Detective X
Ultra High Resolution HPGe Radioisotope Identification Device
The New “Gold Standard” for
Mission Critical Detection and Identification
Detective X
How do you improve on “The Gold Standard” for nuclear threat detection and identification? ORTEC’s new Detective X high purity germanium
(HPGe) “RIID” does exactly that with a combination of identification improvements, operational (conops) improvements, better interconnectivity
capabilities, and longer battery life.
What Makes ORTEC’s New Detective X Better?
Detection and Identification Features
• Larger HPGe crystal, three times more efficient than the
Micro-Detective-HX.
• Improved Algorithm that increases detection probability.
• Comprehensive library of over 175 radionuclides including new
radiopharmaceuticals.
• Better standoff detection and ID capability.
Operational Improvements
• Rugged Instrument designed for harsh environments (IP65
compliant).
• Weight Significantly Reduced (about half of Detective-EX-100T).
• Battery life doubled and batteries are hot swappable.
• New Li6/ZnS Neutron Detector Module (NDM), no 3He required.
• Bigger display screen, easily readable in sunlight.
Quality Improvements
• New Stirling cooler with more cooling capacity and improved
mean time between failures.
• Designed with extremely hard polycarbonate case, making it
both lighter and more rugged.
Enhanced Connectivity Options
• System includes built-in Ethernet connection (RJ45).
• USB Connection to PC is plug and play.
• USB memory stick stores >100,000 spectra.
• Mobile phone Interconnectivity and control of instrument for iOS,
Android, and Windows platforms.
• WiFi and Bluetooth are standard with Detective X.
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Detective X
Why are High Purity Germanium Detectors needed for Radiation Identifiers?
High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detectors are acknowledged as “the Gold
Standard” detector for radioisotope identification because they provide ~35 times
better in energy resolution (selectivity) than Sodium Iodide and ~15 times better in
resolution than LaBr, CeBr, or SrI. HPGe can be manufactured in diameters of
>3 inches, making them much bigger (more efficient) than CZT detectors. The
resolution advantage results in significantly better performance (superior standoff
detection, fewer false IDs, improved sensitivity to threat materials, and better
spectra for reachback review).
Unlike lower-resolution detector types, HPGe crystals operate at cryogenic
temperatures. This created a technology challenge ORTEC solved over 30 years
ago. Portable HPGe detectors historically have used Liquid Nitrogen for cooling,
but since ORTEC introduced the first electro-mechanically cooled, hand-held Germanium system in 2004, ORTEC’s Detective family of RIIDs
with Stirling coolers have become the industry standard. There are now more than 1,300 ORTEC Detective family instruments in over 60
countries to detect and identify nuclear or radiological threats.
ORTEC has worked with customers to integrate features needed to meet CONOPS or mission requirements. These new features allow the
Detective X to meet a variety of deployment scenarios. The Detective X has its roots in the GE-Mini hand-held RIID development at Lawrence
Livermore National Lab where it was funded by the Department of Defense and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). ORTEC
exclusively licensed this technology from LLNL.
The Detective X crystal is 65 mm x 50 mm which makes it approximately three times more efficient than the Micro-Detective or
Micro-Detective-HX.
The Detective X Features
• Portable – Light weight, “one-hand” operation with GPS location. The Detective X is about 50% lighter than
the industry-leading ORTEC Detective-EX-100T.
• Extremely Rugged – Designed for military use. Can accommodate –20°C to +50°C temperatures. IP65 rating
(water proof, dust proof) and drop hardened.
• Superior Algorithms – Excellent detection and ID capability and a much better false alarm rate compared to
other systems. There are more than 175 radionuclides in the library.
• Auto Calibration – Continuous real-time detector stabilization keeps the instrument calibrated at all times.
• Enhanced Communication Capability – Equipped with 802.11 a/b/g wireless, wired Ethernet, USB, remote
control via smartphones (Android, iOS, and Windows PC). Bluetooth capability also included. Can easily be
remotely controlled and monitored from a central location.
• Optional Li6ZnS neutron detector (no 3He).
• Removable high capacity USB Flash Drive.
• Simple to operate: Bright, clear, SUNLIGHT READABLE display, touch sensitive screen, and intuitive menus.
• Operating time of up to 10 hours with dual batteries (hot swappable).
• Large HPGe Crystal (65 mm x 50 mm).
Display and Control Buttons.
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Detective X
Detective X Algorithms
Beyond the intrinsic selectivity of the HPGe detector type, the ultimate performance in terms of the Detective X fidelity of identification depends
on the software algorithms. ORTEC licensed the original Lawrence Livermore RadScout algorithm in 2003 and has made numerous
improvements to it over the years. For example, as part of the DHS/DNDO HPRDS Program, ORTEC developed the Advanced HPRDS RIID
(Micro-HPRDS) from 2008 to 2010. This algorithm advancement greatly improved ID capabilities and minimized false alarms. Over the past
10 years ORTEC has participated in a variety of test campaigns sponsored by DNDO, DoD/DTRA, IAEA, and DOE National Labs to continue to
improve the algorithms and enhance the radionuclide library. The Detective X incorporates the latest algorithms in combination with the large
65 mm x 50 mm crystal, making it the most sensitive and most accurate RIID on the market. Further reductions in both false positive and false
negative results have been achieved. When actionable intelligence is needed on a potential threat source, reachback experts need HPGe
spectra. It is widely recognized as “The Gold Standard”.
Detective X Hardware Overview
ORTEC has more than 12 years of experience with HPGe RIIDs. Users from around the
globe have provided input that has been integrated into the Detective X. The Detective X
features compact, light weight and rugged hardware. A large 45% efficient (65 mm x 50 mm)
HPGe crystal in a “hardened” cryostat is cooled by an integrated low-power Stirling-cycle
cryocooler. The Detective X features a new cooler, offering a greater lift capacity. The
hardened cryostat is entirely free of a conventional molecular sieve, allowing the instrument
to be turned off or on at any point in the detector cool down or warm up cycle without risk.
ORTEC is the only manufacturer that offers this functionality in a handheld HPGe RIID.
A built-in digital MCA system and powerful data processor are included. The Detective X
features a bright VGA resolution display, readable in direct sunlight, with a touch sensitive
operator screen. The operation of the Detective X is highly intuitive. The radionuclide
gamma-ray spectrum may be displayed and manipulated (e.g., vertical scale, zoom) like a
conventional multichannel analyzer. Gamma count rate, neutron flux, and gamma dose rate
are displayed continuously.
Detective X Benefits
Customer Requests/Input
Lighter Weight & Smaller Form Factor
Longer Battery Life & hot swappable batteries
Reliable Stirling Cooler
Larger HPGe Crystal for Better Sensitivity
Non He-3 Neutron Detector
RJ45 Internet Connectivity
IDs for Shielded & Masked Sources
Mobile Phone Interconnectivity
Detective X
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The Detective X in Use: Overview
• A high-resolution, sunlight readable, color touchscreen as the standard method to
operate the system and enter data such as passwords and alarm limits.
• Alternatively, three buttons on the top of the unit, Power, Navigate (N) and Select (S),
can also be used for survey and sampling operations.
Audio-visual feedback:
• An audio alarm can be used with the Bluetooth headphone. A vibration alarm is
provided in the handle.
• Indicators at the top of the screen show the current dose rate in mrem/hr (or µSv or
µGy). An icon is shown if the instrument has a fix on a GPS (green) or no fix on a
GPS (red). Icons also show the status of MFK, Bluetooth, LCX Mode stabilizer status (when disabled) and WiFi (connected or not connected).
• When radiation is detected and identified, the identification is posted to the real-time identification area of the screen. This area lists the names
of any radioisotopes currently being detected.
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Detective X
The Detective X Operation
• Clear.
• Simple and intuitive.
• Informative.
• Based on simple-to-use hardware (even with one gloved
hand).
• Automated packaging of data for reachback.
Detective X Spectral Display
(8 MeV range).
Modes of Operation
Reachback Default General Settings.
Detect Mode Operation
Detect mode is used to locate and identify sources. In this mode, the instrument is
continuously “looking” but not storing data. The “Detect Mode” screen shows the
detector count rate and dose rate. It is also the search mode and monitoring mode.
The “Detect Mode” screen displays “Signal Index” and “SNM Index” strip charts in the
middle of the screen. The strip charts update every half second. They are real time
indicators of the presence of radioactive material. The strip charts will sometimes show
an increase before identifications appear on the screen.
A Survey always begins with a Detect mode measurement. The Detective X is set to
automatically start in Detect Mode.
Identify Mode Operation
This mode is used to identify radionuclides by counting an object or area of interest from
a stationary position for an extended period of time. Data is acquired for a preset time
period or until the acquisition is stopped.
Ethernet Setup.
The identify mode can operate in “single” spectrum mode or in “multiple spectrum
analysis” mode. The mode is selected by the administrator. Single spectrum mode starts
a spectrum collection and performs a radionuclide identification as the spectrum is
collected. In multiple spectrum mode, background, known, and unknown spectra are
collected, automatically packaged, and sent to reachback.
The preset is real time. During this time, radionuclide IDs are displayed by nuclide name
on the screen. The operator can view the spectrum in real time or can display the ten
most intense gamma-ray lines in the spectrum during the identification period.
Detect Mode Survey.
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Detective X
The Detective X and Background Radiation — No more NORM alarms
The Detective X uses the background measurements saved on the instrument to recognize and suppress NORM Identifications unless the
NORM material is at a significantly higher level than the stored background.
The Detective X and Digital Stabilization — Making the best of it
Although a digital germanium spectrometer is a highly stable instrument, even with varying temperatures, the Detective X is designed for use in
conditions that could be considered extreme. An automatic gain stabilizer system “locks onto” the natural background K-40 peak (if present) to
ensure “perfect” calibration is maintained even in conditions of harsh handling. The stabilizer is “smart.” If K-40 is not found in the spectrum, the
gain stabilizer will be turned off. Also, the user can choose to disable the stabilizer and proceed directly to ID measurements to minimize setup
time in mission critical scenarios.
The Detective X Nuclide Library
The Detective X has a very comprehensive nuclide list. A subset of the entire nuclide library is the default “Threat Isotopes”; these are marked in
RED in Table 1. The advanced user is able to add any of the nuclides marked in GREEN to the list of red-marked threat isotopes. The color
coding in the table shows the default background screen colors and visual alarms the instrument will present when these nuclides are
encountered.
Table 1. Detective X Nuclide Library.
2235 keV Peak Present
Enriched Uranium
Neutrons on Fe
Pu-239
U-238
356 keV Peak Present
Ar-41
Am-241
Geiger Muller CR
Neutrons on Hydrogen
Radiation Detected
Unknown Peak
375/414 keV Peak Present
As-72
Am-241 (shielded)
HEU
Neutrons on Pb
U-232
Unknown/Beta Emitter
662/722 keV Peak Present
As-74
Am-241 (unshielded)
Neutrons
Neutrons or H.E. Gammas
U-233
1001 keV Peak Present
Ac-225
At-211
Br-76
Cd-115
Cm-244
Co-58
Cu-64
F-18
Ga-67 (Shielded)
Ho-166
I-125
I-133
Ir-194 (Shielded)
La-140
Mn-54
Nb-94
Pa-231
Ra-226
Ru-97
Se-75
Sr-89
Te-132
Tl-202
W-188/Re-188
Y-88
Br-76 (Heavily Sheilded)
Ce-139
Co-55
Co-60
Cu-67/Ga-67
Fe-59
Gd-153
Ho-166m
I-126
I-134
K-40
Lu-172
Mn-56
Nb-95
Pb-203
Rb-83
Sb-124
Sm-153
Sr-89
Th-229
Tl-204
Xe-127
Y-91
Br-76 (Shielded)
Ce-141
Co-56
Cr-51
Eu-152
Ga-64
Gd-159
Ho-166m (Shielded)
I-126 (Shielded)
I-135
Kr-87
Lu-176
Mo-99
Nb-96
Pd-103
Rb-86
Sb-124 (Shielded)
Sm-153 (Shielded)
Suspect Neutrons
Th-230
Tm-170
Xe-131m
Yb-169
Br-77
Ce-144
Co-56 (Shielded)
Cs-131
Eu-154
Ga-64 (Shielded)
Ge-68/Ga-68
I-123
I-131
In-111
Kr-88
Lu-177
Na-22
Nd-96 (Shielded)
Po-210
Rh-105
Sb-125
Sn-113
Ta-182
Th-232
Tm-171
Xe-133
Zn-62
Ba-140
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Be-7
Beta Emitter
Bi-207
Neutrons
Neutrons on Al
Np-237
U-235
186 keV Peak Present
Ac-227
Au-198
Bi-212 (Th-232/U-232
daughter)
Ca-47
Cm-242
Co-57
Cs-134
Eu-155
Ga-67
Hf-181
I-123 (Shielded)
I-131 (Shielded)
Ir-192
Kr-88 (Shielded)
Lu-177m
Na-24
Nd-147
Pr-144
Ru-103
Sb-127
Sr-82/Rb-82
Tc-96
Tl-200
V-48
Xe-133m
Zn-65
Cf-252/Cf-249
Neutrons on Boron
Pu-238
U-235
2614 keV Peak Present
Ag-110m
Ba-133
Bi-214 (Ra-226
daughter)
Cd-109
Cm-243
Co-57 (Shielded)
Cs-137
Eu-156
Ga-67
Hg-203
I-124
I-132
Ir-192 (Shielded)
La-138
Mn-52
Nb-92m
Os-194/Ir-194
Ra-223
Ru-106/Rh-106
Sc-46
Sr-85/Kr-85
Tc-99m
Tl-201
W-187
Xe-135
Zr-95
Detective X
Detective X Technical Specifications
Detectors
Nuclide Identification P-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystal with
Coaxial construction. Crystal nominal dimensions 65 mm diameter x 50 mm
length.
Cryostat and Cooler “Hardened” cryostat, with high-reliability, low-power
Stirling cooler. The cryostat design is such that the Detective X may be
switched off at any time and power subsequently re-applied, without having
to wait for a full thermal cycle (full warm up before cool down). This feature
greatly increases system availability during measurement campaigns.
Cool Down Time The high reliability cooler is designed for continuous
operation. Between making measurements the unit is powered from a DC
supply, car battery or other device. Initial cool down time depends on
ambient temperature, but is typically 8 hours at 25°C.
Gamma Dose Rate Detector Three detectors determine the gamma dose
rate over a wide range from <0.05 mR/h to >100 R/h, a dose-rate range of
over six decades. Instrument switches between the three automatically.
Neutron Detector Module The optional neutron detector is a large volume
segmented lithium-6 fluoride/zinc sulfate (Li6F/ZnS) detector that is ANSI
N42.34 2015 compliant.
Hardware
Digital MCA and Data Processor
Display 4.3” WQVGA (480 x 272 pixels) sunlight readable, touch
sensitive, operate with finger or stylus.
Wireless Connectivity IEEE 802.11b wireless and Bluetooth.
GPS The instrument is equipped with an internal GPS. The location
information associated with a measurement is optionally stored in the N42
files.
Digital MCA with Internal Storage of Multiple Spectral Data
Digital Noise Suppression "LFR Filter".
Conversion Gain 16k channel.
Maximum Number of Stored Spectra Unlimited on removable media.
Physical Specifications
Maximum Overall Dimensions (including handle and Ge detector endcap)
15.5 in L x 6.25 in W x 8.25 in H (39.5 cm L x 16 cm W x 21 cm H).
Weight 15.4 lbs (6.98 kg) gamma only. 16.8 lbs (7.2 kg) gamma/neutron.
Internal Battery 2 Rechargeable Lithium Ion. 98 Wh each, nominal. Over
8 hours of battery life at 25°C when HPGe detector is cold. <4 hour time to
charge. Internal battery is easily swapped.
External Battery Battery lifetime may be extended indefinitely by the use
of optional external battery packs. An external military battery (Model 2590)
weighs less than 3.25 lbs and extends lifetime to >16 hrs.
Input Power 12 to 17 V DC from battery or DC power supply (universal
mains supply included).
Power Usage Highest during cool down and charging battery: <100 Watt.
Cold with fully charged battery <35 W.
Data Processor FREESCALE I.MX535 operating at 1 GHz.
Operation Range
Media To internal RAM and removable low profile USB flash drive. The
unit is shipped with a 16 GB Flash drive which holds over 100,000
spectra.
Instrument Enclosure IP65 Sealed against ingress of dust and water. All
perforations are sealed by rubber plugs (connectors, memory cards, etc.).
Data Storage
File Format ANSI N42.42.
Temperature: –20°C to 50°C.
Relative Humidity: 95% non-condensing.
Computer Interfacing USB and Ethernet TCP/IP v4 connections via
standard RJ45 Ethernet connection (10/100Base-T – 10/100Mbps, autosensing). Ready for use with MFK (Mobile Field Kit for DoD users), ORTEC
GammaVision, iOS devices and Android devices. Wi-Fi (802.11)
communication software. Wireless Mobile MCB Server software.
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Detective X
Communication Software
The Detective X is a member of the ORTEC CONNECTIONS family.
Remote MCA control, even over a network, is achieved simply by the use of
ORTEC CONNECTIONS products such as MAESTRO MCA Emulation
software.
Multiple spectra may be block-transferred from the instrument controller to
an external PC via the USB connection. The Detective X appears as a flash
drive when connected to a laptop or PC. Exported files are in the N42
format and may be read by many programs used by Reachback teams such
as CAMBIO and PeakEasy and by ORTEC software products such as
GammaVision.
Mobile MCB Server
The Mobile MCB Server software application enables the Detective X to
communicate wired or wirelessly with ORTEC software applications such as
MAESTRO, GammaVision, and Detective-Remote®.
Users can develop their own applications through the use of the optional
A11 tool kit.
Detective X is equipped with IEEE 802.11b wireless and Bluetooth, allowing
the Detective X to be used with cell phones, laptops, and remote computer
systems. The Detective X is ready to use with MFK software, ORTEC
GammaVision software, iOS devices (iPhone®, iPAD) and Android®
devices.
Ordering Information
Model
DETECTIVE-X
DETECTIVE-X-N
DETECTIVE-X-8
DETECTIVE-X-8-N
Accessories
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-BAT
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-DUAL-CHGR
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-VEHCHGR
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-PS
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-2590-CABLE
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-RCFILTER
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-COL-W
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-COL-ST
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-TRANSPORTCASE
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-BLUETOOTH-HS
DETECTIVE-X-ACC-USBFLASH
DETECTIVE-X-NEUTRON-DETECTOR
Description
3 MeV Enhanced Capability, Ultra-Light-Weight, Portable High Efficiency HPGe Identifier (Gamma only). Includes
GPS, mains adapter, vehicle power cable, 16 GB mini USB flash drive, shoulder strap, Bluetooth headset and
wheeled hard-sided case.
3 MeV Enhanced Capability, Ultra-Light-Weight, Portable High Efficiency HPGe Identifier (Gamma and Neutron).
Includes GPS, mains adapter, vehicle power cable, 16 GB mini USB flash drive, shoulder strap, Bluetooth headset
and wheeled hard-sided case.
8 MeV Enhanced Capability, Ultra-Light-Weight, Portable High Efficiency HPGe Identifier (Gamma only). Includes
GPS, mains adapter, vehicle power cable, 16 GB mini USB flash drive, shoulder strap, Bluetooth headset and
wheeled hard-sided case.
8 MeV Enhanced Capability, Ultra-Light-Weight, Portable High Efficiency HPGe Identifier (Gamma and neutron).
Includes GPS, mains adapter, vehicle power cable, 16 GB mini USB flash drive, shoulder strap, Bluetooth headset
and wheeled hard-sided case.
Lithium-Ion Battery.
Standalone dual battery charger and calibrator.
Vehicle powered adapter cable.
Universal AC mains power supply.
Battery Cable for connection to Military 2590 battery.
Low Energy Gamma Filter.
Tungsten Collimator 4 mm thick.
Steel Collimator 4 mm thick.
Wheeled Transport Case.
Bluetooth Headset.
16 GB USB Mini Flash Drive.
Li6/ZnS Neutron Detector.
Specifications subject to change
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