Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter manual

User’s Manual
Model 480
Fluxmeter
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, Ohio 43082-8888 USA
E-mail:
sales@lakeshore.com
service@lakeshore.com
Visit our website at:
www.lakeshore.com
Fax: (614) 891-1392
Telephone: (614) 891-2243
Methods and apparatus disclosed and described herein have been developed solely on company funds of Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
No government or other contractual support or relationship whatsoever has existed which in any way affects or mitigates proprietary
rights of Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. in these developments. Methods and apparatus disclosed herein may be subject to U.S. Patents
existing or applied for. Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. reserves the right to add, improve, modify, or withdraw functions, design
modifications, or products at any time without notice. Lake Shore shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with furnishing, performance, or use of this material.
Revision: 2.2
P/N 119-028
25 July 2017
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
LIMITED WARRANTY STATEMENT
WARRANTY PERIOD: THREE (3) YEARS
1. Lake Shore warrants that products manufactured by Lake Shore (the "Product") will be free from defects in materials
and workmanship for three years from the date of Purchaser's physical receipt of the Product (the "Warranty Period"). If
Lake Shore receives notice of any such defects during the Warranty Period and the defective Product is shipped freight
prepaid back to Lake Shore, Lake Shore will, at its option, either repair or replace the Product (if it is so defective) without
charge for parts, service labor or associated customary return shipping cost to the Purchaser. Replacement for the
Product may be by either new or equivalent in performance to new. Replacement or repaired parts, or a replaced Product,
will be warranted for only the unexpired portion of the original warranty or 90 days (whichever is greater).
2.Lake Shore warrants the Product only if the Product has been sold by an authorized Lake Shore employee, sales
representative, dealer or an authorized Lake Shore original equipment manufacturer (OEM).
3.The Product may contain remanufactured parts equivalent to new in performance or may have been subject to
incidental use when it is originally sold to the Purchaser.
4. The Warranty Period begins on the date the Product ships from Lake Shore’s plant.
5.This limited warranty does not apply to defects in the Product resulting from (a) improper or inadequate installation
(unless OT&V services are performed by Lake Shore), maintenance, repair or calibration, (b) fuses, software, power
surges, lightning and non-rechargeable batteries, (c) software, interfacing, parts or other supplies not furnished by Lake
Shore, (d) unauthorized modification or misuse, (e) operation outside of the published specifications, (f) improper site
preparation or site maintenance (g) natural disasters such as flood, fire, wind, or earthquake, or (h) damage during
shipment other than original shipment to you if shipped through a Lake Shore carrier.
6.This limited warranty does not cover: (a) regularly scheduled or ordinary and expected recalibrations of the Product; (b)
accessories to the Product (such as probe tips and cables, holders, wire, grease, varnish, feed throughs, etc.); (c)
consumables used in conjunction with the Product (such as probe tips and cables, probe holders, sample tails, rods and
holders, ceramic putty for mounting samples, Hall sample cards, Hall sample enclosures, etc.); or, (d) non-Lake Shore
branded Products that are integrated with the Product.
7.To the extent allowed by applicable law, this limited warranty is the only warranty applicable to the Product and replaces
all other warranties or conditions, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties or conditions of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Specifically, except as provided herein. Lake Shore undertakes no
responsibility that the products will be fit for any particular purpose for which you may be buying the Products. Any implied
warranty is limited in duration to the warranty period. No oral or written information, or advice given by the Company, its
Agents or Employees, shall create a warranty or in any way increase the scope of this limited warranty. Some countries,
states or provinces do not allow limitations on an implied warranty, so the above limitation or exclusion might not apply to
you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights and you might also have other rights that vary from country to country,
state to state or province to province.
8.Further, with regard to the United Nations Convention for International Sale of Goods (CISC,) if CISG is found to apply
in relation to this agreement, which is specifically disclaimed by Lake Shore, then this limited warranty excludes
warranties that: (a) the Product is fit for the purpose for which goods of the same description would ordinarily be used, (b)
the Product is fit for any particular purpose expressly or impliedly made known to Lake Shore at the time of the conclusion
of the contract, (c) the Product is contained or packaged in a manner usual for such goods or in a manner adequate to
preserve and protect such goods where it is shipped by someone other than a carrier hired by Lake Shore.
9.Lake Shore disclaims any warranties of technological value or of non-infringement with respect to the Product and Lake
Shore shall have no duty to defend, indemnify, or hold harmless you from and against any or all damages or costs
incurred by you arising from the infringement of patents or trademarks or violation or copyrights by the Product.
10.THIS WARRANTY IS NOT TRANSFERRABLE. This warranty is not transferrable.
11.Except to the extent prohibited by applicable law, neither Lake Shore nor any of its subsidiaries, affiliates or suppliers
will be held liable for direct, special, incidental, consequential or other damages (including lost profit, lost data, or
downtime costs) arising out of the use, inability to use or result of use of the product, whether based in warranty, contract,
tort or other legal theory, regardless whether or not Lake Shore has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
Purchaser's use of the Product is entirely at Purchaser's risk. Some countries, states and provinces do not allow the
exclusion of liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation may not apply to you.
A
12.This limited warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary within or between
jurisdictions where the product is purchased and/or used. Some jurisdictions do not allow limitation in certain warranties,
and so the above limitations or exclusions of some warranties stated above may not apply to you.
13.Except to the extent allowed by applicable law, the terms of this limited warranty statement do not exclude, restrict or
modify the mandatory statutory rights applicable to the sale of the product to you.
CERTIFICATION
Lake Shore certifies that this product has been inspected and tested in accordance with its published specifications and that this product
met its published specifications at the time of shipment. The accuracy and calibration of this product at the time of shipment are traceable
to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS).
FIRMWARE LIMITATIONS
Lake Shore has worked to ensure that the Model 480 firmware is as free of errors as possible, and that the results you obtain from the
instrument are accurate and reliable. However, as with any computer-based software, the possibility of errors exists.
In any important research, as when using any laboratory equipment, results should be carefully examined and rechecked before final
conclusions are drawn. Neither Lake Shore nor anyone else involved in the creation or production of this firmware can pay for loss of
time, inconvenience, loss of use of the product, or property damage caused by this product or its failure to work, or any other incidental or
consequential damages. Use of our product implies that you understand the Lake Shore license agreement and statement of limited
warranty.
FIRMWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
The firmware in this instrument is protected by United States copyright law and international treaty provisions. To maintain the warranty,
the code contained in the firmware must not be modified. Any changes made to the code is at the user’s risk. Lake Shore will assume no
responsibility for damage or errors incurred as result of any changes made to the firmware.
Under the terms of this agreement you may only use the Model 480 firmware as physically installed in the instrument. Archival copies are
strictly forbidden. You may not decompile, disassemble, or reverse engineer the firmware. If you suspect there are problems with the
firmware, return the instrument to Lake Shore for repair under the terms of the Limited Warranty specified above. Any unauthorized
duplication or use of the Model 480 firmware in whole or in part, in print, or in any other storage and retrieval system is forbidden.
TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Many manufacturers and sellers claim designations used to distinguish their products as trademarks. Where those designations appear
in this manual and Lake Shore was aware of a trademark claim, they appear with initial capital letters and the ™ or ® symbol.
MS-DOS® and Windows/95/98/NT/2000® are trademarks of Microsoft Corp.
NI-488.2™ is a trademark of National Instruments.
PC, XT, AT, and PS-2 are trademarks of IBM.
Copyright © 1999 – 2017 by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No portion of this manual may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission of Lake Shore.
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
EU DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
This declaration of conformity is issued under the sole responsibility of the manufacturer.
Manufacturer:
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Boulevard
Westerville, OH 43082
USA
Object of the declaration:
Model(s):
Description:
480
Fluxmeter
The object of the declaration described above is in conformity with the relevant Union harmonization
legislation:
2014/35/EU
2014/30/EU
Low Voltage Directive
EMC Directive
References to the relevant harmonized standards used to the specification in relation to which
conformity is declared:
EN 61010-1:2010
Overvoltage Category II
Pollution Degree 2
EN 61326-1:2013
Class A
Controlled Electromagnetic Environment
Signed for and on behalf of:
Place, Date:
Westerville, OH USA
29-SEP-2016
C
Scott Ayer
Director of Quality & Compliance
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) for the Model 480 Fluxmeter
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of electronic equipment is a growing concern worldwide.
Emissions of and immunity to electromagnetic interference is now part of the design and manufacture
of most electronics. To qualify for the CE Mark, the Model 480 meets or exceeds the generic
requirements of the European EMC Directive 89/336/EEC as a CLASS A product. A Class A product
is allowed to radiate more RF than a Class B product and must include the following warning:
WARNING:
This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may
cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to take
adequate measures.
The instrument was tested under normal operating conditions with sensor and interface cables
attached. If the installation and operating instructions in the User’s Manual are followed, there should
be no degradation in EMC performance.
Pay special attention to instrument cabling. Improperly installed cabling may defeat even the best
EMC protection. For the best performance from any precision instrument, follow the grounding and
shielding instructions in the User’s Manual. In addition, the installer of the Model 480 should consider
the following:
•
Leave no unused or unterminated cables attached to the instrument.
•
Make cable runs as short and direct as possible.
•
Do not tightly bundle cables that carry different types of signals.
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table of Contents
Chapter/Paragraph
Title
Page
1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.0
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.1
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................. 1-1
1.2
SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................................................. 1-2
1.3
SAFETY SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 1-4
1.4
SAFETY SYMBOLS ............................................................................................................ 1-4
2
MAGNETIC MEASUREMENT OVERVIEW ........................................................................................... 2-1
2.0
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1
INTEGRATING INSTRUMENTS ........................................................................................ 2-1
2.1.1
What Is An Integrator? ..................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.2
Why Integrators Are Used For Magnetic Measurement .................................................. 2-1
2.1.3
Important Integrator Characteristics ................................................................................ 2-2
2.1.4
Reducing Integrator Drift.................................................................................................. 2-3
2.1.5
Dielectric Absorption ........................................................................................................ 2-3
2.1.6
Analog Versus Digital Integrators .................................................................................... 2-4
2.1.7
Fluxmeter Measurements in Magnetizers ....................................................................... 2-4
2.1.8
Making AC Measurements .............................................................................................. 2-6
2.2
COIL CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................. 2-6
2.2.1
Coil Sensitivity.................................................................................................................. 2-6
2.2.2
Coil Size ........................................................................................................................... 2-7
2.2.3
Coil Resistance ................................................................................................................ 2-7
2.2.4
Coil Temperature Coefficient ........................................................................................... 2-8
2.2.5
Coil Orientation ................................................................................................................ 2-8
2.2.6
Field Uniformity ................................................................................................................ 2-9
2.2.7
Lead Pickup ..................................................................................................................... 2-9
2.2.8
Inductance, Capacitance, and Self Resonance............................................................... 2-9
2.2.9
Lake Shore Coils and Probes .......................................................................................... 2-9
2.3
FLUX OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................. 2-10
2.4
FLUX DENSITY OVERVIEW ............................................................................................ 2-10
2.4.1
What is Flux Density? .................................................................................................... 2-10
2.4.2
How Flux Density (B) Differs from Magnetic Field Strength (H) .................................... 2-11
2.5
MAGNETIC MOMENT OVERVIEW .................................................................................. 2-11
2.5.1
What is Magnetic Moment? ........................................................................................... 2-11
2.5.2
Important Parameters of a Hemholtz Coil ..................................................................... 2-11
2.5.3
Hemholtz Coil Constant Determination (For Non-Lake Shore Coils) ............................ 2-12
2.6
MAGNETIC POTENTIAL OVERVIEW .............................................................................. 2-13
2.6.1
What is Magnetic Potential? .......................................................................................... 2-13
2.6.2
Important Parameters of a Potential Coil ....................................................................... 2-13
3
SETUP .................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.0
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1
RECEIVING THE MODEL 480 ........................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.1
Inspection and Unpacking ............................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.2
Repackaging For Shipment ............................................................................................. 3-1
3.2
REAR PANEL DEFINITION ................................................................................................ 3-2
3.3
LINE INPUT ASSEMBLY .................................................................................................... 3-2
3.3.1
Line Voltage and Fuse Verification .................................................................................. 3-2
Table of Contents
i
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Chapter/Paragraph
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4
3.5
3.5.1
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
Title
Page
Power Cord ...................................................................................................................... 3-2
Power Switch .................................................................................................................... 3-2
COIL INPUT CONNECTION ............................................................................................... 3-3
PROBE INPUT CONNECTION ........................................................................................... 3-3
Attachment To A Non-Lake Shore Coil ............................................................................ 3-3
TERMINAL BLOCK ............................................................................................................. 3-4
Alarm Relay Connection................................................................................................... 3-4
Analog Output Connections ............................................................................................. 3-4
External Reset Connections ............................................................................................. 3-4
Optional Input Connection ................................................................................................ 3-4
4
BASIC OPERATION ............................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.0
GENERAL............................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.1
TURNING ON POWER ....................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2
DISPLAY DEFINITION ........................................................................................................ 4-1
4.3
READING FORMAT ............................................................................................................ 4-2
4.4
KEYPAD DEFINITION ......................................................................................................... 4-2
4.5
GENERAL KEYPAD OPERATION ..................................................................................... 4-3
4.6
QUICK START PROCEDURES .......................................................................................... 4-4
4.6.1
DC Integrator Measurement In Units of V·s, WbN, or MxN ............................................. 4-4
4.6.2
DC Flux Measurement In Units of V·sφ, Mx, or Wb ......................................................... 4-5
4.6.3
DC Flux Density Measurement In Units of G or T ............................................................ 4-6
4.6.4
Moment Measurement In Unit of Wb·cm ......................................................................... 4-7
4.6.5
Potential Measurement In Unit of A ................................................................................. 4-8
5
ADVANCED OPERATION ..................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.0
GENERAL............................................................................................................................ 5-1
5.1
UNITS SELECTION ............................................................................................................ 5-1
5.2
COIL PARAMETERS .......................................................................................................... 5-2
5.3
COIL SETUP ....................................................................................................................... 5-2
5.3.1
Input Resistance ............................................................................................................... 5-3
5.3.2
Coil Resistance ................................................................................................................ 5-4
5.3.3
Number of Turns (N) ........................................................................................................ 5-4
5.3.4
Area (A) ............................................................................................................................ 5-4
5.3.5
Area Turns (AN) ............................................................................................................... 5-5
5.3.6
Helmholtz Constant .......................................................................................................... 5-5
5.3.7
Potential Constant ............................................................................................................ 5-5
5.4
MAKING MEASUREMENTS IN PERCENT ........................................................................ 5-6
5.4.1
Before Using Set Percent ................................................................................................. 5-6
5.4.2
Set Percent (%) ................................................................................................................ 5-6
5.4.3
Percent Scale Factor ........................................................................................................ 5-6
5.5
COIL CALIBRATION ........................................................................................................... 5-7
5.5.1
Before using Coil Calibration ............................................................................................ 5-7
5.5.2
Calibrating a Coil .............................................................................................................. 5-7
5.6
COIL SELECT AND PARAMETER STORAGE .................................................................. 5-7
5.6.1
Storing New Coil Parameters into Instrument Memory .................................................... 5-8
5.6.2
Storing New Coil Parameters into Probe Memory ........................................................... 5-8
5.6.3
Selecting Saved Coil Parameters .................................................................................... 5-8
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Chapter/Paragraph
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.9.1
5.9.2
5.9.3
5.10
5.10.1
5.10.2
5.11
5.11.1
5.11.2
5.11.3
5.11.4
5.11.5
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.14.1
5.14.2
5.14.3
5.15
5.15.1
5.15.2
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
6
Title
Page
RANGE SELECTION .......................................................................................................... 5-9
READING RESET ............................................................................................................... 5-9
DRIFT ADJUSTMENT ...................................................................................................... 5-10
Automatic Drift Adjustment ............................................................................................ 5-10
Manual Drift Adjustment ................................................................................................ 5-11
DriftTrak™...................................................................................................................... 5-11
DC AND AC MEASUREMENT MODES ........................................................................... 5-12
DC Measurement Mode ................................................................................................. 5-12
AC Measurement Mode ................................................................................................. 5-13
PEAK HOLD AND PEAK RESET ..................................................................................... 5-14
Peak Hold in DC Mode .................................................................................................. 5-14
Peak Hold in AC Mode .................................................................................................. 5-14
Activating Peak Mode .................................................................................................... 5-14
Peak Reset .................................................................................................................... 5-15
Choosing Positive, Negative or Both Peaks .................................................................. 5-15
FILTER .............................................................................................................................. 5-15
DISPLAY RESOLUTION .................................................................................................. 5-16
ALARM AND RELAY OPERATION .................................................................................. 5-16
Alarm Setup ................................................................................................................... 5-17
Relay Setup ................................................................................................................... 5-18
Turning Alarm On and Off.............................................................................................. 5-19
ANALOG OUT OPERATION ............................................................................................ 5-19
Corrected Analog Output ............................................................................................... 5-19
Monitor Analog Output ................................................................................................... 5-20
EXTERNAL RESET .......................................................................................................... 5-21
OPTIONAL INPUT ............................................................................................................ 5-21
LOCKING AND UNLOCKING THE KEYPAD ................................................................... 5-21
RESETTING TO DEFAULT VALUES ............................................................................... 5-22
COMPUTER INTERFACE OPERATION ............................................................................................... 6-1
6.0
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1
IEEE-488 INTERFACE ....................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.1
IEEE-488 Interface Settings ............................................................................................ 6-2
6.1.2
IEEE-488 Command Structure ........................................................................................ 6-2
6.1.3
Status Registers............................................................................................................... 6-3
6.1.4
IEEE Interface Example Programs .................................................................................. 6-5
6.1.5
Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................. 6-13
6.2
SERIAL I/O INTERFACE .................................................................................................. 6-14
6.2.1
Serial Interface Hardware Configuration ....................................................................... 6-14
6.2.2
Serial Interface Settings ................................................................................................. 6-14
6.2.3
Serial Interface Example Programs ............................................................................... 6-15
6.2.4
Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................. 6-19
6.3
IEEE-488/SERIAL INTERFACE COMMAND SUMMARY ................................................ 6-20
6.3.1
Command List Structure ................................................................................................ 6-21
6.3.2
IEEE-488/Serial Interface Commands (Alphabetical Listing) ........................................ 6-21
Table of Contents
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Chapter/Paragraph
Title
Page
7
ACCESSORIES, COILS, AND PROBES ............................................................................................... 7-1
7.0
GENERAL............................................................................................................................ 7-1
7.1
ACCESSORIES ................................................................................................................... 7-1
7.2
FIELD MEASURING PROBES............................................................................................ 7-3
7.2.1
100 cm2 Field Probe ......................................................................................................... 7-3
7.2.2
30 cm2 Field Probe ........................................................................................................... 7-4
7.3
HELMHOLTZ COILS ........................................................................................................... 7-5
7.4
REFERENCE MAGNETS.................................................................................................... 7-7
8
SERVICE................................................................................................................................................. 8-1
8.0
GENERAL............................................................................................................................ 8-1
8.1
GENERAL MAINTENANCE PRECAUTIONS ..................................................................... 8-1
8.2
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE ........................................................................................ 8-1
8.2.1
Identification of Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive Components ...................................... 8-2
8.2.2
Handling Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive Components ................................................ 8-2
8.3
LINE VOLTAGE SELECTION ............................................................................................. 8-2
8.4
FUSE REPLACEMENT ....................................................................................................... 8-3
8.5
REAR PANEL CONNECTOR DEFINITIONS ...................................................................... 8-4
8.5.1
Serial Interface Cable Wiring............................................................................................ 8-6
8.5.2
IEEE-488 Interface Connector ......................................................................................... 8-7
8.6
TOP OF ENCLOSURE REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT ................................................ 8-8
8.6.1
Removal Procedure.......................................................................................................... 8-8
8.6.2
Installation Procedure....................................................................................................... 8-8
8.7
EPROM REPLACEMENT ................................................................................................... 8-8
8.8
ERROR MESSAGES .......................................................................................................... 8-9
8.9
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE........................................................................................... 8-10
8.9.1
Required Equipment List ................................................................................................ 8-10
8.9.2
A/D Reference Voltages ................................................................................................. 8-10
8.9.3
Initialize for Calibration ................................................................................................... 8-10
8.9.4
AC Peak Offset............................................................................................................... 8-11
8.9.5
AC RMS and AC Peak Gain Calibration ........................................................................ 8-11
8.9.6
DC and DC Peak Calibration.......................................................................................... 8-12
8.9.7
Output Calibration .......................................................................................................... 8-13
8.9.8
Finalize Calibration ......................................................................................................... 8-14
APPENDIX A – GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY ..................................................................................... A-1
APPENDIX B – UNITS FOR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES............................................................................ B-1
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Table of Contents
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure No.
3-1
3-2
4-1
4-2
5-1
5-2
6-1
6-2
6-3
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
Title
Page
Model 480 Rear Panel ..................................................................................................................... 3-2
Line Input Assembly ......................................................................................................................... 3-3
Model 480 Normal Display Definition ............................................................................................... 4-1
Model 480 Front Panel ..................................................................................................................... 4-2
Model 480 AC Frequency Response ............................................................................................. 5-13
Examples of Alarm Activation Inside and Outside High and Low Setpoints .................................. 5-18
GPIB0 Setting Configuration ............................................................................................................ 6-6
DEV 12 Device Template Configuration .......................................................................................... 6-6
Typical National Instruments GPIB Configuration from IBCONF.EXE .......................................... 6-11
100 cm 2 Field Probe ......................................................................................................................... 7-3
30 cm2 Field Probe ........................................................................................................................... 7-4
Model FH-2.5 Helmholtz Coil ........................................................................................................... 7-5
Model FH-6 Helmholtz Coil .............................................................................................................. 7-6
Model FH-12 Helmholtz Coil ............................................................................................................ 7-6
Lake Shore Reference Magnets ...................................................................................................... 7-7
Model RM-1/2 Half-Rack Mounting Kit............................................................................................. 7-8
Model RM-2 Dual Rack-Mount Shelf ............................................................................................... 7-8
Power Fuse Access ......................................................................................................................... 8-3
COIL INPUT Connector Details ....................................................................................................... 8-4
PROBE INPUT Connector Details ................................................................................................... 8-4
Relays and Analog Signals Terminal Block ..................................................................................... 8-5
SERIAL I/O Connector Details ......................................................................................................... 8-5
IEEE-488 Rear Panel Connector Details ......................................................................................... 8-7
Location of Operating Software EPROM ......................................................................................... 8-9
LIST OF TABLES
Table No.
2-1
3-1
5-1
5-2
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
8-1
8-2
Title
Page
Examples of Copper Wire Resistance ............................................................................................. 2-8
Sample AC Line Input List ............................................................................................................... 3-3
Units and Associated Coil Parameters ............................................................................................ 5-1
Default Values ................................................................................................................................ 5-22
IEEE-488 Interface Program Control Properties .............................................................................. 6-8
Visual Basic IEEE-488 Interface Program ....................................................................................... 6-9
Quick Basic IEEE-488 Interface Program ...................................................................................... 6-12
Serial Interface Specifications ........................................................................................................ 6-14
Serial Interface Program Control Properties .................................................................................. 6-16
Visual Basic Serial Interface Program ........................................................................................... 6-17
Quick Basic Serial Interface Program ............................................................................................ 6-18
AC Calibration Table ...................................................................................................................... 8-11
DC Calibration Table ...................................................................................................................... 8-12
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Table of Contents
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides introductory information for the Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter. Product
description is in Paragraph 1.1, specifications in Paragraph 1.2, safety summary in Paragraph 1.3, and
safety symbols in Paragraph 1.4.
1.1
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
The Model 480 is a precision integrating fluxmeter that works with a variety of sensing coils to measure changing
flux. It is fundamentally an analog integrator under microprocessor control. The analog integrator has excellent
specifications and is very flexible. It performs well in a variety of magnet applications from a fast pulse to a slow
ramp. The microprocessor optimizes the performance of the integrator and enables numerous features and
interfaces. The Model 480 fits well into test and measurement operations from all manual to fully automated with
quick setup and ease of use. The fluxmeter complements the existing line of Lake Shore gaussmeters.
Manual Magnet Testing
A bright display and fast reading update make the Model 480 ideal for manual magnet sorting and testing. The low
drift of the instrument improves productivity with fewer adjustments. Remote terminals allow for foot pedal reading
reset to keep hands on the work, not the instrument. Configurable alarms give an audible signal or relay closure to
signify pass/fail.
Automated Magnet Testing
In automated testing, time is money. The Model 480 has many features to enhance throughput. The instrument has
a fast update rate and settling time. It recovers quickly from reading reset to start a new reading cycle. IEEE-488
and serial computer interfaces included with the Model 480 can be used to control most instrument functions.
Relays and analog outputs can be used for automation without a computer interface.
Magnetizing
The magnetizing process places unique demands on all associated electronics. The Model 480 responds with very
fast peak capture that can keep up with the fastest magnetizing pulses. Both a positive and negative peak can be
captured from the same pulse. The input of the Model 480 is protected against the high voltages at its input present
during magnetizing.
Materials Analysis
High resolution and low drift define the role of the fluxmeter in analytical measurement. The high resolution of the
Model 480 is reinforced by a low noise floor. A configurable filter helps keep the readings quiet. Automatic and
manual drift adjustment modes help optimize the low-drift characteristics of the integrators. The IEEE-488 and
serial computer interfaces included with the Model 480 allow automated data taking.
AC Magnetic Fields
Sensing coils are sensitive to AC magnetic fields but many conventional integrating fluxmeters can not measure
AC fields. The Model 480 has an AC mode that enables it to measure fields over a wide frequency range using
simple sensing coils. Applications are limited to field volumes as large or larger than the coil but for some, it is an
inexpensive way to make low drift AC field measurements.
Drift Adjustment
Adjusting or nulling the drift of an analog integrator wastes time. It can be the only unpleasant part of using an
integrating fluxmeter. Lake Shore innovation brings some relief. The Model 480 has a built in drift algorithm that
continually adjusts drift when the instrument and coil are idle. It is ready when you are to make precision low drift
measurements. The adjustment algorithm has no effect during flux integration. Manual drift adjustment is also
available.
Coils and Probes
Coils and probes wound by the user or from other manufacturers can easily be used with the Model 480. The
Model 480 allows the user to save parameters for up to 10 existing coils/probes and quickly switch between them.
Lake Shore also offers several sensing coils and probe assemblies for use with the Model 480 which offer several
conveniences. They are factory calibrated for accuracy and interchangeability. Calibration data is loaded into
memory in the probe connector so it does not have to be entered by the user. Special coil assemblies are also
available and can be designed to meet customer specifications.
Introduction
1-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
1.2
SPECIFICATIONS
Measurement
Number of Inputs: 1
Input Type: Two-lead, ground referenced
Input Resistance: 100 kΩ or 10 kΩ
Maximum Operating Input Voltage: 60 V
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 100 V; WARNING: Voltages between 60 V and 100 V will not
damage the instrument but could result in damage to other instruments or personal injury.
Update Rate: 5 readings per second on display, 30 readings per second IEEE-488, 30 readings per second serial
DC
DC Display Resolution: To 5¾ digits
DC Integrator Capacitance: 1 µF nominal
DC Input Resistance:
100 kΩ
10 kΩ
DC Ranges:
300 mVs
30 mVs
30 mVs
3 mVs
DC Resolution:
0.001 mVs
0.0005 mVs
0.0005 mVs
0.0005 mVs
DC Accuracy: Offset: ±10 µVs ±DC Integrator Drift
Gain: ±0.25% of reading (<10 Vs/s max. rate of change)
DC Minimum dφ/dt: 20 µVs/minute
DC Maximum dφ/dt: 60 Vs/s
DC Integrator Drift: ±1 µVs/minute, 0.0004% FS/minute on 300 mVs range
(100 kΩ input resistance constant temperature environment)
DC Peak
DC Peak Display Resolution: 4¾ digits
DC Peak Integrator Capacitance: 1 µF nominal
DC Peak Input Resistance:
100 kΩ
10 kΩ
DC Peak Ranges:
300 mVs
30 mVs
30 mVs
3 mVs
DC Peak Resolution:
0.01 mVs
0.001 mVs
0.001 mVs
0.001 mVs
DC Peak Min. Reading:
0.05 mVs
0.005 mVs
0.005 mVs
0.005 mVs
DC Peak Accuracy: Offset: ±100 µVs ±DC Integrator Drift
Gain: ±5% of reading (<10 Vs/s max. rate of change)
DC Peak Maximum dφ/dt: 60 Vs/s
DC Peak Update Rate: May reduce update rate to ¼ normal
AC
AC Display Resolution: 4¾ digits
AC Integrator Capacitance: 0.1 µF nominal
AC Input Resistance: 100 kΩ
AC Ranges:
30 mVs
3 mVs
300 µVs
AC Resolution:
0.001 mVs
0.0001 mVs
0.01 µVs
AC Min. Rdg:
3.000 mVs
0.3000 mVs
30.00 µVs
AC Frequency Response: 2 Hz to 50 kHz (see Figure 5-1)
AC Accuracy: ±1% of reading ±10 µVs (10 Hz – 10 kHz sinusoidal)
±5% of reading: ±10 µVs (2 Hz – 50 kHz sinusoidal)
AC Integrator Drift: N/A
30 µVs
0.01 µVs
3.00 µVs
AC Peak
AC Peak Display Resolution: 3¾ digits
AC Peak Integrator Capacitance: 0.1 µF nominal
AC Peak Input Resistance: 100 kΩ
AC Peak Ranges:
30 mVs
3 mVs
300 µVs
AC Peak Resolution:
0.01 mVs
0.001 mVs
1 µVs
AC Peak Min. Reading:
0.01 mVs
0.001 mVs
5 µVs
AC Peak Accuracy: ±5% of reading ±10 µVs (10 Hz – 10 kHz sinusoidal)
±10% of reading ±10 µVs (2 Hz – 50 kHz sinusoidal)
AC Peak Update Rate: May reduce update rate to ¼ normal
Front Panel
Display Type: Two line by 20 character, vacuum fluorescent display
Display Resolution: To ±5¾ digits
Display Update Rate: 5 readings per second
Display Units: Vs, MxN, WbN, Vsφ, Mxφ, Wbφ, G, T, Wbcm, A, %
Units Multipliers: p, n, µ, m, k, M, G
Annunciators: AC AC input signal
DC DC input signal
∧∨ Positive and Negative peaks
R
Remote Operation
ª
Alarm on
Keypad: 21 full travel keys
1-2
Introduction
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Specifications (Continued)
Interfaces
IEEE-488.2 Capabilities: SH1,AH1,T5,L4,SR1,RL1,PP0,DC1,DT0,C0,E1
Serial Interface: RS-232C Electrical, DA-9 Connector, 9600 BAUD
External Reset Type: Contact Closure
Alarms
Number: 2
Settings: High and low set point, Inside/Outside, Audible
Actuators: Display Annunciator, Beeper, Relays for High, Low, and Middle
Relays
Number of Relays: 3
Contacts: Normally open (NO), normally closed (NC), and common (C)
Contact Rating: 30 VDC at 2 A
Operation: Follows high and low alarms. Can be operated manually.
Connector: Detachable terminal block
Monitor Analog Output
Scale: ±3V = ±FS on Vs range
Accuracy: ±1% of reading ±10 mV, (DC to 10 kHz)
±5% of reading ±10 mV, (10 kHz to 50 kHz)
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ
Connector: Detachable terminal block
Corrected Analog Output
Scale: User Selected
Range: ±10 V
Resolution: 0.3 mV
Accuracy: ±2.5 mV
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ
Connector: Detachable terminal block
General
Ambient Temperature: 15 – 35 °C at rated accuracy. 5 – 40 °C with reduced accuracy
Power Requirement: 100, 120, 220, 240 VAC, +5% -10%, 50 or 60 Hz, 20 watts
Size: 217 mm W × 90 mm H × 317 mm D half rack (8.5 × 3.5 × 12.5 inches)
Weight: 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds)
Approval: CE Mark (consult Lake Shore for availability)
Ordering Information
Part number
Description
Instrument
480
Fluxmeter
Specify line voltage when ordering
Instrument Accessories
RM-1/2
Rack Mount Kit for mounting one ½ rack fluxmeter in 482.6 mm rack
RM-2
Rack Mount Kit for mounting two ½ rack fluxmeters in 482.6 mm rack
4004
IEEE-488 cable, 1 meter
119-028*
Model 480 User's Manual
106-739*
Terminal Block Mating Connector (8 pin, quantity 2)
Probes and Coils (ordered separately)
FNT-6R04-100 Field Probe (100 cm2)
FNT-5R04-30
Field Probe (30 cm2)
FH-2.5
Helmholtz Coil (2.5 inch I.D.)
FH-6
Helmholtz Coil (6 inch I.D.)
FH-12
Helmholtz Coil (12 inch I.D.)
FCBL-6
User Programmable Cable with PROM (6 feet long)
Custom probes/coils/fixtures available (consult Lake Shore for more information)
* Accessories/options included with a new Model 480.
Introduction
1-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
1.3
SAFETY SUMMARY
Observe these general safety precautions during all phases of instrument operation, service, and
repair. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual
violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended instrument use. Lake Shore assumes
no liability for Customer failure to comply with these requirements.
The Model 480 protects the operator and surrounding area from electric shock or burn, mechanical
hazards, excessive temperature, and spread of fire from the instrument. Environmental conditions
outside of the conditions below may pose a hazard to the operator and surrounding area.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Indoor use.
Altitude to 2,000 meters.
Temperature for safe operation: 5 °C to 40 °C.
Maximum relative humidity: 80% for temperature up to 31 °C decreasing linearly to 50% at 40 °C.
Power supply voltage fluctuations not to exceed ±10% of the nominal voltage.
Overvoltage category II.
Pollution degree 2.
Ground The Instrument. To minimize shock hazard, connect the instrument chassis and cabinet to an
electrical ground. The instrument is equipped with a three-conductor AC power cable. Plug the power
cable into an approved three-contact electrical outlet or use a three-contact adapter with the grounding
wire (green) firmly connected to an electrical ground (safety ground) at the power outlet. The power jack
and mating plug of the power cable meet Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) safety standards.
Ventilation. The instrument has ventilation holes in its top and bottom covers. Do not block these holes
when the instrument is turned on.
Do Not Operate In An Explosive Atmosphere. Do not operate the instrument in the presence of
flammable gases or fumes. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a
definite safety hazard.
Keep Away From Live Circuits. Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Refer
component replacement and internal adjustments to qualified maintenance personnel. Do not replace
components with power cable connected. To avoid injuries, always disconnect power and discharge
circuits before touching them.
Do Not Substitute Parts Or Modify Instrument. Do not install substitute parts or perform any
unauthorized modification to the instrument. Return the instrument to an authorized Lake Shore
Cryotronics, Inc. representative for service and repair to ensure that safety features are maintained.
Cleaning. Do not submerge instrument. Clean only exterior with a damp cloth and mild detergent.
1.4
1-4
SAFETY SYMBOLS
Introduction
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 2
MAGNETIC MEASUREMENT OVERVIEW
2.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides an overview of magnetic measurements relating to the operation of the Lake
Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter. Integrating instruments is in Paragraph 2.1; coil characteristics in
Paragraph 2.2, flux overview in Paragraph 2.3, flux density overview in Paragraph 2.4, magnetic
moment overview in Paragraph 2.5, and magnetic potential overview in Paragraph 2.6.
2.1
2.1.1
INTEGRATING INSTRUMENTS
What Is An Integrator?
The output of the integrator in a fluxmeter is proportional to (∝) the voltage at its input as it varies
with time. In the most simple example, a voltage of 1 volt (V) present at the input of a fluxmeter for
1 second (s) results in a reading of 1 volt second (V·s). Volt seconds are the primary unit of
measurement for an integrator. The product of volts and seconds is the area under the voltage line if
it were plotted on a graph against time. When the input voltage changes in an irregular way,
integrator output cannot be calculated by simply multiplying voltage and time. The integrator reacts
continuously to the changing input to give an accurate area measurement.
C-480-2-1.eps
2.1.2
Why Integrators Are Used For Magnetic Measurement
Integrators are used in magnetic measurements because of the physical relationship between coils of
wire and magnetic flux (φ). The instantaneous voltage produced across a coil (Vcoil) is proportional to
the number of turns in the coil (N) times the rate of change in flux (dφ/dt):
It is inconvenient to use this relationship directly for DC measurements because the voltage
disappears as soon as the flux stops changing. The voltage is also proportional to the rate of change
in flux and not the total change in flux which is often the desired measurement. If Vcoil is integrated to
look at the area under Vcoil plotted against time, the above problems disappear. The integrator output
is proportional to the total change in flux and rate of change does not matter. Expressed
mathematically:
Magnetic Measurement Overview
2-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Why Integrators Are Used For Magnetic Measurement (Continued)
The total flux change can be measured with a fluxmeter as a coil moves near a magnet or as a
magnet moves near a coil.
C-480-2-2.eps
2.1.3
Important Integrator Characteristics
Some parameters that describe the integrator in a fluxmeter are familiar like range and resolution. If
the measurement range is too small, an over range condition can exist. If the range is too large, there
is not enough resolution to make accurate measurements. Available integrator ranges should be
taken into account when designing sensing coils. Ranges are often expressed in volt seconds which
is the fundamental measurement of the integrator. Range can be expressed in flux units if the number
of coil turns is known.
Some characteristics of integrators are not seen in other measurements. Two components dominate
the behavior of an integrator, its input resistance (Rin) and integrating capacitor (Cint).The expression
for a voltage integrator is:
The product Rin Cint is called the integrator time constant, but for practical purposes, 1/RinCint can be
considered the integrator gain. A more complete expression for flux is:
In the ideal case, Rin and Cint could be any value and only their product would matter. In reality there
are practical limits to both. Instrument manufacturers optimize the two values for best performance.
Many specifications are given based on specific values of Rin and Cint.
C-480-2-3.eps
For most users, the choice of fluxmeter Rin and Cint has little meaning to their measurement. There
are exceptions. The integrator resistance is the sum of input resistance and coil resistance. Coil
resistance must be accounted for when it is a meaningful percentage of Rin. Refer to Paragraph 2.2.3
for more details.
2-2
Magnetic Measurement Overview
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Important Integrator Characteristics (Continued)
Other integrator characteristics that may affect measurements are drift, maximum input voltage, and
maximum and minimum rate of input change. These characteristics are a result of fluxmeter design;
the user often has little control. Check specifications carefully before choosing a fluxmeter for any
application or designing a coil for a fluxmeter.
2.1.4
Reducing Integrator Drift
Drift is the most noticeable and often the largest source of error in integrating fluxmeters. Drift is a
slow change in reading when no change in flux exists. It is caused by any small error voltage at the
integrator input.
Manufacturers spend significant time and effort reducing the drift in instrument integrators.
Component type and value, circuit board layout and manufacturing methods are all optimized to
reduce drift. Temperature change contributes so much to drift that critical components are often
thermally isolated from other parts of the circuit.
Low drift is a result of good fluxmeter design, but users can do things to maintain low drift:
1. Use the instrument on the range specified for lowest drift.
2. Attach sensing coil leads tightly and avoid unnecessary junctions or connections.
3. Keep drafts or other temperature changes away from the coil lead contacts.
4. Allow the instrument to warm up before drift is adjusted and adjust drift as often as practical
during use.
5. Reset the integrator often, before every critical measurement if possible.
Some instruments have built in software algorithms that help adjust drift to zero before measurement.
Other algorithms work in a different way to cancel drift during measurement. It is important to
understand the difference and the affects on measurements.
2.1.5
Dielectric Absorption
All capacitors exhibit a characteristic that can be described as a tendency to rebound from any fast
change. When capacitors are discharged to zero volts momentarily, a small voltage will rise a few
seconds later across the capacitor. Likewise, a rapid charge of a capacitor to some voltage will be
followed by a slight reduction of that potential occurring over several seconds. This characteristic is
usually referred to as Dielectric Absorption. The effect of dielectric absorption in the Model 480
fluxmeter is a slight reading change over several seconds after a larger reading change. This occurs
predictably during reading changes from 0 to some level and more notably occurs when the reading
is reset. A reset from a large, full scale reading will show a “creeping up” of the reading for several
seconds after the reset. The level of this effect is approximately 0.03% of the reading change. The
effect is most noticeable in the first few seconds and stabilizes after 20-30 seconds. For the most
accurate reset of larger measurements an initial reset should be followed by a second reset a few
seconds later.
As inconvenient as this is, capacitor limitations create this condition and cannot be easily remedied.
The capacitor selection for the Model 480 included testing of many vendors and capacitor dielectric
types. The selected capacitors offer the best overall characteristics including that of dielectric
absorption. It is felt that even though this is certainly a source of error for all analog integrating
fluxmeters, the Model 480 is capable of seeing this characteristic with it’s increased resolution while
others have simply ignored it. During instrument factory calibration readings are taken 1 to 2 seconds
after any signal transition. DC Peak, AC and AC Peak readings do not suffer from this anomaly.
Magnetic Measurement Overview
2-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
2.1.6
Analog Versus Digital Integrators
Most of the integrator discussion in this manual is based on analog integrators. Analog integrators are
made with analog amplifiers, resistors and capacitors. Digital integrators approximate the action of
analog integrators by combining voltage sampling and software integration algorithms. There are
advantages and disadvantages to both types of integrators.
The performance of digital circuitry continues to improve and the price continues to decline. There are
now few analog functions that cannot be approximated digitally. Digital circuits are generally smaller
and have fewer discrete components. Their behavior is more repeatable with fewer calibrations.
Digital integration is likely the best choice to integrate predictable and well behaved signals.
Analog circuit technology is not standing still. Fast changing, high voltage, or very low voltage signals
are still integrated most accurately with analog integrators. The general purpose Model 480 uses an
analog integrator. The instrument must perform well with any type of input signal. The digital circuitry
surrounding the analog integrator offers most of the advantages of a fully digital circuit.
2.1.7
Fluxmeter Measurements In Magnetizers
Magnet materials such as Alnico and Samarium Cobalt are not permanent magnets until they are
conditioned in a magnetizer. The magnetizer produces strong fields by passing current through a coil
fixture. The magnetizer and coil fixture are optimized based on the magnet material and shape. If the
magnetizing field is not strong enough the magnet will not be fully magnetized.
Best cycle times and coil life are achieved when the magnetizer is operated at the minimum voltage
required to attain the needed magnetic field. The Model 480 provides an easy way to measure the
peak field when the magnetizer voltage is being determined during initial setup. Peak field is best
measured in an empty magnetizer fixture. During production magnetizing fixtures age and it is not
uncommon for a coil turn to short. Magnetizer current measurements are not enough to identify many
fixture problems. Peak field should be measured periodically as part of a quality control process and
to determine the general health of the fixture.
Many users want a way to determine if the Model 480 is fast enough to capture the peak field
generated by their magnetizer. The remainder of this section describes how the Model 480 can be
used with even the fastest magnetizers if the sense coil is designed properly. Discussion begins with
an approximation of the wave shape of the field generated by a magnetizer. The maximum rate of
change is then identified and it is shown how that rate of change is the only true limit on peak speed.
Finally coil sensitivity is discussed and examples are given of how to determine appropriate area
turns of a coil.
2.1.7.1
The Magnetizer Pulse
In many cases the magnetizer current is provided by a quick, high current discharge of a capacitor
bank. The shape of the magnetic field during this discharge is shown in the figure below.
P-Mag_pulse.bmp
2-4
Magnetic Measurement Overview
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
The Magnetizer Pulse (Continued)
The time “tp” to reach peak magnetic field “Bp” is considered the rise time of the pulse. These are
two important parameters to consider when selecting or designing the sense coil for the 480.
2.1.7.2
Coil Output Voltage Limits
Because of slew rate requirements and safety considerations, the maximum voltage at the coil
output should be limited to 60 volts. The Model 480 Fluxmeter is capable of measuring the fastest
of magnetizer pulses, so long as the 60 volt limit is not exceeded. Therefore, the area turns of the
coil must be matched to the peak field and rise time of the magnetic field pulse.
The equation for calculating the coil voltage in CGS units is:
where V = volts, A = cm2, B = gauss, N = number of coil turns, and t = seconds.
The equation for calculating the coil voltage in SI units is:
where V = volts, A = meters2, B = tesla, N = number of coil turns, and t = seconds.
2.1.7.3
Calculation of Minimum Rise Time
What is the fastest pulse allowable? When the area·turns (NA) of the coil and the desired peak field
(Bp) are known, the above equations can be used to calculate the minimum rise time.
tp = NAB/V
(SI units)
Calculations of minimum rise times are given for two standard Lake Shore probes.
V = 60 volts and cm2 × 10-4 = meters2
2.1.7.4
NA = 30 cm2
If Bp = 3 tesla, tp > 150 µs
If Bp = 5 tesla, tp > 250 µs
If Bp = 7 tesla, tp > 350 µs
NA = 100 cm2
If Bp = 3 tesla, tp > 500 µs
If Bp = 5 tesla, tp > 833 µs
If Bp = 7 tesla, tp > 1200 µs (1.2 ms)
Calculation Of Area·Turns
Often the user will make his own coil to be used with a specific magnetizing fixture. The maximum
area⋅turns (NA) needs to be calculated, to ensure the 60 volt input limit is not exceeded. The
equation below can be used.
NA < Vtp/Bp meters2
(SI units)
For example, if the rise time tp is 5 µs and the peak field Bp is 3 tesla, then the following is a
calculation of the maximum area⋅turns (NA) to ensure the coil voltage will not exceed 60 volts.
NA < (60V) (5 × 10-6 s) / 3 T = 1 × 10-4 meter2 = 1 cm2
Magnetic Measurement Overview
2-5
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
2.1.8
Making AC Measurements
Traditionally, integrating fluxmeters make DC flux measurements where the measured field changes
in a non-periodic way. With only slight modifications to the integrator, a fluxmeter can measure
periodic AC fields. AC measurements are useful in measuring stray fields around transformers or the
poles of a rotating magnet.
A simple expression for a sinusoidal AC flux (φ(t)) as it varies with time is:
where φmax is the maximum amplitude of flux, f is the frequency, and t is time.
The voltage generated by a sense coil in a field changing this way is proportional to the derivative of
the field:
Note that coil voltage amplitude depends on frequency (f) and flux amplitude (φmax).
The integrator in the instrument reverses the action of the coil and removes the direct frequency
dependence:
The integrator output voltage can be processed by a peak detector to find φMAX or through an RMS
converter to find the RMS flux value. The relationships hold true for non-sinusoid AC fields also.
The above discussion assumes that the coil inductance and capacitance are small and that the
frequency band of the instrument is not exceeded. Refer to Paragraph 2.2.8 for more details.
2.2
COIL CHARACTERISTICS
One reason fluxmeters are popular is the low cost and simple construction of sensing coils. Some coils
are as simple as a few turns of copper wire. Coil construction gets more complicated to meet special
measurement needs. The inclusion of magnetic materials or special geometries can make a coil a
specialized measurement tool.
2.2.1
Coil Sensitivity
Sensitivity is the instantaneous voltage (Vcoil) produced for a given rate of change in flux (dφ/dt). As
seen in the equation
the coil voltage is directly proportional to the number of turns (N), as well as the rate of change in flux.
Total change in flux can be measured as the fluxmeter integrates the instantaneous voltage over the
measurement interval.
The following is an example of coil sensitivity related to a permanent magnet. Consider a permanent
magnet has a pole area (A) = 1 cm2 and internal flux density (B) of 1000 G. The flux (φ) = BA =
1,000 Mx. A typical coil of 100 turns (N) that fits snugly around the magnet pole generates an
integrator output of 1000 Mx times 100 turns = 105 MxN = 1mV·s as the magnet is moved into the
coil. A coil of more turns would give a larger output.
2-6
Magnetic Measurement Overview
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Coil Sensitivity (Continued)
Number of turns is important to coil design because it determines coil sensitivity. Ideally, increasing
the number of turns always improves coil sensitivity, but in the real world, several factors limit the
number of turns. The most important are coil size, DC resistance of the wire, and peak output voltage.
It is possible for a coil to be too sensitive. Coils should be designed so the instantaneous coil voltage
does not exceed the rated input voltage of the integrator. Magnetizers can create very large
instantaneous coil voltages because their flux changes so quickly (dφ/dt is large). It is not difficult to
calculate the maximum instantaneous coil voltage if the maximum rate of field change is known.
Using the equations:
gives us
If Vcoil is in volts, N in turns, A in cm2, B in gauss, and t in seconds, Vcoil = NA(dB/dt) 10-8. A
magnetizer of modest energy can achieve a flux density change (dB) of 3 T (30,000 G) in 1 ms (dt).
If a coil of 1 cm2 area (A) and 100 turns (N) is in that field, the voltage generated during firing is:
Note that high energy magnetizers with faster rise times can produce dangerous voltages with many
fewer turns.
2.2.2
Coil Size
Application often dictates coil size. Some low field coils may be several feet in diameter to contain
enough changing flux for a measurable coil voltage. Coils for high gradient fields are small as
possible so the coil area does not exceed the uniform field area. Coil size often limits the number of
turns and therefore the sensitivity.
Coils of any length can be used with a fluxmeter, from a single turn to a long solenoid. In practice, the
coil should be limited in length so the same flux lines link all turns. Substantial error occurs when the
flux lines curve out of the coil and link only part of the turns. The fluxmeter assumes all of the turns
see the same flux.
Some coil geometries count on coil length to achieve specific measurement goals. Coil length can
help eliminate the effect of field non-uniformity (Paragraph 2.2.6) or measure magnetic potential
(Paragraph 2.6).
2.2.3
Coil Resistance
Coil resistance is sometimes overlooked because it does not appear in ideal equations for a coil or
integrator, but it can limit sensitivity. Wire does have resistance and with enough turns it can become
applicable. Coil resistance must be accounted for when it is a meaningful percentage of the integrator
input resistance.
C-480-2-4.eps
Magnetic Measurement Overview
2-7
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Coil Resistance (Continued)
The DC resistance of the coil must be added to the input resistance of the integrator to get an
accurate volt second reading. The expression for a voltage integrator becomes:
Manufacturers specify integrator resistance for a fluxmeter typically between 1 kΩ to 100 kΩ.
Table 2-1 lists examples of copper wire resistance.
Table 2-1. Examples of Copper Wire Resistance
AWG Annealed
Copper
O.D. inches
at 20 °C
Ohms per 1,000 feet
at 20 °C
40
0.0031
1079.2
38
0.0040
648.2
36
0.0050
414.8
34
0.0063
261.3
32
0.0080
162.0
30
0.0100
103.7
To calculate the percentage error in reading due to coil resistance:
As an example, if Rin = 100 kΩ and Rcoil = 1 kΩ, an error of -1% results. If Rin = 10 kΩ and Rcoil = 1 kΩ,
an error of -9.1% results if coil resistance is not taken into account.
2.2.4
Coil Temperature Coefficient
Since coil resistance is temperature dependent, care must be taken when large temperature changes
are expected. The temperature coefficient of resistance for copper magnet wire is +0.4%/°C
(+0.22%/°F). For example, a temperature increase of 10 °C in a 1000 Ω coil causes a resistance
increase of 40 Ω to 1040 Ω. If Rin = 10 kΩ, the attenuation from Rcoil in the Paragraph 2.2.3 example
changes from -9.1% to -9.43%.
2.2.5
Coil Orientation
Coil voltage is related to the number of changing flux lines passing through the center of the coil. The
flux measured is a true indication of the number of lines passing through. The angle of the flux lines
passing through the coil does not matter, that is not to say that the orientation of a coil to a magnet
does not matter. Changing coil orientation relative to a magnet often changes the number of flux lines
that pass through the coil. Orient the coil perpendicular to the flux lines for the most repeatable
measurements.
2-8
Magnetic Measurement Overview
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
2.2.6
Field Uniformity
Flux measurement is a true indication of lines of flux passing through a coil. Field uniformity does not
affect flux measurement, but other magnetic measurements such as flux density assume uniform flux
over the coil area. When measuring flux density in a non-uniform field, the fluxmeter reads the
average flux density.
There are some unique coil configurations that help eliminate the effect of field non-uniformity. The
length to outer diameter ratio of a coil can be optimized to measure flux density at the center of the
coil rather than the average flux density. For more information consult:
Zijlstra, H. Experimental Methods in Magnetism, Wiley, pg. 3, 1967.
Herzog & Tischler, Measurement of Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields, Review of Scientific
Instruments, Vol. 24, pg. 1000, 1953.
2.2.7
Lead Pickup
Loops other than the sensor coil should be eliminated or minimized. Loops in lead wires see changing
flux just like a coil. Their voltage is an error added or subtracted from the coil voltage. Twisted leads
from the coil to the fluxmeter are recommended to reduce loop area and minimize error voltage.
2.2.8
Inductance, Capacitance, and Self Resonance
There are error sources that are only important when making AC or very fast peak DC
measurements.
Keep coil inductance (Lcoil) small, or it acts similar to coil resistance and reduces sensitivity. The real
impedance of a coil due to inductance is 2π f Lcoil. That value should be small compared to the input
resistance of the integrator, or the signal is attenuated. The attenuation changes with frequency
because the impedance does. The equation for calculating inductance of an ideal long solenoid is:
where µ0 = 4π10-7 H/m, N = turns, A = area in m2, l = length in m, and Lcoil is in henries (H).
Equations for flat search and Helmholtz coils are more complicated because there is no simple
relationship between inductance and length, but the effects of area and number of turns remain
consistent.
There is capacitance between each turn of wire in a coil (Ccoil). Impedance resulting from the
capacitance itself is most often negligible at frequencies below 50 kHz. However, the capacitance
reacts with the coil inductance to make the coil resonate. Operating anywhere near the coil resonant
frequency gives unpredictable results. The frequency of resonance is:
2.2.9
Lake Shore Coils and Probes
It may be desirable to purchase pre-fabricated sense coils optimized for Model 480 use. Lake Shore
offers search and Helmholtz coils. Dimensions and specifications appear in Chapter 7. They are
designed for every day use with well secured windings and strain relief at connection points.
Factory calibration ensures accurate measurements from the start without field calibrating the coil in a
magnet standard. They also ensure interchangeability of probes and fluxmeters for reproducible
measurements. Lake Shore calibrations use the most accurate standards available. Each coil comes
with calibration data that may include number of turns, area, and resistance.
Lake Shore sense coils are very easy to use. Calibrated coil parameters are usually pre-programmed
into non-volatile memory in the connector. Users need only plug in the connector, turn the power on,
and begin taking measurements.
Magnetic Measurement Overview
2-9
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
2.3
FLUX OVERVIEW
Scientists envision a magnetic field as lines of flux leaving the north pole of a magnet and returning to
the south pole. The symbol for flux is φ. A unit of flux is called a line. In the CGS system, one line of flux
equals one maxwell (Mx). In the SI system, the flux unit is the weber (Wb), where:
Flux is the basic Model 480 magnetic measurement. All other measurements derive from flux
measurement and knowledge of the coil geometry.
C-480-2-5.eps
Flux is measured to indicate energy transferred by a magnet or the energy capacity of a permanent
magnet, to sort magnets, or to determine other magnetic properties such as flux density
(Paragraph 2.4).
The most common way to measure flux is with a coil and integrating fluxmeter. Knowing only the
number of turns in the coil, the fluxmeter measures flux as it changes. Changing flux generates a
voltage in the coil. The coil voltage is integrated by the fluxmeter to show the total change in flux.
2.4
2.4.1
FLUX DENSITY OVERVIEW
What is Flux Density?
A magnetic field consists of flux lines. Flux density is the number of flux lines passing perpendicular
through a plane of unit area (A). The symbol for flux density is B where B = φ/A. The CGS system
measures flux density in gauss (G) where 1 G = 1 Mx/cm2. The SI system measures flux density in
tesla (T) where 1 T = 1 Wb/m2.
Flux density is important when magnet systems concentrate flux lines into a specific area like the pole
pieces in an electromagnet. Forces generated on current carrying wires like those in a motor
armature are proportional to flux density. Saturation of magnetic core material is also a function of flux
density.
Flux density is often the desired measurement quantity when using a fluxmeter. In a uniform field, flux
density can be calculated by dividing measured flux by the area of the search coil. This can be done
with a fluxmeter as long as the lines of flux are perpendicular to the plane of a flat coil or along the
axis of a longer coil. Hall effect gaussmeters make similar measurements.
Fluxmeters can also measure flux density inside a piece of magnetic material. In this case coils are
wrapped tightly around a material core to ensure the area of the coil is the same as the cross section
of the core. Gaussmeters cannot make this type of measurement.
2-10
Magnetic Measurement Overview
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
2.4.2
How Flux Density (B) Differs from Magnetic Field Strength (H)
Flux density is often confused with magnetic field strength. Magnetic field strength is a measure of the
force producing flux lines. The symbol for magnetic field strength is H. In the CGS system, it is
measured in oersteds (Oe). In the SI system, it is measured in amps per meter (A/m):
Flux density and magnetic field strength are related by the permeability (µ) of the magnetic medium.
B = µH. Permeability is a measure of how well a material makes a path for flux lines.
The confusion of flux density and magnetic field strength is also related to permeability. In the CGS
system, the permeability of air (of vacuum) is 1. Therefore, 1 G = 1 Oe or B = H in air. Many people
incorrectly assume therefore that in the CGS system, B = H at all times. Adding to the confusion, in
the SI system permeability of air is not 1, so B is not equal to H even in air.
2.5
2.5.1
MAGNETIC MOMENT OVERVIEW
What is Magnetic Moment?
Magnetic moment (m) measures the magnetic field strength (H) produced at points in space by a
plane current loop or a magnetized body. The CGS system measures moment in emu and defines it
as the pole strength of a permanent magnet multiplied by the distance between the poles. This is
sometimes called dipole moment (j = Wb m). The SI system measures moment in amps times square
meters (Am2) and defines it as the current in a conducting loop times the area of the loop or
Magnetic moment is measured to determine various performance factors of permanent magnets. For
example, magnetization (M) can be calculated by dividing magnetic moment by the volume of a
magnet.
A Helmholtz coil and fluxmeter provide a measurement proportional to the magnetic moment of a
permanent magnet, as defined in the CGS System. If the Helmholtz coil constant is known, magnetic
moment can be accurately determined. Uncalibrated coils provide reliable comparative data.
Magnetometers like a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) also make moment measurements, but
usually of much smaller values.
2.5.2
Important Parameters of A Helmholtz Coil
For predictable permanent magnet measurements with a Helmholtz coil, the physical dimensions of
the coil must be controlled. A Helmholtz coil is two parallel coils spaced so the average diameter of
the coils is twice the distance between their central planes. No dimension of the coil cross section
should exceed 10% of the coil diameter. Coil diameter should be three to five times the maximum
dimension of the part under evaluation.
An empirically derived calibration constant (Kh) in centimeters is often provided with the coil to allow
a fluxmeter to operate in Wb·cm, a more convenient form of the SI unit Wb·m, where:
Magnetic Measurement Overview
2-11
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
2.5.3
Helmholtz Coil Constant Determination (For Non-Lake Shore Coils)
To use a Helmholtz coil and the Model 480 Fluxmeter to make magnet moment measurements, a
Helmholtz Coil Constant is required. Regretfully, this parameter is rarely available. Either the coil is
made in-house or the vendor supplies a coil sensitivity (flux density per current unit) rather than the
coil constant needed. Given below in Paragraphs 2.5.3.1 and .2 are methods of measuring values
which can be used to calculate the constant. Paragraph 2.5.3.3 gives formulas for calculating the coil
constant when coil sensitivity is given.
2.5.3.1
By Measurement of Amperes per Gauss
A gaussmeter and current source are required. In free air, one gauss = one oersted. Directly
measure the current required (amperes) to produce a certain magnetic field (gauss = oersted). In
the calculation of the coil constant, we have to convert oersteds to amperes/centimeter. The Lake
Shore 480 fluxmeter accepts a value for coil constant only in centimeters.
COIL CONSTANT = K = I/H = amperes/oersted = amperes/amperes/cm = cm (units only)
Example: A common Helmholtz coil might require 1 ampere to generate a 30 gauss field.
Thus, K = 1 ampere/30 oersteds = 1 ampere/ (30 × 0.796 A/cm) = 0.0419 cm
2.5.3.2
By Measurement of Amperes per Tesla
Most of the comments above hold, except that the relationship between flux density (B) and
magnetic field strength (H) in the SI system is not as simple as in the cgs system.
H = B/ µ0 where µ0 = 4π × 10-7 (for H = A/m), or
H = B/ µ0 where µ0 = 4π × 10-5 (for H = A/cm)
COIL CONSTANT = K = I/H = amperes/amperes/cm = cm (units only)
Example: The same coil as above requires 1 ampere to generate a 3 mT (millitesla) field.
Thus, H = 0.003/ (4π × 10-5) = 23.87 A/cm
K = 1 ampere/(23.87 A/cm) = 0.0419 cm
2.5.3.3
Conversion of Coil Sensitivity
The coil constant conversion factors can be derived by inverting and using the same math as
above.
Coil Sensitivity in gauss per ampere
(1/Sensitivity) × 1.256 = K (cm)
Coil Sensitivity in milligauss per ampere
(1/Sensitivity) × 1256 = K (cm)
Coil Sensitivity in millitesla per ampere
(1/Sensitivity) × 0.1256 = K (cm)
Coil sensitivity in microtesla per ampere
(1/Sensitivity) × 125.6 = K (cm)
2-12
Magnetic Measurement Overview
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
2.6
2.6.1
MAGNETIC POTENTIAL OVERVIEW
What is Magnetic Potential?
Magnetic potential (sometimes called magnetostatic potential) is the line integral of magnetizing force
between two points in a magnetic field. It is the scalar value analogous to voltage in an electrical
circuit. The symbol for magnetic potential is U. The CGS system measures magnetic potential in
gilberts (Gb) or oersted times centimeters (Oe·cm). The SI system measures it in amps (A).
Magnetic potential can be used to derive the internal magnetic field strength (H) of a permanent
magnet. The difference in magnetic potential between two points, where no electrical current exists, is
proportional to magnetic field strength (H). With magnetic field strength measured with a potential coil
and flux density measured by other means, the second quadrant operating point of the magnet can
be determined.
A potential coil with a fluxmeter measures the magnetic potential difference between two points on a
permanent magnet. The potential coil is generally a long thin solenoid. The tip of the coil is placed
perpendicular to the pole of a magnet with the other end of the coil out near zero field. The difference
between readings at the two poles is the magnetic potential difference.
2.6.2
Important Parameters of a Potential Coil
It is important that the potential coil length is much larger than its diameter. Coil area and number of
turns determine sensitivity. The coil must be much longer than the volume of magnetic field.
An empirically derived calibration constant (Kp) in amps per volt seconds (A/V·s) is often provided
with the coil to allow a fluxmeter to operate in the SI unit of amps.
Magnetic Measurement Overview
2-13
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
2-14
Magnetic Measurement Overview
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 3
INSTRUMENT SETUP
3.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides setup information for the Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter. A general layout for
the Model 480 rear panel and information on how to make line power, coil, probe, and terminal block
connections to the Model 480 are provided. If you want to experiment with the various software settings
covered in the next chapter before doing a complete hardware setup, the Model 480 may be operated
with only the line power connected (i.e., no coil, probe, or terminal block connections).
CAUTION: Before plugging in the Model 480 and turning it on, read about line voltage settings in
Paragraph 3.3. An improper line voltage setting may damage the Model 480. Check it
carefully before powering the instrument for the first time.
This chapter covers receiving the Model 480 in Paragraph 3.1, rear panel control definitions in
Paragraph 3.2, power line input assembly in Paragraph 3.3, coil input connections in Paragraph 3.4,
probe input connection in Paragraph 3.5, and terminal block in Paragraph 3.6.
3.1
RECEIVING THE MODEL 480
This section covers inspection and unpacking in Paragraph 3.1.1 and repackaging for shipment in
Paragraph 3.1.2.
3.1.1
Inspection and Unpacking
Inspect shipping containers for external damage. Make all claims for damage (apparent or concealed)
or partial loss of shipment in writing to Lake Shore within five (5) days from receipt of goods. If
damage or loss is apparent, please notify the shipping agent immediately.
Use the packing list included with the instrument to verify receipt of the instrument, probe and/or coil,
accessories, and manual. Inspect for damage. Inventory all components supplied before discarding
any shipping materials. If there is freight damage to the instrument, file proper claims promptly with
the carrier and insurance company and notify Lake Shore. Notify Lake Shore immediately of any
missing parts. Lake Shore cannot be responsible for any missing parts unless notified within 60 days
of shipment. Refer to the standard Lake Shore Warranty on the A Page (behind the title page).
3.1.2
Repackaging For Shipment
To return the Model 480, probe, coil, or accessories for repair, replacement, or recalibration, obtain a
Return Goods Authorization (RGA) number from Technical Service in the United States, or from the
authorized sales/service representative from which the product was purchased. Instruments may not
be accepted without a RGA number. When returning an instrument for service, Lake Shore must
have the following information before attempting any repair.
1. Instrument model and serial number.
2. User name, company, address, and phone number.
3. Malfunction symptoms.
4. Description of system.
5. Returned Goods Authorization (RGA) number.
Wrap instrument in a protective bag and use original spacers to protect controls. Repack the system
in the Lake Shore shipping carton (if available) and seal it with strong paper or nylon tape. Affix
shipping labels and FRAGILE warnings. Write the RGA number on the outside of the shipping
container or on the packing slip.
Instrument Setup
3-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
3.2
REAR PANEL DEFINITION
CAUTION: Verify AC Line Voltage shown in the fuse holder window is appropriate for the intended AC
power input. Also remove and verify the proper fuse is installed before plugging in and
turning on the instrument.
CAUTION: Always turn off the instrument before making any rear panel connections. This is especially
critical when making probe to instrument connections.
F-480-3-1.eps
Description
Pin Definition
 Line Input Assembly
Paragraph 3.3
Figure 3-2
 SERIAL I/O Connector
Paragraph 6.2
Figure 8-5
 COIL INPUT Banana Jacks
Paragraph 3.4
Figure 8-2
 PROBE INPUT Connector
Paragraph 3.5
Figure 8-3
 Terminal Block
Paragraph 3.6
Figure 8-4
 IEEE-488 INTERFACE Connector
Paragraph 6.1
Figure 8-6
Figure 3-1. Model 480 Rear Panel
3.3
LINE INPUT ASSEMBLY
This section covers line voltage and fuse verification in Paragraph 3.3.1, power cord in Paragraph 3.3.2,
and power switch in Paragraph 3.3.3.
3.3.1
Line Voltage and Fuse Verification
To verify proper line voltage selection look at the indicator in the window of the line input assembly.
Line voltage should be in the range shown in the specifications listed on the back of the instrument.
See Figure 3-2. If not, change the line voltage selector per instructions in Paragraph 8.3. The fuse
must be removed to verify its value, refer to the procedure in Paragraph 8.4. Use slow-blow fuses of
the value specified on back of the instrument.
3.3.2
Power Cord
The Model 480 includes a three-conductor power cord. Line voltage is present across the outer two
conductors. The center conductor is a safety ground and connects to the instrument metal chassis.
For safety, plug the cord into a properly grounded three-pronged receptacle.
3.3.3
Power Switch
The power switch turns the instrument On and Off and is located in the line input assembly on the
instrument rear. When l is raised, the instrument is On. When O is raised, the instrument is Off.
3-2
Instrument Setup
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
F-480-3-2.eps
Figure 3-2. Line Input Assembly
3.4
COIL INPUT CONNECTION
WARNING: Many coils used with the fluxmeter have conductive parts. Never probe near
exposed live voltage. Personal injury and damage to the instrument may result.
CAUTION: Always turn off the instrument before making any rear panel Coil Input connections.
Connect sensing coils directly to the Model 480 rear panel binding posts. The binding posts accept bare
lead wires or a dual banana plug. Ensure that connections are tight. Loose wires can create
unpredictable measurements. Turn the instrument off before attaching coil wires. See Figure 8-2 for pin
definitions.
After connecting the coil, refer to Paragraph 5.4 to enter the coil parameters into the instrument.
3.5
PROBE INPUT CONNECTION
WARNING: Many probes used with the fluxmeter have conductive parts. Never probe near
exposed live voltage. Personal injury and damage to the instrument may result.
CAUTION: Always turn off the instrument before making any rear panel Probe Input connections.
Lake Shore coils and probes plug into the 15-pin D-type connector on the Model 480 rear panel. Turn
the instrument off before attaching a probe. See Figure 8-3 for pin definitions.
When power is turned on, the instrument reads coil parameters from probe memory. The probe is ready
to use. No parameters need to be entered into the Model 480. Drift must still be adjusted as described
in Paragraph 5.9.
3.5.1
Attachment To A Non-Lake Shore Coil
The FCBL-6 has a 15 pin D-connector on one end for direct attachment to the PROBE INPUT on the
back panel of the Model 480 Fluxmeter. Two tinned wires are provided for the coil connection. The
coil leads may be soldered directly to these wires. If the coil has a banana receptacle on it, a screwcontact banana plug is supplied with the FCBL-6 for attachment.
F-FCBL-6.eps
Figure 3-3. Model FCBL-6 User Programmable Cable Accessory
Instrument Setup
3-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Attachment to a Non-Lake Shore Coil (Continued)
If the polarity of the signal from the coil is known, the red wire should be attached to the lead
supplying the positive voltage under normal usage. The green wire is at ground potential on the
Model 480. If the polarity is not known, just make the connection, run a test, and reverse the lead
attachment if a different polarity reading is desired.
Caution: The customer coil should be isolated from all line voltages (or voltages referenced to earth
ground). If not, damage to the Model 480 Fluxmeter is almost a certainty.
Once connections are made, refer to Paragraph 5.6.2 for instructions for storing probe parameters in
the internal EPROM.
3.6
TERMINAL BLOCK
The Model 480 rear panel terminal block contains signals for alarms, analog output, and external reset.
The terminal block connectors are detachable. Remove either the top or bottom terminal block from the
instrument for convenient wire installation. Up to 12 AWG stranded copper wire may be used, though
smaller wire is suitable for most applications.
CAUTION: Always turn off the instrument before making any rear panel terminal block connections.
Terminal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
3.6.1
Description
High Alarm N.O.
High Alarm COM
High Alarm N.C.
Low Alarm N.O.
Low Alarm COM
Low Alarm N.C.
Monitor Output – Signal
Monitor Output – Ground
Terminal
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Description
Middle Alarm N.O.
Middle Alarm COM
Middle Alarm N.C.
External Reset
Ground for Ext. Reset or Optional Input
Optional Input
Corrected Output – Signal
Corrected Output – Ground
Alarm Relay Connection
The Model 480 has alarm relays: high, middle, and low. The terminal block has normally open (N.O.),
normally closed (N.C.), and common contacts (COM) for each relay. The instrument provides no
power through the relays; they open and close as switches relative to their common contact. The
contacts are rated at 30 VDC at 2 A. Refer to Paragraph 5.14 for alarm operation.
3.6.2
Analog Output Connections
The Model 480 has two analog outputs: corrected and monitor. The terminal block has a signal and
ground contact for each analog output. The voltage outputs are short-circuit protected, but loads of
1 kΩ or greater are required for specified operation. The operation of the two outputs is different.
Refer to Paragraph 5.15.1 for corrected output and Paragraph 5.15.2 for monitor output operation.
3.6.3
External Reset Connections
The Model 480 terminal block has connections for external reset. With this feature, a foot pedal or
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) can be used to start a new measurement cycle. Refer to
Paragraph 5.16 for external reset operation. The External Reset is TTL compatible and a logic low will
activate a reset. The signal is internally pulled up to allow operation with a simple switch closure
between Pins 12 and 13.
3.6.4
Optional Input Connection
The Model 480 terminal block has a connection for an optional logic input. It is commonly used to
monitor status of a thermostat or proximity switch. The Model 480 monitors the logic level of this input
which can then be read over computer interface. The input is TTL compatible. A logic low will produce
a 0 interface response and a logic high will produce a 1 interface response. The signal is internally
pulled up to allow operation with a simple switch closure between Pins 14 and 13.
3-4
Instrument Setup
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 4
BASIC OPERATION
4.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides basic operating instructions for the Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter. Turning
on power is described in Paragraph 4.1; display definition in Paragraph 4.2, reading format in
Paragraph 4.3, keypad definition in Paragraph 4.4, general keypad operation in Paragraph 4.5, and
quick start procedures in Paragraph 4.6.
4.1
TURNING ON POWER
After line voltage verification (Paragraph 3.3), plug the instrument end of the line cord (included with the
connector kit) into the line cord input on the instrument rear. Plug the other end of the line cord into a
properly grounded, three-prong receptacle. Turn the power switch, located next to the line cord
receptacle, to ON (l). The instrument begins the power-up sequence detailed as follows.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The instrument alarm beeper beeps once.
The display shows a message with the instrument model number.
The display clears.
The normal reading display appears.
An alarm annunciator, beeper, or overload (OL) indicator are not cause for immediate concern. These
conditions will likely be corrected during instrument setup.
An incomplete sequence, error message (Paragraph 8.8), or blank display may indicate a problem.
Check all connections and line input power (refer to Chapter 8). If problems persist, call Lake Shore.
4.2
DISPLAY DEFINITION
The Model 480 has a 2-line by 20-character vacuum fluorescent display. During normal operation the
instrument displays both readings and annunciators. The top line of the display shows the DC, DC
Peak, AC, or AC Peak reading value followed by the prefix and selected units. In dual peak mode, the
top line shows the positive peak and the bottom line the negative peak. Annunciators follow to the right
of the reading. When changing settings with the keypad, display messages prompt the user with brief
instructions.
F-480-4-1.eps
Figure 4-1. Model 480 Normal Display Definition
Basic Operation
4-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
4.3
READING FORMAT
The fundamental measurement units of the Model 480 are volt seconds (V·s); therefore many Model
480 specifications appear in that unit. With the input of appropriate coil parameters, the user may set
the instrument to display in any of 11 magnetic units. Reading range and display resolution are based
on coil parameters and units chosen.
When reading range is chosen, the setting screen indicates the full scale range and resolution for the
given coil and units. During operation, readings display in the resolution indicated when range is
selected.
A plus or minus sign, up to six digits, a decimal point and appropriate prefix for each reading value. If
more than one zero leads the decimal point, the zero does not display and digits are not added to
increase resolution.
4.4
KEYPAD DEFINITION
F-480-4-2.eps
Figure 4-2. Model 480 Front Panel
Peak Reset:
Resets Peak Hold hardware and peak reading stored in software. Zeros the display
reading. Key is disabled if Peak Hold is turned off.
Peak Hold:
Turns Peak Hold feature ON or OFF. Peak Hold can be turned on for any units and
for DC and AC input. Press and hold to select Peak Mode.
Range:
Selects the range of input signal. The ranges are fixed in volt-second units but all
other ranges depend on coil characteristics.
Drift Adjust:
Selects one of three integrator drift adjustments (Auto, DriftTrak, and Manual). Press
and hold to select threshold for DriftTrak.
Reading Reset: Resets the analog integrator and zeros the display reading. Key is disabled when in
AC mode.
4-2
AC/DC:
Selects AC or DC signal measurements. In AC mode, the integrator is modified
slightly to reject the DC portion of the input signal.
Units:
Selects one of several measurement units. Accurate measurements require
knowledge of the attached coil. Lake Shore probes include all coil information
necessary for operation.
Coil Setup:
Allows users to enter coil parameters for their own coils. Press and hold to select 0 Ω
input resistance. Lake Shore probes include all coil information necessary for
operation.
Coil Select:
Selects 1 of up to 10 coil parameter sets previously stored by the user. Each set may
include a value of every coil parameter. Press and hold to store user-entered coil
parameter sets.
Basic Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
KEYPAD DEFINITION (Continued)
4.5
Coil Cal:
Calibrates a users coil with a standard magnet or other known magnetic
environment.
Set Percent:
Assigns a scale factor to enable readings in percent units. Press and hold to view or
manually set the percent scale factor.
Alarm Setup:
Configures alarm feature for the display and alarm relays.
Alarm On/Off:
Turns alarm feature On or Off.
Local:
Returns instrument to local operation after the IEEE-488 interface has put it in
remote mode.
Interface:
Selects the IEEE-488 address and terminators and serial interface baud rate.
Filter:
Configures the display filter which averages readings so environmental noise does
not show up on the display. Press and hold to select DC resolution.
Analog Out:
Selects corrected analog output operating mode. There is no user control of monitor
output.
Escape:
Terminates a setting function without changing the existing parameter value. Press
and hold to reset instrument to default values.
Up Arrow:
Chooses between parameter values during setting operations.
Down Arrow:
Chooses between parameter values during setting operations.
Enter:
Completes setting functions and returns to normal operation. Press and hold to lock
or unlock keypad.
GENERAL KEYPAD OPERATION
There are three basic keypad operations:
1. Direct Operation: The key function occurs upon pressing the key. Peak Reset, Peak Hold,
Reading Reset, AC/DC, Local, and Alarm On/Off operate directly when the key is pressed.
2. Setting Selection: Users select from a list of settings. Range, Drift Adjust, Units, Coil Select,
Address, Alarm Setup, and Baud display setting options when pressed. Use the up and down
arrow keys as appropriate, then press Enter to accept the change or Escape to return to the old
selection.
3. Data Entry: Users enter numeric data with the data entry keys. Data entry keys include numbered
keys, the positive/negative sign (+/-) key, and the decimal point (.) key. The Coil Setup, Alarm
Setup, Coil Cal, Set Percent, and Analog Out keys use data entry.
Use the data entry keys to enter the number value, then press the Enter key to accept the new data
and advance to the prefix field. Use the s or t keys to select the appropriate prefix and press the
Enter key again to complete the operation. Press the Escape key any time before the operation is
complete to return to the old value.
Units prefixes of µ, m, _ (no prefix), k, or M are allowed for most coil parameters and field settings.
Not all prefixes make sense for every parameter, but they are left active to ensure the most
flexibility for the user. If it is unclear which prefix to use, set the prefix to _ for no prefix, and the
instrument unit shown on the setting screen will be used.
Basic Operation
4-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
4.6
QUICK START PROCEDURES
The quick start procedures steps the user through DC measurements with a typical probe (or coil) and
permanent magnet. These procedures enable a user new to the Model 480 to verify the operation of the
instrument. Integrator measurement is detailed in Paragraph 4.6.1, flux measurement in Paragraph
4.6.2, flux density measurement in Paragraph 4.6.3, moment measurement in Paragraph 4.6.4, and
potential measurement in Paragraph 4.6.5.
4.6.1
DC Integrator Measurement In Units of V·s, WbN, or MxN
Use the following procedure to take an integrator measurement.
1. Ensure power is turned Off (O).
CAUTION: Always turn off power to the Fluxmeter before making any rear panel PROBE INPUT or
COIL INPUT connections.
2. Attach the probe (or coil) to rear of the Fluxmeter. Refer to Paragraph 3.4 for COIL INPUT and
Paragraph 3.5 for PROBE INPUT connection instructions.
3. Turn power On (l).
4. Press the Units key. For this procedure, we will use Maxwell turns (MxN). Press the s or t keys
until “Flux Turns: MxN” is displayed on the screen, then press the Enter key. A quick
message that details which input parameters are necessary to perform calculations in the units
you have selected will appear then disappear.
5. Press the Coil Setup key. For this procedure, we will assume an Input Resistance of 100 kΩ.
Press the s or t keys until “Input R: 100kΩ“ is displayed on the screen, press the Enter key,
then the Escape key.
6. If the coil resistance is less than 100 Ω or is unknown, the default value of 0 Ω is acceptable and
you may skip this step. Otherwise, press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until
“Enter Coil R” is displayed. Use the numeric keypad to enter the coil resistance, then press
the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the Ω symbol. Use the s or t keys to select
prefix “_” for Ω or “k” for kΩ. Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
NOTE: All the other settings (Turns, Area•Turns, etc.) are ignored when using integrator units.
7. Press the AC/DC key until “DC” is displayed on the screen.
8. Press the Peak Hold key until “Peak Hold Off” is displayed on the screen.
9. Press the Range key. Use the s or t keys to select the range appropriate to your measurement.
10. Press the Reading Reset key.
11. If the instrument has just been turned on, allow it to warm up for at least 10 minutes before
proceeding. Otherwise, proceed to Step 12.
12. Press the Drift Adjust key. Use the s or t keys until “Begin Auto Adjust” is displayed. Press
the Enter key. You will see the following message: “*ADJUSTING DRIFT* For 25 Seconds”.
13. Make the test measurement.
14. If the reading appears to be drifting, refer to the Drift Adjust discussion in Paragraph 5.9.
4-4
Basic Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
4.6.2
DC Flux Measurement In Units of V·sφ, Mx, or Wb
Use the following procedure to take a flux measurement.
1. Ensure power is turned Off (O).
CAUTION: Always turn off power to the Fluxmeter before making any rear panel PROBE INPUT or
COIL INPUT connections.
2. Attach the probe (or coil) to rear of the Fluxmeter. Refer to Paragraph 3.4 for COIL INPUT and
Paragraph 3.5 for PROBE INPUT connection instructions.
3. Turn power On (l).
4. Press the Units key. For this procedure, we will use Webers (Wb). Press the s or t keys until
“Flux (φ): Wbφ“ is displayed on the screen, then press the Enter key. A quick message that
details which input parameters are necessary to perform calculations in the units you have
selected will appear then disappear.
5. Press the Coil Setup key. For this procedure, we will assume an Input Resistance of 100 kΩ.
Press the s or t keys until “Input R: 100kΩ“ is displayed on the screen, press the Enter key,
then the Escape key.
6. If the coil resistance is less than 100 Ω or is unknown, the default value of 0 Ω is acceptable and
you may skip this step. Otherwise, press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until
“Enter Coil R” is displayed. Use the numeric keypad to enter the coil resistance, then press
the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the Ω symbol. Use the s or t keys to select
prefix “_” for Ω or “k” for kΩ. Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
7. Press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until “Enter Turns” is displayed. Use the
numeric keypad to enter the number of turns, then press the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a
space before Turns. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or M. Press the Enter key,
then the Escape key.
NOTE: All other settings (Area•Turns, Helmholtz Constant, etc.) are ignored when using flux
units.
8. Press the AC/DC key until “DC” is displayed on the screen.
9. Press the Peak Hold key until “Peak Hold Off” is displayed on the screen.
10. Press the Range key. Use the s or t keys to select the range appropriate to your measurement.
11. Press the Reading Reset key.
12. If the instrument has just been turned on, allow it to warm up for at least 10 minutes before
proceeding. Otherwise, proceed to Step 13.
13. Press the Drift Adjust key. Use the s or t keys until “Begin Auto Adjust” is displayed. Press
the Enter key. You will see the following message: “*ADJUSTING DRIFT* For 25 Seconds”.
14. Make the test measurement.
15. If the reading appears to be drifting, refer to the Drift Adjust discussion in Paragraph 5.9.
Basic Operation
4-5
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
4.6.3
DC Flux Density Measurement In Units of G or T
Use the following procedure to take a flux density measurement.
1. Ensure power is turned Off (O).
CAUTION: Always turn off power to the Fluxmeter before making any rear panel PROBE INPUT or
COIL INPUT connections.
2. Attach the probe (or coil) to rear of the Fluxmeter. Refer to Paragraph 3.4 for COIL INPUT and
Paragraph 3.5 for PROBE INPUT connection instructions.
3. Turn power On (l).
4. Press the Units key. For this procedure, we will use gauss (G). Press the s or t keys until
“Flux Density: G” is displayed on the screen, then press the Enter key. A quick message that
details which input parameters are necessary to perform calculations in the units you have
selected will appear then disappear.
5. Press the Coil Setup key. For this procedure, we will assume an Input Resistance of 100 kΩ.
Press the s or t keys until “Input R: 100kΩ“ is displayed on the screen, press the Enter key,
then the Escape key.
6. If the coil resistance is less than 100 Ω or is unknown, the default value of 0 Ω is acceptable and
you may skip this step. Otherwise, press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until
“Enter Coil R” is displayed. Use the numeric keypad to enter the coil resistance, then press
the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the Ω symbol. Use the s or t keys to select
prefix “_” for Ω or “k” for kΩ. Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
7. Press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until “Enter Area•Turns” is displayed. Use the
numeric keypad to enter the area turns, then press the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space
before cm2. Use the s or t keys to select prefix “_.” Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
NOTE: All the other settings (Helmholtz Constant, etc.) are ignored when using flux density units.
8. Press the AC/DC key until “DC” is displayed on the screen.
9. Press the Peak Hold key until “Peak Hold Off” is displayed on the screen.
10. Press the Range key. Use the s or t keys to select the range appropriate to your measurement.
11. Press the Reading Reset key.
12. If the instrument has just been turned on, allow it to warm up for at least 10 minutes before
proceeding. Otherwise, proceed to Step 13.
13. Press the Drift Adjust key. Use the s or t keys until “Begin Auto Adjust” is displayed. Press
the Enter key. You will see the following message: “*ADJUSTING DRIFT* For 25 Seconds”.
14. Make the test measurement.
15. If the reading appears to be drifting, refer to the Drift Adjust discussion in Paragraph 5.9.
4-6
Basic Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
4.6.4
Moment Measurement In Unit of Wbcm
Use the following procedure to take a moment measurement.
1. Ensure power is turned Off (O).
CAUTION: Always turn off power to the Fluxmeter before making any rear panel PROBE INPUT or
COIL INPUT connections.
2. Attach the Helmholtz coil to rear of the Fluxmeter. Refer to Paragraph 3.4 for COIL INPUT and
Paragraph 3.5 for PROBE INPUT connection instructions.
3. Turn power On (l).
4. Press the Units key. Moment measurements are done in the unit of Webers per centimeter
(Wbcm). Press the s or t keys until “Moment: Wbcm” is displayed on the screen, then press the
Enter key. A quick message that details which input parameters are necessary to perform
calculations in the units you have selected will appear then disappear.
5. Press the Coil Setup key. For this procedure, we will assume an Input Resistance of 100 kΩ.
Press the s or t keys until “Input R: 100kΩ“ is displayed on the screen, press the Enter key,
then the Escape key.
6. If the coil resistance is less than 100 Ω or is unknown, the default value of 0 Ω is acceptable and
you may skip this step. Otherwise, press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until
“Enter Coil R” is displayed. Use the numeric keypad to enter the coil resistance, then press
the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the Ω symbol. Use the s or t keys to select
prefix “_” for Ω or “k” for kΩ. Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
7. Press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until “Helmholtz Constant” is displayed. Use
the numeric keypad to enter the Helmholtz constant, then press the Enter key. The cursor will
jump to a space before cm. Use the s or t keys to select prefix “_.” Press the Enter key, then the
Escape key.
NOTE: All the other settings (Turns, Area•Turns, etc.) are ignored when using moment units.
8. Press the AC/DC key until “DC” is displayed on the screen.
9. Press the Peak Hold key until “Peak Hold Off” is displayed on the screen.
10. Press the Range key. Use the s or t keys to select the range appropriate to your measurement.
11. Press the Reading Reset key.
12. If the instrument has just been turned on, allow it to warm up for at least 10 minutes before
proceeding. Otherwise, proceed to Step 13.
13. Press the Drift Adjust key. Use the s or t keys until “Begin Auto Adjust” is displayed. Press
the Enter key. You will see the following message: “*ADJUSTING DRIFT* For 25 Seconds”.
14. Make the test measurement.
15. If the reading appears to be drifting, refer to the Drift Adjust discussion in Paragraph 5.9.
Basic Operation
4-7
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
4.6.5
Potential Measurement In Unit of A
Use the following procedure to take a potential measurement.
1. Ensure power is turned Off (O).
CAUTION: Always turn off power to the Fluxmeter before making any rear panel PROBE INPUT or
COIL INPUT connections.
2. Attach the probe (or coil) to rear of the Fluxmeter. Refer to Paragraph 3.4 for COIL INPUT and
Paragraph 3.5 for PROBE INPUT connection instructions.
3. Turn power On (l).
4. Press the Units key. Potential measurements are done in the unit of Amperes (A). Press the
s or t keys until “Potential: A” is displayed on the screen, then press the Enter key. A quick
message that details which input parameters are necessary to perform calculations in the units
you have selected will appear then disappear.
5. Press the Coil Setup key. For this procedure, we will assume an Input Resistance of 100 kΩ.
Press the s or t keys until “Input R: 100kΩ“ is displayed on the screen, press the Enter key,
then the Escape key.
6. If the coil resistance is less than 100 Ω or is unknown, the default value of 0 Ω is acceptable and
you may skip this step. Otherwise, press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until “Enter
Coil R” is displayed. Use the numeric keypad to enter the coil resistance, then press the Enter
key. The cursor will jump to a space before the Ω symbol. Use the s or t keys to select prefix
“_” for Ω or “k” for kΩ. Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
7. Press the Coil Setup key. Press the Enter key until “Potential Constant” is displayed. Use
the numeric keypad to enter the Potential constant, then press the Enter key. The cursor will
jump to a space before A/Vs. Use the s or t keys to select prefix “_.” Press the Enter key, then
the Escape key.
NOTE: All the other settings (Turns, Area•Turns, etc.) are ignored when using potential units.
8. Press the AC/DC key until “DC” is displayed on the screen.
9. Press the Peak Hold key until “Peak Hold Off” is displayed on the screen.
10. Press the Range key. Use the s or t keys to select the range appropriate to your measurement.
11. Press the Reading Reset key.
12. If the instrument has just been turned on, allow it to warm up for at least 10 minutes before
proceeding. Otherwise, proceed to Step 13.
13. Press the Drift Adjust key. Use the s or t keys until “Begin Auto Adjust” is displayed. Press
the Enter key. You will see the following message: “*ADJUSTING DRIFT* For 25 Seconds”.
14. Make the test measurement.
15. If the reading appears to be drifting, refer to the Drift Adjust discussion in Paragraph 5.9.
4-8
Basic Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 5
ADVANCED OPERATION
5.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides advance operation instructions for the Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter. Units
selection is described in Paragraph 5.1. Coil parameters in Paragraph 5.2. Coil setup in Paragraph 5.3.
Making measurements in percent in Paragraph 5.4. Coil calibration in Paragraph 5.5. Coil select and
parameter storage in Paragraph 5.6. range selection in Paragraph 5.7. Reading reset in Paragraph 5.8.
Drift adjustment in Paragraph 5.9. DC and AC measurement modes in Paragraph 5.10. Peak hold and
peak reset in Paragraph 5.11. Filter operation in Paragraph 5.12. Display resolution in Paragraph 5.13.
Alarm and relay operation in Paragraph 5.14. Analog outputs in Paragraph 5.15. External reset in
Paragraph 5.16. Locking and unlocking the keypad in Paragraph 5.17. And resetting to default values in
Paragraph 5.18.
5.1
UNITS SELECTION
Units selection is an important step in operating a fluxmeter. Measurement results have a different
meaning depending on which units are chosen. Different coil parameters are needed and operating
ranges change. There may be only one practical units choice for a given application.
The units available in the Model 480 are summarized in Table 5-1. The table indicates which coil
parameters are needed for each unit selection. Unmarked parameters are ignored. Units grouped as
integrator, flux or flux density share the same parameter requirements.
The units selected can be used for DC, DC Peak, AC, and AC Peak measurements. Alarm setpoint
values can be set in any units. The corrected analog output can be scaled to work with any units. Once
units are selected, proceed to the coil setup function to enter the required parameters.
Table 5-1. Units and Associated Coil Parameters
Measurement
Units
Coil
Resistanc
e (Rcoil)
Integrator
V•s
WbN
MxN



Flux (φ)
V•sφ
Wb
Mx



Flux
Density (B)
G
T


Potential
A

Moment
Wb•cm

Percent
%

Turns (N)
Area
Turns
(A·N)*
Potential
Constant
(Pc)
Helmholtz
Constant
(Hc)
Percent
Scale
Factor (%C)





System
Equation
-
Primary
WbN=V·s
MxN=108V•s
SI
CGS
V·sφ=V·s/N
Wb=WbN/N
Mx=MxN/N
CGS
SI
G=Mx/cm2
T=Wb/m2

SI


-
SI
-
-
-
* Will be calculated by the instrument if turns (N) and area (A) are entered first.
 Required only if a significant percentage of input resistance. Otherwise set to 0 Ω.
 Required coil parameter for the units selected.
Advanced Operation
5-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Units Selection (Continued)
To select a unit, press the Units key. The following screen appears.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Fl u x ­ Tu r n s : ­ Vs
Use the s or t keys to cycle through the different units: V·s, MxN, WbN, V·sφ, Wbφ, Mxφ, T, G, %,
Wb·cm, or A. When the desired unit displays, press the Enter key to accept it, or the Escape key to
exit the screen and revert to the previous unit.
5.2
COIL PARAMETERS
Most measurements made with a fluxmeter require some information about the sense coil. The Model
480 offers several ways to obtain and enter the coil parameters. This section briefly outlines the coil
related features available in the Model 480.
Lake Shore coils and probes already have necessary coil parameters loaded into them. To use a Lake
Shore probe power the instrument off, attach the probe and power it back on. During the power up
sequence the instrument will read all loaded coil parameters and coil setup is complete. Most
parameters are fixed and can not be changed by the user. The percent constant can be changed and
stored in the probe (refer to Paragraph 5.6) to allow percent operation.
Users can purchase the Model FCBL-6 accessory from Lake Shore and program their own coil
parameters into the same non-volatile memory used by Lake Shore probes. The user coils act just like
factory programmed probes after necessary information is loaded. Coil parameters are entered using
the coil setup feature and stored as described in Paragraph 5.3 and 5.6.
For applications that require frequent changing of a few different coils, up to ten sets of coil parameters
can be stored in non-volatile memory in the Model 480. After information is stored the coil select
function is used to call it up. Coil parameters are entered using the coil setup feature and stored as
described in Paragraph 5.6.
For applications where an absolute measurement in magnetic units is not required the Model 480 offers
the units of percent. This is intended to be a relative measurement for sorting operations of comparing
values. No knowledge of the coil is necessary to measure in percent.
If coil parameters are not known and the user has access to reference magnet or other known field, the
Model 480 can be used to calculate the required coil parameter for magnetic measurement units. Refer
to the coil calibrate feature (Paragraph 5.5) for details. Once a coil is calibrated the coil setup feature
can be used to read the calibrated coil parameter. Calibrated coil parameters can also be stored in
instrument memory or a Model FCBL-6 accessory.
5.3
COIL SETUP
The coil setup function allows the user to enter coil parameters for their coils. Lake Shore coils and
probes do not require this function. Not all the coil parameters that appear sequentially after the Coil
Setup key is pressed are needed for a coil. Refer to Table 5-1 to determine which parameters are
necessary for the measurement units being used. Unknown parameter values should be left at default.
5-2
Advanced Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.3.1
Input Resistance
The analog integrator in the Model 480 will not function without an integrating resistance. The
integrating resistance is the sum of input resistance and coil resistance. The input resistance
parameter tells the Model 480 which input resistance to use inside the instrument. There are three
setting values available: 100 kΩ, 10 kΩ for normal measurements, and 0 Ω for special applications.
An input resistance of 100 kΩ is the default setting and is appropriate for most applications. The
Model 480 achieves its best drift performance with this resistance.
An input resistance of 10 kΩ is used when more sensitivity is required. The full scale for each range
setting drops by a factor of ten when input resistance changed from 100 kΩ to 10 kΩ. The improved
sensitivity may only be useful in the presence of very low drift.
The 0 Ω input is used rarely when the coil resistance is very high and can act alone as the integrating
resistance. In these applications an input resistance inside the instrument would serve only to reduce
sensitivity of the measurement. Care must be taken when using the 0 Ω range. Without a large input
resistance the input is more vulnerable to electrostatic discharge (ESD) and other voltage spikes. A
non-zero coil resistance must be entered for the Model 480 to calculate a display value at all.
Because of the potential for problems, the 0 Ω setting can only be entered with a press and hold
operation and if the coil resistance is zero, the display value will blink.
To select an input resistance press the Coil Setup key. You will see the following display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
I n p u t ­ R: ­ 1 0 0 k ¦
Use the s or t keys to select between 100 kΩ and 10 kΩ. Press the Enter key to accept the change
or the Escape key to cancel the entry and return the previous value. The next screen in the coil setup
will appear. That parameter can be entered if needed, or press the Enter key to continue past it, or
press the Escape key to return to the normal display.
To select an input resistance of 0 Ω press and hold the Coil Setup key for 5 seconds.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
0 ¦ ­ I n p u t : ­ No
The 0 Ω setting screen will appear. Use the s or t keys to select Yes or No. Press the Enter key to
accept the change or the Escape key to cancel the entry and return the previous value. The next
screen in the coil setup function will appear. That parameter can be entered if needed, or press the
Enter key to continue past it, or press the Escape key to return to the normal display.
Advanced Operation
5-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.3.2
Coil Resistance
Coil resistance can often be ignored because it is usually small compared to the input resistance of
the Model 480. If the DC resistance of the coil is more than 0.1% of the input resistance it can reduce
measurement accuracy and should be entered as a coil parameter. If it is less than that it can be
ignored and set to the default value of 0 Ω. If an input resistance of 0 Ω is selected, a non-zero coil
resistance must be entered for the fluxmeter to make any measurements. If the input and coil
resistance are both set to zero the display value will blink.
To enter coil resistance continue from input resistance entry or press the Coil Setup key and press
the Enter key until the Enter Coil R screen appears.
En t e r ­ Co i l ­ R
­ 1. 00000­ _¦
Use the numeric keypad to enter the coil resistance, then press the Enter key. The cursor will jump to
a space before the Ω symbol. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or M. Press the Enter
key, then the Escape key.
5.3.3
Number of Turns (N)
Number of turns in a coil is needed for the Model 480 to make magnetic measurements in flux units. If
the number of turns is set to the default of 1 flux measurement values will equal integrator
measurement values.
To enter coil number of turns, continue from coil resistance entry or press the Coil Setup key and
press the Enter key until the Enter Turns screen appears.
En t e r ­ Tu r n s
­ 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 ­ _ Tu r n s
Use the numeric keypad to enter the number of turns (N) of the coil, then press the Enter key. The
cursor will jump to a space before the word “Turns”. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k,
or M. Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
5.3.4
Area (A)
The Model 480 must have an accurate area turns (AN) value for a coil in order to make flux density
measurements. This parameter can be entered in two ways. The user can enter a separate turns
value and area value in which case the instrument will calculate and store the area turns product. The
user can also enter a value for the area turns parameter directly by pressing the Enter key to skip
over the area setting screen.
To enter coil area, continue from coil turns entry or press the Coil Setup key and press the Enter key
until the Enter Area screen appears.
En t e r ­ Ar e a
­ 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 ­ _ c mÊ
Use the numeric keypad to enter the area (A) of the coil in cm2, then press the Enter key. The cursor
will jump to a space before the “cm2”. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the
Enter key, then the Escape key.
5-4
Advanced Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.3.5
Area Turns (AN)
The Model 480 must have an accurate area turns (AN) value for a coil in order to make flux density
measurements. The user can also enter a value for the area turns parameter directly from the
Enter Area·Turns screen. If a separate turns value and area value are entered before this screen
appears, the calculated area turns product will be stored for this parameter. The new value will not be
calculated or displayed until the Coil Setup sequence is complete. If a calculated value is desired
continue past the setting screen, if not enter the area turns value. Area turns are entered in cm 2 units
which can be a source of confusion because the area parameter (which is different) uses the same
units.
To enter coil area turns, continue from coil area entry or press the Coil Setup key and press the
Enter key until the Enter Area Turns screen appears.
En t e r ­ Ar e a . Tu r n s
­ 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 ­ _ c mÊ
Use the numeric keypad to enter the product of the area times the number of turns (A·N) of the coil
in cm2, then press the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the “cm2”. Use the s or t
keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the Enter key, then the Escape key. Remember: Enter
either A and N or A·N; all three need not be entered.
5.3.6
Helmholtz Constant
A Helmholtz constant of a Helmholtz coil is required for the Model 480 to make magnetic moment
measurements. The only available moment measurement unit is Wb·cm which is a more convenient
form of the more traditional Wb·m. The Helmholtz constant must be entered in cm for the display
reading to have appropriate resolution. For additional details, refer to Paragraph 2.5.3.
To enter Helmholtz constant, continue from coil area turns entry or press the Coil Setup key and
press the Enter key until the Helmholtz Constant screen appears.
He l mh o l t z ­ Co n s t a n t
­ 0. 03530­ _c m
Use the numeric keypad to enter the Helmholtz constant in cm, then press the Enter key. The cursor
will jump to a space before the “cm”. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the
Enter key, then the Escape key.
5.3.7
Potential Constant
A potential constant of a potential coil is required for the Model 480 to make magnetic potential
measurements. The only available potential measurement unit is A. The potential constant must be
entered in the empirically derived units of A/V·s.
To enter Potential constant, continue from Helmholtz constant entry or press the Coil Setup key and
press the Enter key until the Potential Constant screen appears.
Po t e n t i a l ­ Co n s t a n t
­ 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 ­ _ A/ Vs
Use the numeric keypad to enter the Potential constant in A/V·s, then press the Enter key. The
cursor will jump to a space before the “A/Vs”. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M.
Press the Enter key, then the Escape key.
Advanced Operation
5-5
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.4
MAKING MEASUREMENTS IN PERCENT
For applications where an absolute measurement in magnetic units is not required the Model 480 offers
the units of percent. This is intended to be a relative measurement for sorting operations or comparing
values. As an example assume a sorting criteria is given as ±10% deviation from a standard magnet.
The standard magnet can be measured with the Model 480. Its measurement scaled to a 100% reading
on the display. Magnets measuring between 90% and 110% pass and others fail. The percent scale
factor is the coil parameter used to scale a percent measurement. It is the only coil parameter that can
be changed on a Lake Shore probe.
5.4.1
Before Using Set Percent
The set percent feature can be used to calculate a percent scale factor. The feature can be initiated
with the instrument set to any measurement units but if the coil is uncalibrated, it is recommended
that the sequence be started with the units set to V·s. Several measurements of the test magnet
should be made to assure repeatability. An improper range setting or excess drift can cause difficulty
in repeating measurements.
5.4.2
Set Percent (%)
Begin the set percent sequence by resetting the reading with the Reading Reset key or the peak
hold value with the Peak Reset key. Make a measurement of the sample magnet or place the coil in
a known magnetic environment. Press the Set Percent key. The Enter Percentage screen will
appear on the display.
En t e r ­ Pe r c e n t a g e
­ 100. 000­ _%
Use the keypad to enter the percent value that is to be assigned to the measurement (often 100% but
it can be different), then press the Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before “%”. Use the s or
t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the Enter key to accept the change or the Escape key
to cancel the entry and return the previous value. The instrument will begin displaying in percent. The
sequence is successful if the display reading matches the value entered.
5.4.3
Percent Scale Factor
The percent scale factor can be viewed or entered directly. This feature allows the coil to be used
again with the same scale factor or transferred from one instrument to another. The scale factor is in
the empirical units of %/V·s.
To view or change the percent scale factor, press and hold the Set Percent key for 5 seconds.
Pe r c e n t ­ Sc a l e ­ Fa c t o r
­ 2 0 0 . 0 0 0 ­ _ %/ Vs
Use the numeric keypad to enter the Percent Scale Factor in %/V·s, then press the Enter key. The
cursor will jump to a space before the “%”. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press
the Enter key, then the Escape key.
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.5
COIL CALIBRATION
If coil parameters are not known and the user has access to reference magnet or other known field, the
Model 480 can be used to calculate the required coil parameter for magnetic measurement units. Once
a coil is calibrated the coil setup feature can be used to read the calibrated coil parameter. Calibrated
coil parameters can also be stored in instrument memory or a Model FCBL-6 accessory.
Coil calibration is disabled for Lake Shore probes because they are calibrated at the factory. Coil
calibration is disabled for if the instrument is operating in integrator units because no calibration of the
coil is necessary. As described below the feature will only calculate one parameter for each type of
magnetic measurement. More than one calibration can be done on the same coil but each calibration is
done separately. Coil resistance should be entered before a coil is calibrated if its resistance is
meaningful.
Measurement
5.5.1
Units
Parameter
Flux
V·sφ
Wb
Mx
Turns (N)
Turns (N)
Turns (N)
Flux Density
B
T
Area Turns (AN)
Area Turns (AN)
Moment
Wb·cm
Helmholtz Constant
Potential
A
Potential Constant
Before using Coil Calibration
Turn the instrument on and allow it to warm up. Measure the DC coil resistance and enter it with Coil
Setup if necessary. Choose the desired measurement units. If the existing value of the coil parameter
being calibrated is interfering with the measurement resolution set it to 1 using Coil Setup. Make
several measurements of the test magnet to assure repeatability. An improper range setting or
excess drift can cause difficulty in repeating measurements.
5.5.2
Calibrating a Coil
Begin the coil calibration sequence by resetting the reading with the Reading Reset key or the peak
hold value with the Peak Reset key. Make a measurement of the sample magnet or place the coil in
a known magnetic environment. Press the Coil Cal key. The COIL CAL screen will appear on the
display. Enter the actual value of the field in the chosen units. Press the Enter key to accept the
change or the Escape key to cancel the entry and return the previous value. The instrument will
begin reading with the new coil parameter. The sequence is successful if the display reading matches
the value entered.
5.6
COIL SELECT AND PARAMETER STORAGE
The Model 480 has non-volatile internal memory available to store up to ten sets of coil parameters for
user coils. All coil parameters (including input resistance and percent scale factor) can be stored in
each of the ten memory locations. Unused parameters can be left at their default value. Once the
parameters are stored they can be called up quickly whenever coils are changed.
This feature can be used to store parameter values in a Model FCBL-6 accessory and percent scale
factor into Lake Shore probes. Parameters stored in probe memory are called up when the instrument
is turned on.
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.6.1
Storing New Coil Parameters into Instrument Memory
Turn the instrument Off (O) and attach the new coil to the rear of the instrument. Turn power On (l).
Push the Coil Setup key and enter all relevant coil parameters as detailed in Paragraph 5.3. This
accomplished, press and hold the Coil Select key until you see the following display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Sa v e ­ Co i l : ­ 0 1
Use the s or t keys to cycle through the storage locations (1-10). When you reach the desired coil
location, press the Enter key, or press the Escape key to cancel and return to the normal display.
5.6.2
Storing New Coil Parameters into Probe Memory
The Lake Shore Model FCBL-6 User Programmable Coil Interconnect Cable is designed to allow a
customer to mate an in-house designed coil to the Model 480 Fluxmeter, taking full advantage of the
internal PROM programming capability. Connect the FCBL-6 to the user coil per instruction in
Paragraph 3.5.1.
Turn the instrument Off (O) and connect the FCBL-6 to the PROBE INPUT connector at the rear of
the instrument. Turn power On (l). Push the Coil Setup key and enter all relevant coil parameters as
detailed in Paragraph 5.3. This accomplished, press and hold the Coil Select key. You will see the
following display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Sa v e ­ Co i l : ­ Pr o b e
Use the s or t keys to select “PROBE.” Press the ENTER key, or press the Escape key to cancel and
return to the normal display.
After the PROM is loaded with the necessary coil parameters, nothing more is required for future use
of that coil, except to turn off the Model 480, attach the cable, and turn power back on.
5.6.3
Selecting Saved Coil Parameters
To select the parameters of a coil that were previously saved in instrument memory, press the Coil
Select key. You will see the following display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Se l e c t ­ Co i l : ­ 0 1
The numbers 01 thru 10 correspond to instrument memory locations for coil parameters. “User”
indicates that parameters have been changed since the last time the coil was selected from memory.
Use the s or t keys to cycle thru the available selections. Press the Enter key to make a selection, or
press the Escape key to cancel and return to the normal display.
NOTE: “Probe” will be seen when the Model 480 detects a probe attached to the instrument. When
a probe is attached, instrument memory locations cannot be selected.
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Advanced Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.7
RANGE SELECTION
Range selection is difficult to define for the Model 480 because of its different measurement units but
the operation is simple. The input range can be increased to measure large signals or decreased to
measure smaller signals with better resolution. All available ranges are accessible during range
selection. At that time the full scale range and reading resolution will be shown. Full-scale range and
resolution are listed for V·s units in the Specifications detailed on Page 1-2.
There are two decade range selections available for DC and DC peak measurements. Input resistance
(Paragraph 5.3.1) can be changed to allow a third decade of measurement range. Coil construction can
also be changed to alter the range boundaries in magnetic units. The DC range setting is stored
separately from the AC range setting.
There are four decade range selections available for AC measurements and three for AC Peak
measurements. More ranges are allowed for AC because they do not suffer from the drift associated
with DC measurements. Drift on the high gain ranges make them unusable for DC measurement. A
smaller integrating capacitor is used for AC measurements allowing even more gain. The difference in
capacitance is why the largest full scale AC range is smaller than the largest full scale DC range. AC
ranges are specified with 100 kΩ input resistance. Coil construction can be changed to alter the range
boundaries in magnetic units.
As an example of coil parameters altering range boundaries consider using the highest DC range of
300 mV·s. If a coil with an area turns of 100 cm2 is used on the highest DC range for flux density
measurements the resulting range boundary in gauss would be 300 kG. If a coil with an area turns of
1000 cm2 is used on the same range the resulting range boundary would be 30 kG.
If coil parameters are entered and units are selected before range is chosen the Model 480 will
calculate and display the appropriate full scale range and resolution in the selected units. Because of
the construction of the Model 480 some over range should be expected. Over range is typically 10% of
the full scale shown but it is not guaranteed.
To changing the range, press the Range key. The following is a typical display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
+/ - ­ 3 0 . 0 0 0 0 ­ mVs
Use the s or t keys to cycle thru the available ranges. Press the Enter key to accept or press the
Escape key to cancel and return to the normal display.
5.8
READING RESET
The analog integrator in the Model 480 must be reset to zero at the beginning of a DC measurement
sequence. Resetting the integrator removes any flux change or integrator drift that has accumulated
since the last reset. The DriftTrak™ algorithm (Paragraph 5.9.3) can greatly reduce the number of
resets needed for DC measurements. AC and AC Peak measurements do not require reading reset
because modifications to the integrator bring the reading to zero when no signal is present. DC Peak
measurements require peak reset (Paragraph 5.11.4) instead of reading reset.
The integrator in the Model 480 is designed to recover quickly from a reading reset. A new reading is
available 200 ms after the Reading Reset key is released. Reading reset can also be achieved through
computer interface or using the external reset feature (Paragraph 5.16).
If the Model 480 appears to have more drift just after a reset than it does 10 to 30 seconds later it could
be a result of dielectric absorption (Paragraph 2.1.5). If the resulting error in reading is too large for the
measurement application the error can be reduced by resetting a second time a few seconds after the
first reset.
To reset the reading press the Reading Reset key and release.
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.9
DRIFT ADJUSTMENT
Drift Adjustment is a fact of life when making DC and DC Peak measurements with an analog integrator
like the one in the Model 480. Drift is caused by offsets present in the integrator components and coil
connections. AC and AC Peak measurements do not require drift adjustment because modifications to
the integrator bring the reading to zero when no signal is present.
Drift is related to instrument hardware and often temperature change. The Model 480 has been
designed to minimize drift but there are some important things to do during setup when low drift is
important.
1. Let the instrument warm up before attempting to adjust drift. Allow 30 minutes for normal use and
longer if the instrument is stored in an unheated area.
2. Attach the coil that will be used with the fluxmeter before drift is adjusted.
3. Make sure coil connections are tight.
4. Keep coil leads as short as possible and have as few connections as possible.
5. Shield coil contacts from fast temperature changes.
The Model 480 has replaced the drift adjustment trim-potentiometer present on older fluxmeters with
two internal digital-to-analog converters (DACs) for drift compensation. These converters can be set
from the keypad for very precise manual drift adjustment or controlled by the instrument for hands off
drift adjustment. The paragraphs below describe three ways to adjust drift with the Model 480. All drift
adjustments must be made with no changing field present at the coil.
5.9.1
Automatic Drift Adjustment
The Model 480 can adjust drift by measuring the change in reading over a fixed time interval and
calculating the appropriate coarse drift compensation DAC value. The sequence takes approximately
25 seconds. A well calculated coarse DAC value will give acceptable drift performance for most
applications. The fine drift compensation DAC is set to 0 during the operation. The fine DAC can be
set manually or by the DriftTrak algorithm for improved drift performance. An error message will
appear on the instrument display if automatic drift adjustment failed. If the message appears, check
all coil connections, allow the instrument more time to warm up, and try again.
After the coil is connected and the instrument has warmed up, initiate automatic drift adjustment by
pressing the Drift Adjust key. The message Begin Auto Adjust will appear. Press the Enter key
to start or the Escape key to return to the main display. If you pressed the Enter key, you will see the
following display.
­­ * ADJ USTI NG­ DRI FT*
­­­ Fo r ­ 2 5 ­ Se c o n d s
The message will remain visible for 25 seconds, then return to the normal display. Pressing the
Escape key during this time will cancel the sequence and return to normal operation.
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.9.2
Manual Drift Adjustment
For manual drift adjustment the two drift compensation DACs in the Model 480 can be thought of as
precise trim potentiometer adjustments. Each has a range of 0 to 100% and an effective resolution of
0.025%. The coarse DAC should be set before the fine DAC if the coil has been changed or the
instrument has been turned off. During normal operation only fine DAC adjustments should be
required.
After the coil is connected and the instrument has warmed up, initiate manual drift adjustment by
pressing the Drift Adjust key. Use the s or t keys until the Begin Manual Adjust message
appears. Press the Enter key and the course DAC setting screen will appear.
+­ 0 . 0 0 1 0 ­ _ G­­­­ DC
- ­­ 3 . 5 1 %­ Co a r s e
Use the s or t keys until the display reading stops changing in one direction. Press the Enter key
again and the fine DAC setting screen will appear.
+­ 0 . 0 0 1 0 ­ _ G­­­­ DC
+­­ 0 . 0 4 %­ Fi n e
Use the s or t keys until the drift in the display reading is acceptable. Press the Enter key to
complete the operation. Press the Escape key during either adjustment to cancel the adjustment and
return to normal operation.
5.9.3
DriftTrak
DriftTrak is a proprietary drift control algorithm exclusive to Lake Shore Fluxmeters. It is different than
automatic and manual drift adjustment because it operates continuously keeping drift low over time.
DriftTrak works best after automatic drift adjustment has reduced drift to a low starting point. The
algorithm works only in DC mode. For DC Peak operation the instrument should be allowed to idle in
DC mode when not in use and switched to DC Peak before being used.
The DriftTrak algorithm continuously monitors changes in the fluxmeter reading. If the changes are
large the algorithm assumes an actual change in measured field and shuts itself off for a short time.
When shut off, DriftTrak will not affect active measurements. If changes are small the algorithm
assumes the fluxmeter is idle and any changes in reading are caused by drift. During this time new
values for the drift compensation DACs are calculated and stored. The limit separating large and
small changes is called a threshold and can be changed by the user for different applications and
system noise levels.
It is important to understand that idle time is necessary for DriftTrak operation. The algorithm
becomes active if the change threshold is not exceeded for only a few seconds but it can take a
minute or more for the calculated DAC setting to have an impact on drift performance. Best
performance will be achieved if the algorithm has 10 to 20 minutes to operate on an idle instrument.
The default settings for the instrument are DriftTrak on and a change threshold of 200 µV·s/min. The
recommended operating range for the threshold is 100 to 1000 µV·s/min and it can only be set in
µV·s/min. Lower settings are for quiet systems measuring slow changes in field. Higher settings are
for noisy systems measuring fast changes in field.
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
DriftTrak (Continued)
To turn the DriftTrak algorithm on or off press the Drift Adjust key. The message Begin Auto
Adjust will appear. Use the s or t keys until the Set DriftTrak message appears.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Se t ­ Dr i f t Tr a k
Press the Enter key. You now see the DriftTrak On/Off display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Dr i f t Tr a k : ­ On
Use the s or t keys to toggle between DriftTrak On or Off. Press the Enter key. The instrument will
return to the normal display.
To set the DriftTrak threshold, press and hold the Drift Adjust key until you see the following display.
En t e r ­ Th r e s h o l d
­ 2 0 0 ­ ¬Vs / mi n
Use the numeric keypad to enter the DriftTrak threshold in µV·s/minute, then press the Enter key.
The instrument will return to the normal display.
5.10 DC AND AC MEASUREMENT MODES
The Model 480 can be used to measure non-repetitive field changes in DC mode or repetitive field
changes in AC mode. These measurements are different and many sections in this chapter differentiate
between DC and AC operation.
5.10.1 DC Measurement Mode
DC measurement are the most common type of magnetic measurement associated with fluxmeters.
Permanent magnet testing and sorting are often done in DC mode. Magnet characterization in an
electromagnet system requires good DC performance. The peak hold should be used with DC mode
for pass through magnet testing or any other application where field changes are only present for a
short time.
Drift is the dominant error seen in DC mode often limiting range and repeatability. Drift compensation
and integrator resets are always necessary when making DC measurements. For best performance
leave DriftTrak on whenever possible.
To select DC mode press the AC/DC key. DC operation is indicated by the letters DC on the normal
display to the right of the units indicator.
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.10.2 AC Measurement Mode
AC mode is a natural extension of the measurement capabilities of an integrating DC fluxmeter. With
the selection of only a few different parts the Model 480 is made ready to measure periodic AC fields.
These fields may be present as stray field around transformers or leakage from switching power
supplies. AC mode measures in RMS and only the AC part of the field change is represented in the
reading value; the steady state DC field is ignored. Peak hold can be used with AC mode to measure
the peak value of periodic fields or to capture fast transients as described in Paragraph 5.11.
AC measurements do not require drift compensation or integrator reset because modifications to the
integrator bring the reading to zero when no signal is present. Frequency response and noise
dominate the error present in AC mode. The Model 480 has a predictable frequency response which
is illustrated in Figure 5-1. Sense coils also have a frequency response which can limit accuracy.
AC measurements can be susceptible to noise because most fields are small and require a low
measurement range. It may be necessary to shield environmental noise during low field AC
measurements.
The RMS converter in the Model 480 requires a significant signal amplitude for proper operation. AC
measurements are specified with a minimum reading for each range because of the RMS converter.
If the input amplitude is below the specified minimum the AC annunciator will blink on the instrument
display. The minimum reading is different for AC peak operation because the RMS converter is
bypassed.
To select AC mode press the AC/DC key. AC operation is indicated by the letters AC on the normal
display to the right of the units indicator.
P-480-5-1.bmp
Figure 5-1. Model 480 AC Frequency Response
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.11 PEAK HOLD AND PEAK RESET
The Model 480 has high speed peak hold hardware that can be used to capture positive and negative
peak values. Software stores the measured peaks to prevent any sag in the hold circuits from changing
the display value. Peak hold operation can be used during DC or AC operation.
5.11.1 Peak Hold in DC Mode
The peak hold feature has very little effect on DC mode operation. The peak hold circuit captures and
holds the highest and lowest value present in the DC signal path since the last peak reset. The circuit
is many times faster than the instrument update rate and can capture an hold signals that cannot
otherwise be seen on the display. The peak hold circuit was designed to keep up with the fastest
magnetizing pulses.
Drift is as much a problem in DC Peak mode as DC mode. Drift compensation and integrator resets
are necessary when making DC Peak measurements. DriftTrak does not attempt to correct drift
during DC Peak operation.
5.11.2 Peak Hold in AC Mode
During AC mode operation the peak hold feature bypasses the RMS converter. The peak amplitude
of a periodic wave form is believed to be more useful than the maximum RMS value. The highest and
lowest “peak” AC values (not RMS values) present in the AC signal path are captured and held. This
distinction can cause some confusion. For a sinusoidal wave form the peak value is approximately
1.4 times higher than the RMS. For non-sinusoidal wave forms the difference can be much larger.
AC Peak mode uses the same fast peak hold circuit as DC Peak mode enabling operation over a
wide frequency range for periodic signals. No drift compensation is required for AC Peak operation.
Non-periodic field changes can also be captured using AC Peak mode. There are several possible
applications, including magnetizers, for a drift free integrator with several gain ranges and a high
speed peak hold.
5.11.3 Activating Peak Mode
To turn peak mode On or Off, press the Peak Hold key. The screens below illustrate positive peak,
negative peak, and both peaks.
^ +2 . 9 7 5 8 ­­ k G­­­ DC
« - 1 . 8 7 3 6 ­­ k G­­­ DC
^ +2 . 9 7 5 8 ­­ k G­­­ DC
« - 1 . 8 7 3 6 ­­ k G
NOTE: The up caret (^ ) or down caret («) next to the peak reading indicates positive or negative
peak operation, respectively.
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.11.4 Peak Reset
In DC Peak mode the integrator, peak hold hardware and peak hold software must all be reset before
another reading can be made. The peak reset function does all three from the front panel using the
Peak Reset key, over computer interface or with external reset. The Reset Reading key still
functions to reset the integrator only but its use is not recommended.
In AC Peak mode the peak hold hardware and peak hold software are reset using the Peak Reset
key. The integrator does not require reset.
The instrument is available for new readings 200 ms after the Peak Reset key is released if one peak
value is being measured and 400 ms if both are being measured.
To reset peak press the Peak Reset key and release.
5.11.5 Choosing Positive, Negative or Both Peaks
Peak hold hardware in the Model 480 is capable of capturing both positive and negative peaks at the
same time. Either one or both of the values can be displayed. The instrument defaults to displaying of
both peaks. If both peaks are displayed the instrument update rate and peak reset time are slowed.
The instrument can read both peak values in about one fourth the normal update rate. Peak reset
time is doubled.
To select positive or negative peak, press and hold the Peak Hold key for 5 seconds. The following
screen is displayed.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Pe a k ­ Mo d e : ­ Bo t h
Use the s or t keys to select Positive, Negative, or Both peaks. When the cursor indicates the
desired peak, press the Enter key to accept it, or the Escape key to exit the screen and revert to the
previous peak.
5.12 FILTER
The display filter function quiets the display making it more readable when the probe is exposed to a
noisy field. Take care when using the filter on changing fields; it may slow instrument response. Users
may configure the filter function to view desired field changes and block noise. The filter is not used in
Peak Hold.
To turn on the display filter, press the Filter key to display the following screen.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Fi l t e r ­­ On ­ ¡ Of f
Press the Filter key or the s or t keys to toggle between On and Off. Press the Enter key to accept the
new setting or the Escape key to retain the old setting and return to the normal display.
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Filter (Continued)
When the Filter is turned on, two additional displays appear. The first is Filter Points. The Filter Points
display sets the number of points to use in the filter algorithm.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Fi l t e r ­ Po i n t s ­ 0 8
Use the s or t keys to increment or decrement the Filter Points number from 2 to 64 points (8 is the
default). The unit takes one point each update cycle, so filter settling time depends on update speed
and number of points. Press the Enter key to accept the new setting or the Escape key to retain the old
setting and return to the normal display.
The Model 480 uses an exponential algorithm to smooth response. The settling time to full display
resolution is about the same as the number of filter points in seconds. For example, a setting of 10 filter
points settles in about 10 seconds.
The second display is Filter Window. The Filter Window display sets a limit for restarting the filter.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Fi l t e r ­ Wi n d o w­ 1 0 %
Press the Filter key or the s or t keys to increment or decrement the Filter Window percentage from 1%
to 10% (1% is the default). Press the Enter key to accept the new setting or the Escape key to retain
the old setting and return to the normal display.
If a single field reading differs from the filter value by more than the limit specified, the instrument
assumes an intentional change and restarts the filter at the new reading value. This allows faster
instrument response to changing fields than if the filter functioned continually.
5.13 DISPLAY RESOLUTION
The DC Mode display resolution, or number of digits shown on the display, can be changed between
5¾ and 4¾ digits. The parameter does not change DC Peak, AC, or AC Peak resolution. To change the
display resolution, press and hold the Filter key for 5 seconds. The following screen is displayed.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
DC­ Re s : ­ 5 ­ 3 / 4 ­ Di g i t s
Use the s or t keys to select 5¾ or 4¾ digits. Press the Enter key to accept it, or the Escape key to
retain the old setting and return to the normal display.
5.14 ALARM AND RELAY OPERATION
The alarm feature on the Model 480 has enough flexibility to support several Pass/Fail configurations in
addition to simple fault detection. A display annunciator and audible beeper signal an active alarm at
the instrument. Alarm states can be assigned to up to three relays for external monitoring or automated
control. If both peak readings are displayed the alarms follow the positive peak.
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.14.1 Alarm Setup
There are four parameters associated with alarm setup. The high and low setpoints are the alarm
boundaries. In general if the measurement value crosses a boundary an alarm state will change. The
setpoints are entered in the units selected for the display. They are entered as magnitude only and
are active for both positive and negative measurement values as shown in Figure 5-2. The alarms are
non-latching so the alarm state will change as soon as the alarm condition is removed.
To set alarm setpoints, press the Alarm Setup key. The first screen is as follows.
En t e r ­ Hi g h ­ Al a r m
­ 2. 50000­ k G
Use the numeric keypad to enter the high alarm setpoint (magnitude only). The cursor will jump to a
space before the unit, in this case “G”. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the
Enter key. The “Enter Low Alarm” screen then appears.
En t e r ­ L o w­ Al a r m
­ 1. 50000­ k G
Use the numeric keypad to enter the low alarm setpoint (magnitude only). The cursor will jump to a
space before the unit, in this case “G”. Use the s or t keys to select prefix µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the
Enter key.
The alarm mode can be set to inside or outside. Outside is the more common alarm operating mode
where a low alarm state is active when the measured value is below the low setpoint and a high
alarm is active when the measured value is above the high setpoint. When sorting permanent
magnets in outside mode an active alarm indicates a failed part. Inside mode reverses the operation
of the audible alarm and annunciator. An alarm is active when the measured value is between the
alarm setpoints. When sorting permanent magnets in inside mode an active alarm indicates a good
part.
After the “Enter Low Alarm” display, the next display is the “Alarm In/Out” screen.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Al a r m­­­ I n ­­ ¡ Ou t
Use the s or t keys to cycle between triggering the inside (In) or outside (Out) the high and low
setpoints. Once selected, press the Enter key.
After the “Alarm In/Out” display, the next display is the “Audible On/Off” screen.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Au d i b l e ­­ On ­ ¡ Of f
Use the s or t keys to cycle between turning the audible alarm On or Off. Once selected, press the
Enter key, then press the Escape key.
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
C-A_inside.eps
C-A_outside.eps
Figure 5-2. Examples of Alarm Activation Inside and Outside High and Low Setpoints
5.14.2 Relay Setup
There are three relays on the Model 480. Each relay can be set to one of three modes, Automatic, On
or Off. In automatic mode the relays follow the alarm status. The high relay is activated when the
measured value exceeds the high setpoint, the low alarm relay is activated when the measured value
is below the low setpoint and the middle relay is active when the measured value is between the
setpoints. Relay operation ignores the Inside/Outside parameter. Relay terminals are located in the
detachable terminal block on the rear panel of the instrument.
With On or Off modes the relays can be controlled manually for testing hardware or to control external
devices unrelated to alarm function.
To set relay status, press the Alarm Setup key. You will see the “Enter High Alarm” display.
Press the Enter key until you see the “High Relay:” display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Hi g h ­ Re l a y : ­­­­ Of f
Use the s or t keys to cycle between On, Off, and Auto. Once selected, press the Enter key. You will
see the next display. “On” indicates an active relay state, while “Off” indicates a normal relay state.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Mi d d l e ­ Re l a y : ­­ Of f
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Relay Setup (Continued)
Use the s or t keys to cycle between On, Off, and Auto. Once selected, press the Enter key. You will
see the next display.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
L o w­ Re l a y : ­­­­­ Of f
Use the s or t keys to cycle between On, Off, and Auto. Once selected, press the Enter key. The
screen will return to the normal display.
5.14.3 Turning Alarm On and Off
Once the alarm feature is setup it can be activated conveniently with a single key. Press the Alarm
On/Off key to turn the alarm feature on or off. The music note (ª ) annunciator appears on the display
when the feature is on. The annunciator blinks and the audible alarm sounds when an alarm is active.
All alarm functions are non-latching and do not require a reset.
5.15 ANALOG OUT OPERATION
The Model 480 has two analog voltage outputs, Corrected and Monitor. The two outputs are quite
different and not always suitable for the same applications.
5.15.1 Corrected Analog Output
The Model 480 digitally generates the corrected analog output voltage with a DAC. This output is not
real time. It is updated 30 times a second during normal operation. In dual-peak (both) mode, the
Corrected Analog Output alternates between the positive and negative peak values 7 times a second.
For a steady-state output, either the positive or negative peak mode must be selected. Instrument
and coil calibrations can be taken into account making the corrected output more accurate than the
monitor output. The corrected output voltage is scaled to the DC reading value in DC mode, the peak
value in DC Peak or AC Peak modes and the RMS value in AC mode.
The corrected output is a variable DC voltage source that can vary from +10 V to –10 V. Voltage is
generated by a 16-bit DAC with a resolution of 0.3 mV or 0.003% of 10 V. The output is short
protected but should never be used to drive a resistance of less than 1 kΩ for specified accuracy.
Analog output terminals are in the detachable terminal block on the rear of the instrument.
The corrected output has three modes of operation, default, user and manual. When the output is
being setup the mode must be selected first. Only parameters related to the selected mode will be
shown on setting screens.
To set the corrected analog output mode, press the Analog Out key to display the following screen.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
An a l o g ­ Mo d e : ­ De f a u l t
Use the s or t keys to cycle through the mode selections described below. When the cursor
indicates the desired mode, press the Enter key to accept it, or the Escape key to exit the screen and
revert to the previous mode.
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Corrected Analog Output (Continued)
Default: In default mode the corrected analog output mimics the monitor output. The output is scaled
to V·s units no matter what units are selected for the display. Full scale for the selected range is
scaled to 3 V so for example on the 300 mV·s range a +300 mV·s reading would give a +3 V output
and a -300 mV·s reading would give a -3 V output. The scale is changed automatically when range is
changed.
User: In user mode the user selects a value that corresponds to the maximum voltage output (+10 V)
and a value that corresponds to the minimum voltage output (-10 V). In this mode the user can scale
the analog output to improve resolution over an area of interest. Maximum and minimum values are
entered in the units selected for the display. The instrument scales output voltage between the two
values.
When “Analog Mode: User” is selected, you will see the “Enter Max Output” screen.
En t e r ­ Ma x ­ Ou t p u t
+1 0 0 . 0 0 0 ­ mVs
Use the numeric keypad to enter a high reading value that results in +10 V output, then press the
Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the units. Use the s or t keys to select prefix
µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the Enter key. The “Enter Min Output” screen then appears.
En t e r ­ Mi n ­ Ou t p u t
- 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 ­ mVs
Use the numeric keypad to enter a low reading value that results in -10 V output, then press the
Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the units. Use the s or t keys to select prefix
µ, m, _, k, or, M. Press the Enter key.
Manual: In manual mode the corrected output voltage can be set directly by the user. The output is
set in percent of full scale where +100% corresponds to +10 V and -100% corresponds to -10 V. The
setting resolution on the display is 0.001% but the actual resolution of the DAC is only 0.003%.
When “Analog Mode: Manual” is selected, you will see the “Enter AOut Voltage” screen.
En t e r ­ AOu t ­ Vo l t a g e
+1 0 0 . 0 0 0 ­ _ %
Use the numeric keypad to enter the percent of full scale that results in ±10 V output, then press the
Enter key. The cursor will jump to a space before the “%”. Use the s or t keys to select the “_” prefix.
Press the Enter key.
5.15.2 Monitor Analog Output
The monitor is a real time analog voltage proportional to the integrator output. The wave shape
exactly duplicates that of the integrator output. The scale of the monitor output is ±3 V for the full
scale volt-seconds of the range selected. The monitor output remains scaled to V·s even when other
units are displayed. The monitor output is not as accurate as the corrected output because instrument
and coil calibrations are digitally processed and do not act on the monitor voltage. There is no user
control of the monitor output. The output is short protected but should never be used to drive a
resistance of less than 1 kΩ for specified accuracy. Analog output terminals are in the detachable
terminal block on the rear of the instrument.
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Advanced Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.16 EXTERNAL RESET
The Model 480 terminal block has connections for external reset. With this feature, a foot pedal or
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) can be used to start a new measurement cycle. The External
Reset is TTL compatible and a logic low will activate a reset. The signal is internally pulled up to allow
operation with a simple switch closure between Pins 12 and 13.
The external reset acts like a reading reset in DC mode and a peak reset in DC Peak and AC Peak
mode. Short the reset line or take it to logic low for at least 1 ms and then open it. Reset completes 200
ms after the reset line is shorted, or 400 ms for Dual Peak.
5.17 OPTIONAL INPUT
The Model 480 terminal block has a connection for an optional logic input. It is commonly used to
monitor status of a thermostat or proximity switch. The Model 480 monitors the logic level of this input
which can then be read over computer interface. The input is TTL compatible. A logic low will produce a
0 interface response and a logic high will produce a 1 interface response. The signal is internally pulled
up to allow operation with a simple switch closure between Pins 14 and 13.
The OPTIN? query can be used with IEEE-488 or RS-232C Computer Interface to verify the status of
the input. Allow 100 ms for an input status change to appear in the interface response.
5.18 LOCKING AND UNLOCKING THE KEYPAD
The Model 480 front panel keypad can be locked to prevent unauthorized changes to settings. To lock
the keypad, press and hold the Enter key until the following screen is displayed.
En t e r ­ Co d e ­ To
L o c k ­ Ke y p a d
Enter the 3-digit lock code (default: 123). Upon entry of the third digit, the display reverts to the normal
display and the keypad locks. After locking, any attempt to change settings displays the *Locked*
message shown as follows.
­­­ * L o c k e d *
To unlock the keypad, press and hold the Enter key until the following screen is displayed.
En t e r ­ Co d e ­ To
Un l o c k ­ Ke y p a d
Enter the lock code again. Upon entry of the third digit, the display reverts to the normal display and the
keypad unlocks.
The lock code can be changed using either the IEEE-488 or RS-232C Computer Interface. If the
instrument is reset (Paragraph 5.19), the lock code reverts to 123. The instrument cannot reset with the
keypad locked.
Advanced Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
5.19 RESETTING TO DEFAULT VALUES
To reset all instrument parameters to default values, press and hold the Escape key for 10 seconds.
Table 5-2 lists default values for each parameter. Parameters stored in probes are not reset.
When you press and hold the Escape key for 10 seconds, you see the following screen.
Co d e ­ d a t e : ­­ 0 2 / 2 6 / 9 9
De f a u l t ­ Va l u e s : ­­ No
Use the s or t keys to select Yes or No. “Yes” means you wish to reset the instrument to the default
settings detailed in Table 5-2. “No” means you do not wish to reset the instrument. When the display
indicates the desired selection, press the Enter key to accept it, or the Escape key to exit the screen
and revert to the previous mode.
If you select the Enter key, you see the following screen.
Co d e ­ d a t e : ­­ 0 2 / 2 6 / 9 9
Cl e a r ­ Co i l s : ­­ No
Use the s or t keys to select Yes or No. “Yes” means you wish to delete the User-stored coil
parameters. “No” means you do not wish to delete the coil parameters. When the display indicates the
desired selection, press the Enter key to accept it, or the Escape key to exit the screen and revert to
the previous mode.
5-22
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table 5-2. Default Values
Command
Function
Interface
Display
Common Commands
*ESE
Std. Event Status Enable Report ...................... 000 .......................Disabled
*SRE
Service Request Enable Register Report ......... 000 .......................Disabled
Interface Commands
ADDR
Set IEEE-488 Address ...................................... 12 .........................12
BAUD
Set Serial Interface Baud Rate ......................... 2 ...........................9600 Baud
END
Set End Or Identify (EOI).................................. 0 ...........................EOI Enabled
MODE
Set Local/Remote Mode ................................... 0 ...........................Local Mode
TERM
Set Terminating Character Type ...................... 0 ...........................<CR><LF>
Device Specific Commands
ACDC
Set AC/DC Field Reading Mode ....................... 0 ...........................DC
ALARM
Set Alarm Function ........................................... 0 ...........................Off
ALMB
Set Audible Alarm Function .............................. 0 ...........................Off
ALMH
Set Alarm High Point ........................................ +0.00000 ..............+0.00000
ALMIO
Set Alarm Trigger In/Out Mode......................... 0 ...........................Outside
ALML
Set Alarm Low Point ......................................... +0.00000 ..............+0.00000
ANOCON
Set Analog Out Control ..................................... +0.00000 ..............+0.00000%
ANOH
Set Analog Out High Point................................ +0.00000 ..............+0.00000
ANOL
Set Analog Out Low Point ................................ +0.00000 ..............+0.00000
ANOM
Set Analog Out Mode ....................................... 0 ...........................Default
BRIGT
Set Display Brightness ..................................... 2 ...........................75%
CODE
Set Keyboard Lock Code.................................. 123 .......................123
COILA
Set Coil Area..................................................... +1.00000 ..............+1.00000 cm 2
COILAN
Set Coil Area-Turns .......................................... +1.00000 ..............+1.00000 cm2N
COILIN
Set Coil Input Terminal ..................................... 2 ...........................100 kΩ
COILKH
Set Coil Helmholtz Constant............................. +1.00000 ..............+1.00000 cm
COILKP
Set Coil Potential Constant............................... +1.00000 ..............+1.00000 A
COILN
Set Coil Number of Turns ................................. +1.00000 ..............+1.00000
COILNUM
Set Coil Number ............................................... 1 ...........................1
COILR
Set Coil Resistance .......................................... +0.00000 ..............+0.00000 Ω
FILT
Set Display Filter Function ............................... 0 ...........................Off
FNUM
Set Filter Points ................................................ 8 ...........................8
FWIN
Set Filter Window ............................................. 1 ...........................1%
LOCK
Set Keyboard Lock Mode ................................. 0 ...........................Off
PCTMUL
Set Percent Multiplier Constant ........................ +1.00000 ..............+1.00000
PEAK
Set Peak Hold Function .................................... 0 ...........................Off
PEAKM
Set Peak Capture Mode ................................... 2 ...........................Dual Peak
RELAYH
Set High Relay Mode ........................................ 0 ...........................Manual Off
RELAYL
Set Low Relay Mode ........................................ 0 ...........................Manual Off
RELAYM
Set Middle Relay Mode .................................... 0 ...........................Manual Off
RNGAC
Set AC Range ................................................... 0 ...........................30 mV·s
RNGDC
Set DC Range................................................... 0 ...........................300 mV·s
UNITS
Set Display Units .............................................. 1 ...........................V·s
Advanced Operation
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This Page Intentionally Left Blank
5-24
Advanced Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 6
COMPUTER INTERFACE OPERATION
6.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides operational instructions for the computer interface for the Lake Shore Model 480
Fluxmeter. Either of the two computer interfaces provided with the Model 480 permit remote operation.
The first is the IEEE-488 Interface described in Paragraph 6.1. The second is the Serial Interface
described in Paragraph 6.2. The two interfaces share a common set of commands detailed in
Paragraph 6.3. Use only one of the interfaces at a time.
6.1
IEEE-488 INTERFACE
The IEEE-488 Interface is an instrumentation bus with hardware and programming standards that
simplify instrument interfacing. The Model 480 IEEE-488 Interface complies with the IEEE-488.2-1987
standard and incorporates its functional, electrical, and mechanical specifications unless otherwise
specified in this manual.
All instruments on the interface bus perform one or more of the interface functions of TALKER,
LISTENER, or BUS CONTROLLER. A TALKER transmits data onto the bus to other devices. A
LISTENER receives data from other devices through the bus. The BUS CONTROLLER designates to
the devices on the bus which function to perform. The Model 480 performs the functions of TALKER
and LISTENER but cannot be a BUS CONTROLLER. The BUS CONTROLLER is the digital computer
which tells the Model 480 which functions to perform.
Below are Model 480 IEEE-488 interface capabilities:
• SH1: Source handshake capability.
• RL1: Complete remote/local capability.
• DC1: Full device clear capability.
• DT0: No device trigger capability.
• C0:
No system controller capability.
• T5:
Basic TALKER, serial poll capability, talk only, unaddressed to talk if addressed to listen.
• L4:
Basic LISTENER, unaddressed to listen if addressed to talk.
• SR1: Service request capability.
• AH1: Acceptor handshake capability.
• PP0: No parallel poll capability.
• E1:
Open collector electronics.
Computer Interface Operation
6-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.1.1
IEEE-488 Interface Settings
If using the IEEE-488 interface, you must set the IEEE Address and Terminators. Press the Interface
key. The first screen selects Serial Interface Baud Rate, and therefore is skipped by pressing the
Enter key. The Address screen is then displayed.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
I EEE­ Ad d r e s s ­­ 1 2
Press the s or t keys to increment or decrement the IEEE Address to the desired number. Press
Enter to accept new number or Escape to retain the existing number. Pressing Enter displays the
Terminators screen.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Te r m­­ Cr ­ L f
Press the s or t keys to cycle through the following Terminator choices: CR/LF, LF/CR, LF, and EOI.
To accept changes or the currently displayed setting, push Enter. To cancel changes, push Escape.
Power down the Model 480 then back up again to allow other devices on the IEEE-488 bus to
recognize a new Address or Terminator setting.
6.1.2
IEEE-488 Command Structure
The Model 480 supports several command types. These commands are divided into three groups.
1. Bus Control – refer to Paragraph 6.1.2.1.
a. Universal
(1) Uniline
(2) Multiline
b. Addressed Bus Control
2. Common – refer to Paragraph 6.1.2.2.
3. Interface and Device Specific – refer to Paragraph 6.1.2.3.
6.1.2.1
Bus Control Commands
A Universal Command addresses all devices on the bus. Universal Commands include Uniline and
Multiline Commands. A Uniline Command (Message) asserts only a single signal line. The Model
480 recognizes two of these messages from the BUS CONTROLLER: Remote (REN) and
Interface Clear (IFC). The Model 480 sends one Uniline Command: Service Request (SRQ).
REN (Remote) – Puts the Model 480 into remote mode.
IFC (Interface Clear) – Stops current operation on the bus.
SRQ (Service Request) – Tells the bus controller that the Model 480 needs interface service.
A Multiline Command asserts a group of signal lines. All devices equipped to implement such
commands do so simultaneously upon command transmission. These commands transmit with the
Attention (ATN) line asserted low. The Model 480 recognizes two Multiline commands:
LLO (Local Lockout) – Prevents the use of instrument front panel controls.
DCL (Device Clear) – Clears Model 480 interface activity and puts it into a bus idle state.
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Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Bus Control Commands (Continued)
Finally, Addressed Bus Control Commands are Multiline commands that must include the
Model 480 listen address before the instrument responds. Only the addressed device responds to
these commands. The Model 480 recognizes three of the Addressed Bus Control Commands:
SDC (Selective Device Clear) – The SDC command performs essentially the same function as the
DCL command except that only the addressed device responds.
GTL (Go To Local) – The GTL command is used to remove instruments from the remote mode.
With some instruments, GTL also unlocks front panel controls if they were previously locked out
with the LLO command.
SPE (Serial Poll Enable) and SPD (Serial Poll Disable) – Serial polling accesses the Service
Request (SRQ) Status Register. This status register contains important operational information
from the unit requesting service. The SPD command ends the polling sequence.
6.1.2.2
Common Commands
Common Commands are addressed commands which create commonalty between instruments on
the bus. All instruments that comply with the IEEE-488 1987 standard share these commands and
their format. Common commands all begin with an asterisk. They generally relate to “bus” and
“instrument” status and identification. Common query commands end with a question mark (?).
Refer to Paragraph 6.3 for a list of all Model 480 common commands.
6.1.2.3
Interface and Device Specific Commands
Device Specific Commands are addressed commands. The Model 480 supports a variety of Device
Specific commands to program instruments remotely from a digital computer and to transfer
measurements to the computer. Most Device Specific Commands perform functions also performed
from the front panel. This section discusses Common and Device Specific commands. Device
Specific Commands consist of Interface, Display, Channel, and Control Process commands. Refer
to Paragraph 6.3 for a list of all Model 480 interface and device specific commands.
6.1.3
Status Registers
There are two status registers: the Status Byte Register described in Paragraph 6.1.3.1, and the
Standard Event Status Register in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.
6.1.3.1
Status Byte Register and Service Request Enable Register
The Status Byte Register consists of one data byte containing seven bits of information about
Model 480 status.
STATUS BYTE REGISTER FORMAT
Bit –
Weighting –
Bit Name –
7
128
Not Used
6
64
SRQ
5
32
ESB
4
16
OVI
3
8
AAF
2
4
ALM
1
2
AAC
0
1
FDR
If the Service Request is enabled, setting any of these bits causes the Model 480 to pull the SRQ
management low to signal the BUS CONTROLLER. These bits reset to zero upon a serial poll of
the Status Byte Register. Inhibit or enable these reports by turning their corresponding bits off or on
in the Service Request Enable Register. The QSRE command sets the bits. Setting a bit in the
Service Request Enable Register, enables that function. Refer to the QSRE command.
Service Request (SRQ) Bit (6) – Determines whether the Model 480 reports via the SRQ line. Six
bits determine which status reports to make. If bits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and/or 5 are set, then the
corresponding bit in the Status Byte Register is set. The Model 480 produces a service request only
if bit 6 of the Service Request Enable Register is set. If disabled, the BUS CONTROLLER still
examines Status Byte Register status reports by serial poll (SPE), but the Service Request cannot
interrupt the BUS CONTROLLER. The QSTB common command reads the Status Byte Register
but will not clear the bits.
Computer Interface Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Bus Control Commands (Continued)
Below are Status Byte Register bit assignments. These reports occur only if enabled in the Service
Request Enable Register.
Standard Event Status (ESB) Bit (5) – When set, indicates if one of the bits from the Standard
Event Status Register has been set. Refer to Paragraph 6.1.3.2.
Overload Indicator (OVI) Bit (4) – When set, indicates a display overload condition. Issues a
Service Request if enabled.
Auto Adjust Fail (AAF) Bit (3) – When set, the Auto adjustment has failed. This can occur if the
drift rate of the instrument is greater than what can be adjusted for. If this bit is set, then the AAC
bit will be set as well.
Alarm (ALM) Bit (2) – When set, an alarm condition exists. This condition latches until
acknowledged by the bus controller.
Auto Adjust Complete (AAC) Bit (1) – When set, the Auto Drift adjustment has been completed.
This bit will be set even if the Auto Drift adjustment fails. Refer to the AAF bit above.
Field Data Ready (FDR) Bit (0) – When set, new valid field readings are available.
6.1.3.2
Standard Event Status Register and Standard Event Status Enable Register
The Standard Event Status Register supplies various conditions of the Model 480.
STANDARD EVENT STATUS REGISTER FORMAT
Bit –
Weighting –
Bit Name –
7
128
PON
6
64
Not Used
5
32
CME
4
16
EXE
3
8
DDE
2
4
QYE
1
2
Not Used
0
1
OPC
Bits 2 and 6 are not used. Reports of this register interrupt the user only if the bits are enabled in
the Standard Event Status Enable Register and if bit 5 of the Service Request Enable Register is
set.
The Standard Event Status Enable Register allows the user to enable any of the Standard Event
Status Register reports. The Standard Event Status Enable command (QESE) sets the Standard
Event Status Enable Register bits. Setting a bit of this register, enables that function. To set a bit,
send the command QESE with the sum of the bit weighting for each bit to be set. Refer to the QESE
command.
The Standard Event Status Enable Query, QESE?, reads the Standard Event Status Enable
Register. QESR? reads the Standard Event Status Register. Once this register is read, the bits
reset to zero.
Power On (PON) Bit (7) – Set to indicate a controller off-on-off transition.
Command Error (CME) Bit (5) – Set to indicate a command error since the last reading. Controller
unable to interpret a command due to syntax error, unrecognized header or terminators, or
unsupported command.
Execution Error (EXE) Bit (4) – Set to indicate an execution error. This occurs when the controller
is instructed to do something not within its capabilities.
Device Dependent Error (DDE) Bit (3) – Set to indicate a device dependent error. Determine the
actual device dependent error by executing the various device dependent queries.
Query Error (QYE) Bit (2) – Set to indicate a query error. Occurs rarely, but involves data loss due
to full output queue.
Operation Complete (OPC) Bit (0) – This bit is generated in response to the QOPC common
command. It indicates when the Model 480 has completed all selected pending operations.
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Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.1.4
IEEE Interface Example Programs
Two BASIC programs are included to illustrate the IEEE-488 communication functions of the instrument.
The first program was written in Visual Basic. Refer to Paragraph 6.1.4.1 for instructions on how to setup the
program. The Visual Basic code is provided in Table 6-2. The second program is written in Quick Basic.
Refer to Paragraph 6.1.4.3 for instructions on how to setup the program. The Quick Basic code is provided
in Table 6-3. Finally, a description of operation common to both programs is provided in Paragraph 6.1.4.5.
While the hardware and software required to produce and implement these programs not included with the
instrument, the concepts illustrated apply to almost any application where these tools are available.
6.1.4.1
IEEE-488 Interface Board Installation for Visual Basic Program
This procedure works for Plug and Play GPIB Hardware and Software for Windows 98/95. This example uses
the AT-GPIB/TNT GPIB card.
1. Install the GPIB Plug and Play Software and Hardware using National Instruments instructions.
2. Verify that the following files have been installed to the Windows System folder:
a. gpib-32.dll
b. gpib.dll
c. gpib32ft.dll
Files b and c support any 16-bit Windows GPIB applications being used.
3. Locate the following files and make note of their location. These files will be used during the development
process of a Visual Basic program.
a. Niglobal.bas
b. Vbib-32.bas
NOTE: If the files in Steps 2 and 3 are not installed on your computer, they may be copied from your
National Instruments setup disks or they may be downloaded from www.ni.com.
4. Configure the GPIB by selecting the System icon in the Windows 98/95 Control Panel located under
Settings on the Start Menu. Configure the GPIB Settings as shown in Figure 6-1. Configure the DEV12
Device Template as shown in Figure 6-2. Be sure to check the Readdress box.
Computer Interface Operation
6-5
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Figure 6-1. GPIB0 Setting Configuration
Figure 6-2. DEV 12 Device Template Configuration
6-6
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.1.4.2
Visual Basic IEEE-488 Interface Program Setup
This IEEE-488 interface program works with Visual Basic 6.0 (VB6) on an IBM PC (or compatible) with a
Pentium-class processor. A Pentium 90 or higher is recommended, running Windows 95 or better. It assumes
your IEEE-488 (GPIB) card is installed and operating correctly (refer to Paragraph 6.1.4.1). Use the following
procedure to develop the IEEE-488 Interface Program in Visual Basic.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Start VB6.
Choose Standard EXE and select Open.
Resize form window to desired size.
On the Project Menu, select Add Module, select the Existing tab, then navigate to the location on your
computer to add the following files: Niglobal.bas and Vbib-32.bas.
5. Add controls to form:
a. Add three Label controls to the form.
b. Add two TextBox controls to the form.
c. Add one CommandButton control to the form.
6. On the View Menu, select Properties Window.
7. In the Properties window, use the dropdown list to select between the different controls of the current
project.
10. Set the properties of the controls as defined in Table 6-1.
11. Save the program.
Computer Interface Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table 6-1. IEEE-488 Interface Program Control Properties
Current Name
Label1
Label2
Label3
Text1
Text2
Command1
Form1
Property
Name
Caption
Name
Caption
Name
Caption
Name
Text
Name
Text
Name
Caption
Default
Name
Caption
New Value
lblExitProgram
Type “exit” to end program.
lblCommand
Command
lblResponse
Response
txtCommand
<blank>
txtResponse
<blank>
cmdSend
Send
True
frmIEEE
IEEE Interface Program
12. Add code (provided in Table 6-2).
a. In the Code Editor window, under the Object dropdown list, select (General). Add the statement:
Public gSend as Boolean
b. Double Click on cmdSend. Add code segment under Private Sub cmdSend_Click( ) as shown in
Table 6-2.
c. In the Code Editor window, under the Object dropdown list, select Form. Make sure the Procedure
dropdown list is set at Load. The Code window should have written the segment of code: Private Sub
Form_Load( ). Add the code to this subroutine as shown in Table 6-2.
13. Save the program.
14. Run the program. The program should resemble the following.
15. Type in a command or query in the Command box as described in Paragraph 6.1.4.5.
16. Press Enter or select the Send button with the mouse to send command.
17. Type Exit and press Enter to quit.
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table 6-2. Visual Basic IEEE-488 Interface Program
Public gSend As Boolean
Private Sub cmdSend_Click()
gSend = True
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Load()
Dim strReturn As String
Dim term As String
Dim strCommand As String
Dim intDevice As Integer
'Global used for Send button state
'Routine to handle Send button press
'Set Flag to True
'Main code section
'Used to return response
'Terminators
'Data string sent to instrument
'Device number used with IEEE
frmIEEE.Show
term = Chr(13) & Chr(10)
strReturn = ""
'Show main window
'Terminators are <CR><LF>
'Clear return string
Call ibdev(0, 12, 0, T10s, 1, &H140A, intDevice)
Call ibconfig(intDevice, ibcREADDR,1)
Do
Do
DoEvents
Loop Until gSend = True
gSend = False
'Initialize the IEEE device
'Setup Repeat Addressing
'Wait loop
'Give up processor to other events
'Loop until Send button pressed
'Set Flag as False
strCommand = frmIEEE.txtCommand.Text
strReturn = ""
'Get Command
'Clear response display
strCommand = UCase(strCommand)
If strCommand = "EXIT" Then
End
End If
'Set all characters to upper case
'Get out on EXIT
Call ibwrt(intDevice, strCommand & term)
If (ibsta And EERR) Then
'do error handling if needed
End If
'Send command to instrument
'Check for IEEE errors
'Handle errors here
If InStr(strCommand, "?") <> 0 Then
strReturn = Space(100)
Call ibrd(intDevice, strReturn)
If (ibsta And EERR) Then
'do error handling if needed
End If
'Check to see if query
'Build empty return buffer
'Read back response
'Check for IEEE errors
'Handle errors here
If strReturn <> "" Then
'Check if empty string
strReturn = RTrim(strReturn)
'Remove extra spaces and Terminators
Do While Right(strReturn, 1) = Chr(10) Or Right(strReturn, 1) = Chr(13)
strReturn = Left(strReturn, Len(strReturn) - 1)
Loop
Else
strReturn = "No Response"
'Send No Response
End If
frmIEEE.txtResponse.Text = strReturn
End If
Loop
End Sub
Computer Interface Operation
'Put response in text on main form
6-9
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.1.4.3
IEEE-488 Interface Board Installation for Quick Basic Program
This procedure works on an IBM PC (or compatible) running DOS or in a DOS window. This example uses
the National Instruments GPIB-PCII/IIA card.
1. Install GPIB-PCII/IIA card using National Instruments instructions.
2. Install NI-488.2 software (for DOS). Version 2.1.1 was used for the example.
3. Verify that config.sys contains the command: device = \gpib-pc\gpib.com.
4. Reboot the computer.
5. Run IBTEST to test software configuration. Do not install the instrument before running IBTEST.
6. Run IBCONF to configure the GPIB – PCII/IIA board and dev 12. Set the EOS byte to 0AH and Enable
Repeat Addressing to Yes. See Figure 6-3. IBCONF modifies gpib.com.
7. Connect the instrument to the interface board and power up the instrument. Verify the address is 12 and
terminators are CR LF.
6.1.4.4
Quick Basic Program
The IEEE-488 interface program in Table 6-6 works with QuickBasic 4.0/4.5 or Qbasic on an IBM PC (or
compatible) running DOS or in a DOS window. It assumes your IEEE-488 (GPIB) card is installed and
operating correctly (refer to Paragraph 6.1.4.3). Use the following procedure to develop the Serial Interface
Program in Quick Basic.
1. Copy c:\gpib-pc\Qbasic\qbib.obj to the QuickBasic directory (QB4).
2. Change to the QuickBasic directory and type: link /q qbib.obj,,,bqlb4x.lib; where x = 0 for QB4.0 and 5 for
QB4.5 This one-time only command produces the library file qbib.qlb. The procedure is found in the
National Instruments QuickBasic readme file Readme.qb.
3. Start QuickBasic. Type: qb /l qbib.qlb. Start QuickBasic in this way each time the IEEE interface is used to
link in the library file.
4. Create the IEEE example interface program in QuickBasic. Enter the program exactly as presented in
Table 6-3. Name the file “ieeeexam.bas” and save.
5. Run the program.
6. Type a command query as described in Paragraph 6.1.4.5.
7. Type “EXIT” to quit the program.
6-10
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
IBCONF.EXE.eps
Figure 6-3. Typical National Instruments GPIB Configuration from IBCONF.EXE
Computer Interface Operation
6-11
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table 6-3. Quick Basic IEEE-488 Interface Program
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
IEEEEXAM.BAS
EXAMPLE PROGRAM FOR IEEE-488 INTERFACE
This program works with QuickBasic 4.0/4.5 on an IBM PC or compatible.
The example requires a properly configured National Instruments GPIB-PC2 card. The REM
$INCLUDE statement is necessary along with a correct path to the file QBDECL.BAS.
CONFIG.SYS must call GPIB.COM created by IBCONF.EXE prior to running Basic. There must
be QBIB.QBL library in the QuickBasic Directory and QuickBasic must start with a link
to it. All instrument settings are assumed to be defaults: Address 12, Terminators
<CR> <LF> and EOI active.
To use, type an instrument command or query at the prompt. The computer transmits to
the instrument and displays any response. If no query is sent, the instrument responds
to the last query received. Type "EXIT" to exit the program.
REM $INCLUDE: 'c:\gpib-pc\qbasic\qbdecl.bas'
CLS
PRINT "IEEE-488 COMMUNICATION PROGRAM"
PRINT
'Link to IEEE calls
'Clear screen
CALL IBFIND("dev12", DEV12%)
TERM$ = CHR$(13) + CHR$(10)
'Open communication at address 12
'Terminators are <CR><LF>
LOOP2: IN$ = SPACE$(2000)
6-12
'Clear for return string
LINE INPUT "ENTER COMMAND (or EXIT):"; CMD$
CMD$ = UCASE$(CMD$)
IF CMD$ = "EXIT" THEN END
CMD$ = CMD$ + TERM$
'Get command from keyboard
'Change input to upper case
'Get out on Exit
CALL IBWRT(DEV12%, CMD$)
'Send command to instrument
CALL IBRD(DEV12%, IN$)
'Get data back each time
ENDTEST = INSTR(IN$, CHR$(13))
IF ENDTEST > 0 THEN
IN$ = MID$(IN$, 1, ENDTEST – 1)
PRINT "RESPONSE:", IN$
ELSE
PRINT "NO RESPONSE"
END IF
GOTO LOOP2
'Test for returned string
'String is present if <CR> is seen
'Strip off terminators
'Print return string
'No string present if timeout
'Get next command
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.1.4.5
Program Operation
Once either example program is running, try the following commands and observe the response of the
instrument. Input from the user is shown in bold and terminators are added by the program. The word [term]
indicates the required terminators included with the response.
ENTER COMMAND? *IDN?
Identification query. Returns an identification string.
RESPONSE: LSCI,MODEL480,1234567,02032004[term]
ENTER COMMAND? READ?
Reading query. Returns reading in the form ±XXX.XX.
RESPONSE: +273.150E+00[term]
Decimal point is placed appropriate to range.
ENTER COMMAND? RNGDC?
DC Range Query. Returns appropriate range,
0
where 0 = 300 mV·s and 1 = 30 mV·s.
ENTER COMMAND? UNITS?
Units query. Returns an integer from 1 to 11 corresponding
1
to the units being used. In this example, 1 = V·s.
ENTER COMMAND? ACDC?
AC or DC query. Returns appropriate setting,
0
where 0 = DC and 1 = AC.
ENTER COMMAND? FILT?
Filter query. Returns appropriate setting,
0
where 0 = Off and 1 = On.
ENTER COMMAND? FILT 1;FILT?
Turns filter on then returns a 1 to verify the change.
1
ENTER COMMAND?
The following are additional notes on using either IEEE-488 Interface program.
• If you enter a correctly spelled query without a “?,” nothing will be returned. Incorrectly spelled commands
and queries are ignored. Commands and queries should have a space separating the command and
associated parameters.
• Leading zeros and zeros following a decimal point are not needed in a command string, but are sent in
response to a query. A leading “+” is not required but a leading “–” is required.
6.1.5
Troubleshooting
New Installation
1. Check instrument address.
2. Always send terminators.
3. Send entire message string at one time including terminators.
4. Send only one simple command at a time until communication is established.
5. Be sure to spell commands correctly and use proper syntax.
6. Attempt both ‘Talk’ and ‘Listen’ functions. If one works but not the other, the hardware connection
is working, so look at syntax, terminators, and command format.
7. If only one message is received after resetting the interface, check the “repeat addressing” setting.
It should be enabled.
Old Installation No Longer Working
8. Power instrument off then on again to see if it is a soft failure.
9. Power computer off then on again to see if the IEEE card is locked up.
10. Verify that the address has not been changed on the instrument during a memory reset.
11. Check all cable connections.
Intermittent Lockups
12. Check cable connections and length.
13. Increase delay between all commands to 50 ms to make sure instrument is not being over loaded.
Computer Interface Operation
6-13
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.2
SERIAL I/O INTERFACE
RS-232C is a standard of the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and one of the most common
interfaces between a computer and electronic equipment. The Customer supplied computer must have
a Serial Interface port. The Model 480 Serial Interface complies with the electrical format of the
RS-232C Interface Standard. A Serial Interface between the computer and the Model 480 permits
remote monitoring and control of Model 480 control functions, which in turn controls Model 480
operation. See Figure 6-2.
The Serial Interface can both transmit and receive information. In transmit (Tx) mode, the instrument
converts parallel information to serial and sends it over a cable up to 50 feet long (or longer with proper
shielding). In receive (Rx) mode, the instrument converts serial information back to parallel for
processing.
Refer to Paragraph 6.2.1 for serial interface hardware configuration and adapters, Paragraph 6.2.2 for
serial interface settings, and Paragraph 6.6.3 for a sample BASIC programs to establish
communications between the computer and the Model 480.
The Serial Interface shares Device Specific commands with the IEEE-488 interface listed in Paragraph
6.3. However, without the advantage of the IEEE-488 Architecture, there are several limitations:
• No Bus Control Commands apply.
• Only QIDN? and QRST Common Commands are usable.
• Terminators are fixed to CRLF.
• A query must be added to the end of a command string if the Model 480 must return
information. (Over IEEE-488, the last query response is sent when addressed to talk). For
example: ”UNITS 8;UNITS?” sets the units to gauss and immediately queries unit status.
6.2.1
Serial Interface Hardware Configuration
Below is a technical description of the Serial Interface. Table 6-2 lists communication parameters.
Terminators are fixed to Carriage Return (CR) and Line Feed (LF). The serial interface connector is a
9-Pin D connector.
Table 6-4. Serial Interface Specifications
Transmission
Connector
Timing Format
Transmission Mode
Baud Rate
Bits per Character
Parity Type
Data Interface Levels
Fixed Terminator
6.2.2
Three-Wire
9-Pin D Connector
Asynchronous, RS-232C Electrical Format
Half Duplex
300, 1200, or 9600
1 Start, 7 Data, 1 Parity, and 1 Stop
Odd
Transmits and Receives Using EIA Voltage Levels
CR (0DH) LF (0AH)
Serial Interface Settings
To use the Serial Interface, set the Baud rate. Press Baud to display the following screen.
Se l e c t ­ Wi t h ­ ° ®
Ba u d ­­ 3 ­­ 1 2 ­ ¡ 9 6
Press the s or t keys to cycle through the choices of 300, 1200, or 9600 Baud. Press Enter to accept
the new number or Escape to keep the existing setting and return to the normal display.
6-14
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.2.3
Serial Interface Example Programs
Two BASIC programs are included to illustrate the serial communication functions of the instrument. The first
program was written in Visual Basic. Refer to Paragraph 6.2.3.1 for instructions on how to setup the program.
The Visual Basic code is provided in Table 6-6. The second program was written in Quick Basic. Refer to
Paragraph 6.2.3.2 for instructions on how to setup the program. The Quick Basic code is provided in Table
6-7. Finally, a description of operation common to both programs is provided in Paragraph 6.2.3.3. While the
hardware and software required to produce and implement these programs not included with the instrument,
the concepts illustrated apply to almost any application where these tools are available.
6.2.3.1
Visual Basic Serial Interface Program Setup
The serial interface program works with Visual Basic 6.0 (VB6) on an IBM PC (or compatible) with a Pentiumclass processor. A Pentium 90 or higher is recommended, running Windows 95 or better, with a serial
interface. It uses the COM1 communications port at 9600 Baud. Use the following procedure to develop the
Serial Interface Program in Visual Basic.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Start VB6.
Choose Standard EXE and select Open.
Resize form window to desired size.
On the Project Menu, click Components to bring up a list of additional controls available in VB6.
Scroll through the controls and select Microsoft Comm Control 6.0. Select OK. In the toolbar at the left of
the screen, the Comm Control will have appeared as a telephone icon.
Select the Comm control and add it to the form.
Add controls to form:
a. Add three Label controls to the form.
b. Add two TextBox controls to the form.
c. Add one CommandButton control to the form.
d. Add one Timer control to the form.
On the View Menu, select Properties Window.
In the Properties window, use the dropdown list to select between the different controls of the current
project.
10. Set the properties of the controls as defined in Table 6-5.
11. Save the program.
Computer Interface Operation
6-15
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table 6-5. Serial Interface Program Control Properties
Current Name
Label1
Label2
Label3
Text1
Text2
Command1
Form1
Timer1
Property
Name
Caption
Name
Caption
Name
Caption
Name
Text
Name
Text
Name
Caption
Default
Name
Caption
Enabled
Interval
New Value
lblExitProgram
Type “exit” to end program.
lblCommand
Command
lblResponse
Response
txtCommand
<blank>
txtResponse
<blank>
cmdSend
Send
True
frmSerial
Serial Interface Program
False
10
12. Add code (provided in Table 6-6).
a. In the Code Editor window, under the Object dropdown list, select (General). Add the statement:
Public gSend as Boolean
b. Double Click on cmdSend. Add code segment under Private Sub cmdSend_Click( ) as shown in
Table 6-6.
c. In the Code Editor window, under the Object dropdown list, select Form. Make sure the Procedure
dropdown list is set at Load. The Code window should have written the segment of code: Private Sub
Form_Load( ). Add the code to this subroutine as shown in Table 6-6.
d. Double Click on the Timer control. Add code segment under Private Sub Timer1_Timer() as shown in
Table 6-6.
e. Make adjustments to code if different Com port settings are being used.
13. Save the program.
14. Run the program. The program should resemble the following.
15. Type in a command or query in the Command box as described in Paragraph 6.2.3.3.
16. Press Enter or select the Send button with the mouse to send command.
17. Type Exit and press Enter to quit.
6-16
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table 6-6. Visual Basic Serial Interface Program
Public gSend As Boolean
Private Sub cmdSend_Click()
gSend = True
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Load()
Dim strReturn As String
Dim strHold As String
Dim Term As String
Dim ZeroCount As Integer
Dim strCommand As String
frmSerial.Show
Term = Chr(13) & Chr(10)
ZeroCount = 0
strReturn = ""
strHold = ""
If frmSerial.MSComm1.PortOpen = True Then
frmSerial.MSComm1.PortOpen = False
End If
frmSerial.MSComm1.CommPort = 1
frmSerial.MSComm1.Settings = "9600,o,7,1"
frmSerial.MSComm1.InputLen = 1
frmSerial.MSComm1.PortOpen = True
Do
Do
DoEvents
Loop Until gSend = True
gSend = False
'Global used for Send button state
'Routine to handle Send button press
'Set Flag to True
'Main code section
'Used to return response
'Temporary character space
'Terminators
'Counter used for Timing out
'Data string sent to instrument
'Show main window
'Terminators are <CR><LF>
'Initialize counter
'Clear return string
'Clear holding string
'Close serial port to change settings
'Example of Comm 1
'Example of 9600 Baud,Parity,Data,Stop
'Read one character at a time
'Open port
'Wait loop
'Give up processor to other events
'Loop until Send button pressed
'Set Flag as false
strCommand = frmSerial.txtCommand.Text
strReturn = ""
'Get Command
'Clear response display
strCommand = UCase(strCommand)
If strCommand = "EXIT" Then
End
End If
'Set all characters to upper case
'Get out on EXIT
frmSerial.MSComm1.Output = strCommand & Term
'Send command to instrument
If InStr(strCommand, "?") <> 0 Then
'Check to see if query
While (ZeroCount < 20) And (strHold <> Chr$(10)) 'Wait for response
If frmSerial.MSComm1.InBufferCount = 0 Then
'Add 1 to timeout if no character
frmSerial.Timer1.Enabled = True
Do
DoEvents
'Wait for 10 millisecond timer
Loop Until frmSerial.Timer1.Enabled = False
ZeroCount = ZeroCount + 1
'Timeout at 2 seconds
Else
ZeroCount = 0
'Reset timeout for each character
strHold = frmSerial.MSComm1.Input
'Read in one character
strReturn = strReturn + strHold
'Add next character to string
End If
Wend
'Get characters until terminators
If strReturn <> "" Then
'Check if string empty
strReturn = Mid(strReturn, 1, InStr(strReturn, Term) – 1) 'Strip terminators
Else
strReturn = "No Response"
'Send No Response
End If
frmSerial.txtResponse.Text = strReturn
'Put response in textbox on main form
strHold = ""
'Reset holding string
ZeroCount = 0
'Reset timeout counter
End If
Loop
End Sub
Private Sub Timer1_Timer()
'Routine to handle Timer interrupt
frmSerial.Timer1.Enabled = False
'Turn off timer
End Sub
Computer Interface Operation
6-17
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.2.3.2
Quick Basic Serial Interface Program Setup
The serial interface program listed in Table 6-7 works with QuickBasic 4.0/4.5 or Qbasic on an IBM PC (or
compatible) running DOS or in a DOS window with a serial interface. It uses the COM1 communication port at
9600 Baud. Use the following procedure to develop the Serial Interface Program in Quick Basic.
1. Start the Basic program.
2. Enter the program exactly as presented in Table 6-7.
3. Adjust the Com port and Baud rate in the program as necessary.
4. Lengthen the "TIMEOUT" count if necessary.
5. Save the program.
6. Run the program.
7. Type a command query as described in Paragraph 6.2.3.3.
8. Type "EXIT" to quit the program.
Table 6-7. Quick Basic Serial Interface Program
CLS
'Clear screen
PRINT " SERIAL COMMUNICATION PROGRAM"
PRINT
TIMEOUT = 2000
'Read timeout (may need more)
BAUD$ = "9600"
TERM$ = CHR$(13) + CHR$(10)
'Terminators are <CR><LF>
OPEN "COM1:" + BAUD$ + ",O,7,1,RS" FOR RANDOM AS #1 LEN = 256
LOOP1: LINE INPUT "ENTER COMMAND (or EXIT):"; CMD$
CMD$ = UCASE$(CMD$)
IF CMD$ = "EXIT" THEN CLOSE #1: END
CMD$ = CMD$ + TERM$
PRINT #1, CMD$;
IF INSTR(CMD$, "?") <> 0 THEN
RS$ = ""
N = 0
'Get command from keyboard
'Change input to upper case
'Get out on Exit
'Send command to instrument
'Test for query
'If query, read response
'Clr return string and count
WHILE (N < TIMEOUT) AND (INSTR(RS$, TERM$) = 0)
IN$ = INPUT$(LOC(1), #1)
'Get
IF IN$ = "" THEN N = N + 1 ELSE N = 0
'Add
RS$ = RS$ + IN$
'Add
WEND
'Get
'Wait for response
one character at a time
1 to timeout if no chr
next chr to string
chrs until terminators
IF RS$ <> "" THEN
'See if return string is empty
RS$ = MID$(RS$, 1, (INSTR(RS$, TERM$) – 1)) 'Strip off terminators
PRINT "RESPONSE:"; RS$
'Print response to query
ELSE
PRINT "NO RESPONSE"
'No response to query
END IF
END IF
'Get next command
GOTO LOOP1
6-18
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.2.3.3
Program Operation
Once either example program is running, try the following commands and observe the response of the
instrument. Input from the user is shown in bold and terminators are added by the program. The word [term]
indicates the required terminators included with the response.
ENTER COMMAND?
+001.000E+01
ENTER COMMAND?
0
ENTER COMMAND?
1
ENTER COMMAND?
0
ENTER COMMAND?
0
ENTER COMMAND?
1
ENTER COMMAND?
Reading Query. Unit returns reading in the form ±XXX.XX.
Decimal point placement appropriate to range.
RNGDC?
DC Range Query. Unit returns appropriate range:
0 = 300 mV·s or 1 = 30 mV·s.
UNITS?
Units Query. Unit an integer from 1 to 11 corresponding to the
units being used. In this example, 1 = V·s.
ACDC?
AC or DC Query. Unit returns appropriate setting:
0 = DC, 1 = AC.
FILT?
Filter Query. Unit returns appropriate setting:
0 = Off, 1 = On.
FILT 1;FILT? Unit turns the filter On then returns a 1 to verify the change.
READ?
Following are additional notes on using either Serial Interface program.
• If you enter a correctly spelled query without a “?,” nothing will be returned. Incorrectly spelled commands
and queries are ignored. Commands and queries should have a space separating the command and
associated parameters.
• Leading zeros and zeros following a decimal point are not needed in a command string, but are sent in
response to a query. A leading “+” is not required but a leading “–” is required.
6.2.4
Troubleshooting
New Installation
1. Check instrument Baud rate.
2. Make sure transmit (TD) signal line from the instrument is routed to receive (RD) on the computer and
vice versa. (Use a null modem adapter if not).
3. Always send terminators.
4. Send entire message string at one time including terminators. (Many terminal emulation programs do
not.)
5. Send only one simple command at a time until communication is established.
6. Be sure to spell commands correctly and use proper syntax.
Old Installation No Longer Working
7. Power instrument off then on again to see if it is a soft failure.
8. Power computer off then on again to see if communication port is locked up.
9. Verify that Baud rate has not been changed on the instrument during a memory reset.
10. Check all cable connections.
Intermittent Lockups
11. Check cable connections and length.
12. Increase delay between all commands to 100 ms to make sure instrument is not being over loaded.
Computer Interface Operation
6-19
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.3
IEEE-488/SERIAL INTERFACE COMMAND SUMMARY
Command
Function
Common Commands
*CLS
*ESE
*ESE?
*ESR?
*IDN?
*OPC
*OPC?
*RST
*SRE
*SRE?
*STB?
*TST?
*WAI
Page
Clear Interface ........................................ 6-21
Set Std. Event Status Enable ................. 6-21
Query Std. Event Status Enable ............. 6-21
Query Std. Event Status Register ........... 6-21
Query Identification ................................ 6-22
Set Operation Complete ......................... 6-22
Query Operation Complete..................... 6-22
Reset Instrument .................................... 6-22
Set Service Request Enable ................... 6-22
Query Service Request Enable .............. 6-22
Query Status Byte .................................. 6-23
Query Self-Test ...................................... 6-23
Wait-To-Continue ................................... 6-23
Interface Commands
ADDR
ADDR?
BAUD
BAUD?
END
END?
MODE
MODE?
TERM
TERM?
Configure IEEE Address......................... 6-23
Query IEEE Address .............................. 6-23
Configure Serial Interface Baud Rate ..... 6-26
Query Serial Interface Baud Rate ........... 6-26
Set EOI Parameter ................................. 6-30
Query EOI Parameter ............................. 6-30
Configure Remote Interface Mode.......... 6-32
Query Remote Interface Mode ............... 6-32
Set Terminating Character ..................... 6-35
Query Terminating Character ................. 6-35
Device Specific Commands
ACDC
ACDC?
ALARM
ALARM?
ALMB
ALMB?
ALMH
ALMH?
ALMIO
ALMIO?
ALML
ALML?
ALMS?
ANOCON
ANOCON?
ANOH
ANOH?
ANOL
ANOL?
ANOM
ANOM?
BRIGT
BRIGT?
CODE
CODE?
COILA
COILA?
COILAN
COILAN?
COILCAL
COILINR
COILINR?
COILKH
6-20
Configure AC/DC Reading Parameter .... 6-23
Query AC/DC Reading Parameter.......... 6-23
Configure Alarm Function Off/On ........... 6-24
Query Alarm Function Off/On ................. 6-24
Configure Audible Alarm Beeper ............ 6-24
Configure Audible Alarm Beeper ............ 6-24
Set Alarm High Point Value .................... 6-24
Query Alarm High Point Value ................ 6-24
Configure Alarm Trigger Outside/Inside . 6-24
Query Alarm Trigger Outside/Inside ....... 6-24
Set Alarm Low Point Value ..................... 6-25
Query Alarm Low Point Value ................ 6-25
Query Alarm Status ................................ 6-25
Set Analog Out Control Value ................ 6-25
Query Analog Out Control Value ............ 6-25
Set Analog Out High Point Value............ 6-25
Query Analog Out High Point Value ....... 6-25
Set Analog Out Low Point Value ............ 6-25
Query Analog Out Low Point Value ........ 6-26
Configure Analog Out Mode ................... 6-26
Query Analog Out Mode ......................... 6-26
Set Front Panel Display Brightness ........ 6-26
Query Front Panel Display Brightness .... 6-26
Set Keyboard Lock Code........................ 6-26
Query Keyboard Lock Code ................... 6-26
Set Coil Area .......................................... 6-27
Query Coil Area ...................................... 6-27
Set Coil Area·Turns ................................ 6-27
Query Coil Area·Turns ........................... 6-27
Initiate Coil Calibration ........................... 6-27
Configure Input Resistance .................... 6-27
Query Input Resistance .......................... 6-27
Set Helmholtz Coil Constant ................... 6-27
Command
Function
COILKH?
COILKP
COILKP?
COILN
COILN?
COILNUM
COILNUM?
COILR
COILR?
COILSAVE
DACCRS
DACCRS?
DACFINE
DACFINE?
DCRES
DCRES?
DFLT 99
DRAUTO
DRTHR
DRTHR?
DRTRAK
DRTRAK?
FILT
FILT?
FNUM
FNUM?
FWIN
FWIN?
KEY?
LOCK
LOCK?
OPTIN?
PCTMUL
PCTMUL?
PCTSET
PEAK
PEAK?
PEAKM
PEAKM?
PKNEG?
PKPOS?
PKRST
PROBE
PROBE?
RDRST
READ?
RELAYH
RELAYH?
RELAYL
RELAYL?
RELAYM
RELAYM?
RNGAC
RNGAC?
RNGDC
RNGDC?
RNGMX?
UNITS
UNITS?
Query Helmholtz Coil Constant ............ 6-28
Set Potential Coil Constant ................... 6-28
Query Potential Coil Constant .............. 6-28
Set Coil Number of Turns ..................... 6-28
Query Coil Number of Turns ................. 6-28
Configure Coil Number Parameter ....... 6-28
Query Coil Number Parameter ............. 6-28
Set Coil Resistance .............................. 6-28
Query Coil Resistance .......................... 6-29
Initiate Coil Save Command ................. 6-29
Set Coarse Drift DAC Value ................. 6-29
Query Coarse Drift DAC Value ............. 6-29
Set Fine Drift DAC Value ...................... 6-29
Query Fine Drift DAC Value.................. 6-29
Set DC Resolution ................................ 6-29
Query DC Resolution............................ 6-29
Set To Factory Defaults ........................ 6-30
Initiate Auto Drift Correction.................. 6-30
Set DriftTrak Threshold Level ............... 6-30
Query DriftTrak Threshold Level ........... 6-30
Configure DriftTrak Function Off/On ..... 6-30
Query DriftTrak Function Off/On ........... 6-30
Configure Filter Function Off/On ........... 6-31
Query Filter Function Off/On................. 6-31
Configure Display Filter Points ............. 6-31
Query Display Filter Points ................... 6-31
Configure Display Filter Window........... 6-31
Query Display Filter Window ................ 6-31
Query Keypad Status ........................... 6-31
Configure Keypad Lock Function .......... 6-31
Query Keypad Lock Function ............... 6-32
Query Optional Input ............................ 6-32
Set Percent Multiplier Constant ............ 6-32
Query Percent Multiplier Constant ........ 6-32
Initiate Set Percent Command .............. 6-32
Configure Peak Hold Function Off/On .. 6-32
Query Peak Hold Function Off/On ........ 6-33
Configure Peak Hold Mode .................. 6-33
Query Peak Hold Mode ........................ 6-33
Query Negative Peak Reading ............. 6-33
Query Positive Peak Reading ............... 6-33
Initiate Peak Reset Command .............. 6-33
Set Probe Serial Number and Date ...... 6-33
Query Probe Serial Number and Date .. 6-33
Initiate Reading Reset Command ......... 6-34
Query Present Display Reading ........... 6-34
Configure High Relay Function ............. 6-34
Query High Relay Function................... 6-34
Configure Low Relay Function.............. 6-34
Query Low Relay Function ................... 6-34
Configure Middle Relay Function .......... 6-34
Query Middle Relay Function ............... 6-34
Configure AC Range Parameter ........... 6-34
Query AC Range Parameter................. 6-35
Configure DC Range Parameter ........... 6-35
Query DC Range Parameter ................ 6-35
Query Maximum Range Value.............. 6-35
Configure Display Units Type ............... 6-35
Query Display Units Type ..................... 6-35
Page
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
6.3.1
Command List Structure
6.3.2
IEEE-488/Serial Interface Commands (Alphabetical Listing)
∗CLS
Clear Interface Command
Input:
*CLS
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Clears the bits in the Status Byte Register and Standard Event Status Register and
terminates all pending operations. Clears the interface, but not the instrument. The
instrument related command is *RST.
∗ESE
Configure Status Reports in the Standard Event Status Register
Input:
*ESE <bit weighting>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Each bit is assigned a bit weighting and represents the enable/disable status of the
corresponding event flag bit in the Standard Event Status Register. To enable an event flag
bit, send the command *ESE with the sum of the bit weighting for each desired bit. Refer to
the *ESR? command for a list of event flags.
Example: To enable event flags 0, 3, 4, and 7, send the command *ESE 143[term]. 143 is the sum of
the bit weighting for each bit.
Bit
0
3
4
7
Bit Weighting
1
8
16
128
143
Event Name
OPC
DDE
EXE
PON
∗ESE?
Query the Configuration of Status Reports in the Standard Event Status Register
Input:
*ESE?
Returned: <ESE bit weighting>. Format: nnn[term].
Remarks: The integer returned represents the sum of the bit weighting of the enable bits in the
Standard Event Status Enable Register. Refer to the *ESR? command for a list of event
flags.
∗ESR?
Query Standard Event Status Register
Input:
*ESR?
Returned: <ESR bit weighting>. Format: nnn[term].
Remarks: Queries for various Model 480 error conditions and status. The integer returned represents
the sum of the bit weighting of the event flag bits in the Standard Event Status Register.
Bit
0
2
3
Bit Weighting
1
4
8
Computer Interface Operation
Event Name
OPC
QYE
DDE
Bit
4
5
7
Bit Weighting
16
32
128
Event Name
EXE
CME
PON
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∗IDN?
Query Identification
Input:
*IDN?
Returned: <manufacturer>, <model number>, <serial number>, <firmware date>
Format: LSCI,MODEL480,aaaaaa,nnnnnn[term].
Remarks: Identifies the instrument model and software level.
∗OPC
Operation Complete Command
Input:
*OPC
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Generates an Operation Complete event in the Event Status Register upon completion of all
pending selected device operations. Send it as the last command in a command string.
∗OPC?
Query Operation Complete
Input:
*OPC?
Returned: 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Places a “1” in the controller output queue upon completion of all pending selected device
operations. Send as the last command in a command string. This is not the same function as
the *OPC command.
∗RST
Reset Instrument
Input:
*RST
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets controller parameters to power-up settings.
∗SRE
Configure Status Reports in the Service Request Enable Register
Input:
*SRE <bit weighting>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Each bit has a bit weighting and represents the enable/disable status of the corresponding
status flag bit in the Status Byte Register. To enable a status flag bit, send the command
*SRE with the sum of the bit weighting for each desired bit. Refer to the *STB? command for
a list of status flags.
Example: To enable status flags 0, 3, 4, and 6, send the command *SRE 89[term]. 89 is the sum of the
bit weighting for each bit.
Bit
0
3
4
6
Bit Weighting
1
8
16
64
89
Event Name
FDR
AAF
OVI
SRQ
∗SRE?
Query the Configuration of Status Reports in the Service Request Enable Register
Input:
*SRE?
Returned: <SRE bit weighting>. Format: nnn[term].
Remarks: The integer returned represents the sum of the bit weighting of the enabled bits in the Service
Request Enable Register. Refer to the *STB? command for a list of status flags.
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∗STB?
Query Status Byte
Input:
*STB?
Returned: <STB bit weighting>. Format: nnn[term].
Remarks: Acts like a serial poll, but does not reset the register to all zeros. The integer returned
represents the sum of the bit weighting of the status flag bits that are set in the Status Byte
Register.
Bit
0
1
2
3
Bit Weighting
1
2
4
8
Event Name
FDR
AAC
ALM
AAF
Bit
4
5
6
Bit Weighting
16
32
64
Event Name
OVI
ESB
SRQ
∗TST?
Query Self-Test
Input:
*TST?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: The Model 480 performs a self-test at power-up. 0 = no errors found, 1 = errors found.
∗WAI
Wait-to-Continue
Input:
*WAI
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Prevents execution of any further commands or queries until completion of all previous ones.
Changing the sample sensor and reading it immediately with a device dependent query may
result in a reading error because the sensor needs time to stabilize. Place a *WAI between
the sensor change and query for a correct reading. Achieve the same results with repeated
queries or using a Service Request, but *WAI is easier.
Send *WAI as the last command in a command string followed by appropriate termination. It
cannot be embedded between other commands.
ACDC
Configure AC or DC Magnetic Field Reading Parameter.
Input:
ACDC <acdc>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the unit for AC or DC measurements. <acdc> specifies mode. 0 = DC, 1 = AC.
ACDC?
Query AC or DC Magnetic Field Reading Parameter.
Input:
ACDC?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the AC or DC measurement mode. 0 = DC, 1 = AC.
ADDR
Configure IEEE Address.
Input:
ADDR <address>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures IEEE address. <address> = an integer from 1 to 30. The Model 480 is factory
preset to 12.
ADDR?
Query IEEE Address.
Input:
ADDR?
Returned: <address>. Format: nn[term].
Remarks: Returns the current IEEE address. The Model 480 is factory preset to 12.
Computer Interface Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
ALARM
Configure Alarm Function Off/On.
Input:
ALARM <off/on>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the alarm function. 0 = Off, 1 = On.
ALARM?
Query Alarm Function Off/On.
Input:
ALARM?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the alarm function. 0 = Off, 1 = On.
ALMB
Configure Audible Alarm Beeper.
Input:
ALMB <off/on>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the audible alarm beeper. 0 = Off, 1 = On.
ALMB?
Query Audible Alarm Beeper.
Input:
ALMB?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries current audible alarm status. 0 = Off, 1 = On.
ALMH
Set Alarm High Point Value.
Input:
ALMH ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the high point of the alarm function. Enter up to 6 digits with decimal point in exponential
form. Place decimal appropriate to range.
ALMH?
Query Alarm High Point Value.
Input:
ALMH?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the high point of the alarm function, up to 6 digits with decimal point in exponential
form.
ALMIO
Configure Alarm Trigger Outside/Inside.
Input:
ALMIO <out/in>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the alarm trigger outside/inside function. 0 = Outside, 1 = Inside. This setting
determines whether readings inside or outside the defined magnetic field range trigger the
alarm.
ALMIO?
Query Alarm Trigger Outside/Inside.
Input:
ALMIO?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the alarm trigger inside/outside function: 0 = Outside, 1 = Inside. This setting
determines whether readings inside or outside the defined magnetic field range trigger the
alarm.
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ALML
Set Alarm Low Point Value.
Input:
ALML ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the low point of the alarm function. Enter up to 6 digits with decimal point in exponential
form. Place decimal appropriate to range.
ALML?
Query Alarm Low Point Value.
Input:
ALML?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the low point of the alarm function, up to 6 digits with decimal point in exponential
form.
ALMS?
Query Alarm Status.
Input:
ALMS?
Returned: <alarming>, <high status>, <low status>. Format: n,n,n[term].
Remarks: Queries alarm status. 0 = Off, no alarm exists; 1 = On, alarm exists.
ANOCON
Set Analog Out Control Value.
Input:
ANOCON ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the percentage of full scale of the analog output in manual mode. Enter up to 6 digits
and a decimal point in exponential form. Valid values are from +100% to -100%.
ANOCON? Query Analog Out Control Value.
Input:
ANOCON?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the percentage of full scale of the analog output in manual mode, up to 6 digits and a
decimal point in exponential form.
ANOH
Set Analog Out High Point Value.
Input:
ANOH ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the high point of the analog out function in user mode. Enter up to 6 digits with decimal
point in exponential form. Place decimal appropriate to range.
ANOH?
Query Analog Out High Point Value.
Input:
ANOH?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the high point of the analog out function in user mode, up to 6 digits with decimal
point in exponential form.
ANOL
Set Analog Out Low Point Value.
Input:
ANOL ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the low point of the analog out function in user mode. Enter up to 6 digits with decimal
point in exponential form. Place decimal appropriate to range.
Computer Interface Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
ANOL?
Query Analog Out Low Point Value.
Input:
ANOL?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the low point of the analog out function in user mode, up to 6 digits with decimal
point in exponential form.
ANOM
Configure Analog Out Mode.
Input:
ANOM <mode>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures analog out mode. 0 = Default, 1 = User, 2 = Manual.
ANOM?
Query Analog Out Mode.
Input:
ANOM?
Returned: 0, 1, or 2. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries analog out mode: 0 = Default, 1 = User, 2 = Manual.
BAUD
Configure Serial Interface Baud Rate.
Input:
BAUD <bps>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the serial interface baud rate. <bps> specifies bits per second (bps) rate. 0 = 300,
1 = 1200, 2 = 9600.
BAUD?
Query Serial Interface Baud Rate.
Input:
BAUD?
Returned: <bps>. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns serial interface baud rate. Refer to BAUD command for parameter descriptions.
BRIGT
Set Front Panel Display Brightness.
Input:
BRIGT <bright>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the front panel display brightness. 0 = 25%, 1=50%, 2=75%, 3=100%. Default = 2.
BRIGT?
Query Front Panel Display Brightness.
Input:
BRIGT?
Returned: 0, 1, 2, or 3. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the front panel display brightness. 0 = 25%, 1=50%, 2=75%, 3=100%. Default = 2.
CODE
Set Front Panel Keyboard Lock Code.
Input:
CODE XXX
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets front panel keyboard lock code: Default = 123. Enter any three numbers.
CODE?
Front Panel Keyboard Lock Code Query.
Input:
CODE?
Returned: XXX
Remarks: Returns the 3 numbers that comprise the front panel keyboard lock code.
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COILA
Set Coil Area.
Input:
COILA ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets coil area for current coil in units of cm2. Enter up to 6 digits and a decimal point in
exponential form.
COILA?
Query Coil Area.
Input:
COILA?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns coil area for current coil in units of cm2. Returns up to 6 digits and a decimal point in
exponential form.
COILAN
Set Coil Area·Turns.
Input:
COILAN ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets coil area·turns for current coil in units of cm2. Enter up to 6 digits and a decimal point in
exponential form.
COILAN?
Query Coil Area·Turns.
Input:
COILAN?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns coil area·turns for current coil in units of cm2. Returns up to 6 digits and a decimal
point in exponential form.
COILCAL
Initiate Coil Calibration.
Input:
COILCAL ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Calibrates the attached coil using the currently measured field. This command only works in
units of Vφ, Wbφ, Mxφ, T, G, Wb·cm, or A. The number part of the command is the value of
the known field that is being used to calibrate the coil. The coil must be in the field when the
command is issued.
COILINR
Configure Input Resistance.
Input:
COILINR <resistance>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the input resistance. 0 = 0Ω input, 1 = 10kΩ input, 2 = 100kΩ input.
COILINR?
Query Input Resistance.
Input:
COILINR?
Returned: 0, 1, or 2. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the input resistance. 0 = 0Ω input, 1 = 10kΩ input, 2 = 100kΩ input.
COILKH
Set Helmholtz Coil Constant.
Input:
COILKH ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets Helmholtz coil constant for current coil in units of cm. Enter up to 6 digits and a decimal
point in exponential form.
Computer Interface Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
COILKH?
Query Helmholtz Coil Constant.
Input:
COILKH?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns Helmholtz coil constant for current coil in units of cm. Returns up to 6 digits and a
decimal point in exponential form.
COILKP
Set Potential Coil Constant.
Input:
COILKP ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets potential coil constant for current coil in units of A/V·s. Enter up to 6 digits and a decimal
point in exponential form.
COILKP?
Query Potential Coil Constant.
Input:
COILKP?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns potential coil constant for current coil in units of A/V·s. Returns up to 6 digits and a
decimal point in exponential form.
COILN
Set Coil Number Of Turns.
Input:
COILN ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets number of turns for current coil in units of turns. Enter up to 6 digits and a decimal point
in exponential form.
COILN?
Query Coil Number Of Turns.
Input:
COILN?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns number of turns for current coil in units of turns. Returns up to 6 digits and a decimal
point in exponential form.
COILNUM
Configure Coil Number Parameter.
Input:
COILNUM <coil number>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures unit for a set of stored coil parameters. 1 - 10 = internally stored coil parameters,
11 = probe data.
COILNUM? Query Coil Number Parameter.
Input:
COILNUM?
Returned: An integer from 0 to 11. Format: nn[term].
Remarks: Returns the number of the coil parameters currently loaded. 0 = user coil (modified coil), 1 10 = internally stored coil parameters, 11 = probe data.
COILR
Set Coil Resistance.
Input:
COILR ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets coil resistance for current coil in units of ohms (Ω). This is the DC resistance of the coil
itself. Enter up to 6 digits and a decimal point in exponential form.
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COILR?
Query Coil Resistance.
Input:
COILR?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns coil resistance for current coil in units of ohms (Ω). This is the DC resistance of the
coil itself. Returns up to 6 digits and a decimal point in exponential form.
COILSAVE Initiate Coil Save Command.
Input:
COILSAVE <coil number>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Saves the current coil parameters to a coil location. 1 - 10 = internally stored coil parameters,
11 = probe data. Any previous information in the coil location will be overwritten. A probe with
a PROM attachment (Lake Shore Part Number FCBL-6) is required to write to probe data
(coil number 11).
DACCRS
Set Coarse Drift Adjustment DAC Value.
Input:
DACCRS ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the percentage of full scale of the coarse drift adjustment DAC. Enter up to 6 digits and
a decimal point in exponential form. Valid values are from +100% to -100%.
DACCRS?
Query Coarse Drift Adjustment DAC Value.
Input:
DACCRS?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the percentage of full scale of the coarse drift adjustment DAC, up to 6 digits and a
decimal point in exponential form.
DACFINE
Set Fine Drift Adjustment DAC Value.
Input:
DACFINE ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the percentage of full scale of the fine drift adjustment DAC. Enter up to 6 digits and a
decimal point in exponential form. Valid values are from +100% to -100%.
DACFINE? Query Fine Drift Adjustment DAC Value.
Input:
DACFINE?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the percentage of full scale of the fine drift adjustment DAC, up to 6 digits and a
decimal point in exponential form.
DCRES
Set DC Resolution High/Low
Input:
DCRES
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the DC Resolution of the unit, where 0 = 5¾ digits and 1 = 4¾ digits.
DCRES?
Query DC Resolution High/Low
Input:
DCRES?
Returned: 0, or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the DC Resolution of the unit, where 0 = 5¾ digits and 1 = 4¾ digits.
Computer Interface Operation
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Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
DFLT 99
Set To Factory Defaults.
Input:
DFLT 99
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Used to reset the instrument to default values and to clear the user-entered coil parameters.
Does not clear instrument calibration.
DRAUTO
Initiate Auto Drift Correction.
Input:
DRAUTO
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Starts an Auto Drift Correction. Sets Fine DAC to 0 and adjusts Coarse DAC. This process
takes approximately 25 seconds to complete.
DRTHR
Set DriftTrak Threshold Level.
Input:
DRTHR nnnn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the threshold level of the DriftTrak function. This is the rate of change that will cause the
DriftTrak function to stop adjusting the DACs. Too small a value and DriftTrak will never
engage. Too large a value and DriftTrak will mistake a measurement signal for drift. The
number is a 4-digit integer and the units are µV·s/min. The default setting is 200 µV·s/min.
DRTHR?
Query DriftTrak Threshold Level.
Input:
DRTHR?
Returned: nnnn
Remarks: Queries the threshold level of the DriftTrak function. This is the rate of change that will cause
the DriftTrak function to stop adjusting the DACs. The number returned is a 4-digit integer
and is the units of µV·s/min.
DRTRAK
Configure DriftTrak Function Off/On.
Input:
DRTRAK <off/on>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the DriftTrak function. 0 = Off, 1 = On. The DriftTrak function continuously adjusts
the drift correction DACs when the instrument is not taking a measurement to minimize drift.
DRTRAK?
Query DriftTrak Function Off/On.
Input:
DRTRAK?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the DriftTrak function. 0 = Off, 1 = On.
END
Set End Or Identify (EOI) Parameter.
Input:
END <EOI enable>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the EOI parameter. <EOI enable> enables/disables EOI, 0 = enabled, 1 = disabled.
When enabled, the hardware EOI line becomes active with the last byte of a transfer. The
EOI identifies the last byte allowing for variable length data transmissions.
END?
Query End Or Identify (EOI) Parameter.
Input:
END?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns EOI parameter. 0 = EOI enabled, 1 = EOI disabled.
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FILT
Configure Display Filter Function Off/On.
Input:
FILT <off/on>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the display filter function. 0 = Off, 1 = On. Quiets the display reading by a degree
depending on the points (FNUM) and window (FWIN) settings.
FILT?
Query Display Filter Function Off/On.
Input:
FILT?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the display filter function. 0 = Off, 1 = On. Quiets the display reading by a degree
depending on the points (FNUM) and window (FWIN) settings.
FNUM
Configure Display Filter Points.
Input:
FNUM <points>
Returned: Nothing
Remarks: Configures the display filter points: <points> = integers 2 thru 64. In general, the higher the
number, the longer the display settle time.
FNUM?
Query Display Filter Points.
Input:
FNUM?
Returned: <points>. Format: nn[term].
Remarks: Queries the display filter points. <points> = integers 2 thru 64. In general, the higher the
number, the longer the display settle time.
FWIN
Configure Display Filter Window.
Input:
FWIN <window>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the display filter window. <window> = 1% thru 10%. The smaller the percentage,
the smaller the change in reading that causes the filter to restart. Refer to Paragraph 5.12.
FWIN?
Query Display Filter Window.
Input:
FWIN?
Returned: <window>. Format: nn[term].
Remarks: Queries the display filter window. <window> = 1% thru 10%. The smaller the percentage, the
smaller the change in reading that causes the filter to restart. Refer to Paragraph 5.12.
KEY?
Query Keypad Status.
Input:
KEY?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries if a key was pressed or power was cycled since the last KEY? query. 0 = no key
pressed, 1 = key pressed.
LOCK
Configure Front Panel Keypad Lock Function.
Input:
LOCK <off/on>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the front panel keypad lock function. 0 = Unlocked, 1 = Locked.
Computer Interface Operation
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LOCK?
Query Front Panel Keypad Lock Function.
Input:
LOCK?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the front panel keypad lock function. 0 = Unlocked, 1 = Locked.
MODE
Configure Remote Interface Mode.
Input:
MODE <mode>.
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the remote interface mode. <mode> specifies which mode to operate. 0 = local,
1 = remote, 2 = remote with local lockout. Press the front panel Local key to set the Model
480 to local provided the key has not been disabled by local lockout. The Model 480 powers
up in local mode.
MODE?
Query Remote Interface Mode.
Input:
MODE?
Returned: <mode>. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the remote interface mode. 0 = local, 1 = remote, 2 = remote with local lockout.
OPTIN?
Query Optional Input.
Input:
OPTIN?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the optional input on the rear panel. 0 = open or logic high, 1 = shorted or logic low.
PCTMUL
Set Percent Multiplier Constant.
Input:
PCTMUL ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the percent multiplier used to calculate units of percent. Enter up to 6 digits and a
decimal point in exponential form.
PCTMUL?
Query Percent Multiplier Constant.
Input:
PCTMUL?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the percent multiplier constant used to calculate units of percent. Returns up to
6 digits and a decimal point in exponential form.
PCTSET
Initiate Set Percent Command.
Input:
PCTSET ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Recalculates a percent multiplier for the currently measured field. The number part of the
command is the desired reading value of the current field. The coil must be in the field when
the command is issued.
Example: PCTSET 50.00[term]: Equates a display of 50% with the current reading. Anytime the
reading equals the current reading, a value of 50% displays.
PEAK
Configure Peak Hold Function Off/On.
Input:
PEAK <off/on>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the peak hold function. 0 = Normal reading, 1 = Peak hold.
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PEAK?
Query Peak Hold Function Off/On.
Input:
PEAK?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the peak hold function. 0 = Normal reading, 1 = Peak hold.
PEAKM
Configure Peak Hold Mode.
Input:
PEAKM <mode>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the peak hold mode. 0 = Positive peak, 1 = Negative peak, 2 = Both positive and
negative peaks. Capturing both peaks decreases sampling frequency by a factor of 4.
PEAKM?
Query Peak Hold Mode.
Input:
PEAKM?
Returned: 0, 1, or 2. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Queries the peak hold mode. 0 = Positive peak, 1 = Negative peak, 2 = Both positive and
negative peaks. Capturing both peaks decreases sampling frequency by a factor of 4.
PKNEG?
Query Negative Peak Reading.
Input:
PKNEG?
Returned: ±nn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns current negative peak reading in exponential form in the currently selected units.
PKPOS?
Query Positive Peak Reading.
Input:
PKPOS?
Returned: ±nn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns current positive peak reading in exponential form in the currently selected units.
PKRST
Initiate Peak Reset Command.
Input:
PKRST
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Resets the peak hold circuit and the peak hold values.
PROBE
Set Probe Serial Number and Date.
Input:
PROBE <serial number>,<date>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the serial number and date for the attached probe. A probe with a PROM attachment
(Lake Shore part #FCBL-6) is required for this function. Enter up to 10 characters for a serial
number and enter a date in the form mmddyyyy (month, day, year). This command does not
save the information to the probe itself. The COILSAVE command must be used to save the
serial number, date, and coil parameters to the probe.
Example: PROBE User 5,12291998 sets the serial number to User 5 and the date to 12/29/1998.
PROBE?
Query Probe Serial Number and Date.
Input:
PROBE?
Returned: <serial number>,<date>. Format: aaaaaaaaaa,nnnnnnnn.
Remarks: Returns the serial number and date for the probe attached during power up. If a new probe is
attached, cycle the power to load new probe data. A probe with a PROM attachment (Lake
Shore part #FCBL-6) or a Lake Shore probe is required for this function. Returns 10
characters for a serial number and returns a date in the form mmddyyyy (month, day, year).
Computer Interface Operation
6-33
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
RDRST
Initiate Reading Reset Command.
Input:
RDRST
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: In DC mode, resets the reading of the unit to zero. Does not function in AC mode.
READ?
Query Present Display Reading.
Input:
READ?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the present reading in exponential form in the currently selected units.
RELAYH
Configure High Relay Function.
Input:
RELAYH <mode>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the high relay function. 0 = Manual Off, 1 = Manual On, 2 = Automatic.
RELAYH?
Query High Relay Function.
Input:
RELAYH?
Returned: 0, 1, or 2. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the high relay function. 0 = Manual Off, 1 = Manual On, 2 = Automatic.
RELAYL
Configure Low Relay Function.
Input:
RELAYL <mode>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the low relay function. 0 = Manual Off, 1 = Manual On, 2 = Automatic.
RELAYL?
Query Low Relay Function.
Input:
RELAYL?
Returned: 0, 1, or 2. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the low relay function. 0 = Manual Off, 1 = Manual On, 2 = Automatic.
RELAYM
Configure Middle Relay Function.
Input:
RELAYM <mode>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the middle relay function. 0 = Manual Off, 1 = Manual On, 2 = Automatic.
RELAYM?
Query Middle Relay Function.
Input:
RELAYM?
Returned: 0, 1, or 2. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the middle relay function. 0 = Manual Off, 1 = Manual On, 2 = Automatic.
RNGAC
Configure AC Range Parameter.
Input:
RNGAC <range>
Returned: Nothing
Remarks: Configures the Model 480 AC range. 0 = 30 mV·s, 1 = 3 mV·s, 2 = 300 µV·s, 3 = 30 µV·s.
6-34
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
RNGAC?
Query AC Range Parameter.
Input:
RNGAC?
Returned: An integer from 0 to 3. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the Model 480 AC range. 0 = 30 mV·s, 1 = 3 mV·s, 2 = 300 µV·s, 3 = 30 µV·s.
RNGDC
Configure DC Range Parameter.
Input:
RNGDC <range>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the Model 480 DC range. 0 = 300 mV·s, 1 = 30 mV·s.
RNGDC?
Query DC Range Parameter.
Input:
RNGDC?
Returned: 0 or 1. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the Model 480 DC range. 0 = 300 mV·s, 1 = 30 mV·s.
RNGMX?
Query Maximum Range Value.
Input:
RNGMX?
Returned: ±nnn.nnnE±nn
Remarks: Returns the maximum range in the currently selected units. This is the maximum reading the
unit can handle on the current range setting.
TERM
Set Terminating Character.
Input:
TERM <terminator>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Sets the IEEE-488 terminating character type. <terminator> specifies the terminator. 0 =
(CR)(LF), 1 = (LF)(CR), 2 = (LF), 3 = No terminators. Terminating characters are sent when
the Model 480 completes its message transfer on output. They also identify the end of an
input message. This command works only with the IEEE-488 Interface and does not change
the serial terminators.
TERM?
Query Terminating Character.
Input:
TERM?
Returned: 0, 1, 2, or 3. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns the IEEE-488 terminating character type: 0 = (CR)(LF), 1 = (LF)(CR), 2 = (LF), 3 =
No terminators.
UNITS
Configure Display Units Type.
Input:
UNITS <unit number>
Returned: Nothing.
Remarks: Configures the Model 480 to the units listed below.
1 = V·s (Flux turns)
2 = MxN (Flux turns)
3 = WbN (Flux turns)
4 = V·sφ (Flux)
UNITS?
5 = Wbφ (Flux)
6 = Mxφ (Flux)
7 = T (Flux density)
8 = G (Flux density)
9 = % (Percent)
10 = Wb·cm (Magnetic Moment)
11 = A (Magnetic Potential)
Query Display Units Type.
Input:
UNITS?
Returned: An integer from 1 to 11. Format: n[term].
Remarks: Returns current units number. Refer to UNITS command for unit number representations.
Computer Interface Operation
6-35
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
6-36
Computer Interface Operation
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 7
ACCESSORIES, COILS, AND PROBES
7.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides information the various accessories, coils, and probes available for the Lake
Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter. Accessories are described in Paragraph 7.1, field measuring probes in
Paragraph 7.2, Helmholtz coils in Paragraph 7.3, and reference magnets in Paragraph 7.4.
In many cases, Users may mate existing coils and fixtures to the Model 480 Fluxmeter rather than
having to purchase new items from Lake Shore. Interfacing is made easy with the simple software
functions available.
For those lacking time or technical expertise to make their own coils, Lake Shore offers a line of factorycalibrated coils and probes. Special designs to meet specific applications are also available.
Power configurations—the instrument is configured at the factory for customer-selected power as
follows:
7.1
1
100V-US (NEMA 5-15)
2
120V-US (NEMA 5-15)
3
220V-EU (CEE 7/7)
4
240V-EU (CEE 7/7)
5
240V-UK (BS 1363)
6
240V-Swiss (SEV 1011)
7
220V-China (GB 1002)
ACCESSORIES
Accessories are devices that perform a secondary duty as an aid or refinement to the primary unit.
Accessories available for the Model 480 Fluxmeter are listed as follows.
Model Number
106-739
4004
Description
Terminal Block Mating Connector. Eight pin, quantity of two.
IEEE-488 Interface Cable. Connects Model 480 to Customer-supplied computer with
IEEE-488 Interface. Cable is 1 meter (3.3 feet) long.
4030-XX
Probe Stand. This moveable probe stand consists of a 30 mm square post mounted on
a 180 × 130 × 22.5 mm thick base plate. A probe holder is integrated into the stand. The
holder can be moved up or down and fixed at any angle and location along the post. Two
models are available as follows. Consult factory for other post heights.
4030-12
Probe stand with 12 inch tall post and probe holder to accept
3/8-inch diameter probe handle.
4030-24
Probe stand with 24 inch tall post and probe holder to accept
3/8-inch diameter probe handle.
FCBL-6
User Programmable Coil Interconnect Cable. Has an internal PROM that is
programmable from the Model 480 front panel. 1.8 meters (6 feet) long. Refer to
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
7-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Paragraph 3.5 for installation. Refer to Paragraph 5.6.2 for programming.
FH-XX
Helmholtz Coils. Three coils are available as follows. Refer to Paragraph 7.3.
FH-2.5 Helmholtz Coil, 2.5-inch inner diameter, coil resistance: ≈35 Ω. See Figure 7-3.
FH-6
Helmholtz Coil, 6-inch inner diameter, coil resistance: ≈110 Ω. See Figure 7-4.
FH-12 Helmholtz Coil, 12-inch inner diameter, coil resistance: ≈140 Ω. See Figure 7-5.
FNT-6R04-100
Field Probe – 100 cm2 Area-turns. Refer to Paragraph 7.2.1 and see Figure 7-1.
FNT-5R04-30
Field Probe – 30 cm2 Area-turns. Refer to Paragraph 7.2.2 and see Figure 7-2.
MAN-480
Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual.
MRA-XXX
MRT-XXX
Reference Magnets. High-quality reference magnets are available in transverse (flat)
and axial (round) configurations. Refer to Paragraph 7.4 and see Figure 7-6.
MRA-312-100 Axial Reference Magnet: 0.312 inch inside diameter, 100 G, 1%
MRA-312-200 Axial Reference Magnet: 0.312 inch inside diameter, 200 G, 1%
MRA-312-300 Axial Reference Magnet: 0.312 inch inside diameter, 300 G, 1%
MRA-312-500 Axial Reference Magnet: 0.312 inch inside diameter, 500 G, 1%
MRA-312-1K
Axial Reference Magnet: 0.312 inch inside diameter, 1 kG, 1%
MRA-312-2K
Axial Reference Magnet: 0.312 inch inside diameter, 2 kG, 1%
MRT-062-200
Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.062 inch gap, 200 G, 1%
MRT-062-500
Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.062 inch gap, 500 G, 1%
MRT-062-1K
Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.062 inch gap, 1 kG, 0.5%
MRT-062-2K
Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.062 inch gap, 2 kG, 0.5%
MRT-062-5K
Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.062 inch gap, 5 kG, 0.5%
MRT-062-10K Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.062 inch gap, 10 kG, 5%
MRT-343-50
Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.343 inch gap, 50 G, 1%
MRT-343-100
Transverse Reference Magnet: 0.343 inch gap, 100 G, 1%
RM-1/2
Half-Rack Mounting Kit for One Model 480 Fluxmeter. Half-length mounting panel
and mounting ears to attach one Model 480 Fluxmeter to a 483 mm (19-inch) rack
mount space. See Figure 7-7.
RM-2
Dual Mounting Shelf for Two Model 480 Fluxmeters. Mounting panel and mounting
ears to attach two Model 480 Fluxmeters to a 483 mm (19-inch) rack mount space.
See Figure 7-8.
7-2
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
7.2
FIELD MEASURING PROBES
Lake Shore offers two standard field measuring probes. Check Lake Shore brochures or our website for
recent additions to this line.
Probes are accurately calibrated using field standards maintained at Lake Shore. Most standards are
traceable to physical standards such as carefully controlled dimensions, or sometimes, proton
resonance. Probes are calibrated for use in flux or flux density units. Pertinent calibration information
including number of turns, effective area, and resistance are stored in a PROM located in the probe
connector. Users need only attach the probe to the fluxmeter, turn on the instrument, set the range, and
re-set the zero before taking readings. No manual input of coil parameters is necessary.
7.2.1
100 cm2 Field Probe
For years, the most common field probe had 100 cm2 area-turns. Specifications are defined as
follows. See Figure 7-1.
Area-Turns (approx.)
100 cm2
Coil Resistance (approx.)
6.5 Ω
Average Coil Diameter
1.04 cm
Frequency Range
10 kHz
Operating Temp. Range
10 to 40 °C
Input Resistance
DC Ranges
10 kΩ
30 mVs (3 tesla)
3 mVs (300 mT)
100 kΩ
300 mVs (30
tesla)
30 mVs (3 tesla)
F-480-7-1.eps
2
Figure 7-1. 100 cm Field Probe
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
7-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
7.2.2
30 cm2 Field Probe
For measurements in narrow gaps or where field gradients dictate the use of a smaller coil diameter,
Lake Shore offers the 30cm2 field probe. Specifications are defined in as follows. See Figure 7-2.
Area-Turns (approx.)
30 cm2
Coil Resistance (approx.)
110 Ω
Average Coil Diameter
0.39 cm
Frequency Range
10 kHz
Operating Temp. Range
10 to 40 °C
Input Resistance (suggested)
100 kΩ
300mVs (100 T)
30mVs (10 T)
DC Ranges
F-480-7-2.eps
Figure 7-2. 30 cm2 Field Probe
7-4
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
7.3
HELMHOLTZ COILS
Lake Shore offers three Helmholtz coils: 2.5-, 6-, and 12-inch diameter. Check the latest Lake Shore
brochures or our website for any recent additions to this line. These coils are accurately calibrated
using field standards maintained at Lake Shore. Most standards are traceable to physical standards
such as a coil of carefully controlled dimensions, or in some cases, to proton resonance. The coil
constants are measured on the basis of the field generated by a current through the coil.
Users may connect to the Model 480 Fluxmeter with their own cable or a special Lake Shore cable.
A user-supplied cable connects directly to the banana plugs on the Helmholtz and the back of the
instrument, and the user must manually input the necessary coil parameters (listed on the label) into the
fluxmeter using the Coil Setup key.
Lake Shore supplies a special cable with all factory-calibrated Helmholtz coils. This cable attaches
between the coil banana terminals and the D-connector on the rear panel of the Model 480. Helmholtz
coils are calibrated for use in Wb·cm units. Pertinent calibration information including the calibration
constant and resistance are stored in Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) located in the cable
connector. Users need only attach the coil to the Model 480 Fluxmeter, turn on the instrument, set the
range, and reset the zero before taking readings. No manual input of coil parameters is necessary.
CAUTION: Each cable is usable only with a specific coil.
When users supply the connecting cable, the input resistance listed is only suggested. However, when
a Lake Shore cable containing the pre-programmed PROM is used, the input channel indicated is the
preferred channel for that coil and that channel will automatically be selected when the PROM data is
loaded.
Model Number
Inside Diameter
Coil Resistance (Approx.)
FH-2.5
2.5 inches
35 Ω
FH-6
6 inches
110 Ω
FH-12
12 inches
140 Ω
0.013 Wb·cm/V·s
10 kΩ
100 kΩ
390 µWb·cm 3.9 mWb·cm
39 µWb·cm
390 µWb·cm
10 to 40 °C
0.016 Wb·cm/V·s
10 kΩ
100 kΩ
480 µWb·cm 4.8 mWb·cm
48 µWb·cm
480 µWb·cm
0.047 Wb·cm/V·s
10 kΩ
100 kΩ
1.4 mWb·cm 14 mWb·cm
140 µWb·cm 1.4 mWb·cm
Operating Temp. Range
Coil Constant
Input Resistance
Ranges (Approx)
P-480-7-3.bmp
Figure 7-3. Model FH-2.5 Helmholtz Coil
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
7-5
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
P-480-7-4.bmp
Figure 7-4. Model FH-6 Helmholtz Coil
P-480-7-5.bmp
Figure 7-5. Model FH-12 Helmholtz Coil
7-6
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
7.4
REFERENCE MAGNETS
Magnetic reference standards containing highly stable permanent magnets have been in use for many
years. The highest quality units are usually shielded from external magnetic effects and use Alnico V or
VI magnets for long-term stability. They are supplied in both transverse (flat) and axial configurations.
Typical flat reference magnets are usually stabilized for use at ambient temperatures between 0 – 50
°C and have nominal temperature coefficients of about –0.02%/°C. Because the temperature coefficient
is negative, the field strength will be reduced as the temperature rises. Since these references are
temperature cycled during manufacture, their change with temperature is predictable and retraceable;
they will always return to a known value at any specific ambient temperature.
The high-permeability shell which surrounds the reference magnet serves two function: (1) it shields the
magnet from external field, and (2) serves as the flux return path. Physical damage to the outer shell
can cause a permanent change in the gap flux density. Reference magnets should not be dropped or
physically abused. Magnets of this type can have magnetic reference values ranging from 100 G to
20 kG, but the most widely-used value is 1 kG. Reference magnets accuracy is typically ±0.5%, except
for magnets of 200 G or less; for these magnets, the limit of error is generally ±1%. The reference
magnet gap is nominally 0.060 inch but may range from 0.040 to 0.250 inch for special units. The
usable “plateau” in the reference gap generally encompasses an area of about 0.5 square inches.
In reference magnets used for axial field probes, Alnico V or VI is the usual magnet material, charged to
saturation and stabilized down to a particular value. The same temperature coefficients hold true as in
the transverse probe and the same care in handling must be observed. This assembly uses concentric
mu-metal shield cans to protect the magnet from the effects of external magnetic field. Axial reference
magnets are available in values up to 1 kG, with 500 G being the most widely-used value.
When a probe is inserted completely through the access guide, three distinct magnetic peaks will be
observed on the gaussmeter. One peak occurs as the probe enters the magnet, a second (and greater)
peak is observed as the midpoint is reached, and a third (smaller) peak is read as the probe leaves the
magnet. The calibration point is the largest reading in the midpoint area. Its amplitude will be
approximately twice that of the readings that occur where the probe enters or leaves the magnet.
P-480-7-6.bmp
Figure 7-6. Lake Shore Reference Magnets
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
7-7
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
C-480-7-7.eps
Figure 7-7. Model RM-1/2 Half-Rack Mounting Kit
C-480-7-8.eps
Figure 7-8. Model RM-2 Dual Rack-Mount Shelf
7-8
Accessories, Coils, and Probes
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
CHAPTER 8
SERVICE AND CALIBRATION
8.0
GENERAL
This chapter provides general service and calibration information for the Lake Shore Model 480
Fluxmeter. General maintenance precautions are described in Paragraph 8.1, electrostatic discharge
in Paragraph 8.2, line voltage selection in Paragraph 8.3, fuse replacement in Paragraph 8.4, rear
panel connector definitions in Paragraph 8.5, top of enclosure remove and replace procedure in
Paragraph 8.6, EPROM replacement in Paragraph 8.7, error messages in Paragraph 8.8, and
calibration in Paragraph 8.9.
There are no field serviceable parts inside the Model 480. Contact Lake Shore about specific problems
with the Model 480.
8.1
GENERAL MAINTENANCE PRECAUTIONS
Below are general safety precautions unrelated to any other procedure in this publication. These are
recommended precautions that personnel should understand and apply during the maintenance phase.
Keep away from live circuits. Installation personnel shall observe all safety regulations at all times. Turn
off system power before making or breaking electrical connections. Regard any exposed connector,
terminal board, or circuit board as a possible shock hazard. Discharge charged components only when
such grounding results in no equipment damage. If a test connection to energized equipment is
required, make the test equipment ground connection before probing the voltage or signal to be tested.
Do not install or service equipment alone. Do not reach into or adjust the equipment without having
another person nearby capable of rendering aid.
If there is no power, verify the power cord is plugged into a live outlet and that both ends are securely
plugged in. Next, check the fuse (see Paragraph 3.3.1.1).
Use this procedure to periodically clean the Model 480 to remove dust, grease, and other contaminants:
1. Clean front and back panels and case with soft cloth dampened with a mild detergent and water
solution.
NOTE: Do not use aromatic hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents to clean the Model 480. They may
react with the plastic materials used in the controller or the silk screen printing on the back
panel.
2. Clean the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs) with clean, dry air at low pressure.
8.2
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) may damage electronic parts, assemblies, and equipment. ESD is a
transfer of electrostatic charge between bodies at different electrostatic potentials caused by direct
contact or induced by an electrostatic field. The low-energy source that most commonly destroys
Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive (ESDS) devices is the human body, which generates and retains
static electricity. Simply walking across a carpet in low humidity may generate up to 35,000 volts of
static electricity.
Current technology trends toward greater complexity, increased packaging density, and thinner
dielectrics between active elements, which results in electronic devices with even more ESD sensitivity.
Some electronic parts are more ESDS than others. ESD levels of only a few hundred volts may
damage electronic components such as semiconductors, thick and thin film resistors, and piezoelectric
crystals during testing, handling, repair, or assembly. Discharge voltages below 4000 volts cannot be
seen, felt, or heard.
Service and Calibration
8-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.2.1
Identification of Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive Components
Below are various industry symbols used to label components as ESDS:
8.2.2
Handling Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive Components
Observe all precautions necessary to prevent damage to ESDS components before attempting
installation. Bring the device and everything that contacts it to ground potential by providing a
conductive surface and discharge paths. As a minimum, observe these precautions:
1. De-energize or disconnect all power and signal sources and loads used with unit.
2. Place unit on a grounded conductive work surface.
3. Ground technician through a conductive wrist strap (or other device) using 1 MΩ series resistor to
protect operator.
4. Ground any tools, such as soldering equipment, that will contact unit. Contact with operator's
hands provides a sufficient ground for tools that are otherwise electrically isolated.
5. Place ESDS devices and assemblies removed from a unit on a conductive work surface or in a
conductive container. An operator inserting or removing a device or assembly from a container
must maintain contact with a conductive portion of the container. Use only plastic bags approved
for storage of ESD material.
6. Do not handle ESDS devices unnecessarily or remove from the packages until actually used or
tested.
8.3
LINE VOLTAGE SELECTION
Use the following procedure to change the instrument line voltage selector. Verify the fuse value
whenever line voltage is changed.
WARNING: To avoid potentially lethal shocks, turn off controller and disconnect it from AC
power before performing these procedures.
1. Identify the line input assembly on the instrument rear panel. See Figure 8-1.
2. Turn the line power switch OFF (O).
3. Remove the instrument power cord.
4. With a small screwdriver, release the drawer holding the line voltage selector and fuse.
5. Slide out the removable plastic fuse holder from the drawer.
6. Rotate the fuse holder until the proper voltage indicator shows through the window.
7. Verify the proper fuse value.
8. Re-assemble the line input assembly in the reverse order.
9. Verify the voltage indicator in the window of the line input assembly.
10. Connect the instrument power cord.
11. Turn the line power switch On (l).
8-2
Service and Calibration
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
F-480-8-1.eps
Figure 8-1. Power Fuse Access
8.4
FUSE REPLACEMENT
Below is the procedure to remove and replace a line fuse. There are two basic power configurations:
U.S. and International. Units produced for use in the U.S. have a single fuse on the hot. Units produced
for International use have a double fuse for the hot and neutral. To change line input from the factory
setting, use the appropriate fuse in the connector kit shipped with the instrument. Test fuse with
ohmmeter. Do not rely on visual inspection of fuse.
WARNING: To avoid potentially lethal shocks, turn off controller and disconnect it from AC
power before performing these procedures.
CAUTION: For continued protection against fire hazard, replace only with the same fuse type and
rating specified for the line for the line voltage selected.
1. Locate line input assembly on the instrument rear panel. See Figure 8-1.
2. Turn power switch Off (O).
3. Remove instrument power cord.
4. With a small screwdriver, release the drawer holding the line voltage selector and fuse.
5. Remove existing fuse(s). Replace with proper Slow-Blow fuse ratings as follows:
100/120 V
0.25 A T 250 V
0.25 × 1.25 inches
220/240 V
0.200 A T 250 V
5 × 20 mm
6. Re-assemble line input assembly in reverse order.
7. Verify voltage indicator in the line input assembly window.
8. Connect instrument power cord.
9. Turn power switch On (l).
Service and Calibration
8-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.5
REAR PANEL CONNECTOR DEFINITIONS
The connectors on the rear panel of the Model 480 Fluxmeter are detailed in Figures 8-2 thru 8-6.
Additional details for the IEEE-488 connector and various external serial cables are provided in
Paragraphs 8.5 1 and 8.5.2 respectively.
C-480-8-2.wmf
PIN
HI
LO
DESCRIPTION
+Input = Red Banana Jack
–Input = Black Banana Jack
Figure 8-2. COIL INPUT Connector Details
PROBEINPUT
8
7
15
6
14
5
13
4
12
3
11
2
10
1
9
C-480-8-3.cvs
PIN
DESCRIPTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Probe Coil Input Hi (Analog Signal)
No Connection
No Connection
No Connection
No Connection
No Connection
No Connection
No Connection
Probe Coil Input Lo (Analog Signal Ground)
No Connection
Digital Ground
+5 Volts (Power Output To Probe EEPROM)
EECLK (Output To Probe EEPROM)
EEDATA (Serial Input From Probe EEPROM)
No Connection
Figure 8-3. PROBE INPUT Connector Details
8-4
Service and Calibration
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
C-480-8-4.eps
PIN
DESCRIPTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
High Alarm N.O.
High Alarm Common
High Alarm N.C.
Low Alarm N.O.
Low Alarm Common
Low Alarm N.C.
Monitor Output – Signal
Monitor Output – Ground
Middle Alarm N.O.
Middle Alarm Common
Middle Alarm N.C.
External Reset
Ground for Ext. Reset or Optional Input
Optional Input
Corrected Output – Signal
Corrected Output – Ground
Figure 8-4. Relays and Analog Signals Terminal Block
F-480-8-5.eps
Model 480 Fluxmeter
DE-9P
Computers and Printers
DB-25P
DE-9P
Pin
Description
Pin
Description
Pin
Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
No Connection
Receive Data (RD in)
Transmit Data (TD out)
Data Terminal Ready (DTR out)
Ground (GND)
Data Set Ready (DSR in)
Data Terminal Ready (DTR out) (tied to 4)
No Connection
No Connection
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
20
22
TD (out)
RD (in)
RTS (out)
CTS (in)
DSR (in)
GND
DCD (in)
DTR (out)
Ring in (in)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
DCD (in)
RD (in)
TD (out)
DTR (out)
GND
DSR (in)
RTS (out)
CTS (in)
Ring in (in)
Figure 8-5. SERIAL I/O Connector Details
Service and Calibration
8-5
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.5.1
Serial Interface Cable Wiring
The following are suggested cable wiring diagrams for connecting the Model 480 Serial Interface to
various Customer Personal Computers (PCs).
Model 480 to PC Serial Interface – PC with DE-9P
Model 480 DE-9P
Standard Null-Modem Cable (DE-9S to DE-9S)
5 – GND
2 – RD (in)
3 – TD (out)
4 – DTR (out)
6 – DSR (in)
1 – NC
7 – DTR (tied to 4)
8 – NC
PC DE-9P
5 – GND
3 – TD (out)
2 – RD (in)
6 – DSR (in)
4 – DTR (out)
7 – RTS (out)
8 – CTS (in)
1 – DCD (in)
Model 480 to PC Serial Interface – PC with DB-25P
Model 480 DE-9P
Standard Null-Modem Cable (DE-9S to DB-25S)
5 – GND
2 – RD (in)
3 – TD (out)
1 – NC
7 – DTR (tied to 4)
8 – NC
6 – DSR (in)
4 – DTR (out)
PC DB-25P
7 – GND
2 – TD (out)
3 – RD (in)
4 – RTS (out)
5 – CTS (in)
8 – DCD (in)
20 – DTR (out)
6 – DSR (in)
Model 480 to PC Interface using Null Modem Adapter
Model 480 DE-9P
Null Modem Adapter
5 – GND
2 – RD (in)
3 – TD (out)
1 – NC
6 – DSR (in)
4 – DTR (out)
7 – DTR (tied to 4)
8 – NC
9 – NC
PC DE-9P
5 – GND
3 – TD (out)
2 – RD (in)
4 – DTR (out)
1 – DCD (in)
6 – DSR (in)
8 – CTS (in)
7 – RTS (out)
9 – NC
NOTE: Same as null modem cable design except PC CTS is provided
from the Model 480 on DTR.
8-6
Service and Calibration
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.5.2
IEEE-488 Interface Connector
Connect to the IEEE-488 Interface connector on the Model 480 rear with cables specified in the
IEEE-488-1978 standard document. The cable has 24 conductors with an outer shield. The
connectors are 24-way Amphenol 57 Series (or equivalent) with piggyback receptacles to allow daisychaining in multiple device systems. The connectors are secured in the receptacles by two captive
locking screws with metric threads.
The total length of cable allowed in a system is 2 meters for each device on the bus, or 20 meters
maximum. A system may be composed of up to 15 devices. Figure 8-6 shows the IEEE-488 Interface
connector pin location and signal names as viewed from the Model 480 rear panel.
IEEE-488 INTERFACE
SH1 AH1 T5 L4 SR1 RL1 PP0 DC1 DT0 C0 E1
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
C-480-8-6.cvs
PIN
SYMBOL
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
DIO1
DIO2
DIO3
DIO4
EOI
DAV
NRFD
NDAC
IFC
SRQ
ATN
SHIELD
DIO5
DIO6
DIO7
DIO8
REN
GND 6
GND 7
GND 8
GND 9
GND 10
GND11
GND
DESCRIPTION
Data Input/Output Line 1
Data Input/Output Line 2
Data Input/Output Line 3
Data Input/Output Line 4
End Or Identify
Data Valid
Not Ready For Data
Not Data Accepted
Interface Clear
Service Request
Attention
Cable Shield
Data Input/Output Line 5
Data Input/Output Line 6
Data Input/Output Line 7
Data Input/Output Line 8
Remote Enable
Ground Wire – Twisted pair with DAV
Ground Wire – Twisted pair with NRFD
Ground Wire – Twisted pair with NDAC
Ground Wire – Twisted pair with IFC
Ground Wire – Twisted pair with SRQ
Ground Wire – Twisted pair with ATN
Logic Ground
Figure 8-6. IEEE-488 Rear Panel Connector Details
Service and Calibration
8-7
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.6
TOP OF ENCLOSURE REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT
WARNING: To avoid potentially lethal shocks, turn off controller and disconnect it from AC
power line before performing this procedure. Only qualified personnel should
perform this procedure.
8.6.1
Removal Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.6.2
Installation Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.7
Set power switch to Off (O) and disconnect power cord from rear of unit.
If attached, remove 19-inch rack mounting brackets.
Use 5/64 hex key to remove four screws attaching top panel to unit.
Use 5/64 hex key to loosen four screws attaching bottom panel to unit.
Carefully remove the back bezel by sliding it straight back away from the unit.
Slide the top panel back and remove it from the unit.
Slide the top panel forward in the track provided on each side of the unit.
Carefully replace the back bezel by sliding it straight into the unit.
Use 5/64 hex key to install four screws attaching top panel to unit.
Use 5/64 hex key to tighten four screws attaching bottom panel to unit.
If required, reattach 19-inch rack mounting brackets.
Connect power cord to rear of unit and set power switch to On (l).
EPROM REPLACEMENT
The operating software for the Model 480 is contained on one Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory (EPROM) Integrated Circuit (IC). The reference designator for the EPROM is U53. The
EPROM has a sticker on top labeled with “M480.HEX” and the date. Use the following procedure to
replace the EPROM.
CAUTION: The EPROM is an Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive (ESDS) device. Wear shock-proof
wrist straps (with a resistor that limits current to <5 mA) to prevent injury to service
personnel and to avoid inducing an Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) into the device. Refer to
Paragraph 8.2.
1. Follow the top of enclosure REMOVAL procedure in Paragraph 8.6.1.
2. Remove four Phillips-head screws attaching transformer bracket to the Model 480 chassis.
Carefully pull transformer bracket up and sufficiently out of the way to gain access to the Operating
Software EPROM. See Figure 8-7.
3. Locate EPROM U53 (M480.HEX) on the main circuit board. Note orientation of existing IC.
eprom.eps
4.
8-8
Use IC puller to remove existing EPROM from socket.
5.
Noting orientation of new EPROM, use an IC insertion tool to place new device into socket.
6.
Install four Phillips-head screws attaching transformer bracket to the Model 480 chassis.
7.
Follow the top of enclosure INSTALLATION procedure in Paragraph 8.6.2.
Service and Calibration
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
C-480-8-7.eps
Figure 8-7. Location of Operation Software EPROM
8.8
ERROR MESSAGES
The following is a list of Model 480 error messages that may be seen during normal operation.
NOVRAM Defective
Cannot write to the NOVRAM. NOVRAM is physically malfunctioning. Return
instrument to Lake Shore for repair and recalibration.
NOVRAM Corrupt
Information in the NOVRAM is not recognized. Cycle the power to see if the
error message disappears. If that does not resolve the problem, press the
Escape and Enter keys to initialize the NOVRAM. This will permit continued
operation but the calibration data will be deleted. Return instrument to Lake
Shore for repair and recalibration.
Invalid Calibration
Press the Escape and Enter keys simultaneously. The instrument is out of
calibration but can still be used. Reading values can be as much as 5% off.
Return the instrument to Lake Shore for recalibration.
Drift Adjust Failed
The Auto Adjust feature was not able to compensate for the drift of the
instrument. Make sure the coil is properly connected to the instrument and
the coil is not in a changing magnetic field.
Invalid Probe
Data could not be read from or written to the probe. Either no probe is
attached to the instrument or the probe attached is not compatible with the
Model 480 Fluxmeter.
Can Not Modify Lake Shore Probe
A Lake Shore calibrated probe is attached to the instrument.
Coil parameters cannot be modified and data cannot be written to the probe.
* LOCKED *
Service and Calibration
Keypad is locked. Refer to Paragraph 5.14 to unlock the keypad.
8-9
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.9
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE
The first step of Model 480 calibration is to reset all the calibration parameters to nominal starting
points. This step is done for all ranges at one time by one command. The second step obtains a Model
480 reading on a given range. Third is the calculation of a corrective calibration constant for that given
range from the Model 480 actual reading and an ideal reading derived from a digital voltmeter reading
at the input of the Model 480. Forth, stores the calibration constant in the proper location for the given
range. The process repeats through all ranges of the Model 480. Monitor and Corrected Analog outputs
are done in a similar fashion. The operation of the Model 480 is handled manually from the front panel
but the actual placing of derived calibration data in appropriate memory locations is handled solely by
the computer interface. Although this procedure describes field calibration of the Model 480, it is highly
recommended that the unit be returned to Lake Shore for periodic calibration.
8.9.1
Required Equipment List
1. Computer with communication interface established with Model 480. Can be accomplished by
either RS-232 or IEEE-488 Interface and cable.
2. Digital Voltmeter: Basic DC accuracy 0.01%, AC accuracy 0.5% (5 Hz. to 50 kHz, sine wave),
Suggested: Hewlett-Packard Model HP34401A.
3. Oscillator: 0.1 Hz. to 50 kHz, sine, burst mode square wave, amplitude accuracy ±2%, frequency
accuracy 0.01%, output impedance 50 Ω. Suggested: Hewlett-Packard HP33120.
4. 1 µF, 50 V, non-polar, (mylar or polypropylene) capacitor to be connected in series with the
oscillator signal lead during AC calibration. The actual accuracy of the capacitor is not a major
issue since the digital voltmeter is used to actually measure the voltage at the Model 480
terminals. (Used in AC calibrations.)
5. 100:1 Resistive Attenuator (series 10.1 kΩ resistor with shunt 102 Ω resistor suggested), to be
connected between the oscillator output and Model 480 input. The actual accuracies of the
resistors are not a major issue since the digital voltmeter is used to actually measure the voltage
at the Model 480 terminals. (Used in DC calibrations.)
8.9.2
A/D Reference Voltages
NOTE: The adjustment of the following voltage trimpots voids any existing calibration data of the
instrument and requires completion of the entire calibration procedure.
1. Set the Model 480 to AC, non-peak operation, 30 mV·s range, 100 kΩ input resistance, no input
signal.
2. Measure the +2.5 VDC at pin U27-12 referenced to signal ground test point TP5 and adjust R69
for 2.5 VDC ±10 µV.
3. Measure the -2.5 VDC test point TP13 referenced to signal ground test point TP5 and adjust R81
for -2.5 VDC ±10 µV.
8.9.3
Initialize for Calibration
NOTE: This step replaces all, existing calibration data with nominal, starting values.
1. Send “CALCLR” command to the Model 480 via the computer interface.
8-10
Service and Calibration
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.9.4
AC Peak Offset
1. Short the input terminals of the Model 480.
2. Set Model 480 to AC, Dual Peak operation, 100 kΩ Input Resistance, 30 mV·s range.
3. Set Model 480 units to Volts (available only through computer interface, send “UNITS 0” over the
computer interface).
4. Reset and read offsets directly as voltages on the Model 480.
5. Take 10 readings.
6. Average all positive readings, average all negative readings.
7. Send positive average reading to Range Voltage Offset locations 8, 9, 10, 11, 26, 27, 28, 29 from
the computer using the form “CALZERO <location #> <reading>“
8. Send negative average reading to Range Voltage Offset locations 14, 15, 16, 17, 32, 33, 34, 35
from the computer using the form “CALZERO <location #> <reading>“ (Include the “-” with the
reading.)
8.9.5
AC RMS and AC Peak Gain Calibration
The following procedure is to be repeated for each range entry in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1. AC Calibration Table
Range
Input R
Freq
Amplitude
Vs(nom)
CalRng#
Vs(pk)
Pk+Rng#
Pk-Rng#
30 mV·s
100 kΩ
60 Hz.
5.655 Vrms
15 mV·s
20
21.2 mV·s
26
32
3 mV·s
100 kΩ
60 Hz.
0.7540 Vrms
2 mV·s
21
2.83 mV·s
27
33
300 µV·s 100 kΩ
1 kHz.
1.257 Vrms
200 µV·s
22
283 µV·s
28
34
30 µV·s
100 kΩ
1 kHz.
0.1257 Vrms
20 µV·s
23
n/a
n/a
n/a
3 mV·s
10 kΩ
60 Hz.
0.7540 Vrms
2 mV·s
2
2.83 mV·s
8
14
300 µV·s
10 kΩ
1 kHz.
1.257 Vrms
200 µV·s
3
283 µV·s
9
15
30 µV·s
10 kΩ
1 kHz.
0.1257 Vrms
20 µV·s
4
28.3 µV·s
10
16
3 µV·s
10 kΩ
10 kHz.
0.1257 Vrms
2 µV·s
5
n/a
n/a
n/a
AC RMS Calibration
1. Connect Oscillator to Model 480 input terminals (observe ground) using the 1 µF series capacitor
in series with the signal lead.
2. Connect DVM in parallel with the Model 480 input terminals, set to AC.
3. Set Model 480 units to mV·s.
4. Set Model 480 to AC, non-peak operation.
5. Set Model 480 range (per Table 8-1).
6. Set Model 480 input resistance (per Table 8-1).
7. Set Oscillator to the testing amplitude and frequency (per Table 8-1), sine, continuous.
8. Calculate Ideal V·s = Voltmeter reading / 2πf.
9. Wait 30 seconds.
10. Get Actual Model 480 reading.
11. Calculate Calibration Constant = 1e-7 × Ideal / Actual.
NOTE: This value must be 1e-7 ±11%. A value outside this tolerance indicates a major malfunction
of the Model 480 that requires repair.
Service and Calibration
8-11
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
AC RMS and AC Peak Gain Calibration (Continued)
12. Send Calibration Constant to the appropriate range location (per Table 8-1) from the computer
using the form “CALGAIN <location#> <x.xxxxxe-x>“.
AC Peak Calibration
13. Set Model 480 to Dual Peak operation.
14. Calculate Ideal (peak) = Ideal V·s (from Step 8 above) × 1.4142.
15. Wait 30 seconds.
16. Reset the Model 480.
17. Get Actual (peak) readings. Average 10 readings each taken 1 second after a reset.
18. Calculate Calibration Constant = 1e-7 × Ideal (peak) / Actual (averaged).
NOTE: This value must be 1e-7 ±11%. A value outside this tolerance indicates a major malfunction
of the Model 480 that requires repair.
19. Send the Calibration Constant to the appropriate, positive peak, range location (per Table 8-1)
from the computer using the form “CALGAIN <location#> <x.xxxxxe-x>“.
20. Send the same Calibration Constant to the appropriate, negative peak, range location (per
Table 8-1) from the computer using the form “CALGAIN <location#> <x.xxxxxe-x>“.
21. Repeat Steps 4 thru 21 for next range of Table 8-1 until all AC ranges are calibrated.
8.9.6
DC and DC Peak Calibration
The following procedure is to be repeated for each range entry in Table 8-2.
Table 8-2. DC Calibration Table
Range
Input R
Freq.
Period
300 mV·s 100 kΩ 0.1 Hz. 5 sec
30 mV·s 100 kΩ 1 Hz. 0.5 sec
30 mV·s 10 kΩ
1 Hz. 0.5 sec
3 mV·s
10 kΩ 10 Hz. 0.05 sec
Amplitude
Offset
Vs(nom)
Cal Rng#
Pk+Rng#
Pk-Rng#
5 volts p-p
5 volts p-p
5 volts p-p
5 volts p-p
2.5 volts
2.5 volts
2.5 volts
2.5 volts
250 mV·s
25 mV·s
25 mV·s
2.5 mV·s
18
19
0
1
24
25
6
7
30
31
12
13
DC Calibration
1. Install 100:1 resistive attenuator between oscillator and Model 480 input terminals.
2. Connect DVM in parallel with the Model 480 input terminals, set to DC.
3. Set Model 480 units to V·s.
4. Set Model 480 to DC, non-peak operation.
5. Set Model 480 range (per Table 8-2).
6. Set Model 480 input resistance (per Table 8-2).
7. Set Oscillator to the testing amplitude, offset and frequency (per Table 8-2), square wave, burst
mode.
NOTE: Table 8-2 amplitudes are at the oscillator output. DVM measured levels will be attenuated
by 100:1.
8. Measure the DC voltage to the Model 480 input and adjust the oscillator offset to make it as near
0 volts as possible.
9. Set Model 480 for drift Auto Adjust and wait 30 seconds for the routine to complete.
10. Verify an acceptable drift hold less than ±2 µVs.
11. Trigger one oscillator burst, measure DC voltage to the Model 480 during the burst.
8-12
Service and Calibration
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
DC and DC Peak Calibration (Continued)
12. Get actual Model 480 reading within 1 second of burst end.
13. Calculate Ideal V·s = Burst period × DC voltage to Model 480.
14. Calculate the Calibration Constant = 1e-6 × Ideal V·s / Actual V·s.
NOTE: This value must be 1e-6, ±5%. A value outside this tolerance indicates a major malfunction of
the Model 480 that requires repair.
15. Send Calibration Constant to the appropriate range location (per Table 8-2) from the computer
using the form “CALGAIN <location#> <x.xxxxxe-x>“.
DC Peak Calibration
16. Set Model 480 to Dual Peak operation.
17. Reset Model 480, wait 30 seconds, reset Model 480 again.
18. Trigger one oscillator burst, measure DC voltage to Model 480 during the burst.
19. Calculate Ideal V·s = Burst period × DC voltage to Model 480.
20. Get actual Model 480 positive peak reading.
21. Calculate the Calibration Constant = 1e-6 × Ideal V·s / Actual V·s.
NOTE: This value must be 1e-6 ±5%. A value outside this tolerance indicates a major malfunction of
the Model 480 that requires repair.
22. Send Calibration Constant to the appropriate positive peak range location (per Table 8-2) from
the computer using the form “CALGAIN <location#> <x.xxxxxe-x>“.
23. Send the same Calibration Constant to the appropriate negative peak range location (per Table
8-2) from the computer using the form “CALGAIN <location#> <x.xxxxxe-x>“.
24. Repeat Steps 5 thru 24 for each range of Table 8-2 until all DC ranges are calibrated.
8.9.7
Output Calibration
The Model 480 output calibration consists of monitor and corrected output calibrations detailed in
Paragraphs 8.9.7.1 and 8.9.7.2.
8.9.7.1
Monitor Output Calibration
1. Connect Oscillator to Model 480 input terminals (observe ground) using the 1 µF series
capacitor in series with the signal lead.
2. Connect DVM to Model 480 Monitor Output, set to AC.
3. Set Model 480 to AC, 100 kΩ input resistance, 30 mV·s range, non-peak operation.
4. Set oscillator to 5.655 Vrms, 60 Hz, sine, continuous.
5. Calculate Ideal Monitor Vrms = Model 480 reading × 100/s (nominal = 1.5 Vrms).
6. Calculate Monitor Gain Constant = Ideal Monitor Vrms / Actual Monitor Vrms.
7. Send Monitor Gain Constant to appropriate location using the “CALDAC <.xxxxxx>“ command.
Note:
This value must be between 0.8 and 1.0. A value outside this range indicates a major
malfunction of the Model 480 that requires repair.
Service and Calibration
8-13
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
8.9.7.2
Corrected Output Calibration
1. Connect DVM to Model 480 Corrected Output, set to DC.
2. Set Model 480 Analog output to manual, -100%.
3. Corrected Offset Constant = –(Voltmeter reading 1 + 10.000 Vdc) / 20.
4. Set Model 480 Analog output to manual, +100%.
5. Corrected DAC Gain Constant = 20 / ((Voltmeter reading 2) – (Voltmeter reading 1)).
6. Send Corrected DAC Offset Constant using the form “CALCOFF .xxxxxx”.
NOTE: This value must be between –0.005 and 0. A value outside this range indicates a major
malfunction of the Model 480 that requires repair.
7. Send Corrected DAC Gain Constant using the form “CALCGAIN <.xxxxxx>“.
NOTE: This value must be between 0.95 and 1.0. A value outside this range indicates a
major malfunction of the Model 480 that requires repair.
8.9.8
Finalize Calibration
1. Finalize calibration by sending “POKEM F207,31” over the computer interface.
2. Set the unit serial number using the form “SNUM xxxxxx”, sent over the interface.
3. The calibration is now complete.
8-14
Service and Calibration
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY
accuracy. The degree of correctness with which a measured value agrees with the true value.2
electronic accuracy. The accuracy of an instrument independent of the sensor.
sensor accuracy. The accuracy of a temperature sensor and its associated calibration or its ability to match a standard
curve.
algorithm. A set of well-defined rules for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps.1
American Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII). A standard code used in data transmission, in which
128 numerals, letters, symbols, and special control codes are represented by a 7-bit binary number as follows:
American Wire Gage (AWG). Wiring sizes are defined as diameters in inches and millimeters as follows:
AWG
Dia. In.
Dia. mm
AWG
Dia. In.
Dia. mm
AWG
Dia. In.
Dia. mm
AWG
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0.2893
0.2576
0.2294
0.2043
0.1819
0.1620
0.1443
0.1285
0.1144
0.1019
7.348
6.544
5.827
5.189
4.621
4.115
3.665
3.264
2.906
2.588
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
0.0907
0.0808
0.0720
0.0641
0.0571
0.0508
0.0453
0.0403
0.0359
0.0338
2.304
2.053
1.829
1.628
1.450
1.291
1.150
1.024
0.9116
0.8118
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
0.0285
0.0253
0.0226
0.0207
0.0179
0.0159
0.0142
0.0126
0.0113
0.0100
0.7230
0.6438
0.5733
0.5106
0.4547
0.4049
0.3606
0.3211
0.2859
0.2546
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Dia. In.
Dia. mm
0.0089
0.0080
0.00708
0.00630
0.00561
0.00500
0.00445
0.00397
0.00353
0.00314
0.2268
0.2019
0.178
0.152
0.138
0.127
0.1131
0.1007
0.08969
0.07987
ampere. The constant current that, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular
cross section, and placed one meter apart in a vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to
2 × 10–7 newton per meter of length.2 This is one of the base units of the SI.
ampere-turn. A MKS unit of magnetomotive force equal to the magnetomotive force around a path linking one turn of a
conducting loop carrying a current of one ampere; or 1.26 gilberts.
ampere/meter (A/m). The SI unit for magnetic field strength (H). 1 ampere/meter = 4π/1000 oersted ≈0.01257 oersted.
analog data. Data represented in a continuous form, as contrasted with digital data having discrete values.1
analog output. A voltage output from an instrument that is proportional to its input. From an instrument such as a digital
voltmeter, the output voltage is generated by a digital-to-analog converter with a discrete number of voltage levels.
anode. The terminal that is positive with respect to the other terminal when the diode is biased in the forward direction.2
Cathode –
+ Anode
area. A measure of the size of a two-dimensional surface, or of a region on such a surface.1
area·turns. A coil parameter produced by the multiplication of a magnet's area and number of turns. Gives an indication
of the sensitivity of a coil. In the Model 480, the area turns of a coil must be entered to perform flux density
measurements in units of gauss (G) or tesla (T).
B. Symbol for magnetic flux density. See Magnetic Flux Density.
baud. A unit of signaling speed equal to the number of discrete conditions or signal events per second, or the reciprocal
of the time of the shortest signal element in a character.2
bit. A contraction of the term “binary digit”; a unit of information represented by either a zero or a one.2
Glossary of Terminology
A-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
calibration. To determine, by measurement or comparison with a standard, the correct (accurate) value of each scale
reading on a meter or other device, or the correct value for each setting of a control knob.1
cathode. The terminal from which forward current flows to the external circuit.2
Cathode –
+ Anode
Celsius (°C) Scale. A temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C
under normal atmospheric pressure. Celsius degrees are purely derived units, calculated from the Kelvin
Thermodynamic Scale. Formerly known as “centigrade.” See Temperature for conversions.
cgs system of units. A system in which the basic units are the centimeter, gram, and second.2
coercive force (coercive field). The magnetic field strength (H) required to reduce the magnetic induction (B) in a
magnetic material to zero.
coercivity. generally used to designate the magnetic field strength (H) required to reduce the magnetic induction (B) in a
magnetic material to zero from saturation. The coercivity would be the upper limit to the coercive force.
compliance voltage. See current source.
Curie temperature (Tc). Temperature at which a magnetized sample is completely demagnetized due to thermal
agitation. Named for Pierre Curie (1859 – 1906), a French chemist.
current source. A type of power supply that supplies a constant current through a variable load resistance by
automatically varying its compliance voltage. A single specification given as “compliance voltage” means the output
current is within specification when the compliance voltage is between zero and the specified voltage.
demagnetization. when a sample is exposed to an applied field (Ha), poles are induced on the surface of the sample.
Some of the returned flux from these poles is inside of the sample. This returned flux tends to decrease the net
magnetic field strength internal to the sample yielding a true internal field (Hint) given by: Hint = Ha – DM ,where M is the
volume magnetization and D is the demagnetization factor. D is dependent on the sample geometry and orientation with
respect to the field.
deviation. The difference between the actual value of a controlled variable and the desired value corresponding to the
setpoint.1
differential permeability. The slope of a B versus H curve: µd = dB/dH.
differential susceptibility. The slope of a M versus H curve: χd = dM/dH.
digital controller. A feedback control system where the feedback device (sensor) and control actuator (heater) are joined
by a digital processor. In Lake Shore controllers the heater output is maintained as a variable DC current source.
digital data. Pertaining to data in the form of digits or interval quantities. Contrast with analog data.2
dimensionless sensitivity. Sensitivity of a physical quantity to a stimulus, expressed in dimensionless terms. The
dimensionless temperature sensitivity of a resistance temperature sensor is expressed as Sd = (T/R)(dR/dT) which is
also equal to the slope of R versus T on a log-log plot, that is Sd = d lnR / d lnT. Note that the absolute temperature
(in kelvin) must be used in these expressions.
drift, instrument. An undesired but relatively slow change in output over a period of time, with a fixed reference input.
Note: Drift is usually expressed in percent of the maximum rated value of the variable being measured.2
dynamic data exchange (DDE). A method of interprocess communication which passes data between processes and
synchronized events. DDE uses shared memory to exchange data between applications and a protocol to synchronize
the passing of data.
dynamic link library (DLL). A module that contains code, data, and Windows resources that multiple Windows programs
can access.
electromagnet. A device in which a magnetic field is generated as the result of electrical current passing through a helical
conducting coil. It can be configured as an iron-free solenoid in which the field is produced along the axis of the coil, or
an iron-cored structure in which the field is produced in an air gap between pole faces. The coil can be water cooled
copper or aluminum, or superconductive.
electron. An elementary particle containing the smallest negative electric charge. Note: The mass of the electron is
approximately equal to 1/1837 of the mass of the hydrogen atom.2
electrostatic discharge (ESD). A transfer of electrostatic charge between bodies at different electrostatic potentials
caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field.
error. Any discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured quantity and the true, specified, or theoretically
correct value or condition.2
Fahrenheit (°F) Scale. A temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 32 °F and the boiling point as
212 °F under normal atmospheric pressure. See Temperature for conversions.
flux (φ). The electric or magnetic lines of force in a region.1
gamma. A cgs unit of low-level flux density, where 100,000 gamma equals one oersted, or 1 gamma equals 10–5 oersted.
gauss (G). The cgs unit for magnetic flux density (B). 1 gauss = 10–4 tesla = 1 Mx/cm2 = line/cm2. Named for Karl Fredrich
Gauss (1777 – 1855) a German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist.
gaussian system (units). A system in which centimeter-gram-second units are used for electric and magnetic qualities.
A-2
Glossary of Terminology
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
general purpose interface bus (GPIB). Another term for the IEEE-488 bus.
gilbert (Gb). A cgs electromagnetic unit of the magnetomotive force required to produce one maxwell of magnetic
flux in a magnetic circuit of unit reluctance. One gilbert is equal to 10/4π ampere-turn. Named for William Gilbert
(1540 – 1603), an English physicist; hypothesized that the earth is a magnet.
gilbert per centimeter. Practical cgs unit of magnet intensity. Gilberts per cm are the same as oersteds.
Greek alphabet. The Greek alphabet is defined as follows:
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Delta
Epsilon
Zeta
Eta
Theta
α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
Α
Β
Γ
∆
Ε
Ζ
Η
Θ
Iota
Kappa
Lambda
Mu
Nu
Xi
Omicron
Pi
ι
κ
λ
µ
ν
ξ
ο
π
Ι
Κ
Λ
Μ
Ν
Ξ
Ο
Π
Rho
Sigma
Tau
Upsilon
Phi
Chi
Psi
Omega
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω
Ρ
Σ
Τ
Υ
Φ
Χ
Ψ
Ω
ground. A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, by which an electric circuit or equipment is connected
to the earth, or to some conducting body of large extent that serves in place of the earth. Note: It is used for establishing
and maintaining the potential of the earth (or of the conducting body) or approximately that potential, on conductors
connected to it, and for conducting ground current to and from the earth (or of the conducting body).2
H. Symbol for magnetic field strength. See Magnetic Field Strength.
Hall effect. The generation of an electric potential perpendicular to both an electric current flowing along a thin conducting
material and an external magnetic field applied at right angles to the current. Named for Edwin H. Hall (1855 – 1938), an
American physicist.
Hall mobility. The quantity µH in the relation µH = Rσ, where R = Hall coefficient and σ = conductivity.2
Helmholtz coils. A pair of flat, circular coils having equal numbers of turns and equal diameters, arranged with a common
axis, and connected in series; used to obtain a magnetic field more nearly uniform than that of a single coil.1
hertz (Hz). A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
hole. A mobile vacancy in the electronic valence structure of a semiconductor that acts like a positive electron charge with
a positive mass.2
hysteresis. The dependence of the state of a system on its previous history, generally in the form of a lagging of a
physical effect behind its cause.1 Also see magnetic hysteresis.
IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
IEEE-488. An instrumentation bus with hardware and programming standards designed to simplify instrument interfacing.
The addressable, parallel bus specification is defined by the IEEE.
initial permeability. The permeability determined at H = 0 and B = 0.
initial susceptibility. The susceptibility determined at H = 0 and M = 0.
integrator. A circuit or network whose output waveform is the time integral of its input waveform.1 In the Model 480, the
input is a voltage with the integral output being in volt seconds (V·s).
international system of units (SI). A universal coherent system of units in which the following seven units are
considered basic: meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela. The International System of Units,
or Système International d'Unités (SI), was promulgated in 1960 by the Eleventh General Conference on Weights
and Measures. For definition, spelling, and protocols, see Reference 3 for a short, convenient guide.
interpolation table. A table listing the output and sensitivity of a sensor at regular or defined points which may be
different from the points at which calibration data was taken.
intrinsic coercivity. The magnetic field strength (H) required to reduce the magnetization (M) or intrinsic induction in a
magnetic material to zero.
intrinsic induction. The contribution of the magnetic material (Bi) to the total magnetic induction (B).
Bi = B – µOH (SI)
Bi = B – H
(cgs)
isolated (neutral system). A system that has no intentional connection to ground except through indicating, measuring, or
protective devices of very-high impedance.2
Kelvin (K). The unit of temperature on the Kelvin Scale. It is one of the base units of SI. The word “degree” and its symbol
(°) are omitted from this unit. See Temperature Scale for conversions.
Kelvin Scale. The Kelvin Thermodynamic Temperature Scale is the basis for all international scales, including the
ITS-90. It is fixed at two points: the absolute zero of temperature (0 K), and the triple point of water (273.16 K), the
equilibrium temperature that pure water reaches in the presence of ice and its own vapor.
line regulation. The maximum steady-state amount that the output voltage or current will change as the result of a
specified change in input line voltage (usually for a step change between 105 – 125 or 210 – 250 volts, unless otherwise
specified).
Glossary of Terminology
A-3
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
line of flux. An imaginary line in a magnetic field of force whose tangent at any point gives the direction of the field at that
point; the lines are spaced so that the number through a unit area perpendicular to the field represents the intensity of
the field. Also know as a Maxwell in the cgs system of units.
line voltage. The RMS voltage of the primary power source to an instrument.
load regulation. A steady-state decrease of the value of the specified variable resulting from a specified increase in load,
generally from no-load to full-load unless otherwise specified.
M. Symbol for magnetization. See magnetization.
magnetic air gap. The air space, or non-magnetic portion, of a magnetic circuit.
magnetic field strength (H). The magnetizing force generated by currents and magnetic poles. For most applications,
the magnetic field strength can be thought of as the applied field generated, for example, by a superconducting magnet.
The magnetic field strength is not a property of materials. Measure in SI units of A/m or cgs units of oersted.
magnetic flux density (B). Also referred to as magnetic induction. This is the net magnetic response of a medium to an
applied field, H. The relationship is given by the following equation: B = µo (H + M) for SI, and B = H + 4πM for cgs,
where H = magnetic field strength, M = magnetization, and µo = permeability of free space = 4π × 10–7 H/m.
magnetic hysteresis. The property of a magnetic material where the magnetic induction (B) for a given magnetic field
strength (H) depends upon the past history of the samples magnetization.
magnetic induction (B). See magnetic flux density.
magnetic moment (m). This is the fundamental magnetic property measured with dc magnetic measurements systems
such as a vibrating sample magnetometer, extraction magnetometer, SQUID magnetometer, etc. The exact technical
definition relates to the torque exerted on a magnetized sample when placed in a magnetic field. Note that the moment
is a total attribute of a sample and alone does not necessarily supply sufficient information in understanding material
properties. A small highly magnetic sample can have exactly the same moment as a larger weakly magnetic sample
(see Magnetization). Measured in SI units as A·m2 and in cgs units as emu. 1 emu = 10–3 A·m2.
magnetic scalar potential. The work which must be done against a magnetic field to bring a magnetic pole of unit
strength from a reference point (usually at infinity) to the point in question. Also know as magnetic potential.1
magnetic units. Units used in measuring magnetic quantities. Includes ampere-turn, gauss, gilbert, line of force, maxwell,
oersted, and unit magnetic pole.
magnetization (M). This is a material specific property defined as the magnetic moment (m) per unit volume (V).
M = m/V. Measured in SI units as A/m and in cgs units as emu/cm3. 1 emu/cm3 = 103 A/m. Since the mass of a sample
is generally much easier to determine than the volume, magnetization is often alternately expressed as a mass
magnetization defined as the moment per unit mass.
magnetostatic. Pertaining to magnetic properties that do not depend upon the motion of magnetic fields.1
mains. See line voltage.
Maxwell (Mx). A cgs electromagnetic unit of magnetic flux, equal to the magnetic flux which produces an electromotive
force of 1 abvolt in a circuit of one turn link the flux, as the flux is reduced to zero in 1 second at a uniform rate.1
MKSA System of Units. A system in which the basic units are the meter, kilogram, and second, and the ampere is a
derived unit defined by assigning the magnitude 4π × 10–7 to the rationalized magnetic constant (sometimes called the
permeability of space).
NBS. National Bureau of Standards. Now referred to as NIST.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Government agency located in Gaithersburg, Maryland and
Boulder, Colorado, that defines measurement standards in the United States. See Standards Laboratories for an
international listing.
noise (electrical). Unwanted electrical signals that produce undesirable effects in circuits of control systems in which they
occur.2
normalized sensitivity. For resistors, signal sensitivity (dR/dT) is geometry dependent; i.e., dR/dT scales directly with R;
consequently, often this sensitivity is normalized by dividing by the measured resistance to give a sensitivity, sT, in
percent change per kelvin. sT = (100/R) (dR/dT) %K, where T is the temperature in kelvin and R is the resistance in
ohms.
normally closed (N.C.). A term used for switches and relay contacts. Provides a closed circuit when actuator is in the
free (unenergized) position.
normally open (N.O.). A term used for switches and relay contacts. Provides an open circuit when actuator is in the free
(unenergized) position.
oersted (Oe). The cgs unit for the magnetic field strength (H). 1 oersted = 10¾π ampere/meter ≈ 79.58 ampere/meter.
ohm (Ω). The SI unit of resistance (and of impedance). The ohm is the resistance of a conductor such that a constant
current of one ampere in it produces a voltage of one volt between its ends.2
pascal (Pa). The SI unit of pressure equal to 1 N/m2. Equal to 1.45 × 10–4 psi, 1.0197 × 10–5 kgf /cm2, 7.5 × 10–3 torr,
4.191 × 10–3 inches of water, or 1 × 10–5 bar.
A-4
Glossary of Terminology
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
permeability. Material parameter which is the ratio of the magnetic induction (B) to the magnetic field strength (H):
µ = B/H. Also see Initial Permeability and Differential Permeability.
polynomial fit. A mathematical equation used to fit calibration data. Polynomials are constructed of finite sums of terms
of the form aixi, where ai is the ith fit coefficient and xi is some function of the dependent variable.
pounds per square inch (psi). A unit of pressure. 1 psi = 6.89473 kPa. Variations include psi absolute (psia) measured
relative to vacuum (zero pressure) where one atmosphere pressure equals 14.696 psia and psi gauge (psig) where
gauge measured relative to atmospheric or some other reference pressure.
ppm. Parts per million, e.g., 4 × 10–6 is four parts per million.
precision. Careful measurement under controlled conditions which can be repeated with similar results. See repeatability.
Also means that small differences can be detected and measured with confidence. See resolution.
prefixes. SI prefixes used throughout this manual are as follows:
Factor
1024
1021
1018
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
101
Prefix
yotta
zetta
exa
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
Symbol
Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
Factor
10–1
10–2
10–3
10–6
10–9
10–12
10–15
10–18
10–21
10–24
Prefix
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto
zepto
yocto
Symbol
d
c
m
µ
n
p
f
a
z
y
probe. A long, thin body containing a sensing element which can be inserted into a system in order to make
measurements. Typically, the measurement is localized to the region near the tip of the probe.
remanence. The remaining magnetic induction in a magnetic material when the material is first saturated and then the
applied field is reduced to zero. The remanence would be the upper limit to values for the remanent induction. Note that
no strict convention exists for the use of remanent induction and remanence and in some contexts the two terms may
be used interchangeably.
remanent induction. The remaining magnetic induction in a magnetic material after an applied field is reduced to zero.
Also see remanence.
repeatability. The closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the same variable under the same
conditions.2
resolution. The degree to which nearly equal values of a quantity can be discriminated.2
display resolution. The resolution of the physical display of an instrument. This is not always the same as the
measurement resolution of the instrument. Decimal display resolution specified as “n digits” has 10n possible display
values. A resolution of n and one-half digits has 2 × 10n possible values.
measurement resolution. The ability of an instrument to resolve a measured quantity. For digital instrumentation this
is often defined by the analog to digital converter being used. A n-bit converter can resolve one part in 2n. The
smallest signal change that can be measured is the full scale input divided by 2n for any given range. Resolution
should not be confused with accuracy.
root mean square (RMS). The square root of the time average of the square of a quantity; for a periodic quantity the
average is taken over one complete cycle. Also known as effective value.1
RS-232C. Bi-directional computer serial interface standard defined by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). The
interface is single-ended and non-addressable.
scalar. A quantity which has magnitude only and no direction, in contrast to a vector.1
semiconducting material. A conducting medium in which the conduction is by electrons, and holes, and whose
temperature coefficient of resistivity is negative over some temperature range below the melting point.2
semiconductor. An electronic conductor, with resistivity in the range between metals and insulators, in which the electric
charge carrier concentration increases with increasing temperature over some temperature range. Note: Certain
semiconductors possess two types of carriers, namely, negative electrons and positive holes.2
sensitivity. The ratio of the response or change induced in the output to a stimulus or change in the input. Temperature
sensitivity of a resistance temperature detector is expressed as S = dR/dT.
setpoint. The value selected to be maintained by an automatic controller.1
serial interface. A computer interface where information is transferred one bit at a time rather than one byte (character)
at a time as in a parallel interface. RS-232C is a common serial interface.
SI. Système International d'Unités. See International System of Units.
stability. The ability of an instrument or sensor to maintain a constant output given a constant input.
susceptance. In electrical terms, susceptance is defined as the reciprocal of reactance and the imaginary part of the
complex representation of admittance: [suscept(ibility) + (conduct)ance].
Glossary of Terminology
A-5
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
susceptibility (χ). Parameter giving an indication of the response of a material to an applied magnetic field. The
susceptibility is the ratio of the magnetization (M) to the applied field (H). χ = M/H. In both SI units and cgs units the
volume susceptibility is a dimensionless parameter. Multiply the cgs susceptibility by 4π to yield the SI susceptibility.
See also Initial Susceptibility and Differential Susceptibility. As in the case of magnetization, the susceptibility is often
seen expressed as a mass susceptibility or a molar susceptibility depending upon how M is expressed.
temperature scales. See Kelvin Scale, Celsius Scale, and ITS-90. Proper metric usage requires that only kelvin and
degrees Celsius be used. However, since degrees Fahrenheit is in such common use, all three scales are delineated as
follows:
Boiling point of water
T riple point of water
Freezing point of water
Absolute zero
373.15 K
273.16 K
273.15 K
212 °F
0 °C
32 °F
–273.15 °C
0K
kelvin
100 °C
Celsius
–459.67 °F
Fahrenheit
To convert kelvin to Celsius, subtract 273.15.
To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: multiply °C by 1.8 then add 32, or: °F = (1.8 × °C) + 32.
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius: subtract 32 from °F then divide by 1.8, or: °C = (°F. 32 )/ 1.8.
temperature coefficient, measurement. The measurement accuracy of an instrument is affected by changes in ambient
temperature. The error is specified as an amount of change (usually in percent) for every one degree change in ambient
temperature.
tesla (T). The SI unit for magnetic flux density (B). 1 tesla = 104 gauss
thermal emf. An electromotive force arising from a difference in temperature at two points along a circuit, as in the
Seebeck effect.1
tolerance. The range between allowable maximum and minimum values.
turns (N). One complete loop of wire. In the Model 480, the turns of a coil must be entered to perform flux measurements
in units of Volt seconds (V·sφ), Webers (Wbφ), or Maxwells (Mxφ).
Underwriters Laboratories (UL). An independent laboratory that establishes standards for commercial and industrial
products.
unit magnetic pole. A pole with a strength such that when it is placed 1 cm away from a like pole, the force between the
two is 1 dyne.
vector. A quantity that has both magnitude and direction, and whose components transform from one coordinate system
to another in the same manner as the components of a displacement. Also known as a polar vector.1
volt (V). The difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere,
when the power dissipated between these points is equal to one watt.2
volt-ampere (VA). The SI unit of apparent power. The volt-ampere is the apparent power at the points of entry of a singlephase, two-wire system when the product of the RMS value in amperes of the current by the RMS value in volts of the
voltage is equal to one.2
volt·second (v·s). A voltage of 1 volt (V) present at the input of a fluxmeter for 1 second (s) results in a reading of
1 volt·second (v·s). Volt·seconds are the primary unit of measurement for an integrator. See Weber.
watt (W). The SI unit of power. The watt is the power required to do work at the rate of 1 joule per second.2
weber (Wb). The unit of magnetic flux in the mks system, equal to the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn,
produces in it an electromotive force of 1 volt as it is reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 second.1
References:
1
Sybil P. Parker, Editor. Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms: Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994
(IBSN 0-07-042333-4).
2
Christopher J. Booth, Editor. The New IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms: IEEE Std 100-1992, Fifth
Edition. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1993 (IBSN 1-55937-240-0). Definitions printed with permission
of the IEEE.
Nelson, Robert A. Guide For Metric Practice, Page BG7 - 8, Physics Today, Eleventh Annual Buyer’s Guide, August 1994
(ISSN 0031-9228 coden PHTOAD)
3
A-6
Glossary of Terminology
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
APPENDIX B
REFERENCE INFORMATION
Table B-1. Conversion from CGS to SI Units
Quantity
Symbol
Gaussian
& CGS emua
Conversion
Factor, Cb
SI &
Rationalized mksc
Magnetic flux density,
Magnetic induction
B
gauss (G)d
10–4
tesla (T), Wb/m2
Magnetic Flux
φ
maxwell (Mx), G·cm2
10–8
weber (Wb), volt
second (V·s)
Magnetic potential difference,
magnetomotive force
U, F
gilbert (Gb)
10/4π
ampere (A)
Magnetic field strength,
magnetizing force
H
oersted (Oe),e Gb/cm
103/4π
A/mf
(Volume) magnetizationg
(Volume) magnetization
Magnetic polarization,
intensity of
magnetization
M
4πM
emu/cm3h
G
103
103/4π
A/m
A/m
J, I
emu/cm3
4π × 10–4
T, Wb/m2i
(Mass) magnetization
σ, M
emu/g
1
4π × 10–7
Magnetic moment
m
emu, erg/G
10–3
Magnetic dipole moment
j
(Volume) susceptibility
χ, κ
emu, erg/G
dimensionless
emu/cm3
4π × 10–10
—
(4π)2 × 10–7
A·m2/kg
Wb·m/kg
A·m2, joule per
tesla (J/T)
Wb·mi
Henry per meter
(H/m), Wb/(A·m)
(Mass) susceptibility
χρ, κρ
cm3/g, emu/g
4π × 10–3
(4π)2 × 10–10
m3/kg
H·m2/kg
(Molar) susceptibility
χmol, κmol
cm3/mol, emu/mol
m3/mol
H·m2/mol
H/m, Wb/(A·m)
dimensionless
Permeability
Relative permeabilityj
(Volume) energy density,
energy productk
µ
µr
dimensionless
not defined
4π × 10–6
(4π)2 × 10–13
4π × 10–7
—
W
erg/cm3
10–1
J/m3
Demagnetization factor
D, N
dimensionless
1/4π
dimensionless
NOTES:
a.
b.
c.
j.
Gaussian units and cgs emu are the same for magnetic properties. The defining relation is B = H + 4πM.
Multiply a number in Gaussian units by C to convert it to SI (e.g. 1 G × 10-4T/G = 10-4T).
SI (Système International d'Unités) has been adopted by the National Bureau of Standards. Where two conversion factors are
given, the upper one is recognized under, or consistent with, SI and is based on the definition B = µ0(H + M), where to µ0 = 4π × 107
H/m. The lower one is not recognized under SI and is based on the definition B = µ0H + J, where the symbol I is often used in place
of J.
1 gauss = 105 gamma (γ).
Both oersted and gauss are expressed as cm-½ g½·s-1 in terms of base units.
A/m was often expressed as “ampere-turn per meter” when used for magnetic field strength.
Magnetic moment per unit volume.
The designation “emu” is not a unit.
Recognized under SI, even though based on the definition B = µ0H + J. Refer to note c.
µr = µ/µ0 = 1 + χ, all in SI. µr is equal to Gaussian µ.
k.
B·H and µ0M·H have SI units J/m3, M·H and B·H/4π have Gaussian units erg/cm3.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
R.B. Goldfarb and F.R. Fickett, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Bolder, Colorado 80303,
March 1985, NBS Special Publication 696. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.
Reference Information
B-1
Lake Shore Model 480 Fluxmeter User’s Manual
Table B-2. Recommended SI Values for Physical Constants
Quantity
Symbol
Value (SI units)
Permeability of Vacuum
µ0
4π × 10-7 H m-1
Speed of Light in Vacuum
c
2.9979 × 108 m s-1
Permitivity of Vacuum
ε0 = (µ0c2)-1
8.8542 × 10-12 F m-1
Fine Structure Constant, µ0ce2/2h
α
α-1
0.0073
137.0360
Elementary Charge
e
1.6022 × 10-19 C
Plank's Constant
h
h = h/2π
6.6262 × 10-34 J Hz-1
1.0546 × 10-34 J s
Avogadro's Constant
NA
6.0220 × 1023 mol-1
Atomic Mass Unit
1 u = 10-3 kg mol-1/NA
1.6605 × 10-27 kg
Electron Rest Mass
me
Proton Rest Mass
mp
Neutron Rest Mass
mn
Magnetic Flux Quantum
φ = h/2e
h/e
0.9109 × 10-30 kg
5.4858 × 10-4 u
1.6726 × 10-27 kg
1.0073 u
1.6749 × 10-27 kg
1.0087 u
2.0679 × 10-15 Wb
4.1357 × 10-15 J Hz-1 C-1
Josephson Frequency-Voltage Ratio
2e/h
483.5939 THz V-1
Quantum of Circulation
h/2me
h/me
3.6369 × 10-4 J Hz-1 kg-1
7.2739 × 10-4 J Hz-1 C-1
Rydberg Constant
R∞
1.0974 × 107 m-1
Proton Moment in Nuclear Magnetons
µp/µN
2.7928
Bohr Magneton
µB = eh/2me
9.2741 × 10-24 J T-1
Proton Gyromagnetic Ratio
γp
2.6752 × 108 s-1 T-1
Diamagnetic Shielding Factor, Spherical H2O Sample
1 + σ(H2O)
1.0000
Molar Mass Constant
R
8.3144 J mol-1 K-1
Molar Volume, Ideal Gas (T0 = 273.15K, p0 = 1 atm)
Vm = RT0/p0
0,0224 m3 mol-1
Boltzman Constant
k = R/NA
1.3807 × 10-23 J K-1
Stefan-Boltzman Constant
σ = (π2/60) k4/h3 c2
5.6703 × 10-8 W m-2 K-4
First Radiation Constant
c1= 2πhc2
3.7418 × 10-16 W m-2
Second Radiation Constant
c2 = hc/k
0.0144 mK
Gravitation Constant
G
6.6720 × 10-11 N m2 kg-2
Data (abbreviated to 4 decimal places) from CODATA Bulletin No. 11, ICSU CODATA Central Office,
19 Westendstrasse, 6 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Copies of this bulletin are available from this office.
B-2
Reference Information