Brief introduction to maintenance handbook of HS110ATV/HS100ATV

FOREWORD
Brief introduction to maintenance handbook of
HS110ATV/HS100ATV
The handbook is edited by Technical Center of Chongqing Huansong Science And
Technology Industrial Co.,Ltd, and is supplied to dealers and technicians as document of
technique.Mainly, the handbook gives methods to check, maintain and repair four wheel
all-terrain vehicles (ATV), and supplies some relevant technique and performance data.
Some techniques and method inside may be used to check, maintain and repair other
models of ATV, although it is mainly for HS110ATV/HS100ATV.
Please read the handbook through and fully understand it; otherwise, any improper
repairing and amounting would bring you problems, and accident may occur in your use.
Proper use and maintenance can guarantee ATV being driven safely, reduce its
malfunction, and help the vehicle remain its best performance.
The standards, performances and specifications mentioned in interpretation are
based on the sample in design, and they are subject to changes according to the
product’s improvement without prior notice.
This handbook is suitable for sport model and utility model.
First version , January,2015
Published by Chongqing Huansong Science And Technology Industrial Co.,Ltd
Chongqing Huansong Science And Technology Industrial Co.,Ltd holds the copy right.
No publishing and reprinting without permission.
CONTENT
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL INFORMATION……………………………………………………………………1
WATNINGS, CAUTIONS AND NOTES……………………………………………………1
DESCRIPTION…………………………………………………………………………………2
IDENTIFICATION CODE……………………………………………………………………… 4
Frame No. ………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Engine No. ………………………………………………………………………………… 5
SAFETY ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Handing gasoline safely………………………………………………………………… 6
Cleaning parts……………………………………………………………………………… 7
Warning labels…………………………………………………………………………… 7
SERIAL NUMBERS…………………………………………………………………………… 8
FASTENERS…………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Torque specifications …………………………………………………………………… 8
Self-locking fasteners…………………………………………………………………… 8
Washers…………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Cotter pins………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Snap rings and E-clips …………………………………………………………………… 9
SHOP SUPPLIES……………………………………………………………………… 10
Lubricants and Fluids…………………………………………………………………… 10
Engine oils………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Greases…………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Brake fluid………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Cleaners, Degreasers and solvents …………………………………………………… 12
Gasket sealant…………………………………………………………………………… 12
Gasket remover ………………………………………………………………………… 12
Thread locking compound……………………………………………………………… 12
BASIC TOOLS ……………………………………………………………………………… 13
Screwdrivers……………………………………………………………………………… 13
Wrenches ………………………………………………………………………………… 14
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Adjustable wrenches …………………………………………………………………… 14
Socket wrenches, ratchets and handles ……………………………………………… 15
Impact drivers …………………………………………………………………………… 16
Allen wrenches…………………………………………………………………………… 16
Torque wrenches………………………………………………………………………… 16
Torque adapters ………………………………………………………………………… 17
Pliers……………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Snap ring pliers………………………………………………………………………… 18
Hammers ………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Ignition grounding tool…………………………………………………………………… 19
PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS ……………………………………………………… 19
Feeler gauge …………………………………………………………………………… 20
Calipers…………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Micrometers……………………………………………………………………………… 20
Adjustment ……………………………………………………………………………… 21
Care ……………………………………………………………………………………… 22
Metric micrometer……………………………………………………………………… 22
Standard inch micrometer……………………………………………………………… 23
Telescoping and small bore gauges…………………………………………………… 24
Dial Indicator……………………………………………………………………………… 24
Compression gauge…………………………………………………………………… 25
Multimeter………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Clip-on ammeter………………………………………………………………………… 25
Magneto puller…………………………………………………………………………… 26
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS……………………………………………… 26
Voltage …………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Resistance……………………………………………………………………………… 26
Amperage………………………………………………………………………………… 27
BASIC SERVICE METHODS……………………………………………………………… 27
Removing frozen fasteners…………………………………………………………… 28
Removing broken fasteners …………………………………………………………… 29
Repairing damaged threads …………………………………………………………… 29
Stud Removal/Installation ……………………………………………………………… 29
Removing hoses ………………………………………………………………………… 30
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Bearings………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Removal………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Installation………………………………………………………………………………… 31
Interference fit …………………………………………………………………………… 32
Seal replacement………………………………………………………………………… 33
STORAGE…………………………………………………………………………………… 34
Storage area selection………………………………………………………………… 34
Preparing the motorcycle for storage ………………………………………………… 34
Returning the ATV to service…………………………………………………… 35
TROVBLESHOOTING……………………………………………………………………… 35
ENGINE PRINCIPLES AND OPERATING REQUIREMENTS………………………… 36
STARTING THE ENGINE ………………………………………………………………… 36
Engine is cold …………………………………………………………………………… 37
Engine is warm…………………………………………………………………………… 37
Starting the engine after a fall or after the engine stalls……………………………… 37
Flooded engine…………………………………………………………………………… 37
ENGINE WILL NOT START ……………………………………………………………… 38
Identifying the problem ………………………………………………………………… 38
Spark test………………………………………………………………………………… 39
Starter does not turn over or turns over slowly ……………………………………… 40
POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE………………………………………………………… 40
Engine starts slowly or difficultly……………………………………………………… 40
Engine backfires, cuts out or misfires during acceleration…………………………… 41
Engine backfires on deceleration……………………………………………………… 41
Poor fuel mileage………………………………………………………………………… 41
Engine will not idle or idles roughly …………………………………………………… 41
Low engine power…………………………………………………………………………42
Poor idle or low speed performance…………………………………………………… 43
Poor high speed performance ………………………………………………………… 43
FUEL SYSTEM……………………………………………………………………………… 44
Rich mixture……………………………………………………………………………… 44
Lean mixture……………………………………………………………………………… 44
ENGINE……………………………………………………………………………………… 45
Engine smoke…………………………………………………………………………… 45
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Black smoke……………………………………………………………………………… 45
Blue smoke……………………………………………………………………………… 45
White smoke or steam…………………………………………………………………… 45
Engine overheating (engine)…………………………………………………………… 45
Ignition advance angle too large……………………………………………………… 46
Detonation………………………………………………………………………………… 46
Power loss ……………………………………………………………………………… 46
engine noises…………………………………………………………………………… 46
ENGLNE LUBRICATION…………………………………………………………………… 47
HIGH OIL CONSUMPTION OR EXCESSIVE…………………………………………… 47
Exhaust smoke…………………………………………………………………………… 47
Low oil pressure ………………………………………………………………………… 47
High oil pressure ………………………………………………………………………… 47
No oil pressure…………………………………………………………………………… 48
Oil level too low………………………………………………………………………… 48
Oil contamination………………………………………………………………………… 48
CYLINDER LEAK DOWN TEST…………………………………………………………… 48
ELECTRICAL TESTING…………………………………………………………………… 51
Preliminary checks and precautions…………………………………………………… 51
Intermittent problems…………………………………………………………………… 51
Electrical component replacement…………………………………………………… 52
Test equipment…………………………………………………………………………… 53
Ammeter………………………………………………………………………………… 53
Self-powered test light…………………………………………………………………… 53
Ohmmeter………………………………………………………………………………… 53
Jumper wire……………………………………………………………………………… 54
TEST PROCEDURES……………………………………………………………………… 55
Voltage test……………………………………………………………………………… 55
Voltage drop test………………………………………………………………………… 55
Peak voltage test………………………………………………………………………… 56
Continuity test…………………………………………………………………………… 56
Testing for a short with a self-powered test light or ohmmeter……………………… 56
Testing for a short with a test light or voltmeter……………………………………… 57
BRAKE SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………………… 57
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Soft or spongy brake lever or pedal…………………………………………………… 57
Brake drag………………………………………………………………………………… 58
Hard brake lever or pedal operation…………………………………………………… 59
Brake Grabs……………………………………………………………………………… 59
Brake squeal or chatter ………………………………………………………………… 59
Leaking brake caliper …………………………………………………………………… 60
Leaking master cylinder………………………………………………………………… 60
CHAPTER 2
SPECIFICATIONS
HOW TO USE CONVERSION TABLE OF UNIT………………………………………… 61
How to use conversion table…………………………………………………………… 61
Definition of unit ………………………………………………………………………… 61
GEBERAR SPECIFICATIONS……………………………………………………………… 62
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS………………………………………………………………… 65
CHASSIS SPECIFICATIONS……………………………………………………………… 71
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS………………………………………………………… 73
TIGHTENING TORQUES …………………………………………………………………… 75
Engine tightening torques……………………………………………………………… 75
Chassis tightening torques……………………………………………………………… 78
GENERAL TIGHTENING TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS ………………………………… 79
LUBRICATION PIONTS AND LUBRICANT TYPES…………………………………… 80
Engine…………………………………………………………………………………… 80
Chassis…………………………………………………………………………………… 81
LUBRICATION OIL WAY…………………………………………………………………… 82
CHAPTER 3
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE……………………………………………………………… 83
ENGINE
Adjusting the valve clearance………………………………………………………85
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Checking the spark plug………………………………………………………………… 88
Checking the ignition timing…………………………………………………………… 89
Measuring the compression pressure………………………………………………… 90
Checking the engine oil level…………………………………………………………… 91
Changing the engine oil ………………………………………………………………… 92
CHASSIS
Cleaning the air filter…………………………………………………………………… 94
Checking the v-belt…………………………………………………………………… 95
Cleaning the spark arrester …………………………………………………………… 96
Adjusting the brake pedal……………………………………………………………… 97
Checking the brake fluid level ………………………………………………………… 98
Checking the front brake pads………………………………………………………… 99
Checking the rear brake pads………………………………………………………… 99
Checking the brake hoses and brake pipes ………………………………………… 100
Bleeding the hydraulic brake system ………………………………………………… 100
Adjusting the select lever shift rod …………………………………………………… 102
Checking the steering system………………………………………………………… 103
Adjusting the toe-in …………………………………………………………………… 103
Adjusting the front shock absorbers………………………………………………… 105
Adjusting the rear shock absorbers………………………………………………… 105
Checking the tires ……………………………………………………………………… 106
Checking the wheels…………………………………………………………………… 107
ELECTRICAL
Checking and charging the battery…………………………………………………… 109
Adjusting the headlight beam ………………………………………………………… 115
Changing the headlight bulb ………………………………………………………… 115
Changing the tail/brake light bulb …………………………………………………… 116
CHAPTER 4
ENGINE
ENGINE NOTE……………………………………………………………………………… 118
ENGINE REMOVAL………………………………………………………………………… 119
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CYLINDER ASSY………………………………………………………………………… 120
CRANKSHAFT& VALVE……………………………………………………………………125
CYLINDER AND PISTON………………………………………………………………… 132
MAGINE TOELE TRYCITY MACHINE ………………………………………………… 136
TIMING CHAIN.DIRECTION GEAR……………………………………………………… 139
FRONT COVER L………………………………………………………………………… 141
CRANKCASE ASSY……………………………………………………………………… 143
CRANKCASE COVER R ASSY ………………………………………………………… 145
CLUTCH
ASSY…………………………………………………………………………… 149
MAIN&DRIVE SHAFT……………………………………………………………………… 154
CHAPTER 5
CHASSIS
MALFUNCTION INSPECTION…………………………………………………………… 159
STEERING OPERATION SYSTEM……………………………………………………… 162
The steering stem part…………………………………………………………… 162
Front body……………………………………………………………………………… 164
BRAKE SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………………… 173
Disk brake components ……………………………………………………………… 174
FOOTREST ASSEMBLY ………………………………………………………………… 185
WHEEL AND TYRE PARTS ……………………………………………………………… 187
Front wheels…………………………………………………………………………… 187
Rear wheels……………………………………………………………………………… 189
REVERSE MECHANISM PARTS ……………………………………………………… 194
SUSPENSION……………………………………………………………………………… 197
Front Suspension and arm …………………………………………………………… 197
Rear suspension ……………………………………………………………………… 202
SEAT ………………………………………………………………………………………… 207
FUEL TANK………………………………………………………………………………… 210
Fuel tank cover parts …………………………………………………………………… 210
Fuel tank parts ………………………………………………………………………… 212
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CHAPTER 6
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MALFUNCTION INSPECTION ……………………………… 214
ELECTRICALCOMPONENTS…………………………………………………………… 215
Checking the switch…………………………………………………………………… 219
Checking the switch continuity ……………………………………………………… 220
Checking the bulbs and bulb sockets ……………………………………………… 222
IGNITION SYSTEM………………………………………………………………………… 222
Circuit diagram……………………………………………………………………… 222
Troubleshooting…………………………………………………………………… 223
ELECTRIC STARTING SYSTEM………………………………………………………… 226
Circuit diagram……………………………………………………………………… 226
Troubleshooting…………………………………………………………………… 227
STARTER MOTOR……………………………………………………………………… 229
CHARGING SYSTEM……………………………………………………………………… 229
Circuit diagram……………………………………………………………………… 229
Troubleshooting…………………………………………………………………… 230
LIGHTING SYSTEM……………………………………………………………………… 231
Circuit diagram……………………………………………………………………… 231
Troubleshooting…………………………………………………………………… 232
Checking the lighting system………………………………………………………… 233
SIGNALING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………… 234
Circuit diagram ……………………………………………………………………… 234
Troubleshooting …………………………………………………………………… 234
Checking the signal system………………………………………………………… 236
CHAPTER 7
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION
Ems (engine management system) ………………………………………………… 240
Typical components of EMS……………………………………………………………240
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Layout of EMS components……………………………………………………………242
COMPONENTS OF EMS
Electronic control unit ………………………………………………………………… 243
Multec 3.5 injectors …………………………………………………………………… 244
Throttle body assembly(with stepper motor)
………………………………………247
Engine coolant temperature sensor ………………………………………………… 249
Intake air pressure and temperature sensor …………………………………………250
Oxygen sensor ………………………………………………………………………… 250
Ignition coil………………………………………………………………………………250
Fuel pump module………………………………………………………………………254
EMS FAULT DIAGNOSIS
EME fault diagnosis ……………………………………………………………………255
Fault code list……………………………………………………………………………260
CHAPTER 8
TROUBLESHOOTING
STARTING FAILURE/HARD STARTING…………………………………………………262
Fuel system …………………………………………………………………………… 262
Electrical system ………………………………………………………………………262
Compression system ………………………………………………………………… 263
POOR IDLE SPEED PERFORMANCE ………………………………………………… 263
Poor idle speed performance………………………………………………………… 263
POOR MEDIUM AND HIGH-SPEED PERFORMANCE ……………………………… 264
Poor medium and high-speed performance………………………………………… 264
FAULTY GEAR SHIFTING……………………………………………………………… 264
Shift lever does not move …………………………………………………………… 264
Jumps out of gear………………………………………………………………………264
ENGING OVERHEATING………………………………………………………………… 264
Overheating…………………………………………………………………………… 264
FAULTY BRAKE…………………………………………………………………………… 265
Poor braking effect…………………………………………………………………… 265
SHOCK ABSORBER MALFUNCTION………………………………………………… 265
Loss of damping function……………………………………………………………… 265
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UNSTABLE HANDLING…………………………………………………………………… 265
Unstable handling……………………………………………………………………… 265
LIGHTING SYSTEM……………………………………………………………………… 266
Head light is out of work……………………………………………………………… 266
Bulb burnt out…………………………………………………………………………… 266
Error display of meter…………………………………………………………………… 266
CHAPTER 9
WIRING DIAGRAM
WIRING DIAGRAM…………………………………………………………………… 267
WIRING ECU DIAGRAM………………………………………………………………… 268
IGNITION SYSTEM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM…………………………………………………269
ELECTRIC STARTING SYSTEM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM…………………………………270
CHARGING SYSTEM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM………………………………………………271
LIGHTING SYSTEM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM………………………………………………272
SIGNALING SYSTEM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM………………………………………………273
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GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL INFORMATION
The text provides complete information on maintenance,tune-up repair and overhaul,Hundreds
of photographs and illustrations created during the complete disassembly of four wheel all-terrain
vehicles (ATV) guide the reader through every job,All procedures are in step-by-step format and
designed for the reader who may be working on the ATV for the first time.
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS AND NOTES
The terms WARNING, CAUTION and NOTE have specific meaning in this manual.
WARNING:
CAUTION:
NOTE:
emphasizes areas where injury or even death could result from negligence.
Mechanical damage may also occur. WARNINGS are to be taken seriously
emphasizes areas where equipment damage could result. Disregarding a
CAUTION could cause permanent mechanical damage. though injury is
unlikely.
provides additional information to make a step or procedure easier or clearer.
Disregarding a NOTE could cause inconvenience. but would not cause
equipment damage or injury.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
DESCRIPTION
1. Front bumper assy.
2. Headlights
3. Horn
4. Fuel tank cap
5. Seat
6. Rectifier
7. Muffler
8. Rear registration plate lamp
9. Rear indicator lamp
10. Rear wheel
11. Rear shock absorber
12. Chain
13. Engine
14. Brake pedal
15. Pump
16. Front shock absorber
17. Front wheel
18. Left combination switch parts
19. The left handle combined
20. Multi-function meter unit
21. Emergency switch
22. Drive select lever
23. Greaser combination
24. Integrated ignition switch parts
NOTE:
The vehicle you have purchased may
differ slightly from those in the figures of
this manual.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
DESCRIPTION
1.
Front bumper assy.
2.
Headlights
3. Horn
4. Fuel tank cap
5. Seat
6. Rectifier
7. Muffler
8. Rear registration plate lamp
9. Rear brake fluid reservoir
10. Rear wheel
11. Rear shock absorber
12. Chain
13. Engine
14. Brake pedal
15. Pump
16. Front shock absorber
17. Front wheel
18. Left combination switch parts
19. The left handle combined
20. Multi-function meter unit
21. Emergency switch
22. Drive select lever
23. Greaser combination
24. Integrated ignition switch parts
NOTE:
The vehicle you have purchased may
differ slightly from those in the figures of
this manual.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
IDENTIFICATION CODE
(Utility model)
Frame No.
Frame No. is carved in the lower right side of
Figure.
Engine No.
Engine NO. Is carved on the right side of the
engine, Figure.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
IDENTIFICATION CODE
(Sport model)
Frame No.
Frame No. is carved in the lower right side of
Figure.
Engine No.
Engine NO. Is carved on the right side of the
engine, Figure.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
SAFETY
Professional mechanics can work for years and never sustain a serous injury or mishap. Follow
these guidelines and practice common sense to safely service the utility terrain venires
1.
Do not operate the utility terrain venires in an enclosed area venires The exhaust gasses
contain carbon monoxide. an odorless, colorless and tasteless poisonous gas. Carbon
monoxide levels build quickly in small enclosed areas and can cause unconsciousness and
death in a short time. Make sure to properly ventilate the work area or operate the ATV side
2.
Never use gasoline or any extremely flammable liquid to clean parts. Refer to cleaning parts
and handling Gasoline Safely in this section
3.
Never smoke or use a torch in the vicinity of flammable liquids, such as gasoline or cleaning
solvent.
4.
If welding or brazing on the ATV the fuel tank to a safe distance at least 50ft.(15m) away.
5.
Use the correct type and size of tools to avoid damaging fasteners.
6.
Keep tools clean and in good condition. Replace or repair worn or damaged equipment.
7.
When loosening a tight fastener, be guided by what would happen if the tool slips.
8.
When replacing fasteners, make sure the new fasteners are the same size and strength as the
original ones.
9.
Keep the work area clean and organized.
10. Wear eye protection anytime the safety of the eyes is in question. This includes procedures that
involve drilling, grinding, hammering, compressed air and chemicals.
11. Wear the correct clothing for the job. Tie up or cover long hair so it does not get caught in
moving equipment.
12. Do not carry sharp tools in clothing pockets.
13. Always have an approved fire extinguisher available. Make sure it is rated for gasoline (Class B)
and electrical (Class C) fires.
14. Do not use compressed air to clean clothes, the ATV or the work area. Debris may be blown
into the eyes or skin. Never direct compressed air at anyone. Do not allow children to use or
play with any compressed air equipment.
15. When using compressed air to dry rotating parts, hold the part so it does not rotate. Do not allow
the force of the air to spin the part. The air jet is capable of rotating parts at extreme speed. The
part may disintegrate of become damaged, causing serious injury.
16. Do not inhale the dust created by brake pad and clutch wear. These particles may contain
asbestos. In addition, some types of insulating materials and gaskets may contain asbestos.
Inhaling asbestos particles is hazardous to one’s health.
17. Never work on the ATV while someone is working under it.
Handling Gasoline Safely
Gasoline is a volatile flammable liquid and is one of the most dangerous items in the shop.
Because gasoline is used so often, many people forget it is hazardous. Only use gasoline as fuel
for gasoline internal combustion engines. Keep in mind when working on the machine, gasoline is
always present in the fuel tank, fuel line and throttle. To avoid a disastrous accident when working
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GENERAL INFORMATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
around the fuel system, carefully observe the following precautions:
Never use gasoline to clean parts. Refer to Cleaning Parts in this section.
When working of the fuel system, work outside or in a well-ventilated area.
Do not add fuel to the fuel tank or service the fuel system while the ATV is near open flames,
sparks or where someone is smoking .Gasoline vapor is heavier than air, it collects in low areas
and is more easily ignited than liquid gasoline.
Allow the engine to cool completely before working on any fuel system component.
Do not store gasoline in glass containers. If the glass breaks, a serious explosion of fire may
occur.
Immediately wipe up spilled gasoline with rags. Store the rags in a metal container with a lid until
they can be properly disposed of, or place them outside in a safe place for the fuel to evaporate.
Do not pour water onto a gasoline fire. Water spreads the fire and makes it more difficult to put
out. Use a class B, BC or ABC fire extinguisher which are dedicated to extinguish the gasoline
fire.
Always turn off the engine before refueling. Do not spill fuel onto the engine or exhaust system.
Do not overfill the fuel tank. Leave an air space at the top of the tank to allow room for the fuel to
expand due to temperature fluctuations.
Cleaning Parts
Cleaning parts is one of the more tedious and difficult service jobs performed in the home garage.
Many types of chemical cleaners and solvents are available for shop use. Most are poisonous and
extremely flammable. To prevent chemical exposure, vapor buildup, fire and serious injury, observe
each product warning label and note the following:
1. Read and observe the entire product label before using any chemical. Always know what type of
chemical is being used and whether it is poisonous and/or flammable.
2. Do not use more than one type of cleaning solvent at a time. If mixing chemicals is required,
measure the proper amounts according to the manufacturer.
3. Work in a well-ventilated area.
4. Wear chemical-resistant gloves.
5. Wear safety glasses.
6. Wear a vapor respirator if the instructions call for it.
7. Wash hands and arms thoroughly after cleaning parts.
8. Keep chemical products away from children and pets.
9. Thoroughly clean all oil, grease and cleaner residue from any part that must be heated.
10. Use a nylon brush when cleaning parts. Metal brushes may cause a spark.
11. When using a parts washer, only use the solvent recommended by the manufacturer. Make sure
the parts washer is equipped with a metal lid that will lower in case of fire.
Warning Labels
Most manufacturers attach information and warning labels to the ATV. These labels contain
instructions that are important to personal safety when operating, servicing, transporting and storing
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GENERAL INFORMATION
the ATV. Refer to the owner’s manual for the description and location of labels. Order replacement
labels from the dealers or manufacturer if they are missing or damaged.
SERIAL NUMBERS
Serial and identification numbers are stamped on various locations on the frame, engine and
throttle body. Record these numbers in the Quick Reference Data section in the front of the manual.
Have these numbers available when ordering parts.
FASTENERS
Proper fastener selection and installation is important to ensure the motorcycle operates as
designed and can be serviced efficiently. The choice of original equipment fasteners is not arrived at
by chance. Make sure replacement fasteners meet all the same requirements as the originals
Many screws. Bolts and studs are combined with nuts to secure particular components. to
indicate the size of a nut. Manufactures specify the internal diameter and the thread pitch
The measurement across two flats on a nut or bolt indicates the wrench size
WARNING
Do not install fasteners with a strength
classification lower than what was originally
installed by the manufacturer doing so may
cause equipment failure and or damage
Torque Specifications
The material used in the manufacturing of the ATV may be subjected to uneven stresses if the
fasteners of the various subassemblies are not installed and tightened correctly. Fasteners that are
improperly installed or work loose can cause extensive damage. it is essential to use an accurate
torque wrench as described in this chapter
Self-Locking Fasteners
Several types of bolts. Screws and nuts incorporate a system that creates interference between
the two fasteners. Interference is achieved in various ways. The most common types are the nylon
insert nut and a dry adhesive coating on the threads of a blot.
Self-locking fasteners offer greater holding strength than standard fasteners, which improves
their resistance to vibration. All self-locking fasteners cannot be reused. The materials used to from
the lock become distorted after the initial installation and removal. Discard and replace self-locking
fasteners after removing them. Do not replace self-locking fasteners with standard fasteners.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Washers
The two basic types of washers are flat washers and lock washers. Flat washers are simple discs
with a hole to fit a screw or bolt. Lock washers are used to prevent a fastener from working loose.
Washers can be used as spacers and seals. Or can help distribute fastener load and prevent the
fastener from damaging the component
As with fasteners. When replacing washers make sure the replacement washers are of the same
design and quality
Cotter Pins
A cotter pin is a split metal pin inserted into a hole or slot to prevent a fastener from loosening. In
certain applications, such as the rear axle on an ATV or motorcycle, the fastener must be secured in
this way. For these applications. A cotter pin and castellated (slotted) nut is used.
To use a cotter pin, first make sure the diameter is
correct for the hole in the fastener. Aster correctly
tightening the fastener and aligning the holes, insert
the cotter pin through the hole and bend the ends over
the fastener, Unless instructed to do so, never loosen
a tightened fastener to align the holes. If the holes do
not align. Tighten the fastener enough to achieve
alignment
Cotter pins are available in various diameters and
lengths. Measure the length from the bottom of the
head to the tip of the shortest pin
Snap Rings and E-clips
Snap rings (Figure 1) are circular-shaped metal
retaining clips. They secure parts in place on parts
such as shafts. External type snap rings are used to
retain items on shafts. Internal type snap rings secure
parts within housing bores. In some applications. in
addition to securing the component(s). snap rings of
varying thicknesses also determine endplay. These
are usually called selective snap rings.
The two basic types of snap rings are machined
and stamped snap rings. Machined snap rings
(Figure 2) can be installed in either direction.
Because both faces have sharp edges. Stamped
snap rings (Figure 3) are manufactured with a sharp
and a round edge. When installing a stamped snap
ring in a thrust application, install the sharp edge
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GENERAL INFORMATION
facing away from the part producing the thrust.
E-clips are used when it is not practical to use a snap ring. Remove E-clips with a flat blade
screwdriver by prying between the shaft and E-clip. To install an E-clip. Center it over the shaft groove
and push or tap it into place
Observe the following when installing snap rings:
1.
Remove and install snap rings with snap rings pliers. Refer to Basic Tools in this chapter
2.
In some applications. it may be necessary to replace snap rings after removing them
3.
Compress or expand snap rings only enough to install them. If overly expanded. Lose their
retaining ability
4.
After installing a snap ring. Make sure it seats completely
5.
Wear eye protection when removing and installing snap rings
SHOP SIPPLIES
Lubricants and Fluids
Periodic lubrication help ensure a long service life for any type of equipment. Using the correct
type of lubricant is as important as performing the lubrication service. Although in an emergency the
wrong type is better than not using one, The following section describes the types of lubricants most
often required. Make sure to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for lubricant types
Engine oils
Engine oil for four-stroke the ATV engine use is classified by two standards: the American
Petroleum Institute (API) service classification. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) viscosity
rating Standard classification
The API and SAE information is on all oil container labels. Two letters indicate the API service
classification. The number or sequence of numbers and letter (10W-40SG for example) is the oil’s
viscosity rating. The API service classification and the SAE viscosity index are not indications of oil
quality.
The APL service classification standards, The first letter in the classification S indicates that the
oil is for gasoline engines. The second letter indicates the standard the oil satisfies .
The classifications are: MA (high friction applications) and MB( low frication applications).
NOTE
Refer to Engine Oil and Filter in
Chapter Three for further information
on API, SAE classifications.
Always use an oil with a classification recommended by the manufacturer, Using an oil with a
different classification can cause engine damage.
Viscosity is an indication of the oil’s thickness. Thin oils have a lower number while thick oil have a
higher number. Engine oils fall into the 5-to50-weight range for single-grade oils.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Most manufactures recommend multi-grade oil. These oils perform efficiently across a wide
range of operating conditions. Multi-grade oils are identified by a W after the first number, which
indicates the low-temperature viscosity.
Engine oils are most commonly mineral (petroleum) based, but synthetic and semi-synthetic
types are used more frequently. When selecting engine oil, follow the manufacturer’s
recommendation for type, classification and viscosity.
Greases
Grease is lubricating oil with thickening agents added to it. The National Lubricating Grease
Institute (NLGI) grades grease. Grades range from No.000 to No.6, with No.6 being the thickest.
Typical multipurpose grease is NLGI No.2. For specific applications, manufacturers may recommend
water-resistant type grease or one with an additive such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2).
Brake fluid
Brake fluid is the hydraulic fluid used to transmit hydraulic pressure (force) to the wheel brakes.
Brake fluid is classified by the Department of Transportation (DOT). Current designations for brake
fluid are DOT 3, DOT 4 and DOT 5, this classification appears on the fluid container.
Each type of brake fluid has its own definite characteristics. Do not intermix different types of brake
fluid as this may cause brake system failure. DOT 5 brake fluid is silicone based. DOT 5 is not
compatible with other brake fluids may cause brake system failure. When adding brake fluid, only use
the fluid recommended by the manufacturer.
Brake fluid will damage any plastic, painted or plated surface it contacts. Use extreme care when
working with brake fluid and remove any spills immediately with soap and water.
Hydraulic brake systems require clean and moisture free brake fluid. Never reuse brake fluid.
Keep containers and reservoirs properly sealed.
WARNING
Never put a mineral-based (Petroleum) oil into the
brake system. Mineral oil causes rubber parts in
the system to causing complete brake failure.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Cleaners, Degreasers and Solvents
Many chemicals are available to remove oil, grease and other residue from the ATV. Before using
cleaning solvents, consider how they will be used and disposed of , particularly if they are not
water-soluble. Local ordinances may types of cleaning chemicals. Refer to Safer in this chapter.
Use brake parts cleaner to brake system components. Brake parts cleaner leaves no residue.
Use electrical contact cleaner is a powerful solvent used to remove fuel deposits and varnish from
fuel system components. Use this cleaner carefully, as it may damage finishes.
Most solvents are designed to be used with a parts washing cabinet for individual component
cleaning. For safety, use only nonflammable or high flash point solvents.
Gasket Sealant
Sealant is used in combination with a gasket or seal. In other applications, such as between
crankcase halves, only a sealant is used. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation when using a
sealant. Use extreme care when choosing a sealant different sealant based on its resistance to heat,
various fluids and its sealing capabilities.
Gasket Remover
Aerosol gaskets remover can help remove stubborn gasket. This product can speed up the
removal process and prevent damage to the mating surface that may be caused by using a scraping
tool. Most of these types of products are very caustic. Follow the gasket remover manufacturer’s
instructions for use.
Thread locking Compound
A thread locking compound is a fluid applied to the threads of fasteners. After tightening the
fastener, the fluid dries and becomes a solid filler between the threads. This makes it difficult for the
fastener to work loose from vibration or hear expansion and contraction. Some thread locking
compound sparingly. Excess fluid can run into adjoining parts.
CAUTION
Thread locking compounds are anaerobic and will
stress, crack and attack most plastics. Use caution
when using these products in areas where there
are plastic components.
Thread locking compounds are available in a wide range of compounds for various strength,
temperature and repair applications. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations regarding
compound selection.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
BASIC TOOLS
Most of the procedures in this manual can be carried out with basic hand tools and test
equipment familiar to the home mechanic. Always use the correct tools for the job. Keep tools
organized and clean. Store them in a tool chest with related tools organized together.
Quality tools are essential. The best are constructed of high-strength alloy steel. These tools are
light, easy to use and resistant to wear. Their working surface is devoid of sharp edges and carefully
polished. They have an easy-to-clean finish and are comfortable to use. Quality tools are a good
investment.
Some of the procedures in this manual specify special tools. In many cases the tools is illustrated
in use. Those with a large tool kit may be able to replacement. However, in some cases, the
specialized equipment or expertise may make it impractical for the home mechanic to attempt the
procedure. When necessary, such operations are recommended to have a dealership or specialist
perform the task. It may be less expensive to have a professional perform these jobs, especially when
considering the cost of equipment.
When purchasing tools to perform the procedures covered in this manual, consider the tool’s
potential frequency of use. If a tool kit is just now being started. Consider purchasing a basic tool set
from a quality tool combinations and offer substantial savings when complicated, specialized tools
can be added.
Screwdrivers
Screwdrivers of various lengths and types are mandatory for the simplest tool kit. The two basic
types are the slotted tip (flat blade) and the Phillips tip. These are available in sets that often include
an assortment of tip size and shaft lengths.
As with all tools, use a screwdriver designed for the job. Make sure the size of the fastener. Use
them only for driving screws. Never use a screwdriver for prying or chiseling metal. Repair or replace
worn or damaged screwdrivers. A worn tip may damage the fastener, making it difficult to remove.
Phillips-head screws are often damaged by incorrectly fitting screwdrivers. Quality Phillips
screwdrivers are manufactured with their crosshead tip machined to Phillips Screw Company
specifications. Poor quality or damaged Phillips screwdrivers can back out (cam out) and round over
the screw head. In addition. Weak or soft screw materials can make removal difficult.
The best type of screwdriver to use on Phillips
screw is the ACR Phillips II screwdriver, patented by
the horizontal anti-cam out ribs found on the driving
faces or flutes of the screwdriver’s tip (figure 4). ACR
Phillips II screwdrivers were designed as part of a
manufacturing drive system to be used with ACR
Phillips II screws, but they work of tool companies
offer ACR Phillips II screwdrivers in different Tip size
and interchangeable bits to fit screwdriver bit holders.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
NOTE
Another way to prevent cam out and to increase
the grip of a Phillips screwdriver is to apply valve
grinding compound or permute screw & socket
Gripper
onto
the
screwdriver
tip.
After
loosening/tightening the screw, clean the screw
recess to prevent engine oil contamination.
Wrenches
Open-end, box-end and combination wrenches
(figure 5) are available in a variety of types and sizes.
The number stamped on the wrench refers to the
distance of the fastener head.
The box-end wrench is an excellent tool because
it grips the fastener on all sides. This reduces the
chance of the tool slipping. The box-end wrench is
designed with either a 6 or 12-point opening. For
stubborn or damaged fasteners, the 6-point provides
superior holding because it contacts the fastener
across a wider area at all six edges. For general use, the 12-point works well. It allows the wrench to
be removed and reinstalled without moving the handle over such a wide are.
An open-end wrench is fast and works best in areas with limited overhead access. It contacts the
fastener at only two points and is subject to slipping if under heavy force, or if the tool or fastener is
worn. A box-end wrench is preferred in most instances, especially when braking loose and applying
the final tightness to a fastener.
The combination wrench has a box-end on one
end and an open-end on one end and an open-end
on the other. This combination makes it a convenient
tool.
Adjustable wrenches
An adjustable wrench or Crescent wrench (Figure
6) can fit nearly any nut or bolt head that has clear
access around its entire perimeter. An adjustable
wrench is best used as a backup wrench to keep a
large nut or bolt from turning while the other end is
being loosened or tightened with a box-end or socket
wrench.
Adjustable wrenches contact the fastener at only
two points, which makes them more subject to slipping
off the fastener. Because one jaw is adjustable and
may become loose, this shortcoming is aggravated.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Make certain the solid jaw is the one transmitting the force.
Socket Wrenches, Ratchets and Handles
Sockets that attach to a ratchet handle (Figure 7)
are available with 6-point or 12-point openings (Figure
8) and different drive sizes. The drive size indicates the
size of the square hole that accepts the ratchet handle.
The number stamped on the socket is the size of the
work area and must the fastener head
As
with
wrenches.
a
6-point
provides
superior-holding ability. While a 12-point socket needs
to be moved only half as for to reposition it on the
fastener
Sockets are designated for either hand or impact use.
Impact sockets are made of thicker material for more
durability. Compare the size and wall thickness of a
19-mmhand socket (A, Figure 9) and the 19-mm
impact socket (B). Use impact sockets when using an
impact driver or air tools. Use hand sockets with
hand-driven attachments
WARNING
Do not use hand sockets with air or
impact tools because they may shatter
and cause injury. Always wear eye
protection when using impact or air
tools
Various handles are available for sockets. Use
the speed handle for fast operation. Flexible ratchet
heads in varying length allow the socket to be turned
with varying force and at odd angles. Extension bars
allow the socket setup to reach difficult areas. The
ratchet is the most versatile. It allows the user to
install or remove the nut without removing the socket
Sockets combined with any number of drivers
make them undoubtedly the fastest. Safest and most
convenient tool for fastener removal and installation
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Impact Drivers
An impact driver provides extra force for removing fasteners by converting the impact of a
hammer into a turning motion. This makes it possible to remove stubborn fasteners without damaging
them. Impact drivers and interchangeable bits (Figure 10) are available from most tool suppliers.
When using a socket with an impact driver. Make sure the socket is designed for impact use. Refer to
Socket Wrenches. Ratchets and handles in this section.
WARNING
Do not use hand sockets with air or impact tools
because they may shatter and cause injury. Always
wear eye protection when using impact or air tools
Allen Wrenches
Use Allen or setscrew wrenches (Figure 11) on
fasteners with hexagonal recesses in the fastener
head. These wrenches are available in L-shaped bar.
Socket and T-handle types. A metric set is required
when working on most motorcycles. Allen bolts are
sometimes called socket bolts.
Torque Wrenches
Use a torque wrench with a socket, torque
adapter or similar extension to tighten a fastener to a
measured torque. Torque wrenches come in several
drive sizes (1/4, 3/8, 1/2 and 3/4) and have various
methods of reading the torque value. The drive size
indicates the size of the square drive that accepts the
socket, adapter or extension. Common methods of
reading the torque value are the deflecting beam, the
dial indicator and the audible click (Figure 12).
When choosing a torque wrench, consider the
torque range, drive size and accuracy. The torque
specifications in this manual provide an indication of
the range required.
A torque wrench is a precision tool that must be
properly cared for to remain accurate. Store torque
wrenches in cases or separate padded drawers
within a toolbox. Please refer to the followed
manufacturer’s instructions for their care and
calibration.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Torque Adapters
Torque adapters or extensions extend or reduce the reach of a torque wrench. The torque
adapter shown in (Figure 13) is
used to tighten a fastener that
cannot be reached because of
the size of the torque wrench
head, drive, and socket. If a
torque adapter changes the
effective lever length (Figure 14),
the torque reading on the
wrench will not equal the actual
torque applied to the fastener. It
is necessary to recalibrate the
torque setting on the wrench to
compensate for the change of
lever length. When using a
torque adapter at a right angle to
the drive head, calibration is not
required, because the effective
length has not changed.
To recalculate a torque
reading when using a torque
adapter, use the following
formula and refer to Figure 14:
TW = TA×L
L+A
TW is the torque setting or dial reading on the wrench.
TA is the torque specification and the actual amount of torque that is applied to the fastener.
A is the amount that the adapter increases (or in some cases reduces) the effective lever length as
measured along the centerline of the torque wrench.
L is the lever length of the wrench as measured from the center of the drive to the center of the
grip.
The effective length is the sum of L and A.
Example:
TA= 20 ft.-lb.
A= 3in.
L= 14in.
TW= 20×14= 280= 16.5 ft. - lb.
14+3 = 17
In this example, the torque wrench would be set to the recalculated torque value (TW = 16.5 ft.
–lb.). When using a beam-type wrench, tighten the fastener until the pointer aligns with 16.5 ft. –lb. In
- 17 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
this example, although the torque wrench is pre set to 16.5 ft. –lb., the actual torque is 20 ft. –lb.
Pliers
Pliers come in a wide range of types and sizes.
Pliers are useful for holding, cutting, bending, and
crimping. Do not use them to turn fasteners. Figure
15 and Figure 16 show several types of useful pliers.
Each design has a specialized function. Slip-joint
pliers are general – purpose pliers used for gripping
and bending. Diagonal cutting pliers are needed to
cut wire and can be used to remove cotter pins. Use
needle nose pliers to hold or bend small objects.
Locking pliers (Figure 16), sometimes called ViseGrips, are used to hold objects very tightly. They
have many uses ranging from holding two parts
together, to gripping the end of a broken stud. Use
caution when using locking pliers, as the sharp jaws
will damage the objects they hold.
Snap Ring Pliers
Snap ring pliers are specialized pliers with tips that
fit into the ends of snap rings to remove and install them.
Snap ring pliers (Figure 17) are available with a
fixed action (either internal or external ) or convertible
(one tool works on both internal and external snap
rings). They may have fixed tips or interchangeable
ones of various sizes and angles. For general use,
select a convertible type pliers with interchangeable
tips (Figure 17).
WARNING
Snap rings can slip and fly off when removing and
installing them. Also, the snap ring pliers tips may
break. Always wear eye protection when using snap
ring pliers.
Hammers
Various types of hammers are available to fit a number of applications. Use a ball-peen hammer
to strike another tool, such as a punch or chisel. Use soft-faced hammers when a metal object must
- 18 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
be struck without damaging it. Never use a metal-faced hammer on engine and suspension
components because damage occurs in most cases.
Always wear eye protection when using hammers. Make sure the hammer face is in good
condition and the handle is not cracked. Select the correct hammer for the job and make sure to strike
the object squarely. Do not use the handle or the side of the hammer to strike an object.
Ignition Grounding Tool
Some test procedures require turning the engine
over without starting it. To prevent damage to the
ignition system from excessive resistance or the
possibility of fuel vapor being ignited by an open
spark, remove the spark plug cap and ground it
directly to a good engine ground with the tool shown
in (Figure 18).
Make the tool shown from a No.6 screw and nut,
two washers, length of tubing, alligator clip, electrical
eyelet and a length of wire.
PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS
The ability to accurately measure components is essential to perform many of the procedures
described in this manual. Equipment is manufactured to close tolerances, and obtaining consistently
accurate measurements is essential to determine which components require replacement or further
service.
Each type of measuring instrument is designed to measure a dimension with a certain degree of
accuracy and within a certain range. When selecting the measuring tool, make sure it is applicable to
the task.
As with all tools, measuring tools provide the best results if cared for properly. Improper use can
damage the tool and cause inaccurate results. If any measurement is questionable, verify the
measurement using another tool. A standard gauge is usually provided with micrometers to check
accuracy and calibrate the tool if necessary.
Precision measurements can vary according to
the experience of the person performing the
procedure. Accurate results are only possible if the
mechanic possesses a feel for using the tool.
Heavy-handed use of measuring tools produces less
accurate results. Hold the tool gently by the fingertips
to easily feel the point at which the tool contacts the
object. This feel for the equipment produces more
accurate measurements and reduces the risk of
damaging the tool or component. Refer to the
following sections for specific measuring tools.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Feeler Gauge
Use feeler or thickness gauges (Figure19) for measuring the distance between two surfaces.
A feeler gauge set consists of an assortment of steel strips of graduated thickness. Each blade is
marked with its thickness. Blades can be of various lengths and angles for different procedures.
A common use for a feeler gauge is to measure valve clearance. Use wire (round) type gauges
to measure spark plug gap.
Calipers
Calipers (Figure 20) are excellent tools for
obtaining inside, outside and depth measurements.
Although not as precise as a micrometer, they allow
reasonable precision, typically to within 0.02mm or
0.05 mm (0.001 in.). Most calipers have a range up
to 150 mm (6 in.).
Calipers are available in dial, venire or digital
versions. Dial calipers have a dial readout that
provides convenient reading. Venire calipers have
marked scales that must be compared to determine
the measurement. The digital caliper uses a
liquid-crystal display (LCD) to show the
measurement.
Properly maintain the measuring surfaces of the
caliper. There must not be any dirt or burrs between
the tool and the object being measured. Never force
the caliper to close around an object. Close the
caliper around the highest point so it can be
removed with a slight drag. Some calipers require calibration. Always refer to the manufacturer’s
instructions when using a new or unfamiliar caliper.
To read a vernire. Calipers refer to Figure 21. The fixed scale is marked in l-mm increments. Ten
individual lines on the fixed scale equal 1 cm. The movable scale is marked in 0.05 mm (hundredth)
increments. To obtain a reading, establish the first number by the location of the 0 line on the movable
scale in relation to the first line to the left on the fixed scale. In this example, the number is 10 mm. To
determine the next number, note which of the lines on the movable scale align with a mark on the
fixed scale. A number of lines will seem close, but only one will align exactly. In this case, 0.50 mm is
the reading to add to the first number. Adding 10 mm and 0.50 mm equals a measurement of 10.50
mm.
Micrometers
A micrometer is an instrument designed for linear measurement using the decimal divisions of
the inch or meter (Figure 22). While there are many types and styles of micrometers, most of the
- 20 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
DECIMAL PLACE VALUES*
0.1
0.01
0.001
Indicates 1/10 (one tenth of an inch or
millimeter)
Indicates 1/100 (one one-hundredth of
an inch or millimeter)
Indicates 1/1000 (one one-thousandth
of an inch or millimeter)
*This chart represents the values of figures placed to the right of the decimal point. Use
it when reading decimals from one-tenth to one one-thousandth of an inch or millimeter.
It is not a conversion chart (for example: 0.001 in. is not equal to 0.001 mm).
procedures in this manual call for an outside micrometer. Use the outside micrometer to measure the
outside diameter of cylindrical forms and the thickness of materials.
A micrometer’s size indicates the minimum and
maximum size of a part that it can measure. The
usual sizes (Figure 23) are 0-25mm (0-1 in.), 25-50
mm (1-2 in.), 50-75 mm (2-3 in.) and 75-100 mm
(3-4 in.).
Micrometers that cover a wider range of
measurements are available. These use a large
frame with interchangeable anvils of various lengths.
This type of micrometer offers a cost savings, but its
overall size may make it less convenient.
When reading a micrometer, numbers are
taken from different scales and added together. The following sections describe how to adjust, care
for and read the measurements of various types of outside micrometers.
For accurate results, properly maintain the measuring surfaces of the micrometer. There cannot
be any dirt or burrs between the tool and the measured object. Never force the micrometer to close
around an object. Close the micrometer around the highest point so it can be removed with a slight
drag.
Adjustment
Before using a micrometer, check its adjustment as follows:
1. Clean the anvil and spindle faces.
2A. To check a 0-1 in. or 0-25 mm micrometer:
a. Turn the thimble until the spindle contacts the anvil. If the micrometer has a ratchet stop, use it
to ensure that the proper amount of pressure is applied.
b. If the adjustment is correct, the 0 mark on the thimble will align exactly with the 0 mark on the
sleeve line. If the marks do not align, the micrometer is out of adjustment.
c. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to adjust the micrometer.
- 21 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
2B. To check a micrometer larger than 1 in. or 25 mm use the standard gauge supplied by the
manufacturer. A standard gauge is a steel block, disc or rod that is machined to an exact size.
a. Place the standard gauge between the spindle and anvil, and measure its outside diameter or
length. If the micrometer has a ratchet stop, use it to ensure that the proper amount of pressure is
applied.
b. If the adjustment is correct, the 0 mark on the thimble will align exactly with the 0 mark on the
sleeve line. If the marks do not align, the micrometer is out of adjustment.
c. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to adjust the micrometer.
Care
Micrometers are precision instruments. They must be used and maintained with great care. Note
the following:
1. Store micrometers in protective cases or separate padded drawers in a tool box.
2. When in storage, make sure the spindle and anvil faces do not contact each other or another object.
If they do, temperature changes and corrosion may damage the contact faces.
3. Do not clean a micrometer with compressed air. Dirt forced into the tool will cause wear.
4. Lubricate micrometers with WD-40 to prevent
corrosion.
Metric micrometer
The standard metric micrometer (Figure 24) is
accurate to one one-hundredth of a millimeter (0.01
mm). The sleeve line is graduated in millimeter and
half millimeter increments. The marks on the upper
half of the sleeve line equal 1.00 mm. Each fifth
mark above the sleeve line is identified with a
number. The number sequence depends on the size
of the micrometer. A 0-25 mm micrometer, for
example, will have sleeve marks numbered 0
through 25 in 5 mm increments. This numbering
sequence continues with larger micrometers. On all
metric micrometers, each mark on the lower half of
the sleeve equals 0.50 mm.
The tapered end of the thimble has 50 lines
marked around it. Each mark equals 0.01 mm. One
completer turn of the thimble aligns its 0 mark with the first line lower half of the sleeve line or
0.50mm.
When reading a metric micrometer, add the number of millimeters and half-millimeters on the
sleeve line to the number of one one-hundredth millimeters on the thimble. Perform the following
steps while referring to Figure 25.
1. Read the upper half of the sleeve line and count the number of lines visible. Each upper line
- 22 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
equals 1mm.
2. See if the half –millimeter line is visible on the lower sleeve line. If so, add 0.50mm to the reading
in Step 1.
3. Read the thimble mark that aligns with the sleeve line. Each thimble mark equals 0.01mm.
NOTE
If a thimble mark does not align exactly with the sleeve
line. Estimate the amount between the lines. For accurate
readings in two-thousandths of a millimeter (0.002mm),
use a metric vernier micrometer.
4. Add the readings from Steps 1-3.
Standard inch micrometer
The standard inch micrometer (Figure 26) is
accurate to one-thousandth of an inch or 0.001. The
sleeve is marked in 0.025 in. increments. Every
fourth sleeve mark is numbered 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.
These numbers indicate 0.100, 0.200, 0.300, and so
on.
The tapered end of the thimble has 25 lines
marked around it. Each mark equals 0.001 in. One
complete turn of the thimble will align its zero mark
with the first mark on the sleeve or 0.025 in.
To read a standard inch micrometer, perform the
following steps and refer to Figure 27.
1. Read the sleeve and find the largest number
visible. Each sleeve number equals 0.100 in.
2. Count the number of lines between the
numbered sleeve mark and the edge of the
thimble. Each sleeve mark equals 0.025 in.
3. Read the thimble mark that aligns with the
sleeve line. Each thimble mark equals 0.01 in.
NOTE
If a thimble mark does not align exactly with the sleeve line, estimate the
amount between the lines. For accurate readings in ten-thousandths of
an inch (0.0001 in), use a vernier inch micrometer.
4. Add the readings from Steps 1-3.
- 23 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
Telescoping and Small Bore Gauges
Use telescoping gauges (Figure 28) and small
bore gauges (Figure 29) to measure bores. Neither
gauge has a scale for direct readings. Use an
outside micrometer to determine the reading.
To use a telescoping gauge, select the correct
size gauge for the bore. Compress the movable post
and. Care fully insert the gauge into the bore.
Carefully move the gauge in the bore to make sure it
is centered. Tighten the knurled end of the gauge to
hold the movable post in position. Remove the gauge
and measure the length of the posts. Telescoping
gauges are typically used to measure cylinder bores.
To use a small bore gauge, select the correct
size gauge for the bore. Carefully insert the gauge
into the bore. Tighten the knurled end of the gauge to
carefully expand the gauge fingers to the limit within
the bore. Do not over tighten the gauge because
there is no built-in release. Excessive tightening can
damage the bore surface and damage the tool.
Remove the gauge and measure the outside
dimension (Figure 30). Small bore gauges are
typically used to measure valve guides.
Dial Indicator:
A dial indicator (Figure 31) is a gauge with a dial
face and needle used to measure variations in
dimensions and movements. Measuring brake rotor
runout is a typical use for a dial indicator.
Dial indicators are available in various ranges
and graduations and with three basic types of
mounting bases: magnetic (B. Figure 31). Clamp, or
screw-in stud. When purchasing a dial indicator,
select on with a continuous dial (A, Figure 31).
Cylinder Bore Gauge
A cylinder bore gauge is similar to a dial indicator. The gauge set shown in Figure 32 consists of a
dial indicator, handle, and different length adapters (anvils) to fit the gauge to various bore sizes. The
bore gauge is used to measure bore size, taper and out-of-round. When using a bore gauge, follow
the manufacturer’s instructions.
- 24 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
Compression Gauge
A compression gauge (Figure 33) measures
combustion chamber (cylinder) pressure, usually in
PSI or kg/ cm2 . The gauge adapter is either inserted
or screwed into the spark plug hole to obtain the
reading. Disable the engine so it does not start and
hold the throttle in the wide-open position when
performing a compression test An engine that does
not have adequate compression cannot be properly
tuned. Refer to Chapter Three.
Multimeter
A multimeter (Figure 34) is an essential tool for
electrical system diagnosis. The voltage function
indicates the voltage applied or available to various
electrical components. The ohmmeter function tests
circuits for continuity, or lack of continuity, and
measures the resistance of a circuit.
Some manufacturer’s specifications for electrical
components are based on results using a specific
test meter. Results may vary if using a meter not
recommended
by
the
manufacturer.
Such
requirements are noted when applicable.
Ohmmeter (analog) calibration
Each time an analog ohmmeter is used or if the
scale is changed, the ohmmeter must be calibrated.
Digital ohmmeters do not require calibration.
1. Make sure the meter battery is in good condition.
2. Make sure the meter probes are in good
condition.
3. Touch the two probes together and observe the
needle location on the ohms scale. The needle
must Align with the 0 mark to obtain accurate
measurements.
4. If necessary, rotate the meter ohms adjust knob
until the needle and 0 mark align.
Clip-on ammeter
1.
Clip-on ammeter (Figure 35) is the basic tool
for electrical system diagnosis which is used to
measure the current of charging system and other electrical components work current.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
2.
Clip-on ammeter can measure direct current
and alternating current. Please ensure that the
instrument battery capacity is sufficient when
work.
When measure the current, the calliper must seize
the positive pole of the power. If seize the negative
pole mistakenly, wrong result will appear.
Magneto puller
Magneto drawing (figure 36) is special tool to dism
antle magneto rotor . firstly put the mandril into the i
nside of shaft hole ,Turn the magneto rotor accordingly, screw magneto drawing and push-out mag
neto rotor
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
A thorough study of the many types of electrical systems used in today’s motorcycles is beyond
the scope of this manual. However, a basic understanding of electrical basics is necessary to perform
simple diagnostic tests.
Refer to Electrical Testing in Chapter Two for typical test procedures and equipment. Refer to
Chapter Ten for specific system test procedures.
Voltage
Voltage is the electrical potential or pressure in an electrical circuit and is expressed in volts. The
more pressure (voltage) in a circuit the more work can be performed.
Direct current (DC) voltage means the electricity flows in one direction. All circuits powered by a
battery are DC circuits.
Alternating current (AC) means the electricity flows in one direction momentarily and then
switches to the opposite direction. Alternator output is an example of AC voltage. This voltage must
be changed or rectified to direct current to operate in a battery powered system.
Resistance
Resistance is the opposition to the flow of electricity within a circuit or component and is
measured in ohms. Resistance causes a reduction in available current and voltage
Resistance is measured in an inactive circuit with an ohmmeter. The ohmmeter sends a small
amount of current into the circuit and measures how difficult it is to push the current through the
circuit.
An ohmmeter, although useful, is not always a good indicator of a circuit’s actual ability under
operating conditions. This is because of the low voltage (6-9 volts) the meter uses to test the circuit.
The voltage in an ignition coil secondary winding can be several thousand volts. Such high voltage
can cause the coil to malfunction, even though it tests acceptable during a resistance test.
Resistance generally. Increases with temperature. Perform all testing with the component or
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GENERAL INFORMATION
circuit at room temperature. Resistance tests performed at high temperatures may indicate high
resistance readings and cause unnecessary replacement of a component.
Amperage
Amperage is the unit of measurement for the amount of current within a circuit. Current is the
actual flow of electricity. The higher the current, the more work can be performed up to a given point.
If the current flow exceeds the circuit or component capacity, it will damage the system.
Warning
If the current insulation damage, may cause short circuit fault which lead to short circuit
or large current in components. It may cause a fire.
Thus, if the current of circuit or components measured by amperage exceeds the
standard level, must check and repair electrical system at once.
BASIC SERVICE METHODS
Most of the procedures in this manual are straightforward and can be performed by anyone
reasonably competent with tools. However, consider personal capabilities carefully before attempting
any operation involving major disassembly.
1. Front, in this manual, riders to the front of the ATV, The front of any component is the end closest
to the front the ATV. The left and right sides refer to the position of the parts as viewed by the rider
sitting on the seat facing forward.
2. Whenever servicing an engine or suspension component, secure the ATV in a safe manner.
3. Tag all similar parts for location and mark all mating parts for position. Record the number and
thickness of any shims when removing them. Identify parts by placing them in sealed and labeled
plastic sandwich bags.
4. Tag disconnected wires and connectors with masking tape and a marking pen. Do not rely on
memory alone.
5. Protect finished surfaces from physical damage or corrosion. Keep gasoline and other chemicals
off painted surfaces.
6. Use penetrating oil on frozen or tight bolts. Avoid using heat where possible. Heat can warp, melt
or affect the temper of parts. Heat also damages the finish of paint and plastics.
7. When a part is a press fit or requires a special tool to remove, the information or type of tool is
identified in the text. Otherwise, if a part is difficult to remove or install, determine the cause
before proceeding.
8. To prevent objects or debris from falling into the engine, cover all openings.
9. Read each procedure thoroughly and compare the illustrations to the actual components before
starting the procedure. Perform the procedure in
10. Recommendations are occasionally made to refer service to a dealership or specialist. In these
cases, the work can be performed more economically by the specialist than by the home
mechanic.
11. The term replaces means to discard a defective part and replace it with a new part. Overhaul
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GENERAL INFORMATION
means to remove, disassemble, inspect, measure, repair and/or replace parts as required to
recondition an assembly.
12. Some operations require using a hydraulic press. If a press is not available, have these
operations performed by a shop equipped with the necessary equipment. Do not use makeshift
equipment that may damage the motorcycle.
13. Repairs are much faster and easier if the ATV is clean before starting work. Degrease the
motorcycle with a commercial degreaser; follow the directions on the container for the best results.
Clean all parts with cleaning solvent when removing them.
CAUTION
Do not direct high-pressure water at
steering bearings, fuel hoses, wheel
bearings,
suspension
and
electrical
components. Water may force grease out of
the bearings and possibly damage the seals
14. If special tools are required, have them available before starting the procedure. When special
tools are required, they are described at the beginning of the procedure.
15. Make diagrams of similar-appearing parts. For instance, crankcase bolts are often not the same
lengths. Do not rely on memory alone. Carefully laid out parts can become disturbed, making it
difficult to reassemble the comports correctly.
16. Make sure all shims and washers are reinstalled in the same location and position.
17. Whenever rotating parts contact a stationary part, look for a shim or washer.
18. Use new gaskets if there is any doubt about the condition of old ones.
19. If using self-locking fasteners, replace them with new ones. Do not install standard fasteners in
place of self-locking ones.
20. Use grease to hold small parts in place if they tend to fall out during assembly. Do not apply
grease to electrical or brake components.
Removing Frozen Fasteners
If a fastener cannot be removed, several
methods may be used to loosen it. First, apply a
penetrating fluid. Apply it liberally and let it penetrate
for 10-15 minutes. Rap the fastener several times with
a small hammer. Do not hit it hard enough to cause
damage. Reapply the penetrating fluid if necessary.
For frozen screws, apply penetrating fluid as described, the insert a screwdriver in the slot and
rap the top of the screwdriver with a hammer. This loosens the rust so the screw can be removed in
the normal way. If the screw head is too damaged to use this method, grip the head with locking pliers
and twist the screw out.
Avoid applying heat unless specifically instructed. Heat may melt, warp or remove the temper
from parts.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Removing Broken Fasteners
If the head breaks off a screw or bolt, several
methods are available for removing the remaining
portion. If a large portion of the remainder projects
out, try gripping it with locking pliers. If the
projecting portion is too small, file it to fit a wrench
of cut a slot in it to fit a screwdriver (Figure 37)
If the head breaks off flush, use a screw
extractor. To do this, center punch the exact center
of the remaining portion of the screw or bolt. Drill a
small hole in the screw and tap the extractor into
the hole. Back the screw out with a wrench on the
extractor (Figure 38)
Repairing Damaged Threads
Occasionally, threads are stripped through
carelessness or impact damage. Often the threads
can be repaired by running a tap (for internal
threads on nuts) or die (for external threads on
bolts) through the threads (Figure 39). To clean or
repair spark plug threads, use a spark plug tap.
If an internal thread is damaged, it may be
necessary to install a Helical or some other type of
thread insert. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions
when installing their insert.
If it is necessary to drill and tap a hole, refer to
Table 8 for metric tap and drill sizes.
Stud Removal/Installation
A stud removal tool (Figure 40) is available
from most tool suppliers. This tool makes the
removal and installation of studs easier. If one is not
available, thread two must onto the stud and tighten
them against each other. Remove the stud by
turning the lower nut (Figure 41).
1. Measure the height of the stud above the
surface.
2. Thread the stud removal tool onto the stud
and tighten it, or thread two nuts onto the
stud.
3. Remove the stud by turning the stud remover
or the lower nut.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Remove any thread locking compound from the threaded hole. Clean the threads with an
aerosol parts cleaner.
Install the stud removal tool onto the new stud or thread two nuts onto the stud.
Apply thread locking compound to the threads of the stud.
Install the stud and tighten with the stud removal tool or the top nut.
Install the stud to the height noted in Step 1 or its torque specification.
Remove the stud removal tool or the two nuts.
Removing Hoses
When removing stubborn hoses, do not exert excessive force on the hose or fitting. Remove the
hose, do not exert excessive force on the hose or fitting. Remove the hose clamp and carefully insert
a small screwdriver or pick tool between the fitting and hose. Apply a spray lubricant under the hose
and carefully twist the hose off the fitting. Clean the fitting of any corrosion or rubber hose material
with a wire brush Clean the inside of the hose thoroughly. Do not use any lubricant when installing the
hose (new or old). The lubricant may allow the hose to come off the fitting, even with the clamp
secure.
Bearings
Bearings are used in the engine and transmission assembly to reduce power loss, heat and noise
resulting from friction. Because bearings are precision parts, they must be maintained with proper
lubrication and maintenance. If a bearing is damaged, replace it immediately. When installing a new
bearing, take care to prevent damaging it. Bearing replacement procedures are included in the
individual chapters where applicable; however. Use the following sections as a guideline.
NOTE
Unless
otherwise
specified,
install
bearings
with
the
manufacturer’s mark or number
facing outward.
Removal
While bearing are normally removed only when
damaged, there may be times when it is necessary
to remove a bearing that is in good condition.
However, improper bearing removal will damage
the bearing and possibly the shaft or case. Note the
following when removing bearings:
1. When using a puller to remove a bearing from
a shaft, take care that the shaft is not
damaged. Always place a piece of metal
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GENERAL INFORMATION
between the end of the shaft and the puller
screw. In addition, place the puller arms next
to the inner bearing race. See Figure 42.
2. When using a hammer to remove a bearing
from a shaft. do not strike the hammer directly
against the shaft. Instead, use a brass or
aluminum rod between the hammer and shaft
(Figure 43) and make sure to support both
bearing races with wooden blocks as shown.
3. The ideal method of bearing removal is with a
hydraulic press. Note the following when using
a press:
a. Always support the inner and outer
bearing races with a suitable size
b.
c.
wooden or aluminum spacer (Figure
44). If only the outer race is supported,
pressure applie against the balls and/or
the inner race will damage them.
Always make sure the press arm
(Figure 44) aligns with the center of the
shaft. If the arm is not centered, it may
damage the bearing and/or shaft.
The moment the shaft is free of the
bearing. It drops to the floor. Secure or
hold the shaft to prevent it from falling.
Installation
1. When installing a bearing in a housing, apply
pressure to the outer bearing race (Figure 45).
When installing a bearing on a shaft, apply
pressure to the inner bearing race (Figure 46).
2. When installing a bearing as described in Step
1, some type of driver is required. Never strike
the bearing directly with a hammer or it will
damage the bearing. When installing a bearing,
use a piece of pipe or a driver with a diameter
that matches the bearing inner race. Figure 47
Shows the correct way to use a driver and
hammer to install a bearing.
3. Step 1 describes how to install a bearing in a
case half or over a shaft However, when
installing a bearing over a shaft and into the housing at the same time, a tight fit is required for
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GENERAL INFORMATION
both outer and inner bearing races. In this
situation, install a spacer underneath the driver
tool so that pressure is applied evenly across
both races. See Figure 48. If the outer race is
not supported as shown, the balls will push
against the outer bearing race and damage it
Interference fit
1. Follow this procedure when installing a
bearing over a shaft. When a tight fit is
required, the bearing inside diameter is smaller
than the shaft. In this case. Driving the bearing
on the shaft using normal methods may cause
bearing damage. Instead, heat the bearing
before installation. Note the following:
a. Secure the shaft so it is ready for
bearing installation.
b. Clean all residues from the bearing
surface of the shaft. Remove burrs with
a file or sandpaper.
c. Fill a suitable pot or beaker with clean mineral oil. Place a thermometer rated above
120℃(248°F) in the oil. Support the thermometer so it does not rest on the bottom or side
of the pot.
d. Remove the bearing from its wrapper and secure it with a piece of heavy wire bent to hold
it in the pot. Hang the bearing in the pot so it does not touch the bottom or sides of the pot.
e. Turn the heat on and monitor the thermometer. When the oil temperature rises to
approximately 120℃(248°F), remove the bearing from the pot and quickly install it. If
necessary, place a socket on the inner bearing race and tap the bearing into place. As the
bearing chills, it will tighten on the shaft, so install it quickly. Make sure the bearing is
installed completely.
2. Follow this step when installing a bearing in a housing. Bearings are general installed in a
housing with a slight interference fit Driving the bearing into the housing using normal methods
may damage the housing or cause bearing damage. Instead, heat the housing before the
bearing is installed. Note the following:
CAUTION
Before heating the housing in this procedure, wash
the housing thoroughly with detergent and water.
Rinse and rewash the cases as required to remove
all traces of oil and other chemical deposits
a. Heat the housing to approximately 100℃ (212°F) in an oven or on a hot plate. An easy way to
check that it is the proper temperature is to place tiny drops of water on the housing; if they
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GENERAL INFORMATION
sizzle and evaporate immediately, the temperature is correct. Heat only one housing at a time.
CAUTION
Do not heat the housing with a propane or
acetylene torch. Never bring a flame into contact
with the bearing or housing. The direct heat will
destroy the case hardening of the bearing and will
likely warp the housing.
b. Remove the housing from the oven or hot plate, and hold onto the housing with welding gloves.
It is hot!
NOTE
Remove and install the bearings with a
suitable size socket and extension.
c. Hold the housing with the bearing side down and tap the bearing out. Repeat for all bearings in
the housing.
d. Before heating the bearing housing, place the new bearing in a freezer if possible. Chilling a
bearing slightly reduces its outside diameter while the heated bearing housing assembly is
slightly larger due to heat expansion. This makes bearing installation easier.
NOTE
Always install bearings with the manufacturer’s
mark or number facing outward.
e. While the housing is still hot. Install the new bearing(s) into the housing. Install the bearings by
hand. if possible. If necessary, lightly tap the bearing(s) into the housing with a driver placed on
the outer bearing race (Figure 45). Do not install new bearings by driving on the inner-bearing
race. Install the bearing(s) until it seats completely.
Seal Replacement
Seals (Figure 49) contain oil, water, grease
or combustion gasses in a housing or shaft.
Improperly removing a seal can damage the
housing or shaft. Improperly installing the seal can
damage the seat. Note the following:
1. Prying is generally the easiest and most
effective method of removing a seal from the
housing. However. Always place a rag
underneath the pry tool to prevent damage to
the housing. Note the seal’s installed depth or
if it is installed flush.
2. Pack waterproof grease in the seal lips before the seal is installed.
3. In most cases, install seals with the manufacturer’s numbers or marks facing out.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
4. Install seals with a socket or driver placed on the outside of the seal as shown in. Drive the seal
squarely into the housing until it is to the correct depth or flush as noted during removal. Never
install a seal by hitting against the top of it with a hammer.
STORAGE
Several months of non-use can cause a general deterioration of the motorcycle, ATV This is
especially true in areas of extreme temperature variations. This deterioration can be minimized with
careful preparation for storage. A properly stored motorcycle is much easier to return to service.
Storage Area Selection
1.
2.
3.
4.
When selecting a storage area, consider the following:
The storage area must be dry. A heated area is best, but not necessary. It should be insulated to
minimize extreme temperature variations.
If the building has large window areas, mask them to keep sunlight off the ATV .
Avoid buildings in industrial areas where corrosive emissions may be present. Avoid areas close
to saltwater.
Consider the area’s risk of fire, theft or vandalism. Check with an insurer regarding ATV coverage
while in storage.
Preparing the Motorcycle for Storage
The amount of preparation a motorcycle should undergo before storage depends on the expected
length of non-use, storage area conditions and personal preference. Consider the following list the
minimum requirement:
1. Wash the ATV thoroughly. Make sure all dirt, mud and other debris are removed.
2. Lubricate the drive chain.
3. Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperature. Drain the engine oil regardless of the
riding time since the last service. Fill the engine with the recommended type of oil.
4. Drain the fuel tank, fuel lines and throttle.
5. Remove the spark plug and ground the ignition system with a grounding tool as described in this
chapter. Then pour a teaspoon (15-20ml) of engine oil into the cylinder. Place a rag over the
opening and Start the engine over to distribute the oil. Remove the grounding tool and reinstall
the spark plug.
6. When the engine has cooled to room temperature, drain the cooling system drain the coolant in
the coolant reserve tank and all tank lines.
7. Cover the exhaust and intake opening.
8. Apply a protective substance to the plastic and rubber components. Make sure to follow the
manufacturer’s instructions for each type of product being used.
9. Place the ATV on a work stand with both wheels off the ground.
10. Cover the ATV with old bed sheets or something similar. Do not cover it with any plastic material
that will trap moisture.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Returning the ATV to Service
The amount of service required when returning a ATV to service after storage depends on the
length of non-use and storage conditions. In addition to performing the reverse of the procedure, note
the following:
1. Remove the covers from the intake and exhaust openings.
2. Service the air filter as described in Chapter Three.
3. Inspect the cooling system. Check the drain plug and hose connections for leaks.
4. Refill the fuel tank. Turn the fuel shutoff valve on and check for fuel leaks.
5. Make sure the brakes, clutch, throttle and engine stop switch work properly before operating the
ATV. Evaluate the service intervals to determine which areas require service.
6. If the ATV has been in storage for longer than four months, change the engine oil as and filter,
and the transmission oil as described
TROVBLESHOOTING
Diagnose electrical and mechanical problems by following an orderly procedure and
remembering the basic operating requirements
Define
Symptoms
Determine
Which areas
symptoms
Test and
analyze
The suspect areas
Is date
The problem
could
exhibit
these
By following a systematic approach, the possibility of unnecessary parts replacement can be
avoid, always start with the simple and most obvious checks when troubleshooting, This would
include the engine stop switch, fuel quantity and condition, fuel vale position and spark plug cap
tightness
Proper maintenance as described in Chapter Three reduces the necessity for troubleshooting.
Even with the best of care, however, the motorcycle may develop problems that require trouble
shooting.
If the problem cannot be solved. Stop and evaluate all conditions prior to the problem. If the
motorcycle must be taken to a repair facility, the mechanic will want to know as many details as
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GENERAL INFORMATION
possible.
For removal, installation and test procedures for some components, refer to the specific chapter.
When applicable, tables at the end of each chapter also provide specifications and service limits.
ENGINE PRINCIPLES AND OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
An engine needs three basics to run properly:
Correct air/fuel mixture
Compression
Engine runs
A spark at the right time
If one basic requirement is missing the engine will not run.
STARTING THE ENGINE
When experiencing engine-starting troubles, it is easy to work out of sequence and forget basic
starting procedures. The following sections describe the recommended starting procedures.
Several special faults and countermeasures of EFI engine system
1.Special fault:
Idle speed is too high at starting moment。
The engine start normally, the engine speed will be a little higher than normal idle speed
(1400rpm) within the first 10 seconds. According to different temperature of engine coolant, the
process will continue from several seconds to tens of seconds.
Finally, the engine speed will decrease to normal idle speed automatically.
Reason: The intelligent control function of EFI automatically forces to complete the engine
warm-up process and enhance the oil pressure to correct level at the same time.
Result: Ensure the engine can work with steady idle speed and conducive to complete the
engine warm-up process quickly after start engine in low temperature.
2.Special fault:
Idle instability, CH and CO of off-gas out of limits
Reason:Oxygen sensor loosing cause slight leakage or pipe slight leakage and makes the
oxygen sensor collect too much oxygen ion signal. The wrong signal transmits to the ECU which
result the increasing of oil supply. Finally, it causes the oil too thick.
3.Special fault:
In the vehicle driving process, there is no idle speed or too low idle speed when restart it after
storage battery power off abnormally.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
Countermeasure: Step on the throttle slightly when start the engine and maintain for a few
seconds. And then let go of the throttle, remove the key and switch off the vehicle. After waiting for
ten minutes, switch on with the key that could restart the engine.
4.Special fault:
The engine can’t start normally after changing air filter or air throttle
Reason:The inner cleanness of old air filter and air throttle is poor after long running. The idle
speed step motor will revise the volume of air up automatically. If change to new air filter or air
throttle, idle speed step motor inside ECU need to match the volume of oil when in idle speed
automatically.
Countermeasure: When start the engine, run 2 to 3 minutes in idle speed. If it can’t run normally
in idle, turn off the engine and restart it repeatedly 10 seconds later until it can run normally in idle.
Or switch on and off the key 5 times in a row which can reset all saved data in ECU.
Engine is cold
1. Shift the transmission into neutral.
2. Turn the fuel valve on or confirm if the fuel is in upper or below retile in the fuel tank.
3. Start the engine and run in neutral for 1 minute to enhance the temperature of engine. If it runs
normally in neutral, you can drive the ATV.
NOTE
Race the engine with high power in low
temperature will cause damage to the engine.
Engine is warm
1. Shift the transmission into neutral.
2. Confirm if the fuel is in upper or below retied in the tank.
3. Start the engine. If the engine can run in idle speed steady and the engine speed is lower than
1600RPM, the ATV can shift driving forward.
NOTE
Shift operation must be after ATV has stopped and
the engine speed has reduced to idle speed (1450RPM).
Starting the engine after a fall or after the engine stalls
1. Shift the transmission into neutral.
2. Release the hot start lever as the engine starts.
3. If the engine fails to start, refer to Flooded Engine in this section.
Flooded engine
If the engine fails to start after several attempts, it is probably flooded. This occurs when too
much fuel is drawn into the engine and the spark plug fails to ignite it. The smell of gasoline is often
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GENERAL INFORMATION
evident when the engine is flooded. Troubleshoot a flooded engine as follows:
1. Open the throttle fully and hold in this position. Then start the engine firmly through its entire
stoke ten times to clear the engine. Close the throttle.
2. Check and repair ignition system.
3. If the engine still does not start, refer to Engine will Not Start this chapter.
ENGINE WILL NOT START
Identifying the Problem
If the engine does not start, perform the following steps in order while remembering the Engine
Principals and Operating Requirements described in this chapter. If the engine fails to start after
performing these checks, refer to the troubleshooting procedures indicated in the steps. If the engine
starts, but idles or runs roughly, refer to Poor Engine Performance in this chapter.
1. Refer to Starting the Engine in this chapter to make sure all starting procedures are correct.
2. If the engine seems flooded, refer to Starting The Engine in this chapter. If the engine is not flooded,
continue with Step 3.
3. Remove the cap from the fuel tank and make sure the fuel tank and make sure the fuel tank has a
sufficient amount of fuel to start the engine.
4. If there is sufficient fuel in the fuel tank, remove the spark plug immediately after attempting to start
the engine. The plug’s insulator should be wet, indicating that fuel is reaching the engine. If the plug
tip is dry, fuel is not reaching the engine. Refer to Fuel System in this chapter. If there is fuel on the
spark plug and the engine will not start, the engine may not have adequate spark. Continue with
Step 5.
5. Make sure the direct ignition coil or spark plug wire is secure. Push the direct ignition coil or spark
plug cap and slightly rotate it to clean the electrical connection between the plug and the connector.
If the engine does not start. Continue with step 6
NOTE
A cracked or damaged direct ignition coil or spark
plug cap and cable can cause intermittent
problems that are difficult to diagnose. If the
engine occasionally misfires or cuts out, use a
spray bottle to wet the direct ignition coil or plug
cap and plug cable while the engine is running.
Water that enters one of theses areas causes an
arc through the insulating material, causing an
engine misfire.
NOTE
Engine misfire can also be caused by water that
enters through connectors. Check the connectors
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GENERAL INFORMATION
for loose wire ends. On waterproof connectors,
check for damage where the wires enter the
connector.
6. Perform the Spark Test in this section. If there is a strong spark, perform Step 7. If there is no spark
or if the spark is very weak, refer to Ignition System Testing in Chapter Ten.
7. If the fuel and ignition systems are working correctly, perform a leak down test (this chapter) and
cylinder compression test. If the leak down test indicates a problem, or the compression under
Engine in this chapter.
Spark Test
Perform a spark test to determine if the ignition system is producing adequate spark. This test
should be performed with a spark tester. A spark tester looks like a spark plug with an adjustable gap
between the center electrode and grounded base. Because the voltage required to jump the spark
tester gap is sufficiently larger than that of a normally gapped spark plug, the test results are more
accurate than with a spark plug. Do not assume that because a spark jumped across a spark plug
gap, the ignition system is working correctly.
Perform this test on the engine when it is both cold and hot, if possible. If the test results are
positive for each test, the ignition system is working correctly.
CAUTION
After removing the direct ignition coil or spark plug
cap and before removing the spark plug in Step 1,
clean the area around the spark plug with
compressed air. Dirt that falls into the cylinder
causes rapid engine wear.
1. Disconnect the direct ignition coil or spark plug cap. Check for the presence of water.
2. Visually inspect the spark plug for damage.
3. Connect a spark tester to the direct ignition coil or spark plug cap. Ground the spark tester base (or
spark plug) to a good ground. Position the spark tester or spark plug firing tip away from the open
spark plug hole. Position the spark tester so the electrodes are visible.
WARNING
Mount the spark tester or spark plug away from the
spark plug hole in the cylinder. If the engine is
flooded, do not perform this test. The spark tester
can ignite fuel ejected through the spark plug hole.
4.Shift the transmission into neutral.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
WARNING
Do not hold the spark tester, spark plug or
connector or a serious electrical shock may result.
5. Turn the engine over using the starter and push the starter button. A fat blue spark must be evident
between the spark tester or spark plug terminals.
6. If there is a strong, blue spark, the ignition system is functioning properly, Check for one or more of
the following possible malfunctions:
a. Faulty fuel system component.
b. Flooded engine.
c. engine damage(low compression).
7. If the spark was weak (white or yellow) or if there was no spark, perform the peak voltage checks
described under Ignition System Testing.
8. Reinstall the fuel tank.
The Starter Cannot Work Repeatedly Or Can Only Work Slowly
Refer to Starting System Testing
POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE
If the engine runs, but performance is unsatisfactory, refer to the following section that best
describes the symptoms.
The Engine Starts Slowly Or Difficultly
Check for the following:
1. Incorrect choke operation. This can be due to improper use or a stuck choke valve in the throttle.
2. Incorrect hot start valve operation. This situation can be due to improper use or incorrect hot start
valve adjustment.
3. The fuel tank connection hose is clogged.
4. The fuel hose is clogged or the oil filter is clogged.
5. The injector is clogged.
NOTE
If a warm or hot engine will start with the choke on,
or if a cold engine starts and runs until the choke is
turned off. The pilot jet is probably plugged.
6. Contaminated or stale fuel.
7. Clogged air filter.
8. Intake pipe air leak.
9. Plugged exhaust system. Check the silencer or muffler, especially if the utility terrain vehicle was
just returned from storage.
10. Faulty ignition system component.
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Engine Backfires, Cuts Out or Misfires During Acceleration
A backfire occurs when fuel is burned or ignited in the exhaust system.
1. A lean air/fuel mixture can cause these engine performance problems. Check for the following
conditions:
a. Incorrect float level adjustment.
b. Plugged pilot jet or pilot system.
2. Faulty accelerator pump.
3. Loose exhaust pipe-to-cylinder head connection.
4. Intake air leak.
5. Incorrect ignition timing or a damaged ignition system can cause these conditions. Perform the
Peak Voltage Tests to isolate the damaged ignition system component. Check the ignition timing
as described.
NOTE
The ignition timing is controlled by the ICM and
cannot be adjusted. However, checking the ignition
timing can be used to diagnose problems.
6. Check the following engine components:
a. Broken valve springs.
b. Stuck or leaking valves.
c. Worn or damaged camshaft lobes.
d. Incorrect valve timing due to incorrect camshaft installation or a mechanical failure.
Engine Backfires on Deceleration
If the engine backfires when the throttle is released, check the following:
1. Lean throttle pilot system.
2. Loose exhaust pipe-to-cylinder head connection.
3. Faulty ignition system component.
4. Check the following engine components:
a. Broken valve springs.
b. Stuck or leaking valves.
c. Worn or damaged camshaft lobes.
d. Incorrect valve timing due to incorrect camshaft installation or a mechanical failure.
Poor Fuel Mileage
1. Clogged fuel system.
2. Dirty or clogged air filter.
3. Incorrect ignition timing.
Engine Will Not Idle or Idles Roughly
1. Clogged air filter element.
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2. Poor fuel filter or fuel hose.
3. Faulty accelerator pump assembly.
4. Contaminated or stale fuel.
5. Incorrect throttle adjustment.
6. Leaking head gasket.
7. Intake air leak.
8. Incorrect ignition timing
9. Low engine compression
Low Engine Power
1. Support the ATV in a stand with the rear wheel off the ground. then spins freely. If the wheel does
not spin freely. Check for the following conditions:
a. Dragging brakes. Check for this condition immediately after riding the ATV
NOTE
After riding the ATV. Come to a stop on a level
surface. Turn the engine off and shift the
transmission into neutral. Walk or push the ATV
forward. If the ATV is harder to push than normal.
Check for dragging brakes
b. Damaged or binding drive system
c. Damaged drive system and gear bearing
2. Test ride the ATV and accelerate quickly from first to second gear. If the engine speed in-creased
according to throttle position. Perform Step 3. If the engine speed did not increase. Check CVT
a. Warped clutch plates/discs
b. CVT spring
3. Test rides the ATV and accelerate lightly. If the engine speed increased according to throttle position.
Perform Step 4. If the engine speed did not increase. Check for one or more of the following
problems:
a. Clogged air filter
b. Restricted fuel flow
c. Pinched fuel tank breather hose (Figure 9).
d. Clogged or damaged silencer or muffler
NOTE
A clogged exhaust system will prevent some of the
burned exhaust gasses from exiting the exhaust
port at the end of the exhaust stroke. This
condition effects the incoming air/fuel mixture on
the intake stroke and reduces engine power
4. Check for retarded ignition timing. A decrease in power results when the plugs fire later than normal
5. Check for one or more of the following problems
a. Low engine compression
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b. Worn spark plug
c. Fouled spark plug
d. Incorrect spark plug heat range
e. Weak ignition coil
f. Incorrect ignition timing
g. Plugged throttle passages
h. Incorrect oil level (too high or too low)
i. Contaminated oil
j.
Worn or damaged valve train assembly
k. Engine overheating
6. If the engine knocks when it is accelerated or when running at high speed. Check for one or more of
the following possible malfunctions:
a. Incorrect type of fuel
b. Lean fuel mixture
c. Advanced ignition timing
NOTE
Other signs of advanced ignition timing are engine
overheating and hard or uneven engine starting
d. Excessive carbon buildup in combustion chamber
e. Worn pistons and/or cylinder bores
Poor Idle or Low Speed Performance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Check for an incorrect pilot screw adjustment
Check for damaged or loose intake pipe and air filter housing hose clamps. These
conditions will cause an air leak
Perform the spark test in this chapter. Note the following:
a. If the spark is good. Go to Step 4
b. If the spark is weak. Perform the Peak Voltage Testing
Check the ignition timing. If ignition timing is correct. Perform Step 5. If the timing is
incorrect. Perform the Peak Voltage Testing
Check the fuel system as described in this chapter
Poor High Speed Performance
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check ignition timing. If the ignition timing is correct. Perform Step 2. If the timing is incorrect.
Perform the Peak Voltage
Check the fuel system as described in this chapter
Check the valve clearance as described. Note the following:
a. If the valve clearance as correct. Perform Step 4
b. If the clearance is incorrect. adjust the valves as described in Chapter Three
Incorrect valve timing and worn or damaged valve springs can cause poor high-speed
performance. If the camshaft was timed just before the ATV experiencing this type of problem.
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The cam timing may be incorrect. If the cam timing was not set or changed. And all the other
inspection procedures in this section failed to locate the problem. Inspect the camshaft and calve
assembly
FUEL SYSTEM
The following section isolates common fuel system problems under specific complaints. If there is
a good spark. Poor fuel flow may be preventing the correct amount of fuel from being supplied to the
spark plug. Troubleshoot the fuel system as follows:
1. Clogged fuel tank breather hose
2. Check that there is a sufficient amount of fuel in the rank
3.
Start the engine after the following examination. Remove the spark plug, see if there is fuel on
the end of it.
Note the following:
a. If there is no visible fuel on the end of the spark plug, go to check whether the fuel valve, oil
injector or fuel hose is clogged.
b. If the spark plug at the bottom of a fuel. And the engine has spark. Check for an excessive
intake air leak or the possibility of contaminated or stale fuel.
NOTE
If the ATV was not used for some time. And was not
properly stored. The fuel may have gone stale.
Where lighter parts of the fuel have evaporated.
Depending on the condition of the fuel. a no-start
condition can result
c. If there is too much fuel on the end of the spark plug, go to check whether there is overflow at
the air filter or the ducting damper.
Rich Mixture
The following conditions can cause a rich air/fuel mixture:
1.
Air pressure sensor, oxygen sensor, solar term door position sensor fault
2.
ECU program error or damage
Lean Mixture
1.
2.
3.
4.
The following conditions can cause a lean air/fuel mixture:
The injector is clogged
The pump pressure is not enough
ECU program chaos
ECU damage
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5. The pressure sensor, oxygen sensor, solar term door position sensor fault
ENGINE
Engine Smoke
The color of engine smoke can help diagnose engine problems or operating conditions
Black smoke
Black smoke is an indication of a rich air/fuel mixture
Blue smoke
Blue smoke indicates that the engine is burning oil in the combustion chamber as it leaks past
worn valve stem seals and piston rings. Excessive oil consumption is another indicator of an engine
that is burning oil. Perform a compression test to isolate the problem.
White smoke or steam
It is normal to see white smoke or steam from the exhaust after first starting the engine in cold
weather. This is actually condensed steam formed by the engine during combustion. If the ATV is
ridden far enough, the water cannot collect in the crankcase and should not become a problem. Once
the engine heats up to normal operating temperature, the water evaporates and exits the engine
through the crankcase vent system. However, if the ATV is ridden for short trips or repeatedly started
and stopped and allowed to cool off without the engine getting warm enough, water will start to collect
in the crankcase. With each short run of the engine, more water collects. As this water mixes with the
oil in the crankcase, sludge is produced. Sludge can eventually cause engine damage as it circulates
through the lubrication system and blocks off oil passages.
Large amounts of steam can also be caused by a cracked cylinder head or cylinder block surface
that allows coolant to leak into the combustion chamber. Perform a Coolant System Pressure Test.
Engine Overheating
(Engine)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Improper spark plug heat range.
Low oil level.
Oil not circulating properly.
Valves leaking.
Heavy carbon deposits in the combustion chamber.
Dragging brake(s).
Slipping clutch.
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The Ignition Advance Angle Is Too Large
Preignition is the premature burning of fuel and is caused by hot spots in the combustion
chamber. Glowing deposits in the combustion chamber, inadequate Cooling or an overheated spark
plug can all cause preignition. This is first noticed as a power loss but eventually causes damage to
the internal parts of the engine because of the high combustion chamber temperature.
Detonation
Detonation is the violent explosion of fuel in the combustion chamber before the proper time of
ignition. Using low octane gasoline is a common cause of detonation.
Even when using a high octane gasoline, detonation can still occur. Other causes are
over-advanced ignition timing, lean air/fuel mixture at or near full throttle, inadequate engine cooling,
or the excessive accumulation of carbon deposits in the combustion chamber.
Continued detonation can result in engine damage.
Power Loss
Refer to Poor Engine Performance in this chapter.
Engine Noises
Unusual noises are often the first indication of a developing problem. Investigate any new noises
as soon as possible. Something that may be a minor problem, if corrected, could prevent the
possibility of more extensive damage.
Use a mechanic’s stethoscope or a small section of hose held near your ear (not directly on your
ear) with the other end close to the source of the noise to isolate the location. Determining the exact
cause of a noise can be difficult. If this is the case, consult with a professional mechanic to determine
the cause. Do not disassemble major components until all other possibilities have been eliminated.
Consider the following when troubleshooting engine noises:
1. Knocking or pinging during acceleration can be caused by using a lower octane fuel than
recommended. May also be caused by poor fuel. Pinging can also be caused by an
incorrect spark plug heat range or carbon buildup in the combustion chamber.
2. Slapping or rattling noises at low speed or during acceleration—May be caused by
excessive piston-to-cylinder wall clearance (piston slap).
NOTE
Piston slap is easier to detect when the engine
is cold and before the piston has expanded.
Once the engine has warmed up, piston
expansion reduces piston-to-cylinder clearance.
3.
Knocking or rapping while decelerating—Usually caused by excessive rod bearing
4.
clearance.
Persistent knocking and vibration occurring every crankshaft rotation—Usually caused by
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GENERAL INFORMATION
worn rod or main bearing(s). Can also be caused by broken piston rings or a damaged
piston pin.
5. Rapid on-off squeal—Compression leak around cylinder head gasket or spark plug(s).
6. Valve train noise—Check for the following:
a.
Excessive valve clearance.
b.
Worn or damaged camshaft.
c.
Damaged camshaft.
d.
Worn or damaged valve train components.
e.
The valve hose hole is damaged.
f.
The valve sticks on the hose.
g.
Broken valve spring.
h.
Low oil pressure.
i.
Clogged cylinder oil hole or oil passage.
ENGLNE LUBRICATION
An improperly operating engine lubrication system quickly leads to engine seizure. Check the
engine oil level and oil pressure.
HIGH OIL CONSUMPTION OR EXCESSIVE
Exhaust Smoke
1.
2.
3.
4.
Worn valve guides.
Worn valve guide seals.
Worn or damaged piston rings.
Incorrect piston ring installation.
Low Oil Pressure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Low oil level.
Worn or damaged oil pump.
Clogged oil strainer screen.
Clogged oil filter.
Internal oil leakage.
Oil relief valve stuck open.
Incorrect type of engine oil.
High Oil Pressure
1. Oil relief valve stuck closed.
2. Clogged oil filter.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
3. Clogged oil gallery or metering orifices.
No Oil Pressure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Low oil level.
Oil relief valve stuck closed.
Damaged oil pump.
Incorrect oil pump installation.
Internal oil leak.
Oil Level Too Low
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Oil level not maintained at correct level
Worn piston rings.
Worn cylinder.
Worn valve guides.
Worn valve guide seals.
Piston rings incorrectly installed during engine overhaul.
External oil leakage.
Oil leaking into the cooling system.
Oil Contamination
1. Blown head gasket allowing coolant to leak into the engine.
2. Coolant leak.
3. Oil and filter not changed at specified intervals or when operating conditions demand more
frequent changes.
CYLINDER LEAK DOWN TEST
A cylinder leak down test can accurately pinpoint engine leakage problems from the head gasket,
water jackets in the cylinder head and cylinder, valves and valve seats, and piston rings. This test is
performed by applying compressed air to the cylinder through a special tester and then measuring
the percent of leakage. A cylinder leak down tester and an air compressor are needed to perform this
test.
When performing a leak down test, the engine is first set at TDC on its compression stroke so
that all the valves are closed. When the combustion chamber is pressurized, very little air should
escape. However, the difficulty in performing a leak down test on a single cylinder engine(especially
on the engines described in this manual with low static engine compression) is in preventing the
piston from moving as the combustion chamber starts to pressurize. Any piston movement will force
the crankshaft to turn away from TDC and allow air to escape past an open valve seat.
In this procedure it will be necessary to lock the engine at TDC on its compression stroke and
then perform the leak down test. Follow the manufacturer’s directions along with the follow the
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GENERAL INFORMATION
manufacturer’s directions along with the following information when performing a cylinder leak down
test.
1. Support the ATV on a work stand with the rear wheel off the ground.
2. Remove the air filter assembly Open and secure the throttle so it is at its wide-open position.
3. Remove the spark plug.
4. Install the threaded hose adapter from the leak down kit. Then install the leak down gauge
onto the hose.
5. Remove the ignition timing hole cap from the left crankcase cover.
6. Remove the crankshaft hole cap from the right crankcase cover.
NOTE
Because the following test is performed with the cylinder
head cover installed on the engine, the camshaft lobes
cannot be viewed to ensure that the engine is positioned
at TDC on its compression stroke. To determine when the
engine is approaching TDC on its compression stroke, or
whether it is 360°off. Observe the following two indicators
to predict engine position. First, when aligning the index
marks in Step7, listen for pressure building inside the
combustion chamber. Indicating that the piston is moving
to TDC on its compression stroke. Second, view the gauge
on the leak down tester when turning the engine. As the
piston moves toward TDC on its compression stroke,
compression building inside the combustion chamber
may cause the gauge needle to move slightly. If the
crankshaft is 360°off, these indicators will not be present.
NOTE
The decompress or mechanism will click loudly once
during each crankshaft revolution. This is normal.
7. Use hex socket on the primary drive gear mounting bolt and turn the crankshaft clockwise and align
the TDC mark on the flywheel with the index mark on the left crankcase cover Remove the hex socket
from the primary drive gear.
8. Perform the following to lock the transmission so the engine remains at TDC on its compression
stroke when performing the leak down test:
WARNING
Do not attempt to lock the engine by trying to use a
tool to hold the Allen bolt on the end of the
crankshaft. Once the combustion chamber becomes
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GENERAL INFORMATION
pressurized, any crankshaft movement can throw the
tool away from the engine under considerable force,
attempting to hole the tool can cause serious injury.
Engine damage may also occur to the crankshaft or
right crankcase cover. Lock the engine as described
in this procedure.
a.
b.
Turn the drive sprocket by hand and shift the transmission into top gear with the shift pedal.
Mount a holding tool or equivalent onto the drive sprocket. Use a wooden block and clamp to
hold the holding tool so it cannot move when the combustion chamber becomes
pressurized.
c.
Check that the TDC marks are still aligned as described in Step7,
If not, turn the crankshaft as required, then relock the holding tool in position.
9. Remove the radiator cap and the oil filler cap.
10. Perform a cylinder leak down test by applying air pressure to the combustion chamber. Follow the
manufacturer’s instructions while reading the percent of leakage on the gauge. Listen for air
leaking while noting the following:
NOTE
Because of play in the transmission gears, it is unlikely the
engine will stay at TDC on the first try If the crankshaft
turns, reposition the countershaft slightly and then relock
it in position with the holding tool. After several attempts,
you will get a feel of the transmission play and know what
direction the countershaft should be turned and locked.
NOTE
If a large amount of air escapes from the exhaust pipe or
through the throttle, the air is leaking through on open
valve, Check the index mark to make sure the engine is at
TDC on the compression stroke, If the engine is remaining
at TDC but there is still a large amount of air escaping from
the engine, the crankshaft is off one revolution. Turn the
engine 360°and realign the TDC mark as described in Step
7, then relock it as described in Step8.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Air leaking through the exhaust pipe indicates a leaking exhaust valve.
Air leaking through the throttle indicates a leaking intake valve.
Air leaking through both the intake and exhaust valves indicates the engine is not set at
TDC on its compression stroke.
Air leaking through the coolant filler neck indicates a leaking cylinder head gasket or a
cracked cylinder head or cylinder liner.
Air leaking through the oil filler hole indicates the rings are not sealing properly in the
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GENERAL INFORMATION
bore.
11. If the cylinder leak down is 10 percent or higher, further service is required.
12. Disconnect the test equipment and install all the parts previously removed.
ELECTRICAL TESTING
This section describes basic electrical testing and test equipment use.
Preliminary Checks and Precautions
Refer to the color wiring diagrams at the end of the manual for component and connector
identification; Use the wiring diagrams to determine how the circuit should work by tracing the current
paths from the power source through the circuit components to ground. Also, check any circuits that
share the same fuse (if used), ground or switch. If the other circuits work properly and the shared
wiring is good, the cause must be in the wiring used only by the suspect circuit. If all related circuits
are faulty at the same time, the probable cause is a poor ground connection or a blown fuse (if used).
As with all troubleshooting procedures, analyze typical symptoms in a systematic manner. Never
assume any thing and do not overlook the obvious like a blown fuse or an electrical connector that
has separated. Test the simplest and most obvious items first and try to make tests at easily
accessible points on the ATV.
Before starting any electrical troubleshooting, perform the following:
1. Check the fuse if the fuse is blown, replace it.
2. Inspect the battery. Make sure it is fully charged, and the battery leads are clean and securely
attached to the battery terminals.
3.
Disconnect each electrical connector in the suspect circuit and make sure there are no bent
terminals in the electrical connector
4.
Make sure the terminals on the end of each wire are pushed all the way into the connector. If not.
Carefully push them in with a narrow blade screwdriver
5.
Check the wires where they connect to the terminals for damage
6.
Make sure all terminals within the connector are clean and free of corrosion. Clean them. If
necessary. And pack the connectors with dielectric grease
7.
Push the connectors with dielectric grease. The connectors are fully engaged and locked
together
8.
Never pull the electrical wires when disconnecting an electrical connector-pull only on the
connector
Intermittent Problems
Intermittent problems are problems that do not occur all the time and can be difficult to locate. For
example. When a problem only occurs when the ATV is ridden over rough roads (vibration) or in wet
conditions (water penetration). It is intermit-ten. To locate and repair intermittent problems. Simulate
the condition when testing the compo-nets. Note the following:
1. Vibration---This is a common problem with loose or damaged electrical connectors
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GENERAL INFORMATION
a. Perform a continuity test as described in the appropriate service procedure. Or under
Continuity Test in this section
b. Lightly pull or wiggle the connectors while repeating the test. Do the same when checking the
wiring harness and individual components. especially where the wires enter a housing or
connector
c. A change in meter readings indicates a poor connection. Fine and repair the problem or
replace the part. Check for wires with cracked or broken insulation
NOTE
An analog ohmmeter is useful when making
this type of test. Slight needle movements are
apparent when indicating a loose connection
2. Heat – This is another common problem with connectors or plugs that have loose or poor
connections. As these connections heat up. The connection or joint expands and separates.
Causing an open circuit. Other heat related problem occur when a component creates its own
heat as it starts to fail or go bad
a. Troubleshoot the problem to help isolate the problem or area
b. To check a connector. Perform a continuity test as described in the appropriate service
procedure. Or under Continuity test in this chapter. Then repeat the test while heating the
ground. If the lamp comes on. The problem is the connection between the lamp and
Connector with a heat gun or hair dryer. If the meter reading was normal (continuity) when
the connector was cold, then fluctuated or read infinity when heat was applied, the
connection is bad.
c. To check a component, wait until the engine is clod, then start and run the engine. Note operational
differences when the engine is cold and hot.
d. If the engine does not start, isolate and remove the component. First test it at room temperature,
and then after heating it with a hair dryer. A change in meter readings indicates a temperature
problem.
CAUTION
A heat gun or hair dryer will quickly raise the heat
of the component being tested. Do not apply heat
directly to the ICM or use heat in excess of 60℃
(140℉) on any electrical component. If available,
monitor heat with an infrared thermometer.
3. Water—when this problem occurs in wet conditions, or in areas with high humidity, start and run
the engine in a dry area. Then, with the engine running, spray water related problems repair
themselves after the component becomes hot enough to dry itself.
Electrical component replacement
Most ATV dealerships and parts suppliers will not accept the return of any electrical part. If you
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GENERAL INFORMATION
cannot determine the exact cause of any electrical system malfunction. If you purchase a new
electrical component(s), install it, and then find that the system still does not work properly, you will
probably be unable to return the unit for a refund.
Consider any test results carefully before replacing a component that teats only slightly out of
specification, especially resistance. A number of variables can affect test results dramatically. These
include: the testing meter’s internal circuitry, ambient temperature and conditions under which the
machine has been operated. All instructions and specifications have been for accuracy: however.
Successful test results depend to a great degree upon individual accuracy.
Test Equipment
A test light can be constructed from a 12-volt light bulb with a pair of test leads carefully soldered
to the bulb. To check for battery voltage in a circuit, attach one lead to ground and the other lead to
various points along the circuit. The bulb lights when battery voltage is present.
A voltmeter is used in the same manner as the test light to find out if battery voltage is present in
any given circuit. The voltmeter, unlike the test light, also indicates how much voltage is present at
each test point. When using a voltmeter, attach the positive lead to the component or wire to be
checked and the negative lead to a good ground.
Ammeter
An ammeter measures the flow of current (amps) in a circuit when connected in series in a circuit,
the ammeter determines if current is flowing through the circuit and if that current flow is excessive
because of a short in the circuit. Current flow is often referred to as current draw. Comparing actual
current draw in the circuit or component to the manufacturer’s specified current draw provides useful
diagnostic information.
Self-powered test light
A self-powered test light can be constructed from a 12-volt light bulb, a pair of test leads and a
12-volt battery. When the test leads are touched together, the light bulb should go on.
Use a self-powered test light as follows:
1. Touch the test leads together to make sure the light bulb goes on. If not, correct the problem
before using it in a test procedure.
2. Select two points within the circuit where there should be continuity.
3. Attach one lead of the self-powered test light to each point.
4. If there is continuity, the self-powered test light bulb will come on.
5. If there is on continuity, the self-powered test light bulb will not come on, indicating an open
circuit.
Ohmmeter
An ohmmeter measures the resistance (in ohms) to current flow in a circuit or component. Like the
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GENERAL INFORMATION
self-powered test light, an ohmmeter contains its own power source and should not be connected to a
live circuit.
Ohmmeter may be analog type (needle scale) or digital type (LCD or LED readout). Both types of
ohmmeter have a switch that allows the user to select different ranges of resistance for accurate
readings. The analog ohmmeter also has a set-adjust control which is used to zero or calibrate the
meter (digital ohmmeters do not require calibration).
An ohmmeter is used by connecting its test leads to the terminals or leads of the circuit or
component to be tested. If an analog meter id used, is must be calibrated by touching the teat leads
together and turning the set-adjust knob until the meter needle reads zero. When the leads are
uncrossed, the needle reads zero. When the leads are uncrossed, the needle should move to the
other end of the scale indicating infinite resistance.
During a continuity test, a reading of infinity indicates that there is an open in the circuit or
component. A reading of zero indicates continuity, that is, there is no measurable resistance in the
meter needle falls between these two ends of the scale, this indicates the actual resistance, multiply
the meter reading by the ohmmeter scale. For example, a meter reading of 5 multiplied by the R×100
scale is 5000 ohms of resistance.
CAUTION
Never connect an ohmmeter to a circuit
which has power applied to it. Always
disconnect the battery negative lead
before using an ohmmeter.
Jumper wire
A jumper wire is a simple way to bypass a potential problem and isolate it to a particular point in a
circuit. If a faulty circuit works properly with a jumper wire installed, an open exists between the two
jumper points in the circuit.
To troubleshoot with a jumper wire, fist use the wire to determine if the problem is on the ground
side or the load side of a device. Test the ground by connecting a jumper between the lamp and a
good ground. If the lamp does not come on with the jumper installed. The lamp’s connection to
ground is good so the problem is between the lamp and the power source.
To isolate the problem. Connect the jumper between the battery and the lamp. If it comes on. The
problem is between these two points. Next. Connect the jumper between the battery and the fuse
side of the switch. If the lamp comes on. The switch is good. By successively moving the jumper from
one point to another. The problem can be isolated to a particular place in the circuit
Pay attention to the following when using a jumper wire:
1. Make sure the jumper wore gauge (thickness) is the same as that used in the circuit being
tested. Smaller gauge wire will rapidly overheat and could melt
2. Install insulated boots over alligator clips. This prevents accidental grounding. Sparks or
possible shock when working in cramped quarters
3. Jumper wires are temporary test measures only. Do not leave a jumper wire installed as a
permanent solution. This creates a severe fire hazard that could easily lead to complete loss
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GENERAL INFORMATION
off the motorcycle
4. When using a jumper wire always install an inline fuse/fuse holder (available at most auto
supply stores or electronic supply stores) to the jumper wire. Never use a jumper wire across
any load (a component that is connected and turned on). This would result in a direct short
and will blow the fuse(s)
Test Procedures
Voltage test
Unless otherwise specified. Make all voltage tests with the electrical connectors still
connected. Insert the test leads into the backside of the connector and make sure the test lead
touches the electrical wire or metal terminal within the connector housing. If the test lead only
touches the wire insulation. There will be a false treading
Always check both sides of the connector as one side may be loose or corroded. Thus
preventing electrical flow through the connector. This type of test can be performed with a test or a
voltmeter. A voltmeter gives the best results
NOTE
If using a test light. It does not make any
difference which test lead is attached to
ground
1. Attach the voltmeter negative test lead to a good ground (bare metal). Make sure the part used
for ground is not insulated with a rubber gasket or rubber grommet
2. Attach the voltmeter positive test lead to the point to be tested
3. Turn the ignition switch on. If using a test light. The test light will come on if voltage is present.
If using a voltmeter. Note the voltage reading. The reading should be within I volt of battery
voltage. If the voltage is less. There is a problem in the circuit
Voltage drop test
The wires. Cables. Connectors and switches in an electrical circuit are designed to carry
current with low resistance. This endures that current can flow through the circuit with a minimum
loss of voltage. Voltage drop indicates where there is resistance in a circuit. A higher than normal
amount of resistance in a circuit decreases the flow of current and cause the voltage to drop
between the source and destination in the circuit.
Because resistance causes voltage to drop. A voltmeter is used to measure voltage drop
when current is running through the circuit. If the circuit has no resistance. There is no voltage
drop so the voltmeter indicates 0 volts. The greater the resistance in a circuit. The greater the
voltage drop reading.
To perform a voltage drop:
1. Connect the positive meter test lead to the electrical source (where electricity is coming from).
2. Connect the voltmeter negative test lead to the electrical load (where the electricity is going).
3. If necessary, activate the component(s) in the circuit. For example. If checking the voltage in the
- 55 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
starter circuit, it would be necessary to push the starter button.
4. Read the voltage drop (difference in voltage between the source and destination) on the voltmeter.
Note the following:
a. The voltmeter should indicate 0 volts. If there is a drop of 0.5 volts or more. There is a problem
within the circuit. A voltage drop reading of 12 volts indicates an open in the circuit.
b. A voltage drop of 1 or more volts indicates that a circuit has excessive resistance.
c. For example, consider a starting problem where the battery is fully charged but the starter motor
turns over slowly. Voltage drop would be the difference in the voltage at the batter (source) and
the voltage at the starter (destination) as the engine is being started (current is flowing through
the batter cables). A corroded battery cable would cause a high voltage drop (high resistance)
and slow engine cranking.
d. Common sources of voltage drop are loose or contaminated connectors and poor ground
connections.
Peak voltage test
Peak voltage tests check the voltage output of the ignition coil and ignition pulse generator at
normal cranking speed. These tests make it possible to identify ignition system problems quickly and
accurately.
Peak voltage tests require a peak voltage adapter or tester. See Chapter Ten, Ignition System
Testing.
Continuity Test
A continuity test is used to determine the integrity of a circuit, wire or component. A circuit has
continuity if it forms a complete circuit, that is, if there are no opens in either the electrical wires or
components within the circuit. A circuit with an open. On the other hand, has no continuity.
This type of test can be performed with a self-powered test light or an ohmmeter. An ohmmeter
gives the best results. If using an analog ohmmeter, calibrate the meter by touching the leads
together and turning the calibration knob until the meter reads zero.
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
2. Attach one test lead (test light or ohmmeter) to one end of the part of the circuit to be tested.
3. Attach the other test lead to the other end of the part or the circuit to be tested.
4. The self-powered test lead comes on if there is continuity. An ohmmeter reads 0 or very low
resistance if there is continuity. A reading of infinite resistance if there is continuity. A reading of
infinite resistance indicates no continuity, the circuit is open.
Testing for a short with a self-powered test light or ohmmeter
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
2. Remove the blown fuse.
3. Connect one test lead of the test light or ohmmeter to the load side (battery side) of the fuse
terminal in the starter relay.
- 56 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
4. Connect the other test lead to a good ground (bare metal). Make sure the part used for a ground is
not insulated with a rubber gasket or rubber grommet.
5. With the self-powered test light or ohmmeter attached to the fuse terminal and ground, wiggle the
wiring harness relating to the suspect circuit at various intervals. Start next to the fuse terminals
and work away from the fuse terminal. Watch the self-powered test light or ohmmeter while
progressing along the harness.
6. If the test light blinks or the needle on the ohmmeter moves, there is a short-to-ground at that point
in the harness.
Testing for a short with a test light or voltmeter
1. Remove the blown fuse.
2. Connect the test light or voltmeter across the fuse terminals in the starter relay. Turn the ignition
switch ON and check for battery voltage.
3. With the test light or voltmeter attached to the fuse terminals, wiggle the wiring harness relating to
the suspect circuit at various intervals. Start next to the fuse terminal a work systematically away
from the fuse terminal. Watch the test light or voltmeter while progressing along the harness.
4. If the test light blinks or if the needle on the voltmeter moves, there is a short-to-ground at that point
in the harness.
BRAKE SYSTEM
The front and rear brake units are critical to riding performance and safety. Inspect the front and
rear brakes frequently and repair any problem immediately. When replacing or refilling the brake fluid,
use only DOT 4 brake fluid from a closed container.
Always check the brake operation before riding the motorcycle.
Soft or Spongy Brake Lever or Pedal
Operate the front brake lever or rear brake pedal and check to see if the lever travel distance
increases. If the lever travel does increase while being operated, or feels soft or spongy, there may be
air in the brake line. In this condition, the brake system is not capable of producing sufficient brake
force. When there is an increase in lever or pedal travel or when the brake feels soft or spongy, check
the following possible causes:
1. Air in system.
WARNING
If the fluid level drops too low, air can enter the
hydraulic system through the master cylinder. Air
can also enter the system from loose or damaged
hose fittings. Air in the hydraulic system causes
a soft or spongy brake lever action. This
- 57 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
condition is noticeable and reduces brake
performance. When it is suspected that air has
entered the hydraulic system, flush the brake
system and bleed the brakes as described in
Chapter Fifteen.
2. Low brake fluid level.
WARNING
As the brake pads wear, the brake fluid level in
the master cylinder reservoir drops. Whenever
adding brake fluid to the reservoir, visually check
the brake pads for wear. If it does not appear that
there is an increase in pad wear, check the brake
hoses, lines and banjo bolts for leaks.
3. Leak in the brake system.
4. Contaminated brake fluid.
5. Plugged brake fluid passages.
6. Damaged brake lever or pedal assembly.
7. Worn or damaged brake pads.
8. Warped brake disc.
9. Contaminated brake pads and disc.
WARNING
A leaking fork seal can allow oil to
contaminate the brake pads and disc.
10. Worn or damaged master cylinder cups and/or cylinder bore.
11. Worn or damaged brake caliper piston seals.
12. Contaminated master cylinder assembly.
13. Contaminated brake caliper assembly.
14. Brake caliper not sliding correctly on slide pins.
15. Sticking master cylinder piston assembly.
16. Sticking brake caliper pistons.
Brake Drag
When the brakes drag, the brake pads are not capable of moving away from the brake disc when
the brake lever or pedal is released. Any of the following causes, if they occur, would prevent correct
brake pad movement and cause brake drag.
1. Warped or damaged brake disc.
2. Brake caliper not sliding correctly on slide pins.
3. Sticking or damaged brake caliper pistons.
- 58 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
4. Contaminated brake pads and disc.
5. Plugged master cylinder port.
6. Contaminated brake fluid and hydraulic passages.
7. Restricted brake hose joint.
8. Loose brake disc mounting bolts.
9. Damaged or misaligned wheel.
10. Incorrect wheel alignment.
11. Incorrectly installed brake caliper.
12. Damaged front or rear wheel.
Hard Brake Lever or Pedal Operation
When applying the brakes and there is sufficient brake performance but the operation of brake
lever feels excessively hard, check for the following possible causes:
1. Clogged brake hydraulic system.
2. Sticking caliper piston.
3. Sticking master cylinder piston.
4. Glazed or worn brake pads.
5. Mismatched brake pads.
6. Damaged front brake lever.
7. Damaged rear brake pedal.
8. Brake caliper not sliding correctly on slide pins.
9. Worn or damaged brake caliper seals.
Brake Grabs
1. Damaged brake pad pin bolt. Look for steps or cracks along the pad pin bolt surface.
2. Contaminated brake pads and disc.
3. Incorrect wheel alignment.
4. Warped brake disc.
5. Loose brake disc mounting bolts.
6. Brake caliper not sliding correctly on slide pins.
7. Mismatched brake pads.
8. Damaged wheel bearings.
Brake Squeal or Chatter
1. Contaminated brake pads and disc.
2. Incorrectly installed brake caliper.
3. Warped brake disc.
4. Incorrect wheel alignment.
5. Mismatched brake pads.
6. Incorrectly installed brake pads.
- 59 -
GENERAL INFORMATION
7. Damaged or missing brake pad spring or pad retainer.
Leaking Brake Caliper
1. Damaged dust and piston seals.
2. Damaged cylinder bore.
3. Loose caliper body bolts.
4. Loose banjo bolt.
5. Damaged banjo bolt washers.
6. Damaged banjo bolt threads in caliper body.
Leaking Master Cylinder
1. Damaged piston secondary seal.
2. Damaged piston snap ring/ snap ring groove.
3. Worn or damaged master cylinder bore.
4. Loose banjo bolt washers.
5. Damaged banjo bolt washers.
6. Damaged banjo bolt threads in master cylinder body.
7. Loose or damaged reservoir cap.
- 60 -
SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS
HOW TO CONVERSION TABLE OF UNIT
(1)How to use conversion table
All the specified documents in this manual are taken SI and Metric as unit. With the following
conversion table, metric unit could be conversed into imperial unit.
Sample:
METRIC
MULTIPLY
IMPERIAL
mm
0.03937
= in
×
0.03937
= 0.08in
2mm
Conversion table
Conversion between metric and imperial
Know unit
Multiply
Product
m·kg
7.233
ft·lb
m·kg
86.794
in·lb
Torque
cm·kg
0.0723
ft·lb
cm·kg
0.8679
in·lb
kg
2.205
lb
Weight
g
0.03527
oz
km/hr
0.6214
mph
km
0.6214
mi
m
3.281
ft
Length
m
1.094
yd
cm
0.3937
in
mm
0.03937
in
cc(cm3)
0.03527
oz(IMP liq.)
Volume/capacity cc(cm3)
0.06102
cu·in
lit(liter)
0.8799
qt(IMP liq.)
lit(liter)
0.2199
gal(IMP liq.)
kg/mm
55.997
Ib/in
Others
kg/cm2
14.2234
psi(lb/in2)
Centigrade
Fahrenheit(°F)
9/5(℃)+32
(2)Definition of unit
Unit
mm
cm
kg
N
N.m
kgf.m
Pa
N/mm
L
cm3
r/min
Read
Definition
Millimetre
1 mm=10-3Meter
Centimetre
1 cm =10-2Meter
Kilogram
1 kg =103Gram
Newton
=
1N 1 kg×meter/second²
Newton meter
1 Nm=1Newton×1meter
Meter Kilogram
1 kgf.m =1Meter×1kgf
Pascal
1 Pa=1Newton/1meter2
Newton per millimeter
1
N/mm = 1Newton/
millimeter
Litre
—
Cubic centimeter
Revolutions per minute
—
- 61-
Measurement
Length
Length
Weight
Force
Torque
Torque
Pressure
Rigid of spring
Volume of capacity
Rotational speed
SPECIFICATIONS
GEBERAR SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Dimensions :
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Seat height
Wheelbase
Minimum ground clearance
Minimum turning radius
Standard
1,658 mm (65.3in) for utility model
1,640 mm (64.6in) for sport model
1,040 mm (41.0in) for utility model
1,020 mm (40.2in) for sport model
1,037 mm (40.8in) for utility model
1,050 mm (41.3in) for sport model
640 mm(25.2 in)
1,120 mm(44.1in)
120 mm(4.7 in)
3,100mm(122 in)
Basic weight :
With oil and full fuel tank
170 kg (374.8 lb)
Engine :
Model
HS1P52FMH for HS110ATV
HS1P50FMG for HS100ATV
Engine type
4-stroke, Air cooled, SOHC
Cylinder arrangement
single cylinder
Displacement
108cm3 for HS110ATV
97cm3 for HS100ATV
Bore×stroke
52.4×50mm(2.06×1.97in)for HS110ATV
50×49.5mm(1.97×1.95in)for HS100ATV
Compression ratio
9.5:1
Starting system
Electric starter
Lubrication system
Wet sump
Oil type or grade:
Engine oil
API service SE,SF,SG type or higher
Engine oil
Periodic oil change
0.8 L(1.69 Imp qt)
Total amount
0.8 L(1.69 Imp qtt)
Air filter
Wet filter element type
- 62-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Fuel
Unleaded gasoline only
7.0L(1.54 lmp gal, 1.85 US gal)
Type
Fuel tank capacity
Throttle
Type/quantity
D26 / 1
Spark plug
C7HSA / 1 (NGK)
0.6-0.7 mm(0.024-0.028 in)
Type/manufacturer
Spark plug gap
Clutch type
Wet , automatic
Transmission
Primary reduction system
V-belt
Secondary reduction system
Chain drive
Transmission type
V-belt automatic
Operation
Right hand operation
Single speed automatic
1.58~0.99
Sub transmission ratio
F
1.88(32/17)
R
1.83(36/16×13/16)
Primary ratio
3.72(67/18)
Final ratio
2.62(34/13)
Chassis
Trail
Steel tube frame
26.0mm(1.02 in)
Toe-in
8~18 mm (0.31~0.71 in)
Frame type
Tire
Type
Size
Tubeless
Front
21×7-8 /19×7-8
Rear
20×9.5-8 /18×9.5-8
Pressure of front wheel
28kpa
Pressure of rear wheel
49kpa
Brake
Front brake
Rear brake
Type
Dual disc brake
Operation
Right hand operation
Type
Operation
Single disc brake
right foot operation
- 63-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Suspension
Front suspension
Double wishbone
Rear suspension
Single swing arm
Shock absorber
Front shock absorber
Coil spring/Oil Hydraulic Vibration Damper
Rear shock absorber
Coil spring/Oil Hydraulic Vibration Damper
Wheel travel
Front wheel travel
Rear wheel travel
273 mm (10.7 in)
290 mm (11.4 in)
Electrical
Ignition system
EFI
Generator system
A.C. magneto
Battery type
YTX5L-BS
Battery capacity
12 V, 4.2Ah
Headlight type
Bulb wattage×quantity
Headlight
Full beam
Low beam
Clearance light
Tail/brake light
Front turning lights
Rear turning lights
HS1
12V35W/0.5W × 2
12 V, /55W×2
12 V, /55W×2
LED/0.6W×2
2V/5.0W/21.0W
LED 0.7W×2W
LED 0.85×2W
- 64-
SPECIFICATIONS
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Limit
Cylinder head
Warp limit *
----
0.03 mm
(0.0012 in)
Cylinder
----
Bore size
52.4 ~ 52.43 mm for HS110ATV
(2.0630 ~ 2.0642 in)
50.0 ~ 50.03 mm for HS100ATV
Measuring point *
(1.9685 ~ 1.9697 in)
25 mm (0.984 in)
Camshaft
Drive method
Cam dimensions
Intake
“A”
“B”
Exhaust
“A”
“B”
Cam chain
No. of links
Cam chain adjustment method
20.92 ~ 21.08mm
(0.8236 ~ 0.8230in)
26.54 ~ 26.70mm
(1.0449 ~ 1.0512 in)
20.92 ~ 21.08 mm
(0.8236 ~ 0.8230 in)
26.31 ~26.47 mm
(1.0358 ~ 1.0421 in)
84
Automatic
- 65-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Rocker arm/rocker arm shaft
Rocker arm inside diameter
Standard
12.011~ 12.018 mm
(0.4729 ~ 0.4731 in)
11.982~ 11.989 mm
(0.4717 ~ 0.4720 in)
0.022 ~ 0.036 mm
(0.0009 ~ 0.0014 in)
Shaft outside diameter
Arm-to-shaft clearance
Valve, valve seat, valve guide
Valve clearance (cold)
IN
EX
0.04 ~ 0.05 mm
(0.0016~ 0.0020 in)
0.05 ~ 0.08 mm
(0.0020 ~ 0.0031 in)
Limit
-------
-------
Valve dimensions
head diameter
“A” head diameter
face width
IN
IN
seat width
22.9 ~ 23.1 mm
(0.9016 ~ 0.9094 in)
19.9~ 20.1 mm
(0.7835 ~ 0.7913in)
3.7 mm (0.1457 in)
EX
3.7 mm(0.1457 in)
IN
1.4 mm(0.0551 in)
EX
1.4mm(0.551 in)
IN
4.970 ~ 4.985 mm
(0.1957 ~ 0.1963 in)
4.955 ~ 4.970 mm
(0.1951 ~ 0.1957 in)
5.0 ~ 5.12 mm
(0.1969 ~ 0.2016 in)
5.0 ~ 5.12 mm
(0.1969 ~ 0.2016 in)
EX
“B” face width
“C” margin thickness
Stem outside diameter
EX
Guide inside diameter
IN
EX
- 66-
margin thickness
-------------
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Stem-to-guide clearance
IN
EX
Standard
0.015 ~ 0.042 mm
(0.0006 ~ 0.0017 in)
0.03 ~ 0.057 mm
(0.0012 ~ 0.0022 in)
----
Limit
0.08 mm
(0.0031 in)
0.10 mm
(0.0039 in)
0.01 mm
(0.0004 in)
0.02 mm(0.0008in)
0.02 mm(0.0008in)
-------
Inner:32.78mm(1.29in)
Outer:35.55mm(1.40in)
----
Stem runout limit
Valve seat width
IN
EX
Valve spring
Inner spring
Free length
Set length (valve closed)
Inner:22.45mm(0.88in)
Outer:25.45mm(1.0in)
Compressed pressure
(installed)
Inner:49~61N
(5.0~6.22 kg,11.02~13.71 lb)
Outer:105.2~129.2N
(10.73~13.18 kg,23.66~29.06 lb)
----
Tilt limit *
Direction of winding
(top view)
----
----
Inner:Counter Clockwise
Outer:Clockwise
- 67-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Limit
Piston
Piston to cylinder clearance
Piston size “D”
0.005 ~ 0.013 mm
0.15 mm
(0.0002 ~ 0.0005 in)
(0.0059 in)
52.387 ~ 52.95 mm
----
(2.0625 ~ 2.0628 in)
Measuring point “H”
10 mm (0.3937 in)
Piston off-set
0.5 mm(0.0197 in)
Off-set direction
Intake side
Piston pin bore inside diameter
13.002 ~ 13.008 mm
----------
(0.5119 ~ 0.5121 in)
Piston pin outside diameter
12.990~ 12.995 mm
(0.5114 ~ 0.5116 in)
Piston rings
Top ring
Type
Dimensions (B×T)
End gap (installed)
Side clearance (installed)
2nd ring
Barrel
----
2.1×1.0 mm
----
(0.0827 ×0.0394 in)
0.10 ~ 0.025 mm
(0.0039 ~ 0.0098 in)
0.015 ~ 0.055 mm
(0.0006 ~ 0.0022 in)
-------
Type
Dimensions (B ×T)
End gap (installed)
Side clearance
Taper
2.1×1.0 mm
(0.0827 ×0.0394 in)
0.10 ~ 0.25 mm
(0.0039~ 0.0098 in)
0.015 ~ 0.055mm
(0.0006 ~ 0.0022 in)
- 68-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Limit
Oil ring
Dimensions (B×T)
Side clearance
2.1×2.0 mm
(0.0827×0.0787 in)
0.04 ~ 0.12 mm
(0.0016 ~ 0.0047 in)
----------
Crankshaft
Crank width “A”
40.138 ~ 40.262 mm
Runout limit C1
0.015 mm(0.0006 in)
0.03 mm
0.015 mm(0.0006 in)
(0.0012 in)
Big end side clearance “D”
01 ~ 0.3 mm
0.03 mm
(0.0039 ~ 0.0118 in)
(0.0012 in)
Big end radial clearance “E”
0.003 ~ 0.015mm
1.0 mm
(0.0001 ~ 0.0006 in)
(0.0394 in)
C2
(1.5802 ~ 1.5851 in)
Automatic centrifugal clutch
Clutch engagement speed
----
2500r/min
- 69-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Shifter
Shifter type
Air filter oil grade
Oil pump
Oil pump type
Tip clearance
Side clearance
Body clearance
Standard
Limit
Shift drum and guide bar
----
Engine oil
----
Inner and outer rotator
0.15 mm
(0.0059 in)
0.03 ~ 0.10 mm
(0.0012 ~ 0.0039 in)
0.09 ~ 0.17 mm
(0.0035 ~ 0.0067 in)
----------
- 70-
-------
SPECIFICATIONS
CHASSIS SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Limit
Steering system
Type
Rack and pinion
----
Front suspension
Shock absorber travel
Spring free length
Spring rate
Stroke
65 mm (2.56 in)
305 mm (12.04 in)
12.65 N/mm(1.29 kg/mm)
0 ~ 119 mm (0 ~ 4.66 in)
-------------
Rear suspension
Shock absorber travel
Spring free length
Spring rate
118 mm (4.65 in)
325 mm (12.80 in)
21 N/mm (2.14 kg/mm)
----------------------
Stroke
0 ~ 148mm (0 ~ 5.83 in)
Front wheel
Type
Panel wheel
----
Rim size
5.5 ×8AT
----
Rim material
Q235
----
Rim runout limit
radial
----
lateral
----
Rear wheel
Type
Panel wheel
----
Rim size
7×8 AT
----
Rim material
Q235
----
Rim runout limit
radial
----
lateral
----
Brake lever and brake pedal
Accelerator pedal free play
0 mm (0.0 in)
----
Brake pedal free play
0 mm (0.0 in)
----
Parking brake cable free play
2 ~ 3 mm (0.079 ~ 0.118 in)
----
- 71-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Limit
Front disc brake
Type
Single
----
Disc outside diameter × thickness
125 × 3.5 mm (4.92 × 0.14 in)
----
Pad thickness
inner
8 mm (0.31 in)
----
Pad thickness
outer
8 mm (0.31 in)
----
Master cylinder inside diameter
12.7 mm (0.5 in)
----
Caliper cylinder inside diameter
32 mm (1.26 in)
----
Brake fluid type
DOT 4
----
Type
Single
----
Disc outside diameter × thickness
200 × 3.5 mm (7.87× 0.14 in)
----
Pad thickness
inner
8 mm (0.31 in)
----
Pad thickness
outer
8 mm (0.31 in)
----
Master cylinder inside diameter
12.7 mm (0.5 in)
----
Caliper cylinder inside diameter
34 mm (1.34 in)
----
Brake fluid type
DOT 4
----
Rear disc brake
- 72-
SPECIFICATIONS
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Voltage
Standard
Limit
12 V
----
Ignition timing (BTDC)
8°±1°before TDC
----
Advancer type
ECU Digital type
----
Minimum spark gap
6 mm (0.24 in)
----
Primary winding resistance
0.18 ~ 0.28 Ωat 20 °C (68 °F)
----
Secondary winding resistance
6.32 ~ 9.48 kΩat 20 °C (68 °F)
----
5.0~5.5 kΩ
----
Ignition system
Ignition coil
Spark plug cap
Resistance
High voltage cap
Resistance
4.5~5.0 kΩ
Oxygen sensor
type
25322728
Charging system
Nominal output
14 V 13 A at 4,500 r/min
Charging coil resistance/color
0.32 ~ 0.43Ωat 20 ℃ (68 °F)/White – White– ----
----
White
Rectifier/regulator
Regulator type
Semi conductor-short circuit
----
No load regulated voltage (DC)
14.1 ~ 14.9 V
----
Capacity
15 A
----
Withstand voltage
200 V
----
1.32
----
Type
Fuse
----
Main fuse
30A×1
Backup fuse
30 A×1
Battery
Specific gravity
Circuit breaker
-------------------
Radiator fan
Running rpm
2,950 r/min
- 73-
SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Standard
Electric starter system
Type
Constant mesh type
Starter motor
Output
0.25 kW
Armature coil resistance
0.012~ 0.017 Ωat 20 °C (68 °F)
Brush overall length
4mm (0.49 in)
Spring force
1.05 ~ 1.55 N
Commutator diameter
24.4 mm (0.96 in)
Mica undercut
0.55 mm (0.03 in)
Starter relay
Amperage rating
180 A
Coil winding resistance
4.18 ~ 4.62 at 20 °C (68 °F)
- 74-
Limit
SPECIFICATIONS
TIGHTENING TORQUES
Engine tightening torques
Part to be tightened
Cylinder head
Spark plug
Cylinder head (exhaust pipe)
Cylinder head cover
Tappet cover (exhaust)
Tappet cover (intake)
Oil gallery bolt
Camshaft end cap
Cylinder
Balancer driven gear
Timing chain tensioner
Timing chain tensioner cap
Timing chain guide (intake side)
Camshaft sprocket
Rocker arm shaft stopper
Valve adjusting locknut
Engine oil drain bolt
Oil filter cartridge union bolt
Oil filter cartridge
Oil pipe assembly
Oil delivery pipe 1
Oil delivery pipe 2
Oil delivery pipe 3
Oil delivery pipe 2 and oil delivery
pipe 3
Relief valve assembly plate
Oil strainer
Oil pump assembly
Intake manifold
Intake manifold screw clamp
Part name
Thread
size
Q’ty
Tightening torque
Nm
m · kg
ft · lb
7.2
27
13
11
7.2
8.7
7.2
5.1
7.2
7.2
30
80
7.2
5.1
5.8
14
7.2
10
22
4.6
12
5.1
13
25
14
25
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
2.1
Bolt
Bolt
—
Stud bolt
Bolt
—
Bolt
—
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Nut
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
—
—
—
—
Bolt
Union Bolt
Union Bolt
Union Bolt
Union bolt
M6
M9
M12
M8
M6
M32
M6
M6
M6
M6
M10
M18
M6
M6
M6
M7
M6
M6
M14
M20
M20
M6
M8
M14
M10
M14
1
6
1
4
17
2
4
1
1
2
4
1
2
1
2
2
2
5
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
10
38
18
15
10
12
10
7
10
10
42
110
10
7
8
20
10
14
30
63
17
7
18
35
20
35
1.0
3.8
1.8
1.5
1.0
1.2
1.0
0.7
1.0
1.0
4.2
11.0
1.0
0.7
0.8
2.0
1.0
1.4
3.0
6.3
1.7
0.7
1.8
3.5
2.0
3.5
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
—
M6
M6
M6
M6
M5
2
1
3
4
10
10
10
10
3
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.3
- 75-
1
Remarks
SPECIFICATIONS
Part to be tightened
Tightening torque
Nm m · kg ft · lb
26
2.6
19
10
1.0
7.2
Bolt
Bolt
Thread
size
M8
M6
Bolt
M6
1
10
1.0
7.2
Bolt
M6
1
10
1.0
7.2
Bolt
M5
2
7
0.7
5.1
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Screw
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Nut
Bolt
Screw
Nut
Bolt
M6
M6
M6
M6
M10
M6
M6
M5
M6
M6
M8
M22
M6
M8
M22
M8
9
14
2
4
1
1
3
2
2
12
3
1
9
4
1
4
10
10
7
10
55
7
7
7
10
10
30
160
10
29
145
32
1.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
5.5
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.0
1.0
3.0
16.0
1.0
2.9
14.5
3.2
7.2
7.2
5.1
7.2
40
5.1
5.1
5.1
7.2
7.2
22
115
7.2
21
105
23
Nut
M60
1
110
11.0
80
Bolt
M8
4
25
2.5
18
Nut
Screw
Nut
Nut
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
—
—
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
M16
M4
M16
M36
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M14
M6
M6
M8
M6
M8
1
8
1
1
4
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
2
2
1
120
3
100
90
10
14
18
14
15
18
9
7
30
11
20
12.0
0.3
10.0
9.0
1.0
1.4
1.8
1.4
1.5
1.8
0.9
0.7
3.0
1.1
2.0
85
2.2
72
65
7.2
10
13
10
11
13
6.5
5.1
22
8.0
14
Part name
Q’ty
3
14
Remarks
Crankcase
Bearing housing (clutch housing
assembly)
Oil seal (engine cooling fan pulley)
Retainer
Drive belt case
Drive belt cover
Engine cooling fan
Air shroud 2 and A.C. magneto cover
Engine cooling fan pulley
Engine cooling fan air duct assembly
Stator assembly
Pickup coil
Stator lead holder
A.C. magneto cover
Starter clutch
Clutch carrier assembly
Clutch housing assembly
Bearing retainer (middle drive shaft)
Middle drive pinion gear
Middle drive shaft bearing housing
Middle driven pinion gear bearing
Retainer
Middle driven pinion gear bearing
Housing
Primary sheave assembly
Primary pulley sheave cap
Secondary sheave assembly
Secondary sheave spring retainer
Shift lever cover
Shift lever 2 assembly
Shift drum stopper
Shift arm
Select lever unit
Plug (right crankcase)
Air bleed bolt (coolant outlet joint)
Fuel pump
Fuel tank
Muffler stay
Muffler and exhaust pipe
- 76-
Stake
Stake
Left-hand
threads
SPECIFICATIONS
Part to be tightened
Part name
Muffler bracket and muffler
Muffler bracket and frame
Muffler damper and muffler
Muffler damper and frame
Exhaust pipe
Air duct assembly 1
Air duct assembly 2 and left protector
Air duct assembly 2 and frame
Gear position switch
Thermo switch 1 (cylinder head)
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Nut
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
—
Thread
size
M8
M8
M6
M6
M8
M6
M6
M6
M5
1/8
Reverse switch
Engine ground lead
Starter motor and engine
—
Bolt
Bolt
M10
M6
M6
- 77-
Q’ty
Tightening torque
Nm m.kg
ft · lb
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
20
20
10
10
14
7
7
7
7
8
2.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.4
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
14
14
7.2
7.2
10
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.8
1
1
2
20
10
10
2.0
1.0
1.0
14
7.2
7.2
Remarks
SPECIFICATIONS
Chassis tightening torques
Part to be tightened
Rubber connecting bracket 1(or 2) and frame
Rear upper arm and frame
Rear shock absorber and frame
Rear shock absorber and rear lower arm
Rear driving axle gear case and frame
Front upper arm and frame
Front lower arm and frame
Front shock absorber and frame
Front shock absorber and front upper arm
Steering shaft assembly and steering Cross gimbal
Steering assembly and steering Cross gimbal
Steering shaft assembly and frame
Steering knuckle and front upper arm
Steering knuckle and front lower arm
Thread
size
M10
M12
M10
M10
M12
M10
M10
M10
M10
M8
M8
M8
M12
M12
Tightening torque
Nm m · kg ft · lb
52
5.2
37
80
8.0
58
45
4.5
32
45
4.5
32
80
8.0
58
45
4.5
32
45
4.5
32
45
4.5
32
45
4.5
32
22
2.2
16
22
2.2
16
21
2.1
15
30
3.0
22
30
3.0
22
Tie-rod locknut
M10
59
5.9
43
Front wheel and front wheel hub
M8
21
2.1
15
M14
62
6.2
45
Front brake caliper and front wheel steering knuckle
M8
21
2.1
15
Front brake hose union bolt
M10
27
2.7
19
Front brake disc and front wheel hub
M8
30
3.0
22
Front brake caliper bleed screw
M6
6
0.6
4.3
Rear wheel and rear wheel hub
M10
55
5.5
40
Rear wheel hub and constant velocity joint of half shaft
M20
260
26.0
190
Brake pipe and brake master cylinder
M10
19
1.9
13
Brake master cylinder and pedal holder assembly
M8
16
1.6
11
Rear brake caliper and Install seat
M10
40
4.0
29
Rear brake hose union bolt
M10
27
2.7
19
Rear brake caliper bleed screw
M6
5
0.5
3.6
Upper instrument panel and frame
M6
7
0.7
5.1
Ceiling side frame (enclosure) and frame
M10
64
6.4
46
Footrest plate and frame
M10
64
6.4
46
Front wheel hub and constant velocity joint of half
shaft
- 78-
Remarks
Stake
Stake
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL TIGHTENING TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
This chart specifies tightening torques for standard fasteners with a standard ISO thread pitch.
Tightening torque specifications for special components or assemblies are provided for each chapter
of this manual. To avoid warpage, tighten multi-fastener assemblies in a crisscross pattern and
progressive stages until the specified tightening torque is reached. Unless otherwise specified,
tightening torque specifications require clean, dry threads. Components should be at room
temperature.
A: Distance between flats
B: Outside thread diameter
A
(nut)
10 mm
12 mm
14 mm
17 mm
19 mm
22 mm
B
(bolt)
6 mm
8 mm
10 mm
12 mm
14 mm
16 mm
General tightening torques
Nm
m · kg
ft · lb
6
0.6
4.3
15
1.5
11
30
3.0
22
55
5.5
40
85
8.5
61
130
13.0
94
- 79-
SPECIFICATIONS
Engine
LUBRICATION PIONTS AND LUBRICANT TYPES
Lubrication points
Lubricant
Oil seal lips
Apply lithium-soap-based grease
Bearings
Apply engine oil
O-rings
Apply lithium-soap-based grease
Piston, piston ring
Apply engine oil
Piston pin
Apply engine oil
Buffer boss and balancer drive gear
Apply engine oil
Crankshaft seal and spacer
Apply engine oil
Valve stem
Apply molybdenum disulfide oil
Valve stem end
Apply molybdenum disulfide oil
Rocker arm shaft
Apply engine oil
Rocker arm
Apply molybdenum disulfide grease
Camshaft lobe and journal
Apply molybdenum disulfide grease
Oil pump assembly
Apply engine oil
Oil filter cartridge O-ring
Apply lithium-soap- based grease
Starter idle gear shaft
Apply molybdenum disulfide grease
Starter wheel gear
Apply engine oil
Clutch housing assembly shaft end
Apply lithium-soap- based grease
Clutch carrier assembly
Apply engine oil
One-way clutch bearing
Apply molybdenum disulfide grease
Middle driven shaft splines
Apply molybdenum disulfide oil
Drive axle, driven sprocket, high wheel gear, and low
Apply molybdenum disulfide oil
wheel gear
Middle drive gear and clutch dog shift fork groove
Apply molybdenum disulfide oil
Driven chain/sprocket
Apply engine oil
Shift drum
Apply engine oil
Shift fork guide bar
Apply engine oil
Shift drum stopper ball
Apply engine oil
Shift lever 2 assembly
Apply lithium-soap- based grease
Shift lever 1
Apply engine oil
Shift lever 1 and shift lever 2 assembly mating surface
Apply engine oil
- 80-
SPECIFICATIONS
CHASSIS
Lubrication points
Lubricant
Lip of oil seal (full)
Light lithium-base grease
o-ring(full)
Light lithium-base grease
Steering shaft (upper end ,lower end)
Light lithium-base grease
Ball connection of steering pushing rod
Light lithium-base grease
Front wheel fork(ball-shaped joint)
Light lithium-base grease
Front wheel fork (ball-shaped joint)
Light lithium-base grease
Front wheel bearing
Light lithium-base grease
Front & rear brake
Light lithium-base grease
Dust-proof ring of brake
Light lithium-base grease
Joint of front brake cable
Light lithium-base grease
Front brake lever axle and rear brake lever axle
Light lithium-base grease
Adjusting nut and pin of rear brake cable
Light lithium-base grease
Rear brake pedal pivot and brake pedal axle hole
Light lithium-base grease
Throttle rotating frame shaft and end section of throttle cable
Light lithium-base grease
Reverse gear lever pivot
Light lithium-base grease
Connection bolt of rear wheel fork and grame,rear wheel fork
Light lithium-base grease
bearing
Rubber sleeve and rear wheel fork
Seal gum
Rear shock absorber bushing
Light lithium-base grease
- 81-
SPECIFICATIONS
Hydrographic chart
LUBRICATION OIL WAY
:Pressure
:splashing oil
- 82-
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
NOTE:
The correct maintenance and adjustment are necessary to ensure vehicle and normal driving
The repair personnel should be familiar with the contents of this article.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
EVERY
ITEM
ROUTINE
INITAL
Whichever
month
1
3
6
6
12
comes first
km
320
1,200
2,400
2,400
4,800
(mi)
(200)
(750)
(1,500)
(1,500)
(3,000)
hours
20
75
150
150
300
· Check for leakage.
Exhaust system*
· Tighten if necessary.
○
○
· Replace gasket(s) if necessary.
Spark arrester
Fuel line*
Air filter element
Front brake*
Rear brake*
Wheel
Front and rear
suspension*
·Clean.
·Check fuel hose for cracks or damage.
·Replace if necessary.
· clean.
○
○
○
○
(More often in wet of dusty areas.)
· Check operation/ fluid leakage.
· Correct if necessary.
· Check operation.
· Adjust if necessary.
·Check balance/damage/
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
· Repair if necessary.
· Check operation.
○
·Correct if necessary.
Wheel bearing*
○
Every20-40hours
·Replace if necessary.
· Check
○
bearing
assemblies
○
for
looseness /damage.
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
·Replace if necessary.
Steering system*
Select lever safety
system cable
Drive shaft universal
·Check operation./Replace if damaged
·check toe-in./Adjust if necessary.
Fittings and
fasteners*
Valves
○
·Check operation.
· Adjust if necessary.
· Lubricate with lithium–soap–based
joint*
Axle boots*
○
grease.
· Check operation.
· Replace if damaged.
·Check all chassis fittings and fasteners.
·Correct if necessary.
· Check valve clearance.
·
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
Adjust if necessary.
- 83 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
·Check condition.
Spark plug
· Adjust gap and clean.
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
· Rep; ace if necessary.
V-belt*
Crankcase breather
system*
Engine oil
Engine oil strainer*
Engine oil filter
cartridge
Lights and switches*
· Check operation.
○
· Check for cracks or damage.
· Check breather hose for cracks of
damage.
·Replace if necessary.
· Replace.(Warm
engine
before
draining.)
○
○
○
·Clean.
○
○
○
○
· Replace.
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
· Check operation.
· Adjust headlight beams.
○
○
NOTE:
·Recommended brake fluid: DOT 4
·Brake fluid replacement:
·When disassembling the master cylinder or caliper, replace the brake fluid. Normally check the
brake fluid level and add fluid as required.
·On the inner parts of the master cylinder and caliper, replace the oil seals every two years.
·Replace the brake hoses every four years, or if cracked or damaged.
- 84 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
ENGINE
Adjusting the valve clearance
NOTE:
·The valve clearance must be adjusted when the
engine is cool to the touch.
·Adjust the valve clearance when the piston is at
the Top Dead Center TDC on the compression
stroke.
·Remove:
·driver seat
·passenger seat
·engine cover board
1. Remove following parts:
①
spark plug
②
Cylinder cover
③
crankshaft position sensor
④
inspection hole cover
- 85 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
2. Check:
·valve clearance
·Beyond the standard
Adjust.
Valve clearance (cold)
Intake
0.08 ~ 0.12 mm
(0.0031 ~ 0.0047 in)
Exhaust
0.10 ~ 0.14 mm
(0.0047 ~ 0.0063 in)
3. calibration
A
adjusting tools ○
Spin the crank, when the rotoflex’s scale shows 1,
it is cylinder 1’s timing.
- 86 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
4.
Adjust the valve clearance of cylinder .
valve clearance
①
Pin lock nut
②
Valve thickness gauge(gap Regulation)
③
Regulator
④
Adjust tools
· Loosen the locknut ①.
· Insert a thickness gauge ② between the adjuster
end and the valve end.
·Turn the adjuster ③ clockwise or counterclockwise
with the tappet adjusting tool ④until the proper
clearance is obtained.
· in order to avoid adjuster rotating along, fix the lock
nut after finishing
Fixed nut
14 Nm(1.4 m·kgf, 10 ft·lbs)
· Measuring clear
· Measure the clearance of valve with gap gauge.
· If the gap beyond the standard value, repeat the
above steps until the correct gap.
5. Install all removed parts
According to remove the reverse order for
installation
① big hand hole cover
② small hand hole cover
③ timing chain cover
④ exhaust valve cover
⑤ air-intake valve cover
⑥
⑦
⑧
⑨
spark plug
engine cover board
passenger seat
driver seat
Refer to “SEATS” in chapter 5.
- 87 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHECKING THE SPARK PLUG
1. dismount the seat and engine cover board.
2. Remove:
pull out the spark plug cap ①
3. Check:
·spark plug type
Incorrect
Replace.
Standard spark plug
C7HSA /NGK
4. Check:
·electrode ①
To check if it is burned blunt or much carbon is
there, then check the pole clearance by thickness
gauge. It is qualified if the pole clearance is between
0.8 to 0.9mm. Otherwise it should be adjusted.
Wear/damage
Replace.
·insulator ②
Abnormal color
Replace.
Normal color is a medium-to-light tan color.
5. Clean the spark plug with a spark plug cleaner or
wire brush.
6. Install:
·spark plug
17.5 Nm(1.75 m·kgf, 12.7 ft·lbs)
·Then hook up the spark plug cap.
NOTE:
Before installing a spark plug, clean the gasket
surface and plug surface.
7. Install:
·engine cover board
·passenger seat
·driver seat
- 88 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHECKING THE IGNITION TIMING
NOTE:
before checking the ignition timing, adjust the
engine’s racing speed and throttle cable.
1. Remove:
·driver seat
·passenger seat
·engine cover board
Refer to “SEATS” in chapter 5.
2. Attach:
· Engine tachometer ③
(to the spark plug lead)
3. Remove:
Refer to remove manual starting mechanism ②、
① name
4. Check:
· Engine tachometer
a. worm up the engine at specified speed
Engine speed
1,400 ~ 1,500 r/min
b. Visually check the stationary pointer ① to verify it
is within the required firing range indicated on the
flywheel.
Incorrect firing range
Check the pulser coil
assembly.
c. Install the timing plug.
5. Install:
·Engine manual starting mechanism
7 Nm (0.7 m · kg, 5.1 ft · lb)
6. Install:
·manual starting mechanism cover
10 Nm (1.0 m · kg, 7.2 ft · lb)
7. Detach:
· timing light
8. Install:
·engine cover board
·passenger seat
·driver seat
Refer to “SEATS” in chapter 5.
- 89 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
MEASURING THE COMPRESSION PRESSURE
NOTE:
Insufficient compression pressure will result in
a loss of performance.
1. Start the engine and let it warm up for several
minutes.
2. Stop the engine and remove the spark plug.
3. Assemble the compression pressure meter ①
and joint utensil ② on the hole of the spark plug
4. check
valve clearance
Adjust. Refer to “ADJUSTING
Out of specification
THE VALVE CLEARANCE”
standard value
standard compression pressure data
1200Kpa (12kg/c)-1000r/min
5. read the highest data on the compression
pressure meter
·Above the maximum pressure:
Check the cylinder head, valve surfaces, and
piston crown for carbon deposits.
·Below the minimum pressure:
Check the accumulation carbon in the firebox of the
cylinder head and accumulation carbon on the
piston head.
·Refer to the table below.
Compression pressure(with oil introduced into
cylinder)
Reading
Diagnosis
Higher
than
Worn or damaged pistons
without oil
Same as without
Defective ring(s), valves,
oil
cylinder head gasket or
piston is possible.
Compression pressure
(at sea level)
Standard:
1,324Kpa
(13.24 kg/cm2, 188.31Psi)
Minimum:
1,150Kpa
(11.5 kg/cm2, 163.57Psi)
Maximum:
1,480Kpa
(14.8 kg/cm2, 210.50Psi)
·Crank over the engine with the electric
- 90 -
starter (be
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
sure the battery is fully charged) with the throttle
wide-open until the compression
reading on the
gauge stabilizes.
NOTE:
When cranking the engine, ground the spark plug
lead to prevent sparking.
4. Install:
·spark plug
18 Nm-20Nm (1.8 m · kg, 13 ft · lb)
CHECKING THE ENGINE OIL LEVEL
1. Place the vehicle on a level surface
2. Check:
·engine oil level
Oil level should be between the ②engine oil
mirror maximum and minimum marks.
Oil level low
Add oil to the proper level.
Recommended oil
Follow the left chart.
NOTE:
Recommended oil classification:
API Service “SE”, “SF”, “SG” type or equivalent
(e.g. “SF—SE—CC”, “SF—SE—SD” etc.)
NOTE:
Do not allow foreign material to enter the
crankcase.
3. Stop the engine and check the oil level again
NOTE:
Wait a few minutes until the oil settles before
checking the oil level.
NOTE:
Never remove the dipsti]ck just after high speed
operation because the heated oil could spurt out.
Wait until the oil cools down before removing the
dipstick.
- 91 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHANGING THE ENGINE OIL
Place the vehicle on a level surface.
1. Start the engine and let it warm up for several
minutes.
2. Stop the engine and place an oil pan under the
engine.
3. Remove:
dismount the following parts step by stem
4.
①
oil gauge
③
oil-draining blind nut
If you need to change the oil filter core, please
follow the steps below exactly (Generally change
the oil and core after run in-time.)
·Take out the oil gauge and oil-draining blind nut,
drain the oil.
· Lubricate the O-ring of the new oil filter cartridge
with a thin coat of lithium-soap-based grease.
·Tighten the new oil filter cartridge to specification
with an oil filter wrench.
Oil filter cartridge
17 Nm (1.7 m · kg)
.
5. Install:
· oil gauge
①
· oil-draining blind nut
③
6. conditions
·Change for new oil filter before impouring oil to
crankcase, and make sure it is in good working
condition before assembling.
·make sure that the oil reach regular level when the
vehicle is placed on flat ground.
Oil level of gearbox
Periodic oil change
The oil capacity after the engine
disassembled and reassembled.
1.5L
is
The oil should be put into the engine for after
all the oil is drawn out
1.5L
- 92 -
MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
7. Install:
·engine oil filler plug
8. Worm up the engine for a few minutes, and then
stop the engine.
9. Check:
·engine (for engine oil leaks)
·refer to Chapter 4 check the level of engine oil
10. Check:
·engine oil pressure
- 93 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHASSIS
CLEANING THE AIR FILTER
NOTE:
There is a check hose ① at the bottom of the
air filter case. If dust and/or water collect in
this hose, clean the air filter element and air
filter case.
1. Remove:
·driver seat
·air filter case cover ①
·air filter element assembly ①
·air filter element cap ②
·air filter element③
NOTE:
Never operate the engine with the air filter
element removed. This will allow unfiltered air
to enter, causing rapid wear and possible
engine damage. Additionally, operation without
the filter element will affect
with
subsequent
poor
carburetor tuning
performance
and
possible engine overheating.
2. Check:
·air filter element
·Damaged
Replace.
3. Clean:
·air filter element
a. Wash the element gently, but thoroughly in
solvent
- 94 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
WARNING:
Use a cleaning solvent which is designed to
clean parts only. Never use gasoline or low
flash point solvents as they may cause a
fire or explosion.
b. Squeeze the excess solvent out of the element
and let it dry.
NOTE:
Do not twist or wring out the element. This
could damage the foam material.
c. Squeeze out the excess oil.
NOTE:
The element should be wet but not dripping.
4. Install:
·air filter element
·air filter case cover
NOTE:
To prevent air leaks make sure that the sealing
surface of the element matches the sealing
surface of the case.
·driver seat
CHECKING THE V-BELT
1. Remove:
·driver seat
·drive belt cover
·Check:
a. V-belt ①
Cracks/wear/scaling/chipping
Oil/ grease
Check primary sheave and
secondary sheave。
b. V-belt width ②
Out of specification
- 95 -
Replace.
Replace.
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
V-belt width
33.2 mm (1.31 in)
<Limit:> 29.9 mm (1.18 in)
·Replace V-belt
Install the bolts ① into the secondary fixed
sheave hold.
NOTE:
Tightening the bolts ①will push the secondary
sliding sheave away, causing the gap between
the secondary fixed and sliding sheaves to
widen.
·Remove the V-belt ①from the primary sheave
and secondary sheave.
·Install the V-belt.
NOTE:
Install the V-belt so that its arrow faces the
direction shown in the illustration.
· Remove the bolts.
2. Install:
· drive belt cover
· driver seat
CLEANING THE SPARK ARRESTER
1. Clean:
Tap the tailpipe lightly with a soft-face hammer or
suitable tool, then use a wire brush to remove any
carbon deposits from the spark arrester portion of
the tailpipe and the inner contact surfaces of the
muffler
2.spark arrester
- 96 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
WARNING:
· Select
a
well-ventilated
area
free
of
combustible materials.
·Always let the exhaust system cool before
performing this operation.
· Do not start the engine when removing the
tailpipe from the muffler.
3.
Remove:
·Remove the bolts①.
·Remove the tailpipe ② by pulling it out of the
muffler.
4. Install:
·Insert the tailpipe ② into the muffler and align the
bolt holes.
·Insert the bolt 1 and tighten it.
·Start the engine and rev it up approximately
twenty times while momentarily creating exhaust
system back pressure by blocking the end of the
muffler with a shop towel.
·Stop the engine and allow the exhaust pipe to
cool.
ADJUSTING THE BRAKE PEDAL
·Adjust:
·brake pedal free play
a. Loosen the locknut ①
b. Turn brake rod ② in or out until the correct free
play is obtained.
Turning in
Free play is increased.
Turning out
Free play is decreased.
c. Tighten the locknut to specification.
Locknut
17 Nm (1.7 m · kg, 12 ft · lb)
NOTE:
Make sure that there is no brake drag on the
front or rear wheels.
- 97 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHECKING THE BRAKE FLUID LEVEL
1. Place the vehicle on a level surface.
NOTE:
When checking the brake fluid level, make sure
that the top of the brake fluid reservoir top is
horizontal.
2. Lift the hood up.
3. Check:
·brake fluid level Fluid level is under “MIN” ①
line
Fill up.
NOTE:
Brake fluid may erode painted surfaces or
plastic parts. Always clean up spilled fluid
immediately.
WARNING:
· Use only the designed quality brake fluid:
otherwise, the rubber seals may deteriorate,
causing
leakage
and
poor
brake
performance.
·Refill with the same type of brake fluid: mixing
fluids may result in a harmful chemical
reaction and lead to poor performance.
·Be careful that water does not enter the master
cylinder when refilling. Water will significantly
lower the boiling point of the fluid and may
result in a vapor lock.
4. Close the hood.
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MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHECKING THE FRONT BRAKE PADS
1. Remove:
·front wheels
2. Check:
a almost
·brake pads Wear indicator groove ○
disappeared
Replace the brake pads as a set.
Refer to “FRONT AND REAR BRAKES” in
chapter 5.
Brake pad wear limit ○
a
1.5 mm (0.06 in)
3. Operate the brake pedal.
4. Install:
·front wheels
CHECKING THE REAR BRAKE PADS
1. Check:
·brake pads
a almost disappeared
Wear indicator groove ○
Replace the brake pads as a set.
Refer to “FRONT AND REAR BRAKES” in
chapter 5.
Brake pad wear limit ○
a
1.5 mm (0.06 in)
3. Operate the brake pedal.
- 99 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHECKING THE BRAKE HOSES AND BRAKE
PIPES
1. Remove:
·driver seat
Refer to “SEATS” in chapter 5.
2. Lift the hood up.
3. Check:
·front brake hoses ①
·rear brake hoses ②
Cracks/wear/damage
Fluid leakage
Replace.
Replace all damaged parts.
Refer to “FRONT AND REAR BRAKES” in
chapter 5.
NOTE:
Hold the vehicle in an upright position and
apply the brake pedal.
4. Install driver seat
BLEEDING THE HYDRAULIC BRAKE
SYSTEM
WARNING:
Bleed the brake system if:
·The system has been disassembled.
· A brake hose or brake pipe have been
loosened or removed.
·The brake fluid has been very low.
The brake operation has been faulty. A loss of
braking performance may occur if the brake
system is not properly bled.
1. Bleed:
·brake system
a. Add the proper brake fluid to the reservoir.
b. Install the diaphragm. Be careful not to spill any
fluid or allow the reservoir to overflow.
c. Remove the cover of the brake oil pump ① add
the moderate brake liquid.
- 100 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
F
□
Front
R
□
Rear
d. Place the other end of the hose into a container.
e. Slowly apply the brake pedal several times.
f. Push down on the pedal and hold it.
g. Loosen the bleed screw and allow the pedal to
travel towards its limit.
h. Tighten the bleed screw when the pedal limit has
been reached, then release the pedal.
i. Repeat steps (e) to (h) until all the air bubbles
have disappeared from the fluid.
j. Tighten the bleed screw.
Front brake caliper bleed screw
6 Nm (0.6 m · kg, 4.3 ft · lb)
Rear brake caliper bleed screw
5 Nm (0.5 m · kg, 3.6 ft · lb)
NOTE:
If bleeding is difficult, it may be necessary to let
the brake fluid settle for a few hours.
Repeat the bleeding procedure when the tiny
bubbles in the system have disappeared.
k. Add brake fluid to the proper level.
WARNING:
Check the operation of the brake after bleeding
the brake system.
- 101 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
ADJUSTING THE SELECT LEVER SHIFT ROD
① Neutral
② High
③ Reverse
WARNING:
Before shifting, you must stop the vehicle and
take your foot off the accelerator pedal.
Otherwise, the transmission may be damaged.
1. Adjust:
·Select lever shift rod
a. Make sure the select lever is in NEUTRAL.
b. Loosen both locknuts ①.
WARNING:
The select lever shift rod locknut (select lever
side) has left-handed threads. To loosen the
locknut, turn it clockwise.
c. Tighten the locknuts ①.
ADJUSTING THE BRAKE LIGHT SWITCH
NOTE:
· The brake light switch is operated by
movement of the brake pedal.
·The brake light switch is properly adjusted
when the brake light comes on just before
the braking effect starts.
1 . Check
·brake light operation timing
Incorrect
Adjust.
2. Adjust:
·brake light operation timing
a. Hold the main body ① of the brake light switch
so that it does not rotate and turn the adjusting
nut ② in direction
a
○
or ○
b until the brake
light comes on at the proper time.
Direction○
a
Brake light comes on sooner.
Direction○
b
Brake light comes on later.
- 102 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHECKING THE STEERING SYSTEM
1. place the vehicle on the flat ground .
Check:
●
Clamp seat of steering vertical column and
sliding
bearing on the lower end of steering vertical
column,
upper & lower and front & rear moving steering
bar .If the clearance is too large,
replace the
sliding bearing.
Refer to section “Steering system” of chapter 5.
Check:
●
tie-rod ends
Ball pin unit of steering tension rod.
Rotate the steering bar leftward and / or rightward,
Then roate from left to right lightly . If the ball pin
unit of steering tension rod have any vertical
clearance , replace it .
Refer to section “Steering system” of chapter 5.
Check:
●
Ball joints and/or wheel bearings Move the
wheels laterally back and forth. Excessive free
play
Replace the front arms (upper and
lower) and/or wheel bearings.
ADJUSTING THE TOE-IN
1. Place the vehicle on a level surface.
2. Measure:
• toe-in
Out of specification
Adjust.
Toe-in
0 ~ 10 mm (0.00 ~ 0.39 in)
(with tires touching the ground)
- 103 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
NOTE:
Before measuring the toe-in, make sure that the
tire pressure is correct.
a. Mark both front tire tread centers.
b.Lift the front end of ATV to keep the front wheel
from force .
c. Faster the steering forward . Meagcre the wide
the
between two marks.
d. Rotate the front tires 180° until the marks are
exactly opposite one another.
B between the marks.
e. Measure distance □
f. Calculate the toe-in using the formula given
below.
B -□
A
Toe-in=□
g. If the toe-in is incorrect, adjust it.。
3. Adjust toe-in
WARNING:
Make sure that left / right tension rods have
turned the same turns . Otherwise the ATV will
still go ATV left and right even though . Operate
the ATV to go forward straightly with steering
bar , easily causing to getting out of contor and
accident . After adjusting the toe-in correctly
drive the ATV to move forward a span of
distance by fastering the steering bar so as to
make , sure if the Steering bar is pormal , if not ,
adjust the tension rod left or right within the
specification .
a. Mark both tie-rods ends. This reference point will
be needed during adjustment.
b. Loosen the locknut (tie-rod end) ① on each
tie-rod.
c. The same number of turns should be given to
both the right and left tie-rods ② until the
specified toe-in is obtained. This is to keep the
length of the rods the same.
- 104 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
d. Tighten the rod end locknut on each tie-rod.
Locknut (rod end)
40 Nm (4.0 m · kg, 29 ft · lb)
ADJUSTING THE FRONT SHOCK ABSORBERS
WARNING:
Always adjust both shock absorber spring
preload
to
the
same
setting.
Uneven
adjustment can cause poor handling and loss
of stability.
NOTE:
The spring preload of the shock absorbers can
be adjusted to suit the operator’s preference,
weight, and the operating conditions.
1. Adjust:
• spring preload Turn the adjuster ① to increase
or decrease the spring preload.
Standard position: 2
Minimum (Soft) position: 1
Maximum (Hard) position: 5
ADJUSTING THE REAR SHOCK ABSORBERS
WARNING:
Always adjust both shock absorber spring
preload
to
the
same
setting.
Uneven
adjustment can cause poor handling and
loss of stability.
NOTE:
The spring preload of the shock absorbers can
be adjusted to suit the operator’s preference,
weight, and the operating conditions.
1. Adjust:
• spring preload Turn the adjuster ① to increase
or decrease the spring preload.
- 105 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
CHECKING THE TIRES
WARNING:
• TIRE CHARACTERISTICS
a. Tyre characteristics influence the handling
of vehicle’s. If other tire combinations are
used, they can adversely affect your
vehicle’s handling characteristics and are
therefore not recommended.
Size
Type
Front
6PR
21× 7-8/19 ×7-8
Rear
6PR
20× 9.5-8/18 × 9.5-8
• TIRE PRESSURE
a. Recommended tire pressure
Front 28Kpa/28Kpa
Rear 49KPa/49Kpa
b. Tyre pressure below the minimum
specification could cause the tire to dislodge
from the rim under severe riding conditions.
The following are minimums:
Front 31.5Kpa/48.2Kpa
Rear 31.5Kpa/48.2Kpa
c. Use no more than
Front 38Kpa/250Kpa
Rear 38Kpa/250Kpa
when seating the tire beads. Higher pressure
may cause the tire to burst.
Inflate the tires slowly and carefully.
Fast inflation could cause the tire to burst.
•
MAXIMUM LOADING LIMIT
a. Vehicle loading limit (total weight of cargo,
operator, passenger and accessories): 100kg
b. Cargo bed: NA
1. Measure:
• Tire pressure (cold tire pressure) Out of
specification Adjust.
- 106 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
NOTE:
• The tire pressure gauge ① is included as
standard equipment.
• If dust or the like is stuck to this gauge, it will
not provide the correct readings. Therefore,
take
two
measurements
of
the
tire’s
pressure and use the second reading.
WARNING:
Uneven
or
improper
tire
pressure
may
adversely affect the handling of this vehicle
and may cause loss of control.
• Maintain proper tire pressures.
• Set tire pressures when the tires are cold.
• Tire pressures must be equal in both front
tires and equal in both rear tires.
2. Check:
• tire surfaces
Wear/damage○
a
Replace.
a
Tire wear limit ○
Front and rear: 3.0 mm (0.12 in)
WARNING:
It is dangerous to ride with a worn-out tire.
When tire wear is out of specification, replace
the tire immediately.
CHECKING THE WHEELS
1. Check:
• Wheels ① Damage/bends
Replace.
NOTE:
Always balance the wheel when a tire or wheel
has been changed or replaced.
WARNING:
• Never attempt even small repairs to the wheel.
• Ride conservatively after installing a tire to
allow it to seat itself properly on the rim.
CHECKING AND LUBRICATING THE CABLES
- 107 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
WARNING:
A damaged cable sheath may cause corrosion
and interfere with the cable movement. An
unsafe condition may result so replace a
damaged cable as soon as possible.
1. Check:
• cable sheath Damage
Replace.
• cable operation Unsmooth operation
or replace.
Lubricate
NOTE:
Hold the cable end up and apply several drops
of lubricant to the cable.
2. Apply:
• lithium-soap-based grease (onto end of the
cable)
- 108 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
ELECTRICAL
CHECKING AND CHARGING THE BATTERY
WARNING:
Batteries generate explosive hydrogen gas and
contain electrolyte which is made of poisonous
and highly caustic sulfuric acid.
Therefore, always follow these preventive
measures:
• Wear protective eye gear when handling or
working near batteries;
• Charge batteries in a well-ventilate2d area;
• Keep batteries away from fire, sparks or open
flames
(e.g.,
welding
equipment,
lighted
cigarettes);
• Do not smoke when charging or handling
batteries;
• Keep batteries and electrolyte out
of reach of children;
• Avoid bodily contact with electrolyte as it can
cause severe burns or permanent eye injury;
First aid in case of bodily contact:
External
• Skin — Wash with water;
• Eyes — Flush with water for 15 minutes and
get immediate medical attention;
Internal
Drink large quantities of water or milk followed
with
milk
of
magnesia,
beaten
egg
or
vegetable oil. Get immediate medical attention.
WARNING:
• This is a sealed battery. Never remove the
sealing caps because the balance between
cells will not be maintained and battery
performance will deteriorate;
• Charging time, charging amperage and
charging voltage for an MF battery are
- 109 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
different from those of conventional batteries.
The MF battery should be charged as
explained in the charging method
illustrations. If the battery is overcharged,
the electrolyte level will drop considerably;
• Therefore, take special care when charging
the battery.
NOTE:
Since MF batteries are sealed, it is not possible
to check the charge state of the battery by
measuring
the
specific
gravity
of
the
electrolyte. Therefore, the charge of the battery
has to be checked by measuring the voltage at
the battery terminals.
1. Remove:
• battery case cover;
• disconnect;
battery leads
NOTE:
First, disconnect the negative battery lead ①,
and then the positive battery lead ②.
• Remove;
battery
• Check;
battery charge
a. Connect a pocket tester to the battery terminals.
Positive tester probe
positive battery terminal
Negative tester probe
negative battery terminal
- 110 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
NOTE:
• The charge state of an MF battery can be
checked by measuring its open-circuit voltage
(i.e., the voltage when the positive terminal is
disconnected).
• No charging is necessary when the
open-circuit voltage equals or exceeds 12.8 V.
b. Check the charge of the battery, as shown in
the charts and the following example.
Example
c. Open-circuit voltage = 12.0 V
d. Charging time = 6.5 hours
e. Charge of the battery = 20 ~ 30%
2. Charge:
• battery (refer to the appropriate charging method
illustration) .
WARNING:
Do not quick charge a battery.
NOTE:
• Never remove the MF battery sealing caps.
• Do not use a high-rate battery charger since
it forces a high-amperage current into the
battery quickly and can cause battery
overheating and battery plate damage.
• If it is impossible to regulate the charging
current on the battery charger, be careful not
to overcharge the battery.
• When charging a battery, be sure to remove
it from the vehicle. (If charging has to be done
with the battery mounted on the vehicle,
disconnect the negative battery lead from the
battery terminal).
• To reduce the chance of sparks, do not plug
in the battery charger until the battery charger
leads are connected to the battery.
• Before removing the battery charger lead
clips from the battery terminals, be sure to
turn off the battery charger.
• Make sure the battery charger lead clips are
in full contact with the battery terminal and
that
- 111 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
they are not shorted. A corroded battery
charger lead clip may generate heat in the
contact area and a weak clip spring may
cause sparks.
• If the battery becomes hot to the touch at any
time during the charging process, disconnect
the battery charger and let the battery cool
before reconnecting it. Hot batteries can
explode!
• As shown in the following illustration, the
open-circuit voltage of an MF battery
stabilizes about 30 minutes after charging
has been completed. Therefore, wait 30
minutes after charging is completed before
measuring the open-circuit voltage.
Charging method using a variable-current
(voltage) charger
NOTE:
• Leave the battery unused for more than 30
minutes before measuring its open-circuit
voltage.
• Set the charging voltage to 16 ~17 V. (If the
charging voltage is lower, charging will be
insufficient, if it is higher, the battery will be
over-charged.)
- 112 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
Measure the open-circuit voltage
prior to charging.
Connect a charger and ammeter to
the battery and start charging.
YES
Is the amperage higher than the
standard
charging
amperage
written on the battery?
NO
Adjust the charging voltage to
20 ~ 25 V
Adjust the voltage to obtain the
standard charging amperage
Monitor the amperage for 3 ~ 5
minutes. Is the standard charging
amperage exceeded?
YES
NO
If the amperage does not
exceed the standard charging
amperage after 5 minutes,
replace the battery.
Set the timer to the charging time
determined by the open circuit voltage.
If the required charging time exceeds 5 hours, it is advisable to check the charging
amperage after 5 hours. If there is any change in the amperage, readjust the voltage to
obtain the standard charging amperage.
Leave the battery unused for more than 30 minutes before measuring its open-circuit
voltage.
Charging is complete.
12.8 V
12.0 ~ 12.7 V
Recharging is required.
Replace the battery.
Under 12.0 V
- 113 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
Charging method using a constant voltage charger
NOTE:
Leave the battery unused for more than 30
minutes before measuring its open-circuit
voltage.
Measure the open-circuit voltage
prior to charging.
Connect a charger and ammeter to
the battery and start charging.
YES
Is the amperage higher than the
standard
charging
amperage
written on the battery?
Charge the battery until the
charging voltage reaches 15 V.
NO
This type of battery charger cannot
charge an MF battery. A variable
voltage charger is recommended.
NOTE:
Set the charging time to a
maximum of 20 hours.
Leave the battery unused for more than 30
minutes before measuring its open-circuit
voltage.
12.8 V → Charging is complete.
12.0 ~ 12.7 V → Recharging is required.
Under 12.0 V → Replace the battery
- 114 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
4. Install:
• battery case cover
5. Close the hood.
ADJUSTING THE HEADLIGHT BEAM
1. Adjust:
• headlight beam (vertically)
• turn the adjuster ① in or out
Turning in
Headlight beam raised.
Turning out
Headlight beam lowered.
CHANGING THE HEADLIGHT BULB
Remove:
• Lift the hood up.
• headlight bulb holder cover ②
• headlight bulb holder (with bulb) ①
• bulb
- 115 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
NOTE:
Remove the defective bulb by unhooking the
headlight bulb holder tabs ②
WARNING:
Keep flammable products and your hands away
from the bulb while it is on, since it will be hot.
Do not touch the bulb until it cools down.
2. Install:
• bulb new
Secure the new bulb with the headlight bulb
holder.
NOTE:
Avoid touching the glass part of the bulb. Keep
it free from oil; otherwise, the transparency of
the glass, life of the bulb, and luminous flux will
be adversely affected. If oil gets on the bulb,
thoroughly clean it with a cloth moistened with
alcohol or lacquer thinner.
• headlight bulb holder (with bulb)
• headlight bulb holder cover
• Close the hood.
CHANGING THE TAIL/BRAKE LIGHT BULB
1. Remove:
• Rear panel
• Tail/brake light bulb holder(with bulb)①
• Secure the new bulb with the tail/brake light bulb
holder.
• tail/brake light bulb holder (with bulb) ①
• bulb
NOTE:
Turn the bulb holder counterclockwise and
remove the defective bulb.
- 116 -
MAINTENCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE ATV
WARNING:
Keep flammable products and your hands away
from the bulb while it is on, since it will be hot.
Do not touch the bulb until it cools down.
2. Install:
• bulb new
Secure the new bulb with the tail/brake light bulb
holder.
NOTE:
Avoid touching the glass part of the bulb. Keep
it free from oil; otherwise, the transparency of
the glass, life of the bulb, and luminous flux will
be adversely affected. If oil gets on the bulb,
thoroughly clean it with a cloth moistened with
alcohol or lacquer thinner.
• tail/brake light bulb holder (with bulb)
• bed panel
- 117 -
ENGINE
ENGINE
ENGINE NOTE
Make sure the components, oil, adhesive, sealant are from the company or recommended.
2.Original removal oil seal,gasket, O-ring, piston ring can not be re-assemblied again, make sure all
these parts are new.
1. Pay attention to keep dismantled parts orderly, make sure their original positions for reassembling.
4.Prevent dismantled parts damaged, clean before measure and assembly, remove the oil with
compressed air. Paint the rotating and sliding parts with specified oil, paint or inject designated
location with recommended grease.
5.Bolts and nuts tightening order: pre-fixed bolts, and then tighten them from the large diameter to
small diameter, from inside to outside by diagonal points 2 or 3 times to the specified torque.
Opposite order is for removing bolts and nuts.
6.Make sure sealing bolt (with the sealant) must be replaced
7.Make sure to use new bearing when remove assembly set up by pressure.
8.Determined axial and radial clearance of inner and outer bearing ring by touch, new bear should be
replaced if the clearance is too large or non-rotating flexible.
9.Bearing assembly directions:
bearing logo should be visible assemblies; confirm bearing outer ring
rotate and move reliably and flexibly when assemble bearing by pressure.
10.Oil seal assembly: pay attention to seal side is in the side of oil, logo side outwards, seal side be
painted with grease, and make sure seal side without scratch and oil seal be vertical.
11.Before assembly, sealing material attached to all engine covers and crank case combination
surface should be cleaned.
12.Before assembly engine, be familiar with engine lubrication circuit, clean and blow oil circuit.
- 118 -
ENGINE
ENGINE REMOVAL
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing throttle and intake
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed.
manifold.
1
Bolt M6×14
2
2
Mounting seat fuel injector
1
3
Fuel injector EMF0700216
1
4
Blot M6×35
2
5
Dampers(D26)
1
6
Clamp φ32~φ50
2
7
Joint inlet pipe
1
8
Inlet pipe
1
9
Cross large plate head screw M4×8
1
10
Tmap press plate(inlet sensor)
1
11
Inlet temperature/press sensor 28086011
1
For installation, reverse the removal
procedure.
- 119 -
ENGINE
CYLINDER ASSY
No.
Part Name
Qty
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed.
Removing the cylinder head
1
Flange bolt M6×110
1
2
Flange bolt M6×20
2
3
Cylinder head right cover
1
4
Valve cover
2
5
O-ring 32.7×3.1
2
6
Cylinder head
1
7
Cylinder head left gasket
1
8
Cylinder head left cover
1
9
Cylinder head top cover gasket
1
10
Plate φ6×2
3
11
Copper washer φ6
1
12
Nut M6×14
4
13
Spark plug C7HSA
1
- 120 -
ENGINE
No.
14
Part Name
Cylinder head right gasket
Qty
15
Aluminum washer φ6×φ12×1.5
1
16
Cylinder head top cover
1
Remarks
1
For installation, reverse the removal
procedure.
- 121 -
ENGINE
CYLINDER ASSY
No.
Part Name
Qty
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed.
Removing the cylinder
1
Cylinder body gasket
1
2
Pin φ8×12
4
3
Washer φ10×φ15×2.3
1
4
Cylinder body
1
5
Washer φ14×φ18×2.3
1
6
Washer φ11×φ14.5×1.5
1
7
Cylinder head gasket
1
8
Blot M6×32
1
9
Temperature sensor
1
For installation, reverse the removal
procedure.
- 122 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
1). Checking the valve clearance
• Valve clearance
2). Checking the cylinder head cover
• cylinder head cover
Cracks/damage
Replace the cylinder head
cover and cylinder head as a set.
3). Checking the tappet covers
• Cylinder head cover ①
Cracks/damage
Replace.
• Cylinder cover pad ②
NOTE:
When installing, new replacement washer
and apply wheel bearing grease LS.
4). Removing the screwdriver and slowly release
the timing chain tensioner rod.
NOTE:
Make sure that the timing chain tensioner rod
comes out of the timing chain tensioner housing
smoothly. If there is rough movement,
replace the timing chain tensioner.
5). Checking the cylinder head (1). Eliminate:
• carbon
deposits
(from
the
combustion
chamber)
Use a rounded scraper.
NOTE:
Do not use a sharp instrument to avoid
damaging or scratching:
• spark plug threads
• valve seats
(2). Check:
• cylinder head
Scratches/damage
- 123 -
Replace the cylinder
ENGINE
head cover and cylinder head as a set.
• cylinder head water jacket
Eliminate.
Mineral deposits/rust
2、INSTALL
1). Installing the cylinder head
• cylinder head gasket
• cylinder head
• bolts (M9: 1 ~ 6, 38Nm)
• bolts (M6: 7, 10Nm)
NOTE:
• Tighten the bolts in the proper sequence.
• Follow the numerical order shown in the
illustration. Tighten the bolts in two stages.
• timing chain guide (exhaust side)
• timing chain tensioner
a. Lightly press the timing chain tensioner rod
into the timing chain tensioner housing by hand.
b. While pressing the timing chain tensioner rod,
wind it clockwise with a thin screwdriver ① until
it stops.
c. With the screwdriver still inserted into the
timing chain tensioner, install the timing chain
tensioner and gasket onto the cylinder block.
Then, tighten the timing chain tensioner bolts to
the specified torque.
WARNING:
Always use a new gasket.
NOTE:
The “UP” mark on the timing chain tensioner
should face up.
Timing chain tensioner bolt (10 Nm)
d. Remove the screwdriver, make sure that the
timing chain tensioner rod releases, and
tighten the cap bolt to the specified torque.
Timing chain tensioner cap bolt (7 Nm)
- 124 -
ENGINE
CRANKSHAFT、VALVE
No.
Part Name
Qty
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed.
Removing the crankshaft、valve
1
Intake valve
1
2
Outlet valve
1
3
Fuel shield cover comp
2
4
Valve spring seat
2
5
Valve outer spring
2
6
Valve inner spring
2
7
Valve cotter seat
2
8
Valve lock clip
4
9
Valve rocker assy
2
10
Cam shaft comp
4
11
Rocker shaft
2
For installation, reverse the removal
procedure.
- 125 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
1). Checking the rocker arms
• rocker arm lobes
• valve adjusters
Blue discoloration/pitting/scratches
Replace.
• rocker arms
• rocker arm shafts
Replace.
Damage/wear
a. Check whether the rocker arm is worn out, or
damaged and whether the oil hole is blocked.
b. If there is a rocker arm to be replaced, check
the camshaft prominent position of unfairness.
c. Measure the inside diameter of the rocker
arm holes ①.。
Out of specification
Replace.
Rocker arm inside diameter repairing limit
value
Φ12.05mm
d. Check the surface of the rocker arm shafts.
Worn/pitting/scratches
Replace.
e. Measure the external diameter of rocker arm
shaft with micrometer.
Out of specification
Rocker
arm
shaft
Replace.
outside
diameter
repairing limit value
Φ11.96mm
f. Calculate the clearance by subtracting the
rocker arm shaft outside diameter from the
rocker arm inside diameter.
Out of specification
Replace the defective
part(s).
Rocker arm to shaft clearance repairing
limit value
0.06mm
- 126 -
ENGINE
2). Checking the camshaft
• cam lobes
Pitting/scratches/blue
discoloration
Replace
• camshaft journal
Replace
Wear/damage
• Measure the external diameter of camshaft
journal with micrometer.
Replace.
Out of specification
• small holes on camshaft sprocket
• rotor “I” mark
Out of alignment
3). Checking the camshaft sprocket
• camshaft sprocket
Wear/damage
Replace
the
camshaft
sprocket and timing chain as a set.
(a)1/4 of a tooth
(b)Correct
① Timing chain
② Sprocket
4). Checking the decompression system
• decompression system
Check while the camshaft sprocket is installed
on the camshaft.
2、INSTALL
1). Installing the rocker arms
• rocker arms
• rocker arm shafts
NOTE:
• After installation, make sure that the thread
hole of the rocker arm shaft is positioned
correctly.
2). Installing the camshaft
• camshaft
• camshaft sprocket
- 127 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
• valve sealing
Leakage at the valve seat
Check the valve
face, valve seat and valve seat width.
a. Pour a clean solvent ① into the intake and
exhaust ports.
b. Check that the valve seals properly. There
should be no leakage at the valve seat ②.
• valve face
Pitting/wear
Grind the face.
• valve stem end
Mushroom shape or diameter larger than the
Replace.
body of the stem
• valve seats
Pitting/wear
Reface the valve seat.
2、MEASURE:
1).Measure:
• The valves surface width
Repairing limit value 2.0mm
• stem-to-guide clearance
Stem-to-guide clearance = valve guide
inside diameter – valve stem diameter
NOTE:
If the mating surface is coarse, corrode or
cannot contact with valve seat normally,
replace it.
Stem-to-guide
clearance
repairing
value
Intake:0.08mm
Exhaust:0.10mm
• margin thickness (a)
Out of specification
Replace.
Margin thickness
Intake:2 mm
Exhaust:2.2 mm
• valve stem runout
Out of specification
Replace.
Runout limit 0.01 mm
- 128 -
limit
ENGINE
NOTE:
• When installing a new valve always replace
the guide.
• If the valve is removed or replaced always
replace the oil seal.
• The valve seat surface width
Out of specification
Reface the valve seat.
Repairing limit value
2.0mm
a. Install the valve into the cylinder head.
b. Press the valve through the valve guide and
onto the valve seat to make a clear pattern.
c. Measure the valve seat width. Where the
valve seat and valve face made contact, blueing
will have been removed.
• Valve spring free length
• Valve spring squareness
Out of specification
Replace.
Valve spring free length
Intake:44.9mm Exhaust44.9mm
Valve spring squareness
Intake:1.60mm Exhaust 1.60mm
• compressed spring force(a)
Out of specification
Replace.
(b) Installed length
Compressed spring force
Intake: 470 N at 24.5 mm
Exhaust: 270 N at 31.0 mm
2). Remove:
• valve guide
NOTE:
To ease guide removal, installation and to
maintain correct fit, heat the cylinder head to
100 °C (212 °F) in an oven.
a. Install the new valve guide using a valve guide
remover ① and valve guide installer ②.
b. After installing the valve guide, bore the
valve guide using a valve guide reamer ③
to obtain proper stem-to-guide clearance.
- 129 -
ENGINE
NOTE:
After replacing the valve guide reface the
valve seat.
c. If the valve seat is to wide or narrow or
cracked, grind it to ensure impermeability.
3). Lap:
• valve face
• valve seat
NOTE:
After reface the valve seat or replacing the
valve and valve guide, the valve seat and
valve face should be lapped.
a. If the pipe will be replaced, grind the valve
seat again.
CAUTION:
Do not let the compound enter the gap
between the valve stem and the guide.
b. Install the valve into the cylinder head.
c. Turn the valve until the valve face and valve
seat are evenly polished, then clean off all of
the compound.
NOTE:
For best lapping results, lightly tap the valve
seat while rotating the valve back and forth
between your hands.
d. Apply a fine lapping compound to the valve
face and repeat the above steps.
NOTE:
After every lapping operation be sure to
clean off all of the compound from the valve
face and valve seat.
e. Install the valve into the cylinder head.
g. Press the valve through the valve guide and
onto the valve seat to make a clear pattern.
h. Measure the valve seat width again. If the
valve seat width is out of specification, reface
and relapse the valve seat.
- 130 -
ENGINE
3、INSTALL:
1). Apply:
• molybdenum disulfide oil (onto the valve stem
and valve stem seal)
2). Install:
• valve spring seats
• valve stem seals
• valves
• valve springs
• valve spring retainers
NOTE:
Install the valve springs with the larger pitch
(a) facing upwards.
(b) Smaller pitch
• valve cotters
NOTE:
Install the valve cotters while compressing
the valve spring with the valve spring
compressor ① and valve spring compressor
attachment ②.
- 131 -
ENGINE
CRANK CONECTING ROD
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing the cylinder and piston
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed.
1
Connecting rod comp crank
1
2
Circlip
piston pin
2
3
Circlip
piston pin
1
4
Piston
1
5
Piston ring comp
1
For installation, reverse the removal
procedure.
- 132 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
1).Checking the cylinder and piston
• cylinder and piston walls Vertical
scratches
Rebore or replace the cylinder
and the piston.
2).Checking the piston rings
• piston ring
(Insert in cylinder piston ring will be ① ,and
measure the end gap.)
NOTE:
Check whether the piston and the piston
0
groove is cracked and abraded.
3).Checking the piston pin
• piston pin
Blue discoloration/grooves
Replace, then
check the lubrication system.
2、MEASURE
• At the top, the middle and the bottom of the
piston stroke.
NOTE:
Measure the bore diameter at directions of
right-angle intersection.
Repairing limit value
Out of roundness:0.10mm
Taper:0.10mm
• The external diameter 10mm above the bottom
of the piston skirt.。
NOTE:
Repair limit on the clearance between the piston and cylinder.
Repairing limit value 0.10mm
• ring end gap
Out of specification
Replace.
Repairing limit value
Top ring/2nd ring:0.5mm
- 133 -
ENGINE
• ring side clearance
Use a thickness gauge.
Out of specification
Replace the piston and
rings as a set.
NOTE:
Clean carbon from the piston ring grooves and
rings before measuring the side clearance.
Side clearance
Standard
Limit
Top ring
0.04~0.08mm
0.13mm
2nd ring
0.03~0.07mm
0.13mm
• piston pin-to-piston clearance.
a. Measure the piston pin outside diameter.
b. Measure the piston pin bore inside diameter.
Repairing limit value
0.08mm
c. Calculate the piston pin-to-piston clearance
with the following formula.
Piston pin-to-piston clearance = Piston pin bore
inside diameter – Piston pin outside diameter
d. If out of specification, replace the piston.
3、INSTALL:
1). Installing the piston
• piston rings (onto the piston)
NOTE:
• Be sure to install the piston rings so that
the manufacturer’s marks or numbers are
located on the upper side of the rings.
Lubricate the piston and piston rings
•
liberally with engine oil.
• piston ①
• piston pin ②
• piston pin clips ③ (new replacement)
- 134 -
ENGINE
NOTE:
• Apply engine oil onto the piston pin, piston
rings and piston.
• Be sure that the arrow mark a on the piston
points to the exhaust side of the engine.
• Before installing the piston pin clip, cover
the crankcase with a clean rag to prevent
the piston pin clip from falling into the
crankcase.
2). Installing the cylinder
• cylinder
• O-ring
NOTE:
Install the cylinder with one hand while
compressing the piston rings with the other
hand.
CAUTION:
• Be careful not to damage the timing chain
guide during installation.
• Pass the timing chain through the timing
chain cavity.
- 135 -
ENGINE
MAGINE TOELE TRYCITY MACHINE
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing the engine left crankcase
over and A.C. magneto
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed.
Engine oil
Water pump assembly
1
Rotor assy
1
2
Washer φ10×φ22×2.5
1
3
Nut M10
1
4
Hexagon flange bolt M6×30
2
5
Stator assy
1
6
Hexagon socket head screw M5×12
2
7
Hexagon flange bolt M6×10
1
8
Press wire plate - Stator
1
9
Left crankcase comp
1
For installation, reverse the removal
procedure.
- 136 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
1). Checking the A.C.magneto
• stator coil
• pickup coil
Damage
Replace.
2). Checking the starter clutch
• starter clutch ①
Cracks/damage
Replace.
• starter clutch bolts ②
Loose
Replace with new ones, and clinch
the end of the bolts.
NOTE:
• The arrow mark on the starter clutch must
face inward, away from the A.C. magneto
rotor.
• When installing, apply the locking agent.
a. Install the starter wheel gear onto the starter
clutch, and hold the starter clutch.
b. Turn the starter wheel gear counterclockwise
① to check that the starter clutch and wheel
gear engage.
If the starter clutch and wheel gear do not
engage, replace the starter clutch.
c. Turn the starter wheel gear clockwise ② to
check the starter wheel gear for smooth
operation. If operation is not smooth, replace
the starter clutch.
• starter idle gear teeth ①
• starter wheel gear teeth ②
Burrs/clips/roughness/wear
• starter wheel gear
(contacting surface)
Damage/pitting/wear
- 137 -
Replace.
Replace.
ENGINE
2、INSTALL
• woodruff key
• dowel pins
• A.C. magneto rotor
NOTE:
• Before installing the rotor, clean the
outside of the crankshaft and the inside of
the rotor.
• After installing the rotor, check that the
rotor rotates smoothly. If not, reinstall the
key and rotor.
• dowel pins
• gasket (New replacement)
- 138 -
ENGINE
TIMING CHAIN.DIRECTION GEAR
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing the starter motor and water
Remove the parts in the order listed
pump
1
Timing driven sprocket
1
2
Tensioner bracket
1
3
Tensioner sprocket
1
4
Tensioner bracket bolt
1
5
Tensioner spring
1
6
Tensioner axle
1
7
Tensioner plug
1
8
Aluminum washer φ14×φ20×1.5
1
9
Seal bolt M14×12
1
10
Guide pully
1
11
Aluminum washer φ8×φ15×2
1
12
Guide pully bolt
1
- 139 -
Remarks
ENGINE
No.
Part Name
Qty
13
Bolt M5x12
3
14
Sprocket timing
1
15
Oil pump sprocket
1
Remarks
For assembly, reverse the disassembly
procedure.
- 140 -
ENGINE
FRONT COVER L
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing the front cover l
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed
1
Hand hole cover
1
2
O type washer 13.4×2.35
1
3
Left crankcase cover
1
4
Bolt M6×50
1
5
Bolt M6×65
1
6
Hand hole cover
1
7
O type washer φ24×2.5
1
8
Bolt M6×30
2
For assembly, reverse the disassembly
procedure.
- 141 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
1) Checking the starter idle gear
• starter idle gear
Cracks/wear/damage
Replace
2) Checking the timing chain and guides
• timing chain
Replace the timing chain and
Cracks/stiff
camshaft sprocket as a set.
• timing chain guides
Replace.
Wear/damage
3) Checking the relief valve spring
• relief valve steel ball ①
• relief valve spring ②
Replace the defective part(s).
Damage/wear
4) Checking the oil filter cartridge
• Oil filter cartridge
Damage
Replace.
Contaminants
Clean with engine oil.
5) Checking the starter motor
• starter motor
Damage/wear
Replace the defective part(s).
2、INSTALL
• starter motor
• oil filter cartridge
• Starter idle gear shaft
• Starter idle gear
NOTE:
Apply the molybdenum disulfide grease to
the thread of axle and nut.
- 142 -
ENGINE
CRANKCASE ASSY
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing the crankcase assy
Remarks
Remove the parts in the order listed.
1
Right crankcase comp
1
2
Pin φ8×12
2
3
Crankcase gasket
1
4
Left crankcase comp
1
5
Bolt M6×45
11
6
Cylinder B bolt M6×203
2
7
Cylinder B bolt M6×194
2
8
Aluminum washer φ14×φ20×1.5
1
9
Bolt M14×1.5×16
1
10
Oil filter screen
1
11
Mesh spring
1
12
O-ring 36×3.5
1
- 143 -
ENGINE
No.
Part Name
Qty
13
Oil drain screw
1
14
Bolt M6×55
1
Remarks
For assembly, reverse the disassembly
procedure.
- 144 -
ENGINE
CRANKCASE COVER R ASSY
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing the primary and secondary
Remove the parts in the order listed.
sheaves
Engine assembly
1
Cover comp clutch
1
2
Bolt M6×25
7
3
Ventilation plate
1
4
ST4.2×16
4
5
Clutch bolt
1
6
CVT hypo clutch (driven)
1
7
Oil seal 35×44×4
1
8
Right crankcase comp
1
9
Seal loop
1
10
Oil seal 35×42×7
3
- 145 -
Remarks
ENGINE
No.
Part Name
Qty
11
O type washer 20×2.3
2
12
CVT Bush
2
13
CVT Original clutch (Driver)
1
14
Washer φ10×φ32×5
1
15
Bolt M10×1.25×40
1
16
CVT belt
1
17
Clutch cover gasket
1
Remarks
For assembly, reverse the disassembly
procedure.
- 146 -
ENGINE
1、Check
1). Checking the primary sheave
• primary pulley slider
• primary sliding sheave splines
Replace.
Wear/cracks/damage
• spacer
• primary pulley cam
Cracks/damage
Replace.
• primary sliding sheave
• primary fixed sheave
Cracks/damage
Replace.
2、Measure
• secondary sheave spring free length (a)
Out of specification
Replace the secondary
sheave spring.
3、INSTALL
1). Assembling the primary sheave
(1)Clean:
• slope plate
①
• Disk drive ②
NOTE:
Remove any excess grease.
(2)Install:
•
Cylindrical roller
①
NOTE:
•
Apply grease (90g) to the whole outer
surface of the weights and install.
• Apply grease to the inner surface of the
collar.
• Apply grease to the inner surface of the
primary sliding sheave.
- 147 -
ENGINE
2). Assembling the secondary sheave
(1)Apply:
• assembly lube(to the fixed shaftsheave ①
inner surface and oil seals)。
• assembly lube (to the bearings, oil seals and
inner surface of the Mobile disk②)
3).
Installing
the
primary
and
secondary
sheaves
(1) Install:
•
Mobile disk
• V-belt
• primary sheave assembly
NOTE:
•
Tightening
the
bolts
will
push
the
secondary sliding sheave away, causing
the gap between the secondary fixed and
sliding sheaves to widen.
• Install the V-belt so that its right faces the
direction show in the illustration.
(2)Tighten:
• primary sheave nut (70Nm)
• secondary sheave nut (50Nm)
NOTE:
• Use the sheave holder to hold the primary
sheave.
• First, tighten the primary sheave nut , then
tighten the secondary sheave nut .
- 148 -
ENGINE
CLUTCH
ASSY
No.
Part Name
Removing the crankcase
Qty
and oil pump
Re move the parts in the order listed.
1
Connecting rod comp crank
1
2
Driven toper gearwheel
1
3
Driver toper gearwheel
1
4
Left crankcase comp
1
5
Bearing 6304
1
6
Starting motor
1
7
Oil pump axle
1
8
Oil pump inner rotor
1
9
Oil pump outer rotor
1
10
Washer φ44×2
1
11
Washer φ6×2
2
12
Oil pump
1
- 149 -
Remarks
ENGINE
No.
Part Name
Qty
13
Bolt φ6×30
2
14
Bolt M6×45
3
15
Clutch bolt
1
Remarks
For assembly, reverse the disassembly
procedure.
- 150 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
1). Checking the oil pump
• rotor housing
• rotor cover
Replace.
Cracks/wear/damage
• oil pump operation
Unsmooth
Repeat steps #1 and #2 or
replace the defective parts.
2) Checking the timing chain and guides
• timing chain
Cracks/stiff
Replace the timing chain and
camshaft sprocket as a set.
• timing chain guides
Wear/damage
Replace.
2、MEASURE
1). Measure the oil pump
• tip clearance(a) (between the inner rotor ①
and the out rotor ②)
• side clearance(b)(between the outer rotor ②
and the pump housing ③)
• body clearance (c) (between the outer rotor ②
and the pump housing ③)
Out of specification
Replace the oil pump.
Tip clearance Limit: 0.23 mm
Side clearance Limit: 0.25 mm
Body clearance Limit: 0.20 mm
3、INSTALL
1). Assembling the oil pump
• inner rotor
• outer rotor
• oil pump shaft (with the recommended
lubricant)
- 151 -
ENGINE
1、MEASURE
1). Measure the crankshaft
• crank width (A)
Out of specification
Replace the crankshaft.
Crank width
54.95~ 55 mm(2.1634~2.1654 in)
• side clearance (D)
Out of specification
Replace the crankshaft
Big end side clearance
Limit:
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
• runout (b)(C)
Out of specification
Replace the crankshaft.
Runout limit
(b): 0.03 mm
(0.0012 in)
(C): 0.03 mm
(0.0012 in)
The crankshaft ① and the crank pin ② oil
passages must be properly interconnected with
a tolerance of less than 1 mm (0.04 in).
.
CAUTION:
The buffer boss and woodruff key should be
replaced when removed from the crankshaft.
2). Assembling the crankcase
(1) Apply:
• sealant (Quick Gasket)
(to the mating surfaces of both case halves)
(2) Install:
• dowel pins
(3) Fit the left crankcase onto the right case. Tap
lightly on the case with a soft hammer
CAUTION:
Before installing and torque the crankcase
holding bolts, be sure to check whether the
transmission is functioning properly by
manually rotating the shift drum in both
directions.
- 152 -
ENGINE
(4)Tighten:
• crankcase bolts
(follow the proper tightening sequence)
NOTE:
• Tighten the bolts in stages, using a crises
cross pattern.
3、INSTALL
1). Installing the crankshaft
• crankshaft
NOTE:
Hold the connecting rod at the Top Dead
Center (TDC) with one hand while turning the
nut of the installing tool with the other.
Operate the installing tool until the
crankshaft bottoms against the bearing.
- 153 -
ENGINE
MAIN&DRIVE SHAFT
No.
Part Name
Qty
Removing the gear case transmission
Remove the parts in the order listed.
1
Plug oil
level
1
2
O-ring 18×3.5
1
3
Left crankcase assy
1
4
Bearing 62/22
1
5
Main shaft
1
6
Bearing 6202Z
1
7
Cover gasket gear box
1
8
Dowel pinφ8×12
2
9
Oil seal 15×25×5
1
10
Circlip φ14
1
11
Gear rocket
12
Gear switch
2
13
Washer φ10×φ16×1
2
14
Blot M6×35
3
15
Oil seal 20×34×7
1
assy
1
- 154 -
Remarks
ENGINE
No.
16
Part Name
Output chain wheel
Qty
17
Mesh press plate
1
18
Bolt M6×12
2
19
Blot M6×60
2
20
Blot M6×55
2
21
Steel ball φ9.5
1
22
Spring 24×1
1
23
Washer φ14×φ21×1
1
24
Bolt M14×1.5×21
1
25
Gear box cover
1
26
Bearing 6204
1
27
Fork shaft
1
28
Fork I
1
29
1
30
Output shaft
R driven toper gearwheel
31
Joint sheath
1
32
F driven toper gearwheel
1
1
1
- 155 -
Remarks
ENGINE
No.
Part Name
Qty
33
Bearing 6202Z
1
34
Bearing 6203
1
35
Auxiliary shaft comp
1
36
Bearing 6202
1
Remarks
For assembly, reverse the disassembly
procedure.
- 156 -
ENGINE
1、CHECK
1). Checking the shift forks
• shift fork follower ①
• shift fork pawl ②
Scoring/bends/wear/damage
Replace.
• guide bar
Roll the guide bar on a flat surface.
Bends
Replace.
WARNING:
Do not attempt to straighten a bent guide bar.
• shift fork movement
(on the guide bar)
Unsmooth operation
and the guide bar.
- 157 -
Replace the shift fork
ENGINE
3). Checking the bearings
(1) Check:
• bearings
Clean and lubricate, then rotate the inner
race with a finger.
Roughness
Replace
4). Checking the oil pump
• rotor housing
• rotor cover
Cracks/wear/damage
Replace.
• oil pump operation
Unsmooth
Repeat steps #1 and #2 or
replace the defective parts.
2、Measure:
1). Measure the oil pump
• tip clearance(a)
(between the inner rotor ① and the out
rotor ②)
• side clearance(b)
(between the outer rotor ② and the pump
housing ③)
• body clearance (c)
(between the outer rotor ② and the pump
housing ③)
Out of specification
Replace the oil
pump.
Tip clearance Limit: 0.23 mm
Side clearance Limit: 0.25 mm
Body clearance Limit: 0.20 mm
- 158 -
CHASSIS
MALFUNCTION INSPECTION
Appearance malfunction inspection
No.
Phenomenon
Measure
1. Replace new plastic cover.
1
Plastic cover damaged
2. Check whether installation supporter deformed,
repairing or re-painting is needed before replacing new
plastic cover.
3. Re-paste decals and re-rivet warning labels.
2
Bumper damaged
1. Replace new bumper.
2. Check whether installation supporter deformed or
damaged, repairing or re-painting is needed before
replacing new bumper.
1. Replace new carrier.
3
Front and rear carrier damaged
4
Warning labels
2. Check whether installation supporter deformed or
damaged, repairing or re-painting is needed before
replacing new bumper.
3. Check plastic cover whether deformed or damaged,
repairing deformed or damaged plastic cover.
Replace damaged and vague warning labels.
Brake system malfunction inspection
No.
Phenomenon
1
Locked braking system
2
Brake performance degressive
3
Grinding noises emerged from
front brake or brake plate
become red during drive due
to superheat.
4
Grinding noises emerged from
rear brake or brake plate
become red during drive
Measure
1. Check whether brake disc plates deformed.
2. Check whether hydraulic cylinder of brake clamp
locked or brake clamp assembly parts deformed.
1. Check whether disc plates abrasion exceeded limits.
2. Check whether brake shoe of clamp abrasion exceeded
limits or polluted by friction material such as oil.
3. Check whether the oil cup of brake fluid lack oil.
1. Check whether brake plate deformed.
2. Check whether hydraulic cylinder of brake clamp locked
or brake clamp assembly parts deformed.
1. Check whether brake plate deformed.
2. Check whether hydraulic cylinder of brake clamp locked
or brake clamp assembly parts deformed.
3. Check whether rear brake clamp parking institution
running flexible or return accurately.
- 159-
CHASSIS
1. Check whether front brake power deviation from left and
right is within specified scope.
2. Check whether front brake power degressive caused to
rear wheel locked before front wheel in brake process.
5
Off tracking by braking at
high-speed
3. Check whether left and right absorber spring force
deviation is exceeded specified value.
4. Check whether front wheel and front wheel axle nut
loosen or damaged.
5. Check whether front wheel hub inner spline and front
wheel axle outer spline worn or loosen.
6. Check whether rubber cushion connected to front
suspension rocker and frame damaged.
Other system malfunction inspection
No.
Phenomenon
Measure
1. Check whether steering wheel clip loosen or damaged.
1
2
Steering wheel loosen, shift
up and down
Front wheel steering
clearance excessive
2. Check whether steering column clip and clip seat loosen
or damaged.
3. Check whether steering column bottom end bearing
damaged.
1. Check whether tie-rod and steering column locknut
loosen or damaged, or steering knuckle and steering
column locknut loosen or damaged.
2. Check whether tie-rod two ball joint damaged.
1. Check whether steering knuckle bearing damaged.
2. Check whether king pin ball joint damaged.
3
Front wheel sway during drive
3. Check whether front wheel and axle locknut loosen or
damaged.
4. Check whether front wheel hub inner spline and front
wheel axle outer spline worn or loosen.
5. Check whether rubber cushion connected to front
suspension rocker and frame damaged.
1. Check whether rear axle bearing damaged.
4
Rear wheel sway during drive
2. Check whether sliding bearing connected to rear axle
bearing housing and rocker loosen or damaged.
3. Check whether rear wheel and axle locknut loosen or
damaged.
4. Check whether rear wheel hub inner spline and rear
wheel axle outer spline worn or loosen.
5. Check whether rubber cushion connected to rear
suspension rocker and frame damaged.
1. Check whether wheel rim deformed.
5
Wheel hop during drive
2. Check whether front and rear axles bent.
3. Check whether tyre aging and deformed.
- 160-
CHASSIS
No.
Phenomenon
Measure
1. Check whether over loading.
6
Absorber
become
soft
and
comfortability depressed
2. Check whether absorber spring become soft.
3. Check whether absorber lost of damping force in
compression and prolongation.
1. Check whether spline of front and rear axle
intermediate
propeller shaft damaged.
2. Check whether front and rear axles splines damaged.
7
Front and rear axles arise
3. Check whether gears of front gearbox and differential
abnormal sound during drive
over worn.
4. Check whether rear gearbox gears over worn.
5. Check whether axle universal joint rubber boot
damaged or universal joint damaged.
- 161-
CHASSIS
STEERING OPERATION SYSTEM
THE STEERING STEM PART
No.
Part Name
Qty
1
Removing the steering stem part
Handlebar rubber sleeve
2
2
Hexagon bolt M8×60
2
3
Left handle
1
4
Combination switch component(L)
1
5
Combination switch component(L)
1
6
Fix bracket,handlebar pipe
4
7
Fixed bracket of direction column
2
8
Steering stem assy
1
9
Bearing pressing plate
2
- 162-
Remarks
CHASSIS
No.
Part Name
Qty
10
Oiler
1
11
Cotter 2×30
4
12
Hexagon nut M10×1.25
4
13
spring washer10
4
14
Handlebar
1
15
Direction pull rod assembly
2
16
Flat gasket Φ10×Φ20×2
4
17
spring washer 10
1
18
Flat gasket 16
1
19
Hexagon flange locked nut M16×1.5
1
20
Hexagon flange bolt M8×55
4
21
Whorl gasket
1
22
Seal ring of direction column
2
23
Column sleeve Φ9×Φ14×43.5
2
- 163-
Remarks
CHASSIS
FRONT BODY (Utility model)
No.
Part Name
Qty
1
Front panel
1
2
Front headlamp mounting plate
1
3
Cross self-tapping screw ST4.8×13
12
4
Nut holder M6×6
6
5
Front plastic storage rack
1
6
Hexagon flange bolt M6×16
5
7
Flat gasket Φ6
4
8
Cushion pad Φ10×20
2
9
Gearshift dust-proof pad A
1
10
Gearshift cover
1
11
Nut holder M6×2
7
- 164-
Remarks
CHASSIS
FRONT BODY(Sport model)
No.
Part Name
Qty
1
Front panel
1
2
Front headlamp mounting plate
1
3
Cross self-tapping screw ST4.8×13
5
4
Front headlight assy
1
5
Nut holder M6×6
4
- 165-
Remarks
CHASSIS
THE STEERING OPERATION SYSTEM
DIASSEMBLING THE PARTS OF STEERING
BAR
1. Remove:
• headlight cover ①
• front carrier ②
• front cover ③
• right cover ④
• left cover ⑤
• fuel-tank shield ⑥
2. Remove:
• all connecting wires
• cable, accelerograph
• cable, front brake
• cable, rear brake
3. Remove:
• bolt M10 ①
• upper fix bracket, handlebar pipe ②
• lowwer fix bracket,handlebar pipe ③
DIASSEMBLING THE PARTS OF STEERING
COLUMN
1. Remove:
• bolt ①
• stop drive washer ②
• supporting block, steering stem③
• steering stem④
Bent/damaged
Replace
WARNING:
Always use new washer lock.
- 166-
CHASSIS
2. Remove:
• nut M16 ①
• washer ②
• spring washer③
• press plate bearing④
• UD bearing⑤
• press plate bearing⑥
3. Remove:
• cotter pin ①
• bolt M10 ②
CAUTION:
When removing the rod tie end and pin cotter
form the column steering assembly and front
seat assembly of front brake with common
bearing tension tool and other pay attention to
not damage the relvent parts.
4. Remove:
• steering stem assy. ①
• supporting block, steering stem ②
- 167-
CHASSIS
CHECKING
THE
STEERING
OPERATION
SYSTEM
1. Check:
• handle bar
Bent/damaged
Replace
The handle bar to rotate whether nimble, do not
have stagnation
Adjust
2. Check:
• steering stem assy.
Bent/damaged
Replace
WARNING:
In order to avoid decreasing the performance
of column steering assembly, if it is bent do not
straighten it forcefully.
3. Check:
• supporting block, steering stem ①
• seal gasket, steering stem ②
Worn/damaged
Replace
NOTE:
Apply lithium-soap-based grease to the oil seal
and plane bearing steering.
4. Check:
• shift straight rod assy. ①
Bent/damaged
- 168-
Replace
CHASSIS
5. correcting
• Straight rod gimbal ①
• turning ②
• rocky ledge ③
Wear/damaged
Free play
Replace
Replace the straight rod gimbal.
Turns roughly
Replace the straight rod gimbal.
6. Adjustment:
• Shift straight rod assembly
Adjustment steps of shift straight rod assembly
length.
A 、□
B ;
a. Loosen the connecting nut □
b. Adjusting the assembly length of rod tie by
rotating the rod tie.
Attached: straight rod assembly lengthⓐ: 325mm.
A Right-hand thread
□
B Left-hand thread
□
C position to the column steering
Connect □
assembly.
D position to the front steering knuckle
Connect □
assembly.
CAUTION:
A 、□
B can be tighten up
The connection nut □
only when the revealed thread length ⓑ of two
ends of rod tie are the same.
INSTALLING THE STEERING OPERATION
SYSTEM
The reversal steps of “disassembling” steps is
“installing” steps, pay attention to the following points
during installment.
1. Install: ①
When installing column steering assembly,
lubricate the supporting block, steering stem ①
and seal gasket, steering stem ②
- 169-
CHASSIS
2. Install:
When installing the Supporting block, steering
stem ① and Steering stem assy .② take them as a
unit ③.
WARNING:
In order to ensure the correct circuit of brake
cable and wire, never damage and wind the
cables and wires.
3. Install:
• rod tie (L&R) ②
CAUTION:
Make sure that the straight rod gimbal ① at
side of scraped marking contents with the front
seat assembly of front brake.
4. Tightening:
• nut ①
Tighten up the nut ① of straight rod gimbal.
- 170-
CHASSIS
5. Mounting:
• pin, cotter ①
CAUTION:
Don’t loosen the nut after the torque is fixed. If
the nut recess is not correspondance with pin
cotter, cotter hole on the double-screw bolt,
tighten the nut to align them.
WARNING:
Always use new pin cotter.
6. Tightening:
• nut M16 ①
• washer ②
• spring washer③
• press plate bearing④
• UD bearing⑤
• press plate bearing⑥
7. Install:
• bolt ①
• stop drive washer ②
• supporting block,steering stem③
• steering stem④
WARNING:
Always use new washer lock.
8. Bent showing supporting lug of washer lock to lock
tightly the bolt.
- 171-
CHASSIS
INSTALLING THE STEERING HANDLE
1. Install:
• lower holding seat ①
• handle bar ②
• upper holding seat ③
WARNING:
When tightening the bolt of holding seat, make
ensure the even of clearanceⓑ .
2. Install:
• throttle grip unit
CAUTION:
The projection of throttle grip must correspond
to the sunken part on the right lever seat when
installation.
WARNING:
Correct installation of cable and wire is very
necessary for ensuring the safety operation of
vehicleⓑ .
3. Adjustment:
Adjusting the free clearance of brake cable and
adjusting of free clearance about left handle lever
and rear brake pedal.
4. Adjusting the toe-in of front wheel.
5. Mounting front fender comp, rear fender comp,
protector handlebar.
- 172-
CHASSIS
BRAKE SYSTEM
PREPARATION FOR CHECKING BEFORE THE
MAINTENANCE OF THE BRAKE SYSTEM.
Brake system is crucial to the life safety of the
operator and therefore must be periodically
inspected and maintained.
This vehicle uses the single return route
hydraulic pressure disc brake system. Please
follow the tips of inspection as below.
①. To check the amount of liquid in the oil cup. If
it is lower than the minimum mark, refill the box
with the same type of fluid as was recommended
by the manufacturer, to ensure to fluid level is
higher than the minimum mark.
②.The brake lever should be kept between
3mm-5mm, Otherwise, please adjust the screw
to meet required travel distance.
1. Inspect the brake pedal does maintain the
certain counter-tension
When checks disk brake plate, the saved liquid
in the oil cup will pour automatically into the
pressure pipe and the liquid level along with it to
reduce, the periodic inspection the disk brake
plate liquid volume will be an important project.
Must use DOT4 Brake Fluid
2.
·rear disk brake plate ①
·thickness ②
Periodical inspection of the wear condition of rear
disk brake plate is also necessary. Disk brake
plate must be replaced depending on its wear
condition.
3. Disk brake plate uses hydraulic pressure of the
brake fluid. Therefore, fuel pipe must be
periodically inspected and replaced.
Inspection method: If the oil tubing has the aging,
crack or distortion, must replace the oil tubing.
- 173-
CHASSIS
BRAKE SYSTEM
DISK BRAKE COMPONENTS
No.
Part Name
Qty
1
Removing brake components
Front brake pump
2
Hexagon flange bolt M10×60
1
3
Hexagon flange locked nut M10×1.25
1
4
Column sleeve Φ10.5×Φ16×40
1
5
Tension spring B
1
6
Brake pedal
1
7
Parking disc brake
1
8
Hydraulic brake Assy I
1
9
Cotter 2×30
1
10
Hexagon flange bolt M6×30
1
11
Hexagon flange bolt M6×25
2
- 174-
Remarks
CHASSIS
No.
Part Name
Qty
12
Brake cable assy
1
13
Throttle cable
1
14
Front hydraulic pipeline(L)
1
15
Front hydraulic pipeline(R)
1
16
Front hydraulic pipeline
1
17
Central hydraulic pipeline
1
18
Hydraulic brake assy
1
19
Hydraulic parking brake assy
1
20
Front brake pad assy
2
21
Hydraulic brake assy II
1
22
Front disc brake clamp assy(L)
1
23
Front disc brake clamp assy(R)
1
24
Auxiliary bumper
1
25
Hexagon flange bolt M6×16
1
- 175-
Remarks
CHASSIS
CHECKING THE FRONT BRAKE DISC
1. Check:
• brake disc
Galling/damage
Replace.
2. Measure:
• brake disc deflection
Out of specification
Check the wheel runout.
If wheel runout is within the limits, replace the
brake disc.
Brake disc maximum deflection
0.10 mm (0.004 in)
• brake disc thickness ①
• wheel hub ②
• wheel tyre ③
Out of specification
Replace.
Brake disc minimum thickness
3.0 mm (0.12 in)
NOTE:
Apply the locking agent to the 30Nm bolt with
screw down.
- 176-
CHASSIS
REPLACING THE FRONT BRAKE PADS
NOTE:
It is not necessary to disassemble the brake
caliper and brake hose to replace the brake
pads.
1.Check:
• brake pad ①
Damage/wear
Replace
2.Measure:
• brake pad thickness ⓐ
Out of specification
Replace the brake
pads as a set.
Brake pad wear limit
1.0 mm (0.04 in)
3. Install:
• brake pads
NOTE:
Always install new brake pads and brake pad
spring as a set.
a. Connect a suitable hose ① tightly to the brake
caliper bleed nozzle ②. Put the other end of this
hose into an open container.
b. Loosen the brake caliper bleed screw and,
using a finger, push the caliper piston into the
brake caliper.
c. Tighten the brake caliper bleed screw.
Brake caliper bleed screw
6 Nm (0.6 m · kg, 4.3 ft · lb)
d. Install the retaining bolts and brake caliper.
Brake pad holding bolt
18 Nm (1.8 m · kg, 13 ft · lb)
Blot, flange
48 Nm (4.8 m · kg, 35 ft · lb)
- 177-
CHASSIS
4. Check:
• brake fluid level
• minimum level mark ①
the brake fluid box level on the right handlebar.
Should the fluid level falls under the minimum
mark, please refill the box with the same type of
fluid as was recommended by the manufacturer to
ensure the fluid level is higher than the minimum
mark.
Must use DOT4 Brake Fluid
5. Check:
•brake lever ①
•adjusting screw ②
•locknut ③
•brake lever free play ⓐ
• no more than 10mm-15mm ⓑ
the front brake lever should have a free play of
zero mm (zero in) at the lever end. If not, have a
dealer check the brake system(ⓐ).
travel distance of the front brake lever should be
kept between 10mm-15mm. Otherwise, please
adjust the screw to meet required travel
distance(ⓑ).
the elasticity of the brake lever.
- 178-
CHASSIS
INSTALLING THE FRONT BRAKE
CALIPERS
The following procedure applies to both of the
front brake calipers.
1. Install:
• brake caliper assembly
• bolt flange
48Nm (4.8m · kg,35 ft · lb)
• brake hose ①
• copper washers ②
• union bolt ③
NOTE:
When installing the brake hose on the brake
caliper, make sure that the brake pipe
touches the projection a on the brake caliper.
WARNING:
Proper brake hose routing is essential to
insure safe vehicle operation.
2. Fill:
• brake reservoir
Must use DOT4 Brake Fluid
NOTE:
Brake fluid may damage painted surfaces
or plastic parts. Always clean up spilled
brake fluid immediately.
3. Air bleed:
• brake system
4. Check:
• brake fluid level
Brake fluid level is below the “LOWER” level line
Add the recommended brake fluid to the
proper level.
- 179-
CHASSIS
CHECKING THE REAR BRAKE DISC
1. Check:
• brake disc ①
Galling/damage
Replace.
2. Measure:
• brake disc deflection
Out of specification
Replace.
Brake disc maximum deflection
0.10 mm (0.004 in)
• brake disc thickness ⓐ
Out of specification
Replace.
Brake disc minimum thickness
8 mm (0.31 in)
- 180-
CHASSIS
REPLACING THE REAR BRAKE PADS
1. Check:
• brake pad ①
Damage/wear
Replace
2. Measure:
• brake pad thickness ⓐ
Out of specification
Replace the brake
pads as a set.
Brake pad wear limit
1.0 mm (0.04 in)
3. Install:
• brake pads
• brake pad spring
NOTE:
Always install new brake pads, new brake pad
shims, new insulators, and a new brake pad
spring as a set.
4. Check:
• brake fluid level
• minimum level mark ①
Should the fluid level falls under the minimum
mark, please refill the box with the same type of
fluid as was recommended by the manufacturer to
ensure the fluid level is higher than the minimum
mark.
Must use DOT4 Brake Fluid
- 181-
CHASSIS
INSTALLING THE REAR BRAKE CALIPER
1. Install:
• brake caliper assembly
• brake caliper mounting bolts
40Nm (4.0m · kg,29 ft · lb)
• brake hose ①
• copper washers
• union bolt ②
48Nm (4.8m · kg,35 ft · lb)
NOTE:
Tighten the union bolt while holding the brake
hose as shown.
WARNING:
Proper brake hose routing is essential to
insure safe vehicle operation.
2. Fill:
• brake reservoir
Must use DOT4 Brake Fluid
Note :
Brake fluid may damage painted surfaces
or plastic parts. Always clean up spilled
brake fluid immediately.
3. Air bleed:
• brake system
4. Check:
• brake fluid level
Brake fluid level is below the “LOWER” level line
Add the recommended brake fluid to the
proper level.
5. Adjust:
• parking brake cable free play
- 182-
CHASSIS
CHECKING THE MASTER CYLINDER
1. Check:
• brake master cylinder
Wear/scratches
Replace the brake master
cylinder assembly.
• brake master cylinder body
Cracks/damage
Replace.
• brake fluid delivery passage
(brake master cylinder body)
Blockage
Blow out with compressed air.

2. Check:
• brake master cylinder kit
Scratches/wear/damage
Replace as a set.
3. Check:
• brake fluid reservoir
• brake fluid reservoir diaphragm
Cracks/damage
Replace.
ASSEMBLING THE BRAKE MASTER
CYLINDER
WARNING:
• All internal brake components should be
cleaned and lubricated with new brake fluid
only before installation.
Must use DOT4 Brake Fluid
• Whenever a master cylinder is disassembled
replace the piston seals and dust seals.
- 183-
CHASSIS
INSTALLING THE BRAKE MASTER
CYLINDER
1. Install:
• brake master cylinder
16Nm (1.6 m · kg,11 ft · lb)
2. Install:
• brake pipe
19Nm (1.9 m · kg,13 ft · lb)
• washer plate
• brake hose
• union bolt
27Nm (2.7 m · kg,19 ft · lb)
3. Fill:
• brake fluid reservoir
Must use DOT4 Brake Fluid
NOTE:
Brake fluid may damage painted surfaces or
plastic parts. Always clean up spilled brake
fluid immediately.
4. Air bleed:
• brake system
5. Check:
• brake fluid level
Brake fluid level is under the “LOWER” level line
Fill up.
6. Adjust:
• brake pedal free play
- 184-
CHASSIS
FOOTREST ASSEMBLY (Utility model)
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Part Name
Qty
Removing the footrest
Right pedal
Left pedal
Front backplate cover(R)
Hexagon nut M6×16
Flat gasket 6
Front backplate cover(L)
Hexagon flange bolt M6×16
Hexagon nut M6×12
Hexagon flange nut M6
1
1
1
4
4
1
8
12
4
- 185-
Remarks
CHASSIS
FOOTREST ASSEMBLY (Sport model)
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Part Name
Qty
Removing the footrest
Left pedal
Right pedal
Front backplate cover(R)
Hexagon nut M6×16
Flat gasket 6
Front backplate cover(L)
Hexagon flange bolt M6×16
Hexagon nut M6×12
Hexagon flange nut M6
1
1
1
4
4
1
8
8
4
- 186-
Remarks
CHASSIS
WHEEL AND TYRE PARTS
FRONT WHEELS
No.
Qty
Part Name
Removing the front wheel
1
Front cleat assembly(L)
1
2
Front cleat assembly(R)
1
3
Hexagon concal bolt M8×20
8
4
Front hub connection base
2
5
Oil seal 22×35×7
4
6
Deep groove ball bearing 6003-2RS
2
7
Deep groove ball bearing 6202-2RS
2
8
Hub cover cap A
2
9
Front hub
2
10
Front tyre
2
11
Hexagon flange bolt M8×20
8
12
Valve element assembly
2
- 187-
Remarks
CHASSIS
Qty
No.
Part Name
13
Front hub connection base
2
14
Front disc-brake
2
Remarks
WARNING:
Securely support the vehicle so
There is no danger of it falling over.
- 188-
CHASSIS
REAR WHEELS
No.
Qty
Part Name
Removing the front wheel
1
Rear tyre
2
2
Rear hub
2
3
Hub cover cap A
2
4
Hexagon flange bolt M10×20
8
5
Rear hub connection base
2
6
Rear axle assembly
1
7
Rear shaft
1
8
Parking disc brake
1
9
Chain wheel I
1
10
Oil seal Φ45×Φ62×8
1
11
Rear fork fixed base assembly I
2
12
Deep groove ball bearing 6007-RZ
2
13
Valve element assembly
2
- 189-
Remarks
CHASSIS
No.
Part Name
Qty
14
Chain wheel soleplate
1
15
Mount bracket for disk brake plate
1
Remarks
WARNING:
Securely support the vehicle so
There is no danger of it falling over.
- 190-
CHASSIS
CHECKING THE WHEEL TYRE
1. Check:
• wheel tyre
2. Measure:
• wheel runout
Over the specified limit
Replace the
wheel or check the wheel bearing play ①.
3. Check:
• wheel balance
Adjust.
Out of balance
Wheel runout limit
Radial ②: 2.0 mm (0.08 in)
Lateral ③: 2.0 mm (0.08 in)
WARNING:
The profile depth falls below 3mm, Please
replace the tyre
immediately.
a
• tire wear limit ○
CHECKING THE WHEEL HUB
1. Check:
• wheel hub ①
Replace.
Cracks/damage
• splines (wheel hub) ②
Wear/damage
Replace.
·nuts (wheel hub)
loosen or distorted
- 191-
Replace or tighten
CHASSIS
INSTALLING THE WHEEL HUB
1. Install:
• axle nut
260 Nm (26.0 m · kg, 190 ft · lb)
INSTALLING THE WHEEL TYRE
1. Install:
• wheel
NOTE:
The arrow mark ①
on the tyre must point in
A of the wheel.
the direction of rotation □
2. Tighten:
• wheel nuts ①
The angle of the conical bores is 60°
WARNING:
Tapered wheel nuts ① are used for both the
front and rear wheels. Install each nut
- 192-
CHASSIS
SPECIFICATION OF WHEEL AND TYRE
Wheel hub
Dimension
Front
Wheel
5.5×8
Rear
Wheel
7×8
Tyre
Dimension
21×7-8
19×7-8
Tyre
Pressure
(Kpa /PSI)
28/4
28/4
20×9.5-8
49/7
18×9.5-8
49/7
• Since wheels and tyres are crucial to the vehicle
operation, inspection for tyre pressure and profile
depth is necessary.
• To ensure maximum security and longer life
expectancy of the wheel, please periodically inspect
the tyre pressure and profile depth. Insufficient tyre
pressure can result in not only intensified wearing of
the tyre but also instability during the course of
operating the vehicle (such as hard turning).
Excessive tyre pressure can also reduce the friction
force between the tyre and ground, causing spinning
or lose of control. Therefore, please ensure the tyre
pressure strictly complies with figures shown in the
chart above.
• Before operating the vehicle each time, please
check if profile depth of the tyre is over worn, which
might result in spinning, instability, lose of control
and other potential security risk of the vehicle.
- 193-
CHASSIS
Reverse mechanism parts
No.
1
Part Name
Removing the shift shaft
Gearshift arm soleplate I
Qty
2
Upsiding plastic sleeve Φ12×Φ15.5
2
3
Gearshift spacing board
1
4
Hexagon flange bolt M6×16
5
5
Gearshift arm
1
6
Gearshift control assembly
1
7
Hexagon flange bolt M6×30
1
8
Flat gasket 6
2
9
Hexagon flange locked nut M6
1
10
Gearshift leverage assembly I
1
11
Shifting arm assembly
1
12
Spring washer 6
1
1
- 194-
Remarks
CHASSIS
Reverse mechanism parts
ADJUSTING REVERSE MECHANISM PARTS
① Neutral
② High
③ Reverse
NOTE:
Before shifting, you must stop the vehicle
and take your foot off the accelerator pedal.
Otherwise, the transmission may be damaged.
1. Adjust:
• Select lever shift rod
a. Make sure the select lever is in NEUTRAL.
b. Loosen both locknuts ①.
Note :
The select lever shift rod locknut (select
lever side) has left-handed threads. To
loosen the locknut, turn it clockwise.
c. Adjust the shift rod length for smooth and
correct shifting.
d. Tighten the locknuts ①.
Locknut
15 Nm (1.5 m · kg, 11 ft · lb)
- 195-
CHASSIS
Reverse mechanism parts
CHECKING
AND
SERVICE
OF
REVERSE
MECHANISM
1. Check the mobility of gear shift handle. If it is
not working properly, remove the gear shift
Mechanism to check if the fork , ball and spring is
stuck.,in
which
case
replace
the
defective
component and try again.The last way is to turn to
the professional repairman.
2. If there is lack in the gear shift mechanism ,
adjust the nut of the fork to correct position and
strengthen gear shift mechanism .
3. Remove the gear shift mechanism and check
whether the linking rod is cracked; If so, it should
be changed.
4. Check whether the bouncing spring of gear shift
mechanism is intense enough.
5. Check whether the gear is engaged correctly
and whether
there are tripstop or lack. If these
situation exists, call for the maintanance staff to
test and repair it.
6. If the gear can not be engaged, we can test it
from the following aspects:
·whether the clutch can completely declutch;
· whether
the
reliable(whether
the
gearshift
is
oil
of
pipe
greased
gear
shift
mechanism is blocked);
· whether gear shift mechanism jams;If these
situation happens, maintanance staff would come
to test and repair it.
- 196-
CHASSIS
SUSPENSION
Front Suspension and arm
No.
Part Name
Qty
1
Removing the front suspension and arm
Front upper cradle welding assembly(R)
1
2
Front upper cradle welding assembly(L)
1
3
Front lower cradle welding assembly(R)
1
4
Front lower cradle welding assembly(L)
1
5
Cleat ball stud assembly E
4
6
Front upper cradle assembly(L)
1
7
Front lower cradle assembly(L)
1
8
Upsiding plastic sleeve Φ15×Φ21
16
9
Column sleeve Φ10.2×Φ15×50
8
- 197-
Remarks
CHASSIS
No.
Part Name
Qty
10
Hexagon flange bolt M10×40
4
11
Hexagon flange bolt M10×70
8
12
Hexagon flange locked nut M10×1.25
12
13
Front shock absorber assembly J
2
14
Front upper cradle assembly(R)
2
15
Front lower cradle assembly(R)
2
- 198-
Remarks
CHASSIS
Front Suspension and arm
DISASSEMBLING, SERVICE AND ASSEMBLY
THE SUPPORTING ROCKER PARTS
1. Disassembling and Service
In the suspension, there is easy to appear the
problem with bushing, cotter pin and shock
absorber.
·If the left and right rocker rocks fiercely, check the
few aspect, whether the bushing of the rocker is
crushed, the middle rubber separate is aging and
chapped.
·check whether the cotter pin is credible, if it is not
instead the same spec cotter pin.
· The problem with the shock absorber and
maintain method, whether it can returns to the
position under the pressure and the torsional
spring is rupture. If it is rupture or nearly to rupture,
instead the shock absorber. whether it leak oil, if so
instead the same spec shock absorber. According
to the different request, if there is a oil cup on the
rocker, must check it whether complete and
refuels.
2. Install:
Mount fore L/R damper,up-and-down rocker arm
assembly onto the frame with Hexagon Flange
Bolt, nuts, Hexagon Flange Bolt and locknuts (to
ensure a torque of 40~45Nm.
CAUTION:
·These components should be greased with
butter before assembly.
·The surface of components can not be
cracked.
- 199-
CHASSIS
Front Suspension and arm
·Check whether these components are greased
with butter and then
tighten the up-and-down
rocker arm assembly and L/R
fore dampers and
ther components. Fix the L/R tension rods into hole
by way of the trough of
cotter pin
open-groove nut with
and make these tension rods bisection
on feet.
CHECKING THE FRONT ARMS
1. Check:
• front arms
Bends/damage
Replace.
2. Check:
• Middle bushing
Wear/damage
Replace.
3. Check:
• ball joints
Damage/pitting
Free play
Replace the ball joint.
Replace the ball joint.
Turns roughly
Replace the ball joint.
CHECKING THE FRONT SHOCK ABSORBER
1. Check:
• shock absorber rod
Bends/damage
Replace the shock
absorber assembly.
• shock absorber assembly
Oil leaks
Replace the shock absorber
assembly.
• spring
Fatigue
Replace the shock absorber
assembly.
Move the spring up and down.
- 200-
CHASSIS
Front Suspension and arm
INSTALLING THE FRONT SHOCK ABSORBER
1. Install:
• front arms
• front shock absorber
a. Install the front upper suspension ① and front
lower suspension ②.
NOTE:
• Lubricate the bolts ③with lithium-soap-based
grease.
• Be sure to position the bolts ③so that the bolt
head faces outward.
• Temporarily tighten the nuts ④.
b. Install the Universal joint A, swing arm ⑤.
Nut ⑥
45 Nm (4.5 m · kg, 32 ft · lb)
c. Install the ball joints.
Nut ⑦
30 Nm (3.0 m · kg, 22 ft · lb)
d. Install the new cotter pins.
e. Tighten the nuts.
Nut ④
45 Nm (4.5 m · kg, 32 ft · lb)
- 201-
CHASSIS
Rear Suspension
No.
Part Name
Qty
1
Removing the rear suspension
Rear shock absorber assembly J
1
2
Cradle upsiding sleeve Φ23×φ28
2
3
Column sleeve Φ12.2×Φ23×30
2
4
Rear fork assembly I
1
5
Column sleeve Φ13×Φ22×97
1
6
Hexagon flange bolt M12×180
1
7
Hexagon flange locked nut M12×1.25
5
8
Hexagon flange bolt M8×16
1
9
Hexagon flange bolt M12×30
4
10
Hexagon flange bolt M6×12
2
11
Chain wheel protection bracket assembly
1
- 202-
Remarks
CHASSIS
No.
13
Chain adjuster
Hexagon flange bolt M8×20
Qty
2
2
14
Hexagon flange bolt M10×40
2
15
Hexagon flange locked nut M10×1.25
1
16
Spring washer 8
4
17
Flat gasket 8
2
18
Hexagon nut M8
4
19
Chain jacket Ⅱ
1
20
Driven chain assembly I
1
21
Flat gasket 6
2
12
Part Name
- 203-
Remarks
CHASSIS
Rear Suspension and arm
CHECKING
AND
SERVICE
OF
REAR
SUSPENSION
1. It is similar to the front suspension ,Check if
there exists any distortion or crack on the install
axis of the shock absorber in which case it must be
replaced.
2. Inspect the rocker bushing and the middle
rubber separate is integrant.( According to the front
Suspension)
3. The cotter pin on the head of the install axis
which in the rear shock absorber whether is
credible.
NOTE:
After disassemble the rear shock absorber,
check if there exists any distortion or crack on
the frame connection hole and the rear shock
absorber, if so, inform the special serviceman
to inspect and service first or install the rear
shock
absorber
on
the
frame
after
instead.(Attention, the bolts must be the
special self-lock nut, the fastening torque must
be 45-55Nm)
- 204-
CHASSIS
Rear Suspension
CHECKING THE REAR SHOCK ABSORBER
1. Check:
• shock absorber rod
Bends/damage
Replace the shock
absorber assembly.
• shock absorber assembly
Oil leaks
Replace the shock absorber
assembly.
• spring
Move the spring up and down.
Fatigue
assembly.
- 205-
Replace the shock absorber
CHASSIS
INSTALLING THE SHOCK ABSORBER
1. Install:
• rear arms
• rear shock absorber
a. Install the bolt ① and rear shock absorber ②.
NOTE:
• Lubricate the bolts ③ with lithium-soap-based
grease.
• Be sure to position the bolts ③ so that the
bolt head faces inward.
b. Install the rear shock absorber ②.
Nut
45 Nm (4.5 m · kg, 32 ft · lb)
- 206-
CHASSIS
SEAT (Utility model)
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Part Name
Removing the seat
Seat assy I
Seat cushion hook
Seat bottom plate I
Torsional spring A
Bolt
Qty
1
1
1
1
1
1
- 207-
Remarks
CHASSIS
SEAT (Sport model)
No.
1
2
3
Part Name
Removing the seat
Seat assy
Frame joint parts
Seat cushion hook
Qty
1
1
1
- 208-
Remarks
CHASSIS
DISASSEMBLING THE SEAT
Remove:
• seat ①
• seat lock lever ②
To remove the seat, pull the seat lock lever
upward and pull up the seat at the rear.
Install:
• Front of the seat ① insert into the front of frame.
• Seat ② aim at the rubber ③ hole of frame.
• Press the rear of seat,④ and ④,when there is a
click, then it is OK.
NOTE:
• Make sure that the seat is securely fitted.
- 209-
CHASSIS
FUEL TANK
FUEL TANK COVER PARTS (Utility model)
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Part Name
Removing the fuel tank cover parts
Meter cover
Dash board
Fuel tank backplate(R)
Fuel tank backplate(L)
Fuel tank cover plate
Nut holder M5-A
Cross recessed plate head screw M5×12
Cross recessed plate head screw M6×12
Hexagon flange nut M6
Clip,overhead hook
- 210-
Qty
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
4
2
8
Remarks
CHASSIS
FUEL TANK COVER PARTS (Sport model)
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Part Name
Removing the fuel tank cover parts
Front panel
Meter cover
Fuel tank backplate(L)
Fuel tank backplate(R)
Cross screw M5×12
Nut holder M6×2
Hexagon nut M6×12
Cross recessed plate head screw M6×12
- 211-
Qty
1
1
1
1
3
6
4
Remarks
CHASSIS
FUEL TANK PARTS
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Part Name
Removing the fuel tank
Fuel tank assy
Fuel pump assy
Compaction hoop A
High-pressure fuel pipe
Hexagon flange bolt M6×30
Fuel pump gasket C
Fuel tank switch cover
Fuel tank breather pipe
Oil pump gland
Aluminum foil thermal insulation pipe Ⅰ
- 212-
Qty
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
Remarks
CHASSIS
• Fuel tank cap
Remove the fuel tank cap by turning it
counterclockwise.
- 213-
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MALFUNCTION INSPECTION
S/N
Phenomenon
Measure
1、 Check whether switches normal.
1
Abnormal lights
2、 Check whether cables damaged.
3、 Check whether lights damaged.
2
Fail to shift into
four-wheel-drive or
lock differential.
1、 Check whether four wheel drive switch normal.
2、 Check whether power divider damaged.
3、 Check whether differential mechanical conversion agency locked or
damaged.
1、 Check whether battery undercharge.
2、 Check whether starting motor damaged.
3、 Check whether EFI damaged.
4、 Check whether ignition coil normal.
3
Fail to electric start
5、 Check whether spark plug fouling or ablative.
6、 Check whether magneto ignition signal normal.
7、 Check whether ECU plugged or damaged.
8、 Check whether air filter plugged.
9、 Check whether oil circuit smooth.
4
Abnormal speed
indication between
meter
and
mileage.
1、 Check whether sensor damaged.
2、 Check whether meter damaged.
3、 Check whether sensor surface polluted by iron scrap,
1、 Check whether neutral switch damaged.
5
Neutral indicator of
meter is not bright
2、 Check whether meter damaged.
3、 Check whether cable damaged.
1、 Check whether reverse switch damaged.
6
Reverse indicator of
meter is not bright
2、 Check whether meter damaged.
3、 Check whether cable damaged.
1、 Check whether meter damaged.
7
Other indicators of
meter are not bright
2、 Check whether cable damaged.
3、 Check whether sensor or switch damaged
- 214 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
ELECTRICAL
ELECTRIC ALCOMPONENTS(Utility Model)
1. Pickup coil/stator assembly
2. Gear position switch
3. Speed sensor
4. Flasher
5. Brake light switch
6. Ignition coil
7.Buzzer
8. Horn switch
- 215 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
1. Relay assy. Main switch
2. Oiler parts
3. Speedmeter
4. Left switch assy.
5. ECU. unit
6. Battery
7. Starter relay
8. Rectifier/regulator
- 216 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICALCOMPONENTS(Sport Model)
1. Pickup coil/stator assembly
2. Gear position switch
3. Speed sensor
4. Flasher
5. Brake light switch
6. Ignition coil
7.Buzzer
8. Horn switch
- 217 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
1. Relay assy. Main switch
2. Oiler parts
3. Speedmeter
4. Left switch assy.
5. ECU. unit
6. Battery
7. Starter relay
8. Rectifier/regulator
- 218 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
CHECKING THE SWITCH
Use a multimeter to check the terminals for
continuity. If the continuity is faulty at any point,
replace the switch.
1NOTE:
• Set the multimeter to “0” before starting the
test.
• The multimeter should be set to the “Ω × 1”
range when testing the switch for continuity.
• Turn the switch on and off a few times when
checking it.
The terminal connections for switches (main switch,
light switch, etc.) are shown in a chart similar to the
one on the left. This chart shows the switch
positions in the column and the switch lead colors
in the top row.
For each switch position, “
” indicates the
terminals with continuity.
The example chart shows that:
① There is continuity between the “Brown/Blue and
Red” leads when the switch is set to “ON”.
- 219 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Checking the switch continuity(Utility Model)
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH” and check for continuity between lead terminals. Poor
connection, no continuity
Correct or replace.
* The coupler locations are circled.
1. Main switch
2. Brake light switch
3. Fuse
4. Light switch
5. Parking switch
- 220 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Checking the switch continuity(Sport Model)
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH” and check for continuity between lead terminals. Poor
connection, no continuity
Correct or replace.
* The coupler locations are circled.
1. Main switch
2. Brake light switch
3. Fuse
4. Light switch
5. Parking switch
- 221 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
CHECKING THE BULBS AND BULB
SOCKETS
Check each bulb and bulb socket for damage or
wear, proper connections, and also for continuity
between the terminals
Damage/wear
Repair or replace the bulb,
bulb socket or both.
Improperly connected
Properly connect.
Incorrect continuity reading
Repair or replace
the bulb, bulb socket or both.
1WARNING:
Since the bulb gets extremely hot, keep
flammable products and your hands away
from the bulb until it has cooled down.
CAUTION:
• Be sure to hold the socket firmly when
removing the bulb. Never pull the lead,
otherwise it may be pulled out of the
terminal in the coupler.
• Avoid touching the glass part of the bulb to
keep
it free from oil, otherwise
the
transparency of the glass, the life of the
bulb
and
the
luminous
flux
will
be
adversely affected. If the bulb gets soiled,
thoroughly clean it with a cloth moistened
with alcohol or lacquer thinner.
IGNITION SYSTEM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM(see 269 page)
- 222 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
TROUBLESHOOTING
IF THE IGNITION SYSTEM FAILS TO OPERATE (NO SPARK OR INTERMITTENT SPARK):
Procedure
7. Main switch
Check:
8. Pickup coil resistance
1. Fuses (main, ignition)
9. Rotor rotation direction detection coil
2. Battery
resistance
3. Spark plug
10.Wiring connection (the entire ignition system)
4. Ignition spark gap
5. Spark plug cap resistance
1NOTE:
6. Ignition coil resistance
1. Cushion
2. Front frame
3. Front fender
Check and repaire with following special tools.
1.Fuses (main, ignition)
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CONTINUITY
Replace the fuse(s).
2. Battery
INCORRECT
• Check the battery condition. Refer to
“CHECKING AND CHARGING THE
BATTERY” in chapter 3.
• Clean the battery terminals.
• Recharge or replace the battery.
Open-circuit voltage
12.8 V or more at 20 °C (68 °F)
CORRECT
3. Spark plug
• Check the spark plug condition.
• Check the spark plug type.
• Check the spark plug gap.
Refer to “CHECKING THE SPARK PLUG” in
chapter 3.
- 223 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
4. Ignition spark gap
INCORRECT
• Disconnect the spark plug cap from the
spark plug.
• Connect the pulse ignition spark checker or
Repair or replace the spark plug.
ignition checker ① as shown.
② Spark plug cap
• Turn the main switch to “ON”.
a .
• Check the ignition spark gap ○
• Crank the engine by pushing the starter
switch, and increase the spark gap until a
misfiring occurs.
MEETS SPECIFICATION
Minimum spark gap
6.0 mm (0.24 in)
OUT OF SPECIFICATION OR
NO SPARK
The ignition system is not faulty.
5. Spark plug cap resistance
• Remove the spark plug cap.
• Connect the multimeter (Ω × 1k) to the spark
plug cap.
• Check that the spark plug cap has the
specified resistance.
Spark plug cap resistance
10 kΩ at 20 °C (68 °F)
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
MEETS SPECIFICATION
Replace the spark plug cap.
6. Ignition coil resistance
• Disconnect the ignition coil connector from
the wire harness
• Connect the multimeter (Ω × 1) to the
ignition coil.
Tester (+) lead
Orange lead terminal
Tester (–) lead
Ignition coil base
• Check that the primary coil has the specified
- 224 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
resistance.
Primary coil resistance
0.18 ~ 0.28 Ω at 20 °C (68 °F)
• Connect the multimeter(Ω × 1k) to the
ignition coil.
Tester (+) lead
Orange lead terminal
Tester (–) lead
Spark plug lead
• Check that the secondary coil has the
specified resistance.
Secondary coil resistance
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
6.32 ~ 9.48 kΩ at 20 °C (68 °F)
BOTH MEET SPECIFICATION
Replace the ignition coil.
7. Main switch
INCORRECT
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”
CORRECT
Replace the main switch.
8. Pickup coil resistance
• Disconnect the A.C. magneto coupler from
the wire harness.
• Connect the multimeter(Ω × 100) to the
pickup coil terminal.
Tester (+) lead
Green/White terminal ①
Tester (–) lead
Blue/White terminal ②
• Check the pickup coil for the specified
resistance.
Pickup coil resistance
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
459 ~ 561 Ω at 20 °C (68 °F)
(White/Red – White/Green)
MEETS SPECIFICATION
Replace the pickup coil/stator assembly.
- 225 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
9.Wiring connection
• Check the connections of the entire ignition
POOR CONNECTION
system. Refer to “CIRCUIT DIAGRAM”.
CORRECT
Properly connect the ignition system.
Replace the ECU. unit
ELECTRIC STARTING SYSTEM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM(see 270 page)
- 226 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
TROUBLESHOOTING
IF THE STARTER MOTOR FAILS TO OPERATE:
Procedure
Check:
1. Fuses (main, ignition, signaling system)
6. Gear position switch
2. Battery
7. Brake light switch
3. Starter motor
8. Wiring connection (the entire starting system)
4. Starter relay
5. Main switch
1NOTE:
•
Remove
the
following
part(s)
before
troubleshooting:
1. Console
2. Front frame
3. Front fender
• Use the following special tool(s) for
troubleshooting.
1. Fuses (main, ignition, signaling system)
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”
CONTINUITY
Replace the fuse(s).
2. Battery
• Check the battery condition. Refer to
“CHECKING
AND
CHARGING
THE
INCORRECT
BATTERY” in chapter 3.
Open-circuit voltage
• Clean the battery terminals.
12.8 V or more at 20 °C (68 °F)
CORRECT
1WARNING:
3. Starter motor
• Connect the battery (+) terminal ① and
starter motor cable ② using a jumper lead③
• Check the operation of the starter motor.
• Recharge or replace the battery.
• A wire that is used as a jumper lead must
have the equivalent capacity or more as that
of the battery lead, otherwise the jumper
lead may burn.
• This check is likely to produce sparks, so be
sure that no flammable gas or fluid is in the
vicinity.
- 227 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
DOSE NOT TURN
Repair or replace the starter motor.
TURNS
4. Starter relay
• Remove the starter relay from the wire
harness.
• Connect the multimeter(Ω × 1) and the
battery (12 V) to the starter relay terminals.
Battery (+) terminal
Yellow/Blue
terminal ①
Battery (–) terminal
Blue/Black terminal
②
Tester (+) lead
Red terminal ③
Tester (–) lead
Black terminal ④
NO CONTINUITY
• Check the starter relay for continuity.
Replace the starter relay.
CONTINUITY
INCORRECT
5. Main switch Refer to “CHECKING THE
SWITCH”.
CORRECT
Replace the main switch.
6. Gear position switch Refer to “CHECKING
INCORRECT
THE SWITCH”.
CORRECT
7. Brake light switch Refer to “CHECKING
Replace the gear position switch.
INCORRECT
THE SWITCH”.
CORRECT
Replace the brake light switch.
8. Wiring connection
• Check the connections of the entire starting
POOR CONNECTION
system. Refer to “CIRCUIT DIAGRAM”.
Properly connect the starting system.
- 228 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
STARTER MOTOR
No.
Part Name
Removing the
starter motor
1
2
Flange bolt
Starter
motor
assy.
Qty
1
Remarks
The performance parameters
Remove the parts in 1、no-load:12V/150W
the order listed
2、Load:12V/250W
3、The load torque:0.8N.m
CHARGING SYSTEM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM(see 271 page)
- 229 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
TROUBLESHOOTING
IF THE BATTERY IS NOT CHARGED:
Procedure
4. Charging coil resistance
Check:
5. Wiring connections(the entire charging system)
1. Fuse (main)
2. Battery
1NOTE:
3. Charging voltage
Remove some parts before maintenance
1. Cushion
Repair with following special toolings
1. Fuse (main)
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CONTINUITY
Replace the fuse.
2.Battery
• Check the battery condition. Refer to
“CHECKING AND CHARGING THE
INCORRECT
BATTERY in chapter 3.
Open-circuit voltage
12.8 V or more at 20 °C (68 °F)
• Clean the battery terminals.
CORRECT
• Recharge or replace the battery.
3. Charging voltage
• Connect the engine tachometer to the
spark plug lead.
• Connect the multimeter(DC 20 V) to the
battery.
Tester (+) lead
Battery (+) terminal
Tester (–) lead
Battery (–) terminal
• Start the engine and accelerate to about
1,000 r/min.
MEETS SPECIFICATION
Charging voltage 14 V at 1,000 r/min
1NOTE:
Use a fully charged battery.
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
The charging circuit is not faulty.
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ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
4. Charging coil resistance
• Disconnect the A.C. magneto coupler from
the wire harness.
• Connect the multimeter(Ω × 1) to the
charging coils.
Tester (+) lead
White terminal ①
Tester (–) lead
White terminal ②
Tester (+) lead
White terminal ①
Tester (–) lead
White terminal ③
• Measure the charging coil resistance.
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
Charging coil resistance
0.32 ~ 0.43 Ω at 20 °C (68 °F)
MEETS SPECIFICATION
Replace the pickup coil/stator assembly.
5. Wiring connections
• Check the connections of the entire charging
system. Refer to “CIRCUIT DIAGRAM”.
POOR CONNECTION
CORRECT
Replace the rectifier/regulator.
Properly connect the charging system.
LIGHTING SYSTEM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM(see 272 page)
- 231 -
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
TROUBLESHOOTING
IF THE HEADLIGHT AND/OR TAILLIGHT FAIL TO COME ON:
Procedure
4. Light switch
Check
5. Wiring connections(the entire lighting system)
1. Fuses (main, lighting system)
2. Battery
1NOTE:
3. Main switch
•
Remove
the
following
part(s)
before
troubleshooting:
1. Console
2. Front luggage carrir
3. Front covering parts
• Use special tool(s) for troubleshooting.
1. Fuses (main, lighting system)
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CONTINUITY
2. Battery
Replace the fuse(s).
• Check the battery condition. Refer to
“CHECKING AND CHARGING THE
INCORRECT
BATTERY” in chapter 3.
Open-circuit voltage
12.8 V or more at 20 °C (68 °F)
• Clean the battery terminals.
CORRECT
• Recharge or replace the battery
3. Main switch
INCORRECT
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CORRECT
Replace the main switch.
4.Light switch
INCORRECT
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CORRECT
5. Wiring connection
• Check the connections of the entire lighting
system. Refer to “CIRCUIT DIAGRAM”.
Replace the light switch.
POOR CONNECTION
CORRECT
Properly connect the lighting system.
Check the condition of each of the lighting
system’s circuits. Refer to “CHECKING THE
LIGHTING SYSTEM”.
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ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
CHECKING THE LIGHTING SYSTEM
1. If the headlights fail to come on:
(1). Bulb and bulb socket
• Check the bulb and bulb socket for
NO CONTINUITY
continuity.
CONTINUITY
Replace the bulb and/or bulb socket.
(2). Voltage
• Connect the multimeter(DC 20 V) to the
A
headlight couplers.
Tester (+) lead
Black terminal ① or Yellow terminal ②
Tester (–) lead
Green terminal ③
A
□
When the light switch is on “
”.
B
□
When the light switch is on “
”
B
• Turn the main switch to “ON”.
• Turn the light switch to “
” or “
”.
• Check the voltage (12 V) of the “Green” and
“Yellow”
leads
on
the
bulb
socket
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
connector.
MEETS SPECIFICATION
The wiring circuit from the main switch to the
bulb socket connector is faulty, repair it.
This circuit is not faulty.
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ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
2. If the taillights fail to come on:
(1). Bulb and bulb socket
• Check the bulb and bulb socket for
continuity.
NO CONTINUITY
CONTINUITY
Replace the bulb and/or bulb socket.
(2) . Voltage
• Connect the multimeter(DC 20 V) to the
tail/brake light couplers.
Tester (+) lead
Blue lead terminal ①
Tester (–) lead
Black lead terminal ②
• Turn the main switch to “ON”.
• Turn the light switch to “ ” or “ ”.
• Check the voltage (12 V) of the “Blue” lead
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
on the bulb socket connector.
MEETS SPECIFICATION
The wiring circuit from the main switch to the
bulb socket connector is faulty, repair it.
This circuit is not faulty.
SIGNALING SYSTEM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM(see 273 page)
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ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
TROUBLESHOOTING
IF A BRAKE LIGHT, AN INDICATOR LIGHT, OR THE WARNING LIGHT FAILS TO COME ON:
Procedure
Check:
1. Fuses (main, signaling system)
3. Main switch
2. Battery
4. Wiring connections (the entire signal system)
1NOTE:
•
Remove
the
following
part(s)
before
troubleshooting:
1. Console
2. Front frame
3. Front pedal
•
Use special tool(s) for troubleshooting.
1. Fuses (main, signaling system)
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CONTINUITY
Replace the fuse(s).
2. Battery
• Check the battery condition. Refer to
“CHECKING AND CHARGING THE
INCORRECT
BATTERY” in chapter 3.
Open-circuit voltage
12.8 V or more at 20 °C (68 °F)
• Clean the battery terminals.
CORRECT
• Recharge or replace the battery.
3.Main switch
INCORRECT
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CORRECT
Replace the main switch
4. Wiring connections
• Check the connections of the entire signal
system. Refer to “CIRCUIT DIAGRAM”.
POOR CONNECTION
CORRECT
Check the condition of each of the signal
system’s circuits. Refer to “CHECKING THE
SIGNAL SYSTEM”.
- 235 -
Properly connect the signal system.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
CHECKING THE SIGNAL SYSTEM
1. If the brake lights fail to come on:
(1). Bulb and bulb socket
• Check the bulb and bulb socket for
NO CONTINUITY
continuity.
CONTINUITY
Replace the bulb and/or bulb socket.
(2). Bake light switch
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CONTINUITY
Replace the brake light switch.
(3). Voltage
• Connect the multimeter(DC 20 V) to the
bulb socket connector.
Tester (+) lead
Tester (–) lead
Yellow terminal ①
Black terminal ②
• Turn the main switch to “ON”.
• Turn the light switch to “
” or “
”.
• Check the voltage (12 V) of the “Yellow”
OUT OF SPECIFICATION
lead on the bulb socket connector.
MEETS SPECIFICATION
The wiring circuit from the main switch to the
bulb socket connector is faulty, repair it.
This circuit is not faulty.
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ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
2. If F, N, R, light is not bright
(1). Gear position switch
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CONTINUITY
Replace the gear position switch
(2). Wire connection
NO CONTINUITY
Check the main beam connected to the gear
switch connector is strong
CONNECTION IS FIRM
This circuit is not faulty.
- 237 -
Repair the main beam connection with gear
switch connector
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
3. If the parking brake indicator light fails
to come on:
(1). Brake switch
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
NO CONTINUITY
CONTINUITY
Replace the parking brake switch
(2). Voltage
Set the multimeter to DC12V, test the brake
lamp voltage at both ends
Blue power meter pens
①
Black power meter pens
②
NO VOLATGE DISPLAY
DISPLAY +12V
Replace the fuse F2
This circuit is not faulty.
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ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
4. If the reverse indicator light fails to come on:
(1). Directional signal switch
NO CONTINUITY
Refer to “CHECKING THE SWITCH”.
CONTINUITY
Replace the Reverse switch
(2). Voltage
Set the multimeter to DC12V, test the
direction lamp voltage at both ends
Black power meter pens
①
Blackish/Green power meter pens
②
NO VOLATGE DISPLAY
DISPLAY +12V
Replace the fuse F2
This circuit is not faulty.
- 239 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION
EMS (Engine Management System)
EMS is a self contained set of components including a custom built computer and sensors and
actuators which control the operation of an engine by monitoring the engine speed, load and
temperature and providing the ignition spark at the right time for the prevailing conditions and
metering the fuel to the engine in the exact quantity required.
Typical Components Of EMS(Sport)
1. Electronic Control Unit
2. Multec 3.5 Injectors
3.Throttle Body Assembly(with stepper motor)
4. Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
5. Intake Air Pressure and Temperature Sensor
6. Oxygen Sensor
7. Ignition Coil
8. Fuel Pump Module
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ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Typical Components Of EMS(Utility)
1. Electronic Control Unit
2. Multec 3.5 Injectors
3.Throttle Body Assembly(with stepper motor)
4. Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
5. Intake Air Pressure and Temperature Sensor
6. Oxygen Sensor
7. Ignition Coil
8. Fuel Pump Module
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ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Layout of EMS Components
Legend:
Dotted line indicates inputs
Solid line indicates outputs
- 242 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
COMPONENTS OF EMS
Electronic Control Unit
1.Description & Working Principle
The ECU continuously monitors the operating conditions of the engine through the system
sensors. It also provides the necessary computation, adaptability, and output control in order to
minimize the tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption, while optimizing vehicle drivability for all
operating conditions. The ECU also provides diagnosis when system malfunctions occur.
2.Handling – DOs & DONTs
ECU Handing
ACTION
REASON
DO NOT: Place the ECU close to the exhaust
High temperature might reduce the life of the
pipe or Engine when removed
ECU and also can damage the ECU
DO NOT:
Place the ECU close to or pour
water, oil or any other liquids.
ECU is susceptible to water and liquids
DO NOT: Allow mud or other debris to
accumulate on the surface of the ECU
Having mud or debris accumulated on the
ECU casing reduces its heat dissipation
efficiency.
DO NOT:
Apply any voltage relative to any
point to the ECU
Drastically affects the performance of the
ECU and may lead to ECU damage
DO NOT: Clean ECU with any solvent or any
Can damage the housing of the ECU
corrosive liquid
DO: Take extreme care that water droplets or
excess moisture should not fall on ECU
connectors
DO: Clean the ECU with a moist cloth and
keep it dry
ECU connectors can get short and may
lead to ECU damage
Prevents ECU damage
3.Installation requirements
The ECU shall be mounted using M5 machined screws with a torque of 3.9Nm ± 10%. The
mounting surface should also be flat to avoid subjecting the base plate to unnecessary force and
warping the PCB.
4.Maintenance service and Repair
ECU is a non-serviceable part. Once there are problems, it’s important to first determine if the
problem is caused by software/calibration. If it is caused by software/calibration, please refer to
software/calibration reflashing procedure. In the event of ECU hardware failure or malfunction
(during warranty period only) the ECU should be sent back to the vehicle manufacturer giving
complete details of the ECU Part No, Serial number, Vehicle Model & Make, manufacturing Date,
Total kms run on the vehicle, Location of use, Vehicle No, Date of return.
- 243 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Multec 3.5 Injectors
1.Description and Working Principle
The Multec 3.5 Fuel Injector is an electromechanical device. A magnetic field is generated as
voltage is applied to the solenoid coil.
The resulting magnetic force lifts the core assembly, overcoming manifold vacuum, spring force,
and fuel pressure, allowing fuel to pass through the ball and seat interface to the director.
As the fuel passes through the director, an atomized spray is developed. The injector closes
when the voltage is removed, cutting off the fuel flow.
2.Handling - DOs & DONTs
3.5 FUEL INJECTOR HANDLING
ACTION
DO NOT: Re-use injector seal rings if at all
REASON
Leakage.
possible. If no other choice exists, take
extra care in inspecting the seal rings for
damage.
DO NOT: Dip injector tips into lubricants.
Can plug injector spray orifices.
DO NOT: Cycle injector repeatedly without
Damage to internal mechanical components.
fuel pressure.
DO NOT: Pulse (actuate) a suspected high
leak rate injector (leak >50 sccm air).
Can dislodge internal contamination if
present and preclude root cause analysis.
DO NOT: Allow water to enter fuel system
Can damage injectors.
from air lines, etc. during leak checks.
DO NOT: Contact or apply load to the
injector tip for installation.
Apply load to 45 deg angle on nylon over
mold see
DO NOT: Pound injectors into manifold
Can damage injectors or seal rings.
during assembly to engine.
DO NOT: Apply excessive side loads to
May cause loss of electrical continuity.
electrical connectors.
DO NOT: Use any dropped unit.
Internal damage may have occurred.
DONOT:
Store
injectors,
rails,
or
subassemblies including engines on which
the injectors have been installed in an
unprotected environment.
External contamination can damage the
injector electrically and/or mechanically.
DO NOT: Use the injector as a handle.
Do not use the injector to lift assemblies
DO NOT:
Rack, stage, or handle parts in a
manner that allows contact between parts.
Damage will occur.
Remove packing in a way that
allows contact between parts.
Damage could occur due ton contact
between parts.
DO NOT:
- 244 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DO NOT: Tap on fuel injectors to correct any
Can damage injector.
malfunction.
DO NOT: Replace the injector with other
part number not recommended for this
application
DO: Take extra care when installing new
Will severely affect the performance of the
injector
Prevent tearing seal ring during installation.
fuel seal ring over injector inlet flange.
Use proper lubricants on seal ring
surfaces to install injector in engine.
Minimize time between applying lubricant
and inserting injector / rail.
Avoid damage to seal ring during installation.
DO: Pulse (actuate) stuck closed or tip-leak
To verify the injector failure
DO:
Avoid contamination at seal.
suspected injector (Actuate consists of one
pulse <5 sec duration at 9 to 15V).
DO: Pulse (actuate) injectors prior to a dry
fuel system leak test at engine/vehicle
assembly to reseat injector valves.
Injector valves may not reseat without fuel
after shipping and handling resulting in false
leakage.
DO: Avoid any liquid contamination in the
Coil could short circuit.
injector area.
DO:
Use care during connection of
harness to injector.
Avoid terminal damage.
DO: Use recommended terminal lubricant
Minimize potential
corrosion.
on mating connector.
Return any dropped, damaged, or
suspect material with a tag that describes
the problem.
DO:
for
terminal
fretting
Ensure fast and correct diagnosis of root
cause.
3. Installation guidelines
Follow these guidelines to prevent damage to the injector and its electrical interface during the
replacement or re-installation process.

Lubrication: Apply a light coating of lubricant to the lower injector seal ring.
mineral oil or equivalent is recommended.

The preferred technique is to apply the lubricant to the sockets the injectors are being
installed into, rather than directly to the seal ring itself. This will help minimize the
possibility of injector contamination.

Avoid applying lubricant over the director plate holes – this may restrict injector flow.
not dip the injector tip in lubricant.

Multec 3.5 injectors come from the factory with the seal rings attached. The re-use of seal
rings is not preferred when replacing an injector. If an injector is to be re-used, and no new
seal rings are available, take care to inspect each seal ring for signs of damage. Even
minor defects in the seal ring can lead to leakage. Take extra care in installing seal ring
over flange of injector inlet.
- 245 -
ISO 10 light
Do
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Carefully installing the harness connector will prevent terminal damage. Listen for a
positive audible click from the connector retention device — this ensures that it is fully
engaged. Shut off ignition.

Disconnect negative battery cable to avoid possible fuel discharge if an accidental attempt
is made to start the engine.







Disconnect the electrical connector from the injector wiring harness.
Relieve fuel pressure
Remove the retaining clip from the fuel injector.
Remove the fuel line connection from the injector
Carefully clean debris from the interface surfaces. Do not damage seal mating surfaces.
Remove the injector from the manifold
Apply a light coating of a lubricant to both the upper and lower injector seal ring of the
replacement injector.

Install the new injector into the manifold. Check that the injector is installed in the original
orientation to maintain proper spray targeting, and that the retaining clip is properly seated
on the injector and the fuel line


Install the retaining clip after connecting the fuel line
Tighten the injector mounting to the desired torque as mentioned in the manufacturer
manual





Tighten the fuel line
Re-install the injector electrical connector
Check for fuel leaks with the key “on” and the engine “off”
Start engine and verify proper operation.
or spray pattern, do not rotate the injector in the fuel rail assembly to install the injector
electrical connector. This may dislodge the retaining clip, and result in improper spray
orientation
4.Replacement Techniques
WARNING:
The injector and all associated hardware may be extremely hot.


Shut off ignition.
Disconnect negative battery cable to avoid possible fuel discharge if an accidental attempt
is made to start the engine.







Disconnect the electrical connector from the injector wiring harness.
Relieve fuel pressure
Remove the retaining clip from the fuel injector.
Remove the fuel line connection from the injector
Carefully clean debris from the interface surfaces. Do not damage seal mating surfaces.
Remove the injector from the manifold
Apply a light coating of a lubricant to both the upper and lower injector seal ring of the
replacement injector.

Install the new injector into the manifold. Check that the injector is installed in the original
orientation to maintain proper spray targeting, and that the retaining clip is properly seated
on the injector and the fuel line
- 246 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Install the retaining clip after connecting the fuel line
Tighten the injector mounting to the desired torque as mentioned in the manufacturer
manual




Tighten the fuel line
Re-install the injector electrical connector
Check for fuel leaks with the key “on” and the engine “off”
Start engine and verify proper operation.
5.Plugging
Fuel deposits cause plugging resulting in flow shifts over the life of the injector. Fuel varnish or
gumming, a type of injector deposit, is created when certain types of fuel are heated by high
injector tip temperatures at soak (no fuel flow). Deposit build up in the director holes causes
the flow shifts

Plugging can cause flow restrictions, frictional changes and the collection of other particles
attracted by the tacky surface. The flow restrictions can degrade emissions and drivability.

Other fuel and environmental conditions may cause crystal or corrosion growth in the
injector and cause a flow shift.

Oxidation stability of the gasoline affects the potential for deposit formation and must be
controlled by the fuel supplier.


Increased levels of detergent additives reduce the rate of injector plugging.
Incase of plugging of injector follow the injector cleaning procedure mentioned in the section
below
6.Cleaning Procedure


Electrically disable the fuel pump by removing the fuel pump connection.
Relieve the fuel pressure in the system and disconnect the fuel connection at the injector.
Plug the fuel feed line.

Injector cleaner with the specific ratio of the cleaner and gasoline to be mixed in the Injector
cleaning tank.




Connect the injector-cleaning tank to injector in the vehicle.
Pressurize the injector-cleaning tank to system pressure.
Start and idle the engine for 15- 20 minutes.
Disconnect the injector-cleaning tank from the system and install the fuel pump connections.
Connect the fuel feed line to injector.

Start and idle the vehicle for an additional 2 minutes to ensure the residual injector cleaner
is flushed from system.
Throttle Body Assembly(with stepper motor)
1.Description and Working Principle
The Throttle Body Assembly is an interactive system comprised of the following
subsystems: the main casting body, bearing system, shaft and valve system, return spring
system, cable interface system, throttle position sensing system, and the bypass air control
system. The subsystems interact and support each other to provide all the functional
- 247 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
requirements, which are mentioned below 



Control intake air flow
Control idle air flow
Sense throttle position - Provide position feedback to Engine Controller
Provide reactionary force to the throttle
2.Handling – DOs and DONTs
THROTTLE BODY ASSEMBLY HANDLING
ACTION
REASON
DO: Use care during assembly of harness to throttle
Avoid terminal damage.
body.
DO: Avoid any liquid contamination in the throttle
Ensure proper operation.
body area.
DO: Unload and install units one at a time from
Damage may be done to critical components.
packing trays.
DO: Return any dropped, damaged, or suspect
Ensure fast and correct diagnosis of root
material with a tag that describes the problem.
(Only warranty cases)
DO: Remove and discard protective caps just before Protects system from contamination, which
assembling mating components.
can prevent proper operation.
DO: clean the by pass passage after removing
To ensure good idle stability
bottom cover
Internal damage may have occurred or
emissions settings may have been upset.
DO NOT: Use any dropped or impacted unit.
DO NOT: Store units without protective caps in place. Contamination may impair correct operation.
DO NOT: Ship or store near saltwater without Corrosion
protection.
operation.
DO NOT: Exposed to environmental conditions
Corrosion
(Moisture) prior to complete vehicle
operation.
installation.
buildup
may
impact
proper
buildup
may
impact
proper
DO NOT: Apply any voltage other than system
Damage could occur.
voltage for testing.
DO NOT: Apply excessive band clamp loading
Damage could occur.
DO NOT: Remove packing in a way that allows Minimum air leakage could be affected
contact between parts.
and/or other damage could occur.
DO NOT: Release the throttle cam abruptly from any
position without the throttle linkage Damage could occur.
attached.
DO NOT: Let the by pass holes be blocked by dirt or
This could effect idle stability
foreign particles.
DO NOT: Rake, stage, or handle parts in a manner
Damage will occur.
that allows contact between parts.
- 248 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3.Throttle Body Removal


Disconnect negative terminal of the battery
Disconnect electric lead wire of throttle position sensor coupler, stepper motor coupler and
MAP/MAT sensor coupler ( if this sensor is mounted on the throttle body)


Disconnect accelerator cable from throttle body
Remove air cleaner outlet hose and throttle body outlet hose
4.Cleaning Procedure
If there is cover on the bottom, it may be removed and cleaned using carburetor cleaner (3M
make recommended). Once the throttle body cover is removed, spray the throttle-body cleaner
inside the shipping air passage, and use the brushes to gently dislodge the dirt, gum and
varnish that are present. Do not let the bye pass holes be blocked by dirt or foreign particles.
5.Throttle Body Installation



Reverse the procedure for installation noting the following:
Adjust accelerator cable play
Check to ensure that all removed parts are back in place.Reinstall any necessary part which
have not been reinstalled
6.Precautions



Do not submerge TPS in any cleaning fluid.
Always open the throttle valve using the throttle cable or lever.
Do not hold the valve at opening position by inserting tools or any sticks into the bore. The
valve may be warped and the bore may be scratched. This type of damage may keep the
throttle from opening easily or fully closing.

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
1.Description and Working Principle
This sensor is used in water cooled engines. It provides a resistance that varies as a function of
temperature within prescribed tolerance limits. The sensor has a negative temperature
coefficient of resistance. This is a non-serviceable part.
2.Installation Requirements


Dynamic Torque Requirement: The sensor shall be hand into the application and then
driven by a driver with a maximum no load speed of 400 rpm or installed to the desired
torque by a hand torque wrench (5/8” hex). The recommended installation torque is:
Minimum: 20 N·m
Maximum: 25 N·m
Static Torque Requirement: The torque required to remove the sensor from the mating hole
shall be within 200% of the installation torque mentioned above.
3.Sample Cleaning

When necessary the samples may be cleaned in isopropyl alcohol for one minute with
mating connectors in place and then air-dried
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ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Intake Air Pressure and Temperature Sensor
1.Description and Working Principle
This sensor has two functions. The first is the intake manifold air temperature, it provides a
resistance that varies as a function of temperature within prescribed tolerance limits. The
second is the intake manifold air pressure; it provides a voltage varies as the intake air
pressure.
2.Sample Cleaning

When necessary the samples may be cleaned in isopropyl alcohol or gasoline for one
minute with mating connectors in place and then air-dried
Oxygen Sensor
1.Description and Working Principle
This sensor is a device for monitoring the residual oxygen in the exhaust of an internal
combustion engine. It consists of the wide range sensor and stoichiometric sensor. Usually we
use stoichiometric sensor on the small engine. It is the feedback element for engine closed
loop control.
2.Installation Requirements

Mounting Angle with Level: ≥10 degree

Tightening Torque Requirement: 40-60 Nm
Ignition Coil
1.Description and Working Principle
This coil provides energy to the spark plug in the combustion chamber. The coil itself doesn’t
have a driver. The high voltage tower of the coil is connected to the spark plug using a high
voltage cable assembly. This is a non-serviceable component.
2.Installation requirements

The vehicle frame provides the mounting surface and mounting holes.

Mount coil close to the spark plug and keep the plug wire length very short (less than 6 “).

Mount coil away from any pick coil device. Especially, a VR type Crank / Cam sensor. Keep
a Min distance of 150 mm (around 6”) between coil and any VR sensor device.

Never route the coil C- wire with the same bundle as the Crank sensor wires. There is
around 200 V peak potential between C- wire and engine ground. This voltage potential
could cause a noise on sensor cables.
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ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3.DOs and DONTs
Ignition Coil Handing
Action
Reason
DO NOT: Install the low voltage connectors with
This might cause an unwanted secondary firing,
possibly leading to personal injury
the power applied
DO NOT: Use a screw driver to asset in removing
secondary boots from the secondary tower. Use
tools designed for secondary removal.
DO NOT: Use parts that have been dropped or
display physical damage
DO NOT: Scratch or apply any non approved
material to the surface of the high voltage tower
which mates with the high voltage secondary
leads.
DO NOT: Strike any part of the ignition system
with a tool or other object.
DO NOT: Permit paint or other sprayed materials
to be sprayed onto the electrical connectors.
DO NOT: Support the ignition system by the
wiring harness or plug wire.
DO NOT: Pierce or probe the secondary
It is possible to damage a secondary lead in
such a manner that creates an electrical path to
outside the system permitting improper system
operation misfire, or even possible personal
injury if arcing occurs.
Damaged components can lead to premature
failure.
This can jeopardize the seal integrity of the
mating surfaces which in turn can create a
secondary high voltage leak path.
This can lead to physical damage which can
cause a system malfunction or failure.
Insulating type sprays can create a high
resistance or open connection. And, a
conductive type spray can create an electrical
short condition.
These leads are not designed to support the
weight of the ignition system. It can create a
poor electrical connection Or become
disconnected allowing the system to fall and be
subjected to physical damage
This creates an electrical path to outside the
system permitting improper system operation,
misfire, or even possible personal injury if arcing
occurs.
leads.
DO NOT: Operate without the spark plug
attached.
DO NOT: Share ignition component wiring with
other components, Dedicated wiring is required.
DO NOT: Apply voltage to the ignition system
other than vehicle system voltage for testing
purposes.
If a technician or mechanic comes in contact
with the high voltage generated during
operation, personal injury may occur. Or, if the
engine is operated under this condition,
unburned fuel may fill the converter area
creating a potential hazard
This prevents electrical cross talking between
components which can lead to component
malfunction.
This can cause reduced performance or an
electrical malfunction of the ignition system.
- 251 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DO NOT: Use high impact tools to apply the spark
plug boot to the ignition secondary towers.
Installation of the high voltage secondary leads
by hand is preferred.
Install the secondary
connecting the primary leads.
DO:
leads
before
DO: Take care when working around the ignition
system.
DO: Proper handling and shipping methods need
to be in place to reduce the risk of damage due to
impact, moisture, or contamination
Avoid unnecessary disconnecting
connecting of the electrical components.
DO:
and
Damage to the coil tower, secondary boot, or
mating connection surfaces might occur.
In the event the low voltage connection has
been made and the power applied, unwanted
secondary output might occur possibly resulting
in injury, damage the ignition component, and
test equipment
The high voltage produced by the coil
secondary circuit can cause personal injury
and/or damage test equipment
Damaged components can lead to premature
failure.
The electrical connections are not designed for
repeated connection and disconnection.
DO: Insure the low voltage connectors are
entirely seated and the locking mechanism is
engaged.
This prevents intermittent electrical connections
leading to an improper ignition system
operation.
DO: Use approved connector breakouts when
Connector and/or component damage may
occur.
testing the ignition system.
DO: Insure the appropriate seals are included in
the connector system.
DO: Operate with gasoline based internal
Liquid intrusion into the terminal connection
area might occur causing an electrical
intermittent or short condition. In the event of
severe terminal corrosion, an open condition
might occur.
Other fuels or combustion designs may require
additional design considerations.
combustion engines.
DO:The power feed line should be fused.
This could protect the system in the event of an
electrical short
DO: The module heat sink and back plate must
The high level of voltage and current which the
module could be subjected to, could cause
module performance degradation or failure.
not be used as a connection point when jump
starting the engine
DO: Connection of the module back plate to
vehicle ground is desirable whenever possible
DO: The ignition system ground wire should be
kept as short as possible. And, when permissible,
should be grounded at the same engine block
position as the engine controller
DO: The electrical wiring to the ignition system
should be routed so that the conductors are
protected from excessive heat, damage, and
wear.
This greatly reduce potential ground loops and
acts as a heat transfer source from the module.
This would greatly reduce the possible of
unwanted electrical ground loops.
Helps prevent electrical intermittent, open or
shorted operating conditions.
- 252 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DO: Ignition secondary leads should not be
routed with the ignition primary harness or any
other electrical harness.
DO: Spark plug wires(secondary leads) & primary
wiring:
- must not contact sharp surface
- must not be under tension between fixed points
- must be clear of moving parts (belts, fan, etc…)
- must be protected from or kept at least 125 mm
away from radiant heat source exceeding 400 F.
- must be protected from environmental damage
(dirt, splash, oils, fluids, etc….)
- must be retained, secured or insulated to
prevent pinching, mis-routing, rattles, and
squeaks
DO: Not all fasteners are designed for repeat use.
Beware of fastener specifications. All harnesses
should be supported within 6" of a mating
connection.
DO: For removing spark plugs follow the following
steps:
1- Grasp the spark plug boot and gently
2- rotate 90; and then pull the spark plug boot
and cable away from the spark plug
3- Before removing spark plug, brush or air blast
dirt away from the well areas
4- Use correct size deep socket wrench to
loosen each spark plug one or two turns
DO: Cleaning a spark plug could be done as
follow:
1- wipe all spark plug surfaces clean….remove
oil, water, dirt and moist residues.
2- If the firing end of spark plug has oily or wet
deposit, brush the spark plug in an approved,
non-flammable and non-toxic solvent. Then
dry the spark plug thoroughly with
compressed air
3- Use a propane torch to dry wet-fuel fouled
plugs. Allow the torch flame to enter up the
center electrode insulator. Allow plug to cool
down
4- If the spark plug threads have carbon & scale
Voltage spikes can be transmitted from the
secondary cables into other leads which are in
close. This could create a component
performance degradation or failure condition
- Spark plug wires carry very high voltage
(30,000 volt). If the secondary lead loses its
dielectric characteristics thru being nicked, cut ,
chaffed, then an arc thru to a near by ground
could take place. This kind of condition could
lead to misfire, no start, or premature failure of
ignition system.
Adequate retention force might not be achieved
if the fastener is not designed to be reused.
Mating connections are not designed to support
the weight of the harness assembly.
To remove spark plugs from Aluminum heads,
allow the engine to cool. The heat of the engine,
in combination with a spark plug that is still hot,
may cause the spark plug threads to strip the
cylinder head upon removal
Use goggles to protect eyes from dirt when
applying compressed air to spark plug wells
-Cleaning a spark plug will reduce the voltage
required for an electrical arc(spark) across the
electrodes
-Cleaning & re-gapping will not restore a used
spark plug to a new condition. It may be more
economical and efficient to replace used spark
plugs with new plugs instead of cleaning.
-Sooted plugs should be replaced
-Do not cool by using water or any liquid
-Clean threads permit easier installation and
proper seating which will maximize transfer heat
away from the plug
- 253 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
deposits, clean with wire brush, taking care
not
to injure the electrode or the
insulator tip
Regap spark plugs to the
measurement specified by the engine
DO:
exact
-Too wide a gap could cause the plug to
misfire(higher required ignition voltage).
manufacturer to keep the best fuel economy and
proper engine performance
- Use round wire-type gauge for an accurate
measure of gap on all used spark plugs
- when gapping a spark plug only the side
electrode is moved. The center electrode must
not be moved
-Too narrow of a gap could affect idle stability
-A flat gauge can’t accurately measure the spark
plug on used plugs
DO: When replacing spark plugs with new ones,
-Higher heat range plug(hotter plug) could lead
to pre-ignition & possible piston damage
-Lower heat range (colder plug) could lead to
cold fouling & emission problem
always use equivalent plugs with same heat
range, thread, size, etc….
DO: For installing spark plugs follow the following
steps:
1- make sure the cylinder head threads and
spark plug threads are clean. Make sure the
spark plug thread is free of dings and burrs. If
necessary, use a thread chaser and seat
cleaning tool.
2- Make sure the spark plug gasket seat is
clean, then thread the gasket to fit flush
against the gasket seat. Tapered seat plugs
do not require gaskets
3- Screw the spark plugs finger-tight into the
cylinder head. Then, use a torque wrench to
tighten spark plugs following manufacturer’s
recommendation).
Torque is different for various plug type & cylinder
head material
-If the thread is damage, it prevents a good heat
transform from the shell to the cylinder head
-Do not use any type of anti-seize compound on
spark plug threads. Doing this will decrease the
amount of friction between the threads. The
result of the lowered friction is that when the
spark plug is torqued to the proper specification,
the spark plug is turned too far into the cylinder
head. This increases the likelihood of pulling or
stripping the threads in the cylinder head
-Over-tightening of a spark plug can cause
stretching of the spark plug shell and could
allow blowby to pass thru the gasket seal
between the shell and insulator. Over-tightening
also results in extremely difficult removal
Fuel Pump Module
1.Description and Working Principle
Fuel Pump Module supplies fuel to engine at system pressure. Fuel Pump Module is
mounted to fuel tank at bottom and supplies fuel to engine through hoses.
Fuel Pump module consists of Fuel Pump to generate the fuel flow and pressure regulator to
regulate the fuel pressure.
- 254 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Fuel Pump
When power is supplied to fuel pump, motor in pump assembly rotates the impeller. Impeller in
turn draws the fuel from strainer and pumps the flow to generate the system pressure.
Pressure Regulator
Pressure Regulator is a diaphragm type mechanical device. Fuel flow from filter
enters in the inlet of pressure regulator. Pressure regulator regulates the fuel
pressure at a set pressure by releasing the excessive fuel flow to fuel tank.
2.Service Procedure:
Precautions:
Before attempting any service on fuel system, following cautions should be always followed for
personal safety and to avoid system damages.






Disconnect negative cable at battery.
DO NOT smoke, and place ‘No SMOKING” sign near work area
Make sure to have fire extinguisher handy.
Make sure to perform work in well ventilated area and away from any open fire/flames.
Wear Safety glasses
To relieve fuel vapor pressure in fuel tank, remove fuel filler cap fuel filler neck and then
reinstall it.

As fuel lines are at high pressures when the engine is stopped, loosening or disconnecting
fuel line will cause dangerous spout of fuel. Before loosening/ disconnecting fuel lines,
please follow the “Fuel Pressure Relief Procedure” described in this section.

Small amount of fuel may drip after the fuel lines are disconnected. In order to reduce the
risk of personal injury, cover the pipe/ hose ends with suitable blind with no rust or
contamination.

After servicing, make sure that the fuel hoses and clamps are connected according to the
hose fitment instructions given in vehicle instruction manual.


After servicing, please follow the ‘Fuel Leakage Check Procedure’ described in this section.
After servicing make sure to fill at least 3 liters gasoline before pump is primed (ignition key
should be turned on only after ensuring there is minimum 3 liters of fuel in the fuel tank)
Fuel Module Diagnosis:
Step
Action
Yes
No
1
Switch on Ignition key. Fuel Pump
primes for 3 seconds when the ignition
key is ON.
Check for fuel pump running noise for 3
seconds after ignition key is ON.
If fuel pump running
noise can be heard, go
to step 4.
If fuel pump running
noise can not be
heard, go to step 2.
Go to step 3
Check the electrical
circuit from Ignition
to fuel module.
2
Disconnect fuel module coupler. Check
voltage at harness coupler.
Is the voltage within 10-14V
- 255 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3
4
Connect 12V DC power supply
(battery) to fuel module.
Make sure that enough fuel available in
fuel tank to avoid fuel pump running
dry.Is the fuel pump running
Check fuel system pressure at Injector
inlet (with a T-joint) while engine is
running in idle condition.
Is the pressure
270kPa?
5
between
Is the Pressure below 220kPa?
220
1. Check electrical
circuit from fuel
module to ECU
2. Check ECU
1. Check Fuel
Pump Harness
integrity
2. Check Fuel
Pump
Fuel Module Operation
Normal
Go to Step 5
1. Check for leakages
from hoses, hose
joints
2. Check Fuel Pump
3. Check Pressure
Regulator
1. Clogged Filter
2. Kink/ Blockage
in Fuel Hoses
3. Check Regulator
~
3.Fuel Module Removal:

Relieve fuel pressure in fuel lines referring to the ‘Fuel Pressure Relief Procedure’ provided
in this section.



Disconnect negative cable at battery.
Disconnect fuel module wire coupler.
Drain the fuel in fuel tank thru fuel filler with help of hand pump (siphon). Collect the fuel in
approved container for contamination and safety.



Disconnect the fuel hoses from fuel module by using standard tools
Remove the fuel tank from vehicle.
Place the fuel tank with bottom up condition. Care to be taken not to cause any scratches/
damages on fuel tank.



Open the fuel module mounting bolts.
Take out fuel module assembly from fuel tank with care
Care to be taken not to damage the strainer while removing fuel module from tank.
4. Fuel Module Installation:

Replace the fuel module gasket in fuel module assembly with a new one. Old/ used gaskets
can cause leakages.

Fold strainer towards fuel pump and insert fuel module in tank opening with care. Care
should be taken not to cause any damages on strainer.
NOTE
Fuel Module Orientation: Fuel module bolts not symmetrical and can be mounted
only in the intended direction. Regulator side should be facing the Fuel Tank rear
side.Make sure that the fuel tank surface at module mounting area is clean and
free of surface defects.
- 256 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Place the bolts on module cover and tighten the bolts gradually in star pattern sequence to
apply equal compression on gasket. It is shown in figure as below. Bolt Tightening Torque:
3~4 Nm.
Fuel module is installed with special bolts (step bolts). Use designated bolts only. Follow
the tightening torque and tightening sequence instruction.Over torque and
miss-sequence can cause unequal compression of gasket and leakage.




Install the fuel tank to vehicle.
Connect for fuel hoses with suitable hose clamps.
Connect fuel module coupler.
Follow “Fuel Leakage Check Procedure’ to check any leakage before the engine is started。
Mounting Bolts – Star Tightening Pattern
5. Pressure Regulator Assembly Replacement:


Remove the regulator retainer from module.
Apply gradual pull force on retainer to avoid any personal injury due to spring action of
retainer.



Take out the pressure regulator assembly from module.
Do not hit/ damage on the regulator dome and crimping portion.
Lubricate the O-rings in new pressure regulator assembly with recommended lubrication
oils as mentioned in Table no: 3. Lubrication oil is applied only for ease of regulator
assembly.

Make sure that 2 O-rings (one is bigger diameter the other is smaller diameter) are
assembled in pressure regulator.

Place the pressure regulator on module at regulator pod. Push the regulator gently in the
pod.

Do not hit/ damage on the regulator dome and crimping portion. This will disturb the
pressure setting.


Assemble the retainer on the regulator pod
Replace the gasket, module with new gasket provided in the kit.
6. Fuel Pressure Relief Procedure:
NOTE
This work must not be done when engine
is hot. If done so, it may cause adverse effect to
catalyst (if equipped)
- 257 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
After making sure that engine is cold, relieve fuel pressure as follows.



Place vehicle gear in ‘Neutral’.
Disconnect fuel module electrical coupler from vehicle harness.
Start engine and run till it stops due to lack of fuel. Repeat ignition key ON and OFF for 2 ~ 3
times of about 3 seconds each time to relieve fuel pressure in lines. Fuel Connections are
now safe for servicing.

Upon the completion of servicing, Connect Fuel Module Connector to Vehicle Harness.
7. Fuel Leakage Check Procedure:
After performing any service on fuel system, check to make sure that there are no fuel leakages
as below.


Fill about 3 ~ 5 liters of fuel in tank.
Turn Ignition key to ON position for 3 seconds (to operate fuel pump) and then turn to OFF
position. Repeat this for 3 ~ 4 times to apply fuel pressure in fuel lines.

In this state, check to see that there are no fuel leakage from any part of fuel system (Fuel
Tank, Hoses, Hose Joints, etc)
8. Handling – DOs and DONTs:
FUEL MODULE HANDLING
ACTION
DO NOT:
REASON
Drop Fuel Module on Floor
Could cause internal damage to Fuel
Pump.
DO NOT: Run Fuel Pump Dry (without fuel
Caused internal damage to Fuel Pump
at pump inlet/ strainer) ensure atleast 3
litres of gasoline is present in the fuel tank
DO NOT: Damage the strainer during
servicing, insertion of fuel module in fuel
tank
Contamination enters fuel pump thru
damaged strainer damages the Fuel
Pump
DO NOT: Disassemble Fuel Pump and
Warranty void.
regulator internal parts out side Delphi
premises.
DO NOT: Do any adjustments on pressure
regulator
and
replacement.
pump
except
for
DO NOT: Use module harness for hold/
carry fuel module.
Wiring Harness Breakage/ Fuel Pump
Power disconnection
DO NOT: Pull Wiring Harness in vertical
direction to module cover
DO NOT: Use damaged/ distorted hose
Can cause fuel seepage/ leakage.
clamps.
- 258 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DO NOT: Use Fuel Module if the strainer
with excessive damage/ cut.
Contamination enters fuel pump thru
damaged strainer damages the Fuel
Pump
DO NOT: Use Fuel Pump for draining duel
Not intended function of fuel module.
in fuel tank.
DO NOT: Use module mounting bolts for
Affects fuel module sealing.
mounting other components.
DO NOT: Damage fuel pump harness
while servicing fuel module.
Damaged terminals will cause intermittent/
No contact for power supply.
DO NOT: Force hand pump towards fuel
To avoid any damages on fuel module.
module while draining fuel from tank.
DO : Ensure that there are no damages to
Can cause fuel seepage/ leakage.
fuel pipes while servicing fuel module
DO: Use genuine module gasket only.
Spurious gaskets can cause leakages.
DO: Use designated hose clamps.
To ensure no leakages/ seepages thru
hose joint.
DO: Clamp fuel module harness to vehicle
Clamp provides mechanical support for
wiring harness in vibrations.
chassis
DO: Use only standard gasoline
for
Fuel Module is intended to run in standard
gasoline. Adulterated fuel can cause fuel
module premature failures which are not
covered under warranty.
DO: Change the fuel filter at recommended
Clogged fuel filter will cause restriction in
fuel flow and can cause flow reduction.
operating vehicle/ module.
intervals.
Use
fuel
filters
recommended fuel filters only.
supplied/
Spurious fuel filters causes damages to
injector, regulator and fuel pump
performance.
DO: Ensure that the hoses are routed
properly and there are no kinks / rubbing
with other components.
Improper routing, kinks and fouling of
hoses with other components causes hose
damage
DO: Ensure that always sufficient fuel till
Avoids Pump running in dry
DO:
the strainer height
DO: Replace two O-rings along with
For proper functioning of regulator.
replacement/ re-installation of pressure
regulator.
DO:
Use care during connection of
harness to module coupler.
Avoid terminal damage.
DO: Return any dropped, damaged, or
Ensure fast and correct diagnosis of root
cause.
suspect material with a tag that describes
the problem.
- 259 -
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
EMS FAULT DIAGNOSIS
EME Fault Diagnosis
When fault comes up, the odometer's clock will turn into a number, which is a fault code, find
out the cause with this numbe;press clock button,then it will turn back to clock mode, and five
second later,the fault code will show again.
Fault code list
System or
DTC
Component
Number
Manifold Absolute
DTC Description
Related Calibration
0107
MAP Circuit Low Voltage or Open
KsDGDM_MAP_ShortLow
(MAP)
0108
MAP Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_MAP_ShortHigh
Intake Air
0112
IAT Circuit Low Voltage
KsDGDM_IAT_ShortLow
(IAT)
0113
IAT Circuit High Voltage or Open
KsDGDM_IAT_ShortHigh
Coolant/Oil Sensor
0117
Pressure Sensor
Temperature Sensor
0118
Throttle
Position
Sensor (TPS)
Oxygen Sensor
Oxygen
Sensor
Heater
Fuel Injector
Fuel Pump Relay
(FPR)
Crankshaft
Position
Sensor (CKP)
Circuit High Voltage or Open
KsDGDM_CoolantShortHigh
KsDGDM_TPS_ShortLow
0123
TPS Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_TPS_ShortHigh
0131
O2S 1 Circuit Low Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_1_ShortLow
0132
O2S 1 Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_1_ShortHigh
0031
O2S Heater Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_HeaterShortHigh
0032
O2S Heater Circuit Low Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_HeaterShortLow
0201
Injector 1 Circuit Malfunction
KsDGDM_INJ_CYL_A_Fault
0202
Injector 2 Circuit Malfunction
KsDGDM_INJ_CYL_B_Fault
0230
FPR Coil Circuit Low Voltage or
Open
KsDGDM_FPP_CircuitShortLow
0232
FPR Coil Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_FPP_CircuitShortHigh
0336
CKP Sensor Noisy Signal
KsDGDM_CrankNoisySignal
0337
CKP Sensor No Signal
KsDGDM_CrankNoSignal
0352
System
Coolant/Oil Temperature Sensor
KsDGDM_CoolantShortLow
TPS Circuit Low Voltage or Open
Ignition Coil
Control
Circuit Low Voltage
0122
0351
Idle
Coolant/Oil Temperature Sensor
0505
Cylinder
1
Ignition
Coil
2
Ignition
Coil
Malfunction
Cylinder
Malfunction
Idle Speed Control Error
- 260 -
KsDGDM_EST_A_Fault
KsDGDM_EST_B_Fault
KsDGDM_IdleControl
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
0562
System Voltage Low
KsDGDM_SysVoltLow
0563
System Voltage High
KsDGDM_SysVoltHigh
0650
MIL Circuit Malfunction
KsDGDM_MIL_Circuit
1693
Tachometer Circuit Low Voltage
KsDGDM_TAC_Circuit_Low
1694
Tachometer Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_TAC_Circuit_High
0137
O2S 2 Circuit Low Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_2_ShortLow
0138
O2S 2 Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_2_ShortHigh
Oxygen Sensor
0038
O2S Heater 2 Circuit High Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_HeaterShortHigh
Heater 2
0037
O2S Heater 2 Circuit Low Voltage
KsDGDM_O2_HeaterShortLow
0500
VSS No Signal
KsDGDM_VSS_NoSignal
0850
Park Neutral Switch Error
KsDGDM_ParkNeutralSwitch
0445
CCP short to high
KsDGDM_CCP_CircuitShortHigh
0444
CCP short to low/open
KsDGDM_CCP_CircuitShortLow
BLM MaxAdapt
0171
BLM Max Adapt(Kohler Special)
KsFDIAG_BLM_MaxAdapt
BLM MinAdapt
0172
BLM Min Adapt(Kohler Special)
KsFDIAG_BLM_MinAdapt
PE syst Lean(Kohler Special)
KsFDIAG_PESystLean
System Voltage
MIL
Tachometer
Oxygen Sensor 2
Vehicle Speed
Sensor
Park Neutral
Switch Diag
CCP
PE system Lean
P0174
- 261 -
TROUBLESHOOTING
NOTE:
The following trouble, not including all possible troubles, is a help for trouble guide. Please refer to
relevent contents for the inspection, adjustment and replacement of part.
STARTING FAILURE/HARD STARTING
FUEL SYSTEM
1、No oil
2、Fuel filter is clogged
Fuel tank
3、Fuel pump filter net is clogged
4、Breather tube is clogged
5、Fuel is deteriorated or polluted
Fuel pump
1、Clogged fuel hose
2、Damaged vacuum hose
Air filter
Clogged air filter element
Gasoline filter
Block up
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
1、Improper plug gap
2、Worn electrodes
3、Wire between terminals broken
Spark plug
4、Wrong Spark plug heat value
5、Faulty spark plug cap
6. High voltage wires strapped on frame cause shortage of high
pressure ignition energy
1、 Broken ECU
2、 Clogged nozzle or the rupture the line from nozzle to ECU
3、 Damage of engine speed signal sensor
EFI system
4、 Rupture of the line from engine speed signal sensor to ECU
5、 Broken inlet pressure or temperature sensor or damaged line
to ECU
6、 Broken air throttle or damage line to ECU.
7、Broken vice line (cable) of electrical injection
1、 Broken main cable
Switches and wires
2、 Broken main switch
- 262 -
TROUBLESHOOTING
1、Faulty starter motor
2、Faulty starter relay
Starter motor
3、Faulty overrunning clutch in engine
4、Broken main switch
5、Broken main fuse
1、Low battery voltage
Battery
2、Faulty battery
COMPRESSION SYSTEM
1、Loose spark plug
2、Loose cylinder head or cylinder
Cylinder and cylinder head
3、Broken cylinder head gasket
4、Broken cylinder gasket
5、Worn, damaged or seized cylinder
1、Improperly installed piston ring
2、Worn, fatigued or broken piston ring
Piston and piston rings
3、Seized piston ring
4、Seized or damaged piston
1、Improperly sealed valve
2、Improperly contacted valve and valve seat
Valve, camshaft and crankshaft
3、Improper valve timing
4、Broken valve spring
5、Seized camshaft
Crankcase and crankshaft
Valve train
1、Improperly seated crankcase
2、Seized crankshaft
1、Improperly adjusted valve clearance
2、Improperly adjusted valve timing
POOR IDLE SPEED PERFORMANCE
POOR IDLE SPEED PERFORMANCE
1、Broken ECU
2、Clogged nozzle or the rupture the line from nozzle to ECU
3、Damage of engine speed signal sensor
EFI system
4、Rupture of the line from engine speed signal sensor to ECU
5、Broken inlet pressure or temperature sensor or damaged line to ECU
6、Broken air throttle or damage line to ECU.
7、Broken vice line (cable) of electrical injection
- 263 -
TROUBLESHOOTING
1、Faulty ignition plug
Electrical system
2、The performace of speed sensor become poor
3、Faulty ignition coil
Valve train
Improperly adjusted valve clearance
Air filter
Clogged air filter element
POOR MEDIUM AND HIGH-SPEED PERFORMANCE
POOR MEDIUM AND HIGH-SPEED PERFORMANCE
1、 Broken ECU
2、 The performance of speed signal sensor become poor
EFI system
3、 The main nozzle clog or loose
4、 Spoiled or pollute oil
5、 Broken inlet pressure / temperature sensor
6、 Air throttle position sensor loose
Air filter
Clogged air filter element
Muffler
Clogged muffler
Set out
The reverse signal error trigger
FAULTY GEAR SHIFTING
SHIFT LEVER DOES NOT MOVE
Transmission
1、Seized transmission gear
2、Incorrectly assembled transmission
JUMPS OUT OF GEAR
Shift forks
Worn shift fork
Transmission
Worn gear dog
ENGINE OVERHEATING
OVERHEATING
Ignition system
1、Improper spark plug gap
2、Improper spark plug heat range
- 264 -
TROUBLESHOOTING
Fuel system
Compression system
1、Improper fuel level
2、Clogged air filter element
Heavy carbon deposit
1、Improper oil level
Engine oil
2、Improper oil viscosity
3、Inferior oil quality
Brake
Brake drag
FAULTY BRAKE
POOR BRAKING EFFECT
1、Worn brake pads
2、Worn disc
3、Air in brake fluid
4、Leaking brake fluid
Disc brake
5、Faulty master cylinder kit cup
6、Faulty caliper kit sea
7、Loose union bolt
8、Broken brake hose and pipe
9、Oily or greasy disc/brake pads
10、Improper brake fluid level
SHOCK ABSORBER MALFUNCTION
Loss of damping function
1、Bent or damaged damper rod
Shock absorber
2、Damaged oil seal lip
3、Fatigued shock absorber spring
UNSTABLE HANDLING
UNSTABLE HANDLING
Steering column
Improperly installed or bent
1、Incorrect toe-in
2、Bent steering shaft
Steering
3、Improperly installed steering shaft
4、Damaged bearing
5、Bent tie-rods
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TROUBLESHOOTING
1、Uneven tire pressures on both sides
Tires
2、Incorrect tire pressure
3、Uneven tire wear
1、Deformed wheel
Rim
2、Loose bearing
3、Bent or loose wheel axle
Frame
1、Bent
2、Damaged frame
1、 Over worn or loosen main knuckle ball stud
Suspension
2、 Bent rocker
3、 Broken shock absorber
4、 Broken buffer rubber of rocker shaft
LIGHTING SYSTEM
HEAD LIGHT IS OUT OF WORK
1、Improper bulb
2、Too many electric accessories
Head light is out of work
3、Hard charging( broken stator coil and/or faulty rectifier/regulator)
4、Incorrect connection
5、Improperly grounded
6、Bulb life expired
BULB BURNT OUT
1、Improper bulb
2、Faulty battery
Bulb burnt out
3、Faulty rectifier/regulator
4、Improperly grounded
5、Faulty main and/or lights switch
6、Bulb life expired
ERROR DISPLAY OF METER
1、 Then sensor on rear axle is damaged or polluted by iron powder
Wrong Speed
2、 The connection between sensor to meter is wrong.
3、 Broken meter
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