06 June 1988 - The Life of Kenneth

JNE 11
focus
on
mnmwnicatkms
CtlndWY
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SSB SLOPE TUNE
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scan
KENWOD
KENWOOD U.S.A. CORPORATION
2701 t Uonlrrlgllcs/ St . Lrrn(] Hc~;I~:~I,
CA '40810
PO Rox 7774'1. ILrlrlg Hr;rc:h, CA!4OROl 5745
magazine
contents
8 design program
for the grounded-grid 3-5002
W.J. Byron, W7DHD
19 designing a station
for the microwave bands: part 2
Glenn Elmore, N6GN
39 VHFIUHF world:
propagation update
- part 2
Joe Reisert, W l J R
54 the Quad antenna: part 2
circular and octagonal loops
R.P. Haviland, W4MB
68 ham radio techniques:
a nifty bi-square beam
for 10 or 12 meters
Bill Orr, W6SAI
72 practically speaking:
"ferriting" out the problem
Joe Carr, K41PV
78 Yagi vs. Quad, part 2
David Donnelly, K2SS
95 Elmer's notebook:
"Q" signals
Tom McMullen, W l S L
on thecover: John Webster, K1FWE(bottom left),
and Doug Grant, KlDG (bottom right), operating
during the 1986 K l A R Field Day effort. Both are
SFRCC members. Top photo: Marty Durham,
NB1H, "fixing things" on N1AU's tower.
98 advertisers index
6 comments
88 DX forecaster
90 flea market
92
84
98
4
ham mart
new produc
reader servi
reflections
June 1988
GdP
3
Novice enhancement and the future of Amateur Radio
Since going into effect last spring, Novice enhancement hasn't caused any great upsurge in the Amateur
ranks. Whether it should be considered a modest success or a complete failure seems to depend on who's
talking.
If the criterion is merely the decrease in Novice licensees compared with a year ago, Novice enhancement has failed. To me that's a very shallow, superficial interpretation resulting from a cursory reading
of the numbers and a misplaced belief that enhancement addressed a basic problem of Amateur Radio
rather than an ancillary one.
Discounting the big Novice jump in April and May of 1987, when a lot of newcomers rushed in to take
the Novice exam before it was expanded to cover new privileges, the Novice population hasn't shown
a significant change in the past year. There are, perhaps, many reasons for that. How many of last year's
new licensees didn't even pause at Novice but moved up immediately? How many of them had been putting off becoming Amateurs and were stimulated to take the Novice exam before it got tougher? These
and many other questions should be answered before the results of Novice enhancement can be properly
assessed.
Some critics now say the problem with Novice enhancement is that it didn't go far enough, and what's
really needed is to do away with the CW "boogie man". Though I agree that the CW requirement has
long intimidated - and will continue to intimidate - a vocal minority of prospective Amateurs, I also firmly believe that any attack on the CW issue, no matter what its outcome, will have no more effect on the
long or short term Amateur growth problem than Novice enhancement did!
Whatever your feelings, neither Novice enhancement nor a no-code license addresses the basic problem.
The problem isn't our product, but its marketing. Amateur Radio is a great product, but if our potential
customers don't know the product exists, where to find it, or appreciate its many benefits, they aren't
going to buy!
Intelligent marketing is based on market analysis. Manufacturers who don't understand this are doomed
to slow growth and/or stagnation at best, and the bankruptcy court at worst. Analyses of recent licensees
by the FCC and the VEs who are actually bringing the newcomers on board agree that the average new
Amateur is an older, well-established adult. Our marketing effort has been aimed at youngsters, so it seems
likely we've been targeting the wrong market. The ARRL seems to feel this way, and is now experimenting
with a pilot program that encourages older residents of the Tampalst. Petersburg, Florida area to become
hams.
Before investing any great amount of money and effort in new sales pitches or product revisions, I suggest we put some of that money into a professional market study. This study should be directed primarily
at those Amateurs who've joined us in the past 10 to 12 years and (when possible) those who've dropped
out. It should include questions on how and why respondents became Amateurs, what they felt had helped,
or what had hindered their developing Amateur Radio interest. When the study's results are analyzed, the
most cost-effective marketing strategy may become clear.
The ARRL and the Amateur Radio Industry Group have the capabilities for such a study. The two worked
together well on the Archie's Ham Radio Adventure comic book project, and might be willing to work
together on this one. In the meantime, however, I feel that any further tinkering with the product isn't
going to solve the basic problems, only complicate them.
Joe Schroeder, W9JUV
This editorial is one person's opinion about Novice enhancement and does not necessarily represent the
views of ham radio. Ed.
4
June 1988
Affordable
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lor HF
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New Feature! Programmable band
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C ~ I ~ I I I . . J ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -
KENWOOD U.S.A.CORPORATION
2201 E. Domtnguez St..LongBeach. CA90810
PO. Box 22745. Long Beach. CA 90801-5745
tips for construction
projects
Dear HR:
Boy, am I glad that I started building projects before reading Paul A.
Johnson's article in your March 1988
issue. I'm sure Mr. Johnson's piece
would have scared me away. Here are
some suggestions for any of your readers who might be interested in project
construction:
1. Don't start with anything rf. Receivers, transmitters, tuners, linears are all
difficult and require a lot of adjustment
once they're assembled. As I recently
discovered, even a simple dummy load
isn't simple. Don't start with a highvoltage or high-current power supply
either. Anything over about 50 volts or
5 amps requires extra care and construction technique. Start with something like a 12 volt 3 amps power
supply to run your HT in the house.
How about a digital clock? Use a
National Semiconductor MA1023C
module and matching transformer
from Digi-Key and it'll be easy. Get a
Curtis chip and make a keyer. These
suggested projects may not sound
very exciting technically, but you'll find
that project construction is often more
mechanical than electrical.
2. You don't have to build most projects in metal boxes. For non-rf projects, plastic is fine. It's inexpensive,
easy to work, and doesn't have to be
painted. Jameco, Digi-Key, and your
local Radio Shack all offer a selection
of plastic enclosures. Stick with plastic and you won't need a drill press; an
electric hand drill is fine. You won't
need expensive and dangerous hack-
6
June 1988
saws, sabre saws, circular saws, or fly
cutters either. Holes larger than your
drill can make or odd-shaped openings
can be cut quickly and easily with a
reamer or some cheap files. Filing out
openings in metal is an arduous task,
but in plastic even cheap files cut
quickly. Here's a tip: to drill a nice hole
in plastic, start with your smallest bit
and work up to the final size using every bit between them in your index.
Hot-melt glue guns work on plastic. A
cheap pop riveter is another handy
tool. If you do need metal, look for a
prefab cabinet that will fit your project.
Prefabs may seem expensive, but
they're a lot easier and you won't need
a lot of tools and equipment. Bud,
LMB, and others offer an excellent assortment of cabinets ready to house
most projects.
3. Plan! Document! Much of the work
for my projects is done on paper. Start
with a good schematic. If you're using
any integrated circuits, mark the pin
numbers on your schematic. Draw pin
diagrams of other parts like transistors
next to the part on the schematic.
Assign part numbers. Sketch how the
project will be assembled, the layout
of parts on circuit boards, and the
chassis wiring. Then make a from-to
wiring list. With all of this planning,
your project will be a snap to build and
will work the first time. If it doesn't,
all the documentation will help you
find the problem fast. By the way,
keep all of this paper so that if your
project ever breaks, you ever want to
modify it, or you or a friend ever want
t o build another, it'll be easy. As you
correct bugs or add modifications,
document the changes.
4. Take your time. Measure twice, cut
once. Make test fits as you move
along. Check each electrical connection with an ohmmeter. Try to make
every solder joint perfect. Use cable
ties or lacing tape to form cable bundles. If you have extensive chassis wiring, use wire marker labels. Use
heat-shrink tubing and cable clamps as
necessary. In short, try to make each
project a show piece inside and out.
While Mr. Johnson's work certainly
looks very nice, project construction
does not have to be as difficult or as
complicated as he makes it sound.
You don't have to be a machinist, and
you really don't need a lot of expensive tools either. By avoiding complicated projects (especially rf ones) at
first, using plastic boxes whenever
possible, planning carefully, and working slowly, anyone can enjoy building
perfect construction projects. I know
I sure do!
Chuck Gollnick, KA7QEN
Ames, Iowa 50010-1363
no contest
Dear HR:
In his article in the November 1987
issue, Bill Orr, WGSAI, says he can attest to the fact that allocation of even
a small segment of the 30-meter band
to SSB operation would be of great
benefit to Amateur Radio. Instead of
a bland statement, would he be a bit
more explicit?
Surely he must be aware that another well-known author sparked a
similar controversy in the columns of
the RSGB's RadComm magazine, and
the consensus of opinion was against
any change in the IARU's recommendations. Could there be a conspiracy
of authors on this subject?
I have used the 30-meter band almost since it's inception, and the
greatest problem is finding a space to
work without causing QRM to priority
users. Like many others, Ihave worked
over 100 countries; the DX is there and
occupancy will surely improve as we
advance into the new cycle.
Would the SSB fraternity be as
mindful of our non-priority status as
the CWers have been? I doubt it, and
it would not be long before we lost the
band altogether.
I wholeheartedly agree with his 18
MHz sentiments and it would be a
great shot in the arm to have the W/Ks
on the band, but please no contests.
As my friend SM3CIQ/UI F says; rather
RTTY QRM than contests.
Edward D. Ross, 5B40GIA9XCE
Larnaca, Cyprus
i
NSYNC FILTER
DELAYED AND
SINGLE SWEEP MODES
..
s wauetorm lo be l r o l a l n and erl,inoci In, <lore!8nsprrllon
Vnrtablm nolnolt allow slahle vla.lnq nl complex wawlorms
EXCEPTIONALLY BRIGHT
--
A X I S INTENSITY M O D U U r m
DMM-300
3 5 1)lC;ITDMMIMULTITESTER
$79.95
MODEL 2000
l h < ' . f~ncldon3 5 dog01OMM oIlsr$ hlghly accbrale
pollo!rndnr~an0 a nos1 01 added leelures 1.e
l aud b e
con1 nt. f y capac lance !tans rlat. lemperalure andcon.
O L C olohelp
I B ~ ~ a ~ d a I h e , o b - l s e lTcmperalureprODe
1e511.an5Ann naltevq .ncddnd
Bas r DC accdracy p 2s m.nusO 2 5 8
DC rollage 200mv- IOOOV 5ranges
6 AC vollaas 200mv-750V 51angeHer $lance 2000hm%-?OM0hrn5 6ranges
Cdpac lance 2000pl-ZO,l
3rinqes
Tfan%rlor Terleu 0 -2000 f
Cr)nd$.clanc~7 0 0 " ~
FI I over oad prolecled
tnpc.1 mpedancr l0Mohm
DMM-100
3.5 DIGITPOCKETSIZE DMM
$29.95
Psrlecl lor the I~eldSerVlcetechntctan. Shlrl pocket slzs
w~lhoutcampramrsfnglealures or accuracy. Large. easy
lor?ad'YLCDd#apIayFullyoverlosdprolectedlorsalely
2000 hour battery lhle wllh standard 9 v cell Probes and
battery included
Bastc OC accuracy luSlmlnusO.S%
DC voltage 2~-100&.4 ranges
ACvollage 2Wv-750". Zranges
RsSostance:Zk ohms-ZM ohms. 4 ranges
r DCcurrent2mA-ZA.4 ranges
Input~mpedanceIOMohm
fully averloadpratecled
Approx S x 3-x I' Under 7ozs.
.
1.5 DIGIT PROBE TYPEDMM
Curlom BOpm LSI chlpprovidesaceuracyand rdlabllity In
uch a compacl smza Aulorangmg. audible cont~nuilyand
ala hold lealure help you p~npomlthe preblem qu8ckIy.
:ass and baltenes mcluded
2 Y ~ R ~ C E M 3 V T
3ODAY MONEY BACK 6UARAN:TEE
t TOLLFREE TECHNICALSUPPOiitT
h NEXT DAY AIR SHIP AVAILABLi
h
b
W
design program
for the grounded-grid 3-5002
This program gives
'no-compromise" answers
There are probably as many amplifiers in existence
that use the 3-5002 as there are with any other power
amplifier tube. The 3-5002 is an excellent tube with
a well-deserved reputation for high power-handling
capabilities and reasonable cost. There are no doubt
hams with one or two spare 3-500Zs in their shacks
who are thinking of building their own amplifiers. But
of course, it's one thing to copy the design of another
amplifier and a different matter to design one's own
from scratch.
Circuit variations for amplifier designs are available
from other sources1 and I will not discuss them here.
This article covers only one mode of operation for the
3-5002 - grounded-grid class AB2 operation - probably the most prevalent use of the tube. I will discuss
virtually all possible combinations of drive power, load
resistance, drive impedance, plate voltage, and bias
requirements for grounded-grid, linear operation. I
have included a program which allows you to accommodate any set of normal operating conditions that
can be realized on the constant-current curves. Figure
1 is the program listing.
This program's answers are probably a bit more precise than ones obtained with the "Tube Performance
C o m p u t ~ r " .You
~ might assume that linear divisions
exist between constant-current curves on the tube
charts; they don't. This is not a serious problem, as
variations from one tube t o another will usually be
greater than those differences. It is important to
remember that using the hand-calulated methods consumes much paper, time, and nervous energy. My program lets you change any of the input parameters and
8
June 1988
see the differences for each proposed operating condition in a few seconds, as compared with fifteen
minutes or a half-hour required for hand-calculated
answers - and it doesn't make mistakes!
The program has only 170 lines to enter; it runs completely within a few seconds after you enter the last
input. (The answers appear in about 3 seconds on the
Tandy-2000, a-nd in 8 t o 10 seconds on an early IBM
PC.) When this program is compiled, answers appear
in under a second. The program is very densely packed
with numbers and equations - I know of no other way
to define every current and voltage (including fractional values) that can be found on the tube chart, and
still use fewer than 7 kilobytes of computer RAM. The
labor of typing the program pays for itself many times
over as it saves hours of effort during a design routine.
how to use the program
Figure 2 is a reproduction of the "EIMAC 3-5002
Typical Constant Current Characteristics" curves for
grounded-grid, class ABz operation. The operational
area of the program (crosshatching) is superimposed
on the curves. Stay inside the "box"; it includes every
permissible or useful operating point. You decide on
the placement of the operating (or load) line. It is
drawn between two points, labeled "ipr',and "Q".
The first defines the maximum peak instantaneous
plate current as well as the minimum plate voltage.
The second defines the quiescent (no drive) value of
the plate current, and occurs at exactly the platesupply voltage. The chart also tells you the quiescent
plate dissipation. This is not printed in the program
output, but can be calculated by multiplying the resting plate current by the plate supply voltage. The
program requests: "Enter Plate Supply Voltage, Ebbr',
By W.J. Byron, W7DHD, 240 Canyon Drive,
P.O. Box 2789, Sedona, Arizona 86336
fig. 1. The 3-5002 Design Program Listing.
10 ' S A W AS sooVTU(1
168 PRIKT"
3-5002 Grounded-Grld Charact.ri.tscm'
170 PRINTSubroutxnrs C0pyrrghL.d
1917. W J Byron"
172 PRINT"
All rlpht. *d.vr..r
173 PR1NT:PRINT
190 1NPUT"Ent.r
Plat. Supply Voltago. Ebbm;E3
191 IF E3>4500 THW PRINT"
EXCESS 1 M P L A n VOLTAGE I " :GOT0 19 0
200 INPUT-Enter Peak PI.1.
Currant. 1p";ll
205 IF 11>1.6 THM PRINT"
EXCESSIVE PEAK CURREKTI":OOTO 200
210 1NPUT"EnL.r
W ~ n l m u lPlat. Voltape. h t n " ; E 4
220 IF €4 < 250 THM PRINT"
HIGH G R I D CURRENI I I R E I ' " : GOlU 210
221 IF 11>=1.6 AND E4<=1499 OR E4>3000 THM PRINT"0UT O F B0UNDS'":GOTU 210
222 IF I1>1.4 AND E4<=1499 OR E4>3000 OR Il>l.4 AND E4<1500 THOI PRIN7"OUT O F B
0uNDs'":QOTU 210
Cathod. .18
Vollag.
(2.n.r)";EZ
230 1NPUT"Ent.r
240 IF E2<O THEN PRINT"
N.g.1~.
Cathode B1.s
Not P.rmxtt.dl":
GOT0 230
290 CLS
300 PRINT"
,
3-5002"
310 PRINT"
RADIO PREOUEUCY L l N U R W L I P I E R "
320 PRINT"
Cathode 0rlv.n.
Class ABZ"
330 PRINT"-------------------------------------------------------------------331 PR1NT"Ebb se;E3;"
Ip =";Il;"
Ehln =";El;"
811.
(2en.r)
-";E2
340
350 IF E4=>2000 AND I1>.4 AND I 1 = < 1 * THEN GOT0 6000
360 IF €4->ZOO0 AND Il=<.4 THEN GOT0 5000
370 IF €4->I500 AN0 E4-(3000 AND I1>1' AND 11-(1.6 THM OOTO 7000
380 IF €4->250 AND E4<2000 AND 11>.4 AND 11-<1 THEN GOT0 3000
,
390 IF E4=>250 AND I1>1t THEN GOT0 4000
400 IF E4=>250 AND E4<2000 AND 11<.4 THEN GOT0 2000
410 '
500 GOSUB 1000
510 16 = 1 1 ~ 1 ~ / 2 + 1 ( 2 1 * 1 ( 3 ~ * l 1 4 ~ ~ 1 1 5 1 + 1 ~ 6 ) + 1 ~ 7 ) ) 1 1 2 :
520 17 = l 1 ( 1 1 * 1 . 9 3 ~ 1 1 2 1 + 1 . 7 3 ~ 1 ~ 3 1 + 1 , 4 1 ~ 1 ( 4 ) + 1 ~ 5 1 + , 5 2 ~ 1 ~ 6 1 1 / 1 2 :
540 QOSUB 11000
600 '
620 N-1
630 FOR AD
9 0 T O 180 STEP 15
640 AR = AD.3.141591180
650 E5 = (-El+E2).SINlARl
660 €5 = -E5*E2
670 GOSUB 8000
671 IF E4 ,1250 AND E4<1500 THKN GOSUR SO00
672 IF E4>=1500 THPJ GOSUB 10000
692 N-N+1
6 9 3 NEXT AD
694 El = -El
695 15 = 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 + 1 4 ( 2 ~ r 1 4 ~ 3 ) * 1 0 ( 4 1 + t 4 ~ 5 ) * 1 4 1 6 ) r I 4 ~ 7 ~ ~ / 1 2
697 I8 = 1 1 4 ~ 1 1 * 1 . 9 3 ~ 1 4 ( 2 ) * 1 . 7 3 3 1 4 ~ 3 ) * 1 . 4 1 ~ 1 4 1 4 ) * 1 4 1 5 ~ + . 5 2 ~ 1 4 ~ 6 1 1 / 1 2
698 19=17*IB:E7=E3-€4
710 P D = EI~19/2:PFT-17rE112:Pl=~El-E2l~IBI2:ZI-E1119:PI-E3~16:PO=E7r17/2:
720 PP-PlrPFT-P0:ZI-EII19:ZOrE7/17:
722 PRINT"P1ate Supply Voltage
";E3;"Volts"
724 PR1NT"Calhode Bxar (Zener)
";1NT110~€21/1
O;"v~lt*"
726 PR1NT"Zsro S~gn.1
Plate Current
";INT11000.12~
;"mA d c "
728 PR1NT"Slngls-Tone Plate Currsnl
";INT(1000.16)
: '",A dc'
730 PR1NT"Slngle-Tone Lirld Current
":lNTIlO00.151
: mA dc"
732 PR1NT"Grld Power D ~ r r l p a t r o n
";I~lPl*.5);"
Walls
714 PR1NT"PeaL RF Cathode Voltage
":INTIlO.El)II
0;"Volts"
716 PR1NT"Fced-through Power
":INT(PFr*.5rr
''W.Ll*'
738 PR1Nl"Grld Drive Power
" ;INTIPO) ;"Wat
~helnformative
Heathkit Catalog shows
you more than 450exciting electronic products that will challenge,instruct,and entertain you. You'll lind countless kits that you
can build and enjoy. from computers and
I
-
I S "
7 9 . ~ PRINT"Toti1 Cathode Drive Power
I l;"WatL5'
740 PRINT'Cathade Drlve Impedance
0 ; Ohm%''
"4;: PRINT"Power Input
1s'
744 PRINT-PEP P o w e r Output
LS'
746 PR1NT"P:aLe Dlsrtpatlon
"
:I N T l P D + P R * P
";INTIIO.ZIl/l
';INTtPIl;"Wst
":lNTiP01;"Wat
I
r)
PackKIt YuItI-YOdeT N C
I
";INTIPPl:"Wat
IS'
748 PRINT'Plale Load Impedance
7',0
760
76.2
764
7611
71.8
7:')
77.:
774
;
INTIZOl ;"Ohm
-
1NT'UT"Do you want lo change an xnput
Y or N";AS
IF AS
" Y " OR AS = "y" THEN 7b4 ELSE END
1NPUT"Whxch: Ebb t l r . Ip ( 2 , . Enln I * I o r Btas 14) - Enter Nurnber";B
ON B lGOTO 768. 770. 772. 774
1NPIJT"Nex Plate Supply Valtage";E3:GDTO 290
1NPIIT"New Peak Current. 1p":Il:OOTO 290
1NPIIT"New Mln. Plate Voltags":E4:GOTO 290
1NPUT"New B l a r Vol1aye";E;:GOTO 290
i
11141 N-l
:'I50 FOR AD
. 90 T O
180 STEP 15
Haalh Company. Depl. 122.662
Harbor. Michigan 49022
send to:
Benlon
(
Name
i
Zip
State
?~~b,ldlafyOlZenlth El.clrontssCowporella
CL-784R3
- -
181
June 1988
9
1070
lo80
1090
10!31
1092
11081
1110
1 1 30
2000
2030
2040
2050
206U
2070
2090
3000
3030
3040
3050
PC160
3070
3090
4000
4030
404O
4050
4060
4070
4100
5000
5030
5040
5050
5060
5080
5100
6000
6030
€Q40
AR = AD.3.141591180
€5 = (-ElrE2).SINIAR)
€5 = -E51E2
lGOSUB 8000
IF €6 =,ZOO0 THEN GOSUB 13000 ELSE GOSUB 12000
N=N-1
NEXT AD
RETURN
'
A = 1.17048
8.70277E-03+E4 - 8.73178-07.84-2
B = -372.2764 t .3693rE4
1.9797E-04+E4'2
C = 1192.038 -2.3118.E4
t .0013494.E4-1
D = -1466.96 r 3.5197.EI
.002135rE4^1
El = (A .Bmll .C*ll-2 *D.11-31
GOT0 410
-
'
YAESU 747,757GX. 757GX11.757.9600.
KENWOOD TS 440. TS 940,
ICOM ~ 7 1 Rmoo.
~ . 735.751~.
DRIVERS FOR RADIOS ARE MODULAR.
NEW MODELS BEING ADDED EVERY DAY.
COMPLETE PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT
MENU DRIVEN AND DESIGNED FOR EASE .
OF USE.
SCAN FUNCTION ADDED TO RADIOS THAT DO
NOT SUPPORT IT.
MENUS FOR THE FOLLOWING:
AMATEUR HF-AMATEUR VHFAMATEUR UHF
AM BROADCAST-FM BROADCASTTELEVISION BROADCAST
SHORT WAVE BROADCAST
AVIATION HF(SSB)-AVIATION VHFAVIATION UHF
HIGH SEAS MARINE-VHF MARINE
MISCELLANEOUS HF. VHF. UHF
MOST POPULAR FREOUENCIES ALREADY
STORED
ADDITIONAL LIBRARIES AVAILABLE
COMPLETE LOGGING FACILITY
ALL FREQUENCY FILES MAY BE ADDED TO.
EDITED OR DELETED
AVAILABLE FOR IBM PC. XT, AT, 80386 256K RAM
1 SERIAL PORT AND 1 FLOPW MINIMUM
99.95
PROGRAM WITH INITIAL LIBRARIES
RS-232 TO TTL INTERFACE ONLY
NEEDED IF DON'T HAVE MANUFACTURERS
9995
INTERFACE ALLOWS 4 RADIOS
SPEC-RUM ANALYZER MODULE (CALL FOR PRICE)
DATACOM, INT.
8 0 8 1 W. 21ST. L A N E
HIALEAH. FL 33016
A R E A CODE (305) 622-5792
1/
180
1.528857E-02.E4
8.4952E-06.E4
.026538*E4
1.6988E-05.E4-2
.10607l.E4 - 4.7619E-07.E4-2
.088096*E4
1.269878-05.E4-2
tC.11-2 *D.11^31 + 1.5
2
+
-
-
-
A = 15.3333
.204rE4 r 6.6667E-05.E4-2
B = -171,805
.5971-E4
.0001903.E4"2
C = 69.3 - .53895.€4
* .0001759.E4^2
D = -17.3612
.16667.€4
- 5.55566-05.E4-2
El : <A+B.Il +C.11'2
rD.11-3)
GOT0 410 '
-
+ 6.9333E-08.E4-2
A = 2.5971 r 6.179538-03.84
B = -197.3858
.012861-E4
2.7028E-06.E4-2
C = 297.248 + ,0315373.EI
2.440133E-05rE4'2
D = -231.3046
.0085463-E4
4.3113E-05.E4-2
El = A +B.ll +C.11A2 rD.11'3
GDTD 410
-
-
-
'
A = 59.3 - .015733*E4
1.467E-06*E4-2
B = 7400.510 + 09939rE4
6.044676-06184-2
C = 430.4
.l42.€4
.0000084rE4^2
D = -179.1328 + .0650273.€4
3.85547E-06184-2
El = A *B.Il
rC.11-2 *D.L1^3
GOT0 410
-
-
6050
6060
6080
6100
7000 '
7030 A = -1102 + 1.0133rE4
1.9867E-041E4-2
7040 B = 1855.833
1.89027eE4 r 3.7722E-04.E4-2
7050 C
-1106.25
1.16875.E4
.0002375.E4"2
7060 D = 197.9143
,23264.84 + 4.86107E-05.E4-2
7070 El = ( A 'B.11
*C.I1'2
+D.11^3)
7090 GOT0 410
8000 '
8060 W = lE3-E4)IlEZ-E1)
8070 B = E4-U.El
8080 E6 = H.E5
r B
8100 RETURN
9000 .
9030 A = ,028314
1.40085E-04.E6
6.60444E-08.E6-2
9040 B
-2.8558-05
5.972E-06.E6
2.52651E-09rE6-2
9050 C = 44072E-05
6.05478-08.66 + 2.18868-11.66"2
9060 141N) = A -B.E5
+ C.E5-2
9061 IF E5>.-24 THEN 14lN)-(-E5124)..05
9062 IF E5=>0 THEN 141N)=0
9080 REIURN
10000 '
10030 A = -.I1518 r 1.121096E-04rE6 -2.515184E-08.E6-2
10040 B = -.010834
7.15948E-06.E6
1.42553E-O9*E6^2
10050 C = -5.208347E-05 + 5.38044E-08*E6
1.161174E-11.E6-2
10060 I4(N) = .94*(A * W E 5 + C.E5^2)
10061 IF E5>=-24 THEN 14(N)-1-E5/24)..05
10062 IF E5->0 THEN 14(N)=O
10080 RETURN
11000 '
11030 A
.0342397 + 1.5055858-061E3 + 6.804935E-091E3-2
11040 B = -.0051697 - 3.0065E-07.E3
2.15583E-lOrE3^2
11050 C
1,85828-04
1.954658-08.83
+ 3.351883E-12.E3-2
11060 12
A + B.E2
r C*EZe2
11070 IF 12<0 THEN 12.0
11080 IF E2 > (E3+417.5)1150 THEN I2 - 0
11100 RGTURN
12000 '
12030 A
,014119 r 2.0881E-05rE6
1.11584E-08-86-2 r 7.9275E-12.E6-3
12040 B
-.0052947
2.2872E-06rE6
1.2934E-09.E6-2
1.4654E-13.E6-3
12050 C
7.4159E-05 - 4.2928E-08.E6
l.l7198E-lO.E6^2
4.8095E-14.E6-3
12060 D
4.0815E-07
1.1512E-09.E6
+ 1.5312E-12.E6-2
5.1342E-16.E6-3
12070 I(N) = (A rB.E5
+C.E5-2
rD.E5-3lm.985
12090 W U R N
13000 '
13030 A = -.090832 + 1.01729-04.E6
1.1786E-08rE6-2
13040 B
-9.896401E-03 + 2.57286-06.E6
5.7887E-lO.E8-2
13050 C
2.6724E-05
2.5902E-08.86
1.5488E-12.86-2
13060 D
-1,85816-07 + 1.30725E-10.E8
+ 1.184E-14.E6-2
13070 I(N)
A *Be95 +C*E5-2 rDaE5-3
13071 IF I(N)<O THE3 l(N).O
13090 RETURN
-
COMPUTERIZE
YOUR SHACK
-
A = 34.095 r
B = -339.196
C : 381.55 D = -183.7 r
El = < A 'Brll
GDTO 410
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
--
-.
-
-
-
---
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
.
-
-
-
I
I
I
Hams! Shop The ShaclP for Parts and Accessories
"Hotline" Service
I
Novice Exam K i t
Headset HT Pair
I
I
Drive a Bargain! MOM, Accessories
Electronics Calc Bench Multimeter
Power Parts
Volce A c t u a t e d ,
. 4 9 - ~ H zFM O p e r a t i o n
-lraQUL31;
POOOU
rnPUOO
PUOPl
M e a s u r e s Transistor h..
0KImum
(1) AC-to-CEE Power Cord UL I lea
,*,
Reallstlc TRC-500 Talk handsfree-perfect tor antenna ~nstalla!ton teams Balter~esexfra
P21-400
Pair 69.95
I
I
Our EC-4035 accepts input and
dlsplays answers uslng common
eleclrlcai symbols' Has 110 functlons ~nclud~ng
trtg and statlstlcs
Features gamma funcl~onsand
complex number calculations
Wtth batteries U65-983
37.95
99
Raled
u278 1257
120vAC to 12VDC
up to one amp UL lhsled
,d273 1653
18 95
3, ~~~~~~~d
5 ~ 13
, om^ power
&upply VL leled
39 95
u22 120
Our best! Features 31-segment analog bar-graph display, ~nlnlmax
hold, autorangtng wllh manual
overrlde buzzer conl~nulty Tests
dlode ~uncl~ons
Measures AClDC
vollagelcurrent and resistance
Batter~esextra 122 195
99.95
Over 1000 items i n stock: Blndlng posts, ~ o o k s Breadboards.
,
Buzzers. Capacitors. chokes.'
Cllps. Coax. Connectors. Fuses. Hardware. ICs, Jacks. Knobs. Lamps. Multitesters. PC Boards.
Plugs. Rectifiers. Resistors. Switches. Tools. Transformers. Wire. Zeners and More!
. R e v ~ l u l n gcredit lrom Piad80 Shack Actual payment may vary doprndtr>q on roilr e rottnt bal.ln r
Prtces apply al psnrlpal8w Redm Snack slares and
Reader S e r v ~ c eCHECK
-
OFF P a g e 98
dsalen
The Technology Store"
,il,,,.l,,r.
,/
178
I
,Ah..
,,,.
,,,.
A1lll,.
June 1988
I
n 11
P.C. ELECTRONICS 2522 S. PAXSON LN. ARCADIA CA 91006 (818) 447-4565
Cornpusewe 72405,1207
TOM W6ORG MARYANN WBWSS
mm
ELECTRONICS
SPRING INTO ATV SALE
NOW YOU CAN GET INTO THIS EXCITING MODE WlTH OUR A L L I N ONE BOX TC70-1 70CM A N
TRANSCEIVER AT THE 1988 SPRING SALE REDUCED PRICE FROM $299 TO ONLY $269 DELIVERED
TC70-1 FEATURES:
Sensitive UHF GaAsfet tuneable downconverter for receiving
Two frequency 1 watt p a p . transmitter. 1 crystal included
Crystal locked 4.5 mHz broadcast standard sound subcarrier
10 pin VHS mlor camera 4 RCA phono jack video inputs
PTL (push to look) T/R switching
Transmit video monitor outputs to camera and phono jack
' Small attractive shielded cabinet 7 x 7 x 2.5"
Requires 13.8vdc @ 500 ma. + color camera current
-
Just plug in your cameraor VCR composite video and audio, 70cm
antenna, 12 10.14 vdc, and you are ready to transmit live action
color or black and white pictures and sound to other amateurs.
Sensitive downwnve~tertunes whole 420-450 mHz band down to
channel 3. Specify 439.25, 434.0, or 426.25 mHz transmit
frequency. Extra transmit crystal add $15.
^rransmitting equipment sold only to lkensed radio amateurs verified in the
Callbook for legal purposes. ~f newly licensed or upgraded, send COPY or
license. Receiving downwnverters available to all starting at $39 (TVC-2).
WHAT ELSE DOES I T TAKE TO GET ON A N ?
Any Tech class or higher amateur can get on ATV. If you have a
camera you used with a VCR or SSTV & a TV set, your cost will just
be the TC70 and antenna system. If you are working the AMSAT
satellites you can use the same 70cm antennas on ATV.
DX with TC70-1s and KLM 440-27 antennas line of sight and
snow free is about 22 miles. 7 miles with the 440-6 normally used
for portable uses like parades, races, search & rescue, damage
accessment, etc. For greater DX or punching thru obstacles: 15
watt p.e.p. Mirage D15N or 50 wan p.e.p. D24N or D1010N-AN.
The TC70-1 has full bandwidth for color, sound, like broadcast.
You can show the shack, home video tapes,computer
programs.repeat S S N , weather radar, or even Space Shuttle
video if you have a home satellite receiver. See the ARRL
Handbook chapt. 20 & 7 for more info & Repeater Directory for
local ATV repeaters.
P U R C H A S E AN A M P WlTH T H E TC70-1 & SAVE!
50 WATT
WITH D24N-ATV..
..$4 69
~ 1 prices
1
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KLM 440-6X 8.9dbd $51
HAMS! CALL (818) 447-4565 NOW OR WRITE FOR YOUR SPRING SALE CATALOG OF A N PRODUCTS
12
June 1988
Y
in
Table 1. The effects of moving points i, and Q in the
designated directions.
Movement in
direction
A:
B:
C:
h a l l 10 l R l O YOLI(IPI
-
,"I
D:
fig. 2. The 3-5002 Constant Current Characteristics
Curves with the program boundaries marked. Stay inside the cross-hatched area. The load line is for the solution in fig. 4.
E:
-
.+\.
C
t
0
I
0
G:
\'--,
'
\
F:
-.
Results of
movement
Higher grid current
Higher plate current
Higher input and output
Higher plate dissipation
Lower drive impedance
Reduced efficiency
Lower input and output
Reduced grid current
lncreased plate current
Reduced grid current
Reduced Plate current
Reduced input and output
Higher distortion
(peak flattening)
lncreased grtd current
Lower distortion
Higher quiescent dissipation
Increased input and output
lncreased efficiency
lncreased plate dissipation
(Do not exceed mfgr's max
Plate Voltage)
Lower quiescent plate current
Lower quiescent plate dissipation
lncreased distortion
(non-linear "crossover")
O P E ~ T I ~L I G
NE
',
'
\
'
\
B
"
C
PLATE VOLTAGE
-
fig. 3. Diagram of the possible movement of the Operating Line. For use with table I .
"Enter Peak Plate Current, ip","Enter Minimum Plate
Voltage, Emin", and "Enter Cathode Bias Voltage
(Zener)".
These four inputs define both ends of the operating line (which you may already have drawn on the
curves), and are sufficient to determine all operating
parameters. It isn't actually necessary to draw the line,
but it may help to visualize it; one appears in the figure
to demonstrate the method.
The main program starts immediately after the last
input and calculates a total of fifteen lines of data. Two
are input repetitions (Plate Supply Voltage and the
Zener Bias); the rest are results of internal calculation
by the program. These are the numbers you want. The
inputs are repeated in the line just below the heading
for the program output as a record of what has been
entered. Use them as starting points for any changes
you want to make. After the listing there is a question: "Do you wish t o change an input-Y or N?" If
you enter "Y", the program in turn will ask you,
"Which one?" in a menu, and you can change any
one of the four inputs until the outputs are to your
liking. Any other entry, including "Nu, will abort the
program and you will have t o "RUN" again. You can
then use the "immediate mode" of BASIC to calculate, for instance, the quiescent plate dissipation
(which as a rule of thumb should be somewhere between 30 and 40 percent of the maximum plate dissipation - 500 watts for this tube).
There are some constraints imposed on the initial
inputs (see lines 190 through 240). These conditions
do not exist at the "Do you wish to change an input?"
prompt. Because you are typing the program youself,
you decide whether or not to include them (use your
own good judgement). To do so, just duplicate the
conditions stated in the lines identified above. The
constraints result partly from the maximum values permitted by the manufacturer and partly from my work
to limit both maximum grid dissipation and amplifier
distortion. The program isn't valid outside these limits;
the manufacturer's allowable values are the principal
reasons for the lower limit of 250 volts for the minimum plate voltage.
Certain changes will occur when the positions of
June 1988
13
-
pa^-
-
... .
--- ..
-,
-
7
-
-
.-
. ..- . - - .
---I
,
. .
J
r
.-
Cards and plaque courier
-IMACB
new DX champion!
'he 3CX800A7.
VariarI ElMAC continues to commit it!s development of reliable
tubes for HAM radio.
The Iiew, rugged 3CX800A7
power '"Ode provides kW PEP
input for voice service Or kW
-.a.
,
, ,ding up to 30 MHz. Two
tubes will meet the new, higher
power ratings authorized by the
.-
CmP
ned for today's low profile,
Desig~
compiact linear amplifiers, the
)OA7 powerhouse is on1
14
GI June 1988
2% inches (6.35 cm) high. Cooling requirements are modest
and a matching socket, air
chimney and anode clamp are
available.
A data sheet and more information is available from Varian
EIMAC. Or the nearest Electron
Device Group sales office. Call
or write today.
Varian EIMAC
301 Industrial Way
San Carlos, California 94270
relephone: 415-592-1227
r , 176
...................................................................
E b b = 3150
Ip = - 8 7
Emin = 250
Bias (Zener) = 5.2
...................................................................
Plate Supply Voltage
Cathode Bias (Zener)
Zero Signal Plate Current
Single-Tone Plate Current
Single-Tone Grid Current
Grid Power Dissipation
Peak RF Cathode Voltage
Feed-through Power
Grid Drive Power
Total Cathode Drive Power
Cathode Drive Impedance
Power Input
PEP Power Output
Plate Dissipation
Plate Load Impedance
-
-
-
3150 Volts
5.2 Volts
6 7 mA dc
278 mA dc
9 0 mA dc
6 Watts
87.8 Volts
19 Watts
25 Watts
5 0 Watts
152.2 Ohms
878 Watts
617 Watts
279 Watts
6806 Ohms
...................................................................
Do you want to change an input - Y or N 7
fig. 4. Program output for the design for two parallel 3-5002s with 3150 plate supply volts, and 100 watts total drive.
Table 2. Comparison of calculated and manufacturer's data.
Parameter
Plate Supply Voltage
Cathode Bias
Quiescent Plate Current
Single-Tone Plate Current
Single-Tone Grid Current
Gr~dDrive Power
Cathode Impedance
Power Input
PEP Output
Plate Load Impedance
Program
Calc.
1500
0
51
403
142
51
134
605
330
1602
points "ip" and "0" are moved. Figure 3 is a
schematic showing what to expect when shifting the
points. Use it in conjunction with table 1. It is essential that you be familiar with these principles - that's
the only way you will accomplish your final design.
how well does the program work?
The proof is in the performance. A sample of the
program output appears as fig. 4, which is also the
demonstration of a design using two parallel 3-500Zs.
It looks just like the manufacturer's list of typical
operating data.
Table 2 compares the program-calculated data with
those published by ElMAC under the heading "Typical Operating Data". The results of trying to match
two sets (at 1500 volts and 3500 volts) are compared
in the table. The manufacturer's data came from the
latest technical data sheets for the 3-5002 (the revi-
Mfgr.
Data
1500
0
65
400
130
49
94
600
330
1600
Program
Calc.
3500
+ 15
25
396
129
49
137
1386
991
5001
Mfgr.
Data
3500
+ 15
53
400
108
46
115
1400
890
5000
sion effective April 1, 1986).31 have culled all except
the directly comparable data from the table; they are
remarkably close. Figures 5 and 6 are the program
outputs for the 1500- and 3500-volt cases.
parallel operation
All the tables reflect data for one tube. If you choose
a two-tube parallel operation, all currents and power
levels must be doubled. All impedances (such as the
cathode drive and plate load impedances) must be
halved. Voltages remain unchanged.
A hypothetical design demonstration follows:
Suppose you have a power transformer that will
deliver 3500 volts dc at no load. A typical power supply
voltage will sag about 10 percent under load, so enter
3150 for Ebb. NOWsuppose that you have 100 watts
of drive (PEP) from the exciter, and you also want to
have the most power available from the amplifier.
June 1988
15
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17s
The program was run with initial inputs of 3150
volts, 1.0 A (chosen as a starting point), 250 volts,
and 5.2 volts. The Zener was chosen as 5.2 volts because it is about the same bias voltage as that used
in the Heath SB-220. It proved t o be a good choice.
By reducing ip incrementally via the menu, the calculated drive power was reduced to 50 watts exactly
(for one tube). It occurred when the max plate current (ip)reached 0.87 A (see fig. 4). By "doubling and
.....
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.................................................................
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........................
halving," the resulting numbers for two tubes in
parallel are:
Plate Supply Voltage = 3150 volts
Cathode Bias = 5.2 volts
Zero Signal Plate Current = 134 mA dc
Single-Tone Plate Current = 556 rnA dc
Single-Tone Grid Current = 180 mA dc
Feed-Through Power = 38 watts
Total Cathode Drive = 100 watts
L.;.rlln
.- ...........
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(*?pn,;?r) = 2)
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I\i '7
fig. 5. Program output for duplicating the manufacturer's data for 1500 plate supply volts.
...................................................................
E b b = 3500
Ip = 1.25
Emin = 350
Bias (Zener) = 15
...................................................................
3500
Plate Supply Voltage
Cathode Bias (Zener)
Zero Signal Plate Current
Single-Tone Plate Current
Single-Tone Grid Current
Grid Power Dissipation
Peak RF Cathode Voltage
Feed-through Power
Grid Drive Power
Total Cathode Drive Power
Cathode Drive Impedance
Power Input
PEP Power Output
Plate Dissipation
Plate Load Impedance
--
-
-
-----
Volts
15 Volts
25 mA dc
396 mA d c
129 mA d c
1 1 Watts
116.6 Volts
37 Watts
49 Watts
9 7 Watts
137.1 Ohms
1386 Watts
991 Watts
430 Watts
5001 Ohms
...................................................................
Do you want to change an input - Y or N7
fig. 6. Program output for duplicating the manufacturer's data for 3500 plate supply volts.
June 1988
17
Cathode Drive lmpedance = 76 ohms
Power Input = 1756 watts
PEP Power Output = 1234 watts
Plate Load lmpedance = 3403 ohms
The actual power output would be (1234+38) or
1272 watts because of the feed-through power. Total
plate dissipation would be 559 watts. The design can
proceed from here.
Always keep the manufacturer's maximum ratings
in mind. Two appropriate values to monitor are the
plate dissipation and the maximum plqte voltage.
Another more important one is grid dissipation, also
calculated by the program. Normally you will never
exceed all the maximum ratings at once - but stay
alert to assure that it doesn't happen. This program
should be accompanied by the manufacturer's tube
data sheets.
MODEL APlO
Deslenedb
APARTMENTS
MOTELS
VACATlONS
Add S3 m
shrppiw amd Hmm-ci
Qulck Slmple Instollotkm Operates on 2 6, 10,15,20,30
and40 metas.Allcdlssupplled.Cnly22-112 lncheslong.
Weighs less than 2 Ibs. Supplied wtth 10 ft. RG 58 coaw
and counter poise. Whlp extends to 57 Inches. Handles
up to 300 wotts.
W- 1.I:? when tuned
comments
Webrmdstohmddhrmw~
At yaw DlstrlbutW Wrfte Of
10 Canal meet. Brlstol PA 1
(215) 788-6584
The solut~onto niost ~nterference,intermod, and deserise
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In table 2 there are two lines which show some discrepancies; neither of these is very important. They
involve plate quiescent current and cathode drive
impedance. These numbers agree with those calculated by hand from the ElMAC Bulletin No. 5 "Tube
Performance Computor". Even so, the table 2 "worstcase" discrepancy (cathode drive impedance for the
1500-volt case) would result in a VSWR of only 1.4.
Everything else came out much better than I expected.
My program is complicated and takes lots of time.
But remember that when the work is done, the resulting program will simulate data for an operational
circuit. It should be emphasized that "real" tubes
may produce numbers which differ by as much as
f 10 percent in the main part of the characteristics
curves. Though I have made many design calculations
with the aid of this program, I certainly have not
challenged every possible entry. I would be interested in your results. Let know if there are any "glitches"
in the program, and send me your suggestions for
improvements.
I plan to put several design programs on disk. I
have done this same routine for the 3CX1200A7; the
routines for the 8877 are half-finished. I will tackle each
tube type in succession until most of the common
tubes are covered. In the meantime, I hope you have
good results with this 3-5002 design program.
acknowledgment
.
..
I
Thanks to Frank Chess, KBBN, who helped with the
programming. It was his idea to echo the inputs at the
heading of the output routine.
II
I~v.ttmvt
I
, ,ma ,r~,c.llcrs- AMATCUR
Aululli,)l\l 11111.1.111011
I
,
S
:, ,, COMMERCIAL
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I I I ! (.d!'i
I
'
references
, ' I
I
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10
I:, V ~ ~ I Iill
\
1. W.J. Byron. W D H D . "Desqn an Amplif~erAround the3CX1200A7." I~arr!
rad~o.December 1987. page 33.
2. Ruller~nNumber 5. "Tubr Performatrcc Cornputor." Varian:EIMAC. 301
Industr~atWay. San Carlos. Cal~fornia94070
3. Availahlc from VarianIEIMAC. 1678 Pioneer Road. Salt Lake City. Utah
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June 1988
,-
174
designing a station
for the microwave bands: part 2
A complete 10-GHz
Amateur SSBlCW station
Part 1 discussed why the microwave Amateur bands
may be better than lower frequencies for many applications, though in the past Amateurs have viewed
them as line-of-sight realms. It described some of the
inherent advantages microwaves have for point-topoint communication, even over modern higher power
hf, VHF, or UHF stations. These advantages make
them very attractive for high volume, high data rate
communications like those required for Amateur
networking.
A local oscillator frequency scheme using common
pc boards was presented. It can be used to get a
station on all of the Amateur microwave bands with
a minimum of redundant construction. This scheme
uses conventional lower frequency components, rendily available microwave oscillators, and only a small
amount of additional microwave construction to produce a high quality narrowband station. Part 1 and the
rest of this series demonstrate this approach by
describing construction of a complete 10-GHz Amateur SSBICW station - the station that holds one
end of the current North American 10-GHz DX record of 414 miles.
spectral purity
The cornerstone of this station is a spectrally pure
and stable 1010-MHz oscillator. Spectral purity, sonietimes overlooked more than it should be even on the
hf bands, is of particular importance when operating
on microwave frequencies. This is because the
"contamination" produced by angular (phase or frequency) modulation of a low-frequency reference signal is multiplied right along with the signal itself when
a harmonic is used in a microwave system. The fact
that drift and frequency errors are multiplied is well
known to anyone who tries to "net" a pair of fm transceivers on 1200 or even 440 MHz. However, these
frecluency domain "imperfections" are members of a
whole class of impurities given the name "phase
noise". Even a quartz oscillator in a modern hf transceiver exhibits this to some degree. In a well-designed
oscillator the "cleanliness" of a signal is related to its
operating frequency. On the Amateur hf bands these
noise characteristics may be so small relative to normal
signal-to-noise ratios that they are unobservable, except
to-noise ratios that they are unobservable, except
perhaps as an increase in background noise level down
the band from a local "big gun". Some of the early
synthesized ham band transceivers exhibited this as
noise "humps" a few kHz either side of the carrier frequency on both transmit and receive. Commercial
Amateur equipment has improved to the point where
fundamental overload or other factors usually come
into play before the phase noise of the local oscillators is observed. However, as higher frequencies are
required and higher harmonic multiples of reference
oscillators are used, these unwanted components are
multiplied. The relative amplitude of these unwanted
signals follows a 20 log N rule, where N is the harmonic number. This means that on the tenth harmonic
of a signal, the phase noise sidebands can be expected to increase by 20 log 10 or 20 dB. The 100th harmonic will be 40 dB worse than the fundamental.
Consequently, a "clean" signal at 10 MHz, one with
say 9 0 dBC (dB relative to the carrier) noise sidebands or fm spurious signals, might be 60 dB worse
at 10 GHz, or -30 dBC. On an S9 signal such noise
might be barely audible; however, if the fundamental
oscillator was only - 60 dBC the resulting microwave
signal might be unusable for communications. Because the 1010-MHz oscillator and its harmonics provide a local oscillator signal for a narrowband station,
spe?ctralpurity must be maintained. Although a PLL
can serve to "clean up" a poorer oscillator at frequencies close in to the carrier, no improvement is made
By Glenn Elmore, NGGN, 3528 Deerpark Drive,
Santa Rosa, California 95404
June 1988
5 19
BUFFER AMPLIFIERS
*I2 V
2 ' 0 0 8 6 ' DIAMETER COAX
No 1 +lJdBM
OSCILLATOR
1000
TO BUFFER AMPS
LC IS 5 TURNS. 1/16 , n 0 0
fig. 1. The 1010-MHz oscillator circuit uses a coaxial resonator tuned with a voltage variable capacitor and coupling inductor. The oscillator transistor drives the phaselocking circuitry through a buffer amplifier. Two outputs for signal mixing
or microwave PLLs are taken from the other end of the half-wave resonator after two stages of amplification.
beyond the PLL bandwidth. For this reason the best
available oscillator should be used.
1-GHz reference oscillator
This oscillator can be used as the LO for a 1296-MHz
signal mixer directly, as well as for the microwave
harmonic downconverter reference at microwave frequencies. The active device is an inexpensive bipolar
transistor. A coaxial resonator is made from pc board
and brass tubing. Three separate buffered outputs are
provided for phase locking, downconverter reference,
and 1296-MHz signal mixer LO. The oscillator is tuned
with the same UHF TV tuner diode used in the
100-MHz reference along with a short length of wire
coupled to the resonator at the low-impedance end.
3-MHz tuning range
This provides approximately
around a 1010-MHz center frequency.
Oscillator tuning is somewhat novel; it works in
much the same way as "loop modulation" of early
radio days. Free running high-power oscillators were
used with a carbon microphone connected across a
single-turn loop located in the vicinity of a frequency
determining inductor. As the operator spoke into the
microphone the resistive load across the loop varied,
which in turn modulated the loop current. Because this
was an induced current, it tended to produce an
+
20
June 1988
opposing flux which effectively varied the net tank inductance and frequency modulated the oscillator. The
technique works, but be careful not to couple too
closely or extract so much energy from the tank that
you burn up the microphone - not to mention the
operator!
The method used here doesn't extract much power
from the tank, as the load the varicap presents to the
loop is mostly reactive. Any such dissipation is undesirable as it acts to lower the operating Q of the
resonator. The varicap value and coupling wire inductance are chosen to be below self-resonance for any
tuning voltage. This is done to limit the maximum
current and control energy loss in the tuning circuit
resistances. If the tuning circuit tunes too close to resonance, oscillation may stop. With nominal loop
dimensions and the indicated varicap, the 1010-MHz
oscillator tunes with a nearly straight frequency/voltage tuning curve. The 5-MHz tuning range is ample
to maintain lock once the other loops and coarse
tuning are adjusted to center the output frequency.
Two versions of this oscillator have been built. The
first uses a quarter-wave line allowing physically
smaller construction, but requiring a dielectric support
for the high-impedance end of the line to obtain the
lowest "microphonics". The second approach uses a
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173
I
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June 1988
21
SIDES. CENTER AND BOTTOM ALL 1/16' DOUBLE CLAD PC BOARD.
56,&
SIDES- 5 . 9 4 " ~1 5 0 "
BOTTOM- 5 . 9 4 " X L 5 0 *
3/8"
*
1.75"
DIVIDER- 1 3 7 5 " X 1.44"
1.50
c
3/16"
fig. 2. The 1010-MHz oscillator is built from pc board and copper flashing. The assembly is divided into three compartments - one for the resonator and one each for the oscillator and signal amplifier circuits. Minimum lead length is used
when components are soldered directly to the circuit board material.
half-wave line and, although longer, is simpler to construct. The quarter-wave version allows tuning versatility by "telescoping" the inner conductor with a
length of the next smaller size brass tubing sliding
through the center of the fixed tubing. It tuned it continuously from 800 to more than 1200 Mhz.
The half-wave version has another advantage.
When you place the oscillator transistor with its isola-
tion amplifier on one end of the resonator and signal
amplifiers on the other end, the resonator serves to
isolate spurious signals which might be present in the
downconverter/phase lock circuitry. This "autofiltering" rnakes it easier to achieve -80 dBC spectral
purity at 1 GHz. Similar performance can be obtained
with the quarter-wave version, but more stages of isolation and careful shielding are required.
hole and be soldered to its coupling loop. An 8-32
brass nut should be soldered to the inside wall of the
resonator so that a tuning screw can be inserted later.
If possible use 1/8th or 1116th watt resistors. The
physically smaller packages should have less associated inductance. Choose feedthrough capacitors small
enough to fit snugly against the brass tubing on the
oscillator end. These must be soldered in place since
their nuts would otherwise interfere with the brass
tubing protruding from the end wall.
fig. 3. 1-GHz oscillator.
PI
Y l L E CDII CONNECIOn OC SAME r V P E USED ON
P*AS€LOCX 801mOS AND O S C I I I A I O P S
C R S C H O T T I C I 8ARHlEII 0 , m E
RI
WD
!1011 OR 1116,a W a r 7 R E S t S T O I USE
1 8 S O L O I C Y I Y 1 Y V Y LF.0 L E U G I H
fig. 4. A simple diode detector and voltmeter can measure signal power up through the VHF range. The circuit
is useful for relative power measurement well past 1
GHz.
The BFR91 oscillator transistor is optimized to have
maximum negative resistance at 1 GHz with the insertion of approximately 7 nH of inductance in its base
lead. This inductor is just the 318 inch of lead length
between the transistor package and the feedthrough
capacitor ground on the end wall. The emitter is
coupled into the resonator with a loop, also bypassed
in a feedthrough capacitor on the same wall. Base and
emitter biasing resistors are connected on the outside.
The 1-GHz oscillator schematic is shown in fig. 1.
Figure 2 shows the mechanical dimensions and positioning for the resonator, feedthrough capacitors, and
coupling loops. A photo of the completed oscillator
is shown in fig. 3.
construction
The oscillator could be built entirely of pc board,
but I chose to make the end walls from copper flashing. This makes it easier to solder the brass tubing after
the resonator box has been assembled. The sides,
center, ends, and partition should all be punched or
drilled before soldering.Sloles for the oscillator emitter
loop and buffer amplifier input loop are in the center
wall. Amplifier transistor emitters and all bypass capacitors can be soldered directly to the board material
with virtually no excess lead length. The oscillator
emitter lead can protrude right through the center wall
adjustment
Begin check-out without tuning screws and apply
12 volts. The oscillator emitter (measured at the outside of its feedthrough capacitor) should sit at about
3.5 volts, and the amplifier transistors should have 6
to 10 volts on their collectors. Collector currents of
about 15 mA for the BFR91 and 40 mA for the BFR96
amplifiers are fine. All three outputs should have a load
connected; a 50-ohm resistor may be tacked across
an unused output as a temporary load. If a power
meter or other calibrated detector is not available, an
inexpensive power detector may be made (fig. 4). An
approximate calibration curve useful through the VHF
range is shown in fig. 5. At 1 GHz the curve may not
accurately predict the detected power because of
I .
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0
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4
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fig. 5. A plot of the detector output voltage as a funtion
of input power shows a useful range from about 0 to + 16
dBm (1 to 40 milliwatts).
differing construction techniques and component
characterisics, but the detector should still be useful
for determining relative output powers and adjusting
the 1010-MHz circuits. I built the detector right on the
cable end of the same type of SMB coax connector
I used throughout. You can use it to verify ECL outputs as well as oscillator performance.
A 1-GHz frequency counter or a spectrum analyzer
June 1988
23
is extremely useful for tune-up. If such test equipment
is not available, build the 1-GHz harmonic downconverter described in the next section. Use it to convert the 1-GHz signal down to the hf range of a general
coverage receiver or low frequency counter. If you use
a receiver, couple the downconverter lightly or use an
attenuator to avoid overload. Overloading can cause
confusion because of images and other spurious
responses.
With an applied fixed tuning voltage of 6 volts, insert
the tuning screw and set the frequency to approximately 1010 MHz. Adjust the emitter loop slightly to
assure oscillation while varying the tuning voltage over
the 2-to-10 volt varicap tuning range. Reduce coupling by decreasing the area of the loop and positioning it further from the brass tubing. Use the minimum
coupling to maintain output so you can avoid unnecessarily loading the resonator and degrading phase noise.
This coupling is somewhat dependent on resonator
loading by both the tuning circuit and buffer amplifier
input loops. Adjust the buffer amplifier loop (made
from the coupling capacitor lead) for minimum coupling consistent with maximum power out of the power splitter. Adjust the emitter loop to maintain output
over the whole tuning range. Some iteration between
these two adjustments may be necessary to arrive at
the best settings. If you find that the oscillator dies
at the high end of the tuning range, or just above 10
volts, you may need to lower the tuning circuit resonant frequency. Do this by lengthening the tuning inductor slightly. The values shown in the drawing
should provide a good starting place and should work
without modification. Extreme emitter loop overcoupling can cause "squegging", the output switching rapidly between two frequencies. This is not a
problem if the above adjustment procedure is followed. Reduce coupling if you observe spurious sidebands on the unlocked oscillator or find low-frequency
oscillations on the bias feedthrough capacitors.
The output amplifier on the signal side is followed
by a power splitter made from two 2-inch lengths of
semi-rigid coax. This is a simple way to provide two
outputs. If only one 1010-MHz source is required, it
may be omitted and the single BFR91 buffer amplifier
used to provide + 10 dBm for a signal mixer. The twostage amplifier with a BFR96 in the output and the
power divider can easily provide two + 13 dBm (20
milliwatt) sources.
Once the loops are positioned for proper power output, all that remains is to readjust the tuning screw
so the oscillator "free runs" right at the desired frequency. If you adhere to the dimensions for the halfwave version, the oscillator should run at about 1025
MHz with no tuning screw and only the 4.5 volts from
the resistive divider on the tuning input. It should tune
down mechanically to 1000 MHz without a significant
24
June 1988
PHASELOCKED
0:;CILLATOR
INPUT
(SIGNAL J
DOWNCONVERTER
FUNDAMENTAL
SIGNAL
REJECT.
LOWPASS
FILTER
PLL i-f
)- LOWPASS
FILTER
PHASELOCK
-LOOP
i-f
PLL i - f
REJECT
HIGHPASS
FILTER
fig. 6. This harmonic downconverter produces an i-f output which is the difference between N multiplied by the
downconverter fundamental and the phaselocked oscillator input, where N is an even number. With inexpensive diodes and Amateur construction techniques, i-f
output power of -30 dBm is readily available.
change in output power. When you obtain the proper frequency, secure the tuning screw locking nut.
Verify that approximately + and - 2 MHz tuning is
produced with 10 volts and 2 volts on the tuning input, respectively.
PLL harmonic downconverters
The downconverters themselves are similar, although implementation at 10 GHz is somewhat different from that at 1 GHz. Anti-parallel diodes are used
with a diplexer arrangement to couple signals in and
out. The downconverter block diagram is shown in
fig. 6.
The anti-parallel diode pair is effectively an even
harmonic mixer. Its simplicity and built-in protection
from overload and static damage make it attractive for
this application. Depending on harmonic number and
phase-locked oscillator frequency, - 30 to - 40 dB
conversion efficiencies are obtainable even with "ham
shack" construction - i.e., discrete components or
microstrip circuits cut out of TeflonTMepoxy pc board
material with a small hobby knife. The high-pass filter
couples the reference fundamental into the diodes; the
low-pass filter couples the i-f out. The oscillator can
be connected directly to the diode pair through a small
capacitor.
At 1 GHz, packaged diodes and discrete capacitors
and inductors can be used. Lead length should be kept
to a minimum, but otherwise the circuit is extremely
simple to build. The diodes generate considerable
energy at odd harmonics of 100 MHz. However, the
isolation of the 1010-MHz oscillator resonator, not to
mention the buffer amplifiers, keeps this energy from
showing up in the signal output. These sidebands are
for thr: most part amplitude, not frequency modulated, and don't get "amplified" when higher harmonics of the 1010-MHz signal are used as a reference
signal in the 10-GHz downconverter. The PLL i-f signal
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O l U C R I I S C SPECIT!EO
~ . ~ . ~ .It tndrcat.~ values 01 cawv1anr.
-1.
on VCel#nds.
J I Y NOMINAL
fig. 7. The 1-GHz harmonic downconverter and i-f amplifier circuit produce approximately - 10 dBm i-f output when driven
with 100-MHz ECL levels and the 1010-MHz oscillator. Leads should be kept short and good VHF practice followed, otherwise no special precautions need to be taken.
fig. 8. Completed 1-GHz downconverter and common PLL
board.
from the downconverter is approximately 30 dB below
the reference or locked oscillator levels. This conversion loss is made u p for in the bipolar amplifier and
the t w o ECL line receivers on the phase-lock circuit.
W i t h 10 t o 13 d B m reference drive, i-f output doesn't
change dramatcally for 0 t o 10 dBm oscillator input.
Around - 3 0 d B m PLL i-f power is typical for both
converters - plenty t o drive the last ECL line receiver
before the phase comparator well into saturation. The
i-f output may actually drop if the oscillator input level
is increased too far. The 1-GHz harmonic downconverter schematic diagram is shown in fig. 7. Figure
8 is a photo of the comple&d 1-GHz downconverter
and common PLL board.
The 100-MHz reference signal is bandpass filtered
and amplified from the 0-dBm ECL levels. The filtering makes sure that any low level, low-frequency
digital signals which might be present on the 100-MHz
ECL output don't "ride" stra~ghtthrough to the PLL
i-f amplifiers. Diode drive of 10 t o 20 milliwatts is
adequate.
The 10-GHz downconverter is functionally the same
as the 1-GHz version. Here, however, a pair (or half
a quad) of diodes in a small package is used to avoid
parasitic inductance and capacitance associated with
the larger discrete diodes. Many of the filter elements
are made using microstrip techniques instead of lumped components. Chip capacitors are used t o minimize
parasitic inductance.
Because most of the 10-GHz oscillator power is
needed for converting the VHF signal t o and from 10
GHz, a hybrid coupler is used t o extract only enough
t o make the PLL downconverter operate. This hybrid
has one of its input ports terminated with a discrete
resistor. This termination needn't be very good at 10
GHz, as the object of the coupler is simply to extract
a sample of the energy 110 d B or so down) and its
directivity isn't particularly important. Use as physically small a resistor as possible with 0 lead length.
All of the high-impedance lines may be made from
some small diameter wire and soldered across the
wider traces. Number 38 wire should be fine for this.
The signal mixer is shown with the 10-GHz downconverter and can be built on the same board at the
same time. This makes it possible t o get on the band
as soon as the 10-GHz oscillator is locked and a VHF
i-f is available. The 10-GHz harmonic downconverter
is shown in figs. 9A and 96. Figure 10 shows a 2:l
J u n e 1988
27
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n June im
I
-NOTE
8
NO C O N N E C T O R
IF S t G N I L MlXER
B U l L T ON SAME BOARD
BOAR0 MITERIIIL IS IV57- W V B L E C l 4 D
TCFLON . l F l B I P G L I S I W R O l O M I 7 BE USED
fig. 10. The downconverter/signal mixer assembly is the
only microwave circuit that needs to be constructed. The
traces may be made using a small hobby knife by the
"cut and peel" technique. Tolerances are not extremely
critical although a microscope can be a great aid. More
detail of the downconverter and signal mixer portions
is given in figs. 9 and 19, respectively.
-
J,
10 CHI
OSC
J,
PLL r - ,
Dr H P H S C M - 6 9 1 2 D1OOE O V a O O R M E T E L L l C S Y S S 3 O . I . 2 - € 4 3
TLI. T L I
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LI 0 lp*
CYOKE
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I p F C H l P CIPACITOR
C 1 2 7 p F CH!P CAPACITOR
R T L o I.J.RADIUS
O U ~ R T E R0 R ; l n i r C ~ C L F
T L r A N 0 I L L OTMER L I N E S O D d J
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J I - J I M A - C O M OR S l Y l L A R F L A N G E D 5 M 4 CONNECTOR
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1 , - ,
, 7 .
C O N N E C T O R F L A N G E S S O L D E R E D TO BaC<S!OE
R I . R I S O L D E R E D T O F L A N G E OF J J
GROUNDPLANE
fig. 9. The 10-Ghz and 1010-MHz downconverters are
functionally identical. At 10 GHz, however. microstrip
components replace discrete components. A hole is
provided in the 1/32 inch Teflon board material under diode ring, Dl, to allow shorting the diode leads to the
backside ground. Radial transmission lines on these
same leads help assure a low-impedance ground connection.
C
layout of the combined 10-GHz downconverter/signal
mixer; fig. 11 shows a schematic of this board.
locking t o 1010 MHz
The 1010-MHz common PLL circuit is nearly iden-
tical to that of the 100-MHz reference oscillator - only
the loop filter values are different. For this loop, the
phase comparator VCO input comes from the filtered
and amplified output of the 1-GHz harmonic downconverter. A 35-MHz low-pass filter follows the downconverter; the PLL i-f is first amplified by a two-stage
controlled-gain amplifier. I used this configuration instead of another ECL line receiver for two reasons: it
allowed variation of the stage gain by changing a single resistor value, and the bipolar amplifier has lower
bandwidth than the ECL line receiver. The rest of the
PLL circuitry is identical to the 100-MHz phase lock
except for the loop filter component values. The bandwidth of this loop is set to approximately 50 kHz.
Once the 1010-MHzoscillator is built and adjusted,
you are ready to lock it up. Use one of the common
PLL boards with the loop filter component values in
part 1, table 2. Set the jumper wires on the phase
comparator input for the " + " configuration. If the PLL
board is working properly (remember that you can test
it ahead of time by using it to lock up the 100-MHz
oscillator), the loop should close and "pull in" the
1010-MHz oscillator exactly on frequency. This lock
can occur if the 100-MHz loop is locked or free running, and the output frequency should be exactly 10.1
times the 100-MHz crystal oscillator frequency. Make
sure you use the 10-MHz reference to lock at 1010
MHz and the 20-MHz reference if you are trying to lock
to 1020 MHz.
Troubleshoot any problems by checking the PLL
board and the 1010-MHz oscillator independently of
each other. As long as the oscillator tunes over the
correct range and the PLL board is working, there
June 1988
a 29
The Motr LI\c,d
Any Srarron
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TheOSYer's eHonless Ightnmg.las1 Irequerlc,
lb~aoon
tx~ngsovtywrbenasaHam Nomancr whatyxr Amateur
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mob~llng-y~~'lldo
11bener. faster. andeaslerwlth a OSVer
Order one loday,and stsn enlvlngyOur rtg's lull polenttal.
I
Order the KHCQSIr lor Ihe Kenwood 940.440. 140. 7 l l
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r / 163
30
June 1988
H I - Z LINES MADE FROM * N o 3 0 RARE WIRE
SOLDERED TO TRACES
fig. 11. The microwave board mainly uses distributed elements. Impedance of the microstrip transmission lines is controlled by width variation. The high-impedance lines can be made from bare No. 30 wire soldered right to the traces; this
is easier than trying to cut or etch 0.005-inch wide traces.
should be no difficulty in achieving and maintaining
lock. Once this is done, you have an LO for use in a
129612304 station or as a reference oscillator for locking your 10-GHz oscillator.
+20
-
10-GHz oscillator selection and locking
The 10-GHz oscillator is locked in the same manner
as the 1010-MHz reference. The tuning circuit may
depend on the type of oscillator available. Generally,
only enough tuning range to overcome drift and instability is used. If too much tuning range is provided, the microwave oscillator might get on the "wrong
side" of the downconverter reference frequency
harmonic, giving an i-f with the wrong tuning sense.
If this happens, the PLL amplifier tries to tune the
oscillator in the wrong direction t o acquire phase lock
and the loop will remain saturated and unlocked. For
a 20-MHz PLL i-f, 30 MHz of total electronic tuning
range should be adequate, and this combined with
about a 10-volt swing out of the loop amplifier suggests a 3-MHzIvolt tuning sensitivity. If the microwave
oscillator is unstable or drifts (necessitating a greater
tuning range), an ECL divide-by-2 or divide-by4 could
be inserted right at the phase comparator input. Of
course, this would produce a different locked output
frequency, and all other i-f and oscillator frequencies in the system might have to be reselected. The
loop filter component values would also have to be
recomputed.
Selection of the 10-GHz oscillator depends upon
.I,..
P
O -
1
2
3
4
6
6
7
8
9
W
T U N I N G VOLTAGE ( V O L T S )
fig. 12. Measured tuning curve for a MIA-Corn
GunnplexerTY.The curve is fairly straight indicating nearly constant tuning sensitivity, particularly in the 410 volt
region.
what is available and within your budget. The M / A Comm GunnplexersTM
work extremely well and require
very little additional circuitry. If you have one of these
as part of a wideband station, you may want t o use
the 10,220-MHz locking scheme. If there is already
some broadband 10-GHz activity in your area and you
June 1988
31
I
WAVEGUIOE
OUTPUT
+lOV REGULATED
5 0 0 m A MAX
m
LM317
fig. 13. A three-terminal regulator provides clean bias for
the Gunnplexer. A Zener diode and two resistors provide an offset and scale the tuning to the approximately 3-MHzIvolt sensitivity required for the common
phaselock board.
don't want to give it up entirely, this approach will allow switching between modes. The Gunnplexer can
be operated with its internal diode mixer for operation
on 10220/10250 wideband duplex, or phase locked to
10220 and used with a 148-MHz SSB transceiver for
10368-MHz narrowband weak signal work. The wideband station can also be run phase locked with modulation of the 20-MHz reference signal in the 1020-MHz
loop phase. (This should end any local discussions
about who is or is not on the right frequency!)
The MIA-Comm Gunnplexers have electronic
tuning and need only level shifting and scaling of the
tuning voltage. A typical tuning curve for a GunnPlexer
is shown in fig. 12. Driving the tuning input directly
from the loop amplifier provides too much tuning
range and could allow "latch-up" on the wrong side
of the i-f, as mentioned before. It is a simple matter
to scale the tuning input to reduce the approximately
7-MHzlvolt sensitivity down to about 3. A circuit
providing this scaling, as well as a regulated 10-volt
bias supply, is shown in fig. 13. This circuit will maintain proper output and tuning even when the power
supply voltage drops slightly below 12 volts. A low
dropout regulator may be substitued for the LM317K
for particularly low inputs. This is of concern primarily when mountain topping with discharged batteries
as the only power source! The phase-locked Gunnplexer produces an excellent 10080-MHz signal (fig.
14).
Some means of tuning must be provided if an
oscillator without an electronic tuning input is used.
The Gunn oscillators in automatic door openers can
be made to work by using bias voltage "frequency
32
June 1988
pushing". These are very similar to Gunnplexers
except for their lack of electronic tuning and a mixer
diode. The tuning deficiency can be overcome by
using the biasltuning circuit in fig. 15. Here a threeterminal regulator sets the bias and tunes the oscillator for phase locking. To pick the nominal bias point,
plot a frequency versus bias voltage curve for your particular oscillator - this will vary from oscillator to
oscillator. Usually a range of bias can be found (often
just on one side of maximum power output) that provides a fairly straight tuning curve or nearly constant
tuning sensitivity. A plot of a typical bias-tuned oscillator is shown in fig. 16. The tuning resistor values
are selected to tune over a 24-MHz range with 2 to
10 volts on the tune input. The nominal operating
+
RliF
- 1 5 . 0 dBm
ATTEN
10 dB
10 dB/
SPIN 500 C H I
C E N T E R 10. 080 008 CWz
RE5 B W
1
kHz
VBM
I0
SWP 150
Hz
-IS
fig. 14. Signal produced by the phaselocked Gunnplexer.
+IZV,
-
3 TERMINAL
P O S I T I V E AOJUST
REGULATOR
L M 3 1 7 011 L M 3 3 8
0
-
VOUT TO
aOSCILLAroR
100
VNOYINAL
A
ADJUST
rUNc
R,'
100
Rz.
1.47k
100
bVZ4YHt
VOLTS
Rl
RZ
OHMS OHMS
' R l . RP. CI SHOWN A R E
F O R A V 2 r u n ~r Z 5 VOLTS.
150
825
2000
1100
TABLE
27
680
390
-
CIINON PLI#RpF
lzCD1
fig. 15. An adjustable three-terminal positive regulator
can both bias and tune a surplus Gunn oscillator via "frequency pushing", the oscillator's frequencylbias voltage
dependency. The table shows alternate component
values for different "push-tuning" sensitivities. Part of
the voltage setting and tuning resistance is bypassed to
reduce noise on the regulator output.
Reader Service CHECK
-
OFF Page 98
,/
160
June 1988
33
7 0-
6 0
-
3
I
C
I
q
dt
20
I
-
I
I
1
10
I
-
I
I
I
0 '
5
d
6
I
7
8
9
10
11
12
B I A S VOLTAGE
fig. 16. This is a tuning curve of a surplus SolfanTMoscillator of the type used in burglar alarm motion detectors
and automatic door openers. Both output power and frequency are dependent upon bias voltage. By plotting a
similar curve and selecting a useful portion of the tuning curve, you can find component values for biasing and
tuning almost any similar oscillator. In this case, a bias
of 8.25 volts + 1.25 volts will tune the output over approximately a + 12-MHz tuning range.'
point, with 6 volts applied to the tuning input, is set
at the center of this range. If 24-MHz tuning is not
possible, use the maximum available and recalulate
the PLL component values for the different tuning
sensitivity.
The three terminal regulators work in this application because they have several hundred kHz of bandwidth and can follow a 50-kHz bandwidth error signal
without adding much additional phase shift. This is
necessary for the loop to remain stable. The regulators do add some noise to the oscillator output when
used in this configuration; reduction of this is the
reason for splitting up and bypassing part of the
voltage setting and tuning resistances. This technique
is not the ultimate in low phase noise performance,
but the -90 dBC noise sidebands obtainable (1 Hz
bandwidth) are more than adequate for Amateur use
and will probably never be observed unless signal
strengths are 30 or more dB above S9. The Gunnplexers, with their built-in tuning, will probably be at
least 8 to 10 dB cleaner than this. Although I have not
tried them, many of the oscillators in automotive radar
detectors should work well. Another source of suitable oscillators is the type used for police radar guns.
The NEC ND751AAM for 10 GHz (NDGIOAAM for 24
GHz) has similar characteristics. Any of these 10-GHz
sources should have adequate drive power for the signal mixer described next.
The oscillators' output and antenna connections
34
June 1988
need to be in coax in order to use the downconverter
and mixer. Although waveguide is well behaved and
very low in loss, coax is versatile and convenient. I
have used coax throughout the 10-GHz station, both
at 1 and 10 GHz. Miniature SMB "snap on" connectors work well at 1 GHz and below, even when used
with poor quality lossier coax cable. In the microwave
region, 0.086-inch semi-rigid cable is a pleasure to
work with; the cable and corresponding SMA connectors are fairly easy to find. To cut the cable to length,
first score the outer conductor with a sharp knife; then
grab each side of the score mark with a pair of needlenose pliers and break. The Teflon dielectric can be
trimmed away and the cable end slid into the connector or soldered directly to the circuit, depending upon
the application.
If your oscillator is similar to the door-opener type,
it probably has a waveguide output and will require
a waveguide-to-coax adaptor. These are often available as surplus but if you don't have or can't get one,
it is easy to build an acceptable substitute. The version shown in fig. 17 made from a short length of commercial waveguide works very well, although you'll
need metal-working equipment. If your shack doesn't
include much more than a soldering iron, hacksaw,
and file, the second version made from pc board in
fig. 18 is for you.
After selecting your 10-GHz oscillator, build the
appropriate tuning circuit. If a means of measuring
10-GHz frequency (a 10-GHz counter or spectrum
analyzer with 1-MHz frequency resolution) is not avail-
JI
FLANGELESS
SMA
CONNECTOR
LOCKING NUT
COPPER
SHORT
SOLDERED
TO E N 0
\-0 1 7 .
Dl4
MOUNTING HOLES
1 4 PLACES)
FRONT VIEW
FLANGE
FLANGE IS 1 6 2 5 . SQUARE
W I T H 0 5 0 ' x I o n curour
IN CENT6 R FOR WAVEGUIDE
M A D E FROM ! / 8 . OR T H I C K E R
BRASS OR COPPER
WR.90 WAVEGUIDE
I 5 ' OR LONGER
DRILLED AND TAPPED
FOR S M A C O N N E C T O R
SIDE VIEW
ADAPTER
PI IS 3 / 3 2 ' DlA TUBING
S O L D E R E D ON TO J , P I N
P R O T R U D E S 0 2 2 5 ' I N T O GUIDE
-
fig. 17. A waveguide/coax adapter which provides very
low loss and better than a 1.21 VSWR can be made from
a short length of standard WR90 waveguide. A standard
SMA connector is threaded into a hole in the broad wall
of the guide located 0.200 inch from the shorted end. A
flange made from a suitably stiff piece of brass or copper is soldered to the other end.
A
71vn affordnhlc mdins ill one-that's
packs our hcsl I1T knoiv-how into
onc cn111pnc.tdfaign. At n 11ric.c'
that's in step \vitl~your 11am
hudget.
Ilit hard-lo-rr.iirh rr.prritcbrs
\\!ith il po~w'rfrll5 watts on I)otli
2 nictt~rsancl 330 \1t1z.
Il'nrk thc~hilnds (~uirklv
and clasily wit11 ;I \ve;~itllof
mirroprocc~ssc~r-e*or~trolIc~tl
c~onini;~ntls:
and output frt~cluc~nc.ic:.s,
o(ltl sldits.
and tono t~t~(.otl(~/tl(~c~otl(~.
Scan thtl mrnlory c~hanncls,
thr*clntirc I)iinrl. or ;I I);~ntlsee-
I There's cvrn ;I "I,o\v Hat tvrv" LED.
1
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mingTS or1 on(>11;1nd;~ntlRS on
allot ht>r.
( :onscrvc po\\elr with t he I ) i ~ -t
tory sawr. I t Iclts yo11motlitor silor~tly
rcJvc>rsc.s ~ . i t r JAn
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with
illr~mini~tion
lamp. :!Iiigl~/lo\vp o w r
switch. Rc>mot('c~ori~prtt(~r
(.on1rol
The 5T=7800Fr-~ockefModem born MAR
I.
I
The HF data communications world is not
forgiving. Everything b a d can and does
happen to your HF-Packet signal. Selective
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designs a l l conspire to destroy the traffic
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b e sending dota, N O T repeats!
The HAL ST-7000 modem is designed
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Techniques developed for our government
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detectors ore optimized for 300 baud
HF-Packet, N O T a "do-everything"
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lko Modes
Finally! A kning IndicatorThat Works
The ST-7000 transmits and receives two modes
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The transmit tone generator uses our proven
sine-wave synthesizer circuit to assure minimum
phase distortion and spectrum splatter.
The ST-7000 tuning indicator i s a truly unique
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I
36
D June 1988
I
r, 159
FLlNGEO SYd
CONNECTOR
,--SOLDER
TO
i
040-
t
(- 1 / 1 6 . P C 0 0 4 R D
C U 4 N N E L SOLDERED
'
RR4SS .L.SOLDERED I N S I D E
COPPER FOlL T 4 P E
OR B E N T S H I M
4ROUNO CORNERS
0 0,.
CHANNEL TO.Y4RE
0 40 n 0 9 0 WIVE
GVIOE
F L A N G C AN0 P ( 9 Y C &5 IN
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SIDE
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fig. 18. If metal-working equipment necessary to fabricate the adapter shown in fig. 77is not available, an acceptable substitute can be made from standard lllbinch
pc board and brass shim stock. A channel is first made
from the board material and then the brass toplshort is
soldered. Continuity from the inside of this homebrew
waveguide to the front of the flange is provided by sticky
copper foil tape.
for most oscillators I have tried. Select the nominal
bias voltage as the center of a reasonably straight
24-MHz range near the maximum power bias point,
or in a mode-free region. Select the tuning scaling
resistors from fig. 15 based on the change in bias
necessaw to produce 24-MHz frequency change; this
gives 3-MHzIvolt sensitivity at the tuning input. The
sense of this tuning may be either positive or negative, depending on your particular oscillator. For the
motion detector oscillator plotted in fig. 16 1 chose
a nominal bias point of 8.25 volts. Tuning resistor
values were selected for the required volt change (approximately 2.5). These values cause the 2 to 10 volts
from the loop amplifier to tune the oscillator over a
24-MHz total range. Resistor and capacitor values for
some different oscillator sensitivities are shown in the
table.
When you are confident that the oscillator is tuning
correctly, preset it to 10080 MHz with 6 volts on the
bias circuit tuning input. Do this by coarse tuning for
a 20-MHz PLL i-f on the correct side of 10100 MHz.
If the PLL board is functioning, locking should now
be no more difficult than locking the 1010-MHz oscillator. Remember to select the proper wire jumpers
based on "high side" LO and the tuning direction of
your particular oscillator.
As for the 1010 MHz oscillator, troubleshoot any
problems by separating the PLL components and testing them individually. Make sure that the PLL board
works on a lower frequency loop. Verify that there are
suitable 1-volt peak-to-peak ECL levels on both phase
100dOY". LO lWWT
F ( M Y WIUCONvEI)TEn
B O A I D YATEWAL 0 0 2 0 .
o u a a o . DOuBrE CLAD
able, you may use the 10-GHz downconverter and
locked 1010-MHz source to determine oscillator operating frequency. An old general coverage receiver with
poor selectivity is great for this, because an unstable
signal is easy to hear as it drifts past. Take the same
precautions mentioned earlier to avoid overload. When
you do hear a signa1,'verify that it is on the correct
side of the 1010-MHz reference harmonic at 10.1 GHz
by making sure that the i-f signal is tuning lower as
you tune the microwave oscillator higher. Use mechanical tuning for this because (unless you have a M I A Comm or other "known" oscillator) you can't be sure
what the sense of the electronic tuning is. If the tuning characteristics are unknown, use your general
coverage receiver or low-frequency counter on the PLL
i-f to plot a tuning curve as a function of the oscillator
bias voltage. A few oscillators will "mode" and jump
frequency, particularly when not properly matched and
operated at extremely low or high biases. A nominal
operating point between 6 and 10 volts is appropriate
ODE QUAD. WPUSCY.6812 OR
ETELLICS Y S S J O - I 4 2 - E 4 S
r8.12. 9 TURNS 6 r n L . n
ow ,,4- ""F CORE OR
4 l 1V ll4LUN
111- 015' RADIUS. 6 O ' N N
JIFLANGED 5 Y l
CONNECTORS
9
J 6 - SYC CONNECTOR
01
ZnrlY",
4.1
92
a c r u a ~W ~ S I C ~ L
OlYrUSlON 0 6 6 '
IT l 4 C E S ARE 0 . 0 5 6 .
r m 4 c ~ s~ n 0 r0 8 3 .
JI
fig. 19. Closeup of the lOGHz signal mixer.
June 1988
37
comparator inputs. Also make sure that the IO-GHz
oscillator is tuning properly. Be sure that there is no
large (bigger than 1000 pF) bypass capacitor across
its bias input; this could limit the f m bandwidth.
signal mixers
Commercial mixers that give good performance up
through 2304 MHz are available at reasonable prices.
Simple "rat race" mixers can be made on Teflon pc
board for all bands up to and including 10 GHz; they
don't work as well at 24 GHz and above because of
packaged diode size and parasitics. A diode mixer with
less than 7-dB conversion loss at 10368 MHz (with
10080-MHz local oscillator injection) can be cut out
of a piece of circuit board. This by itself (no amplifier,
pre'amplifier, or transmitlreceive switch) can give S9
signals between similar stations with 4-foot dishes
separated by 10 miles!
The 10-GHz signal mixer uses the same diode ring
and board material as the 10-GHz harmonic downconverter. Building it on the same piece of board material
eliminates two connectors and some coax along with
their associated losses. A balun is used to match the
mixer diode's i-f impedance to 50 ohms. You can make
this balun from two toroidal cores, or use a VHF TV
P.0. BOX4405
220 N. Fullon Avr.
Evansville, IN 47710
Store Hours
MON-FRISAM 6PM
SAT: QAM 3PM
CENTRAL TIME
-
300-to-75 ohm balun. Conversion loss of under 10 dB
should be possible over a range of local oscillator powers. Low barrier diodes are indicated in the parts list.
but medium and high barrier may be substituted if
sufficient 10080-MHz oscillator power is available.
Higher drive levels make higher i-f levels possible on
transmit, and therefore higher 10368-MHz transmit
power. To avoid serious distortion, i-f power should
generally be kept at least 10 dB below the available
local oscillator power. A close-up of the 10-GHz signal mixer is shown in fig. 19.
Build the signal mixer as part of the downconverter
assembly, and you can be on the air as soon as the
10-GHz oscillator is locked and you have a suitable
SSB i-f transceiver. Just hook it through a bandpass
filter to your antenna!
Part 3 will discuss the following: a 260-MHz locked
oscillator along with amplifiers and switching for the
280-290 MHz i-f transverter; and a two-stage, 16-dB
gain, 2.5-dB noise figure 10-GHz amplifier that can be
used on transmit and receive. Two such stations connected to modest size antennas should improve your
DX possibilities and could help you break the current
world 10-GHz DX record!
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38
GI June 1988
UHF WORLD
Joe Reisert. WlJR
propagation updatepart 2
I've discussed VH F IU HFlmicrowave
and millimeter-wave radio propagation
many times in this
yet
there is always more new material
available. This month we will try to
pick up where reference 3 left off and
update the present state of the art
(SOA) of radio propagation above 50
MHz.
DX records
For years I have felt that the greatest
incentives for experimentation on the
frequencies above 50 MHz are discovering new propagation modes and
setting new DX records. However,
published DX records were either scattered or incomplete and often without
any mention of the propagation mode
used. Most of the published records
were worldwide, tending t o favor regions where special geography or
phenomena are present.
Several years ago I started publishing consolidated VHFIUHFlmicrowave and millimeter-wave DX records
in "VHFIUHF World." At first only the
more available worldwide records were
included.' Later EME (Earth-MoonEarth) records were added.2
I next published a list including only
those DX records where at least one
of the stations was located in North
America. As a new twist, the suspected propagation mode was added.2
This made for many new DX opportunities above 50 MHz.
The "North America Only" list
caught on like wildfire. Many new DX
record claims were documented and
other propagation modes on different
frequency bands were added. These
records have been published at least
once a year in this column; we now
publish new record claims at the end
of each "VHF/UHF World."
This month is no exception. All
three record tables have been updated. Table 1 shows the North America
Only terrestrial records, table 2 lists
the worldwide terrestrial records, and
table 3 the worldwide EME records.
Each claim has been documented by
at least one of the record holders. To
facilitate new claims, I designed the
VHFIUHFISHF Record Verification
Form in table 4. The form verifies
when the claimed contact took place
and shows the equipment required to
make the record. The latter is particularly important since it sets the
minimum equipment specifications
required.
frequency bands
The list of frequencies available to Amateurs under FCC jursidiction was published in reference 2; the microwave
and millimeter frequencies were later
updated and appeared in reference 3.
There haven't been any changes of
late.
However, there are some further frequency restrictions. The band most
affected is the 70 cm (420-450 MHz).
Any United States station operating
within 100 miles of any PAVE PAWS
radar installation and running more
than 50 watts is required to obtain FCC
permission. This currently affects
Amateurs in New England, Georgia,
Texas, Alaska, and California.
Amateurs operating in the 70-cm
band near the missile test ranges in
California, Florida, and New Mexico
are also affected by the new rules.
There have been additional restrictions
placed on Amateurs operating in the
420-430 MHz region near the Canadian
border and some Canadians are now
affected in the 430-450 MHz region
near airports using experimental windshear radar. These rules seem to be in
a state of flux.
A t the present time, Amateur restrictions on 33 cm (902-928 MHz) are
June 1988
39
Table 1. North American VHF and Above Claimed DX Records. (Notes 1, 2 6 3)
Frequency
Record Holders
Date
Mode
50 MHz
EME
Note 4
WA4NJP (EM84DG)-KH6HI (BLOlXH)
88-02-15
CW
144 MHz
Aurora
Ducting
EME
Spor. E
FA1
MS
TE
Tropo
KAlZE (FN31TU)-WBODRLIWAOTKJ(EM18CT)
KHGGRU (BLO1XH)-WA6JRA (DM13BT)
VElUT (FN63XV)-VK5MC (QFO2EJ)
KD4WF (EM92LA)-NW7017 (DM25GV)
W5HUQl4 (EM90GC)-W5UN (DM82WA)
K5UR (EM35WA)-KP4EKG(FK68VG)
KP4EOR (FK78AJ)-LU5DJZ (GF11LU)
KlRJH (FN31XH)-K5WXZ IEMlZQW)
86-02-08
73-07-29
84-04-07
87-06-14
83-07-25
85-12-13
78-02-12
68-10-08
CW
CW
CW
SSB
CW
SSB
SSB
CW
220 MHz
Aurora
Ducting
Spor. E
EME
MS
TE
Tropo
W31Y14 (FM19HA)-WB5LUA (EM13O.C)
KH6UK (BL11AQ)-W6NLZ (DM03TS)
K5UGM (EM12MS)-W5HUQ14 (EM9OGC)
K1WHS (FM43MK)-KH6BFZ (BL1ICJ)
KlWHS (FM43MK)-KOALL (EN16NW)
KP4EOR (FK78AJ)-LU7DJZ (GF05RJI
VE3EMS (EN86QJ)-WB5LUA (EM13QC)
82-07-14
59-06-22
87-06-14
83-11-17
85-08-12
83-03-09
82-09-28
CW
CW
CWISSB
CW
SSB
CWISSB
SSB
432 MHz
Aurora
Ducting
EME
MS
Tropo
W31P (FM19PD)-WB5LUA (EM13QC)
KD6R (DM13NI)-KHGIAA/P (BK29GO)
KZUYH (FN2OQG)-VK6ZT (QF78VB)
W2AZL (FN2OVI)-WOLER(EN351A)
WB3CZG (FN21AX)-WA5VJB (EM12LQ)
86-02-08
80-07-28
83-01-29
72-08-12
86-11-29
CW
CW
CW
CW
SSB
903 MHz
EME
Tropo
K5JL (EM15DQ)-WB5LUA (EM13QC)
W2PGC (FN020R)-K3SIW19 (EN52WA)
88-02-07
86-12-24
SSB
187 (301)
478 (769)
1296 MHz
Ducting
EME
Tropo
KH6HME (BK29GO)-WB6NMT (DM12KU)
K2UYH (FN20QG)-VK5MC(QF02EJ)
WB3CZG (FN21AX)-KD5RO(EM13PA)
86-08-13
81-12-06
86-11-29
SSB
CW
CW
2528 (4068)
10,562 (16995)
1287 (2070)
W31W118 (FM08CK)-ZL2AQE(RE78JS)
KD5RO (EM13PA)-W8YIO (EN82BE)
87-10-18
86-11-29
CW
CW
8658 (13931)
940 (1513)
Tropo
EME
WA5TNY 15 (EM11AU)-WB5LUAl5 (EM24UQ)
W C N K l 5 (EM15FI)-KOKEIO (DM79NO)
86-10-19
87-04-12
CW
CW
288 (464)
498 (802)
5760 MHz
Tropo
EME
K5PJR (EM260P)-W5UG010 (ENOOPH)
WA5TNY (EM12KV)-WCNKI5 (EM15FI)
87-07-04
87-04-24
CW
CW
332 (535)
174 (279)
10.368 GHz
Tropo
N6GNl6 (CM89PX)-W6SFHl6 (DMO4MS)
87-07-19
CW
414 (666)
24.192 GHz
LOS
WA3RMXl7 (CN9310)-WB7UNUl7 (CN95DH)
86-08-23
SSB
116 1186)
47.040 GHz
LOS
WA3RMX (CN85PL)-WB7UNUlWTYR (CN85NH)
87-03-08
SSB
13.9 (22.4)
76-149 GHz
None reported
474 THz
LOS
K6MEP (DM0410)-WA6EJO (DMWKT)
79-06-09
LASER
CW
DX Miles (krn)
4530 (7289)
1347
2586
10,985
1980
1228
1960
3933
1468
(2167)
(4161)
(17676)
(3186)
(1976)
(3153)
(6328)
(2362)
1145
2539
932
5058
1279
3670
1181
(1842)
14086)
(1499)
(8139)
(2057)
(5906)
(1901)
1182
2550
11,567
1019
1318
(1901)
(4103)
(18612)
(1640)
(2121)
2304 MHz
EME
Tropo
3456 MHz
15 (24)
Note 1. The records are listed alphabetically by mode. Ducting is suspected where the path is mostly over water. No efforts are made to separate
out ducting on overland paths so they're grouped under tropo.
Note 2. The information within the parentheses ( following the callsign is the grid square locator.
Note 3. Distances have been calculated assuming a spherical earth model using the actual latitude and longitude rather than grid square centers
which are less accurate.
Note 4. Six-meters records, excepting EME, were left off since the primary propagation mode is often hard to distinguish. Also long-path OSOs
have been reported during solar cycles 19 and 21 which exceed approximately 12,430 miles.
40
June 1988
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Maximum Tmcy ( . v ~The IC2GAT
receives 138-174 Hz, ~ncludrng OAA, and transmits
140-150MHzto include CAP and MARS frequencies.
'The IC-4GAT o erates 440-450MHz, and the IC-32AT
receives 138-174 Hz and operates 140-1,50MHz/
440-450MH~.
Mast Powerful H d h d d ! The IC-2GAT delivers
seven watts! The IC-4(;K1' is six watts and the
IC-32AT is five watts! One watt lwel selectable for
local QSO's.
20 Memories. Store any frequency, Tx offset and
subaudible tone in any memory. Total flexibility!
Pmgmmmable Scanning of band and memories plus
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Cornpati&& Accessories. All ICOM IC-2AT/OZAT
series battery acks, headsets and speaker mics are
interchangeabl)r.
Optional UT-40 Beeper silently monitors a busy
channel for your calls. When the pre- rogrammed
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K
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IC-32AT
2 Meters and
IC-2GAT
2 Meters
IC-4GAT
440MHz
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THE 1988
ARRL
HANDBOOK
CIE
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Table 2. Worldwide Claimed VHFIUHFISHF Terrestrial DX Records (notes 1 & 2)
Frequency
Record Holders
Date
Mode
50 MHz
70 MHz
144 MHz
220 MHz
432 MHz
903 MHz
1296 MHz
2304 MHz
3456 MHz
5670 MHz
10.3 GHz
24 GHz
47 GHz
75 GHz
474 THz
Note 3
GW4ASRJP (1082JG)-584CY(KM64MR)
I4EAT (JN54VG)-ZS3B (JG7301)
KP4EOR (FK68XM)-LU7DJZ (GF05RJ)
KD6R (DM13NI)-KH6IAAlP (BK29GO)
W2PGC (FN020R)-K3SIWJ9 (EN52WA)
KH6HME (BK29GO)-WB6NMT (DM12KU)
VK5QR (PF95HDI-VKGWGIP(OF85WA)
VK5QR (PF95HD)-VK6WG (OF85WA)
G3ZEZ (J001MSl-SM6HYG (J058RGl
IOSNYlEA9 (IM751V)-IOYLlllE9(JM68NR)
IOSNYlIC8 (JN60WR)-18YZ018(JM78WEI
HB9AGEIP (JN36FS)-HB9MINl9 (JN36SX)
HB9AGEJP (JN37RD)-HBSMINJP(JN37RD)
K6MEP (DM0410)-WA6EJO (DM04KT)
81-06-07
79-03-30
83-03-09
80-07-28
86-12-24
86-08-13
78-02-17
86-01-25
83-07-12
83-07-08
84-08-11
87-06-06
85-12-30
79-06-09
ES
TE
TE
Duct
Tropo
Duct
Duct
Duct
Duct
Duct
LOS
LOS
LOS
LOS
DX Miles ( k m l
2153
4884
3670
2550
478
2528
1170
1171
610
1032
206
53.5
0.3
15
(3465)
(78601
(5906)
(41031
(769)
(4068)
(1883)
(1885)
(981)
(1660)
(331)
(861
(0.5)
(24)
Notes:
1. The information within the parentheses ( ) after the callsign is the grid square locator.
2. Distances have been calculated assuming a spherical earth model. The actudl latitude and longitude are used rather than grid square centers
which are less accurate.
3. Six meters has been left blank on this listing because long-path QSOs (those exceeding approx~mately12,430 miles) have been reported
during solar cycles 19 and 21.
Table 3. Worldwide Claimed VHF/UHF/SHF €ME DX Records (notes 1 & 2)
Frequency
Record Holders
50 MHz
WA4NJP (EM84DG)-KH6HI (BLOlXH)
144 MHz
K6MYC/KH6 (BK29AO)-ZS6ALE(KG43RCl
220 MHz
KlWHS (FN43MK)-KH6BFZ(BLllCJ)
432 MHz
F9FT (J029AG)-ZL3AAD (RE66GR)
902 MHz
K5JL (EM15DQ)-WB5LUA (EMl3QC)
1296 MHz
PAOSSB (JO11WI)-ZL3AAD (RE66GRI
2304 MHz
W31W118 (FMO8CK)-ZLZAQE (RE78JS)
3456 MHz
W7CNKJ5 (EM15FI)-KOKE(DM79NO)
5670 MHz
WA5TNY (EM12KV)-W7CNKJ5(EM15FI)
10,000 MHz and above: None reported
Date
Mode
88-02-15
83-02-18
83-11-17
80-04-18
88-02-07
83-06-13
87-10-18
87-04-06
87-04-24
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
DX Miles (km)
4530
12,091
5058
11,679
187
11,595
8658
498
174
(7289)
119455)
(8139)
(18793)
(301)
(18657)
(139311
(8021
(279)
Notes:
1. The information within the parentheses ( ) following the callsigns is the grid square locator.
2. The distances shown have been calculated assuming a spherical earth model. The actual latitudes and longitude are used rather than grid
square centers which are less accurate.
still in effect in Colorado, Wyoming,
White Sands Missile Range, and Region 3 areas. Operators in these restricted areas who have tried t o obtain
permission from the FCC have been
unable to do so. Canadian Amateurs
need special permission from DOC to
use CW or SSB on this band. (It is
presently designated as fm only!)
solar cycle update
Probably one of the hottest discussions on the hf and 6-meter bands
these days is "when will the next solar
cycle peak?" Near the sunspot peak
there is a chance that F2 propagation
will be possible on 6 meters. News of
that peak is starting to come in. The
smoothed sunspot count of Cycle 21
peaked at 164.5 in December of 1979
and ended when it bottomed out at
12.3 sunspots in September 1986. The
new cycle, 22, has definitely begun
and no one knows for sure how high
the peak will be or when it will occur.
Improved methods of forecasting
like the Sargent/Oh17 were very close
in predicting the peak of cycle 21.
Based on available data and using this
prediction methods, it now appears
that cycle 22 will peak at a smoothed
level of 118.6 sunspots in mid-1991.
Figure 1 shows this early data along
with the final data on cycle 21.
The predicted peak of cycle 22
shows that it will be very flat and
should stay above 100 sunspots from
about July 1989 through June 1992.
Because this cycle started statistically
June 1988
45
backscatter
175
The backscatter form of propagation described in reference 1 is basically a form of reflection and indicates
that a highly ionized region is present.
Operators detecting this phenomenon
can often work DX by aiming their antennas in the direction of the ionized
region and "backscattering" their
signals.
Backscatter also indicates that the
MUF is very high; it was well used
during solar cycle 21 t o indicate the
presence of an opening. Often western
United States stations could work
Hawaii while eastern stations could
work Europe either by backscatter or
by knowing that there was a high
degree of probability of an opening in
progress.
I50
I25
L
f "'
P
C
P
!j
75
V)
50
25
0
75
76
77
78
19
80
81
82
83
84
85 86
YEAR
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
9+
95
fig. 1. This graph shows the smoothed sunspot numbers for solar cycle 21 as well as
the forcasted numbers for cycle 22, per reference 8.
earlier than other cycles and rose abruptly, we will have to wait at least
another year or so to see what if any
modifications will occur.
This information is not very promising for 6-meter Amateurs as it usually
takes a sunspot count above 150 to
yield good F2 openings. However,
minor sunspot peaks often occur during a cycle, albeit of short duration. No
6-meter operator active during the last
solar cycle will ever forget the solar
peaks in late 1979 that rivaled those of
all previously recorded solar cycles.
The equivalent short-term sunspot
number can be predicted using the
solar flux measured at Ottawa on 10.7
cm. The value is updated daily and
broadcast at 18 minutes after each
hour on radio station WWV. Using the
equation shown in reference 2,l have
prepared fig. 2 which can be used
to determine the equivalent sunspot
number on any day. Remember also
that the ionosphere usually has to be
"pumped up" for four or five consecutive days to yield good long-haul F2
propagation.
The SOA in equipment, antennas,
and propagation forecasting has greatly improved in recent years. Predictions of the MUF are now possible
with improved accuracy using personal
computer programs like MINIMUF8 in
46
June 1988
0
25
SO
75
100
SUNSPOTNUMBER
125
150
175
fig. 2. This figure shows the correlation between solar flux and sunspot numbers.
conjunction with the sunspot number
per fig. 2.
This information, along with increased Smeter interest and improved operating methods (more on this shortly),
as well as recent relaxations in licensing restrictions in western Europe and
North Africa, means that there will be
many more regions and DXCC countries represented during cycle22. Let's
hope it's a great cycle for &meter
operators. Stay tuned!
Look for backscatter especially over
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It can
also be observed on 10 meters to
indicate a possible &meter opening.
Backscatter will become much more
evident as the sunspots increase and
is usable up through 6 meters.
ionospheric scatter
Ionospheric scatter was also
described in reference 1. It is a form
of "forward scatter" linked t o the time
Table 4. VHFIUHFISHF Propagation Record Verification Form.
(Please return t o J o e Reisert, W l J R , 17 Mansfield Drive. Chelmsford, MA 01824)
Band:
Propagation Mode:-
Time of record (UTC):
Date of record (UTC):
DX ( m i l e s ) _ _ _
Station 1
Station 2
Call:
Call:.--
Name:
Name:
QTH for this QSO:
QTH for this QSO:
--
Late:-
--
Long*:
Lat":
Long*:
Grid Locator (6 digit):
Grid Locator (6 digit):
Elevation ASL (feet):
(km):
(meters):--
Location description:
Elevation ASL (feet):
--
(meters):
Location description:
-Antenna type:
--
Antenna type:
Estimated gain (dBi):
Estimated gain (dBi):
TX freq:
TX freq:-
TX power:
Feedline loss:
TX power:
--
Feetlline loss:
Modulation type:
RX freq:
Modulation type:
--
RX freq:
RX type:
RX type:
RX desc:-
RX desc:
Feedline loss:
Feedline loss:
Noise figure:
Noise figure:
RX bandwidth:
--
RX bandwidth:
Rcvd signal to noise ratio:
Rcvd signal to noise ratio:
Other equipment description:
Other equipment description:
--
--
Other comments, weather conditions etc:
The information submitted above is correct to the best of my knowledge.
Submitted by:
Call:.-.--
Home QTH:
Phone number IAC---)
Record received and verified by:
-
Date:
"Please list latitudes and longitudes in degrees, minutes, and seconds.
June 1988
47
of day (typically peaking broadly
around noon local time) and to high
sunspot activity. Ionospheric scatter
can be used on 6 and 2 meters.
This form of propagation is used extensively in commercial service but
seems to have been almost totally
ignored by Amateurs. It does require
reasonable antenna gain and high
power, but is within the reach of many
well-equipped 2-meter Amateur stations, especially those with EME or
marginal EME capability.
As the sunspots increase, so will the
possibilities of forward scatter. This
represents an interesting challenge for
Amateurs and is a good way to increase their grid square count in the
800-1300 mile region.
TE (transequatorial) scatter
Like forward and back scatter, TE
propagation is a good mode for long
DX, especially on 6 meters. It is best
observed across the equator on more
or less directly north-south paths with
typical distances of 3 to 6,000 miles.
TE propagation is most often observed in the late afternoon and early
evening for several weeks around the
equinoxes. During the peak of the
solar cycle around this time, highly
ionized "patches" are often present
approximately 10-20 degrees north and
south of the "geomagnetic" equator.
Unfortunately, the geomagnetic
equator is very far south in the North
and South American sector. This limits
North American TE propagation mainly
to stations in the Caribbean and the
extreme southern portions of the
United States. Don't let this discourage you; there are always new
propagation modes and isolated openings to explore.
equatorial FA1 (Field
Aligned Irregulatities)
Equatorial FA1 was first discovered
in 1977.1° It is still not fully understood
and often referred to as TE propagation (see references 11 and 12). Like
TE scatter, equatorial FA1 depends on
highly ionized patches that are typically
located 10-15 degrees north and south
of the geomagnetic equator at the
48
June 1988
same dates and times discussed under
TE propagation above. However, the
DX is slightly less. The most favored
locations are paths from southern
Europe to South Africa, Japan to
Australia, and the Caribbean to
southern South America.
While TE scatter is generally limited
to below 100 MHz, equatorial FA1 has
been known to extend higher in frequency. Contacts as high as 220 MHz
have been confirmed as shown in
tables 1 and 2. Although some oneway 432 reports have been reported,
I have been unable to document any
two-way contacts above 220 MHz.
Maybe during the peak years of solar
cycle 22 the frequency barrier will be
broken and two-way 432 MHz contacts will be completed. Any takers?
midlatitude FA1
When reference 10 was written, it
was speculated that FA1 propagation
would be possible in mid-northern latitudes. It didn't take long before this
became a reality on 144 MHz.13
Midlatitude FA1 propagation has
many similarities to auroral propagation; both stations must be south of
the ionized region and aim their antennas several degrees north of the great
circle path. This type of propagation
most often occurs in the evenings during the summer, especially on days
when there has been sporadic E propagation on 6 meters. As shown in table
1, it has been successfully used out to
a distance of just over 1200 miles on
2 meters. Until recently FA1 has been
slow to take hold, despite the fact that
it should be usable up through 220
MHz.13
This is all changing now - contacts
were reported during the summer of
1987 in the southern United States and
a wide region of Europe (reference 14
through 16). In fact, well over 500
European contacts were reported
using midlatitude FA1 propagation
during the summer period of 1986
alone! (See reference 15.)
As observed in Europe, the scatter
region tends to be at the same height
as sporadic E, typically 70 miles. These
regions resemble aurora propagation;
unlike the relatively small (1-2 mile
thick) sporadic E clouds, they have
large volume areas.
Midlatitude FA1 signals tend to have
rapid fading. They have been observed
over several European locations but
mostly along the 45-55 degree north
latitude lines following the contours
shown in reference 13. Those who
can elevate their antennas have a
greater possibility of success.
Midlatitude FA1 propagation offers
a great challenge to VHF Amateurs,
especially in North America. This
mode of propagation should be usable
up through 220 MHz throughout the
contiguous 48 United States. All it
takes is some patience and a surge in
activity. Who will be the first to report
a 220-MHz midlatitude FA1 QSO? It's
there for the asking!
summary
This month I've given you a status
report on the latest DX records on the
VHF/UHF/microwave bands. We've
also discussed the latest prognosis for
propagation using the solar cycle 22
peak and some scatter modes. Next
month's column will update other
propagation modes. Until then, you
can read the references cited.
new DX records
This has been a good month for new
VHFIUHF DX records. First off, the
6-meter EME record has been extended. On February 15, 1988 between
1800-1845 UTC, Ray Rector, WA4NJP,
Gillsville, Georgia (EM84DG)completed a two-way EME contact with Bert
Ingalls, KHGHI, Ewa Beach, Hawaii
(BLBIXH), on 50.008 MHz using
I-minute sequencing. The distance
was approximately 4530 miles (7289
km). Ray was using 1500 watts and
Bert was running 1000. Both stations
were using quads of four eight-element Yagis on 35-38 foot booms.
Congratulations to Ray and Bert 6 meters is now buzzing with EME
activity.
Last month we reported the first
ever 33-cm (902 MHz) EME QSO. That
record didn't last very long! On February 7, 1988 at 0500 UTC, Jay Lieb-
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DETECTION
DYNAMICS
4700 LOYOLA LANE, #I19
AUSTIN, TX 78723 (512) 345-8401
mann, KSJL, Piedmont, Oklahoma
(EM15DQ) completed a 33-cm EME
QSO with Al Ward, WB5LUA, McKinney, Texas (EM13QC) over a distance
of approximately 187 miles (301 kml.
Both stations were running approximately 150 watts and 24-28 foot dishes. Congratulations, Jay and Al. It
looks as if 33-cm EME activity is just
about t o take off. Both records just
discussed are included in tables 1
and 3.
Finally (although not yet a DX record), during February 1988 Rick Fogle,
Grapevine, Texas (EM12KV) has been
heard by Lucky Whitaker, W7CNK,
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (EM15FI)
via 3-cm (10,368.1 MHz) EME. Likewise, Lucky has heard Rick via the
same path. Rick uses a 10-foot dish
and Lucky a 16 footer. Both have their
preamplifiers and power amplifiers
mounted right at the feed. Unfortunately, they have only one highpower (10-15 watt) TWT amplifier between them which they mail back and
forth. Because of this, they can't complete what is considered a conventional two-way OSO (use of two complete
sets of gear all used during one operating session). Efforts are underway to
get a second power amplifier. Good
luck to Rick and Lucky as well as the
other 3-cm operators who are also trying to conquer this elusive band. It
seems that one of the last EME frontiers is about t o be conquered.
i m p o r t a n t VHFIUHF e v e n t s
June 4
June
7
June 9
J u n e 11-73
June14
J u n e 18-19
June
21
July 1
July 2
July
July
13
16-17
EME perigee
Predicted peak of the daytime
Arietids meteor shower at 0150
UTC
Predicted peak of the Zeta Perseids meteor shower at 1020
UTC
ARRL June VHF QSO Party
Newmoon
SMIRK (Six Meter International
Radio Klubl Party Contest
(contact KAONNOI
I month. Peak of midlatitude
Sporadic E propagation
1 month. Look for United
States to Europe openings on 6
meters
€ME perigee
New moon
CQ Magazine VHF WPX
Contest
+
+
July
20
J u l y 21 24
July
28
July
30
_t 3 weeks. Look for 2-meter
Sporadic E openings
Central Stares VHF Conference, L~ncoln,Nebraska, NEB
(contact WD0DGFl
Predicted peak of the Delta
Aquarids meteor shower at
2100 UTC
EME perigee
references
1. Joe Reisert, W l J R , "VHFIUHF World The
VHFiUHF Pr~mer:An lntroductiori to Propagation,"
hani rad~o,Joly 1984, page 14.
2. Joe Relsert. W l J R . "VHFIUHF World~Propagation
Update." /la111rad~o,July 1985, page 86.
3. Joe Reisert. W1JR. "VHFIUHF World-Microwave
and Millilneter~WavePropagation: Part 1 harn rad~o.
July 1986, page 82
4. Joe Reisert, W I J R . "VHFIUHF World-Microwave
and Millrmeter-Wave Propagation: Part 2," ham radio,
August 1986, page 69.
5. Joe Reise~t.W I J R . "VHFIUHF World~lmproving
Meteor Scatter Communications." ham radio. June
1984, page 82.
6. Joe Re~sen,W1JR. "VHFIUHF World-Meteor Scatter Com~nunicat~ons."
ham radio. June 1986, page 68.
7. H.H. Sargent, "Proceetlings of the 28th IEEE
Vehicular Technical Conference," 1978, page 490.
L? "Preliminary Report and Forecast of Solar Geophysical Data." NOAA, SESC PRF626, September 1, 1987.
9. Robert B. Rose, K6GKU. "MINIMUF: A Simplified
MUF-Prediction Program for Microcomputers," QST,
December 1982, page 36.
10. Joseph H. Reisert, W l J R , and Gene Pfeffer,
KBJHH. "A Newly Discovered Mode of VHF Propagation," QST, October 1978, pa!ge 11.
11. Ray Cracknell, ZEZJV. et al.. "The Euro~Asiato
Africa VHF 1ransequator~alCircu~tDuring Solar Cycle
21-Part 1," QST. Novembel 1981. page 31.
12. Ray Cracknell, ZE2JV, et at.. "The Euro-Asia to
Africa VHF Transequatorial Circuit During Solar Cycle
21-Part 2." QST, December 1981, page 23.
13. Thomas F. Kneisel, K4GFG. "Ionospheric Scatter
By Field~AlignedIrregularities at 144 MHz." QST, January 1982, page 30
14. Gueriter Kollner, DL4MEA. "FA1 Information,"
DUBUS, 1/87, page 64.
15. Guenter Kollner, DL4MEA. "FA1 Information,"
DUBUS, 2187. page 144.
16. Volker Grassmann, DF5AI, "Reuckstreuungen
Ultrakurzer Wellen an Feldlir~ien-OrientiertenIrregular
itaten," DUBUS. 3187, page 187.
."
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r / 145
June 1988
5 53
the Quad antenna: part 2,
circular and octagonal loops
Analysis shows
good performance with
similar data
Q
"
CIRCUMFERENCE
k .
= 2-b
2r/A
C I R C U M F E R E N C E A kb
0 .Zln(2rb/o)
C+
fig. 1. A circular loop can be described by two quantities, the radius of the conductor (a) and the radius of the
loop (b). For work, it is convenient to use two derived
quantities, a conductor thickness factor (omega) and the
circumference in wavelengths at the operating frequency
Ikb).
54
GI/J
June 1988
Although there is a contradiction in terms, it is
convenient t o consider the circular loop, and arrays
built of loops, as the first members of the Quad family.
One reason is that all other versions can be regarded
as departures from the "ideal" circular figure. To the
extent this is true, the performance of circular-loop
antennas is thus representative of the performance of
the entire family.
Another reason is that the theoretical anaylsis of the
circular loop is far more advanced than for the other
shapes. Extensive tables of calculated characteristics
have been published, some with comparisons of measured performance. In contrast, while there are theories
of square Quad loop and array performance, their
complexity makes them impractical for calculation,
even on mainframe computers.
theoretical basis of circular-loop
analysis
As shown in fig. 1, only t w o quantities are necessary to specify the circular-loop antenna: the conductor size, usually given as its radius; and the loop size,
also described by radius. It is often more convenient
t o use t w o derived descriptive quantities in theoretical
discussion. The first is the normalized circumference
of the loop at the specific frequency of interest given
by the quantity kb, where k is defined as
k =. 271-11,
By R.P. Haviland, W4MB, 1035 Green Acres
Circle North, Daytona Beach, Florida 32019
X being the wavelength. The quantity kb is therefore
the circumference of the loop in wavelengths.
Conductor size is usually given by the relationship
sufficient to note that the current distribution is given
by:
r
1
.
= lj
where In is the natural logarithm, equal to 2.3 times
the more common loglo value. The value of omega
is given in fig. 2 as a function of the ratio 2 r b l a , or
loop circumference to conductor radius. Values less
than 10 represent very large conductor diameters, and
those over 20 very small conductors. High-frequency
antennas will usually have values in the range 20-25,
and self-supporting ultrahigh frequency antennas
values of 10-15.
The loop is assumed to be fed at one point, usually
taken as the angle reference. This induces a current,
i, in the loop at angle zero which, in turn, creates a
field at the point designated by R,01, for example. The
total field at this point is the sum of the fields produced
by all points on the loop.
The field components also induce current flow in
the loop. When equilibrium is reached (after a few rf
cycles) the field close t o the conductor must lie only
at right angles t o it. (If there had been a tangential
component, a change in the current would have been
induced, so equilibrium would not yet have been
attained.) This observation plus standard field equations give the conditions for calculating current distribution, and therefore the drive impedance and
radiation pattern.
While the concept is relatively simple, the mathematical operations are difficult. See the references,
especially Storer,' for details. For our purposes it is
I +2
37711 A,
r!
sum
L
where the sum is for all values of N from 1 t o infinity.
This result was derived by Hallen.2
This equation is simple, but its evaluation is complex. The quantities A involve series for which exact
solutions are unknown. Even approximate solutions
'require further assumptions, two being that the conductor diameter is small compared to loop diameter
and to operating wavelength. This restriction is satisfied by practical antennas.
Additionally, the infinite series in the equation tends
22
20
S 18
3
ri
R 16
e
3
1 14
0
U
I2
' O lIo o
2
X
O
1 0 0 0I
2
LOOP CIRCUMFERENCE
CONDUCTOR RADIUS
5
O
O
fig. 2. Values of the thickness factor (omega) as a function of the ratio of loop to conductor radius (or diameter).
Practical self-supporting loops need an omega around
10-12 to have sufficient strength. Wire cage elements
may be used to secure low omega factors at low frequencies.
180
r-. ,
PHASE
IOEGREESJ
-*
0
-
\
'+
\
\'
1.
-180
-
'I
\
\
\
\
\
\
0
60
120
+.
N
'
180
-.
+
-
ANGLE AROUND LOOP I D E C I
0
60
120
ANGLE AROUND LOOP IDEGJ
180
fig. 3. Current magnitude and phase on a large conductor circular loop one wavelength in circumference as derived by
Starer.'.' The loop is below resonance. The current on a conductor of essentially 0 radius is shown for comparison. Derived from transmission line theory, this is the first approximation to the current on any loop of the same circumference.
June 1988
55
-
Lu
a
-
-
- -
10
--
.
-
--
.
-.
-
-. --
--
-
I.
0
0 5
10
15
2 0
0
23
05
CIRCUMFERENCE 1WAVELCNCTHSJ
10
I5
CIRCUMFERENCE (WAVELENGTHS)
2 0
23
fig. 48. Feedpoint or self-reactance of one-wavelength
circumference loops. High reactance denotes the parallel
resonances, low reactance the series resonances. Both
series and parallel resonances are sensitive to conductor size. Series resonance is generally at wavelengths
greater than integral values. Parallel resonances are at
wavelengths less than odd multiples of 0.5 wavelength.
fig. 4A. Feedpoint or self-resistance of one-wavelength
circumference loops - one with a large conductor
radius, the other small. The drive resistance is sensitive
to conductor size around the points of parallel resonance,
at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, etc. wavelengths circumference. These
curves may be used as approximations for any loop of
equal circumference and radius.
1
to become divergent when the number of terms is
reduced for reasonable scale of calculation. Storer3'
developed a method of calculation by keeping the first
four terms of the series and replacing the remainder
by an integral. He also published a set of ten curves
giving the real and imaginary components of the
series. W i t h these, evaluation of the current distribution and drive impedance is reduced to some simple
(but tedious) curve measuring and complex-number
algebra. Unfortunately, the curves cannot be reduced
to simple equation form, so this can't be avoided.
Rather than presenting these curves and usage
details here, I will give only the results of examination
of some specific loop designs. Subsequent analyses
have given a table of drive impedances, which is more
accurate for most work. These values are covered
later.
For values outside the range given here, or t o obtain
the current distribution, you will need the Storer
curves. (The reference 3 version is best, and is available at reasonable cost from Cruft Laboratory Library,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1
A simpler solution for small circular loops is available.4 Here "small" covers the range from 0 to 0.3
wavelength circumference. This restriction allows
56
June 1988
085
0 9
095
10
105
11
CIRCUMFERENCE 1WAVELENGTHSJ
115
12
fig. 5A. Feedpoint or self-resistanceof three loops around
one-wavelength circumference.
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June 1988
57
I
I
simplification of the general equation above, with only
three terms giving adequate accuracy. Approximate
equations for each are given, and are easily handled
by small computers. Note that the reactance for these
small antennas is determined almost entirely by the
loop circumference, with almost no effect on conductor size. In contrast, the input resistance varies with
both.
current distribution on a circular loop
Figure 3 shows the magnitude of the current on a
one-wavelength circular loop as calculated by Storer,
together with the current magnitude on an ideal shorted transmission line made from one wavelength of
conductor. Figure 3B shows the phase with respect
to the driving voltage for both cases.
A number of important factors concerning the entire
Quad family show on these curves. The first is that
a one-wavelength loop is not resonant, as indicated
by the fact that the angle of the drive impedance is
not zero. Since the loop appears as a capacitance, it
is below resonance. Unlike dipoles, loops must be
longer than a wavelength to be resonant.
A second factor is that there is no point on the loop
where the current goes to zero. Associated with this
200
100
-$
YI
22 o
2
-100
-200
0.85
0.9
0 91
10
I05
1.1
115
12
CIRCUMFERENCE (WAVELENGTHS)
fig. 58. Feedpoint or self-reactance of five loops around
one-wavelength circumference. The reactance for all
conductor sizes is equal to -95 ohms for a circumference of one wavelength. This may be compared with dipole reactance which shows the same characteristic,
with a reactance of 35 ohms at 0.94 wavelength as the
common point.
58
June 1988
1.15
-.
YI
x
C
U
Z
"
J
2
$2
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;$
;$
1.10
22
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-
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12
14
CONDUCTOR SIZE
16
18
cnl
fig. 6. Resonant frequency of a circular loop derived from
fig. 56, as the frequency of 0 reactance. A simple linear
relationship of reactance versus wavelength (or frequency) can be developed using two figures. However, the
curves are usually less time consuming to use.
is the fact that the current at 180 degrees from the
feedpoint is appreciably less than at the driving point.
Similarly, these two currents are not 180 degrees out
of phase, but somewhat more. The point of phase
reversal is not at 90 degrees to the line of symmetry
through the feedpoint.
One reason for the differences between the loop and
the ideal shorted line is the greater separation of the
sides. Currents are not constrained to be equal because of tight coupling, as in the ideal shorted line.
Further, power is being radiated, causing a reduction
in current when moving away from the feedpoint. (In
a practical antenna, the current differences would be
somewhat greater, as the analysis assumes zero ohms
loss.)
These current curves show that the usual evaluation of a Quad - two separated dipoles with ends bent
to touch -- can't fully describe the performance. This
simple concept is useful in verbal descriptions, and can
be a valuable tool in approximate analysis. But it must
be remembered that numerical results are probably in
error by a factor at least as large as the current error,
or at least 20 percent. The effect of the error should
be smallest for pattern calculations and drive resistance, but is likely to be sizeable for drive reactance
and resonant frequency.
These detail current calculations are for loops with
relatively large conductors, 0 = 10. Other studies, plus
the tables presented later, show that the current magnitude and angle move progressively toward the curve
for the ideal transmission line as the conductor radius
becomes smaller. This means that the two-dipole
approximation is likely to be better at high frequency
than at ultrahigh frequency because omega is large
for practical conductor sizes. The current distribution
for some other loops is also given in references 1,
3. 5, and 6 .
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As a first approximation, the current distribution can
always be assumed to be that of an ideal transmission
line of the same conductor length. A second approximation can be sketched by "rounding all sharp
corners," and decreasing the current away from the
feedpoint. Greater accuracy will require tedious evaluation using Storer's curves or the MlNlNEC technique
(to be discussed).
80
6 0
-
'
1/z
Figures 4A and 4B show feed resistance (R) and
reactance (X), respectively, for loops from 0.05 to 2.5
wavelengths circumference. The two values of omega shown, 10 and 20,are representative of very high
frequency and high-frequency loops.
Over this range of loop diameters, three high-impedance or parallel resonance points are noted, corresponding to 0.5,1.5,and 2.5 wavelengths circumference. For
= 20, the low-impedance, zeroreactance points correspond to serial resonances at
about 1.0 and 2.0wavelengths circumference. For fl
= 10,there is also a serial resonance at 1.0wavelength
circumference. There is no true serial resonance for
a circumference of 2.0wavelengths. Instead, the reactance becomes low and remains low and capacitive.
This is the case for all values of omega less than 1 1 ,
and for all but the first serial resonance.
The resistance at the serial resonance point changes
markedly with the value of omega. For omega that is
large (20or so), the resistance also varies markedly
= 10, the resistance
with loop diameter. But for
change is much smaller. (For
= 8, the change is
less than 2:l for any circumference greater than 0.6
wavelength.
a
a
a
"
D
5
drive-point impedance
Get the drive-point impedance by dividing the drivepoint voltage by the drive current calculated above.
Storer3.' gives tables of this impedance for loops
from 0.05to 2.5 wavelengths in circumference, and
for omega values from 8 to 12 (large diameter conductors).
In considering the general problem of loop antennas, Wu7 developed another method for solving
Hallen's equation. This gives the same values for
resistance components as Storer, but the reactance
values are quite different and agree more closely with
measurements on real antennas. King, Harrison, and
Tingleysr9 have used Wu's theory t o calculate loopdrive admittances for sizes from 0.05 to 2.5 wavelengths and for omega from 10 to 20. For those who
have forgotten, or never had occasion to work with
admittances,
z = R+jX
y =
y = g + j b
(See also reference 10.)
40
m
,y
0
0.98 GAIN ISOTROPIC
n.rr
-2 0
0
2
4
6
8
10
I 2
14
CIRCUMFERENCE lWdVELENGTHS1
16
18
fig. 7. Gain of a circular loop in dB above isotropic, as
derived by Ito el al.ll Maximum gain occurs for a loop
circumference of 1.4 wavelengths. Gain is less for smaller
sizes due to less radiating area. On-axis gain, the value
shown, is less at larger sites because of lobe splitting.
However, the gain of the main lobe increases as circumference increases. The associated curve shows the relative area of the loop.
-
These characteristics mean that thick loops are
inherently broadband antennas and relatively easy to
match. However, the pattern changes described in
part 1 affect the desirability of this broadband operation, as discussed later.
Figures 5A and 56 show the feed resistance and
reactance for frequencies of greatest interest (those
close to the first series resonance) for loops from 0.8
to 1.2wavelengths circumference. Figure 6 is derived
from fig. 5B, and shows the resonant frequency as
a function of conductor size. These three curves give
the information needed to design practical loop antennas and arrays and to calculate their performance.
Their use is covered further on.
gain of loop antennas
In considering loop gain, it was noted that gain
should increase as loop size increases and that there
are pattern changes as size increases. Specifically, gain
on the axis of symmetry becomes zero for all loops
with 2, 3, or more wavelengths in conductor length.
These two effects are shown in the calculated gain
curve of fig. 7 (see reference 11). For a circumference of 1 wavelength, the on-axis gain is 3.4 dB above
isotropic, or about 1.4 dB above a dipole. (Based
on measurements, Lindsayqzquotes approximately
4.0 dB, and Appel-Hansen13 quotes 3.4 dB above
isotropic.)
June 1988
61
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r / 140
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Figure 7 shows that larger loops are superior from
the viewpoint of gain. A calculated gain value of 4.5
dB occurs for a loop circumference of 1.5 wavelengths. Above this circumference, the gain decreases,
as the on-axis lobe splits. Remember, there is no radiation on axis for a circumference of 2 wavelengths.
In smaller sizes, the on-axis gain decreases as the
circumference becomes less than a wavelength, and
as the pattern changes toward the doughnut pattern
of a small loop. The gain is about equal to that of a
dipole at a circumference of about 0.65 wavelength,
and about 1.5 dB poorer than that of a dipole for a
circumference of 0.5 wavelength.
This brings up two important points. First, from the
view of gain, the circular loop should be designed to
operate away from resonance. Considering the factors
of gain, lobe shape, and feed impedance, Ito et al."
recommend a design circumference of 1.2 wave'lengths, for a gain of 4.2 dB.
Second, a loop has good gain performance over a
wide range of frequences. For example, a 14-MHz loop
would be slightly better than a dipole on 10 MHz, and
about 1.5 dB poorer on 7 MHz. The gain would be
near maximum on 21 MHz, better than a dipole on 18
MHz, and about as good on 24 MHz. The on-axis gain
would be poor on 28 MHz, but there would be usable
radiation in two lobes.
~ h acceptability
k
of operation away from resonance
is affected by the difficulty encountered in feeding the
loop. From fig. 4, feeding a large loop on high frequency does not appear to be an unusual problem.
The feed resistance would increase, but a matching
section or transformer is needed. There would be an
inductive component, easily compensated by a stub.
Depending on conductor size, a very high frequency
loop might require only a matching transformer.
Wideband operation would be a greater problem.
Iradornsr+soo~sro~~
I1
ham
GREENVILLE, NH 03048
62
bz June 1988
603-878-1441
.
.-
Irb CIIICYMFEIENCE. CIRCULAR L W P
8s PEI)IMETER. OCTAGON
bbl8
fig. 8. Relative geometry of a circle and an octagon. The
difference in area for the same conductor length is very
small.
F
0
41
2
;I
04 0 5
1.0
15
20
3
LOOP CIRCUMFERENCE [ W A V E L E N G T H S J
fig. 9. (A) Feed or self-resistance of an octagonal loop
for
= 17.9, calculated by MlNlNEC 3." Values are within a few percent of those for the corresponding circular loop. (B) Feed or self-reactance of an octagonal loop.
Differences between these and circular loop values are
somewhat geater than for resistance. They are due to
different area, and the geometry of current interaction.
I t is likely that there are also differences due to the calculation approximations, since the expected calculation
error may reach 10 percent.
You'd need a complex matching section at the antenna, or your transmission line would have appreciable
VSWR. The combination of open-wire line and a widerange "Match Box" would give excellent performance.
This is especially interesting as the basis of a
3.517110-MHz fixed-loop design.
I have made use of this wideband capability on many
occasions. A 14-MHz loop is regularly used on bands
from 7 to 28 MHz. Much of my 10, 18, and 24-MHz
experimental work (KK2XJM) used this antenna.
Other than TeflonTMinsulated 75-ohm feedline and a
pi-section tuner, no special precautions were taken.
circular-loop radiation patterns
Published data on radiation patterns of loop antennas varies from sparse to nonexistent. The equations
needed to calculate the currents and patterns are
solvable on a small computer only with a lot of
programming and computing time. It has been necessary to approximate further to develop the pattern data
which follows.
the MlNlNEC antenna program
The chosen calculation technique (sometimes called
"the method of moments") is the public domain
program "MININEC," from Logan and Rockway,14
currently in its third version. It uses essentially the
same initial assumptions as the Hallen2 approach
above. But instead of applying the geometry exactly
0.4 0 . 5
1.0
1.5
20
LOOP CIRCUMFERENCE (WAVELENGTHSI
and then making simplifying assumptions, assume that
the radiator is composed of a series of straight-line
sections carrying constant current.
A solution's accuracy increases as the number of
sections for a given geometry is increased. While the
complexity of the solution is not greatly affected, the
time required for the solution increases as the square
of the number of segments. An IBM PC may take
several hours to run the program; a very small computer like the Commodore 64 may need 12 to 24. Even
so, this approach is the best generally available, and
is quite practical.
The original MININEC15was written for the Apple
computer. I have translated it for the C-64 and the
Amiga; KA4WDK has done the same for the PC. The
third version was written for the PC, and I translated
it for the Amiga; it also runs on the Macintosh.
MlNlNEC originators used various conditions to
examine calculation accuracy, including analysis of
loops. One series used a ten-sided polygon approximation of a circle, with two current segments per side
plus three for the feed side. Agreement with theory
was to within 10 percent.
A second series approximated the circle using the
circumscribed polygon. This shows good agreement
( 6 percent) for susceptance, down to four sides.
Equally good agreement for conductance required 16
sides. With 22 sides, agreement was within 6 percent
for sizes from 0.1 to 2.0 wavelengths. MlNlNEC solu-
+
June 1988
63
tions are found to be unreliable for circumferences less
than about 0.01 wavelength.
The inscribed polygon approximation is not an ideal
check of solution accuracy as the number of segments
decreases. It introduces two added factors which
change the results. One is the loss of area. (For eight
sides this amounts to about 3 percent.) This reduces
the gain by about the same amount. More important,
the total conductor length decreases as the number
of segments decreases, by about the same percentage. This change in wire length introduces a change
200
n
( 0 0 -.
I I//
202179156
- ~-
-
octagonal loop
V)
:
3
in reactance near the series-resonant points, and a
change in resistance near parallel-resonant points.
Both may be relatively large.
A better approximation occurs when the conductor length is kept constant. It is not easy to evaluate
the precise error this causes, but it appears that it is
no greater than the sum of the inherent error of
MlNlNEC plus the area error in the approximation.
It also appears that the inherent error will be around
5 to 10 percent if two simple rules are followed in setting up a MlNlNEC analysis:
use a minimum of two segments per section of conductor,
use a minimum of four segments per halfwave of
conductor.
Practically, MlNlNEC gives extremely good accuracy. An antenna can easily depart from its ideal value
by 20 percent or more because of neglected factors
like supports, tower location, and feed-antenna interaction.
0
cg
W
-100
-200
085
09
095
I0
I05
11
115
I2
CIRCUMFCRENCE ( W A V E L E N ~ ~ H S I
fig. 10. Feed or self-reactance of an octagon for circumferences around one wavelength. The point of equal
values occurs at the same reactance as the circular loop
but at a greater circumference. Curve slopes are almost
identical.
Calculated values for an octagonal loop should be
a good approximation of circular-loop values. The
octagon is also a useful antenna by itself. Probably
the best-known type is the "Army Loop" - really a
loop operating well below resonance, incorporating
both a matching system and low-loss construction.
Figure 8 shows the basic factors involved, and allows
visualization of the small area difference from the
circular loop.
The properties of the octagon for conductor lengths
close to 1 wavelength are summarized by figs. 9A and
9B for drive resistance and reactance. These should
be compared with figs. 4A and 4B to see the validity
of the octagon approximation to a circular loop. As
expected from previous discussions, the agreement
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I2
13
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I5
I6
17
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19
20
C O N D U C ~ O RSIZE t n ~
fig. 11. Resonant wavelength of an octagonal loop as a
function of conductor thickness. The curve is similar to
that of a circular loop, but differs by as much as f 6
percent.
64
June 1988
fig. 12. Horizontal radiation pattern for an octagon lying in a vertical plane and fed at the bottom. Only the
horizontally polarized component is shown. The pattern
is very similar to that of a dipole, but the gain is higher
by about 1.25 dB.
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fig. 13. Vertical radiation pattern for t h e total radiation
f r o m an octagon i n the plane o f t h e loop. Maxima are
along the line of maximum current. The minima
representtheexpectedsideradiation. I k b = 1.0,R = 17.91
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fig. 14. Horizontal radiation pattern for the vertically polarized component of an octagon lying i n a vertical plane
and fed at the bottom. This component is about 20 dB
below the main lobe because of the currents o n the vertical and inclined parts of the octagon.
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J
66
June 1988
131
for resistance is good - no more than a few percent
difference. The agreement for reactance is not quite
as good; this is the usual finding. However, neither
error is beyond the expected range.
If you build a practical octagon antenna, use figs.
10 and 11 if the antenna is to be resonant or nearly
so. If it is away from resonance, the values from table
1 give a good approximation. For best accuracy, the
table values should be interpolated for the actual conductor diameter and equivalent radius. Alternatively,
MlNlNEC can be used to obtain values within 5 to 10
percent error.
patterns of circular/octagonal loops
Because the octagon has been found to be a good
approximation to the circle, we can use its pattern as
a close approximation to those of circular loops.
Figure 12 shows the MlNlNEC calculated horizontal plane pattern for a 1-wavelength octagon fed at
the center of the bottom segment - that is, with
horizontal polarization. The lobes are very nearly the
same as those of a dipole, but are slightly narrower
to produce gain. The gain is 3.4 dB, essentially that
of a circular Quad.
Figure 13 shows the vertical plane pattern in the
plane of the loop, for the total radiation. Figure 14
shows the horizontal plane pattern for vertical polarization. There is a major difference from dipole patterns in these two figures. The loop has an appreciable
vertically polarized component, zero on axis and maximum at right angles to this. This component is not
present with dipoles and its importance is not clear.
It may have an adverse effect because of interference
received on the vertically polarized side lobes (and back
lobe in beams), or it may tend to reduce fading due
to variation of incoming signals and path splitting. The
component may also be a factor in the reputation of
references
5
--,
5
W
2
I
0
1. Storer. "lmpedance of Thln-Wlre Loop Antennas," Transactions of AlEE
Communications. November 1956.
2. Hallen, "Theoretical lnvestlgatlons lrito Transmitting arid Receiving Q u a l ~
itie:, of Antennae," Nova Acta Regiae So. Sci Upsalie~isis(Sweden). (41
11 1938.
3. Storer, "Impedance of Thln W ~ r eLoop Antennas," Cruft Laboratory Techrill '11 Report 212, May 1955
4. C L. Chen and R.W P. King. "The Small Bare Loop In an lnflnlte Con
ducting Medium," IEEE Transactlons Antennae Propagatlon. May 1963.
5. Phyllis A. Kennedy. "Loop Antenna Measurements." IRE Transactlons.
Aritenna Propagatlon. October 1956.
6. R.W.P. King and C.W. Harrlson dnd D.G. Tlngley. "The Current in Bare
Medium," (EEE Transactlons An
Circular Loop Antennas In a Diss~vat~ve
telina Propagation. July 1965.
7. Wu, "Theory of Thin Circular Loop Antenna." Jourrial of Mathematics
and Physics, 3, November, December 1962.
8. R.W.P. King, C.W. Harrison, and D.G. Tingley, "The Admittance of Bare
Circular Loop Antennas in a Dissipative Medium." Cruft Laboratory Technical Report no. 419, August 1963.
9. H.W.P. King, C.W. Harrlson, d ~ i dD.G. Tingley. "The Adrriittance of Bare
C~rcularloops in a Dissipative Medium," IEEE Transactions Antenna Propa
gation, July 1964.
10. R.W.P. Klng and C.W. Harrlson. "The Admittance of Bare Clrcular Loop
Alltennas in a Dissipative Medium, Sandia Corporation Monograph SCR 674,
1974
11. Shin'ichi Ito, Naok~Inagakl, arid Toshio Sekiguchi, "An Investigation of
the Array of Clrcular Loop Antelinas," IEEE Transactioris Antenna Propaga
tiori. July 1971
12. James E. Lindsey, Jr., "A Paras~tlcEnd f ~ r eArray of Clrcular Loop Ele
rnents," IEEE Transactions Aritenlia Propagatlon, September 1967.
13 J. Appel-Hansen, "The Loop Alitenna w ~ t hDirector Arrays of Loops and
Rods." IEEE Transactions Antenna Propagatlon. July 1972
14 J.C. Logan and J W Rockway. "The New MlNlNEC (Version 31 A Mlni
nulnerical Electromagnetlcs Code." Naval Ocean Systerii Center TD 938. Sep
te~nber1986.
15. A.J. Julian, J.C. Logan and J.W. Rockway, "MININEC: a MI~I-numerical
Elt?ctromagneticsCode," Naval Ocealis System Center TD 516. Septembel
1982
.
3
C
2
Quad loops as good performers at low height. More
aspects of these questions will be discussed in other
parts of this series.
Figure 15, provided for comparison, shows the calculated current on an octagon. Because the example
is for a relatively thin conductor, there is close resemblance to the distribution for a transmission line.
Figure 16 compares the calculated gain of an
octagon and a circular loop. Some of the variation is
due to the difference in areas. The rest appears to be
related to differences in the calculation method. Practically, the difference is negligible.
General conclusions from this comparison of circular
and octagonal loops are that both have good performance, and that the data from one can be used for
the other with little error.
We will use this last finding in part 3, which is devoted to arrays composed of circular and octagonal loops.
Design data for arrays of two to twelve elements will
be given.
1
2
BOTTOM
3
LEFT
4
5
6
SIDE NUMBER
TOP
7
8
RIGHT
fig. 15. Current distribution on an octagon. Because of
the small conductor size, the distribution approaches
that of an ideal transmission line.
5
4
-
3
?
2
1
0
I
0
I
0
0 2
0 4
06
0.9
10
11
CIRCUMFERENCE ( C I A )
I 4
16
I 8
fig. 16. Calculated gain of a circular loop and an octagon. The difference is small - partly real and partly due
to differences in the calculation technique. The curves
do confirm the extra gain of a loop as compared with
a dipole, and also indicate the added gain possible with
off-resonance operation.
ham radio
PART 3 - COMING UP IN
OUR JULY ISSUE.
June 1988
a 67
HAM RADIO
TECHNIQUES
Bill Orr, W6SAl
a nifty bi-square beam
for 10 or 12 meters
The miserable DX conditions at the
bottom of the sunspot cycle are but a
bad memory. True, the higher frequency bands tend to fizzle during the
summer, but they'll be back again
with a bang as soon as the cooler fall
months roll around.
If you're interested in DX operation
on either 10 or 12 meters, you'll eventually need a beam antenna. You can
work a lot of "easy" DX with a dipole,
but sooner or later you'll wish you had
a beam for the more exotic DX stations. An easy solution is to buy a
Yagi beam kit, but it's less expensive
to build your own wire beam from
scratch. Here's an inexpensive beam
for your consideration.
The Bi-square beam (fig. 1A) is a
derivation of the so-called "Lazy-H"
array, a favorite of point-to-point stations in the maritime and fixed services.
The Lazy-H consists of two half-wave
dipoles in phase over a similar pair of
dipoles. Spacing between the top and
bottom dipole pairs is a half wavelength. Proper phasing of the pairs is
achieved with a transposed open-wire
transmission line fed at the center of
the lower pair of dipoles with a quarterwave, open-wire stub. The feedpoint
68
June 1988
impedance at the bottom of the stub
is about 220 ohms.
A more practical version of the LazyH antenna is the Bi-square beam,
A
1/Z
8
E
1/2
l/t
C
A -L1.?Y-H
ARRAY
D
G
.
.
H
1'
FEEOPOIN 1
8
A. C
E
F. H
shown in fig. 1B. This arrangement
requires only a single center pole
support. The Lazy-H dipole pairs are
connected together at the outer tips,
resulting in a diamond-shaped wire
arrangement. You can eliminate the
transposed line connecting the center
of the pairs. The quarter-wave stub is
retained.
The feedpoint impedance at the
bottom of the stub is close to 150
ohms. There is a reduction in feedpoint
impedance because the top and bottom
radiating elements of the Bi-square
configuration are closer to each other
than they are in the Lazy-H antenna.
The Bi-square radiation pattern is a
figure eight (bidirectional) at right
angles to the plane of the array. The
power gain over a dipole located at
the center height of the array is about
5 dB.
building the bi-square
beam
81-SOUARE ARRAY
fig. 1 Simple bidirectional wire gain antennas: (A) lazy-H array and (B) bi-square
array.
The Bi-square is an easy, inexpensive beam to build. You'll need about
100 feet of No. 16 enamel or FormvarTM
coated wire and four insulators. The
quarter-wave stub needs five spreaders
cut from 112-inch diameter phenolic
(or plastic) rod. One of the spreaders
serves as the bottom insulator for the
antenna wires. The diamond-shaped
antenna is open at the top (two insulators required). Overall height is a little
less than 30 feet. I hung mine from a
yard arm at the 45-foot level of my
crank-up tower. The proximity of the
metal tower to the plane of the loop
didn't seem to cause any harm.
Dimensions for the 10- and 12-meter
versions of the antenna are given in
fig. 2. The sides are pulled out by
ropes and tied off to convenient points
on nearby trees. The bottom of the
quarter-wave stub is about 7 feet
above the ground.
The yard arm holds the loop about
3 feet away from the tower. The loop
isn't quite in the vertical plane because
I pulled the bottom of it 6 feet away
from the tower in order to reach the
bottom of the stub easily from the
garage roof.
The Bi-square antenna's bandwidth
is very broad; the antenna may be cut
to the dimensions given without further ado. Purists may wish to trim the
antenna to a specific frequency in the
10-meter band. Design frequencies for
the antenna shown are 28.5 and 24.95
MHz. The 10-meter antenna covers
the whole band with an SWR of less
than 1.5: 1 - quite an achievement!
adjusting the antenna to
frequency
It's easy to set the resonant frequency of the antenna "on the nose." The
bottom of the stub (F-F) is shorted by
a jumper that has a one-turn loop in
the center. The loop is just big enough
to fit over the coil of a dip oscillator.
My shorting bar is made of two interconnected copper alligator clips so I
can move it up and down the stub for
adjustment. The dip oscillator is monitored in a nearby receiver. Move the
shorting bar up and down the stub, an
inch or so at a time, until the resonant
frequency falls where you want it.
Finally, cut the stub to the determined
length.
matching antenna to
feedline
As I stated earlier, the feedpoint impedance of the antenna is about 150
ohms. The antenna is symmetrical
wire around the core, tapped four
turns from each end. Space the winding around the entire core. Fasten the
completed transformer to a phenolic
mounting plate with epoxy cement,
and mount the assembly in a waterproof box for protection from the
weather.
a linear matching
transformer
fig. 2. Bi-square antenna dimensions for
10- and 12-meter bends feedpoint impedance is about 150 ohms.
with respect to ground, and the feedpoint is balanced to ground. Two
transformations are required to match
the antenna to a 50-ohm unbalanced
(coaxial) line. The 50-ohm point is first
transformed from unbalanced to balanced by a 1 : l balun. The 50-ohm
balanced condition is then transformed
to 150 ohms. The first transformation
is easy; I use a "Bencher ZA-1A" aircore balun which provides an excellent
balance in the 10-meter region.
The transformation from 50 ohms to
150 ohms can be done in a number of
ways. One is to use a ferrite toroid
transformer (fig. 3). Take a core 2.4
inches in outer diameter and 0.5 inch
high (Amidon FT-240-67, or equivalent) with a permeability of 40. Sand
it to remove rough edges, and then
wrap it with a layer of electrical vinyl
tape. Wind 18 turns of No. 14 enamel
The second matching scheme uses
a linear transformer, (fig. 4). The
design is based on a balanced L-network. The circuit (fig. 4A) was built
using a receiving-type variable capacitor for initial tests. The dimensions
shown allow adjustment of the capacitor which quickly drops the SWR on
the transmission line to unity at the
design frequency of the antenna. The
last step is to replace the variable capacitor with a fixed one and substitute a
section of transmission line for the network inductors (fig. 4B). This works
like a charm. A 50-yF, 5-kV ceramic
capacitor (Centralab 850s-502, or
equivalent) is substituted for the variable unit. Place it in a plastic refrigerator jar to keep moisture away. The
short line section is made up in the
same manner as the quarter-wave
stub.
results
For a few days the dipole was left
in position as a comparison with the
Bi-square. In all tests, the Bi-square
outperformed the dipole (usually between one and two S-units on transmit). On receive, signals that were
almost in the noise were perfectly
readable on the Bi-square antenna. No
doubt about it, the Bi-square delivers
the goods!
a 15-meter version?
-
son -
lor 4
-
;
4, T
The Bi-square should work well on
15 meters if you have the space. Multiply all 10-meter linear dimensions by
1.34 to get antenna size for this band.
W5LDA 160-meter antenna
fig. 3. A 1:3 balanced transformer wound
on ferrite toroid (Amidon FT-240-671.
Jim, W5LDA, has an interesting
160-meter antenna that incorporates a
simplified feed system (fig. 5). He uses
June 1988
69
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June 1988
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fig. 4. Linear matching transformers. (Al
L-network uses lumped Land variable C
(five turns, 1IBinch I.D.. No. 14 wire,
eight turns per inchl. IBI Linear network
transformer made of No. 16 wire. Ends
of wire are bent in 1 inch to connect to
balun.
his %-foot tower (with a triband Yagi
atop it) as a vertical, top-loaded radiator. Rather than fooling around with a
gamma match on the tower (which
can prove to be very tricky), Jim made
his tower into a voltage-fed unipole
antenna. He fastened a wire to the top,
brought it off at an angle, and voltage
fed the bottom end. The natural resonance of the top-loaded tower is such
that only a simple matching network
is required.
The base of the tower, as well as the
shield of the coax running to the beam,
are grounded at the tower base. Each
lead of the rotor cable (not shown) is
bypassed to ground at the tower base
with a O.Ol-ltF, 1.6-kV disc capacitor.
The leads are also bypassed to the
tower at the rotor. (Jim learned the
hard way that bypassing is important,
after he burned out the rotor potentiometer atop the tower running 1500
watts on 160 meters!)
The coax and rotor cables are buried
in a hose and run to the shack. Twenty
radials, each 65 feet long, are fanned
out on the surface of the ground beneath the tower.
The end of the wire is at a high
voltage point and is brought into the
station via a ceramic feedthrough in-
-
RAOIALS
fig. 5.160-meter folded unipole antenna
at W5LDA. Rotor cable and coax for
beam is strapped to tower leg.
sulator. A simple L-network matches
the antenna to 50-ohm coax running
to the operating position.
The antenna is very high-Q (narrow
bandwidth); the network must be
readjusted for a frequency change. It
is possible to achieve 80-meter operation of the antenna by retuning the
network.
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June 1988
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n 71
PRACTICALLY
SPEAKING
Joe Corr, K4IPV
"ferriting" out the
problem
Ferrite refers to materials that behave
similarly to powdered iron compounds.
They are used in radio equipment as
inductors and transformers. Although
they were made originally from powdered iron (and indeed the name "ferrite"
still implies iron), many modern materials are made of other compounds.
According to the Amidon Associates,
ferrites with a permeability of 800 to
5000 have manganese-zinc composition, while cores with permeabilities of
20 to 800 are of nickel-zinc.' The latter
are useful in the 0.5- to 100-MHz
frequency range of interest to most
Amateurs.
toroidal cores
This month's column will answer
your questions about ferrite cores,
winding toroidal cores, and using ferrite inductor and transformer cores.
A toroid is a "doughnut" shaped
object, so a toroidal core is an inductor
or transformer form made of a ferrite
material in the shape of a doughnut.
Core nomenclature provides useful information about shape, size, and type
of material. For example the number
FT-xx-nn means a ferrite toroid (FT)
with an "xx" size, and an "nn" material type. The "F" in "FT" is sometimes
deleted on parts lists, and the core defined as a "T-xx-nn."
Amidon has a chart that provides
dimensions, a description of the properties of the different types of material, and other physical data. Some of
72
June 1988
Table 1. Standard Toroid Core Sizes
("xx")
Core
size
23
37
50
50A
508
82
87A
114
114A
130
150
150A
193
200
240
OD
(inches)
0.230
0.375
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.825
0.870
1.142
1.142
1.300
1.500
1.500
1.930
2.000
2.400
ID
(inches)
0.120
0.187
0.281
0.312
0.312
0.520
0.540
0.750
0.750
0.780
0.750
0.750
1.250
1.250
1.400
Thickness
(inches)
0.060
0.125
0.188
0.250
0.500
0.250
0.500
0.295
0.545
0.437
0.250
0.500
0.750
0.550
0.500
Table 2. Properties of Core Types
Material
type
41
3
15
1
2
6
10
12
0
Color
code
Green
Grey
Red/
White
Blue
Red
Yellow
Black
Green/
White
Tan
Frequency
p
(MHz1
75
35
25
0.05-0.5
0.1-2
20
10
8
6
3
0.5-5
1-30
10-90
60-150
100-200
1
150-300
-
these data are also found in The 1988
ARRL Handbook for the Radio AmateuP, beginning on page 2-32 (the
same material appeared in earlier editions as well).
Tables 1 and 2 are derived in part
from both Amidon and ARRL sources;
table 1 shows the sizes and table 2
the properties of various popular toroids. These tables do not contain an
exhaustive list of the variety of toroids
available or all the properties of the
toroids mentioned. Using the nomenclature mentioned above and the
tables, you can see that a T-50-2 core
(which might be called for in the parts
list of a ham radio article) refers to a
core that is useful from 1 to 30 MHz.
It has a permeability of 10, is painted
red, and has the following dimensions:
OD = 0.500 inches, ID = 0.281
inches, and height (i.e. thickness) ==
0.188 inches.
toroidal transformers
One reader asked me about the
winding protocol for toroidal transformers seen in Amateur books and
magazine articles. My correspondent
included a partial circuit (fig. 1A) as
an example of his dilemma. He wanted to know how to wind it and proposed a couple of methods. A t first I
thought the answer was obvious, then
I realized that I was wrong - to many
people it is not.
All windings are wound together in
a "multifilar" manner. If there are
three, we are talking about "trifilar"
windings. Figure 16 shows the trifilar winding method. For clarity's sake,
1 have shown all three wires differently. Because most of my projects use
No. 26, 28, or 30 enameled wire to
wind coils, I keep three colors of each
size on hand and use a different color
for each winding.
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*, 124
June 1988
73
~
0
,
ERRllE
CZ
b2
TOR010
02
NO-DOT
EN0
fig. 1. Three-winding transformer: (A1
electrical diagram and (Bl trifilar winding on a toroidil core.
The dots in the schematic and on
the picture identify one end of the coil
windings. The "dot" and "no-dot"
ends are different from each other, and
it usually makes a difference to circuit
operation (signal phasing) which way
the ends are connected into the circuit.
Figure 2 shows two accepted
methods for winding a multifilar coil on
a toroidal core. Figure 2A is the same
method as in fig. l B , but shows an actual toriod rather than a pictorial
representation. As previously shown,
the wires are laid down parallel to each
other. The method in fig. 2 8 uses
twisted wires. The three wires are
chucked up in a drill and twisted
together before being wound on the
core. With one end of the wires secured in the drill chuck, anchor the other
end to something that will hold it taut.
(I use a bench vise.) Turn the drill on
slow speed and let the wires twist
together until you achieve the desired
pitch.
Be very careful when performing
this operation. If you don't have a variable speed electric drill that runs at
very slow speed, use an old-fashioned
manual drill. Remember to wear eye
protection if you use an electric drill.
If the wire breaks, or gets loose from
its mooring at the end opposite the
drill, it will whip around wildly until the
drill stops. That whipping wire will
cause painful welts on the skin, and
can certainly cause eye damage.
Of the two methods for winding
toroids, the method shown in figs. 1B
and 2A is preferred. When winding
toroids, at least those of relatively few
windings, pass the wire through the
"doughnut" hole until the toroid is
close to the midpoint of the wire. Loop
the wire over the outside surface of the
toroid, and pass it through the hole
again. Repeat this process until the
correct number of turns is wound onto
the core. Be sure to press the wire
against the toroid form and keep it taut
as you wind the coils.
Enameled wire is usually used for
toroid transformers and inductors, and
this can lead to problems. The enamel
can chip causing the copper conductor to contact the core. On larger
cores, like those used for matching
transformers and baluns at kilowatt
power levels, the practical solution is
to wrap the bare toroid core with a
layer of fiber glass packing tape. Wrap
the tape exactly as if it were wire, but
overlap the turns slightly to ensure
covering the entire surface of the core.
On some projects, particularly those
in which the coils and transformers use
very fine wire (like No. 30). 1 have
found that the wire windings tend to
unravel after the process is complet-
,
~
I
B
0
IIND1NG
-
*,
TOROlD CORE
R T Y OR
RUBBER CEMENT
fig. 2. Winding methods and hints: (A)
conventional turns, (BI twisted leads,
and (C) secured winding with dab of glue
or sealer.
ed. To prevent this, place a tiny dab
of rubber cement or silicone sealer at
the ends of the windings (see fig. 2C).
m o u n t i n g toroid cores
Now that you have a properly
wound toroidal inductor or transformer, it is time to mount it in the circuit.
There are three easy ways t o do this.
If the wire is strong enough, use the
wire connections to the circuit board
or terminal strip to support the component. If this is not satisfactory (and
in mobile equipment or wherever else
vibration is a factor it won't be), try
laying the toroid flat on the board
and cementing it in place with silicone
June 1988
75
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2
seal or rubber cement. For the third
method, drill a hole in the wiring board
and use a screw and nut to secure the
toroid. Do not use metallic hardware
for mounting the toroid! Metallic
fasteners will alter the inductance of
the component and possibly render it
unusable. Use nylon hardware for
mounting the inductor or transformer.
h o w many turns t o use?
Three factors must be considered
when making toroid transformers or inductors: toroid size, core material, and
number of turns of wire. The toroid
size Is selected as a function of power
handling capability or convenience.
The core material is selected according to the frequency range of the
circuit. The only thing left to vary is the
number of turns. The size and core
material yield a figure called the AL
factor. These values are given for
several popular toroidal cores in table
3. The required value of inductance
and the AL factor are related by the
following equation:
N
=
100 J L / A \ .
(1)
Where:
N is the number of turns
L is the inductance in microhenries
AL is the core factor in microhenries
per 100 turns
EXAMPLE
Calculate the number of turns required to make a 5 y H inductor on a
T-50-6 core. From table 3 we see that
the AL factor is 40.
Solution:
N
= 100 \lL/Al.
= 100 \i5/40
=
Table 3. Common AL values.
Core
Size
12
16
20
37
26
3
-
60
-
61
90
120
175
195
248
350
425
275
320
420
590
785
895
50
68
94
130
200
15
50
55
65
90
135
180
200
250
-
Core Materials Type (Mix)
1
2
6
10
48
20
17
12
44
22
19
13
52
27
22
16
80
40
30
25
100
49
40
31
115
57
47
32
160
84
70
58
200
110
96
250
120
100
-
0
3
3
3.5
4.9
6.4
7.5
10.6
15
-
-
different wire colors to discriminate
between windings.
Ferrite rods are also used in receiving antennas. Although few Amateurs
have them, there are places where a
ferrite rod antenna (or "loopstick") is
used. For example, ferrite loops are
common in radio direction-finding antennas. Some Amateurs report that
they use a loopstick receiving antenna when operating on crowded bands
like 40 or 75 meters. The small loopstick is extremely directional and is
capable of nulling out interfering signals. Of course, one would not want
to use the loopstick for transmitting,
so there must be some means for
switching between transmit and receive functions.
mounting ferrite,rods
LfleJ@
\
0
-$
CnrnooE
Rr
CrOxF
FII # W E N T <
fig. 3. Ferrite rod filament choke: (A)
physical winding and IB) used in tube
cathode circuit.
(2)
35
Don't take the equation value too
seriously; a wide tolerance exists on
Amateur-grade ferrite cores. While this
isn't too much of a problem when
buildng transformers, it can be critical
when making inductors for a tuned
circuit. If you find that the tuned circuit takes considerably more or less
capacitance when called for in the
standard equation, and all of the stray
capacitance is properly taken into consideration, then it may be that the
actual AL value of your particular core
12
7
8
10
15
18
21
32
is different from the table 3 value.
ferrite rods
The rod shown in fig. 3A is another
form of ferrite core available on the
Amateur market. This type of core is
used to make rf chokes, like the one
used in the vacuum tube filament lines
of a linear amplifier power tube (fig.
38). The two windings are made in a
bifilar manner over the ferrite rod. The
wires used are heavy enough to carry
the filament current of the tube. As in
the toroidal transformer, I used two
Ferrite rods can be mounted several
ways; two of them are analogous to
the methods used on toroids. You can
mount the rod using either its own
wires for support or a dab of cement
or silicone sealer to fasten it to the
board. Although you can't use simple
nylon screws the way you can on
toroids, you can use insulating cable
clamps to secure the ends of the rod
to the board.
Questions, suggestions, and criticisms are welcomed. Send them to:
Joe Carr, K41PV, POB 1099, Falls
Church, Virginia 22041.
references
1. Arn~donAssociates. 12033 Otseqo Stn.et. North
Hollywood. Calllornta 91607
2. The 1988ARRL Hanrlhook lor rhe Rad~oAn?areitr:
$20.95 plus 53 50 shnpplng and handling from ham ra
d o Rookstor<?,Grerrlvillr~.New Hampsh#rP03048.
ham radio
June 1988
Rn
Yagi vs. Quad, Part 2
Optimized forward
gain comparison
In part 1, we developed a means of analyzing quad
antennas based on a mutual impedance versus spacing relationship and a fixed single quad element
pattern. In part 2, we will examine different quad element configurations on a variety of boom lengths and
attempt to maximize forward gain through fine tuning
of the element lengths. Boom length will be limited
to 1 wavelength or less because this is about the
longest practical boom for 15, 20, or 40 meters.
The intent here is to answer the questions: What
is the best possible forward gain we can squeeze out
of a quad of a given boom length, and how much has
the optimized gain improved from where we started?
Note that we are not taking frontlback discrimination
or bandwidth into consideration. Both parameters are
important, but both detract from maximized forward
gain. Finally, we can compare the computed maximized gain for a quad against the maximized forward
gain for a Yagi.
computational methodology
Antennas are modeled in free space using the
assumptions outlined in part 1*. The mutual impedance
between elements is assumed to be independent of
element length. The self-impedance is approximated
from interpolation of measured values. Gain is calculated from integration of field pattern over a sphere,
and comparison of the forward field against the average power. Field points are updated every 10 degrees
(both phi and theta, spherical coordinates).
Initial antenna design is based on general ARRL
Antenna Handbook principles. Reflector length is
1030/f = 1.05 wavelengths. Driven elements are
1005lf = 1.021 wavelength. Directors are all 975lf =
0.991 wavelengths, and all elements are spaced equally
along the boom. Starting with the reflector, the element length will be increased by 0.0025 wavelength
and the gain again calculated. If the forward gain
improves by at least 0.005 dBi, that element is in' Y a g ~vs Quad, Part I, ham rad~o.May 1988, pg. 68.
'8
June 1988
cremented again in the same direction; if not, the element will be shortened until the gain starts to fall off.
Once the reflector is optimized for forward gain, the
same procedure is applied to the directors in order,
and the process is repeated until no significant gain
increase occurs with element change. The elements,
except for the ones at the end of the boom, will then
be moved along the boom in 0.0025 wavelength increments to attempt a further gain increase.
two-element quad results
The optimized gain was about 8 dBi on a 0.1 15 or
0.172 wavelength boom 18 and 12 feet on 20 meters).
Adding a third element was worthwhile, as gain
increased to about 10 dBi for boom lengths of 0.258,
0.30, 0.343, 0.430, and 0.516. Initial performance of
larger antennas was better. Quads on a 0.688 wavelength boom (48feet on 20 meters) showed an initial
gain of about 11 dBi which increased to just under 12
dBi with tuning. Quads on a 0.86 wavelength boom
(60 feet on 20 meters) could be tuned for over 12 dSi,
and on a 1.031 wavelength boom (72 feet on 20
meters) peaked at 12.7 dBi.
The relationship between maximum gain and boom
length is compared against similar data developed for
Yagi antennas1 (fig. 1). The two-element quad is
slightly better than a two-element Yagi (by 0.5 dBi or
so) but worse than a three-element full-size Yagi (by
1.5 dBi), and a three-element quad is slightly better
than a three- or four-element Yagi (again by 0.5 dBi).
The quad antennas did not show the same staircase
gain phenomenon observed with Yagi antennas1, and
forward gain rose smoothly with increases in boom
length out to 1 wavelength. With Yagi antennas the
gain versus boom length relationship is not smooth,
but increases rapidly over a small extension in boom
length and then plateaus. Thus, Yagi and quad antennas performed similarly out to a 24-foot boom on 20
meters, but past this point quad forward gain continued to increase and Yagi forward gain plateaued (fig.
2).Between 24- and 48-foot booms the quad showed
up to 2.5 dB gain over the same size Yagi. Above 48
Bv David Donnelly, K2SS, 8 Alder Street, LinNew ~ e i s 07035
e~
C O I ~Park,
13
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Boom(2Om)
fig. 1. Foward gain versus boom length in feet for different 20-meter antennas. Line 1 (open squares) shows the
original antennas: line 2 lfilled squares) gives results after forward gain optimization by perturbation of element
lengths; line 3 (filled triangles) shows what happens after element andspecing perturbation. Note the gain improvement with optimization was about 1 dB.
feet the Yagi closed the gap, reducing the quad advantage to about 1.5 dB.
Several conclusions are suggested by these results:
First, quad antenna gain, like Yagi gain, is basically
a function of boom length and not the number of elements, as long as "enough" elements are used.
Second, the quad may have 2 to 2.5 dB greater gain
than a well-tuned Yagi, but this occurs only at certain
boom lengths. The quad should work about 0.5 to 1.5
dB better for the same boom length. Third, the average gain increase expected with fine tuning is about
0.45 dB (range 0.0-1.55 dBi).
Lindsay's 440-MHz experimental results initially suggested that quads were somewhat better than Yagi
antennas on the same-sized boom2. However, experimental Oncertainties led to questions about his conclusions. For instance, it was difficult to measure gain
accurately on the basis of input power because of in. ~ may have
efficiencies in the coupling s y ~ t e m This
influenced Lindsay's measurements from the start,
since he measured the gain of a quad loop as being
2 dB better than a dipole. The actual value, according to several sources, should be 1 dB. Another variable in Lindsay's study involved the lengths of Yagi
and quad elements; they were cut by formula and not
optimized for any particular factor like forward gain.
Because fine tuning of a Yagi or quad may add another 1 dB or so to the forward gain, any gain difference between Yagi and quad antennas is reduced to
the experimental noise.
Not all people have found quad antennas to be as
good as Yagis. Driving around California with a 70-foot
portable reference antenna, Wayne Overbeck com-
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June 1988
79
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Contains a complete explanation and discussion of transmission line transformers and how to use,them. Written by
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ORP HANDBOOK
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The thrill of working a rare one using a ORP,radio is hard to explain. It can even be more thrilling if the rad~ois unsophlsticated and homebrewed The QRP Handbook stays away from
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Here is the complete beginner's guide to Packet Radio written by ARRL Packet expert. WAlLOU. Beginners will find
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August 1987
Packet radio is growing at a phenomenal rate. This collection of papers glven in August 1987 at Redondo Beach,
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BOOKSTORE ~ E E N V I L L ENH
, 03048
Table 1. Element length, spacing, forward gain and front to back (at the horizon) for two, three, and four elements
on 0.115. 0.258, 0.343. 0.430 and 0.516 wavelength booms (8, 12, 18. 20. 24, 30, and 36 feet on 20 meters). Row S is the
starting antenna and row 0 is after forward gain optimization. The element length is specified first and the element
position is in parentheses. R is the reflector; D e is the driven element; D l . . D n are directors. Gain is specified over
isotropic.
Element Length (boom
(R)
(Del
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.12)
0 1.035(0) 1.0211.12)
S 1.05010) 1.021(.17)
0 1.037(0) 1.021(.17)
S 1.05010) 1.021(.13)
0 1.03010) 1.021(.13)
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.15)
0 1.035(0) 1.021(.15)
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.12)
0 1.030(0) 1.021(.12)
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.11)
0 1.02710) 1.021(.11)
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.13)
0 1.037(0) 1.021(.131
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.17)
0 1.039(0) 1.021(.15)
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.17)
0 1.04010) 1.021(.17)
S 1.050(0) 1.021(.15)
0 1.035(01 1.021(.15)
position)
(Dl1
0.991(.26)
1.013(.26)
0.9911.30)
1.013(.30)
0.991(.23)
1.008(.23)
0.991(.22)
1.011(22)
0.991(.26)
1.011(.26)
0.991(.341
1.011(.30)
0.991(.34)
1.001(.34)
0.991(.29)
1.006(.29)
(D21
0.991(.34)
1.021(.34)
0.991(.33)
1.0211.33)
0.991(.39)
1.021(.39)
0.991(.52)
1.021(.52)
0.991(.52)
0.963(.52)
0.991(.44)
0.971(.44)
(D31
0.991(.431
1.016(.431
0.991(.52)
1.021(.521
0.991(.69)
1.003(.69)
0.991(.69)
1.016(.69)
0.991(.59)
0.988(.59)
pared low-angle signal strengths of Yagi and quad
antennas at various QTHs against a portable reference
antenna at the same height as the test antenna3. A
review of his results showed that quads were the same
as or inferior to Yagi antennas, and certainly not 2 dB
better than similar Yagi antennas. Why didn't the
quads perform better?
Theoretical results presented here suggest that quad
antennas with correct coupling should be at least as
good as Yagis, and certainly not worse. But two complicating factors were not included in the computer
model: the efficiency of the feed system and the
effects of nonresonant elements in the vicinity of the
antenna. Most of the antennas showing the best performance in Overbeck's study were monoband Yagis
with a double driven element. This feed system, popularized by KLM, is known for its wide bandwidth and
low SWR, and is also said to give excellent results on
quad antenna^.^ Perhaps part of the answer lies in a
lower feed efficiency for direct feed quads. Attaching
the coax to the quad loop is the most common method
of feeding quads. Most quad antennas are implemented as tribanders with wires for other bands in close
proximity to the desired antenna. It may be that these
other wires significantly degrade performance. Both
of these factors deserve a closer look.
I didn't intend to provide optimum dimensions for
quad loops, and a caveat is in order if you wish to use
the dimensions provided in Table 1. Although I believe
82
June 1988
(D4)
(D51
0.991(.86)
1.011(.86)
0.991(.74)
0.991(.74)
$
0.991(.88)
0 988(.88)
13
-
12
-
11
-
Gain(dBi1
F/B(dB)
7.64
8.00
7.65
7.78
8.76
9.84
8.99
9.72
9.03
10.42
9.65
11.22
10.28
11.52
10.97
11.78
11.48
11.99
11.96
12.59
20.8
12.0
14.4
9.7
13.0
10.2
15.2
9.1
10.0
14.0
15.0
16.4
25.5
17.0
25.4
16.0
12.6
13.6
43.8
16.8
(D61
0.991(1.03)
1.026(1.03)
0,
-=
d
10-
98
-
7
1
0
10
.
1
20
.
1
.
1
.
30
40
Boom(2Om)
1
50
.
l
.
60
l
70
fig. 2. Forward gain versus boom length in feet for gainoptimized 20-meter Yagi and quad antennas. Open
squares represent gain-optimized Yagi antennas from a
previous article.' The quad line shows optimized gain
from fig. I . Quad antennas may have a 2-dB advantage
over a Yagi on the same length boom, but only at specific
boom lengths.
in the results of computer modeling, the dimensions
should be trusted only after confirmation on an antenna test range. I have not done this, and the actual
performance peaks may be different. The constructed quad loops should have the same reactance as the
computer antenna. The best way to do this is to direct-
ly measure reactance with an impedance bridge and
trim the element accordingly.
I
I
I
summary
Quad antennas offer a theoretical 0.5 to 2.5 dB ad.
vantage over a Yagi of the same boom length. Like
the Yagi, a gain increase of about 1 dB may Ile
obtained t h r o ~ ~ gfine
h tuning of the elements. The
increase in forward gain a s one goes t o longer boom
lengths is smoother for quad antennas than for Yagis,
and quads d o not show the gain plateau seen with
Yagi antennas. Finally, the quad should be significantly
better than the Yagi, especially between boom lengths
of 25 and 45 feet on 20 meters. However, unknown
.variables such a s feed system efficiency or the effect
of other wires in close proximity t o the quad may
detract from its theoretical performance.
I
published by Bill Orr, W6SAI and
Stu
Cowan. W2LX
BEAM ANTENNA HANDBOOK
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llon on BEAM Anlenna des~gn Covrrs HF and VHF Yaqls and 10 18 and 74
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SIMPLE LOW-COST WIRE ANTENNAS
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references
A wealth ol prolecls lhal covers verllcals. lonq wires brams as well as
plenly ol other lnlerestlrlg destqns I1 tncludel an llonesl ludgerrterll ol ydlrr
f~qures.how lo slle your antenna lor Ihr best perlnrlnance a look a1 the
Yaq~Ouad conlroversy, baluns. slopers. and della loorls Pracllcal antPnna
prolecls lhal work' I90 paqes
1978 I s l edlllon
RP.AH
Sotlbound $11.95
I . D.F. L'onnelly. "Optimizinq Gain o n Yagt Antennas." ham mrl,o. March
1 m . page 21 24.
2. J.E. Lindsay. "Quafls and Yagis." OST May 1968, page 11 19
3. W. Overlwck. "Ouads and YRQISR ~ v ~ s i l e d ./180)mdn,.
''
May 1979, pitrlc
12 21.
4. B. M y ~ r s ."The WZPV Four elern~nrYag~." OST, October 19R6, p;lge
15 19.
5 . R. Martinez. "The Evolution of the Four element Double drivpn Ouad
At~tenna." CO. Decemher 1983. page 30 36.
6. J.L. Lawson. "Yag~A n t m n s Desiqlr: Ouads and Ollagis." Irarn rnd,o. Sep
ternher 1980, narlr 37 45
Please enclose $3 M tor s h w ~ n pand handing
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in training, you'll find articles for ham
radio, computers and emergency
communications.
You'll find it A L L in CTM
_-----_-----
-
$18. year U.S. 6 Months $10.
Mexico fk Canada $32. year
Other Countries (air) $68. (Surface)
A d d 5% f o r credit cards
Circulation M a n a ~ e r
1704 Sam Drive
Birmingham, A L 35235
J
114
There is always time for some
friendly fun that you don't need a
license to enjoy -and appreciate.. .
Are you into Packet Radm? Thinking
about it? Then you definitely need
CTM! During 1987 we had 65 packet
and packet related articles and that
doesn't even count the other H A M
articles or the many Computer articles.
The other four ham magazines* only
had 26 packet articles during 1987.
There's something for everyone in
CTM! Jump right in, you'll find the
natives friendly - and helpful, too!
*CQN 5 articles; Ifam RadioTY 1 0 ailicles;
Q S P 5 articles and 7 T 6 anicles P 26
articles f o r l9R7 f o r the olher ham magazines.. .
NOW which do you need to
SUBSCRIBE?
CTM of course!
J u n e 1988
83
products
new coaxial crimping tools
Nemal Electronics International has introduced
two new crimping tools that combine the capabilities of several tools. They offer full cycle ratchet operation with machined dies for precision
crimping and long service life. By combining
mt~ltiplehex sizes in a single fixed die, the tools
provide great versatility and cost savings.
Part No. CT3500 crimps a wide variety of
BNC, TNC, type N. and other rf connectors on
RG58, 59.62. 142, and 223-size cables. Part No.
CT3600 offers the capability of crimping both
RG59 and Belden 8281 connectors without
changing dies. Both tools provide a ratchet release lever to allow adjustment of cable or connector $position during the crimp cycle.
For addit~onal information please contact
Ncmal Electron~csInternat~onal.
Internatlonal. Inc., 12240 NE
14th Ave.. North Miam,. Florlda 33161.
calibration software. 2-80 microprocessor running at 4.9 MHz, 32K EPROM and socketed ICs.
It is FCC approved, measures 9 x 1-112 x 9-112
inches and operates on either 12 VDC or 110
VAC.
The MFJ-1278 is backed by a oneyear unconditional guarantee. It can be ordered for $249.95
and mav be returned within 30 davs for a full
refund, less shipping.
For details contact MFJ Enterprises, Inc., P.O.
Box 494, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762.
Circle 1301 on Reader Service Card.
microphone for SSBIfm
Heil Sound has just released its HM-5 microphone with the HC-5 "Key Element" cartridge
developed for SSB.
The HM-5 has a cast base with a 10 x 114 inch
"easy-move" goose neck. A push-to-talk switch
has single touch activation or can be locked
down for longer transmissions. A n eight-wire
flexible cable is attached. The response is
300-2.800 Hz with an 8-dB spike at 2.000 Hz for
increased articulation.
multi-mode data controller
The new MFJ-1278 Multi-mode Data Controller by MFJ Enterprises, Inc. lets you work
seven digital modes: Packet. ASCII, RTTY, CW,
WEFAX, SSTV, and Contest Memory Keyer.
Features include high performance h f l V H F l
CW modems, software selectable dual radio
ports, precision tuning indicator. 32K RAM, and
an ac power supply.
To operate the MFJ.1278 you need a standard
h i or VHF rag and a computer w ~ t ha ser~alport
and terminal program.
MFJ also offers a Starter Pack that includes
computer interface cable, terminal software, and
instructions. It is available for the Commodore
641128. VIC-M IMFJ-1287. disk: MFJ-1283.
tapel and for the IBM or compatible IMFJ-12841.
$19.95 each.
The MFJ-1278 automatically sets itself to
match your computer baud rate. All modes feature printing, threshold control for varying band
conditions, tune-up command, lithium battery
backup. RS-232 and TTL serial ports, watch dog
timer. FSK and AFSK outputs, output level control, speaker jack for both radio ports, test and
84
El
June 1988
input window allows mouse-basedediting. Other
features include text uploading and downloading, printing, and macro keys.
Macket works with all Pac-Comm TNCs, the
TNC-200, TNC-220, Tiny-2 TNC, and the Micropower-2 TNC as well as any TNC with an RS-232
port. When used with a TNC-2 clone that has
the RXBLOCK command. Macket can d i .s ~ .l a ~
the user's conversations in a special window so
the conversation will not be mixed with monitored text.
Macket's suggested retail price is $39.95. The
program, developed by 'S Fine Software' is available from Pac-Comm Packet Radio Systems,
Inc., 3652 W. Cypress St.. Tampa. Florida
33607.
Circle TJm on Reader Service Card.
dual meter wattmeters
Encomm, Inc. announces the addition of
several wattmeters to their Santec line. They are
actually "dual" meter wattmeters in several
different models. Model W-710 covers 1.6-60
MHz and has three power levels of 2k1200120w.
Model W-720 covers 1.8-200 MHz with power
levels of 200160115~.The W-740 has the same
power levels as the W-720 but with frequency
coverage of 140-525 MHz. Housed in a sturdy
metal case the meters are basically unaffected
by stray rf fields.
Contact Encomm Inc., 1506 Capital Ave..
Plano, Texas 75074 for more information.
Circle 1303 on Reader Service Card.
tri-band base and mobile
antennas
For additional information contact Heil Sound,
Marissa, Illinois 62257.
Circle 1304 on Reader Service Card.
Macket software for
Macintosh
Macket provides power and flexibility for the
packet operator with a Mac'. There are windows
for entering text, displaying the receive buffer.
and logg~ngtransmitted text. The windows
support all the features Mac users expect. The
NCG Company now has new Tri-Band SLC
system antennas for opiration on 145,446 MHz
and 1.2 GHz. Both are SLC (Super Linear Converter) system antennas. They are waterproof
with lightning protection. The base antenna is
model CX-901; the mobile is CX-801.
Features of the CX-901include one-piece construction of heavy-duty fiber glass. The mast
diameter is 1.25 to 2.5 inches, the length is 3 feet.
4 inches, and it weighs I Ib., 14 oz. This base
antenna handles 150 watts, with frequency and
gain of 144-148 MHz 3.0 dB, 440-449 MHz 6.0
dB, and 1260-1300 MHz 8.4 dB.
The CX-801 mobile unit is a one-touch, foldover stainless steel, with an N connector for low
loss, high gain. The maximum power handled
is 100 watts. The antenna is 3 feet, 3 inches long
and weighs 12 ounces. Frequency and gain for
the CX-801 is 144-148MHz 3.0 dB, 440-449 MHz
6.8 dB, and 1260-1300 MHz 9.6 dB.
Both antennas are designed for use with the
new Tri-Plexer CFX-4310 that allows receiving
and transmitting on all three bands at the same
time. With one CFX-4310 it is possible to use
only one coax for all three transceivers. Using
the new Tri-Band transceiver you can operate
three antennas from one transceiver.
;
KIT, ONLY
1
WlRED$975
1
$675
""FOR UHF
-
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I
FEATURES:
1,
'
,
,
@
8'8
j19
LNG I(*)
SENSITIVITY SECOND TO NONE1 QaAsFET front end on vhf
models glves 12dBSlNADof 0.12uV(vhf). 0.15uV(220). UHFmodel
0.25uV std. 0.luV with optional helical resonator preamp.
*SELECTIVITY THAT CAN'T BE BEAT! Both 8-pole xtal filter &
ceramic fllter for > 1aOdB a t only i12kHz. Helical resonator front
end to combat desense & Intermod.
*CLEAN. STABLE TRANSMITTER, up to 18W output standard: 50W
wlth accessory power amplifier.
*FCC TYPE ACCEPTED for commercial high band and uhf.
'Courtesy beep, field-programmable CWID, flutter-proof squelch.
autornatlc frequency control to compensate for off.frequency transmltters (all standard features).
*Full range of optlons available, such as autopatch, phone line or
rad~oremote control, sub-audible tones, duplexers.
GaAs
PREAMP
FET
* -=-
ONLY
$59!
Wlrednested
FEATURES:
*Very Low Nolse: 0.7dB VHF. 0.8dB UHF
*~lghb b v 13.20dB. dependtngon frequency
*Wide Dynamic Rmge: to restst overload
*Stable: new.type dualgate GaAs FET
Spccrfy tuntng range desnred- 26.30. 46-56.
137-150. 150-172. 210.230. 400-470. or
800.960 MHz
$39
1
,
I
1
/
I
'
;
*FM EXCITERS:
Krts $99. W/t $179. 2W
continuous duty. TCXO&
xtal oven options available.
*TA51 for 1@M,6M. 2M,
159-174,229 MHz.
wTA451 for uhf.
FCC tvoe acce~tedfor commer
*Call i i r latest Information on 900 MHz transmitters.
*VHF & UHF AMPLIFIERS. For FM. SSB. ATV. Output from 10
to 50 Watts. Several models, klts startlng at $79.
*R144/R220 FM RECEIVERSfor 2M.
150.1 74. or 220 MHz. GaAs FET
front end, 0.12uU sensittv~ty!
Both crystal & ceramic
filters plus helical resonator
front end for exceptional
selectivity: > 100dB at & 12kHz
(best available anywhere)!
Flutter-proof squelch. AFC tracks
drifting transmitters.
Kit $149. wlt $229.
*R451 UHF FM RCVR. Similar to above. Tuned llne front end.
0.25uV sens. (0.luV with optional hel. res. preamp). K I $149,
~
wlt $229.
0R991 FM RCVR FOR 9W MHz. Triple-conversion, GaAs FET front
end. 0.2uVsens. Kit $169, w/t $259.
*R76 ECONOMY VHF FM RCVR for 10M. 6M. 2M. 220. Without he1
res or afc. Klts only $129.
*Weather satellite & AM Aireralt recelven also avail.
FCC TYPE-ACCEPTED TRANSMITTERS & RECEIVERS AVAILABLE
FOR HIGH.BAN0 AND UHF. CALL FOR DETAILS.
YOU ve waltcd a long tlme for a
slmple. rel~able,low-cost 9 6 0 0
baud PACKET NETWORKING
system. Now you ve got rtl Our
new MO-96 MODEM and dlrect
FSK Transmrtters and Receivers
for 220 or 440 MHz Interface
dlrectly w ~ t hmost TNC's Fast
dlode swltched PA's output 15
or 50W Call for complete Info
o n t h e right system for your
appllcatlon.
wirednded
GaAs FET Preamp
Srmllar to LNG, except desrgned for low cod
6 unsllrlze. Only 518.W x 1-518'L x 314'H.
Eas~lymounts rn many rad~os.
Specrfy runnng ranRe desned. 25.35. 35-55.
55-90.90.120, 120-150, 150.200. 200-270.
or 400-5WMHz
GaAs FET Preamp w~thfeatures slm~larto LNG
serres, except a u t o m t l d y nrltcher out of
llnedurlnghmsmlt. Use wrth base or moblle
transceivers up to 25W.
'Spccrfy lun#ng range desrred.
120.1 75.
700-240.0r400.500MHz.
*COR-3 Kit ~ o n t r o ~ , k tand
s
audlo mixers needed to make a
repeater. Tail & time-out timers.
local spkr ampl, courtesy beep
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $49
-CWD Kit. Field programmable.
timers, the works . . . . . . . . $59
* T D - 2 D T M F DECODER1
CONTROLLER Kit. Full 16digits.
sw~tches5 functions, toll call
restrlctor, programmable, much
more. Great for selective calling
too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $79
*AP-3 AUTOPATCH Klt. Use
w ~ t habove for repeater autopatch. Reversepatch and phone
line remote control std. .
$79
*AP-2 SIMPLEX AUTOPATCH
TIMING BOARD Kit. Use with
above for slrnplex autopatch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$39
=MO-202 FSK DATA
MODULATOR Kit.
Run up to
1 2 0 0 b a u d d i g i t a l signals
through any fm transmitter with
full handshakes. Radio link
computers, telemetry gear.
etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $39
-DE-202 FSK DATA
DEMODULATOR Kit for rcvr end
of lrnk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $39
F
\. .
y- z T ? - ,
.
C t
- -*
-.*
.",c"""
28 11
-.
VHF
MODELS
Low-nolse preamps w~thhel~calresonators
reduce intermod 1 cms+bsnd tnterlerence In
cr~tlcal
appl!catlons.
MODEL HRA.('), $49 vhf, $84 uhf.
* Spenfy runmg range desrred- 143-150.150.
158. 158-162. 162174. 213-233. 420-450.
450.465. or 465-475 MHz
KllrlthCau
Kll I b l C a K
WmddCa
$59 1.e 1.8
120111
139 2m2,.
189 222 22.
28
lo
,
,
1" 30
lS l o
::.:
$
::
.
,
,
A
3
6
I."
18 10
21 10
111 10
316 130
144 116
1.5 1 4 1
UHF MODELS 189
*llrltrn CIY
R"<",.c,
3.1
1.4
.a
see cat81o.gfor ~UIIIJMof 21 t m i n t n g
s
convener5 lor rhrs uhf K I ~ Sonly 79
limarlmpflllen araN up te 50 w
7
-
Thinkyou've seen it all?
TAKE A LOOK AT THIS!
oroducts
The new 5D-FB 50-ohm coax, usable above
1200 MHz, is a solid copper center conductor
with a PEF insulation, foil wrapped, TFE insulation, full braid, and black PVC weather jacket.
N type connectors are available.
For information on the Tri-Band antennas, TriPlexers, and 5D-FB coax contact NCG Company, 1275 N. Grove Street, Anaheim, California 92806.
Circle m5 on Reader Sewice Card.
1@
I
MORIAN SOFTWARE
P.0. I%,,\ ,400
EAST 1.IVERPOOI.. 011 439260400
THANK 1)AI"I'ON
18th ANNUAL
INDIANAPOLIS
HAMFESTTM
And Indiana State ARRL Convention
And Computer Show
RC-96 repeater controller
I
Advanced Computer Controls. Inc. offers the
RC-96 Repeater Controller. Remote programming lets the operator make changes to his
repeater easily without a trip to the site.
The '96 features autopatch and autodialer,
with storage for 200 telephone numbers. The
talking S-meter lets the user check signal
strength into the repeater. The controller also
supports pocket pagers, linking to other repeaters, and a bulletin board. It has high-quality syn-
July 9-10. 1988
Marion County Fairgrounds Gates open 6:00AM both days
2 Full Days of: Commercial Exhibitors,
Large Flea Market. Hourly Awards. Forums
FREE: Parking. Kids Awards. Camping.
Womens Awards
Indiana's Largest Electronic
Flea Market, Amateur Radio
and Computer Display
INDIANAPOLIS HAMFEST.
P. 0.Box 11776. Ind~anapol~s.
IN 46201
CALL: (317) 7456389-Commercial
(317)356-4451 -Flea Market
'IheEm.rgency k k conlaln\
(
QRV Ifdl lo All Rand kink-prc*lf
wealher scaled anlmna. QIIIC~IrluWh
kil. 7(Y R G R r frrdl~ne.IN, mlrr
adnper. all hand counlrrpolsr. Z
m
,<lrprmf IIW.Canplcle ark1 QRV.
h e rrimlalls ~n 15 rninuur.
I971 N.Oak Lane I M E .
Rovo. UT 84004-2118
86
June 1988
"' "'= ''u-
lnfo
r a s c.
thesized voice with ACC's large, custom speech
vocabulary.
The '96 has built-in keypad and indicators,
shielded DIN cables for easy hookup, and easily
accessible pots and DIP switches in the back.
The risk of lightning damage is minimized by a
gas discharge tube across the phone line and
transient suppressors on each I10 signal.
Contact Advanced Computer Controls. Inc.,
2356 Walsh Avenue. Santa Clara. California
95051.
Circle 1306 on Reader Sewice Card.
the Carolina Windorn
The Radio Works has introduced the new
Carolina Windom' , a high performance, 80-10
meter antenna system. While not a windom in
the classic sense, its off-center feed system
suggests the name. Fed with 50 ohm coax, it
produces a low SWR across nearly all of the
75/80 meter band. Operation on 40-10 meters
requires a transmatch.
--
The Carolina Windom comes with a special
dedicated matching unit, vertical radiator section, high power line isolator, No. 14 stranded
antenna wire, and glass-filled insulators. The
package includes Coaxseal' and an illustrated
manual.
The price is $75, complete and ready to install.
For more information, contact Jim Thompson,
W4THU. Radio Works, Box 6159. Portsmouth,
Virginia 23503. A catalog offering a wide selection of wire antennas, parts and acoessories is
available on request.
Circle CJm on Reader Sawice Card.
MAXFAXTMandWEFAX
Kantronics has added a weather facsimile
command. WEFAX. with EPROM update 2.8..
This update is available for the KAM, KPC-4,
KPC-2, KPC-1, and the KPC-2400. In addition.
Kantronics introduces two programs to work
with the KAM or KPCs, MAXFAX-641128 for
Commodores and MAXFAX-PC for PCs and
compatibles. If you use a PC, the CGA (color
graphics adapter) is required.
With MAXFAX, you can store the pixel bytes
from the KAM or KPC directly in RAM to the
screen, or from RAM to diskette for transport
or to your graphics printer. An Epson graphics
format such as the EPSON LX-80 is assumed.
Each MAXFAX copy comes on diskette and
costs $19.95. You can order from Kantronics,
Inc., 1202 E. 23rd Street. Lawrence, Kansas
66046.
Circle IJ)B on Reader Sewice Card.
new rf /high-voltage
adapters
Nemal Electronics International offers a new
line of rf adapters for quick and reliable interconnections between different connector series.
These adapters facilitate rapid interconnection
of incompatible cables and equipment while
maintaining low loss and VSWR.
The N E W adapts a type HN jack t o an SMA
plug; the NE962 adapts an SMA jack to a type
HN plug; and the NE970 adapts a type N jack
to an LC plug. The NE866 is a BNC series
bulkhead feedthrough with both isolation and
hermetic seal.
Constructed of brass and plated silverlnickel,
these adapters have TeflonrYinsulationand tolerate temperatures of
55C to t 199C. Other
specifications include an impedance of 50 ohms.
>
/
WORLD'S SMALI-rLCY .r WEA TH1ER S T A TlON
frequency of 0-4 GHz, VSWR of 1.3. and voltage rating of 37511500. The adapters offer electrical performance and construction to military
specifications.
For details contact Nemal Electronics Intemational Inc., 12240 NE 14th Ave., North Miami,
Florida 33161.
Circle 1309 on Reader Service Card.
CALL FOR ORDERS
1 (800) 231-3057
1-713-520-7300 OR 1-713-520-0550
TEXAS ORDERS CALL COLLECT
FAX 1-713-771-7759
ALL ITEMS ARE GUARANTEED OR
SALES PRICE REFUNDED
AR-501 radio telegraph
terminal
ACE Communications. Inc.'s model AR-501
is a triplemode radio telegraph (CW) terminal
for Amateur Radio operator, and short wave
listeners.
The.AR-501 performs as a CW decoder, CW
trainer, and electronic keyer. Features include:
automatic speed follow-up and threshold control. LED tuning indicator. 32-character LCD
display, random code generator, and electronic
keyer for both standard and iambic. Codes can
be monitored in all three modes by internal
speaker and printer through the parallel printer
port.
THE 7lV-2 MICRO l V 1 3 n1ER ST .IIION INCLUDI,\
A COMI'UIER M0~)l~l.f.'.
TnFA,V 2 INEMOMEl'fil:,
AND.IO'OFI.I.I~II)I.VC,IRl.f
10110 . V I . Y ~ Z .
WIND SPEEI)
WIND DIRE(TI0N
WIN11 ('IIII.1.
!VIYI) CISTRFCORII
l'P\IPERA'rllRI<
IllllOWlE4tt' RECORD
AUTO SCAN
METRIC/STANDARD
FOLIR WAY POWER
NI('Al) R M l l Y
hIOI'VTINC OPTIONS
ONE YEAR WARRANTY
SATISFACTION CLIARANTEED
MACNAPIIASEINDUSTRIES.INC.
IS1 PlKKSTlWbTN.W.
MAOF. IN
MIC IC VISA
I I I R I I I N . W.4 a*al
FAX: 2 0 - 7 3 S W
\
In ,'.'I*\
(;,P.I<
(.,!I
J,l,,l~#~l
I:',! w n t.ii,
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R~XII~.~WI~I
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Il,,..,l'~.,I>/
1,I.l
K I M KT I.lA
NrWhl M I .' 1 ~ 1 1 1 ~ X
1;:) I I V
ORDERS 1lVI.Y: UIXJ-.l22.1502
INPOIMATION: 1M.7354l374
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available in microform
from Universih
11
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It measures 4.5 x 6.25 x 2.25 inches and is
powered by a 12 VDC source. The price of the
AR-501 is $229.00 including ac power adapter
and parts for hoofup.
For more details contact ACE Communications, Inc., 22511 Aspan St., El Toro, California
92630-6321.
Circle n l O on Reader Service Card.
\
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rill I.III,II1,II ,,I ,..l.l~, 1,
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high-quality variable
capacitors
Kilo-Tec announces the availability of the
Nevada High-Power variable capacitors. They
are capable of withstanding very high rf voltage
up to 7.8 kV. These heavy-duty caps are suitable for high-power antenna matching units,
power amplifiers, and transmitters.
There are two values: a 500 pF and a 250 pF.
Approximate prices are $29 for the TC-250 and
$40 for the TC-500. To order or receive a quote
contact Kilo-Tec. PO Box 1001, Oak View.
California 93022.
Circle nll on Reader Service Card.
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POLICIES
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Bird and Belden products in stock. Call today
Address
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:IIXl Nurlh %?el, Hta8tt. Ant, Arlxlr. MI 48106.
,/
186
June 1988
G
j 87
l
~
~
DX FORECASTER
Gorth Stonehocker. KORY W
sporadic E
season - 1988
This is the second summer after the
end of solar cycle 21. What kind of
sprodic E conditions can we expect?
In the period from May through September radiation from the nearly overhead sun generates high ion densities
in the lower ionosphere that support
short-skip propagation, including multiple short skips. The geomagnetic field
clusters these ions into cloud-like
patches known as sporadic-E (E,).
These patches form a thin layer of intense ionization in the E region about
60 miles up. A patch gives a strong,
mirror-like signal reflection over skip
distances of 600 to 1200 miles. Signals
remain strong for about half an hour,
up to a couple of hours after the onset of the first strong signal.
The frequency and magnitude of
Sporadic E occurrences is a function
of geographical location. The best
locations for E, openings this summer
are toward the equator and on either
side of the geomagnetic equator. It's
especially good where the geomagnetic equator is furthest from the
geographic equator. The Northern
Hemisphere areas are: Southeast Asia
(best) and the Mediterranean (next
88
June 1988
followed
South America in the
Southern Hemisphere. These were
shown graphically in this column last
year on a contour map.
The highest frequency propagated
by E, tends to occur at local noon.
The Es patch is imbedded in the regular E layer and tends to track the E
maximum ion density throughout the
day, season, and sunspot cycle. During this summer expect about a 17 percent increase in the E layer as an E,
base for higher maximum usable frequencies (MUF) over a 1200 mile hop.
This increase gives the base MUFs of
47 to 53 MHz this year, so six meter
openings should be more prevalent.
Two meter openings may still be rare,
especially this month; perhaps August
will provide some. The highest probability of occurrence is near sunrise and
again around sunset. These two E,
characteristics affect short-skip openings differently. Openings on the
higher-frequency bands occur around
local noontime; the lower bands tend
to have openings near sunrise and sunset. This occurrence characteristic is
nearly constant over the sunspot cycle
so there should be the same number
of low to midlatitude E, openings in
the next few years.
last-minute forecast
Expect the higher frequency DX bands
to be very good during the first two
weeks of June because of solar flux
peaks and longer daytime hours. Both
factors contribute to elevated MUFs
during the evening at midlatitude locations. No single hop transequatorial
openings are expected but look for
good sporadic E openings around
noon toward the end of the month.
Good nighttime DX conditions on the
lower bands are expected during the
last two weeks of the month, but they
will be noticeably shorter in duration
and noisier as northern tropical thunderstorm noise propagates toward us.
Geomagnetic disturbances are anticipated from solar flares around the 5th,
more probable on the 13th, and from
coronal thinning on the 18th through
24th of the month. MUFs should decrease about 15 percent on east-west
propagation paths on most days and
probably 20 percent on those paths
during disturbed conditions on the
13th. Signals should be 10 to 15 dB
lower level and QSB will be noticed.
Paths near the equator can expect 10
percent higher MUFs.
The moon will be full on June 29th
and at perigee (its closest approach)
on June 5th. Summer solstice is on the
21st at 0357 UTC. The Aquarid meteor
shower starts about the 8th, peaks
around the 28th, and lasts until about
August 7th. The maximum radio-echo
rate will be 34 per hour.
band-by-band summary
Six meters will provide occasional
openings to South Africa and South
America around noontime via shortskip E, propagation.
There will be long-skip conditions on
ten meters in the afternoon during the
peak times of the 27-day solar cycle.
Otherwise, look to sporadic-E shortskip and multihop openings around
A
d
d
A
d
d
ASIA
FAR EAST
N
0
N
0
~
N
0
N
0
F
~
0
~
0
N
~
0
N
N
0
N
0
N
N
0
0
N
N
0
N
E
0
N
~
0
0
N
~
~
N
)
v
N
b
I
l
U
v
b
N
~
l
\
)
v
1
0
i
v
~
b~ N
0
8 ;
JUNE
N
2
~
~
0
~
F
0
~
~
3
0
C
r
l
-
N
N
~
z
w
EUROPE
S. AFRICA
~
U
C
v l
l
~
I
N
O
~
~
O
w
~
O O O
~
S. AMERICA
N
N
N
v
ANTARCTICA
w
m
w
N
C
n
NEWZEALAND
w
'
OCEANIA
w
l
~
v
l
~
N N
~
V
1
0
~
v
'
0
0
l
~
0
0
0
h I) k u
w w N
w w N
~
O U l U l N N O O
~
O
b
+ N P
N N
PN N N k C I
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
~
W
O
. w
~ w
O O N
l
w
N
N
N
V)
rn
-
L
w
N N N
0 * 0 0
w
~
N
w
w
1
N
v
l
0
0
w
w
N
w
o
v
JAPAN
w N N N N N N
v l O O O O O
2
LJ
N N L J
AUSTRALIA
l
0
~
N
O
0
N
N
w
LJLJ
0
0
0 0
b
h)
b
0
b
~
o
LJ
LJ
o
~
h
~
L J L J L J b
O 0 0 0 O O
2
EUROPE
w w
~
S. AFRICA
w
m
N
N N N
~
O
O
w
O
N N
O
w
O
O
N
O
N N
O
w
N m
N
v
P
l
S. AMERICA
W W W w W + W W P V l - P
v l m N N O O O O N N v l L n
ANTARCTICA
N
0
N
0
0
NEWZEALAND
w
w
" w
OCEANIA
AUSTRALIA
w
N
0
w
0
N
0
N
w
N
0
N
0
w
N
0
I
0
v
b
w
N
NLJ
LJ
CI,
LJ
0
0
0
0
0
0
w
w
N
N
b
b
~
w
U
0
0
N
0
A
2
w
N
l
v
l
~
N
~
N N w w w w
~ v l C n v l
N
N
0
0
0
b h ) N
O
~
O
b
0 0 O ~
O
bh)
b
0
k U
CnO
~
~
d
w
N
w
w
~
w
N
tE
w
o
w
o
o
w C I w l v l v l v l C
o
n
N N N N N
O
O
O
O
N N
O
O
b N N N N N C I c 1
~
0~0
0
0
0
m
m
O
O
h ) N N N N
0 0 0 0 0 0
N
0
N l
* v
l
w
v
O
l
\
N C V )
)-1
W
0
N
N
0
0
w
w
*
-
2
w
r
v l v
.
A
0
C
F
P
w
N
l v l O
gfz
d
8 ;
O
-
0
Z
3
L O W W W W
0
~
0
0
0
~
N
N
~ N~ w ~r
o ~ O v l V I
~
0
C u d
0 3
b~b
0 Q
/
~
w
m
m
w
n
a
E
O O O O O O O O * m
w
w
o
L
U
N
F
w
4
N b ~N +
l M
y P bW + ' w C I w &
N
0
z
C
w
ulo
b b
N
w
o
b b
0 0
8
w
o
b
~
k
N
0
~
~
w
A
w
~
w
N O
p
-
N
N
N
N
O O L n C n L n L n C n C n O O 0 0
N
~
w
b
~
3
L J W W W
W W W
N Nn, N c v ,
0
~
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
*
w
)
o
ASIA
FAR EAST
JAPAN
w
k b + b
~u l 0
0
-
A
S
ASIA
FAR EAST
~
O
EUROPE
N N N N N N N N N N N L J L J L J L J L
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Q
0
0
S. AFRICA
~
CARIBBEAN
S. AMERICA
w
w
N
0
N N
0
0
N N N N N LJ
0
0
0
0
0
0
l-
w
O
w
N
NEWZEALAND
N
O
w
v
C
I
w c l ~ w ~ - '
l U l ~ U 1 ~ v
~
~
W
C
I
N N N t u IbU hb )
b I U N N N I V N F U + z
l O ~ O 0 0
0 00 00
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
C
I
~
~
W
P
J L J
0
0
~
I
L J N
0
0
U
~
N N N N
0
0
0
N
N
N~ - lN
v l m I U o O o o N N v l m c n 0 0 O O o o O o o o m
O
CI
N
w
w
w
w
w
LJ
0
LJ
0
w
LJ
0
w N N N b
b
b
tu
N O O O 0 0 0 0 0
w
LJ CI,
0
0
h)
0
b
O
N
N
cn
I U l - 4 N N N N N N C - l
LJ bJ W
0
N
O
~
W
0
w
N w
m C n
W W
0
0
w
N
w
O
W
0
N
0
N
w
O
w
w
0
N
O
0 CV)
3
z
C
OCEANIA
AUSTRALIA
JAPAN
The italacared numbers signify the bands to try during the transition and early morning hours, while the standard type provides MUF during "normal" hours.
'Look at next higher band for possible openings.
June 1988
89
N
local noon for DX on this band. (Evening transequatorial openings usually
don't occur in the summertime.)
Twelve and fifteen meters, almost
always open to some southern part of
the world, will be the main daytime DX
bands. Operate on 12 first, then move
down to 15. DX is considered 5000 to
7000 miles on these bands. There may
be some long, one-hop transequatorial propagation paths occurring early
in the month.
Twenty, thirty, and forty meters will
support DX propagation from most
areas of the world during the daytime
and into the evening hours most days.
Forty meters joins this daytime DX
group because of lower signal absorption, and therefore lower LUF (lowest
usable frequency) during this last
sunspot minimum year. DX on these
bands may be either long-skip to 2500
miles or short-skip E, to 1250 miles per
hop. There are many good hours of
DXing ahead as the days get longer.
Thirty, forty, eighty, and one-sixty
are all good for nighttime DX. Although the background thunderstorm
noise is becoming noticeable, these
bands are still quiet enough to provide
good DX working conditions. Sporadic-E propagation may be a contributing factor toward enhanced conditions
at local sunset and will occur more
often during the next three months.
ham radio
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RTTY JOURNAL-Now In our 36th year. R e d .about R I rY
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o n JOURNAL $1U (K).
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i u ~ dmuch
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COMING EVENTS
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LOW BAND DX'ING
by John Devoldere ON4UN
N o w A v a ~ l a b l r 'T h e n e w . 2nd e d t t ~ o nof Ihe
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o o k o n L o w B a n d D X ' l r ~ gB a s e d
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Apple Ilelc. MS-DOS. Commodore
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CPM Computers
SAVE $5
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s h ~ l ~ ~R~hla~n d
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GREENVILLE. NH 03048
603.878-IJJ!
June 1988
91
I
Ham Radio's guide to help you find your local
California
ifornia
A-TECH ELECTRONICS
1033 HOLLYWOOD WAY
BURBANK, CA 91505
(818) 845-9203
New Ham Store and Ready to Make a
Deal!
JUN'S ELECTRONICS
3919 SEPULVEDA BLVD.
CULVER CITY, CA 90230
213-390-8003
800-882-1343 Trades
Habla Espanol
Colorado
COLORADO COMM CENTER
525 EAST 70th AVE.
SUITE ONE WEST
DENVER, CO 80229
(303) 288-7373
(800) 227-7373
Stocking all major lines
Kenwood Yaesu, Encomm, ICOM
Connecticut
HATRY ELECTRONICS
500 LEDYARD ST. (SOUTH)
HARTFORD, CT 061 14
203-527-1881
Call today. Friendly one-stop shopping
at prices you can afford.
Delaware
AMATEUR 81 ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS
3208 CONCORD PIKE
WILMINGTON, DE 19803
(302) 478-2757
Delaware's Friendliest Ham Store.
DELAWARE AMATEUR SUPPLY
71 MEADOW ROAD
NEW CASTLE, DE 19720
302-328-7728
800-441-7008
Icom, Ten-Tec, Microlog, Yaesu,
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One mile off 1-95. no sales tax.
AMATEUR ELECTRONIC SUPPLY
621 COMMONWEALTH AVE.
ORLANDO, FL 32803
305-894-3238
Fla. Wats: 1 (800) 432-9424
Outside Fla: 1 (800) 327-1917
Hours M-F 9-5:30, Sat. 9-3
Georgia
DOC'S COMMUNICATIONS
702 CHICKAMAUGA AVENUE
ROSSVILLE, GA 30741
(404) 866-2302 1 861-5610
ICOM, Yaesu, Kenwood, Bird..
9AM-5:30PM
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819 KEEAUMOKU STREET
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ROSS DISTRIBUTING COMPANY
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PRESTON, ID 83263
(208) 852-0830
M 9-2; T-F 9-6; S 9-2
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Illinois
ERICKSON COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
5456 N. MILWAUKEE AVE.
CHICAGO, IL 60630
312-631-5181
Hours: 9:30-5:30 Mon, Tu, Wed & Fri;
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Florida
AMATEUR ELECTRONIC SUPPLY
1898 DREW STREET
CLEARWATER, FL 33575
813-461-4267
Clearwater Branch
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Indiana
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220 N. FULTON AVE.
EVANSVILLE, IN 47710
(800) 523-7731
(812) 422-0231
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Maryland
MARYLAND RADIO CENTER
8576 LAURELDALE DRIVE
LAUREL, MD 20707
301-725-1212
Kenwood, Ten-Tec, Alinco, Azden. Full
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M-F 10-7
SAT 9-5
Massachusetts
TEL-COM, INC.
675 GREAT ROAD, RTE. 119
LITTLETON, MA 01460
617-486-3400
617-486-3040
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MISSOURI RADIO CENTER
102 NW BUSINESS PARK LANE
KANSAS CITY, MO 64150
(800) 821-7323
Missouri: (816) 741-8118
ICOM, Kenwood, Yaesu
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Nevada
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1072 N. RANCHO DRIVE
LAS VEGAS, NV 89106
702-647-3114
Dale Porray "Squeak," AD7K
Outside Nev: 1 (800) 634-6227
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New Hampshire
RIVENDELL ELECTRONICS
8 LONDONDERRY ROAD
DERRY, N. H. 03038
603-434-5371
Hours M-S 10-5; THURS 10-7
Closed SunlHolidays
SHOULD BE HERE TOO! ,
Dealers: cYOU
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92
June 1988
Amateur Radio Dealer
New Jersey
ABARIS SYSTEMS
276 ORIENTAL PLACE
LYNDHURST, NJ 07071
201-939-0015
Don WB2GPU
Astatic, Azden, B&W, Butternut, Larsen,
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66 SKYTOP ROAD
CEDAR GROVE, NJ 07009
(201) 239-4389
Gene K2KJI
Maryann K2RVH
Distributor of: KLM, Mirage, ICOM, Larsen, Lunar, Astron. Wholesale - retail.
New York
BARRY ELECTRONICS
512 BROADWAY
NEW YORK, NY 10012
212-925-7000
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VHF COMMUNICATIONS
915 NORTH MAIN STREET
JAMESTOWN, NY 14701
716-664-6345
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28940 EUCLID AVE.
WICKLIFFE, OH 44092(ClevelandArea)
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Ohio Wats: 1 (800) 362-0290
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Hours M-F 9-5:30, Sat. 9-3
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1280 AlDA DRIVE
REYNOLDSBURG (COLUMBUS), OH
43068
614-866-4267
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Wisconsin
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4828 W. FOND DU LAC AVE.
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Wisc. Wats: 1 (800) 242-5195
Outside Wisc: 1 (800) 558-0411
M-F 9-5:30
Sat 9-3
Pennsylvania
HAMTRONICS,
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4033 BROWNSVILLE ROAD
TREVOSE, PA 19047
215-357-1400
Same Location for over 30 Years
Tennessee
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1465 WELLS STATION ROAD
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Kenwood. ICOM, Ten-Tec, Cushcraft,
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NOTEBOOK
Tom Mc Mullan. WISL
"Q" signals
There are times when we are reminded that not everyone is familiar or
experienced in the language of
Amateur Radio. I was following my
usual practice of listening to the activity on a local repeater while on my way
to work one morning, and encountered a lively discussion on the meaning of a "Q" signal.
The signal in question was "QRU,"
and each Amateur knew part of the
answer and thought that the other was
incorrect. I resisted the temptation to
break in and enlighten them about the
"true meaning and proper use," but instead waited to see what developed.
Sure enough, the next morning, the
pair got together again; one had
looked it up and was now fully informed. He surprised the other
Amateur by stating that they were
both on the right track, but needed the
whole story. As with most Q signals,
QRU can be either a question or a
statement. When followed by a question mark, it (naturally) becomes a
question. Without the question mark,
it is a statement or an answer to a
question. The discussion and followup not only educated the two Ama-
teurs directly involved, but was also
helpful to the many ears tuned to that
repeater on those two days. Further,
the incident triggered a thought that
I'm putting to use here - how many
other O signals are unknown or misunderstood by a large number of
Amateurs?
why Q signals?
Everyone uses Q signals. Old-timers
cringe when hearing Q signals used in
voice communications. Their theory is
that such signals were invented for
CW use, and if you are talking, you
should say the phrase instead of the
abbreviation.
There was a time when, deeply involved in traffic handling on several
CW nets around the country, I agreed
with that philosophy. However, after
several years of exposure to the voice
(and digital) world, Ican see the merits
of using Q signals wherever they apply,
on any mode of communications.
Q signals, and their early companions, "2" signals, were developed
as short-cuts in message-handling
procedures in marine and commercial
radio circuits. It certainly was easier
and quicker for an operator to send
"QRU?" instead of "Do you have any
messages for me?" The answer, equally shortened, would be either "ORU"
(I have nothing for you), or "OTC" II
have messages for you). Before you
old-time traffic handlers jump on me,
yes, I've tweaked the phrase a bit.
QTC really stands for "I have ... telegrams for you," but Amateurs are not
in the business of sending telegrams.
Anyway, the short Q signal reduced
the amount of key-pounding, and to
a busy commercial operator, this was
a blessing. Amateurs, too, realized the
advantage in both time and clarity in
using abbreviations and operating signals, and adapted many of them to fit
their operations. The "Z" signals
served the same purpose in many
commercial circuits, but for some
reason never caught on with the
Amateur fraternity - perhaps because
ARRL (American Radio Relay League)
publications listed and explained the
use of Q signals. Also, it has been
rumored that Z signals were proprietary to some network or service, but
I've not been able to find a reference
that proves this.
voice and digital useage
Everyone uses Q signals on voice
operation from time to time. The old
June 1988
95
Table 1. Common Amateur Q signals
QRM
QRN
QRP
Is there interference on the frequency?
Is atmospheric noise (static) bothering
you?
Shall I reduce power? (Seldom used
by Amateurs as a question.)
QRS
QRT
Shall I send slower?
Shall I stop sending?
QRU
QRV
QRX
Do you have anything for me?
Are you ready?
Shall I wait?
QRZ
Who is calling? (This is not a substitue
for "CO".)
Does my signal strength vary?
Do you acknowledge?
Are you in contact with ................. ?
(Amateurs seldom use OSO as a query.)
QSB
QSL
QSO
QSY
QTH
Shall we change frequency
What is your location?
.........
standard "QSL?" is used to mean
several things: "Do you copy?", "Did
you copy?", "Do you understand?",
and so forth. The answering statement, "QSL" applies to all these questions and more.
When conditions are good, and the
signals are "arm-chair copy" between
the two stations, there's really no
justification for using a voice Q signal,
but habits don't get turned on or off
according to band conditions. When
conditions are poor, or there is abundant interference (there it is again the Q signal QRM applies), certainly
the letter Q sets the listener up to expect two more letters that are pertinent
to the situation, and it might be easier
to understand "QSY up 3" than "Let's
move up 3 kilohertz".
In digital communications, the need
is not so much for overcoming interference or weak-signal conditions packet and AMTOR systems handle
that pretty well - but rather a way t o
96
5 June
1988
There is interference on the frequency
Atmospheric noise (static) is bothering
me.
Reduce power (Most often used as a
statement, as in "I am running ORP
here" meaning the power is only a few
watts.)
Send slower.
Stop sending. (Usually used to mean
the station is shutting down for the
moment, as in "I'm going QRT for
now.")
I have nothing for you.
I am ready.
Wait (most often used as in "ORX 5
minutes.")
. . . .is calling you. (Amateurs seldom
use OR2 as a reply.)
Your signal strength varies.
l acknowledge.
I am in contact with, or, I have made
contact with . . . . . (More often used in
referring t o a contact between two
Amateurs, as in "Thanks for the OSO,
and 73 to you.")
Let's change frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . .
My location is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
reduce the keystrokes at the sending
station. Not all packet and RTTY enthusiasts are expert typists, and a few
3-stroke Q signals that can take the
place of a whole line of text are a blessing t o both sender and receiver. (How
often I've stared at a blank screen
wondering if something was not working right, only to find the operator at
the other end was "one-finger typing"
the message.)
In summary, Q signals are both useful and permissible in any mode today.
It will help Novices and higher-class
licensees to feel more at home on the
air if they know what Q signals to use
and how to use them. Table 1 lists the
most common signals in both their
question and answer form. This is by
no means a complete list - some, like
"QTE?" (What is my true bearing in
relation to you?") would probably
be hard to understand and elicit a
"HUH?" (which, fortunately, needs no
Q signal).
I have modified the original meaning of many of these signals a bit,
to make them more compatible with
current Amateur Radio usage. The
original Q signals were developed for
commercial and aircraft use, and the
language was either more stilted or
directly applicable to a specific situation. As they are wont t o do, Amateurs have softened the language and
slanted the meaning to fit their needs,
which table 1 reflects.
Amateur traffic nets, both CW and
voice, have their own set of Q signals
that help to speed up message handling and network management. Many
are adaptations of more common signals, with the middle letter replaced by
an "N," as in QNU, which is borrowed
from QRU, meaning "I have no traffic
for the net." Another net signal is
QNX, meaning "You are excused from
the net." A few minutes spent listening to some of the busier traffic nets
on 80-meter CW, 75-meter phone, and
a few 2-meter repeaters is a lesson in
management and a discipline that gets
things done efficiently. When you read
the monthly message totals as reported in QST, you can see why.
There's another signal - QST. It
does not have a question as part of
its definition. QST is an alerting call to
all Amateurs, indicating that some
important information is to follow. It
can be used by anyone, and is often
heard at the beginning of network
announcements and 2-meter repeater
emergency-practice sessions. You're
undoubtedly familiar with its use before
code practice and bulletin transmissions from W l A W , the ARRL Maxim
Memorial Station in Newington, Connecticut, and on the cover of their
magazine, QST, which is the official
journal of the American Radio Relay
League.
Q signals are a vital and interesting
part of Amateur language, useful in
conveying information quickly and
showing that you are "with it" on the
bands. They fit all modes of communication (yes, even Amateur Television a snowy picture of a card that says
QRX 5 in big letters will get its message across), and when both the sender and the receiver know the meaning
of "QRM, QSY down 3," things work
a lot smoother!
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I ~ s ~ e ~ l o a m ~ i ~ Ccvrrmng
~ r n u r n 144
fnru ,796 MHz.lblsrerleaol VHrl
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r a t d ~ v ~ d e ! r n RF
r r ~ r ? m # ~ ! l
d?v~CeIdeltynedfora IOnQrOWlce
lhle w ~ l nlow SWR nnd broad ODrl'llng hrl"dlldfh
EllludFd alumlnum DDds wllb B
dursbleenamalltnl3hInsddlllOnlO
P ~ I ~ Cresltnq
D ~
at connector Itangar
r e s u i ! ~~n a ruyqedllea unml lor all
arrav !nrlallol#ons Avallal,lo wllh
N-IYDBconneclors only, these
are uncond#llanalcgunranlec~
lor 2 "ears
I
1 YR
- $22.95
3 YRS
-
2YRS $38.95
- $49.95
Prices U.S. only
PRICE
554 W
MODEL
144.2P
561 00
I Od.dP
MASTERCARD
VISA
BILL ME
$53 00
564 00
$51
00
$59 00
551 00
$59 00
I'!T 00
560 00
STRIDSEEFIG ENGINEERING. CO.
@ P O 90%7973.
Shrsveeart.LA 71107.
Pnone ,3181 865.0523
USA
a
&
Please have your charge card ready
I
DATATEL 800'"
800-341-1522
Weekdays 8 AM - 9 PM EST Saturdays 9 AM - 5 PM EST
IN MAINE CALL COLLECT (207) 236-2896
OUR 800 NUMBER IS FOR SUBSCRIPTION ORDERS ONLY!
For Errors or Change of Address CALL ham radio
direct at (603) 878-1441 8-5 EST
June 1988
97
YAESU
KENWOOD
~111114
I
I
TS440S
IC-761
DX CITING
100% Duty Cycle
100 Memories
Dlrect Keyboard Entry
Opt~onalB u ~ l t - i AT
n
On Sale Now. Call for Price1
Add Opttonal 6m. 2m
70cm Modules
Dual VFO's
Full CW Break4n
~ o t More
s
Features
.
.
YAESU
ALD-24T
NEWEST HF SUPER RIG
DUAL BAND MOBILE
140.149 995 MHz1440-450 MHz
2 5 Watts on Both Bands
Crossband Full Duplex
21 Memory Channels
CTCSS EncoderlDecoder.
Standard
160.10MIGeneral Coverage
Receiver
Built-in Power Supply and
Automatic AntennaTuner
SSB, CW, FM, AM. RTTY
OSK to60WPM
1
2m and 220 MHz Amplll~ers
GaAsFET Rece~vePre.Amps
and Hlqh SWR Shuldown
FT.736R
.
? 5 1 4 0 ~AFFORDABLE DX-bng!
HF Transceiver With
General Coverage Receiver
All HF Amateur Bands
100 W output
Compact. Lots of Features
--
VHF-UHF BASESTATION
SSB. CW. FM on 2 Meters
and 70 cm
Optional 50 MHz. 220 MHz or
1.2GHz
25WattsOulput on 2 Meters.
220 and 70 c m
t o w a t t ~ O u t p uon
t 6 Meters
KENWOOD
I
THE "ANSWERING MACHINE" MOBILE
2m FM Mobile Transceiver
4 5 W Output wlHiLoSwitch
14 Multi-Function Memories
TM-421A Available For
440 MHz
.
COMPACT HF TRANSCEIVER
All HF BandlGeneral
Coverage Receiver
12 MemorieslFrequenC~and
Mode
USE. LSB. AM, FM.CW
100 Watts Output
Includes HM.12Scanning Mic
D
ASTRON
CORPORATION
Power
Supply
.
~ MOBILE
c
RemoteController, Interlace
A Unit. interface unit,
Speaker, Mic and Cables
Six Band Units t o Choose
10 Memories Per Band
Programmable Band Scan
Fiber Optic Technology
.
2lnlllOo"l
30 lnll2Uoul
CALL
IC.900 SIX BANDS IN o
Rx: 138-174 MHz
Tx: 144.148 MHz
45W Output
Digital Voice Recorder
FT-712 RH for 70cm
2 tn,ZOuul
3.22
2211
3.012
D-I
YAESU
FT-212RH
TM-221A
lC.735
.
.
RSTA
RSIZA
..
. $48
. . . $68
RS2OA . . . $88
RS2OM . ,5105
VSmM . .$I25
RS35A . . $133
.
RS35M.. $149
VS35M. ,5165
RSWA . . 5189
RSWM. ,5215
RM5OA. ,5219
VS5OM . .5229
YAESU
TH-25AT
POCKET SIZED
AND POWERFUL
Frequency Cover.
age 141-163MHz
5 Watts Output
I
TH-45AT Available
for 440 MHz
'
,
.
.
MICRO H T ' S
FOR 2M. 440
Morse. Baudot. ASCII. AMTOR
Pocket Size HT Fun
and Picket
Ten Memories
Ooerates VHF and H F
LCD Readout
~ b Need
u Only Your Transceiver
Wideband Coveraqe
and a Commodore 64 or 128
up t o 3 ~ a l t s ~ u t p u t SPECIAL! FINAL CLEARANCE
32 Butlt In
Subaudlble Tones
$149.95 Limited Supply
-',$F?
I
I
1
OPTOelectronies inc
.-
WPOCKET
E ~SIZE
,
SIZE:4" Hx3.5" W x 1 " D
MADE IN USA
$9995- 5 15Ooo
2;
41
-k
-.
TA1OOs
i FREQUENCY
i
II
11
' COUNTERS
TQ 1.3 GHZ
11
fl
8 LED DIGITS 2 GATE TIMES
ANODIZED ALUMINUM CABINET
INTERNAL NI-CAD BATTERIES INCLUDED
AC ADAPTER/CHARGER INCLUDED
EXCELLENT SENSITIW
& ACCURACY
AC-DC PORTABLE
OPERATION
#AC-1200
AC ADAPTER
CHARGER
Small enough to fit into a shirt pocket, our n e w 1.2 GHz and 1.3 GHz, 8 digit frequency counters are not toys1
They can actually out perform units many times their size and price1Included are rechargeable Ni-Cad batteries
installed inside the unit for hours of portable, cordless operation. The batteries are easily recharged using the AC
adapter/charger supplied with the unit.
The excellent sensitivitv of the l2OOH makes it ideal for use with the telescoping RF pick-up antenna;
accurately and easily measure transmit frequencies from handheld, fixed, or mobile radios such as: Police,
firefighters, Ham, taxi, car telephone, aircraft, marine, etc. May be used for counter surveillance, locating hidden
"bug" transmitters. Use with grid dip oscillator when designing and tuning antennas. May be used with a probe
for measuring clock frequencies in computers, various digital circuitry or oscillators. Can be built into transmitters. signal generators and other devices to accurately monitor frequency
The size, price and performance of these n e w instruments make them indispensiblefor technicians, engineers,
schools, Hams, CBers, electronic hobbyists, short wave listeners, law enforcement personnel and many others.
fl
STOCK NO:
#1200HKC
#l200HC
#1300HC
Model l2OOH in kit form. 1-1200 MHz counter complete including
all parts, cabinet. Ni-Cad batteries. AC adapter-battery charger and
instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S 99.95
Model l2OOH factory assembled 1-1200 MHz counter, tested and
calibrated, complete including Ni-Cad batteries and AC adapter/battery
charger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S137.50
Model 1300H factory assembled 1-1300 MHz counter, tested and
calibrated, complete including Ni-Cad batteries and AC adapterbattery
charger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.00
...SlS
ACCESSORIES:
..............
#TA-100s
Telescoping RF pick-up antenna with BNC connector
#P-100
Probe, direct connection 50 ohm. BNC connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S18.00
Carrying case, black vinyl with zipper opening. Will hold a counter and
accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S1O.OO
#CC-70
r / 102
FLA (305) 771-2050
$12.00
ORDER FACTORY DIRECT
1-800-327-5912
OPTOmIKtmnier ine
5821 N.E. 14th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33334
1
V1S4" I AVAILABLE NOWI
Ordersto US and Canada add 5% of total (52 rnin., 510 rnax)
Florida residents add 5% sales tax. C O D fee $2.
Yaesu's mini HB.
The smallest,smartest,
toughest radios.Anywhere.
Whether you're a Novice or Extra
class operator, you're sure to appreciate the high power, durability and size
of Yaesu's FT-23R Series mini-HTs.
'It) begin with, you'll find a model
that's right on your wavelength.The
2-meter FT-23R.The220-MHzFT-33R.
Or the 440-MHz FT-73R.
Whichever you choose, you benefit from incredibly small packaging.
(lhke a look at the actual size photo.)
Aluminum-alloycases thatprova themselves reliable in a one-meter dn)p
ti:st onto solid concrete. And moistureresistant seals that really help keep
t,he rain out.
Rut perhaps hest of all, each
radio blends sophisticated, micmpmcessor-controlled performance
wit,h surprisingly simple opera[,ion.In fact, it takes only minutes
ti) master all these feat,urcs:
R n memories t,hat store frequency, offset and PL tone. Mernory scan at 2 frequencies per
second. 7k offset storage. Priority
channel scan. Channel selection vit
tnning knob or upldown buttons. PI,
tone board (optional). PL display. Independent PL memory per channel. I'L
t:ncode and decode. LCD power out.pnl.
und "S'meter display. Bat,kr~.saver
circuit. Push-buttrm squelch override.
Eight-kev control ad. Keypad
lock.
..
lli'ihllow power switch.
The
FT. 23R r:omes with a 72-volt..
.... .
2.5-wattbattery pack.The FT-73R wi1.h
a 72-volt,2-watt pack. And the FT-33R
with a powerful 12-volt,5-watt pack.
~
You can choose t h nlinii~l,un.
~
72-volt,
2-wa1.t pack shown iri tho pt1ot.n
below. And ;ill t)arti!ry pac:ks an?int,archange;lhle, t.oo.
And considrr these options: Dry
cell biit.kry case libr (iAM-sizc cells.
Dry cell hat,ti:ry ciisr for (iIU-size
cells. I)C car ;~daptrrlct~arg(!r
Progmmmable CTCSS (1'1, t m : ) er~coderl
tlecodcr. 1)TMF kr,ypvpnd t!nc:oder.
Mohile hangor hraek(xt.. Extrrrial
spcakcrl~~iicrophon(~.
And rnon:.
Check out. the: FT-2:IR Series
at your hesu dcillor today. 13ccausc
although wct can tell you at)ont.
their incredible performance, Ir)ughness and small siztt.
1
I
Prices and specillcations subject w cnaagr w~r~trtcll
notice.
I YAESU
clrd lrddenliirk ulMotomla. Inc. FTIRIP shown with optional FNR-9 hatten. pack.
Double Vision
* :S+~[iar,it'>
r ~ , g u ~ ~fl1<111.1~
lcy
:or
_
,. ,
D P I ~ , Y CC 5 . h r.j;i
,-!r
m
:>;tn~k>p.
~
....
!r,c,rpticn
i
I
r.>.;i
.,I,,
r~i~-:~-lr~
~,
n l>;>o,,
d
The Kenwood TM-721A re-defines
e ,:.!I
:r>r . I : . i n < . .
Aspeclal
ir-I: 1 . . I , ':. 4 r , r , - , r , t v , v ~ t c'!~, l n c t i p n
theoriginal Kenwood "Dual Bander"
rnernory channel foreach band stores
e. - . ! . ..
:,r.
.,:.I
pi; .; L l ~ l ~
tcne
j ~ ,
concept.The wide range of innovafrequency.offset,and sub-tone of your
i,
!,,.,.,itl,,. i,-...,-{h2c;
tive features includes a dual channel
favorlte channel. S~mplypress the CALL
~ l ~ , , , , ~ , l , ..~,~:.r , . I,,,,,,
-~,:.l,
watch function,selectablefull duplex
key,and your favor~techannelIS selected!
I. (.,.,.
operation, 30 memory channels,
*,A.,; r...!'., :
,.,,: ril,..,!.. ' ? , a , ; , - ; !
"
.,,,7*r.-.,l
extended frequency coverage, large
Autorn;~t~cnlly
changes between maln
!, ! , t , , rl r a q
loop^^
multi-colordual digital LCD displays,
and sub-band when a slgnal IS present.
,.+..q,.!
,,,,.- r.qF,, ril p c l , i o n
programmable scanning, and more
rill ,: ; , * , ~, :,l q , , . ! ~.(,
,,...,
j r 2r,.-~
~ ,. ,
; r ? ~1 :, I .
with 45 watts of output on VHFand
I J l - ' ; ,:,,-,,-,\,
.- , r , - , , , *?q.??,I:..,!b..
.
a . r!-, ~ . ,+.l-,-,~,
t
, rle:!ll \,>(:I,
35 watts on UHF. TM-721A-Trul~ the
pT,:;-:i,
, ,,,~,:!,,,~.,
...,., : . ~ , r +
';
. I : , i:'...r i ,li -~.L:;~,,:IE.~:
16-key DTMF
finest fulllfeatured FM Dual Band
i"""
' "!'!
" ""
Or UPiDWN
on
hand mlc., rnountlng bracket, DC cable.
mobile transceiver!
mlcrophone (Encode bullt-~n,
optlonal
*
ii,
. ' r~lr'rl'x
OoOTSU-6 needed for decode.)
, . , . : # , , . . , , , , , , ! , .,, t. ,,,,,,,
, , I , , ,,,r, , , , !
173.995 MHz) on 2 meters; 70 cni cover. , . , . , . ,, :,. . : . , ... ,,,. ,I,,,,. .l..r,,ll
age IS 438.000-449.995 MHz. (Specill,! ::. . ..,
.;
,,,, i: .,,. , . t i .,
,,,,
cations guaranteed on Amateur bands
only. Two meter transrnlt range 1s 144-148 : ! . , ),,
MI-17.Modlfiablc for MARSICAP Pcrni~ts
required.)
3 f j ~ i i ~ l l t ~ f ~ ~~ nr nn~ t5 ~
~ l?i ~
2?r' 1
v .~~i~ii.15
14 niernory channels and one call
channel for each band store frequency,
repeater offset, CTCSS, and reverse.
Channels 'X'and "b" establish upper
and lower l~mitsfor programmable band
scan. Channels " C a n d "d" store transrnlt
and recelve frequencies ~ndependently
fcr "odd spllls;
.
. :., .
.
,.
-
.
,,,;
$,:
#.,
+
'
,,.
!,Sf
.:I..
C!!-t~o",,i ~i
I ,;,. . , 8 . i > .
RC-10 Mull~~funcl~on
h;~nd~,c.tlrf!n~!,le
controller PS-430 Powc!~s~lpllly' TSU-6
CTCSS rlecodrs ~ l r ia~SW-100B
l
Cr>nll):~~
I
SWHil~owcrivol~
niete~ SW-200B Uijlnxe
SWHir~owormt~lfr SWT-1 7r11
.~r~lrnri;i
t~~nr!rSWT-2 70 crii ,rrilrSrill:lI~iri!,l SP-40
.
-
-
Compacl rnc~b~l?
speaker * SP-JOB Dcl~rxe
iiloh~l(?
:;i.e;~krsr 'a PG-2N DC ( :1I)If: - PG-3B
DC l~rlt!nrmr?.~llcr MC-60A, MC-80,
MC-85 H;lsr, ,l;lllon ITIII::, - MA-4000 Diriil
tj:ind rncit)~le::ntr~nna
lnloun! r 1 c 9 1 s~jlq,ltedr
- ME-11 hlob~l.:!>r:~ckrl* MC-43s UI'iOWN
h:.tr~(lmli : MC-48B 1 6 ~ k r , vI)Ihll Ii;lnd Inlr.
, I , .
114,1111111,1
KENWOD
KENWOOD U.S.A. CORPORATION
1201F Uonl~ngirezS t . Long Bcach.CA 90810
PO. Box 22145. Long Beach, CA 90801-5745