TH E TRANS PO EY OF ENT TM ION AT RT DEP AR Moped Manual S ST ER ATE OF N E W J New Jersey Department of Transportation Motor Vehicle Services www.state.nj.us/mvs This manual was originally published in cooperation with the North Plainfield Board of Education, the New Jersey Police Traffic Officers Association and the MOPED Owners Association. New Jersey moped manual Introduction Driving a motorized bicycle, or MOPED, can be fun. However, it's also a privilege, not a right. In New Jersey, MOPED drivers are required by law to abide by the same traffic rules as motor vehicle drivers - as well as a few special traffic regulations. Enjoy your MOPED. But drive carefully . . . for your safety and that of others. James Weinstein, Commissioner New Jersey Department of Transportation C. Richard Kamin, Director Motor Vehicle Services The NJ MOPED license plate is always mounted on the rear of the vehicle. New Jersey moped manual Motorized Bicycle (MOPED) Manual A supplement to the NJ Driver Manual Define a MOPED ..................................................................................... 1 Get your MOPED license .......................................................................... 2 Know other requirements........................................................................ 4 Follow MOPED laws ................................................................................. 5 Avoid points and penalties...................................................................... 7 Control your MOPED ............................................................................... 8 Avoid MOPED accidents..........................................................................10 Check the MOPED ..................................................................................12 Choose proper clothing ..........................................................................13 Start your MOPED..................................................................................15 Drive your MOPED .................................................................................16 Take bike routes ...................................................................................21 Drive at night.......................................................................................22 Watch the weather ................................................................................23 Know additional hazards........................................................................24 Answer sample test questions.................................................................29 Practive driving test runs.......................................................................31 Locate MVS facilities.........................................................inside back cover New Jersey Department of Transportation Motor Vehicle Services Christine Todd Whitman, Governor James Weinstein, Commissioner C. Richard Kamin, Director January 2000 New Jersey moped manual Define a MOPED In New Jersey, a motorized bicycle, or MOPED, is defined by law as a pedal bicycle with a helper motor that has a maximum piston displacement of less than 50 cubic centimeters, or no more than 1.5 brake horsepower, and is capable of a maximum speed of no more than 25 miles per hour on a flat surface. Motorized tricycles are not legal in New Jersey and cannot be operated on public roadways. In this manual, the terms motorized bicycle and MOPED will be used interchangeably. MOPEDs aren't bicycles Although they resemble bicycles, MOPEDs are heavier and handle differently. They usually require longer braking distances to stop, don't turn as quickly and are harder to pedal than bicycles. MOPEDs aren't motorcycles, either MOPEDs are lighter and have less power than even the smallest motorcycles. They also lack certain standard equipment found on motorcycles, such as turn signals, two rearview mirrors, and so on. However, some MOPED manufacturers now offer electric turn signals and two-speed transmissions as optional equipment. Motorcycles are subject to annual vehicle inspection; MOPEDs are not. AFFIX CORRECTION STICKER Upon my death I am willing to donate the following: EYES LIVER HEART KIDNEY ANY ORGAN NONE RESTRICTIONS Q. 15 Passenger or Less 1. Corrective Lenses R. Bus Mechanic Without Passenger 2. Prosthetic Device S. No School Age Passengers 3. Mechanical Device 4. Hearing Impaired ENDORSEMENTS 5. Attached Restrictions F. Moped L. Excludes Vehicles with Air Brakes H. Hazardous Material M. Excludes Class A Passenger Vehicles M. Motorcycle N. Excludes Class A & B Passenger Vehicles N. Tank O. Valid in Tow Trucks Only P. Passenger Vehicle P. Non CDL Passenger Only T. Double/Triple Trailer 1 New Jersey moped manual Get your MOPED license To be able to drive a MOPED, you must be: • At least 15 years old with a valid MOPED, motorcycle, or basic driver license. If you need a MOPED driver license, purchase an examination permit at any motor vehicle agency for $5. The permit is valid for 45 days. You will have to show acceptable proof of age and identity, and evidence that your presence in the United States is authorized under federal law. Although your birth certificate (original or certified copy) is preferred proof, other documents may be used. Please refer to the list in the NJ Driver Manual. You must also provide your Social Security number (or an exemption) before the permit is issued. Note: You cannot receive or apply for a MOPED license if your driving privileges are revoked. To obtain a MOPED license, you must: • Study this manual and the NJ Driver Manual. • Take the eyesight and written tests at a driver testing center, or at certain agencies. (Refer to the MVS facilities listing at the back of this book.) If you can't read English, and can't complete the written test, you can take an oral test with 20 questions and a maximum of 30 color slides, transparencies or other facsimiles that show images of traffic control devices. You'll be required to answer the questions and explain the slides to the examiner. The passing score is 80% on each part. In addition, you must be physically competent to drive a MOPED. 2 New Jersey moped manual • Pass these tests and MVS will validate your examination permit. This allows you to practice drive during daylight hours without supervision for a period not to exceed 45 days from the date the permit was purchased. • Schedule a driving test. See the inside back cover for a list of driving test sites. If you fail the road test, you'll have to wait two weeks for a retest. If you do not pass the driving test within the 45 days, you must apply for a new permit. (Since MOPEDs are not permitted on certain roads, it may be necessary to transport your MOPED to the test area on a trailer or car rack.) • Take the road test. Note that your MOPED must be registered and insured. Also, carry the examination permit with you whenever you drive the MOPED. • Pass the road test. Take your permit to a motor vehicle agency to obtain your MOPED photo license required for first time drivers and those under 21 for $2. If you fail, you can retake the road test in two weeks. If you're issued a basic or motorcycle license when you reach age 17, you must turn in your MOPED license. Or, after four years, renew your photo MOPED license for $2 if you do not obtain another license. (Refer to the sections titled Sample test questions (for questions that can help you prepare for your written examination) and Driving test runs in the back of this publication.) 3 New Jersey moped manual Know other requirements MOPED drivers must: • Obtain a helmet. Safety helmets must meet the specifications established by the U.S. Department of Transportation. When buying a helmet, look for the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or Snell Memorial Foundation labels. Also, choose a helmet that fits snugly, has a chinstrap, and has at least four square inches of red, amber or white reflectorized tape on each side that's affixed in a permanent weather-proof manner. The helmet should not have any defects, such as cracks, loose padding, or frayed straps. • Wear a helmet, as required by law. The single most important thing you can do to improve your chances of surviving an accident is to wear a securely fastened, approved helmet. A full-face helmet is recommended. It's the same as worn by motorcyclists, but without the face shield or goggle requirement. Failure to wear a helmet can result in serious injury and/or a fine of up to $100. • Carry a valid driver license, registration certificate and insurance identification card while driving a MOPED. Failure to do so can result in a fine of up to $50. MOPED owners must: • Title and register their vehicles before they can be driven on public roadways. Only MOPEDs approved by Motor Vehicle Services can be titled and registered. The titling fee is $20. The registration fee is $8 a year. MOPEDs must have a special MOPED license plate displayed on the rear of the vehicle. You can title and register the MOPED at any motor vehicle agency. • Obtain liability insurance covering 1) bodily injury (up to $15,000), 2) death (up to $30,000), and 3) property damage (up to $5,000). Note: Fees in this manual are subject to change. To confirm fees, please call 1-888-486-3339 toll free in New Jersey or 1-609-292-6500 from out of state. 4 New Jersey moped manual Follow MOPED laws You must obey all the New Jersey motor vehicle laws and regulations for bicyclists and motor vehicle drivers. (Refer to the NJ Driver Manual.) Learn these laws and regulations, as well as MOPED laws, because the written examination will include questions from both manuals. New Jersey law requires MOPED drivers to: • Know the meaning of all traffic signs and signals (see the NJ Driver Manual). • Drive on the right side of the road. Driving your MOPED toward traffic is illegal and unsafe. Motorists aren't accustomed to vehicles approaching on the wrong side of the road. At intersections, motorists should first look left, then right, before pulling out. Wrong-way drivers may be hit before they are seen. Driving on the left also exposes you to head-on collisions. The force is many times greater than being hit from the rear. You also may have a hard time reading road signs when driving the wrong way. • Drive no more than two abreast when traffic is not impeded; otherwise, you must drive single file and stay well behind one another. Use hand and voice signals to tell other MOPED drivers when you plan to stop or turn. • Do not carry a passenger. Because of the relatively low speeds attained by Unlike a motorcycle, a MOPEDs, unless turning left drivers should ride as far to the right of the traffic lane as possible. MOPED does not have the 5 New Jersey moped manual power, strength or handling ability to safely carry a passenger in addition to the driver. • Do not hitch a ride by attaching the MOPED to another vehicle, or by holding onto another vehicle. • Do not drive MOPEDs on: 1. Interstate highways, the Garden State Parkway, the New Jersey Turnpike or the Atlantic City Expressway; 2. Four-lane highways divided by a grass or concrete median; 3. Highways with a speed limit over 50 miles per hour (The Director of Motor Vehicle Services is authorized to prohibit MOPED use on roadways with a speed limit of over 40 miles per hour when such roadways are considered unsafe for MOPED operation.); 4. Railroads or rights-of-way of operating railroads; 5. Any public lands prohibited by a governing body; and 6. Sidewalks. State law also requires your MOPED to have: • A white front headlamp and red rear taillight capable of being seen under normal conditions from at least 500 feet. These lights must be used between sunset and sunrise, or anytime bad weather makes it hard to see up to 500 feet. (However, it is recommended that you drive with your lights on at all times. You may think you're visible, but it is best to give motorists every chance to see you. Turn on your lights - day and night.) • A bell or horn (but not a siren or whistle) that can be heard 100 feet away. • Enough braking power to make the wheels skid on The headlight must be on during time of dry, clean, level pavement. operation without exception. 6 New Jersey moped manual Avoid points and penalties MOPED drivers who commit traffic violations earn points in addition to court penalties. It's also against the law to operate a motorized bicycle while under the influence (DUI) of liquor, narcotics or drugs. Juveniles under the age of 17 are now treated as adults with hearings in Municipal Courts and are subject to the same fines and penalties as adults. Convictions are then reported to Motor Vehicle Services by the courts. Points charged against your MOPED license are added to your New Jersey driver license point total if you obtain a valid basic driver license or motorcycle license. This also applies to MOPED drivers under 17 when they obtain a basic New Jersey driver license. If you accumulate too many points, MVS may suspend your driving privileges. If you receive points for traffic violations out-of-state, MVS will add them to your record. You may lose your driving privilege for traffic violations, DUI, or if the Director of Motor Vehicles considers you a problem driver. If your privilege is suspended, you cannot drive. Refer to the NJ Driver Manual for an explanation of violations, DUI, the point system, fines, and suspension and restoration of your driving privileges. Driver Reexams may be necessary For public safety and the MOPED driver's safety, Motor Vehicle Services may require that a MOPED license applicant, a current MOPED driver or a suspended MOPED driver retake the MOPED written and driving tests. 7 New Jersey moped manual Control your MOPED When turning your MOPED, you keep from falling by leaning in the direction of the turn. If you only turn the handlebar, you will be pulled the other way. Judging how much physical force you need to overcome this pulling sensation takes practice. It also involves knowing what speed is safe for each turn. Stopping distances vary There is no simple way to explain exactly how long it will take to stop at certain speeds. Stopping distance depends on: • Miles per hour (traveling speed); • Your reaction time; • Weather and road conditions; • The MOPED's condition: brakes and tires (and the type used); • The total vehicle weight, driver and packages. One point is sure - the faster you go, the longer it will take to stop. At higher speeds, or going down a hill, it is very difficult to stop a MOPED in an emergency. STOP YIELD DO NOT ENTER WRONG WAY Keep a safe distance when following another vehicle Tailgating (driving too close to the vehicle in front) is a common cause of accidents. If a car ahead stops suddenly, you should have enough space to 8 New Jersey moped manual stop in time. Tailgating can cause a series of rear-end collisions when many vehicles are too close together. Use the two-second rule Since most drivers have trouble judging distances, the two-second rule can be used. Here's how it works: 1. Select a fixed object ahead of the vehicle in front of you. The object may be a sign or a tree. Make sure the object does not distract your attention from driving. 2. As the vehicle in front passes the object, begin counting two seconds (one-thousand-one, one-thousand-two). 3. If it takes at least two seconds before you pass the object, you should have enough distance for a sudden stop. The two-second rule takes into account your speed and the speed of the vehicle in front. Try the rule while driving; it can help you develop good judgment for proper following distances. Note: During bad weather, the two-second count should be increased to three or four seconds. Start to count as the car ahead passes the fixed point You should be able to count 1,001 ... 1,002 before you pass the fixed point Choose an easily visible fixed point (such as a sign) 9 New Jersey moped manual Avoid MOPED accidents In 1995, there were 227 MOPED accidents in New Jersey. Forty-three percent or 98 persons were injured. No fatalities were reported. Probable causes of those accidents include driver inattention, such as crossing an intersection on a yellow light. Other crashes were caused by the inability of the MOPED to move fast enough to avoid traffic. Another cause is a loss of balance or control. New drivers often don't have the experience to safely control the MOPED. Fifty-six percent of the 227 MOPED crashes involved property damage. This means that 127 MOPED drivers hit inanimate objects such as car doors, poles, curbs, potholes, storm drains and sewer covers. These drivers also hit pedestrians, bicyclists and animals. Red Light - Stop before the intersection or crosswalk and remain standing until green is shown alone. Yellow Light - When shown alone, traffic should stop before entering the intersection or crosswalk, unless the vehicle is so close to intersection that it cannot be stopped safely. Yellow Arrow - Gives the driver a chance to stop safely before the green signal changes to red. Green Light - Go if the intersection is clear. Yield to pedestrians and vehicles still in the intersection. Before you make a left turn, yield to vehicles going straight. Green Arrow - When shown alone or in combination with the red signal, proceed only as shown by the arrow. Be cautious and yield to people on foot. 10 New Jersey moped manual Other causes of MOPED accidents are careless driving, failure to stop at traffic lights and stop signs, driving the wrong way and driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. By 1997 the vehicle fatality rate of the nation reached an historic low of 1.7 per hundred million vehicle miles traveled. In New Jersey that same year there were 699 fatal accidents with 774 people killed. There were no MOPED fatalities that year. Between 1988 and 1997 there were 7,622 fatal accidents in New Jersey. Five fatalities were MOPED drivers. MOPEDs are prohibited on divided highways, interstates and toll roads. However, state, municipal and county roads and highways with speed limits under 50 miles per hour are available for MOPED use. Exceptions to the general laws are in the relevant regulations: N.J.A.C. 13:25-8.1-13:25-8.6. 11 New Jersey moped manual Check the MOPED Before driving your MOPED, you must give it a quick predrive safety check that should include: • Tires Are they inflated properly according to the tire design? Are the tires seated properly on the rims? Are the tires wearing evenly? Are there any signs of cuts or sidewall cracks? • Wheels Are the spokes tight? Are the wheels adjusted properly? • Brake levers Are the cables connected and adjusted to the proper tightness? Are the levers operating properly? • Fuel tank Do you have enough fuel? • Lights Can you turn them on and off? Did you check your brake lights, also? • Pedals Do they turn freely? Do you check their condition now and then, and keep their reflectorized panels clean of dirt? • Drive chain Is it tight, oiled and free of mud and dirt? • Nuts and bolts Did you visually check all major nuts and bolts? • Switches Are they all working? Did you check lights and horn? Did you check and adjust the mirrors, if so equipped? Each time you prepare to drive, go through this list. Knowing that your MOPED is ready and safe will make you a safer MOPED driver. 12 New Jersey moped manual Choose proper clothing Wear bright clothing so that you'll stand out and other motorists will see you clearly. If possible, use reflective material. Reflectivity is the result of light reflected back to its source on paths that are parallel to those striking the reflector. This quality is essential for visibility during cloudy or foggy weather conditions or at dusk or night. It uses the light intensity from vehicle headlights and other light sources that provide visibility without electricity or batteries. Wear an approved motorcycle helmet. MOPED drivers are required by law to wear a helmet, it is your only protection from serious head injury. (See page 4 for more helmet information.) A helmet also protects the driver from wind and cold. Wear goggles, face shields and glasses that are scratch-free, shatterresistant and ventilated to prevent fog build-up or misting while driving. If you wear glasses, be sure they're safety glasses or have plastic lenses that won't shatter on impact. Eye protection is recommended even if your MOPED has a windscreen. Be sure eye protection is of an approved type the same as for motorcyclists. Wear pants made of heavy material to protect legs from exhaust pipe heat or bruises and scrapes if you fall or hit something. Avoid baggy or flared pants that could become tangled in the chain or spokes. Dresses, skirts or shorts offer no protection if you fall. All motorized bicycle riders must wear a helmet. It is recommended that MOPED drivers observe the same rules of safety and wear the same protective equipment suggested for motorcycle riders, including eye goggles or a full-face helmet. 13 New Jersey moped manual Wear a heavy jacket even in warm weather. As with long pants, a jacket will protect your skin if you fall or scrape yourself. A long-sleeved shirt is suitable if you don't want to wear a jacket. A bright red or orange vest is more visible. Wear leather gloves or heavy fabric gloves with leather palms to improve your grip on the handlebar and controls. Gloves should be worn when it's raining, when your hands are hot and perspiring or when it's very cold. Wear several layers of clothing that are better than one heavy garment in cold weather. Insulated gloves, woolen scarf and socks, a tightfitting overcoat and a cap under your helmet will keep body heat in during winter driving. This is important because the air temperature around your body goes down as your speed increases. Remember, too, that cold air slows your reflexes. Allow more time when stopping and turning. Light, bright clothing on you and vehicle reflectors on your MOPED will always make you and the vehicle more visible. To be even more visible, you should put reflectorized tape on the front, back and sides of your clothing, helmet and MOPED; and install wraparound reflectors on the spokes. Reflectors should be mounted opposite the tire valve stems for better wheel balance. Be sure to keep dirt off the reflectorized panels on your pedals, and never wear dark glasses or tinted face shields at night. Wear shoes with laces that won't slip off while driving, or boots that provide protection against foot and ankle injuries. Don't wear sandals or slip-on shoes; they could fall off and leave your feet unprotected. 14 New Jersey moped manual Start your MOPED As you take the driver's position on the MOPED, be sure you can put both feet on the ground while seated. You also should be able to nearly straighten each leg when pushing the pedals into the down, or six o'clock, position. Now get the feel of your MOPED. Place your hands on the handgrips to make sure that you have easy access to the brake levers. Then: • Release the kickstand. • Push the MOPED forward and begin pedaling. It will be more difficult than pedaling a bicycle. Pedal only with the balls of your feet; you will not tire as easily and your legs can put more power into the pedaling movement. • Start your motor by following the instructions in the MOPED owners manual. As the Pedal your MOPED before you start the motor. motor starts, pedaling will be more difficult for a moment. • Brace yourself for the pull of the motor - it may move you backward on the seat. As you adjust to the pulling sensation, keep your body erect and watch the road ahead. Now you are ready to drive your MOPED. Know your MOPED before you drive. 15 New Jersey moped manual Drive your MOPED Here are important things to remember as you drive your MOPED: • Keep your feet on the pedals and turn the throttle slowly to accelerate. Put the pedals in the three and nine o'clock positions to keep them clear of the road, and don't take your feet off the pedals except when coming to a stop. Do not Keep your right wrist in a downward position twist the throttle too when you start the MOPED. quickly in panic or grip the handgrip tightly at the first feeling of forward motion. Too tight a grip opens the throttle even more rapidly, increasing speed. • Relax your forearms and hold the grips firmly with your fingers. When you have the feel of the Apply the MOPED's brakes by slowly squeezing powered forward the lever. movement, release the throttle and slowly apply the brake by squeezing the brake lever (back wheel first and front wheel quickly after). • Come to a smooth, controlled stop. Be as careful in applying your brakes as you are in using the throttle. Never apply the front brake by itself. The best way to learn the feel of braking is to practice using both brakes. • Keep your knees tucked in as close to the MOPED's center as possible. This gives you better balance, more control and protects your knees in an emergency slide or fall. 16 New Jersey moped manual • Slow down and remain seated to improve balance when driving over gravel, sand, water, bumps and railroad tracks. By remaining seated, you will be in a better position to put your foot down in a hurry if needed. • Always cross railroad tracks as close to a right angle as possible so your front wheel will not catch in the groove next to the tracks and cause a fall. In some cases, it may be best to get off and walk your MOPED across the tracks. • Place packages and shoulderbags evenly in baskets or saddlebags mounted on both sides of the rear wheel, or in a frame-mounted carrier over the rear wheel. Carrying objects over the front wheel makes steering hard and dangerous. Never try to carry packages in your hands, since both hands are needed to drive your MOPED safely. • Driving on the shoulders of the road can be risky because they usually are narrow and you may be forced to merge with traffic that is going faster than you are. Also, shoulders are used by disabled vehicles and may be littered with glass, metal, gravel and other debris. Do not pass on the shoulder of the road under any circumstance. • Never drive your MOPED when you are too tired to drive safely or when you have been drinking or using prescription drugs. Combine any of these with anger or other emotional problems and reckless driving will result. • Limit your speed to 25 miles per hour or less on a level surface according to 17 New Jersey moped manual New Jersey law. Some MOPEDs may go faster than 25 miles per hour, especially when going down a hill. This is important to remember because you could receive a speeding ticket for driving your MOPED faster than 25 miles per hour. • Reduce your speed on narrow or winding roads and when approaching: 1) an intersection or railroad crossing; 2) the top of a hill; 3) a dangerous or blind curve; and 4) pedestrians and other road hazards. • Pay attention to road surface conditions - rough pavement, sand, gravel and debris. And, slow down when conditions are poor to prevent skids or slides. • Be very cautious when crossing intersections because your MOPED is small and hard to see, and it may not be fast enough to avoid other vehicles. Position is important MOPED drivers are entitled to use a full lane. However, you should stay in the right-third of the lane because the MOPED is a slower vehicle. Use the left-third of the lane when you know you can keep up with traffic. The advantage is that you're more visible to drivers in front of and behind you. It also gives you a better view of the road ahead. The right-third keeps you farther away from the dangers of faster-moving traffic, but it makes you harder to see. Never drive in the exact center of a lane. Oil and grime build up there, causing slippery road conditions. When turning right at an intersection, keep as close to the right side of the road as possible. However, be careful not to allow MOPEDs must be visible to other vehicles on the your wheels to strike the curb or go off the road. road. 18 New Jersey moped manual When turning left, approach the intersection near the center line of the road. Left turns from one-way streets should be made as close to the left side as possible. U-turns are prohibited on curves, near the crest (top) of a hill, or where a NO U-TURN sign is posted. Use hand signals Signal with your left hand at least 100 feet before stopping or turning. This is important because you cannot stop the MOPED safely with just your right handbrake. Just before turning, return both hands to the handlebar as both hands are needed to help balance and control the MOPED. Stop or slow Right turn Left turn Timing is critical Positioning for turns takes careful timing. For instance, when making a left turn you should allow plenty of time to move toward the center line of the road. Don't try to out-maneuver motor vehicle traffic behind or to the side of you by swerving suddenly to the left. Instead, turn your head to check traffic behind or to your side, give the proper hand signal and move into position. • If you want to turn left at an intersection and a truck or bus coming toward you decides to turn left and blocks your view of oncoming motor vehicles, wait and let the truck or bus complete its turn rather 19 New Jersey moped manual than turn left in front of it. You may be hit by motor vehicles you couldn't see. • If you want to turn left in a busy intersection, but motor vehicles on your left side block you from moving into the proper lane position in advance, the best thing to do is to drive to the right side of the road (after signaling properly), stop, dismount, then walk across the road at the intersection when the traffic light changes to green. • If driving on the curb side, you may be forced off the road by vehicles turning right that do not signal. Therefore, stay far enough behind a vehicle's right rear fender to see if the front wheels or turn signals show that the driver is planning to turn. Start right turns where the curb begins to turn, and stay in the same lane. Keep a space cushion To avoid a collision, you need as much time as possible to react. Try to keep plenty of space between your MOPED and other vehicles on all sides. Stay in the right-third of your lane. Make sure there is enough room ahead to stop or pass safely. The space between you and other vehicles gives you time to react in emergencies. Keep a space cushion between you and everything else on or near the roadway. 20 New Jersey moped manual Take bike routes Bikeways are marked with the standard green and white bike route symbol signs. There are three kinds of bikeways: Bike Paths. A trail off the roadway surface completely separated from vehicular traffic. Bike Lanes. Street, roadway or shoulder treatment for separate auto and bicycle travel lanes designated by pavement markings, signs or barriers. Bike Routes. Roads with bike route signs only. There is no other provision for segregation of traffic. Observe the standard yellow or yellow-green MOPEDs are permitted on bike crossing sign. bike lanes and bike routes, with or without the motor engaged. Check local ordinances and appropriate signs. Since bikeways are used by slow-moving bicycles and often by pedestrians, MOPED operators should take a protective and cautious approach to these users. 2 more miles Observe the sign for new bike paths. 21 New Jersey moped manual Drive at night Motorists will find it hard to see you, so try to avoid driving your MOPED at night. If you must drive at night: • Stay on well-lighted roadways. • Wear light-colored clothing with reflectorized materials. • Make sure the lights are on. • Shift your eyes down to the lower right side of your traffic lane to keep oncoming lights from hitting your eyes directly. • Be alert for pedestrians. • Drive on roads you know so you will be aware of hazards hidden by the dark. • Watch for motor vehicles that may pull out of driveways without their lights on. • Keep several car lengths behind the vehicle in front of you. • Remember that when stopped, the motor runs slowly and your lights will be very dim, if you must stop on a shoulder at night. 22 New Jersey moped manual Watch the weather Avoid driving your MOPED during the first 15 minutes of a rainfall. The road is more slippery because rain and oil form a film that prevents tires from gripping the road. The film usually washes away after 15 minutes of hard rain. MOPEDs have narrow tires that slide easily on wet or icy roads — especially when braking. If your MOPED slides, maintain your balance, direction and speed. Do not apply the brakes or you will slide even more. Allow more time to stop on wet roads. Brake and turn slowly when cornering to avoid sliding. If possible, steer away from manhole covers and painted road lines — they are more slippery than the road surface. Do not drive in the center of your lane. This area of the roadway is always more slippery than the right side of your lane. Water in your eyes may keep you from seeing properly. Wearing a helmet with face shield, or goggles, will help. Use care on windy days because your body and certain items of clothing act like sails. When hit by strong gusts of wind, you could be forced into traffic or off the road. When large vehicles pass you, a vacuum could pull you toward the vehicle. Then, after the vehicle passes, the wind may push you off the road. When wind hits, grip the handlebar firmly, release the throttle, crouch slightly and Turn the MOPED away from puddles. Drive straight in a clear area. don't panic. 23 New Jersey moped manual Know additional hazards There are many hazards to look out for when driving your MOPED, such as: You, the driver. It's fun to drive your MOPED, but one mistake could result in an accident that could cause injury or death. Maintain a positive attitude and drive only when you are alert and physically fit. This will help you avoid accidents and get more enjoyment out of driving. Motorists may force you off the road or cause you to stop suddenly. Although you have the same right to the road as motorists, don't dispute the right of way. Remember, the MOPED is small and motorists may not see you. Also, sometimes motorists have difficulty judging a MOPED's speed. Car doors opening may hit you or force you into traffic. Search and scan ahead for parking or parked cars. Look for people in cars, front wheels turning toward the street, and taillights. If you see a car door opening, or a vehicle leaving the curb, don't swerve suddenly to the left. Instead, slow down and signal with your hand that you are stopping. If it is safe to pass, look behind to be sure other vehicles aren't passing you, then signal a left turn with your hand, blow your horn and move to the left-third of your lane Slow down before passing a parked car, give a stop/slow signal and keep the wheel straight. 24 New Jersey moped manual (if it is clear). Allow space between the MOPED and the parked vehicle just in case you are not seen or heard. Animals, particularly dogs, may attack you or run into the MOPED. Slow down and don't swerve into traffic if a dog runs at you from the side of the road. Move away slowly. Don't kick at the animal or you may be bitten. If you must get off, use the MOPED as a barrier between you and the animal. People have the right of way at crosswalks and intersections. Watch for pedestrians who walk out from between parked cars and for blind persons. The law says you must stop for a blind person using a white or metallic colored walking cane, or with a trained guide dog. Insects may fly into your face and cause you to lose control. Avoid rubbing a sting while driving. Try to stop at the curb, instead. Wear a face shield to keep insects away from your eyes and mouth. Mechanical problems such as engine breakdown or broken Be ready to stop or yield when you see a blind or spokes may cause you to lose disabled person crossing an intersection. control. Keep your MOPED in top condition. If a mechanical problem forces you to push the MOPED, walk on the shoulder or sidewalk and keep the MOPED on your left, or traffic side. Bridges are unique problems for MOPED drivers. Before crossing a bridge, determine the type of road surface. The road surface of most bridges freezes before the regular roadway. Some bridges have unusual road surfaces, such as 25 New Jersey moped manual steel grating or concrete slabs joined by expander joints that may bruise or jolt your tires. (If this happens, rise off the seat and maintain your balance; then pull over to the sidewalk or shoulder and inspect the tire and wheel for damage.) Often, bridges are narrower than the regular roadway. You may be forced in fast-moving traffic. Older bridges may have cement surfaces with built-up patches that developed into large bumps. You may encounter strong winds on bridges that cross large bodies of water or land. Bridges that cross the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, or that cross from New Jersey into New York, usually prohibit MOPEDs and bicycles. However, you may be permitted to walk your MOPED across. Before crossing, look for a sign or notice explaining bridge regulations or check with local authorities. Obey the posted regulations on bridges. Blind spots are areas on either side of a vehicle's rear fenders. Because they are difficult for the driver to see, blind spots are no place for MOPEDs to be. Avoid driving next to the right rear fender of passing vehicles. The driver may not see you and turn right suddenly or crowd you off the road. If you have to pass a vehicle, warn the driver that you are in a blind spot by blowing the horn. You should always keep your lights on to increase your chances of being seen. MOPEDs also have blind spots. Sometimes you cannot see a vehicle passing on the left in the rearview mirror. Therefore, turn your head often to 26 New Jersey moped manual check for passing vehicles, and be sure to look back quickly before passing or changing lanes. Litter thrown on the highway or shoulder by thoughtless motorists or pedestrians - paper, bottles, cans, food, clothing - may force you to swerve or skid. Avoid swerving into traffic. It's better to run over litter (except very large objects) and possibly have a flat tire than to swerve and be hit. Some motorists flick cigarettes and ashes out of windows. Avoid eye burns by wearing a face shield or goggles. Blowouts affect your steering. You will have to react quickly to keep your balance. If you have a rear tire blowout, the MOPED may slide from side to Turn wheel slightly to the right to go around side. Hold the handgrips firmly, litter. keep the front wheel in line with the rear wheel and maintain a straight course. Close the throttle and coast (do not apply the brakes). After slowing down, you should pull over to the side and stop. For a front tire blowout, you should hold the handgrips tightly, maintain a straight course and shift your weight as 27 New Jersey moped manual far back as possible. This takes weight off the front wheel, helps keep the MOPED stable, and may prevent you from falling forward. Blowouts on curves or turns are the most dangerous. Stuck throttle problems require using the cutoff switch to turn off the engine. After you have stopped, check the throttle cable carefully to locate the problem. Don't drive again until it has been repaired. Slides and falls usually occur because the MOPED driver is going too fast while turning. If you find yourself turning too quickly, put your foot down on the same side you are turning to prevent going down. If you The top photo shows a flat tire; the bottom photo know you are going to run into an inflated tire. another vehicle, a wall or tree, lay the MOPED on its side, lift your leg from under the MOPED and slide with the MOPED. You'll prevent your leg from being trapped. Let the tires hit the object. Apply the rear brake only and turn the front wheel in the direction of the slide to bring the back wheel around. Protect your head by lifting it as high as possible. If you can't steer to the side of the road or jump off the MOPED, then use this technique. Accidents Follow the same regulations and procedures as other motor vehicle drivers to render aid and report accidents. (Refer to the NJ Driver Manual for these procedures.) 28 New Jersey moped manual Answer sample test questions The following questions can help you prepare for your written examination (circle correct letter): 1. New Jersey law limits MOPEDs to speeds of: a. 15 mph or less. b. 25 mph or less. c. 30 mph or less. d. 10 mph or less. 2. You should never drive your MOPED in the exact center of your lane because: a. It is harder for other vehicles to see you. b. It does not give you a good view of the road ahead. c. It places you too close to faster moving traffic. d. A build-up of oil and grime causes the road to be slippery. 3. When MOPED drivers must cross railroad tracks or dangerous intersections, it may be best to: a. Increase the MOPED's speed and cross quickly. b. Drive extra slow to be sure you are seen. c. Keep in the center of your lane. d. Get off the MOPED and walk it across. 4. What must a motorized bicycle driver do at an intersection controlled by a flashing red traffic signal? a. Stop only if a hazard is present. b. Stop at all times. c. Slow down. d. Proceed with caution. 29 New Jersey moped manual 5. When driving a MOPED, you must always carry your driver license and: a. Proof of ownership. b. Insurance identification card and registration certificate. c. Birth certificate. d. Proof of inspection. 6. When driving a motorized bicycle over loose gravel or sand, you should: a. Slow down and remain seated. b. Increase speed quickly. c. Apply front brake only. d. Apply rear brake only. 7. A MOPED must be registered: a. Before it is driven on the road. b. Within 15 days of purchase. c. Within 30 days of purchase. d. Within 45 days of purchase. 8. Approved helmets must be worn: a. By the passenger. b. When driving at night. c. At all times while driving. d. Only by those under 17 years of age. Answers: (1-b, 2-d, 3-d, 4-b, 5-b, 6-a, 7-a, 8-c) 30 New Jersey moped manual Practice driving test runs Here are some specific test runs and scoring data: 1.Turning/stopping. Tests your ability to control the MOPED while turning and performing a precise stop. You will be evaluated on your ability to stay within the path of the turn without putting your foot down and stop safely in the painted stop box with the front tire of the MOPED. Stop with front tire in box Start Sharp left turn 2.Cone weave/U-turn. Tests your ability to control the MOPED at low speed while weaving through cones and making a U-turn in a designated area. You will be evaluated on your ability to stay within the path of travel without touching lines or cones and without putting your foot down. Cones are twelve feet apart with a two-foot offset. Start Over 500cc 500cc and under Right U-turn 31 New Jersey moped manual 3. Braking. Tests your ability to brake quickly and safely. You will be evaluated on stopping distance in relation to speed or travel. Start Begin braking 4. Obstacle turn. Tests your ability to turn the MOPED quickly to avoid an obstacle. You will be evaluated on your ability to stay within the path of travel and turn quickly without touching a boundary line. Obstacle turn Start When you pass the driving test, take your permit, ride slip, scoresheet and permit validation to any motor vehicle agency. You will receive a permanent photo license. 32 New Jersey moped manual Locate MVS facilities For MOPED written and/or vision tests (MVS agencies unless otherwise noted) Bakers Basin East Brunswick Matawan Bridgeton Eatontown RSC Newark Burlington Edison Newton Camden Elizabeth No. Bergen Cardiff Flemington AR Oakland Cherry Hill Freehold DTC Rahway DTC Deptford RSC Jersey City DTC Rio Grande Dover AR Lodi Salem For MOPED driving tests Bakers Basin Lodi Cherry Hill Mays Landing IS Eatontown RSC Miller Air Park Rahway Randolph IS Salem IS So. Plainfield Springfield Toms River Trenton RSC Vineland Washington Wayne RSC Wayne-Rte 46 Wayne-Rte 46 For routine motor vehicle titling, registrations and licensing (agencies) Bakers Basin Englewood Medford Springfield Bayonne Flemington Morristown Toms River Bridgeton Freehold Newark Vineland Burlington Haddon Heights Newton Wallington Camden Irvington No. Bergen Washington Cardiff Jersey City Oakland Wayne-Rte 46 Cherry Hill Lakewood Rahway Williamstown East Brunswick Ledgewood Rio Grande Wyckoff East Orange Lodi Salem Edison Manahawkin Somerville Elizabeth Matawan So. Plainfield For routine MVS agency services, driver conferencing, and written and vision tests: Regional Service Centers (RSC) Deptford Eatontown Trenton Wayne-Rte 23 Legend: AR (armory), DTC (driver testing center), IS (inspection station) 24-Hour Telephone Information and Assistance General Customer Information 1-888-486-3339 toll free in New Jersey 1-609-292-6500 out of state For License Suspensions and Restorations 1-609-292-7500 Customer service representatives are available from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday* For information on the TDD communication system, look in the blue pages of your telephone directory under Motor Vehicle Services. *Detailed recorded information is available after those hours, seven days a week, including holidays.