Object Oriented Design Principles with C - TechNet Gallery

Object Oriented Design
Principles with C#
Part – I
Md. Mahedee Hasan
Software Architect
Leadsoft Bangladesh Limited
Microsoft MVP | Trainer | Technical Speaker
Linkedin: http://www.linkedin.com/in/mahedee
Blog: http://mahedee.net/
http://mahedee.blogspot.com/
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Contents
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Introduction
What is Object Oriented Design Principle?
SOLID Object Oriented Design Principles
SRP – Single Responsibility Principle
OCP – Open Close Principle
LSP – Liskov Substitution Principle
ISP - Interface Segregation principle
DIP – Dependency Inversion Principle
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Introduction
• What is Principles?
– Do these and you will achieve this.
• How you will do it is up to you.
– Everyone defines some principles in their lives like
• "I never lie“
• “I never drink alcohol”
– He/she follow these principles to make his/her life easy
– How will he/she stick to these principles is up to the individual.
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What is Object Oriented Design Principle?
• What is Object Oriented Design?
– It’s a process of planning a software system where objects will
interact with each other to solve specific problems
– The saying goes, "Proper Object oriented design makes a developer's
life easy, whereas bad design makes it a disaster.“
• What is Object Oriented Design Principles?
– The process of planning software system using some guideline or
principles where object will interact with best possible way.
– Benefit
• It will make developer life easy.
• It will make software more manageable.
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SOLID Object Oriented Design Principles
• Introduced by by Mr. Robert Martin (commonly known as
Uncle Bob)
• Acronyms of five principles
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S-SRP - Single responsibility Principle
O-OCP - Open-closed Principle
L-LSP - Liskov substitution Principle
I-ISP - Interface segregation Principle
D-DIP - Dependency inversion Principle
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More Principles
• More principles other than those categorized by Uncle Bob
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Program to Interface Not Implementation.
Don't Repeat Yourself.
Encapsulate What Varies.
Depend on Abstractions, Not Concrete classes.
Least Knowledge Principle.
Favor Composition over Inheritance.
Hollywood Principle.
Apply Design Pattern wherever possible.
Strive for Loosely Coupled System.
Keep it Simple and Sweet / Stupid. (KISS)
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SRP– Single Responsibility Principle
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SRP – Single Responsibility Principle
The Single Principle states that
Every object should have a single responsibility and
that responsibility should be entirely encapsulated
by the class. - Wikipedia
There should never be one reason for a class to
change. – Robert C. “Uncle Bob” Martin
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Real World Example
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Cohesion and Coupling
• Cohesion
– How closely related methods and class level variables are in a
class.
– Or, How strongly related or focused are various responsibilities of a
module
• Coupling
– The notion of coupling attempts to capture this concept of “how
strongly” different modules are interconnected
– Or, the degree to which each program module relies on each one of the
other module
Strive for low Coupling and High Cohesion!
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Responsibilities are Axes of Change
• Requirements changes typically map to responsibilities
• More responsibilities == More likelihood of change
• Having multiple responsibilities within a class couples
together these responsibilities
• The more classes a change affects, the more likely the
change will introduce errors.
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Have a look on the following class !
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Demo of SRP
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Solutions which will not Violate SRP
• Now it’s up to us how we achieve this.
• One thing we can do is create three different classes
– Employee – Contains Properties (Data)
– EmployeeDB – Does database operations
– EmplyeeReport – Does report related tasks
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Solutions which will not Violate SRP …
public class Employee
{
public string EmployeeName { get; set; }
public int EmployeeNo { get; set; }
}
public class EmployeeDB
{
public void Insert(Employee e)
{
//Database Logic written here
}
public Employee Select()
{
return new Employee();
//Database Logic written here
}
}
public class EmployeeReport
{
public void GenerateReport(Employee e)
{
//Set report formatting
}
}
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Can a single class can have multiple methods?
Yes,
A class may have more than one method.
A method will have single responsibility.
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Summery
• “a reason to change”
• Multiple small interfaces (follow ISP) can help to
achieve SRP
• Following SRP leads to lower coupling and
higher cohesion
• Many small classes with distinct responsibilities
result in a more flexible design
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OCP – Open Close Principle
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OCP – Open Close Principle
The Open Close Principle states that
Software entities (classes, modules, functions, etc.)
should be open for extension, but closed for
modification - Wikipedia
First introduced by Betrand Meyer in 1988
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Real world example
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What is OCP?
• Open for extension
– Its behavior can be extended to accommodate new demand.
• Close for modification
– The existing source code of the module is not changed or
minimum change when making enhancement
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Change behavior without changing code?
• Rely on abstractions
• No limit to variety of implementations of each
abstraction
• In .NET, abstractions include:
– Interfaces
– Abstract Base Classes
• In procedural code, some level of OCP can be achieved via
parameters
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The Problem
• Adding new rules require changes to every time
• Each change can introduce bugs and requires re-testing,
etc.
• We want to avoid introducing changes that cascade
through many modules in our application
• Writing new classes is less likely to introduce problems
– Nothing depends on new classes (yet)
– New classes have no legacy coupling to make them hard to
design or test
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Three Approaches to Achieve OCP
• Parameters (Procedural Programming)
– Allow client to control behavior specifics via a parameter
– Combined with delegates/lambda, can be very powerful approach
• Inheritance / Template Method Pattern
– Child types override behavior of a base class (or interface)
• Composition / Strategy Pattern
– Client code depends on abstraction
– Provides a “plug in” model
– Implementations utilize Inheritance; Client utilizes
Composition
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Demo of OCP
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Implementation of OCP
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OCP Implementation
public abstract class Shape
{
public abstract double CalculateArea();
}
public class Rectangle : Shape
{
public double Height { get; set; }
public double Width { get; set; }
public Rectangle(double height, double width)
{
this.Height = height;
this.Width = width;
}
public override double CalculateArea()
{
return Height * Width;
}
}
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OCP Implementation …
public class Triangle : Shape
{
public double Base { get; set; }
public double Height { get; set; }
public Triangle(double vbase, double vheight)
{
this.Base = vbase;
this.Height = vheight;
}
public override double CalculateArea()
{
return 1 / 2.0 * Base * Height;
}
}
public class Circle : Shape
{
public double Radius { get; set; }
public Circle(double radius)
{
this.Radius = radius;
}
public override double CalculateArea()
{
return Math.PI * Radius * Radius;
}
}
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When do you apply OCP?
• Experience Tells You
– If you know from your own experience in the problem domain that
a particular class of change is likely to recur, you can apply OCP
up front in your design
• Don’t apply OCP at first
• If the module changes once, accept it.
• If it changes a second time, refactor to achieve OCP
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Summery
• OCP yields flexibility, reusability, and maintainability
• Know which changes to guard against, and resist
premature abstraction
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LSP – Liskov Substitution Principle
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LSP – Liskov Substitution Principle
The Liskov Substitution Principle states that
Subtypes must be substitutable for their base types.
- Agile Principles, Patterns, and Practices in C#
Named for Barbara Liskov, who first described the
principle in 1988
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Real World Example
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Substitutability
• Child classes must not:
– Remove base class behavior
– Violate base class invariants
• In general must not require calling code to know they are
different from their base type
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Demo of LSP
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Implementation of LSP
public abstract class Shape
{
public abstract int Area();
}
public class Squre : Shape
{
public int SideLength;
public override int Area()
{
return SideLength * SideLength;
}
}
public class Rectangle : Shape
{
public int Height { get; set; }
public int Width { get; set; }
public override int Area()
{
return Height * Width;
}
}
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Implementation of LSP…
Testing LSP
[TestMethod]
public void SixFor2x3Rectange()
{
var myRectangle = new Rectangle { Height = 2, Width = 3 };
Assert.AreEqual(6, myRectangle.Area());
}
[TestMethod]
public void NineFor3x3Squre()
{
var squre = new Squre { SideLength = 3 };
Assert.AreEqual(9, squre.Area());
}
[TestMethod]
public void TwentyFor4x5ShapeAnd9For3x3Squre()
{
var shapes = new List<Shape>
{
new Rectangle{Height = 4, Width = 5},
new Squre{SideLength = 3}
};
var areas = new List<int>();
#region problem
//So you are following both polymorphism and OCP
#endregion
foreach (Shape shape in shapes)
{
areas.Add(shape.Area());
}
Assert.AreEqual(20, areas[0]);
Assert.AreEqual(9, areas[1]);
}
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Summery
• Extension of open close principle
• LSP allows for proper use of polymorphism
• Produces more maintainable code
• Remember IS-SUBSTITUTABLE-FOR instead of IS-A
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ISP– Interface Segregation principle
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ISP– Interface Segregation principle
The Interface Segregation Principle states that
Clients should not be forced to depend on the
methods they do not use.
Corollary : Prefer small, cohesive interface to fat interfaces
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ISP - Real world example
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What is ISP?
• Many client specific interfaces are better than one
general purpose interface
• The dependency of one class to another one should
depend on the smallest possible interface
• In simple words, if your interface is fat, break it
into multiple interfaces.
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Demo of ISP
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ISP Violation
public interface IReportBAL
{
void GeneratePFReport();
void GenerateESICReport();
void GenerateResourcePerformanceReport();
void GenerateProjectSchedule();
void GenerateProfitReport();
}
public class ReportBAL : IReportBAL
{
public void GeneratePFReport()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateESICReport()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateResourcePerformanceReport()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateProjectSchedule()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateProfitReport()
{/*...............*/}
}
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ISP Violation …
public class EmployeeUI
{
public void DisplayUI()
{
IReportBAL objBal = new ReportBAL();
objBal.GenerateESICReport();
objBal.GeneratePFReport();
}
}
public class ManagerUI
{
public void DisplayUI()
{
IReportBAL objBal = new ReportBAL();
objBal.GenerateESICReport();
objBal.GeneratePFReport();
objBal.GenerateResourcePerformanceReport ();
objBal.GenerateProjectSchedule ();
}
}
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ISP Violation …
public class AdminUI
{
public void DisplayUI()
{
IReportBAL objBal = new ReportBAL();
objBal.GenerateESICReport();
objBal.GeneratePFReport();
objBal.GenerateResourcePerformanceReport();
objBal.GenerateProjectSchedule();
objBal.GenerateProfitReport();
}
}
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Refactoring code following ISP
public interface IEmployeeReportBAL
{
void GeneratePFReport();
void GenerateESICReport();
}
public interface IManagerReportBAL : IEmployeeReportBAL
{
void GenerateResourcePerformanceReport();
void GenerateProjectSchedule();
}
public interface IAdminReportBAL : IManagerReportBAL
{
void GenerateProfitReport();
}
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Refactoring code following ISP …
public class ReportBAL : IAdminReportBAL
{
public void GeneratePFReport()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateESICReport()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateResourcePerformanceReport()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateProjectSchedule()
{/*...............*/}
public void GenerateProfitReport()
{/*...............*/}
}
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Refactoring code following ISP …
public class EmployeeUI
{
public void DisplayUI()
{
IEmployeeReportBAL objBal = new ReportBAL();
objBal.GenerateESICReport();
objBal.GeneratePFReport();
}
}
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Refactoring code following ISP …
public class ManagerUI
{
public void DisplayUI()
{
IManagerReportBAL objBal = new ReportBAL();
objBal.GenerateESICReport();
objBal.GeneratePFReport();
objBal.GenerateResourcePerformanceReport ();
objBal.GenerateProjectSchedule ();
}
}
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Refactoring code following ISP …
public class AdminUI
{
public void DisplayUI()
{
IAdminReportBAL objBal = new ReportBAL();
objBal.GenerateESICReport();
objBal.GeneratePFReport();
objBal.GenerateResourcePerformanceReport();
objBal.GenerateProjectSchedule();
objBal.GenerateProfitReport();
}
}
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DIP – Dependency Inversion principle
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DIP – Dependency Inversion principle
The Dependency Inversion Principle states that
"High level modules should not depend upon low
level modules. Both should depend on abstractions.“
Abstraction should not depends on details. Details
should depend on abstractions.
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DIP – Dependency Inversion principle
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What are dependencies?
• Framework
• Third party libraries
• Database
• File System
• Email
• The new keyword
• System resources (clock) etc.
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Traditional Programming and dependencies
• High level module call low level module
• Use interface depends on
– Business logic depends on
• Infrastructure
• Utility
• Data access
• Static method are used for convenience or as façade layer
• Class instantiation / call stack logic is scattered through out
all modules
– Violation of Single Responsibilities principle
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Problem for dependencies
• Tight coupling
• No way to change implementation details
– OCP Violation
• Difficult to test
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Solution : Dependency Injection
• Dependency Injection is a technique that is used to allow
calling code to inject the dependencies a class needs when it
is instantiated.
• The Hollywood Principle
– “Don’t call us; we’ll call you”
• Three Primary Techniques
– Constructor Injection
– Property Injection
– Parameter Injection
• Other methods exist as well
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Constructor Injection
• Dependencies are passed in via constructor
• Pros
– Classes self-document what they need to perform their work
– Works well with or without a container
– Classes are always in a valid state once constructed
• Cons
– Constructors can have many parameters/dependencies (design smell)
– Some features (e.g. Serialization) may require a default constructor
– Some methods in the class may not require things other methods
require (design smell)
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Property Injection
• Dependencies are passed in via a property
– Also known as “setter injection”
• Pros
– Dependency can be changed at any time during object lifetime
– Very flexible
• Cons
– Objects may be in an invalid state between construction and setting of
dependencies via setters
– Less intuitive
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Parameter Injection
• Dependencies are passed in via a method parameter
• Pros
– Most granular
– Very flexible
– Requires no change to rest of class
• Cons
– Breaks method signature
– Can result in many parameters (design smell)
• Consider if only one method has the dependency, otherwise
prefer constructor injection
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Constructor Injection
public class OnlineOrder : Order
{
private readonly INotificationService _notificationService;
private readonly PaymentDetails _paymentDetails;
private readonly IPaymentProcessor _paymentProcessor;
private readonly IReservationService _reservationService;
public OnlineOrder(Cart cart,
PaymentDetails paymentDetails,
IPaymentProcessor paymentProcessor,
IReservationService reservationService,
INotificationService notificationService)
: base(cart)
{
_paymentDetails = paymentDetails;
_paymentProcessor = paymentProcessor;
_reservationService = reservationService;
_notificationService = notificationService;
}
//……..
}
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Where do we instantiate objects ?
• Applying Dependency Injection typically results in many
interfaces that eventually need to be instantiated
somewhere… but where?
• Default Constructor
– You can provide a default constructor that news up the instances you
expect to typically need in your application
– Referred to as “poor man’s dependency injection” or “poor man’s IoC”
• Main
– You can manually instantiate whatever is needed in your application’s
startup routine or main() method
• IoC Container
– Use an “Inversion of Control” Container
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IOC Container
• Responsible for object graph instantiation
• Initiated at application startup via code or configuration
• Managed interfaces and the implementation to be used are
Registered with the container
• Dependencies on interfaces are Resolved at application
startup or runtime
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Example IOC Container in .NET
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Microsoft Unity
StructureMap
Ninject
Windsor
Funq / Munq
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