Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Installation Guide
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 for all architectures
Last Updated: 2017-12-13
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 for all architectures
Clayton Spicer
Red Hat Customer Content Services
cspicer@redhat.com
Petr Bokoč
Red Hat Customer Content Services
Tomáš Čapek
Red Hat Customer Content Services
Jack Reed
Red Hat Customer Content Services
Rüdiger Landmann
Red Hat Customer Content Services
David Cantrell
VNC installation
Hans De Goede
iSCSI
Jon Masters
Driver updates
Red Hat Customer Content Services
Legal Notice
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Abstract
This manual explains how to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 installation program
(anaconda) and to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 on 32-bit and 64-bit x86
systems, 64-bit Power Systems servers, and IBM System z. It also covers advanced
installation methods such as kickstart installations, PXE installations, and installations
over VNC. Finally, it describes common post-installation tasks and explains how to
troubleshoot installation problems.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
. . . . . . . . 1.
CHAPTER
. . OBTAINING
. . . . . . . . . RED
. . . .HAT
. . . ENTERPRISE
. . . . . . . . . . .LINUX
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
..........
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 2.
. . MAKING
. . . . . . .MEDIA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
..........
2.1. MAKING AN INSTALLATION DVD
19
2.2. MAKING MINIMAL BOOT MEDIA
19
2.2.1. Minimal USB Boot Media for BIOS-based Systems
20
2.2.2. Minimal USB Boot Media for UEFI-based Systems
21
2.3. CREATING A USGCB-COMPLIANT INSTALLATION IMAGE
22
. . . . .I.. .X86,
PART
. . . .AMD64,
. . . . . . AND
. . . . INTEL
. . . . . 64
. . .—. INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . AND
. . . .BOOTING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
..........
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 3.
. . PLANNING
. . . . . . . . .FOR
. . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .ON
. . .THE
. . . X86
. . . .ARCHITECTURE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
..........
3.1. UPGRADE OR INSTALL?
25
3.2. IS YOUR HARDWARE COMPATIBLE?
25
3.3. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
26
3.4. RAID AND OTHER DISK DEVICES
3.4.1. Hardware RAID
3.4.2. Software RAID
26
26
27
3.4.3. FireWire and USB Disks
3.5. NOTES ON UEFI SUPPORT
27
27
3.5.1. Feature Support
3.5.2. Disk Drives with MBR on UEFI Systems
3.6. DO YOU HAVE ENOUGH DISK SPACE?
3.7. SELECTING AN INSTALLATION METHOD
3.8. CHOOSE A BOOT METHOD
27
27
28
29
30
. . . . . . . . 4.
CHAPTER
. . PREPARING
. . . . . . . . . .FOR
. . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
..........
4.1. PREPARING FOR A NETWORK INSTALLATION
4.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation
31
32
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
4.2. PREPARING FOR A HARD DRIVE INSTALLATION
32
34
. . . . . . . . 5.
CHAPTER
. . SYSTEM
. . . . . . .SPECIFICATIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
..........
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 6.
. . UPDATING
. . . . . . . . .DRIVERS
. . . . . . .DURING
. . . . . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . ON
. . .INTEL
. . . . .AND
. . . .AMD
. . . .SYSTEMS
. . . . . . . . . 39
..........
6.1. LIMITATIONS OF DRIVER UPDATES DURING INSTALLATION
39
6.2. PREPARING FOR A DRIVER UPDATE DURING INSTALLATION
40
6.2.1. Preparing to Use a Driver Update Image File
40
6.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
6.2.2. Preparing a Driver Disc
6.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disc on CD or DVD
6.2.3. Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update
40
41
41
44
6.3. PERFORMING A DRIVER UPDATE DURING INSTALLATION
6.3.1. Let the Installer Find a Driver Update Disk Automatically
6.3.2. Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update
6.3.3. Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk
6.3.4. Select a PXE Target that Includes a Driver Update
45
45
45
46
47
6.4. SPECIFYING THE LOCATION OF A DRIVER UPDATE IMAGE FILE OR A DRIVER UPDATE DISK
47
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 7.
. . BOOTING
. . . . . . . .THE
. . . INSTALLER
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
..........
7.1. STARTING THE INSTALLATION PROGRAM
50
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
50
7.1.2. The Boot Menu
52
1
Installation Guide
7.1.3. Additional Boot Options
7.1.3.1. Kernel Options
7.2. INSTALLING FROM A DIFFERENT SOURCE
53
54
55
7.3. BOOTING FROM THE NETWORK USING PXE
55
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 8.
. . CONFIGURING
. . . . . . . . . . . LANGUAGE
. . . . . . . . . AND
. . . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .SOURCE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
..........
8.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
57
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
59
8.2. LANGUAGE SELECTION
60
8.3. INSTALLATION METHOD
8.3.1. Installing from a DVD
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
60
61
62
63
8.3.4. Installing via NFS
8.3.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
8.4. VERIFYING MEDIA
66
66
68
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 9.
. . INSTALLING
. . . . . . . . . .USING
. . . . . ANACONDA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
..........
9.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
69
9.2. THE GRAPHICAL INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
69
9.2.1. Screenshots During Installation
9.2.2. A Note About Virtual Consoles
9.3. WELCOME TO RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
71
9.4. LANGUAGE SELECTION
9.5. KEYBOARD CONFIGURATION
71
72
9.6. STORAGE DEVICES
73
9.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
9.6.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
75
77
9.6.1.1.1. Select and configure a network interface
9.6.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI parameters
78
79
9.6.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
86
9.7. SETTING THE HOSTNAME
9.7.1. Editing Network Connections
2
70
70
87
88
9.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
9.7.1.2. The Wired tab
90
90
9.7.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
91
9.7.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
9.7.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
93
95
9.7.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
9.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
96
98
9.7.1.6. Restart a network device
99
9.8. TIME ZONE CONFIGURATION
9.9. SET THE ROOT PASSWORD
100
101
9.10. ASSIGN STORAGE DEVICES
103
9.11. INITIALIZING THE HARD DISK
9.12. UPGRADING AN EXISTING SYSTEM
104
105
9.12.1. The Upgrade Dialog
9.12.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
106
107
9.12.3. Updating the Boot Loader Configuration
107
9.13. DISK PARTITIONING SETUP
9.14. CHOOSING A DISK ENCRYPTION PASSPHRASE
108
112
9.15. CREATING A CUSTOM LAYOUT OR MODIFYING THE DEFAULT LAYOUT
9.15.1. Create Storage
113
116
Table of Contents
9.15.2. Adding Partitions
9.15.2.1. File System Types
117
119
9.15.3. Create Software RAID
9.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
121
123
9.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
126
9.15.5.1. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems
9.15.5.1.1. Advice on Partitions
126
129
9.16. WRITE CHANGES TO DISK
131
9.17. PACKAGE GROUP SELECTION
9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
132
134
9.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
9.17.2.1. Core Network Services
137
139
9.18. X86, AMD64, AND INTEL 64 BOOT LOADER CONFIGURATION
9.18.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
9.18.2. Rescue Mode
140
143
144
9.18.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
9.19. INSTALLING PACKAGES
145
145
9.20. INSTALLATION COMPLETE
146
. . . . . . . . 10.
CHAPTER
. . .TROUBLESHOOTING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .ON
. . AN
. . . INTEL
. . . . .OR
. . .AMD
. . . .SYSTEM
. . . . . . . . . . . . 147
...........
10.1. YOU ARE UNABLE TO BOOT RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
147
147
148
10.1.3. Diagnosing Early Boot Problems
10.2. TROUBLE BEGINNING THE INSTALLATION
148
149
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
10.3. TROUBLE DURING THE INSTALLATION
149
149
10.3.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error Message
149
10.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages
10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
149
156
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space
10.3.5. The "drive must have a GPT disk label" Error Message
157
157
10.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems
157
10.4. PROBLEMS AFTER INSTALLATION
10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
158
158
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
158
159
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
159
10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
160
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
160
161
10.4.8. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During Startup
161
. . . . .II.
PART
. . IBM
. . . POWER
. . . . . . .SYSTEMS
. . . . . . .—
. . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .AND
. . . .BOOTING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
...........
. . . . . . . . 11.
CHAPTER
. . .PLANNING
. . . . . . . . .FOR
. . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .ON
. . .POWER
. . . . . .SYSTEMS
. . . . . . . .SERVERS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
...........
11.1. UPGRADE OR INSTALL?
163
11.2. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
163
11.3. INSTALLATION TOOLS
163
11.4. PREPARATION FOR IBM POWER SYSTEMS SERVERS
11.5. RAID AND OTHER DISK DEVICES
164
164
11.5.1. Hardware RAID
165
11.5.2. Software RAID
165
11.5.3. FireWire and USB Disks
165
3
Installation Guide
11.6. DO YOU HAVE ENOUGH DISK SPACE?
11.7. CHOOSE A BOOT METHOD
165
166
. . . . . . . . 12.
CHAPTER
. . .PREPARING
. . . . . . . . . FOR
. . . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
...........
12.1. PREPARING FOR A NETWORK INSTALLATION
167
12.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation
168
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
168
12.2. PREPARING FOR A HARD DRIVE INSTALLATION
170
CHAPTER 13. UPDATING DRIVERS DURING INSTALLATION ON IBM POWER SYSTEMS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
SERVERS
...........
13.1. LIMITATIONS OF DRIVER UPDATES DURING INSTALLATION
173
13.2. PREPARING FOR A DRIVER UPDATE DURING INSTALLATION
13.2.1. Preparing to Use a Driver Update Image File
13.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
174
174
174
13.2.2. Preparing a Driver Disc
13.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disc on CD or DVD
175
175
13.2.3. Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update
178
13.3. PERFORMING A DRIVER UPDATE DURING INSTALLATION
179
13.3.1. Let the Installer Find a Driver Update Disk Automatically
179
13.3.2. Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update
179
13.3.3. Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk
13.3.4. Select an Installation Server Target That Includes a Driver Update
180
181
13.4. SPECIFYING THE LOCATION OF A DRIVER UPDATE IMAGE FILE OR A DRIVER UPDATE DISK
181
. . . . . . . . 14.
CHAPTER
. . .BOOTING
. . . . . . . .THE
. . . INSTALLER
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
...........
14.1. THE BOOT MENU
185
14.2. INSTALLING FROM A DIFFERENT SOURCE
186
14.3. BOOTING FROM THE NETWORK USING A YABOOT INSTALLATION SERVER
186
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 15.
. . .CONFIGURING
. . . . . . . . . . . LANGUAGE
. . . . . . . . . AND
. . . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .SOURCE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
...........
15.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
188
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
190
15.2. LANGUAGE SELECTION
190
15.3. INSTALLATION METHOD
191
15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.1.1. Installing from a DVD
192
192
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
192
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
193
15.3.4. Installing via NFS
196
15.3.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
15.4. VERIFYING MEDIA
197
198
. . . . . . . . 16.
CHAPTER
. . .INSTALLING
. . . . . . . . . .USING
. . . . . ANACONDA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
...........
16.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
199
16.2. THE GRAPHICAL INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
199
16.3. A NOTE ABOUT LINUX VIRTUAL CONSOLES
200
16.4. USING THE HMC VTERM
16.5. WELCOME TO RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
201
201
16.6. LANGUAGE SELECTION
201
16.7. KEYBOARD CONFIGURATION
202
16.8. STORAGE DEVICES
203
16.8.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
16.8.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
4
205
207
Table of Contents
16.8.1.1.1. Select and configure a network interface
208
16.8.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI parameters
209
16.8.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
216
16.9. SETTING THE HOSTNAME
16.9.1. Editing Network Connections
16.9.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
217
218
220
16.9.1.2. The Wired tab
220
16.9.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
221
16.9.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
223
16.9.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
16.9.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
225
226
16.9.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
228
16.9.1.6. Restart a network device
229
16.10. TIME ZONE CONFIGURATION
230
16.11. SET THE ROOT PASSWORD
231
16.12. ASSIGN STORAGE DEVICES
16.13. INITIALIZING THE HARD DISK
232
234
16.14. UPGRADING AN EXISTING SYSTEM
235
16.14.1. The Upgrade Dialog
235
16.14.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
236
16.15. DISK PARTITIONING SETUP
16.16. CHOOSING A DISK ENCRYPTION PASSPHRASE
237
240
16.17. CREATING A CUSTOM LAYOUT OR MODIFYING THE DEFAULT LAYOUT
241
16.17.1. Create Storage
243
16.17.2. Adding Partitions
245
16.17.2.1. File System Types
16.17.3. Create Software RAID
246
248
16.17.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
251
16.17.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
254
16.18. WRITE CHANGES TO DISK
257
16.19. PACKAGE GROUP SELECTION
16.19.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
258
260
16.19.2. Customizing the Software Selection
263
16.19.2.1. Core Network Services
264
16.20. INSTALLING PACKAGES
265
16.21. INSTALLATION COMPLETE
265
. . . . . . . . 17.
CHAPTER
. . .TROUBLESHOOTING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .ON
. . AN
. . . IBM
. . . POWER
. . . . . . .SYSTEMS
. . . . . . . SERVER
..................
267
17.1. YOU ARE UNABLE TO BOOT RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
267
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
17.2. TROUBLE BEGINNING THE INSTALLATION
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
17.3. TROUBLE DURING THE INSTALLATION
17.3.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error Message
267
268
268
268
268
17.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages
269
17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
276
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM Power Systems Users
276
17.4. PROBLEMS AFTER INSTALLATION
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
276
276
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
276
17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
278
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
278
5
Installation Guide
17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
278
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
278
17.4.7. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During Startup
279
. . . . .III.
PART
. . .IBM
. . .SYSTEM
. . . . . . .Z. ARCHITECTURE
. . . . . . . . . . . . -. INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . AND
. . . .BOOTING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
...........
. . . . . . . . 18.
CHAPTER
. . .PLANNING
. . . . . . . . .FOR
. . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .ON
. . .SYSTEM
......Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
...........
18.1. PRE-INSTALLATION
18.2. OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM Z INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
281
281
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
283
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
284
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
284
18.2.4. Installation Phase 3
285
18.3. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE WITH X11 OR VNC
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
285
286
18.3.2. Installation using X11
286
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
287
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener
287
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
18.3.5.1. Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File
287
287
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 19.
. . .PREPARING
. . . . . . . . . FOR
. . . . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
...........
19.1. PREPARING FOR A NETWORK INSTALLATION
289
19.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation
289
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
19.2. PREPARING FOR A HARD DRIVE INSTALLATION
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive
19.2.1.1. Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive
290
291
292
294
. . . . . . . . 20.
CHAPTER
. . .BOOTING
. . . . . . . .(IPL)
. . . .THE
. . . INSTALLER
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
...........
20.1. INSTALLING UNDER Z/VM
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
20.1.2. Using a Prepared DASD
20.1.3. Using a Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
20.2. INSTALLING IN AN LPAR
20.2.1. Using an FTP Server
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
295
296
297
297
298
298
299
299
20.2.3. Using a Prepared DASD
20.2.4. Using a Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
299
300
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
300
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 21.
. . .INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .PHASE
. . . . . 1:
. . CONFIGURING
. . . . . . . . . . . .A. NETWORK
. . . . . . . . .DEVICE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
...........
21.1. A NOTE ON TERMINALS
304
CHAPTER 22. INSTALLATION PHASE 2: CONFIGURING LANGUAGE AND INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
SOURCE
...........
6
22.1. NON-INTERACTIVE LINE-MODE INSTALLATION
22.2. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
306
306
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
22.3. LANGUAGE SELECTION
22.4. INSTALLATION METHOD
308
308
309
22.4.1. Installing from a DVD
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
310
310
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation
311
Table of Contents
22.4.4. Installing via NFS
22.4.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
22.5. VERIFYING MEDIA
22.6. RETRIEVING PHASE 3 OF THE INSTALLATION PROGRAM
311
312
313
314
. . . . . . . . 23.
CHAPTER
. . .INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .PHASE
. . . . . 3:
. . INSTALLING
. . . . . . . . . . USING
. . . . . ANACONDA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
...........
23.1. THE NON-INTERACTIVE LINE-MODE TEXT INSTALLATION PROGRAM OUTPUT
23.2. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
23.3. THE GRAPHICAL INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER INTERFACE
315
315
315
23.4. CONFIGURE THE INSTALL TERMINAL
23.5. WELCOME TO RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
315
316
23.6. STORAGE DEVICES
23.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
23.6.1.1. DASD low-level formatting
317
318
321
23.6.1.2. Advanced Storage Options
23.6.1.2.1. Configure iSCSI parameters
321
322
23.6.1.2.2. FCP Devices
23.7. SETTING THE HOSTNAME
23.7.1. Editing Network Connections
23.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
23.7.1.2. The Wired tab
328
329
330
331
332
23.7.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
23.7.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
332
334
23.7.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
23.7.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
23.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
336
337
339
23.7.1.6. Restart a network device
23.8. TIME ZONE CONFIGURATION
340
341
23.9. SET THE ROOT PASSWORD
23.10. ASSIGN STORAGE DEVICES
23.11. INITIALIZING THE HARD DISK
342
343
344
23.12. UPGRADING AN EXISTING SYSTEM
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
346
346
23.13. DISK PARTITIONING SETUP
23.14. CHOOSING A DISK ENCRYPTION PASSPHRASE
23.15. CREATING A CUSTOM LAYOUT OR MODIFYING THE DEFAULT LAYOUT
347
350
351
23.15.1. Create Storage
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
353
355
23.15.2.1. File System Types
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
356
358
361
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
23.16. WRITE CHANGES TO DISK
364
364
23.17. PACKAGE GROUP SELECTION
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
365
367
370
23.17.2.1. Core Network Services
23.18. INSTALLING PACKAGES
371
372
23.19. INSTALLATION COMPLETE
23.19.1. IPL Under z/VM
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
372
373
373
23.19.3. Continuing After Reboot (re-IPL)
373
7
Installation Guide
. . . . . . . . 24.
CHAPTER
. . .TROUBLESHOOTING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . .ON
. . IBM
. . . .SYSTEM
. . . . . . .Z. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
...........
24.1. YOU ARE UNABLE TO BOOT RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
375
375
24.2. TROUBLE DURING THE INSTALLATION
24.2.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error Message
24.2.2. Saving Traceback Messages
375
375
376
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
24.3. PROBLEMS AFTER INSTALLATION
382
383
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
24.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
383
384
384
24.3.4. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During Startup
384
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 25.
. . .CONFIGURING
. . . . . . . . . . . AN
. . . INSTALLED
. . . . . . . . . LINUX
. . . . . ON
. . .SYSTEM
. . . . . . .Z. INSTANCE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
...........
25.1. ADDING DASDS
385
25.1.1. Dynamically Setting DASDs Online
25.1.2. Persistently setting DASDs online
25.1.2.1. DASDs Which Are Part of the Root File System
385
386
387
25.1.3. DASDs Which Are Not Part of the Root File System
25.1.4. Preparing a New DASD with Low-level Formatting
388
389
25.1.5. Expanding Existing LVM Volumes to New Storage Devices
25.2. ADDING FCP-ATTACHED LOGICAL UNITS (LUNS)
25.2.1. Dynamically Activating an FCP LUN
25.2.2. Persistently Activating FCP LUNs
25.2.2.1. FCP LUNs That Are Part of the Root File System
25.2.2.2. FCP LUNs That Are Not Part of the Root File System
25.3. ADDING A NETWORK DEVICE
390
392
392
393
393
395
396
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
25.3.1.1. Dynamically Adding a qeth Device
25.3.1.2. Dynamically Removing a qeth Device
396
397
399
25.3.1.3. Persistently Adding a qeth Device
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
400
402
25.3.2.1. Dynamically Adding an LCS Device
25.3.2.2. Persistently Adding an LCS Device
25.3.3. Mapping Subchannels and Network Device Names
403
403
405
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System
405
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 26.
. . .PARAMETER
. . . . . . . . . .AND
. . . .CONFIGURATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . FILES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
...........
26.1. REQUIRED PARAMETERS
407
26.2. THE Z/VM CONFIGURATION FILE
26.3. INSTALLATION NETWORK PARAMETERS
26.4. VNC AND X11 PARAMETERS
408
408
412
26.5. LOADER PARAMETERS
26.6. PARAMETERS FOR KICKSTART INSTALLATIONS
413
413
26.7. MISCELLANEOUS PARAMETERS
26.8. SAMPLE PARAMETER FILE AND CMS CONFIGURATION FILE
414
415
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 27.
. . .IBM
. . . SYSTEM
. . . . . . . Z. .REFERENCES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
...........
27.1. IBM SYSTEM Z PUBLICATIONS
416
27.2. IBM REDBOOKS PUBLICATIONS FOR SYSTEM Z
27.3. ONLINE RESOURCES
416
417
. . . . .IV.
PART
. . .ADVANCED
. . . . . . . . .INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . OPTIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
...........
8
Table of Contents
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 28.
. . .BOOT
. . . . .OPTIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
...........
28.1. CONFIGURING THE INSTALLATION SYSTEM AT THE BOOT MENU
419
28.1.1. Specifying the Language
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface
28.1.3. Updating anaconda
419
419
420
28.1.4. Specifying the Installation Method
28.1.5. Specifying the Network Settings
420
421
28.1.5.1. Configuring a Bonded Interface
28.2. ENABLING REMOTE ACCESS TO THE INSTALLATION SYSTEM
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
422
422
423
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with ssh
423
424
28.2.4. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet
28.3. LOGGING TO A REMOTE SYSTEM DURING THE INSTALLATION
28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
424
424
425
28.4. AUTOMATING THE INSTALLATION WITH KICKSTART
28.5. ENHANCING HARDWARE SUPPORT
425
427
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
28.6. USING THE MAINTENANCE BOOT MODES
28.6.1. Verifying Boot Media
427
429
429
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
28.6.3. Upgrading Your Computer
429
429
. . . . . . . . 29.
CHAPTER
. . .INSTALLING
. . . . . . . . . .WITHOUT
. . . . . . . .MEDIA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
...........
29.1. RETRIEVING BOOT FILES
29.2. EDITING THE GRUB CONFIGURATION
430
430
29.3. BOOTING TO INSTALLATION
431
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 30.
. . .SETTING
. . . . . . . UP
. . .AN
. . INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . SERVER
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
...........
30.1. SETTING UP THE NETWORK SERVER
432
30.2. NETWORK BOOT CONFIGURATION
432
30.2.1. Configuring PXE Boot for BIOS
30.2.2. Configuring PXE Boot for EFI
432
434
30.2.3. Configuring for Power Systems Servers
30.3. STARTING THE TFTP SERVER
30.4. ADDING A CUSTOM BOOT MESSAGE
436
437
438
30.5. PERFORMING THE INSTALLATION
438
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 31.
. . .INSTALLING
. . . . . . . . . .THROUGH
. . . . . . . .VNC
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
...........
31.1. VNC VIEWER
439
31.2. VNC MODES IN ANACONDA
31.2.1. Direct Mode
31.2.2. Connect Mode
439
440
440
31.3. INSTALLATION USING VNC
31.3.1. Installation Example
441
441
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations
31.4. REFERENCES
442
442
442
. . . . . . . . 32.
CHAPTER
. . .KICKSTART
. . . . . . . . . INSTALLATIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
...........
32.1. WHAT ARE KICKSTART INSTALLATIONS?
32.2. HOW DO YOU PERFORM A KICKSTART INSTALLATION?
443
443
32.3. CREATING THE KICKSTART FILE
32.4. KICKSTART OPTIONS
443
444
9
Installation Guide
32.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example
479
32.5. PACKAGE SELECTION
32.6. PRE-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
32.7. POST-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
480
482
483
32.8. KICKSTART EXAMPLES
32.8.1. Set host name interactively during installation
484
484
32.8.2. Registering and Then Mounting an NFS Share
32.8.3. Registering a System in RHN Classic
32.8.4. Running subscription-manager as a Post-Install Script
485
485
486
32.8.5. Changing partition layout
32.9. MAKING THE KICKSTART FILE AVAILABLE
486
487
32.9.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
32.9.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
32.10. MAKING THE INSTALLATION TREE AVAILABLE
487
489
490
32.11. STARTING A KICKSTART INSTALLATION
490
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 33.
. . .KICKSTART
. . . . . . . . . CONFIGURATOR
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
...........
33.1. BASIC CONFIGURATION
499
33.2. INSTALLATION METHOD
33.3. BOOT LOADER OPTIONS
33.4. PARTITION INFORMATION
33.4.1. Creating Partitions
33.4.1.1. Creating Software RAID Partitions
500
501
502
503
504
33.5. NETWORK CONFIGURATION
33.6. AUTHENTICATION
506
507
33.7. FIREWALL CONFIGURATION
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration
33.8. DISPLAY CONFIGURATION
508
508
508
33.9. PACKAGE SELECTION
33.10. PRE-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
509
510
33.11. POST-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
33.11.1. Chroot Environment
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter
511
512
512
33.12. SAVING THE FILE
512
. . . . .V.
PART
. . AFTER
. . . . . .INSTALLATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
...........
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 34.
. . .FIRSTBOOT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
...........
34.1. LICENSE INFORMATION
515
34.2. CONFIGURING THE SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE
34.2.1. Set Up Software Updates
34.2.2. Choose Service
516
516
517
34.2.3. Subscription Management Registration
34.3. CREATE USER
518
523
34.3.1. Authentication Configuration
34.4. DATE AND TIME
34.5. KDUMP
524
526
527
. . . . . . . . 35.
CHAPTER
. . .YOUR
. . . . .NEXT
. . . . STEPS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
...........
35.1. UPDATING YOUR SYSTEM
35.1.1. Driver Update rpm Packages
530
530
35.2. FINISHING AN UPGRADE
35.3. SWITCHING TO A GRAPHICAL LOGIN
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line
532
532
533
10
Table of Contents
35.3.1.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories Through the Internet
35.3.1.2. Using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation DVD as a Software Repository
35.4. INSTALLING PACKAGES WITH YUM
534
534
536
35.5. AUTOMATING THE INITIAL CONFIGURATION OF CLOUD INSTANCES USING CLOUD-INIT
536
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 36.
. . .BASIC
. . . . . SYSTEM
. . . . . . .RECOVERY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
...........
36.1. RESCUE MODE
538
36.1.1. Common Problems
36.1.1.1. Unable to Boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux
36.1.1.2. Hardware/Software Problems
538
538
538
36.1.1.3. Root Password
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
538
538
36.1.2.1. Reinstalling the Boot Loader
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
36.1.4. Booting into Emergency Mode
541
541
542
36.2. RESCUE MODE ON POWER SYSTEMS SERVERS
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from Rescue Mode
542
542
36.3. USING RESCUE MODE TO FIX OR WORK AROUND DRIVER PROBLEMS
36.3.1. Using RPM to Add, Remove, or Replace a Driver
36.3.2. Blacklisting a Driver
543
543
544
. . . . . . . . 37.
CHAPTER
. . .UPGRADING
. . . . . . . . . .YOUR
. . . . .CURRENT
. . . . . . . SYSTEM
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
...........
. . . . . . . . 38.
CHAPTER
. . .UNREGISTERING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . FROM
. . . . . RED
. . . .HAT
. . . SUBSCRIPTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . MANAGEMENT
. . . . . . . . . . . .SERVICES
...................
547
38.1. SYSTEMS REGISTERED WITH RED HAT SUBSCRIPTION MANAGEMENT
547
38.2. SYSTEMS REGISTERED WITH RHN CLASSIC
38.3. SYSTEMS REGISTERED WITH SATELLITE
547
547
. . . . . . . . 39.
CHAPTER
. . .REMOVING
. . . . . . . . .RED
. . . .HAT
. . . ENTERPRISE
. . . . . . . . . . LINUX
. . . . . FROM
. . . . . X86-BASED
. . . . . . . . . .SYSTEMS
. . . . . . . . . . . 549
...........
39.1. RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX IS THE ONLY OPERATING SYSTEM ON THE COMPUTER
39.2. YOUR COMPUTER DUAL-BOOTS RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX AND ANOTHER OPERATING
SYSTEM
549
550
39.2.1. Your Computer Dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft Windows Operating
System
551
39.2.1.1. Windows 2000, Windows Server 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003
39.2.1.2. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008
551
553
39.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux distribution 555
39.3. REPLACING RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX WITH MS-DOS OR LEGACY VERSIONS OF MICROSOFT
WINDOWS
559
.CHAPTER
. . . . . . . 40.
. . .REMOVING
. . . . . . . . .RED
. . . .HAT
. . . ENTERPRISE
. . . . . . . . . . LINUX
. . . . . FROM
. . . . . IBM
. . . .SYSTEM
......Z
. . . . . . . . . . . 562
...........
40.1. RUNNING A DIFFERENT OPERATING SYSTEM ON YOUR Z/VM GUEST OR LPAR
562
. . . . .VI.
PART
. . .TECHNICAL
. . . . . . . . .APPENDICES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
...........
. . . . . . . . .A.
APPENDIX
. .AN
. . .INTRODUCTION
. . . . . . . . . . . .TO
. . .DISK
. . . .PARTITIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
...........
A.1. HARD DISK BASIC CONCEPTS
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
A.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
A.1.3. Partitions Within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
A.1.4. GUID Partition Table (GPT)
A.1.5. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
A.1.5.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
A.1.5.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
A.1.5.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
564
564
566
568
569
570
570
571
571
11
Installation Guide
A.1.5.3.1. Compress existing data
572
A.1.5.3.2. Resize the existing partition
A.1.5.3.3. Create new partition(s)
A.1.6. Partition Naming Scheme
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
A.1.8. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
573
573
574
575
575
A.1.9. How Many Partitions?
575
.APPENDIX
. . . . . . . .B.
. .ISCSI
. . . . DISKS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
...........
B.1. ISCSI DISKS IN ANACONDA
577
B.2. ISCSI DISKS DURING START UP
578
.APPENDIX
. . . . . . . .C.
. .DISK
. . . .ENCRYPTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
...........
C.1. WHAT IS BLOCK DEVICE ENCRYPTION?
579
C.2. ENCRYPTING BLOCK DEVICES USING DM-CRYPT/LUKS6TIT
579
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS
C.2.2. How Will I Access the Encrypted Devices After Installation? (System Startup)
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase
C.3. CREATING ENCRYPTED BLOCK DEVICES IN ANACONDA
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted?
579
580
580
580
581
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
C.4. CREATING ENCRYPTED BLOCK DEVICES ON THE INSTALLED SYSTEM AFTER INSTALLATION
C.4.1. Create the Block Devices
C.4.2. Optional: Fill the Device with Random Data
581
581
581
581
581
C.4.3. Format the Device as a dm-crypt/LUKS Encrypted Device
582
C.4.4. Create a Mapping to Allow Access to the Device's Decrypted Contents
582
C.4.5. Create File Systems on the Mapped Device or Continue to Build Complex Storage Structures
Using the Mapped Device
583
C.4.6. Add the Mapping Information to /etc/crypttab
583
C.4.7. Add an Entry to /etc/fstab
584
C.5. COMMON POST-INSTALLATION TASKS
584
C.5.1. Set a Randomly Generated Key as an Additional Way to Access an Encrypted Block Device
584
C.5.1.1. Generate a Key
C.5.1.2. Add the Key to an Available Keyslot on the Encrypted Device
C.5.2. Add a New Passphrase to an Existing Device
C.5.3. Remove a Passphrase or Key from a Device
584
584
584
585
. . . . . . . . .D.
APPENDIX
. .UNDERSTANDING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .LVM
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
...........
.APPENDIX
. . . . . . . .E.
. .THE
. . . GRUB
. . . . . BOOT
. . . . .LOADER
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
...........
E.1. BOOT LOADERS AND SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
587
E.2. GRUB
E.2.1. GRUB and the Boot Process on BIOS-based x86 Systems
E.2.2. GRUB and the Boot Process on UEFI-based x86 Systems
E.2.3. Features of GRUB
E.3. INSTALLING GRUB
587
587
588
589
589
E.4. TROUBLESHOOTING GRUB
E.5. GRUB TERMINOLOGY
E.5.1. Device Names
E.5.2. File Names and Blocklists
E.5.3. The Root File System and GRUB
590
591
591
592
592
E.6. GRUB INTERFACES
593
12
Table of Contents
E.6.1. Interfaces Load Order
E.7. GRUB COMMANDS
594
594
E.8. GRUB MENU CONFIGURATION FILE
E.8.1. Configuration File Structure
E.8.2. Configuration File Directives
E.9. CHANGING RUNLEVELS AT BOOT TIME
E.10. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
596
596
597
599
599
E.10.1. Installed Documentation
E.10.2. Useful Websites
599
599
.APPENDIX
. . . . . . . .F.
. .BOOT
. . . . .PROCESS,
. . . . . . . .INIT,
. . . .AND
. . . .SHUTDOWN
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
...........
F.1. THE BOOT PROCESS
600
F.2. A DETAILED LOOK AT THE BOOT PROCESS
600
F.2.1. The Firmware Interface
600
F.2.1.1. BIOS-based x86 Systems
F.2.1.2. UEFI-based x86 Systems
F.2.2. The Boot Loader
F.2.2.1. The GRUB boot loader for x86 systems
F.2.2.2. Boot Loaders for Other Architectures
601
601
601
601
602
F.2.3. The Kernel
F.2.4. The /sbin/init Program
F.2.5. Job Definitions
F.3. RUNNING ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS AT BOOT TIME
F.4. SYSV INIT RUNLEVELS
602
603
606
606
607
F.4.1. Runlevels
F.4.2. Runlevel Utilities
F.5. SHUTTING DOWN
607
608
608
. . . . . . . . .G.
APPENDIX
. .ALTERNATIVES
. . . . . . . . . . . .TO
. . .BUSYBOX
. . . . . . . COMMANDS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
...........
. . . . . . . . .H.
APPENDIX
. .OTHER
. . . . . .TECHNICAL
. . . . . . . . .DOCUMENTATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
...........
. . . . . . . . .I.. REVISION
APPENDIX
. . . . . . . . HISTORY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
...........
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
INDEX
...........
13
Installation Guide
14
CHAPTER 1. OBTAINING RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
CHAPTER 1. OBTAINING RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
If you have a Red Hat subscription, you can download ISO image files of the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.9 installation DVD from the Software & Download Center that is part of
the Red Hat Customer Portal. If you do not already have a subscription, either purchase one
or obtain a free evaluation subscription from the Software & Download Center at
https://access.redhat.com/downloads.
The following table indicates the types of boot and installation media available for different
architectures and notes the image file that you need to produce the media.
Table 1.1. Boot and installation media
Architecture
Installation DVD
Boot CD or boot
DVD
Boot USB flash
drive
BIOS-based 32-bit
x86
x86 DVD ISO image
file
rhel-variant-ver
sion-i386boot.iso
rhel-variant-ver
sion-i386boot.iso
UEFI-based 32-bit x86
Not available
BIOS-based AMD64
and Intel 64
x86_64 DVD ISO
image file (to install
64-bit operating
system) or x86 DVD
ISO image file (to
install 32-bit
operating system)
rhel-variant-ver
sionx86_64boot.iso
orrhel-variant-ve
rsion-i386boot.iso
rhel-variant-ver
sionx86_64boot.iso or
rhel-variant-ver
sion-i386boot.iso
UEFI-based AMD64
and Intel 64
x86_64 DVD ISO
image file
rhel-variant-ver
sion-x86_64boot.iso
efidisk.img (from
POWER (64-bit only)
ppc DVD ISO image
file
rhelserver-versionppc64-boot.iso
Not available
System z
s390 DVD ISO image
file
Not available
Not available
x86_64 DVD ISO
image file)
Where variant is the variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (for example,server or
workstation ) and version is the latest version number (for example, 6.5).
If you have a subscription or evaluation subscription, follow these steps to obtain the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 ISO image files:
Procedure 1.1. Downloading Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO Images
1. Visit the Customer Portal at https://access.redhat.com/home. If you are not logged
in, click LOG IN on the right side of the page. Enter your account credentials when
prompted.
15
Installation Guide
2. Click DOWNLOADS at the top of the page.
3. Click Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
4. Ensure that you select the appropriate Product Variant, Version and
Architecture for your installation target. By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Server and x86_64 are selected. If you are not sure which variant best suits your
needs, see http://www.redhat.com/en/technologies/linux-platforms/enterprise-linux .
5. A list of available downloads is displayed; most notably, a minimal Boot ISO image
and a full installation Binary DVD ISO image. The Boot ISO is a minimal boot image
which only contains the installer and requires a source to install packages from
(such as an HTTP or FTP server). The Binary DVD download contains both the
installer and necessary packages, and therefore requires less setup.
Additional images may be available, such as preconfigured virtual machine images,
which are beyond the scope of this document.
6. Choose the image file that you want to use. There are several ways to download an
ISO image from Red Hat Customer Portal:
Click its name to begin downloading it to your computer using your web browser.
Right-click the name and then click Copy Link Location or a similar menu item,
the exact wording of which depends on the browser that you are using. This
action copies the URL of the file to your clipboard, which allows you to use an
alternative application to download the file to your computer. This approach is
especially useful if your Internet connection is unstable: in that case, you
browser may fail to download the whole file, and an attempt to resume the
interrupted download process fails because the download link contains an
authentication key which is only valid for a short time. Specialized applications
such as curl can, however, be used to resume interrupted download attempts
from the Customer Portal, which means that you need not download the whole
file again and thus you save your time and bandwidth consumption.
Procedure 1.2. Using curl to Download Installation Media
1. Make sure the curl package is installed by running the following command as
root:
# yum install curl
If your Linux distribution does not use yum, or if you do not use Linux at all,
download the most appropriate software package from the curl website.
2. Open a terminal window, enter a suitable directory, and type the following
command:
$ curl -o filename.iso 'copied_link_location'
Replace filename.iso with the ISO image name as displayed in the Customer
Portal, such as rhel-server-6.9-x86_64-dvd.iso. This is important because
the download link in the Customer Portal contains extra characters which
curl would otherwise use in the downloaded file name, too. Then, keep the
16
CHAPTER 1. OBTAINING RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
single quotation mark in front of the next parameter, and replace
copied_link_location with the link that you have copied from the Customer
Portal.
Note that in Linux, you can paste the content of the clipboard into the
terminal window by middle-clicking anywhere in the window, or by pressing
Shift+Insert. Finally, use another single quotation mark after the last
parameter, and press Enter to run the command and start transferring the
ISO image. The single quotation marks prevent the command line interpreter
from misinterpreting any special characters that might be included in the
download link.
Example 1.1. Downloading an ISO image with curl
The following is an example of a curl command line:
$ curl -o rhel-server-6.9-x86_64-dvd.iso
'https://access.cdn.redhat.com//content/origin/files/sha256/
85/85a...46c/rhel-server-6.9-x86_64-dvd.iso?
_auth_=141...7bf'
Note that the actual download link is much longer because it contains
complicated identifiers.
3. If your Internet connection does drop before the transfer is complete, refresh
the download page in the Customer Portal; log in again if necessary. Copy
the new download link, use the same basic curl command line parameters
as earlier but be sure to use the new download link, and add -C - to instruct
curl to automatically determine where it should continue based on the size
of the already downloaded file.
Example 1.2. Resuming an interrupted download attempt
The following is an example of a curl command line that you use if you
have only partially downloaded the ISO image of your choice:
$ curl -o rhel-server-6.9-x86_64-dvd.iso
'https://access.cdn.redhat.com//content/origin/files/sha256/
85/85a...46c/rhel-server-6.9-x86_64-dvd.iso?
_auth_=141...963' -C -
7. Optionally, you can use a checksum utility such as sha256sum to verify the
integrity of the image file after the download finishes. All downloads on the
Download Red Hat Enterprise Linux page are provided with their checksums for
reference:
$ sha256sum rhel-server-6.9-x86_64-dvd.iso
85a...46c rhel-server-6.9-x86_64-dvd.iso
Similar tools are available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. You can also use the
installation program to verify the media when starting the installation; see
Section 28.6.1, “Verifying Boot Media” for details.
17
Installation Guide
After you download an ISO image file of the installation DVD from the Red Hat Customer
Portal, you can:
burn it to a physical DVD (refer to Section 2.1, “Making an Installation DVD”).
use it to prepare minimal boot media (refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot
Media”).
place it on a server to prepare for installations over a network (refer to Section 4.1,
“Preparing for a Network Installation” for x86 architectures, Section 12.1, “Preparing
for a Network Installation” for Power Systems servers or Section 19.1, “Preparing for
a Network Installation” for IBM System z).
place it on a hard drive to prepare for installation to use the hard drive as an
installation source (refer to Section 4.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation” for
x86 architectures, Section 12.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation” for
Power Systems servers or Section 19.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation” for
IBM System z).
place it on a pre-boot execution environment (PXE) server to prepare for
installations using PXE boot (refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server).
18
CHAPTER 2. MAKING MEDIA
CHAPTER 2. MAKING MEDIA
Use the methods described in this section to create the following types of installation and
boot media:
an installation DVD
a minimal boot CD or DVD that can boot the installer
a USB flash drive to boot the installer
2.1. MAKING AN INSTALLATION DVD
You can make an installation DVD using the CD or DVD burning software on your computer.
Make sure that your disc burning software is capable of burning discs from image files.
Although this is true of most disc burning software, exceptions exist. In particular, note that
the disc burning feature built into Windows XP and Windows Vista cannot burn DVDs; and
that earlier Windows operating systems did not have any disc burning capability installed by
default at all. Therefore, if your computer has a Windows operating system prior to
Windows 7 installed on it, you need separate software for this task. Examples of popular
disc burning software for Windows that you might already have on your computer include
Nero Burning ROM and Roxio Creator.
Most widely used disc burning software for Linux, such as Brasero and K3b has the built-in
ability to burn discs from ISO image files.
The exact series of steps that produces a DVD from an ISO image file varies greatly from
computer to computer, depending on the operating system and disc burning software
installed. Consult your disc burning software's documentation for detailed information on
burning DVDs.
2.2. MAKING MINIMAL BOOT MEDIA
A piece of minimal boot media is a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive that contains the software
to boot the system and launch the installation program, but which does not contain the
software that must be transferred to the system to create a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation.
Use minimal boot media:
to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux over a network
to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a hard drive
to use a kickstart file during installation (refer to Section 32.9.1, “Creating Kickstart
Boot Media”
to commence a network or hard-drive installation or to use an anaconda update or
a kickstart file with a DVD installation.
You can use minimal boot media to start the installation process on 32-bit x86 systems,
AMD64 or Intel 64 systems, and Power Systems servers. The process by which you create
minimal boot media for systems of these various types is identical except in the case of
AMD64 and Intel 64 systems with UEFI firmware interfaces — refer to Section 2.2.2,
“Minimal USB Boot Media for UEFI-based Systems”.
19
Installation Guide
To make minimal boot media for 32-bit x86 systems, BIOS-based AMD64 or Intel 64
systems, and Power Systems servers:
1. Download the ISO image file named rhel-variant-version-architectureboot.iso that is available at the same location as the images of the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.9 installation DVD — refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
2. Burn the .iso file to a blank CD or DVD using the same procedure detailed in
Section 2.1, “Making an Installation DVD” for the installation disc.
Alternatively, transfer the .iso file to a USB device with thedd command. As the .iso file
is only around 200 MB in size, you do not need an especially large USB flash drive.
2.2.1. Minimal USB Boot Media for BIOS-based Systems

WARNING
When you perform this procedure any data on the USB flash drive is
destroyed with no warning. Make sure that you specify the correct USB
flash drive, and make sure that this flash drive does not contain any data
that you want to keep.
1. Plug in your USB flash drive.
2. Find the flash drive's device name. If the media has a volume name, use it to look
up the device name in /dev/disk/by-label, or use the findfs command:
findfs LABEL=MyLabel
If the media does not have a volume name or you do not know it, you can also use
the dmesg command shortly after connecting the media to your computer. After
running the command, the device name (such as sdb or sdc) should appear in
several lines towards the end of the output.
3. Become root:
su 4. Use the dd command to transfer the boot ISO image to the USB device:
# dd if=path/image_name.iso of=/dev/device
where path/image_name.iso is the boot ISO image file that you downloaded and
device is the device name for the USB flash drive. Ensure you specify the device
name (such as sdc), not the partition name (such assdc1). For example:
# dd if=~/Downloads/RHEL6.9-Server-x86_64-boot.iso of=/dev/sdc
20
CHAPTER 2. MAKING MEDIA
2.2.2. Minimal USB Boot Media for UEFI-based Systems

WARNING
When you perform this procedure any data on the USB flash drive is
destroyed with no warning. Make sure that you specify the correct USB
flash drive, and make sure that this flash drive does not contain any data
that you want to keep.
To creater minimal USB boot media for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, use the efidisk.img file
in the images/ directory on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 installation DVD:
1. Download an ISO image file of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 installation DVD as
described in Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
2. Become root:
su 3. Create a mount point for the ISO image file:
# mkdir /mnt/dvdiso
4. Mount the image file:
# mount DVD.iso /mnt/dvdiso -o loop
Where DVD.iso is the name of the ISO image file, for exampleRHEL6.9-Serverx86_64-DVD.iso.
5. Transfer efidisk.img from the ISO image file to your USB flash drive:
# dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/device_name
For example:
# dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/sdc
NOTE
Use the dd command to write the image file directly to the device.
Using cp to copy the file or transferring the file using a file manager will
make the device unbootable.
6. Unmount the ISO image file:
# umount /mnt/dvdiso
21
Installation Guide
2.3. CREATING A USGCB-COMPLIANT INSTALLATION IMAGE
The scap-security-guide package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 contains a specialized
Kickstart file, which can be used to install a hardened system conforming to the United
States Government Configuration Baseline (USGCB) standard. This is useful in cases where
compliance with this standard is required by government regulations.
This Kickstart configuration can be used with the Server variant of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6. If used, the system will be automatically configured by OpenSCAP to be USGCB
profile compliant as part of the post-installation script. After the installation finishes, you
can review a report placed in the /root/ directory on the installed system.
NOTE
The Kickstart file provided by scap-security-guide contains all required
commands, making the installation completely automatic.
Also note that the Kickstart file requires access to the internet during the
installation in order to download the latest benchmark.
For more information about compliance and vulnerability scanning using OpenSCAP, see
the appropriate chapter of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Security Guide.
To obtain the Kickstart file, install the scap-security-guide package on an existing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6 system. Once the package is installed, you can find the Kickstart file at
/usr/share/scap-security-guide/kickstart/ssg-rhel6-usgcb-server-with-guiks.cfg.
After obtaining the file, copy it into your home directory and edit it using a plain text editor.
Use Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” and comments in the file for reference. Some of the
comments mention Common Configuration Enumeration (CCE) identifier numbers; you can
find information about these at the CCE Archive.
Notable parts of the Kickstart file which can be changed are:
Package repository location - the url command. To use a package repository on an
HTTP or FTP server, replace the default IP address with an address of a server
containing a package repository. Replace this command with one of nfs, cdrom, or
harddrive to install from a NFS server, optical drive, or local hard drive,
respectively.
System language, keyboard layout, and time zone - the lang, keyboard and
timezone commands.
Root password - the rootpw command. By default, the root password configured in
this Kickstart is "server". Make sure to generate a new checksum and change it.
Boot loader password - the bootloader --password= command. The default
password is "password". Make sure to generate a new checksum and change it.
Network configuration - the network command. Automatic configuration using DHCP
is enabled by default - adjust the settings if necessary.
Package selection - modify the %packages section of the file to install packages and
groups you need.
22
CHAPTER 2. MAKING MEDIA
IMPORTANT
Packages git, aide and openscap-utils must always be installed. They
are required for the Kickstart file and post installation OpenSCAP
system evaluation to work.
Disk partitioning layout - the part, volgroup and logvol commands.
The USGCB standard defines concrete requirements for a compliant system's disk
layout, which means that the logical volumes defined in the default Kickstart file /home, /tmp, /var, /var/log, and /var/log/audit - must always be created as
separate partitions or logical volumes. Additionally, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
requires you to create a /boot physical partition and volumes for / and swap. These
are all defined in the default Kickstart; you can add additional separate logical
volumes or partitions, and you can change the sizes of the default ones.
NOTE
By default, the /var/log/audit volume only takes up 512 MB of space.
Due to the high number of calls being audited, it is highly
recommended to increase its size to at least 1024 MB.
The rest of the Kickstart file can be used as-is. Once you finish modifying the file, proceed
with Section 32.9.1, “Creating Kickstart Boot Media” to place it on an ISO image and use it
to install a new system.
23
Installation Guide
PART I. X86, AMD64, AND INTEL 64 — INSTALLATION
AND BOOTING
This part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for Intel and AMD 32-bit and 64bit systems discusses the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic postinstallation troubleshooting.
For advanced installation options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced Installation Options”.
24
CHAPTER 3. PLANNING FOR INSTALLATION ON THE X86 ARCHITECTURE
CHAPTER 3. PLANNING FOR INSTALLATION ON THE
X86 ARCHITECTURE
3.1. UPGRADE OR INSTALL?
There are two procedures available for upgrading your current system to the next major
version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. To decide which procedure is the right one for your
system, read the following descriptions:
Clean Install
A clean install is performed by backing up all data from the system, formatting disk
partitions, performing an installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 from installation
media, and then restoring any user data.
NOTE
This is the recommended method for upgrading between major versions of
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In-Place Upgrade
An in-place upgrade is a way of upgrading your system without removing the older
version first. The procedure requires installing the migration utilities available for your
system and running them as any other software. In Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the
Preupgrade Assistant assesses your current system and identifies potential problems
you might encounter during and/or after the upgrade. It also performs minor fixes and
modifications to the system. The Red Hat Upgrade Tool utility downloads the
packages and performs the actual upgrade. An in-place upgrade requires a lot of
troubleshooting and planning and should only be done if there is no other choice. For
more information on the Preupgrade Assistant, see Chapter 37, Upgrading Your
Current System.

WARNING
Never perform an in-place upgrade on a production system without
first testing it on a cloned backup copy of the system.
3.2. IS YOUR HARDWARE COMPATIBLE?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system
that you built yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 should be compatible with most
hardware in systems that were factory built within the last two years.
However, hardware specifications change almost daily, so it is difficult to guarantee that
your hardware is 100% compatible.
25
Installation Guide
One consistent requirement is your processor. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 supports, at
minimum, all 32-bit and 64-bit implementations of Intel microarchitecture from P6 and
onwards and AMD microarchitecture from Athlon and onwards.
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
https://hardware.redhat.com/
3.3. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
For a list of minimum hardware requirements of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, see the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux technology capabilities and limits page. Also note that the minimum
memory requirements listed on that page assume that you create a swap space based on
the recommendations in Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. Systems
with low memory (1 GB and less) and less than the recommended amount of swap space
may have issues ranging from low responsivity up to and including complete inability to
boot after the installation.
For installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems, Red Hat
supports the following installation targets:
Hard drives connected by a standard internal interface, such as SCSI, SATA, or SAS
BIOS/firmware RAID devices
Fibre Channel Host Bus Adapters and multipath devices are also supported. Vendorprovided drivers may be required for certain hardware.
Red Hat does not support installation to USB drives or SD memory cards.
Red Hat also supports installations that use the following virtualization technologies:
Xen block devices on Intel processors in Xen virtual machines.
VirtIO block devices on Intel processors in KVM virtual machines.
3.4. RAID AND OTHER DISK DEVICES
IMPORTANT
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation
onto Intel BIOS RAID sets. These sets are detected automatically, and devices
with Intel ISW metadata are recognized as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that
the device node names of any such devices under mdraid are different from
their device node names under dmraid. Therefore, special precautions are
necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files
which refer to devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating these files, you must therefore edit them
to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead. You can find the
UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.
3.4.1. Hardware RAID
26
CHAPTER 3. PLANNING FOR INSTALLATION ON THE X86 ARCHITECTURE
RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as
a single device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer,
or attached controller cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID
array appears as one drive within Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to
operate several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional
hardware.
3.4.2. Software RAID
You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software
RAID arrays, where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than
dedicated hardware. These functions are explained in detail in Section 9.15, “ Creating a
Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”.
3.4.3. FireWire and USB Disks
Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect
them to avoid any confusion.
NOTE
You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after
installation. Most such devices are automatically recognized and available for
use once connected.
3.5. NOTES ON UEFI SUPPORT
3.5.1. Feature Support
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 supports both BIOS and UEFI firmware on AMD64 and Intel 64
systems (x86_64). UEFI-based systems are supported with the following limitations:
The system must support UEFI Specification 2.0 or later. Earlier revisions are not
supported.
The Secure Boot technology is not supported, and will prevent Red Hat Enterprise
Linux from being installed. Systems using UEFI Specification 2.2 or later must have
Secure Boot disabled in order to install and run Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9.
Systems using UEFI 2.0 later with Secure Boot disabled (if present) can install and boot Red
Hat Enterprise Linux without issues, although not all features in the relevant UEFI
specification are supported.
For more information about UEFI specifications, see http://www.uefi.org/specifications.
3.5.2. Disk Drives with MBR on UEFI Systems
Systems with UEFI firmware require a disk with a GUID Partition Table (GPT). When
installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a disk with a Master Boot Record (MBR; sometimes
also called msdos) label, the disk must be relabeled. This means you can not reuse existing
27
Installation Guide
partitions on a MBR-partitioned disk, and all data on the disk will be lost. Make sure to back
up all data on the drive before installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
A GUID Partition Table is only required on the system's boot drive - the disk where the boot
loader is installed. Other drives can be labeled with a Master Boot Record and their partition
layout can be reused.
There are several ways to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an UEFI system and use a
drive which has a Master Boot Record. You can:
Attach the drive to an existing Linux system and use an utility such as parted or
fdisk to create a GPT label on the drive. For example, to create a GPT label on disk
/dev/sdc using parted, use the following command:
# parted /dev/sdc mklabel gpt

WARNING
Make sure you specify the correct drive. Relabeling a disk will
destroy all data on it, and parted will not ask you for a
confirmation.
Perform an automated Kickstart installation, and use the clearpart and zerombr
commands. If your system uses UEFI firmware, using these commands on the boot
drive will relabel it with a GPT.
During a manual installation in the graphical user interface, when you get to the
partitioning screen. Select an option other than custom partitioning (for exampleUse
All Space). Make sure to check theReview and modify partitioning layout
check box, and click Next.
On the following screen, modify the automatically created layout so it suits your
needs. After you finish and click Next, Anaconda will use your layout and relabel
the drive automatically.
3.6. DO YOU HAVE ENOUGH DISK SPACE?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have
to work with disk partitions. If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a
quick review of the basic concepts), refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions
before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space
used by other OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or
even a different version of Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems, at least two
partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Before you start the installation process, you must
28
CHAPTER 3. PLANNING FOR INSTALLATION ON THE X86 ARCHITECTURE
have enough unpartitioned[1] disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, or
have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk
space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended
partitioning sizes discussed in Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how to create
free disk space for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to Appendix A, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions.
3.7. SELECTING AN INSTALLATION METHOD
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods are
available:
DVD
If you have a DVD drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD you can use this method.
Refer to Section 8.3.1, “Installing from a DVD”, for DVD installation instructions.
If you booted the installation from a piece of media other than the installation DVD, you
can specify the DVD as the installation source with the linux askmethod or linux
repo=cdrom:device:/device boot option, or by selecting Local CD/DVD on the
Installation Method menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you
can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod or linux
repo=hd:device:/path boot option), or by selecting Hard drive on the Installation
Method menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.2,
“Installing from a Hard Drive”, for hard drive installation instructions.
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux
askmethod or linux repo=nfs:server :options:/path boot option, or the NFS
directory option on the Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3,
“Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS” for network installation
instructions. Note that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode.
URL
If you are installing directly from an HTTP or HTTPS (Web) server or an FTP server, use
this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod, linux
repo=ftp://user:password@host/path, or linux repo=http://host/path boot
option, or linux repo=https://host/path boot option,or the URL option on the
Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to
Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS”, for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS installation
instructions.
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If you booted the distribution DVD and did not use the alternate installation source option
askmethod, the next stage loads automatically from the DVD. Proceed toSection 8.2,
“Language Selection”.
NOTE
If you boot from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD, the installation
program loads its next stage from that disc. This happens regardless of which
installation method you choose, unless you eject the disc before you proceed.
The installation program still downloads package data from the source you
choose.
3.8. CHOOSE A BOOT METHOD
You can use several methods to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product,
you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that
supports booting from it. Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an
installation DVD.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your DVD/CD-ROM drive. For
more information about changing your BIOS, refer to Section 7.1.1, “Booting the Installation
Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems”.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD or USB flash
drive. After you boot the system with a piece of minimal boot media, you complete the
installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location on a
network. Refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on making boot
CDs and USB flash drives.
Finally, you can boot the installer over the network from a preboot execution environment
(PXE) server. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server. Again, after you boot
the system, you complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a
local hard drive or a location on a network.
[1] Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drives you are installing to
has not been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a
separate disk drive.
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CHAPTER 4. PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION
CHAPTER 4. PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION
4.1. PREPARING FOR A NETWORK INSTALLATION
NOTE
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your
system's CD or DVD drive if you are performing a network-based installation.
Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a
flash drive.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network
installation (via NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS) or installation via local storage. Use the following
steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS installation.
The NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server to be used for installation over the network must be a
separate, network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the
installation DVD-ROM.
NOTE
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It
works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type
the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
NOTE
The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, HTTP,
or HTTPS is mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the
local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6.9 on the network server can be
accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.9.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that
will contain the installation files will be specified as
/location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be made publicly available
via FTP, NFS, HTTP, or HTTPS will be specified as /publicly_available_directory.
For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called
/var/isos. /publicly_available_directory might be
/var/www/html/rhel6.9, for an HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact
copy of the content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following
command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
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Installation Guide
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting
ISO image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the
resulting ISO image will be stored.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation
staging server, continue with either Section 4.1.1, “Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS
Installation” or Section 4.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS Installation”.
4.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation

WARNING
If your Apache web server or tftp FTP server configuration enables SSL
security, make sure to only enable the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2
and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566).
See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1232413 for details about
securing Apache, and https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234773 for
information about securing tftp.
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory
that is shared over FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS, and verify client
access. Test to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from
another machine on the same subnet to which you will be installing.
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is
sufficient to make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the
product.img file available on the network server via NFS.
1. Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /publicly_available_directory/
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and publicly_available_directory is a directory that is available
over NFS or that you intend to make available over NFS.
2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is
intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating
systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum
program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the
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CHAPTER 4. PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION
hash displayed for this particular image on the Downloads page in the Red Hat
Customer Portal (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two
hashes should be identical.
3. Copy the images/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in
which you stored the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the
image while you copy files from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
The ISO image file and an images/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the
same directory.
4. Verify that the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without
which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain
the product.img file, without which only the packages for aMinimal installation will
be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17,
“Package Group Selection”).
IMPORTANT
install.img and product.img must be the only files in theimages/
directory.
5. Ensure that an entry for the publicly available directory exists in the /etc/exports
file on the network server so that the directory is available via NFS.
To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly_available_directory client.ip.address (ro)
To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly_available_directory * (ro)
6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system, use /sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the
configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs
reload).
7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Deployment Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting
and stopping the NFS server.
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Installation Guide
NOTE
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It
works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type
the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
4.2. PREPARING FOR A HARD DRIVE INSTALLATION
NOTE
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems.
You cannot use a hard drives formatted for any other file system as an
installation source for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating
system, use the Disk Management tool. To check the file system of a hard
drive partition on a Linux operating system, use the fdisk tool.
IMPORTANT
You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume
Management).
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or
network connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact
copy of the content of a DVD.
an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation
source when you boot the installation program (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a
flash drive.
To prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to
Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD
on physical media, you can create an image of it with the following command on a
Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
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CHAPTER 4. PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the
resulting ISO image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your
system where the resulting ISO image will be stored.
2. Transfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
The ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the
computer on which you will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that
is attached to that computer by USB.
3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is
intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating
systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum
program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the
hash displayed for this particular image on the Downloads page in the Red Hat
Customer Portal (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two
hashes should be identical.
4. Copy the images/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in
which you stored the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the
image while you copy files from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
The ISO image file and an images/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the
same directory.
5. Verify that the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without
which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain
the product.img file, without which only the packages for aMinimal installation will
be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17,
“Package Group Selection”).
IMPORTANT
install.img and product.img must be the only files in theimages/
directory.
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Installation Guide
NOTE
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It
works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type
the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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CHAPTER 5. SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS LIST
CHAPTER 5. SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS LIST
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at https://hardware.redhat.com/.
The installation program automatically detects and installs your computer's hardware.
Although you should make sure that your hardware meets the minimum requirements to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux (refer to Section 3.2, “Is Your Hardware Compatible?”) you
do not usually need to supply the installation program with any specific details about your
system.
However, when performing certain types of installation, some specific details might be
useful or even essential.
If you plan to use a customized partition layout, record:
The model numbers, sizes, types, and interfaces of the hard drives attached to
the system. For example, Seagate ST3320613AS 320 GB on SATA0, Western
Digital WD7500AAKS 750 GB on SATA1. This will allow you to identify specific
hard drives during the partitioning process.
If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux as an additional operating system on
an existing system, record:
The mount points of the existing partitions on the system. For example, /boot on
sda1, / on sda2, and /home on sdb1. This will allow you to identify specific
partitions during the partitioning process.
If you plan to install from an image on a local hard drive:
The hard drive and directory that holds the image.
If you plan to install from a network location, or install on an iSCSI target:
The make and model numbers of the network adapters on your system. For
example, Netgear GA311. This will allow you to identify adapters when manually
configuring the network.
IP, DHCP, and BOOTP addresses
Netmask
Gateway IP address
One or more name server IP addresses (DNS)
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your
network administrator for assistance.
If you plan to install from a network location:
The location of the image on an FTP server, HTTP (web) server, HTTPS (web)
server, or NFS server – see Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS”
and Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS” for examples.
If you plan to install on an iSCSI target:
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Installation Guide
The location of the iSCSI target. Depending on your network, you might also
need a CHAP username and password, and perhaps a reverse CHAP username
and password – see Section 9.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
If you are installing using Intel iSCSI Remote Boot:
All attached iSCSI storage devices must be disabled, otherwise the installation
will succeed but the installed system will not boot.
If your computer is part of a domain:
You should verify that the domain name will be supplied by the DHCP server. If
not, you will need to input the domain name manually during installation.
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CHAPTER 6. UPDATING DRIVERS DURING INSTALLATION ON INTEL AND AMD SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 6. UPDATING DRIVERS DURING
INSTALLATION ON INTEL AND AMD SYSTEMS
In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make
up your system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very
recently, drivers for this hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update
that provides support for a new device might be available from Red Hat or your hardware
vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm packages. Typically, the driver disc is available for
download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if
you use a DVD to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for
your network card are not available. In situations like this, complete the installation and
add support for the piece of hardware afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver Update
rpm Packages” for details of adding this support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation
process to support a particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers
for a network device or a storage adapter card to give the installer access to the storage
devices that your system uses. You can use a driver disc to add this support during
installation in one of two ways:
1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
1. on a local hard drive
2. a USB flash drive
2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
1. a CD
2. a DVD
Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an
Installation DVD” for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a
driver update during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from
the methods described in this chapter and test it before beginning the installation.
Conversely, do not perform a driver update during installation unless you are certain that
your system requires it. Although installing an unnecessary driver update will not cause
harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was not intended can complicate
support.
6.1. LIMITATIONS OF DRIVER UPDATES DURING
INSTALLATION
Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide
drivers during installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has
already loaded. Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the
installation program loaded and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you
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Installation Guide
need the new drivers for the installation process, consider performing an initial RAM disk
driver update — refer to Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update”.
Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers
for a device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For
example, consider a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a
driver update available. The installation program will initialize both adapters at the same
time, and therefore, you will not be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the
installation with the drivers loaded by the installation program and update to the new
drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk driver update.
6.2. PREPARING FOR A DRIVER UPDATE DURING
INSTALLATION
If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third
party such as the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in
ISO format. Some methods of performing a driver update require you to make the image
file available to the installation program, while others require you to use the image file to
make a driver update disk:
Methods that use the image file itself
local hard drive
USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
CD
DVD
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 6.2.1, “Preparing to
Use a Driver Update Image File”, Section 6.2.2, “Preparing a Driver Disc” or Section 6.2.3,
“Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update”. Note that you can use a USB storage device either
to provide an image file, or as a driver update disk.
6.2.1. Preparing to Use a Driver Update Image File
6.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
To make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash
drive, you must first determine whether you want to install the updates automatically or
select them manually.
For manual installations, copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if
you find it helpful to do so, but you must not change the filename extension, which must
remain .iso. In the following example, the file is nameddd.iso:
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CHAPTER 6. UPDATING DRIVERS DURING INSTALLATION ON INTEL AND AMD SYSTEMS
Figure 6.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. This
differs from driver discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. The ISO
image file contains all of the files that would normally be on a driver disc.
Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update”and Section 6.3.3,
“Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk” to learn how to select the driver
update manually during installation.
For automatic installations, you will need to extract the ISO to the root directory of the
storage device rather than copy it. Copying the ISO is only effective for manual
installations. You must also change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV.
The installation program will then automatically examine the extracted ISO for driver
updates and load any that it detects. This behavior is controlled by the dlabel=on boot
option, which is enabled by default. Refer to Section 6.3.1, “Let the Installer Find a Driver
Update Disk Automatically”.
6.2.2. Preparing a Driver Disc
You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.
6.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disc on CD or DVD
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Installation Guide
IMPORTANT
CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux
desktop, or a different operating system altogether, you will need to use
another piece of software to create the CD or DVD. The steps will be generally
similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from
image files. While this is true of most CD and DVD burning software,
exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry labeled burn from image or
similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the resulting
disc will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image
file.
1. Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied
to you by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Figure 6.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
2. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to
the following:
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CHAPTER 6. UPDATING DRIVERS DURING INSTALLATION ON INTEL AND AMD SYSTEMS
Figure 6.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
3. Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive,CD/DVD Creator
will prompt you to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disc CD or DVD, verify that the disc was created successfully
by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a
single file named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
Figure 6.4. Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disc correctly and
should try again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from image if you use a
Linux desktop other than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.
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Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update”and Section 6.3.3,
“Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk” to learn how to use the driver update
disc during installation.
6.2.3. Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update
IMPORTANT
This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot
perform a driver update with any other method.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can load updates for itself early in the
installation process from a RAM disk — an area of your computer's memory that temporarily
behaves as if it were a disk. You can use this same capability to load driver updates. To
perform a driver update during installation, your computer must be able to boot from a
preboot execution environment (PXE) server, and you must have a PXE server available on
your network. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for instructions on
using PXE during installation.
To make the driver update available on your PXE server:
1. Place the driver update image file on your installation server. Usually, you would do
this by downloading it to the server from a location on the Internet specified by Red
Hat or your hardware vendor. Names of driver update image files end in .iso.
2. Copy the driver update image file into the /tmp/initrd_update directory.
3. Rename the driver update image file to dd.img.
4. At the command line, change into the /tmp/initrd_update directory, type the
following command, and press Enter:
find . | cpio --quiet -o -H newc | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
5. Copy the file /tmp/initrd_update.img into the directory the holds the target that
you want to use for installation. This directory is placed under the
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/ directory. For example,
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/rhel6/ might hold the PXE target for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.
6. Edit the /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file to include an
entry that includes the initial RAM disk update that you just created, in the following
format:
label target-dd
kernel target/vmlinuz
append initrd=target/initrd.img,target/dd.img
Where target is the target that you want to use for installation.
Refer to Section 6.3.4, “Select a PXE Target that Includes a Driver Update”to learn how to
use an initial RAM disk update during installation.
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CHAPTER 6. UPDATING DRIVERS DURING INSTALLATION ON INTEL AND AMD SYSTEMS
Example 6.1. Preparing an initial RAM disk update from a driver update image
file
In this example, driver_update.iso is a driver update image file that you downloaded
from the Internet to a directory on your PXE server. The target that you want to PXE
boot from is located in /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/rhel6/
At the command line, change to the directory that holds the file and enter the following
commands:
$
$
$
$
cp driver_update.iso /tmp/initrd_update/dd.img
cd /tmp/initrd_update
find . | cpio --quiet -c -o -H newc | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
cp /tmp/initrd_update.img /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/rhel6/dd.img
Edit the /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file and include the
following entry:
label rhel6-dd
kernel rhel6/vmlinuz
append initrd=rhe6/initrd.img,rhel6/dd.img
6.3. PERFORMING A DRIVER UPDATE DURING INSTALLATION
You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
6.3.1. Let the Installer Find a Driver Update Disk Automatically
Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation
process. The installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates
that it detects and will not prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 6.2.1.1,
“Preparing to use an image file on local storage” to prepare a storage device for the
installer to find.
6.3.2. Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update
1. Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the
installer cannot load drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the
installation process (for example, if it cannot detect any network or storage
controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
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Figure 6.5. The no driver found dialog
2. Select Use a driver disk and refer to Section 6.4, “Specifying the Location of a
Driver Update Image File or a Driver Update Disk”.
6.3.3. Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk
IMPORTANT
This method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update
existing drivers.
1. Type linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press
Enter. The installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
Figure 6.6. The driver disk prompt
2. Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and
select Yes. The installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is
only one possible location that could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer
detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no other storage devices) it will
automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it
prompts you to specify the location of the update. See Section 6.4, “Specifying the
Location of a Driver Update Image File or a Driver Update Disk”.
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6.3.4. Select a PXE Target that Includes a Driver Update
1. Select network boot in your computer's BIOS or boot menu. The procedure to
specify this option varies widely among different computers. Consult your hardware
documentation or the hardware vendor for specifics relevant to your computer.
2. In the preboot execution environment (PXE), choose the boot target that you
prepared on your PXE server. For example, if you labeled this environment rhel6-dd
in the /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file on your PXE
server, type rhel6-dd at the prompt and press Enter.
Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update” and Chapter 30, Setting Up
an Installation Server for instructions on using PXE to perform an update during installation.
Note that this is an advanced procedure — do not attempt it unless other methods of
performing a driver update fail.
6.4. SPECIFYING THE LOCATION OF A DRIVER UPDATE
IMAGE FILE OR A DRIVER UPDATE DISK
If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it
prompts you to select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the
device on which the driver update is stored, try the various options in order until you find
the correct one.
Figure 6.7. Selecting a driver disk source
If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt
you to make another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the
driver update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could
contain more than one partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition
or not), the installer might prompt you to select the partition that holds the driver update.
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Figure 6.8. Selecting a driver disk partition
The installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Figure 6.9. Selecting an ISO image
Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on
a USB storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with
a driver update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary
storage area (located in system RAM and not on disk). The installer might ask whether you
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would like to use additional driver updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional
updates in turn. When you have no further driver updates to load, select No. If you stored
the driver update on removable media, you can now safely eject or disconnect the disk or
device. The installer no longer requires the driver update, and you can re-use the media for
other purposes.
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CHAPTER 7. BOOTING THE INSTALLER
7.1. STARTING THE INSTALLATION PROGRAM
IMPORTANT
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.
On 64-bit systems, boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly
from each other. Therefore, the installed system must boot using the same
firmware that was used during installation. You cannot install the operating
system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on a system
that uses UEFI.
To start, first make sure that you have all necessary resources for the installation. If you
have already read through Chapter 3, Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture, and
followed the instructions, you should be ready to start the installation process. When you
have verified that you are ready to begin, boot the installation program using the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD or any boot media that you have created.
NOTE
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver update during the
installation. A driver update adds support for hardware that is not otherwise
supported by the installation program. Refer to Chapter 6, Updating Drivers
During Installation on Intel and AMD Systems for more information.
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64
Systems
You can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending
upon what your system can support):
Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD — Your machine supports a bootable DVD drive and
you have the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to
perform network or hard drive installation.
USB flash drive — Your machine supports booting from a USB device.
PXE boot via network — Your machine supports booting from the network. This is an
advanced installation path. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for
additional information on this method.
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CHAPTER 7. BOOTING THE INSTALLER
IMPORTANT
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.
On 64-bit systems, boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly
from each other. Therefore, the installed system must boot using the same
firmware that was used during installation. You cannot install the operating
system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on a system
that uses UEFI.
To start the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or from minimal boot
media, follow this procedure:
1. Disconnect any external FireWire or USB disks that you do not need for installation.
Refer to Section 3.4.3, “FireWire and USB Disks” for more information.
2. Power on your computer system.
3. Insert the media in your computer.
4. Power off your computer with the boot media still inside.
5. Power on your computer system.
To create a boot CD-ROM or to prepare your USB flash drive for booting or installation, refer
to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media”.
Insert the boot media and reboot the system.
You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media. On
most computers, a message appears briefly on the screen very soon after you turn on the
computer. Typically, it is worded something like Press F10 to select boot device,
although the specific wording and the key that you must press varies widely from computer
to computer. Consult the documentation for your computer or motherboard, or seek
support from the hardware manufacturer or vendor.
If your computer does not allow you to select a boot device as it starts up, you might need
to configure your system's Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to boot from the media.
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, watch the instructions
provided on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you
which key to press to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your
boot sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your
hard drive [C] or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the DVD is first in your
boot order and that C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs
the computer to first look at the DVD drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable
media on the DVD drive, it then checks your hard drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the
documentation that came with your system.
After a short delay, the graphical boot screen appears, which contains information on a
variety of boot options. Installation program automatically begins if you take no action
within the first minute. For a description of the options available on this screen, refer to
Section 7.1.2, “The Boot Menu”.
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Alternatively, press the Esc key to access the boot: prompt, at which you can enter
additional boot options as described in Section 7.1.3, “Additional Boot Options”.
IMPORTANT
Excessive input (e.g. clicking the mouse repeatedly) during the boot sequence
may cause the installer to ignore keyboard input later in the installation
process.
7.1.2. The Boot Menu
The boot media displays a graphical boot menu with several options. If no key is hit within
60 seconds, the default boot option runs. To choose the default, either wait for the timer to
run out or hit Enter on the keyboard. To select a different option than the default, use the
arrow keys on your keyboard, and hit Enter when the correct option is highlighted. If you
want to customize the boot options for a particular option, press the Tab key. To access the
boot: prompt at which you can specify custom boot options, press theEsc key and refer to
Section 7.1.3, “Additional Boot Options”.
Figure 7.1. The boot screen
For a listing and explanation of common boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
The boot menu options are:
Install or upgrade an existing system
This option is the default. Choose this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto
your computer system using the graphical installation program.
Install system with basic video driver
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This option allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in graphical mode even if the
installation program is unable to load the correct driver for your video card. If your
screen appears distorted or goes blank when using the Install or upgrade an
existing system option, restart your computer and try this option instead.
Rescue installed system
Choose this option to repair a problem with your installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system that prevents you from booting normally. Although Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
an exceptionally stable computing platform, it is still possible for occasional problems to
occur that prevent booting. The rescue environment contains utility programs that allow
you fix a wide variety of these problems.
Boot from local drive
This option boots the system from the first installed disk. If you booted this disc
accidentally, use this option to boot from the hard disk immediately without starting the
installer.
NOTE
To abort the installation, either press Ctrl+Alt+Del or power off your
computer with the power switch. You may abort the installation process
without consequence at any time prior to selecting Write changes to disk
on the Write partitioning to disk screen. Red Hat Enterprise Linux makes
no permanent changes to your computer until that point. Please be aware that
stopping the installation after partitioning has begun can leave your computer
unusable.
7.1.3. Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest to boot using a DVD and perform a graphical installation, sometimes
there are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This
section discusses additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, press the Esc key
at boot time. The boot: prompt appears, at which you can use the boot loader options
described below.
NOTE
Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for additional boot options not covered in
this section.
To perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux text
To specify an installation source, use the linux repo= option. For example:
linux repo=cdrom:device
linux repo=ftp://username:password@URL
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linux repo=http://URL
linux repo=hd:device
linux repo=nfs:options:server:/path
linux repo=nfsiso:options:server:/path
In these examples, cdrom refers to a CD or DVD drive,ftp refers to a location
accessible by FTP, http refers to a location accessible by HTTP,hd refers to an ISO
image file accessible on a hard drive partition, nfs refers to an expanded tree of
installation files accessible by NFS, and nfsiso refers to an ISO image file accessible
by NFS.
ISO images have an SHA256 checksum embedded in them. To test the checksum
integrity of an ISO image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux mediacheck
The installation program prompts you to insert a DVD or select an ISO image to test,
and select OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be
performed on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD. It is strongly recommended to
perform this operation on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD that was created from
downloaded ISO images. This command works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and
NFS ISO installation methods.
If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
linux console=<device>
For text mode installations, use:
linux text console=<device>
In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0
or ttyS1). For example, linux text console=ttyS0.
Text mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports
UTF-8. Under UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UTF-8. For Windows, Kermit '95 works
well. Non-UTF-8 capable terminals works as long as only English is used during the
installation process. An enhanced serial display can be used by passing the utf8
command as a boot-time option to the installation program. For example:
linux console=ttyS0 utf8
7.1.3.1. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to apply updates for the anaconda
installation program from a USB storage device enter:
linux updates
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For text mode installations, use:
linux text updates
This command results in a prompt for the path to the device that contains updates for
anaconda. It is not needed if you are performing a network installation and have already
placed the updates image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
After entering any options, press Enter to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The
boot options are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation
(refer to Section 9.18, “x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration”for more
information).
For more information on kernel options refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
7.2. INSTALLING FROM A DIFFERENT SOURCE
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a
network using NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS methods. Experienced users frequently use one of
these methods because it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server
than from a DVD.
The following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation
methods to use with each:
Table 7.1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method
Installation source
Installation DVD
DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive
Installation DVD, network, or hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD
Network or hard disk
Refer to Section 3.7, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from
locations other than the media with which you booted the system.
7.3. BOOTING FROM THE NETWORK USING PXE
To boot with PXE, you need a properly configured server, and a network interface in your
computer that supports PXE. For information on how to configure a PXE server, refer to
Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface. This option is in the BIOS, and
may be labeled Network Boot or Boot Services. Once you properly configure PXE booting,
the computer can boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system without any other
media.
To boot a computer from a PXE server:
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1. Ensure that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network
socket should be lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
2. Switch on the computer.
3. A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired
option.
If your PC does not boot from the netboot server, ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot
first from the correct network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface
as a possible boot device, but do not support the PXE standard. Refer to your hardware
documentation for more information.
NOTE
Some servers with multiple network interfaces might not assign eth0 to the
first network interface as the firmware interface knows it, which can cause the
installer to try to use a different network interface from the one that was used
by PXE. To change this behavior, use the following in pxelinux.cfg/* config
files:
IPAPPEND 2
APPEND ksdevice=bootif
These configuration options above cause the installer to use the same network
interface the firmware interface and PXE use. You can also use the following
option:
ksdevice=link
This option causes the installer to use the first network device it finds that is
linked to a network switch.
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CHAPTER 8. CONFIGURING LANGUAGE AND INSTALLATION SOURCE
CHAPTER 8. CONFIGURING LANGUAGE AND
INSTALLATION SOURCE
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and
installation source.
8.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
IMPORTANT
We recommend that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical
interface. If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks
a graphical display, consider performing the installation over a VNC
connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If anaconda detects that
you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC
connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to
install in text mode even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try
booting with the xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the
on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces.Figure 8.1, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 8.2, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in Choose a Language”, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the
installation process.
NOTE
Not every language supported in graphical installation mode is also supported
in text mode. Specifically, languages written with a character set other than
the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets are not available in text mode. If you choose a
language written with a character set that is not supported in text mode, the
installation program will present you with the English versions of the screens.
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Figure 8.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Figure 8.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
The widgets include:
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your
screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay
another; in these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you
are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you to continue working in the
window underneath.
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Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays
either an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a
checkbox, press Space to select or deselect a feature.
Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required
by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may
enter and/or edit information on that line.
Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At
times, text widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text
widget contains more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it,
a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then
use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your
current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which
part of a list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it
easy to move to any part of a file.
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the
installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program
by navigating these buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected
when they are highlighted.
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a
particular widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the
widget to change color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to
the widget. In Figure 8.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the
cursor is positioned on the Enable HTTP proxy checkbox. Figure 8.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on theOK
button.
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes.
To move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab
to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most
screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press
Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish
to select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the
checkbox and press Space to select an item. To deselect, pressSpace a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to
pressing the OK button.
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
WARNING
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during
the installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
8.2. LANGUAGE SELECTION
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation
process (refer to Figure 8.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language
highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm
your choice.
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system
once it is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone
configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the
appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package
selection stage. For more information, refer to Section 9.17.2, “ Customizing the Software
Selection ”.
Figure 8.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
8.3. INSTALLATION METHOD
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If you booted the installation from minimal boot media or with the askmethod boot option,
use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 8.4,
“Installation Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press theTab key to move
to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 8.4. Installation Method
8.3.1. Installing from a DVD
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot
your system from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux from DVD media.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive.
It starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) DVD drive.
NOTE
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then
eject the boot media. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before
the Write changes to disk screen. Refer to Section 9.16, “Write Changes to
Disk” for more information.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you
to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You
may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI
adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the
option to perform a media check on the DVD. This will take some time, and you may opt to
skip over this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should
reboot and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check
dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 9.3,
“Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
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8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is,
you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to
name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option, you already specified a partition.
Figure 8.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE,
SATA, SCSI, and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its
own letter, for example /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example
/dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive
that contains the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter
this information:
Table 8.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type
Volume
Original path to
files
Directory to use
VFAT
D:\
D:\Downloads\RHEL6.
9
/Downloads/RHEL6.9
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6.9
/user1/RHEL6.9
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO
images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the
directory holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which
the ISO images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you
would enter /new/.
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IMPORTANT
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed withChapter 9, Installing Using Anaconda.
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
When you start an installation with the askmethod or repo= options, you can install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from a network server using FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, or NFS protocols.
Anaconda uses the same network connection to consult additional software repositories
later in the installation process.
If your system has more than one network device, anaconda presents you with a list of all
available devices and prompts you to select one to use during installation. If your system
only has a single network device, anaconda automatically selects it and does not present
this dialog.
Figure 8.6. Networking Device
If you are not sure which device in the list corresponds to which physical socket on the
system, select a device in the list then press the Identify button. The Identify NIC
dialog appears.
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Figure 8.7. Identify NIC
The sockets of most network devices feature an activity light (also called a link light) — an
LED that flashes to indicate that data is flowing through the socket. Anaconda can flash
the activity light of the network device that you selected in the Networking Device dialog
for up to 30 seconds. Enter the number of seconds that you require, then press OK. When
anaconda finishes flashing the light, it returns you to theNetworking Device dialog.
When you select a network device, anaconda prompts you to choose how to configure
TCP/IP:
IPv4 options
Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP)
Anaconda uses DHCP running on the network to supply the network configuration
automatically.
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP
address for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
IPv6 options
Automatic
Anaconda uses router advertisement (RA) and DHCP for automatic configuration, based
on the network environment. (Equivalent to the Automatic option in NetworkManager)
Automatic, DHCP only
Anaconda does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to create a
stateful configuration. (Equivalent to the Automatic, DHCP only option in
NetworkManager)
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP
address for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
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Anaconda supports the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. However, if you configure an interface to
use both IPv4 and IPv6, the IPv4 connection must succeed or the interface will not work,
even if the IPv6 connection succeeds.
Figure 8.8. Configure TCP/IP
By default, anaconda uses DHCP to provide network settings automatically for IPv4 and
automatic configuration to provide network settings for IPv6. If you choose to configure
TCP/IP manually, anaconda prompts you to provide the details in theManual TCP/IP
Configuration dialog:
Figure 8.9. Manual TCP/IP Configuration
The dialog provides fields for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and prefixes, depending on the
protocols that you chose to configure manually, together with fields for the network
gateway and name server. Enter the details for your network, then press OK.
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When the installation process completes, it will transfer these settings to your system.
If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS”.
If you are installing via Web or FTP, proceed to Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FTP,
HTTP, or HTTPS”.
8.3.4. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method
dialog. If you used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Figure 8.10. NFS Setup Dialog
1. Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server in the NFS server name
field. For example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain
example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com.
2. Enter the name of the exported directory in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9
directory field:
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
tree, enter the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. If
everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the
installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
DVD, enter the directory which contains the ISO image.
If you followed the setup described in Section 4.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS
Installation”, the exported directory is the one that you specified as
publicly_available_directory.
3. Specify any NFS mount options that you require in the NFS mount options field.
Refer to the man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options. If
you do not require any mount options, leave the field empty.
4. Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing Using Anaconda.
8.3.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
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IMPORTANT
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify
http:// or https:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server (if you
selected URL in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information
about the FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or repo=http boot options, you already specified a server
and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS site from which you are installing,
and the name of the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For
example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6.9/Server/i386/
To install via a secure HTTPS connection, specify https:// as the protocol.
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username,
and password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that
files are being retrieved from the server.
If your FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server requires user authentication, specify user and password
as part of the URL as follows:
{ftp|http|https}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:rhel6.9pw@name.example.com/mirrors/redhat/rhel6.9/Server/i386/
Figure 8.11. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing Using Anaconda.
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8.4. VERIFYING MEDIA
The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes
occur while producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the
installation program can cause the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data
errors affecting the installation, verify the media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails,
create a new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
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CHAPTER 9. INSTALLING USING ANACONDA
This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
9.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
IMPORTANT
Installing in text mode does not prevent you from using a graphical interface
on your system once it is installed.
Apart from the graphical installer, anaconda also includes a text-based installer.
If one of the following situations occurs, the installation program uses text mode:
The installation system fails to identify the display hardware on your computer
You choose the text mode installation from the boot menu
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode
installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because
text mode presents you with a simpler, more streamlined installation process, certain
options that are available in graphical mode are not also available in text mode. These
differences are noted in the description of the installation process in this guide, and
include:
configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
customizing the partition layout
customizing the bootloader layout
selecting packages during installation
configuring the installed system with firstboot
If you choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can still configure your
system to use a graphical interface after installation. Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a
Graphical Login” for instructions.
To configure options not available in text mode, consider using a boot option. For example,
the linux ip option can be used to configure network settings. Refer toSection 28.1,
“Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu” for instructions.
9.2. THE GRAPHICAL INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this
process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you
to move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and keys expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a
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highlighted item. You can also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of
clicking on buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any
underlined letter appearing within that screen.
NOTE
If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, and you do not wish to use
the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also
available. To start the text mode installation program, use the following
command at the boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 7.1.2, “The Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot menu and to Section 8.1, “The Text Mode Installation
Program User Interface” for a brief overview of text mode installation
instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation
program. The GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation program, including LVM configuration which is
not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI
installation instructions and obtain all needed information.
9.2.1. Screenshots During Installation
Anaconda allows you to take screenshots during the installation process. At any time
during installation, press Shift+Print Screen and anaconda will save a screenshot to
/root/anaconda-screenshots.
If you are performing a Kickstart installation, use the autostep --autoscreenshot option
to generate a screenshot of each step of the installation automatically. Refer to
Section 32.3, “Creating the Kickstart File” for details of configuring a Kickstart file.
9.2.2. A Note About Virtual Consoles
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the
installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a
way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these
messages on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke
combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the
physical machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help
pinpoint a problem. Refer to Table 9.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of
the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical
installations unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
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Table 9.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
console
keystrokes
contents
1
ctrl+alt+f1
graphical display
2
ctrl+alt+f2
shell prompt
3
ctrl+alt+f3
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
ctrl+alt+f4
system-related messages
5
ctrl+alt+f5
other messages
9.3. WELCOME TO RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input.
Figure 9.1. The Welcome screen
Click on the Next button to continue.
9.4. LANGUAGE SELECTION
Using your mouse, select the language (for example, U.S. English) you would prefer to use
for the installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
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Figure 9.2. Language Configuration
9.5. KEYBOARD CONFIGURATION
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the
keyboard you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to
the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
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Figure 9.3. Keyboard Configuration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes support for more than one keyboard layout for many
languages. In particular, most European languages include a latin1 option, which uses
dead keys to access certain characters, such as those with diacritical marks. When you
press a dead key, nothing will appear on your screen until you press another key to
"complete" the character. For example, to type é on a latin1 keyboard layout, you would
press (and release) the ' key, and then press the E key. By contrast, you access this
character on some other keyboards by pressing and holding down a key (such as Alt-Gr)
while you press the E key. Other keyboards might have a dedicated key for this character.
NOTE
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the
installation, use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the
Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the
root password to continue.
9.6. STORAGE DEVICES
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. This screen
allows you to select either basic or specialized storage devices.
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Figure 9.4. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following
storage devices:
hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the
following storage devices:
Storage area networks (SANs)
Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
Firmware RAID devices
Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer
System Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage
attached to the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to Section 9.7,
“Setting the Hostname”.
NOTE
Monitoring of LVM and software RAID devices by the mdeventd daemon is not
performed during installation.
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9.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has
access.
Figure 9.5. Select storage devices — Basic devices
Figure 9.6. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
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Figure 9.7. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives
and solid-state drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
IMPORTANT
The installer only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers
that are 16 or 32 characters in length.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced Target and refer to
Section 9.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter
storage devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or
logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.
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Figure 9.8. The Storage Devices Search Tab
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional
values in the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the
device to help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to
the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data
presented on each device. For example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows
you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include
among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of
information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 9.9. Selecting Columns
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox
to make a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the
left of the column headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen.
Later in the installation process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto
any of the devices selected here, and can choose to automatically mount any of the other
devices selected here as part of the installed system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation
process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the
device at risk. Note also that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the
installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab
file.
IMPORTANT
Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from
anaconda entirely. To chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader
from a different boot loader, select all the devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click
Next and proceed to Section 9.11, “Initializing the Hard Disk”
9.6.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
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From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre
channel over ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, iSCSI Disks for an
introduction to iSCSI.
Figure 9.10. Advanced Storage Options
Select Add iSCSI target or Add FCoE SAN and click Add drive. If adding an iSCSI target,
optionally check the box labeled Bind targets to network interfaces.
9.6.1.1.1. Select and configure a network interface
The Advanced Storage Options screen lists the active network interfaces anaconda has
found on your system. If none are found, anaconda must activate an interface through
which to connect to the storage devices.
Click Configure Network on the Advanced Storage Options screen to configure and
activate one using NetworkManager to use during installation. Alternatively,anaconda
will prompt you with the Select network interface dialog after you click Add drive.
Figure 9.11. Select network interface
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1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
2. Click OK.
Anaconda then starts NetworkManager to allow you to configure the interface.
Figure 9.12. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 9.7, “Setting the Hostname”
9.6.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI parameters
To add an iSCSI target, select Add iSCSI target and click Add drive.
To use iSCSI storage devices for the installation, anaconda must be able to discover them
as iSCSI targets and be able to create an iSCSI session to access them. Each of these steps
might require a username and password for CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol) authentication. Additionally, you can configure an iSCSI target to authenticate the
iSCSI initiator on the system to which the target is attached (reverse CHAP), both for
discovery and for the session. Used together, CHAP and reverse CHAP are called mutual
CHAP or two-way CHAP. Mutual CHAP provides the greatest level of security for iSCSI
connections, particularly if the username and password are different for CHAP
authentication and reverse CHAP authentication.
Repeat the iSCSI discovery and iSCSI login steps as many times as necessary to add all
required iSCSI storage. However, you cannot change the name of the iSCSI initiator after
you attempt discovery for the first time. To change the iSCSI initiator name, you must
restart the installation.
Procedure 9.1. iSCSI discovery
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Procedure 9.1. iSCSI discovery
Use the iSCSI Discovery Details dialog to provide anaconda with the information that
it needs to discover the iSCSI target.
Figure 9.13. The iSCSI Discovery Details dialog
1. Enter the IP address of the iSCSI target in the Target IP Address field.
2. Provide a name in the iSCSI Initiator Name field for the iSCSI initiator in iSCSI
qualified name (IQN) format.
A valid IQN contains:
the string iqn. (note the period)
a date code that specifies the year and month in which your organization's
Internet domain or subdomain name was registered, represented as four digits
for the year, a dash, and two digits for the month, followed by a period. For
example, represent September 2010 as 2010-09.
your organization's Internet domain or subdomain name, presented in reverse
order with the top-level domain first. For example, represent the subdomain
storage.example.com as com.example.storage
a colon followed by a string that uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator
within your domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309.
A complete IQN therefore resembles: iqn.201009.storage.example.com:diskarrays-sn-a8675309, and anaconda pre-populates
the iSCSI Initiator Name field with a name in this format to help you with the
structure.
For more information on IQNs, refer to 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet
Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) available from
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1. iSCSI Names and Addresses in
RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Naming and
Discovery available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.
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3. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI
discovery:
Figure 9.14. iSCSI discovery authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
4.
If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and
password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username and CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 9.15. CHAP pair
If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type,
provide the username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username
and CHAP Password field and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator
in the Reverse CHAP Username and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 9.16. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
5. Click Start Discovery. Anaconda attempts to discover an iSCSI target based on
the information that you provided. If discovery succeeds, the iSCSI Discovered
Nodes dialog presents you with a list of all the iSCSI nodes discovered on the target.
6. Each node is presented with a checkbox beside it. Click the checkboxes to select the
nodes to use for installation.
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Figure 9.17. The iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
7. Click Login to initiate an iSCSI session.
Procedure 9.2. Starting an iSCSI session
Use the iSCSI Nodes Login dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs
to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target and start an iSCSI session.
Figure 9.18. The iSCSI Nodes Login dialog
1. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for the iSCSI
session:
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Figure 9.19. iSCSI session authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
Use the credentials from the discovery step
If your environment uses the same type of authentication and same username and
password for iSCSI discovery and for the iSCSI session, select Use the credentials
from the discovery step to reuse these credentials.
2.
If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and
password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 9.20. CHAP pair
If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type,
provide the username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username
and CHAP Password fields and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator
in the Reverse CHAP Username and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 9.21. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
3. Click Login. Anaconda attempts to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target based on
the information that you provided. The iSCSI Login Results dialog presents you
with the results.
Figure 9.22. The iSCSI Login Results dialog
4. Click OK to continue.
9.6.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
To configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
In the next dialog box that appears after you click Add drive, select the network interface
that is connected to your FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
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Figure 9.23. Configure FCoE Parameters
Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to
increase the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or
disable the installer's awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog. This should only
be set for networking interfaces that require a host-based DCBX client. Configurations on
interfaces that implement a hardware DCBX client should leave this checkbox empty.
Auto VLAN indicates whether VLAN discovery should be performed. If this box is checked,
then the FIP VLAN discovery protocol will run on the Ethernet interface once the link
configuration has been validated. If they are not already configured, network interfaces for
any discovered FCoE VLANs will be automatically created and FCoE instances will be
created on the VLAN interfaces.
9.7. SETTING THE HOSTNAME
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified
domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the
format hostname. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the
DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, specify the short host name
only.
NOTE
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is
unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
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Figure 9.24. Setting the hostname
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay
attention to additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your
upstream service provider. A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this
document.
NOTE
The installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices
after installation with the Network utility. The settings for your modem are
specific to your particular Internet Service Provider (ISP).
9.7.1. Editing Network Connections
IMPORTANT
When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 installation boots for the first time, it
activates any network interfaces that you configured during the installation
process. However, the installer does not prompt you to configure network
interfaces on some common installation paths, for example, when you install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a
local storage device, be sure to configure at least one network interface
manually if you require network access when the system boots for the first
time. You will need to select the Connect automatically option manually
when editing the connection.
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NOTE
To change your network configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the
Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the
root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by
NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
To configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. The
Network Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile
broadband, InfiniBand, VPN, DSL, VLAN, and bonded connections for the system using the
NetworkManager tool. A full description of all configurations possible with
NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. This section only details the most
typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation. Configuration of
other types of network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you must
configure are necessarily different.
Figure 9.25. Network Connections
To add a new connection, click Add and select a connection type from the menu. To modify
an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog box
appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as
described below. To remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to save the new
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configuration. If you reconfigured a device that was already active during installation, you
must restart the device to use the new configuration — refer to Section 9.7.1.6, “Restart a
network device”.
9.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Connect automatically to start the connection automatically when the system
boots.
When NetworkManager runs on an installed system, the Available to all users option
controls whether a network configuration is available system-wide or not. During
installation, ensure that Available to all users remains selected for any network
interface that you configure.
9.7.1.2. The Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change themedia access control (MAC) address for the
network adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can
pass through the interface.
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Figure 9.26. The Wired tab
9.7.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control
(PNAC). Select Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control,
then specify details of your network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
TLS for Transport Layer Security
Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS,
or EAP-TTLS
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Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished
Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show
password to make the password visible as you type it.
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Figure 9.27. The 802.1x Security tab
9.7.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously
selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to
obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network.
Choose from the following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on
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the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is
assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are
started, and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system
with network address translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of
the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use
the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of
DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the
Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This
name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a
connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box
to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4
configuration fails but IPv6 configuration succeeds.
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Figure 9.28. The IPv4 Settings tab
9.7.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP
addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4
routes dialog appears.
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Figure 9.29. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static
route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes
specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict
connections only to the local network.
9.7.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously
selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to
obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network.
Choose from the following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
NetworkManager uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless
configuration.
Automatic, addresses only
NetworkManager uses RA to create an automatic, stateless configuration, but DNS
servers and search domains are ignored and must be configured manually.
Automatic, DHCP only
NetworkManager does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to
create a stateful configuration.
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Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of
the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use
the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of
DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the
Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This
name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a
connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box
to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6
configuration fails but IPv4 configuration succeeds.
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Figure 9.30. The IPv6 Settings tab
9.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP
addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6
routes dialog appears.
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Figure 9.31. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static
route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict
connections only to the local network.
9.7.1.6. Restart a network device
If you reconfigured a network that was already in use during installation, you must
disconnect and reconnect the device in anaconda for the changes to take effect.
Anaconda uses interface configuration (ifcfg) files to communicate with
NetworkManager. A device becomes disconnected when its ifcfg file is removed, and
becomes reconnected when its ifcfg file is restored, as long as ONBOOT=yes is set. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 Deployment Guide available from
https://access.redhat.com/documentation/enUS/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Deployment_Guide/index.html for more information
about interface configuration files.
1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to virtual terminaltty2.
2. Move the interface configuration file to a temporary location:
mv /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-device_name /tmp
where device_name is the device that you just reconfigured. For example,ifcfgeth0 is the ifcfg file for eth0.
The device is now disconnected in anaconda.
3. Open the interface configuration file in the vi editor:
vi /tmp/ifcfg-device_name
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4. Verify that the interface configuration file contains the line ONBOOT=yes. If the file
does not already contain the line, add it now and save the file.
5. Exit the vi editor.
6. Move the interface configuration file back to the /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ directory:
mv /tmp/ifcfg-device_name /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
The device is now reconnected in anaconda.
7. Press Ctrl+Alt+F6 to return to anaconda.
9.8. TIME ZONE CONFIGURATION
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click
on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the
accuracy of the system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented
by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time
zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 9.32. Configuring the Time Zone
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System
clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red
Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local
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time and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX,
Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.

WARNING
Do not enable the System clock uses UTC option if your machine also
runs Microsoft Windows. Microsoft operating systems change the BIOS
clock to match local time rather than UTC. This may cause unexpected
behavior under Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
NOTE
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch theTime
and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
9.9. SET THE ROOT PASSWORD
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most
system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
NOTE
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire
system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to
perform system maintenance or administration.
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Figure 9.33. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your
general use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform
tasks that require superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the chances of a
typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
NOTE
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then
press Enter. Then, enter the root password and pressEnter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password[2] for your system. . You
cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root
password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not
echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not
match, the installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that
is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals
with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or
420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down
your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write
down this or any password you create.
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
WARNING
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using
one of these passwords could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, run the passwd
command as root. If you forget the root password, seeResolving Problems in System
Recovery Modes in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide for instructions on
how to set a new one.
9.10. ASSIGN STORAGE DEVICES
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer
to Section 9.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices
should be available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be
attached to the file system for data storage. If you selected only one storage device,
anaconda does not present you with this screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are
mounted as part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
Figure 9.34. Assign storage devices
The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for
data storage only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for
installation of the operating system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small dropdown menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu
allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the
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amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the
button labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the
button labeled with a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for
installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each
device. Use this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device
for the system.
IMPORTANT
If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot loader, include that storage device among the Install
Target Devices. Storage devices that you identify asInstall Target
Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices on this screen
are not automatically erased by the installation process unless you selected
the Use All Space option on the partitioning screen (refer to Section 9.13,
“Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to
continue.
9.11. INITIALIZING THE HARD DISK
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program
asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk
unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed,
or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it
cannot read a valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all
button to apply the same answer to all devices.
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Figure 9.35. Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the
installation program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation
program responds to the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the
kickstart command zerombr (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations). This command is
required when performing an unattended installation on a system with previously initialized
disks.

WARNING
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during
installation and detected and configured afterward, power off the system,
detach it, and restart the installation.
9.12. UPGRADING AN EXISTING SYSTEM
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IMPORTANT
The following sections only apply to upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux
between minor versions, for example, upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4
to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 or higher. This approach is not supported for
upgrades between major versions, for example, upgrading Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.
In-place upgrades between major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux can be
done, with certain limitations, using the Red Hat Upgrade Tool and
Preupgrade Assistant tools. See Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System
for more information.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but
does not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on
your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package
upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but
rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software
packages that you need to upgrade your computer.
9.12.1. The Upgrade Dialog
If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking
whether you want to upgrade that installation. To perform an upgrade of an existing
system, choose the appropriate installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
Figure 9.36. The Upgrade Dialog
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NOTE
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to
manually reinstall or recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure it
performs correctly on the updated system.
9.12.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
NOTE
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home
partition and perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions
and how to set them up, refer to Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not
provided by Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software
is overwritten. Before you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current
packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or
retrieve from sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important
data may include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from
services such as an Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system.
Although upgrades are not destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small
possibility of data loss.

WARNING
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home
directory. If your /home directory is not a separate partition, you should
not follow these examples verbatim! Store your backups on another
device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2,
“Finishing an Upgrade”.
9.12.3. Updating the Boot Loader Configuration
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Your completed Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation must be registered in the boot loader
to boot properly. A boot loader is software on your machine that locates and starts the
operating system. Refer to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader for more information about
boot loaders.
Figure 9.37. The Upgrade Boot Loader Dialog
If the existing boot loader was installed by a Linux distribution, the installation system can
modify it to load the new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. To update the existing Linux
boot loader, select Update boot loader configuration. This is the default behavior when
you upgrade an existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
GRUB is the standard boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on 32-bit and 64-bit x86
architectures. If your machine uses another boot loader, such as BootMagic, System
Commander, or the loader installed by Microsoft Windows, then the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation system cannot update it. In this case, select Skip boot loader
updating. When the installation process completes, refer to the documentation for your
product for assistance.
Install a new boot loader as part of an upgrade process only if you are certain you want to
replace the existing boot loader. If you install a new boot loader, you may not be able to
boot other operating systems on the same machine until you have configured the new boot
loader. Select Create new boot loader configuration to remove the existing boot
loader and install GRUB.
After you make your selection, click Next to continue. If you selected theCreate new boot
loader configuration option, refer to Section 9.18, “x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot
Loader Configuration”. If you chose to update or skip boot loader configuration, installation
continues without further input from you.
9.13. DISK PARTITIONING SETUP
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
WARNING
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your
systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot
system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your storage
devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
IMPORTANT
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the
default partitioning schemes described in this section. You cannot add or
remove partitions or file systems beyond those that the installer automatically
adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at installation time, you
should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and
resizable filesystems are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
IMPORTANT
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOS types do not support
booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must
be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard
drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with
problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select
Review and manually edit your /boot/ partition.
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple
operating systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
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Figure 9.38. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different
ways, or choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to
partition your storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your
system, choose one of these options and let the installation program partition the storage
devices for you. Depending on the option that you choose, you can still control what data (if
any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions
created by other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).

WARNING
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is
removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you
have information that you want to keep on the hard drives where you
are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to
chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot
loader.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
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Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. This
does not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or
FAT32 partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default
Red Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.

WARNING
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed,
you might not be able to use those operating systems. Although this
partitioning option does not destroy data, operating systems typically
require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a
partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use
again, find out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there
is sufficient space available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to
Section 3.6, “Do You Have Enough Disk Space?”.

WARNING
If your 64-bit x86 system uses UEFI instead of BIOS, you will need to
manually create a /boot partition. This partition must have an ext3 file
system. If you choose to partition automatically, your system will not
boot.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts.
Refer to Section 9.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its
description in the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the/boot partition. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic
partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move
forward, the partitions created for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications
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to these partitions if they do not meet your needs.
IMPORTANT
To configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a
different boot loader, you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose
any of the automatic partitioning options, you must now select the Review and
modify partitioning layout option before you click Next or you cannot
specify the correct boot drive.
IMPORTANT
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a system with multipath and
non-multipath storage devices, the automatic partitioning layout in the
installer might create volume groups that contain a mix of multipath and nonmultipath devices. This defeats the purpose of multipath storage.
We advise that you select only multipath or only non-multipath devices on the
disk selection screen that appears after selecting automatic partitioning.
Alternatively, select custom partitioning.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
9.14. CHOOSING A DISK ENCRYPTION PASSPHRASE
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with
which to encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for more information.
Figure 9.39. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must
provide this passphrase every time that the system boots.
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
WARNING
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on
them will become completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a
lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, you can save encryption passphrases and create backup
encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to Section C.3.2,
“Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
9.15. CREATING A CUSTOM LAYOUT OR MODIFYING THE
DEFAULT LAYOUT
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip
ahead to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either
accept the current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the
partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk
partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed. You may also need to create
and/or delete partitions at this time.

WARNING
If your 64-bit x86 system uses UEFI instead of BIOS, you will need to
manually create a /boot partition. This partition must have an ext3 file
system. If you choose to partition automatically, your system will not
boot.
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IMPORTANT
On systems using UEFI firmware, the boot drive (the disk where the boot
loader will be installed) must contain a special partition (EFI System Partition)
at least 50 MB in size with a mount point of /boot/efi.
The boot drive must also have a GUID Partition Table (GPT) label. If you want
to reuse a disk with existing partitions and a Master Boot Record (MBR) label,
the disk must be relabeled. All existing data on the disk will be lost.
To relabel a disk to GPT in the graphical installer, first go back to Section 9.13,
“Disk Partitioning Setup”, and choose an automatic partitioning option such as
Use All Space. Check the Review and modify partitioning layout check
box, and click Next. On the next screen, modify the automatically created
layout as needed.
This workaround is always necessary when reusing a MBR-labeled drive. If you
choose Create a Custom Layout at the start of the partitioning process, the
disk will not be relabeled and you will not be able to proceed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At
a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap
partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
Figure 9.40. Partitioning on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical
representation of the hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive
(such as /dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the
installation program.
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Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Doubleclick to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used
during installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 9.10, “
Assign Storage Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to
view or hide devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or
the name of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of
file system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition
is a physical volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during
installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the
upper pane of in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out
the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing partition, logical volume, or software RAID. Note that you can only
shrink partitions with the Resize button, not enlarge partitions.
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
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9.15.1. Create Storage
The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes,
and software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on
the storage already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
Figure 9.41. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as
follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
Refer to Section 9.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
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RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software
RAID device. To form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be
available on the system.
RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device.
When you choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the
RAID level). This option is only available when two or more RAID partitions are
available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 9.15.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes.
This option is only available when at least one physical volume is available on the
system.
LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is
only available when at least one volume group is available on the system.
9.15.2. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer toFigure 9.42,
“Creating a New Partition”).
NOTE
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally
more. For more information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions.
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Figure 9.42. Creating a New Partition
Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should
be the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You
can also use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your
partition. For a swap partition the mount point should not be set — setting the
filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system
type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to
Section 9.15.2.1, “File System Types”.
Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your
system. If a hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on
that hard disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on
that hard disk. By using different checkbox settings, you can have anaconda place
partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide where partitions should
go.
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with
200 MB; unless changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to
allow it to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to
allow it to grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
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If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the
field to the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space
free on your hard drive for future use.
Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating
should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the
partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions Within
Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more information.
Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it
cannot be accessed without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to
another system. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption
of storage devices. If you select this option, the installer prompts you to provide a
passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the
partition.
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
9.15.2.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The
following is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available,
and how they can be used.
Partition types
standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap
space, or it can provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is
written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for
additional information.
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to
create a RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions
allows you to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when
using physical disks. For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number
of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files,
faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of
subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust
journaling. A maximum file system size of 16TB is supported for ext4. The ext4 file
system is selected by default and is highly recommended.
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NOTE
The user_xattr and acl mount options are automatically set on ext4
systems by the installation system. These options enable extended
attributes and access control lists, respectively. More information about
mount options can be found in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage
Administration Guide.
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main
advantage — journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent
recovering a file system after a crash as there is no need to fsck [3] the file system.
A maximum file system size of 16TB is supported for ext3.
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files,
directories, symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up
to 255 characters.
xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports
filesystems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8
exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes) and directory structures containing
tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata journaling, which facilitates
quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented and resized
while mounted and active.
NOTE
The maximum size of an XFS partition the installer can create is 100
TB.
vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft
Windows long filenames on the FAT file system.
Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and
managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4
file systems. Btrfs is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to
facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to
ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of the file
system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program
does not offer it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you
must commence the installation process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to
Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.

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WARNING
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 includes Btrfs as a technology
preview to allow you to experiment with this file system. You
should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable
data or that are essential for the operation of important systems.
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9.15.3. Create Software RAID
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage
devices that are arranged to provide increased performance and — in some configurations
— greater fault tolerance. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage Administration
Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID
partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only
choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog
that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 9.15.2, “Adding
Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, thatFile System
Type must be set to software RAID
Figure 9.43. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID
partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been
configured.
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Figure 9.44. Create a RAID device
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually
select names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from
this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following
options:
RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer
increased performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the
storage of multiple devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS
offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys the
entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage
devices. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy.
RAID 1 requires at least two RAID partitions.
RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in
the array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device
within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device,
access to this device creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID
4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
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RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices.
Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data
across multiple devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4
RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5
requires at least three RAID partitions.
RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only
one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID
partitions.
RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are
constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For
example, a level 10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two
pairs of partitions in which one partition mirrors the other. Data is then
distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10
requires at least four RAID partitions.
9.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
IMPORTANT
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to
create an LVM configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different
virtual console, and run the lvm command. To return to the text-mode
installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical
storage space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are
represented as physical volumes that can be grouped together intovolume groups. Each
volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a
standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM logical volumes function as partitions that can span
multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note,
LVM is only available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This
option is the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume
Groups. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer
to Section 9.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note,
however, that File System Type must be set to physical volume (LVM)
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Figure 9.45. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical
volumes, or to add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
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Figure 9.46. Make LVM Volume Group
To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume
group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally,
configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave
insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group
made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical
volume. The installer would not allow you to remove either of the component physical
volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If
you reduce the total size of any logical volumes appropriately, you may then remove a
physical volume from the volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical
volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system
type, and size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a
name for the logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
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Figure 9.47. Make Logical Volume
9.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
9.15.5.1. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems
We recommend that you create the following partitions for x86, AMD64, and Intel 64
systems:
A swap partition
A /boot partition
A / partition
A home partition
A /boot/efi partition (EFI System Partition) - only on systems with UEFI firmware
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — Swap partitions support virtual memory: data is
written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the
amount of RAM in the system. Modern systems often include hundreds of gigabytes
of RAM, however. As a consequence, recommended swap space is considered a
function of system memory workload, not system memory.
The following table provides the recommended size of a swap partition depending
on the amount of RAM in your system and whether you want sufficient memory for
your system to hibernate. The recommended swap partition size is established
automatically during installation. To allow for hibernation, however, you will need to
edit the swap space in the custom partitioning stage.
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IMPORTANT
Recommendations in the table below are especially important on
systems with low memory (1 GB and less). Failure to allocate sufficient
swap space on these systems may cause issues such as instability or
even render the installed system unbootable.
Table 9.2. Recommended System Swap Space
Amount of RAM in the
system
Recommended swap
space
Recommended swap
space if allowing for
hibernation
⩽ 2GB
2 times the amount of RAM
3 times the amount of RAM
> 2GB – 8GB
Equal to the amount of
RAM
2 times the amount of RAM
> 8GB – 64GB
At least 4 GB
1.5 times the amount of
RAM
> 64GB
At least 4 GB
Hibernation not
recommended
At the border between each range listed above (for example, a system with 2GB,
8GB, or 64GB of system RAM), discretion can be exercised with regard to chosen
swap space and hibernation support. If your system resources allow for it, increasing
the swap space may lead to better performance.
Note that distributing swap space over multiple storage devices — particularly on
systems with fast drives, controllers and interfaces — also improves swap space
performance.
NOTE
Swap space size recommendations issued for Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6.0, 6.1, and 6.2 differed from the current recommendations, which
were first issued with the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 in
June 2012 and did not account for hibernation space. Automatic
installations of these earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 still
generate a swap space in line with these superseded
recommendations. However, manually selecting a swap space size in
line with the newer recommendations issued for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6.3 is advisable for optimal performance.
A /boot/ partition (250 MB)
The partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which
allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during
the bootstrap process. For most users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.
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IMPORTANT
The /boot and / (root) partition in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 can
only use the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You
cannot use any other file system for this partition, such as Btrfs, XFS,
or VFAT. Other partitions, such as /home, can use any supported file
system, including Btrfs and XFS (if available). See the following article
on the Red Hat Customer Portal for additional information:
https://access.redhat.com/solutions/667273.

WARNING
Note that normally the /boot partition is created automatically by
the installer. However, if the / (root) partition is larger than 2 TB
and (U)EFI is used for booting, you need to create a separate
/boot partition that is smaller than 2 TB to boot the machine
successfully.
NOTE
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was
manufactured more than two years ago), you may need to create a
/boot/ partition if you want the / (root) partition to use all of the
remaining space on your hard drive.
NOTE
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOS types do not support
booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/
partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such
as on a separate hard drive.
A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB) — this is where /
" " (the root directory) is located.
In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root
partition lets you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
IMPORTANT
The /boot and / (root) partition in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 can
only use the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You
cannot use any other file system for this partition, such as Btrfs, XFS,
or VFAT. Other partitions, such as /home, can use any supported file
system, including Btrfs and XFS (if available). See the following article
on the Red Hat Customer Portal for additional information:
https://access.redhat.com/solutions/667273.
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IMPORTANT
The / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. The/root
directory (sometimes pronounced "slash-root") is the home directory of
the user account for system administration.
A home partition (at least 100 MB)
To store user data separately from system data, create a dedicated partition within
a volume group for the /home directory. This will enable you to upgrade or reinstall
Red Hat Enterprise Linux without erasing user data files.
Many systems have more partitions than the minimum listed above. Choose partitions
based on your particular system needs. Refer to Section 9.15.5.1.1, “Advice on Partitions”
for more information.
If you create many partitions instead of one large / partition, upgrades become easier.
Refer to the description of the Edit option in Section 9.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or
Modifying the Default Layout ” for more information.
The following table summarizes minimum partition sizes for the partitions containing the
listed directories. You do not have to make a separate partition for each of these
directories. For instance, if the partition containing /foo must be at least 500 MB, and you
do not make a separate /foo partition, then the / (root) partition must be at least 500 MB.
Table 9.3. Minimum partition sizes
Directory
Minimum size
/
250 MB
/usr
250 MB
/tmp
50 MB
/var
384 MB
/home
100 MB
/boot
250 MB
NOTE
Leave Excess Capacity Unallocated, and only assign storage capacity to those
partitions you require immediately. You may allocate free space at any time,
to meet needs as they occur. To learn about a more flexible method for
storage management, refer to Appendix D, Understanding LVM.
If you are not sure how best to configure the partitions for your computer, accept the
default partition layout.
9.15.5.1.1. Advice on Partitions
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Optimal partition setup depends on the usage for the Linux system in question. The
following tips may help you decide how to allocate your disk space.
Consider encrypting any partitions that might contain sensitive data. Encryption
prevents unauthorized people from accessing the data on the partitions, even if they
have access to the physical storage device. In most cases, you should at least
encrypt the /home partition.
Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 30 MB on the /boot
partition. Unless you plan to install a great many kernels, the default partition size of
250 MB for /boot should suffice.
IMPORTANT
The /boot and / (root) partition in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 can
only use the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You
cannot use any other file system for this partition, such as Btrfs, XFS,
or VFAT. Other partitions, such as /home, can use any supported file
system, including Btrfs and XFS (if available). See the following article
on the Red Hat Customer Portal for additional information:
https://access.redhat.com/solutions/667273.
The /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including theApache
web server. It also is used to store downloaded update packages on a temporary
basis. Ensure that the partition containing the /var directory has enough space to
download pending updates and hold your other content.

WARNING
The PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to
/var/cache/yum/ by default. If you partition the system manually,
and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to create the
partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package
updates.
The /usr directory holds the majority of software content on a Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system. For an installation of the default set of software, allocate at least 4 GB
of space. If you are a software developer or plan to use your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system to learn software development skills, you may want to at least double
this allocation.
Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. This
unallocated space gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do
not wish to remove data from other partitions to reallocate storage.
a If you separate subdirectories into partitions, you can retain content in those
subdirectories if you decide to install a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over
your current system. For instance, if you intend to run a MySQL databasge in
/var/lib/mysql, make a separate partition for that directory in case you need to
reinstall later.
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UEFI systems should contain a 50-150MB /boot/efi partition with an EFI System
Partition filesystem.
The following table is a possible partition setup for a system with a single, new 80 GB hard
disk and 1 GB of RAM. Note that approximately 10 GB of the volume group is unallocated to
allow for future growth.
NOTE
This setup is an example, and is not optimal for all use cases.
Example 9.1. Example partition setup
Table 9.4. Example partition setup
Partition
Size and type
/boot
250 MB ext3 partition
swap
2 GB swap
LVM physical volume
Remaining space, as one LVM volume group
The physical volume is assigned to the default volume group and divided into the
following logical volumes:
Table 9.5. Example partition setup: LVM physical volume
Partition
Size and type
/
13 GB ext4
/var
4 GB ext4
/home
50 GB ext4
9.16. WRITE CHANGES TO DISK
The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write
changes to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
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Figure 9.48. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.

WARNING
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no
lasting changes to your computer. When you click Write changes to
disk, the installer will allocate space on your hard drive and start to
transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing
data that already exists on your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go
back. To cancel installation completely, switch off your computer. To
switch off most computers at this stage, press the power button and hold
it down for a few seconds.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to
complete. If the process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off
or resetting the computer, or by a power outage) you will probably not be
able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating
system.
9.17. PACKAGE GROUP SELECTION
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm
the default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set
for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version
of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.
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IMPORTANT
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package
selections. The installer automatically selects packages only from the base
and core groups. These packages are sufficient to ensure that the system is
operational at the end of the installation process, ready to install updates and
new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
Figure 9.49. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software
that is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not
include a graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles,
click the radio button that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Enterprise Identity Server Base
This option provides OpenLDAP and Enterprise Identity Management (IPA) to create
an identity and authentication server.
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Virtual Host
This option provides the KVM and Virtual Machine Manager tools to create a host for
virtual machines.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the
GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A
minimal installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance
and maximizes performance and security on such an installation.

WARNING
Minimal installation currently does not configure the firewall
(iptables/ip6tables) by default because the authconfig and systemconfig-firewall-base packages are missing from the selection. To work
around this issue, you can use a Kickstart file to add these packages to
your selection. See the Red Hat Customer Portal for details about the
workaround, and Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for information
about Kickstart files.
If you do not use the workaround, the installation will complete
successfully, but no firewall will be configured, presenting a security
risk.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 9.19, “Installing
Packages”.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 9.49, “Package
Group Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen.
Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system
during installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along
with metadata that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat
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Enterprise Linux require other software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to
ensure that these requirements are met for every piece of software you select for
installation.
The basic options are:
The High Availability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering
(also known as failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service
Management component.
The Load Balancer repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using
Linux Virtual Server (LVS).
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository is automatically selected for you. It
contains the complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.9, with the various pieces of software in their versions that were
current at the time of release.
The Resilient Storage repository includes packages for storage clustering using
the Red Hat global file system (GFS).
For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9, refer to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 High Availability Add-On Overview, available from
https://access.redhat.com/documentation/enUS/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/High_Availability_Add-On_Overview/index.html.
Figure 9.50. Adding a software repository
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To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software
repositories and provide the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then
select Modify repository.
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a
Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration
information.
Figure 9.51. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
2. Click OK.
Anaconda then starts NetworkManager to allow you to configure the interface.
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Figure 9.52. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 9.7, “Setting the Hostname”
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog
appears. Provide a Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the
mirror that contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package
metadata over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the
package group selection system.

WARNING
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra
repository data you may have entered is lost. This allows you to
effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way to cancel
only a single repository once entered.
9.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
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NOTE
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language
that you selected at the start of the installation process. To include support for
additional languages, select the package group for those languages from the
Languages category.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail.
This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen
when you select Next.
Figure 9.53. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of
use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function
(for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the
two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The
list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box
at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently
highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for
that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and
mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected
group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the
group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to
select or de-select base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
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Figure 9.54. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your
selection, and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you
selected. When you have finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional
package selections and return to the main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the
Add/Remove Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages.
To run this tool, from the main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove
Software. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux software management system downloads the
latest packages from network servers, rather than using those on the installation discs.
9.17.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
centralized logging through syslog
email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service
to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging,
and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file
sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled
by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS
sharing service.
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9.18. X86, AMD64, AND INTEL 64 BOOT LOADER
CONFIGURATION
To boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot
loader is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for
loading and transferring control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in
turn, initializes the rest of the operating system.
IMPORTANT
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, the installer configures
the bootloader automatically and you cannot customize bootloader settings
during the installation process.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot
loader. GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating
systems with chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems,
such as Windows, by loading another boot loader). Note that the version of GRUB in Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6 is an old and stable version now known as "GRUB Legacy" since
upstream development moved to GRUB 2.[4] Red Hat remains committed to maintaining
the version of GRUB that we ship with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, just as we do with all
packages that we ship.
NOTE
The GRUB menu defaults to being hidden, except on dual-boot systems. To
show the GRUB menu during system boot, press and hold the Shift key
before the kernel is loaded. (Any other key works as well but the Shift key is
the safest to use.)
Figure 9.55. Boot Loader Configuration
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If there are no other operating systems on your computer, or you are completely removing
any other operating systems the installation program will install GRUB as your boot loader
without any intervention. In that case you may continue on to Section 9.17, “Package Group
Selection”.
You may have a boot loader installed on your system already. An operating system may
install its own preferred boot loader, or you may have installed a third-party boot loader.If
your boot loader does not recognize Linux partitions, you may not be able to boot Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. Use GRUB as your boot loader to boot Linux and most other operating
systems. Follow the directions in this chapter to install GRUB.

WARNING
If you install GRUB, it may overwrite your existing boot loader.
By default, the installation program installs GRUB in the master boot record or MBR, of the
device for the root file system. To decline installation of a new boot loader, unselect
Install boot loader on /dev/sda.

WARNING
If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to
boot the system directly, and you must use another boot method (such as
a commercial boot loader application). Use this option only if you are sure
you have another way of booting the system!
If you have other operating systems already installed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux attempts to
automatically detect and configure GRUB to boot them. You may manually configure any
additional operating systems if GRUB does not detect them.
To add, remove, or change the detected operating system settings, use the options
provided.
Add
Select Add to include an additional operating system in GRUB.
Select the disk partition which contains the bootable operating system from the dropdown list and give the entry a label. GRUB displays this label in its boot menu.
Edit
To change an entry in the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Edit.
Delete
To remove an entry from the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Delete.
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Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You
cannot move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
NOTE
The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in nongraphical boot loaders, in order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a
boot label or type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the
configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical
access to your server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system.
Without a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the
kernel which can compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place,
the password must first be entered before selecting any non-standard boot options.
However, it is still possible for someone with physical access to the machine to boot from a
diskette, CD-ROM, DVD, or USB media if the BIOS supports it. Security plans which include
boot loader passwords should also address alternate boot methods.
NOTE
You may not require a GRUB password if your system only has trusted
operators, or is physically secured with controlled console access. However, if
an untrusted person can get physical access to your computer's keyboard and
monitor, that person can reboot the system and access GRUB. A password is
helpful in this case.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to
select the checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
GRUB stores the password in encrypted form, so itcannot be read or recovered. If you
forget the boot password, boot the system normally and then change the password entry in
the /boot/grub/grub.conf file. If you cannot boot, you may be able to use the "rescue"
mode on the first Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disc to reset the GRUB password.
If you do need to change the GRUB password, use the grub-md5-crypt utility. For
information on using this utility, use the command man grub-md5-crypt in a terminal
window to read the manual pages.
IMPORTANT
When selecting a GRUB password, be aware that GRUB recognizes only the
QWERTY keyboard layout, regardless of the keyboard actually attached to the
system. If you use a keyboard with a significantly different layout, it might be
more effective to memorize a pattern of keystrokes rather than the word that
the pattern produces.
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To configure more advanced boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or
passing options to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is
selected before clicking Next.
9.18.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you
want the boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
The Master Boot Record (MBR) — This is the recommended place to install a boot
loader on systems with BIOS firmware, unless the MBR already starts another
operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special area on
your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer's BIOS, and is the
earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you
install it in the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB presents a boot prompt. You
can then boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have
configured the boot loader to boot.
The EFI System Partition — Systems with UEFI firmware require a special partition
for installing the boot loader. This should be a physical (non-LVM) partition of the
efi type at least 50 MB in size; the recommended size is 200 MB. The drive
containing this partition must be labeled with a GUID Partition Table (GPT) instead of
a Master Boot Record. If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a drive with a
MBR, the drive must be relabeled; all data on the drive will be lost in the process.
The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already
using another boot loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes
control first. You can then configure that boot loader to start GRUB, which then
boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
NOTE
If you install GRUB as a secondary boot loader, you must reconfigure
your primary boot loader whenever you install and boot from a new
kernel. The kernel of an operating system such as Microsoft Windows
does not boot in the same fashion. Most users therefore use GRUB as
the primary boot loader on dual-boot systems.
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Figure 9.56. Boot Loader Installation
NOTE
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOS types do not support
booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the boot loader should not
be installed on the MBR of the RAID array. Rather, the boot loader should be
installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot/ partition was created.
If your system only uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if
your BIOS does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if
you have multiple SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from
the SCSI device.
NOTE
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older
systems cannot access more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If
this is the case, leave enough room for the /boot Linux partition on the first
1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions can
be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
9.18.2. Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment
entirely from boot media or some other boot method instead of the system's hard drive.
There may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running
completely enough to access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can
access the files stored on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to use rescue mode, try the following
method:
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Boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system from any installation medium, such as CD,
DVD, USB, or PXE, and type linux rescue at the installation boot prompt. Refer to
Chapter 36, Basic System Recovery for a more complete description of rescue mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
9.18.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
GRUB is the default bootloader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but is not the only choice. A
variety of open-source and proprietary alternatives to GRUB are available to load Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, including LILO, SYSLINUX, and Acronis Disk Director Suite.
IMPORTANT
Red Hat does not provide customer support for third-party boot loaders.
9.19. INSTALLING PACKAGES
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed.
How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your
computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the
installer resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 9.57. Starting installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux reports the installation progress on the screen as it writes the
selected packages to your system.
Figure 9.58. Packages completed
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log
once you reboot your system.
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After installation completes, select Reboot to restart your computer. Red Hat Enterprise
Linux ejects any loaded discs before the computer reboots.
9.20. INSTALLATION COMPLETE
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to
remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
loads and starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that
displays a progress bar. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed
the X Window System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical
run level), the FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software,
register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your
environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system quickly.
Chapter 34, Firstboot will guide you through the configuration process.
[2] A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You
should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate
within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have
implications for your entire system.
[3] The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally
repair one or more Linux file systems.
[4] http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-legacy.html
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CHAPTER 10. TROUBLESHOOTING INSTALLATION ON
AN INTEL OR AMD SYSTEM
This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the/tmp directory.
These files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
/tmp/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacondatb-identifier, where identifier is a random string.
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a
permanent copy, copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the
installation image (not the other way round).
10.1. YOU ARE UNABLE TO BOOT RED HAT ENTERPRISE
LINUX
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need
to reinstall and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOS types do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a
text-based screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB: ) and a flashing
cursor may be all that appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you must install your /boot partition
outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is
necessary to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) on the MBR of a drive that is
outside of the RAID array. This should be the same drive that hosts the /boot/ partition.
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and
boot the system properly.
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10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly known as a segmentation fault, means that the program
accessed a memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a
bug in one of the software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a
hardware error in memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux places its own demands on your system's hardware. Some of this
hardware may not be able to meet those demands, even if they work properly under
another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata
to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a
problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A
possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system
supports this. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to
check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the
installation program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works
with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that
you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting
any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: or yaboot:
prompt:
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
10.1.3. Diagnosing Early Boot Problems
The boot console may be useful in cases where your system fails to boot, but does
successfully display the GRUB boot menu. Messages in the boot console can inform you of
the current kernel version, command line parameters which have been passed to the kernel
from the boot menu, enabled hardware support for the current kernel, physical memory
map and other information which may help you find the cause of your problems.
To enable the boot console, select an entry in the GRUB boot menu, and press e to edit
boot options. On the line starting with the keyword kernel (or linux in some cases),
append the following:
On a system with BIOS firmware, append earlyprintk=vga,keep. Boot console
messages should then be displayed on the system display.
On a system with UEFI firmware, append earlyprintk=efi,keep. Boot console
messages should then be displayed in the EFI frame buffer.
You can also append the quiet option (if not present already) to suppress all other
messages and only display messages from the boot console.
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NOTE
The earlyprintk options for BIOS and UEFI should also be enabled in the
kernel's /boot/config-version file - the CONFIG_EARLY_PRINTK= and
CONFIG_EARLY_PRINTK_EFI= options must be set to the y value. They are
enabled by default, but if you disabled them, you may need to mount the
/boot partition in rescue mode and edit the configuration file to re-enable
them.
10.2. TROUBLE BEGINNING THE INSTALLATION
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation
program. If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in
a lower resolution mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text
mode.
One possible solution is to use only a basic video driver during installation. You can do this
either by selecting Install system with basic video driver on the boot menu, or using
the xdriver=vesa boot option at the boot prompt. Alternatively, you can force the installer
to use a specific screen resolution with the resolution= boot option. This option may be
most helpful for laptop users. Another solution to try is the driver= option to specify the
driver that should be loaded for your video card. If this works, you should report it as a bug,
because the installer failed to detect your video card automatically. Refer to Chapter 28,
Boot Options for more information on boot options.
NOTE
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in
text mode, try using the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary
for accessibility with some screen reading hardware.
10.3. TROUBLE DURING THE INSTALLATION
10.3.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error
Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the
installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver update is available that fixes
your problem. For more general information on driver updates, refer to Chapter 6, Updating
Drivers During Installation on Intel and AMD Systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
https://hardware.redhat.com/
10.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages
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If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you
with a crash reporting dialog box:
Figure 10.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
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Figure 10.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
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Figure 10.3. Select reporter
Logger
saves details of the error as a log file to the local hard drive at a specified location.
Red Hat Customer Support
submits the crash report to Customer Support for assistance.
Report uploader
uploads a compressed version of the crash report to Bugzilla or a URL of your choice.
Before submitting the report, click Preferences to specify a destination or provide
authentication details. Select the reporting method you need to configure and click
Configure Event.
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Figure 10.4. Configure reporter preferences
Logger
Specify a path and a filename for the log file. Check Append if you are adding to an
existing log file.
Figure 10.5. Specify local path for log file
Red Hat Customer Support
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Enter your Red Hat Network username and password so your report reaches Customer
Support and is linked with your account. The URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked
by default.
Figure 10.6. Enter Red Hat Network authentication details
Report uploader
Specify a URL for uploading a compressed version of the crash report.
Figure 10.7. Enter URL for uploading crash report
Bugzilla
Enter your Bugzilla username and password to lodge a bug with Red Hat's bug-tracking
system using the crash report. The URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by
default.
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Figure 10.8. Enter Bugzilla authentication details
Once you have entered your preferences, click OK to return to the report selection dialog.
Select how you would like to report the problem and then click Forward.
Figure 10.9. Confirm report data
You can now customize the report by checking and unchecking the issues that will be
included. When finished, click Apply.
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Figure 10.10. Report in progress
This screen displays the outcome of the report, including any errors in sending or saving
the log. Click Forward to proceed.
Figure 10.11. Reporting done
Reporting is now complete. Click Forward to return to the report selection dialog. You can
now make another report, or click Close to exit the reporting utility and thenExit to close
the installation process.
10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
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If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning
Setup”) phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it
must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not
be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems,
causing data to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began)
that could not be recovered.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on
your systems should always be made.
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to
use the remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want
the / (root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
10.3.5. The "drive must have a GPT disk label" Error Message
When installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system with UEFI system and using a disk
with an existing partitioning layout as the boot drive (the drive where the boot loader is
installed), you may encounter the following error message during custom partitioning:
sda must have a GPT disk label
This happens because the boot drive (in this case, sda) has a Master Boot Record (MBR)
label, but UEFI systems require a GUID Partition Table (GPT) label. Therefore you can not
reuse an existing partitioning layout on a MBR-labeled drive; the disk must be relabeled,
which means you will have to create a new partition layout and lose all existing data.
To work around this problem, go back to the screen where you select your partitioning
strategy. Select an option other than custom partitioning (for exampleUse All Space).
Make sure to check the Review and modify partitioning layout check box, and click
Next.
On the following screen, modify the automatically created layout so it suits your needs.
After you finish and click Next, Anaconda will use your layout and relabel the drive
automatically.
You can also solve this issue by using a Kickstart file or by relabeling the disk using a
different system before you begin the installation. See Section 3.5.2, “Disk Drives with MBR
on UEFI Systems” for details. Also see Section A.1.2, “Partitions: Turning One Drive Into
Many” for additional information about MBR and GPT.
10.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have
not created all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
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You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
A / (root) partition
A <swap> partition of type swap
Refer to Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for more information.
NOTE
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point.
Anaconda automatically assigns the mount point for you.
10.4. PROBLEMS AFTER INSTALLATION
10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based
System?
If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot
screen. To do this, become the root user and edit the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
Within the grub.conf file, comment out the line which begins withsplashimage by
inserting the # character at the beginning of the line.
Press Enter to exit the editing mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file is reread and any changes you have made take effect.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line
back into the grub.conf file.
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop
environment once you log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical
interface using the command startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is
displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for
future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one
file, /etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are
finished, reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical
login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su
command.
Now, type the following to edit the file with gedit.
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gedit /etc/inittab
The file /etc/inittab opens. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like
the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have
networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.

WARNING
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A
window appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical
login prompt.
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have
installed it during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation media or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or
both, during the upgrade package selection process.
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a
desktop environment.
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
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If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a
full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information
about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the-h option used in this
example), refer to the df man page by typingman df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/
and /tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room
on that partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as
the user that was unsuccessful before.
10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by
pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for edit
when the GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the
configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
single
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must
type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can
type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become
root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, typepasswd
<username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues.
The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
https://hardware.redhat.com/
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this
with the cat /proc/meminfo command.
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Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system.
If they are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
# all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client (2.6.32.130.el6.i686)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz-(2.6.32.130.el6.i686 ro root=UUID=04a07c13-e6bf-6d5a-b207002689545705 mem=1024M
initrd /initrd-(2.6.32.130.el6.i686.img
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list
of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. PressEnter to boot.
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work
properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch thePrinter
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
10.4.8. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During
Startup
If Apache HTTP Server (httpd) or Sendmail stops responding during startup, make sure
the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
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PART II. IBM POWER SYSTEMS — INSTALLATION AND
BOOTING
This part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide includes information about
installation and basic post-installation troubleshooting for IBM Power Systems servers. IBM
Power Systems servers include IBM PowerLinux servers and POWER7 and POWER6
Power Systems servers running Linux.
For advanced installation options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced Installation Options”.
IMPORTANT
Previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux supported 32-bit and 64-bit
Power Systems servers (ppc and ppc64 respectively). Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 supports only 64-bit Power Systems servers (ppc64).
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CHAPTER 11. PLANNING FOR INSTALLATION ON
POWER SYSTEMS SERVERS
11.1. UPGRADE OR INSTALL?
While automated in-place upgrades are now supported, the support is currently limited to
AMD64 and Intel 64 systems. If you have an existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
on an IBM Power Systems server, you must perform a clean install to migrate to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 7. A clean install is performed by backing up all data from the system,
formatting disk partitions, performing an installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 from
installation media, and then restoring any user data.
11.2. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
For installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on IBM Power Systems servers, Red Hat
supports hard drives connected by a standard internal interface, such as SCSI, SATA, or
SAS.
Fibre Channel Host Bus Adapters and multipath devices are supported. Vendor-provided
drivers may be required for certain hardware.
Virtualized installation on Power Systems servers is also supported when using Virtual SCSI
(vSCSI) adapters in virtual client LPARs.
Note that Red Hat does not support installation to USB drives or SD memory cards.
11.3. INSTALLATION TOOLS
IBM Installation Toolkit is an optional tool that speeds up the installation of Linux and is
especially helpful for those unfamiliar with Linux. Use the IBM Installation Toolkit for the
following actions: [5]
Install and configure Linux on a non-virtualized Power Systems server.
Install and configure Linux on servers with previously-configured logical partitions
(LPARs, also known as virtualized servers).
Install IBM service and productivity tools on a new or previously installed Linux
system. The IBM service and productivity tools include dynamic logical partition
(DLPAR) utilities.
Upgrade system firmware level on Power Systems servers.
Perform diagnostics or maintenance operations on previously installed systems.
Migrate a LAMP server (software stack) and application data from a System x to a
System p system. A LAMP server is a bundle of open source software. LAMP is an
acronym for Linux, Apache HTTP Server, MySQL relational database, and PHP
(Perl or Python) scripting language.
Documentation for the IBM Installation Toolkit for PowerLinux is available in the Linux
Information Center at http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/lnxinfo/v3r0m0/index.jsp?
topic=%2Fliaan%2Fpowerpack.htm
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PowerLinux service and productivity tools is an optional set of tools that include hardware
service diagnostic aids, productivity tools, and installation aids for Linux operating systems
on IBM servers based on POWER7, POWER6, POWER5, and POWER4 technology.
Documentation for the service and productivity tools is available in the Linux Information
Center at http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/lnxinfo/v3r0m0/index.jsp?
topic=%2Fliaau%2Fliaauraskickoff.htm
11.4. PREPARATION FOR IBM POWER SYSTEMS SERVERS
IMPORTANT
Ensure that the real-base boot parameter is set to c00000, otherwise you
might see errors such as:
DEFAULT CATCH!, exception-handler=fff00300
IBM Power Systems servers offer many options for partitioning, virtual or native devices,
and consoles.
If you are using a non-partitioned system, you do not need any pre-installation setup. For
systems using the HVSI serial console, hook up your console to the T2 serial port.
If using a partitioned system the steps to create the partition and start the installation are
largely the same. You should create the partition at the HMC and assign some CPU and
memory resources, as well as SCSI and Ethernet resources, which can be either virtual or
native. The HMC create partition wizard steps you through the creation.
For more information on creating the partition, refer to the Partitioning for Linux with an
HMC PDF in the IBM Systems Hardware Information Center at:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/powersys/v3r1m5/topic/iphbi_p5/iphbibook.pdf
If you are using virtual SCSI resources, rather than native SCSI, you must configure a 'link'
to the virtual SCSI serving partition, and then configure the virtual SCSI serving partition
itself. You create a 'link' between the virtual SCSI client and server slots using the HMC. You
can configure a virtual SCSI server on either Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) or IBM i, depending on
which model and options you have.
If you are installing using Intel iSCSI Remote Boot, all attached iSCSI storage devices must
be disabled. Otherwise, the installation will succeed but the installed system will not boot.
For more information on using virtual devices, see the IBM Redbooks publication
Virtualizing an Infrastructure with System p and Linux at: http://publibb.boulder.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247499.html
Once you have your system configured, you need to Activate from the HMC or power it on.
Depending on what type of install you are doing, you may need to configure SMS to
correctly boot the system into the installation program.
11.5. RAID AND OTHER DISK DEVICES
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IMPORTANT
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation
onto Intel BIOS RAID sets. These sets are detected automatically, and devices
with Intel ISW metadata are recognized as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that
the device node names of any such devices under mdraid are different from
their device node names under dmraid. Therefore, special precautions are
necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files
which refer to devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating these files, you must therefore edit them
to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead. You can find the
UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.
11.5.1. Hardware RAID
RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as
a single device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer,
or attached controller cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID
array appears as one drive within Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to
operate several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional
hardware.
11.5.2. Software RAID
You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software
RAID arrays, where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than
dedicated hardware. These functions are explained in detail in Section 16.17, “ Creating a
Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”.
11.5.3. FireWire and USB Disks
Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect
them to avoid any confusion.
NOTE
You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after
installation. Most such devices are automatically recognized and available for
use once connected.
11.6. DO YOU HAVE ENOUGH DISK SPACE?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have
to work with disk partitions. If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a
quick review of the basic concepts), refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions
before proceeding.
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The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space
used by other OSes you may have installed on your system.
Before you start the installation process, you must
have enough unpartitioned[6] disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, or
have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk
space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended
partitioning sizes discussed in Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
11.7. CHOOSE A BOOT METHOD
Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product,
you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that
supports booting from it. Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an
installation DVD.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD. After you boot
the system with boot CD, you complete the installation from a different installation source,
such as a local hard drive or a location on a network. Refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal
Boot Media” for instructions on making boot CDs.
[5] Parts of this section were previously published at IBM's Linux information for IBM systems
resource at http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/lnxinfo/v3r0m0/index.jsp?
topic=%2Fliaay%2Ftools_overview.htm
[6] Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drives you are installing to
has not been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a
separate disk drive.
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CHAPTER 12. PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION
12.1. PREPARING FOR A NETWORK INSTALLATION
IMPORTANT
The eHEA module fails to initialize if 16 GB huge pages are assigned to a
system or partition and the kernel command line does not contain the huge
page parameters. Therefore, when you perform a network installation through
an IBM eHEA ethernet adapter, you cannot assign huge pages to the system
or partition during the installation. Large pages should work.
NOTE
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your
system's CD or DVD drive if you are performing a network-based installation.
Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a
flash drive.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network
installation (via NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS) or installation via local storage. Use the following
steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS installation.
The NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server to be used for installation over the network must be a
separate, network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the
installation DVD-ROM.
NOTE
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It
works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat
recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type
the following command at the yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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NOTE
The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, HTTP,
or HTTPS is mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the
local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6.9 on the network server can be
accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.9.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that
will contain the installation files will be specified as
/location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be made publicly available
via FTP, NFS, HTTP, or HTTPS will be specified as /publicly_available_directory.
For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called
/var/isos. /publicly_available_directory might be
/var/www/html/rhel6.9, for an HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact
copy of the content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following
command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting
ISO image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the
resulting ISO image will be stored.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation
staging server, continue with either Section 12.1.1, “Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS
Installation” or Section 12.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS Installation”.
12.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation

WARNING
If your Apache web server or tftp FTP server configuration enables SSL
security, make sure to only enable the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2
and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566).
See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1232413 for details about
securing Apache, and https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234773 for
information about securing tftp.
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory
that is shared over FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS, and verify client
access. Test to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from
another machine on the same subnet to which you will be installing.
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
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For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is
sufficient to make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the
product.img file available on the network server via NFS.
1. Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /publicly_available_directory/
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and publicly_available_directory is a directory that is available
over NFS or that you intend to make available over NFS.
2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is
intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating
systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum
program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the
hash displayed for this particular image on the Downloads page in the Red Hat
Customer Portal (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two
hashes should be identical.
3. Copy the images/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in
which you stored the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the
image while you copy files from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
The ISO image file and an images/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the
same directory.
4. Verify that the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without
which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain
the product.img file, without which only the packages for aMinimal installation will
be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 16.19,
“Package Group Selection”).
IMPORTANT
install.img and product.img must be the only files in theimages/
directory.
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5. Ensure that an entry for the publicly available directory exists in the /etc/exports
file on the network server so that the directory is available via NFS.
To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly_available_directory client.ip.address (ro)
To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly_available_directory * (ro)
6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system, use /sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the
configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs
reload).
7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Deployment Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting
and stopping the NFS server.
NOTE
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It
works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type
the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
12.2. PREPARING FOR A HARD DRIVE INSTALLATION
NOTE
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems.
You cannot use a hard drives formatted for any other file system as an
installation source for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating
system, use the Disk Management tool. To check the file system of a hard
drive partition on a Linux operating system, use the fdisk tool.
IMPORTANT
You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume
Management).
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or
network connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
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an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact
copy of the content of a DVD.
an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation
source when you boot the installation program (refer to Section 15.3, “Installation
Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a
flash drive.
To prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to
Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD
on physical media, you can create an image of it with the following command on a
Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the
resulting ISO image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your
system where the resulting ISO image will be stored.
2. Transfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
The ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the
computer on which you will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that
is attached to that computer by USB.
3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is
intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating
systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum
program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the
hash displayed for this particular image on the Downloads page in the Red Hat
Customer Portal (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two
hashes should be identical.
4. Copy the images/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in
which you stored the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the
image while you copy files from the image. For example:
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mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
The ISO image file and an images/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the
same directory.
5. Verify that the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without
which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain
the product.img file, without which only the packages for aMinimal installation will
be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17,
“Package Group Selection”).
IMPORTANT
install.img and product.img must be the only files in theimages/
directory.
NOTE
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It
works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type
the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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CHAPTER 13. UPDATING DRIVERS DURING
INSTALLATION ON IBM POWER SYSTEMS SERVERS
In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make
up your system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very
recently, drivers for this hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update
that provides support for a new device might be available from Red Hat or your hardware
vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm packages. Typically, the driver disc is available for
download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if
you use a DVD to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for
your network card are not available. In situations like this, complete the installation and
add support for the piece of hardware afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver Update
rpm Packages” for details of adding this support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation
process to support a particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers
for a network device or a storage adapter card to give the installer access to the storage
devices that your system uses. You can use a driver disc to add this support during
installation in one of two ways:
1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
1. on a local hard drive
2. a USB flash drive
2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
1. a CD
2. a DVD
Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an
Installation DVD” for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a
driver update during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from
the methods described in this chapter and test it before beginning the installation.
Conversely, do not perform a driver update during installation unless you are certain that
your system requires it. Although installing an unnecessary driver update will not cause
harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was not intended can complicate
support.
13.1. LIMITATIONS OF DRIVER UPDATES DURING
INSTALLATION
Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide
drivers during installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has
already loaded. Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the
installation program loaded and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you
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need the new drivers for the installation process, consider performing an initial RAM disk
driver update — refer to Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update”.
Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers
for a device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For
example, consider a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a
driver update available. The installation program will initialize both adapters at the same
time, and therefore, you will not be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the
installation with the drivers loaded by the installation program and update to the new
drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk driver update.
13.2. PREPARING FOR A DRIVER UPDATE DURING
INSTALLATION
If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third
party such as the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in
ISO format. Some methods of performing a driver update require you to make the image
file available to the installation program, while others require you to use the image file to
make a driver update disk:
Methods that use the image file itself
local hard drive
USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
CD
DVD
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 13.2.1, “Preparing to
Use a Driver Update Image File”, Section 13.2.2, “Preparing a Driver Disc”, or
Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update”. Note that you can use a USB
storage device either to provide an image file, or as a driver update disk.
13.2.1. Preparing to Use a Driver Update Image File
13.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
To make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash
drive, you must first determine whether you want to install the updates automatically or
select them manually.
For manual installations, copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if
you find it helpful to do so, but you must not change the filename extension, which must
remain .iso. In the following example, the file is nameddd.iso:
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Figure 13.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. This
differs from driver discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. The ISO
image file contains all of the files that would normally be on a driver disc.
Refer to Section 13.3.2, “Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update”and
Section 13.3.3, “Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk”to learn how to select
the driver update manually during installation.
For automatic installations, you will need to extract the ISO to the root directory of the
storage device rather than simply copy it. Copying the ISO is only effective for manual
installations. You must also change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV.
The installation program will then automatically examine it for driver updates and load any
that it detects. This behavior is controlled by the dlabel=on boot option, which is enabled
by default. Refer to Section 6.3.1, “Let the Installer Find a Driver Update Disk
Automatically”.
13.2.2. Preparing a Driver Disc
You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.
13.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disc on CD or DVD
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IMPORTANT
CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux
desktop, or a different operating system altogether, you will need to use
another piece of software to create the CD or DVD. The steps will be generally
similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from
image files. While this is true of most CD and DVD burning software,
exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry labeled burn from image or
similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the resulting
disc will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image
file.
1. Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied
to you by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Figure 13.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
2. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to
the following:
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Figure 13.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
3. Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive,CD/DVD Creator
will prompt you to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disc CD or DVD, verify that the disc was created successfully
by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a
single file named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
Figure 13.4. Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disc correctly and
should try again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from image if you use a
Linux desktop other than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.
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Refer to Section 13.3.2, “Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update”and
Section 13.3.3, “Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk”to learn how to use the
driver update disc during installation.
13.2.3. Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update
IMPORTANT
This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot
perform a driver update with any other method.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can load updates for itself early in the
installation process from a RAM disk — an area of your computer's memory that temporarily
behaves as if it were a disk. You can use this same capability to load driver updates. To
perform a driver update during installation, your computer must be able to boot from a
yaboot installation server, and you must have one available on your network. Refer to
Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for instructions on using a yaboot installation
server.
To make the driver update available on your installation server:
1. Place the driver update image file on your installation server. Usually, you would do
this by downloading it to the server from a location on the Internet specified by Red
Hat or your hardware vendor. Names of driver update image files end in .iso.
2. Copy the driver update image file into the /tmp/initrd_update directory.
3. Rename the driver update image file to dd.img.
4. At the command line, change into the /tmp/initrd_update directory, type the
following command, and press Enter:
find . | cpio --quiet -o -H newc | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
5. Copy the file /tmp/initrd_update.img into the directory the holds the target that
you want to use for installation. This directory is placed under the
/var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/ directory. For example,
/var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/rhel6/ might hold the yaboot installation target for
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
6. Edit the /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/yaboot.conf file to include an entry that
includes the initial RAM disk update that you just created, in the following format:
image=target/vmlinuz
label=target-dd
initrd=target/initrd.img,target/dd.img
Where target is the target that you want to use for installation.
Refer to Section 13.3.4, “Select an Installation Server Target That Includes a Driver Update”
to learn how to use an initial RAM disk update during installation.
Example 13.1. Preparing an initial RAM disk update from a driver update
image file
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In this example, driver_update.iso is a driver update image file that you downloaded
from the Internet to a directory on your installation server. The target on your
installation server that you want to boot from is located in
/var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/rhel6/
At the command line, change to the directory that holds the file and enter the following
commands:
$
$
$
$
cp driver_update.iso /tmp/initrd_update/dd.img
cd /tmp/initrd_update
find . | cpio --quiet -c -o -H newc | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
cp /tmp/initrd_update.img /tftpboot/yaboot/rhel6/dd.img
Edit the /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/yaboot.conf file and include the following entry:
image=rhel6/vmlinuz
label=rhel6-dd
initrd=rhel6/initrd.img,rhel6/dd.img
13.3. PERFORMING A DRIVER UPDATE DURING
INSTALLATION
You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
13.3.1. Let the Installer Find a Driver Update Disk Automatically
Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation
process. The installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates
that it detects and will not prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 13.2.1.1,
“Preparing to use an image file on local storage” to prepare a storage device for the
installer to find.
13.3.2. Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update
1. Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the
installer cannot load drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the
installation process (for example, if it cannot detect any network or storage
controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
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Figure 13.5. The no driver found dialog
2. Select Use a driver disk and refer to Section 13.4, “Specifying the Location of a
Driver Update Image File or a Driver Update Disk”.
13.3.3. Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk
IMPORTANT
This method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update
existing drivers.
1. Type linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press
Enter. The installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
Figure 13.6. The driver disk prompt
2. Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and
select Yes. The installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is
only one possible location that could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer
detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no other storage devices) it will
automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it
prompts you to specify the location of the update. See Section 13.4, “Specifying the
Location of a Driver Update Image File or a Driver Update Disk”.
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13.3.4. Select an Installation Server Target That Includes a Driver
Update
1. Configure the computer to boot from the network interface by selecting Select
Boot Options in the SMS menu, thenSelect Boot/Install Device. Finally, select
your network device from the list of available devices.
2. In the yaboot installation server environment, choose the boot target that you
prepared on your installation server. For example, if you labeled this environment
rhel6-dd in the /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/yaboot.conf file on your installation
server, type rhel6-dd at the prompt and press Enter.
Refer to Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update” and Chapter 30, Setting Up
an Installation Server for instructions on using a yaboot installation server to perform an
update during installation. Note that this is an advanced procedure — do not attempt it
unless other methods of performing a driver update fail.
13.4. SPECIFYING THE LOCATION OF A DRIVER UPDATE
IMAGE FILE OR A DRIVER UPDATE DISK
If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it
prompts you to select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the
device on which the driver update is stored, try the various options in order until you find
the correct one.
Figure 13.7. Selecting a driver disk source
If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt
you to make another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the
driver update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could
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contain more than one partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition
or not), the installer might prompt you to select the partition that holds the driver update.
Figure 13.8. Selecting a driver disk partition
The installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Figure 13.9. Selecting an ISO image
Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on
a USB storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with
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a driver update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary
storage area (located in system RAM and not on disk). The installer might ask whether you
would like to use additional driver updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional
updates in turn. When you have no further driver updates to load, select No. If you stored
the driver update on removable media, you can now safely eject or disconnect the disk or
device. The installer no longer requires the driver update, and you can re-use the media for
other purposes.
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CHAPTER 14. BOOTING THE INSTALLER
IMPORTANT
Graphical installation is recommended. Because Power Systems servers
primarily use text consoles, anaconda will not automatically start a graphical
installation. However, the graphical installer offers more features and
customization and is recommended if your system has a graphical display.
To start a graphical installation, pass the vnc boot option (refer to
Section 28.2.1, “Enabling Remote Access with VNC”).
IMPORTANT
On some machines yaboot may not boot, returning the error message:
Cannot load initrd.img: Claim failed for initrd memory at
02000000 rc=ffffffff
To work around this issue, change real-base to c00000. You can obtain the
value of real-base from the OpenFirmware prompt with theprintenv
command and set the value with the setenv command.
To boot an IBM Power Systems server from a DVD, you must specify the install boot device
in the System Management Services (SMS) menu.
To enter the System Management Services GUI, press the 1 key during the boot process
when you hear the chime sound. This brings up a graphical interface similar to the one
described in this section.
On a text console, press 1 when the self test is displaying the banner along with the tested
components:
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Figure 14.1. SMS console
Once in the SMS menu, select the option for Select Boot Options. In that menu, specify
Select Install or Boot a Device. There, select CD/DVD, and then the bus type (in most
cases SCSI). If you are uncertain, you can select to view all devices. This scans all available
buses for boot devices, including network adapters and hard drives.
Finally, select the device containing the installation DVD. Yaboot is loaded from this device
and you are presented with a boot: prompt. To begin a graphical installation, pass thevnc
boot option now. Otherwise. press Enter or wait for the timeout to expire for the
installation to begin.
Use yaboot with vmlinuz and ramdisk to boot your system over a network. You cannot use
the ppc64.img to boot over a network; the file is too large for TFTP.
14.1. THE BOOT MENU
The installer displays the boot: prompt. For example:
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time since release of system processors: 276 mins 49 secs
System has 128 Mbytes in RMA
Config file read, 227 bytes
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Welcome to the 64-bit Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0 installer!
Hit <TAB> for boot options.
Welcome to yaboot version 1.3.14 (Red Hat 1.3.14-35.el6)
Enter "help" to get some basic usage information
boot:
To proceed with installation, type linux and press Enter.
You can also specify boot options at this prompt; refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for more
information. For example, to use the installer to rescue a previously installed system, type
linux rescue and press Enter.
The following example shows the vnc boot option being passed to begin a graphical
installation:
boot:
* linux
boot: linux vnc
Please wait, loading kernel...
14.2. INSTALLING FROM A DIFFERENT SOURCE
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a
network using NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS methods. Experienced users frequently use one of
these methods because it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server
than from a DVD.
The following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation
methods to use with each:
Table 14.1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method
Installation source
Installation DVD
DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive
Installation DVD, network, or hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD
Network or hard disk
Refer to Section 3.7, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from
locations other than the media with which you booted the system.
14.3. BOOTING FROM THE NETWORK USING A YABOOT
INSTALLATION SERVER
To boot with a yaboot installation server, you need a properly configured server, and a
network interface in your computer that can support an installation server. For information
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on how to configure an installation server, refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation
Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface by selecting Select Boot
Options in the SMS menu, thenSelect Boot/Install Device. Finally, select your network
device from the list of available devices.
Once you properly configure booting from an installation server, the computer can boot the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system without any other media.
To boot a computer from a yaboot installation server:
1. Ensure that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network
socket should be lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
2. Switch on the computer.
3. A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired
option.
If your PC does not boot from the network installation server, ensure that the SMS is
configured to boot first from the correct network interface. Refer to your hardware
documentation for more information.
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CHAPTER 15. CONFIGURING LANGUAGE AND
INSTALLATION SOURCE
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and
installation source.
15.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
IMPORTANT
We recommend that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical
interface. If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks
a graphical display, consider performing the installation over a VNC
connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If anaconda detects that
you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC
connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to
install in text mode even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try
booting with the xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the
on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces.Figure 15.1, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 15.2, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in Choose a Language”, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the
installation process.
Figure 15.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
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Figure 15.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
The widgets include:
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your
screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay
another; in these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you
are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you to continue working in the
window underneath.
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays
either an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a
checkbox, press Space to select or deselect a feature.
Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required
by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may
enter and/or edit information on that line.
Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At
times, text widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text
widget contains more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it,
a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then
use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your
current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which
part of a list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it
easy to move to any part of a file.
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the
installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program
by navigating these buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected
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when they are highlighted.
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a
particular widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the
widget to change color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to
the widget. In Figure 15.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the
cursor is positioned on the Enable HTTP proxy checkbox. Figure 8.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on theOK
button.
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes.
To move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab
to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most
screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press
Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish
to select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the
checkbox and press Space to select an item. To deselect, pressSpace a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to
pressing the OK button.

WARNING
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during
the installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
15.2. LANGUAGE SELECTION
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation
process (refer to Figure 15.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language
highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm
your choice.
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system
once it is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone
configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the
appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package
selection stage. For more information, refer to Section 16.19.2, “ Customizing the Software
Selection ”.
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Figure 15.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
15.3. INSTALLATION METHOD
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 15.4,
“Installation Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press theTab key to move
to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 15.4. Installation Method
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15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.1.1. Installing from a DVD
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot
your system from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux from DVD media.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive.
It starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) DVD drive.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you
to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You
may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI
adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the
option to perform a media check on the DVD. This will take some time, and you may opt to
skip over this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should
reboot and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check
dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 16.5,
“Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is,
you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to
name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option, you already specified a partition.
Figure 15.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE,
SATA, SCSI, and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its
own letter, for example /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example
/dev/sda1.
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Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive
that contains the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter
this information:
Table 15.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type
Volume
Original path to
files
Directory to use
VFAT
D:\
D:\Downloads\RHEL6.
9
/Downloads/RHEL6.9
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6.9
/user1/RHEL6.9
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO
images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the
directory holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which
the ISO images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you
would enter /new/.
IMPORTANT
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed withChapter 16, Installing Using Anaconda.
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
When you start an installation with the askmethod or repo= options, you can install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from a network server using FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, or NFS protocols.
Anaconda uses the same network connection to consult additional software repositories
later in the installation process.
If your system has more than one network device, anaconda presents you with a list of all
available devices and prompts you to select one to use during installation. If your system
only has a single network device, anaconda automatically selects it and does not present
this dialog.
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Figure 15.6. Networking Device
If you are not sure which device in the list corresponds to which physical socket on the
system, select a device in the list then press the Identify button. The Identify NIC
dialog appears.
Figure 15.7. Identify NIC
The sockets of most network devices feature an activity light (also called a link light) — an
LED that flashes to indicate that data is flowing through the socket. Anaconda can flash
the activity light of the network device that you selected in the Networking Device dialog
for up to 30 seconds. Enter the number of seconds that you require, then press OK. When
anaconda finishes flashing the light, it returns you to theNetworking Device dialog.
When you select a network device, anaconda prompts you to choose how to configure
TCP/IP:
IPv4 options
Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP)
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Anaconda uses DHCP running on the network to supply the network configuration
automatically.
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP
address for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
IPv6 options
Automatic
Anaconda uses router advertisement (RA) and DHCP for automatic configuration, based
on the network environment. (Equivalent to the Automatic option in NetworkManager)
Automatic, DHCP only
Anaconda does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to create a
stateful configuration. (Equivalent to the Automatic, DHCP only option in
NetworkManager)
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP
address for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
Anaconda supports the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. However, if you configure an interface to
use both IPv4 and IPv6, the IPv4 connection must succeed or the interface will not work,
even if the IPv6 connection succeeds.
Figure 15.8. Configure TCP/IP
By default, anaconda uses DHCP to provide network settings automatically for IPv4 and
automatic configuration to provide network settings for IPv6. If you choose to configure
TCP/IP manually, anaconda prompts you to provide the details in theManual TCP/IP
Configuration dialog:
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Figure 15.9. Manual TCP/IP Configuration
The dialog provides fields for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and prefixes, depending on the
protocols that you chose to configure manually, together with fields for the network
gateway and name server. Enter the details for your network, then press OK.
When the installation process completes, it will transfer these settings to your system.
If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 15.3.4, “Installing via NFS”.
If you are installing via Web or FTP, proceed to Section 15.3.5, “Installing via FTP,
HTTP, or HTTPS”.
15.3.4. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method
dialog. If you used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Figure 15.10. NFS Setup Dialog
1. Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server in the NFS server name
field. For example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain
example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com.
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2. Enter the name of the exported directory in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9
directory field:
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
tree, enter the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. If
everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the
installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
DVD, enter the directory which contains the ISO image.
If you followed the setup described in Section 12.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS
Installation”, the exported directory is the one that you specified as
publicly_available_directory.
3. Specify any NFS mount options that you require in the NFS mount options field.
Refer to the man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options. If
you do not require any mount options, leave the field empty.
4. Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing Using Anaconda.
15.3.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
IMPORTANT
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify
http:// or https:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server (if you
selected URL in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information
about the FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or repo=http boot options, you already specified a server
and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS site from which you are installing,
and the name of the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For
example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6.9/Server/ppc64/
To install via a secure HTTPS connection, specify https:// as the protocol.
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username,
and password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that
files are being retrieved from the server.
If your FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server requires user authentication, specify user and password
as part of the URL as follows:
{ftp|http|https}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:rhel6.9pw@name.example.com/mirrors/redhat/rhel6.9/Server/ppc64/
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Figure 15.11. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing Using Anaconda.
15.4. VERIFYING MEDIA
The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes
occur while producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the
installation program can cause the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data
errors affecting the installation, verify the media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails,
create a new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
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CHAPTER 16. INSTALLING USING ANACONDA
This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
16.1. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode
installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because
text mode presents you with a simpler, more streamlined installation process, certain
options that are available in graphical mode are not also available in text mode. These
differences are noted in the description of the installation process in this guide, and
include:
configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
customizing the partition layout
customizing the bootloader layout
selecting packages during installation
configuring the installed system with firstboot
16.2. THE GRAPHICAL INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this
process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you
to move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and keys expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a
highlighted item. You can also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of
clicking on buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any
underlined letter appearing within that screen.
If you would like to use a graphical installation with a system that does not have that
capability, such as a partitioned system, you can use VNC or display forwarding. Both the
VNC and display forwarding options require an active network during the installation and
the use of boot time arguments. For more information on available boot time options, refer
to Chapter 28, Boot Options
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NOTE
If you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode
installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation
program, use the following command at the yaboot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 14.1, “The Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot menu and to Section 15.1, “The Text Mode Installation
Program User Interface” for a brief overview of text mode installation
instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation
program. The GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation program, including LVM configuration which is
not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI
installation instructions and obtain all needed information.
16.3. A NOTE ABOUT LINUX VIRTUAL CONSOLES
This information only applies to users of non-partitioned System p systems using a video
card as their console. Users of partitioned System p systems should skip to Section 16.4,
“Using the HMC vterm”.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the
installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a
way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these
messages on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke
combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the
physical machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help
pinpoint a problem. Refer to Table 16.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of
the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical
installations unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Table 16.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
console
keystrokes
contents
1
ctrl+alt+f1
installation dialog
2
ctrl+alt+f2
shell prompt
3
ctrl+alt+f3
install log (messages from
installation program)
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console
keystrokes
contents
4
ctrl+alt+f4
system-related messages
5
ctrl+alt+f5
other messages
6
ctrl+alt+f6
x graphical display
16.4. USING THE HMC VTERM
The HMC vterm is the console for any partitioned IBM System p. This is opened by right
clicking on the partition on the HMC, and then selecting Open Terminal Window. Only a
single vterm can be connected to the console at one time and there is no console access
for partitioned system besides the vterm. This often is referred to as a 'virtual console', but
is different from the virtual consoles in Section 16.3, “A Note About Linux Virtual Consoles”
.
16.5. WELCOME TO RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input.
Figure 16.1. The Welcome screen
Click on the Next button to continue.
16.6. LANGUAGE SELECTION
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Using your mouse, select the language (for example, U.S. English) you would prefer to use
for the installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Figure 16.2. Language Configuration
16.7. KEYBOARD CONFIGURATION
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the
keyboard you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to
Figure 16.3, “Keyboard Configuration”).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
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Figure 16.3. Keyboard Configuration
NOTE
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the
installation, use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the
Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the
root password to continue.
16.8. STORAGE DEVICES
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. This screen
allows you to select either basic or specialized storage devices.
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Figure 16.4. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following
storage devices:
hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the
following storage devices:
Storage area networks (SANs)
Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
Firmware RAID devices
Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer
System Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage
attached to the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to
Section 16.9, “Setting the Hostname”.
NOTE
Monitoring of LVM and software RAID devices by the mdeventd daemon is not
performed during installation.
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16.8.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has
access.
Figure 16.5. Select storage devices — Basic devices
Figure 16.6. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
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Figure 16.7. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives
and solid-state drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
IMPORTANT
The installer only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers
that are 16 or 32 characters in length.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced Target and refer to
Section 16.8.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter
storage devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or
logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.
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Figure 16.8. The Storage Devices Search Tab
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional
values in the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the
device to help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to
the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data
presented on each device. For example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows
you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include
among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of
information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 16.9. Selecting Columns
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox
to make a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the
left of the column headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen.
Later in the installation process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto
any of the devices selected here, and can choose to automatically mount any of the other
devices selected here as part of the installed system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation
process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the
device at risk. Note also that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the
installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab
file.
IMPORTANT
Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from
anaconda entirely. To chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader
from a different boot loader, select all the devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click
Next and proceed to Section 16.13, “Initializing the Hard Disk”
16.8.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
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From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre
channel over ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, iSCSI Disks for an
introduction to iSCSI.
Figure 16.10. Advanced Storage Options
Select Add iSCSI target or Add FCoE SAN and click Add drive. If adding an iSCSI target,
optionally check the box labeled Bind targets to network interfaces.
16.8.1.1.1. Select and configure a network interface
The Advanced Storage Options screen lists the active network interfaces anaconda has
found on your system. If none are found, anaconda must activate an interface through
which to connect to the storage devices.
Click Configure Network on the Advanced Storage Options screen to configure and
activate one using NetworkManager to use during installation. Alternatively,anaconda
will prompt you with the Select network interface dialog after you click Add drive.
Figure 16.11. Select network interface
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1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
2. Click OK.
Anaconda then starts NetworkManager to allow you to configure the interface.
Figure 16.12. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 16.9, “Setting the Hostname”
16.8.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI parameters
To add an iSCSI target, select Add iSCSI target and click Add drive.
To use iSCSI storage devices for the installation, anaconda must be able to discover them
as iSCSI targets and be able to create an iSCSI session to access them. Each of these steps
might require a username and password for CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol) authentication. Additionally, you can configure an iSCSI target to authenticate the
iSCSI initiator on the system to which the target is attached (reverse CHAP), both for
discovery and for the session. Used together, CHAP and reverse CHAP are called mutual
CHAP or two-way CHAP. Mutual CHAP provides the greatest level of security for iSCSI
connections, particularly if the username and password are different for CHAP
authentication and reverse CHAP authentication.
Repeat the iSCSI discovery and iSCSI login steps as many times as necessary to add all
required iSCSI storage. However, you cannot change the name of the iSCSI initiator after
you attempt discovery for the first time. To change the iSCSI initiator name, you must
restart the installation.
Procedure 16.1. iSCSI discovery
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Procedure 16.1. iSCSI discovery
Use the iSCSI Discovery Details dialog to provide anaconda with the information that
it needs to discover the iSCSI target.
Figure 16.13. The iSCSI Discovery Details dialog
1. Enter the IP address of the iSCSI target in the Target IP Address field.
2. Provide a name in the iSCSI Initiator Name field for the iSCSI initiator in iSCSI
qualified name (IQN) format.
A valid IQN contains:
the string iqn. (note the period)
a date code that specifies the year and month in which your organization's
Internet domain or subdomain name was registered, represented as four digits
for the year, a dash, and two digits for the month, followed by a period. For
example, represent September 2010 as 2010-09.
your organization's Internet domain or subdomain name, presented in reverse
order with the top-level domain first. For example, represent the subdomain
storage.example.com as com.example.storage
a colon followed by a string that uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator
within your domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309.
A complete IQN therefore resembles: iqn.201009.storage.example.com:diskarrays-sn-a8675309, and anaconda pre-populates
the iSCSI Initiator Name field with a name in this format to help you with the
structure.
For more information on IQNs, refer to 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet
Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) available from
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1. iSCSI Names and Addresses in
RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Naming and
Discovery available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.
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3. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI
discovery:
Figure 16.14. iSCSI discovery authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
4.
If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and
password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username and CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 16.15. CHAP pair
If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type,
provide the username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username
and CHAP Password field and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator
in the Reverse CHAP Username and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 16.16. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
5. Click Start Discovery. Anaconda attempts to discover an iSCSI target based on
the information that you provided. If discovery succeeds, the iSCSI Discovered
Nodes dialog presents you with a list of all the iSCSI nodes discovered on the target.
6. Each node is presented with a checkbox beside it. Click the checkboxes to select the
nodes to use for installation.
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Figure 16.17. The iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
7. Click Login to initiate an iSCSI session.
Procedure 16.2. Starting an iSCSI session
Use the iSCSI Nodes Login dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs
to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target and start an iSCSI session.
Figure 16.18. The iSCSI Nodes Login dialog
1. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for the iSCSI
session:
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Figure 16.19. iSCSI session authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
Use the credentials from the discovery step
If your environment uses the same type of authentication and same username and
password for iSCSI discovery and for the iSCSI session, select Use the credentials
from the discovery step to reuse these credentials.
2.
If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and
password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 16.20. CHAP pair
If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type,
provide the username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username
and CHAP Password fields and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator
in the Reverse CHAP Username and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 16.21. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
3. Click Login. Anaconda attempts to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target based on
the information that you provided. The iSCSI Login Results dialog presents you
with the results.
Figure 16.22. The iSCSI Login Results dialog
4. Click OK to continue.
16.8.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
To configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
In the next dialog box that appears after you click Add drive, select the network interface
that is connected to your FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
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Figure 16.23. Configure FCoE Parameters
Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to
increase the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or
disable the installer's awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog. This should only
be set for networking interfaces that require a host-based DCBX client. Configurations on
interfaces that implement a hardware DCBX client should leave this checkbox empty.
Auto VLAN indicates whether VLAN discovery should be performed. If this box is checked,
then the FIP VLAN discovery protocol will run on the Ethernet interface once the link
configuration has been validated. If they are not already configured, network interfaces for
any discovered FCoE VLANs will be automatically created and FCoE instances will be
created on the VLAN interfaces.
16.9. SETTING THE HOSTNAME
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified
domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the
format hostname. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the
DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, specify the short host name
only.
NOTE
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is
unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
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Figure 16.24. Setting the hostname
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay
attention to additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your
upstream service provider. A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this
document.
NOTE
The installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices
after installation with the Network utility. The settings for your modem are
specific to your particular Internet Service Provider (ISP).
16.9.1. Editing Network Connections
IMPORTANT
When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 installation boots for the first time, it
activates any network interfaces that you configured during the installation
process. However, the installer does not prompt you to configure network
interfaces on some common installation paths, for example, when you install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a
local storage device, be sure to configure at least one network interface
manually if you require network access when the system boots for the first
time. You will need to select the Connect automatically option manually
when editing the connection.
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NOTE
To change your network configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the
Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the
root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by
NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
To configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. The
Network Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile
broadband, InfiniBand, VPN, DSL, VLAN, and bonded connections for the system using the
NetworkManager tool. A full description of all configurations possible with
NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. This section only details the most
typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation. Configuration of
other types of network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you must
configure are necessarily different.
Figure 16.25. Network Connections
To add a new connection, click Add and select a connection type from the menu. To modify
an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog box
appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as
described below. To remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to save the new
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configuration. If you reconfigured a device that was already active during installation, you
must restart the device to use the new configuration — refer to Section 9.7.1.6, “Restart a
network device”.
16.9.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Connect automatically to start the connection automatically when the system
boots.
When NetworkManager runs on an installed system, the Available to all users option
controls whether a network configuration is available system-wide or not. During
installation, ensure that Available to all users remains selected for any network
interface that you configure.
16.9.1.2. The Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change themedia access control (MAC) address for the
network adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can
pass through the interface.
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Figure 16.26. The Wired tab
16.9.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control
(PNAC). Select Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control,
then specify details of your network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
TLS for Transport Layer Security
Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS,
or EAP-TTLS
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Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished
Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show
password to make the password visible as you type it.
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Figure 16.27. The 802.1x Security tab
16.9.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously
selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to
obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network.
Choose from the following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on
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the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is
assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are
started, and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system
with network address translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of
the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use
the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of
DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the
Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This
name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a
connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box
to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4
configuration fails but IPv6 configuration succeeds.
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Figure 16.28. The IPv4 Settings tab
16.9.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP
addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4
routes dialog appears.
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Figure 16.29. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static
route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes
specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict
connections only to the local network.
16.9.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously
selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to
obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network.
Choose from the following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
NetworkManager uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless
configuration.
Automatic, addresses only
NetworkManager uses RA to create an automatic, stateless configuration, but DNS
servers and search domains are ignored and must be configured manually.
Automatic, DHCP only
NetworkManager does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to
create a stateful configuration.
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Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of
the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use
the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of
DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the
Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This
name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a
connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box
to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6
configuration fails but IPv4 configuration succeeds.
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Figure 16.30. The IPv6 Settings tab
16.9.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP
addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6
routes dialog appears.
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Figure 16.31. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static
route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict
connections only to the local network.
16.9.1.6. Restart a network device
If you reconfigured a network that was already in use during installation, you must
disconnect and reconnect the device in anaconda for the changes to take effect.
Anaconda uses interface configuration (ifcfg) files to communicate with
NetworkManager. A device becomes disconnected when its ifcfg file is removed, and
becomes reconnected when its ifcfg file is restored, as long as ONBOOT=yes is set. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 Deployment Guide available from
https://access.redhat.com/documentation/enUS/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Deployment_Guide/index.html for more information
about interface configuration files.
1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to virtual terminaltty2.
2. Move the interface configuration file to a temporary location:
mv /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-device_name /tmp
where device_name is the device that you just reconfigured. For example,ifcfgeth0 is the ifcfg file for eth0.
The device is now disconnected in anaconda.
3. Open the interface configuration file in the vi editor:
vi /tmp/ifcfg-device_name
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4. Verify that the interface configuration file contains the line ONBOOT=yes. If the file
does not already contain the line, add it now and save the file.
5. Exit the vi editor.
6. Move the interface configuration file back to the /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ directory:
mv /tmp/ifcfg-device_name /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
The device is now reconnected in anaconda.
7. Press Ctrl+Alt+F6 to return to anaconda.
16.10. TIME ZONE CONFIGURATION
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click
on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented
by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time
zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 16.32. Configuring the Time Zone
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System
clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red
Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local
time and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX,
Linux, and similar operating systems.
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Click Next to proceed.
NOTE
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch theTime
and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
16.11. SET THE ROOT PASSWORD
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most
system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
NOTE
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire
system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to
perform system maintenance or administration.
Figure 16.33. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your
general use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform
tasks that require superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the chances of a
typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
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NOTE
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then
press Enter. Then, enter the root password and pressEnter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password[7] for your system. . You
cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root
password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not
echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not
match, the installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that
is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals
with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or
420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down
your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write
down this or any password you create.

WARNING
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using
one of these passwords could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, run the passwd
command as root. If you forget the root password, seeResolving Problems in System
Recovery Modes in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide for instructions on
how to set a new one.
16.12. ASSIGN STORAGE DEVICES
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer
to Section 16.8, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices
should be available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be
attached to the file system for data storage. If you selected only one storage device,
anaconda does not present you with this screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are
mounted as part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
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Figure 16.34. Assign storage devices
The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for
data storage only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for
installation of the operating system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small dropdown menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu
allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the
amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the
button labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the
button labeled with a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for
installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each
device. Use this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device
for the system.
IMPORTANT
If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot loader, include that storage device among the Install
Target Devices. Storage devices that you identify asInstall Target
Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices on this screen
are not automatically erased by the installation process unless you selected
the Use All Space option on the partitioning screen (refer to Section 16.15,
“Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to
continue.
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16.13. INITIALIZING THE HARD DISK
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program
asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk
unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed,
or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it
cannot read a valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all
button to apply the same answer to all devices.
Figure 16.35. Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the
installation program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation
program responds to the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the
kickstart command zerombr (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations). This command is
required when performing an unattended installation on a system with previously initialized
disks.

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WARNING
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during
installation and detected and configured afterward, power off the system,
detach it, and restart the installation.
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16.14. UPGRADING AN EXISTING SYSTEM
IMPORTANT
The following sections only apply to upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux
between minor versions, for example, upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4
to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 or higher. This approach is not supported for
upgrades between major versions, for example, upgrading Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.
In-place upgrades between major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux can be
done, with certain limitations, using the Red Hat Upgrade Tool and
Preupgrade Assistant tools. See Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System
for more information.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but
does not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on
your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package
upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but
rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software
packages that you need to upgrade your computer.
16.14.1. The Upgrade Dialog
If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking
whether you want to upgrade that installation. To perform an upgrade of an existing
system, choose the appropriate installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
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Figure 16.36. The Upgrade Dialog
NOTE
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to
manually reinstall or recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure it
performs correctly on the updated system.
16.14.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
NOTE
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home
partition and perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions
and how to set them up, refer to Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not
provided by Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software
is overwritten. Before you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current
packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or
retrieve from sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
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su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important
data may include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from
services such as an Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system.
Although upgrades are not destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small
possibility of data loss.

WARNING
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home
directory. If your /home directory is not a separate partition, you should
not follow these examples verbatim! Store your backups on another
device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2,
“Finishing an Upgrade”.
16.15. DISK PARTITIONING SETUP

WARNING
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your
systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot
system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your storage
devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
IMPORTANT
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the
default partitioning schemes described in this section. You cannot add or
remove partitions or file systems beyond those that the installer automatically
adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at installation time, you
should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and
resizable filesystems are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
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IMPORTANT
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOS types do not support
booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must
be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard
drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with
problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select
Review and manually edit your /boot/ partition.
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple
operating systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
Figure 16.37. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different
ways, or choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to
partition your storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your
system, choose one of these options and let the installation program partition the storage
devices for you. Depending on the option that you choose, you can still control what data (if
any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions
created by other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).
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
WARNING
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is
removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you
have information that you want to keep on the hard drives where you
are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to
chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot
loader.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. This
does not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or
FAT32 partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default
Red Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.

WARNING
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed,
you might not be able to use those operating systems. Although this
partitioning option does not destroy data, operating systems typically
require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a
partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use
again, find out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there
is sufficient space available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to
Section 11.6, “Do You Have Enough Disk Space?”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts.
Refer to Section 16.17, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its
description in the dialog box.
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Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the/boot partition. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic
partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move
forward, the partitions created for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications
to these partitions if they do not meet your needs.
IMPORTANT
To configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a
different boot loader, you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose
any of the automatic partitioning options, you must now select the Review and
modify partitioning layout option before you click Next or you cannot
specify the correct boot drive.
IMPORTANT
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a system with multipath and
non-multipath storage devices, the automatic partitioning layout in the
installer might create volume groups that contain a mix of multipath and nonmultipath devices. This defeats the purpose of multipath storage.
We advise that you select only multipath or only non-multipath devices on the
disk selection screen that appears after selecting automatic partitioning.
Alternatively, select custom partitioning.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
16.16. CHOOSING A DISK ENCRYPTION PASSPHRASE
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with
which to encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for more information.
Figure 16.38. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must
provide this passphrase every time that the system boots.
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
WARNING
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on
them will become completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a
lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, you can save encryption passphrases and create backup
encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to Section C.3.2,
“Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
16.17. CREATING A CUSTOM LAYOUT OR MODIFYING THE
DEFAULT LAYOUT
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip
ahead to Section 16.18, “Write Changes to Disk”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either
accept the current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the
partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk
partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root (/) partition, a /boot/ partition,
PReP boot partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you
have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
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Figure 16.39. Partitioning on IBM System p
The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical
representation of the hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive
(such as /dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the
installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Doubleclick to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used
during installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 16.12, “
Assign Storage Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to
view or hide devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or
the name of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
Type
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the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of
file system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition
is a physical volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during
installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the
upper pane of in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out
the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing partition, logical volume, or software RAID. Note that you can only
shrink partitions with the Resize button, not enlarge partitions.
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
16.17.1. Create Storage
The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes,
and software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on
the storage already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
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Figure 16.40. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as
follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
Refer to Section 23.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software
RAID device. To form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be
available on the system.
RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device.
When you choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the
RAID level). This option is only available when two or more RAID partitions are
available on the system.
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Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 16.17.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes.
This option is only available when at least one physical volume is available on the
system.
LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is
only available when at least one volume group is available on the system.
16.17.2. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to
Figure 16.41, “Creating a New Partition”).
NOTE
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally
more. For more information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions.
Figure 16.41. Creating a New Partition
Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should
be the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You
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can also use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your
partition. For a swap partition the mount point should not be set — setting the
filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system
type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to
Section 16.17.2.1, “File System Types”.
Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your
system. If a hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on
that hard disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on
that hard disk. By using different checkbox settings, you can have anaconda place
partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide where partitions should
go.
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with
200 MB; unless changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to
allow it to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to
allow it to grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the
field to the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space
free on your hard drive for future use.
Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating
should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the
partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions Within
Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more information.
Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it
cannot be accessed without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to
another system. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption
of storage devices. If you select this option, the installer prompts you to provide a
passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the
partition.
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
16.17.2.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The
following is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available,
and how they can be used.
Partition types
standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap
space, or it can provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is
written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for
additional information.
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software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to
create a RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions
allows you to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when
using physical disks. For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number
of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files,
faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of
subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust
journaling. A maximum file system size of 16TB is supported for ext4. The ext4 file
system is selected by default and is highly recommended.
NOTE
The user_xattr and acl mount options are automatically set on ext4
systems by the installation system. These options enable extended
attributes and access control lists, respectively. More information about
mount options can be found in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage
Administration Guide.
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main
advantage — journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent
recovering a file system after a crash as there is no need to fsck [8] the file system.
A maximum file system size of 16TB is supported for ext3.
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files,
directories, symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up
to 255 characters.
xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports
filesystems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8
exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes) and directory structures containing
tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata journaling, which facilitates
quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented and resized
while mounted and active.
NOTE
The maximum size of an XFS partition the installer can create is 100
TB.
vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft
Windows long filenames on the FAT file system.
Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and
managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4
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file systems. Btrfs is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to
facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to
ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of the file
system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program
does not offer it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you
must commence the installation process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to
Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.

WARNING
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 includes Btrfs as a technology
preview to allow you to experiment with this file system. You
should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable
data or that are essential for the operation of important systems.
16.17.3. Create Software RAID
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage
devices that are arranged to provide increased performance and — in some configurations
— greater fault tolerance. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage Administration
Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID
partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only
choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog
that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 16.17.2, “Adding
Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, thatFile System
Type must be set to software RAID
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Figure 16.42. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID
partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been
configured.
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Figure 16.43. Create a RAID device
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually
select names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from
this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following
options:
RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer
increased performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the
storage of multiple devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS
offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys the
entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage
devices. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy.
RAID 1 requires at least two RAID partitions.
RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in
the array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device
within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device,
access to this device creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID
4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
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RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices.
Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data
across multiple devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4
RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5
requires at least three RAID partitions.
RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only
one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID
partitions.
RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are
constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For
example, a level 10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two
pairs of partitions in which one partition mirrors the other. Data is then
distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10
requires at least four RAID partitions.
16.17.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
IMPORTANT
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to
create an LVM configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different
virtual console, and run the lvm command. To return to the text-mode
installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical
storage space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are
represented as physical volumes that can be grouped together intovolume groups. Each
volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a
standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM logical volumes function as partitions that can span
multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note,
LVM is only available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This
option is the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume
Groups. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer
to Section 16.17.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note,
however, that File System Type must be set to physical volume (LVM)
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Figure 16.44. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical
volumes, or to add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
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Figure 16.45. Make LVM Volume Group
To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume
group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally,
configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave
insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group
made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical
volume. The installer would not allow you to remove either of the component physical
volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If
you reduce the total size of any logical volumes appropriately, you may then remove a
physical volume from the volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical
volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system
type, and size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a
name for the logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
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Figure 16.46. Make Logical Volume
16.17.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
partitions:
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — Swap partitions support virtual memory: data is
written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the
amount of RAM in the system. Modern systems often include hundreds of gigabytes
of RAM, however. As a consequence, recommended swap space is considered a
function of system memory workload, not system memory.
The following table provides the recommended size of a swap partition depending
on the amount of RAM in your system and whether you want sufficient memory for
your system to hibernate. The recommended swap partition size is established
automatically during installation. To allow for hibernation, however, you will need to
edit the swap space in the custom partitioning stage.
IMPORTANT
Recommendations in the table below are especially important on
systems with low memory (1 GB and less). Failure to allocate sufficient
swap space on these systems may cause issues such as instability or
even render the installed system unbootable.
Table 16.2. Recommended System Swap Space
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Amount of RAM in the
system
Recommended swap
space
Recommended swap
space if allowing for
hibernation
⩽ 2GB
2 times the amount of RAM
3 times the amount of RAM
> 2GB – 8GB
Equal to the amount of
RAM
2 times the amount of RAM
> 8GB – 64GB
At least 4 GB
1.5 times the amount of
RAM
> 64GB
At least 4 GB
Hibernation not
recommended
At the border between each range listed above (for example, a system with 2GB,
8GB, or 64GB of system RAM), discretion can be exercised with regard to chosen
swap space and hibernation support. If your system resources allow for it, increasing
the swap space may lead to better performance.
Note that distributing swap space over multiple storage devices — particularly on
systems with fast drives, controllers and interfaces — also improves swap space
performance.
NOTE
Swap space size recommendations issued for Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6.0, 6.1, and 6.2 differed from the current recommendations, which
were first issued with the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 in
June 2012 and did not account for hibernation space. Automatic
installations of these earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 still
generate a swap space in line with these superseded
recommendations. However, manually selecting a swap space size in
line with the newer recommendations issued for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6.3 is advisable for optimal performance.
A PReP boot partition on the first partition of the hard drive — the PReP boot
partition contains the Yaboot boot loader (which allows other Power Systems
servers to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Unless you plan to boot from a network
source, you must have a PReP boot partition to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For IBM System p users: The PReP boot partition should be between 4-8 MB, not to
exceed 10 MB.
A /boot/ partition (250 MB) — the partition mounted on/boot/ contains the
operating system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise
Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of
most PC firmware, creating a small partition to hold these is a good idea. For most
users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.
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
WARNING
If you have a RAID card, be aware that Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6.9 does not support setting up hardware RAID on an IPR
card. You can boot the standalone diagnostics CD prior to
installation to create a RAID array and then install to that RAID
array.
IMPORTANT
The /boot and / (root) partition in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 can
only use the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You
cannot use any other file system for this partition, such as Btrfs, XFS,
or VFAT. Other partitions, such as /home, can use any supported file
system, including Btrfs and XFS (if available). See the following article
on the Red Hat Customer Portal for additional information:
https://access.redhat.com/solutions/667273.
A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB) — this is where /
" " (the root directory) is located.
In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root
partition lets you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
IMPORTANT
The /boot and / (root) partition in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 can
only use the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You
cannot use any other file system for this partition, such as Btrfs, XFS,
or VFAT. Other partitions, such as /home, can use any supported file
system, including Btrfs and XFS (if available). See the following article
on the Red Hat Customer Portal for additional information:
https://access.redhat.com/solutions/667273.
IMPORTANT
The / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. The/root
directory (sometimes pronounced "slash-root") is the home directory of
the user account for system administration.
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
WARNING
The PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to
/var/cache/yum/ by default. If you partition the system manually, and
create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to create the partition large
enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
16.18. WRITE CHANGES TO DISK
The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write
changes to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
Figure 16.47. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.
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
WARNING
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no
lasting changes to your computer. When you click Write changes to
disk, the installer will allocate space on your hard drive and start to
transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing
data that already exists on your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go
back. To cancel installation completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to
complete. If the process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off
or resetting the computer, or by a power outage) you will probably not be
able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating
system.
16.19. PACKAGE GROUP SELECTION
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm
the default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set
for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version
of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.
IMPORTANT
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package
selections. The installer automatically selects packages only from the base
and core groups. These packages are sufficient to ensure that the system is
operational at the end of the installation process, ready to install updates and
new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
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Figure 16.48. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software
that is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not
include a graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles,
click the radio button that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Enterprise Identity Server Base
This option provides OpenLDAP and Enterprise Identity Management (IPA) to create
an identity and authentication server.
Virtual Host
This option provides the KVM and Virtual Machine Manager tools to create a host for
virtual machines.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the
GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
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This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A
minimal installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance
and maximizes performance and security on such an installation.

WARNING
Minimal installation currently does not configure the firewall
(iptables/ip6tables) by default because the authconfig and systemconfig-firewall-base packages are missing from the selection. To work
around this issue, you can use a Kickstart file to add these packages to
your selection. See the Red Hat Customer Portal for details about the
workaround, and Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for information
about Kickstart files.
If you do not use the workaround, the installation will complete
successfully, but no firewall will be configured, presenting a security
risk.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 16.20, “Installing
Packages”.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 16.48, “Package
Group Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen.
Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
16.19.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system
during installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along
with metadata that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux require other software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to
ensure that these requirements are met for every piece of software you select for
installation.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository is automatically selected for you. It contains
the complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9, with
the various pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
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Figure 16.49. Adding a software repository
To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software
repositories and provide the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then
select Modify repository.
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a
Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration
information.
Figure 16.50. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
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2. Click OK.
Anaconda then starts NetworkManager to allow you to configure the interface.
Figure 16.51. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 16.9, “Setting the Hostname”
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog
appears. Provide a Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the
mirror that contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package
metadata over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the
package group selection system.

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WARNING
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra
repository data you may have entered is lost. This allows you to
effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way to cancel
only a single repository once entered.
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16.19.2. Customizing the Software Selection
NOTE
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language
that you selected at the start of the installation process. To include support for
additional languages, select the package group for those languages from the
Languages category.
NOTE
Users who want support for developing or running 64-bit applications are
encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility
Arch Development Support packages to install architecture specific support
for their systems.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail.
This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen
when you select Next.
Figure 16.52. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of
use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function
(for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the
two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The
list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box
at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently
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highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for
that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and
mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected
group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the
group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to
select or de-select base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Figure 16.53. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your
selection, and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you
selected. When you have finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional
package selections and return to the main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the
Add/Remove Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages.
To run this tool, from the main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove
Software. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux software management system downloads the
latest packages from network servers, rather than using those on the installation discs.
16.19.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
centralized logging through syslog
email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
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Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service
to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging,
and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file
sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled
by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS
sharing service.
16.20. INSTALLING PACKAGES
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed.
How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your
computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the
installer resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 16.54. Starting installation
During installation of the selected packages and their dependencies, you see the following
progress bar:
Figure 16.55. Packages completed
16.21. INSTALLATION COMPLETE
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to
remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
loads and starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that
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displays a progress bar. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed
the X Window System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical
run level), the FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software,
register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your
environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system quickly.
Chapter 34, Firstboot will guide you through the configuration process.
[7] A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You
should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate
within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have
implications for your entire system.
[8] The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally
repair one or more Linux file systems.
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AN IBM POWER SYSTEMS SERVER
This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the/tmp directory.
These files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
/tmp/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacondatb-identifier, where identifier is a random string.
You may also find the IBM Online Alert Section for System p useful. It is located at:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/lopdiags/info/LinuxAlerts.
html
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a
permanent copy, copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the
installation image (not the other way round).
17.1. YOU ARE UNABLE TO BOOT RED HAT ENTERPRISE
LINUX
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly known as a segmentation fault, means that the program
accessed a memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a
bug in one of the software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a
hardware error in memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux places its own demands on your system's hardware. Some of this
hardware may not be able to meet those demands, even if they work properly under
another OS.
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Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata
to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a
problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A
possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system
supports this. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to
check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the
installation program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works
with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that
you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting
any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: or yaboot:
prompt:
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
17.2. TROUBLE BEGINNING THE INSTALLATION
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation
program. If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in
a lower resolution mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text
mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot
Options for more information.
NOTE
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in
text mode, try using the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary
for accessibility with some screen reading hardware.
17.3. TROUBLE DURING THE INSTALLATION
17.3.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error
Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the
installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver disk image is available that
fixes your problem. For more general information on driver disks, refer to Chapter 13,
Updating Drivers During Installation on IBM Power Systems Servers.
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You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
https://hardware.redhat.com/
17.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages
If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you
with a crash reporting dialog box:
Figure 17.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
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Figure 17.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
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Figure 17.3. Select reporter
Logger
saves details of the error as a log file to the local hard drive at a specified location.
Red Hat Customer Support
submits the crash report to Customer Support for assistance.
Report uploader
uploads a compressed version of the crash report to Bugzilla or a URL of your choice.
Before submitting the report, click Preferences to specify a destination or provide
authentication details. Select the reporting method you need to configure and click
Configure Event.
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Figure 17.4. Configure reporter preferences
Logger
Specify a path and a filename for the log file. Check Append if you are adding to an
existing log file.
Figure 17.5. Specify local path for log file
Red Hat Customer Support
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Enter your Red Hat Network username and password so your report reaches Customer
Support and is linked with your account. The URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked
by default.
Figure 17.6. Enter Red Hat Network authentication details
Report uploader
Specify a URL for uploading a compressed version of the crash report.
Figure 17.7. Enter URL for uploading crash report
Bugzilla
Enter your Bugzilla username and password to lodge a bug with Red Hat's bug-tracking
system using the crash report. The URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by
default.
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Figure 17.8. Enter Bugzilla authentication details
Once you have entered your preferences, click OK to return to the report selection dialog.
Select how you would like to report the problem and then click Forward.
Figure 17.9. Confirm report data
You can now customize the report by checking and unchecking the issues that will be
included. When finished, click Apply.
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Figure 17.10. Report in progress
This screen displays the outcome of the report, including any errors in sending or saving
the log. Click Forward to proceed.
Figure 17.11. Reporting done
Reporting is now complete. Click Forward to return to the report selection dialog. You can
now make another report, or click Close to exit the reporting utility and thenExit to close
the installation process.
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IMPORTANT
This information does not apply to users of headless IBM System p systems.
17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 16.15, “Disk
Partitioning Setup”) phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it
must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not
be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on
your systems should always be made.
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM Power Systems Users
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have
not created all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
A / (root) partition
A <swap> partition of type swap
A PReP Boot partition.
A /boot/ partition.
Refer to Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for more information.
NOTE
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point.
Anaconda automatically assigns the mount point for you.
17.4. PROBLEMS AFTER INSTALLATION
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
If you are experiencing difficulties when trying to IPL from *NWSSTG, you may not have
created a PReP Boot partition set as active.
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop
environment once you log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical
interface using the command startx.
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Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is
displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for
future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one
file, /etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are
finished, reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical
login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su
command.
Now, type the following to edit the file with gedit.
gedit /etc/inittab
The file /etc/inittab opens. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like
the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have
networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.

WARNING
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A
window appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical
login prompt.
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17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have
installed it during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation media or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or
both, during the upgrade package selection process.
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a
desktop environment.
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a
full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information
about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the-h option used in this
example), refer to the df man page by typingman df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/
and /tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room
on that partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as
the user that was unsuccessful before.
17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by
pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must
type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can
type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become
root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, typepasswd
<username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues.
The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
https://hardware.redhat.com/
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
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If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work
properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch thePrinter
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
17.4.7. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During
Startup
If Apache HTTP Server (httpd) or Sendmail stops responding during startup, make sure
the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
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PART III. IBM SYSTEM Z ARCHITECTURE INSTALLATION AND BOOTING
This part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide discusses installation and
booting (or initial program load, IPL) of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on IBM System z.
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CHAPTER 18. PLANNING FOR INSTALLATION ON
SYSTEM Z
18.1. PRE-INSTALLATION
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 runs on System z9 or later IBM mainframe systems.
The installation process assumes that you are familiar with the IBM System z and can set
up logical partitions (LPARs) and z/VM guest virtual machines. For additional information on
System z, refer to http://www.ibm.com/systems/z.
For installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on System z, Red Hat supports DASD and FCP
storage devices.
Before you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must decide on the following:
Decide whether you want to run the operating system on an LPAR or as a z/VM guest
operating system.
Decide if you need swap space and if so how much. Although it is possible (and
recommended) to assign enough memory to z/VM guest virtual machine and let
z/VM do the necessary swapping, there are cases where the amount of required RAM
is hard to predict. Such instances should be examined on a case-by-case basis.
Refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
Decide on a network configuration. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 for IBM System z
supports the following network devices:
Real and virtual Open Systems Adapter (OSA)
Real and virtual HiperSockets
LAN channel station (LCS) for real OSA
You require the following hardware:
Disk space. Calculate how much disk space you need and allocate sufficient disk
space on DASDs[9] or SCSI[10] disks. You require at least 2 GB for a server
installation, and 5 GB if you want to install all packages. You also require disk space
for any application data. After the installation, more DASD or SCSI disk partitions
may be added or deleted as necessary.
The disk space used by the newly installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system (the
Linux instance) must be separate from the disk space used by other operating
systems you may have installed on your system.
For more information about disks and partition configuration, refer to
Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
RAM. Acquire 1 GB (recommended) for the Linux instance. With some tuning, an
instance might run with as little as 512 MB RAM.
18.2. OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM Z INSTALLATION
PROCEDURE
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You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on System z interactively or in unattended mode.
Installation on System z differs from installation on other architectures in that it is typically
performed over a network and not from a local DVD. The installation can be summarized as
follows:
1. Booting (IPL) the installer
Connect with the mainframe, then perform an initial program load (IPL), or boot,
from the medium containing the installation program.
2. Installation Phase 1
Set up an initial network device. This network device is then used to connect to the
installation system via SSH or VNC. This gets you a full-screen mode terminal or
graphical display to continue installation as on other architectures.
3. Installation Phase 2
Specify which language to use, and how and where the installation program and the
software packages to be installed from the repository on the Red Hat installation
medium can be found.
4. Installation Phase 3
Use anaconda (the main part of the Red Hat installation program) to perform the
rest of the installation.
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Figure 18.1. The Installation Process
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
After establishing a connection with the mainframe, you need to perform an initial program
load (IPL), or boot, from the medium containing the installation program. This document
describes the most common methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 on
System z. In general, you can use any method to boot the Linux installation system, which
consists of a kernel (kernel.img) and initial ramdisk (initrd.img) with at least the
parameters in generic.prm. The Linux installation system is also called theinstaller in this
book.
The control point from where you can start the IPL process depends on the environment
where your Linux is to run. If your Linux is to run as a z/VM guest operating system, the
control point is the control program (CP) of the hosting z/VM. If your Linux is to run in LPAR
mode, the control point is the mainframe's Support Element (SE) or an attached IBM
System z Hardware Management Console (HMC).
You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run as a guest operating system
under z/VM:
z/VM reader — refer to Section 20.1.1, “Using the z/VM Reader” for details.
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You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run in LPAR mode:
SE or HMC through a remote FTP server — refer to Section 20.2.1, “Using an FTP
Server” for details.
SE or HMC DVD — refer to Section 20.2.2, “Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive”for
details
You can use the following boot media for both z/VM and LPAR:
DASD — refer to Section 20.1.2, “Using a Prepared DASD” for z/VM or
Section 20.2.3, “Using a Prepared DASD” for LPAR
SCSI device that is attached through an FCP channel — refer to Section 20.1.3,
“Using a Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk” for z/VM or Section 20.2.4, “Using a
Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk” for LPAR
FCP-attached SCSI DVD — refer to Section 20.1.4, “ Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD
Drive” for z/VM or Section 20.2.5, “Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for LPAR
If you use DASD and FCP-attached SCSI devices (except SCSI DVDs) as boot media, you
must have a configured zipl boot loader. For more information, see the Chapter on zipl in
Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device. This network device is needed
to complete the installation.
The interface you will use in installation phase 1 is the linuxrc interface, which is line-mode
and text-based. (Refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device.)
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
In installation phase 2, you need to specify what language to use and where phase 3 of the
installation program and the software packages to be installed from the repository on the
Red Hat installation medium can be found. On System z, the installation sources are usually
transferred from the DVD to a network server. Phase 3 of the installation program and the
repository can be accessed in one of the following ways:
Over the network using one of the FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, or NFS protocols. A separate
network server (FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, or NFS), which holds all the required installation
sources, must be set up in advance. For details on how to set up a network server,
refer to Section 19.1, “Preparing for a Network Installation”.
Hard disk (DASD or a SCSI device attached through an FCP channel). You need to set
up a disk that holds the required installation sources in advance. For details, Refer
to Section 19.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation”.
Through an FCP-attached SCSI DVD. This is handled automatically if booted from
FCP-attached SCSI DVD.
The interface you will use in installation phase 2 is the loader, which provides a full-screen
text-based interface with a blue background by default. For unattended installations in
cmdline mode, the loader offers line-mode, text-based output. (Refer to Chapter 22,
Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source.)
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18.2.4. Installation Phase 3
In installation phase 3 you will use anaconda in graphical, text-based, or cmdline mode:
Graphical mode
This can be used through a VNC client (recommended) or through an X11 server.
You can use your mouse and keyboard to navigate through the screens, click
buttons, and enter text in fields.
Text-based mode
This interface does not offer all interface elements of the GUI and does not support
all settings. Use this for interactive installations if you cannot use a VNC client or
X11 server.
cmdline mode
This is intended for automated installations on System z. (Refer to Section 26.6,
“Parameters for Kickstart Installations”)
If you have a slow network connection or prefer a text-based installation, do not use X11
forwarding when logging in over the network and do not set the display= variable in the
parameter file (refer to Section 26.4, “VNC and X11 Parameters” for details). In Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.9 the text-based installation has been reduced to minimize user
interaction. Features like installation on FCP-attached SCSI devices, changing partition
layout, or package selection are only available with the graphical user interface
installation. Use the graphical installation whenever possible. (Refer to Chapter 23,
Installation Phase 3: Installing Using Anaconda.)
18.3. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE WITH X11 OR VNC
To run anaconda with the graphical user interface, use a workstation that has either an X
Window System (X11) server or VNC client installed.
You can use X11 forwarding with an SSH client or X11 directly. If the installer on your
workstation fails because the X11 server does not support required X11 extensions you
might have to upgrade the X11 server or use VNC.
To use VNC, disable X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the Linux
installation system on the mainframe or specify the vnc parameter in your parameter file.
Using VNC is recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. Refer to
Section 28.2, “Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System”.
Table 18.1, “Parameters and SSH login types” shows how the parameters and SSH login
type controls which anaconda user interface is used.
Table 18.1. Parameters and SSH login types
Parameter
SSH login
User interface
none
SSH without X11 forwarding
VNC or text
vnc
SSH with or without X11
forwarding
VNC
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Parameter
SSH login
User interface
none
SSH with X11 forwarding
X11
display=IP/hostname:di
splay
SSH without X11 forwarding
X11
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
You can connect a workstation to the Linux installation system on the mainframe and
display the graphical installation program using SSH with X11 forwarding.
You require an SSH client that allows X11 forwarding. To open the connection, first start the
X server on the workstation. Then connect to the Linux installation system. You can enable
X11 forwarding in your SSH client when you connect.
For example, with OpenSSH enter the following in a terminal window on your workstation:
ssh -X install@linuxvm.example.com
Replace linuxvm.example.com with the hostname or IP address of the system you are
installing. The -X option (the capital letter X) enables X11 forwarding.
18.3.2. Installation using X11
The direct connection from the X11 client to an X11 server on your local workstation
requires an IP connection from your System z to your workstation. If the network and
firewalls prevent such connections, use X11 forwarding or VNC instead.
The graphical installation program requires the DNS and hostname to be set correctly, and
the Linux installation system must be allowed to open applications on your display. You can
ensure this by setting the parameter display=workstationname:0.0 in the parameter file,
where workstationname is the hostname of the client workstation connecting to the Linux
image. Alternatively, you can set the display environment variable and run loader
manually after having logged in with SSH as user root. By default you log in as user
install. This starts the loader automatically and does not allow overriding thedisplay
environment variable.
To permit X11 clients to open applications on the X11 server on your workstation, use the
xauth command. To manage X11 authorization cookies withxauth, you must log in to the
Linux installation system using SSH as user root. For details on xauth and how to manage
authorization cookies, refer to the xauth manpage.
In contrast to setting up X11 authorizations with xauth, you can use xhost to permit the
Linux installation system to connect to the X11 server:
xhost +linuxvm
Replace linuxvm with the hostname or IP address of the Linux installation system. This
allows linuxvm to make connections to the X11 server.
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If the graphical installation does not begin automatically, verify the display= variable
settings in the parameter file. If performing an installation under z/VM, rerun the
installation to load the new parameter file on the reader.
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
Using VNC is recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. To use VNC,
disable X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the temporary Linux
installation system. The loader will then provide a choice between text-mode and VNC;
choose VNC here. Alternatively, provide the vnc variable and optionally the vncpassword
variable in your parameter file (refer to Section 26.4, “VNC and X11 Parameters” for
details).
A message on the workstation SSH terminal prompts you to start the VNC client viewer and
provides details about the VNC display specifications. Enter the specifications from the SSH
terminal into the VNC client viewer and connect to the temporary Linux installation system
to begin the installation. Refer to Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener
To connect from your temporary Linux installation system to a VNC client running on your
workstation in listening mode, use the vncconnect option in your parameter file, in addition
to the options vnc and optionally vncpassword. The network and firewalls must allow an IP
connection from your temporary Linux installation to your workstation.
To have the temporary Linux installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first
start the client in listening mode. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, use the -listen
option to run vncviewer as a listener. In a terminal window, enter the command:
vncviewer -listen
Refer to Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
You can allow an installation to run unattended by using Kickstart. A Kickstart file specifies
settings for an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a Kickstart file
and carry out the installation process without any further input from a user.
On System z, this also requires a parameter file (optionally an additional configuration file
under z/VM). This parameter file must contain the required network options described in
Section 26.3, “Installation Network Parameters” and specify a kickstart file using the ks=
option. The kickstart file typically resides on the network. The parameter file often also
contains the options cmdline and RUNKS=1 to execute the loader without having to log in
over the network with SSH (Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for Kickstart Installations”).
For further information and details on how to set up a kickstart file, refer to Section 32.3,
“Creating the Kickstart File”.
18.3.5.1. Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that
contains the settings for the installed system. This file is always saved as /root/anacondaks.cfg. You may use this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify
copies to specify settings for other systems.
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[9] Direct Access Storage Devices (DASDs) are hard disks that allow a maximum of three partitions
per device. For example, dasda can have partitions dasda1 , dasda2 , and dasda3 .
[10] Using the SCSI-over-Fibre Channel device driver (zfcp device driver) and a switch, SCSI LUNs
can be presented to Linux on System z as if they were locally attached SCSI drives.
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CHAPTER 19. PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION
19.1. PREPARING FOR A NETWORK INSTALLATION
NOTE
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your
hosting partition's drive if you are performing a network-based installation.
Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the
Installer.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network
installation (via NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS) or installation via local storage. Use the following
steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS installation.
The NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server to be used for installation over the network must be a
separate, network-accessible server. The separate server can be a virtual machine, LPAR,
or any other system (such as a Linux on Power Systems or x86 system). It must provide the
complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.
NOTE
The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, HTTP,
or HTTPS is mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the
local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6.9 on the network server can be
accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.9.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that
will contain the installation files will be specified as
/location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be made publicly available
via FTP, NFS, HTTP, or HTTPS will be specified as /publicly_available_directory.
For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called
/var/isos. /publicly_available_directory might be
/var/www/html/rhel6.9, for an HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact
copy of the content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following
command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting
ISO image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the
resulting ISO image will be stored.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation
staging server, continue with either Section 19.1.1, “Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS
Installation” or Section 19.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS Installation”.
19.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation
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
WARNING
If your Apache web server or tftp FTP server configuration enables SSL
security, make sure to only enable the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2
and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566).
See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1232413 for details about
securing Apache, and https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234773 for
information about securing tftp.
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory
that is shared over FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS, and verify client
access. Test to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from
another machine on the same subnet to which you will be installing.
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is
sufficient to make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the
product.img file available on the network server via NFS.
1. Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /publicly_available_directory/
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and publicly_available_directory is a directory that is available
over NFS or that you intend to make available over NFS.
2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is
intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating
systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum
program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the
hash displayed for this particular image on the Downloads page in the Red Hat
Customer Portal (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two
hashes should be identical.
3. Copy the images/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in
which you stored the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
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where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the
image while you copy files from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
The ISO image file and an images/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the
same directory.
4. Verify that the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without
which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain
the product.img file, without which only the packages for aMinimal installation will
be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17,
“Package Group Selection”).
5. Ensure that an entry for the publicly available directory exists in the /etc/exports
file on the network server so that the directory is available via NFS.
To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly_available_directory client.ip.address (ro)
To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly_available_directory * (ro)
6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system, use /sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the
configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs
reload).
7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Deployment Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting
and stopping the NFS server.
NOTE
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It
works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type
the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
19.2. PREPARING FOR A HARD DRIVE INSTALLATION
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on hardware systems without a DVD
drive and if you do not want to access installation phase 3 and the package repository over
a network.
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19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository
on a Hard Drive
NOTE
Hard drive installations using DASD or FCP-attached SCSI storage only work
from native ext2, ext3, or ext4 partitions. If you have a file system based on
devices other than native ext2, ext3, or ext4 (particularly a file system based
on RAID or LVM partitions) you will not be able to use it as a source to perform
a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations use an ISO image of the installation DVD (a file that contains an
exact copy of the content of the DVD), and an install.img file extracted from the ISO
image. With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the
installation source when you boot the installation program.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact
copy of the content of a DVD.
an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation
source when you boot the installation program (refer to Section 22.4, “Installation
Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the
Installer.
To prepare a DASD or FCP-attached device as an installation source, follow these steps:
1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to
Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD
on physical media, you can create an image of it with the following command on a
Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the
resulting ISO image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your
system where the resulting ISO image will be stored.
2. Transfer the ISO images to the DASD or SCSI device.
The ISO files must be located on a hard drive that is activated in installation phase 1
(refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device) or in
installation phase 2 (refer to Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language
and Installation Source). This is automatically possible with DASDs.
For an FCP LUN, you must either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the rescue
shell provided by the installation phase 1 menus to manually activate the FCP LUN
holding the ISOs as described in Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically Activating an FCP
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LUN”.
3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is
intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating
systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum
program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the
hash displayed for this particular image on the Downloads page in the Red Hat
Customer Portal (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two
hashes should be identical.
4. Copy the images/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in
which you stored the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file,name_of_image is the name
of the ISO image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the
image while you copy files from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
The ISO image file and an images/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the
same directory.
5. Verify that the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without
which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain
the product.img file, without which only the packages for aMinimal installation will
be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17,
“Package Group Selection”).
IMPORTANT
install.img and product.img must be the only files in theimages/
directory.
6. Make the DASD or SCSI LUN accessible to the new z/VM guest virtual machine or
LPAR, and then proceed with installation. (Refer to Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the
Installer) or alternatively with Section 19.2.1.1, “Preparing for Booting the Installer
from a Hard Drive”.
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NOTE
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can test the integrity of the
installation medium. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO
installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installationrelated bugs. To use this test, add the mediacheck parameter to your
parameter file (refer to Section 26.7, “Miscellaneous Parameters”).
19.2.1.1. Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive
If you would like to boot (IPL) the installer from a hard drive, in addition to accessing
installation phase 3 and the package repository, you can optionally install the zipl boot
loader on the same (or a different) disk. Be aware that zipl only supports one boot record
per disk. If you have multiple partitions on a disk, they all “share” the disk's one boot
record.
In the following, assume the hard drive is prepared as described in Section 19.2.1,
“Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive”, mounted
under /mnt, and you do not need to preserve an existing boot record.
To prepare a hard drive to boot the installer, install the zipl boot loader on the hard drive by
entering the following command:
zipl -V -t /mnt/ -i /mnt/images/kernel.img -r /mnt/images/initrd.img -p
/mnt/images/generic.prm
For more details on zipl.conf, refer to the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device
Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

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WARNING
If you have an operating system installed on the disk, and you still plan to
access it later on, refer the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device
Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for how
to add a new entry in the zipl boot loader (that is, in zipl.conf).
CHAPTER 20. BOOTING (IPL) THE INSTALLER
CHAPTER 20. BOOTING (IPL) THE INSTALLER
The steps to perform the initial boot (IPL) of the installer depend on the environment
(either z/VM or LPAR) in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux will run. For more information on
booting, see the Booting Linux chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
20.1. INSTALLING UNDER Z/VM
When installing under z/VM, you can boot from:
the z/VM virtual reader
a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI device prepared with the zipl boot loader
an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Log on to the z/VM guest virtual machine chosen for the Linux installation. You can use
x3270 or c3270 (from the x3270-text package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux) to log in to
z/VM from other Linux systems. Alternatively, use the 3270 terminal emulator on the IBM
System z Hardware Management Console (HMC). If you are working from a machine with a
Windows operating system, Jolly Giant (http://www.jollygiant.com/) offers an SSL-enabled
3270 emulator. A free native Windows port of c3270 called wc3270 also exists.
NOTE
If your 3270 connection is interrupted and you cannot log in again because the
previous session is still active, you can replace the old session with a new one
by entering the following command on the z/VM logon screen:
logon user here
Replace user with the name of the z/VM guest virtual machine. Depending on
whether an external security manager, for example RACF, is used, the logon
command might vary.
If you are not already running CMS (single user operating system shipped with z/VM) in
your guest, boot it now by entering the command:
#cp ipl cms
Be sure not to use CMS disks such as your A disk (often device number 0191) as installation
targets. To find out which disks are in use by CMS use the following query:
query disk
You can use the following CP (z/VM Control Program, which is the z/VM hypervisor) query
commands to find out about the device configuration of your z/VM guest virtual machine:
Query the available main memory, which is called storage in System z terminology.
Your guest should have at least 512 megabytes of main memory.
cp query virtual storage
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Query available network devices of type:
osa
OSA (CHPID type OSD, real or virtual (VSWITCH or GuestLAN type QDIO), both in
QDIO mode)
hsi
HiperSockets (CHPID type IQD, real or virtual (GuestLAN type Hipers))
lcs
LCS (CHPID type OSE)
For example, to query all of the network device types mentioned above:
cp query virtual osa
Query available DASDs. Only those that are flagged RW for read-write mode can be
used as installation targets:
cp query virtual dasd
Query available FCP channels:
cp query virtual fcp
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
Perform the following steps to boot from the z/VM reader:
1. If necessary, add the device containing the z/VM TCP/IP tools to your CMS disk list.
For example:
cp link tcpmaint 592 592
acc 592 fm
Replace fm with any FILEMODE letter.
2. Execute the command:
ftp host
Where host is the hostname or IP address of the FTP server that hosts the boot
images (kernel.img and initrd.img).
3. Log in and execute the following commands. Use the (repl option if you are
overwriting existing kernel.img, initrd.img, generic.prm, or redhat.exec files:
cd /location/of/install-tree/images/
ascii
get generic.prm (repl
get redhat.exec (repl
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locsite fix 80
binary
get kernel.img (repl
get initrd.img (repl
quit
4. Optionally check whether the files were transferred correctly by using the CMS
command filelist to show the received files and their format. It is important that
kernel.img and initrd.img have a fixed record length format denoted byF in the
Format column and a record length of 80 in the Lrecl column. For example:
VMUSER FILELIST A0 V 169 Trunc=169 Size=6 Line=1 Col=1 Alt=0
Cmd Filename Filetype Fm Format Lrecl Records Blocks Date Time
REDHAT EXEC B1 V 22 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:40
GENERIC PRM B1 V 44 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:32
INITRD IMG B1 F 80 118545 2316 4/15/10 9:30:25
KERNEL IMG B1 F 80 74541 912 4/15/10 9:30:17
Press PF3 to quit filelist and return to the CMS prompt.
5. Finally execute the REXX script redhat.exec to boot (IPL) the installer:
redhat
20.1.2. Using a Prepared DASD
Boot from the prepared DASD and select the zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installer. Use a command of the following form:
cp ipl DASD device number loadparm boot_entry_number
Replace DASD device number with the device number of the boot device, and
boot_entry_number with the zipl configuration menu for this device. For example:
cp ipl eb1c loadparm 0
20.1.3. Using a Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
Perform the following steps to boot from a prepared FCP-attached SCSI disk:
1. Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the prepared SCSI disk in the FCP
storage area network. Select the prepared zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installer. Use a command of the following form:
cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun LUN bootprog boot_entry_number
Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the storage system and LUN with the LUN of the
disk. The 16-digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of eight digits
each. For example:
cp set loaddev portname 50050763 050b073d lun 40204011 00000000
bootprog 0
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2. Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
query loaddev
3. IPL the FCP device connected with the storage system containing the disk with the
command:
cp ipl FCP_device
For example:
cp ipl fc00
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
This requires a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn connected
to an FCP adapter in your System z. The FCP adapter must be configured and available
under z/VM.
1. Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the DVD drive in the FCP storage
area network and specify 1 for the boot entry on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux for
System z DVD. Use a command of the following form:
cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun FCP_LUN bootprog 1
Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge andFCP_LUN with the LUN
of the DVD drive. The 16-digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of
eight characters each. For example:
cp set loaddev portname 20010060 eb1c0103 lun 00010000 00000000
bootprog 1
3. Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
cp query loaddev
4. IPL on the FCP device connected with the FCP-to-SCSI bridge.
cp ipl FCP_device
For example:
cp ipl fc00
20.2. INSTALLING IN AN LPAR
When installing in a logical partition (LPAR), you can boot from:
an FTP server
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the DVD drive of the HMC or SE
a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI drive prepared with the zipl boot loader
an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Perform these common steps first:
1. Log in on the IBM System z Hardware Management Console (HMC) or the Support
Element (SE) as a user with sufficient privileges to install a new operating system to
an LPAR. The SYSPROG user is recommended.
2. Select Images, then select the LPAR to which you wish to install. Use the arrows in
the frame on the right side to navigate to the CPC Recovery menu.
3. Double-click Operating System Messages to show the text console on which Linux
boot messages will appear and potentially user input will be required. Refer to the
chapter on booting Linux in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and the Hardware Management Console
Operations Guide, order number [SC28-6857], for details.
Continue with the procedure for your installation source.
20.2.1. Using an FTP Server
1. Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select FTP Source, and enter the following
information: Host Computer: Hostname or IP address of the FTP server you wish to
install from (for example, ftp.redhat.com) User ID: Your user name on the FTP server
(or anonymous) Password: Your password (use your email address if you are logging
in as anonymous) Account (optional): Leave this field empty File location (optional):
Directory on the FTP server holding Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z (for
example, /rhel/s390x/)
3. Click Continue.
4. In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins and click
Continue.
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
1. Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select Local CD-ROM / DVD then click Continue.
3. In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins then click
Continue.
20.2.3. Using a Prepared DASD
1. Double-click Load.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select Normal as the Load type.
3. As Load address fill in the device number of the DASD.
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4. As Load parameter fill in the number corresponding the zipl boot menu entry that
you prepared for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
5. Click the OK button.
20.2.4. Using a Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
1. Double-click Load.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
3. As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the
SCSI disk.
4. As World wide port name fill in the WWPN of the storage system containing the
disk as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
5. As Logical unit number fill in the LUN of the disk as a 16-digit hexadecimal
number.
6. As Boot program selector fill in the number corresponding the zipl boot menu
entry that you prepared for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
7. Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system
specific load parameters empty.
8. Click the OK button.
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
This requires to have a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn
connected to an FCP adapter in your System z machine. The FCP adapter has to be
configured and available in your LPAR.
1. Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Double-click Load.
3. In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
4. As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the
FCP-to-SCSI bridge.
5. As World wide port name fill in the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge as a 16-digit
hexadecimal number.
6. As Logical unit number fill in the LUN of the DVD drive as a 16-digit hexadecimal
number.
7. As Boot program selector fill in the number 1 to select the boot entry on the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD.
8. Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system
specific load parameters empty.
9. Click the OK button.
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CHAPTER 21. INSTALLATION PHASE 1: CONFIGURING A NETWORK DEVICE
CHAPTER 21. INSTALLATION PHASE 1: CONFIGURING
A NETWORK DEVICE
After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device using the linuxrc program.
This network device is needed to complete the installation. If you are installing interactively
(with the default parameter file generic.prm), you will be asked questions about your
network. It is a good idea to have your data ready in the form of a datasheet or similar. If
you want to automate this step, supply the information for each option in your parameter
file or CMS configuration file.
As an example, let us look at how to configure an OSA network adapter under z/VM. When
linuxrc starts, you see the following message:
Starting the zSeries initrd to configure networking. Version is 1.2
Starting udev...
Network devices are sensed and listed. The list of devices depends on the cio_ignore
kernel parameter used. If no devices are found because of cio_ignore, as in the example
below, you can clear the list of ignored devices. Note that this might take some time and
result in a long list when there are many devices, such as on an LPAR.
Scanning for available network devices...
Autodetection found 0 devices.
Note: There is a device blacklist active! (Clearing might take long)
c) clear blacklist, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell:
c
Clearing device blacklist...
Scanning for available network devices...
Autodetection found 14 devices.
NUM CARD CU CHPID TYPE DRIVER IF DEVICES
1 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 00 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502
2 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 01 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f503,0.0.f504,0.0.f505
3 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 02 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1010,0.0.1011,0.0.1012
4 HiperSockets 1731/05 03 IQD qeth hsi 0.0.1013,0.0.1014,0.0.1015
5 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 04 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1017,0.0.1018,0.0.1019
6 CTC adapter 3088/08 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1000,0.0.1001
7 escon channel 3088/1f 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1002,0.0.1003
8 ficon channel 3088/1e 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1004,0.0.1005
9 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 76 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
10 LCS OSA 3088/60 8a OSE lcs eth 0.0.1240,0.0.1241
11 HiperSockets 1731/05 fb IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8024,0.0.8025,0.0.8026
12 HiperSockets 1731/05 fc IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8124,0.0.8125,0.0.8126
13 HiperSockets 1731/05 fd IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8224,0.0.8225,0.0.8226
14 HiperSockets 1731/05 fe IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8324,0.0.8325,0.0.8326
<num>) use config, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell:
Enter the number of the configuration you want to use, for example 9. Selecting from the
table provides the installer with information for the type of network device and the device
addresses for its subchannels. Alternatively, you can enter m and proceed to enter the
network type (qeth), the read, write, data channels, and the OSA port. Accept defaults by
pressing Enter; under z/VM you might need to pressEnter twice.
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m
* NOTE: To enter default or empty values press enter twice. *
Network type (qeth, lcs, ctc, ? for help). Default is qeth:
qeth
Read,write,data channel (e.g. 0.0.0300,0.0.0301,0.0.0302 or ? for help).
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
Portname (1..8 characters, or ? for help). Default is no portname:
Relative port number for OSA (0, 1, or ? for help). Default is 0:
Activating network device...
Detected: OSA card in OSD mode, Gigabit Ethernet
Then questions pertaining to your Linux instance are displayed:
Hostname of your new Linux guest (FQDN e.g. s390.redhat.com or ? for
help):
host.subdomain.domain
IPv4 address / IPv6 addr. (e.g. 10.0.0.2 / 2001:0DB8:: or ? for help)
10.0.0.42
IPv4 netmask or CIDR prefix (e.g. 255.255.255.0 or 1..32 or ? for help).
Default is 255.0.0.0:
24
IPv4 address of your default gateway or ? for help:
10.0.0.1
Trying to reach gateway 10.0.0.1...
IPv4 addresses of DNS servers (separated by colons ':' or ? for help):
10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1
Trying to reach DNS servers...
DNS search domains (separated by colons ':' or ? for help):
subdomain.domain:domain
DASD range (e.g. 200-203,205 or ? for help). Default is autoprobing:
eb1c
Activated DASDs:
0.0.eb1c(ECKD) dasda : active, blocksize: 4096, 1803060 blocks, 7043 MB
IMPORTANT
The installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation,
enter none. This satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD parameter, while
resulting in a SCSI-only environment.
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If you make a mistake, the dialog either notices the error and asks you to re-enter the
parameter, or you can go back later to restart the dialog:
Incorrect ... (<OPTION-NAME>):
0) redo this parameter, 1) continue, 2) restart dialog, 3) halt, 4) shell
When you restart the dialog, it remembers what you entered before:
Network type
0) default is previous "qeth", 1) new value, ?) help
At the end of the configuration, you see the message Initial configuration completed:
Initial configuration completed.
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s)
shell
You can now check your network configuration by entering n:
n
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:AB:C9:81
inet addr:10.0.0.42 Bcast:10.0.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1
RX packets:64 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:4 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:3334 (3.2 KiB) TX bytes:336 (336.0 b)
lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
127.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 lo
10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s)
shell
If you want to change something, enter r to restart the dialog. To show the parameters as
specified in a parameter or configuration file or interactively enter p. You can then copy the
output from your terminal and paste it into an editor to save it to disk on your local
workstation. You can use the copy as a template for a parameter or configuration file for
future installations:
p
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NETTYPE=qeth
IPADDR=10.0.0.42
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=10.0.0.1
HOSTNAME=host.subdomain.domain
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
LAYER2=1
MACADDR=02:00:00:AB:C9:81
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
DNS=10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1
SEARCHDNS=subdomain.domain:domain
DASD=eb1c
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s)
shell
Again, to change something, restart the dialog with r. Finally, if all is in order, enterc to
continue:
c
Starting sshd to allow login over the network.
Connect now to 10.0.0.42 and log in as user 'install' to start the
installation.
E.g. using: ssh -x install@10.0.0.42
For VNC or text mode, disable X11 forwarding (recommended) with 'ssh -x'.
For X11, enable X11 forwarding with 'ssh -X'.
You may log in as the root user to start an interactive shell.
The preliminary network setup is now complete and the installer starts an SSH daemon. You
can log into your Linux instance over SSH. If you are using RUNKS=1 with kickstart and
cmdline mode, linuxrc automatically starts the loader.
21.1. A NOTE ON TERMINALS
During the installation, the installation program displays messages on a line-mode terminal.
This is the HMC Operating System Messages applet if you install under LPAR, or a 3270
terminal if you install under z/VM.
Linuxrc provides a rescue shell on the line-mode terminal. Press the Enter key (twice under
z/VM) to start the shell. You cannot use full-screen applications such as the vi editor on the
line-mode terminal. Switch to line-mode based editors such as ed, ex, or sed to edit text
files if necessary.
Be aware that long-running commands might not be interruptible with the escape sequence
Ctrl+C. Call commands with options that make them return in time voluntarily. The shell
on the 3270 terminal is available throughout the whole installation process until the point
where the system needs to reboot.
Once the shell has been provided, you may exit with an error level of zero to get a new
shell instance replacing the old one, or you may exit with an error level different from zero
to force a shutdown of the installation system.
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Connect to the installed system using user root to get a root shell without automatically
starting the installer. For problem determination, you might connect with many ssh
sessions.
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CHAPTER 22. INSTALLATION PHASE 2: CONFIGURING
LANGUAGE AND INSTALLATION SOURCE
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and
installation source.
By default, if you are installing interactively (with the default parameter file generic.prm)
the loader program to select language and installation source starts in text mode. In your
new ssh session, the following message is displayed:
Welcome to the anaconda install environment 1.2 for zSeries
22.1. NON-INTERACTIVE LINE-MODE INSTALLATION
If the cmdline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file S
( ection 26.6,
“Parameters for Kickstart Installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer toSection 32.3,
“Creating the Kickstart File”, the loader starts up with line-mode oriented text output. In
this mode, all necessary information must be provided in the kickstart file. The installer
does not allow user interaction and stops if there is unspecified installation information.
22.2. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the
on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces.Figure 22.1, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in Choose a Language”, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the
installation process.
Figure 22.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
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Figure 22.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 22.1, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in URL Setup” and Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in
Choose a Language”:
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your
screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay
another; in these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you
are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you to continue working in the
window underneath.
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays
either an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a
checkbox, press Space to select or deselect a feature.
Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required
by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may
enter and/or edit information on that line.
Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At
times, text widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text
widget contains more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it,
a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then
use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your
current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which
part of a list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it
easy to move to any part of a file.
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the
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installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program
by navigating these buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected
when they are highlighted.
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a
particular widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the
widget to change color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to
the widget. In Figure 22.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the
cursor is positioned on the Enable HTTP proxy checkbox. Figure 8.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on theOK
button.
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes.
To move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab
to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most
screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press
Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish
to select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the
checkbox and press Space to select an item. To deselect, pressSpace a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to
pressing the OK button.

WARNING
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during
the installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
22.3. LANGUAGE SELECTION
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation
process (refer to Figure 22.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language
highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm
your choice. You can automate this choice in the parameter file with the parameter lang=
(refer to Section 26.5, “Loader Parameters”) or with the kickstart commandlang (refer to
Section 28.4, “Automating the Installation with Kickstart”).
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system
once it is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone
configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the
appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package
selection stage. For more information, refer to Section 23.17.2, “ Customizing the Software
Selection ”.
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Figure 22.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
22.4. INSTALLATION METHOD
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 22.4,
“Installation Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press theTab key to move
to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 22.4. Installation Method
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22.4.1. Installing from a DVD
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD in your DVD drive and boot
your system from the DVD as described in Section 20.1.4, “ Using an FCP-attached SCSI
DVD Drive” for z/VM or Section 20.2.5, “Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for LPAR.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD-ROM
drive. It starts by looking for a SCSI DVD-ROM drive.
NOTE
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then
eject the boot media. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before
the Write changes to disk screen. Refer to Section 23.16, “Write Changes
to Disk” for more information.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer presents you with the option to
perform a media check on the DVD. This takes some time, and you may opt to skip over
this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot
and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check dialog,
continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 23.5, “Welcome to
Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is,
you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to
name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option, you already specified a partition.
Figure 22.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. DASD names
begin with /dev/dasd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example/dev/dasda or
/dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example/dev/dasda1 or /dev/sda1.
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For an FCP LUN, you would have to either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the
rescue shell provided by the linuxrc menus to manually activate the FCP LUN holding the
ISOs as described in Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically Activating an FCP LUN”.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive
that contains the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter
this information:
Table 22.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
File system
Mount point
Original path to
files
Directory to use
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6.9
/user1/RHEL6.9
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO
images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the
directory holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which
the ISO images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you
would enter /new/.
IMPORTANT
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed withChapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing Using
Anaconda.
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation
The installation program is network-aware and can use network settings for a number of
functions. On System z, installation phases 2 and 3 take over the network configuration
values specified previously either interactively or by means of a parameter or configuration
file in installation phase 1. You can also instruct the installation program to consult
additional software repositories later in the process.
If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 22.4.4, “Installing via NFS”.
If you are installing via Web or FTP, proceed to Section 22.4.5, “Installing via FTP,
HTTP, or HTTPS”.
22.4.4. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method
dialog. If you used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
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Figure 22.6. NFS Setup Dialog
1. Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server in the NFS server name
field. For example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain
example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com.
2. Enter the name of the exported directory in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9
directory field:
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
tree, enter the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. If
everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the
installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
DVD, enter the directory which contains the ISO image.
If you followed the setup described in Section 19.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS
Installation”, the exported directory is the one that you specified as
publicly_available_directory.
3. Specify any NFS mount options that you require in the NFS mount options field.
Refer to the man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options. If
you do not require any mount options, leave the field empty.
4. Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing Using Anaconda.
22.4.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
IMPORTANT
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify
http:// or https:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server (if you
selected URL in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information
about the FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or repo=http boot options, you already specified a server
and path.
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Enter the name or IP address of the FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS site from which you are installing,
and the name of the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For
example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6.9/Server/s390x/
To install via a secure HTTPS connection, specify https:// as the protocol.
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username,
and password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that
files are being retrieved from the server.
If your FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server requires user authentication, specify user and password
as part of the URL as follows:
{ftp|http|https}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:rhel6.9pw@name.example.com/mirrors/redhat/rhel6.9/Server/s390x/
Figure 22.7. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing Using Anaconda.
22.5. VERIFYING MEDIA
The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes
occur while producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the
installation program can cause the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data
errors affecting the installation, verify the media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails,
create a new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
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22.6. RETRIEVING PHASE 3 OF THE INSTALLATION
PROGRAM
The loader then retrieves phase 3 of the installation program from the network into its RAM
disk. This may take some time.
Figure 22.8. Retrieving phase 3 of the installation program
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CHAPTER 23. INSTALLATION PHASE 3: INSTALLING
USING ANACONDA
This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
23.1. THE NON-INTERACTIVE LINE-MODE TEXT
INSTALLATION PROGRAM OUTPUT
If the cmdline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file (Refer to
Section 26.6, “Parameters for Kickstart Installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer to
Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations), anaconda starts with line-mode oriented text output. In
this mode, all necessary information must be provided in the kickstart file. The installer will
not allow user interaction and stops if there is unspecified installation information.
23.2. THE TEXT MODE INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode
installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because
text mode presents you with a simpler, more streamlined installation process, certain
options that are available in graphical mode are not also available in text mode. These
differences are noted in the description of the installation process in this guide, and
include:
Interactively activating FCP LUNs
configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
customizing the partition layout
customizing the bootloader layout
selecting packages during installation
configuring the installed system with firstboot
23.3. THE GRAPHICAL INSTALLATION PROGRAM USER
INTERFACE
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this
process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you
to move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and keys expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a
highlighted item. You can also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of
clicking on buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any
underlined letter appearing within that screen.
23.4. CONFIGURE THE INSTALL TERMINAL
If you logged in with ssh and X11 forwarding, anaconda starts immediately with its
graphical user interface.
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If you did not set the display= variable and do not use X11 forwarding,anaconda gives
you the choice of starting VNC or text mode.
Figure 23.1. Choosing VNC or text mode
If you choose VNC, you will be asked for a password or you can choose to use VNC without
a password. If you use a password, make a note of the password for future reference. The
VNC server then starts.
Figure 23.2. The VNC server starts
Now open a connection to the IP address of your z/VM guest virtual machine using a VNC
client. Authenticate to the VNC server with the previously entered password.
23.5. WELCOME TO RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input.
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Figure 23.3. The Welcome screen
Click on the Next button to continue.
23.6. STORAGE DEVICES
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. For System z,
select Specialized Storage Devices
Figure 23.4. Storage devices
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Basic Storage Devices
This option does not apply to System z.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the
following storage devices:
Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
Multipath devices such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUN with multiple paths
Storage area networks (SANs) such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUNs with a single
path
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer
System Interface (iSCSI) connections. You cannot use theFCoE (Fiber Channel over
Ethernet) option on System z; this option is grayed out.
NOTE
Monitoring of LVM and software RAID devices by the mdeventd daemon is not
performed during installation.
23.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has
access.
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives
and solid-state drives. On System z, this contains activated DASDs.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller. This does not apply to System z.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
IMPORTANT
The installer only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers
that are 16 or 32 characters in length.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN) such as FCP LUNs attached
over one single path.
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Figure 23.5. Select storage devices — Basic Devices
Figure 23.6. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
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Figure 23.7. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter
storage devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or
logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.
Figure 23.8. The Storage Devices Search Tab
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional
values in the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the
device to help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to
the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data
presented on each device. For example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows
you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include
among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of
information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 23.9. Selecting Columns
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Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox
to make a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the
left of the column headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen.
Later in the installation process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto
any of the devices selected here, and can choose to automatically mount any of the other
devices selected here as part of the installed system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation
process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the
device at risk. Note also that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the
installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab
file.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click
Next and proceed to Section 23.7, “Setting the Hostname”
23.6.1.1. DASD low-level formatting
Any DASDs used must be low-level formatted. The installer detects this and lists the DASDs
that need formatting.
If any of the DASDs specified interactively in linuxrc or in a parameter or configuration file
are not yet low-level formatted, the following confirmation dialog appears:
Figure 23.10. Unformatted DASD Devices Found
To automatically allow low-level formatting of unformatted online DASDs specify the
kickstart command zerombr. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for more details.
23.6.1.2. Advanced Storage Options
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From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCP LUNs. Refer to
Appendix B, iSCSI Disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Figure 23.11. Advanced Storage Options
23.6.1.2.1. Configure iSCSI parameters
To use iSCSI storage devices for the installation, anaconda must be able to discover them
as iSCSI targets and be able to create an iSCSI session to access them. Each of these steps
might require a username and password for CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol) authentication. Additionally, you can configure an iSCSI target to authenticate the
iSCSI initiator on the system to which the target is attached (reverse CHAP), both for
discovery and for the session. Used together, CHAP and reverse CHAP are called mutual
CHAP or two-way CHAP. Mutual CHAP provides the greatest level of security for iSCSI
connections, particularly if the username and password are different for CHAP
authentication and reverse CHAP authentication.
Repeat the iSCSI discovery and iSCSI login steps as many times as necessary to add all
required iSCSI storage. However, you cannot change the name of the iSCSI initiator after
you attempt discovery for the first time. To change the iSCSI initiator name, you must
restart the installation.
Procedure 23.1. iSCSI discovery
Use the iSCSI Discovery Details dialog to provide anaconda with the information that
it needs to discover the iSCSI target.
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Figure 23.12. The iSCSI Discovery Details dialog
1. Enter the IP address of the iSCSI target in the Target IP Address field.
2. Provide a name in the iSCSI Initiator Name field for the iSCSI initiator in iSCSI
qualified name (IQN) format.
A valid IQN contains:
the string iqn. (note the period)
a date code that specifies the year and month in which your organization's
Internet domain or subdomain name was registered, represented as four digits
for the year, a dash, and two digits for the month, followed by a period. For
example, represent September 2010 as 2010-09.
your organization's Internet domain or subdomain name, presented in reverse
order with the top-level domain first. For example, represent the subdomain
storage.example.com as com.example.storage
a colon followed by a string that uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator
within your domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309.
A complete IQN therefore resembles: iqn.201009.storage.example.com:diskarrays-sn-a8675309, and anaconda pre-populates
the iSCSI Initiator Name field with a name in this format to help you with the
structure.
For more information on IQNs, refer to 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet
Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) available from
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1. iSCSI Names and Addresses in
RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Naming and
Discovery available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.
3. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI
discovery:
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Figure 23.13. iSCSI discovery authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
4.
If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and
password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 23.14. CHAP pair
If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type,
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provide the username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username
and CHAP Password field and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator
in the Reverse CHAP Username and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
Figure 23.15. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
5. Click Start Discovery. Anaconda attempts to discover an iSCSI target based on
the information that you provided. If discovery succeeds, the iSCSI Discovered
Nodes dialog presents you with a list of all the iSCSI nodes discovered on the target.
6. Each node is presented with a checkbox beside it. Click the checkboxes to select the
nodes to use for installation.
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Figure 23.16. The iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
7. Click Login to initiate an iSCSI session.
Procedure 23.2. Starting an iSCSI session
Use the iSCSI Nodes Login dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs
to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target and start an iSCSI session.
Figure 23.17. The iSCSI Nodes Login dialog
1. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for the iSCSI
session:
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Figure 23.18. iSCSI session authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
Use the credentials from the discovery step
If your environment uses the same type of authentication and same username and
password for iSCSI discovery and for the iSCSI session, select Use the credentials
from the discovery step to reuse these credentials.
2.
If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and
password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 23.19. CHAP pair
If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type,
provide the username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Username
and CHAP Password fields and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator
in the Reverse CHAP Username and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 23.20. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
3. Click Login. Anaconda attempts to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target based on
the information that you provided. The iSCSI Login Results dialog presents you
with the results.
Figure 23.21. The iSCSI Login Results dialog
4. Click OK to continue.
23.6.1.2.2. FCP Devices
FCP devices enable IBM System z to use SCSI devices rather than, or in addition to, DASD
devices. FCP devices provide a switched fabric topology that enables System z systems to
use SCSI LUNs as disk devices in addition to traditional DASD devices.
IBM System z requires that any FCP device be entered manually (either in the installation
program interactively, or specified as unique parameter entries in the parameter or CMS
configuration file) for the installation program to activate FCP LUNs. The values entered
here are unique to each site in which they are set up.
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Notes
Interactive creation of an FCP device is only possible in graphical mode. It is not
possible to interactively configure an FCP device in a text-only install.
Each value entered should be verified as correct, as any mistakes made may cause
the system not to operate properly. Use only lower-case letters in hex values.
For more information on these values, refer to the hardware documentation check
with the system administrator who set up the network for this system.
To configure a Fiber Channel Protocol SCSI device, select Add ZFCP LUN and click Add
Drive. In the Add FCP device dialog, fill in the details for the 16-bit device number, 64-bit
World Wide Port Number (WWPN) and 64-bit FCP LUN. Click the Add button to connect to
the FCP device using this information.
Figure 23.22. Add FCP Device
The newly added device should then be present and usable in the storage device selection
screen on the Multipath Devices tab, if you have activated more than one path to the
same LUN, or on Other SAN Devices, if you have activated only one path to the LUN.
IMPORTANT
The installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation,
enter none as the parameter interactively during phase 1 of an interactive
installation, or add DASD=none in the parameter or CMS configuration file. This
satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD parameter, while resulting in a
SCSI-only environment.
23.7. SETTING THE HOSTNAME
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Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified
domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the
format hostname. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the
DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, specify the short host name
only.
NOTE
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is
unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Change the default setting localhost.localdomain to a unique hostname for each of your
Linux instances.
Figure 23.23. Setting the hostname
23.7.1. Editing Network Connections
NOTE
To change your network configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the
Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the
root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by
NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Usually, the network connection configured earlier in installation phase 1 does not need to
be modified during the rest of the installation. You cannot add a new connection on
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System z because the network subchannels need to be grouped and set online beforehand,
and this is currently only done in installation phase 1. To change the existing network
connection, click the button Configure Network. The Network Connections dialog appears
that allows you to configure network connections for the system, not all of which are
relevant to System z.
Figure 23.24. Network Connections
All network connections on System z are listed in the Wired tab. By default this contains
the connection configured earlier in installation phase 1 and is either eth0 (OSA, LCS), or
hsi0 (HiperSockets). Note that on System z you cannot add a new connection here. To
modify an existing connection, select a row in the list and click the Edit button. A dialog
box appears with a set of tabs appropriate to wired connections, as described below.
The most important tabs on System z are Wired and IPv4 Settings.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to save the new
configuration. If you reconfigured a device that was already active during installation, you
must restart the device to use the new configuration — refer to Section 9.7.1.6, “Restart a
network device”.
23.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Connect automatically to start the connection automatically when the system
boots.
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When NetworkManager runs on an installed system, the Available to all users option
controls whether a network configuration is available system-wide or not. During
installation, ensure that Available to all users remains selected for any network
interface that you configure.
23.7.1.2. The Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change themedia access control (MAC) address for the
network adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can
pass through the interface.
Figure 23.25. The Wired tab
23.7.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
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Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control
(PNAC). Select Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control,
then specify details of your network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
TLS for Transport Layer Security
Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS,
or EAP-TTLS
Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished
Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show
password to make the password visible as you type it.
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Figure 23.26. The 802.1x Security tab
23.7.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously
selected network connection.
The address, netmask, gateway, DNS servers and DNS search suffix for an IPv4 connection
were configured during installation phase 1 or reflect the following parameters in the
parameter file or configuration file: IPADDR, NETMASK, GATEWAY, DNS, SEARCHDNS (Refer to
Section 26.3, “Installation Network Parameters”).
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to
obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network.
Choose from the following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
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IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on
the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is
assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are
started, and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system
with network address translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of
the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use
the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of
DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the
Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This
name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a
connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box
to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4
configuration fails but IPv6 configuration succeeds.
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Figure 23.27. The IPv4 Settings tab
23.7.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP
addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4
routes dialog appears.
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Figure 23.28. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static
route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes
specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict
connections only to the local network.
23.7.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously
selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to
obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network.
Choose from the following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
NetworkManager uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless
configuration.
Automatic, addresses only
NetworkManager uses RA to create an automatic, stateless configuration, but DNS
servers and search domains are ignored and must be configured manually.
Automatic, DHCP only
NetworkManager does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to
create a stateful configuration.
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Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of
the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use
the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of
DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the
Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This
name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a
connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box
to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6
configuration fails but IPv4 configuration succeeds.
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Figure 23.29. The IPv6 Settings tab
23.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP
addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6
routes dialog appears.
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Figure 23.30. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static
route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict
connections only to the local network.
23.7.1.6. Restart a network device
If you reconfigured a network that was already in use during installation, you must
disconnect and reconnect the device in anaconda for the changes to take effect.
Anaconda uses interface configuration (ifcfg) files to communicate with
NetworkManager. A device becomes disconnected when its ifcfg file is removed, and
becomes reconnected when its ifcfg file is restored, as long as ONBOOT=yes is set. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 Deployment Guide available from
https://access.redhat.com/documentation/enUS/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Deployment_Guide/index.html for more information
about interface configuration files.
1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to virtual terminaltty2.
2. Move the interface configuration file to a temporary location:
mv /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-device_name /tmp
where device_name is the device that you just reconfigured. For example,ifcfgeth0 is the ifcfg file for eth0.
The device is now disconnected in anaconda.
3. Open the interface configuration file in the vi editor:
vi /tmp/ifcfg-device_name
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4. Verify that the interface configuration file contains the line ONBOOT=yes. If the file
does not already contain the line, add it now and save the file.
5. Exit the vi editor.
6. Move the interface configuration file back to the /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ directory:
mv /tmp/ifcfg-device_name /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
The device is now reconnected in anaconda.
7. Press Ctrl+Alt+F6 to return to anaconda.
23.8. TIME ZONE CONFIGURATION
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click
on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the
accuracy of the system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented
by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time
zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 23.31. Configuring the Time Zone
Select System clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer
system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset
between the local time and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for systems
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that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.
NOTE
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch theTime
and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
23.9. SET THE ROOT PASSWORD
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most
system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
NOTE
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire
system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to
perform system maintenance or administration.
Figure 23.32. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your
general use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform
tasks that require superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the chances of a
typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
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NOTE
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then
press Enter. Then, enter the root password and pressEnter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password[11] for your system. . You
cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root
password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not
echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not
match, the installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that
is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals
with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or
420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down
your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write
down this or any password you create.

WARNING
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using
one of these passwords could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, run the passwd
command as root. If you forget the root password, seeResolving Problems in System
Recovery Modes in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide for instructions on
how to set a new one.
23.10. ASSIGN STORAGE DEVICES
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer
to Section 23.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices
should be available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be
attached to the file system for data storage.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are
mounted as part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
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Figure 23.33. Assign storage devices
The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for
data storage only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for
installation of the operating system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small dropdown menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu
allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the
amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the
button labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the
button labeled with a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for
installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each
device. On platforms other than System z, this radio button is used to specify the device to
which you want to install the boot loader. On System z this choice does not have any effect.
The zipl boot loader will be installed on the disk that contains the/boot directory, which is
determined later on during partitioning.
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to
continue.
23.11. INITIALIZING THE HARD DISK
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program
asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk
unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed,
or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it
cannot read a valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all
button to apply the same answer to all devices.
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Figure 23.34. Warning screen – initializing DASD
Figure 23.35. Warning screen – initializing FCP LUN
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the
installation program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation
program responds to the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
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To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the
kickstart command zerombr (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations). This command is
required when performing an unattended installation on a system with previously initialized
disks.

WARNING
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during
installation and detected and configured afterward, power off the system,
detach it, and restart the installation.
23.12. UPGRADING AN EXISTING SYSTEM
IMPORTANT
The following sections only apply to upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux
between minor versions, for example, upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4
to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 or higher. This approach is not supported for
upgrades between major versions, for example, upgrading Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.
In-place upgrades between major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux can be
done, with certain limitations, using the Red Hat Upgrade Tool and
Preupgrade Assistant tools. See Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System
for more information.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but
does not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on
your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package
upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but
rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software
packages that you need to upgrade your computer.
NOTE
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to
manually reinstall or recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure it
performs correctly on the updated system.
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
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NOTE
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home
partition and perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions
and how to set them up, refer to Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not
provided by Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software
is overwritten. Before you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current
packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or
retrieve from sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important
data may include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from
services such as an Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system.
Although upgrades are not destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small
possibility of data loss.

WARNING
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home
directory. If your /home directory is not a separate partition, you should
not follow these examples verbatim! Store your backups on another
device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2,
“Finishing an Upgrade”.
23.13. DISK PARTITIONING SETUP
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
WARNING
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your
systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot
system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your storage
devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
IMPORTANT
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the
default partitioning schemes described in this section. You cannot add or
remove partitions or file systems beyond those that the installer automatically
adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at installation time, you
should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and
resizable filesystems are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Partitioning allows you to divide your storage devices into isolated sections, where each
section behaves as a separate Linux device. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run
multiple operating systems, or wish to enforce a logical or functional distinction between
your storage partitions (such as a /home partition that persistently contains user
information).
Figure 23.36. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different
ways, or choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
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The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to
partition your storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your
system, choose one of these options and let the installation program partition the storage
devices for you. Depending on the option that you choose, you can still control what data (if
any) is removed from the system.
IMPORTANT
To encrypt partitions, you will need to select the Create Custom Layout
option. Partitions created with one of the four automated options cannot be
encrypted.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your storage drives (this includes partitions
created by other operating systems such as z/VM or z/OS).

WARNING
If you select this option, all data on the selected DASD and SCSI
storage devices is removed by the installation program.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous
Linux installation). This does not remove other partitions you may have on your storage
devices (such as z/VM or z/OS partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default
Red Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.

WARNING
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed,
you might not be able to use those operating systems. Although this
partitioning option does not destroy data, operating systems typically
require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a
partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use
again, find out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
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Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there
is sufficient space available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to
Section 18.1, “Pre-Installation”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts.
Refer to Section 23.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its
description in the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the/boot partition. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic
partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move
forward, the partitions created for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications
to these partitions if they do not meet your needs.
IMPORTANT
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a system with multipath and
non-multipath storage devices, the automatic partitioning layout in the
installer might create volume groups that contain a mix of multipath and nonmultipath devices. This defeats the purpose of multipath storage.
We advise that you select only multipath or only non-multipath devices on the
disk selection screen that appears after selecting automatic partitioning.
Alternatively, select custom partitioning.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
23.14. CHOOSING A DISK ENCRYPTION PASSPHRASE
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with
which to encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for more information.
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Figure 23.37. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must
provide this passphrase every time that the system boots.

WARNING
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on
them will become completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a
lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, you can save encryption passphrases and create backup
encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to Section C.3.2,
“Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
23.15. CREATING A CUSTOM LAYOUT OR MODIFYING THE
DEFAULT LAYOUT
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip
ahead to Section 23.16, “Write Changes to Disk”.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk
partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap
partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
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Figure 23.38. Partitioning on System z
The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical
representation of the DASD, FCP LUN, or logical volume selected in the lower pane.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/dasda), the Geom (which
shows the hard disk's geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of
cylinders, heads, and sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive
as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Doubleclick to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all DASDs, FCP LUNs, and logical volumes to be used
during installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 23.10, “
Assign Storage Devices ”. Note that if you specified a CMSDASD in your parameter file,
DASD names begin at dasdb; dasda was assigned to the CMSDASD and this name is no
longer available at this point in the installation process.
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to
view or hide devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or
the name of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
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Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of
file system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition
is a physical volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during
installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the
upper pane of in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out
the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing partition, logical volume, or software RAID. Note that you can only
shrink partitions with the Resize button, not enlarge partitions.
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
Finally, note which device is associated with /boot. The kernel files and bootloader sector
will be associated with this device. The first DASD or SCSI LUN will be used, and the device
number will be used when re-IPLing the post-installed system.
NOTE
The screenshots in the following subsections of this manual sometimes show
hard disk types and device names that do not appear as such on System z.
These screenshots are only intended to illustrate the installation interface
itself and apply equally to DASDs and FCP-attached SCSI disks.
23.15.1. Create Storage
The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes,
and software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on
the storage already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
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Figure 23.39. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as
follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently, and you do not need to set it
up.
Refer to Section 23.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software
RAID device. To form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be
available on the system.
RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device.
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When you choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the
RAID level). This option is only available when two or more RAID partitions are
available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 23.15.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes.
This option is only available when at least one physical volume is available on the
system.
LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is
only available when at least one volume group is available on the system.
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to
Figure 23.40, “Creating a New Partition”).
NOTE
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally
more. For more information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions.
Figure 23.40. Creating a New Partition
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Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should
be the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You
can also use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your
partition. For a swap partition the mount point should not be set — setting the
filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system
type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to
Section 23.15.2.1, “File System Types”.
Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your
system. If a hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on
that hard disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on
that hard disk. By using different checkbox settings, you can have anaconda place
partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide where partitions should
go.
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with
200 MB; unless changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to
allow it to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to
allow it to grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the
field to the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space
free on your hard drive for future use.
Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating
should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the
partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions Within
Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more information.
Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it
cannot be accessed without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to
another system. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption
of storage devices. If you select this option, the installer prompts you to provide a
passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the
partition.
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
23.15.2.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The
following is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available,
and how they can be used.
Partition types
standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap
space, or it can provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is
written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
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system is processing. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for
additional information.
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to
create a RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions
allows you to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when
using physical disks. For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number
of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files,
faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of
subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust
journaling. A maximum file system size of 16TB is supported for ext4. The ext4 file
system is selected by default and is highly recommended.
NOTE
The mount options user_xattr and acl are automatically set on ext4
systems by the installation system. These options enable extended
attributes and access control lists, respectively. More information about
mount options can be found in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage
Administration Guide.
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main
advantage — journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent
recovering a file system after a crash as there is no need to fsck [12] the file
system. A maximum file system size of 16TB is supported for ext3.
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files,
directories, symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up
to 255 characters.
xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports
filesystems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8
exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes) and directory structures containing
tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata journaling, which facilitates
quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented and resized
while mounted and active.
IMPORTANT
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 does not support XFS on System z.
vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft
Windows long filenames on the FAT file system.
Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and
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managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4
file systems. Btrfs is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to
facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to
ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of the file
system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program
does not offer it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you
must commence the installation process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to
Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.

WARNING
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 includes Btrfs as a technology
preview to allow you to experiment with this file system. You
should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable
data or that are essential for the operation of important systems.
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
NOTE
On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently. There is no
need to set up a software RAID.
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage
devices that are arranged to provide increased performance and — in some configurations
— greater fault tolerance. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage Administration
Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID
partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only
choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog
that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding
Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, thatFile System
Type must be set to software RAID
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Figure 23.41. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID
partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been
configured.
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Figure 23.42. Create a RAID device
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually
select names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from
this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following
options:
RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer
increased performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the
storage of multiple devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS
offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys the
entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage
devices. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy.
RAID 1 requires at least two RAID partitions.
RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in
the array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device
within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device,
access to this device creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID
4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
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RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices.
Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data
across multiple devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4
RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5
requires at least three RAID partitions.
RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only
one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID
partitions.
RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are
constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For
example, a level 10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two
pairs of partitions in which one partition mirrors the other. Data is then
distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10
requires at least four RAID partitions.
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
IMPORTANT
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to
create an LVM configuration from scratch, establish another SSH connection to
the installation image with the root user and run the lvm command.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical
storage space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are
represented as physical volumes that can be grouped together intovolume groups. Each
volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a
standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM logical volumes function as partitions that can span
multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note,
LVM is only available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This
option is the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume
Groups. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer
to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note,
however, that File System Type must be set to physical volume (LVM)
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Figure 23.43. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical
volumes, or to add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
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Figure 23.44. Make LVM Volume Group
To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume
group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally,
configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave
insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group
made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical
volume. The installer would not allow you to remove either of the component physical
volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If
you reduce the total size of any logical volumes appropriately, you may then remove a
physical volume from the volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical
volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system
type, and size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a
name for the logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
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Figure 23.45. Make Logical Volume
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Configuring efficient swap space for Linux on System z is a complex task. It very much
depends on the specific environment and should be tuned to the actual system load.
Refer to the following resources for more information and to guide your decision:
'Chapter 7. Linux Swapping' in the IBM Redbooks publication Linux on IBM System z:
Performance Measurement and Tuning [IBM Form Number SG24-6926-01], [ISBN
0738485586], available from
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg246926.html
Linux Performance when running under VM, available from
http://www.vm.ibm.com/perf/tips/linuxper.html
23.16. WRITE CHANGES TO DISK
The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write
changes to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
Figure 23.46. Writing storage configuration to disk
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If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.

WARNING
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no
lasting changes to your computer. When you click Write changes to
disk, the installer will allocate space on your hard drive and start to
transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing
data that already exists on your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go
back. To cancel installation completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to
complete. If the process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off
or resetting the computer, or by a power outage) you will probably not be
able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating
system.
23.17. PACKAGE GROUP SELECTION
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm
the default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set
for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version
of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.
IMPORTANT
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package
selections. The installer automatically selects packages only from the base
and core groups. These packages are sufficient to ensure that the system is
operational at the end of the installation process, ready to install updates and
new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
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Figure 23.47. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software
that is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not
include a graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles,
click the radio button that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Enterprise Identity Server Base
This option provides OpenLDAP and Enterprise Identity Management (IPA) to create
an identity and authentication server.
Virtual Host
This option provides the KVM and Virtual Machine Manager tools to create a host for
virtual machines.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the
GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
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This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A
minimal installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance
and maximizes performance and security on such an installation.

WARNING
Minimal installation currently does not configure the firewall
(iptables/ip6tables) by default because the authconfig and systemconfig-firewall-base packages are missing from the selection. To work
around this issue, you can use a Kickstart file to add these packages to
your selection. See the Red Hat Customer Portal for details about the
workaround, and Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for information
about Kickstart files.
If you do not use the workaround, the installation will complete
successfully, but no firewall will be configured, presenting a security
risk.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 23.18, “Installing
Packages”.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 23.47, “Package
Group Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen.
Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system
during installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along
with metadata that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux require other software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to
ensure that these requirements are met for every piece of software you select for
installation.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository is automatically selected for you. It contains
the complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9, with
the various pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
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Figure 23.48. Adding a software repository
To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software
repositories and provide the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then
select Modify repository.
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a
Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration
information.
Figure 23.49. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
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2. Click OK.
Anaconda then starts NetworkManager to allow you to configure the interface.
Figure 23.50. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 23.7, “Setting the Hostname”
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog
appears. Provide a Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the
mirror that contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package
metadata over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the
package group selection system.

WARNING
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra
repository data you may have entered is lost. This allows you to
effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way to cancel
only a single repository once entered.
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23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
NOTE
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language
that you selected at the start of the installation process. To include support for
additional languages, select the package group for those languages from the
Languages category.
NOTE
Users of IBM System z who want support for developing or running legacy 31bit applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support
and Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to install
architecture specific support for their systems.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail.
This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen
when you select Next.
Figure 23.51. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of
use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function
(for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the
two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The
list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box
at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently
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highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for
that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and
mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected
group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the
group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to
select or de-select base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Figure 23.52. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your
selection, and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you
selected. When you have finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional
package selections and return to the main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the
Add/Remove Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages.
To run this tool, from the main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove
Software. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux software management system downloads the
latest packages from network servers, rather than using those on the installation discs.
23.17.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
centralized logging through syslog
email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
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Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service
to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging,
and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file
sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled
by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS
sharing service.
23.18. INSTALLING PACKAGES
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed.
How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your
computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the
installer resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 23.53. Starting installation
During installation of the selected packages and their dependencies, you see the following
progress bar:
Figure 23.54. Packages completed
23.19. INSTALLATION COMPLETE
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot.
The installation program automatically reboots into the installed system.
Should the installation program not reboot, the installation program shows information
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from which device to do an IPL (boot). Accept the shutdown option and after shutdown, IPL
from the DASD or SCSI LUN where the /boot partition for Red Hat Enterprise Linux has
been installed.
23.19.1. IPL Under z/VM
To IPL from a DASD, for example using the DASD device 200 on the 3270 console, issue the
command:
#cp i 200
In DASD only environments where automatic partitioning (clearing data from all partitions)
was used, the first activated DASD is where the /boot partition is typically located.
Using /boot on an FCP LUN, you must provide the WWPN and LUN for the FCP-attached
device from which to IPL.
To IPL from an FCP-attached device:
1. Provide FCP routing information to an FCP-attached device, for example, where
0x50050763050B073D is the WWPN, and 0x4020400100000000 is the FCP LUN:
#cp set loaddev portname50050763 050B073D lun 40204001 00000000
2. IPL the FCP adapter, for example FC00:
#cp ipl FC00
NOTE
To disconnect from the 3270 terminal without stopping the Linux running in
your virtual machine, use #cp disconnect instead of #cp logoff. When your
virtual machine is re-connected using the usual logon procedure, it might be
placed in CP console function mode (CP READ). If so, to resume execution on
your virtual machine, enter the BEGIN command.
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
For LPAR-based installations, on the HMC, issue a load command to the LPAR, specifying
the particular DASD, or the FCP adapter, WWPN, and FCP LUN where the /boot partition is
located.
23.19.3. Continuing After Reboot (re-IPL)
Following the automatic reboot or the manual IPL of the installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux
operating system, you can log on to the system via ssh. Note that the only place from
which you can log in as root is from the 3270 terminal or from other terminal devices listed
in /etc/securetty.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in a graphical environment,
you can use FirstBoot to guide you through Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using
this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine
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with Red Hat Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the
beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
Chapter 34, Firstboot will guide you through the configuration process.
[11] A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You
should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate
within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have
implications for your entire system.
[12] The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally
repair one or more Linux file systems.
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CHAPTER 24. TROUBLESHOOTING INSTALLATION ON
IBM SYSTEM Z
This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the/tmp directory.
These files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
/tmp/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacondatb-identifier, where identifier is a random string.
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a
permanent copy, copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the
installation image (not the other way round).
24.1. YOU ARE UNABLE TO BOOT RED HAT ENTERPRISE
LINUX
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly known as a segmentation fault, means that the program
accessed a memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a
bug in one of the software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the
online errata to see if newer versions are available.
24.2. TROUBLE DURING THE INSTALLATION
24.2.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error
Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, then there may be an issue with your DASD devices. If you encounter
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this error, add the DASD=<disks> parameter to your parameter file or CMS configuration file
(where disks is the DASD range reserved for installation) and start the install again.
Additionally, make sure you format the DASDs using the dasdfmt command within a Linux
root shell, instead of formatting the DASDs using CMS. Anaconda automatically detects
any DASD devices that are not yet formatted and asks you whether to format the devices.
24.2.2. Saving Traceback Messages
If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you
with a crash reporting dialog box:
Figure 24.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
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Figure 24.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
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Figure 24.3. Select reporter
Logger
saves details of the error as a log file to the local hard drive at a specified location.
Red Hat Customer Support
submits the crash report to Customer Support for assistance.
Report uploader
uploads a compressed version of the crash report to Bugzilla or a URL of your choice.
Before submitting the report, click Preferences to specify a destination or provide
authentication details. Select the reporting method you need to configure and click
Configure Event.
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Figure 24.4. Configure reporter preferences
Logger
Specify a path and a filename for the log file. Check Append if you are adding to an
existing log file.
Figure 24.5. Specify local path for log file
Red Hat Customer Support
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Enter your Red Hat Network username and password so your report reaches Customer
Support and is linked with your account. The URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked
by default.
Figure 24.6. Enter Red Hat Network authentication details
Report uploader
Specify a URL for uploading a compressed version of the crash report.
Figure 24.7. Enter URL for uploading crash report
Bugzilla
Enter your Bugzilla username and password to lodge a bug with Red Hat's bug-tracking
system using the crash report. The URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by
default.
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Figure 24.8. Enter Bugzilla authentication details
Once you have entered your preferences, click OK to return to the report selection dialog.
Select how you would like to report the problem and then click Forward.
Figure 24.9. Confirm report data
You can now customize the report by checking and unchecking the issues that will be
included. When finished, click Apply.
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Figure 24.10. Report in progress
This screen displays the outcome of the report, including any errors in sending or saving
the log. Click Forward to proceed.
Figure 24.11. Reporting done
Reporting is now complete. Click Forward to return to the report selection dialog. You can
now make another report, or click Close to exit the reporting utility and thenExit to close
the installation process.
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
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If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have
not created all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
A / (root) partition
A <swap> partition of type swap
Refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for more information.
NOTE
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point.
Anaconda automatically assigns the mount point for you.
24.3. PROBLEMS AFTER INSTALLATION
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
If you have installed the X Window System and would like to log in to your Red Hat
Enterprise Linux system using a graphical login manager, enable the X Display Manager
Control Protocol (XDMCP). This protocol allows users to remotely log in to a desktop
environment from any X Window System compatible client (such as a network-connected
workstation or X11 terminal).
To enable remote login using XDMCP, edit the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file on the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux system with a text editor such as vi or nano. In the [xdcmp] section, add
the line Enable=true, save the file, and exit the text editor.
To enable this change, you will need to restart the X Window System. First, switch to
runlevel 4:
/sbin/init 4
The graphical display will close, leaving only a terminal. When you reach the login:
prompt, enter your username and password.
Then, as root in the terminal, switch to runlevel 5 to return to the graphical interface and
start the X11 server:
/sbin/init 5
From the client machine, start a remote X11 session using X. For example:
X :1 -query s390vm.example.com
The command connects to the remote X11 server via XDMCP (replace
s390vm.example.com with the hostname of the remote X11 server) and displays the
remote graphical login screen on display :1 of the X11 server system (usually accessible by
using the Ctrl-Alt-F8 key combination).
You can also access remote desktop sessions using a nested X11 server, which opens the
remote desktop as a window in your current X11 session. Xnest allows users to open a
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remote desktop nested within their local X11 session. For example, run Xnest using the
following command, replacing s390vm.example.com with the hostname of the remote X11
server:
Xnest :1 -query s390vm.example.com
24.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by
pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system into single user mode by
appending the boot option single to the zipl boot menu or by any other means to append
kernel command line options at IPL.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must
type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can
type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become
root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, typepasswd
<username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues.
The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
https://hardware.redhat.com/
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work
properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch thePrinter
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
24.3.4. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During
Startup
If Apache HTTP Server (httpd) or Sendmail stops responding during startup, make sure
the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
384
localhost.localdomain
localhost
CHAPTER 25. CONFIGURING AN INSTALLED LINUX ON SYSTEM Z INSTANCE
CHAPTER 25. CONFIGURING AN INSTALLED LINUX ON
SYSTEM Z INSTANCE
For more information about Linux on System z, see the publications listed in Chapter 27,
IBM System z References. Some of the most common tasks are described here.
25.1. ADDING DASDS
This section explains how to set a Direct Access Storage Device (DASD) online, format it,
and how to make sure it is attached to the system persistently, making it automatically
available after a reboot.
NOTE
Make sure the device is attached or linked to the Linux system if running
under z/VM.
CP ATTACH EB1C TO *
To link a mini disk to which you have access, issue, for example:
CP LINK RHEL6X 4B2E 4B2E MR
DASD 4B2E LINKED R/W
See z/VM: CP Commands and Utilities Reference, SC24-6175 for details about
these commands.
25.1.1. Dynamically Setting DASDs Online
The following procedure describes bringing a DASD online dynamically (not persistently).
This is the first step when configuring a new DASD; later procedures will explain how to
make it available persistently.
Procedure 25.1. Adding DASD Disks on IBM System z Using the VMCP Driver
1. Enable the VMCP driver:
# modprobe vmcp
2. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the DASD from the list of ignored devices
and make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r DeviceNumber
Replace DeviceNumber with the device number of the DASD. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 0102
3. Link the disk to the virtual machine:
# vmcp 'link * DeviceNumber DeviceNumber rw'
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Replace DeviceNumber with the device number of the DASD.
4. Set the device online. Use a command of the following form:
# # chccwdev -e DeviceNumber
Replace DeviceNumber with the device number of the DASD.
5. Verify that the disk is ready using the lsdasd command:
# lsdasd
Bus-ID
Status
Name
Device Type BlkSz Size
Blocks
====================================================================
==========
0.0.0100
active
dasda
94:0
ECKD 4096
2347MB
600840
0.0.0301
active
dasdb
94:4
FBA
512
512MB
1048576
0.0.0300
active
dasdc
94:8
FBA
512
256MB
524288
0.0.0101
active
dasdd
94:12
ECKD 4096
2347MB
600840
0.0.0200
active
dasde
94:16
ECKD 4096
781MB
200160
0.0.0102
active
dasdf
94:20
ECKD 4096
2347MB
600840
In the above example, device 0102 (shown as 0.0.0102 in the Bus-ID column) is
being accessed as /dev/dasdf.
If you followed the above procedure, the new DASD is attached for the current session only.
This means that the DASD will not still be attached after you reboot the system. See
Section 25.1.2, “Persistently setting DASDs online” for information about attaching the
storage device permanently.
You can also find more information in the DASD Chapter in Linux on System z Device
Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
25.1.2. Persistently setting DASDs online
The instructions in Section 25.1.1, “Dynamically Setting DASDs Online” described how to
activate DASDs dynamically in a running system. Such changes are not persistent; the
DASDs will not be attached after the system reboots. Procedures described in this section
assume that you have already attached the DASD dynamically.
Making changes to the DASD configuration persistent in your Linux system depends on
whether the DASDs belong to the root (/) file system. Those DASDs required for the root
file system need to be activated early during the boot process by the initramfs to be able
to mount the root file system. The DASDs which are not part of the root file system can be
activated later, simplifying the configuration process.
The list of ignored devices (cio_ignore) is handled transparently for persistent device
configurations. You do not need to free devices from the ignore list manually.
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CHAPTER 25. CONFIGURING AN INSTALLED LINUX ON SYSTEM Z INSTANCE
25.1.2.1. DASDs Which Are Part of the Root File System
If you are attaching a new DASD as part of the root file system, you will have to edit the
zipl boot loader's configuration and then regenerate theinitramfs so that your changes
will take effect after the next reboot. The following procedure explains the steps you need
to take.
Procedure 25.2. Permanently Attaching DASDs as Root Devices
1. Edit the /etc/dasd.conf configuration file using a plain text editor such asVim, and
append a line to this file with your DASD's configuration. You can use parts of the
file that describe previously configured devices for reference. A valid configuration
line will look similar to the following:
0.0.0102 use_diag=0 readonly=0 erplog=0 failfast=0
2. Edit the /etc/zipl.conf configuration file. An examplezipl.conf file will look
similar to the following:
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM
LANG=en_US.UTF-8 SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us
cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Note the multiple rd_DASD= options on the parameters= line. You must add the new
DASD to this line, using the same syntax - the rd_DASD= keyword, followed by the
device ID and a comma-separated list of options. See the dasd= parameter
description in the DASD device driver chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers,
Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for details.
3. The next step is to rebuild the initrd:
# mkinitrd -f /boot/initramfs-2.6.32-71.el6.s390x.img `uname -r`
4. Then, rebuild the boot loader configuration using the zipl command. You can use
the -V option for more detailed output:
# zipl -V
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................:
Partition.......................:
Device name.....................:
DASD device number..............:
Type............................:
Disk layout.....................:
5e:00
5e:01
dasda
0201
disk partition
ECKD/compatible disk layout
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Geometry - heads................: 15
Geometry - sectors..............: 12
Geometry - cylinders............: 3308
Geometry - start................: 24
File system block size..........: 4096
Physical block size.............: 4096
Device size in physical blocks..: 595416
Building bootmap in '/boot/'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
kernel parmline...: 'root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM
LANG=en_US.UTF-8 SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us
cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009'
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
component address:
kernel image....: 0x00010000-0x00a70fff
parmline........: 0x00001000-0x00001fff
initial ramdisk.: 0x02000000-0x022d2fff
internal loader.: 0x0000a000-0x0000afff
Preparing boot device: dasda (0201).
Preparing boot menu
Interactive prompt......: enabled
Menu timeout............: 15 seconds
Default configuration...: 'linux'
Syncing disks...
Done.
After completing this procedure, the new DASD is persistently attached and can be used as
part of the root file system. However, the root file system still needs to be expanded to the
new DASD. If your system uses an LVM logical volume for the root file system, you will also
need to expand this volume (and the volume group which contains it) to the new DASD.
This can be done using the built-in pvcreate, vgextend and lvextend commands to create
a physical volume for LVM, expand the existing volume group and expand the root logical
volume, respectively. See Section 25.1.5, “Expanding Existing LVM Volumes to New Storage
Devices” for details.
25.1.3. DASDs Which Are Not Part of the Root File System
DASDs that are not part of the root file system, that is, data disks, are persistently
configured in the file /etc/dasd.conf. It contains one DASD per line. Each line begins with
the device bus ID of a DASD. Optionally, each line can continue with options separated by
space or tab characters. Options consist of key-value-pairs, where the key and value are
separated by an equals sign.
The key corresponds to any valid sysfs attribute a DASD may have. The value will be
written to the key's sysfs attribute. Entries in /etc/dasd.conf are activated and
configured by udev when a DASD is added to the system. At boot time, all DASDs visible to
the system get added and trigger udev.
Example content of /etc/dasd.conf:
0.0.0207
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CHAPTER 25. CONFIGURING AN INSTALLED LINUX ON SYSTEM Z INSTANCE
0.0.0200 use_diag=1 readonly=1
Modifications of /etc/dasd.conf only become effective after a reboot of the system or
after the dynamic addition of a new DASD by changing the system's I/O configuration (that
is, the DASD is attached under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the activation of a new
entry in /etc/dasd.conf for a DASD which was previously not active, by executing the
following commands:
Procedure 25.3. Permanently Attaching DASDs as Non-root Devices
Trigger the activation by writing to the uevent attribute of the device:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/device.bus,ID/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.021a/uevent
25.1.4. Preparing a New DASD with Low-level Formatting
The next step after bringing the DASD online is to format it, if you need to do so. The
following procedure explains the necessary steps.

WARNING
This procedure will wipe all existing data on the disk. Make sure to back
up any data you want to keep before proceeding.
Procedure 25.4. Formatting a DASD
1. Wipe all existing data on the DASD using the dasdfmt command. Replace
DeviceNumber with the device number of the DASD. When prompted for
confirmation (as shown in the example below), type yes to proceed.
# dasdfmt -b 4096 -d cdl -p /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.DeviceNumber
Drive Geometry: 10017 Cylinders * 15 Heads = 150255 Tracks
I am going to format the device /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.0102 in
the following way:
Device number of device : 0x4b2e
Labelling device
: yes
Disk label
: VOL1
Disk identifier
: 0X0102
Extent start (trk no)
: 0
Extent end (trk no)
: 150254
Compatible Disk Layout : yes
Blocksize
: 4096
--->> ATTENTION! <<---
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All data of that device will be lost.
Type "yes" to continue, no will leave the disk untouched: yes
cyl
97 of 3338 |#---------------------------------------------|
2%
When the progress bar reaches the end and the format is complete, dasdfmt prints
the following output:
Rereading the partition table...
Exiting...
See the dasdfmt(8) man page for information about the syntax of thedasdfmt
command.
2. Use the fdasd command to write a new Linux-compatible partition table to the
DASD. Replace DeviceNumber with the device number of the DASD.
# fdasd -a /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-DeviceNumber
auto-creating one partition for the whole disk...
writing volume label...
writing VTOC...
checking !
wrote NATIVE!
rereading partition table...
This example uses the -a option to create a single partition spanning the entire
disk. Other layouts are possible; up to three partitions can be created on a single
DASD. For information about the syntax of the fdasd command and available
options, see the fdasd(8) man page.
3. Create a new partition with fdisk. Replace DeviceName with the device name of the
DASD.
# fdisk /dev/DeviceName
After you execute fdisk, a series of prompts will appear in your terminal. These
prompts can be used to manipulate the disk partition table, creating new partitions
or editing existing one. For information about using fdisk, see the fdisk(8) man
page.
After a (low-level formatted) DASD is online, it can be used like any other disk under Linux.
For instance, you can create file systems, LVM physical volumes, or swap space on its
partitions, for example /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e-part1. Never use the full DASD
device (dev/dasdb) for anything but the commandsdasdfmt and fdasd. If you want to use
the entire DASD, create one partition spanning the entire drive as in the fdasd example
above.
NOTE
To add additional disks later without breaking existing disk entries in, for
example, /etc/fstab, use the persistent device symbolic links under
/dev/disk/by-path/.
25.1.5. Expanding Existing LVM Volumes to New Storage Devices
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CHAPTER 25. CONFIGURING AN INSTALLED LINUX ON SYSTEM Z INSTANCE
If your system uses LVM, you need to expand an existing volume group and one or more
logical volumes so that they contain the new DASD which you attached by following the
procedures described earlier in this chapter. Otherwise, the DASD will be attached to the
system, but you will not be able to use it.
The following procedure explains how to use the entire capacity of the new DASD to
expand an existing logical volume. If you want to use the new DASD for multiple logical
volumes, you will need to create multiple LVM physical volumes on this partition, and
repeat this procedure for each logical volume (and volume group) you want to expand. This
procedure assumes you followed the steps in Section 25.1.1, “Dynamically Setting DASDs
Online” to attach the new DASD dynamically, thenSection 25.1.2.1, “DASDs Which Are Part
of the Root File System” to attach it persistently and prepare it to be used for the root
volume, and that you formatted it as described in Section 25.1.4, “Preparing a New DASD
with Low-level Formatting” and created a single partition on it.
Procedure 25.5. Expanding Existing Logical Volume to Use a New DASD
1. Create a new physical volume for LVM on the DASD using the pvcreate command:
# pvcreate /dev/DeviceName
IMPORTANT
The device name must be specified as a partition - for example,
/dev/dasdf1. Do not specify the entire block device.
2. List existing physical volumes using the pvs command to verify that the physical
volume has been created:
# pvs
PV
VG
Fmt Attr PSize
PFree
/dev/dasda2
vg_local
lvm2 a-1,29g
0
/dev/dasdd1
vg_local
lvm2 a-2,29g
0
/dev/dasdf1
lvm2 a-2,29g
2,29g
/dev/mapper/mpathb vgextnotshared lvm2 a-- 200,00g 1020,00m
As you can see in the above example, /dev/dasdf1 now contains an empty physical
volume which is not assigned to any volume group.
3. Use the vgextend command to expand an existing volume group containing the
volume you want to use the new DASD for:
# vgextend VolumeGroup PhysicalVolume
Replace VolumeGroup with the name of the volume group you are expanding, and
PhysicalVolume with the name of the physical volume (for example,/dev/dasdf1).
4. Use the lvextend command to expand a logical volume you want to use the new
DASD for:
# lvextend -L +Size /dev/mapper/VolumeGroup-LogicalVolume
For example:
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Installation Guide
# lvextend -L +2G /dev/mapper/vg_local-lv_root
Extending logical volume lv_root to 2,58 GiB
Logical volume lv_root successfully resized
After you complete the procedure, an existing logical volume is expanded and contains the
new DASD in addition to any previously assigned storage devices. You can also use the pvs,
vgs, and lvs commands as root to view existing LVM physical volumes, volume groups and
logical volumes at any point during the procedure.
25.2. ADDING FCP-ATTACHED LOGICAL UNITS (LUNS)
The following is an example of how to add an FCP LUN.
NOTE
If running under z/VM, make sure the FCP adapter is attached to the z/VM
guest virtual machine. For multipathing in production environments there
would be at least two FCP devices on two different physical adapters (CHPIDs).
For example:
CP ATTACH FC00 TO *
CP ATTACH FCD0 TO *
25.2.1. Dynamically Activating an FCP LUN
Follow these steps to activate a LUN:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the FCP adapter from the list of ignored
devices and make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r DeviceNumber
Replace DeviceNumber with the device number of the FCP adapter. For example:
2. To bring the FCP adapter device online, use the following command:
# chccwdev -e fc00
3. Verify that the required WWPN was found by the automatic port scanning of the zfcp
device driver:
# ls -l /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630040710b
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x50050763050b073d
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630e060521
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630e860521
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 availability
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 card_version
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 cmb_enable
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 cutype
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 devtype
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root
0 Apr 28 18:17 driver ->
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CHAPTER 25. CONFIGURING AN INSTALLED LINUX ON SYSTEM Z INSTANCE
../../../../bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root
0 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
--w-------. 1 root root 4096 Apr
--w-------. 1 root root 4096 Apr
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root
0 Apr
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root
0 Apr
../../../../bus/ccw
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
18:17
18:19
18:17
18:17
18:19
18:17
18:17
18:19
18:19
18:19
18:19
18:19
18:19
18:19
18:17
failed
hardware_version
host0
in_recovery
lic_version
modalias
online
peer_d_id
peer_wwnn
peer_wwpn
port_remove
port_rescan
power
status
subsystem ->
28 18:17 uevent
4. Activate the FCP LUN by adding it to the port (WWPN) through which you would like
to access the LUN:
# echo 0x4020400100000000 >
/sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/0x50050763050b073d/unit_add
5. Find out the assigned SCSI device name:
# lszfcp -DV
/sys/devices/css0/0.0.0015/0.0.fc00/0x50050763050b073d/0x40204001000
00000
/sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/host0/rport-0:021/target0:0:21/0:0:21:1089355792
For more information, refer to the chapter on SCSI-over-Fibre Channel in Linux on System z
Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
25.2.2. Persistently Activating FCP LUNs
The above instructions described how to activate FCP LUNs dynamically in a running
system. However, such changes are not persistent and do not survive a reboot. How you
make the changes to the FCP configuration persistent in your Linux system depends on
whether the FCP LUNs belong to the root file system. Those required for the root file
system need to be activated very early during the boot process by the initramfs to be
able to mount the root file system. cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent
device configurations and you do not need to free devices from the ignore list manually.
25.2.2.1. FCP LUNs That Are Part of the Root File System
The only file you have to modify for adding FCP LUNs that are part of the root file system is
/etc/zipl.conf followed by a run of thezipl boot loader tool. There is no more need to
recreate the initramfs.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides a parameter to activate FCP LUNs early in the boot
process: rd_ZFCP=. The value is a comma-separated list containing the device bus ID, the
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Installation Guide
WWPN as 16 digit hexadecimal number prefixed with 0x, and the FCP LUN prefixed with0x
and padded with zeroes to the right to have 16 hexadecimal digits.
The following example zipl.conf is for a system that uses physical volumes on partitions
of two FCP LUNs for an LVM volume group vg_devel1 that contains a logical volume
lv_root for the root file system. For simplicity, the example shows a configuration without
multipathing.
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
To add another physical volume on a partition of a third FCP LUN with device bus ID
0.0.fc00, WWPN 0x5105074308c212e9 and FCP LUN 0x401040a300000000, simply add
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000 to the parameters line of
your boot kernel in zipl.conf, for example:
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Run zipl to apply the changes of /etc/zipl.conf for the next IPL:
# zipl -V
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................: 08:00
Partition.......................: 08:01
Device name.....................: sda
Device driver name..............: sd
Type............................: disk partition
Disk layout.....................: SCSI disk layout
Geometry - start................: 2048
File system block size..........: 4096
Physical block size.............: 512
Device size in physical blocks..: 10074112
Building bootmap in '/boot/'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
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CHAPTER 25. CONFIGURING AN INSTALLED LINUX ON SYSTEM Z INSTANCE
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
kernel parmline...: 'root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009'
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
component address:
kernel image....: 0x00010000-0x007a21ff
parmline........: 0x00001000-0x000011ff
initial ramdisk.: 0x02000000-0x028f63ff
internal loader.: 0x0000a000-0x0000a3ff
Preparing boot device: sda.
Detected SCSI PCBIOS disk layout.
Writing SCSI master boot record.
Syncing disks...
Done.
25.2.2.2. FCP LUNs That Are Not Part of the Root File System
FCP LUNs that are not part of the root file system, such as data disks, are persistently
configured in the file /etc/zfcp.conf. It contains one FCP LUN per line. Each line contains
the device bus ID of the FCP adapter, the WWPN as 16 digit hexadecimal number prefixed
with 0x, and the FCP LUN prefixed with0x and padded with zeroes to the right to have 16
hexadecimal digits, separated by a space or tab. Entries in /etc/zfcp.conf are activated
and configured by udev when an FCP adapter is added to the system. At boot time, all FCP
adapters visible to the system are added and trigger udev.
Example content of /etc/zfcp.conf:
0.0.fc00
0.0.fc00
0.0.fc00
0.0.fcd0
0.0.fcd0
0.0.fcd0
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x401040a000000000
0x401040a100000000
0x401040a300000000
0x401040a000000000
0x401040a100000000
0x401040a300000000
Modifications of /etc/zfcp.conf only become effective after a reboot of the system or
after the dynamic addition of a new FCP channel by changing the system's I/O configuration
(for example, a channel is attached under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the
activation of a new entry in /etc/zfcp.conf for an FCP adapter which was previously not
active, by executing the following commands:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the FCP adapter from the list of ignored
devices and make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r DeviceNumber
Replace DeviceNumber with the device number of the FCP adapter. For example:
# cio_ignore -r fcfc
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2. To trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/Device.Bus.ID/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.fcfc/uevent
25.3. ADDING A NETWORK DEVICE
Network device driver modules are loaded automatically by udev.
You can add a network interface on IBM System z dynamically or persistently.
Dynamically
1. Load the device driver
2. Remove the network devices from the list of ignored devices.
3. Create the group device.
4. Configure the device.
5. Set the device online.
Persistently
1. Create a configuration script.
2. Activate the interface.
The following sections provide basic information for each task of each IBM System z
network device driver. Section 25.3.1, “Adding a qeth Device” describes how to add a qeth
device to an existing instance of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Section 25.3.2, “Adding an LCS
Device” describes how to add an lcs device to an existing instance of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Section 25.3.3, “Mapping Subchannels and Network Device Names” describes how
persistent network device names work. Section 25.3.4, “Configuring a System z Network
Device for Network Root File System” describes how to configure a network device to use
with a root file system that is only accessible through the network.
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
The qeth network device driver supports System z OSA-Express features in QDIO mode,
HiperSockets, z/VM guest LAN, and z/VM VSWITCH.
Based on the type of interface being added, the qeth device driver assigns one of the base
interface names:
hsin for HiperSockets devices
ethn for Ethernet features
The value n is an integer that uniquely identifies the device.n is 0 for the first device of
that type, 1 for the second, and so on.
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25.3.1.1. Dynamically Adding a qeth Device
To add a qeth device dynamically, follow these steps:
1. Determine whether the qeth device driver modules are loaded. The following
example shows loaded qeth modules:
# lsmod | grep qeth
qeth_l3
127056 9
qeth_l2
73008 3
ipv6
492872
155ip6t_REJECT,nf_conntrack_ipv6,qeth_l3
qeth
115808 2 qeth_l3,qeth_l2
qdio
68240 1 qeth
ccwgroup
12112 2 qeth
If the output of the lsmod command shows that the qeth modules are not loaded,
run the modprobe command to load them:
# modprobe qeth
2. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of
ignored devices and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r
read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id with the three
device bus IDs representing a network device. For example, if the
read_device_bus_id is 0.0.f500, the write_device_bus_id is 0.0.f501, and the
data_device_bus_id is 0.0.f502:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502
3. Use the znetconf command to sense and list candidate configurations for network
devices:
# znetconf -u
Scanning for network devices...
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv.
-----------------------------------------------------------0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 1731/01 OSA (QDIO)
00 qeth
0.0.f503,0.0.f504,0.0.f505 1731/01 OSA (QDIO)
01 qeth
0.0.0400,0.0.0401,0.0.0402 1731/05 HiperSockets
02 qeth
4. Select the configuration you want to work with and use znetconf to apply the
configuration and to bring the configured group device online as network device.
# znetconf -a f500
Scanning for network devices...
Successfully configured device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
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5. Optionally, you can also pass arguments that are configured on the group device
before it is set online:
# znetconf -a f500 -o portname=myname
Scanning for network devices...
Successfully configured device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
Now you can continue to configure the network eth1 interface.
Alternatively, you can use sysfs attributes to set the device online as follows:
1. Create a qeth group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
For example:
# echo 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
2. Next, verify that the qeth group device was created properly by looking for the read
channel:
# ls /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500
You may optionally set additional parameters and features, depending on the way
you are setting up your system and the features you require, such as:
portno
layer2
portname
For information on additional parameters, refer to the chapter on the qeth device
driver in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.
3. Bring the device online by writing 1 to the online sysfs attribute:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/online
4. Then verify the state of the device:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/online
1
A return value of 1 indicates that the device is online, while a return value0
indicates that the device is offline.
5. Find the interface name that was assigned to the device:
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# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/if_name
eth1
Now you can continue to configure the network eth1 interface.
The following command from the s390utils package shows the most important
settings of your qeth device:
# lsqeth eth1
Device name
: eth1
--------------------------------------------card_type
: OSD_1000
cdev0
: 0.0.f500
cdev1
: 0.0.f501
cdev2
: 0.0.f502
chpid
: 76
online
: 1
portname
: OSAPORT
portno
: 0
state
: UP (LAN ONLINE)
priority_queueing
: always queue 0
buffer_count
: 16
layer2
: 1
isolation
: none
25.3.1.2. Dynamically Removing a qeth Device
To remove a qeth device, use the znetconf tool. For example:
1. Use the znetconf command to show you all configured network devices:
znetconf -c
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv. Name
State
------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0.8036,0.0.8037,0.0.8038 1731/05 HiperSockets
FB qeth hsi1
online
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 1731/01 OSD_1000
76 qeth eth0
online
0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 1731/01 GuestLAN QDIO
00 qeth eth1
online
2. Select the network device to be removed and trigger znetconf to set the device
offline and ungroup the ccw group device.
# znetconf -r f500
Remove network device 0.0.f500 (0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502)?
Warning: this may affect network connectivity!
Do you want to continue (y/n)?y
Successfully removed device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
3. Verify the success of the removal:
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znetconf -c
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv. Name
State
------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0.8036,0.0.8037,0.0.8038 1731/05 HiperSockets
FB qeth hsi1
online
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 1731/01 OSD_1000
76 qeth eth0
online
25.3.1.3. Persistently Adding a qeth Device
To make your new qeth device persistent you need to create the configuration file for your
new interface. The network interface configuration files are placed in
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/.
The network configuration files use the naming convention ifcfg-device, where device is
the value found in the if_name file in the qeth group device that was created earlier. In
this example it is eth1. cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device
configurations and you do not need to free devices from the ignore list manually.
If a configuration file for another device of the same type already exists, the simplest
solution is to copy it to the new name.
# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
# cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth1
If you do not have a similar device defined you must create one. Use this example of
ifcfg-eth0 as a template:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=10.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1,0.0.09a2
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
OPTIONS='layer2=1 portno=0'
MACADDR=02:00:00:23:65:1a
TYPE=Ethernet
Edit the new ifcfg-eth1 file as follows:
1. Modify the DEVICE statement to reflect the contents of theif_name file from your
ccwgroup.
2. Modify the IPADDR statement to reflect the IP address of your new interface.
3. Modify the NETMASK statement as needed.
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4. If the new interface is to be activated at boot time, then make sure ONBOOT is set to
yes.
5. Make sure the SUBCHANNELS statement matches the hardware addresses for your
qeth device.
6. Modify the PORTNAME statement or leave it out if it is not necessary in your
environment.
7. You may add any valid sysfs attribute and its value to the OPTIONS parameter. The
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer currently uses this to configure the layer mode
(layer2) and the relative port number (portno) of qeth devices.
The qeth device driver default for OSA devices is now layer 2 mode. To continue
using old ifcfg definitions that rely on the previous default of layer 3 mode, add
layer2=0 to the OPTIONS parameter.
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth1
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.70.87
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
OPTIONS='layer2=1 portno=0'
MACADDR=02:00:00:b3:84:ef
TYPE=Ethernet
Changes to an ifcfg file only become effective after rebooting the system or after the
dynamic addition of new network device channels by changing the system's I/O
configuration (for example, attaching under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the
activation of a ifcfg file for network channels which were previously not active yet, by
executing the following commands:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of
ignored devices and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r
read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id with the three
device bus IDs representing a network device. For example, if the
read_device_bus_id is 0.0.0600, the write_device_bus_id is 0.0.0601, and the
data_device_bus_id is 0.0.0602:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
2. To trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/read-channel/uevent
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For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.0600/uevent
3. Check the status of the network device:
# lsqeth
4. Now start the new interface:
# ifup eth1
5. Check the status of the interface:
# ifconfig eth1
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:00:00:01
inet addr:192.168.70.87 Bcast:192.168.70.255
Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::ff:fe00:1/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1
RX packets:23 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:3 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:644 (644.0 b) TX bytes:264 (264.0 b)
6. Check the routing for the new interface:
# route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
Use Iface
192.168.70.0
*
0 eth1
10.1.20.0
*
0 eth0
default
10.1.20.1
0 eth0
Genmask
Flags Metric Ref
255.255.255.0
U
0
0
255.255.255.0
U
0
0
0.0.0.0
UG
0
0
7. Verify your changes by using the ping command to ping the gateway or another host
on the subnet of the new device:
# ping -c 1 192.168.70.8
PING 192.168.70.8 (192.168.70.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.70.8: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=8.07 ms
8. If the default route information has changed, you must also update
/etc/sysconfig/network accordingly.
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
The LAN channel station (LCS) device driver supports 1000Base-T Ethernet on the OSAExpress2 and OSA-Express 3 features.
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Based on the type of interface being added, the LCS driver assigns one base interface
name:
ethn for OSA-Express Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet
n is 0 for the first device of that type,1 for the second, and so on.
25.3.2.1. Dynamically Adding an LCS Device
1. Load the device driver:
# modprobe lcs
2. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of
ignored devices and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id and write_device_bus_id with the two device bus IDs
representing a network device. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
3. Create the group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/group
4. Configure the device. OSA cards can provide up to 16 ports for a single CHPID. By
default, the LCS group device uses port 0. To use a different port, issue a command
similar to the following:
# echo portno > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/device_bus_id/portno
Replace portno with the port number you want to use. For more information about
configuration of the LCS driver, refer to the chapter on LCS in Linux on System z
Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
5. Set the device online:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/read_device_bus_id/online
6. To find out what network device name has been assigned, enter the command:
# ls -l /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/read_device_bus_ID/net/
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 2010-04-22 16:54 eth1
25.3.2.2. Persistently Adding an LCS Device
cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not
need to free devices from the ignore list manually.
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To add an LCS device persistently, follow these steps:
1. Create a configuration script as file in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ with a
name like ifcfg-ethn where n is an integer starting with 0. The file should look
similar to the following:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM LCS
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=10.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=lcs
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
PORTNAME=0
OPTIONS=''
TYPE=Ethernet
2. Modify the value of PORTNAME to reflect the LCS port number (portno) you would
like to use. You can add any valid lcs sysfs attribute and its value to the optional
OPTIONS parameter. Refer to Section 25.3.1.3, “Persistently Adding a qeth Device”
for the syntax.
3. Set the DEVICE parameter as follows:
DEVICE=ethn
4. Issue an ifup command to activate the device:
# ifup ethn
Changes to an ifcfg file only become effective after rebooting the system. You can trigger
the activation of a ifcfg file for network channels by executing the following commands:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the LCS device adapter from the list of
ignored devices and make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id and write_device_bus_id with the device bus IDs of the
LCS device. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
2. To trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/read-channel/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.09a0/uevent
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25.3.3. Mapping Subchannels and Network Device Names
The DEVICE= option in the ifcfg file does not determine the mapping of subchannels to
network device names. Instead, the udev rules file /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistentnet.rules determines which network device channel gets which network device name.
When configuring a new network device on System z, the system automatically adds a new
rule to that file and assigns the next unused device name. You can then edit the values
assigned to the NAME= variable for each device.
Example content of /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules:
# This file was automatically generated by the /lib/udev/write_net_rules
# program run by the persistent-net-generator.rules rules file.
#
# You can modify it,as long as you keep each rule on a single line.
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.f5f0
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.f5f0",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth0"
# S/390 ctcm device at 0.0.1000
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="ctcm", KERNELS=="0.0.1000",
ATTR{type}=="256", KERNEL=="ctc*", NAME="ctc0"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8024
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8024",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi0"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8124
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8124",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi1"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1017
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1017",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth3"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8324
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8324",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi3"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8224
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8224",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi2"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1010
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1010",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth2"
# S/390 lcs device at 0.0.1240
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="lcs", KERNELS=="0.0.1240",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth1"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1013
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1013",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi4"
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File
System
To add a network device that is required to access the root file system, you only have to
change the boot options. The boot options can be in a parameter file (refer to Chapter 26,
Parameter and Configuration Files) or part of a zipl.conf on a DASD or FCP-attached SCSI
LUN prepared with the zipl boot loader. There is no need to recreate the initramfs.
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Dracut (the mkinitrd successor that provides the functionality in the initramfs that in turn
replaces initrd) provides a boot parameter to activate network devices on System z early
in the boot process: rd_ZNET=.
As input, this parameter takes a comma-separated list of the NETTYPE (qeth, lcs, ctc), two
(lcs, ctc) or three (qeth) device bus IDs, and optional additional parameters consisting of
key-value pairs corresponding to network device sysfs attributes. This parameter
configures and activates the System z network hardware. The configuration of IP addresses
and other network specifics works the same as for other platforms. Refer to the dracut
documentation for more details.
cio_ignore for the network channels is handled transparently on boot.
Example boot options for a root file system accessed over the network through NFS:
root=10.16.105.196:/nfs/nfs_root cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009
rd_ZNET=qeth,0.0.0a00,0.0.0a01,0.0.0a02,layer2=1,portno=0,portname=OSAPORT
ip=10.16.105.197:10.16.105.196:10.16.111.254:255.255.248.0:nfs‑server.subd
omain.domain:eth0:none rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM
LANG=en_US.UTF-8 SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us
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CHAPTER 26. PARAMETER AND CONFIGURATION
FILES
The IBM System z architecture can use a customized parameter file to pass boot
parameters to the kernel and the installer. This section describes the contents of this
parameter file.
You need only read this section if you intend to change the shipped parameter file. You
need to change the parameter file if you want to:
automate the user input for linuxrc or the loader (refer to Chapter 21, Installation
Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device and Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2:
Configuring Language and Installation Source).
install unattended with kickstart.
choose non-default installation settings that are not accessible through the
installer"s interactive user interface, such as rescue mode.
The parameter file can be used to set up networking non-interactively before the
installation program (loader and anaconda) starts.
The kernel parameter file is limited to 895 characters plus an end-of-line character. The
parameter file can be variable or fixed record format. Fixed record format increases the file
size by padding each line up to the record length. Should you encounter problems with the
installer not recognizing all specified parameters in LPAR environments, you can try to put
all parameters in one single line or start and end each line with a space character.
For more details on kernel parameters and different possibilities of specifying them, see the
chapter on booting Linux and the chapter on kernel parameters in Linux on System z
Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
The parameter file contains kernel parameters, such as root=/dev/ram0 or ro, and
parameters for the installation process, such as vncpassword=test or vnc.
26.1. REQUIRED PARAMETERS
The following parameters are required and must be included in the parameter file. They are
also provided in the file generic.prm in directory images/ of the installation DVD:
root=file_system
where file_system represents the device on which the root file system can be found. For
installation purposes, it must be set to /dev/ram0, which is the ramdisk containing the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.
ro
mounts the root file system, which is a ramdisk, read-only.
ip=off
disables automatic network configuration.
ramdisk_size=size
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modifies the memory size reserved for the ramdisk to ensure that the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program fits within it. For example: ramdisk_size=40000.
The file generic.prm also contains the additional parameter cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009.
This setting speeds up boot and device detection on systems with many devices. The
installer transparently handles the activation of ignored devices.
IMPORTANT
To avoid installation problems arising from cio_ignore support not being
implemented throughout the entire stack, adapt the cio_ignore= parameter
value to your system or remove the parameter entirely from your parameter
file used for booting (IPL) the installer.
When installing from an FCP-attached DVD drive, and you encounter a
problem with ignored devices, select the menu option clear blacklist in
linuxrc (refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network
Device) to remove the list of ignored devices.
26.2. THE Z/VM CONFIGURATION FILE
This applies only if installing under z/VM. Under z/VM, you can use a configuration file on a
CMS-formatted disk. The purpose of the CMS configuration file is to save space in the
parameter file by moving the parameters that configure the initial network setup, the
DASD, and the FCP specification out of the parameter file (refer to Section 26.3,
“Installation Network Parameters”).
Each line of the CMS configuration file contains a single variable and its associated value, in
the following shell-style syntax: variable=value .
You must also add the CMSDASD and CMSCONFFILE parameters to the parameter file. These
parameters point the installation program to the configuration file:
CMSDASD=cmsdasd_address
Where cmsdasd_address is the device number of a CMS-formatted disk that contains the
configuration file. This is usually the CMS user"s A disk.
For example: CMSDASD=191
CMSCONFFILE=configuration_file
Where configuration_file is the name of the configuration file. This value must be
specified in lower case. It is specified in a Linux file name format:
CMS_file_name.CMS_file_type.
The CMS file REDHAT CONF is specified as redhat.conf. The CMS file name and the file
type can each be from one to eight characters that follow the CMS conventions.
For example: CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
26.3. INSTALLATION NETWORK PARAMETERS
The following parameters can be used to set up the preliminary network automatically and
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can be defined in either the parameter file or the CMS configuration file. The parameters in
this section are the only parameters that can also be used in a CMS configuration file. All
other parameters in other sections must be specified in the parameter file.
NETTYPE="type"
Where type must be one of the following: qeth, lcs, or ctc. The default is qeth.
Choose lcs for:
OSA-2 Ethernet/Token Ring
OSA-Express Fast Ethernet in non-QDIO mode
OSA-Express High Speed Token Ring in non-QDIO mode
Gigabit Ethernet in non-QDIO mode
Choose qeth for:
OSA-Express Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet (including 1000Base-T)
High Speed Token Ring
HiperSockets
ATM (running Ethernet LAN emulation)
SUBCHANNELS="device_bus_IDs"
Where bus_IDs is a comma-separated list of two or three device bus IDs.
Provides required device bus IDs for the various network interfaces:
qeth:
SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id"
lcs or ctc: SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id"
For example (a sample qeth SUBCHANNEL statement):
SUBCHANNELS="0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2"
PORTNAME="osa_portname" , PORTNAME="lcs_portnumber"
This variable supports OSA devices operating in qdio mode or in non-qdio mode.
When using qdio mode (NETTYPE="qeth"), osa_portname is the portname specified on
the OSA device when operating in qeth mode.
When using non-qdio mode (NETTYPE="lcs"), lcs_portnumber is used to pass the
relative port number as a decimal integer in the range of 0 through 15.
PORTNO="portnumber"
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You can add either PORTNO="0" (to use port 0) orPORTNO="1" (to use port 1 of OSA
features with two ports per CHPID) to the CMS configuration file to avoid being prompted
for the mode.
LAYER2="value"
Where value can be 0 or 1.
Use LAYER2="0" to operate an OSA or HiperSockets device in layer 3 mode
(NETTYPE="qeth"). Use LAYER2="1" for layer 2 mode. For virtual network devices under
z/VM this setting must match the definition of the GuestLAN or VSWITCH to which the
device is coupled.
To use network services that operate on layer 2 (the Data Link Layer or its MAC
sublayer) such as DHCP, layer 2 mode is a good choice.
The qeth device driver default for OSA devices is now layer 2 mode. To continue using
the previous default of layer 3 mode, set LAYER2="0" explicitly.
VSWITCH="value"
Where value can be 0 or 1.
Specify VSWITCH="1" when connecting to a z/VM VSWITCH or GuestLAN, orVSWITCH="0"
(or nothing at all) when using directly attached real OSA or directly attached real
HiperSockets.
MACADDR="MAC_address"
If you specify LAYER2="1" and VSWITCH="0", you can optionally use this parameter to
specify a MAC address. Linux requires six colon-separated octets as pairs lower case hex
digits - for example, MACADDR=62:a3:18:e7:bc:5f. Note that this is different from the
notation used by z/VM.
If you specify LAYER2="1" and VSWITCH="1", you must not specify theMACADDR, because
z/VM assigns a unique MAC address to virtual network devices in layer 2 mode.
CTCPROT="value"
Where value can be 0, 1, or 3.
Specifies the CTC protocol for NETTYPE="ctc". The default is 0.
HOSTNAME="string"
Where string is the hostname of the newly-installed Linux instance.
IPADDR="IP"
Where IP is the IP address of the new Linux instance.
NETMASK="netmask"
Where netmask is the netmask.
The netmask supports the syntax of a prefix integer (from 1 to 32) as specified in IPv4
classless interdomain routing (CIDR). For example, you can specify 24 instead of
255.255.255.0, or 20 instead of 255.255.240.0.
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GATEWAY="gw"
Where gw is the gateway IP address for this network device.
MTU="mtu"
Where mtu is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for this network device.
DNS="server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN"
Where "server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN" is a list of DNS servers,
separated by colons. For example:
DNS="10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1"
SEARCHDNS="domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN"
Where "domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN" is a list of the search
domains, separated by colons. For example:
SEARCHDNS="subdomain.domain:domain"
You only need to specify SEARCHDNS= if you specify the DNS= parameter.
DASD=
Defines the DASD or range of DASDs to configure for the installation. For a detailed
description of the syntax, refer to the dasd_mod device driver module option described
in the chapter on the DASD device driver in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features,
and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Linuxrc supports a comma-separated list of device bus IDs or of ranges of device bus
IDs with the optional attributes ro, diag, erplog, and failfast. Optionally, you can
abbreviate device bus IDs to device numbers with leading zeros stripped. Any optional
attributes should be separated by colons and enclosed in parentheses. Optional
attributes follow a device bus ID or a range of device bus IDs.
The only supported global option is autodetect. This does not support the specification
of non-existent DASDs to reserve kernel device names for later addition of DASDs. Use
persistent DASD device names (for example /dev/disk/by-path/...) to enable
transparent addition of disks later. Other global options such as probeonly, nopav, or
nofcx are not supported by linuxrc.
Only specify those DASDs that you really need to install your system. All unformatted
DASDs specified here must be formatted after a confirmation later on in the installer
(refer to Section 23.6.1.1, “DASD low-level formatting”). Add any data DASDs that are
not needed for the root file system or the /boot partition after installation as described
in Section 25.1.3, “DASDs Which Are Not Part of the Root File System”.
For FCP-only environments, specify DASD="none".
For example:
DASD="eb1c,0.0.a000-0.0.a003,eb10-eb14(diag),0.0.ab1c(ro:diag)"
FCP_n="device_bus_ID WWPN FCP_LUN"
Where:
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n is typically an integer value (for exampleFCP_1 or FCP_2) but could be any
string with alphabetic or numeric characters or underscores.
device_bus_ID specifies the device bus ID of the FCP device representing thehost
bus adapter (HBA) (for example 0.0.fc00 for device fc00).
WWPN is the world wide port name used for routing (often in conjunction with
multipathing) and is as a 16-digit hex value (for example 0x50050763050b073d).
FCP_LUN refers to the storage logical unit identifier and is specified as a 16-digit
hexadecimal value padded with zeroes to the right (for example
0x4020400100000000).
These variables can be used on systems with FCP devices to activate FCP LUNs such as
SCSI disks. Additional FCP LUNs can be activated during the installation interactively or
by means of a kickstart file. There is no interactive question for FCP in linuxrc. An
example value may look similar to the following:
FCP_1="0.0.fc00 0x50050763050b073d 0x4020400100000000"
IMPORTANT
Each of the values used in the FCP parameters (for example FCP_1 or
FCP_2) are site-specific and are normally supplied by the FCP storage
administrator.
The installation program prompts you for any required parameters not specified in the
parameter or configuration file except for FCP_n.
26.4. VNC AND X11 PARAMETERS
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS
configuration file. With these parameters you control what interface will be used for
anaconda.
To use an X11 user interface without X11 forwarding, specify the following X11 parameter:
display=IP/hostname:display
Sets the hostname or IP address and the X11 display where the installer should connect
to and display its graphical user interface.
To use a VNC server instead of an X11 user interface, specify the following VNC parameters:
vnc
Specify vnc to use the VNC graphical user interface later in the installation process.
vncpassword=
This parameter sets the password used to connect to the VNC server. The password
parameter is optional. If not used, the VNC server does not use a password and anybody
can connect to the VNC server.
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vncconnect=IP/hostname[:port]
When used in addition to vnc and vncpassword=, this optional parameter specifies the
hostname or IP address (and optionally, a TCP port) where a VNC client is running in
listening mode. The installer connects to and displays its graphical user interface on this
VNC client.
26.5. LOADER PARAMETERS
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS
configuration file.
To automate the loader screens, specify the following parameters:
lang=language
Sets the language of the installer user interface, for example, en for English or de for
German. This automates the response to Choose a Language (refer to Section 22.3,
“Language Selection”).
repo=installation_source
Sets the installation source to access stage 2 as well as the repository with the packages
to be installed. This automates the response to Installation Method (refer to
Section 22.4, “Installation Method”).
26.6. PARAMETERS FOR KICKSTART INSTALLATIONS
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS
configuration file.
ks=URL
References a kickstart file, which usually resides on the network for Linux installations
on System z. Replace URL with the full path including the file name of the kickstart file.
This parameter activates automatic installation with kickstart. Refer to Section 28.4,
“Automating the Installation with Kickstart” and Section 32.11, “Starting a Kickstart
Installation” for more details.]
RUNKS=value
Where value is defined as 1 if you want to run the loader automatically on the Linux
console without having to log in over the network with SSH. To use RUNKS=1, the console
must either support full-screen or the cmdline option below should be used. The latter
applies for the 3270 terminal under z/VM or the operating system messages console for
LPAR. We recommend RUNKS=1 for fully automatic installations with kickstart. When
RUNKS=1 is set, linuxrc automatically continues in case of parameter errors and does not
interrupt unattended installations by prompting for user interaction.
Leave out the parameter or specify RUNKS=0 otherwise.
cmdline
When cmdline is specified, output on line-mode terminals (such as 3270 under z/VM or
operating system messages for LPAR) becomes readable, as the installer disables
escape terminal sequences that are only applicable to UNIX-like consoles. This requires
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installation with a kickstart file that answers all questions, since the installer does not
support interactive user input in cmdline mode.
Ensure that your kickstart file contains all required parameters before you use either the
RUNKS or cmdline options. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for details.
26.7. MISCELLANEOUS PARAMETERS
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS
configuration file.
askmethod
Do not use an automatically detected DVD as installation source but ask for the
installation method to manually specify the installation source. This parameter is useful
if you booted from an FCP-attached DVD but want to continue with another installation
source, for example on the network or on a local hard disk.
mediacheck
Turns on testing of an ISO-based installation source; for example, when booted from an
FCP-attached DVD or using repo= with an ISO on local hard disk or mounted with NFS.
nompath
Disables support for multipathing devices.
proxy=[protocol://][username[:password]@]host[:port]
Specify a proxy to use with installation over HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP.
rescue
Boot into a rescue system running from a ramdisk that can be used to fix and restore an
installed system.
stage2=URL
Specifies a path to an install.img file instead of to an installation source. Otherwise,
follows the same syntax as repo=. If stage2 is specified, it typically takes precedence
over other methods of finding install.img. However, if anaconda finds install.img
on local media, the stage2 URL will be ignored.
If stage2 is not specified and install.img cannot be found locally, anaconda looks to
the location given by repo= or method=.
If only stage2= is given without repo= or method=, anaconda uses whatever repos the
installed system would have enabled by default for installation.
syslog=IP/hostname[:port]
Makes the installer send log messages to a remote syslog server.
The boot parameters described here are the most useful for installations and trouble
shooting on System z, but only a subset of those that influence the installer. Refer to
Chapter 28, Boot Options for a more complete list of installer boot parameters.
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26.8. SAMPLE PARAMETER FILE AND CMS CONFIGURATION
FILE
To change the parameter file, begin by extending the shipped generic.prm file.
Example of generic.prm file:
root="/dev/ram0" ro ip="off" ramdisk_size="40000"
cio_ignore="all,!0.0.0009"
CMSDASD="191" CMSCONFFILE="redhat.conf"
vnc
Example of redhat.conf file configuring a QETH network device (pointed to by
CMSCONFFILE in generic.prm):
NETTYPE="qeth"
SUBCHANNELS="0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602"
PORTNAME="FOOBAR"
PORTNO="0"
LAYER2="1"
MACADDR="02:00:be:3a:01:f3"
HOSTNAME="foobar.systemz.example.com"
IPADDR="192.168.17.115"
NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
GATEWAY="192.168.17.254"
DNS="192.168.17.1"
SEARCHDNS="systemz.example.com:example.com"
DASD="200-203"
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CHAPTER 27. IBM SYSTEM Z REFERENCES
27.1. IBM SYSTEM Z PUBLICATIONS
Current versions of the Linux on System z publications can be found at
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/linux390/documentation_red_hat.html. They
include:
Linux on System z — Device Drivers, Features, and Commands as available with
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. IBM . 2010. SC34-2597.
Linux on System z — Using the Dump Tools on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 . IBM .
2010. SC34-2607.
Linux on System z — How to use FC-attached SCSI devices with Linux on System
z9 and zSeries. IBM . 2008. SC33-8413.
How to use Execute-in-Place Technology with Linux on z/VM . IBM . 2008. SC34-2594.
Linux on System z — How to Set up a Terminal Server Environment on z/VM . IBM .
2009. SC34-2596.
Linux on System z — libica 2.0 Programmer’s Reference. IBM . 2009. SC34-2602.
Linux on System z — How to Improve Performance with PAV . IBM . 2008. SC33-8414.
z/VM — Getting Started with Linux on System z . IBM . 2009. SC24-6194.
27.2. IBM REDBOOKS PUBLICATIONS FOR SYSTEM Z
Current versions of IBM Redbooks publications can be found at
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/. They include:
Introductory publications
Introduction to the New Mainframe: z/VM Basics . IBM Redbooks . 2007. SG24-7316.
z/VM and Linux on IBM System z The Virtualization Cookbook for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5.2. IBM Redbooks . 2008. SG24-7492.
Practical Migration to Linux on System z . IBM Redbooks . 2009. SG24-7727.
Performance and high availability
Linux on IBM System z: Performance Measurement and Tuning. IBM Redbooks .
2011. SG24-6926.
Achieving High Availability on Linux for System z with Linux-HA Release 2 . IBM
Redbooks . 2009. SG24-7711.
Security
Security for Linux on System z. IBM Redbooks . 2013. SG24-7728.
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CHAPTER 27. IBM SYSTEM Z REFERENCES
Using Cryptographic Adapters for Web Servers with Linux on IBM System z9 and
zSeries. IBM Redbooks . 2006. REDP-4131.
Networking
IBM System z Connectivity Handbook. IBM Redbooks . 2013. SG24-5444.
OSA Express Implementation Guide. IBM Redbooks . 2009. SG24-5948.
HiperSockets Implementation Guide. IBM Redbooks . 2007. SG24-6816.
Fibre Channel Protocol for Linux and z/VM on IBM System z . IBM Redbooks . 2007.
SG24-7266.
27.3. ONLINE RESOURCES
For z/VM publications, refer to http://www.vm.ibm.com/library/ .
For System z I/O connectivity information, refer to
http://www.ibm.com/systems/z/hardware/connectivity/index.html .
For System z cryptographic coprocessor information, refer to
http://www.ibm.com/security/cryptocards/ .
Sharing and maintaining RHEL 5.3 Linux under z/VM. Brad Hinson and Mike MacIsaac.
http://www.linuxvm.org/Present/misc/ro-root-RH5.pdf .
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PART IV. ADVANCED INSTALLATION OPTIONS
This part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide covers more advanced or
uncommon methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including:
boot options.
installing without media.
installing through VNC.
using kickstart to automate the installation process.
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CHAPTER 28. BOOT OPTIONS
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system includes a range of functions and options
for administrators. To use boot options, enter linux option at the boot: prompt.
To access the boot: prompt on a system that displays a graphical boot screen, press the
Esc key while the graphical boot screen is displayed.
If you specify more than one option, separate each of the options by a single space. For
example:
linux option1 option2 option3
NOTE
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and rescue discs may either boot
with rescue mode, or load the installation system. For more information on
rescue discs and rescue mode, refer to Section 28.6.2, “Booting Your
Computer with the Rescue Mode”.
28.1. CONFIGURING THE INSTALLATION SYSTEM AT THE
BOOT MENU
You can use the boot menu to specify a number of settings for the installation system,
including:
language
display resolution
interface type
Installation method
network settings
28.1.1. Specifying the Language
To set the language for both the installation process and the final system, specify the ISO
code for that language with the lang option. Use the keymap option to configure the correct
keyboard layout.
For example, the ISO codes el_GR and gr identify the Greek language and the Greek
keyboard layout:
linux lang=el_GR keymap=gr
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface
To use a specific display resolution, enter resolution=setting as a boot option. For
example, to set the display resolution to 1024×768, enter:
linux resolution=1024x768
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To run the installation process in text mode, enter:
linux text
To enable support for a serial console, enter serial as an additional option.
Use display=ip:0 to allow remote display forwarding. In this command,ip should be
replaced with the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are
running the original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access to
the remote display terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not
specifically authorized for remote access.
28.1.3. Updating anaconda
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux with a newer version of the anaconda installation
program than the one supplied on your installation media.
The boot option
linux updates
presents you with a prompt that asks you for a disk image containing anaconda updates.
You do not need to specify this option if you are performing a network installation and have
already placed the updates image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
IMPORTANT
The rhupdates directory should only containanaconda updates. The
installation may fail if you add other files (such as errata RPMs) or if you place
too much content in the directory.
To load the anaconda updates from a network location instead, use:
linux updates=
followed by the URL for the location where the updates are stored.
28.1.4. Specifying the Installation Method
Use the askmethod option to display additional menus that enable you to specify the
installation method and network settings. You may also configure the installation method
and network settings at the boot: prompt itself.
To specify the installation method from the boot: prompt, use the repo option. Refer to
Table 28.1, “Installation methods” for the supported installation methods.
Table 28.1. Installation methods
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Installation
method
Option format
DVD drive
repo=cdrom:device
Hard Drive
repo=hd:device/path
HTTP Server
repo=http://host/path
HTTPS Server
repo=https://host/path
FTP Server
repo=ftp://username:password@host/path
NFS Server
repo=nfs:server:/path
ISO images on an
NFS Server
repo=nfsiso:server:/path
28.1.5. Specifying the Network Settings
Normally, anaconda prompts you to configure a network interface if one is needed during
installation. However, you can provide network settings with options at the boot: prompt
as follows:
ip
The system's IP address.
netmask
The system's netmask.
gateway
The IP address of the network gateway.
dns
The IP address of the DNS server.
ksdevice
The network device to use with these settings.
ifname
The name you wish to assign to the network device, followed by the device's MAC
address.
Each of these settings is required even if you are only configuring a single interface.
The following settings are optional:
vlanid
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The virtual LAN ID number (802.1q tag) for the specified network device.
nicdelay
The delay after which the network will be considered active. If you use this option, the
system will wait after bringing up network interfaces until either the gateway is
successfully pinged, or until the amount of seconds specified in this parameter passes.
This is useful for some NICs which may report that a link is available before it actually is,
causing any operations which require network access (such as Kickstart file downloads)
to fail. Maximum value of this parameter is 30 as defined by NetworkManager;
specifying a value higher than 30 will cause the option to be ignored.
This example configures the network settings for an installation system that uses the IP
address 192.168.1.10 for interface eth0. The interface is namedprimary, and the system
will wait for 5 seconds or until it can successfully ping the gateway before continuing:
linux ip=192.168.1.10 netmask=255.255.255.0 gateway=192.168.1.1
dns=192.168.1.3 ksdevice=eth0 ifname=primary:01:23:45:67:89:ab nicdelay=5
If you specify the network configuration and network device at the boot: prompt, these
settings are used for the installation process and the Networking Devices and Configure
TCP/IP dialogs do not appear.
28.1.5.1. Configuring a Bonded Interface
To configure a bonded network interface, use the bond option. Name the bonded interface,
specify which network connections will be bonded, and list any additional options in the
following format:
linux bond=<bondname>:<bondslaves>:[:<options>]
For example:
linux bond=bond0:eth0,eth1:mode=active-backup,primary=eth1
Available optional parameters are listed in the Working with Kernel Modules chapter of the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
28.2. ENABLING REMOTE ACCESS TO THE INSTALLATION
SYSTEM
You may access either graphical or text interfaces for the installation system from any
other system. Access to a text mode display requires telnet, which is installed by default
on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems. To remotely access the graphical display of an
installation system, use client software that supports the VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
display protocol.
NOTE
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes the VNC client vncviewer. To obtain
vncviewer, install the tigervnc package.
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The installation system supports two methods of establishing a VNC connection. You may
start the installation, and manually login to the graphical display with a VNC client on
another system. Alternatively, you may configure the installation system to automatically
connect to a VNC client on the network that is running in listening mode.
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
To enable remote graphical access to the installation system, enter two options at the
prompt:
linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty
The vnc option enables the VNC service. Thevncpassword option sets a password for
remote access. The example shown above sets the password as qwerty.
NOTE
The VNC password must be at least six characters long.
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the installation system with
the screens that follow. You may then access the graphical interface through a VNC client.
The installation system displays the correct connection setting for the VNC client:
Starting VNC...
The VNC server is now running.
Please connect to computer.mydomain.com:1 to begin the install...
Starting graphical installation...
Press <enter> for a shell
You may then login to the installation system with a VNC client. To run the vncviewer
client on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, choose Applications → Accessories → VNC Viewer,
or type the command vncviewer in a terminal window. Enter the server and display
number in the VNC Server dialog. For the example above, theVNC Server is
computer.mydomain.com:1.
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
To have the installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first start the client
in listening mode. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, use the -listen option to run
vncviewer as a listener. In a terminal window, enter the command:
vncviewer -listen
NOTE
By default, vncviewer uses TCP port 5500 when in listening mode. The
firewall must be configured to permit connections to this port from other
systems. Choose System → Administration → Firewall. Select Other ports,
and Add. Enter 5500 in the Port(s) field, and specify tcp as the Protocol.
Once the listening client is active, start the installation system and set the VNC options at
the boot: prompt. In addition to vnc and vncpassword options, use the vncconnect option
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to specify the name or IP address of the system that has the listening client. To specify the
TCP port for the listener, add a colon and the port number to the name of the system.
For example, to connect to a VNC client on the system desktop.mydomain.com on the port
5500, enter the following at the boot: prompt:
linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty vncconnect=desktop.mydomain.com:5500
28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with ssh
To enable remote access to a text mode installation, use the sshd=1 option at the boot:
prompt:
linux sshd=1
You can then connect to the installation system with the ssh utility. The ssh command
requires the name or IP address of the installation system, and a password if you specified
one (for example, in a kickstart file).
28.2.4. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet
To enable remote access to a text mode installation, use the telnet option at the boot:
prompt:
linux text telnet
You may then connect to the installation system with the telnet utility. The telnet
command requires the name or IP address of the installation system:
telnet computer.mydomain.com

WARNING
To ensure the security of the installation process, only use the telnet
option to install systems on networks with restricted access.
28.3. LOGGING TO A REMOTE SYSTEM DURING THE
INSTALLATION
By default, the installation process sends log messages to the console as they are
generated. You may specify that these messages go to a remote system that runs a syslog
service.
To configure remote logging, add the syslog option. Specify the IP address of the logging
system, and the UDP port number of the log service on that system. By default, syslog
services that accept remote messages listen on UDP port 514.
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For example, to connect to a syslog service on the system 192.168.1.20, enter the
following at the boot: prompt:
linux syslog=192.168.1.20:514
28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses rsyslog to provide a syslog service. The default
configuration of rsyslog rejects messages from remote systems.

WARNING
Only enable remote syslog access on secured networks. The rsyslog
configuration detailed below does not make use of any of the security
measures available in rsyslog Crackers may slow or crash systems that
permit access to the logging service, by sending large quantities of false
log messages. In addition, hostile users may intercept or falsify messages
sent to the logging service over the network.
To configure a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to accept log messages from other systems
on the network, edit the file /etc/rsyslog.conf. You must use root privileges to edit the
file /etc/rsyslog.conf. Uncomment the following lines by removing the hash preceding
them:
$ModLoad imudp.so
$UDPServerRun 514
Restart the rsyslog service to apply the change:
su -c '/sbin/service rsyslog restart'
Enter the root password when prompted.
NOTE
By default, the syslog service listens on UDP port 514. The firewall must be
configured to permit connections to this port from other systems. Choose
System → Administration → Firewall. Select Other ports, and Add. Enter
514 in the Port(s) field, and specify udp as the Protocol.
28.4. AUTOMATING THE INSTALLATION WITH KICKSTART
You can allow an installation to run unattended by using Kickstart. A Kickstart file specifies
settings for an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a Kickstart file
and carry out the installation process without any further input from a user.
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NOTE
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a
Kickstart file that contains the settings for the installed system. This file is
always saved as /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You may use this file to repeat the
installation with identical settings, or modify copies to specify settings for
other systems.
IMPORTANT
Firstboot does not run after a system is installed from a Kickstart file unless a
desktop and the X Window System were included in the installation and
graphical login was enabled. Either specify a user with the user option in the
Kickstart file before installing additional systems from it (refer to Section 32.4,
“Kickstart Options” for details) or log into the installed system with a virtual
console as root and add users with the adduser command.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes a graphical application to create and modify Kickstart
files by selecting the options that you require. Use the package system-config-kickstart
to install this utility. To load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Kickstart editor, choose
Applications → System Tools → Kickstart.
Kickstart files list installation settings in plain text, with one option per line. This format lets
you modify your Kickstart files with any text editor, and write scripts or applications that
generate custom Kickstart files for your systems.
To automate the installation process with a Kickstart file, use the ks option to specify the
name and location of the file:
linux ks=location/kickstart-file.cfg
You may use Kickstart files that are held on either removable storage, a hard drive, or a
network server. Refer to Table 28.2, “Kickstart sources” for the supported Kickstart
sources.
Table 28.2. Kickstart sources
Kickstart source
Option format
DVD drive
ks=cdrom:/directory/ks.cfg
Hard Drive
ks=hd:/device/directory/ks.cfg
Other Device
ks=file:/device/directory/ks.cfg
HTTP Server
ks=http://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
HTTPS Server
ks=https://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
FTP Server
ks=ftp://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
NFS Server
ks=nfs:server.mydomain.com:/directory/ks.cfg
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Kickstart source
Option format
IMPORTANT
You can use a device name such as /dev/sdb to identify a hard drive or a USB
drive containing a Kickstart file. However, there is no guarantee that the
device identifier will remain the same on multiple systems. Therefore, the
recommended method for specifying a hard drive or a USB drive in Kickstart
installations is by UUID. For example:
ks=hd:UUID=ede47e6c-8b5f-49ad-9509-774fa7119281:ks.cfg
You can determine a device's UUID by using the blkid command as root:
# blkid /dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb1: UUID="2c3a072a-3d0c-4f3a-a4a1-ab5f24f59266"
TYPE="ext4"
To obtain a Kickstart file from a script or application on a Web server, specify the URL of the
application with the ks= option. If you add the optionkssendmac, the request also sends
HTTP headers to the Web application. Your application can use these headers to identify
the computer. This line sends a request with headers to the application
http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi:
linux ks=http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi kssendmac
28.5. ENHANCING HARDWARE SUPPORT
By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux attempts to automatically detect and configure
support for all of the components of your computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports the
majority of hardware in common use with the software drivers that are included with the
operating system. To support other devices you may supply additional drivers during the
installation process, or at a later time.
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
For some models of device automatic hardware configuration may fail, or cause instability.
In these cases, you may need to disable automatic configuration for that type of device,
and take additional steps to manually configure the device after the installation process is
complete.
NOTE
Refer to the Release Notes for information on known issues with specific
devices.
To override the automatic hardware detection, use one or more of the following options:
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Table 28.3. Hardware Options
Compatibility
Option
Disable all hardware detection
noprobe
Disable graphics, keyboard, and mouse detection
headless
Disable passing keyboard and mouse information to
stage 2 of the installation program
nopass
Use basic VESA driver for video
xdriver=vesa
Disable shell access on virtual console 2 during
installation
noshell
Disable advanced configuration and power interface
(ACPI)
acpi=off
Disable machine check exception (MCE) CPU selfdiagnosis.
nomce
Disable non-uniform memory access on the AMD64
architecture
numa-off
Force kernel to detect a specific amount of memory,
where xxx is a value in megabytes
mem=xxxm
Enable DMA only for IDE and SATA drives
libata.dma=1
Disable BIOS-assisted RAID
nodmraid
Disable Firewire device detection
nofirewire
Disable parallel port detection
noparport
Disable PC Card (PCMCIA) device detection
nopcmcia
Disable all probing of network hardware
nonet
NOTE
The isa option causes the system to display an additional text screen at the
beginning of the installation process. Use this screen to configure the ISA
devices on your computer.
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IMPORTANT
Other kernel boot options have no particular meaning for anaconda and do
not affect the installation process. However, if you use these options to boot
the installation system, anaconda will preserve them in the bootloader
configuration.
28.6. USING THE MAINTENANCE BOOT MODES
28.6.1. Verifying Boot Media
You can test the integrity of an ISO-based installation source before using it to install Red
Hat Enterprise Linux. These sources include DVD, and ISO images stored on a hard drive or
NFS server. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation
helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during installation.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you two ways to test installation ISOs:
select OK at the prompt to test the media before installation when booting from the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD
boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the option mediacheck option.
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
You may boot a command-line Linux system from either a rescue disc or an installation disc,
without installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the computer. This enables you to use the
utilities and functions of a running Linux system to modify or repair systems that are
already installed on your computer.
The rescue disc starts the rescue mode system by default. To load the rescue system with
the installation disc, choose Rescue installed system from the boot menu.
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the rescue system with the
screens that follow. The final setup screen configures access to the existing system on your
computer.
By default, rescue mode attaches an existing operating system to the rescue system under
the directory /mnt/sysimage/.
28.6.3. Upgrading Your Computer
A previous boot option, upgrade, has been superceded by a stage in the installation
process where the installation program prompts you to upgrade or reinstall earlier versions
of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that it detects on your system.
However, the installation program may not correctly detect a previous version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux if the contents of the /etc/redhat-release file have changed. The boot
option upgradeany relaxes the test that the installation program performs and allows you
to upgrade a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation that the installation program has not
correctly identified.
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CHAPTER 29. INSTALLING WITHOUT MEDIA
IMPORTANT
This procedure assumes you are already using Red Hat Enterprise Linux or
another relatively modern Linux distribution, and the GRUB boot loader. It
also assumes you are a somewhat experienced Linux user.
This section discusses how to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system without
making any additional physical media. Instead, you can use your existing GRUB boot
loader to start the installation program.
29.1. RETRIEVING BOOT FILES
To perform an installation without media or a PXE server, your system must have two files
stored locally, a kernel and an initial RAM disk.
Copy the vmlinuz and initrd.img files from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD (or DVD
image) to the /boot/ directory, renaming them to vmlinuz-install and initrd.imginstall. You must have root privileges to write files into the/boot/ directory.
29.2. EDITING THE GRUB CONFIGURATION
The GRUB boot loader uses the configuration file /boot/grub/grub.conf. To configure
GRUB to boot from the new files, add a boot stanza to/boot/grub/grub.conf that refers
to them.
A minimal boot stanza looks like the following listing:
title Installation
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-install
initrd /initrd.img-install
You may wish to add options to the end of the kernel line of the boot stanza. These options
set preliminary options in Anaconda which the user normally sets interactively. For a list of
available installer boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
The following options are generally useful for medialess installations:
ip=
repo=
lang=
keymap=
ksdevice= (if installation requires an interface other than eth0)
vnc and vncpassword= for a remote installation
When you are finished, change the default option in /boot/grub/grub.conf to point to
the new first stanza you added:
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default 0
29.3. BOOTING TO INSTALLATION
Reboot the system. GRUB boots the installation kernel and RAM disk, including any options
you set. You may now refer to the appropriate chapter in this guide for the next step. If you
chose to install remotely using VNC, refer to Section 28.2, “Enabling Remote Access to the
Installation System” for assistance in connecting to the remote system.
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CHAPTER 30. SETTING UP AN INSTALLATION SERVER
The following steps must be performed to prepare for a network installation:
1. Configure the network (NFS, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS) server to export the installation tree.
2. Configure the files on the tftp server necessary for network booting.
3. Configure which hosts are allowed to boot from the network configuration.
4. Start the tftp service.
5. Configure DHCP.
6. Boot the client, and start the installation.
30.1. SETTING UP THE NETWORK SERVER
First, configure an NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server to export the entire installation tree for
the version and variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be installed. Refer to Section 4.1,
“Preparing for a Network Installation” for detailed instructions.
30.2. NETWORK BOOT CONFIGURATION
The next step is to copy the files necessary to start the installation to the tftp server so
they can be found when the client requests them. The tftp server is usually the same
server as the network server exporting the installation tree.
The PXE boot configuration procedure differs for BIOS and EFI. A separate yaboot
configuration procedure is provided for Power Systems servers.
NOTE
Red Hat Satellite has the ability to automate the setup of a PXE server. See
the Red Hat Satellite User Guide for more information.
30.2.1. Configuring PXE Boot for BIOS
1. If tftp-server is not yet installed, run yum install tftp-server.
2. In the tftp-server config file at /etc/xinetd.d/tftp, change the disabled
parameter from yes to no.
3. Configure your DHCP server to use the boot images packaged with SYSLINUX. (If you
do not have a DHCP server installed, refer to the DHCP Servers chapter in the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.)
A sample configuration in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf might look like:
option
option
option
option
option
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space pxelinux;
pxelinux.magic code
pxelinux.configfile
pxelinux.pathprefix
pxelinux.reboottime
208 = string;
code 209 = text;
code 210 = text;
code 211 = unsigned integer 32;
CHAPTER 30. SETTING UP AN INSTALLATION SERVER
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option routers 10.0.0.254;
range 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.253;
class "pxeclients" {
match if substring (option vendor-classidentifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient";
next-server 10.0.0.1;
if option arch =
filename
} else if option
filename
} else {
filename
}
00:06 {
"pxelinux/bootia32.efi";
arch = 00:07 {
"pxelinux/bootx64.efi";
"pxelinux/pxelinux.0";
}
host example-ia32 {
hardware ethernet XX:YY:ZZ:11:22:33;
fixed-address 10.0.0.2;
}
}
4. You now need the pxelinux.0 file from the syslinux-nolinux package in the ISO
image file. To access it, run the following commands as root:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/Packages/syslinux-nolinux-versionarchitecture.rpm /publicly_available_directory
umount /mount_point
Extract the package:
rpm2cpio syslinux-nolinux-version-architecture.rpm | cpio -dimv
5. Create a pxelinux directory within tftpboot and copy pxelinux.0 into it:
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
cp publicly_available_directory/usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
6. Create a pxelinux.cfg directory within pxelinux:
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg
7. Add a config file to this directory. The file should either be named default or named
after the IP address, converted into hexadecimal format without delimiters. For
example, if your machine's IP address is 10.0.0.1, the filename would be 0A000001.
A sample config file at /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default
might look like:
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default vesamenu.c32
prompt 1
timeout 600
display boot.msg
label linux
menu label ^Install or upgrade an existing system
menu default
kernel vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.img
label vesa
menu label Install system with ^basic video driver
kernel vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.img xdriver=vesa nomodeset
label rescue
menu label ^Rescue installed system
kernel vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.img rescue
label local
menu label Boot from ^local drive
localboot 0xffff
label memtest86
menu label ^Memory test
kernel memtest
append For instructions on how to specify the installation source, refer to Section 7.1.3,
“Additional Boot Options”
8. Copy the splash image into your tftp root directory:
cp /boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/splash.xpm.gz
9. Copy the boot images into your tftp root directory:
cp /path/to/x86_64/os/images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img}
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/rhel6/
10. Boot the client system, and select the network device as your boot device when
prompted.
30.2.2. Configuring PXE Boot for EFI
1. If tftp-server is not yet installed, run yum install tftp-server.
2. In the tftp-server config file at /etc/xinetd.d/tftp, change the disable
parameter from yes to no.
3. Create a directory within tftpboot for the EFI boot images, and then copy them
from your boot directory. In these examples we will name the subdirectory
pxelinux, but any other name could be used.
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mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
cp /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.efi
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/bootx64.efi
4. Configure your DHCP server to use the EFI boot images packaged with GRUB. (If you
do not have a DHCP server installed, refer to the DHCP Servers chapter in the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.)
A sample configuration in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf might look like:
option
option
option
option
option
option
option
space PXE;
PXE.mtftp-ip
code 1 = ip-address;
PXE.mtftp-cport code 2 = unsigned integer 16;
PXE.mtftp-sport code 3 = unsigned integer 16;
PXE.mtftp-tmout code 4 = unsigned integer 8;
PXE.mtftp-delay code 5 = unsigned integer 8;
arch code 93 = unsigned integer 16; # RFC4578
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option routers 10.0.0.254;
range 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.253;
class "pxeclients" {
match if substring (option vendor-classidentifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient";
next-server 10.0.0.1;
if option arch =
filename
} else if option
filename
} else {
filename
}
00:06 {
"pxelinux/bootia32.efi";
arch = 00:07 {
"pxelinux/bootx64.efi";
"pxelinux/pxelinux.0";
}
host example-ia32 {
hardware ethernet XX:YY:ZZ:11:22:33;
fixed-address 10.0.0.2;
}
}
5. Add a config file to /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux. The file should either be named
efidefault or named after the IP address, converted into hexadecimal format
without delimiters. For example, if your machine's IP address is 10.0.0.1, the
filename would be 0A000001.
A sample config file at /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/efidefault might look like:
default=0
timeout=1
splashimage=(nd)/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title RHEL
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root (nd)
kernel /rawhide-x86_64/vmlinuz
initrd /rawhide-x86_64/initrd.img
For instructions on how to specify the installation source, refer to Section 7.1.3,
“Additional Boot Options”
6. Copy the splash image into your tftp root directory:
cp /boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/splash.xpm.gz
7. Copy the boot images into your tftp root directory:
cp /path/to/x86_64/os/images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img}
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/rhel6/
8. Boot the client system, and select the network device as your boot device when
prompted.
30.2.3. Configuring for Power Systems Servers
1. If tftp-server is not yet installed, run yum install tftp-server.
2. In the tftp-server config file at /etc/xinetd.d/tftp, change the disabled
parameter from yes to no.
3. Configure your DHCP server to use the boot images packaged with yaboot. (If you
do not have a DHCP server installed, refer to the DHCP Servers chapter in the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.)
A sample configuration in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf might look like:
host bonn {
filename "yaboot";
next-server
10.32.5.1;
hardware ethernet 00:0e:91:51:6a:26;
fixed-address 10.32.5.144;
}
4. You now need the yaboot binary file from the yaboot package in the ISO image file.
To access it, run the following commands as root:
mkdir /publicly_available_directory/yaboot-unpack
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o
loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/Packages/yaboot-version.ppc.rpm
/publicly_available_directory/yaboot-unpack
Extract the package:
cd /publicly_available_directory/yaboot-unpack
rpm2cpio yaboot-version.ppc.rpm | cpio -dimv
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CHAPTER 30. SETTING UP AN INSTALLATION SERVER
5. Create a yaboot directory within tftpboot and copy the yaboot binary file into it:
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot
cp publicly_available_directory/yaboot-unpack/usr/lib/yaboot/yaboot
/var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot
6. Add a config file named yaboot.conf to this directory. A sample config file might
look like:
init-message = "\nWelcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
installer!\n\n"
timeout=60
default=rhel6
image=/rhel6/vmlinuz-RHEL6
label=linux
alias=rhel6
initrd=/rhel6/initrd-RHEL6.img
append="repo=http://10.32.5.1/mnt/archive/redhat/released/RHEL6/6.x/Server/ppc64/os/"
read-only
For instructions on how to specify the installation source, refer to Section 7.1.3,
“Additional Boot Options”
7. Copy the boot images from the extracted ISO into your tftp root directory:
cp /mount_point/images/ppc/ppc64/vmlinuz
/var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/rhel6/vmlinuz-RHEL6
cp /mount_point/images/ppc/ppc64/initrd.img
/var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot/rhel6/initrd-RHEL6.img
8. Clean up by removing the yaboot-unpack directory and unmounting the ISO:
rm -rf /publicly_available_directory/yaboot-unpack
umount /mount_point
9. Boot the client system, and select the network device as your boot device when
prompted.
30.3. STARTING THE
TFTP
SERVER
On the DHCP server, verify that the tftp-server package is installed with the command
rpm -q tftp-server.
tftp is an xinetd-based service; start it with the following commands:
/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 xinetd on
/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 tftp on
These commands configure the tftp and xinetd services to start at boot time in runlevels
3, 4, and 5.
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30.4. ADDING A CUSTOM BOOT MESSAGE
Optionally, modify /var/lib/tftpboot/linux-install/msgs/boot.msg to use a custom
boot message.
30.5. PERFORMING THE INSTALLATION
For instructions on how to configure the network interface card to boot from the network,
consult the documentation for the NIC. It varies slightly per card.
After the system boots the installation program, refer to the Chapter 9, Installing Using
Anaconda.
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CHAPTER 31. INSTALLING THROUGH VNC
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer (anaconda) offers you two interactive modes of
operation. The original mode is a text-based interface. The newer mode uses GTK+ and
runs in the X Window environment. This chapter explains how you can use the graphical
installation mode in environments where the system lacks a proper display and input
devices typically associated with a workstation. This scenario is typical of systems in
datacenters, which are often installed in a rack environment and do not have a display,
keyboard, or mouse. Additionally, a lot of these systems even lack the ability to connect a
graphical display. Given that enterprise hardware rarely needs that ability at the physical
system, this hardware configuration is acceptable.
Even in these environments, however, the graphical installer remains the recommended
method of installation. The text mode environment lacks a lot of capabilities found in the
graphical mode. Many users still feel that the text mode interface provides them with
additional power or configuration ability not found in the graphical version. The opposite is
true. Much less development effort is put in to the text-mode environment and specific
things (for example, LVM configuration, partition layout, package selection, and bootloader
configuration) are deliberately left out of the text mode environment. The reasons for this
are:
Less screen real estate for creating user interfaces similar to those found in the
graphical mode.
Difficult internationalization support.
Desire to maintain a single interactive installation code path.
Anaconda therefore includes a Virtual Network Computing (VNC) mode that allows the
graphical mode of the installer to run locally, but display on a system connected to the
network. Installing in VNC mode provides you with the full range of installation options,
even in situations where the system lacks a display or input devices.
31.1. VNC VIEWER
Performing a VNC installation requires a VNC viewer running on your workstation or other
terminal computer. Locations where you might want a VNC viewer installed:
Your workstation
Laptop on a datacenter crash cart
VNC is open source software licensed under the GNU General Public License.
VNC clients are available in the repositories of most Linux distributions. Use your package
manager to search for a client for your chosen distribution. For example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, install the tigervnc package:
# yum install tigervnc
Once you have verified you have a VNC viewer available, it's time to start the installation.
31.2. VNC MODES IN ANACONDA
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Anaconda offers two modes for VNC installation. The mode you select will depend on the
network configuration in your environment.
31.2.1. Direct Mode
Direct mode VNC in anaconda is when the client initiates a connection to the VNC server
running in anaconda. Anaconda will tell you when to initiate this connection in the VNC
viewer. Direct mode can be activated by either of the following commands:
Specify vnc as a boot argument.
Specify the vnc command in the kickstart file used for installation.
When you activate VNC mode, anaconda will complete the first stage of the installer and
then start VNC to run the graphical installer. The installer will display a message on the
console in the following format:
Running anaconda VERSION, the PRODUCT system installer - please wait...
Anaconda will also tell you the IP address and display number to use in your VNC viewer. At
this point, you need to start the VNC viewer and connect to the target system to continue
the installation. The VNC viewer will present anaconda to you in graphical mode.
There are some disadvantages to direct mode, including:
Requires visual access to the system console to see the IP address and port to
connect the VNC viewer to.
Requires interactive access to the system console to complete the first stage of the
installer.
If either of these disadvantages would prevent you from using direct mode VNC in
anaconda, then connect mode is probably more suited to your environment.
31.2.2. Connect Mode
Certain firewall configurations or instances where the target system is configured to obtain
a dynamic IP address may cause trouble with the direct VNC mode in anaconda. In
addition, if you lack a console on the target system to see the message that tells you the IP
address to connect to, then you will not be able to continue the installation.
The VNC connect mode changes how VNC is started. Rather than anaconda starting up and
waiting for you to connect, the VNC connect mode allows anaconda to automatically
connect to your view. You won't need to know the IP address of the target system in this
case.
To activate the VNC connect mode, pass the vncconnect boot parameter:
boot: linux vncconnect=HOST
Replace HOST with your VNC viewer's IP address or DNS host name. Before starting the
installation process on the target system, start up your VNC viewer and have it wait for an
incoming connection.
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Start the installation and when your VNC viewer displays the graphical installer, you are
ready to go.
31.3. INSTALLATION USING VNC
Now that you have installed a VNC viewer application and selected a VNC mode for use in
anaconda, you are ready to begin the installation.
31.3.1. Installation Example
The easiest way to perform an installation using VNC is to connect another computer
directly to the network port on the target system. The laptop on a datacenter crash cart
usually fills this role. If you are performing your installation this way, make sure you follow
these steps:
1. Connect the laptop or other workstation to the target system using a crossover
cable. If you are using regular patch cables, make sure you connect the two
systems using a small hub or switch. Most recent Ethernet interfaces will
automatically detect if they need to be crossover or not, so it may be possible to
connect the two systems directly using a regular patch cable.
2. Configure the VNC viewer system to use a RFC 1918 address with no gateway. This
private network connection will only be used for the purpose of installation.
Configure the VNC viewer system to be 192.168.100.1/24. If that address is in use,
just pick something else in the RFC 1918 address space that is available to you.
3. Start the installation on the target system.
1. Booting the installation DVD.
If booting the installation DVD, make sure vnc is passed as a boot parameter. To
add the vnc parameter, you will need a console attached to the target system
that allows you to interact with the boot process. Enter the following at the
prompt:
boot: linux vnc
2. Boot over the network.
If the target system is configured with a static IP address, add the vnc command
to the kickstart file. If the target system is using DHCP, add vncconnect=HOST to
the boot arguments for the target system. HOST is the IP address or DNS host
name of the VNC viewer system. Enter the following at the prompt:
boot: linux vncconnect=HOST
4. When prompted for the network configuration on the target system, assign it an
available RFC 1918 address in the same network you used for the VNC viewer
system. For example, 192.168.100.2/24.
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NOTE
This IP address is only used during installation. You will have an
opportunity to configure the final network settings, if any, later in the
installer.
5. Once the installer indicates it is starting anaconda, you will be instructed to connect
to the system using the VNC viewer. Connect to the viewer and follow the graphical
installation mode instructions found in the product documentation.
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations
If your target system will be booting over the network, VNC is still available. Just add the
vnc command to the kickstart file for the system. You will be able to connect to the target
system using your VNC viewer and monitor the installation progress. The address to use is
the one the system is configured with via the kickstart file.
If you are using DHCP for the target system, the reverse vncconnect method may work
better for you. Rather than adding the vnc boot parameter to the kickstart file, add the
vncconnect=HOST parameter to the list of boot arguments for the target system. For HOST,
put the IP address or DNS host name of the VNC viewer system. See the next section for
more details on using the vncconnect mode.
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations
If you are performing the installation where the VNC viewer system is a workstation on a
different subnet from the target system, you may run in to network routing problems. VNC
works fine so long as your viewer system has a route to the target system and ports 5900
and 5901 are open. If your environment has a firewall, make sure ports 5900 and 5901 are
open between your workstation and the target system.
In addition to passing the vnc boot parameter, you may also want to pass thevncpassword
parameter in these scenarios. While the password is sent in plain text over the network, it
does provide an extra step before a viewer can connect to a system. Once the viewer
connects to the target system over VNC, no other connections are permitted. These
limitations are usually sufficient for installation purposes.
IMPORTANT
Be sure to use a temporary password for the vncpassword option. It should not
be a password you use on any systems, especially a real root password.
If you continue to have trouble, consider using the vncconnect parameter. In this mode of
operation, you start the viewer on your system first telling it to listen for an incoming
connection. Pass vncconnect=HOST at the boot prompt and the installer will attempt to
connect to the specified HOST (either a hostname or IP address).
31.4. REFERENCES
TigerVNC: http://tigervnc.sourceforge.net/
RFC 1918 - Address Allocation for Private Networks:
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt
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CHAPTER 32. KICKSTART INSTALLATIONS
32.1. WHAT ARE KICKSTART INSTALLATIONS?
Many system administrators would prefer to use an automated installation method to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on their machines. To answer this need, Red Hat created
the kickstart installation method. Using kickstart, a system administrator can create a single
file containing the answers to all the questions that would normally be asked during a
typical installation.
Kickstart files can be kept on a single server system and read by individual computers
during the installation. This installation method can support the use of a single kickstart file
to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on multiple machines, making it ideal for network and
system administrators.
Kickstart provides a way for users to automate a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
All kickstart scriptlets and the log files of their execution are stored in the /tmp directory to
assist with debugging installation failures.
NOTE
Anaconda now configures network interfaces with NetworkManager.
Consequently, kickstart users that referenced the network settings located in
/tmp/netinfo in previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux must now
source the ifcfg files in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts.
32.2. HOW DO YOU PERFORM A KICKSTART INSTALLATION?
Kickstart installations can be performed using a local DVD, a local hard drive, or via NFS,
FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS.
To use kickstart, you must:
1. Create a kickstart file.
2. Create a boot media with the kickstart file or make the kickstart file available on the
network.
3. Make the installation tree available.
4. Start the kickstart installation.
This chapter explains these steps in detail.
32.3. CREATING THE KICKSTART FILE
The kickstart file is a simple text file, containing a list of items, each identified by a
keyword. You can create it by using the Kickstart Configurator application, or writing it
from scratch. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program also creates a sample
kickstart file based on the options that you selected during installation. It is written to the
file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You should be able to edit it with any text editor or word
processor that can save files as ASCII text.
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First, be aware of the following issues when you are creating your kickstart file:
Sections must be specified in order. Items within the sections do not have to be in a
specific order unless otherwise specified. The section order is:
Command section — Refer to Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” for a list of
kickstart options. You must include the required options.
The %packages section — Refer to Section 32.5, “Package Selection” for details.
The %pre and %post sections — These two sections can be in any order and are
not required. Refer to Section 32.6, “Pre-installation Script” and Section 32.7,
“Post-installation Script” for details.
NOTE
Each section should end with %end to avoid logged warnings.
Items that are not required can be omitted.
Omitting any required item results in the installation program prompting the user
for an answer to the related item, just as the user would be prompted during a
typical installation. Once the answer is given, the installation continues unattended
(unless it finds another missing item).
Lines starting with a pound (also known as hash) sign (#) are treated as comments
and are ignored.
For kickstart upgrades, the following items are required:
Language
Installation method
Device specification (if device is needed to perform the installation)
Keyboard setup
The upgrade keyword
Boot loader configuration
If any other items are specified for an upgrade, those items are ignored (note that
this includes package selection).
32.4. KICKSTART OPTIONS
The following options can be placed in a kickstart file. If you prefer to use a graphical
interface for creating your kickstart file, use the Kickstart Configurator application. Refer
to Chapter 33, Kickstart Configurator for details.
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NOTE
If the option is followed by an equals mark (=), a value must be specified after
it. In the example commands, options in square brackets ([ ]) are optional
arguments for the command.
IMPORTANT
Device names are not guaranteed to be consistent across reboots, which can
complicate usage in kickstart scripts. When a kickstart option calls for a device
node name (such as sda), you can instead use any item from/dev/disk. For
example, instead of:
part / --fstype=ext4 --onpart=sda1
You could use an entry similar to one of the following:
part / --fstype=ext4 --onpart=/dev/disk/by-path/pci0000:00:05.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part1
part / --fstype=ext4 --onpart=/dev/disk/by-id/ataST3160815AS_6RA0C882-part1
This provides a consistent way to refer to disks that is more meaningful than
just sda. This is especially useful in large storage environments.
auth or authconfig (required)
Sets up the authentication options for the system. It is similar to the authconfig
command, which can be run after the installation - see the authconfig(8) man page for
more information.
Passwords are shadowed by default.

WARNING
The authconfig command requires the authconfig package, which is
not included when using the minimal package group. Add authconfig
to the %packages section as described in Section 32.5, “Package
Selection”, if you are using the minimal package group and want to
use this command in your Kickstart file.
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
WARNING
When using OpenLDAP with the SSL protocol for security, make sure
that the SSLv2 and SSLv3 protols are disabled in the server
configuration. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-20143566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234843 for details.
--enablenis — Turns on NIS support. By default,--enablenis uses whatever
domain it finds on the network. A domain should almost always be set by hand
with the --nisdomain= option.
--nisdomain= — NIS domain name to use for NIS services.
--nisserver= — Server to use for NIS services (broadcasts by default).
--useshadow or --enableshadow — Use shadow passwords. This option is
enabled by default.
--enableldap — Turns on LDAP support in /etc/nsswitch.conf, allowing your
system to retrieve information about users (for example, their UIDs, home
directories, and shells) from an LDAP directory. To use this option, you must
install the nss-pam-ldapd package. You must also specify a server and a baseDN
(distinguished name) with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
--enableldapauth — Use LDAP as an authentication method. This enables the
pam_ldap module for authentication and changing passwords, using an LDAP
directory. To use this option, you must have the nss-pam-ldapd package
installed. You must also specify a server and a base DN with --ldapserver= and
--ldapbasedn=. If your environment does not useTLS (Transport Layer Security),
use the --disableldaptls switch to ensure that the resulting configuration file
works.
--ldapserver= — If you specified either--enableldap or --enableldapauth,
use this option to specify the name of the LDAP server to use. This option is set in
the /etc/ldap.conf file.
--ldapbasedn= — If you specified either--enableldap or --enableldapauth,
use this option to specify the DN in your LDAP directory tree under which user
information is stored. This option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
--enableldaptls — Use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups. This option
allows LDAP to send encrypted usernames and passwords to an LDAP server
before authentication.
--disableldaptls — Do not use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups in an
environment that uses LDAP for authentication.
--enablekrb5 — Use Kerberos 5 for authenticating users. Kerberos itself does
not know about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable Kerberos, you
must make users' accounts known to this workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or
Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd command. If you use this option, you
must have the pam_krb5 package installed.
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--krb5realm= — The Kerberos 5 realm to which your workstation belongs.
--krb5kdc= — The KDC (or KDCs) that serve requests for the realm. If you have
multiple KDCs in your realm, separate their names with commas (,).
--krb5adminserver= — The KDC in your realm that is also running kadmind. This
server handles password changing and other administrative requests. This server
must be run on the master KDC if you have more than one KDC.
--enablehesiod — Enable Hesiod support for looking up user home directories,
UIDs, and shells. More information on setting up and using Hesiod on your
network is in /usr/share/doc/glibc-2.x.x/README.hesiod, which is included
in the glibc package. Hesiod is an extension of DNS that uses DNS records to
store information about users, groups, and various other items.
--hesiodlhs and --hesiodrhs — The Hesiod LHS (left-hand side) and RHS
(right-hand side) values, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. The Hesiod library uses these
values to search DNS for a name, similar to the way that LDAP uses a base DN.
To look up user information for the username jim, the Hesiod library looks up
jim.passwd<LHS><RHS>, which should resolve to a TXT record that contains a
string identical to an entry for that user in the passwd file:
jim:*:501:501:Jungle Jim:/home/jim:/bin/bash. To look up groups, the
Hesiod library looks up jim.group<LHS><RHS> instead.
To look up users and groups by number, make 501.uid a CNAME for jim.passwd,
and 501.gid a CNAME for jim.group. Note that the library does not place a
period (.) in front of the LHS and RHS values when performing a search.
Therefore, if the LHS and RHS values need to have a period placed in front of
them, you must include the period in the values you set for --hesiodlhs and -hesiodrhs.
--enablesmbauth — Enables authentication of users against an SMB server
(typically a Samba or Windows server). SMB authentication support does not
know about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable SMB, you must make
users' accounts known to the workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by
using the /usr/sbin/useradd command.
--smbservers= — The name of the servers to use for SMB authentication. To
specify more than one server, separate the names with commas (,).
--smbworkgroup= — The name of the workgroup for the SMB servers.
--enablecache — Enables the nscd service. The nscd service caches information
about users, groups, and various other types of information. Caching is especially
helpful if you choose to distribute information about users and groups over your
network using NIS, LDAP, or Hesiod.
--passalgo= — specify sha256 to set up the SHA-256 hashing algorithm or
sha512 to set up the SHA-512 hashing algorithm.
autopart (optional)
Automatically creates partitions — a root (/) partition (1 GB or bigger), a swap partition,
and an appropriate boot partition for the architecture.
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NOTE
Note that the autopart option cannot be used together with the
part/partition, raid, logvol, or volgroup options in the same kickstart
file.
--encrypted — Should all devices with support be encrypted by default? This is
equivalent to checking the Encrypt checkbox on the initial partitioning screen.
--cipher= — Specifies which type of encryption will be used if theanaconda
default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with
the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption
are listed in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide, but Red Hat strongly
recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
--passphrase= — Provide a default system-wide passphrase for all encrypted
devices.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted volumes as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from
the URL specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a
separate file for each encrypted volume. This option is only meaningful if -encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each
encrypted volume. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted
using the X.509 certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only
meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
autostep (optional)
Similar to interactive except it goes to the next screen for you. It is used mostly for
debugging and should not be used when deploying a system because it may disrupt
package installation.
--autoscreenshot — Take a screenshot at every step during installation and
copy the images over to /root/anaconda-screenshots after installation is
complete. This is most useful for documentation.
bootloader (required)
Specifies how the boot loader should be installed. This option is required for both
installations and upgrades.
IMPORTANT
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you
specify choices for the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection
options. These steps are automated in text mode, and anaconda cannot
prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide choices for these
options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
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IMPORTANT
It is highly recommended to set up a boot loader password on every
machine. An unprotected boot loader can allow a potential attacker to
modify the system's boot options and gain access to the system. See the
chapter titled Workstation Security in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security
Guide for more information on boot loader passwords and password
security in general.
--append= — Specifies kernel parameters. To specify multiple parameters,
separate them with spaces. For example:
bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"
--driveorder — Specify which drive is first in the BIOS boot order. For example:
bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
--disabled — This option is a stronger version of--location=none. While -location=none simply disables bootloader installation, --disabled disables
bootloader installation and also disables installation of the bootloader package,
thus saving space.
--location= — Specifies where the boot record is written. Valid values are the
following: mbr (the default), partition (installs the boot loader on the first sector
of the partition containing the kernel — necessary for UEFI), or none (do not
install the boot loader).
IMPORTANT
64-bit AMD and Intel systems with UEFI firmware require the boot
loader to be installed in an EFI system partition on a disk labeled
with a GUID Partition Table (GPT). Using a disk with a Master Boot
Record (MBR) label requires that the disk be relabeled using the
clearpart and zerombr commands. Relabeling a disk will render all
data on that disk inaccessible and it will require creating a new
partition layout.
--password= — If using GRUB, sets the GRUB boot loader password to the one
specified with this option. This should be used to restrict access to the GRUB
shell, where arbitrary kernel options can be passed.
--iscrypted — If using GRUB, should be included if the password is already
encrypted. The encryption method is detected automatically based on the
password.
To create an encrypted password, use the following command:
python -c 'import crypt; print(crypt.crypt("My Password"))'
This will create a sha512 crypt of your password.
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--upgrade — Upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, preserving the old
entries. This option is only available for upgrades.
clearpart (optional)
Removes partitions from the system, prior to creation of new partitions. By default, no
partitions are removed.
NOTE
If the clearpart command is used, then the --onpart command cannot be
used on a logical partition.
--all — Erases all partitions from the system.

WARNING
This option will erase all disks which can be reached by the
installer, including any attached network storage. Use this
option with caution.
You can prevent clearpart from wiping storage you want to
preserve by using the --drives= option and specifying only the
drives you want to clear, by attaching network storage later
(for example, in the %post section of the Kickstart file), or by
blacklisting the kernel modules used to access network
storage.
IMPORTANT
The clearpart cannot clear an existing BIOS RAID setup. For this,
the command wipefs -a must be added to your %pre script. Note
that this will wipe all metadata from the RAID.
--drives= — Specifies which drives to clear partitions from. For example, the
following clears all the partitions on the first two drives on the primary IDE
controller:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all
To clear a multipath device, use the format disk/by-id/scsi-WWID, where WWID
is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to clear a disk with WWID
58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918, use:
clearpart --drives=disk/by-id/scsi58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
This format is preferable for all multipath devices, but if errors arise, multipath
devices that do not use logical volume management (LVM) can also be cleared
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using the format disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-WWID, where WWID is the worldwide identifier for the device. For example, to clear a disk with WWID
2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:
clearpart --drives=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017

WARNING
Never specify multipath devices by device names like mpatha.
Device names like mpatha are not specific to a particular disk.
The disk named /dev/mpatha during installation might not be
the one that you expect it to be. Therefore, the clearpart
command could target the wrong disk.
--linux — Erases all Linux partitions.
--none (default) — Do not remove any partitions.
--cdl — Reformat all detected LDL (Linux Disk Layout) disks to CDL (Compatible
Disk Layout). Only available on IBM System z.
NOTE
Using the clearpart --all command in a Kickstart file to remove all
existing partitions during the installation will cause Anaconda to pause
and prompt you for a confirmation. If you need to perform the installation
automatically with no interaction, add the zerombr command to your
Kickstart file.
IMPORTANT
The --initlabel option has been deprecated. To initialize disks with
invalid partition tables and clear their contents, use the zerombr command.
cmdline (optional)
Perform the installation in a completely non-interactive command line mode. Any
prompts for interaction halts the install. This mode is useful on IBM System z systems
with the 3270 terminal under z/VM and operating system messages applet on LPAR. The
recommended use is in conjunction with RUNKS=1 and ks=. Refer to Section 26.6,
“Parameters for Kickstart Installations”.
device (optional)
On most PCI systems, the installation program autoprobes for Ethernet and SCSI cards
properly. On older systems and some PCI systems, however, kickstart needs a hint to
find the proper devices. The device command, which tells the installation program to
install extra modules, is in this format:
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device <moduleName> --opts=<options>
<moduleName> — Replace with the name of the kernel module which should be
installed.
--opts= — Options to pass to the kernel module. For example:
--opts="aic152x=0x340 io=11"
driverdisk (optional)
Driver disks can be used during kickstart installations. You must copy the driver disks's
contents to the root directory of a partition on the system's hard drive. Then you must
use the driverdisk command to tell the installation program where to look for the
driver disk.
driverdisk <partition> --source=<url> --biospart=<biospart> [-type=<fstype>]
Alternatively, a network location can be specified for the driver disk:
driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/img
<partition> — Partition containing the driver disk.
<url> — URL for the driver disk. NFS locations can be given in the form
nfs:host:/path/to/img.
<biospart> — BIOS partition containing the driver disk (for example,82p2).
--type= — File system type (for example, vfat or ext2).
fcoe (optional)
Specify which FCoE devices should be activated automatically in addition to those
discovered by Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD).
--nic= (mandatory) — The name of the device to be activated.
--dcb= — Establish Data Center Bridging (DCB) settings.
--autovlan — Discover VLANs automatically.
firewall (optional)
This option corresponds to the Firewall Configuration screen in the installer.
firewall --enabled|--disabled [--trust=] <device> <incoming> [--port=]
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
WARNING
The firewall command requires the system-config-firewall-base
package, which is not included when using the minimal package group.
Add system-config-firewall-base to the %packages section as
described in Section 32.5, “Package Selection”, if you are using the
minimal package group and you want to use this command in your
Kickstart file.
--enabled or --enable — Reject incoming connections that are not in response
to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to
services running on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific
services through the firewall.
--disabled or --disable — Do not configure any iptables rules.
--trust= — Listing a device here, such as eth0, allows all traffic coming to and
from that device to go through the firewall. To list more than one device, use -trust eth0 --trust eth1. Do NOT use a comma-separated format such as-trust eth0, eth1.
<incoming> — Replace with one or more of the following to allow the specified
services through the firewall.
--ssh
--telnet
--smtp
--http
--ftp
--port= — You can specify that ports be allowed through the firewall using the
port:protocol format. For example, to allow IMAP access through your firewall,
specify imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; for example, to
allow UDP packets on port 1234 through, specify 1234:udp. To specify multiple
ports, separate them by commas.
firstboot (optional)
Determine whether the firstboot starts the first time the system is booted. If enabled,
the firstboot package must be installed. If not specified, this option is disabled by
default.
--enable or --enabled — The Setup Agent is started the first time the system
boots.
--disable or --disabled — The Setup Agent is not started the first time the
system boots.
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--reconfig — Enable the Setup Agent to start at boot time in reconfiguration
mode. This mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password,
security level, and time zone configuration options in addition to the default ones.
graphical (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in graphical mode. This is the default.
group (optional)
Creates a new user group on the system. If a group with the given name or GID already
exists, this command will fail. In addition, the user command can be used to create a
new group for the newly created user.
group --name=name [--gid=gid]
--name= - Provides the name of the group.
--gid= - The group's GID. If not provided, defaults to the next available nonsystem GID.
halt (optional)
Halt the system after the installation has successfully completed. This is similar to a
manual installation, where anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press
a key before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is
specified, this option is used as the default.
The halt option is equivalent to the shutdown -h command.
For other completion methods, refer to the poweroff, reboot, and shutdown kickstart
options.
ignoredisk (optional)
Causes the installer to ignore the specified disks. This is useful if you use autopartition
and want to be sure that some disks are ignored. For example, without ignoredisk,
attempting to deploy on a SAN-cluster the kickstart would fail, as the installer detects
passive paths to the SAN that return no partition table.
The syntax is:
ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,...
where driveN is one of sda, sdb,..., hda,... etc.
To ignore a multipath device that does not use logical volume management (LVM), use
the format disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier
for the device. For example, to ignore a disk with WWID
2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:
ignoredisk --drives=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
Multipath devices that use LVM are not assembled until after anaconda has parsed the
kickstart file. Therefore, you cannot specify these devices in the format dm-uuid-mpath.
Instead, to ignore a multipath device that uses LVM, use the format disk/by-
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id/scsi-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to
ignore a disk with WWID 58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918, use:
ignoredisk --drives=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918

WARNING
Never specify multipath devices by device names like mpatha. Device
names like mpatha are not specific to a particular disk. The disk named
/dev/mpatha during installation might not be the one that you expect
it to be. Therefore, the clearpart command could target the wrong
disk.
--only-use — specifies a list of disks for the installer to use. All other disks are
ignored. For example, to use disk sda during installation and ignore all other
disks:
ignoredisk --only-use=sda
To include a multipath device that does not use LVM:
ignoredisk --only-use=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
To include a multipath device that uses LVM:
ignoredisk --only-use=disk/by-id/scsi58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
install (optional)
Tells the system to install a fresh system rather than upgrade an existing system. This is
the default mode. For installation, you must specify the type of installation from cdrom,
harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS installations). Theinstall command
and the installation method command must be on separate lines.
cdrom — Install from the first optical drive on the system.
harddrive — Install from a Red Hat installation tree on a local drive, which must
be either vfat or ext2.
--biospart=
BIOS partition to install from (such as 82).
--partition=
Partition to install from (such as sdb2).
--dir=
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Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
For example:
harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree
nfs — Install from the NFS server specified.
--server=
Server from which to install (hostname or IP).
--dir=
Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
--opts=
Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. (optional)
For example:
nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree
url — Install from an installation tree on a remote server via FTP, HTTP, or
HTTPS.
For example:
url --url http://<server>/<dir>
or:
url --url ftp://<username>:<password>@<server>/<dir>
interactive (optional)
Perform an interactive installation, but use the information in the kickstart file to provide
defaults. During the installation, anaconda still prompts you at every stage. Either
accept the values from the kickstart file by clicking Next or change the values and click
Next to continue. Refer also to theautostep command.
iscsi (optional)
iscsi --ipaddr=<ipaddr> [options]
Specifies additional iSCSI storage to be attached during installation. If you use the iscsi
parameter, you must also assign a name to the iSCSI node, using the iscsiname
parameter earlier in the kickstart file.
We recommend that wherever possible you configure iSCSI storage in the system BIOS
or firmware (iBFT for Intel systems) rather than use the iscsi parameter. Anaconda
automatically detects and uses disks configured in BIOS or firmware and no special
configuration is necessary in the kickstart file.
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If you must use the iscsi parameter, ensure that networking is activated at the
beginning of the installation, and that the iscsi parameter appears in the kickstart file
before you refer to iSCSI disks with parameters such as clearpart or ignoredisk.
--port= (mandatory) — the port number (typically, --port=3260)
--user= — the username required to authenticate with the target
--password= — the password that corresponds with the username specified for
the target
--reverse-user= — the username required to authenticate with the initiator
from a target that uses reverse CHAP authentication
--reverse-password= — the password that corresponds with the username
specified for the initiator
iscsiname (optional)
Assigns a name to an iSCSI node specified by the iscsi parameter. If you use the iscsi
parameter in your kickstart file, you must specify iscsiname earlier in the kickstart file.
keyboard (required)
Sets the default keyboard type for the system. The available keyboard types are:
be-latin1 — Belgian
bg_bds-utf8 — Bulgarian
bg_pho-utf8 — Bulgarian (Phonetic)
br-abnt2 — Brazilian (ABNT2)
cf — French Canadian
croat — Croatian
cz-us-qwertz — Czech
cz-lat2 — Czech (qwerty)
de — German
de-latin1 — German (latin1)
de-latin1-nodeadkeys — German (latin1 without dead keys)
dvorak — Dvorak
dk — Danish
dk-latin1 — Danish (latin1)
es — Spanish
et — Estonian
fi — Finnish
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fi-latin1 — Finnish (latin1)
fr — French
fr-latin9 — French (latin9)
fr-latin1 — French (latin1)
fr-pc — French (pc)
fr_CH — Swiss French
fr_CH-latin1 — Swiss French (latin1)
gr — Greek
hu — Hungarian
hu101 — Hungarian (101 key)
is-latin1 — Icelandic
it — Italian
it-ibm — Italian (IBM)
it2 — Italian (it2)
jp106 — Japanese
ko — Korean
la-latin1 — Latin American
mk-utf — Macedonian
nl — Dutch
no — Norwegian
pl2 — Polish
pt-latin1 — Portuguese
ro — Romanian
ru — Russian
sr-cy — Serbian
sr-latin — Serbian (latin)
sv-latin1 — Swedish
sg — Swiss German
sg-latin1 — Swiss German (latin1)
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sk-qwerty — Slovak (qwerty)
slovene — Slovenian
trq — Turkish
uk — United Kingdom
ua-utf — Ukrainian
us-acentos — U.S. International
us — U.S. English
The file /usr/lib/python2.6/sitepackages/system_config_keyboard/keyboard_models.py on 32-bit systems or
/usr/lib64/python2.6/sitepackages/system_config_keyboard/keyboard_models.py on 64-bit systems also
contains this list and is part of the system-config-keyboard package.
lang (required)
Sets the language to use during installation and the default language to use on the
installed system. For example, to set the language to English, the kickstart file should
contain the following line:
lang en_US
The file /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list provides a list of the valid
language codes in the first column of each line and is part of the system-configlanguage package.
Certain languages (for example, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indic languages) are not
supported during text-mode installation. If you specify one of these languages with the
lang command, the installation process continues in English, but the installed system
uses your selection as its default language.
langsupport (deprecated)
The langsupport keyword is deprecated and its use will cause an error message to be
printed to the screen and installation to halt. Instead of using the langsupport keyword,
you should now list the support package groups for all languages you want supported in
the %packages section of your kickstart file. For instance, adding support for French
means you should add the following to %packages:
@french-support
logging (optional)
This command controls the error logging of anaconda during installation. It has no effect
on the installed system.
logging [--host=<host>] [--port=<port>] [-level=debug|info|error|critical]
--host= — Send logging information to the given remote host, which must be
running a syslogd process configured to accept remote logging.
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--port= — If the remote syslogd process uses a port other than the default, it
may be specified with this option.
--level= — One of debug, info, warning, error, or critical.
Specify the minimum level of messages that appear on tty3. All messages will
still be sent to the log file regardless of this level, however.
logvol (optional)
Create a logical volume for Logical Volume Management (LVM) with the syntax:
logvol <mntpoint> --vgname=<name> --size=<size> --name=<name> [options]
IMPORTANT
Do not use the dash ("-") character in logical volume or volume group
names when installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux using Kickstart. If you do,
the installation will finish normally, but the character will be removed from
all newly created volume and volume group names. For example, if you
create a volume group named volgrp-01, its name will be changed to
volgrp01.
This limitation only applies to new installations. If you are upgrading or
reinstalling an existing installation and use the --noformat option
described below, dashes used in volume and volume group names will be
preserved.
The <mntpoint> is where the partition is mounted and must be of one of the
following forms:
/<path>
For example, /, /usr, /home
swap
The partition is used as swap space.
To determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the -recommended option:
swap --recommended
The size assigned will be effective but not precisely calibrated for your
system.
To determine the size of the swap partition automatically but also allow extra
space for your system to hibernate, use the --hibernation option:
swap --hibernation
The size assigned will be equivalent to the swap space assigned by -recommended plus the amount of RAM on your system.
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For the swap sizes assigned by these commands, refer to Section 9.15.5,
“Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for x86, AMD64, and Intel 64
Architecture and Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for
IBM Power Systems servers.
IMPORTANT
Swap space recommendations were updated in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.3. Previously, systems with large amounts of
RAM were assigned huge swap spaces. This delayed the Out-ofMemory Killer (oom_kill) in addressing critical memory
shortages, even if a process was malfunctioning.
Consequently, if you are using an earlier version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6, swap --recommended will generate larger
swap spaces than those described in the Recommended
Partitioning Scheme, even on systems with large amounts of
RAM. This may negate the need to allow extra space for
hibernation.
However, these updated swap space values are nonetheless
recommended for earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
and can be set manually using the swap --size= option.
The options are as follows:
--noformat — Use an existing logical volume and do not format it.
--useexisting — Use an existing logical volume and reformat it.
--fstype= — Sets the file system type for the logical volume. Valid values are
xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, hfs, and efi.
--fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when
mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the
installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
--fsprofile — Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a
filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters
to be used when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must
support the concept of usage types and there must be a configuration file that
lists valid types. For ext2, ext3, and ext4, this configuration file is
/etc/mke2fs.conf.
--grow= — Tells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up
to the maximum size setting.
--maxsize= — The maximum size in megabytes when the logical volume is set to
grow. Specify an integer value here such as 500 (do not include the unit).
--recommended= — Determine the size of the logical volume automatically.
--percent= — Specify the amount by which to grow the logical volume, as a
percentage of the free space in the volume group after any statically-sized
logical volumes are taken into account. This option must be used in conjunction
with the --size and --grow options for logvol.
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--encrypted — Specifies that this logical volume should be encrypted, using the
passphrase provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a
passphrase, anaconda uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the
autopart --passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to
provide a passphrase if no default is set.
--cipher= — Specifies which type of encryption will be used if theanaconda
default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with
the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption
are listed in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide, but Red Hat strongly
recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
--passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this logical
volume. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself
it has no effect.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted volumes as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from
the URL specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a
separate file for each encrypted volume. This option is only meaningful if -encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each
encrypted volume. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted
using the X.509 certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only
meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical
volume. For example:
part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical
volume to occupy 90% of the remaining space in the volume group. For example:
part pv.01 --size 1 --grow
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=1 --name=rootvol --grow --percent=90
mediacheck (optional)
If given, this will force anaconda to run mediacheck on the installation media. This
command requires that installs be attended, so it is disabled by default.
monitor (optional)
If the monitor command is not given, anaconda will use X to automatically detect your
monitor settings. Please try this before manually configuring your monitor.
monitor --monitor=<monitorname>|--hsync|vsync=<frequency> [--noprobe]
--hsync= — Specifies the horizontal sync frequency of the monitor.
--monitor= — Use specified monitor; monitor name should be from the list of
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monitors in /usr/share/hwdata/MonitorsDB from the hwdata package. The list of
monitors can also be found on the X Configuration screen of the Kickstart
Configurator. This is ignored if --hsync or --vsync is provided. If no monitor
information is provided, the installation program tries to probe for it
automatically.
--noprobe= — Do not try to probe the monitor.
--vsync= — Specifies the vertical sync frequency of the monitor.
mouse (deprecated)
The mouse keyword is deprecated.
network (optional)
Configures network information for the target system and activates network devices in
the installer environment. The device specified in the first network command is
activated automatically if network access is required during installation, for example,
during a network installation or installation over VNC. From Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1
onwards, you can also explicitly require device to activate in the installer environment
with the --activate option.
IMPORTANT
If you need to manually specify network settings during an otherwiseautomated kickstart installation, do not use network. Instead, boot the
system with the asknetwork option (refer to Section 32.11, “Starting a
Kickstart Installation”), which will prompt anaconda to ask you for network
settings rather than use the default settings. anaconda will ask this before
fetching the kickstart file.
Once the network connection is established, you can only reconfigure
network settings with those specified in your kickstart file.
NOTE
You will only be prompted for information about your network:
before fetching the kickstart file if you are using the asknetwork
boot option
when the network is first accessed once the kickstart file has been
fetched, if the network was not used to fetch it and you have
provided no kickstart network commands
--activate — activate this device in the installer environment.
If you use the --activate option on a device that has already been activated
(for example, an interface you configured with boot options so that the system
could retrieve the kickstart file) the device is reactivated to use the details
specified in the kickstart file.
Use the --nodefroute option to prevent the device from using the default route.
The activate option is new in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1.
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--bootproto= — One of dhcp, bootp, ibft, or static.
The ibft option is new in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1.
The bootproto option defaults to dhcp. bootp and dhcp are treated the same.
The DHCP method uses a DHCP server system to obtain its networking
configuration. As you might guess, the BOOTP method is similar, requiring a
BOOTP server to supply the networking configuration. To direct a system to use
DHCP:
network --bootproto=dhcp
To direct a machine to use BOOTP to obtain its networking configuration, use the
following line in the kickstart file:
network --bootproto=bootp
To direct a machine to use the configuration specified in iBFT, use:
network --bootproto=ibft
The static method requires that you specify the IP address, netmask, gateway,
and nameserver in the kickstart file. As the name implies, this information is
static and is used during and after the installation.
All static networking configuration information must be specified on one line; you
cannot wrap lines using a backslash as you can on a command line. A line that
specifies static networking in a kickstart file is therefore more complex than lines
that specify DHCP, BOOTP, or iBFT. Note that the examples on this page have line
breaks in them for presentation reasons; they would not work in an actual
kickstart file.
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1
You can also configure multiple nameservers here. To do so, specify them as a
comma-delimited list in the command line.
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver 192.168.2.1,192.168.3.1
--device= — specifies the device to be configured (and eventually activated)
with the network command. For the first network command, --device= defaults
(in order of preference) to one of:
the device specified by the ksdevice boot option
the device activated automatically to fetch the kickstart file
the device selected in the Networking Devices dialog
The behavior of any subsequent network command is unspecified if its --device
option is missing. Take care to specify a --device option for any network
command beyond the first.
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You can specify a device in one of five ways:
the device name of the interface, for example, eth0
the MAC address of the interface, for example, 00:12:34:56:78:9a
the keyword link, which specifies the first interface with its link in theup
state
the keyword bootif, which uses the MAC address thatpxelinux set in the
BOOTIF variable. Set IPAPPEND 2 in your pxelinux.cfg file to have pxelinux
set the BOOTIF variable.
the keyword ibft, which uses the MAC address of the interface specified by
iBFT
network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
--ip= — IP address of the device.
--ipv6= — IPv6 address of the device. Useauto for automatic configuration, or
dhcp for DHCPv6 only configuration (no router advertisements).
--gateway= — Default gateway as a single IPv4 address.
--ipv6gateway= — Default gateway as a single IPv6 address.
--nameserver= — Primary nameserver, as an IP address. Multiple nameservers
must each be separated by a comma.
--nodefroute — Prevents the interface being set as the default route. Use this
option when you activate additional devices with the --activate= option, for
example, a NIC on a separate subnet for an iSCSI target.
The nodefroute option is new in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1.
--nodns — Do not configure any DNS server.
--netmask= — Network mask of the device.
--hostname= — Hostname for the installed system.
--ethtool= — Specifies additional low-level settings for the network device
which will be passed to the ethtool program.
--onboot= — Whether or not to enable the device at boot time.
--dhcpclass= — The DHCP class.
--mtu= — The MTU of the device.
--noipv4 — Disable configuration of IPv4 on this device.
--noipv6 — Disable configuration of IPv6 on this device.
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NOTE
The --noipv6 kickstart option does not currently disable IPv6
configuration of individual devices, due to a bug. However, disabling
ipv6 system-wide is possible by using the --noipv6 option on every
network device and using the noipv6 boot parameter. See
Section 32.11, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for more
information about the noipv6 boot option, and the Knowledgebase
article at https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1565723 for more
information on disabling IPv6 system-wide.
--vlanid= — Specifies virtual LAN ID number (802.1q tag).
--bondslaves= — Specifies which network interfaces will be bonded as a
comma-separated list.
--bondopts= — a list of optional parameters for a bonded interface, which is
specified using the --bondslaves= and --device= options. Options in this list
must be separated by commas (",") or semicolons (";"). If an option itself
contains a comma, use a semicolon to separate the options. For example:
network --bondopts=mode=active-backup,balance-rr;primary=eth1
Available optional parameters are listed in the Working with Kernel Modules
chapter of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
IMPORTANT
The --bondopts=mode= parameter only supports full mode names
such as balance-rr or broadcast, not their numerical
representations such as 0 or 3.
part or partition (required for installs, ignored for upgrades)
Creates a partition on the system.
If more than one Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation exists on the system on different
partitions, the installation program prompts the user and asks which installation to
upgrade.

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WARNING
All partitions created are formatted as part of the installation process
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IMPORTANT
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you
specify choices for the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection
options. These steps are automated in text mode, and anaconda cannot
prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide choices for these
options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
For a detailed example of part in action, refer toSection 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
part|partition <mntpoint> --name=<name> --device=<device> --rule=<rule>
[options]
<mntpoint> — Where the partition is mounted. The value must be of one of the
following forms:
/<path>
For example, /, /usr, /home
swap
The partition is used as swap space.
To determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the -recommended option:
swap --recommended
The size assigned will be effective but not precisely calibrated for your
system.
To determine the size of the swap partition automatically but also allow extra
space for your system to hibernate, use the --hibernation option:
swap --hibernation
The size assigned will be equivalent to the swap space assigned by -recommended plus the amount of RAM on your system.
For the swap sizes assigned by these commands, refer to Section 9.15.5,
“Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for x86, AMD64, and Intel 64
Architecture and Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for
IBM Power Systems servers.
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IMPORTANT
Swap space recommendations were updated in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.3. Previously, systems with large amounts of
RAM were assigned huge swap spaces. This delayed the Out-ofMemory Killer (oom_kill) in addressing critical memory
shortages, even if a process was malfunctioning.
Consequently, if you are using an earlier version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6, swap --recommended will generate larger
swap spaces than those described in the Recommended
Partitioning Scheme, even on systems with large amounts of
RAM. This may negate the need to allow extra space for
hibernation.
However, these updated swap space values are nonetheless
recommended for earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
and can be set manually using the swap --size= option.
raid.<id>
The partition is used for software RAID (refer to raid).
pv.<id>
The partition is used for LVM (refer to logvol).
--size= — The minimum partition size in megabytes. Specify an integer value
here such as 500 (do not include the unit).
IMPORTANT
If the --size value is too small, the installation will fail. Set the-size value as the minimum amount of space you require. For size
recommendations, refer to Section 9.15.5, “Recommended
Partitioning Scheme”.
--grow — Tells the partition to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the
maximum size setting.
NOTE
If you use --grow= without setting --maxsize= on a swap partition,
Anaconda will limit the maximum size of the swap partition. For
systems that have less than 2GB of physical memory, the imposed
limit is twice the amount of physical memory. For systems with
more than 2GB, the imposed limit is the size of physical memory
plus 2GB.
--maxsize= — The maximum partition size in megabytes when the partition is
set to grow. Specify an integer value here such as 500 (do not include the unit).
--noformat — Specifies that the partition should not be formatted, for use with
the --onpart command.
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--onpart= or --usepart= — Specifies the device on which to place the partition.
For example:
partition /home --onpart=hda1
puts /home on /dev/hda1.
These options can also add a partition to a logical volume. For example:
partition pv.1 --onpart=hda2
The device must already exist on the system; the --onpart option will not create
it.
--ondisk= or --ondrive= — Forces the partition to be created on a particular
disk. For example, --ondisk=sdb puts the partition on the second SCSI disk on
the system.
To specify a multipath device that does not use logical volume management
(LVM), use the format disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-WWID, where WWID is the
world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to specify a disk with WWID
2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:
part / --fstype=ext3 --grow --asprimary --size=100 -ondisk=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
Multipath devices that use LVM are not assembled until after anaconda has
parsed the kickstart file. Therefore, you cannot specify these devices in the
format dm-uuid-mpath. Instead, to specify a multipath device that uses LVM, use
the format disk/by-id/scsi-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for
the device. For example, to specify a disk with WWID
58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918, use:
part / --fstype=ext3 --grow --asprimary --size=100 -ondisk=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918

WARNING
Never specify multipath devices by device names like mpatha.
Device names like mpatha are not specific to a particular disk.
The disk named /dev/mpatha during installation might not be
the one that you expect it to be. Therefore, the clearpart
command could target the wrong disk.
--asprimary — Forces automatic allocation of the partition as a primary
partition, or the partitioning fails.
--type= (replaced by fstype) — This option is no longer available. Usefstype.
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--fsoptions — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting
the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed
system and should be enclosed in quotes.
--fsprofile — Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a
filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters
to be used when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must
support the concept of usage types and there must be a configuration file that
lists valid types. For ext2, ext3, and ext4, this configuration file is
/etc/mke2fs.conf.
--fstype= — Sets the file system type for the partition. Valid values arexfs,
ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, hfs, and efi.
--recommended — Determine the size of the partition automatically.
--onbiosdisk — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk as
discovered by the BIOS.
--encrypted — Specifies that this partition should be encrypted, using the
passphrase provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a
passphrase, anaconda uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the
autopart --passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to
provide a passphrase if no default is set.
--cipher= — Specifies which type of encryption will be used if theanaconda
default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with
the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption
are listed in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide, but Red Hat strongly
recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
--passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this
partition. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by
itself it has no effect.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted partitions as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from
the URL specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a
separate file for each encrypted partition. This option is only meaningful if -encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each
encrypted partition. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted
using the X.509 certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only
meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
--label= — assign a label to an individual partition.
NOTE
If partitioning fails for any reason, diagnostic messages appear on virtual
console 3.
poweroff (optional)
Shut down and power off the system after the installation has successfully completed.
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Normally during a manual installation, anaconda displays a message and waits for the
user to press a key before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion
method is specified, the halt option is used as default.
The poweroff option is equivalent to the shutdown -p command.
NOTE
The poweroff option is highly dependent on the system hardware in use.
Specifically, certain hardware components such as the BIOS, APM
(advanced power management), and ACPI (advanced configuration and
power interface) must be able to interact with the system kernel. Contact
your manufacturer for more information on you system's APM/ACPI abilities.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, reboot, and shutdown kickstart
options.
raid (optional)
Assembles a software RAID device. This command is of the form:
raid <mntpoint> --level=<level> --device=<mddevice> <partitions*>
<mntpoint> — Location where the RAID file system is mounted. If it is/, the RAID
level must be 1 unless a boot partition (/boot) is present. If a boot partition is
present, the /boot partition must be level 1 and the root (/ ) partition can be any
of the available types. The <partitions*> (which denotes that multiple partitions
can be listed) lists the RAID identifiers to add to the RAID array.
IMPORTANT
If a RAID device has been prepared and has not been reformatted
during installation, ensure that the RAID metadata version is 0.90 if
you intend to put the /boot and PReP partitions on the RAID device.
The default Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 mdadm metadata version is
not supported for the boot device.
--level= — RAID level to use (0, 1, or 5).
--device= — Name of the RAID device to use (such as md0 or md1). RAID
devices range from md0 to md15, and each may only be used once.
--spares= — Specifies the number of spare drives allocated for the RAID array.
Spare drives are used to rebuild the array in case of drive failure.
--fsprofile — Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a
filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters
to be used when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must
support the concept of usage types and there must be a configuration file that
lists valid types. For ext2, ext3, and ext4, this configuration file is
/etc/mke2fs.conf.
--fstype= — Sets the file system type for the RAID array. Valid values arexfs,
ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, and hfs.
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--fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when
mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the
installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
--noformat — Use an existing RAID device and do not format the RAID array.
--useexisting — Use an existing RAID device and reformat it.
--encrypted — Specifies that this RAID device should be encrypted, using the
passphrase provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a
passphrase, anaconda uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the
autopart --passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to
provide a passphrase if no default is set.
--cipher= — Specifies which type of encryption will be used if theanaconda
default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with
the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption
are listed in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide, but Red Hat strongly
recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
--passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this RAID
device. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself
it has no effect.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store the data encryption key for
this device in a file in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL
specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. This option is only meaningful if-encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to this device.
Store the passphrase in a file in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate
specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if--escrowcert is
specified.
The following example shows how to create a RAID level 1 partition for /, and a RAID
level 5 for /usr, assuming there are three SCSI disks on the system. It also creates three
swap partitions, one on each drive.
part raid.01 --size=60 --ondisk=sda
part raid.02 --size=60 --ondisk=sdb
part raid.03 --size=60 --ondisk=sdc
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sda
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdb
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdc
part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda
part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb
part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
raid / --level=1 --device=md0 raid.01 raid.02 raid.03
raid /usr --level=5 --device=md1 raid.11 raid.12 raid.13
For a detailed example of raid in action, refer toSection 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
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reboot (optional)
Reboot after the installation is successfully completed (no arguments). Normally,
kickstart displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting.
The reboot option is equivalent to the shutdown -r command.
Specify reboot to automate installation fully when installing in cmdline mode on
System z.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and shutdown kickstart
options.
The halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly
specified in the kickstart file.
NOTE
Use of the reboot option may result in an endless installation loop,
depending on the installation media and method.
repo (optional)
Configures additional yum repositories that may be used as sources for package
installation. Multiple repo lines may be specified.
repo --name=<repoid> [--baseurl=<url>| --mirrorlist=<url>]
--name= — The repo id. This option is required.
--baseurl= — The URL for the repository. The variables that may be used in
yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this
option or --mirrorlist, not both.
--mirrorlist= — The URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository. The
variables that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You
may use one of either this option or --baseurl, not both.
IMPORTANT
Repositories used for installation must be stable. The installation may fail if
a repository is modified before the installation concludes.
rootpw (required)
Sets the system's root password to the <password> argument.
rootpw [--iscrypted] <password>
--iscrypted — If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already
be encrypted. To create an encrypted password, use the following command:
python -c 'import crypt; print(crypt.crypt("My Password"))'
This will create a sha512 crypt of your password.
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selinux (optional)
Sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. SELinux defaults to enforcing in
anaconda.
selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
--enforcing — Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforced.
NOTE
If the selinux option is not present in the kickstart file, SELinux is
enabled and set to --enforcing by default.
--permissive — Outputs warnings based on the SELinux policy, but does not
actually enforce the policy.
--disabled — Disables SELinux completely on the system.
For more information regarding SELinux for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 Deployment Guide.
services (optional)
Modifies the default set of services that will run under the default runlevel. The list of
disabled services is processed before the list of enabled services. Therefore, if a service
appears on both lists, it is enabled.
--disabled — Disable the services given in the comma separated list.
--enabled — Enable the services given in the comma separated list.
IMPORTANT
Do not include spaces in the list of services. If you do, kickstart will enable
or disable only the services up to the first space. For example:
services --disabled auditd, cups,smartd, nfslock
will disable only the auditd service. To disable all four services, this entry
should include no spaces between services:
services --disabled auditd,cups,smartd,nfslock
shutdown (optional)
Shut down the system after the installation has successfully completed. During a
kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the halt option is used as
default.
The shutdown option is equivalent to the shutdown command.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and reboot kickstart
options.
skipx (optional)
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If present, X is not configured on the installed system.
IMPORTANT
If you install a display manager among your package selection options, this
package will create an X configuration, and the installed system will default
to run level 5. The effect of the skipx option will be overridden.
sshpw (optional)
During installation, you can interact with anaconda and monitor its progress over an
SSH connection. Use the sshpw command to create temporary accounts through which
to log on. Each instance of the command creates a separate account that exists only in
the installation environment. These accounts are not transferred to the installed system.
sshpw --username=<name> <password> [--iscrypted|--plaintext] [--lock]
--username — Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
--iscrypted — Specifies that the password is already encrypted.
--plaintext — Specifies that the password is in plain text and not encrypted.
--lock — If this is present, the new user account is locked by default. That is, the
user will not be able to login from the console.
IMPORTANT
By default, the ssh server is not started during installation. To makessh
available during installation, boot the system with the kernel boot option
sshd=1. Refer to Section 28.2.3, “Enabling Remote Access with ssh” for
details of how to specify this kernel option at boot time.
NOTE
If you want to disable root ssh access to your hardware during installation,
run:
sshpw --username=root --lock
text (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in text mode. Kickstart installations are performed in
graphical mode by default.
IMPORTANT
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you
specify choices for the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection
options. These steps are automated in text mode, and anaconda cannot
prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide choices for these
options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
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timezone (required)
Sets the system time zone to <timezone> which may be any of the time zones listed in
the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.
timezone [--utc] <timezone>
--utc — If present, the system assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC
(Greenwich Mean) time.
unsupported_hardware (optional)
Tells the installer to suppress the Unsupported Hardware Detected alert. If this
command is not included and unsupported hardware is detected, the installation will stall
at this alert.
upgrade (optional)
Tells the system to upgrade an existing system rather than install a fresh system. You
must specify one of cdrom, harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS) as the
location of the installation tree. Refer to install for details.
user (optional)
Creates a new user on the system.
user --name=<username> [--groups=<list>] [--homedir=<homedir>] [-password=<password>] [--iscrypted] [--shell=<shell>] [--uid=<uid>]
--name= — Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
--groups= — In addition to the default group, a comma separated list of group
names the user should belong to. The groups must exist before the user account
is created.
--homedir= — The home directory for the user. If not provided, this defaults to
/home/<username>.
--password= — The new user's password. If not provided, the account will be
locked by default.
--iscrypted= — Is the password provided by --password already encrypted or
not?
--shell= — The user's login shell. If not provided, this defaults to the system
default.
--uid= — The user's UID. If not provided, this defaults to the next available nonsystem UID.
vnc (optional)
Allows the graphical installation to be viewed remotely via VNC. This method is usually
preferred over text mode, as there are some size and language limitations in text
installs. With no options, this command will start a VNC server on the machine with no
password and will print out the command that needs to be run to connect a remote
machine.
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vnc [--host=<hostname>] [--port=<port>] [--password=<password>]
--host= — Instead of starting a VNC server on the install machine, connect to the
VNC viewer process listening on the given hostname.
--port= — Provide a port that the remote VNC viewer process is listening on. If
not provided, anaconda will use the VNC default.
--password= — Set a password which must be provided to connect to the VNC
session. This is optional, but recommended.
volgroup (optional)
Use to create a Logical Volume Management (LVM) group with the syntax:
volgroup <name> <partition> [options]
IMPORTANT
Do not use the dash ("-") character in logical volume or volume group
names when installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux using Kickstart. If you do,
the installation will finish normally, but the character will be removed from
all newly created volume and volume group names. For example, if you
create a volume group named volgrp-01, its name will be changed to
volgrp01.
This limitation only applies to new installations. If you are upgrading or
reinstalling an existing installation and use the --noformat option
described below, dashes used in volume and volume group names will be
preserved.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical
volume. For example:
part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
For a detailed example of volgroup in action, refer toSection 32.4.1, “Advanced
Partitioning Example”.
The options are as follows:
--noformat — Use an existing volume group and do not format it.
--useexisting - Use an existing volume group and reformat it. If you use this
option, do not specify a partition. For example:
volgroup rhel00 --useexisting --noformat
--pesize= — Set the size of the physical extents. The default size for Kickstart
installations is 4 MiB.
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--reserved-space= — Specify an amount of space to leave unused in a volume
group, in megabytes. Only usable when creating a new volume group.
--reserved-percent= — Specify a percentage of total volume group space to
leave unused. Only usable when creating a new volume group.
NOTE
The --reserved-space= and --reserved-percent= options allow you to
leave a part of the total volume group space unused by any volumes. This
allows you to reserve space for LVM snapshots, even if the logvol --grow
command is used during partitioning.
winbind (optional)
Configures the system to connect to a Windows Active Directory or a Windows domain
controller. User information from the specified directory or domain controller can then
be accessed and server authentication options can be configured.
--enablewinbind — Enable winbind for user account configuration.
--disablewinbind — Disable winbind for user account configuration.
--enablewinbindauth — Enable windbindauth for authentication.
--disablewinbindauth — Disable windbindauth for authentication.
--enablewinbindoffline — Configures winbind to allow offline login.
--disablewinbindoffline — Configures winbind to prevent offline login.
--enablewinbindusedefaultdomain — Configures winbind to assume that users
with no domain in their usernames are domain users.
--disablewinbindusedefaultdomain — Configures winbind to assume that
users with no domain in their usernames are not domain users.
xconfig (optional)
Configures the X Window System. If you install the X Window System with a kickstart
file that does not include the xconfig command, you must provide theX configuration
manually during installation.
Do not use this command in a kickstart file that does not install the X Window System.
--driver — Specify the X driver to use for the video hardware.
--videoram= — Specifies the amount of video RAM the video card has.
--defaultdesktop= — Specify either GNOME or KDE to set the default desktop
(assumes that GNOME Desktop Environment and/or KDE Desktop Environment
has been installed through %packages).
--startxonboot — Use a graphical login on the installed system.
zerombr (optional)
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If zerombr is specified any invalid partition tables found on disks are initialized. This
destroys all of the contents of disks with invalid partition tables. This command is
required when performing an unattended installation on a system with previously
initialized disks.
Specific to System z: If zerombr is specified, any DASD visible to the installer which is
not already low-level formatted gets automatically low-level formatted with dasdfmt.
The command also prevents user choice during interactive installations. If zerombr is not
specified and there is at least one unformatted DASD visible to the installer, a noninteractive kickstart installation will exit unsuccessfully. If zerombr is not specified and
there is at least one unformatted DASD visible to the installer, an interactive installation
exits if the user does not agree to format all visible and unformatted DASDs. To
circumvent this, only activate those DASDs that you will use during installation. You can
always add more DASDs after installation is complete.
NOTE
That this command was previously specified as zerombr yes. This form is
now deprecated; you should now simply specify zerombr in your kickstart
file instead.
zfcp (optional)
Define a Fiber channel device (IBM System z).
zfcp [--devnum=<devnum>] [--wwpn=<wwpn>] [--fcplun=<fcplun>]
%include (optional)
Use the %include /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in
the kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %include command
in the kickstart file.
32.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example
The following is a single, integrated example showing the clearpart, raid, part, volgroup,
and logvol kickstart options in action:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdc
zerombr
# Raid 1 IDE config
part raid.11
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.12
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.13
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.14
--size 8000
part raid.15
--size 16384 --grow
part raid.21
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.22
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.23
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.24
--size 8000
part raid.25
--size 16384 --grow
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
# You can add --spares=x
raid /
--fstype ext3 --device md0 --level=RAID1 raid.11 raid.21
raid /safe
--fstype ext3 --device md1 --level=RAID1 raid.12 raid.22
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raid swap
raid /usr
raid pv.01
--fstype swap --device md2 --level=RAID1 raid.13 raid.23
--fstype ext3 --device md3 --level=RAID1 raid.14 raid.24
--fstype ext3 --device md4 --level=RAID1 raid.15 raid.25
# LVM configuration so that we can resize /var and /usr/local later
volgroup sysvg pv.01
logvol /var
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
--name=var
logvol /var/freespace
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
-name=freespacetouse
logvol /usr/local
--vgname=sysvg --size=1 --grow --name=usrlocal
This advanced example implements LVM over RAID, as well as the ability to resize various
directories for future growth.
32.5. PACKAGE SELECTION

WARNING
You can use a kickstart file to install every available package by
specifying * in the %packages section. Red Hat does not support this type
of installation.
In previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, this functionality was
provided by @Everything, but this option is not included in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.
Use the %packages command to begin a kickstart file section that lists the packages you
would like to install (this is for installations only, as package selection during upgrades is
not supported).
You can specify packages by group or by their package names. The installation program
defines several groups that contain related packages. Refer to the
variant/repodata/comps-*.xml file on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 Installation DVD
for a list of groups. Each group has an id, user visibility value, name, description, and
package list. If the group is selected for installation, the packages marked mandatory in
the package list are always installed, the packages marked default are installed if they
are not specifically excluded elsewhere, and the packages marked optional must be
specifically included elsewhere even when the group is selected.
Specify groups, one entry to a line, starting with an @ symbol, a space, and then the full
group name or group id as given in the comps.xml file. For example:
%packages
@X Window System
@Desktop
@Sound and Video
Note that the Core and Base groups are always selected by default, so it is not necessary to
specify them in the %packages section.
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
WARNING
When performing a minimal installation using the @Core group, the
firewall (iptables/ip6tables) will not be configured on the installed
system. This presents a security risk. To work around this issue, add the
authconfig and system-config-firewall-base packages to your package
selection as described below. The firewall will be configured properly if
these packages are present.
A minimal installation's %packages section which will also configure the
firewall will look similar to the following:
%packages
@Core
authconfig
system-config-firewall-base
See the Red Hat Customer Portal for details.
Specify individual packages by name, one entry to a line. You can use asterisks as
wildcards to glob package names in entries. For example:
sqlite
curl
aspell
docbook*
The docbook* entry includes the packages docbook-dtds, docbook-simple, docbook-slides
and others that match the pattern represented with the wildcard.
Use a leading dash to specify packages or groups to exclude from the installation. For
example:
-@ Graphical Internet
-autofs
-ipa*fonts
IMPORTANT
To install a 32-bit package on a 64-bit system, you will need to append the
package name with the 32-bit architecture the package was built for. For
example:
glibc.i686
Using a kickstart file to install every available package by specifying * will introduce
package and file conflicts onto the installed system. Packages known to cause such
problems are assigned to the @Conflicts (variant) group, where variant is Client,
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ComputeNode, Server or Workstation. If you specify * in a kickstart file, be sure to exclude
@Conflicts (variant) or the installation will fail:
*
-@Conflicts (Server)
Note that Red Hat does not support the use of * in a kickstart file, even if you exclude
@Conflicts (variant).
The section must end with the %end command.
The following options are available for the %packages option:
--nobase
Do not install the @Base group. Use this option to perform a minimal installation, for
example, for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance.
--nocore
Disables installation of the @Core package group which is otherwise always installed by
default. Disabling the @Core package group should be only used for creating lightweight
containers; installing a desktop or server system with --nocore will result in an
unusable system.
NOTE
Using -@Core to exclude packages in the@Core package group does not
work. The only way to exclude the @Core package group is with the -nocore option.
--resolvedeps
The --resolvedeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are now always resolved
automatically.
--ignoredeps
The --ignoredeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are resolved automatically
every time now.
--ignoremissing
Ignore the missing packages and groups instead of halting the installation to ask if the
installation should be aborted or continued. For example:
%packages --ignoremissing
32.6. PRE-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the ks.cfg has been
parsed. This section must be placed towards the end of the kickstart file, after the kickstart
commands described in Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options”, and must start with the %pre
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command and end with the %end command. If your kickstart file also includes a%post
section, the order of the %pre and %post sections does not matter. See Section 32.8,
“Kickstart Examples” for example configuration files.
NOTE
The pre-installation script section of kickstart cannot manage multiple install
trees or source media. This information must be included for each created
ks.cfg file, as the pre-installation script occurs during the second stage of the
installation process.
You can access the network in the %pre section; however, name service has not been
configured at this point, so only IP addresses work.
Only the most commonly used commands are available in the pre-installation environment:
arping, awk, basename, bash, bunzip2, bzcat, cat, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot,
chvt, clear, cp, cpio, cut, date, dd, df, dirname, dmesg, du, e2fsck, e2label, echo, egrep,
eject, env, expr, false, fdisk, fgrep, find, fsck, fsck.ext2, fsck.ext3, ftp, grep, gunzip,
gzip, hdparm, head, hostname, hwclock, ifconfig, insmod, ip, ipcalc, kill, killall, less,
ln, load_policy, login, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lvm, md5sum, mkdir, mke2fs,
mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, modprobe, more, mount, mt, mv, nslookup,
openvt, pidof, ping, ps, pwd, readlink, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, sed, sh, sha1sum,
sleep, sort, swapoff, swapon, sync, tail, tar, tee, telnet, top, touch, true, tune2fs,
umount, uniq, vconfig, vi, wc, wget, wipefs, xargs, zcat.
NOTE
The pre-install script is not run in the change root environment.
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace
/usr/bin/python with the scripting language of your choice.
32.7. POST-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
You have the option of adding commands to run on the system once the installation is
complete. This section must be placed towards the end of the kickstart file, after the
kickstart commands described in Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options”, and must start with the
%post command and end with the %end command. If your kickstart file also includes a%pre
section, the order of the %pre and %post sections does not matter. See Section 32.8,
“Kickstart Examples” for example configuration files.
This section is useful for functions such as installing additional software and configuring an
additional nameserver.
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NOTE
If you configured the network with static IP information, including a
nameserver, you can access the network and resolve IP addresses in the
%post section. If you configured the network for DHCP, the/etc/resolv.conf
file has not been completed when the installation executes the %post section.
You can access the network, but you can not resolve IP addresses. Thus, if you
are using DHCP, you must specify IP addresses in the %post section.
NOTE
The post-install script is run in a chroot environment; therefore, performing
tasks such as copying scripts or RPMs from the installation media do not work.
--nochroot
Allows you to specify commands that you would like to run outside of the chroot
environment.
The following example copies the file /etc/resolv.conf to the file system that was just
installed.
%post --nochroot
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sysimage/etc/resolv.conf
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace
/usr/bin/python with the scripting language of your choice.
--log /path/to/logfile
Logs the output of the post-install script. Note that the path of the log file must take into
account whether or not you use the --nochroot option. For example, without -nochroot:
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
with --nochroot:
%post --nochroot --log=/mnt/sysimage/root/ks-post.log
32.8. KICKSTART EXAMPLES
32.8.1. Set host name interactively during installation
The following example demonstrates how to interactively set the system's host name
during installation. The %pre script asks to enter a host name for the installed system. The
%post script configures the network according to the user's input.
%pre
chvt 3
exec </dev/tty3> /dev/tty3
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clear
## Query for hostname, then write it to 'network' file
read -p "
What is my hostname (FQDN)? (This will be set on eth0)
" NAME /dev/tty3 2>&1
echo "NETWORKING=yes" > network
echo "HOSTNAME=${NAME}" >> network
echo "DEVICE=eth0" > ifcfg-eth0
echo "BOOTPROTO=dhcp" >> ifcfg-eth0
echo "ONBOOT=yes" >> ifcfg-eth0
echo "DHCP_HOSTNAME=${NAME} " >> ifcfg-eth0
cat ifcfg-eth0
chvt 1
exec < /dev/tty1 > /dev/tty1
%end
%post --nochroot
# bring in hostname collected from %pre, then source it
cp -Rvf network /mnt/sysimage/etc/sysconfig/network
# Set-up eth0 with hostname
cp ifcfg-eth0 /mnt/sysimage/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# force hostname change
/mnt/sysimage/bin/hostname $HOSTNAME
%end
32.8.2. Registering and Then Mounting an NFS Share
Register the system to a Red Hat Subscription Management server (in this example, a local
Subscription Asset Manager server):
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
/usr/sbin/subscription-manager register --username=admin@example.com -password=secret --serverurl=sam-server.example.com --org="Admin Group" -environment="Dev"
%end
Run a script named runme from an NFS share:
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount -o nolock 10.10.0.2:/usr/new-machines /mnt/temp
openvt -s -w -- /mnt/temp/runme
umount /mnt/temp
NFS file locking is not supported while in kickstart mode, therefore-o nolock is required
when mounting an NFS mount.
32.8.3. Registering a System in RHN Classic
The rhnreg_ks command is a utility for registering a system with the Red Hat Network. It is
designed to be used in a non-interactive environment (a Kickstart style install, for
example). All the information can be specified on the command line or standard input
(stdin). This command should be used when you have created an activation key and you
want to register a system using a key.
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For details about using rhnreg_ks to automatically register your system, see the
Knowledgebase article at https://access.redhat.com/solutions/876433.
32.8.4. Running subscription-manager as a Post-Install Script
The subscription-manager command-line script registers a system to a Red Hat
Subscription Management server (Customer Portal Subscription Management, Subscription
Asset Manager, or CloudForms System Engine). This script can also be used to assign or
attach subscriptions automatically to the system that best-match that system.
When registering to the Customer Portal, use the Red Hat network login credentials. When
registering to Subscription Asset Manager or CloudForms System Engine, use whatever
user account was created by the local administrator.
Additional options can be used with the registration command to set a preferred service
level for the system and to restrict updates and errata to a specific operating system
version.
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
/usr/sbin/subscription-manager register --username=admin@example.com -password=secret --serverurl=sam-server.example.com --org="Admin Group" -environment="Dev" --servicelevel=standard --release="6.6"
%end
For additional information about using subscription-manager, see the Knowledgebase
article at https://access.redhat.com/solutions/748313.
32.8.5. Changing partition layout
The following example %pre script generates a different set of partitioning commands
depending on whether the system has two drives or not.
%pre
#!/bin/sh
hds=""
mymedia=""
for file in /proc/ide/h* do
mymedia=`cat $file/media`
if [ $mymedia == "disk" ] ; then
hds="$hds `basename $file`"
fi
done
set $hds
numhd=`echo $#`
drive1=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f1`
drive2=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f2`
#Write out partition scheme based on whether there are 1 or 2 hard drives
if [ $numhd == "2" ] ; then
#2 drives
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 2 drives" > /tmp/partinclude
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "zerombr" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75 --ondisk hda" >> /tmp/partinclude
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echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hda" >> /tmp/partinclude
echo "part swap --recommended --ondisk $drive1" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hdb" >>
/tmp/part-include
else
#1 drive
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 1 drive" > /tmp/partinclude
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part swap --recommended" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 2048" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 2048 --grow" >> /tmp/part-include
fi
%end
Adding the following line after the %pre script then instructs Kickstart to execute the
commands that were generated by the script above:
%include /tmp/part-include
32.9. MAKING THE KICKSTART FILE AVAILABLE
A kickstart file must be placed in one of the following locations:
On removable media, such as a floppy disk, optical disk, or USB flash drive
On a hard drive
On a network
Normally a kickstart file is copied to the removable media or hard drive, or made available
on the network. The network-based approach is most commonly used, as most kickstart
installations tend to be performed on networked computers.
The following section provides a more in-depth look at where the kickstart file may be
placed.
32.9.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
If you want to modify boot media provided by Red Hat to include a Kickstart file and
automatically load it during boot, follow the procedure below. Note that this procedure will
only work on AMD and Intel systems (x86 and x86_64). Additionally, this procedure requires
the genisoimage and isomd5sum packages; these packages are available on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, but if you use a different system, you may need to adjust the commands
used.
NOTE
Diskette-based booting is no longer supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installations must use CD-ROM or flash memory products for booting.
However, the kickstart file may still reside on a diskette's top-level directory,
and must be named ks.cfg. Separate boot media will be required.
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Procedure 32.1. Including a Kickstart File on Boot Media
Before you start the procedure, make sure you have downloaded a boot ISO image (boot.iso
or binary DVD) as described in Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and that you
have created a working Kickstart file.
1. Mount the ISO image you have downloaded:
# mount /path/to/image.iso /mnt/iso
2. Extract the ISO image into a working directory somewhere in your system:
# cp -pRf /mnt/iso /tmp/workdir
3. Unmount the mounted image:
# umount /mnt/iso
4. The contents of the image is now placed in the iso/ directory in your working
directory. Add your Kickstart file (ks.cfg) into the iso/ directory:
# cp /path/to/ks.cfg /tmp/workdir/iso
5. Open the isolinux/isolinux.cfg configuration file inside the iso/ directory. This
file determines all the menu options which appear in the boot menu. A single menu
entry is defined as the following:
label linux
menu label ^Install or upgrade an existing system
menu default
kernel vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.img
Add the ks= boot option to the line beginning withappend. The exact syntax
depends on how you plan to boot the ISO image; for example, if you plan on booting
from a CD or DVD, use ks=cdrom:/ks.cfg. A list of possible sources and the syntax
used to configure them is available in Section 28.4, “Automating the Installation with
Kickstart”.
6. Use genisoimage in the iso/ directory to create a new bootable ISO image with
your changes included:
# genisoimage -U -r -v -T -J -joliet-long -V "RHEL-6.9" -volset
"RHEL-6.9" -A "RHEL-6.9" -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c
isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table eltorito-alt-boot -e images/efiboot.img -no-emul-boot -o
../NEWISO.iso .
This comand will create a file named NEWISO.iso in your working directory (one
directory above the iso/ directory).
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IMPORTANT
If you use a disk label to refer to any device in your isolinux.cfg (e.g.
ks=hd:LABEL=RHEL-6.9/ks.cfg, make sure that the label matches the
label of the new ISO you are creating. Also note that in boot loader
configuration, spaces in labels must be replaced with \x20.
7. Implant a md5 checksum into the new ISO image:
# implantisomd5 ../NEWISO.iso
After you finish the above procedure, your new image is ready to be turned into boot
media. Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions.
To perform a pen-based flash memory kickstart installation, the kickstart file must be
named ks.cfg and must be located in the flash memory's top-level directory. The kickstart
file should be on a separate flash memory drive to the boot media.
To start the Kickstart installation, boot the system using the boot media you created, and
use the ks= boot option to specify which device contains the USB drive. SeeSection 28.4,
“Automating the Installation with Kickstart” for details about the ks= boot option.
See Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on creating boot USB media
using the rhel-variant-version-architecture-boot.iso image file that you can
download from the Software & Download Center of the Red Hat customer portal.
NOTE
Creation of USB flashdrives for booting is possible, but is heavily dependent on
system hardware BIOS settings. Refer to your hardware manufacturer to see if
your system supports booting to alternate devices.
32.9.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
Network installations using kickstart are quite common, because system administrators can
quickly and easily automate the installation on many networked computers. In general, the
approach most commonly used is for the administrator to have both a BOOTP/DHCP server
and an NFS server on the local network. The BOOTP/DHCP server is used to give the client
system its networking information, while the actual files used during the installation are
served by the NFS server. Often, these two servers run on the same physical machine, but
they are not required to.
Include the ks kernel boot option in the append line of a target in your
pxelinux.cfg/default file to specify the location of a kickstart file on your network. The
syntax of the ks option in a pxelinux.cfg/default file is identical to its syntax when used
at the boot prompt. Refer to Section 32.11, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for a
description of the syntax and refer to Example 32.1, “Using the ks option in the
pxelinux.cfg/default file” for an example of an append line.
If the dhcpd.conf file on the DHCP server is configured to point to
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.0 on the BOOTP server (whether on the same physical
machine or not), systems configured to boot over the network can load the kickstart file
and commence installation.
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Example 32.1. Using the ks option in the pxelinux.cfg/default file
For example, if foo.ks is a kickstart file available on an NFS share at
192.168.0.200:/export/kickstart/, part of your pxelinux.cfg/default file might
include:
label 1
kernel RHEL6/vmlinuz
append initrd=RHEL6/initrd.img ramdisk_size=10000
ks=nfs:192.168.0.200:/export/kickstart/foo.ks
32.10. MAKING THE INSTALLATION TREE AVAILABLE
The kickstart installation must access an installation tree. An installation tree is a copy of
the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD with the same directory structure.
If you are performing a DVD-based installation, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation DVD into the computer before starting the kickstart installation.
If you are performing a hard drive installation, make sure the ISO images of the binary Red
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD are on a hard drive in the computer.
If you are performing a network-based (NFS, FTP or HTTP) installation, you must make the
installation tree or ISO image available over the network. Refer to Section 4.1, “Preparing
for a Network Installation” for details.
32.11. STARTING A KICKSTART INSTALLATION
IMPORTANT
Firstboot does not run after a system is installed from a Kickstart file unless a
desktop and the X Window System were included in the installation and
graphical login was enabled. Either specify a user with the user option in the
Kickstart file before installing additional systems from it (refer to Section 32.4,
“Kickstart Options” for details) or log into the installed system with a virtual
console as root and add users with the adduser command.
To begin a kickstart installation, you must boot the system from boot media you have made
or the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, and enter a special boot command at the boot
prompt. The installation program looks for a kickstart file if the ks command line argument
is passed to the kernel.
DVD and local storage
The linux ks= command also works if theks.cfg file is located on a vfat or ext2 file
system on local storage and you boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD.
With Driver Disk
If you need to use a driver disk with kickstart, specify the dd option as well. For example,
if installation requires a kickstart file on a local hard drive and also requires a driver disk,
boot the system with:
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linux ks=hd:partition:/path/ks.cfg dd
Boot CD-ROM
If the kickstart file is on a boot CD-ROM as described in Section 32.9.1, “Creating
Kickstart Boot Media”, insert the CD-ROM into the system, boot the system, and enter
the following command at the boot: prompt (where ks.cfg is the name of the kickstart
file):
linux ks=cdrom:/ks.cfg
Other options to start a kickstart installation are as follows:
askmethod
Prompt the user to select an installation source, even if a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation DVD is detected on the system.
asknetwork
Prompt for network configuration in the first stage of installation regardless of
installation method.
autostep
Make kickstart non-interactive. Used for debugging and to generate screenshots. This
option should not be used when deploying a system because it may disrupt package
installation.
debug
Start up pdb immediately.
dd
Use a driver disk.
dhcpclass=<class>
Sends a custom DHCP vendor class identifier. ISC's dhcpcd can inspect this value using
"option vendor-class-identifier".
dns=<dns>
Comma separated list of nameservers to use for a network installation.
driverdisk
Same as 'dd'.
expert
Turns on special features:
allows partitioning of removable media
prompts for a driver disk
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gateway=<gw>
Gateway to use for a network installation.
graphical
Force graphical install. Required to have ftp/http use GUI.
isa
Prompt user for ISA devices configuration.
ip=<ip>
IP to use for a network installation, use 'dhcp' for DHCP.
ipv6=auto, ipv6=dhcp
IPv6 configuration for the device. Use auto for automatic configuration (SLAAC, SLAAC
with DHCPv6), or dhcp for DHCPv6 only configuration (no router advertisements).
keymap=<keymap>
Keyboard layout to use. Valid layouts include:
be-latin1 — Belgian
bg_bds-utf8 — Bulgarian
bg_pho-utf8 — Bulgarian (Phonetic)
br-abnt2 — Brazilian (ABNT2)
cf — French Canadian
croat — Croatian
cz-us-qwertz — Czech
cz-lat2 — Czech (qwerty)
de — German
de-latin1 — German (latin1)
de-latin1-nodeadkeys — German (latin1 without dead keys)
dvorak — Dvorak
dk — Danish
dk-latin1 — Danish (latin1)
es — Spanish
et — Estonian
fi — Finnish
fi-latin1 — Finnish (latin1)
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fr — French
fr-latin9 — French (latin9)
fr-latin1 — French (latin1)
fr-pc — French (pc)
fr_CH — Swiss French
fr_CH-latin1 — Swiss French (latin1)
gr — Greek
hu — Hungarian
hu101 — Hungarian (101 key)
is-latin1 — Icelandic
it — Italian
it-ibm — Italian (IBM)
it2 — Italian (it2)
jp106 — Japanese
ko — Korean
la-latin1 — Latin American
mk-utf — Macedonian
nl — Dutch
no — Norwegian
pl2 — Polish
pt-latin1 — Portuguese
ro — Romanian
ru — Russian
sr-cy — Serbian
sr-latin — Serbian (latin)
sv-latin1 — Swedish
sg — Swiss German
sg-latin1 — Swiss German (latin1)
sk-qwerty — Slovak (qwerty)
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slovene — Slovenian
trq — Turkish
uk — United Kingdom
ua-utf — Ukrainian
us-acentos — U.S. International
us — U.S. English
The file /usr/lib/python2.6/sitepackages/system_config_keyboard/keyboard_models.py on 32-bit systems or
/usr/lib64/python2.6/sitepackages/system_config_keyboard/keyboard_models.py on 64-bit systems also
contains this list and is part of the system-config-keyboard package.
ks=nfs:<server>:/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on the NFS server <server>, as file
<path>. The installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet card. For
example, if your NFS server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in the NFS
share /mydir/ks.cfg, the correct boot command would be
ks=nfs:server.example.com:/mydir/ks.cfg.
ks={http|https}://<server>/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on the HTTP or HTTPS server
<server>, as file <path>. The installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet
card. For example, if your HTTP server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in
the HTTP directory /mydir/ks.cfg, the correct boot command would be
ks=http://server.example.com/mydir/ks.cfg.
ks=hd:<device>:/<file>
The installation program mounts the file system on <device> (which must be vfat or
ext2), and looks for the kickstart configuration file as <file> in that file system (for
example, ks=hd:sda3:/mydir/ks.cfg).
ks=bd:<biosdev>:/<path>
The installation program mounts the file system on the specified partition on the
specified BIOS device <biosdev>, and looks for the kickstart configuration file specified
in <path> (for example, ks=bd:80p3:/mydir/ks.cfg). Note this does not work for BIOS
RAID sets.
ks=file:/<file>
The installation program tries to read the file <file> from the file system; no mounts are
done. This is normally used if the kickstart file is already on the initrd image.
ks=cdrom:/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on CD-ROM, as file <path>.
ks
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If ks is used alone, the installation program configures the Ethernet card to use DHCP.
The kickstart file is read from NFS server specified by DHCP option server-name. The
name of the kickstart file is one of the following:
If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with a /, the boot file provided by
DHCP is looked for on the NFS server.
If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with something other than a /, the
boot file provided by DHCP is looked for in the /kickstart directory on the NFS
server.
If DHCP did not specify a boot file, then the installation program tries to read the
file /kickstart/1.2.3.4-kickstart, where 1.2.3.4 is the numeric IP address of
the machine being installed.
ksdevice=<device>
The installation program uses this network device to connect to the network. You can
specify the device in one of five ways:
the device name of the interface, for example, eth0
the MAC address of the interface, for example, 00:12:34:56:78:9a
the keyword link, which specifies the first interface with its link in theup state
the keyword bootif, which uses the MAC address thatpxelinux set in the
BOOTIF variable. Set IPAPPEND 2 in your pxelinux.cfg file to have pxelinux set
the BOOTIF variable.
the keyword ibft, which uses the MAC address of the interface specified by iBFT
For example, consider a system connected to an NFS server through the eth1 device. To
perform a kickstart installation on this system using a kickstart file from the NFS server,
you would use the command ks=nfs:<server>:/<path> ksdevice=eth1 at the boot:
prompt.
kssendmac
Adds HTTP headers to ks=http:// request that can be helpful for provisioning systems.
Includes MAC address of all nics in CGI environment variables of the form: "X-RHNProvisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab".
lang=<lang>
Language to use for the installation. This should be a language which is valid to be used
with the 'lang' kickstart command.
loglevel=<level>
Set the minimum level required for messages to be logged. Values for <level> are
debug, info, warning, error, and critical. The default value is info.
mediacheck
Activates loader code to give user option of testing integrity of install source (if an ISObased method).
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netmask=<nm>
Netmask to use for a network installation.
nofallback
If GUI fails, exit.
nofb
Do not load the VGA16 framebuffer required for doing text-mode installation in some
languages.
nofirewire
Do not load support for firewire devices.
noipv4
Disable IPv4 networking on the device specified by the ksdevice= boot option.
noipv6
Disable IPv6 networking on all network devices on the installed system, and during
installation.
IMPORTANT
During installations from a PXE server, IPv6 networking might become
active before anaconda processes the Kickstart file. If so, this option will
have no effect during installation.
NOTE
To disable IPv6 on the installed system, the --noipv6 kickstart option must
be used on each network device, in addition to the noipv6 boot option. See
the Knowledgebase article at https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1565723
for more information about disabling IPv6 system-wide.
nomount
Don't automatically mount any installed Linux partitions in rescue mode.
nonet
Do not auto-probe network devices.
noparport
Do not attempt to load support for parallel ports.
nopass
Do not pass information about the keyboard and mouse from anaconda stage 1 (the
loader) to stage 2 (the installer).
nopcmcia
Ignore PCMCIA controllers in the system.
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noprobe
Do not automatically probe for hardware; prompt the user to allow anaconda to probe
for particular categories of hardware.
noshell
Do not put a shell on tty2 during install.
repo=cdrom
Do a DVD based installation.
repo=ftp://<path>
Use <path> for an FTP installation.
repo=hd:<dev>:<path>
Use <path> on <dev> for a hard drive installation.
repo=http://<path>
Use <path> for an HTTP installation.
repo=https://<path>
Use <path> for an HTTPS installation.
repo=nfs:<path>
Use <path> for an NFS installation.
rescue
Run rescue environment.
resolution=<mode>
Run installer in mode specified, '1024x768' for example.
serial
Turns on serial console support.
skipddc
Do not probe the Data Display Channel (DDC) of the monitor. This option provides a
workaround if the DDC probe causes the system to stop responding.
syslog=<host>[:<port>]
Once installation is up and running, send log messages to the syslog process on <host>,
and optionally, on port <port>. Requires the remote syslog process to accept
connections (the -r option).
text
Force text mode install.
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IMPORTANT
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you
specify choices for the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection
options. These steps are automated in the text mode, and anaconda
cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide choices
for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
updates
Prompt for storage device containing updates (bug fixes).
updates=ftp://<path>
Image containing updates over FTP.
updates=http://<path>
Image containing updates over HTTP.
updates=https://<path>
Image containing updates over HTTPS.
upgradeany
Offer to upgrade any Linux installation detected on the system, regardless of the
contents or the existence of the /etc/redhat-release file.
vnc
Enable vnc-based installation. You will need to connect to the machine using a vnc client
application.
vncconnect=<host>[:<port>]
Connect to the vnc client named <host>, and optionally use port <port>.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
vncpassword=<password>
Enable a password for the vnc connection. This will prevent someone from inadvertently
connecting to the vnc-based installation.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
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CHAPTER 33. KICKSTART CONFIGURATOR
Kickstart Configurator allows you to create or modify a kickstart file using a graphical
user interface, so that you do not have to remember the correct syntax of the file.
Kickstart Configurator is not installed by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9. Runsu
- yum install system-config-kickstart or use your graphical package manager to
install the software.
To launch Kickstart Configurator, boot your system into a graphical environment, then
run system-config-kickstart, or click Applications → System Tools → Kickstart on the
GNOME desktop or Kickoff Application Launcher+Applications → System →
Kickstart on the KDE desktop.
As you are creating a kickstart file, you can click File → Preview at any time to review your
current selections.
To start with an existing kickstart file, select File → Open and select the existing file.
33.1. BASIC CONFIGURATION
Figure 33.1. Basic Configuration
Choose the language to use during the installation and as the default language to be used
after installation from the Default Language menu.
Select the system keyboard type from the Keyboard menu.
From the Time Zone menu, choose the time zone to use for the system. To configure the
system to use UTC, select Use UTC clock.
Enter the desired root password for the system in the Root Password text entry box. Type
the same password in the Confirm Password text box. The second field is to make sure you
do not mistype the password and then realize you do not know what it is after you have
completed the installation. To save the password as an encrypted password in the file,
select Encrypt root password. If the encryption option is selected, when the file is saved,
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the plain text password that you typed is encrypted and written to the kickstart file. Do not
type an already encrypted password and select to encrypt it. Because a kickstart file is a
plain text file that can be easily read, it is recommended that an encrypted password be
used.
Choosing Target Architecture specifies which specific hardware architecture distribution
is used during installation.
Choosing Target Architecture specifies which specific hardware architecture distribution
is used during installation.
Choosing Reboot system after installation reboots your system automatically after
the installation is finished.
Kickstart installations are performed in graphical mode by default. To override this default
and use text mode instead, select the Perform installation in text mode option.
You can perform a kickstart installation in interactive mode. This means that the installation
program uses all the options pre-configured in the kickstart file, but it allows you to
preview the options in each screen before continuing to the next screen. To continue to the
next screen, click the Next button after you have approved the settings or change them
before continuing the installation. To select this type of installation, select the Perform
installation in interactive mode option.
33.2. INSTALLATION METHOD
Figure 33.2. Installation Method
The Installation Method screen allows you to choose whether to perform a new
installation or an upgrade. If you choose upgrade, the Partition Information and
Package Selection options are disabled. They are not supported for kickstart upgrades.
Choose the type of kickstart installation or upgrade from the following options:
DVD — Choose this option to install or upgrade from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
DVD.
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NFS — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an NFS shared directory. In the
text field for the NFS server, enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For
the NFS directory, enter the name of the NFS directory that contains the variant
directory of the installation tree. For example, if the NFS server contains the
directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386/ for the
NFS directory.
FTP — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an FTP server. In the FTP server
text field, enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the FTP directory,
enter the name of the FTP directory that contains the variant directory. For
example, if the FTP server contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/,
enter /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/ for the FTP directory. If the FTP server
requires a username and password, specify them as well.
HTTP — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an HTTP server. In the text field
for the HTTP server, enter the fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the
HTTP directory, enter the name of the HTTP directory that contains the variant
directory. For example, if the HTTP server contains the directory
/mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/ for the
HTTP directory.
Hard Drive — Choose this option to install or upgrade from a hard drive. Hard drive
installations require the use of ISO images. Be sure to verify that the ISO images are
intact before you start the installation. To verify them, use an md5sum program as
well as the linux mediacheck boot option as discussed in Section 28.6.1, “Verifying
Boot Media”. Enter the hard drive partition that contains the ISO images (for
example, /dev/hda1) in the Hard Drive Partition text box. Enter the directory
that contains the ISO images in the Hard Drive Directory text box.
33.3. BOOT LOADER OPTIONS
Figure 33.3. Boot Loader Options
Please note that this screen will be disabled if you have specified a target architecture
other than x86 / x86_64.
GRUB is the default boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86 / x86_64 architectures.
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If you do not want to install a boot loader, select Do not install a boot loader. If you
choose not to install a boot loader, make sure you create a boot diskette or have another
way to boot your system, such as a third-party boot loader.
You must choose where to install the boot loader (the Master Boot Record or the first sector
of the /boot partition). Install the boot loader on the MBR if you plan to use it as your boot
loader.
To pass any special parameters to the kernel to be used when the system boots, enter
them in the Kernel parameters text field. For example, if you have an IDE CD-ROM Writer,
you can tell the kernel to use the SCSI emulation driver that must be loaded before using
cdrecord by configuring hdd=ide-scsi as a kernel parameter (wherehdd is the CD-ROM
device).
You can password protect the GRUB boot loader by configuring a GRUB password. Select
Use GRUB password, and enter a password in thePassword field. Type the same password
in the Confirm Password text field. To save the password as an encrypted password in the
file, select Encrypt GRUB password. If the encryption option is selected, when the file is
saved, the plain text password that you typed is encrypted and written to the kickstart file.
If the password you typed was already encrypted, uncheck the encryption option.
IMPORTANT
It is highly recommended to set up a boot loader password on every machine.
An unprotected boot loader can allow a potential attacker to modify the
system's boot options and gain access to the system. See the chapter titled
Workstation Security in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide for more
information on boot loader passwords and password security in general.
If Upgrade an existing installation is selected on the Installation Method page,
select Upgrade existing boot loader to upgrade the existing boot loader configuration,
while preserving the old entries.
33.4. PARTITION INFORMATION
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Figure 33.4. Partition Information
Select whether or not to clear the Master Boot Record (MBR). Choose to remove all existing
partitions, remove all existing Linux partitions, or preserve existing partitions.
To initialize the disk label to the default for the architecture of the system (for example,
msdos for x86), select Initialize the disk label if you are installing on a brand new
hard drive.
NOTE
Although anaconda and kickstart support Logical Volume Management
(LVM), at present there is no mechanism for configuring this using the
Kickstart Configurator.
33.4.1. Creating Partitions
To create a partition, click the Add button. The Partition Options window shown in
Figure 33.5, “Creating Partitions” appears. Choose the mount point, file system type, and
partition size for the new partition. Optionally, you can also choose from the following:
In the Additional Size Options section, choose to make the partition a fixed size,
up to a chosen size, or fill the remaining space on the hard drive. If you selected
swap as the file system type, you can select to have the installation program create
the swap partition with the recommended size instead of specifying a size.
Force the partition to be created as a primary partition.
Create the partition on a specific hard drive. For example, to make the partition on
the first IDE hard disk (/dev/hda), specify hda as the drive. Do not include/dev in
the drive name.
Use an existing partition. For example, to make the partition on the first partition on
the first IDE hard disk (/dev/hda1), specify hda1 as the partition. Do not include
/dev in the partition name.
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Format the partition as the chosen file system type.
Figure 33.5. Creating Partitions
To edit an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Edit button. The
same Partition Options window appears as when you chose to add a partition as shown
in Figure 33.5, “Creating Partitions”, except it reflects the values for the selected partition.
Modify the partition options and click OK.
To delete an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Delete button.
33.4.1.1. Creating Software RAID Partitions
To create a software RAID partition, use the following steps:
1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a software RAID partition.
3. Configure the partitions as previously described, except select Software RAID as
the file system type. Also, you must specify a hard drive on which to make the
partition or specify an existing partition to use.
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Figure 33.6. Creating a Software RAID Partition
Repeat these steps to create as many partitions as needed for your RAID setup. All of your
partitions do not have to be RAID partitions.
After creating all the partitions needed to form a RAID device, follow these steps:
1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a RAID device.
3. Select a mount point, file system type, RAID device name, RAID level, RAID
members, number of spares for the software RAID device, and whether to format
the RAID device.
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Figure 33.7. Creating a Software RAID Device
4. Click OK to add the device to the list.
33.5. NETWORK CONFIGURATION
Figure 33.8. Network Configuration
If the system to be installed via kickstart does not have an Ethernet card, do not configure
one on the Network Configuration page.
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Networking is only required if you choose a networking-based installation method (NFS,
FTP, or HTTP). Networking can always be configured after installation with the Network
Administration Tool (system-config-network). Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for details.
For each Ethernet card on the system, click Add Network Device and select the network
device and network type for the device. Select eth0 to configure the first Ethernet card,
eth1 for the second Ethernet card, and so on.
33.6. AUTHENTICATION
Figure 33.9. Authentication
In the Authentication section, select whether to use shadow passwords and MD5
encryption for user passwords. These options are highly recommended and chosen by
default.
The Authentication Configuration options allow you to configure the following methods
of authentication:
NIS
LDAP
Kerberos 5
Hesiod
SMB
Name Switch Cache
These methods are not enabled by default. To enable one or more of these methods, click
the appropriate tab, click the checkbox next to Enable, and enter the appropriate
information for the authentication method. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for more information about the options.
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33.7. FIREWALL CONFIGURATION
The Firewall Configuration window allows you to configure firewall settings for the
installed system.
Figure 33.10. Firewall Configuration
If Disable firewall is selected, the system allows complete access to any active services
and ports. No connections to the system are refused or denied.
Selecting Enable firewall configures the system to reject incoming connections that are
not in response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to
services running on this machine is required, you can choose to allow specific services
through the firewall.
Only devices configured in the Network Configuration section are listed as available
Trusted devices. Connections from any devices selected in the list are accepted by the
system. For example, if eth1 only receives connections from internal system, you might
want to allow connections from it.
If a service is selected in the Trusted services list, connections for the service are
accepted and processed by the system.
In the Other ports text field, list any additional ports that should be opened for remote
access. Use the following format: port:protocol. For example, to allow IMAP access
through the firewall, specify imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; to
allow UDP packets on port 1234 through the firewall, enter 1234:udp. To specify multiple
ports, separate them with commas.
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration
Kickstart can set SELinux to enforcing, permissive or disabled mode. Finer grained
configuration is not possible at this time.
33.8. DISPLAY CONFIGURATION
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If you are installing the X Window System, you can configure it during the kickstart
installation by checking the Configure the X Window System option on the Display
Configuration window as shown in Figure 33.11, “X Configuration”. If this option is not
chosen, the X configuration options are disabled and the skipx option is written to the
kickstart file.
Figure 33.11. X Configuration
Select whether to start the Setup Agent the first time the installed system boots. The Setup
Agent is disabled by default, but the setting can be changed to enabled or enabled in
reconfiguration mode. Reconfiguration mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root
password, security level, time zone, and networking configuration options in addition to the
default ones.
33.9. PACKAGE SELECTION
Figure 33.12. Package Selection
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The Package Selection window allows you to choose which package groups to install.
Package resolution is carried out automatically.
Currently, Kickstart Configurator does not allow you to select individual packages. To
install individual packages, modify the %packages section of the kickstart file after you save
it. Refer to Section 32.5, “Package Selection” for details.
33.10. PRE-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
Figure 33.13. Pre-Installation Script
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the kickstart file has been
parsed and before the installation begins. If you have configured the network in the
kickstart file, the network is enabled before this section is processed. To include a preinstallation script, type it in the text area.
IMPORTANT
The version of anaconda in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
included a version of busybox that provided shell commands in the preinstallation and post-installation environments. The version of anaconda in
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 no longer includes busybox, and uses GNU bash
commands instead.
Refer to Appendix G, Alternatives to busybox commands for more information.
To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an
interpreter option and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example,
/usr/bin/python2.6 can be specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using
%pre --interpreter /usr/bin/python2.6 in your kickstart file.
Only the most commonly used commands are available in the pre-installation environment.
See Section 32.6, “Pre-installation Script” for a complete list.
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IMPORTANT
Do not include the %pre command. It is added for you.
NOTE
The pre-installation script is run after the source media is mounted and stage
2 of the bootloader has been loaded. For this reason it is not possible to
change the source media in the pre-installation script.
33.11. POST-INSTALLATION SCRIPT
Figure 33.14. Post-Installation Script
You can also add commands to execute on the system after the installation is completed. If
the network is properly configured in the kickstart file, the network is enabled, and the
script can include commands to access resources on the network. To include a postinstallation script, type it in the text area.
IMPORTANT
The version of anaconda in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
included a version of busybox that provided shell commands in the preinstallation and post-installation environments. The version of anaconda in
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 no longer includes busybox, and uses GNU bash
commands instead.
Refer to Appendix G, Alternatives to busybox commands for more information.
IMPORTANT
Do not include the %post command. It is added for you.
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For example, to change the message of the day for the newly installed system, add the
following command to the %post section:
echo "Welcome!" > /etc/motd
NOTE
More examples can be found in Section 32.8, “Kickstart Examples”.
33.11.1. Chroot Environment
To run the post-installation script outside of the chroot environment, click the checkbox
next to this option on the top of the Post-Installation window. This is equivalent to
using the --nochroot option in the %post section.
To make changes to the newly installed file system, within the post-installation section, but
outside of the chroot environment, you must prepend the directory name with
/mnt/sysimage/.
For example, if you select Run outside of the chroot environment, the previous
example must be changed to the following:
echo "Welcome!" > /mnt/sysimage/etc/motd
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter
To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an
interpreter option and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example,
/usr/bin/python2.2 can be specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using
%post --interpreter /usr/bin/python2.2 in your kickstart file.
33.12. SAVING THE FILE
To review the contents of the kickstart file after you have finished choosing your kickstart
options, select File => Preview from the pull-down menu.
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Figure 33.15. Preview
To save the kickstart file, click the Save to File button in the preview window. To save
the file without previewing it, select File => Save File or press Ctrl+S . A dialog box
appears. Select where to save the file.
After saving the file, refer to Section 32.11, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for
information on how to start the kickstart installation.
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PART V. AFTER INSTALLATION
This part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide covers finalizing the installation,
as well as some installation-related tasks that you might perform at some time in the
future. These include:
using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disc to rescue a damaged system.
upgrading to a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer.
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CHAPTER 34. FIRSTBOOT
IMPORTANT
Firstboot is only available on systems after a graphical installation or after a
kickstart installation where a desktop and the X window system were installed
and graphical login was enabled. If you performed a text-mode installation or a
kickstart installation that did not include a desktop and the X window system,
the firstboot configuration tool does not appear.
Firstboot launches the first time that you start a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Use firstboot to configure the system for use before you log in.
Figure 34.1. Firstboot welcome screen
Click Forward to start firstboot.
34.1. LICENSE INFORMATION
This screen displays the overall licensing terms for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Figure 34.2. Firstboot license screen
If you agree to the terms of the license, select Yes, I agree to the License Agreement
and click Forward.
34.2. CONFIGURING THE SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE
The products installed on a system (including the operating system itself) are covered by
subscriptions. A subscription service is used to track registered systems, the products
installed on those systems, and the subscriptions attached to the system to cover those
products.
The Subscription Management Registration screens identify which subscription service
to use and, by default, attach the best-matched subscriptions to the system.
More information about subscription management is available in the Red Hat Subscription
Management guide.
34.2.1. Set Up Software Updates
The first step is to select whether to register the system immediately with a subscription
service. To register the system, select Yes, I'd like to register now, and click
Forward.
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Figure 34.3. Set Up Software Updates
NOTE
Even if a system is not registered at firstboot, it can be registered with any of
those three subscription services later, using the Red Hat Subscription
Manager tools[13] .
More information about the Red Hat Subscription Manager tools can be found
in the Red Hat Subscription Management Guide.
34.2.2. Choose Service
Use the Choose Service screen to choose what kind of subscription service to register the
system with. Click Proxy Setup to configure a proxy server if necessary. More information
about subscription management with a proxy server can be found in the Red Hat
Subscription Management guide.
Red Hat Subscription Management
Any subscription service which uses the proper X.509 certificates to identify the system,
installed products, and attached subscriptions is part of Red Hat Subscription
Management. This includes Customer Portal Subscription Management (hosted services),
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Subscription Asset Manager (on-premise subscription service and proxied content
delivery), and CloudForms System Engine (on-premise subscription and content delivery
services).
This option is the default. Red Hat Subscription Management is strongly recommended
for organizations that do not run a local Satellite server.
Red Hat Network (RHN) Classic
Select the Red Hat Network (RHN) Classic option to use the legacy systemsmanagement features of Red Hat Network. While RHN Classic can be used with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.x systems, it is intended primarily for existing, legacy systems. It is
recommended that new installations use Red Hat Subscription Management.
An RHN Satellite or RHN Proxy
Use this option in environments with access to a local mirror of the Red Hat Network
content.
Figure 34.4. Choose Service
34.2.3. Subscription Management Registration
Red Hat uses X.509 certificates to identify installed products on a system, the subscriptions
attached to a system, and the system itself within the subscription service inventory. There
are several different subscription services which use and recognize certificate-base
subscriptions, and a system can be registered with any of them in firstboot:
Customer Portal Subscription Management, hosted services from Red Hat (the
default)
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Subscription Asset Manager, an on-premise subscription server which proxies
content delivery back to the Customer Portal's services
CloudForms System Engine, an on-premise service which handles both subscription
services and content delivery
The specific type of subscription/content service does not need to be selected; all three
server types (Customer Portal Subscription Management, Subscription Asset Manager, and
CloudForms System Engine) are within Red Hat Subscription Management and use the
same types of service APIs. The only thing that needs to be identified is the hostname of
the service to connect to and then the appropriate user credentials for that service.
1. To identify which subscription server to use for registration, enter the hostname of
the service. The default service is Customer Portal Subscription Management, with
the hostname subscription.rhn.redhat.com. To use a different subscription
service, such as Subscription Asset Manager, enter the hostname of the local server.
Figure 34.5. Subscription Service Selection
2. Click Forward.
3. Enter the user credentials for the given subscription service to log in.
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Figure 34.6. Subscription Management Registration
IMPORTANT
The user credentials to use depend on the subscription service. When
registering with the Customer Portal, use the Red Hat Network
credentials for the administrator or company account.
However, for Subscription Asset Manager or CloudForms System
engine, the user account to use is created within the on-premise
service and probably is not the same as the Customer Portal user
account.
If you have lost your login or password for the Customer Portal, recover them from
https://www.redhat.com/wapps/sso/lostPassword.html. For lost login or password
information for Subscription Asset Manager or CloudForms System Engine, contact
your local administrator.
4. Set the system name for the host. This is anything which uniquely and clearly
identifies the system within the subscription service inventory. This is usually the
hostname or fully-qualified domain name of the machine, but it can be any string.
5. Optional. Set whether subscriptions should be set manually after registration. By
default, this checkbox is unchecked so that the best-matched subscriptions are
automatically applied to the system. Selecting this checkbox means that
subscriptions must be added to the system manually after firstboot registration is
complete. (Even if subscriptions are auto-attached, additional subscriptions can be
added to the system later using the local Subscription Manager tools.)
6. When registration begins, firstboot scans for organizations and environments (subdomains within the organization) to which to register the system.
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Figure 34.7. Organization Scan
IT environments that use Customer Portal Subscription Management have only a
single organization, so no further configuration is necessary. IT infrastructures that
use a local subscription service like Subscription Asset Manager might have multiple
organizations configured, and those organizations may have multiple environments
configured within them.
If multiple organizations are detected, Subscription Manager prompts to select the
one to join.
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Figure 34.8. Organization Selection
7. If you decided to let Subscription Manager automatically attach subscriptions to the
system (the default), then the system scans for the subscriptions to attach as part
of the registration process.
Figure 34.9. Auto-Selecting Subscriptions
When registration is complete, the Subscription Manager reports the applied service
level for the system based on the information in the selected subscription and the
specific subscription that has been attached to the new system. This subscription
selection must be confirmed to complete the registration process.
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Figure 34.10. Confirm Subscription
If you selected to apply subscriptions later, then that part of the registration process
is skipped, and the Subscription Manager screen in firstboot simply instructs you to
attach subscriptions later.
Figure 34.11. Note to Select Subscriptions Later
8. Click Forward to move to the next configuration area for firstboot, user setup.
34.3. CREATE USER
Create a user account for yourself with this screen. Always use this account to log in to
your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, rather than using the root account.
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Figure 34.12. Firstboot create user screen
Enter a user name and your full name, and then enter your chosen password. Type your
password once more in the Confirm Password box to ensure that it is correct.
To configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use network services for authentication of user
information, click Use Network Login. Refer to Section 34.3.1, “Authentication
Configuration” for further details.
IMPORTANT
If you do not create at least one user account in this step, you will not be able
to log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux graphical environment. If you skipped
this step during installation, refer to Section 10.4.2, “Booting into a Graphical
Environment”.
NOTE
To add additional user accounts to your system after the installation is
complete, choose System → Administration → Users & Groups.
34.3.1. Authentication Configuration
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If you clicked Use Network Login on the Create User screen, you must now specify how
users are to be authenticated on the system. Use the drop-down menu to select from the
following types of user database:
Local accounts only (for use when the user database on the network is not
accessible)
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
NIS (Network Information Service)
Winbind (for use with Microsoft Active Directory)
Figure 34.13. Firstboot Authentication Configuration screen
When you select the type of user database appropriate for your network, you must provide
additional details relevant to that database type. For example, if you select LDAP, you must
specify the base distinguished name for LDAP searches, and the address of the LDAP
server. You must also select an Authentication Method relevant to the type of user
database that you chose, for example, a Kerberos password, LDAP password, or NIS
password.
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The Advanced Options tab lets you enable other authentication mechanisms, including
fingerprint readers, smart cards, and local access control in /etc/security/access.conf.
For more information, refer to Authentication Configuration in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
Figure 34.14. Firstboot authentication Advanced Options screen
34.4. DATE AND TIME
Use this screen to adjust the date and time of the system clock. To change these settings
after installation, click System → Administration → Date & Time.
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Figure 34.15. Firstboot date and time screen
Click the Synchronize date and time over the network checkbox to configure your
system to use Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers to maintain the accuracy of the clock.
NTP provides time synchronization service to computers on the same network. Many public
NTP servers are available on the Internet.
34.5. KDUMP
Use this screen to select whether or not to use Kdump on this system. Kdump is a kernel
crash dumping mechanism. In the event of a system crash, Kdump will capture
information from your system that can be invaluable in determining the cause of the crash.
Note that if you select this option, you will need to reserve memory for Kdump and that
this memory will not be available for any other purpose.
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Figure 34.16. Kdump screen
If you do not want to use Kdump on this system, click Finish. If you want to useKdump,
select the Enable kdump option, then select an amount of memory to reserve forKdump
and click Finish.
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Figure 34.17. Kdump enabled
[13] Systems can also be registered with Satellite or RHN Classic. For Satellite information, see the
Satellite documentation. For information on using RHN Classic, see the appendix in the Red Hat
Subscription Management Guide.
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CHAPTER 35. YOUR NEXT STEPS
35.1. UPDATING YOUR SYSTEM
Red Hat releases updated software packages for Red Hat Enterprise Linux throughout the
support period of each version. Updated packages add new features, improve reliability,
resolve bugs, or remove security vulnerabilities. To ensure the security of your system,
update regularly, and as soon as possible after Red Hat issues a security announcement.
35.1.1. Driver Update rpm Packages
Occasionally, when a new piece of hardware is not yet supported in the kernel that you
have installed, Red Hat or a hardware vendor might make a driver update available.
Although you can install driver updates during the installation process (refer to Chapter 6,
Updating Drivers During Installation on Intel and AMD Systems for Intel and AMD systems
and Chapter 13, Updating Drivers During Installation on IBM Power Systems Servers for IBM
Power Systems servers) we recommend that you do this only for devices that are essential
to carry out the installation. In all other cases, complete the installation first, and then add
support for the device with a driver update rpm package as described in this section.
Do not install a driver update rpm unless you are certain that your system requires it.
Installing a driver update on a system for which it was not intended can cause system
difficulties.
To see a list of driver updates already installed on your system, click System →
Administration → Add/Remove Software on your desktop, and enter the root password
if prompted for it. Click the Search tab, enter the word kmod- (notice the final -) and click
Search.
Figure 35.1. Listing Installed Driver Update RPM Packages
Alternatively, you can use the command line, as follows:
$ rpm -​qa | egrep ^kmodNote the - on the end of kmod. This will list all installed packages that begin withkmod-,
which should include all driver updates that are currently installed on your system.
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Additional drivers provided by third-party update software are not listed in this output.
Contact the third-party vendor for details.
To install a new driver update rpm package:
1. Download the driver update rpm package from the location specified by Red Hat or
your hardware vendor. The package file name will begin with kmod (short for kernel
module) and have a form similar to this example:
kmod-foo-​1.05-2.el6.9.i686
In the example, the driver update rpm package supplies a driver update named foo
with version number 1.05-2 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9, on i686 systems.
Driver update rpm packages are signed packages, and like all other software
packages, they are automatically validated at install time. To perform this step
manually, type the following at a command line:
$ rpm --​​checksig -​v filename.rpm
where filename.rpm is the driver update rpm package file name. This verifies the
package against using the standard Red Hat GPG package signing key that is
already installed on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 system. If you need this key
for verification purposes on another system, you can can obtain it from:
https://access.redhat.com/security/team/key/
2. Locate and double-click the file that you downloaded. The system might prompt you
for the root password, after which it will present the following Installing
Packages box:
Figure 35.2. The installing packages box
Click Apply to complete the package installation.
Alternatively, you can install a driver update manually on the command line:
$ rpm -​ivh kmod-foo-​1.05-2.el6.9.i686
3. Whether you used a graphical install, or a command line install, reboot your system
to ensure your system is using the new driver.
If Red Hat ships a kernel errata update before the next release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
your system will continue to use the driver updates that you have installed. There is no
need to re-install driver updates following an errata update. Generally, when Red Hat
releases a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, all driver updates for the previous
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version are incorporated in the new version. However, if it was not possible to include a
particular driver, you will need to perform another driver update when you install the new
version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. In this case, Red Hat or your hardware party vendor
will inform you of the location of the update.
35.2. FINISHING AN UPGRADE
IMPORTANT
Once you have rebooted your system after performing an upgrade, you should
also perform a manual system update. Consult Section 35.1, “Updating Your
System” for more information.
If you chose to upgrade your system from a previous release rather than perform a fresh
installation, you may want to examine the differences in the package set. Section 9.12.2, “
Upgrading Using the Installer ”, Section 16.14.2, “ Upgrading Using the Installer ”, or
Section 23.12.1, “ Upgrading Using the Installer ” (depending on your system architecture)
advised you to create a package listing for your original system. You can now use that
listing to determine how to bring your new system close to the original system state.
Most software repository configurations are stored in packages that end with the term
release. Check the old package list for the repositories that were installed:
awk '{print $1}' ~/old-pkglist.txt | grep 'release$'
If necessary, retrieve and install these packages from their original sources on the Internet.
Follow the instructions at the originating site to install the repository configuration
packages for use by yum and other software management tools on your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system.
Then run the following commands to make a list of other missing software packages:
awk '{print $1}' ~/old-pkglist.txt | sort | uniq > ~/old-pkgnames.txt
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME}\n' | sort | uniq > ~/new-pkgnames.txt
diff -u ~/old-pkgnames.txt ~/new-pkgnames.txt | grep '^-' | sed 's/^-//' >
/tmp/pkgs-to-install.txt
Now use the file /tmp/pkgs-to-install.txt with the yum command to restore most or all
of your old software:
su -c 'yum install `cat /tmp/pkgs-to-install.txt`'
IMPORTANT
Due to changes in package complements between Red Hat Enterprise Linux
releases, it is possible this method may not restore all the software on your
system. You can use the routines above to again compare the software on
your system, and remedy any problems you find.
35.3. SWITCHING TO A GRAPHICAL LOGIN
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IMPORTANT
To switch to a graphical environment, you might need to install extra software
from a repository. You can access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories with
your Red Hat Network subscription through the Internet or use a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a repository. Refer to Section 35.3.1,
“Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line”.
IMPORTANT
To use a graphical user interface on System z, use vncserver instead.
If you installed using a text login and wish to switch to a graphical login, follow this
procedure.
1. If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su Provide the administrator password when prompted.
2. If you have not already done so, install the X Window System and a graphical
desktop environment. For example, to install the GNOME desktop environment, use
this command:
yum groupinstall "X Window System" Desktop
To install the KDE desktop environment, use:
yum groupinstall "X Window System" "KDE Desktop"
This step may take some time as your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system downloads
and installs additional software. You may be asked to provide the installation media
depending on your original installation source.
3. Run the following command to edit the /etc/inittab file:
vi /etc/inittab
4. Press the I key to enter insert mode.
5. Find the line that includes the text initdefault. Change the numeral 3 to 5.
6. Type :wq and press the Enter key to save the file and exit the vi text editor.
Reboot the system using the reboot command. Your system will restart and present a
graphical login.
If you encounter any problems with the graphical login, refer to Chapter 10,
Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System.
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command
Line
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The usual way to install new software on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is through a
software repository. You can access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories through the
Internet with your Red Hat Network subscription, or use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation DVD as a repository. The software that you access through online repositories is
more up-to-date than what is available on an installation DVD. Furthermore, configuring a
Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to access online repositories is generally easier than
configuring the system to use an installation DVD as a repository, as long as you have an
existing, wired network connection available.
35.3.1.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories Through the Internet
If you supplied your Red Hat Network subscription number during the installation process,
your system is already configured to access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories through
the Internet. Therefore, all you must do is ensure that the system can access the Internet.
If you have an existing, wired network connection available, this process is straightforward:
1. If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su 2. Ensure that the system is plugged into your network. Note that your network might
be as small as two devices — a computer and an external modem/router.
3. Run system-config-network. The network configuration tool starts and displays the
Select Action screen.
4. Select Device configuration and press Enter. The network configuration tool
displays the Select A Device screen with a list of network interfaces present on
your system. The first interface is named eth0 by default.
5. Select a network interface to configure and press Enter. The network configuration
tool takes you to the Network Configuration screen.
6. You can manually configure a static IP, gateway, and DNS servers on this screen or
leave these fields blank to accept the default values. When you have chosen a
configuration, select OK, and press Enter. The network configuration tool takes you
back to the Select A Device screen.
7. Select Save and press Enter. The network configuration tool takes you back to the
Select Action screen.
8. Select Save&Quit and press Enter. The network configuration tool saves your
settings and exits.
9. Run ifup interface, where interface is the network interface that you configured
with the network configuration tool. For example, run ifup eth0 to start eth0.
Configuration of dial-up or wireless Internet connections is more complicated and beyond
the scope of this guide.
35.3.1.2. Using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation DVD as a Software
Repository
To use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a software repository, either in the
form of a physical disc, or in the form of an ISO image file.
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1. If you are using a physical DVD, insert the disc into your computer.
2. If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su 3. Create a mount point for the repository:
mkdir -p /path/to/repo
where /path/to/repo is a location for the repository, for example,/mnt/repo
4. Mount the DVD on the mount point that you just created. If you are using a physical
disc, you need to know the device name of your DVD drive. You can find the names
of any CD or DVD drives on your system with the command cat
/proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info. The first CD or DVD drive on the system is typically
named sr0. When you know the device name, mount the DVD:
mount -r -t iso9660 /dev/device_name /path/to/repo
For example: mount -r -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /mnt/repo
If you are using an ISO image file of a disc, mount the image file like this:
mount -r -t iso9660 -o loop /path/to/image/file.iso /path/to/repo
For example: mount -r -o loop /home/root/Downloads/RHEL6.9-Server-i386DVD.iso /mnt/repo
Note that you can only mount an image file if the storage device that holds the
image file is itself mounted. For example, if the image file is stored on a hard drive
that is not mounted automatically when the system boots, you must mount the hard
drive before you mount an image file stored on that hard drive. Consider a hard
drive named /dev/sdb that is not automatically mounted at boot time and which
has an image file stored in a directory named Downloads on its first partition:
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/temp
mkdir /mnt/repo
mount -r -t iso9660 -o loop mount -r -o loop
/mnt/temp/Downloads/RHEL6.9-Server-i386-DVD.iso /mnt/repo
If you are not sure whether a storage device is mounted, run the mount command to
obtain a list of current mounts. If you are not sure of the device name or partition
number of a storage device, run fdisk -l and try to identify it in the output.
5. Create a new repo file in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. The name of the file is
not important, as long as it ends in .repo. For example, dvd.repo is an obvious
choice.
1. Choose a name for the repo file and open it as a new file with the vi text editor.
For example:
vi /etc/yum.repos.d/dvd.repo
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2. Press the I key to enter insert mode.
3. Supply the details of the repository. For example:
[dvd]
baseurl=file:///mnt/repo/Server
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
The name of the repository is specified in square brackets — in this example,
[dvd]. The name is not important, but you should choose something that is
meaningful and recognizable.
The line that specifies the baseurl should contain the path to the mount point
that you created previously, suffixed with /Server for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
server installation DVD, or with /Client for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux client
installation DVD.
4. Press the Esc key to exit insert mode.
5. Type :wq and press the Enter key to save the file and exit the vi text editor.
6. After installing or upgrading software from the DVD, delete the repo file that you
created.
35.4. INSTALLING PACKAGES WITH YUM
The yum utility allows you to install packages on your system.
To install a single package and all of its non-installed dependencies, enter a command in
the following form:
yum install package_name
If you are installing packages on a multilib system, such as an AMD64 or Intel64 machine,
you can specify the architecture of the package (as long as it is available in an enabled
repository) by appending .arch to the package name. For example, to install thefoobar
package for i686, type:
~]# yum install foobar.i686
To install packages when your system cannot access a network or the Internet, consider
enabling the installation DVD or ISO image file as an installation repository (refer to
Section 35.3.1.2, “Using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation DVD as a Software
Repository”). Choose the appropriate installation media if you intend to install packages for
a different architecture. For example, to install a 32-bit package on a 64-bit system, enable
the 32-bit media as an installation repository.
For more information on installing packages, refer to the Yum chapter in the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
35.5. AUTOMATING THE INITIAL CONFIGURATION OF CLOUD
INSTANCES USING CLOUD-INIT
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For the initial configuration of cloud instances, you can use the cloud-init package. On a
new cloud instance, cloud-init can automatically:
set the default locale
configure the host name
configure network interfaces
generate private SSH keys
add SSH keys to the user's .ssh/authorized_keys directory
set up ephemeral mount points
Cloud-init is used with Red Hat's cloud products. See documentation on usingcloud-init
with Red Hat products:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7 Installation and Configuration Guide
Red Hat OpenStack Platform 8 Instances and Images Guide
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Virtual Machine Management Guide
Red Hat CloudForms Provisioning Virtual Machines and Hosts Guide
See also upstream cloud-init documentation
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CHAPTER 36. BASIC SYSTEM RECOVERY
When things go wrong, there are ways to fix problems. However, these methods require
that you understand the system well. This chapter describes how to boot into rescue mode,
single-user mode, and emergency mode, where you can use your own knowledge to repair
the system.
36.1. RESCUE MODE
36.1.1. Common Problems
You might need to boot into one of these recovery modes for any of the following reasons:
You are unable to boot normally into Red Hat Enterprise Linux (runlevel 3 or 5).
You are having hardware or software problems, and you want to get a few important
files off of your system's hard drive.
You forgot the root password.
36.1.1.1. Unable to Boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux
This problem is often caused by the installation of another operating system after you have
installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Some other operating systems assume that you have no
other operating system(s) on your computer. They overwrite the Master Boot Record (MBR)
that originally contained the GRUB boot loader. If the boot loader is overwritten in this
manner, you cannot boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux unless you can get into rescue mode
and reconfigure the boot loader.
Another common problem occurs when using a partitioning tool to resize a partition or
create a new partition from free space after installation, and it changes the order of your
partitions. If the partition number of your / partition changes, the boot loader might not be
able to find it to mount the partition. To fix this problem, boot in rescue mode and modify
the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
For instructions on how to reinstall the GRUB boot loader from a rescue environment, refer
to Section 36.1.2.1, “Reinstalling the Boot Loader”.
36.1.1.2. Hardware/Software Problems
This category includes a wide variety of different situations. Two examples include failing
hard drives and specifying an invalid root device or kernel in the boot loader configuration
file. If either of these occur, you might not be able to reboot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
However, if you boot into one of the system recovery modes, you might be able to resolve
the problem or at least get copies of your most important files.
36.1.1.3. Root Password
What can you do if you forget your root password? To reset it to a different password, boot
into rescue mode or single-user mode, and use the passwd command to reset the root
password.
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
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Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment
entirely from CD-ROM, or some other boot method, instead of the system's hard drive.
As the name implies, rescue mode is provided to rescue you from something. During
normal operation, your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system uses files located on your system's
hard drive to do everything — run programs, store your files, and more.
However, there may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running
completely enough to access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can
access the files stored on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from that hard drive.
To boot into rescue mode, you must be able to boot the system using one of the following
methods[14] :
By booting the system from a boot CD-ROM or DVD.
By booting the system from other installation boot media, such as USB flash devices.
By booting the system from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
Once you have booted using one of the described methods, add the keyword rescue as a
kernel parameter. For example, for an x86 system, type the following command at the
installation boot prompt:
linux rescue
If your system requires a third-party driver provided on a driver disc to boot, load the driver
with the additional option dd:
linux rescue dd
For more information on using a driver disc at boot time, refer to Section 6.3.3, “Use a Boot
Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk” for x86 systems orSection 13.3.3, “Use a Boot
Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk” for Power Systems servers.
If a driver that is part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 distribution prevents the system
from booting, blacklist that driver with the rdblacklist option. For example, to boot into
rescue mode without the foobar driver, run:
linux rescue rdblacklist=foobar
You are prompted to answer a few basic questions, including which language to use. It also
prompts you to select where a valid rescue image is located. Select from Local CD-ROM,
Hard Drive, NFS image, FTP, or HTTP. The location selected must contain a valid installation
tree, and the installation tree must be for the same version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux as
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux disk from which you booted. If you used a boot CD-ROM or
other media to start rescue mode, the installation tree must be from the same tree from
which the media was created. For more information about how to setup an installation tree
on a hard drive, NFS server, FTP server, or HTTP server, refer to the earlier section of this
guide.
If you select a rescue image that does not require a network connection, you are asked
whether or not you want to establish a network connection. A network connection is useful
if you need to backup files to a different computer or install some RPM packages from a
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shared network location, for example.
The following message is displayed:
The rescue environment will now attempt to find your Linux installation and
mount it under the directory /mnt/sysimage. You can then make any
changes required to your system. If you want to proceed with this step
choose 'Continue'. You can also choose to mount your file systems read-only
instead of read-write by choosing 'Read-only'. If for some reason this process
fails you can choose 'Skip' and this step will be skipped and you will go
directly to a command shell.
If you select Continue, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory
/mnt/sysimage/. If it fails to mount a partition, it notifies you. If you selectRead-Only, it
attempts to mount your file system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/, but in read-only
mode. If you select Skip, your file system is not mounted. Choose Skip if you think your file
system is corrupted.
Once you have your system in rescue mode, a prompt appears on VC (virtual console) 1
and VC 2 (use the Ctrl-Alt-F1 key combination to access VC 1 andCtrl-Alt-F2 to access
VC 2):
sh-3.00b#
If you selected Continue to mount your partitions automatically and they were mounted
successfully, you are in single-user mode.
Even if your file system is mounted, the default root partition while in rescue mode is a
temporary root partition, not the root partition of the file system used during normal user
mode (runlevel 3 or 5). If you selected to mount your file system and it mounted
successfully, you can change the root partition of the rescue mode environment to the root
partition of your file system by executing the following command:
chroot /mnt/sysimage
This is useful if you need to run commands such as rpm that require your root partition to
be mounted as /. To exit the chroot environment, type exit to return to the prompt.
If you selected Skip, you can still try to mount a partition or LVM2 logical volume manually
inside rescue mode by creating a directory such as /foo, and typing the following
command:
mount -t ext4 /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 /foo
In the above command, /foo is a directory that you have created and
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 is the LVM2 logical volume you want to mount. If the
partition is of type ext2 or ext3 replace ext4 with ext2 or ext3 respectively.
If you do not know the names of all physical partitions, use the following command to list
them:
fdisk -l
If you do not know the names of all LVM2 physical volumes, volume groups, or logical
volumes, use the pvdisplay, vgdisplay or lvdisplay commands, respectively.
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From the prompt, you can run many useful commands, such as:
ssh, scp, and ping if the network is started
dump and restore for users with tape drives
parted and fdisk for managing partitions
rpm for installing or upgrading software
vi for editing text files
36.1.2.1. Reinstalling the Boot Loader
In many cases, the GRUB boot loader can mistakenly be deleted, corrupted, or replaced by
other operating systems.
The following steps detail the process on how GRUB is reinstalled on the master boot
record:
Boot the system from an installation boot medium.
Type linux rescue at the installation boot prompt to enter the rescue environment.
Type chroot /mnt/sysimage to mount the root partition.
Type /sbin/grub-install bootpart to reinstall the GRUB boot loader, where
bootpart is the boot partition (typically, /dev/sda).
Review the /boot/grub/grub.conf file, as additional entries may be needed for
GRUB to control additional operating systems.
Reboot the system.
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
One of the advantages of single-user mode is that you do not need a boot CD-ROM;
however, it does not give you the option to mount the file systems as read-only or not
mount them at all.
If your system boots, but does not allow you to log in when it has completed booting, try
single-user mode.
In single-user mode, your computer boots to runlevel 1. Your local file systems are
mounted, but your network is not activated. You have a usable system maintenance shell.
Unlike rescue mode, single-user mode automatically tries to mount your file system. Do not
use single-user mode if your file system cannot be mounted successfully. You cannot use
single-user mode if the runlevel 1 configuration on your system is corrupted.
On an x86 system using GRUB, use the following steps to boot into single-user mode:
1. At the GRUB splash screen at boot time, press any key to enter the GRUB
interactive menu.
2. Select Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the version of the kernel that you wish to
boot and type a to append the line.
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3. Go to the end of the line and type single as a separate word (press theSpacebar
and then type single). Press Enter to exit edit mode.
36.1.4. Booting into Emergency Mode
In emergency mode, you are booted into the most minimal environment possible. The root
file system is mounted read-only and almost nothing is set up. The main advantage of
emergency mode over single-user mode is that the init files are not loaded. If init is
corrupted or not working, you can still mount file systems to recover data that could be lost
during a re-installation.
To boot into emergency mode, use the same method as described for single-user mode in
Section 36.1.3, “Booting into Single-User Mode” with one exception, replace the keyword
single with the keyword emergency.
36.2. RESCUE MODE ON POWER SYSTEMS SERVERS
You can use the installation disks in rescue mode, in case your system does not boot.
Rescue mode gives you access to the disk partitions on your system so you can make any
changes necessary to rescue your installation.
After the Language Selection screen (Section 15.2, “Language Selection”), the installation
program attempts to mount the disk partitions on your system. It then presents you with a
shell prompt where you can make the changes you need. These changes may include
storing the kernel and command line into the IPL source, as described in the Installation
Complete section (Section 16.21, “Installation Complete”).
When your changes are complete, you can exit the shell using exit 0. This causes a reboot
from the C side. To reboot from the A or B side or from *NWSSTG, you should vary off the
system instead of exiting the shell.
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from
Rescue Mode
If your system uses Native DASD disks, you may need access to the SCSI utilities from
rescue mode. These utilities are located on the driver disc CD. The driver disc CD cannot be
mounted from rescue mode unless special steps are taken. These steps are described
below.
If you have a second CD-ROM drive assigned to your Linux system, you can mount the
driver disc CD in the second drive.
If you have only one CD-ROM drive, you must set up an NFS boot, using the following steps:
1. Boot from the CD-ROM with the linux rescue askmethod command. This allows
you to manually select NFS as the source of your rescue media instead of defaulting
to the CD-ROM drive.
2. Copy the first installation disc onto a file system of another Linux system.
3. Make this copy of the installation disc available through NFS or FTP.
4. Vary off or power down the system you need to rescue. Set its IPL parameters as
instructed for booting the Installation discs in rescue mode, except that the IPL
source should point to the copy of boot.img on your IFS (from step 1, above).
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5. Make sure the installation disc is not in your DVD drive.
6. IPL the Linux system.
7. Follow the prompts as described in Section 36.2, “Rescue Mode on Power Systems
servers”. An additional prompt for the installation source appears. Select NFS or FTP
(as appropriate) and complete the following network configuration screen.
8. When the Linux system has booted into rescue mode, the CD-ROM drive is available
for use and you can mount the driver media to access the SCSI utilities.
36.3. USING RESCUE MODE TO FIX OR WORK AROUND
DRIVER PROBLEMS
A malfunctioning or missing driver can prevent a system from booting normally. Rescue
mode provides an environment in which you can add, remove, or replace a driver even
when the system fails to boot. Wherever possible, we recommend that you use the RPM
package manager to remove malfunctioning drivers or to add updated or missing drivers. If
you cannot remove a malfunctioning driver for some reason, you can instead blacklist the
driver so that it does not load at boot time.
Note that when you install a driver from a driver disc, the driver disc updates all initramfs
images on the system to use this driver. If a problem with a driver prevents a system from
booting, you cannot rely on booting the system from another initramfs image.
36.3.1. Using RPM to Add, Remove, or Replace a Driver
In rescue mode, you can use RPM to install, remove, or update packages from the installed
system, even though you did not boot the installed system. To remove a malfunctioning
driver:
1. Boot the system into rescue mode with the linux rescue command at the boot
prompt, or the linux rescue dd command if you need to load a third-party driver
from a driver disc. Follow the instructions in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue
Mode” and do not choose to mount the installed system as read only.
2. Change the root directory to /mnt/sysimage/:
chroot /mnt/sysimage/
3. Use the rpm -e command to remove the driver package. For example, to remove
the kmod-foobar driver package, run:
rpm -e kmod-foobar
4. Exit the chroot environment:
exit
Installing a driver is a similar process, but the RPM package that contains the driver must
be available on the system.
1. Boot the system into rescue mode with the linux rescue command at the boot
prompt, or the linux rescue dd command if you need to load a third-party driver
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from a driver disc. Follow the instructions in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue
Mode” and do not choose to mount the installed system as read only.
2. Make the RPM package that contains the driver available. For example, mount a CD
or USB flash drive and copy the RPM package to a location of your choice under
/mnt/sysimage/, for example: /mnt/sysimage/root/drivers/.
3. Change the root directory to /mnt/sysimage/:
chroot /mnt/sysimage/
4. Use the rpm -ivh command to install the driver package. For example, to install the
kmod-foobar driver package from /root/drivers/, run:
rpm -​ivh /root/drivers/kmod-foobar-​1.2.0​4.17.el6.i686
Note that /root/drivers/ in this chroot environment is
/mnt/sysimage/root/drivers/ in the original rescue environment.
When you have finished removing and installing drivers, reboot the system.
36.3.2. Blacklisting a Driver
As described in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue Mode”, the rdblacklist kernel option
blacklists a driver at boot time. To continue to blacklist the driver on subsequent boots, add
the rdblacklist option to the line in /boot/grub/grub.conf that describes your kernel. To
blacklist the driver when the root device is mounted, add a blacklist entry in a file under
/etc/modprobe.d/.
1. Boot the system into rescue mode with the command linux rescue
rdblacklist=name_of_driver, where name_of_driver is the driver that you need to
blacklist. Follow the instructions in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue Mode” and
do not choose to mount the installed system as read only.
2. Open the /mnt/sysimage/boot/grub/grub.conf file with the vi text editor:
vi /mnt/sysimage/boot/grub/grub.conf
3. Identify the default kernel used to boot the system. Each kernel is specified in the
grub.conf file with a group of lines that beginstitle. The default kernel is specified
by the default parameter near the start of the file. A value of0 refers to the kernel
described in the first group of lines, a value of 1 refers to the kernel described in
the second group, and higher values refer to subsequent kernels in turn.
4. Edit the kernel line of the group to include the option
rdblacklist=name_of_driver, where name_of_driver is the driver that you need to
blacklist. For example, to blacklist the driver named foobar:
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-71.18-2.el6.i686 ro root=/dev/sda1 rhgb quiet
rdblacklist=foobar
5. Save the file and exit vi.
6. Create a new file under /etc/modprobe.d/ that contains the command blacklist
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name_of_driver. Give the file a descriptive name that will help you find it in future,
and use the filename extension .conf. For example, to continue to blacklist the
driver foobar when the root device is mounted, run:
echo "blacklist foobar" >> /mnt/sysimage/etc/modprobe.d/blacklistfoobar.conf
7. Reboot the system. You no longer need to supply rdblacklist manually as a kernel
option until you next update the default kernel. If you update the default kernel
before the problem with the driver has been fixed, you must edit grub.conf again
to ensure that the faulty driver is not loaded at boot time.
[14] Refer to the earlier sections of this guide for more details.
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CHAPTER 37. UPGRADING YOUR CURRENT SYSTEM
The procedure for performing an in-place upgrade on your current system is handled by the
following utilities:
The Preupgrade Assistant, which is a diagnostics utility that assesses your current
system and identifies potential problems you might encounter during and/or after
the upgrade.
The Red Hat Upgrade Tool utility, which is used to upgrade a system from Red Hat
Enterprise Linux to version 7.
The current documentation for testing this procedure can be found in the following Red Hat
Knowledgebase article: https://access.redhat.com/site/solutions/637583
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CHAPTER 38. UNREGISTERING FROM RED HAT
SUBSCRIPTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES
A system can only be registered with one subscription service. If you need to change which
service your system is registered with or need to delete the registration in general, then
the method to unregister depends on which type of subscription service the system was
originally registered with.
38.1. SYSTEMS REGISTERED WITH RED HAT SUBSCRIPTION
MANAGEMENT
Several different subscription services use the same, certificate-based framework to
identify systems, installed products, and attached subscriptions. These services are
Customer Portal Subscription Management (hosted), Subscription Asset Manager (onpremise subscription service), and CloudForms System Engine (on-premise subscription and
content delivery services). These are all part of Red Hat Subscription Management.
For all services within Red Hat Subscription Management, the systems are managed with
the Red Hat Subscription Manager client tools.
To unregister a system registered with a Red Hat Subscription Management server, use the
unregister command.
[root@server ~]# subscription-manager unregister --username=name
NOTE
This command must be run as root.
38.2. SYSTEMS REGISTERED WITH RHN CLASSIC
There is no command to specifically unregister a system which is registered with RHN
Classic. To delete the registration locally, remove the file with the system ID assigned to
the system when it was registered:
[root@server ~]# rm -rf /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid
NOTE
If the system is being unregistered in order to register it with Red Hat
Subscription Management (Customer Portal Subscription Management,
Subscription Asset Manager, or CloudForms System Engine), then instead of
unregistering the system, use the rhn-migrate-classic-to-rhsm script to
migrate the system and all its attached subscriptions to the specified Red Hat
Subscription Management server.
Using the migration scripts is covered in the Subscription Management Guide.
38.3. SYSTEMS REGISTERED WITH SATELLITE
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For a Satellite registration on the server, locate the system in the Systems tab and delete
the profile.
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CHAPTER 39. REMOVING RED HAT ENTERPRISE
LINUX FROM X86-BASED SYSTEMS

WARNING
If you have data from Red Hat Enterprise Linux that you want to keep,
back it up before you proceed. Write your data to CD, DVD, external hard
disk, or other storage device.
As a precaution, also back up data from any other operating systems that
are installed on the same computer. Mistakes do happen and can result in
the loss of all your data.
If you back up data from Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be used later in
another operating system, make sure that the storage medium or device
is readable by that other operating system. For example, without extra
third-party software, Microsoft Windows cannot read an external hard
drive that you have formatted with Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use the
ext2, ext3, or ext4 file system.
To uninstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your x86-based system, you must remove the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader information from your master boot record (MBR) and
remove any partitions that contain the operating system. The method for removing Red
Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer varies, depending on whether Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is the only operating system installed on the computer, or whether the computer is
configured to dual-boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and another operating system.
These instructions cannot cover every possible computer configuration. If your computer is
configured to boot three or more operating systems, or has a highly-customized partition
scheme, use the following sections as a general guide to partition removal with the various
tools described. In these situations, you will also need to learn to configure your chosen
bootloader. See Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader for a general introduction to the
subject, but detailed instructions are beyond the scope of this document.
IMPORTANT
Fdisk, the disk partitioning tool provided with MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows,
is unable to remove the file systems used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux. MSDOS and versions of Windows prior to Windows XP (except for Windows 2000)
have no other means of removing or modifying partitions. Refer to
Section 39.3, “Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or Legacy
Versions of Microsoft Windows” for alternative removal methods for use with
MS-DOS and these versions of Windows.
39.1. RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX IS THE ONLY OPERATING
SYSTEM ON THE COMPUTER
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, use the
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installation media for the replacement operating system to remove Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Examples of installation media include the Windows XP installation CD, Windows
Vista installation DVD, or the installation CD, CDs, or DVD of another Linux distribution.
Note that some manufacturers of factory-built computers pre-installed with Microsoft
Windows do not supply the Windows installation CD or DVD with the computer. The
manufacturer may instead have supplied their own "system restore disc", or have included
software with the computer that allowed you to create your own "system restore disc"
when you first started the computer. In some cases, the system restore software is stored
on a separate partition on the system's hard drive. If you cannot identify the installation
media for an operating system that was pre-installed on your computer, consult the
documentation supplied with the machine, or contact the manufacturer.
When you have located the installation media for your chosen operating system:
1. Back up any data that you want to keep.
2. Shut down the computer.
3. Boot your computer with the installation disc for the replacement operating system.
4. Follow the prompts presented during the installation process. Windows, OS X, and
most Linux installation discs allow you to manually partition your hard drive during
the installation process, or will offer you the option to remove all partitions and start
with a fresh partition scheme. At this point, remove any existing partitions that the
installation software detects or allow the installer to remove the partitions
automatically. "System restore" media for computers pre-installed with Microsoft
Windows might create a default partition layout automatically without input from
you.

WARNING
If your computer has system restore software stored on a partition
on a hard drive, take care when removing partitions while
installing an operating system from other media. Under these
circumstances, you could destroy the partition holding the system
restore software.
39.2. YOUR COMPUTER DUAL-BOOTS RED HAT ENTERPRISE
LINUX AND ANOTHER OPERATING SYSTEM
If your computer is configured to dual-boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and another operating
system, removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux without removing the partitions containing the
other operating system and its data is more complicated. Specific instructions for a number
of operating systems are set out below. To keep neither Red Hat Enterprise Linux nor the
other operating system, follow the steps described for a computer with only Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installed: Section 39.1, “Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the Only Operating
System on the Computer”
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39.2.1. Your Computer Dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a
Microsoft Windows Operating System
39.2.1.1. Windows 2000, Windows Server 2000, Windows XP, and Windows
Server 2003

WARNING
Once you commence this process, your computer may be left in an
unbootable state until you complete the entire set of instructions.
Carefully read the steps below before beginning the removal process.
Consider opening these instructions on another computer or printing them
so that you have access to them at all times during the process.
This procedure relies on the Windows Recovery Console that loads
from the Windows installation disk, so you will not be able to complete
the procedure without access to this disk. If you start this procedure and
do not complete it, you could leave your computer in a condition where
you cannot boot it. The "system restore disk" supplied with some factorybuilt computers that are sold with Windows pre-installed on them might
not include the Windows Recovery Console.
During the process outlined in these instructions, the Windows
Recovery Console will prompt you for the Administrator password for
your Windows system. Do not follow these instructions unless you know
the Administrator password for your system or are certain that an
Administrator password has never been created, even by the computer
manufacturer.
1. Remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
1. Boot your computer into your Microsoft Windows environment.
2. Click Start>Run..., type diskmgmt.msc and press Enter. The Disk
Management tool opens.
The tool displays a graphical representation of your disk, with bars representing
each partition. The first partition is usually labeled NTFS and corresponds to your
C: drive. At least two Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions will be visible. Windows
will not display a file system type for these partitions, but may allocate drive
letters to some of them.
3. Right-click on one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions, then click Delete
Partition and click Yes to confirm the deletion. Repeat this process for the
other Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions on your system. As you delete
partitions, Windows labels the space on the hard drive previously occupied by
those partitions as unallocated.
2. Enable Windows to use the space on your hard drive vacated by Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (optional)
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NOTE
This step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your
computer. However, if you skip this step, you will leave part of your
hard drive's storage capacity unusable by Windows. Depending on your
configuration, this might be a significant portion of the storage capacity
of the drive.
Decide whether to extend an existing Windows partition to use the extra space, or
create a new Windows partition in that space. If you create new a Windows
partition, Windows will allocate a new drive letter to it and will interact with it as if it
is a separate hard drive.
Extending an Existing Windows Partition
NOTE
The diskpart tool used in this step is installed as part of the Windows
XP and Windows 2003 operating systems. If you are performing this
step on a computer running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2000,
you can download a version of diskpart for your operating system from
the Microsoft website.
1. Click Start>Run..., type diskpart and press Enter. A command window
appears.
2. Type list volume and press Enter. Diskpart displays a list of the partitions on
your system with a volume number, its drive letter, volume label, filesystem
type, and size. Identify the Windows partition that you would like to use to
occupy the space vacated on your hard drive by Red Hat Enterprise Linux and
take note of its volume number (for example, your Windows C: drive might be
"Volume 0").
3. Type select volume N (where N is the volume number for the Windows
partition that you want to extend) and press Enter. Now type extend and press
Enter. Diskpart now extends your chosen partition to fill the remaining space
on your hard drive. It will notify you when the operation is complete.
Adding a New Windows Partition
1. In the Disk Management window, right-click on disk space that Windows labels
as unallocated and select New Partition from the menu. The New Partition
Wizard starts.
2. Follow the prompts presented by the New Partition Wizard. If you accept the
default options, the tool will create a new partition that fills all available space on
the hard drive, assigns it the next available drive letter, and formats it with the
NTFS file system.
3. Restore the Windows bootloader
1. Insert the Windows installation disk and restart your computer. As your
computer starts, the following message will appear on the screen for a few
seconds:
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Press any key to boot from CD
Press any key while the message is still showing and the Windows installation
software will load.
2. When the Welcome to Setup screen appears, you can start the Windows
Recovery Console. The procedure is slightly different on different versions of
Windows:
On Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2000, press the R key, then the C
key.
On Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, press the R key.
3. The Windows Recovery Console scans your hard drives for Windows
installations, and assigns a number to each one. It displays a list of Windows
installations and prompts you to select one. Type the number corresponding to
the Windows installation that you want to restore.
4. The Windows Recovery Console prompts you for the Administrator password
for your Windows installation. Type the Administrator password and press the
Enter key. If there is no administrator password for this system, press only the
Enter key.
5. At the prompt, type the command fixmbr and press the Enter. The fixmbr tool
now restores the Master Boot Record for the system.
6. When the prompt reappears, type exit and press the Enter key.
7. Your computer will restart and boot your Windows operating system.
39.2.1.2. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008

WARNING
Once you commence this process, your computer may be left in an
unbootable state until you complete the entire set of instructions.
Carefully read the steps below before beginning the removal process.
Consider opening these instructions on another computer or printing them
so that you have access to them at all times during the process.
This procedure relies on the Windows Recovery Environment that
loads from the Windows installation disk and you will not be able to
complete the procedure without access to this disk. If you start this
procedure and do not complete it, you could leave your computer in a
condition where you cannot boot it. The "system restore disk" supplied
with some factory-built computers that are sold with Windows preinstalled on them might not include the Windows Recovery
Environment.
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1. Remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
1. Boot your computer into your Microsoft Windows environment.
2. Click Start then type diskmgmt.msc into the Start Search box and press
Enter. The Disk Management tool opens.
The tool displays a graphical representation of your disk, with bars representing
each partition. The first partition is usually labeled NTFS and corresponds to your
C: drive. At least two Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions will be visible. Windows
will not display a file system type for these partitions, but may allocate drive
letters to some of them.
3. Right-click on one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions, then click Delete
Partition and click Yes to confirm the deletion. Repeat this process for the
other Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions on your system. As you delete
partitions, Windows labels the space on the hard drive previously occupied by
those partitions as unallocated.
2. Enable Windows to use the space on your hard drive vacated by Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (optional)
NOTE
This step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your
computer. However, if you skip this step, you will leave part of your
hard drive's storage capacity unusable by Windows. Depending on your
configuration, this might be a significant portion of the storage capacity
of the drive.
Decide whether to extend an existing Windows partition to use the extra space, or
create a new Windows partition in that space. If you create new a Windows
partition, Windows will allocate a new drive letter to it and will interact with it as if it
is a separate hard drive.
Extending an Existing Windows Partition
1. In the Disk Management window, right-click on the Windows partition that you
want to extend and select Extend Volume from the menu. The Extend Volume
Wizard opens.
2. Follow the prompts presented by the Extend Volume Wizard. If you accept the
defaults that it offers you, the tool will extend the selected volume to fill all
available space on the hard drive.
Adding a New Windows Partition
1. In the Disk Management window, right-click on disk space that Windows labels
as unallocated and select New Simple Volume from the menu. The New
Simple Volume Wizard starts.
2. Follow the prompts presented by the New Simple Volume Wizard. If you
accept the default options, the tool will create a new partition that fills all
available space on the hard drive, assigns it the next available drive letter, and
formats it with the NTFS file system.
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3. Restore the Windows bootloader
1. Insert the Windows installation disk and restart your computer. As your
computer starts, the following message will appear on the screen for a few
seconds:
Press any key to boot from CD or DVD
Press any key while the message is still showing and the Windows installation
software will load.
2. In the Install Windows dialog, select a language, time and currency format,
and keyboard type. Click Next
3. Click Repair your computer.
4. The Windows Recovery Environment (WRE) shows you the Windows
installations that it can detect on your system. Select the installation that you
want to restore, then click Next.
5. Click Command prompt. A command window will open.
6. Type bootrec /fixmbr and press Enter.
7. When the prompt reappears, close the command window, then click Restart.
8. Your computer will restart and boot your Windows operating system.
39.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a
different Linux distribution
Because of the differences between the many different Linux distributions, these
instructions are a general guide only. Specific details vary according to the configuration of
your particular system and the Linux distribution that dual-boots with Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
1. Remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
1. Boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
2. As root or with sudo, run mount. Note the partitions that are mounted. In
particular, note the partition that is mounted as the root of the filesystem. The
output of mount on a system where the root of the filesystem is on a standard
partition such as /dev/sda2 might resemble:
/dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs
(rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
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The output of mount on a system where the root of the filesystem is on a logical
volume might resemble:
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs
(rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
3. Ensure that any data on this system that you still require is backed up to another
system or storage location.
4. Shut down the system and boot the Linux distribution that you want to keep on
the system.
5. As root or with sudo, run mount. If any of the partitions that you previously
noted as used for Red Hat Enterprise Linux are mounted, review the contents of
these partitions. If you no longer require the contents of these partitions,
unmount them with the umount command.
6. Remove any unwanted and unnecessary partitions, for example, with fdisk for
standard partitions, or lvremove and vgremove to remove logical volumes and
volume groups.
2. Remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from your bootloader
IMPORTANT
These instructions assume that your system uses the GRUB
bootloader. If you use a different bootloader (such as LILO) consult the
documentation for that software to identify and remove Red Hat
Enterprise Linux entries from its list of boot targets and to ensure that
your default operating system is correctly specified.
1. At the command line, type su - and press Enter. When the system prompts you
for the root password, type the password and press Enter.
2. Type gedit /boot/grub/grub.conf and press Enter. This opens the grub.conf
file in the gedit text editor.
3. A typical Red Hat Enterprise Linux entry in the grub.conf file consists of four
lines:
Example 39.1. Example Red Hat Enterprise Linux entry in grub.conf
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.32.130.el6.i686)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32.130.el6.i686 ro root=UUID=04a07c13-e6bf-6d5ab207-002689545705 rhgb quiet
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initrd /initrd-2.6.32.130.el6.i686.img
Depending on the configuration of your system, there may be multiple Red Hat
Enterprise Linux entries in grub.conf, each corresponding to a different version
of the Linux kernel. Delete each of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from the
file.
4. Grub.conf contains a line that specifies the default operating system to boot, in
the format default=N where N is a number equal to or greater than 0. IfN is set
to 0, GRUB will boot the first operating system in the list. IfN is set to 1, it will
boot the second operating system, and so forth.
Identify the entry for the operating system that you want GRUB to boot by
default and note its place in the order within the list.
Make sure that the default= line contains the number one below the number of
your chosen default operating system in the list.
Save the updated grub.conf file and close gedit
3. Make space available to your operating system
NOTE
This step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your
computer. However, if you skip this step, you will leave part of your
hard drive's storage capacity unusable by your other Linux operating
system. Depending on your configuration, this might be a significant
portion of the storage capacity of the drive.
NOTE
To carry out this step, you require live media for a Linux distribution,
for example, the Fedora Live CD or the Knoppix DVD.
The method to make the space freed by removing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
partitions available to your other Linux operating system differs, depending on
whether your chosen operating system is installed on disk partitions configured to
use Logical Volume Management (LVM) or not.
If you do not use LVM
1. Boot your computer from Linux live media, and install parted if it is not
already present.
2. As root or with sudo, run parted disk, where disk is the device name of the
disk that contains a partition that you want to resize, for example, /dev/sda.
3. At the (parted) prompt, enter print. The parted tool displays information
about the partitions on your system, including their partition numbers, their
sizes, and their positions on the disk.
4. At the (parted) prompt, enter resize number start end, where number is
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the partition number, start is the location on the disk at which the partition
begins, and end is the location on the disk at which you want the partition to
end. Use the start position that you previously obtained with the print
command, and refer to the parted documentation for different ways to
specify the end parameter.
5. When parted finishes resizing the partition, enterquit at the (parted)
prompt.
6. Run e2fsck partition, where partition is the partition that you just resized.
For example, if you just resized /dev/sda3, enter e2fsck /dev/sda3.
Linux now checks the file system of the newly-resized partition.
7. When the file system check finishes, type resize2fs partition at a
command line and press Enter, where partition is the partition that you just
resized. For example, if you just resized /dev/sda3, type
resize2fs /dev/sda3.
Linux now resizes your file system to fill the newly-resized partition.
8. Restart your computer. The extra space is now available to your Linux
installation.
If you use LVM
1. Boot your computer from Linux live media and install fdisk and lvm2 if they
are not already present.
2. Create a new partition in the free space on the disk
1. As root or with sudo, run fdisk disk, where disk is the device name of
the disk where you want to create new space, for example, /dev/sda.
2. At the prompt Command (m for help):, enter n to create a new partition.
Refer to the fdisk documentation for options.
3. Change the partition type identifier
1. At the prompt Command (m for help):, enter t to change a partition
type.
2. At the prompt Partition number (1-4):, type the number of the
partition that you just created. For example, if you just created partition
/dev/sda3, type the number 3 and press Enter. This identifies the
partition whose type fdisk will change.
3. At the prompt Hex code (type L to list codes):, enter 8e to create a
Linux LVM partition.
4. At the prompt Command (m for help):, enter w to write the changes to
disk and exit fdisk.
4. Expand the volume group
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1. At the command prompt, type lvm and press Enter to start the lvm2
tool.
2. At the lvm> prompt, type pvcreate partition and press Enter, where
partition is the partition that you recently created. For example,pvcreate
/dev/sda3. This creates /dev/sda3 as a physical volume in LVM.
3. At the lvm> prompt, type vgextend VolumeGroup partition and press
Enter, where VolumeGroup is the LVM volume group on which Linux is
installed and partition is the partition that you recently created. For
example, if Linux is installed on /dev/VolumeGroup00, you would type
vgextend /dev/VolumeGroup00 /dev/sda3 to extend that volume group
to include the physical volume at /dev/sda3.
4. At the lvm> prompt, type lvextend -l +100%FREE LogVol and press
Enter, where LogVol is the logical volume that contains your Linux
filesystem. For example, to extend LogVol00 to fill the newly-available
space in its volume group, VolGroup00, type lvextend -l +100%FREE
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00.
5. At the lvm> prompt, type exit and press Enter to exit lvm2
5. Type e2fsck LogVol at the command line and press Enter, where LogVol is
the logical volume that you just resized. For example, if you just resized
/dev/VolumeGroup00/LogVol00, you would type
e2fsck /dev/VolumeGroup00/LogVol00.
Linux now checks the file system of the newly-resized logical volume.
6. When the file system check finishes, type resize2fs LogVol at a command
line and press Enter, where LogVol is the partition that you just resized. For
example, if you just resized /dev/VolumeGroup00/LogVol00, you would type
resize2fs /dev/VolumeGroup00/LogVol00.
Linux now resizes your file system to fill the newly-resized logical volume.
7. Restart your computer. The extra space is now available to your Linux
installation.
39.3. REPLACING RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX WITH MSDOS OR LEGACY VERSIONS OF MICROSOFT WINDOWS
In DOS and Windows, use the Windows fdisk utility to create a new MBR with the
undocumented flag /mbr. This ONLY rewrites the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition.
The command should look like the following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the
default DOS (Windows) fdisk, you will experience thePartitions exist but they do not exist
problem. The best way to remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands
partitions other than DOS.
To begin, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD and boot your system. When the boot
prompt appears, type: linux rescue. This starts the rescue mode program.
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You are prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you
would during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Next, a screen appears telling you that the program attempts to find a Red Hat Enterprise
Linux install to rescue. Select Skip on this screen.
After selecting Skip, you are given a command prompt where you can access the partitions
you would like to remove.
First, type the command list-harddrives. This command lists all hard drives on your
system that are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in
megabytes.

WARNING
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux
partitions. Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a
corrupted system environment.
To remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Start parted, where /dev/hda is the
device on which to remove the partition:
parted /dev/hda
Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number
of the partition to remove:
print
The print command also displays the partition's type (such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, ext4
and so on). Knowing the type of the partition helps you in determining whether to remove
the partition.
Remove the partition with the command rm. For example, to remove the partition with
minor number 3:
rm 3
IMPORTANT
The changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the
command before committing to it.
After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from
the partition table.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to
make, type quit to quit parted.
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After quitting parted, type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your
system, instead of continuing with the installation. The system should reboot automatically.
If it does not, you can reboot your computer using Control+Alt+Delete .
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CHAPTER 40. REMOVING RED HAT ENTERPRISE
LINUX FROM IBM SYSTEM Z
If you want to delete the existing operating system data, first, if any Linux disks contain
sensitive data, ensure that you destroy the data according to your security policy. To
proceed you can consider these options:
Overwrite the disks with a new installation.
Start a new installation and use the partitioning dialog (refer to Section 23.13, “Disk
Partitioning Setup”) to format the partitions where Linux was installed. After the
Write changes to disk dialog described in Section 23.16, “Write Changes to
Disk”, exit the installer.
Make the DASD or SCSI disk where Linux was installed visible from another system,
then delete the data. However, this might require special privileges. Ask your
system administrator for advice. You can use Linux commands such as dasdfmt
(DASD only), parted, mke2fs or dd. For more details about the commands, refer to
the respective man pages.
40.1. RUNNING A DIFFERENT OPERATING SYSTEM ON YOUR
Z/VM GUEST OR LPAR
If you want to boot from a DASD or SCSI disk different from where the currently installed
system resides under a z/VM guest virtual machine or an LPAR, shut down the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installed and use the desired disk, where another Linux instance is
installed, to boot from. This leaves the contents of the installed system unchanged.
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PART VI. TECHNICAL APPENDICES
The appendices in this section do not contain instructions that tell you how to install Red
Hat Enterprise Linux. Instead, they provide technical background that you might find helpful
to understand the options that Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you at various points in the
installation process.
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APPENDIX A. AN INTRODUCTION TO DISK
PARTITIONS
NOTE
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures.
However, the general concepts mentioned here may apply.
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the
general concepts mentioned here may apply.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to
Section A.1.5, “Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux”, for more information on the
process of freeing up disk space to prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This
section also discusses the partition naming scheme used by Linux systems, sharing disk
space with other operating systems, and related topics.
A.1. HARD DISK BASIC CONCEPTS
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on
command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the
underlying hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details.
Therefore, this appendix uses a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is
really happening when a disk drive is partitioned. Figure A.1, “An Unused Disk Drive”,
shows a brand-new, unused disk drive.
Figure A.1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it is
adequate. Say that we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it
will not work. There is something we need to do first.
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the
drive. Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive,
creating order out of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
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APPENDIX A. AN INTRODUCTION TO DISK PARTITIONS
Figure A.2. Disk Drive with a File System
As Figure A.2, “Disk Drive with a File System”, implies, the order imposed by a file system
involves some trade-offs:
A small percentage of the drive's available space is used to store file system-related
data and can be considered as overhead.
A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For
Linux, these segments are known as blocks. [15]
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these trade-offs are
usually seen as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure A.3, “Disk
Drive with a Different File System”, shows, a disk drive may have one of many different file
systems written on it. As you might guess, different file systems tend to be incompatible;
that is, an operating system that supports one file system (or a handful of related file
system types) may not support another. This last statement is not a hard-and-fast rule,
however. For example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports a wide variety of file systems
(including many commonly used by other operating systems), making data interchange
between different file systems easy.
Figure A.3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. The goal of this process is to
actually store and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been
written to it.
Figure A.4. Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure A.4, “Disk Drive with Data Written to It”, shows, some of the previously-empty
blocks are now holding data. However, by just looking at this picture, we cannot determine
exactly how many files reside on this drive. There may only be one file or many, as all files
use at least one block and some files use multiple blocks. Another important point to note is
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that the used blocks do not have to form a contiguous region; used and unused blocks may
be interspersed. This is known as fragmentation. Fragmentation can play a part when
attempting to resize an existing partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their
introduction. In particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their
capacity to store information. And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in
the way disk drives were used.
A.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
Disk drives can be divided into partitions. Each partition can be accessed as if it was a
separate disk. This is done through the addition of a partition table.
There are several reasons for allocating disk space into separate disk partitions, for
example:
Logical separation of the operating system data from the user data
Ability to use different file systems
Ability to run multiple operating systems on one machine
There are currently two partitioning layout standards for physical hard disks: Master Boot
Record (MBR) and GUID Partition Table (GPT). MBR is an older method of disk partitioning
used with BIOS-based computers. GPT is a newer partitioning layout that is a part of the
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI). This section and Section A.1.3, “Partitions
Within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions” mainly describe the Master Boot
Record (MBR) disk partitioning scheme. For information about the GUID Partition Table
(GPT) partitioning layout, see Section A.1.4, “GUID Partition Table (GPT)”.
NOTE
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate
from the actual disk drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition
table is stored at the very start of the disk, before any file system or user data.
But for clarity, they are separate in our diagrams.
Figure A.5. Disk Drive with Partition Table
As Figure A.5, “Disk Drive with Partition Table” shows, the partition table is divided into four
sections or four primary partitions. A primary partition is a partition on a hard drive that can
contain only one logical drive (or section). Each section can hold the information necessary
to define a single partition, meaning that the partition table can define no more than four
partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
The points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
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Whether the partition is "active"
The partition's type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points
actually define the partition's size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by
some operating systems' boot loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition
that is marked "active" is booted.
The partition's type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the
partition's anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the
meaning of the partition type is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type
to denote a specific file system type, to flag the partition as being associated with a
particular operating system, to indicate that the partition contains a bootable operating
system, or some combination of the three.
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used.
Refer to Figure A.6, “Disk Drive With Single Partition”, for an example.
Figure A.6. Disk Drive With Single Partition
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially
duplicating the method used before partitions. The partition table has only one entry used,
and it points to the start of the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several
possible partition types listed in Table A.1, “Partition Types”, it is adequate for the purposes
of this discussion.
Table A.1, “Partition Types”, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition
types, along with their hexadecimal numeric values.
Table A.1. Partition Types
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
65
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
DOS 16-bit <=32M
04
Linux swap
82
Extended
05
Linux native
83
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Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
DOS 16-bit >=32
06
Linux extended
85
OS/2 HPFS
07
Amoeba
93
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT32
0b
NEXTSTEP
a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
Novell
51
DOS access
e1
PReP Boot
41
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
A.1.3. Partitions Within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk
drives continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure
four reasonably-sized partitions and still have disk space left over. There needed to be
some way of creating more partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in Table A.1, “Partition Types”, there
is an "Extended" partition type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended
partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is
created. In essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a
partition table that points to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as
opposed to the four primary partitions) contained entirely within the extended partition
itself. Figure A.7, “Disk Drive With Extended Partition”, shows a disk drive with one primary
partition and one extended partition containing two logical partitions (along with some
unpartitioned free space).
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Figure A.7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there
can only be four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical
partitions that can exist. However, due to the way in which partitions are accessed in Linux,
you should avoid defining more than 12 logical partitions on a single disk drive.
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us review how to use this knowledge
to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
A.1.4. GUID Partition Table (GPT)
GUID Partition Table (GPT) is a newer partitioning scheme based on using Globally Unique
Identifiers (GUID). GPT was developed to cope with limitations of theMBR partition table,
especially with the limited maximum addressable storage space of a disk. Unlike MBR,
which is unable to address storage space larger than 2.2 terabytes, GPT can be used with
hard disks larger than this; the maximum addressable disk size is 2.2 zettabytes. In
addition, GPT by default supports creating up to 128 primary partitions. This number could
be extended by allocating more space to the partition table.
GPT disks use logical block addressing (LBA) and the partition layout is as follows:
To preserve backward compatibility with MBR disks, the first sector (LBA 0) of GPT is
reserved for MBR data and it is called “protective MBR”.
The primary GPT header begins on the second logical block (LBA 1) of the device.
The header contains the disk GUID, the location of the primary partition table, the
location of the secondary GPT header, and CRC32 checksums of itself and the
primary partition table. It also specifies the number of partition entries of the table.
The primary GPT table includes, by default, 128 partition entries, each with an entry
size 128 bytes, its partition type GUID and unique partition GUID.
The secondary GPT table is identical to the primary GPT table. It is used mainly as a
backup table for recovery in case the primary partition table is corrupted.
The secondary GPT header is located on the last logical sector of the disk and it can
be used to recover GPT information in case the primary header is corrupted. It
contains the disk GUID, the location of the secondary partition table and the primary
GPT header, CRC32 checksums of itself and the secondary partition table, and the
number of possible partition entries.
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IMPORTANT
There must be a BIOS boot partition for the boot loader to be installed
successfully onto a disk that contains a GPT (GUID Partition Table). This
includes disks initialized by Anaconda. If the disk already contains a BIOS
boot partition, it can be reused.
A.1.5. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The following list presents some possible scenarios you may face when attempting to
repartition your hard disk:
Unpartitioned free space is available
An unused partition is available
Free space in an actively used partition is available
Let us look at each scenario in order.
NOTE
Keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of
clarity and do not reflect the exact partition layout that you encounter when
actually installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
A.1.5.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving
unallocated space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure A.8, “Disk Drive with
Unpartitioned Free Space”, shows what this might look like.
Figure A.8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
In Figure A.8, “Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space”, 1 represents an undefined
partition with unallocated space and 2 represents a defined partition with allocated space.
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. The only difference is
that all the space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately,
this scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased a new
disk just for Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured
to take up all available space on a disk drive (refer to Section A.1.5.3, “Using Free Space
from an Active Partition”).
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
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A.1.5.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer.
Perhaps you have dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s)
you dedicated to it never seem to be used anymore. Figure A.9, “Disk Drive With an
Unused Partition”, illustrates such a situation.
Figure A.9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
In Figure A.9, “Disk Drive With an Unused Partition”, 1 represents an unused partition and 2
represents reallocating an unused partition for Linux.
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused
partition. You first must delete the partition and then create the appropriate Linux
partition(s) in its place. You can delete the unused partition and manually create new
partitions during the installation process.
A.1.5.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
This is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. The main
problem is that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition
that is already in use. If you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard
disk most likely has one massive partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you
might imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. This means that
making a complete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups, use
verification (if available in your backup software), and try to read data from your backup
before you delete the partition.

WARNING
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that
partition, it needs to be reinstalled as well. Be aware that some
computers sold with pre-installed operating systems may not include
the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original operating system. The best
time to notice if this applies to your system is before you destroy your
original partition and its operating system installation.
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After creating a smaller partition for your existing operating system, you can reinstall
any software, restore your data, and start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
Figure A.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”shows this being done.
Figure A.10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
In Figure A.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, 1 represents before and 2
represents after.

WARNING
As Figure A.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, shows,
any data present in the original partition is lost without proper backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition
smaller without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found
this method to be reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform
this feat? There are several disk management software products on the market. Do
some research to find the one that is best for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are a
number of steps involved:
Compress and backup existing data
Resize the existing partition
Create new partition(s)
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
A.1.5.3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure A.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, shows, the first step is to compress the
data in your existing partition. The reason for doing this is to rearrange the data such that
it maximizes the available free space at the "end" of the partition.
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Figure A.11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
In Figure A.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
This step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from
being resized to the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data
cannot be moved. If this is the case (and it severely restricts the size of your new
partition(s)), you may be forced to destructively repartition your disk.
A.1.5.3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure A.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, shows the actual resizing process. While
the actual result of the resizing operation varies depending on the software used, in most
cases the newly freed space is used to create an unformatted partition of the same type as
the original partition.
Figure A.12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
In Figure A.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, 1 represents before and 2 represents
after.
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed
space, so that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would
be best to delete the new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
A.1.5.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions.
However, unless your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the
partition that was created during the resizing process. Figure A.13, “Disk Drive with Final
Partition Configuration”, shows this being done.
Figure A.13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
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In Figure A.13, “Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration”, 1 represents before and 2
represents after.
NOTE
The following information is specific to x86-based computers only.
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the parted utility. This is a freely available
program that can resize partitions.
If you decide to repartition your hard drive with parted, it is important that you be familiar
with disk storage and that you perform a backup of your computer data. You should make
two copies of all the important data on your computer. These copies should be to
removable media (such as tape, CD-ROM, or diskettes), and you should make sure they are
readable before proceeding.
Should you decide to use parted, be aware that after parted runs you are left withtwo
partitions: the one you resized, and the one parted created out of the newly freed space. If
your goal is to use that space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should delete the
newly created partition, either by using the partitioning utility under your current operating
system or while setting up partitions during installation.
A.1.6. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be
confusing, particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and
their partitions. In the DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following
method:
Each partition's type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
If the partition's type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters
start with a "C" and move on to the following letters, depending on the number of
partitions to be labeled.
The drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system
contained on that partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more
information than the approach used by other operating systems. The naming scheme is filebased, with file names in the form of /dev/xxyN.
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
/dev/
This is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions reside
on hard disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions
reside in /dev/.
xx
The first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the
partition resides, usually either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
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This letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the first IDE
hard disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
N
The final number denotes the partition. The first four (primary or extended) partitions
are numbered 1 through 4. Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3 is the
third primary or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6 is the
second logical partition on the second SCSI hard disk.
NOTE
There is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type;
unlike DOS/Windows, all partitions can be identified under Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Of course, this does not mean that Red Hat Enterprise Linux can access
data on every type of partition, but in many cases it is possible to access data
on a partition dedicated to another operating system.
Keep this information in mind; it makes things easier to understand when you are setting
up the partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux requires.
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions are sharing a hard disk with partitions used by
other operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are
certain combinations of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care.
A.1.8. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are
used and accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple:
Each partition gets a "drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and
directories on its corresponding partition.
This is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with disk
storage in general. The main difference is that each partition is used to form part of the
storage necessary to support a single set of files and directories. This is done by associating
a partition with a directory through a process known as mounting. Mounting a partition
makes its storage available starting at the specified directory (known as a mount point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 is mounted on /usr/, that would mean that all files and
directories under /usr/ physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file
/usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file
/etc/gdm/custom.conf would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr/ would
be mount points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be
mounted on /usr/local/, meaning that /usr/local/man/whatis would then reside on
/dev/hda7 rather than /dev/hda5.
A.1.9. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must give
some consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new
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operating system. The question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within
the Linux community and, without any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that
there are probably as many partition layouts as there are people debating the issue.
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise,
you should at least create the following partitions: swap, /boot/, and / (root).
For more information, refer to Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
[15] Blocks really are consistently sized, unlike our illustrations. Keep in mind, also, that an average
disk drive contains thousands of blocks. But for the purposes of this discussion, please ignore these
minor discrepancies.
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APPENDIX B. ISCSI DISKS
Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) is a protocol that allows computers to
communicate with storage devices by SCSI requests and responses carried over TCP/IP.
Because iSCSI is based on the standard SCSI protocols, it uses some terminology from SCSI.
The device on the SCSI bus to which requests get sent (and which answers these requests)
is known as the target and the device issuing requests is known as theinitiator. In other
words, an iSCSI disk is a target and the iSCSI software equivalent of a SCSI controller or
SCSI Host Bus Adapter (HBA) is called an initiator. This appendix only covers Linux as an
iSCSI initiator: how Linux uses iSCSI disks, but not how Linux hosts iSCSI disks.
Linux has a software iSCSI initiator in the kernel that takes the place and form of a SCSI
HBA driver and therefore allows Linux to use iSCSI disks. However, as iSCSI is a fully
network-based protocol, iSCSI initiator support needs more than just the ability to send
SCSI packets over the network. Before Linux can use an iSCSI target, Linux must find the
target on the network and make a connection to it. In some cases, Linux must send
authentication information to gain access to the target. Linux must also detect any failure
of the network connection and must establish a new connection, including logging in again
if necessary.
The discovery, connection, and logging in is handled in userspace by the iscsiadm utility,
and the error handling is also handled in userspace by iscsid.
Both iscsiadm and iscsid are part of the iscsi-initiator-utils package under Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
B.1. ISCSI DISKS IN ANACONDA
Anaconda can discover (and then log in to) iSCSI disks in two ways:
1. When anaconda starts, it checks if the BIOS or add-on boot ROMs of the system
support iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT), a BIOS extension for systems which can
boot from iSCSI. If the BIOS supports iBFT, anaconda will read the iSCSI target
information for the configured boot disk from the BIOS and log in to this target,
making it available as an installation target.
2. If you select the Specialized Storage Devices option during installation, the
storage device selection screen presents you with an Add Advanced Target button.
If you click this button, you can add iSCSI target information like the discovery IP
address. Anaconda probes the given IP address and logs in to any targets that it
finds. See Section 9.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ” for the details that you can
specify for iSCSI targets.
While anaconda uses iscsiadm to find and log into iSCSI targets, iscsiadm automatically
stores any information about these targets in the iscsiadm iSCSI database. Anaconda then
copies this database to the installed system and marks any iSCSI targets not used for / so
that the system will automatically log in to them when it starts. If / is placed on an iSCSI
target, initrd will log into this target and anaconda does not include this target in start up
scripts to avoid multiple attempts to log into the same target.
If / is placed on an iSCSI target, anaconda sets NetworkManager to ignore any network
interfaces that were active during the installation process. These interfaces will also be
configured by initrd when the system starts. If NetworkManager were to reconfigure
these interfaces, the system would lose its connection to /.
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B.2. ISCSI DISKS DURING START UP
ISCSI-related events might occur at a number of points while the system starts:
1. The init script in the initrd will log in to iSCSI targets used for/ (if any). This is done
using the iscsistart utility (which can do this without requiringiscsid to run).
2. When the root filesystem has been mounted and the various service initscripts get
run, the iscsid initscript will get called. This script will then startiscsid if any iSCSI
targets are used for /, or if any targets in the iSCSI database are marked to be
logged in to automatically.
3. After the classic network service script has been run (or would have been run if
enabled) the iscsi initscript will run. If the network is accessible, this will log in to
any targets in the iSCSI database which are marked to be logged in to
automatically. If the network is not accessible, this script will exit quietly.
4. When using NetworkManager to access the network (instead of the classic
network service script), NetworkManager will call the iscsi initscript. See:
/etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/04-iscsi
IMPORTANT
Because NetworkManager is installed in /usr, you cannot use it to
configure network access if /usr is on network-attached storage such
as an iSCSI target.
If iscsid is not needed as the system starts, it will not start automatically. If you start
iscsiadm, iscsiadm will start iscsid in turn.
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APPENDIX C. DISK ENCRYPTION
C.1. WHAT IS BLOCK DEVICE ENCRYPTION?
Block device encryption protects the data on a block device by encrypting it. To access the
device's decrypted contents, a user must provide a passphrase or key as authentication.
This provides additional security beyond existing OS security mechanisms in that it protects
the device's contents even if it has been physically removed from the system.
C.2. ENCRYPTING BLOCK DEVICES USING DMCRYPT/LUKS6TIT
Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is a specification for block device encryption. It establishes
an on-disk format for the data, as well as a passphrase/key management policy.
LUKS uses the kernel device mapper subsystem via the dm-crypt module. This
arrangement provides a low-level mapping that handles encryption and decryption of the
device's data. User-level operations, such as creating and accessing encrypted devices, are
accomplished through the use of the cryptsetup utility.
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS
What LUKS does:
LUKS encrypts entire block devices
LUKS is thereby well-suited for protecting the contents of mobile devices
such as:
Removable storage media
Laptop disk drives
The underlying contents of the encrypted block device are arbitrary.
This makes it useful for encrypting swap devices.
This can also be useful with certain databases that use specially formatted
block devices for data storage.
LUKS uses the existing device mapper kernel subsystem.
This is the same subsystem used by LVM, so it is well tested.
LUKS provides passphrase strengthening.
This protects against dictionary attacks.
LUKS devices contain multiple key slots.
This allows users to add backup keys/passphrases.
What LUKS does not do:
LUKS is not well-suited for applications requiring many (more than eight) users to
have distinct access keys to the same device.
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LUKS is not well-suited for applications requiring file-level encryption.
More detailed information about LUKS is available from the project website at
http://code.google.com/p/cryptsetup/.
C.2.2. How Will I Access the Encrypted Devices After Installation?
(System Startup)
During system startup you will be presented with a passphrase prompt. After the correct
passphrase has been provided the system will continue to boot normally. If you used
different passphrases for multiple encrypted devices you may need to enter more than one
passphrase during the startup.
NOTE
Consider using the same passphrase for all encrypted block devices in a given
system. This will simplify system startup and you will have fewer passphrases
to remember. Just make sure you choose a good passphrase!
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase
While dm-crypt/LUKS supports both keys and passphrases, the anaconda installer only
supports the use of passphrases for creating and accessing encrypted block devices during
installation.
LUKS does provide passphrase strengthening but it is still a good idea to choose a good
(meaning "difficult to guess") passphrase. Note the use of the term "passphrase", as
opposed to the term "password". This is intentional. Providing a phrase containing multiple
words to increase the security of your data is important.
C.3. CREATING ENCRYPTED BLOCK DEVICES IN ANACONDA
You can create encrypted devices during system installation. This allows you to easily
configure a system with encrypted partitions.
To enable block device encryption, check the "Encrypt System" checkbox when selecting
automatic partitioning or the "Encrypt" checkbox when creating an individual partition,
software RAID array, or logical volume. After you finish partitioning, you will be prompted
for an encryption passphrase. This passphrase will be required to access the encrypted
devices. If you have pre-existing LUKS devices and provided correct passphrases for them
earlier in the install process the passphrase entry dialog will also contain a checkbox.
Checking this checkbox indicates that you would like the new passphrase to be added to an
available slot in each of the pre-existing encrypted block devices.
NOTE
Checking the "Encrypt System" checkbox on the "Automatic Partitioning"
screen and then choosing "Create custom layout" does not cause any block
devices to be encrypted automatically.
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NOTE
You can use kickstart to set a separate passphrase for each new encrypted
block device.
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted?
Most types of block devices can be encrypted using LUKS. From anaconda you can encrypt
partitions, LVM physical volumes, LVM logical volumes, and software RAID arrays.
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases
If you use a kickstart file during installation, you can automatically save the passphrases
used during installation to an encrypted file (an escrow packet) on the local file system. To
use this feature, you must have an X.509 certificate available at a location that anaconda
can access. To specify the URL of this certificate, add the --escrowcert parameter to any
of the autopart, logvol, part or raid commands. During installation, the encryption keys
for the specified devices are saved in files in /root, encrypted with the certificate.
You can save escrow packets during installation only with the use of a kickstart file — refer
to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for more detail. You cannot save an escrow packet
during an interactive installation, although you can create one on an installed system with
the volume_key tool. The volume_key tool also allows you to use the information stored
in an escrow packet to restore access to an encrypted volume. Refer to the volume_key
manpage for more information.
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
If you use a kickstart file during installation, anaconda can add a randomly generated
backup passphrase to each block device on the system and save each passphrase to an
encrypted file on the local file system. Specify the URL of this certificate with the -escrowcert parameter as described in Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases”, followed by the
--backuppassphrase parameter for each of the kickstart commands that relate to the
devices for which you want to create backup passphrases.
Note that this feature is available only while performing a kickstart installation. Refer to
Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for more detail.
C.4. CREATING ENCRYPTED BLOCK DEVICES ON THE
INSTALLED SYSTEM AFTER INSTALLATION
Encrypted block devices can be created and configured after installation.
C.4.1. Create the Block Devices
Create the block devices you want to encrypt by using parted, pvcreate, lvcreate and
mdadm.
C.4.2. Optional: Fill the Device with Random Data
Filling <device> (eg: /dev/sda3) with random data before encrypting it greatly increases
the strength of the encryption. The downside is that it can take a very long time.
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
WARNING
The commands below will destroy any existing data on the device.
The best way, which provides high quality random data but takes a long time
(several minutes per gigabyte on most systems):
dd if=/dev/urandom of=<device>
Fastest way, which provides lower quality random data:
badblocks -c 10240 -s -w -t random -v <device>
C.4.3. Format the Device as a dm-crypt/LUKS Encrypted Device

WARNING
The command below will destroy any existing data on the device.
cryptsetup luksFormat <device>
NOTE
For more information, read the cryptsetup(8) man page.
After supplying the passphrase twice the device will be formatted for use. To verify, use the
following command:
cryptsetup isLuks <device> && echo Success
To see a summary of the encryption information for the device, use the following
command:
cryptsetup luksDump <device>
C.4.4. Create a Mapping to Allow Access to the Device's Decrypted
Contents
To access the device's decrypted contents, a mapping must be established using the kernel
device-mapper.
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It is useful to choose a meaningful name for this mapping. LUKS provides a UUID
(Universally Unique Identifier) for each device. This, unlike the device name (eg:
/dev/sda3), is guaranteed to remain constant as long as the LUKS header remains intact.
To find a LUKS device's UUID, run the following command:
cryptsetup luksUUID <device>
An example of a reliable, informative and unique mapping name would be luks-<uuid>,
where <uuid> is replaced with the device's LUKS UUID (eg: luks-50ec957a-5b5a-47ee85e6-f8085bbc97a8). This naming convention might seem unwieldy but is it not necessary
to type it often.
cryptsetup luksOpen <device> <name>
There should now be a device node, /dev/mapper/<name>, which represents the decrypted
device. This block device can be read from and written to like any other unencrypted block
device.
To see some information about the mapped device, use the following command:
dmsetup info <name>
NOTE
For more information, read the dmsetup(8) man page.
C.4.5. Create File Systems on the Mapped Device or Continue to
Build Complex Storage Structures Using the Mapped Device
Use the mapped device node (/dev/mapper/<name>) as any other block device. To create
an ext2 filesystem on the mapped device, use the following command:
mke2fs /dev/mapper/<name>
To mount this filesystem on /mnt/test, use the following command:
IMPORTANT
The directory /mnt/test must exist before executing this command.
mount /dev/mapper/<name> /mnt/test
C.4.6. Add the Mapping Information to /etc/crypttab
In order for the system to set up a mapping for the device, an entry must be present in the
/etc/crypttab file. If the file doesn't exist, create it and change the owner and group to
root (root:root) and change the mode to0744. Add a line to the file with the following
format:
<name>
<device>
none
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The <device> field should be given in the form "UUID=<luks_uuid>", where <luks_uuid> is
the LUKS uuid as given by the command cryptsetup luksUUID <device>. This ensures the
correct device will be identified and used even if the device node (eg: /dev/sda5) changes.
NOTE
For details on the format of the /etc/crypttab file, read the crypttab(5)
man page.
C.4.7. Add an Entry to /etc/fstab
Add an entry to /etc/fstab. This is only necessary if you want to establish a persistent
association between the device and a mountpoint. Use the decrypted device,
/dev/mapper/<name> in the /etc/fstab file.
In many cases it is desirable to list devices in /etc/fstab by UUID or by a filesystem label.
The main purpose of this is to provide a constant identifier in the event that the device
name (eg: /dev/sda4) changes. LUKS device names in the form of/dev/mapper/luks<luks_uuid> are based only on the device's LUKS UUID, and are therefore guaranteed to
remain constant. This fact makes them suitable for use in /etc/fstab.
NOTE
For details on the format of the /etc/fstab file, read the fstab(5) man page.
C.5. COMMON POST-INSTALLATION TASKS
The following sections are about common post-installation tasks.
C.5.1. Set a Randomly Generated Key as an Additional Way to Access
an Encrypted Block Device
The following sections are about generating keys and adding keys.
C.5.1.1. Generate a Key
This will generate a 256-bit key in the file $HOME/keyfile.
dd if=/dev/urandom of=$HOME/keyfile bs=32 count=1
chmod 600 $HOME/keyfile
C.5.1.2. Add the Key to an Available Keyslot on the Encrypted Device
cryptsetup luksAddKey <device> ~/keyfile
C.5.2. Add a New Passphrase to an Existing Device
cryptsetup luksAddKey <device>
After being prompted for any one of the existing passphrases for authentication, you will be
prompted to enter the new passphrase.
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C.5.3. Remove a Passphrase or Key from a Device
cryptsetup luksRemoveKey <device>
You will be prompted for the passphrase you wish to remove and then for any one of the
remaining passphrases for authentication.
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APPENDIX D. UNDERSTANDING LVM
LVM (Logical Volume Management) partitions provide a number of advantages over
standard partitions. LVM partitions are formatted as physical volumes. One or more
physical volumes are combined to form a volume group. Each volume group's total storage
is then divided into one or more logical volumes. The logical volumes function much like
standard partitions. They have a file system type, such as ext4, and a mount point.
NOTE
On most architectures, the boot loader cannot read LVM volumes. You must
make a standard, non-LVM disk partition for your /boot partition.
However, on System z, the zipl boot loader supports /boot on LVM logical
volumes with linear mapping.
To understand LVM better, imagine the physical volume as a pile of blocks. A block is simply
a storage unit used to store data. Several piles of blocks can be combined to make a much
larger pile, just as physical volumes are combined to make a volume group. The resulting
pile can be subdivided into several smaller piles of arbitrary size, just as a volume group is
allocated to several logical volumes.
An administrator may grow or shrink logical volumes without destroying data, unlike
standard disk partitions. If the physical volumes in a volume group are on separate drives
or RAID arrays then administrators may also spread a logical volume across the storage
devices.
You may lose data if you shrink a logical volume to a smaller capacity than the data on the
volume requires. To ensure maximum flexibility, create logical volumes to meet your
current needs, and leave excess storage capacity unallocated. You may safely grow logical
volumes to use unallocated space, as your needs dictate.
NOTE
By default, the installation process creates / and swap partitions within LVM
volumes, with a separate /boot partition.
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APPENDIX E. THE GRUB BOOT LOADER
When a computer running Linux is turned on, the operating system is loaded into memory
by a special program called a boot loader. A boot loader usually exists on the system's
primary hard drive (or other media device) and has the sole responsibility of loading the
Linux kernel with its required files or (in some cases) other operating systems into memory.
E.1. BOOT LOADERS AND SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Each architecture capable of running Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a different boot loader.
The following table lists the boot loaders available for each architecture:
Table E.1. Boot Loaders by Architecture
Architecture
Boot Loaders
AMD AMD64
GRUB
IBM Power Systems
yaboot
IBM System z
z/IPL
x86
GRUB
This appendix discusses commands and configuration options for the GRUB boot loader
included with Red Hat Enterprise Linux for the x86 architecture.
IMPORTANT
The /boot and / (root) partition in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 can only use
the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You cannot use any
other file system for this partition, such as Btrfs, XFS, or VFAT. Other
partitions, such as /home, can use any supported file system, including Btrfs
and XFS (if available). See the following article on the Red Hat Customer Portal
for additional information: https://access.redhat.com/solutions/667273.
E.2. GRUB
The GNU GRand Unified Boot loader (GRUB) is a program which enables the selection of the
installed operating system or kernel to be loaded at system boot time. It also allows the
user to pass arguments to the kernel.
E.2.1. GRUB and the Boot Process on BIOS-based x86 Systems
This section describes the specific role GRUB plays when booting a BIOS-based x86 system.
For a look at the overall boot process, refer to Section F.2, “A Detailed Look at the Boot
Process”.
GRUB loads itself into memory in the following stages:
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1. The Stage 1 or primary boot loader is read into memory by the BIOS from the MBR
[16] . The primary boot loader exists on less than 512 bytes of disk space within the
MBR and is capable of loading either the Stage 1.5 or Stage 2 boot loader.
BIOS cannot read partition tables or file systems. It initializes the hardware, reads
the MBR, then depends entirely on the stage 1 bootloader to continue the boot
process.
2. The Stage 1.5 boot loader is read into memory by the Stage 1 boot loader, if
necessary. Some hardware requires an intermediate step to get to the Stage 2 boot
loader. This is sometimes true when the /boot/ partition is above the 1024 cylinder
head of the hard drive or when using LBA mode. The Stage 1.5 boot loader is found
either on the /boot/ partition or on a small part of the MBR and the/boot/
partition.
3. The Stage 2 or secondary boot loader is read into memory.The secondary boot
loader displays the GRUB menu and command environment. This interface allows
the user to select which kernel or operating system to boot, pass arguments to the
kernel, or look at system parameters.
4. The secondary boot loader reads the operating system or kernel as well as the
contents of /boot/sysroot/ into memory. Once GRUB determines which operating
system or kernel to start, it loads it into memory and transfers control of the
machine to that operating system.
The method used to boot Linux is called direct loading because the boot loader loads the
operating system directly. There is no intermediary between the boot loader and the kernel.
The boot process used by other operating systems may differ. For example, the Microsoft
Windows operating system, as well as other operating systems, are loaded using chain
loading. Under this method, the MBR points to the first sector of the partition holding the
operating system, where it finds the files necessary to actually boot that operating system.
GRUB supports both direct and chain loading boot methods, allowing it to boot almost any
operating system.

WARNING
During installation, Microsoft's DOS and Windows installation programs
completely overwrite the MBR, destroying any existing boot loaders. If
creating a dual-boot system, it is best to install the Microsoft operating
system first.
E.2.2. GRUB and the Boot Process on UEFI-based x86 Systems
This section describes the specific role GRUB plays when booting a UEFI-based x86 system.
For a look at the overall boot process, refer to Section F.2, “A Detailed Look at the Boot
Process”.
GRUB loads itself into memory in the following stages:
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APPENDIX E. THE GRUB BOOT LOADER
1. The UEFI-based platform reads the partition table on the system storage and mounts
the EFI System Partition (ESP), a VFAT partition labeled with a particularglobally
unique identifier (GUID). The ESP contains EFI applications such as bootloaders and
utility software, stored in directories specific to software vendors. Viewed from
within the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 file system, the ESP is /boot/efi/, and EFI
software provided by Red Hat is stored in /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/.
2. The /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/ directory contains grub.efi, a version of GRUB
compiled for the EFI firmware architecture as an EFI application. In the simplest
case, the EFI boot manager selects grub.efi as the default bootloader and reads it
into memory.
If the ESP contains other EFI applications, the EFI boot manager might prompt you
to select an application to run, rather than load grub.efi automatically.
3. GRUB determines which operating system or kernel to start, loads it into memory,
and transfers control of the machine to that operating system.
Because each vendor maintains its own directory of applications in the ESP, chain loading
is not normally necessary on UEFI-based systems. The EFI boot manager can load any of
the operating system bootloaders that are present in the ESP.
E.2.3. Features of GRUB
GRUB contains several features that make it preferable to other boot loaders available for
the x86 architecture. Below is a partial list of some of the more important features:
GRUB provides a true command-based, pre-OS environment on x86 machines.This
feature affords the user maximum flexibility in loading operating systems with
specified options or gathering information about the system. For years, many nonx86 architectures have employed pre-OS environments that allow system booting
from a command line.
GRUB supports Logical Block Addressing (LBA) mode. LBA places the addressing
conversion used to find files in the hard drive's firmware, and is used on many IDE
and all SCSI hard devices. Before LBA, boot loaders could encounter the 1024cylinder BIOS limitation, where the BIOS could not find a file after the 1024 cylinder
head of the disk. LBA support allows GRUB to boot operating systems from partitions
beyond the 1024-cylinder limit, so long as the system BIOS supports LBA mode.
Most modern BIOS revisions support LBA mode.
GRUB can read ext2 partitions. This functionality allows GRUB to access its
configuration file, /boot/grub/grub.conf, every time the system boots, eliminating
the need for the user to write a new version of the first stage boot loader to the MBR
when configuration changes are made. The only time a user needs to reinstall GRUB
on the MBR is if the physical location of the /boot/ partition is moved on the disk.
E.3. INSTALLING GRUB
In a vast majority of cases, GRUB is installed and configured by default during the
installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. However, if for some reason GRUB is not installed,
or if you need to install it again, it is possible to install grub manually.
On systems without UEFI firmware, a valid GRUB configuration file must be present at
/boot/grub/grub.conf. You can use thegrub-install script (part of the grub package) to
install GRUB. For example:
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# grub-install disk
Replace disk with the device name of your system's boot drive such as/dev/sda.
On systems with UEFI firmware, a valid GRUB configuration file must be present at
/boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.conf. An image of GRUB's first-stage boot loader is available
on the EFI System Partitition in the directory EFI/redhat/ with the filename grubx64.efi,
and you can use the efibootmgr command to install this image into your system's EFI
System Partition. For example:
# efibootmgr -c -d disk -p partition_number -l /EFI/redhat/grubx64.efi -L
"grub_uefi"
Replace disk with the name of the device containing the EFI System Partition (such as
/dev/sda) and partition_number with the partition number of your EFI System Partition (the
default value is 1, meaning the first partition on the disk).
For additional information about installing GRUB, see the GNU GRUB Manual and the grubinstall(8) man page. For information about the EFI System Partition, seeSection 9.18.1,
“Advanced Boot Loader Configuration”. For information about the efibootmgr tool, see the
efibootmgr(8) man page.
E.4. TROUBLESHOOTING GRUB
In most cases, GRUB will be installed and configured during the initial installation process,
unless you used a Kickstart file and specifically disabled this behavior. The installed system
should therefore be prepared to boot into your desktop environment or a command line,
depending on your package selection. However, in certain cases it is possible that the
system's GRUB configuration becomes corrupted and the system will no longer be able to
boot. This section describes how to fix such problems.
IMPORTANT
GRUB cannot construct a software RAID. Therefore, the /boot directory must
reside on a single, specific disk partition. The /boot directory cannot be
striped across multiple disks, as in a level 0 RAID. To use a level 0 RAID on
your system, place /boot on a separate partition outside the RAID.
Similarly, because the /boot directory must reside on a single, specific disk
partition, GRUB cannot boot the system if the disk holding that partition fails
or is removed from the system. This is true even if the disk is mirrored in a
level 1 RAID. The following Red Hat Knowledgebase article describes how to
make the system bootable from another disk in the mirrored set:
https://access.redhat.com/site/articles/7094
Note that these issues apply only to RAID that is implemented in software,
where the individual disks that make up the array are still visible as individual
disks on the system. These issues do not apply to hardware RAID where
multiple disks are represented as a single device.
The exact steps to fix a broken GRUB configuration will vary depending on what kind of
problem there is. The GNU GRUB Manual offers a list of all possible error messages
displayed by GRUB in different stages and their underlying causes. Use the manual for
reference.
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Once you have determined the cause of the error, you can start fixing it. If you are
encountering an error which only appears after you select an entry from the GRUB menu,
then you can use the menu to fix the error temporarily, boot the system, and then fix the
error permanently by running the grub-install command to reinstall the boot loader, or
by editing the /boot/grub/grub.conf or /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.conf with a plain
text editor. For information about the configuration file structure, see Section E.8, “GRUB
Menu Configuration File”.
NOTE
There are two identical files in the GRUB configuration directory: grub.conf
and menu.lst. The grub.conf configuration file is loaded first; therefore you
should make your changes there. The second file, menu.lst, will only be
loaded if grub.conf is not found.
E.5. GRUB TERMINOLOGY
One of the most important things to understand before using GRUB is how the program
refers to devices, such as hard drives and partitions. This information is particularly
important when configuring GRUB to boot multiple operating systems.
E.5.1. Device Names
When referring to a specific device with GRUB, do so using the following format (note that
the parentheses and comma are very important syntactically):
(<type-of-device><bios-device-number>,<partition-number>)
The <type-of-device> specifies the type of device from which GRUB boots. The two most
common options are hd for a hard disk orfd for a 3.5 diskette. A lesser used device type is
also available called nd for a network disk. Instructions on configuring GRUB to boot over
the network are available online at http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/.
The <bios-device-number> is the BIOS device number. The primary IDE hard drive is
numbered 0 and a secondary IDE hard drive is numbered 1. This syntax is roughly
equivalent to that used for devices by the kernel. For example, the a in hda for the kernel is
analogous to the 0 in hd0 for GRUB, the b in hdb is analogous to the 1 in hd1, and so on.
The <partition-number> specifies the number of a partition on a device. Like the<biosdevice-number>, most types of partitions are numbered starting at0. However, BSD
partitions are specified using letters, with a corresponding to 0, b corresponding to 1, and so
on.
NOTE
The numbering system for devices under GRUB always begins with 0, not 1.
Failing to make this distinction is one of the most common mistakes made by
new users.
To give an example, if a system has more than one hard drive, GRUB refers to the first hard
drive as (hd0) and the second as (hd1). Likewise, GRUB refers to the first partition on the
first drive as (hd0,0) and the third partition on the second hard drive as(hd1,2).
In general the following rules apply when naming devices and partitions under GRUB:
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It does not matter if system hard drives are IDE or SCSI, all hard drives begin with
the letters hd. The letters fd are used to specify 3.5 diskettes.
To specify an entire device without respect to partitions, leave off the comma and
the partition number. This is important when telling GRUB to configure the MBR for a
particular disk. For example, (hd0) specifies the MBR on the first device and(hd3)
specifies the MBR on the fourth device.
If a system has multiple drive devices, it is very important to know how the drive
boot order is set in the BIOS. This is a simple task if a system has only IDE or SCSI
drives, but if there is a mix of devices, it becomes critical that the type of drive with
the boot partition be accessed first.
E.5.2. File Names and Blocklists
When typing commands to GRUB that reference a file, such as a menu list, it is necessary
to specify an absolute file path immediately after the device and partition numbers.
The following illustrates the structure of such a command:
(<device-type><device-number>,<partition-number>)</path/to/file>
In this example, replace <device-type> with hd, fd, or nd. Replace <device-number> with
the integer for the device. Replace </path/to/file> with an absolute path relative to the toplevel of the device.
It is also possible to specify files to GRUB that do not actually appear in the file system,
such as a chain loader that appears in the first few blocks of a partition. To load such files,
provide a blocklist that specifies block by block where the file is located in the partition.
Since a file is often comprised of several different sets of blocks, blocklists use a special
syntax. Each block containing the file is specified by an offset number of blocks, followed by
the number of blocks from that offset point. Block offsets are listed sequentially in a
comma-delimited list.
The following is a sample blocklist:
0+50,100+25,200+1
This sample blocklist specifies a file that starts at the first block on the partition and uses
blocks 0 through 49, 100 through 124, and 200.
Knowing how to write blocklists is useful when using GRUB to load operating systems which
require chain loading. It is possible to leave off the offset number of blocks if starting at
block 0. As an example, the chain loading file in the first partition of the first hard drive
would have the following name:
(hd0,0)+1
The following shows the chainloader command with a similar blocklist designation at the
GRUB command line after setting the correct device and partition as root:
chainloader +1
E.5.3. The Root File System and GRUB
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APPENDIX E. THE GRUB BOOT LOADER
The use of the term root file system has a different meaning in regard to GRUB. It is
important to remember that GRUB's root file system has nothing to do with the Linux root
file system.
The GRUB root file system is the top level of the specified device. For example, the image
file (hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz is located within the /grub/ directory at the top-level
(or root) of the (hd0,0) partition (which is actually the /boot/ partition for the system).
Next, the kernel command is executed with the location of the kernel file as an option.
Once the Linux kernel boots, it sets up the root file system that Linux users are familiar
with. The original GRUB root file system and its mounts are forgotten; they only existed to
boot the kernel file.
Refer to the root and kernel commands in Section E.7, “GRUB Commands” for more
information.
E.6. GRUB INTERFACES
GRUB features three interfaces which provide different levels of functionality. Each of these
interfaces allows users to boot the Linux kernel or another operating system.
The interfaces are as follows:
NOTE
The following GRUB interfaces can only be accessed by pressing any key
within the three seconds of the GRUB menu bypass screen.
Menu Interface
This is the default interface shown when GRUB is configured by the installation program.
A menu of operating systems or preconfigured kernels are displayed as a list, ordered by
name. Use the arrow keys to select an operating system or kernel version and press the
Enter key to boot it. If you do nothing on this screen, then after the time out period
expires GRUB will load the default option.
Press the e key to enter the entry editor interface or thec key to load a command line
interface.
Refer to Section E.8, “GRUB Menu Configuration File” for more information on
configuring this interface.
Menu Entry Editor Interface
To access the menu entry editor, press the e key from the boot loader menu. The GRUB
commands for that entry are displayed here, and users may alter these command lines
before booting the operating system by adding a command line (o inserts a new line
after the current line and O inserts a new line before it), editing one (e ), or deleting one
(d).
After all changes are made, the b key executes the commands and boots the operating
system. The Esc key discards any changes and reloads the standard menu interface. The
c key loads the command line interface.
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NOTE
For information about changing runlevels using the GRUB menu entry
editor, refer to Section E.9, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
Command Line Interface
The command line interface is the most basic GRUB interface, but it is also the one that
grants the most control. The command line makes it possible to type any relevant GRUB
commands followed by the Enter key to execute them. This interface features some
advanced shell-like features, including Tab key completion based on context, and Ctrl
key combinations when typing commands, such as Ctrl+a to move to the beginning of
a line and Ctrl+e to move to the end of a line. In addition, the arrow,Home, End, and
Delete keys work as they do in thebash shell.
Refer to Section E.7, “GRUB Commands” for a list of common commands.
E.6.1. Interfaces Load Order
When GRUB loads its second stage boot loader, it first searches for its configuration file.
Once found, the menu interface bypass screen is displayed. If a key is pressed within three
seconds, GRUB builds a menu list and displays the menu interface. If no key is pressed, the
default kernel entry in the GRUB menu is used.
If the configuration file cannot be found, or if the configuration file is unreadable, GRUB
loads the command line interface, allowing the user to type commands to complete the
boot process.
If the configuration file is not valid, GRUB prints out the error and asks for input. This helps
the user see precisely where the problem occurred. Pressing any key reloads the menu
interface, where it is then possible to edit the menu option and correct the problem based
on the error reported by GRUB. If the correction fails, GRUB reports an error and reloads
the menu interface.
E.7. GRUB COMMANDS
GRUB allows a number of useful commands in its command line interface. Some of the
commands accept options after their name; these options should be separated from the
command and other options on that line by space characters.
The following is a list of useful commands:
boot — Boots the operating system or chain loader that was last loaded.
chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader. If the
file is located on the first sector of the specified partition, use the blocklist notation,
+1, instead of the file name.
The following is an example chainloader command:
chainloader +1
displaymem — Displays the current use of memory, based on information from the
BIOS. This is useful to determine how much RAM a system has prior to booting it.
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initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use
when booting. An initrd is necessary when the kernel needs certain modules in
order to boot properly, such as when the root partition is formatted with the ext3 or
ext4 file system.
The following is an example initrd command:
initrd /initrd-2.6.8-1.523.img
install <stage-1> <install-disk> <stage-2> p config-file — Installs GRUB
to the system MBR.
<stage-1> — Signifies a device, partition, and file where the first boot loader
image can be found, such as (hd0,0)/grub/stage1.
<install-disk> — Specifies the disk where the stage 1 boot loader should be
installed, such as (hd0).
<stage-2> — Passes the stage 2 boot loader location to the stage 1 boot loader,
such as (hd0,0)/grub/stage2.
p <config-file> — This option tells the install command to look for the menu
configuration file specified by <config-file>, such as
(hd0,0)/grub/grub.conf.

WARNING
The install command overwrites any information already located
on the MBR.
kernel </path/to/kernel> <option-1> <option-N> ... — Specifies the kernel file
to load when booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an
absolute path from the partition specified by the root command. Replace <option1> with options for the Linux kernel, such asroot=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 to
specify the device on which the root partition for the system is located. Multiple
options can be passed to the kernel in a space separated list.
The following is an example kernel command:
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.8-1.523 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
The option in the previous example specifies that the root file system for Linux is
located on the hda5 partition.
root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition.
The following is an example root command:
root (hd0,0)
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rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the
root partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the
partition.
Other commands are also available; type help --all for a full list of commands. For a
description of all GRUB commands, refer to the documentation available online at
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/.
E.8. GRUB MENU CONFIGURATION FILE
The configuration file (/boot/grub/grub.conf on BIOS systems and
/boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.conf on UEFI systems), which is used to create the list of
operating systems to boot in GRUB's menu interface, essentially allows the user to select a
pre-set group of commands to execute. The commands given in Section E.7, “GRUB
Commands” can be used, as well as some special commands that are only available in the
configuration file.
E.8.1. Configuration File Structure
The commands to set the global preferences for the menu interface are placed at the top
of the GRUB configuration file, followed by stanzas for each operating kernel or operating
system listed in the menu.
The following is a very basic GRUB menu configuration file designed to boot either Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or Microsoft Windows:
default=0
timeout=10
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.32.130.el6.i686)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32.130.el6.i686 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.32.130.el6.i686.img
# section to load Windows
title Windows
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1
This file configures GRUB to build a menu with Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the default
operating system and sets it to autoboot after 10 seconds. Two sections are given, one for
each operating system entry, with commands specific to the system disk partition table.
NOTE
Note that the default is specified as an integer. This refers to the first title
line in the GRUB configuration file. For the Windows section to be set as the
default in the previous example, change the default=0 to default=1.
Configuring a GRUB menu configuration file to boot multiple operating systems is beyond
the scope of this chapter. Consult Section E.10, “Additional Resources” for a list of
additional resources.
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E.8.2. Configuration File Directives
The following are directives commonly used in the GRUB menu configuration file:
chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader.
Replace </path/to/file> with the absolute path to the chain loader. If the file is
located on the first sector of the specified partition, use the blocklist notation, +1.
color <normal-color> <selected-color> — Allows specific colors to be used in
the menu, where two colors are configured as the foreground and background. Use
simple color names such as red/black. For example:
color red/black green/blue
default=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the default entry title number to be
loaded if the menu interface times out.
fallback=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the entry title number to try if the
first attempt fails.
hiddenmenu — Prevents the GRUB menu interface from being displayed, loading the
default entry when the timeout period expires. The user can see the standard
GRUB menu by pressing the Esc key.
initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use
when booting. Replace </path/to/initrd> with the absolute path to the initial RAM
disk.
kernel </path/to/kernel> <option-1> <option-N> — Specifies the kernel file to
load when booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an
absolute path from the partition specified by the root directive. Multiple options can
be passed to the kernel when it is loaded.
These options include:
rhgb (Red Hat graphical boot) — displays an animation during the boot process,
rather than lines of text.
quiet — suppresses all but the most important messages in the part of the boot
sequence before the Red Hat graphical boot animation begins.
password=<password> — Prevents a user who does not know the password from
editing the entries for this menu option.
Optionally, it is possible to specify an alternate menu configuration file after the
password=<password> directive. In this case, GRUB restarts the second stage boot
loader and uses the specified alternate configuration file to build the menu. If an
alternate menu configuration file is left out of the command, a user who knows the
password is allowed to edit the current configuration file.
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IMPORTANT
It is highly recommended to set up a boot loader password on every
machine. An unprotected boot loader can allow a potential attacker to
modify the system's boot options and gain access to the system. See
the chapter titled Workstation Security in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Security Guide for more information on boot loader passwords and
password security in general.
map — Swaps the numbers assigned to two hard drives. For example:
map (hd0) (hd3)
map (hd3) (hd0)
assigns the number 0 to the fourth hard drive, and the number3 to the first hard
drive. This option is especially useful if you configure your system with an option to
boot a Windows operating system, because the Windows boot loader must find the
Windows installation on the first hard drive.
For example, if your Windows installation is on the fourth hard drive, the following
entry in grub.conf will allow the Windows boot loader to load Windows correctly:
title Windows
map (hd0) (hd3)
map (hd3) (hd0)
rootnoverify (hd3,0)
chainloader +1
root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition. To specify the boot
drive selected by the EFI boot manager, the syntax is <device-type>,<partition>,
such as (bd,1).
rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the
root partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the
partition.
timeout=<integer> — Specifies the interval, in seconds, that GRUB waits before
loading the entry designated in the default command.
splashimage=<path-to-image> — Specifies the location of the splash screen image
to be used when GRUB boots.
title group-title — Specifies a title to be used with a particular group of
commands used to load a kernel or operating system.
device grub-device-name uefi-device-name — Assigns a GRUB device name to
refer to a specific UEFI device. The argument grub-device-name should be replaced
with a GRUB device name, for example (hd0). The argument uefi-device-name
should be replaced with a UEFI device name in the form of either HD(number,
start, size, signature), or CD(index, start, size), where number is the
partition number, starting at 1, index is the index of the CD's El Torito boot entry,
start and size are the start position and size of the partition respectively, in sectors,
in hexadecimal format, and signature is the partition's unique GUID.
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To add human-readable comments to the menu configuration file, begin the line with the
hash mark character (#).
E.9. CHANGING RUNLEVELS AT BOOT TIME
Under Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time.
To change the runlevel of a single boot session, use the following instructions:
When the GRUB menu bypass screen appears at boot time, press any key to enter
the GRUB menu (within the first three seconds).
Press the a key to append to the kernel command.
Add <space><runlevel> at the end of the boot options line to boot to the desired
runlevel. For example, the following entry would initiate a boot process into runlevel
3:
grub append> ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet 3
E.10. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
This chapter is only intended as an introduction to GRUB. Consult the following resources to
discover more about how GRUB works.
E.10.1. Installed Documentation
/usr/share/doc/grub-<version-number>/ — This directory contains good
information about using and configuring GRUB, where <version-number>
corresponds to the version of the GRUB package installed.
info grub — The GRUB info page contains a tutorial, a user reference manual, a
programmer reference manual, and a FAQ document about GRUB and its usage.
E.10.2. Useful Websites
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ — The home page of the GNU GRUB project. This
site contains information concerning the state of GRUB development and an FAQ.
https://access.redhat.com/site/solutions/6863 — Details booting operating systems
other than Linux.
[16] For more on the system BIOS and the MBR, refer to Section F.2.1.1, “BIOS-based x86 Systems”.
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APPENDIX F. BOOT PROCESS, INIT, AND SHUTDOWN
An important and powerful aspect of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the open, userconfigurable method it uses for starting the operating system. Users are free to configure
many aspects of the boot process, including specifying the programs launched at boottime. Similarly, system shutdown gracefully terminates processes in an organized and
configurable way, although customization of this process is rarely required.
Understanding how the boot and shutdown processes work not only allows customization,
but also makes it easier to troubleshoot problems related to starting or shutting down the
system.
F.1. THE BOOT PROCESS
Below are the basic stages of the boot process:
1. The system loads and runs a boot loader. The specifics of this process depend on
the system architecture. For example:
BIOS-based x86 systems run a first-stage boot loader from the MBR of the
primary hard disk that, in turn, loads an additional boot loader, GRUB.
UEFI-based x86 systems mount an EFI System Partition that contains a version of
the GRUB boot loader. The EFI boot manager loads and runsGRUB as an EFI
application.
Power Systems servers mount a PPC PReP partition that contains the Yaboot
boot loader. The System Management Services (SMS) boot manager loads and
runs yaboot.
IBM System z runs the z/IPL boot loader from a DASD or FCP-connected device
that you specify when you IPL the partition that contains Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
2. The boot loader loads the kernel into memory, which in turn loads any necessary
modules and mounts the root partition read-only.
3. The kernel transfers control of the boot process to the /sbin/init program.
4. The /sbin/init program loads all services and user-space tools, and mounts all
partitions listed in /etc/fstab.
5. The user is presented with a login screen for the freshly booted Linux system.
Because configuration of the boot process is more common than the customization of the
shutdown process, the remainder of this chapter discusses in detail how the boot process
works and how it can be customized to suite specific needs.
F.2. A DETAILED LOOK AT THE BOOT PROCESS
The beginning of the boot process varies depending on the hardware platform being used.
However, once the kernel is found and loaded by the boot loader, the default boot process
is identical across all architectures. This chapter focuses primarily on the x86 architecture.
F.2.1. The Firmware Interface
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F.2.1.1. BIOS-based x86 Systems
The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) is a firmware interface that controls not only the first
step of the boot process, but also provides the lowest level interface to peripheral devices.
On x86 systems equipped with BIOS, the program is written into read-only, permanent
memory and is always available for use. When the system boots, the processor looks at the
end of system memory for the BIOS program, and runs it.
Once loaded, the BIOS tests the system, looks for and checks peripherals, and then locates
a valid device with which to boot the system. Usually, it checks any optical drives or USB
storage devices present for bootable media, then, failing that, looks to the system's hard
drives. In most cases, the order of the drives searched while booting is controlled with a
setting in the BIOS, and it looks on the master IDE on the primary IDE bus or for a SATA
device with a boot flag set. The BIOS then loads into memory whatever program is residing
in the first sector of this device, called the Master Boot Record (MBR). The MBR is only 512
bytes in size and contains machine code instructions for booting the machine, called a boot
loader, along with the partition table. Once the BIOS finds and loads the boot loader
program into memory, it yields control of the boot process to it.
This first-stage boot loader is a small machine code binary on the MBR. Its sole job is to
locate the second stage boot loader (GRUB) and load the first part of it into memory.
F.2.1.2. UEFI-based x86 Systems
The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is designed, like BIOS, to control the boot
process (through boot services) and to provide an interface between system firmware and
an operating system (through runtime services). Unlike BIOS, it features its own
architecture, independent of the CPU, and its own device drivers. UEFI can mount partitions
and read certain file systems.
When an x86 computer equipped with UEFI boots, the interface searches the system
storage for a partition labeled with a specific globally unique identifier (GUID) that marks it
as the EFI System Partition (ESP). This partition contains applications compiled for the EFI
architecture, which might include bootloaders for operating systems and utility software.
UEFI systems include an EFI boot manager that can boot the system from a default
configuration, or prompt a user to choose an operating system to boot. When a bootloader
is selected, manually or automatically, UEFI reads it into memory and yields control of the
boot process to it.
F.2.2. The Boot Loader
F.2.2.1. The GRUB boot loader for x86 systems
The system loads GRUB into memory, as directed by either a first-stage bootloader in the
case of systems equipped with BIOS, or read directly from an EFI System Partition in the
case of systems equipped with UEFI.
GRUB has the advantage of being able to read ext2, ext3, and ext4 [17] partitions and load
its configuration file — /boot/grub/grub.conf (for BIOS) or
/boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.conf (for UEFI) — at boot time. Refer toSection E.8, “GRUB
Menu Configuration File” for information on how to edit this file.
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IMPORTANT
The GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9 supports ext2, ext3, and
ext4 file systems. It does not support other file systems such as VFAT, Btrfs or
XFS. Furthermore, GRUB does not support LVM.
Once the second stage boot loader is in memory, it presents the user with a graphical
screen showing the different operating systems or kernels it has been configured to boot
(when you update the kernel, the boot loader configuration file is updated automatically).
On this screen a user can use the arrow keys to choose which operating system or kernel
they wish to boot and press Enter. If no key is pressed, the boot loader loads the default
selection after a configurable period of time has passed.
Once the second stage boot loader has determined which kernel to boot, it locates the
corresponding kernel binary in the /boot/ directory. The kernel binary is named using the
following format — /boot/vmlinuz-<kernel-version> file (where <kernel-version>
corresponds to the kernel version specified in the boot loader's settings).
For instructions on using the boot loader to supply command line arguments to the kernel,
refer to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader. For information on changing the runlevel at the
boot loader prompt, refer Section E.9, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
The boot loader then places one or more appropriate initramfs images into memory. The
initramfs is used by the kernel to load drivers and modules necessary to boot the system.
This is particularly important if SCSI hard drives are present or if the systems use the ext3
or ext4 file system.
Once the kernel and the initramfs image(s) are loaded into memory, the boot loader
hands control of the boot process to the kernel.
For a more detailed overview of the GRUB boot loader, refer to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot
Loader.
F.2.2.2. Boot Loaders for Other Architectures
Once the kernel loads and hands off the boot process to the init command, the same
sequence of events occurs on every architecture. So the main difference between each
architecture's boot process is in the application used to find and load the kernel.
For example, the IBM eServer pSeries architecture uses yaboot, and the IBM System z
systems use the z/IPL boot loader.
Consult the sections of this guide specific to these platforms for information on configuring
their boot loaders.
F.2.3. The Kernel
When the kernel is loaded, it immediately initializes and configures the computer's memory
and configures the various hardware attached to the system, including all processors, I/O
subsystems, and storage devices. It then looks for the compressed initramfs image(s) in a
predetermined location in memory, decompresses it directly to /sysroot/, and loads all
necessary drivers. Next, it initializes virtual devices related to the file system, such as LVM
or software RAID, before completing the initramfs processes and freeing up all the
memory the disk image once occupied.
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The kernel then creates a root device, mounts the root partition read-only, and frees any
unused memory.
At this point, the kernel is loaded into memory and operational. However, since there are
no user applications that allow meaningful input to the system, not much can be done with
the system.
To set up the user environment, the kernel executes the /sbin/init program.
F.2.4. The /sbin/init Program
The /sbin/init program (also called init) coordinates the rest of the boot process and
configures the environment for the user.
When the init command starts, it becomes the parent or grandparent of all of the
processes that start up automatically on the system. First, it runs the
/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script, which sets the environment path, starts swap, checks the
file systems, and executes all other steps required for system initialization. For example,
most systems use a clock, so rc.sysinit reads the /etc/sysconfig/clock configuration
file to initialize the hardware clock. Another example is if there are special serial port
processes which must be initialized, rc.sysinit executes the /etc/rc.serial file.
The init command then processes the jobs in the/etc/event.d directory, which describe
how the system should be set up in each SysV init runlevel. Runlevels are a state, ormode,
defined by the services listed in the SysV /etc/rc.d/rc<x>.d/ directory, where <x> is the
number of the runlevel. For more information on SysV init runlevels, refer to Section F.4,
“SysV Init Runlevels”.
Next, the init command sets the source function library, /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions,
for the system, which configures how to start, kill, and determine the PID of a program.
The init program starts all of the background processes by looking in the appropriaterc
directory for the runlevel specified as the default in /etc/inittab. The rc directories are
numbered to correspond to the runlevel they represent. For instance, /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ is
the directory for runlevel 5.
When booting to runlevel 5, the init program looks in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory to
determine which processes to start and stop.
Below is an example listing of the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory:
K05innd -> ../init.d/innd
K05saslauthd -> ../init.d/saslauthd
K10dc_server -> ../init.d/dc_server
K10psacct -> ../init.d/psacct
K10radiusd -> ../init.d/radiusd
K12dc_client -> ../init.d/dc_client
K12FreeWnn -> ../init.d/FreeWnn
K12mailman -> ../init.d/mailman
K12mysqld -> ../init.d/mysqld
K15httpd -> ../init.d/httpd
K20netdump-server -> ../init.d/netdump-server
K20rstatd -> ../init.d/rstatd
K20rusersd -> ../init.d/rusersd
K20rwhod -> ../init.d/rwhod
K24irda -> ../init.d/irda
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K25squid -> ../init.d/squid
K28amd -> ../init.d/amd
K30spamassassin -> ../init.d/spamassassin
K34dhcrelay -> ../init.d/dhcrelay
K34yppasswdd -> ../init.d/yppasswdd
K35dhcpd -> ../init.d/dhcpd
K35smb -> ../init.d/smb
K35vncserver -> ../init.d/vncserver
K36lisa -> ../init.d/lisa
K45arpwatch -> ../init.d/arpwatch
K45named -> ../init.d/named
K46radvd -> ../init.d/radvd
K50netdump -> ../init.d/netdump
K50snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
K50snmptrapd -> ../init.d/snmptrapd
K50tux -> ../init.d/tux
K50vsftpd -> ../init.d/vsftpd
K54dovecot -> ../init.d/dovecot
K61ldap -> ../init.d/ldap
K65kadmin -> ../init.d/kadmin
K65kprop -> ../init.d/kprop
K65krb524 -> ../init.d/krb524
K65krb5kdc -> ../init.d/krb5kdc
K70aep1000 -> ../init.d/aep1000
K70bcm5820 -> ../init.d/bcm5820
K74ypserv -> ../init.d/ypserv
K74ypxfrd -> ../init.d/ypxfrd
K85mdmpd -> ../init.d/mdmpd
K89netplugd -> ../init.d/netplugd
K99microcode_ctl -> ../init.d/microcode_ctl
S04readahead_early -> ../init.d/readahead_early
S05kudzu -> ../init.d/kudzu
S06cpuspeed -> ../init.d/cpuspeed
S08ip6tables -> ../init.d/ip6tables
S08iptables -> ../init.d/iptables
S09isdn -> ../init.d/isdn
S10network -> ../init.d/network
S12syslog -> ../init.d/syslog
S13irqbalance -> ../init.d/irqbalance
S13portmap -> ../init.d/portmap
S15mdmonitor -> ../init.d/mdmonitor
S15zebra -> ../init.d/zebra
S16bgpd -> ../init.d/bgpd
S16ospf6d -> ../init.d/ospf6d
S16ospfd -> ../init.d/ospfd
S16ripd -> ../init.d/ripd
S16ripngd -> ../init.d/ripngd
S20random -> ../init.d/random
S24pcmcia -> ../init.d/pcmcia
S25netfs -> ../init.d/netfs
S26apmd -> ../init.d/apmd
S27ypbind -> ../init.d/ypbind
S28autofs -> ../init.d/autofs
S40smartd -> ../init.d/smartd
S44acpid -> ../init.d/acpid
S54hpoj -> ../init.d/hpoj
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S55cups -> ../init.d/cups
S55sshd -> ../init.d/sshd
S56rawdevices -> ../init.d/rawdevices
S56xinetd -> ../init.d/xinetd
S58ntpd -> ../init.d/ntpd
S75postgresql -> ../init.d/postgresql
S80sendmail -> ../init.d/sendmail
S85gpm -> ../init.d/gpm
S87iiim -> ../init.d/iiim
S90canna -> ../init.d/canna
S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
S90xfs -> ../init.d/xfs
S95atd -> ../init.d/atd
S96readahead -> ../init.d/readahead
S97messagebus -> ../init.d/messagebus
S97rhnsd -> ../init.d/rhnsd
S99local -> ../rc.local
As illustrated in this listing, none of the scripts that actually start and stop the services are
located in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory. Rather, all of the files in/etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ are
symbolic links pointing to scripts located in the/etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory. Symbolic
links are used in each of the rc directories so that the runlevels can be reconfigured by
creating, modifying, and deleting the symbolic links without affecting the actual scripts
they reference.
The name of each symbolic link begins with either a K or an S. The K links are processes
that are killed on that runlevel, while those beginning with an S are started.
The init command first stops all of theK symbolic links in the directory by issuing the
/etc/rc.d/init.d/<command> stop command, where <command> is the process to be
killed. It then starts all of the S symbolic links by issuing/etc/rc.d/init.d/<command>
start.
NOTE
After the system is finished booting, it is possible to log in as root and execute
these same scripts to start and stop services. For instance, the command
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd stop stops the Apache HTTP Server.
Each of the symbolic links are numbered to dictate start order. The order in which the
services are started or stopped can be altered by changing this number. The lower the
number, the earlier it is started. Symbolic links with the same number are started
alphabetically.
NOTE
One of the last things the init program executes is the /etc/rc.d/rc.local
file. This file is useful for system customization. Refer to Section F.3, “Running
Additional Programs at Boot Time” for more information about using the
rc.local file.
After the init command has progressed through the appropriaterc directory for the
runlevel, Upstart forks an /sbin/mingetty process for each virtual console (login prompt)
allocated to the runlevel by the job definition in the /etc/event.d directory. Runlevels 2
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through 5 have all six virtual consoles, while runlevel 1 (single user mode) has one, and
runlevels 0 and 6 have none. The /sbin/mingetty process opens communication pathways
to tty devices[18] , sets their modes, prints the login prompt, accepts the user's username
and password, and initiates the login process.
In runlevel 5, Upstart runs a script called /etc/X11/prefdm. The prefdm script executes
the preferred X display manager [19] — gdm, kdm, or xdm, depending on the contents of the
/etc/sysconfig/desktop file.
Once finished, the system operates on runlevel 5 and displays a login screen.
F.2.5. Job Definitions
Previously, the sysvinit package provided the init daemon for the default configuration.
When the system started, this init daemon ran the /etc/inittab script to start system
processes defined for each runlevel. The default configuration now uses an event-driven
init daemon provided by theupstart package. Whenever particular events occur, the init
daemon processes jobs stored in the /etc/event.d directory. The init daemon recognizes
the start of the system as such an event.
Each job typically specifies a program, and the events that trigger init to run or to stop the
program. Some jobs are constructed as tasks, which perform actions and then terminate
until another event triggers the job again. Other jobs are constructed as services, which init
keeps running until another event (or the user) stops it.
For example, the /etc/events.d/tty2 job is a service to maintain a virtual terminal on
tty2 from the time that the system starts until the system shuts down, or another event
(such as a change in runlevel) stops the job. The job is constructed so that init will restart
the virtual terminal if it stops unexpectedly during that time:
# tty2 - getty
#
# This service maintains a getty on tty2 from the point the system is
# started until it is shut down again.
start
start
start
start
on
on
on
on
stopped
stopped
stopped
started
rc2
rc3
rc4
prefdm
stop on runlevel 0
stop on runlevel 1
stop on runlevel 6
respawn
exec /sbin/mingetty tty2
F.3. RUNNING ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS AT BOOT TIME
The /etc/rc.d/rc.local script is executed by the init command at boot time or when
changing runlevels. Adding commands to the bottom of this script is an easy way to
perform necessary tasks like starting special services or initialize devices without writing
complex initialization scripts in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory and creating symbolic
links.
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The /etc/rc.serial script is used if serial ports must be setup at boot time. This script
runs setserial commands to configure the system's serial ports. Refer to thesetserial
man page for more information.
F.4. SYSV INIT RUNLEVELS
The SysV init runlevel system provides a standard process for controlling which programs
init launches or halts when initializing a runlevel. SysV init was chosen because it is easier
to use and more flexible than the traditional BSD-style init process.
The configuration files for SysV init are located in the /etc/rc.d/ directory. Within this
directory, are the rc, rc.local, rc.sysinit, and, optionally, the rc.serial scripts as well
as the following directories:
init.d/ rc0.d/ rc1.d/ rc2.d/ rc3.d/ rc4.d/ rc5.d/ rc6.d/
The init.d/ directory contains the scripts used by the/sbin/init command when
controlling services. Each of the numbered directories represent the six runlevels
configured by default under Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
F.4.1. Runlevels
The idea behind SysV init runlevels revolves around the idea that different systems can be
used in different ways. For example, a server runs more efficiently without the drag on
system resources created by the X Window System. Or there may be times when a system
administrator may need to operate the system at a lower runlevel to perform diagnostic
tasks, like fixing disk corruption in runlevel 1.
The characteristics of a given runlevel determine which services are halted and started by
init. For instance, runlevel 1 (single user mode) halts any network services, while runlevel
3 starts these services. By assigning specific services to be halted or started on a given
runlevel, init can quickly change the mode of the machine without the user manually
stopping and starting services.
The following runlevels are defined by default under Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
0 — Halt
1 — Single-user text mode
2 — Not used (user-definable)
3 — Full multi-user text mode
4 — Not used (user-definable)
5 — Full multi-user graphical mode (with an X-based login screen)
6 — Reboot
In general, users operate Red Hat Enterprise Linux at runlevel 3 or runlevel 5 — both full
multi-user modes. Users sometimes customize runlevels 2 and 4 to meet specific needs,
since they are not used.
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The default runlevel for the system is listed in /etc/inittab. To find out the default
runlevel for a system, look for the line similar to the following near the bottom of
/etc/inittab:
id:5:initdefault:
The default runlevel listed in this example is five, as the number after the first colon
indicates. To change it, edit /etc/inittab as root.

WARNING
Be very careful when editing /etc/inittab. Simple typos can cause the
system to become unbootable. If this happens, either use a boot CD or
DVD, enter single-user mode, or enter rescue mode to boot the computer
and repair the file.
For more information on single-user and rescue mode, refer to
Chapter 36, Basic System Recovery.
It is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time by modifying the arguments
passed by the boot loader to the kernel. For information on changing the runlevel at boot
time, refer to Section E.9, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
F.4.2. Runlevel Utilities
One of the best ways to configure runlevels is to use an initscript utility. These tools are
designed to simplify the task of maintaining files in the SysV init directory hierarchy and
relieves system administrators from having to directly manipulate the numerous symbolic
links in the subdirectories of /etc/rc.d/.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides three such utilities:
/sbin/chkconfig — The /sbin/chkconfig utility is a simple command line tool for
maintaining the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory hierarchy.
/usr/sbin/ntsysv — The ncurses-based /sbin/ntsysv utility provides an interactive
text-based interface, which some find easier to use than chkconfig.
Services Configuration Tool — The graphical Services Configuration Tool
(system-config-services) program is a flexible utility for configuring runlevels.
Refer to the chapter titled Services and Daemons in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for more information regarding these tools.
F.5. SHUTTING DOWN
To shut down Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the root user may issue the /sbin/shutdown
command. The shutdown man page has a complete list of options, but the two most
common uses are:
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/sbin/shutdown -h now
and
/sbin/shutdown -r now
After shutting everything down, the -h option halts the machine, and the -r option reboots.
PAM console users can use the reboot and halt commands to shut down the system while
in runlevels 1 through 5. For more information about PAM console users, refer to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
If the computer does not power itself down, be careful not to turn off the computer until a
message appears indicating that the system is halted.
Failure to wait for this message can mean that not all the hard drive partitions are
unmounted, which can lead to file system corruption.
[17] GRUB reads ext3 and ext4 file systems as ext2, disregarding the journal file.
[18] Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information about tty
devices.
[19] Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information about display
managers.
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APPENDIX G. ALTERNATIVES TO BUSYBOX
COMMANDS
Unlike previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not
include a version of busybox to provide shell commands in the pre-installation and postinstallation environments. Table G.1, “Alternatives to busybox commands” contains a list of
busybox commands, equivalent ways to implement the same functionality inbash, and
the availability of these alternatives in the %pre and %post environments. The table also
indicates the exact path to the command, although