZLZ, Z2) > 5MEL4MT, Y) КТ = ТГ ñEO veidas TA,
Al, 270 vid (AR, (Ba) Al, 7727 hiEO véda (ii, Sal], I x
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‘ Staltmane. V. 1958. Verbu veidi müsdienu latvieSu literärajä valoda. Doktora disertacija. Riga.
— 132 —
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— 133 —
77 PEV OSEA ATENTA uzrakstit 23x65 5 X 912, EHEIRFFEE > TEXAS ARA FED
SEDA IPFV » PFV OXI Е. OEM 127 27 hXitlk,
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EZ. MZ ITZA) (RH 51 EV BIC pirkt - nopirkt E V5 IPFV + PFV DT
ANT > TND.
(1) Kad citi pirka gramatas, vins nopirka Zurnälu.
When other buy, pf. past. books he buy, pf. past. magazine
(О ЛЕЖА В о СТ ВК, ВНЕ Во.
cB + FANS RO FEAR? > ERE 192777 1 AZ A7I >
7H 747ETIL, Ea 0 ERIN > > ERE MZ 2 ZL TEBE
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norunaties | (JENA FT) 6671, izrunäties | (E 7753) ET] CODED
HD. ZOT ITI AF ATTN MIEENICEE TH OIIEEFETHY, ZH HHH
FRE DEL IL, MEFICLVEEECHE ZIRE IND Z Lx LEMAIZ PFV 129
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AMADOR EXE, TERE, EPECNMA5S EE TIC'.D>.
> BEE R£-ala-, -ale-, -elé-, -ujo-= ID EkR==27 72:52 à EH 5. (Soida 2009 : 197)
— 134 —
7 КП 4 ТОТ А^Й КМ EFORBOERME
(2) Es visu dienu norunaju pa talruni.
I all day talk, pf. past. on phone
ANT A PESCA Lo AL TM.
- ZAS A OEA
EBAREN AED E MANERA TE TT OR, EMAAI72 ER 53 Er] LA
OOK BETH D. MIXTE OA] jet [17< 1 EZ, EOS, ieiet ГАР
MTS (AB), iziet I9-MT< (H2)] ENTEREZA. 460
EA В)МЕО A, LED TEMEDA AZAR LT, (BERIZ PEV E & |,
2. OD IPFV 114200661 > AED SRA 2 BF 2 MAE bE =o
EX Cd. LOCH, TENEN ieksa IIED], ага ГУ) 3 El
UZ 7 ¡et iekSa, iet ara DIXII:3 2 IPFV E222. MIX(3) CIA ieiet TAZ2J 2, Fi
E< PFV 3797 uzrakstit + ELA EN TNZ.
(3) Es 1egaju istaba un uzrakstiju vestuli.
I enter, pf. past. room and write, pf. past. letter
ANTENA VD, FEV.
MIXXL(4) Cri, verties | (— E) EAT 2J 2»: 5 EZ ÉFNNT £ D TE 7 virinaties | (X
FH) BAP SJ E IPEV OE IZ iet ieksa + (det) ara 92 HU 54LTWNZ.
(4) Nerimtigi virinajas plasäs durvis, cilveki gaja ieksa un ara.
incessantly open and close, impf. past. wide door people + go, past. in and out
НКО КТ КВ MEDL, AZAMANZ LTNT.
OEELIATOLANE ROBER BA CEE 7 541217 CIL. E EESCSARED
CME MARKEN TE, A ERA, DD VIRENIZD. MIZIL TE
51] END BETA © 22 ERB EI OTEZ RT AS, PFV @ atnakt (21359 HTRIZR IPFV О nakt
‘игр Burp [ZH 5612)) XV HL MEBEEEEFENGE D nakt [35] OFM IPFV E LTIZI O ESE
bid. MBLLEN-ERMPEROBEFELZF M7 27 NETO. EX) +5
с КУН СБ. EBEN57 20ED7 0 2 2DRENIi— ZA ED: 9417- 2406
FEET pie-dziedat METEO] 10 Hb MERECEN LD 19 VA] 0 dziedat lidzi DF
15. (BEN 2009:62) =D 5 72ÉRANERE Ь, Капаёа 13, ГОН) @7 АЛ RR
Eo NED) ME TaD. (Kalnata 2004 : 25) X > TRAM > EMPERO EEE
27 PFV OBTMIT, MP3RREENIO IPFV + OBRAS TEME 41.
— 135 —
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L, HEEFT EMH ORTRAL YY НИС INC EMEZTIAA7 ZACH,
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PRT ЕНОТ АЙ |, ОДП = 7 ВОЙНА. 7 Кой КНМ;
HADT VC ADNRT FA MIRE RITTZ L132, BERHITHXILITFE DS.
(5) Esmu lasijis / izlasijis So gramatu, tapéc zinu saturu no galvas.
be, pres. read, impf. apastp. read, pf. apastp. this book so know, pres. content by heart
ATI DORA 52DE, NAZÉZTNS.
BISL(5) CIT PEV DIAZ SED 27 EMBAR SNTNSDIZXL, IP VVITEN
2 HR L TU 224. Lokmane 14 1859723 IPFV 72 5D EEDIBETDt DIZE AED
770, MENE PESEENKINZ2DIX L, PEV ARS EMEDTE TE, RE
EMER ZI 5] (Lokmane 1988: 115-116)2, 727 HL 2 EEE 1616
СС.
ИЛА
97-11 TERDENED FRE > PEPE (917-249) (Bondarko: 2001.235-236)
E —MRIZERE 212, XL TRNZS727 HTCHÓZD. ЗЕЛЕНИ:
IPFV, SE2RIEREIZIZ PFV OFFEADOW NER LE 212. (METER 2: 605-613)
uzvarét 194], aprakstit 16532] 72 E IZA 4 PFV - IPFV OXP3TIZ685 L72
VERS] TCHAD, UERUX TU ARR ATXPIAPIAENSD LE, VIE
AT(NZS BD 27 HANA TV, X$+€ PFV 2: IPFV ELTHWÈ
"AL, EA COMEREEA7 7 Fa7 256,666 CIL < EARFEIDER 572
(2, EDÉERELLTSZLONZS, MEE LTE SDS SAUTUD.
(Lokmane 1988 : 119)
* DB ED DA NEENDEMENMEZ TD, HSBMENKPI TO 5X0DBEN A
+ SEXI FF Fan CO, Arc IEEE) EIVONIERIRHTZS.
— 136 —
7 747 ENT AZ XILELLORADER
UTN EE TED. MZITAL(6)D + > 72 HARI NERFED Y 7 ZAR
лож СН, ПВО) PV E LTABNSERATWNA.
(6) Atnaca, ieraudzija un uzvareja.
come, pf. past. catch sight, past. and in, past.
EZ, A, Mot.
EZPIX(7) CIE9)D 220 PFEV DET 1 Y X EX DEA PFV E 722,
ICA TEEDAEE uz- E no-4-HXD IPFEV ICA, 32 OEA RFETA aprakstija *) IPFV E
ВМС.
(7) Vins uzzimëja, nofotografeja un siki aprakstija ëkas.
he draw, pf. past. ~~ photograph, pf. past. and detailed describe, past. buildings
BF yHVÈUL, FÉT EU, ÉDIMDS ES LE.
TA
Kalnata IZ81Z 107 227 hA— MEDI 274777 NEEZDIZED, 7 к
A TEOBMT ALT FOEFIIHFAOHRBICLD ELLDOT ART hEZLTNÁSA
FRBITEDE LTD, ZOBRICEED TA LM) DIENELTNA.
(Катаёа 2004 : 19) | 2 Катпаёа 725 D5 BIZ LE, parlasit FÉES] EVD
ESA EE, MIT(8) TIT IPFV, MI3L(9) CIT PEV E SD 2119. (Kalnata 2004: 19.)
(8) Vakar parlasiju laikrakstus.
Yesterday reread, past. newspapers
(ELIT) ВЕ В ЖЕ & век |7.
(9) Vakar parlasiju visus jaunakos laikrakstus.
Yesterday reread, past. all newest newspapers
(FAIRE A ADE A $ ~~ TRAE LT.
PFV & NB HILO) TIE, FERA FAO viss, & DIRES E 27 FA A jaunakos
— 137 —
DANA, FISXE8)E ERD EHEOEMENFEMIT ST).
BRIGEDOM, BENITO SEED, 727 MREIZBWTEELRKE 2H
TV. BETT DEAN 2 MAA TA, AFIXITED: IPEV ERODE
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menesi [ERIC 1 ARE ЯН #2) IX} LU, PFV O atrisinät jautájumu viena menes: |]
Ba 15h CHI SD] dH 5H. Kalnaca BITCH LEMI7 27 | SAO parlasit $
RFRIXTFE & EAU IPFV (pärlasit gramatu vienu stundu 11 HERA 2 233 | IZ, ASÍ
ME E AUT PEFV (parlasit gramatu viena stunda | 1 RF TAZ FART )) (TER TE
5.
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NXNVDT ART PH CHR5II7ALNIMIENEER, TA, ERXHPORx E
EZ 7 27 EH 75.
2. 7ANI HEHiETOPÁ
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Rica, TESRIEFEADEMEDO— 3 ZIEHE (interval) OFIZMBEL TWD ZL %
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FFEAZFODOILIPFV THY, PFV XZ OF EER L THES LOTTERY. High
>) OF NO, EFE LZETROMETH SD. A TOMXOTEÍÑED
ZiCMD. ZZ TIX PFV OFF piezvanit, izdarit , sakartot [XFBV 72 V.
(10) — Hallo! Seit zvana Anna. Ko tagad dari?
hello here call, impf. pres. Anna what now do, impf. pres.
— Es tagad kartoju istabu.
I now arrange, pres. room
BOL [email protected]) BEI ITE OF O EN + FERRIS TWRWEIFT, PEV IC HARK
соо НОМ E LTVNZ 72.
— 138 —
TENT A TEDT ART bX LE FORBEOERNE
— bLbtHL, 727TEE. MÉX LTNAD?
— SEDE Z LTNZ2D.
LD LERO SIB 15 TIEN A > MEDINA EEN —-BLED, EK—
BIZ LIENÉLCZ2-ELEIS< 172. READER | ODE TITLE
№ Хх ЛЕЙ 47 5 | ЕН Х ЛАТ ВК) ПНВ ВОЛ 0 & 5 |
[ZORITKIZRD EER EDLD] RE EZ EU, ERRANG
JIn<RL, TT LHLHEFRFSTOBEDORIFMENT 7 Fa T7705 LIER LZR
ос.
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PFV IZ THFORNHÉDER]) HEH L TWA. (EYEE 1:588) = = СЫНЫ
ERIZINTERXEAZ E, IPEV DOME EED BECAS: 70 22832
(IX L, PFV DHFODEEDERNAZ HTT 5. rakstit - uzrakstit [EL | OX DH 2H)
FART EIT OEE ERIZL ODL, (БН E 712 EFI nakt — atnakt 1>K
2], risinat — atrisinat 'MEX-3 2, kartot — nokartot TAR 2172, SRT DJ, glabt —
izglabt BE) 3 2, meklet — sameklet |K+4, RUTHOI 31, mirt-nomirt FEW]
ZENDZ. DIRE <7 1“ (IPFV) LT (PFV) TE 5”, “ (IPFV) 33
TE (PEV) ZOÉEZZ20, “Fok (PFV) ZLTNR E (PFV) BITE HE oT
—ENXIRN CI, CTHELDERWNERDHETSLIITHKULANE.
(11) Exsamenu kartoja 50 cilveku un to nokartoja puse.
Exam take, past. people and it pass, past. half
HERE ZITT-DIZIS0ATHY, TNLZSMLEDIEWM TDI.
(12) Loma naca, naca un atnaca.
role come, impf. past. come, impf. past. and come, pf. past.
(EDESA ELZLT) RVHIDSV (DS 2 TONITE.
(13) Zirgu glaba astoni cilveki. Un izglaba.
horse rescue, impf. past. 8 people and rescue, pf. past.
M LD LBEEDMET Y HE AAN EZZ (E E PEV OBEABUESNZ2- ED, REZAZ
& DA 3.
— 139 —
E OREIZLS ABR. ELTRELT.
(14) Miris, miris, bet nenomiris.
die, impf. apastp. die, impf. apastp. but not die, pf. apastp.
(BT) ED <ZENZE 9 ThbOoND, ВИТО.
LDL ETE L 972— MOB CIT7£ <, tulkot — partulkot AR |, rakstit —
uzrakstit TE<J] EWvv7% PFV + IPFV ORi4 8791 t, —ÁXIC IPEV EEE
EE, PEVABMEDETARIA, ZOD LX J 23ARF TIHRFEZER DER & RAEN Z
RLIDESZADAD. MZITIX(15)D 1 9 72X IFA 415.
(15) Tulkotäji tulko, tulko, kamer partulko.
translators translate, impf. pres. translate, impf. pres while translate, pf. pres.
RAIL EZ LR 2 5 FE THIRRICT 2 EMA.
ORAR > BRFRIEERNR BAZ DEM) OXIria PE + FERRED XL
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IPFV 8h пак: ПЕ 5) TX EZ TH (DIEZ) DERTILA, uz treniniem
RE] EN ARAN EINTNARD, BAEZ 3 PV ET H22E
TTL HARV.
(16) Tris dienas nedela uz treniniem pak pieaugusie.
3 days week to trainings come, impf. pres. adults
BIZ 3EIRATEBENREBIZR- TL 3.
BIX(IDIL, SEOEZ2RBA 7 7 —EN 22a 524587, 3EIBICLTR
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INZAZXSE,
— 140 —
7 FA TÉEDT ANT EH В ОВО
(17) Loma naca tris reizes.
role come, impf. past. 3 times
13 3 ERC С & 75.
ео. 477 — ZEV КОННЫХ ZAÑLINTEZ) BERK -
7-20) 21] IPFV 9 naca E, 3KEBIZXTE724277—4X5|=EZ737: PEVOD
atnaca 2:13 (17) CIT IPFV 7 naca IZ4HZA EJTNZ. Z DZ ED, PFV BRET
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PFV IPFV
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TARY FEET BHF (neutralization) & IX, ZT AND ALS
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POKER ECE7A<7 >» DEE (synonymity) 17 Y 5 (competition) 234 U
5. COBARDE Кро а Х = = 7 а У БОВЕ ERE
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TERA RO FERRE LD 7 27 >—<7 2 OBER TU E, HERZ [TA]
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— 141 —
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IPFV 2:— BE =+2:, —MELED PV ITA DEEZEE LID, BEE
EEE — MEE SU TIE ТРЕУ СНВ DS. LA LEEGE
LECCE S5NTNSAX TE, EMNERA PEV OREA E 3 А ССВ
0, ATEO BER K> PEV OSITO RIERFA DANIEL A EEE NT
WRU,
sacit — pasacit [= 9 J, solit—apsolit [FIR T 5) & ‘о 7 ЭВА) Ви ^Р К) В) ня О РЕМ
ОБМЕНОВ о T, PEV OBEIIR ENE (expressive meaning) 5x5 & 3h, X
$52 E LAB, MOT EEN HEBE” (pracsens effectivum'®) E
L, 7>7475ECt IPFV DRE RHINITE GEO) TE RER RAT 2 |
СС. (Staltmane 1958c : 198) Staltmane DB E CII, INENFEDI RR 72217
ZA Ex SF FH OA, VDE (praesens historicum)
CENDIBEDEEDOHE, BHRHGHAEDND LH RT FAX MIBWT, PFV OBREEN
E<N5BAZELTNZ. (Staltmane 1958c : 191-202)
FAERDIÈREZ à 70 PFV SITAS ED 9 72 EC AR TAN 512 DD, E
7 PFV £ IPEV DEL 5 ОЖ) БОЛЕЛ t RIE LT ARIZI3V XT, PFV - IPFEVO “KEXIH
XI CD TE + JEFE | AMM EN SHE, PFV E IPFV ОФВ СОК
ILL E FIDE 972. MODE ENZ SERA LED, LS
EARNAPESENEENZEÉRNEC29. RETIL, XI PRORERA LC DEN
MEIER TARE ERIZONWT, БЕН. ППС, ВБИ Вл КК
(CU PFV <IPFV OBILATNENÉ<TkB, ZEIT) kl, MUTF Xb
PX RD 4 ZEJ 2-1 T, PEV-IPFV ORAL AAN à ET 5.
3. EMBA J EX
3.1. 0-Е ЕВЕ
ENEE IZ IPFV BD ElEDA, (ESIJAESEN IA PEV DIR
SAT ETL, PFV OBREMIRBITITREOBEZ ERT 525, 7 FT 4 TED PFV ISK
FEDERAL.
'6 praesens effectivum & V9 RE, A0 71227 EDR MI Skrabec DIE ZX FA
71%. (Staltmane 1958 : 198)
— 142 —
7 К 7 4 ГЕО А^Й КНМ EFORBROERME
\\Б 4,5 2%, katru Ф@епи Г# BJ < vienmeér [VW oJ, parasti THWTW] EVOoXB
BOZEN РЕМ + 1РЕУ СЪ БОН HAU ZEDTEZD. Ко
TUTDOHFIXDESIZ, BRITO OEBIEE RS TWAITAIZ2 DOENETRT IZ EDF
BETH D.
(18) Es katru dienu — lasu avizes.
I every day read, impf. pres. newspapers
FTE RHE (BE) ZF.
(19)Es katru dienu izlasu 2 avizes.
I every day read, pf. pres. 2 newspapers
ANTE A 2 ОЖ & To.
ED2oDFIXOBVIIMHETH DA, ZZ TRIEIZHTL 204 [—dx - AMI
DEW THD. 7 АЙ ВВ T—fix - BK) OXI, TANT H
EFRINHEDOBARMIZ LY PFV & IPFVICARIR TX 5 Z L #5 BZA T 57H
Kalnata 23 t2 FAUST (13.2288) TH5H. LHL PFV - IPFV OXIA NE
N3EIREEIIBNTZIOMAITEIEEESLEZ OND. PFV III OGEIZH)
EDR SXRD ELH ELZ TRL TWA. ERKROFILR0)TIE, IPFV DT
— EE 2 EX ERLTNASDIZAL, PEV III 5717-8843 v 3 TRRS
17-KEDT7— TER =<DENTENTWNS.
(20) Varetuarr — teikt, ka 1needu kiicinas, bet tad es melotu
could also say, inf. that not eat, impf. pres. cakes but then | would lie
—gada vienu, varbit divas kücinas apedu.
year 1 maybe 2 cakes eat, pf. pres.
T— XA LANESEZDIE, Ср НЛО. 118, ©
LLL 2 Er —X ARS.
fx BE) ORBUIZIEEZTIHEELZLT LHLEDT, ROFXEHTIHEE
SEE HAE - BK] OER Lo TWD. PFEVA LY MARITA
RI DILL, IPFV IZ EY — EIR ITAZ RL TWD.
— 143 —
(21) Noteikti Mates diena pie-zvanu mammal. Bet es zvanu
definitely mother day call, pf. pres. mammy but I call, impf. pres.
mammai ari citas dienas.
mammy also other days
ED RIEL 7 7 ICE Z2. СЫНОВ хх СЕВЕРО 5.
— HT [fix - BE] OBR CIMA СЪ ББ. (ЛЕНИЕ ВЕС
RADIEC EZ <ZD L 9727 TEL, EXIT ABC RIAD INTNSIZE
2D 5%, PFV - IPFV #6 56 00ER REC», —ERZRZ IPFV 3,
LANE ZA PEV OBRA E VI 7EARBAIBÉL <725.
(22) Katru gadu — Latvija dzimst / piedzimst 20000 bernu.
every year Latvia be bom, impf. pres. / pf. pres. children
BEIT H 77 CIL25BADFENEENS.
(23) Katru gadu pasaulé bada mirst /nomirst 11 miljoni cilveku.
every year world hunger die, impf. pres. / pf. pres. milion people
EEN CLÓLERT 11007 ADE < 725.
EZUTDLIMELES RT XA NX TAS.
(24) Ar malariju katrugadu saslimst ap 200-300 miljoni.
with Malaria every year get ill, pres. about milion
No tiem katru gadu nomirst aptuvenil-1,5 miljoni.
from they every year die, pf. pres. | approximately milion
Galvenokart mirst bérni (90%), kas slimo ar tropisko malariju
mainly die, impf. pres. children who be ill, pres. with tropic malaria
un dzivo Afrika uzdienvidiem no Sahäras tuksneta.
and live, pres. Africa to South from Sahara — desert
EE2-3XAD77I7I22:5. 705 BE 100 HHH 150 HV ABEL
— 144 —
7 RUA TEDT ANY FRILL EDORBEDOERKE
2 (A). ElZ37XECT 2(B)DIT, BEM 7 ) Тов, ЯН
DT ZV BITE FHE(90%) Th 5.
(A) 177 7 RE EMODOXECEÉA:, (B) IRD (A) DIECEÉD 90%%
EOL FHP EE RENTNAS. XONSAXICR Eb bit E ZXTERD, (A)
IZ PFV 2, (B) IZ IPEVABN5E5ATNZA. 2056 (A) ODONEIILEÉRO XA 51
(по нет 105 Ъ)) TU EXMTb, EDEMILSNT (A) DILCE DEAD:
(В) CILA — ARI E LOTA DATNZS, LARIRTE 3.
REEL (A) ZIPFV IZ, (B) % PFV OSAIZ3 22, EMPEDRE (HL<IT—
TED RED) D<7 HIIZEDD, (A) СООТ ARIZA, (B) TES
HINZE TE OF x MANÁ TNA, EMPRTEDZ.
DF, HIAEELZBRRIEBEEEZDL DOF >— MHC BE MIZ EET PFV -
IPFV DER IN BIEMNIC bt, SECA FIT L 0 EA PEV 4 GETS EN
EV EEZ [EMI], IPEVZ(EHIFOD EN EEZ Г НЕ) КБ ВЫНОС РЕУ ©
IPFV SHWE EEX OND. DEV VHS + RME] DOLINA ERAN TY
HY, ThE2RETDH I—fxik - BR) D7 0 2 AILIERAER AI ENZZ.
3.2. FEB 1£O ME
MZA LI 44 HOX EP CARES O EET, XANTEN
HD, TINELTIÉETCTHHMMIBELT, & Кран о ОБН ЕК
27 PUA TER THRRI LI XEROBA THD. RI DEE dA EC
DSLEDNENESZ AZ, BIZ TE!FMERE DERE, 0
AAA LO RMEEI43) TEA D A EN LD PFV - IPFV DEAR <A
SES DAD. 4IKIC, ТРЕУ OBRIAN xt LEER Td SHA E
СВЕ се он.
(25) Vardadiena atnak draugi, un visi nak neaicinati.
Name day come, pf. pres. friends and all come, impf. pres. uninvited
Z BD HIZIER AT DEAQT<D. FLTERAFINTIZRo TL 5.
— 145 —
5 ADA 7x —=r izing, EofixxEsy m2 20 [R-TL 5] DPFV -
IPFV IZ EWE EBX NAME TH DM, AFtaikIc LV, BFE EBT 5 RIZiT— (4
va) XEX, ACME EFI ARD LI.
- OFFERS O ENFEO NA) TELE RF TR O TEERFHICBWTLRLND. fx
X, HE E OMEXICZBWNT, — EMB E ENTRA 6 AE TNTNINELñA
NLTIN< BE, EEES EY TAR << E 2 ICE 62T
HZ END. (Zemgales zina. [E AF LHHD—-2-—AJ 1997 11 A 22 Bf)
ZIT EEN] ENANA LT PFV ® piedzima (2 [E]), IPFV O dzima (1
[2) 2) ЕЕК О 1Е2>, БСВ) KM nica pasaule HERO HE721 X, ©
Dh DFR pieteica sevi Sai pasaulei II MIE FAT, par savu piedzimsanas
dienu izvelejas 18. novembri 111 B 18 HIZA DAEN DH BZ RAZ] HNL TY
5. E=XZNE Jj EN ALEEZaj Aa UXAREX UT, PFV 0 piedzima + IPFV O
dzima HLRIFIZAWLN TWA Z LiF, MARNE TH PADELRIBEATEZ
EVITETDA.
S HICRBRTOREEIZE TH HEX LHNZZET TH, RIXFIZEBITSH PFV -
IPFV OFARR OND. FRICIRERFT TELL Ro5GEIE, TaD [FEHR] LW)
— DO SEEN EK TM TEA
ED, MERPEC< 2H 1T PEV DE RDA TC, ZH
EV EEE Er nn a IY Ie DEE 205 BREA
BROS, PEIDNDbITHATE] EVIRERNNOBMA à BRRERDER
IITRUSIEHEELU.
(26) Notikuma vieta mira divi cilveki, bet divi cilveki nomira
event place die, impf. past. 2 people but 2 people die, pf. past.
cela uz slimnicu.
way to hospital
EERE T2 ADELE, £722 AlIJABEL(8)7: 9 :?RP OXEC L7.
(27) Tris skoléni nomira notikuma vieta, bet viens tika nopietni
3 pupils die, pf. past. event place but 1 get, past. seriously
A 7A—77 HUIZ HI 47 EZ AEREA 2 20 KETE, 20 ZTE, 30 MUEBLE, 40
RAE, 50 EZPENIA7) L TWENTE.
— 146 —
7 747 ED7 AI hHALELOEAD ER PE
ievainots un mira slimnica.
injured and die, impf. past. hospital
3 ADEFENNEMIEBLE CL, E 1 ATLEJEZ AL, MET СТ.
3.3. ESMEDRIB
IL ECI1.TEN7EML(22)23)I=HUE>Z.
(22) Katru gadu Latvija dzimst / piedzimst 20000 bérnu.
every year Latvia be born, impf. pres. / pf. pres. children
BET NTT THEH2ZHIADOFENREEND.
(23) Katru gadu pasaulé bada mirst / nomirst 11 miljoni cilveku.
every year world hunger die, impf. pres. / pf. pres. milion people
EA CIAT 1100 5 ADE 25.
=D2DPX4 54041774 —7Y HZAEREZA, 3BDA 74—7Y
HA, EDDEOMIXLIZII TE IPFV O EEE A |) О В) Га ОЖ]
ERA TN2ELES. SbIEIADAZ74—772 hd, TRREDIRANES7 7
FAT NEXRKHS DICZIL IPEV DARTE DS| ELE. IDRRIL 1979
СОСЛОВНЫЕ ENEE COBIED FRE ZAR LR, EF WS
E 72 AED P COFEZ MNEEL LITA <DEL ENT$t, IPFV AED FR
МОЖ ED, LIKE NÉ LS TEEN DO- EXT SERRE. —
5 CHEEEFE ENF D PFV O piedzimst, nomirst 122 TIT, HU 224041 774— 77 bh
DS TERCIO] E LT.
TAN HIMNO 5 BERE LO E, MMT IRE] (determinative) IZ
SEEING, BMEDLV EE pa-Di 2D. E ZEN EXCEDER (т
- CORREN RI, SL TESTI CEZERE LTEMJOS) Dà [VD L”
{IDX%45] ThOoTt, EDTANI DER HAL, KO IIZEEDITA OR
fé (affectness) ÉVÉÉE ZT ¿+ ED712 AMIA: KI ARES TRE bAZD. MZ
IT Joti padomaju TELE TE L<Z7K 1, es vairak palutinu TELD5D: (Fx) LU H
B LAI 2204 74—7> bh, PFV - IPFV OR AX BIN TAU ES
L 7.
— 147 —
ED] DI, Joti ETH) Rvairak (LVL) ODL OREN, AAN
< YD BOTA FOB Z DIV NES DIÈGRE as ее Вой
= Еф. РЕУ LE IPFV 2B LIZ EDO 2 ОТ Би мп ам КО ГЕ
EDO) ENIERLIL, EMPXADITED, — LED IMPERANTE
ECOL SAR (- - CAEBOMADELCE) DAA HEBIT, PV -
IPEV ORAR DA EBARE ERA, ESE (subjectification) DHÉÉE à HE
ITNSILEZM КН), ПРАВО Сс.
4. ОВС
7 ВИ 4 Тао А^Й Ко) —О ВМО НЫ 3 СОК
72, PFV - IPFV OXfI2:3—< TO BRE A TWRWIZ EDIENIZ, [FE - FEF
BJ EINER DE, AED, LANG
HR SIZ VY, ВЕН Е PFV IPFV OBIRENREWVZ ER KERER THD &
NZD. TOR, ERTELESS3 SR EAN E > BEMALTNZ OTIS ZAR
ACP. ERAMEBAR 107227 hApua 8104 EEN 7 —7
IZA LU, PFV + IPFV DD PFAEANCTVHAINT ETS CROGANST 4 ME
(5 п НИНЕ СЫ А 5.
ZE SEE TNA END, EBRO DOES SERTE b,
REL TRI ZSZEDEÉLNADD, 7 NATI EDT AY HimIZASU TIL,
ERA EY > SERE ENT 1 0 ТОЖ, БАВА РН С 5.
HS
sg = 3X, pl pres =BEJZ, рая Л, fut. =KEF pf. *=perfective (GET 7 A
7 Eh, PFV), impf. *=imperfective (RE T7 27 |, IPFV) (FI I TITRE
EDT ART HALLE MADE) apresp.=REBIDLE fil, apastp. =ÉÉÉhIE A
DFA), ppresp.= 8) {E47 a, ppastp.=< EE E2) 10 be.-55F but (63, V5], inf=
TER, тей. =, поч ЕЕ
” III, ABIT ZONE SEK EAU 2250 - Ek
70O7A] EX LT. (Traugott 1995 : 31)
— 148 —
7 H 747 ENT ARI HALELEFOKREDIERTE
55 HR
Bergmane.A. et al. 1959. Müsdienu latviesu literaras valodas gramatika 1.- fonetika un
morfologija, Riga
Bergmane. A. et al. 1962. Músdienu latviesu literaras valodas gramatika I.- sintakse. Riga.
Bondarko. A. 2001. Teorija funkcional 'noj grammatiki. Vtoroe izdanie. Moskva.
Comrie. B. 1976. Aspect. Cambridge.
Holvoet, A. 2001. Studies in the Latvian verb, Kraków. 132-158.
Kalnaca, A. 2004. Darbibas varda veida kategorijas realizacija latvieSu valoda. Linguistica
Lettica. 13. Riga. 5-34.
Kalnata A. 2008. Saliktas tagadnes lietojums miusdienu latviesu valoda. Valodas prakse :
verojumi un ieteikumi. 3. Riga. 61-68.
Karavanov, A. 2006. Denotativnyj i modusnyj aspekty semantiki attenuativnosti. Vestnik
moskovskogo universiteta . Serija 9. Filologija. No.4. Moskva. 104-111.
Lokmane I. 1988. Veida un laika nozimju mijiedarbe latviesu valodas darbibas varda sistëma.
Latviesu valodas kultiras jautajumi. 24. laid. Riga. 109-118.
Semikolenova. E. 2002. Izbiratel’nost’ v upotreblenii vida glagola kak sledstvie processa
nejtralizacii. XKul'tura narodov Pricernomor 'ja. tom. 37. Simferopol”. 176-182.
Staltmane V. 1958a. Perfektiva un imperfektiva veida verbu gramatiskais raksturojums
músdienu latviesu literaraja valoda. Latvijas PSR ZA Vestis 6. Riga. 27-36.
Staltnane V. 1958b. Priedekja verbu veidiskas nozimes músdienu latvieSu literaraja valoda.
Latvijas PSR ZA Vestis 7. 13-22. |
Staltmane, V. 1958c. Verbu veidi músdienu latviesu literaraja valoda. Doktora disertacija.
Riga
Seljakin M. 1983. Kategorija vida i sposoby dejstvija russkogo jazyka : Teoreticheskie osnovy.
Tallin.
Traugott E.C. 1995. Subjectification in grammaticalisation. Subjectivity and subjectivisation,
Linguistic Perspectives. Cambridge. 31-54.
DEAR 2009. [Z boo TREOQEBFEENF—7 A727 ВНЕ © ВНЗ) À
FAERBRFRFER (Six
— 149 —
Aspectual opposition and facultativity of its expression in Latvian
Daiki HORIGUCHI
The aim of this article is to show an outline of aspectual expressions in Latvian and to shed
light on the facultativity of the use of perfective and imperfective verbs mainly in general
present tense.
The core of aspectually oppositional system in Latvian is indeed a verbal pair — perfective
and imperfective — the former marked by a so-called perfectivizing or formal prefix. But in
Latvian in general aspect expresses itself morphologically ( prefixes and suffixes ), tensely
( resultative compound tense ) and syntactically ( taxis or complements ). Here we found two
semantic features of aspectual opposition between perfective and imperfective — telicity and
simultaneity. Unlike simultaneity, telicity can not be considered as privative one.
The facultativity of the use of perfective and imperfective is often observed in general
present tense where the privative opposition “simultaneity — non-simultaneity” is neutralized.
In this case, the choice of a verb can be determined by some relative and subjective factors.
Generalization / concretization of a fact is realized respectively by unprefixed imperfective
verb / prefexed perfective verb. In some sentences verbs of aspectual pair are used only to
stylize a text, avoiding repetition of the same verb.
— 150 —
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