Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows

Parallels
Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers for
Windows
User's Guide
Version 4.0
ISBN: N/A
Parallels Holdings Ltd.
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© 1999-2008 Parallels Holdings Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Contents
Preface
11 About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers ........................................................................................................ 12 About This Guide ....................................................................................................................................... 14 Organization of This Guide ............................................................................................................. 15 Documentation Conventions ........................................................................................................... 15 Getting Help ............................................................................................................................................... 16 Feedback ..................................................................................................................................................... 17 Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
18 About Virtuozzo Containers Software ........................................................................................................ 18 What is Virtuozzo Containers.......................................................................................................... 18 What is Container ............................................................................................................................ 19 Virtuozzo Applications .................................................................................................................... 19 Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit Processors ............................................................................... 20 Distinctive Features of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 ........................................................................ 21 OS Virtualization ............................................................................................................................. 22 Virtuozzo File System (VZFS) ........................................................................................................ 22 Templates ........................................................................................................................................ 23 Resource Management .................................................................................................................... 23 Main Principles of Virtuozzo Operation ..................................................................................................... 24 Basics of Virtuozzo Technology ..................................................................................................... 24 Understanding Templates ................................................................................................................ 26 Parallels Management Console Overview ....................................................................................... 27 Parallels Infrastructure Management Overview .............................................................................. 29 Container Administrators' Tools...................................................................................................... 30 Hardware Node Availability Considerations .............................................................................................. 31 Operations on Containers
32 Creating New Container ............................................................................................................................. 32 Before You Begin ............................................................................................................................ 33 Choosing Container ID .................................................................................................................... 33 Creating Container........................................................................................................................... 35 Creating Container Running Windows SBS 2003 ........................................................................... 41 Starting, Stopping, and Querying Status of Container ................................................................................ 43 Accessing Container ................................................................................................................................... 44 Configuring Terminal Services Inside Container ............................................................................ 45 Terminal Services Client ................................................................................................................. 47 Remote Desktop Connection ........................................................................................................... 47 Windows File Sharing ..................................................................................................................... 48 Citrix MetaFrame XP ...................................................................................................................... 48 Listing Containers ....................................................................................................................................... 49 Container Statuses ........................................................................................................................... 50 Backing Up and Restoring Containers ........................................................................................................ 51 Backups Overview........................................................................................................................... 52 Setting Default Backup Parameters ................................................................................................. 53 Backing Up Single Container .......................................................................................................... 60 Backing Up Group of Containers .................................................................................................... 64 Browsing Backup Contents ............................................................................................................. 68 Contents
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Restoring Single Container .............................................................................................................. 69 Restoring Container Files ................................................................................................................ 71 Restoring Group of Containers ........................................................................................................ 73 Managing Backup Node .................................................................................................................. 74 Searching for Container Backups .................................................................................................... 77 Scheduling Container Backups ........................................................................................................ 78 Setting Maximal Backup Number for Parallels Power Panel .......................................................... 85 Using Third-Party Backup Software ............................................................................................... 87 Searching for Container ............................................................................................................................ 105 Moving Container Within Hardware Node............................................................................................... 107 Copying Containers Within Hardware Node ............................................................................................ 109 Copying Single Container ............................................................................................................. 109 Copying Group of Containers........................................................................................................ 113 Migrating Container.................................................................................................................................. 115 Deleting Container .................................................................................................................................... 117 Changing Administrator Password ........................................................................................................... 118 Setting Container Name ............................................................................................................................ 119 Storing Extended Information on Container ............................................................................................. 120 Forwarding SCSI Disks to Container ....................................................................................................... 122 Operations Inside Container ..................................................................................................................... 123 Managing Users and Groups ......................................................................................................... 124 Managing Files .............................................................................................................................. 126 Managing Windows Updates Inside Container......................................................................................... 131 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 132 Configuring Updates Inside Container .......................................................................................... 134 Managing Resources
137 Managing Container Disk Space Quota .................................................................................................... 137 Setting Up Disk Space Quota ........................................................................................................ 138 Checking Disk Quota Status .......................................................................................................... 139 Managing Container CPU Resources ....................................................................................................... 140 Managing Container CPU Usage................................................................................................... 140 Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container............................................................................ 144 Managing Container System Resources ................................................................................................... 145 Managing Network Resources .................................................................................................................. 147 Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container ......................................................................................... 147 Enabling Network Browsing for Container ................................................................................... 149 Managing Network Bandwidth ................................................................................................................. 149 Configuring Network Classes ........................................................................................................ 150 Viewing Network Traffic Statistics ............................................................................................... 152 Turning On and Off Network Bandwidth Management ................................................................ 153 Configuring Network Bandwidth Management for Container ...................................................... 155 Managing Container Resources Configurations ....................................................................................... 156 Creating Container Configuration Sample .................................................................................... 157 Copying Container Configuration Sample .................................................................................... 163 Saving and Uploading Configuration Sample to/from Local Computer ....................................... 165 Scaling Container Configuration Sample ...................................................................................... 167 Applying New Configuration Sample to Container....................................................................... 169 Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System Up-to-Date
171 Updating Virtuozzo Containers Software ................................................................................................. 172 Updating Windows Server 2003 ............................................................................................................... 176 Deploying Local WSUS and VUS Servers ............................................................................................... 177 Setting Up Local WSUS Server .................................................................................................... 177 Setting Up Local VUS Server ....................................................................................................... 181 Contents
Managing Hardware Nodes
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201 Managing Virtuozzo Licenses .................................................................................................................. 201 Understanding Licensing ............................................................................................................... 202 Installing Virtuozzo License on Hardware Node........................................................................... 203 Updating Virtuozzo License .......................................................................................................... 205 Transferring License to Another Node .......................................................................................... 206 Viewing Virtuozzo License ........................................................................................................... 208 Virtuozzo License Expiration ........................................................................................................ 210 Managing Files ......................................................................................................................................... 211 Uploading Files to Node ................................................................................................................ 212 Downloading Files to Local Computer.......................................................................................... 214 Managing IP Addresses Pool on Node ..................................................................................................... 215 Configuring Hardware Node IP Addresses Pool ........................................................................... 215 Viewing Allocated IP Addresses ................................................................................................... 217 Logs and Monitors
219 Monitoring Resources ............................................................................................................................... 219 Using Charts Representation ......................................................................................................... 220 Using Table Representation........................................................................................................... 228 Viewing Network Traffic Summary .............................................................................................. 229 Viewing System and Virtuozzo Logs ....................................................................................................... 230 Subscribing to Parallels Management Console Alerts .............................................................................. 231 Monitoring Top Resources Consumption ................................................................................................. 234 Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers................................................................................... 235 Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers .............................................................................. 237 Top Disk Space Consuming Containers ........................................................................................ 239 Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers ................................................................................. 241 Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers ............................................................................... 243 Monitoring Virtuozzo Objects Using vzsnmp Plug-In ............................................................................. 244 Managing Services and Processes
245 What Are Services and Processes ............................................................................................................. 246 Main Operations on Services and Processes ............................................................................................. 247 Managing Services and Processes ............................................................................................................ 247 Managing Processes ...................................................................................................................... 248 Managing Services ........................................................................................................................ 251 Managing Virtuozzo Network
252 Managing Network Adapters on Hardware Node..................................................................................... 252 Listing Adapters ............................................................................................................................ 253 Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network........................................................................................ 254 Managing Virtual Networks ..................................................................................................................... 255 Creating Virtual Network .............................................................................................................. 256 Listing Virtual Networks ............................................................................................................... 257 Deleting Virtual Network .............................................................................................................. 258 Managing Container Virtual Network Adapters ....................................................................................... 258 Networking Modes ........................................................................................................................ 258 Creating and Deleting Container Adapters .................................................................................... 263 Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters.................................................................... 265 Connecting Bridged Containers to Network .................................................................................. 272 Contents
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Enabling VPN Inside Container................................................................................................................ 274 Enabling NAT for Container .................................................................................................................... 275 Advanced Tasks
277 Migrating Physical Server to Container .................................................................................................... 277 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 278 Migration Requirements ................................................................................................................ 278 Migration Restrictions ................................................................................................................... 279 Migrating Physical Server to Container in Parallels Management Console .................................. 280 Configuring Container Resources Parameters After Migration ..................................................... 287 Managing Memory Resources in Virtuozzo-Based Systems .................................................................... 287 Managing Memory Resources on Node ........................................................................................ 287 Managing Container Memory Resources ...................................................................................... 288 Managing External Drives and Image Files for Container ....................................................................... 294 Managing Container Virtual Disks ................................................................................................ 294 Managing Hardware Node Drives ................................................................................................. 300 Managing Image Files ................................................................................................................... 302 Managing Types of Container Virtual Hard Disks ................................................................................... 304 Shrinking Container Virtual Disks ................................................................................................ 305 Customizing Container Desktop ............................................................................................................... 306 Configuring Container Offline Management ............................................................................................ 308 Reinstalling Container .............................................................................................................................. 311 Updating Parallels Management Console ................................................................................................. 312 Configuring Parallels Agent ..................................................................................................................... 314 Managing Virtuozzo Global Parameters ................................................................................................... 315 Troubleshooting
318 General Considerations ............................................................................................................................. 318 Problems With Container Management .................................................................................................... 318 Failure to Start Container .............................................................................................................. 319 Failure to Access Container From Network .................................................................................. 319 Failure to Log In to Container ....................................................................................................... 320 Failure to Manage Containers in PAE-disabled System ................................................................ 321 Failure to Run Sound Files Inside Container ................................................................................. 323 Failure to See Mounted Drives Inside Container........................................................................... 323 Submitting Problem Report to Technical Support .................................................................................... 324 Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels Support .................................................................................... 328 Glossary
330 Index
332 7
Table of Figures
Figure 1: Virtuozzo Containers OS Virtualization .................................................................12 Figure 2: Virtuozzo Containers Technology............................................................................24 Figure 3: Management Console Main Window.......................................................................27 Figure 4: Infrastructure Manager Interface Overview ..........................................................29 Figure 5: Management Console - Viewing Container.............................................................34 Figure 6: Management Console - Choosing Sample Configuration File ...............................35 Figure 7: Management Console - Configuring Container Network Adapters .....................37 Figure 8: Management Console - Specifying OS Template....................................................38 Figure 9: Management Console - Viewing Container.............................................................40 Figure 10: Management Console - Starting Container...........................................................43 Figure 11: Management Console - Configuring Terminal Services Inside Container ........46 Figure 12: Management Console - Listing Containers ...........................................................49 Figure 13: Backup Overview ....................................................................................................52 Figure 14: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Storage .....................................54 Figure 15: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Location ...................................56 Figure 16: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Compression Level .................58 Figure 17: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Type..........................................59 Figure 18: Management Console - Choosing Backup Mode ..................................................60 Figure 19: Management Console - Choosing Files and Folders to Back Up.........................61 Figure 20: Management Console - Specifying Main Backup Parameters ............................62 Figure 21: Management Console - Choosing Containers to Back Up ...................................64 Figure 22: Management Console - Choosing Files to Backup Up .........................................65 Figure 23: Management Console - Specifying Main Backup Parameters ............................66 Figure 24: Management Console - Browsing Backup Contents ............................................68 Figure 25: Management Console - Restoring Container Wizard ..........................................69 Figure 26: Management Console - Restoring Container Files Wizard .................................71 Figure 27: Management Console - Choosing Files For Restoring .........................................72 Figure 28: Management Console - Restoring Containers Wizard.........................................73 Figure 29: Management Console - Listing Backups ...............................................................74 Figure 30: Management Console - Choosing Destination Node.............................................75 Figure 31: Management Console - Launching Restore Individual Container Files Wizard76 Figure 32: Management Console - Searching for Backups ....................................................77 Figure 33: Scheduling Container Backups - Choosing Files to Back Up ..............................79 Figure 34: Scheduling Container Backups - Setting Main Backup Options ........................81 Figure 35: Management Console - Defining Backup Tasks Parameters ..............................83 Figure 36: Management Console - Setting Number of Allowed Backups in Power Panel ..85 Figure 37: Installing Symantec Backup Exec ..........................................................................88 Figure 38: Creating Backup Job - Step 1 .................................................................................89 Figure 39: Creating Backup Job - Step 2 .................................................................................89 Figure 40: Creating Backup Job - Step 3 .................................................................................90 Figure 41: Symantec Backup Exec - Filesystem Backup ........................................................91 Figure 42: Symantec Backup Exec - Shadow Copy Components Backup ............................92 Figure 43: Configuring TSM Server Software ........................................................................93 Figure 44: Installing TSM Client Software .............................................................................94 Figure 45: Tivoli Storage Manager - Filesystem Backup .......................................................95 Figure 46: Tivoli Storage Manager - Adding Virtuozzo VSS ................................................96 Figure 47: NetWorker User Tool - Filesystem Backup ..........................................................98 Figure 48: EMC NetWorker - Scheduling Backup .................................................................99 Figure 49: Installing BrightStor ARCserve ...........................................................................100 Table of Figures
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Figure 50: Configuring BrightStor ARCserve ......................................................................101 Figure 51: Using NTBACKUP to Create Container Backups .............................................103 Figure 52: Management Console - Finding Container .........................................................105 Figure 53: Management Console - Specifying New Container ID .......................................107 Figure 54: Manangement Console - Setting Root and Private Area Paths .........................108 Figure 55: Management Console - Cloning Container .........................................................110 Figure 56: Management Console - Specifying Network Parameters...................................111 Figure 57: Management Console - Specifying Container Name and Hostname ................113 Figure 58: Management Console - Resolving IP Address Conflicts ....................................114 Figure 59: Management Console - Migrating Containers ....................................................116 Figure 60: Management Console - Deleting Container ........................................................117 Figure 61: Management Console - Setting Administrator Password ..................................118 Figure 62: Manangement Console - Setting Container Name .............................................119 Figure 63: Manangement Console - Providing Container Description ...............................120 Figure 64: Management Console - Forwarding SCSI Device ..............................................122 Figure 65: Management Console - Managing Users and Groups ........................................124 Figure 66: Manangement Console - File Manager ................................................................126 Figure 67: Management Console - Setting Location For Uploading Files ..........................128 Figure 68: Management Console - Uploading Files to Container........................................129 Figure 69: Management Console - Downloading Files to Local Computer ........................130 Figure 70: Management Console - Configuring File Properties ..........................................131 Figure 71: Container Update Manager - Overview ..............................................................132 Figure 72: Container Update Manager - Removing Update From Container ...................134 Figure 73: Container Update Manager - Checking Container Updates .............................135 Figure 74: Management Console - Setting Disk Space Quota .............................................138 Figure 75: Management Console - Viewing Container Disk Space Statistics.....................139 Figure 76: Management Console - Managing CPU Usage ...................................................142 Figure 77: Management Console - Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container ........144 Figure 78: Management Console - Managing System Parameters ......................................146 Figure 79: Management Console - Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container.......................148 Figure 80: Management Console - Configuring Network Classes .......................................151 Figure 81: Management Console - Viewing Current Network Traffic Statistics ...............152 Figure 82: Management Console - Setting Up Traffic Shaping Parameters ......................153 Figure 83: Management Console - Configuring Network Bandwidth ................................154 Figure 84: Management Console - Configuring Network Bandwidth Management for
Container ...........................................................................................................................155 Figure 85: Management Console - Choosing Container Configuration Sample ................157 Figure 86: Management Console - Entering Container Sample Name and Description ...158 Figure 87: Management Console - Defining Resources Parameters ...................................160 Figure 88: Management Console - Specifying Network Parameters for Sample ...............161 Figure 89: Management Console - Specifying Traffic Shaping Parameters ......................162 Figure 90: Management Console - Copying Container Sample...........................................163 Figure 91: Management Console - Uploading Container Sample .......................................165 Figure 92: Management Console - Scaling Container Sample ............................................167 Figure 93: Management Console - Applying New Resource Configuration .......................169 Figure 94: Running Virtuozzo Update Wizard .....................................................................172 Figure 95: Specifying Proxy Parameters ...............................................................................173 Figure 96: Defining Virtuozzo Update Settings.....................................................................174 Figure 97: Installing WSUS - Selecting Update Source ........................................................178 Figure 98: Installing WSUS - Defining Web Site ..................................................................179 Figure 99: Installing WSUS - Setting Update Server ...........................................................180 Figure 100: Designing VUS Infrastructure............................................................................182 Figure 101: Installing VUS - Entering Personal Information ..............................................184 Table of Figures
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Figure 102: Installing VUS - Starting Installation ................................................................184 Figure 103: Synchronizing VUS Server - Viewing Virtual Directory .................................186 Figure 104: VUS Manager - Registering Virtuozzo Products..............................................187 Figure 105: VUS Manager - Viewing Registered Product ...................................................188 Figure 106: VUS Manager - Viewing Detailed Information on Virtuozzo Containers .....188 Figure 107: VUS Manager - Registering New Product ........................................................190 Figure 108: VUS Manager - Viewing Updates Information ................................................191 Figure 109: VUS Manager - Viewing Update Details ...........................................................192 Figure 110: VUS Manager - Synchronizing Local VUS Server ...........................................193 Figure 111: VUS Manager - Configuring Updates Approval Policy ...................................195 Figure 112: VUS Manager - Approving Virtuozzo Update..................................................196 Figure 113: VUS Manager - Running Reports .....................................................................197 Figure 114: Setting Path to Local VUS Server ......................................................................198 Figure 115: Deploying Chain of VUS Servers .......................................................................199 Figure 116: VUS Manager - Setting VUS Upstream Server ................................................200 Figure 117: Management Console - Installing License on Hardware Node .......................203 Figure 118: Management Console - Uploading Virtuozo License File ................................204 Figure 119: Management Cosole - Updating Virtuozzo License .........................................205 Figure 120: Management Console - Transferring License to Another Node .....................207 Figure 121: Management Console - Viewing License ...........................................................208 Figure 122: Management Console - Virtuozzo License Expiration .....................................210 Figure 123: Management Console - Managing Files on Hardware Node ...........................211 Figure 124: Management Console - Choosing Hardware Nodes for Uploading Files .......212 Figure 125: Management Console - Uploading Files to Hardware Node ...........................213 Figure 126: Management Console - Configuring Node IP Addresses Pool ........................215 Figure 127: Management Console - Viewing Information on IP Addresses Pool ..............217 Figure 128: Management Console - Adding Monitoring Counters .....................................220 Figure 129: Management Console - Adjusting Charts Scale ...............................................222 Figure 130: Management Console - Adjusting Charts View................................................223 Figure 131: Management Console - Highlighting Counter ..................................................224 Figure 132: Management Console - Changing Logging Period ...........................................226 Figure 133: Management Console - Replaying Logs ............................................................227 Figure 134: Management Cosole - Monitoring Traffic Parameters ....................................228 Figure 135: Management Console - Viewing Network Traffic Summary ..........................229 Figure 136: Management Cosole - Viewing Logs ..................................................................230 Figure 137: Management Console - Setting E-mail Relay Server .......................................231 Figure 138: Management Console - Subscribing to Alert ....................................................232 Figure 139: Management Console - Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers ..............235 Figure 140: Management Console - Containers With Top CPU Share Usage ...................236 Figure 141: Management Console - Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers .........237 Figure 142: Management Console - Containers With Top Memory Share Usage ............. 238 Figure 143: Management Console - Top Disk Space Consuming Containers .................... 239 Figure 144: Management Console - Containers With Top Disk Space Share Consumption240 Figure 145: Management Console - Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers ............241 Figure 146: Management Console - Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers ..........243 Figure 147: Management Conole - Monitoring Active Processes ........................................248 Figure 148: Task Manager - Monitoring Active Processes ..................................................250 Figure 149: Management Console - Viewing Services ..........................................................251 Figure 150: Management Console - Listing Network Adapters ..........................................253 Figure 151: Management Console - Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network...................254 Figure 152: Management Console - Creating Virtual Network ..........................................256 Figure 153: Management Console - Listing Virtual Networks ............................................257 Figure 154: Management Console - Deleting Virtual Network ...........................................258 Table of Figures
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Figure 155: Virtuozzo Network - Host-Routed Networking ................................................259 Figure 156: Virtuozzo Network - Bridged Networking ........................................................261 Figure 157: Management Console - Setting Parameters for Container Virtual Adapter .263 Figure 158: Manangement Console - Changing Container MAC Addresses .....................267 Figure 159: Management Console - Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters269 Figure 160: Management Console - Enabling DHCP for Container Adapter ...................271 Figure 161: Mannagement Console - Connecting veth Adapter to Bridge .........................273 Figure 162: Virtuozzo Network - Using NAT ........................................................................275 Figure 163: Management Console - Logging In to Physical Server ....................................280 Figure 164: Management Console - Reviewing Server Configuration ................................282 Figure 165: Management Console - Specifying Main Parameters for Container ..............283 Figure 166: Management Console - Defining Network Parameters ....................................285 Figure 167: Management Console - Specifying Resource Parameters ................................286 Figure 168: Sharing Memory Among Containers.................................................................289 Figure 169: Copy-On-Write Protection .................................................................................290 Figure 170: Management Console - Setting Container Private Memory............................291 Figure 171: Process Explorer - Viewing Memory Pools .......................................................294 Figure 172: Management Console - Adding New Drive to Container.................................296 Figure 173: Management Console - Configuring Container Drive .....................................298 Figure 174: Management Console - Removing Drive From Container ..............................299 Figure 175: Management Console - Mounting Hardware Node Drive ...............................301 Figure 176: Management Console - Removing Hardware Node Drive ...............................302 Figure 177: Management Console - Mounting Image File ...................................................303 Figure 178: Management Console - Viewing Offline Services .............................................308 Figure 179: Management Console - Disabling Offline Management ..................................310 Figure 180: Management Console Updater ...........................................................................312 Figure 181: Management Console - Managing Parallels Agent Configuration .................315 Figure 182: Management Console - Managing Global Virtuozzo Parameters ..................316 Figure 183: Submitting Problem Report to Technical Supprot ..........................................324 Figure 184: Submitting Problem Report - Specifying Time Period ....................................325 Figure 185: Submitting Problem Report - Specifying Connection Settings .......................326 Figure 186: Specifying Proxy Parameters .............................................................................326 Figure 187: Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels Support ...........................................329 11
CHAPTER 1
Preface
In This Chapter
About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers ................................................................................... 12
About This Guide .................................................................................................................. 14
Getting Help .......................................................................................................................... 16
Feedback ............................................................................................................................... 17
Preface
12
About Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers is a patented OS virtualization solution. Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 creates isolated partitions or Containers on a single physical server and OS instance to
utilize hardware, software, data center and management effort with maximum efficiency. The
basic Virtuozzo capabilities are:
ƒ
Intelligent Partitioning - Division of a server into as many as hundreds of Containers with
full server functionality.
ƒ
Complete Isolation - Containers are secure and have full functional, fault and performance
isolation.
ƒ
Dynamic Resource Allocation - CPU, memory, network, disk and I/O can be changed
without rebooting.
ƒ
Mass Management - Suite of tools and templates for automated, multi-Container and
multi-server administration.
The diagram below represents a typical model of the Virtuozzo-based system structure:
Figure 1: Virtuozzo Containers OS Virtualization
Preface
13
The Parallels Virtuozzo OS virtualization model is streamlined for the best performance,
management, and efficiency. At the base resides a standard Host operating system which can be
either Windows or Linux. Next is the virtualization layer with a proprietary file system and a
kernel service abstraction layer that ensure the isolation and security of resources between
different Containers. The virtualization layer makes each Container appear as a standalone
server. Finally, the Container itself houses the application or workload.
The Parallels Virtuozzo OS virtualization solution has the highest efficiency and manageability
making it the best solution for organizations concerned with containing the IT infrastructure and
maximizing the resource utilization. The Parallels Virtuozzo complete set of management tools
and unique architecture makes it the perfect solution for easily maintaining, monitoring, and
managing virtualized server resources for consolidation and business continuity configurations.
Preface
14
About This Guide
The primary audience for this book is anyone responsible for administering one or more systems
running Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows. To fully understand the major
Virtuozzo notions and learn to perform the main administrative operations, no more than basic
Windows administration habits is required.
This guide is meant to provide comprehensive information on Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 for Windows – high-end server virtualization software for Windows-based servers. The
issues discussed in this guide cover the necessary theoretical conceptions as well as practical
aspects of working with Virtuozzo Containers. The guide will familiarize you with the way to
create and administer Containers (sometimes also called Virtual Private Servers, or VPSs) on
Virtuozzo-based Hardware Nodes and to employ both the graphical and command line
interfaces for performing various tasks.
Note: The guide does not familiarize you with the process of installing, configuring, and
deploying your Virtuozzo system. Detailed information on all these operations is provided in the
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide shipped with the Virtuozzo
Containers software.
According to the task-oriented approach, most topics of this guide are devoted to a particular
task and the ways to perform it. However, the Virtuozzo Containers software is equipped with
as many as three different tools to perform various administrative tasks:
1 Parallels Management Console with graphical user interface. Management Console is
considered the primary tool for administering Virtuozzo and performing main administrative
tasks on Hardware Nodes and in the Container context. Therefore, when describing the
ways to perform this or that task, we have provided the corresponding procedures for
Parallels Management Console only.
2 Parallels Infrastructure Manager with web interface. Infrastructure Manager - a web
counterpart of Management Console - is provided with its own guide as well as a
comprehensive online help system.
3 Virtuozzo command line utilities. If you are used to working in the command line, you can
turn to the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide to learn to manage
Hardware Nodes and Containers by means of Virtuozzo command line utilities.
Besides, there is another tool for managing Containers - Parallels Power Panel. However, this
tool is mainly regarded as a means for individual Container customers to manage their personal
Containers and is therefore not described in this guide.
Preface
15
Organization of This Guide
Chapter 2, Virtuozzo Philosophy, is a must-read chapter that helps you grasp the general
principles of Virtuozzo operation. It provides an outline of Virtuozzo architecture and lets you
understand the Virtuozzo licensing policy.
Chapter 3, Operations on Containers, covers those operations that you may perform on
Containers by means of Parallels Management Console or special Virtuozzo utilities: creating
and deleting Containers, starting and stopping them, migrating between Hardware Nodes, etc.
Chapter 4, Managing Resources, zeroes in on configuring the resource control parameters for
different Containers. These parameters include disk quotas, CPU time, and a set of memoryrelated resources.
Chapter 5, Keeping Your Virtuozzo System Up-to-Date, provides information on the ways to keep
all the software components of a Hardware Node up-to-date.
Chapter 6, Managing Hardware Nodes, centers on all those operations you as Hardware Nodes
administrator can perform on your Nodes.
Chapter 7, Logs and Monitors, explains the ways to keep track of all system events and the
consumption of all kinds of resources by the running Containers and the Hardware Node itself.
Chapter 8, Managing Services and Processes, familiarizes you with the operations you can
perform on processes and services in Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 by using the Parallels
Management Console graphical interface.
Chapter 9, Managing Virtuozzo Network, familiarizes you with the Virtuozzo network structure,
enumerates Virtuozzo networking components, and explains how to manage these components
in Virtuozzo-based systems.
Chapter 10, Advanced Tasks, enumerates those tasks that are intended for advanced system
administrators who would like to obtain deeper knowledge about Virtuozzo capabilities.
Chapter 11, Troubleshooting, suggests ways to resolve common inconveniences should they
occur during your work with the Virtuozzo Containers software.
Documentation Conventions
Before you start using this guide, it is important to understand the documentation conventions
used in it. For information on specialized terms used in the documentation, see the Glossary at
the end of this document.
The table below presents the existing formatting conventions.
Formatting convention
Type of Information
Example
Triangular Bullet(¾)
Step-by-step procedures. You
can follow the instructions
below to complete a specific
task.
To create a Container:
Preface
16
Items you must select, such as
menu
options,
command
buttons, or items in a list.
Go to the Resources tab.
Titles of chapters, sections, and
subsections.
Read the Basic Administration chapter.
Used to emphasize the
importance of a point, to
introduce a term or to designate
a command line placeholder,
which is to be replaced with a
real name or value.
These are the so-called EZ templates.
To destroy a Container, type vzctl
destroy ctid.
Monospace
The names of commands, files,
and directories.
Use vzctl
Container.
Preformatted
On-screen computer output in
your command-line sessions;
source code in XML, C++, or
other programming languages.
Saved parameters for Container
101
Monospace Bold
What you type, as contrasted
with
on-screen
computer
output.
# rpm –V virtuozzo-release
CAPITALS
Names of
keyboard.
SHIFT, CTRL, ALT
KEY+KEY
Key combinations for which
the user must press and hold
down one key and then press
another.
Special Bold
Italics
keys
on
the
start
to
start
a
CTRL+P, ALT+F4
Besides the formatting conventions, you should also know about the document organization
convention applied to Parallels documents: chapters in all guides are divided into sections,
which, in turn, are subdivided into subsections. For example, About This Guide is a section, and
Documentation Conventions is a subsection.
Getting Help
In addition to this guide, there are a number of other resources shipped with Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 which can help you use the product more effectively. These resources include:
ƒ
Manuals:
ƒ
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Evaluation Guide. This guide is destined to introduce you
to the main features of Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 and to its underlying technology, to
help you set up an environment for evaluating the Virtuozzo major features, and to
suggest the relevant procedures for this evaluation.
ƒ
Getting Started With Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows. This guide provides
basic information on how to install Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 on your server,
create new Containers, and perform main operations on them.
Preface
ƒ
17
ƒ
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide. This guide provides
exhaustive information on the process of installing, configuring, and deploying your
Virtuozzo system. As distinct from the given guide, it contains a more detailed
description of all the operations needed to install and set Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 to
work including planning the structure of your Virtuozzo network, performing the
Virtuozzo Containers unattended installation, etc. Besides, it does not include the
description of any Container-related operations.
ƒ
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Templates Management Guide. This guide is
meant to provide complete information on Virtuozzo templates - an exclusive Parallels
Virtuozzo technology allowing you to efficiently deploy standard Windows applications
inside your Containers and to greatly save the Hardware Node resources (physical
memory, disk space, etc.).
ƒ
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide. This guide is a complete
reference on all Virtuozzo configuration files and Hardware Node command-line
utilities.
Help systems:
ƒ
Parallels Management Console Help. This help system provides detailed information on
Parallels Management Console - a graphical user interface tool for managing Virtuozzo
Hardware Nodes and their Containers.
ƒ
Parallels Infrastructure Manager Online Help. This help system shows you how to work
with Parallels Infrastructure Manager - a tool providing you with the ability to manage
Virtuozzo Hardware Nodes and their Containers with the help of a standard Web
browser on any platform.
ƒ
Parallels Power Panel Online Help. This help system deals with Parallels Power Panel - a
means for administering individual Containers thru a common Web browser on any
platform.
Feedback
If you spot a typo in this guide, or if you have thought of a way to make this guide better, we
would love to hear from you!
The Parallels documentation forum is the ideal place for your comments and suggestions. It is
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Registering will allow you to participate not only in the documentation forum discussions, but
in all the other Parallels forums as well.
18
CHAPTER 2
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
In This Chapter
About Virtuozzo Containers Software .................................................................................. 18
Distinctive Features of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 .................................................. 21
Main Principles of Virtuozzo Operation ............................................................................... 24
Hardware Node Availability Considerations ........................................................................ 31
About Virtuozzo Containers
Software
What is Virtuozzo Containers
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is a complete server automation and virtualization solution
based on a patented technology developed by Parallels. The Virtuozzo Containers software
creates multiple isolated Containers on a single physical server to share hardware, licenses, and
management effort with maximum efficiency. Each Container performs and executes exactly
like a stand-alone server for its users and applications as it can be rebooted independently and
has its own Administrator access, Active Directory domain users, IP addresses, memory,
processes, files, applications, system libraries, and configuration files. Light overhead and
efficient design of Parallels Virtuozzo makes it the right virtualization choice for production
servers with live applications and real-life data.
The basic Virtuozzo capabilities are:
ƒ
Intelligent Partitioning divides a server into as many as hundreds of Containers with full
server functionality.
ƒ
Complete Isolation ensures that the Containers are secure and have full functional, fault and
performance isolation.
ƒ
Dynamic Resource Allocation of key system resources such as CPU, memory, network, disk
and I/O enables near real-time changes.
ƒ
Live Migration and other business continuity capabilities ensure data is available and
recoverable.
ƒ
Management Tools include full suite of tools and templates for automated, multi-Container
and multi-server administration.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
19
What is Container
A Container is a virtual private server, which is functionally identical to an isolated standalone
server:
ƒ
Each Container has its own processes, Active Directory domain users, files and provides
full administrative access.
ƒ
Each Container has its own IP addresses, port numbers, filtering and routing rules.
ƒ
Each Container can have its own configuration for the system and application software, as
well as its own versions of Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs), system libraries, and registry. It
is possible to install or customize software packages inside a Container independently from
other Containers or the host system. Multiple distributions of a package can be run on one
and the same Windows box.
ƒ
Each Container has its own unique Administrator user with full control over the given
Container and full access to other user accounts inside this Container.
ƒ
Each Container can be a member of a Windows domain (e.g. access any of the network
shares to which the Container user has rights). Moreover, any Container can act as a domain
controller granting other Containers and stand-alone servers users access to a set of network
resources (applications, printers, etc.).
Virtuozzo Applications
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 can be efficiently applied in a wide range of areas: enterprise server
consolidation, web and applications hosting, software development and testing, user training,
and so on.
If you administer a number of Windows dedicated servers within an enterprise, you can benefit
from the Virtuozzo solution in the following ways:
ƒ
Reduce the number of required physical servers and corresponding support by grouping a
multitude of your enterprise servers onto a single server without losing a bit of valuable
information and without compromising performance.
ƒ
Increase server utilization and maximize server potential.
ƒ
Provision servers in minutes by using the technology of Virtuozzo templates.
ƒ
Migrate Containers in the time of network data transfer, nearly eliminating the planned
downtime and enabling fast reaction to unplanned downtime situations.
ƒ
Monitor OS and application versions and update/upgrade the current software easily across
all of your physical servers running the Virtuozzo Containers software and their Containers.
ƒ
Guarantee Quality-of-Service in accordance with a corporate service level agreement
(SLA).
ƒ
Automate routine tasks such as upgrades and updates.
ƒ
Minimize software license and support requirements, etc.
Due to its unique efficiency and completeness, Parallels Virtuozzo has also a wide variety of
profitable uses for Hosting Service Providers allowing them to:
ƒ
Sell new powerful and popular services such as:
ƒ
Advanced Shared for shared hosting with customized application sets and resources;
ƒ
True Container for a cheaper, secure, and easier alternative to dedicated servers;
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
ƒ
20
Split Dedicated allowing your customers to split the servers for their better utilization,
etc.
ƒ
Provide complete self-administration panels (Parallels Power Panel) including system
backup/restore and monitoring tools.
ƒ
Have a multitude of customers with their individual full-featured Containers sharing a
single physical server.
ƒ
Transparently move customers and their environments between servers, without any manual
reconfiguration.
ƒ
Increase profitability through the better management and leverage of hardware and software
investments.
ƒ
Automate service provisioning by using the technology of Virtuozzo templates, etc.
Besides, Parallels Virtuozzo Containers proves invaluable for IT educational institutions that
can now provide every student with a personal Windows server, which can be monitored and
managed remotely. Software development companies may use Containers for testing purposes
and the like.
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit Processors
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is released in three variants – for common 32-bit processors
and for two groups of 64-bit processors:
ƒ
ƒ
x86-64 including the following processors:
ƒ
AMD Opteron;
ƒ
AMD Athlon 64;
ƒ
Intel Xeon with EM64T support;
ƒ
Intel Pentium with EM64T support;
ƒ
etc.
IA-64 containing the Intel® Itanium® 2 processor only.
Depending on the kind of processors to be used, this or that variant of the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers distribution set should be chosen.
The Virtuozzo Containers 32-bit version has been fully ported to support x86-64 and IA64 64bit processors, therefore, all its functionality is retained in the 64-bit versions. So, you can use
any Virtuozzo Tool and utility in exactly the same way as you would use it on the servers with
standard 32-bit processors. However, while working with the 64-bit version of Virtuozzo
Containers, you should keep in mind the following:
1
The Virtuozzo Containers 64-bit version should be installed on a server running either the
x86-64-bit or IA64-bit version of Windows Server 2003. Please refer to the Parallels
Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide to learn what particular 64-bit versions
of Windows Server 2003 are supported by the Virtuozzo Containers software.
2 The Containers created under Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for x86-64 should use the 64bit OS template.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
21
Note: The 64-bit versions of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers allows you to create Containers
running German, Spanish, French, Simplified Chinese, or Traditional Chinese versions of
Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition with the help of Multilingual User Interface Packs
(MUIs). Detailed information on MUIs is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for
Windows Templates Management Guide.
3 The Virtuozzo Containers version for the 64-bit processors allows you to add only 64-bit
application templates to your Containers.
4 You can use any Hardware Node as a Backup Node irrespective of the Virtuozzo Containers
version installed on this Node. So, you can back up a Container from the Node running the
Virtuozzo Containers 32-bit version and store it on the Node running the Virtuozzo
Containers 64-bit version and vice versa. More information on Container backups is
provided in the Backing Up and Restoring Containers section (on page 51).
Except for these points, installing and using Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit
processors does not differ from working with its 32-bit counterpart.
Distinctive Features of Parallels
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0
The concept of Virtuozzo Containers is distinct from the concept of traditional virtual machines
in the respect that Containers always run the same OS kernel as the host system (Linux on
Linux, Windows on Windows, etc.). This single-kernel implementation technology allows to
run Containers with a near-zero overhead. Thus, Virtuozzo Containers offer an order of
magnitude higher efficiency and manageability than traditional virtualization technologies.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
22
OS Virtualization
From the point of view of applications and Container users, each Container is an independent
system. This independence is provided by a virtualization layer over the kernel of the Host OS.
Note that only a small part of the CPU resources is spent on virtualization (around 1-2%). The
main features of the virtualization layer implemented in Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 are
the following:
ƒ
Container looks like a normal Windows system. Software from vendors can run inside any
Container without Virtuozzo-specific modifications or adjustment.
ƒ
Container has its own unique Administrator user with full control over the given
Container and can have a number of other local users with different rights and permissions
assigned to them in respect of this Container.
ƒ
Users can install additional application and system software inside Containers.
ƒ
Container can be a member of an Active Directory domain (e.g. access any of the network
shares to which the Container user has rights). Moreover, any Container can act as an Active
Directory domain controller granting other Containers and stand-alone servers users access
to a set of network resources (applications, printers, etc.).
ƒ
Containers are fully isolated from each other in respect of their users, processes, services,
file systems, and installed applications.
ƒ
Containers share the same executable code, which greatly saves both RAM and disk space.
ƒ
Processes belonging to a Container are scheduled for execution on all available CPUs.
Consequently, Containers are not bound to only one CPU, and any application inside each
Container can use all available CPU power.
Virtuozzo File System (VZFS)
VZFS is a file system that allows to share common files among multiple Containers without
sacrificing security. Any Container user can modify, update, replace, and delete any application
file inside a Container like s/he does it on an isolated stand-alone server. When a user modifies a
shared file, VZFS creates a private copy of the file transparently for the user. Thus, the
modifications do not affect the other users of the file. Main benefits of VZFS are the following:
ƒ
It saves memory required for executables and Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs). A typical
Container running a simple web site might consume around 30–50 MBytes of RAM just for
executable images. Sharing this memory improves scalability and total system performance;
ƒ
It saves disk space. A typical Windows server installation occupies several hundred MBytes
of disk space. Sharing the files allows you to save more than 90% of disk space.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
23
Templates
A template in Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is a set of application files and registry settings installed
on the Host operating system in such a way as to be usable by any Container by mounting over
Virtuozzo File System. Parallels Virtuozzo Containers provides tools for creating templates,
installing and removing them on/from the Hardware Node, adding them to a Container, etc.
Using templates lets you:
ƒ
Securely share the RAM among similar applications running in different Containers to save
hundreds of megabytes of memory;
ƒ
Securely share the files comprising a template among different Containers to save gigabytes
of disk space;
ƒ
Install applications and patches simultaneously in many Containers.
There are two types of templates in Parallels Virtuozzo. These are OS templates and application
templates. An OS template is an operating system and the standard set of applications to be
found right after the installation. The Virtuozzo Containers software uses OS templates to create
new Containers with a preinstalled operating system. An application template is a set of files
and registry settings pertaining to this or that application. The Virtuozzo Containers software
uses application templates to add extra software to the existing Containers. For example, you
can create a Container on the basis of the Windows Server 2003 OS template and add the
Acrobat Reader application to it with the help of the AdobeReader template.
Resource Management
Virtuozzo Resource Management controls the amount of resources available to Containers. The
controlled resources include such parameters as CPU power, disk space, a set of memoryrelated parameters. Resource management allows Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 to:
ƒ
Effectively share available Hardware Node resources among Containers;
ƒ
Guarantee Quality-of-Service in accordance with a service level agreement (SLA);
ƒ
Provide performance and resource isolation and protect from denial-of-service attacks;
ƒ
Simultaneously assign and control resources for a number of Containers;
ƒ
Manage a multitude of Hardware Nodes in a unified way by means of Parallels
Management Console and Parallels Infrastructure Manager;
ƒ
Collect usage information for system health monitoring, etc.
Resource Management is much more important for Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 than for a
standalone server since server resource utilization in a Virtuozzo-based system is considerably
higher than that in a typical system.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
24
Main Principles of Virtuozzo
Operation
Basics of Virtuozzo Technology
In this section we will try to let you form a more or less precise idea of the way the Virtuozzo
Containers software operates on your server. Please see the figure below:
Figure 2: Virtuozzo Containers Technology
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
25
This figure presumes that you have a number of physical servers united into a network. In fact,
you may have only one dedicated server to effectively use Virtuozzo Containers 4.0. If you have
more than one Virtuozzo-based physical server, each one of the servers will have a similar
architecture. In Virtuozzo terminology, such servers are called Hardware Nodes (or just Nodes),
because they represent hardware units within a network.
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows is installed on a server running the Windows
Server 2003 operating system (shown as Host Operating System in the figure above). After
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is installed, you will be able to run Virtuozzo services
supporting virtualization on your server. This support is presented above as Virtuozzo Layer.
The Virtuozzo layer ensures that Containers, sharing the same Hardware Node and the same OS
kernel, are isolated from each other. A Container is a kind of ‘sandbox’ for processes and users.
Before you are able to create a Container, you should install the corresponding OS template in
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0. This is displayed as Virtuozzo Templates in the scheme
above. After you have installed at least one OS template, you can create any number of
Containers with the help of various Virtuozzo management tools (Parallels Management
Console, Parallels Infrastructure Manager, or the command line tools), configure their network
and/or other settings, and work with these Containers as with fully functional Windows servers.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
26
Understanding Templates
Templates are part and parcel of the Virtuozzo philosophy because they provide a way of
sharing resources among lots of Containers, thus enabling huge savings in terms of disk space
and memory. All Virtuozzo templates are divided into OS templates and application templates.
OS templates are used to create new Containers. Application templates are added to Containers
after the latter have been created; more than one application template may be added to one and
the same Container. Examples of application templates are the msde, openssh, Plesk
templates, or a template with any other application (possibly more than one application in a
single template) not included into the OS template for some reason.
Let us take, for example, the Plesk application template, representing the Plesk
comprehensive server management software. It is created by Parallels on the basis of the
original Plesk application. When you install this application template in Virtuozzo Containers
4.0, the Virtuozzo Containers software creates the C:\vz\Templates\Plesk folder
containing all the application files that can be shared among Containers. When the template is
added to a Container, it contains only special placeholders of the necessary template files. These
placeholders occupy very little space on the hard disk, the size of the placeholder files being 0
bytes. They are situated in the so-called private area of the Container. The corresponding folder
is C:\vz\private\<CT_ID>\root. The private area of a Container contains not only
placeholders, but also those files that have been changed by the Container user and all the
private Container files.
Note: During the Virtuozzo Containers installation, the Templates subfolder is automatically
created in the folder you specify for storing all Container data. By default, the C:\vz folder is
used. However, you may define another path for this folder.
Thanks to the fact that the real application files are written to the hard disk only once, gigabytes
of disk space are saved that would be lost if the application were installed separately into each
and every Container. Moreover, the application is also loaded only once into the Node memory,
so memory savings are also tangible.
Thus, in order to add a template application to any number of Containers, you should perform
the following steps:
1
Install the Virtuozzo template on the Hardware Node. Upon installation, the corresponding
C:\vz\Templates\<application_name> folder is created on the Hardware Node
in order to enable sharing common application files among Containers.
2 Add the installed template to any number of Containers of your choice.
All these steps can be performed by using Parallels Management Console, Parallels
Infrastructure Management, or by means of the command line tools.
It goes without saying that in case you want to install an application in only one Container, there
is no need in working with templates: you can work inside the corresponding Container as well.
Note: For further information on Virtuozzo templates, please consult the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Templates Management Guide shipped with Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
27
Parallels Management Console Overview
Parallels Management Console is a remote management tool for Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 with graphical user interface. It is intended to be installed on the administrator's server and
allows the administrator to control multiple Hardware Nodes, to manage all their Containers,
and to monitor the system. The main window of Management Console consists of two parts: the
tree pane on the left, and view pane on the right. There is a list of Hardware Nodes in the tree
pane. The Hardware Node subtree represents various aspects of its management, e.g. Logs,
Services, Templates, etc. The content of the view pane depends on the selected item in the tree
pane.
Figure 3: Management Console Main Window
Below the view pane on the right, there is also a small Actions/Messages/Operations pane. You
may switch between the Actions and Messages modes by clicking buttons to the right of this
pane. The Actions pane displays the progress of Parallels Management Console actions. The
Messages pane displays the detailed diagnostics of various Management Console errors. The
Operations pane shows the result of various asynchronous tasks performed with Hardware
Nodes and their Containers.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
28
Parallels Management Console uses a typical client/server architecture. The client Management
Console program runs on Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/2003 or Linux. The client application
with the graphical user interface connects to the Parallels Agent software, which is running on
the Hardware Node. Parallels Agent communicates with the client via the well-documented
open Parallels Agent XML API and controls the Hardware Node itself and its Containers.
Note: For more information on Parallels Agent and on how to access its services by using
XML, please turn to the Parallels Agent documentation shipped with Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0.
The client may control multiple Hardware Nodes simultaneously by connecting to multiple
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 Agents, one of which performs the master role of the
Virtuozzo Group of Hardware Nodes. As the communications between the client and Parallels
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 Agents are secure, the Management Console workstation may be
located virtually anywhere on the network.
More detailed information on the Parallels Management Console installation and functioning is
provided in the Setting Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 Tools to Work chapter of the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Installation Guide.
Parallels Management Console Restrictions
Though Parallels Management Console is considered the primary tool for administering
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 and allows you to perform most administrative tasks on your
Hardware Nodes and inside Containers, it does not have graphical counterparts of all the
Virtuozzo command line utilities.
Among such utilities are the following:
vzcache - used to scan the specified Containers for common files and cache these files in
the Hardware Node template area;
vzlscache - used to display a list of cache directories created by the vzcache utility;
vzuncache - used to copy the regular files from the specified cache directory on the
Hardware Node back to the private area of the specified Container;
vzctl shrink - used to shrink virtual disk drives of the compact type inside
Containers;
vzctl reinstall - used to reinstall problem Containers on the Hardware Node.
On the other hand, almost all operations that can be performed in Management Console can also
be performed by means of Virtuozzo command line utilities. Detailed information on all
Virtuozzo utilities is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference
Guide.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
29
Parallels Infrastructure Management Overview
Parallels Infrastructure Manager is designed for Hardware Node administrators and provides
them with the ability to manage multiple Hardware Nodes and all Containers residing on them
with the help of a standard Web browser on any platform. A list of supported browsers is given
below:
ƒ
Internet Explorer 6.0 and above;
ƒ
Mozilla 1.7 and above;
ƒ
Firefox 1.0 and above;
ƒ
Opera 8.0 and above.
Chances are that you will also be able to use other browsers, but Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 has not been extensively tested with them.
The Parallels Infrastructure Manager interface has been designed to let the Virtuozzo server
administrator quickly perform all possible tasks through an intuitive navigation system:
Figure 4: Infrastructure Manager Interface Overview
The main components the Parallels Infrastructure Manager interface consists of are:
ƒ
The left menu frame listing and allowing to access all your Hardware Nodes and Containers
and the main types of operations to be performed on them with the help of Parallels
Infrastructure Manager;
ƒ
The toolbar on top of the right frame allowing to perform on your Hardware Nodes and
Containers the actions most frequently called for in your routine management work and,
when necessary, a few more buttons allowing to perform additional actions on the objects
listed in the content part of the right frame (Container backups, packages updates, etc.);
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
ƒ
30
The content part on the right frame displaying the currently accessed Hardware Nodes or
Containers, the key information (their statuses, configuration, etc.) and links to advanced
actions.
Note: Detailed information on Parallels Infrastructure Manager is given in its comprehensive
online help system and Parallels Infrastructure Manager Administrator's Guide shipped with
Infrastructure Manager.
Container Administrators' Tools
Wherever Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is applied, there are people that are supposed to be
administrators of particular Containers only, with no access rights to Hardware Nodes as such.
This is only but natural as it corresponds directly to the concept of virtualization technology.
Such people can be subscribers to a hosting provider, university students, administrators of a
particular server within an enterprise, etc. Personal Containers can be managed with the help of
Parallels Power Panel. Power Panel is a means for administering personal s thru a common
browser - Internet Explorer, Mozilla, and others. It allows Container administrators to:
ƒ
Start, stop, or restart the Container;
ƒ
Back up and restore the Container;
ƒ
Change the Administrator password of the Container;
ƒ
Start, stop, or restart certain services inside the Container;
ƒ
View the processes currently running in the Container and send signals to them;
ƒ
View the current resources consumption and resources overusage alerts;
ƒ
Connect to the Container by means of RDP;
ƒ
View the system logs;
ƒ
etc.
For further information on Power Panel, please turn to the Parallels Power Panel comprehensive
online help system.
Access rights to administer particular Containers by means of Parallels Power Panel are
determined by the Hardware Node administrator. The Setting Virtuozzo Tools to Work chapter of
the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide provides instructions on how to
control access rights to particular Containers thru Parallels Power Panel.
Note: Apart from Parallels Power Panel, Container administrators are able to use the standard
Windows Remote Desktop Connection (RDP) or MS Terminal Service Client (MS TSC) to
connect to their Containers and work inside them.
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy
31
Hardware Node Availability
Considerations
Hardware Node availability is more critical than the availability of a typical server. Since it runs
multiple Containers providing a number of critical services, Hardware Node outage might be
very costly. Hardware Node outage can be as disastrous as the simultaneous outage of a number
of servers running critical services.
In order to increase Hardware Node availability and security, we suggest you follow the
recommendations below:
ƒ
Use RAID storage for critical Container private areas. Do prefer hardware RAID, but
software mirroring RAID might suit too as a last resort.
ƒ
Do not run software on the Hardware Node itself. Create special Containers where you can
host necessary services such as FTP, IIS, and so on. Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 does
not need any standard Windows Server 2003 services to be run on the Node. Therefore, we
recommend that you disable all the services on the Node except for the Virtuozzo services.
ƒ
Use firewalls to make the Hardware Node accept connections from a pre-defined set of IP
addresses only.
ƒ
Do not create users on the Hardware Node itself. You can create as many users as you need
in any Container. Remember: compromising the Hardware Node means compromising all
Containers as well.
ƒ
Do not remove any of the components installed on the Hardware Node. Removing an
installed component (for example, Internet Information Server), even if you do not use it,
might cause Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 to malfunction.
32
CHAPTER 3
Operations on Containers
The given chapter describes how to perform day-to-day operations on individual Containers
taken in their wholeness.
Note: We assume that you have successfully installed, configured, and deployed your Virtuozzo
system. In case you have not, please turn to the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Installation Guide
providing detailed information on all these operations.
In This Chapter
Creating New Container........................................................................................................ 32
Starting, Stopping, and Querying Status of Container .......................................................... 43
Accessing Container ............................................................................................................. 44
Listing Containers ................................................................................................................. 49
Backing Up and Restoring Containers .................................................................................. 51
Searching for Container ........................................................................................................ 105
Moving Container Within Hardware Node ........................................................................... 107
Copying Containers Within Hardware Node ........................................................................ 109
Migrating Container .............................................................................................................. 115
Deleting Container ................................................................................................................ 117
Changing Administrator Password ....................................................................................... 118
Setting Container Name ........................................................................................................ 119
Storing Extended Information on Container ......................................................................... 120
Forwarding SCSI Disks to Container .................................................................................... 122
Operations Inside Container .................................................................................................. 123
Managing Windows Updates Inside Container ..................................................................... 131
Creating New Container
This section guides you through the process of creating and configuring a Container. We
assume that you have successfully installed Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 and the Windows
Server 2003 OS template on your Hardware Node. If you have not, please turn to the Parallels
Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide first.
Operations on Containers
33
Before You Begin
Before you start creating a Container, you should:
ƒ
Check that the Hardware Node is visible on your network. You should be able to connect
to/from other hosts. Otherwise, your Containers will not be accessible from other servers.
ƒ
Check that you have at least one IP address per a Container and the addresses belong to the
same network as the Hardware Node or routing to the Containers has been set up via the
Hardware Node.
Note: You can use private addresses for the Hardware Node itself.
Choosing Container ID
Every Container has a numeric ID, also known as Container ID, associated with it. The ID is a
32-bit integer number beginning with zero and unique for a given Hardware Node. When
choosing an ID for your Container, please follow the simple guidelines below:
ƒ
ID 0 is used for the Hardware Node itself. You cannot and should not try to create a
Container with ID 0.
ƒ
This version of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers uses ID 1 for the Service Container.
Note: The Service Container is a special Container running the Parallels Agent software
responsible for managing all the Containers of the given Hardware Node via Virtuozzo tools
(i.e. Parallels Management Console, Parallels Infrastructure Manager, and Parallels Power
Panel). In general, you are allowed to perform the same operations in the Service Container
context as you would perform in the context of a regular Container. However, you are not
recommended to change the default configuration of the Service Container (e.g. install your
own applications/templates into or store your private files inside this Container). Changing
the Service Container configuration may affect all the other Containers residing on the
Node.
ƒ
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 reserves the IDs ranging from 0 to 100. Though Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 uses only IDs 0 and 1 from them, the next version might use additional
Containers IDs for internal needs. To facilitate upgrading, please do not create Containers
with IDs below 101.
The only strict requirement for a Container ID is to be unique for a particular Hardware Node.
However, if you are going to have several servers running Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, we
recommend assigning different Container ID ranges to them. For example, on Hardware Node 1
you create Containers within the range of IDs from 101 to 1000; on Hardware Node 2 you use
the range from 1001 to 2000, and so on. This approach makes it easier to remember on which
Hardware Node a Container has been created, and eliminates the possibility of Container ID
conflicts when a Container migrates from one Hardware Node to another.
Operations on Containers
34
Another approach to assigning Container IDs is to follow some pattern of Container IP
addresses. Thus, for example, if you have a subnet with the 10.0.x.x address range, you may
want to assign the 17015 ID to the Container with the 10.0.17.15 IP address, the 39108 ID to the
Container with the 10.0.39.108 IP address, and so on. This makes it much easier to run a
number of Virtuozzo utilities eliminating the necessity to check up the Container IP address by
its ID and similar tasks. You can also think of your own patterns for assigning Container IDs
depending on the configuration of your network and your specific needs.
Before you decide on a new Container ID, you may want to make sure that no Container with
this ID has yet been created on the Hardware Node. It is enough to click on the name of your
Hardware Node in the left pane, and then on the Virtuozzo Containers item. The Management
Console right pane will display a list of existing Containers on the Node:
Figure 5: Management Console - Viewing Container
You can see that currently three Containers - 101, 102, and 103 - exist on the Hardware Node.
WARNING! When deciding on a Container ID, do not use the ID of any Container that was
ever present in the system unless you are sure that no data belonging to the old Container
remains on the Node. The fact is that the administrator of the newly-created Container might
have access to these data in this case, i.e. to the backups of the old Container, its logs, statistics,
etc.
Operations on Containers
35
Creating Container
Parallels Management Console uses one wizard to create and initially configure a Container.
You can launch the Create New Containers wizard by selecting the Virtuozzo Containers item
under the corresponding Hardware Node name in the Management Console left pane and
choosing the Create Container option on the Action menu:
Figure 6: Management Console - Choosing Sample Configuration File
The main Container parameters, including the templates and resource management parameters,
can be retrieved on the basis of the Container configuration sample indicated in the very first
option (detailed information on Container configuration samples is provided in the Managing
Container Resources Configurations section (on page 156)).
After you have decided on the Container configuration sample, you are supposed to define the
number of Containers you wish to create in the Number of Containers to create field. By default,
you are offered to create one Container. In this window you can also:
Operations on Containers
36
ƒ
specify an arbitrary name for your Container(s) in the Containers Name field; this name can
then be used, along with the Container ID, to refer to the Container while performing this or
that Container-related operation on the Hardware Node. In the case of creating several
Containers at once, you should use the $VEID placeholder which is automatically replaced
with the ID of the Container being created. For example, if you are creating Containers in
the range from 101 to 103 and enter MyCT$VEID into the Container Name(s) field, your
Containers will have the following names: MyCT101, MyCT102, MyCT103.
ƒ
provide the description of the Container(s) in the Description field. You may enter any
Container-related information you consider reasonable.
Under the Container ID group, you can select the variant the Container ID assignment:
ƒ
Select the Assign Container ID automatically radio button to automatically assign the first
unoccupied ID to the Container. For example, if you already have Containers with IDs from
101 thru 105 and 107, the Container will be assigned the ID of 106.
ƒ
Select the Assign Container IDs starting from radio button to manually specify the ID to be
assigned to the Container. If you are creating several Containers at once, the specified ID
will denote the starting ID for the first created Container. For example, if you are making 2
Containers and indicate 110 in the field provided, the first Container will be assigned the ID
of 110 and the second one - the ID of 111 (provided you do not already have Containers
with such IDs).
The Hostname group of options on the first page of the wizard shown above might help you
make use of your DNS server. If your DNS server has records for the IP addresses that will be
assigned to the newly-created Containers, select the Assign hostname automatically radio button.
The hostnames will be assigned on the basis of DNS records found. Selecting the Hostname
radio button allows you to manually set a hostname for the Container. As in the case of
assigning names to your Containers, you should use the $VEID placeholder if you are creating
several Containers at once. This placeholder is then automatically replaced with the ID of the
Container being created.
You should set the Administrator password for the Container being created on the first
page of the wizard by typing the desired password in the Password and Confirm password fields.
You will need this password in future to connect to the Container by means of Parallels Power
Panel or by using the standard Microsoft Terminal Services Client/Windows Remote Desktop
Connection applications. If you are creating several Containers, all Containers will be given the
same Administrator password. However, you can change the password for each Container
at a later time (see page 118).
Clicking the Next button displays the window where you can specify the settings for Container
virtual network adapters:
Operations on Containers
37
Figure 7: Management Console - Configuring Container Network Adapters
This window allows you to:
ƒ
Configure the settings of the venet0 virtual network adapter which is the default adapter
created for every Container on the Hardware Node. To configure the parameters of this
network adapter, select the adapter name in the Interfaces table and click the Properties
button. In the displayed window, you will be able to to the following:
ƒ
change the operating mode of the virtual adapter;
ƒ
specify one or more IP addresses to be assigned to the virtual adapter;
ƒ
set the default gateway to be used by the virtual adapter to connect to external networks
(this option is available for adapters operating in the bridged mode);
ƒ
indicate one or more DNS servers that the virtual adapter is supposed to use;
ƒ
define one or more WINS servers to be used by the virtual adapter.
Operations on Containers
ƒ
38
Create additional virtual network adapters for the Container by clicking the Add Interface
button and entering the necessary information in the displayed window.
Note: Detailed information on adapter network modes and all network parameters that can be
set for Container adapters is provided in the Managing Virtuozzo Network chapter (on page 252).
On the next step, you should choose the OS template to be used as the basis for the Container
creation:
Figure 8: Management Console - Specifying OS Template
All OS templates that are installed on the Hardware Node and can be used for the Container
creation are listed in the table on the Specify OS Template screen. To choose an OS template,
click its name in the Name column and choose its version, if necessary. Detailed information on
OS templates is provided in the Virtuozzo Template Management Guide shipped with Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0.
Operations on Containers
39
You can click on the Finish button on this step of the wizard and create the Container with the
configuration parameters specified in the configuration sample you chose on the first step of the
wizard. If you do not rely on any configuration sample, click the Next button instead of Finish.
In this case you will have to go through a number of steps of the wizard and set all the
parameters of the new Container separately. However, you can click Finish on every of the
following steps of the wizard to start creating the Container. All the pages of the wizard are selfexplanatory, so there is no need in dwelling upon them here in detail. You have the possibility
to:
ƒ
Specify one or more application templates to be added to the Container. Detailed
information on application templates is provided in the Virtuozzo Template Management
Guide shipped with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
ƒ
Configure Quality of Service parameters. The Quality of Service parameters are explained
in the Managing Resources chapter (on page 137); please consult it to gather more
understanding of this topic.
ƒ
Change the default Container private area and root paths or leave them intact.
ƒ
Add one or more hostnames to the Container search list for hostname lookups.
ƒ
Indicate one or more search domains the Container is supposed to use. If you leave the
Search domains field empty, the search list for hostname lookups will contain the local
domain name only. However, you will be able to add other hostnames for the Container
later on.
ƒ
Enable the offline management for the Container for it to be directly managed by its
Administrator from any browser at the Container IP address. Detailed information on offline
management is provided in the Configuring Container Offline Management section (on page
308).
ƒ
Configure network shaping parameters. For detailed information on network shaping, please
turn to the Managing Network Accounting and Bandwidth section (on page 149).
ƒ
Choose the Terminal Services mode in which the Container will start functioning right after
its creation and can specify one or more Terminal Server License (TSL) servers to be used
by the Container if it is set to work in the Terminal Server mode. For more information on
managing Terminal Services inside Containers, please turn to the Configuring Terminal
Services Inside Container section (on page 45).
ƒ
Specify whether the Container is to be started on the Hardware Node boot and the Container
ID string is to be displayed on the Container desktop.
ƒ
Enable the network browsing feature and QoS packet scheduler inside the Container.
Detailed information on these features is provided in the Managing Network Resources
section (on page 147).
ƒ
Save all the defined parameters as a configuration sample file to be used in future for
creating new Containers on its basis. The information on Container samples is provided in
the Managing Resources chapter (on page 137). Please consult it to gather more
understanding of these topics.
Creating a new Container may take some time. You can see the progress in the Actions pane.
Note: Any created Container has the time zone settings similar to those set on the Hardware
Node at the moment of the Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 installation. You can change the default
time zone for a Container as you would do it on a stand-alone server (e.g. by logging in to the
corresponding Container via RDP, opening Control Panel, clicking Date and Time, and changing
your time zone on the Time Zone tab of the displayed window).
Operations on Containers
40
After you have created, for example, Containers with IDs 101, 102, and 103, you can see them
in the right pane of the Parallels Management Console window:
Figure 9: Management Console - Viewing Container
You can also use the vzctl create command to create a new Container. Detailed
information on this command is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows
Reference Guide.
Operations on Containers
41
Creating Container Running Windows SBS 2003
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 supports Microsoft Windows Small Business Server (SBS)
2003 Service Pack 1 - a complete and affordable server solution for small and medium-sized
businesses. It means that you can use this operating system (OS) as the Host OS for your
Hardware Nodes and the Windows SBS 2003 SP1 OS template as the basis for creating your
Containers.
As to installing and configuring Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 on Hardware Nodes running
Windows SBS 2003 SP1, this process does not differ from deploying the Virtuozzo Containers
software on Nodes with Windows Server 2003; so, you can consult the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Installation Guide shipped with the Virtuozzo Containers software for detailed
information on these operations.
At the same time, the process of creating a Container with Windows SBS 2003 SP1
demonstrates a number of peculiarities differing it from that described in the previous
subsection and is explained below. To create a Container running Windows SBS 2003 SP1, you
should perform the following operations:
1
Make sure that the Hardware Node where you are going to create your Container is running
the Windows SBS 2003 SP1 operating system.
2 On the Node, select Start --> Run and execute the regedit command to open the Registry
Editor window.
3 Locate to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\SWSoft\Virtuozzo\Vzfs\
key, create the SbsWorkaround subkey, set its value to 1, and restart the Hardware Node
for the changes to take effect.
4 Install the Windows SBS 2003 SP1 OS template on the Hardware Node, if it not installed.
Please turn to the Managing Templates chapter of the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
Templates Management Guide for information on how you can do it.
5 Create a Container on the basis of the Windows SBS 2003 SP1 OS template.
6 Set the Container disk space size to 3.5 Gb or more.
7 Specify the DNS server for the Container by setting it to the IP address of the Container
itself.
8 Execute the vzctl set CT_ID --devadd CD_ROM_Letter --save command,
where CT_ID is the ID of your Container and CD_ROM_Letter denotes the letter
assigned to the CD-ROM drive on your Hardware Node, to grant access to the drive on the
Node from inside the Container.
9 Execute the vzctl mounext CT_ID --srcdir CD_ROM_Letter --dstdir
CD_ROM_Letter command to mount the CD-ROM drive on the Hardware Node to the
drive inside your Container.
10 Connect to the Container via RDP.
11 Start the Server service inside the Container, if it is not started, and set its startup type to
'auto'.
12 Insert CD 1 of the Windows SBS SP1 distribution kit in the CD-ROM drive on your
Hardware Node. You should have used this CD for installing Windows SBS 2003 SP1 on
your Hardware Node.
Operations on Containers
42
13 From inside the Container, run the setupsbs.exe file located on CD 1 of your
distribution kit and follow the instructions of the wizard to complete the installation of all
Windows SBS 2003 SP1 components.
After the Windows SBS components have been successfully installed inside your Container,
you can start managing it in the same way as you would manage any other Container in a
Virtuozzo-based system. However, while working with Containers running Windows SBS 2003
SP1, you may come across the following issues:
ƒ
You may experience problems while including your Container in a virtual local area
network (VLAN).
ƒ
The Distributed File System (DFS) service may not start inside your Container.
ƒ
The Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) may not work inside your Container, which can
cause problems with creating shadow copies of your Container shared folder.
Operations on Containers
43
Starting, Stopping, and Querying
Status of Container
When a Container is created, it may be started up and shut down like an ordinary server. In
Parallels Management Console, you can see the status of all the Containers of the given
Hardware Node simply by selecting the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding
Node.
To start or stop one or more Containers, right-click it (them) in the Virtuozzo Containers table in
the right pane and choose Start/Stop on the context menu:
Note: If you are launching a Container for the first time after its creation, please keep in mind
that the time needed for the Container startup may be rather considerable. However, all
subsequent Container startups will be performed in the normal mode of operation and the time
will be reduced approximately by 2 times.
Figure 10: Management Console - Starting Container
You can use CTRL+Click to select or deselect an entry, SHIFT+Click to select a range of
Containers, CTRL+A to select all Containers. Then click the Start or Stop button on the toolbar
or select Start or Stop on the Action menu. If you are stopping one or more Containers, you will
be asked to confirm your decision by clicking Yes in the displayed window.
When a Container is being started or stopped, all the typical operations are performed that
happen during the startup and shutdown of the Windows operating system on a standalone
server. Therefore, starting or stopping a considerable number of Containers may take a rather
long run. The progress is displayed in the Actions pane.
Operations on Containers
44
In the command line, you can perform all the aforementioned operations by using the vzctl
utility. Detailed information on this utility is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
Reference Guide.
Note: Before stopping a Container, make sure that there are no users connected to the Container
by means of Microsoft Terminal Services Client or Remote Desktop Protocol. To this effect,
open Container Manager of the corresponding Container, select Monitor --> Resources, and
check that the Number of TS sessions parameter value is equal to 0.
Accessing Container
There are a number of ways for you to access a Container as you would normally access a
standalone server:
ƒ
Launching the standard Microsoft Terminal Services Client (MS TSC) application.
ƒ
Launching the standard Windows Remote Desktop Connection application.
ƒ
Accessing the files inside the Container by the Windows file sharing protocol.
ƒ
Using the Citrix MetaFrame XP application (http://www.citrix.com).
In all these cases, the access is ensured by using the IP address or hostname of the Container
and the administrator's or other users' credentials entered when creating and maintaining the
given Container.
Operations on Containers
45
Configuring Terminal Services Inside Container
The Terminal Services component of Windows Server 2003 is used to provide remote access to
any Container on your Hardware Node. Starting with Virtuozzo Containers 3.5.1 SP1, each
Container on the Node has its own Terminal Services (TS) installed rather than makes use of
Terminal Services of the Node and, like any other standalone server running the Windows
Server 2003 OS, can operate in one of the two TS modes: Remote Desktop for Administration
and Terminal Server.
By default, any Container is automatically set to work in the Remote Desktop for
Administration mode during its creation. So, you do not need to perform any additional
operations to start connecting to Containers using this mode. Like in any other system with
Windows Server 2003 installed, the Remote Desktop for Administration mode allows you to
simultaneously open no more than two remote sessions and a console session to any Container
on the Hardware Node.
If you are planning to have more than 2 remote sessions to a Container at the same time, you
should enable the Terminal Server mode for this Container. You may also need to switch on this
mode in case some of the Container applications require Terminal Server for their functioning.
To start using the Terminal Server mode to connect to a Container, you should perform the
following operations in Parallels Management Console:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 Right-click the Container for which you wish to set the Terminal Server mode and select
Properties on the context menu.
3 On the Terminal Services tab of the displayed window, do the following
ƒ
Select the Terminal Server radio button to enable the Terminal Server mode for the
Container.
ƒ
Use the Add/Edit/Remove buttons to configure the default Terminal Server License
(TSL) server to be used by the Container, if necessary. While set in the Terminal Server
mode, the Container starts using the same Terminal Server License (TSL) server as the
Hardware Node does. So, you can log in to the Container in this mode provided the TSL
server for the Node is accessible by the Container and has a number of free client access
licenses (CALs) installed. For example:
Operations on Containers
46
Figure 11: Management Console - Configuring Terminal Services Inside Container
When you are ready, click OK.
4 Restart the Container for the changes to take effect.
In the command line, you can use the --tsmode and --tslicservers options of the
vzctl set command to enable the Terminal Server mode for a Container and to manage TSL
servers, respectively. For detailed information on these options, please turn to the Parallels
Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide.
Note: If you had Citrix Presentation Server installed on Hardware Nodes running the 3.5.1 or
earlier versions of Virtuozzo Containers and used in one or more Containers, you need to
reinstall and reconfigure it directly inside these Containers after upgrading the Node to
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0. The reason for this is that Citrix Presentation Server, like Terminal
Services, is now installed and configured directly inside this or that Container and does not need
to be installed on the Hardware Node.
Operations on Containers
47
Terminal Services Client
Microsoft Terminal Services Client (MS TSC) is a standard Windows application to be used
when connecting to any Virtuozzo-based Container:
1
Launch MS TSC in the host operating system or on another server on the network by
selecting Programs -->Terminal Services Client --> Terminal Services Client on the Windows
Start menu.
2 Enter the hostname or the IP address of the Container in the Server field.
3 Click Connect.
4 A new window is launched with an invitation to provide the user name and password for
logging in to the Container. Type Administrator as the user name and the
Administrator's password into the corresponding fields and click OK.
After the logon, it is possible to change passwords, to create new users, and do all related tasks
in the standard way inside the Container.
Remote Desktop Connection
Remote Desktop Connection is a standard Windows application to be used when connecting to
any Virtuozzo-based Container by means of the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). The easiest
way to connect to a Container is right-clicking it in the list of Containers and selecting Connect
via Remote Desktop on the context menu. Naturally, the Container must be running for this
option to become available.
You may connect to the Container from the Remote Desktop Connection (RDC) application
itself:
1
Launch RDC in the host operating system by selecting Programs --> Accessories -->
Communications --> Remote Desktop Connection on the Windows Start menu;
2 Enter the hostname or the IP address of the Container in the Computer field;
3 Click Connect.
4 A new window is launched with an invitation to provide the user name and password for
logging in to the Container. Type Administrator as the user name and the
Administrator's password into the corresponding fields and click OK.
After the logon, it is possible to change passwords, to create new users and do all related tasks
in the standard way inside the Container.
In case of connecting to a Container as a non-Administrator user, you should make sure
that:
1
The user whose credentials you wish to use to log in to the Container is created inside this
Container;
2 The Remote Desktop Users group allowing the Container users to remotely log in to
Containers via RDC exists inside the Container;
3 The user belongs to the Remote Desktop Users group.
Operations on Containers
48
Windows File Sharing
To access Container share folders via standard Windows clients, you should type their IP
address or hostname preceded by two back slashes in the Windows command line or in the
address line of Windows Explorer on the host operating system or on another server on the
network. You may optionally specify the name of the Container itself to see what shares are
available. For example:
\\ct103\c$
\\192.168.20.103
If an authentication window is displayed, enter the appropriate user name and password for the
given Container. There must be an administrative account built in the Container that you should
know or you might have already created a number of other users inside the Container.
Citrix MetaFrame XP
Citrix MetaFrame XP is a remote access/application publishing product built on the Citrix
Systems' thin client protocol and used to connect to any Virtuozzo-based Container. To start
using Citrix to access your Containers on the given Hardware Node, you should:
1
Install and enable the Terminal Services component on the Node;
2 Install and configure the Citrix MetaFrame XP application on the Node.
After you have successfully completed the aforementioned operations on your Hardware Node,
you can use a Citrix ICA Client on the Host OS or on any other server on the network to
connect to any of your Containers on this Node by means of the Citrix MetaFrame XP
application.
For example, if you have the Program Neighbourhood Client installed on your server, you can
select Programs --> ICA Client --> Citrix Program Neighbourhood on the Windows Start menu to
launch the Citrix ICA Client software. In the opened window, you should then double-click the
Add ICA Connection icon to invoke the wizard that will help you create a new ICA connection to
be used to access your Container.
Note: Detailed information on how to install, license, configure, and operate your Citrix
MetaFrame XP application is provided in the documentation available on the Citrix web site at
http://www.citrix.com/support.
Operations on Containers
49
Listing Containers
Very often you may want to get an overview of the Containers existing on the given Hardware
Node and to get additional information about them - their IP addresses, hostnames, status, etc.
In Parallels Management Console, you may display a list of all Containers by clicking the
Virtuozzo Containers item:
Figure 12: Management Console - Listing Containers
You can see that currently Containers with IDs 101, 102, and 103 exist on the Hardware Node.
All the Container vital information (its IP address(es), hostname, statuses, etc.) is presented in
the table having the following columns:
Column Name
Description
ID
The ID assigned to the Container. Containers are assigned IDs starting
from 101.
Name
The name assigned to the Container. This name can be used, along with
the Container ID, to perform Container-related operations on the
Hardware Node.
Hostname
The hostname of the Container.
IP Address
The IP address assigned to the Container.
Status
The current status of the Container. Detailed information on all
Container statuses is provided in the next subsection.
Operations on Containers
Resources
50
The circle opposite the corresponding Container reflects the current
state of the resource parameters consumed by the Container:
ƒ
If the resource consumption lies within 90% of the limits defined
for the Container, the green circle with a white tick is displayed. It
means that the Container experiences no shortage in resources
required for the normal course of work.
ƒ
If the Container consumes between 90% and 100% of the limits
defined for it, the orange circle with a white exclamation mark is
displayed.
ƒ
If the Container is currently consuming 100% or more of the limits
defined for it, the red circle with a white exclamation mark is
displayed. A Container is allowed to consume more than 100% of
its quota only in extreme situations. If you do not solve the problem
in a reasonable time, applications running inside the Container may
be denied some of the resources, so application crashes and other
problems are most probable.
OS
The OS template the Container is based on.
Architecture
The system architecture of the Container.
Original Sample
The name of the configuration sample the Container is based on.
Description
The Container description.
To facilitate working with Containers, you can sort them by different parameters: their ID, type,
hostname, status, IP address, etc. Just click the column with the appropriate name to put
Containers in the desired order.
You may also get a list of all Containers present on the Hardware Node by using the vzlist
command line utility. A full list of the vzlist command line switches, output, and sorting
options is available in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide.
Container Statuses
At any point of time, any Container is characterized by a status (or state). There are four stable
statuses and a number of transitional statuses that a Container may have. If the Container is in
one of the stable states, it means that it is likely to continue in this state until its administrator
performs a task that would change its status. If the Container is in one of the transitional states,
it means that it is currently passing from one stable state to another. During a transition stage, no
operation can be performed on the Container until the transition is finished.
The stable statuses are:
Status
Description
Possible Actions
down
The Container is stopped and its private area is Starting
unmounted.
mounted
The Container private area is initialized and ready to Starting/unmounting
work; however, the Container is not running.
running
The Container private area is mounted and the Stopping/rebooting
Container is running.
Operations on Containers
51
The transition statuses are:
Status
Description
creating
The Container is being created.
mounting
The Container is being mounted.
starting
The Container is being started.
stopping
The Container is being stopped.
unmounting
The Container is being unmounted.
destroying
The Container is being destroyed.
setting
The Container parameters are being set.
migrating
The Container is being migrated.
moving
The Container is being moved.
cloning
The Container is being cloned.
updating
The Container is being updated.
backing-up
The Container is being backed up.
restoring
The Container is being restored.
Backing Up and Restoring
Containers
The given section explains you the way to perform backup-related operations in Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0.
Operations on Containers
52
Backups Overview
Parallels Management Console deals with three kinds of Nodes - the Source Nodes (the Nodes
where Containers are hosted during their backing up); the Backup Nodes (the Nodes where
Container backups are stored); and the Destination Nodes (the Nodes where Container backups
are restored).
Figure 13: Backup Overview
These Nodes are singled out by their functionality only. In reality, one and the same Hardware
Node may perform two or even three functions. Usually, the Source and Destination Node are
represented by one and the same Node, because you will likely want the Containers you back up
to be restored to their original Node. However, setting up a dedicated Backup Node is
recommended.
You should make sure that all the three Nodes are registered in Management Console before
starting to work with them.
Parallels Management Console lets you perform the following backup-related operations:
ƒ
Assign the default Backup Node for the given Source Node;
ƒ
Set the default backup folder for storing Container backups on the Backup Node;
ƒ
Specify the default backup compression level;
ƒ
Specify the default backup type;
ƒ
Back up a single Container from the Source Node to the Backup Node;
ƒ
Back up a number of Containers or the whole Hardware Node (i.e. all the Containers on the
given Node) to the Backup Node;
ƒ
Restore a single Container from the Backup Node to the Destination Node;
ƒ
Restore individual files from the Container backup on the Backup Node to the Destination
Node;
ƒ
Restore a number of Containers or the whole Hardware Node from the Backup Node;
ƒ
Directly manage the Backup Nodes;
ƒ
Search the backup of a given Container from the Source Node across all the Backup Nodes.
Detailed information on all these operations is provided in the following subsections.
Operations on Containers
53
Setting Default Backup Parameters
the Virtuozzo Containers software allows you to specify a number of default backup parameters
which can then be used when creating Container backup archives. These parameters include:
ƒ
the default Backup Node where Container backups are to be stored;
ƒ
the default backup location, i.e. the exact place on the Backup Node where Container
backups are to be stored;
ƒ
the default backup compression level;
ƒ
the default backup type.
All the aforementioned operations are described in the following subsections in detail.
Operations on Containers
54
Assigning Default Backup Node
When you are backing up Containers from a Source Node, you shall always specify on what
Node the resulting backups should be placed, i.e. the Backup Node. Parallels Management
Console allows you to set the default Backup Node for the given Source Node, i.e. for the Node
for which the window has been invoked, by performing the following operations:
1
Right-click the respective Source Node and choose Backup --> Set Default Backup Options
on the context menu.
2 In the displayed window, click the Change button opposite the Server field:
Figure 14: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Storage
3 In this window you can do the following:
ƒ
If you do not wish to use a dedicated Node for storing Container backups, select the Use
local Hardware Node radio button and click OK to set the Source Node as the default
Backup Node.
ƒ
If you are going to use a dedicated Node for storing Container backups, select the
Choose Hardware Node from the list below radio button. The table below this radio
button presents a list of Nodes registered in Management Console together with their IP
addresses. If the default Backup Node already exists for the given Source Node, it is
selected in the table. You should select the Node you wish to be the default Backup
Node for the given Source Node and click OK.
4 Click OK.
Operations on Containers
55
The assignment of the default Backup Node brings about the following effects:
ƒ
When backing up Containers from the corresponding Source Node in Parallels Management
Console and Infrastructure Manager using the 'default' backup mode, the backups will be
automatically placed onto the default Backup Node.
ƒ
When backing up Containers form the corresponding Source Node in Parallels Management
Console and Infrastructure Manager using the 'custom' backup mode, you will be
automatically suggested to place the backups onto the default Backup Node.
ƒ
When a Container administrator backs up their Container by means of Parallels Power
Panel, the corresponding backup is automatically placed on the default Backup Node.
There are no restrictions as to what Hardware Node may be the default Backup Node. The only
requirements that this Node should meet are to be registered in Management Console
(otherwise, it will not be displayed in the table on the Backup Storage screen) and to have
sufficient disk space for housing multiple backups.
Note: You can use any Hardware Node as a Backup Node irrespective of a Virtuozzo
Containers version installed on this Node. So, you can back up a Container from the Node
running the Virtuozzo Containers 32-bit version and store it on the Node running the Virtuozzo
Containers 64-bit version and vice versa.
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Setting Default Backup Location
Parallels Management Console allows you to change the location of the folder on the Backup
Node where all Container backups are to be stored. By default, the X:\vz\backups folder is
used. To set another backup folder to be used as the default one for storing Container backups,
you should right-click the corresponding Hardware Node in the left pane of the Parallels
Management Console main window and select Backup --> Set Default Backup Location on the
context menu. The following window is displayed:
Figure 15: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Location
In this window, you can do one of the following:
ƒ
Select the Back up to local Hardware Node radio button to specify a backup folder on one of
the Backup Node local disk drives. To set a new backup folder, you should type its full path
on the Node in the Path field or click the ... button and select the desired folder in the
displayed window.
ƒ
Select the Back up to network share radio button to specify a backup folder on a network
share, i.e. on a Backup Node network drive. To this effect, you should enter the full path to
the folder on the network drive in the Path field. If the network drive where your backup
folder is to be located is password-protected, you should additionally specify the user name
and password to access this share in the User and Password fields, respectively.
After you have specified the path to a new folder for storing Container backups, click OK for the
changes to take effect.
Note: While defining the default backup folder, make sure that the disk drive where this folder
is to be located has sufficient disk space for housing multiple Container backups.
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Defining Default Backup Compression Level
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to configure the default backup compression level
by setting it to one of the following:
ƒ
None: in this case the Container backup is created without any compression. Using this level
of compression, you may greatly reduce the backup creation time; however, the size of the
resulting backup file may significantly increase as compared to other compression levels.
ƒ
Normal: in this case the Container backup is created with a normal level of compression.
This compression level is set by default and suitable for backing up most Container files and
folders.
ƒ
High: in this case the Container backup is created with the high level of compression. The
size of the resulting backup file is smaller than that of the backup file compressed in the
'normal' and 'none' modes; however, it takes longer to create the backup file.
ƒ
Maximum: in this case the Container backup is created with the maximal level of
compression. The size of the resulting backup file is the smallest and the time of the backup
creation - the longest.
In general the optimal data compression level depends on the type of files to be stored in the
backup archive. For example, it is advisable to use the 'normal' and 'none' compression types if
most of the files to be backed up are already compressed (e.g. the files with the .zip and .rar
extensions) or can be compressed with a low degree of efficiency (e.g. all executable files with
the .exe extension or image files with the .jpg, .jpeg., and .gif extensions).
To configure the default backup compression level, you should perform the following
operations in Parallels Management Console:
1
Right-click the respective Source Node and choose Backup --> Set Default Backup Options
on the context menu:
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Figure 16: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Compression Level
2 Under the Compression Level group in the displayed window, move the slider to the left or
to the right to specify the desired compression level.
3 Click OK.
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Specifying Default Backup Type
Another parameter that you may wish to configure and that will be applied to all Container
backups created using the default backup mode is the backup type. Each backup file may be of
one of the following 3 types:
ƒ
A full backup containing the whole Container private area and its configuration file.
ƒ
An incremental backup containing only the files changed since the full backup or the
previous incremental backup. An incremental backup may prove very useful because it
records only the changes since the last Container backup (either full or incremental) and
therefore is much less in size and takes much less time than the full backup. However, after
several consecutive incremental backups it is recommended to create a full backup de
nouveau and start the incremental backups chain from scratch.
ƒ
A differential backup containing only the files changed since the last full backup. As a rule,
this kind of backup requires less space than a full backup, but more space than an
incremental backup.
You can configure the default backup type by perform the following operations in Parallels
Management Console:
1
Right-click the respective Source Node and choose Backup --> Default Backup Node
Configuration on the context menu:
Figure 17: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Type
2 Under the Backup Type group in the displayed window, choose one of the following options:
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ƒ
Select the Full radio button to always create full backup archives containing the whole
Container private area, all Container-related configuration files, action scripts, etc.
ƒ
Select the Incremental or Differential radio button to always perform incremental or
differential backups, respectively. If an incremental or differential backup is performed,
and the corresponding full backup cannot be found, a full backup is automatically
performed.
3 Click OK.
Backing Up Single Container
To back up a single Container on the Source Node, do the following:
1
In Parallels Management Console, click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
corresponding Source Node to open the Container manager window.
2 Right-click the Container you wish to back up and select Backup --> Back Up Container on
the context menu. The Back Up Containers wizard opens:
Figure 18: Management Console - Choosing Backup Mode
3 On the first step of the wizard, you should choose the Container backup mode:
ƒ
Use Default: select this radio button to back up the Container using the default backup
mode. When run in this mode, the default backup parameters are used for creating the
Container backup. You can only set the backup description and configure the default
backup policy.
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Note: Detailed information on the default backup parameters is given in the Setting Default
Backup Parameters subsection (on page 53).
ƒ
Custom: select this radio button to manually set the parameters to be applied to the
resulting backup archive. In this case you will have to go thru a number of steps (Steps 4
and 5) of the Back Up Containers wizard and set all the parameters of the Container
backup one by one.
4 On the second step of the wizard, you should specify the files and folders to be included in
the backup:
Figure 19: Management Console - Choosing Files and Folders to Back Up
By default, all the Container files and folders will be included in the backup archive. To
leave out a file or folder from the backup process, clear its check box in the Included files
table. You can also use the following options to filter out the files/folders for the Container
backup:
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ƒ
Select the All hidden files and folders check box to exclude all hidden files and folders
inside the Container from the backup process.
ƒ
Select the All system files and folders check box to exclude all system files and folders
from the backup process.
ƒ
Select the Matching the following criteria check box and use the Add/Edit/Remove buttons
to set the conditions to be met by the file/folder to exclude it from the backup process.
You can specify the full path to the corresponding file/folder, enter its name, or define
any filter compatible with standard Windows masking rules. For example, you can
indicate C:\MyFolder\MyFile.txt to exclude the MyFile.txt file from the
backup process or type *.bmp to leave out all files with the bmp extension.
Note: If you exclude one or more system or hidden files/folders from the Container backup
(e.g. either the All hidden files and folders or All system files and folders check box is
selected, or the Entire Contents of.. check box is cleared), you will be able to restore only
individual files from this backup, but not the Container as a whole.
5 Next you should specify the main backup parameters:
Figure 20: Management Console - Specifying Main Backup Parameters
In this window you can configure the following backup parameters:
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ƒ
Choose the Backup Node where the Container backup is to be stored. You may leave the
Backup Node offered by Parallels Management Console by default or use the Change
button to specify the desired Backup Node. For detailed information on how to manage
the default Backup Node, please consult the Assigning Default Backup Node subsection
(on page 54).
ƒ
Specify the backup type. It may be full, incremental, or differential. Detailed
information on backup types is provided in the Specifying Default Backup Type
subsection. If you are backing up a single Container, and no backup of this Container
has been found on the Backup Node, the Backup Type group is not shown, and a full
backup is automatically created.
ƒ
Decide on the backup compression level: 'None', 'Normal', 'High', or 'Maximum'.
Detailed information on all compression levels is provided in the Defining Default
Compression Level subsection.
6 On the next step of the wizard, you can set the following parameters for the Container
backup:
ƒ
Provide the backup description in the Backup description field, if necessary. The
description can be any text containing any backup-related information (e.g. the backup
purpose).
ƒ
Do not stop the Container backup even if any errors appear (the Do not stop on errors
check box is selected) or break the backup process should any malfunction occur (the
check box is cleared).
ƒ
Do not stop the backup process if one or more of the Containers to be backed up is not
present on the Source Node (the Ignore non-existent Containers check box is selected) or
break the backup process if any Container is absent (the check box is cleared). This
option can be used when backing up several Containers at once.
7 The last screen allows you to review the information provided by you on the previous steps
of the wizard. Click Finish to start creating the Container backup; otherwise, click Back to
return to any step and correct the corresponding parameter.
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Backing Up Group of Containers
To back up several or all Containers from a single Source Node, right-click the Virtuozzo
Containers item under the corresponding Source Node and select Backup --> Back up Containers
on the context menu. The Back Up Containers wizard is displayed. In this wizard you should:
1
Choose the Containers from the Source Node you wish to back up:
Figure 21: Management Console - Choosing Containers to Back Up
To schedule one or more Containers for backing up, click the Add button in the top left
corner and, in the displayed dialog, select the names of the appropriate Containers and click
OK. The selected Containers will be shown in the table on the Choose Containers to Back Up
screen. Click Next to proceed with the wizard.
2 Choose the Container backup mode:
ƒ
Used default: select this radio button to back up the Container using the default backup
mode. When run in this mode, the default backup parameters are used for creating the
Container backup. You can only set the backup description and configure the default
backup policy.
Note: Detailed information on what default backup parameters are and how to manage them
is given in the Setting Default Backup Parameters subsection (on page 53).
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65
Custom: select this radio button to manually set the parameters to be applied to the
resulting backup archive. In this case you will have to go thru a number of steps (Steps 3
and 4) to of the Back Up Containers wizard and set all the parameters of the Container
backup one by one.
3 Specify the files and folders to be included in the backup:
Figure 22: Management Console - Choosing Files to Backup Up
By default, all the Container files and folders are included in the backup archive. However,
you can use the following options to filter out the files/folders:
ƒ
Select the All hidden files and folders check box to exclude all hidden files and folders
inside the Container from the backup process.
ƒ
Select the All system files and folders check box to exclude all system files and folders
from the backup process.
ƒ
Select the Matching the following criteria check box and use the Add button to set the
parameters to be met by the file/folder to exclude it from the backup process. You can
specify the full path to the corresponding file/folder, enter its name, or define any filter
compatible with standard Windows masking rules. For example, you can indicate
C:\MyFolder\MyFile.txt to exclude the MyFile.txt file from the backup
process or type *.bmp to leave out all files with the bmp extension.
Note: If you exclude one or more system or hidden files/folders from the Container backup
(e.g. either the All hidden files and folders or All system files and folders check box is
selected), you will be able to restore only individual files from these backups, but not the
Containers as a whole.
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Please keep in mind that the selected options will be valid for all Containers to be backed
up.
4 Next you should specify the main backup parameters:
Figure 23: Management Console - Specifying Main Backup Parameters
In this window you can configure the following backup parameters:
ƒ
Backup Node. This Node is the place where the Container backup will be stored. You
may leave the Backup Node offered by Parallels Management Console by default or use
the Change button to specify the desired Backup Node. For detailed information on
Backup Nodes, please consult the Assigning Default Backup Node subsection (on page
54).
ƒ
Backup compression level: 'None', 'Normal', 'High', or 'Maximum'. Detailed information
on all compression levels is provided in the Defining Default Compression Level
subsection.
ƒ
Backup type. It may be full, incremental, or differential. Detailed information on backup
types is provided in the Specifying Default Backup Type subsection. If you are backing
up a single Container, and no backup of this Container has been found on the Backup
Node, the Backup Type group is not shown, and a full backup is automatically created.
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67
5 On the next step of the wizard, you can set the following parameters for the Container
backup:
ƒ
Provide the backup description in the Backup description field. The description can be
any text containing any backup-related information (e.g. the backup purpose).
ƒ
Do not stop the Container backup even if any errors appear (the Do not stop on errors
check box is selected) or break the backup process should any malfunction occur (the
check box is cleared).
ƒ
Do not stop the backup process if one or more of the Containers to be backed up is not
present on the Source Node (the Ignore non-existent Containers check box is selected) or
break the backup process if any Container is absent (the check box is cleared). This
option can be used when backing up several Containers at once.
When you are ready, click Next.
6 Review the information provided by you on the previous steps of the wizard. Click Finish to
start creating the Container backup or click Back to return to any step and correct the
corresponding parameters.
Another way of backing up a number of Containers from the given Source Node is the
following:
1
Expand the Source Node item in the left pane of the Parallels Management Console main
window and click the Virtuozzo Containers item to open the Containers manager window.
2 Select the Containers you wish to back up. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys for selecting a
number of Containers.
3 Click the right mouse button and select Back up Containers on the context menu.
The aforementioned Back Up Containers wizard is opened directly at the second page, because
the first page (Choose Containers to Back Up) becomes unnecessary.
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68
Browsing Backup Contents
Parallels Management Console allows you to browse the directory structure of any Container
backup as if this backup had already been restored and restore only the needed files and folders.
To view the backed up files and folders of a Container backup, you should do the following:
1
Choose the Backups item in the Parallels Management Console right pane, right-click the
Container backup whose contents you wish to browse, and select Properties on the context
menu.
2 In the displayed window, select the corresponding backup in the Available backups table and
click on the Show Backup Contents button:
Figure 24: Management Console - Browsing Backup Contents
3 Double-click the Container disk drive to see its contents. The contents of any file/folder
inside a backup is presented in the table providing the following information:
Column Name
Description
Title
The name of the file/folder.
Type
Denotes whether the object is a file, folder, disk drive, or Virtuozzo file link (i.e. a
link to the corresponding file on the Node).
Size
The size of the file.
Modified
The date and time of the last modification of the file/folder.
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69
If you wish to restore any files and/or folders from the backup to the actual Container, you
should select them by ticking the corresponding check boxes near these files/folders and
click on the Restore Selected Items button. Detailed information on how to restore
individual files/folders is provided in the Restoring Container Files subsection (on page 71).
Restoring Single Container
To restore a Container from its backup, do the following:
1
Expand the Source Node item in the left pane of the Parallels Management Console main
window and click the Virtuozzo Containers item to open the Containers manager window.
2 Select the Container the backup of which you wish to restore from the Backup Node.
3 Click the right mouse button and select Backup --> Restore Container on the context menu.
The Restore Container wizard opens:
Figure 25: Management Console - Restoring Container Wizard
In this wizard you should do the following:
ƒ
In the Choose Backup Node and Backup Archive window:
ƒ
Select the Backup Node. This Node is the place where the Container backup is stored.
The Last Backup Date column in the list of Backup Nodes shows the date and time of the
last backup (if any) of the selected Container on the corresponding Node.
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ƒ
70
Select the backup from which the Container is to be restored. Any Container may have
any number of its backups made at different dates and of different types. As a rule, you
choose the most recent backup, unless you have reasons to restore an intermediary one.
In the Review Container Restoration Settings window:
ƒ
Review the parameters provided by you on the previous step of the wizard.
ƒ
Click the Finish button to start restoring the Container.
Notes: 1. During this operation, the Destination Node is supposed to be the same as the Source
Node. For instructions on how to restore a Container to a Destination Node other than the
Source Node, see Managing Backup Node.
2. If you wish to restore a Container residing on a Hardware Node running Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 from its backup stored on a 3.0 Hardware Node in Parallels Management Console, you
should invoke the Restore Container wizard for the Node where the Container backup is located,
i.e. for the 3.0 Node.
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71
Restoring Container Files
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to browse the directory structure of any Container
backup as if this backup had already been restored and restore only the needed files and
folders/directories. To this effect, you should do the following:
1
Expand the Source Node item in the left pane of the Parallels Management Console main
window and click the Virtuozzo Containers item to open the Containers manager window.
2 Right-click the Container the files/folders of which you wish to restore and select Backup -> Restore Individual Container Files on the context menu. The Restore Individual Container
Files wizard opens:
Figure 26: Management Console - Restoring Container Files Wizard
In the first step of the wizard, you should:
ƒ
Select the Backup Node. This Node is the place where the Container backup is stored. The
Last Backup Date column in the list of Backup Nodes shows the date and time of the last
backup (if any) of the selected Container on the corresponding Node.
ƒ
Select the backup from which the Container files/folders are to be restored. Any Container
may have any number of its backups made at different dates and of different types.
The second step of the wizard allows you to review and explore the contents of all the backed
up drives that were present inside the Container at the moment of the backup creation:
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72
Figure 27: Management Console - Choosing Files For Restoring
The Choose Files to Restore window provides you with a tree view of the files and folders that
you have backed up. To enqueue this or that file/folder for being restored, you should select its
check box. You can select the check box next to the corresponding folder to restore all the files
and subfolders from this folder.
The last step of the wizard allows you to review the parameters provided by you on the previous
steps of the wizard. If you are satisfied with the specified parameters, click Finish to start
restoring the Container files/folders/directories; otherwise, click Back and change the
corresponding parameters.
Note: During this operation, the Destination Node is supposed to be the same as the Source
Node. For instructions on how to restore Container files/folders/directories to a Destination
Node other than the Source Node, see Managing Backup Node.
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73
Restoring Group of Containers
To restore several Containers of a single Source Node from their backups on the Backup Node,
right-click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Source Node, and select
Backup --> Restore Containers on the context menu. The Restore Containers wizard is
displayed. In this wizard you should:
1
Select the Backup Node on the Choose Backup Node screen. This Node is the place where
the backups of the Source Node Containers are stored. The Backup Availability column in the
list of Backup Nodes shows whether backups have been found on the corresponding Node.
2 On the Choose Containers to Restore screen, select the Containers you wish to restore from
the Backup Node:
Figure 28: Management Console - Restoring Containers Wizard
By default, all the backups of the Containers originally belonging to the Source Node are
selected, but you may exclude certain Containers from this list, as well as include in it any
other backups found on this Backup Node (i.e. the backups of those Containers not
belonging to the Source Node). To include these other backups, you should first make them
visible by selecting the Show all available backups check box.
3 If the Containers to be restored exist on the Destination Node, you will be presented with
the Resolve Conflicts With Existing Containers window listing these Containers. When
deciding on whether to restore this or that Container, please keep in mind that, during the
Container restoration, all its current data will be overridden with data from the
corresponding backup.
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74
4 On the Review Containers Restoration Settings screen, click the Finish button to start
restoring the Containers.
Notes: 1. During this operation, all the Containers will be restored to the Source Node, i.e. to the
Node for which you have invoked the wizard, irrespective of whether the backed up Containers
originally belonged to this Source Node or to any other Node.
2. If you wish to restore a Container residing on a Hardware Node running Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 from its backup stored on a 3.0 Hardware Node in Parallels Management Console, you
should invoke the Restore Container wizard for the Node where the Container backup is located,
i.e. for the 3.0 Node.
Managing Backup Node
Any Hardware Node may perform the functions of the Backup Node, i.e. store the backups of
any Containers of any Hardware Nodes. To see a list of Container backups stored on a
Hardware Node, expand its name in the left pane of the Parallels Management Console main
window and select the Backups item:
Figure 29: Management Console - Listing Backups
The table in the right pane presents the following information about the Container backups
stored on the current Backup Node:
Column Name
Description
Name
The name of the backed up Container.
Source Node
The Node where the Container was hosted during its backing up.
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75
The date and time when the last backing up of the Container took place.
Number of Backups The number of Container backups on the Node.
Description
The backup description.
The backup manager window allows you to perform the following operations:
ƒ
Restore a single Container from its backup. You should right-click the needed Container
backup and select Restore Container on the context menu to start the Restore Container
wizard. In this wizard, you should select the Destination Node, i.e. the place whither the
Container will be restored. By default, the Container Source Node is selected. Only the
Nodes registered in Parallels Management Console are shown:
Figure 30: Management Console - Choosing Destination Node
On the Review Container Restoration Settings screen, click Finish to start restoring the
Container to the selected Destination Node.
ƒ
Restore one or several files and/or folders from a particular Container backup. You should
right-click the Container backup whose files/folders you wish to restore and select Restore
Individual Container Files on the context menu to start the Restore Individual Container Files
wizard. In this wizard you should:
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Select the Destination Node, i.e. the place whither the Container files/folders will be
restored:
Figure 31: Management Console - Launching Restore Individual Container Files Wizard
By default, the Container Source Node is selected. Only the Nodes registered in
Parallels Management Console are shown. You can also restore the files/folders to your
local computer, i.e. to the computer where Parallels Management Console is installed.
To this effect, select the Restore to local machine radio button and, in the Path field,
specify the path to the folder whither the files will be restored.
ƒ
Select the Container files/folders that will be restored to the Destination Node. The
Choose Files to Restore window provides you with a tree view of the files and folders
that you have backed up. To enqueue this or that file/folder for being restored, you
should select its check box. You can select the check box next to the corresponding
directory to restore all the files and subfolders from this folder.
ƒ
The Review Container Restoration Settings window enables you to review the parameters
entered by you on the previous steps of the wizard. If you are satisfied with the
parameters set, click Finish to start restoring the selected Container files/folders to the
Destination Node. Otherwise, click Back and change the corresponding parameters.
Right-clicking on a Container backup in this table and selecting Properties on the context menu
brings about the Container Backups dialog where you can view extensive information about the
current Container backup, including all its full and incremental backups, as well as delete any of
these backups, explore their contents (i.e. the Container drives, files, and folders), or restore the
Container or any of its files/folders by selecting their check boxes and clicking the Restore
Selected Items button.
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Searching for Container Backups
If you do not remember the place where you are storing the backup of a particular Container
(identified by its ID or its IP address or its hostname or by the date of its creation), you can
search for the backup across all the Hardware Nodes (performing the function of Backup Nodes
in this case) registered in Parallels Management Console.
To search for a backup, do the following:
1
Right-click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Backup Node name, and
select Backup --> Search for Backups on the context menu to open the Find Container
Backups dialog:
Figure 32: Management Console - Searching for Backups
2 On the upper left drop-down menu, choose the Container parameter by which you wish to
search for the corresponding Container backup.
3 Enter the value of the parameter in the text field on the right. All the Containers with the
corresponding parameter including the specified value as its part will be found. E.g., if you
enter "100" as the value for Container ID, the backups of Containers 100, 1000, 1001, 1002,
2100, 3100, and so on, will be searched for.
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4 Check those Nodes where you want to search for the backups.
5 Click the Search button.
The Search results table presents the following information about the found backups:
Column Name
Description
Name
The name of the Container whose backup has been found.
Source Node
The Node where the Container was hosted during its backing up.
Creation date
The date and time when the backup was created.
Type
The backup type. Detailed information on all backup types is given in the
Defining Default Backup Type subsection.
Backup Node
The Backup Node - the Node where the backup has been found.
Description
The backup description.
Double-clicking on a Container backup in this table brings about the Container Backups dialog
where you can view extensive information about the current Container backup, including all its
full and incremental backups, as well as delete any of these backups or restore them in the
manner depicted above.
Scheduling Container Backups
Parallels Management Console allows you to automate the task of backing up your Containers
by setting Container backups to be run on a schedule. So, you can specify certain time intervals
when the Container backup will be automatically performed. A schedule can be set for a
Container to be backed up at different intervals: daily, weekly, monthly. It is also possible to
specify a particular day of month for a Container backup to be executed.
Parallels Management Console provides you with a special wizard - Schedule Task for Backing
Up Containers - helping you schedule the time when your Containers are to be backed up. To
invoke the wizard, right-click the Scheduled Tasks item under the corresponding Hardware
Node name and select Schedule New Task --> Back Up Containers on the context menu.
In this wizard you should:
1
Choose the Containers to be backed up on the schedule you will set on the following steps
of the wizard.To this effect, click the Add button in the top right corner of the Choose
Containers to Backup Up window, select the names of the corresponding Containers, and
click OK. When you are read, click Next to proceed with the wizard.
2 Choose the Container backup mode:
ƒ
Default: select this radio button to back up the Container using the default backup mode.
In this case the default backup parameters are used when creating the Container backup.
Besides, when run in this mode, the wizard does not allow you to exclude any files from
the resulting backup archives, to set the backup description, and configure the default
backup policy.
Note: Detailed information on what default backup parameters are and how to manage them
is given in the Setting Default Backup Parameters subsection (on page 53).
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79
Custom: select this radio button to manually set the parameters to be applied to the
resulting backup archive. In this case you will have to go thru a number of additional
steps (Steps 3 and 4) of the Schedule Backup Task for Container(s) wizard and set the
necessary parameters of the Container backup one by one.
3 Specify the files and folders to be included in the backup:
Figure 33: Scheduling Container Backups - Choosing Files to Back Up
By default, all the Container files and folders are included in the backup archive. To leave
out a file or directory from the backup process, clear its check box in the Included files table.
You can also use the following options to filter out the files/folders:
ƒ
Select the All hidden files and folders check box to exclude all hidden files and folders
inside the Container from the backup process.
ƒ
Select the All system files and folders check box to exclude all system files and folders
from the backup process.
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Select the Matching the following criteria check box and use the Add button to set the
parameters to be met by the file/folder to exclude it from the backup process. You can
specify the full path to the corresponding file/folder, enter its name, or define any filter
compatible with standard Windows masking rules. For example, you can indicate
C:\MyFolder\MyFile.txt to exclude the MyFile.txt file from the backup
process or type *.bmp to leave out all files with the bmp extension.
Please keep in mind that the selected options will be valid for all Containers to be backed
up.
Notes: 1. The Included files table is not shown if you are creating a backup task for several
Containers.
2. If you exclude one or more system or hidden files/folders from the Container backup (e.g.
either the All hidden files and folders or All system files and folders check box is selected, or
the Entire Contents of.. check box is cleared), you will be able to restore only individual files
from this backup, but not the Container as a whole.
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4 Next you should specify the main backup parameters:
Figure 34: Scheduling Container Backups - Setting Main Backup Options
In this window you can configure the following backup parameters:
ƒ
Backup Node. This Node is the place where the Container backup will be stored. You
may leave the Backup Node offered by Management Console by default or use the
Change button to specify the desired Backup Node. For detailed information on Backup
Nodes, please consult the Assigning Default Backup Node subsection (on page 54).
ƒ
Backup compression level: 'None', 'Normal', 'High', or 'Maximum'. Detailed information
on all compression levels is provided in the Defining Default Compression Level
subsection.
ƒ
Backup type. It may be full, incremental, or differential. Detailed information on backup
types is provided in the Specifying Default Backup Type subsection. If you are backing
up a single Container, and no backup of this Container has been found on the Backup
Node, the Backup Type group is not shown, and a full backup is automatically created.
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5 On the next step of the wizard, you can set the following parameters for the Container
backup:
ƒ
Provide the backup description in the Backup description field, if necessary. The
description can be any text containing any backup-related information (e.g. the backup
purpose).
ƒ
Do not stop the Container backup even if any errors appear (the Do not stop on errors
check box is selected) or break the backup process should any malfunction occur (the
check box is cleared).
ƒ
Do not stop the backup process if one or more of the Containers to be backed up is not
present on the Source Node (the Ignore non-existent Containers check box is selected) or
break the backup process if any Container is absent (the check box is cleared). This
option can be used when backing up several Containers at once.
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6 Next you should specify a number of parameters for the backup tasks being created:
Figure 35: Management Console - Defining Backup Tasks Parameters
In this window you are supposed to:
ƒ
set the name for the backup task;
ƒ
provide the task description, if necessary;
ƒ
set the schedule for the Container backup (specify the task start time, set the time
interval when the Container backup is to be performed, etc.);
ƒ
define the date when the backup task is to be removed from the schedule.
You can also clear the Enabled ... check box if you wish to run the scheduled task during a
certain period of time. You can always enable the task later on by right-clicking the task and
selecting Enable on the context menu.
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7 On the last step of the wizard, review the parameters provided by you on the previous steps
of the wizard. If you are satisfied with all the parameters, click Finish to schedule the task.
Otherwise, click the Back button to return to the previous steps and change the
corresponding parameters. On this step you can also do the following:
ƒ
Provide the backup description in the Backup description field. The description can be
any text containing any backup-related information (e.g. the backup purpose).
ƒ
Select the Do not stop on errors check box to make the Container backup not stop even if
any errors appear during the backup execution. If you clear the check box, the backup
process will be broken should any malfunction occur.
ƒ
Select the Force full backup check box to always perform a full backup for the selected
Containers. If you clear the check box, an incremental backup will be performed for
those Containers whose full backups are already present on the Backup Node.
At any time, you can configure any parameters of the scheduled backup task, disable the task, or
even delete it. To this effect, choose the Scheduled Tasks item under the corresponding
Hardware Node name, right-click the corresponding backup task in the Management Console
right pane, and select one of the following options on the context menu:
ƒ
Disable to temporarily stop backing up your Containers on the set schedule;
ƒ
Delete to permanently remove the scheduled backup task;
ƒ
Properties to change the settings of the backup task.
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Setting Maximal Backup Number for Parallels Power Panel
Management Console allows you to configure the number of Container backups Container
administrators are allowed to create on the given Hardware Node using Parallels Power Panel.
By default, any Container administrator is allowed to create only one Container backup in
Parallels Power Panel. However, you can increase the number of allowed backups by
performing the following operations:
1
Right-click the Hardware Node where the Container, for which you wish to increase the
number of allowed backups, is residing and choose Backup --> Set Default Backup Options:
Figure 36: Management Console - Setting Number of Allowed Backups in Power Panel
2 Specify the number of Container backups the Container administrator will be able to create
with Parallels Power Panel by typing the desired number in the Maximum number of allowed
Container backups field or using the spin button.
3 Click OK.
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Please keep in mind that the limit set on the number of Container backups concerns only the
process of backing up Containers using the Parallels Power Panel tool. There are no restrictions
for any users creating Container backups by means of other Virtuozzo Tools (e.g. Parallels
Infrastructure Manager or Parallels Management Console); they are allowed to create as many
Container backups as they want to.
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Using Third-Party Backup Software
This section provides general information on third-party backup and restore software that can be
used to back up and restore your Containers.
Overview
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 comes with the support of the Microsoft Volume Shadow
Copy Service (MS VSS) technology allowing you to use third-party backup applications for
creating Container backup archives.
To provide the integration with VSS, a special writer service - Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service has been implemented. Like any other VSS writer, the Virtuozzo VSS writer ensures that,
during backup operations, all data are in the persistent and stable state. In addition to this, it
creates one VSS component for each Container on the Hardware Node. Any VSS component
has control over the following Container-related files on the Node:
ƒ
all the files located in the X:\vz\private\CT_ID folder and
ƒ
the CT_ID.conf and CT_ID.conf.bak files in the X:\vz\Conf folder.
Currently, you can use the following third-party tools to perform Container backups:
ƒ
NTBACKUP built in Windows Server 2003;
ƒ
EMC Networker, version 7.3;
ƒ
Symantec Backup Exec 11d for Windows Servers;
ƒ
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, version 5.3;
ƒ
BrightStor ARCserve Backup r11.5 SP2 for Windows.
A typical process of creating Container backups on the Hardware Node using any of these tools
is described as follows:
1
The backup application requests a list of VSS components from the Virtuozzo VSS Writer
Service.
2 The Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service provides the requested components list (i.e. one VSS
component per Container).
3 The backup application transmits the list of volumes to take part in the backup process to the
Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service and asks it to freeze its activity.
4 On the basis of the received volumes list, the Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service makes a list of
running Containers for backing up and forces the MS VSS services inside the affected
Containers to freeze all VSS writers, which results in the suspending the activity of all VSSaware applications inside these Containers (MS SQL Server, MS Exchange Server, etc.).
5 The MS VSS service on the Hardware Node creates a shadow copy of the volumes to be
backed up.
6 The backup application makes a backup of the Container files from the shadow copy.
7 After the backup creation, the backup application asks the Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service to
resume its activity. It its turn, the Virtuozzo Service transmits the received signal to the
corresponding Containers, thus, allowing the Container VSS services and VSS-aware
applications inside the Containers to resume their activity.
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Although the concept underlying the creation of Container backups using the VSS technology is
the same for all third-party applications listed above, each application demonstrates a number of
peculiarities which should be taken into account when making Container backups. Detailed
information on these peculiarities is provided in the following subsections.
Using Symantec Backup Exec For Creating Container Backups
The Symantec Backup Exec 11d for Windows Servers application provides fast, flexible,
granular protection and recovery, and scalable management of local and remote server backups.
To start using this software to create Container backups, you should follow the following
instructions during the application installation and configuration:
1
When installing Symantec Backup Exec on the Hardware Node, follow the installation
instructions provided in the Symantec Backup Exec Installation Guide. Please make sure that
the following points are correctly handled during the installation:
ƒ
The Install Backup Exec software and options radio button is selected on the Symantec
Backup Exec for Windows Servers Install Menu screen.
ƒ
The Advanced Open File Option component is selected for installing on your server on
the Symantec Backup Exec Features screen:
Figure 37: Installing Symantec Backup Exec
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2 When configuring your Backup Exec environment:
ƒ
Use the Getting Started with Backup Exec wizard to perform the standard initial
configuration of Symantec Backup Exec. To invoke the wizard, select Programs -->
Symantec Backup Exec for Windows Servers --> Backup Exec 11d for Windows Servers on
the Windows Start menu.
ƒ
Disable the 'Active File Exclusion' feature. Detailed information on this feature and
what
should
be
done
to
disable
it
is
given
at
http://seer.support.veritas.com/docs/259152.htm.
3 When creating a backup job (e.g. by launching the application, clicking the arrow next to the
Backup item on the navigation bar and selecting New Backup Job on the drop-down menu),
configure the backup job to meet your demands and make sure that:
ƒ
the Back up files and directories by following junction points check box on the Advanced
screen is cleared:
Figure 38: Creating Backup Job - Step 1
ƒ
the Use Advanced Open File Option check box on the Advanced File Option screen is
selected and the Automatically select open file technology radio button is selected under
Open file configuration:
Figure 39: Creating Backup Job - Step 2
ƒ
the X:\vz\private\CT_ID\root folder are excluded from the backup selection
list;
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90
add special pre- and post-backup scripts on the Pre/Post Commands screen to be used to
freeze and thaw the Container activity during the backup operation.
Figure 40: Creating Backup Job - Step 3
These scripts should:
-be obligatorily set since Symantec Backup Exec does not suspend the VSS writers'
activity when creating backups in the 'filesystem backup' mode (see below);
-use the vzvssctl command line utility for suspending/resuming the Container
activity (detailed information on this utility is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 Reference Guide).
After completing the aforementioned tasks, you can use one of the following ways to back up
your Containers:
ƒ
Using the standard 'filesystem backup' procedure. To this effect, you should manually add
the following files and folders to the backup selection list:
X:\vz\private\CT_ID
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf.bak
and exclude the X:\vz\private\CT_ID\root and the X:\vz\root folders from the
backup process. For example:
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91
Figure 41: Symantec Backup Exec - Filesystem Backup
In this case only a Container with the ID of CT_ID (Container 111 in the picture above)
will be backed up.
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92
Using the 'Shadow copy components backup' procedure. To this effect, you should select the
'Shadow
Copy
Components\Service
State\Virtuozzo
VSS
Writer\CT_ID' component during the backup job creation. For example:
Figure 42: Symantec Backup Exec - Shadow Copy Components Backup
In this case only a Container with the ID of CT_ID (Container 111 in the picture above)
will be suspended by the VSS service and backed up by Symantec Backup Exec.
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Using Tivoli Storage Manager For Creating Container Backups
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) 5.3 enables you to protect your organization’s data from
failures and other errors by storing backup and archive data in a hierarchy of offline storage. To
start using TSM to back up your Containers, you should perform the following steps:
When setting up the TSM server software, follow the installation and configuration instructions
given in the Tivoli Storage Manager Installation Guide and Tivoli Storage Manager Backup-Archive
Clients Installation and User's Guide and make sure the following points are correctly handled:
1
During the TSM server installation, select the Complete radio button on the Setup Type
screen of the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Server Installation Wizard.
2 During the TSM server configuration:
ƒ
Launch Tivoli Management Console by selecting Programs --> Tivoli Storage Manager -> Management Console on the Windows Start menu:
Figure 43: Configuring TSM Server Software
ƒ
In the displayed window, select the Standard Configuration radio button and click Start.
ƒ
Follow the instructions of the wizards ((Initial Configuration Environment Wizard,
Performance Configuration Wizard, Server Initialization Wizard, Configure Devices Wizard,
Client Node Configuration Wizard) to complete the TSM server configuration.
When setting up the TSM client software, follow the installation and configuration instructions
given in the Tivoli Storage Manager Installation Guide and Tivoli Storage Manager Backup-Archive
Clients Installation and User's Guide and make sure the following points are correctly handled:
1
During the TSM client installation:
ƒ
On the Setup Type screen, select the Custom Setup radio button.
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94
On the Custom Setup screen, select the Open File Support feature for installing on your
server:
Figure 44: Installing TSM Client Software
2 During the TSM client configuration:
ƒ
Configure the "X:\Program Files\Tivoli\TSM\baclient\dsm.opt" file
and the 'Open File Support' feature as described in the Configuring Tivoli Storage
Manager chapter of the Tivoli Storage Manager Backup-Archive Clients Installation and
User's Guide.
ƒ
Add special pre- and post-backup scripts to the dsm.opt file. These scripts are needed
to freeze and thaw the Container activity during the backup operation and should:
-be obligatorily set since Tivoli Storage Manager does not suspend the VSS writers'
activity when creating backups in the 'filesystem backup' mode;
-use the vzvssctl command line utility for suspending/resuming the Container
activity (detailed information on this interface is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 Reference Guide).
An example of the dsm.opt file is given below:
...
INCLUDE.FS C: SNAPSHOTCACHELOCATION=G:\TEMP
INCLUDE.FS G: SNAPSHOTCACHELOCATION=G:\TEMP
SNAPSHOTCACHELOCATION G:\TEMP
PRESNAPSHOT "C:\presnapshot.cmd"
POSTSNAPSHOT "C:\postsnapshot.cmd"
...
For details on how to configure the dsm.opt file and all its options, please turn to the
Client Option Reference section of the Backup-Archive Client Installation And User's Guide
shipped with Tivoli Storage Manager 5.3.
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95
After completing the aforementioned tasks, you can use one of the following ways to back up
your Containers:
ƒ
Using the standard 'filesystem backup' procedure. To this effect, you should manually add
the following files and folders to the backup selection list:
X:\vz\private\CT_ID\*.*
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf.bak
and exclude the X:\vz\private\CT_ID\root folder from the backup process. For
example:
Figure 45: Tivoli Storage Manager - Filesystem Backup
In this case all the Containers specified in the presnapshot.cmd script will be
suspended; however, only a Container with the ID of CT_ID will be backed up by TSM.
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96
Using the 'Shadow copy components backup' procedure. To this effect, you should select the
'Service State\Virtuozzo VSS Writer' component during the backup
operation. For example:
Figure 46: Tivoli Storage Manager - Adding Virtuozzo VSS
In this case:
ƒ
all running Containers will be suspended by the VSS service;
ƒ
TSM will back up all the existing Containers on the Node (both suspended and stopped).
Using EMC NetWorker For Creating Container Backups
The EMC NetWorker application provides you with a fast and flexible ways to back up and
recover your Containers. To start using this application for creating Container backups, you
should perform the following operations:
1
Install the EMC NetWorker application in accordance with the instructions given in the
Networker 7.3 Installation Guide.
2 Add the Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service GUID to the EMC NetWorker configuration file. To
this effect:
ƒ
Execute the vssadmin list writers command on the Hardware Node and find
the Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service GUID. For example:
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97
C:\...\Administrator>vssadmin list writers
...
Writer name: 'Virtuozzo VSS Writer'
Writer Id: {5affb034-969f-4919-8875-88f830d0ef89}
Writer Instance Id: {bad16641-575a-49c8-aef1-db21cd0be371}
State: [1] Stable
Last error: No error
...
ƒ
Open
the
"X:\Program
Files\Legato\nsr\res\nsrladb\02\0200c4079287bb45c0a89a84"
file for editing.
ƒ
Append the Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service GUID to the end of the 'VSS writer' list and
save the file. For example:
...
{5382579c-98df-47a7-ac6c-98a6d7106e09},
{a6ad56c2-b509-4e6c-bb19-49d8f43532f0},
{5affb034-969f-4919-8875-88f830d0ef89};
...
3 When creating a backup task that is to be run from the command-line or on a set schedule
(see below), add the following command to the pre-backup script:
sc control vzvsswriter 128
By default, EMC NetWorker skips all VSS writers' files from the filesystem backup. So,
you should obligatorily specify this line to initiate the Virtuozzo VSS Writer service.
More detailed on the way to configure the 'NetWorker backup' utility can be found in the
Backing Up Data --> Customizing the backup command --> Using the savepnpc command with
a customized Backup command section of the Legato Networker Administration Guide.
After completing the aforementioned tasks, you can back up your Containers as follows:
ƒ
By means of the NetWorker User GUI tool (accessible on selecting Programs --> EMC
NetWorker --> NetWorker User on the Windows Start menu). In this case you can use one of
the following ways to create a Container backup:
Using the standard 'filesystem backup' procedure. In this case the process of backing up
the specified Containers will be performed without the participation of the Virtuozzo
VSS Writer Service and the resulting backup image will be crash-consistent. To perform
this kind of backup, you should manually stop the Virtuozzo VSS Writer Service and
add the following files and folders to the backup selection list:
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98
X:\vz\private\CT_ID\*.*
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf.bak
Figure 47: NetWorker User Tool - Filesystem Backup
ƒ
ƒ
Using the 'Shadow copy components backup' procedure. To this effect, you should select
the 'VSS SYSTEM SERVICES\Virtuozzo VSS Writer' component during the
backup operation. In this case all Container on the Hardware Node will be suspended by
the VSS service and backed up by EMC NetWorker.
By means of the NetWorker command-line interface. To this effect, you should complete
Step 3 (see above) and, after that, execute the following command on the Hardware Node:
C:\...\Administrator>savepnpc -s BackupServerName -g BackupGroupName
X:\vz\private\CT_ID X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf.bak
In this case all Containers on the X:\ volume will be suspended by the VSS service;
however, only a Container with the ID of CT_ID will be backed up by EMC NetWorker.
ƒ
By setting a scheduled backup via NetWorker Management Console. To this effect, you
should:
ƒ
complete Step 3 (see above);
ƒ
launch NetWorker Management Console and, when scheduling the backup, add the
following lines to the Save set field in the Properties window:
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X:\vz\private\CT_ID\*.*
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf.bak
For example:
Figure 48: EMC NetWorker - Scheduling Backup
In this case all Containers on the X:\ volume (irrespective of what Container ID you
specify as CT_ID) will be suspended by the VSS service; however, only a Container with
the ID of CT_ID will be backed up by EMC NetWorker.
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Using BrightStor ARCserve for Creating Container Backups
BrightStor ARCserve Backup r11.5 for Windows BrightStor ARCserve Backup for Windows
offers world-class data protection for distributed servers, databases and applications, as well as
clients for multiple environments, including Windows, UNIX, Linux, and NetWare. With its
wide range of powerful, easy-to-use data protection tools, BrightStor ARCserve Backup ensures
the integrity and availability of your most important asset—data.
To start using the BrightStor ARCserve Backup application for creating Container backups,
please follow the following instructions when installing and configuring this application:
1
During the BrightStor ARCserve installation, select the Agent for VSS Snap-Shot item on the
Select Products page:
Figure 49: Installing BrightStor ARCserve
2 Install and configure the BrightStor ARCserve application as stated in the BrightStor
ARCserve Backup for Windows Getting Started guide.
3 Perform the following operations to additionally configure the application:
a
Launch the BrightStor ARCserve application by selecting Programs --> CA --> BrightStor
--> ARCserve Backup --> Manager on the Windows Start menu.
b
Select Quick Start --> Backup on the main menu.
c
Select Backup --> Options on the main menu.
d
On the Volume Shadow Copy Service tab of the Global Options window:
ƒ
Select the Use VSS check box.
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101
Clear the Files included by a Writer will be excluded from file system backups check box.
Figure 50: Configuring BrightStor ARCserve
a
Go to the Advanced tab and clear the Traverse Directory Junctions And Volume Mount
Points check box.
b
Click OK.
After completing the aforementioned tasks, you can use one of the following scenarios to back
up your Containers:
ƒ
Using the standard 'filesystem backup' procedure. To this effect, you should manually add
the following files and folders to the backup selection list:
X:\vz\private\CT_ID\*.*
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf
X:\vz\conf\CT_ID.conf.bak
In this case all the Containers on the X:\ volume (irrespective of what Container ID you
specify as CT_ID) will be suspended by the VSS service; however, only a Container with
the ID of CT_ID will be backed up by BrightStorARCserve.
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102
Using the 'Shadow copy components backup' procedure. To this effect, you should select the
'Virtuozzo VSS Writer\CT_ID' component during the backup operation. In this
case only a Container with the ID of CT_ID will be suspended by the VSS service and
backed up by BrightStorARCserve.
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Using NTBACKUP for Creating Container Backups
Windows Server 2003 has a built-in program - NTBACKUP - allowing you to back up your
system environment, including any of the Containers residing on the Hardware Node. To start
using this tool for backing up your Containers, you should complete the following tasks on the
Node:
1
Start the NTBACKUP application by selecting Programs --> Accessories --> System Tools -->
Backup on the Windows Start menu.
2 Click the Advanced Mode link in the Backup or Restore Wizard (if the Backup utility is
launched in the 'Wizard' mode).
3 In the displayed window, click Tool --> Options.
4 On the General tab of the Options window, clear the Back up the contents of mounted drives
check box:
Figure 51: Using NTBACKUP to Create Container Backups
5 Click OK.
Now you can back up any of the Containers existing on the Node in the same way you would
back up your normal data with NTBACKUP. For example, you can back up Container 101 by
doing the following:
1
Start the NTBACKUP application by selecting Programs --> Accessories --> System Tools -->
Backup on the Windows Start menu.
2 In the Welcome to the Backup or Restore Wizard window, click Next.
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3 In the Backup or Restore window, select the Backup files and settings radio button and click
Next.
4 In the What to Back Up window, select the Let me choose what to back up radio button and
click Next.
5 In the Items to Backup Up window, select the following files:
ƒ
X:\vz\private\101;
ƒ
X:\vz\conf\101.conf;
ƒ
X:\vz\conf\101.conf.bak.
6 In the Backup Type, Destination, and Name window, specify the desired parameters and click
Next.
7 In the Completing Backup or Restore Wizard window, click Finish to start backing up
Container 101 and all its data. During the backup operation, the NTBACKUP utility creates a
volume shadow copy of the Container data which is backed up afterwards.
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Searching for Container
Usually there are a great number of Containers on your Hardware Node(s). To quickly find the
necessary Container, go to the Virtuozzo Containers item, right-click it, and choose Task -->
Search for Containers. The Find Containers window opens:
Figure 52: Management Console - Finding Container
This dialog window provides you with a list of Containers across one or several Hardware
Nodes united by a common parameter value. This can be the Container ID, name, type, status,
or IP address assigned to the Container.
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You should indicate the parameter by which you wish to search for Containers on the upper left
drop-down menu, and then the value of the parameter. If you choose to search for Containers by
their state (status) or ID you will be presented with a list of predefined values of these
parameters. It is connected with the fact that there is a fixed number of Container statuses, and
Container IDs can be only of the integer type. By searching for Containers by their name or IP
address, you can enter any string in the corresponding field. In this case the search results will
display all the Containers whose name/IP address contain the specified string, even if only as a
part.
You should also select the Hardware Node(s) where you wish to search for Containers with the
specified characteristics. Containers from different Nodes matching the search criterion will be
displayed in one and the same search result table. After you have selected the Hardware
Node(s), click the Search button. The table will be populated at the bottom of the window.
The Containers in the Search Results table corresponding to the specified search criterion may
also be sorted by a number of parameters, among which are their ID, name, the Hardware Node
they belong to, their IP address, etc. To sort the Containers by a parameter, click the
corresponding column name. Another click will reverse the sorting order.
From the Search Results table, you may also open the Container manager window by doubleclicking the corresponding Container.
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Moving Container Within Hardware
Node
You can move Containers within your Hardware Node with the help of the Move Container
wizard. Moving a Container within one and the same Hardware Node consists in changing the
Container ID and and its private area and root paths. So, you may use the wizard to change the
ID of the corresponding Container only or to additionally modify the Container private area and
root location. To invoke the Move Container wizard, select the Virtuozzo Containers item under
the corresponding Hardware Node name, right-click the Container you wish to change the ID of,
and select Tasks -> Move Container on the context menu:
Figure 53: Management Console - Specifying New Container ID
In this window you should specify a new ID for the corresponding Container. Note that the old
ID for this Container will be lost and all Container private data will be transferred to the
X:\vz\private\<new_CT_ID> folder, where X is the disk drive used to store your
Container data and <new_CT_ID> denotes the new ID assigned to the Container.
On the next screen, you should specify the path to the Container private area and root directory:
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Figure 54: Manangement Console - Setting Root and Private Area Paths
You can leave the paths offered in the Old path fields by default
(X:\vz\Private\<CT_ID> and X:\vz\private\<CT_ID>\root for the Container
private area and root paths, respectively) or select the Override default path to ... check boxes and
type the desired paths in the Path to Container private area and Path to Container root directory
fields. If you have made some changes to the default paths and wish to revert to these paths,
click the Set Default button.
Clicking Next will display the Review Container Movement Settings window. The window
enables you to review the settings made by you on the previous steps. Click the Finish button to
begin the moving process. This process may take some time, so be sure to wait for it to
complete.
In the command line, you can use the vzmlocal utility to change the ID of a Container.
Detailed information on the vzmlocal utility can be found in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Reference Guide.
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, you can change IDs of stopped
Containers only.
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109
Copying Containers Within
Hardware Node
This section provides information on how you can make copies of your Containers.
Copying Single Container
You can create a complete copy of a particular Container (in respect of all the Container data
and resources parameters), or a Container clone. This saves your time because you do not have
to think of setting up the Container configuration parameters and the like. Moreover, you can
create a number of Container clones at a sitting.
In order to create a Container clone, click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding
Hardware Node name, right-click the Container you are going to clone, and select Tasks -->
Clone Container(s) on the context menu. The Clone Container(s) wizard will guide you thru the
process of cloning the Container.
First, you will need to specify the number of Container clones to create and the starting
Container ID:
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110
Figure 55: Management Console - Cloning Container
The number of clones depends on the capacity of the Hardware Node. This taken into account, it
is safe to create up to 100 Container clones at one time. The default is 1.
Similarly to creating new Containers, the Clone Containers wizard allows the simultaneous
creation of several Container clones with IDs in a continuous series only. The default starting
Container ID, which is automatically offered, is the first unoccupied ID starting from 101. For
example, if you already have Containers with IDs from 101 thru 105 and 107, the ID of 106 will
be offered by default. And if you are creating only one Container clone, you may safely accept
this number. Or you can specify any other number, and the system will check up if the ID is
unoccupied. However, if you are going to create a number of Container clones, it is
recommended to decide on an unoccupied ID series in advance. The Assign Container ID
automatically check box, if selected, lets unoccupied IDs be automatically chosen and assigned
to the cloned Containers.
On the second step, you will be asked to define a new name and a new hostname for the
resulting Container. Type an arbitrary name you consider suitable for the Container in the Name
field and indicate its hostname, if necessary, in the Hostname field.
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111
Next, you are supposed to configure the parameters of the Container network adapters that will
be available inside the Container:
Figure 56: Management Console - Specifying Network Parameters
In this window you can do the following:
ƒ
Select the name of the default Container virtual network adapter in the Interfaces table to
view detailed information on this adapter in the Details table at the bottom of the window.
ƒ
Select the name of the default Container virtual network adapter in the Interfaces table and
click the Properties button to configure the network adapter parameters.
ƒ
Use the Add Interface button and create additional virtual network adapters for the resulting
Container.
Detailed information on all network parameters and on the way to manage them is provided in
the Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters subsection (on page 265).
Operations on Containers
112
The last window lets you review the parameters provided by you on the previous steps. You can
also select the Start the cloned Container after its creation check box to immediately start the
Container after its successful cloning. Click Finish to start the copying process.
In the command line, the vzmlocal utility is used to copy a Container within the given
Hardware Node. Detailed information on the vzmlocal command line switches and options is
provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide.
Note: You can clone both running and stopped Containers.
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113
Copying Group of Containers
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 also allows you to copy several Containers at once using the Clone
Containers wizard. To invoke the wizard, you should:
1
Click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 In the Parallels Management Console right pane, select the Containers to be cloned (or the
Source Containers). You can use CTRL+Click to select or deselect a Container,
SHIFT+Click to select a range of Containers, CTRL+A to select all Containers.
3 Right-click the selection and choose Tasks --> Clone Container(s) on the context menu.
Figure 57: Management Console - Specifying Container Name and Hostname
On the first step of the wizard, you will be asked to define new names and new hostnames for
the resulting Containers. By default, Parallels Management Console uses the '$NAME' and
'$HOSTNAME' placeholders for making names and hostnames which are automatically
replaced with the IDs of the Containers being cloned. For example, if you are creating the
clones of two Containers having the 'server1' and 'server2' names and 'Container101' and
'Container102' hostnames and, in the Name and Hostname fields, leave the values offered by the
wizard, the cloned Containers will be assigned:
ƒ
the 'cloned server1' and 'cloned server2' names;
ƒ
the 'cloned-Container101' and 'cloned-Container102' hostnames.
You can leave the values offered by the wizard by default or modify them to meet your
demands. However, when deciding on your own names and hostnames, make sure that the
'$NAME' and '$HOSTNAME' placeholders are always present in the Name and Hostname
fields.
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114
If some of the Source Containers have one or more IP addresses manually assigned to them, you
will be presented with the following window:
Figure 58: Management Console - Resolving IP Address Conflicts
In this window you can choose one of the following options:
ƒ
Selecting the Remove the IP addresses from the cloned Containers radio button will remove
all manually assigned IP addresses from the resulting Containers. In this case you will have
to manually set valid IP addresses for the Containers or to allow these Containers to get their
IP addresses via the DHCP protocol before you can start them.
ƒ
Selecting the Get new IP addresses for the cloned Containers from the IP addresses pool
radio button will automatically remove all manually assigned IP addresses from the
resulting Containers and assign new IP addresses from the IP address pool to them. This
option is available only if you have configured at least one IP addresses pool on the
Hardware Node.
ƒ
Selecting the Leave the IP addresses of the cloned Containers intact radio button will leave
intact all manually set IP addresses of the Source Containers and assign them to the
resulting Containers. Please keep in mind that this situation may lead to an IP address
conflict if both the Source and the resulting Container are simultaneously running on the
Hardware Node.
On the last step of the wizard, you can review the parameters that will be used for creating the
resulting Containers. You can also select the Start the cloned Container after its creation check
box to automatically launch the cloned Containers right after their creation. Click the Finish
button to start the copying process.
You can also use the vzmlocal command line utility to simultaneously clone several
Containers. Detailed information on how you can do it is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Reference Guide.
Operations on Containers
115
Migrating Container
Migrating Containers is possible if Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is installed on two or more
Hardware Nodes, so you are able to move a Container to another Node. Migration may be
necessary if a Hardware Node is undergoing a planned maintenance or in certain other cases. In
the latter case, there will be a short downtime in the Container operation.
You can move both stopped and running Containers. Migrating a stopped Container includes
copying all Container private files and registry from one Node to another and does not differ
from copying a number of files from one workstation to another over the network. In its turn,
the migration procedure of a running Container is a bit more complicated and may be described
as follows:
1
After initiating the migration process, a snapshot of all Container private files and registry is
made, i.e. all Container private files and registry are remembered in the state they were at
the beginning of the migration.
2 The files and registry are copied to the Destination Node. During this time, the Container on
the Source Node continues running.
3 The Container on the Source Node is stopped.
4 The Container private files and registry copied to the Destination Node are compared with
those on the Source Node and, if any files and registry keys were changed during the 2nd
migration step, they are copied to the Destination Node again and rewrite the outdated
versions.
5 The Container on the Destination Node is started.
There is a short downtime needed to stop the Container on the Source Node, copy the Container
files and registry changes to the Destination Node, and start the Container on the Destination
Node. However, this time is very short and does not usually exceed one minute.
To migrate one or more Containers to another Hardware Node with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0
for Windows using Parallels Management Console, select these Containers from the list in the
right pane after selecting the Virtuozzo Containers item in the left pane. Then right-click the
selection and point to Tasks -> Migrate to Another Hardware Node on the context menu. Note
that the target Hardware Node must be already registered in Management Console; otherwise,
the migration option will not be available. A migration dialog appears, for example:
Operations on Containers
116
Figure 59: Management Console - Migrating Containers
Review the three check boxes at the bottom of the window and check up the needed ones. The
Force migration check box, when selected, forces the Container migration even if the templates
necessary for the Container correct operation are not installed on the Destination Node.
However, it will be impossible to start such a Container after the migration in case of the
absence of the needed templates. Select the target Hardware Node where you want to migrate
the selected Container(s) and press the Migrate button.
You can also use the vzmigrate utility to migrate a Container by means of the command line.
Detailed information on the vzmigrate utility can be found in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Reference Guide.
When migrating Containers from one Hardware Node to another, please keep in mind the
following:
ƒ
You cannot migrate Containers residing on Hardware Nodes running the Virtuozzo
Containers 32-bit version to Hardware Nodes running the Virtuozzo Containers 64-bit
version and vice versa.
ƒ
You can move Containers residing on Hardware Nodes with the Windows Server 2003
Datacenter Edition operating system installed only to Hardware Nodes running the same
edition of Windows Server 2003.
ƒ
All SCSI disk drives forwarded from the Hardware Node to a Container are not kept during
the Container migration.
ƒ
A Container with a shared loopback file created inside cannot be migrated.
ƒ
If a Container has one or more shared loopback files mounted and these loopback files do
not belong to this Container (i.e. were created inside other Containers), they are not kept
during the Container migration.
Operations on Containers
117
Deleting Container
Management Console allows you to delete Containers that are not needed anymore. To delete
one or more Containers, select it (them) in the Containers table in the right pane of the
Management Console main window. You can use CTRL+Click to select or deselect an entry,
SHIFT+Click to select a range of Containers, CTRL+A to select all Containers. Then right-click
the selected Containers and choose Delete, for example:
Figure 60: Management Console - Deleting Container
You can also click the Delete button on the toolbar or select Delete on the Action menu. In the
displayed dialog, click Yes to confirm your decision.
Deleting a considerable number of Containers may take a rather long run. The progress is
displayed in the Actions pane.
In the command line, you can delete a Container by using either the vzctl delete or
vzctl destroy command. Detailed information on these commands is provided in the
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Note: Removing a Container means that the private area of the Container (located in the
C:\vz\private folder on the Hardware Node by default) is completely deleted from the
Host OS and all the Container private files are irrevocably erased from the Node without being
moved to the Recycle Bin.
Operations on Containers
118
Changing Administrator Password
While creating a new Container, you must have specified the Administrator password to
log in to the Container as the Administrator user thru Parallels Power Panel, RDP, or MS
TSC. This Administrator user differs from the Administrator user of the Hardware
Node and has full control over the given Container only.
To change the specified Administrator password for a Container, select the Virtuozzo
Containers item under the Hardware Node name, right-click the corresponding Container in the
table, and select Properties on the context menu. After the Properties of Container dialog is
displayed, click the Advanced tab:
Figure 61: Management Console - Setting Administrator Password
Click the Change Password button. After this, type the Administrator password in the
provided fields.
Alternatively, you can open a separate console for the Container (Container Manager) and set
the password for the Administrator user as is described in the Managing Users and Groups
section (on page 124).
Operations on Containers
119
Setting Container Name
Starting with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, you can assign an arbitrary name to your Container and
use it, along with the Container ID, to refer to the Container while performing this or that
Container-related operation on the Hardware Node. For example, you can start, stop, or back up
a Container by specifying the Container name instead of its ID.
Usually you set a name for a new Container during its creation (see page 35). However, if you
have not done so for some reason or other or if you wish to change the name assigned to the
Container, you can proceed as follows:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 Right-click the Container whose name is to be set or changed and select Properties on the
context menu.
3 On the General tab of the displayed window, type the desired name in the Name field. For
example:
Figure 62: Manangement Console - Setting Container Name
4 Click OK.
When specifying names for Containers, please keep in mind the following:
ƒ
Names may contain the following symbols: a-z, A-Z, 0-9, underscores (_), dashes (-),
spaces, the symbols from the ASCII character table with their code in the 128 - 255 range,
and all the national alphabets included in the Unicode code space.
ƒ
Container names cannot consist of digits only; otherwise, there would be no way to
distinguish them from Container IDs.
You can also use the vzctl set command with the --name option to assign new names to
your Containers or change the existing ones. Detailed information on this command is provided
in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Operations on Containers
120
Storing Extended Information on
Container
Sometimes, it may be difficult to remember the information on certain Containers. The
probability of this increases together with the number of Containers and with the time elapsed
since the Container creation. Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to set the description
of any Container on the Hardware Node and view it later on, if required. The description can be
any text containing any Container-related information; for example, you can include the
following in the Container description:
ƒ
the owner of the Container;
ƒ
the purpose of the Container;
ƒ
the summary description of the Container;
ƒ
etc.
To provide a description for a Container in Management Console, you should perform the
following operations:
1
Choose the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node, right-click
the Container for which you wish to set the description, and select Properties on the context
menu.
2 On the General tab of the displayed window, type the necessary information in the
Description field. You can use any symbols you like in the Container description (new lines,
dashes, underscores, spaces, etc.
Figure 63: Manangement Console - Providing Container Description
3 Click OK.
At any time, you can change the provided Container description by performing the
aforementioned operations and entering some other information in the Description field.
Operations on Containers
121
You can also use the --description option of the vzctl set command for specifying
Container descriptions. Detailed information on this option is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Reference Guide.
Operations on Containers
122
Forwarding SCSI Disks to Container
Parallels Management Console allows you to forward any of the SCSI disks existing on the
Hardware Node to your Containers. For example, this can be of service to you if you wish to
create an MSCS (Microsoft Cluster Service) cluster and to make some Container on your Node
participate in this cluster (detailed information on how make MSCS clusters it is provided in the
Deploying Microsoft Clusters in Virtuozzo-Based Systems document shipped with Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0).
To forward a SCSI disk to a Container, you should perform the following operations:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 Right-click the Container where you wish to forward the SCSI disk and select Tasks -->
Configure Support for Windows Cluster on the context menu.
3 In the displayed window, click the Add button:
Figure 64: Management Console - Forwarding SCSI Device
4 Select the Forward the Hardware Node device radio button and choose the needed SCSI
device on the drop-down menu.
5 Click OK.
Notes: 1. All SCSI disk drives forwarded from the Hardware Node to a Container are not kept
during the Container migration.
2. Any SCSI disk can be forwarded to only one Container on the Hardware Node.
Operations on Containers
123
Operations Inside Container
Parallels Management Console allows you to manage Container users and groups and perform
different operations on the files/folders located inside your Container by means of Container
Manager. Container Manager can be accessed by selecting the Virtuozzo Containers item under
the Hardware Node name and double-clicking on the corresponding Container in the right part
of Management Console.
Note: You can also perform all operations described in this section by establishing an RDP/TSC
connection to the Container and working inside this Container as on a stand-alone Windows
2003 server.
Operations on Containers
124
Managing Users and Groups
Parallels Management Console allows you to manage users and groups inside Containers with
the help of Container Manager. All users and groups are adjustable. You can also add new users
and groups.
To manage groups or users inside a Container, open the main tree for this Container, select the
Users and Groups item, and click either the Users or Groups tab to view the users or groups
currently existing inside the Container, respectively:
Figure 65: Management Console - Managing Users and Groups
To open the group properties dialog, double-click on the group name in the table of groups or
select Properties on the context menu. To add a new user to the group, click the Add button. To
remove a user from the group, select the user name and press the Remove button.
To add a new group, click the New Group button on the toolbar (note that this button appears
only if you are currently working with Container groups). Then enter the group name and click
OK.
To delete a group, select its name in the table of groups and click the Delete button on the
toolbar or select the Delete item on the context menu.
To add a new user, open the list of users and click the New user button at the top toolbar. Enter
the user login (user name). This is the only mandatory parameter. You may also set the user
description and password and add the user to one or more groups (see the Member Of tab). Then
click OK.
To edit an existing user, double-click on the user name in the table of users or use the Properties
item on the context menu. The user properties dialog is analogous to the New User dialog.
To change the password for a user, right-click the user in the table of users, select Set Password
on the context menu, then enter the password in the fields provided.
Operations on Containers
125
To delete a user, select its name in the table of users and click the Delete button at the top
toolbar or select the Delete option on the context menu.
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, you cannot create Active Directory
domain user accounts inside your Container by means of Parallels Management Console.
However, you can log in to the Container which acts as a domain controller via RDP and create
a domain user like you would do it on any other stand-alone Windows 2003 server.
Operations on Containers
126
Managing Files
Parallels Management Console allows you to manage files and folders inside each and every
Container by means of the Container Manager window. To open the Container manager
window, select the Virtuozzo Containers item in the left pane of the Management Console main
window and double-click the corresponding Container. Please note that the Container should be
started in order to view its contents. After you expand the File Manager item in the Container
main tree, you will see a list of disk drives available inside your Container:
Figure 66: Manangement Console - File Manager
The principles of working with the Container file manager are standard. You can move thru the
hierarchy of Container drives and folders by double-clicking their names or selecting the
necessary drives and folders in the left pane. Use the menu items, toolbar buttons, table view,
and context menus to perform the following tasks:
ƒ
View the contents of simple text files;
ƒ
View the principal information about a file/folder available inside the given Container;
ƒ
Upload any number of files or whole folders from your local computer (the computer where
Management Console is installed) to any folder of the given Container;
ƒ
Download any number of files from the given Container to your local computer;
ƒ
Create new folders within the drives of the Container;
ƒ
Copy files to another drive/folder of the given Container;
ƒ
Move files to another drive/folder of the given Container;
ƒ
Delete Container files/folders;
ƒ
Rename Container files/folders.
Management Console provides a user-intuitive interface for performing all these tasks.
Operations on Containers
127
While managing files and folders inside your Container, you may accidentally delete one or
several system files necessary for the error-free functioning of the Container or even get your
Container in a non-operational state. In this case the Virtuozzo Containers software allows you
to restore the Container provided you have a backup of this Container. Detailed information on
how to back up and restore your Containers is provided in the Backing Up and Restoring
Containers section (on page 51).
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, you cannot compress files and folders as
well as encrypt them inside your Containers.
Operations on Containers
128
Uploading Files to Container
The Container Manager window allows you to upload any number of files or whole folders
from the local computer (the computer where Parallels Management Console is installed) to any
folder on any Container disk drive. In the Container main tree, expand the File Manager item,
choose the folder inside the Container where the files are to be uploaded, and select Tasks ->
Upload Local File. The Upload Files Wizard opens:
Figure 67: Management Console - Setting Location For Uploading Files
It is a three-step wizard. On the first step of the wizard, you should define the Container(s) and
the path inside this Container (these Containers) where the files will be uploaded. Click the Add
button to open the Select Containers window where you should consecutively select a Hardware
Node and/or a Container from this Node and add it to the Container upload list. Repeat this
sequence for every Container where you wish to upload files and then click OK. After that, you
should enter the path where the files are to be uploaded or browse for this path inside the remote
Container. Click Next when you are finished.
On the second step of the wizard, you should specify the local files or folders you wish to
upload to the Container(s) that you specified on the previous step.
Operations on Containers
129
Figure 68: Management Console - Uploading Files to Container
Click the Add button and select a file or a group of files from a single directory for uploading.
You can also upload the whole folder by clicking the Add Directory button. If you need to
upload files from various local folders, click the Add button the required number of times. After
you have added all the files and folders to be uploaded, click Next.
The next window lets you review all the information provided on the previous step of the
wizard. Make sure that the settings are correct. To change the settings, click the Back button and
make the necessary corrections. After you click Next, the uploading process begins. The
operation progress is graphically displayed in the window of the Upload Files wizard. You can
see how each of the selected files is being consecutively uploaded to the selected Container(s).
Please wait for the operation to finish.
After the uploading process is finished, you will get informed of the results of the operation.
The table in the displayed window lets you view the results regarding every file uploaded to the
selected Container(s). Click Finish to exit the wizard.
Operations on Containers
130
Downloading Files to Local Computer
Parallels Management Console allows you to download any file or folder located on any
Container disk drive to the computer where Management Console is installed. To this effect, do
the following:
1
Expand the File Manager item in the Container main tree.
2 Select the file/folder you wish to download to your local computer (you can use
CTRL+Click to select or deselect the file/folder, SHIFT+Click to select a range of
files/folders, CTRL+A to select all files/folders);
3 Right-click it and choose Tasks --> Copy To Local Computer on the context menu:
Figure 69: Management Console - Downloading Files to Local Computer
4 In the displayed window, specify the folder on your local computer where you wish to
download the selected file/folder.
5 Click OK.
Operations on Containers
131
Configuring File Properties
Parallels Management Console allows you to view and/or configure the properties of the
corresponding file or folder. To this effect, expand the File Manager item in the Container main
tree, right-click the file/folder whose properties you wish to display or configure, and choose
Properties on the context menu. The file/folder Properties window opens:
Figure 70: Management Console - Configuring File Properties
The information in this window is presented on two tabs:
ƒ
General: This tab contains:
ƒ
The Name field where you can rename the current file/directory/folder.
ƒ
The Read-only check box allowing you to specify whether the file/directory/folder can
be edited (the check box is cleared) or can be opened for viewing only (the check box is
selected).
You can also view the type, location, size, and the last modification date of the file or
directory.
ƒ
Ownership: This tab allows you to view the owner of the file/folder and set another owner
by selecting the needed name on the drop-down menu.
Managing Windows Updates Inside
Container
This section provides information on how you can manage Windows Server 2003 updates inside
your Containers.
Operations on Containers
132
Overview
The Windows Server 2003 operating system (OS) installed inside a Container is automatically
updated during the Host OS update, i.e. all updates installed on the Hardware Node are
automatically applied to all Containers residing on this Node. Having all available OS updates
installed inside Containers helps you more effectively protect these Containers against new
viruses and other security threats. However, sometimes you may need to configure the set of
Windows updates installed inside a particular Container. For example, this may be the case if
some application you are planning to run inside the Container has not been (yet) thoroughly
tested with this or that update or starts experiencing problems after applying the update to the
Container.
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 provides a special tool - Container Update Manager
- enabling you to easily manage Windows updates inside Containers. To launch the manager,
you should select Programs --> Parallels --> Parallels Virtuozzo Containers --> Virtuozzo for
Windows Update Manager on the Windows Start menu. You will be presented with the following
window:
Figure 71: Container Update Manager - Overview
The Container Update Manager window consists of three panes:
ƒ
The Container List pane on the left. This pane contains a list of all Containers currently
available on the Hardware Node. The information on these Containers is provided in the
table having the following columns:
Name
Description
ID
The ID assigned to the Container.
Operations on Containers
Hostname
The hostname assigned to the Container.
IP address
The IP address assigned to the Container.
Status
The current status of the Container.
133
ƒ
The Update List pane at the right top section of the Container Update Manager window
displaying a list of Windows updates which are currently applied to the Container selected
in the Container List pane. To view detailed information about any available update, rightclick it and select Properties on the context menu.
ƒ
The Updated Files pane at the right bottom section of the Container Update Manager window
showing the file(s) inside the Container (selected in the Container List pane) which
correspond(s) to the Windows update selected in the Update List pane. The information on
the update file(s) is presented in the table with the following columns:
Name
Description
File
The path to the update file inside the Container.
Container Size
The size of the update file inside the Container.
Container Version
The version of the update file inside the Container.
Updated Size
The size of the update file on the Hardware Node.
Updated Version
The version of the update file on the Hardware Node.
Please keep in mind that the data in the Container Size and Container Version
columns are available for running and mounted Containers only. To mount a Container,
right-click it in the Container List pane and select Mount on the context menu. The Container
is also automatically mounted on performing any operation on it (e.g. removing a Windows
update from it).
You can use the Container Update Manager tool to manage Windows Server 2003 updates
inside Containers in a number of ways. For example, you can:
ƒ
remove one or several updates from a given Container on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
delete an update from all Containers on the Node at once;
ƒ
restore the removed update inside the given Container or inside all Containers from where it
has been deleted;
ƒ
etc.
Detailed information on all these operations is provided in the next section.
Operations on Containers
134
Configuring Updates Inside Container
As has been mentioned in the previous section, by default any Windows Server 2003 update
installed on the Hardware Node is automatically applied to all Containers residing on this Node.
However, you can configure the set of Windows updates inside particular Containers by
removing certain updates from them. To delete a Windows update from a Container, you should
complete the following tasks:
1
Select Programs --> Parallels --> Parallels Virtuozzo Containers --> Virtuozzo for Windows
Update Manager on the Windows Start menu.
2 In the Container List pane of the displayed window, choose the Container from which the
Windows update is to be removed.
3 Clear the check box of the corresponding update in the Update List pane, for example:
Figure 72: Container Update Manager - Removing Update From Container
4 Click the Apply button at the bottom of the Container Update Manager window.
You can also remove a Windows update from all Containers on the Hardware Node at once. To
this effect, choose any Container in the Container List pane, right-click the corresponding update
in the Update List pane, and select Remove from all Containers on the context menu.
Operations on Containers
135
You can check whether the update has been successfully removed from the Container by
selecting it in the Update List pane and, in the Updated Files pane, comparing the data in the
Container Size and Container Version columns (providing the information about
the size and the version of the updated file inside the Container) with those of the Updated
File and Updated Version columns (showing the size and the version of the
corresponding file on the Hardware Node). For example, after deleting the KB922616 update
from Container 104, your columns in the Updated Files pane may look as follows:
Figure 73: Container Update Manager - Checking Container Updates
As you can see, the size of the file inside Container 104 corresponding to the KB899588
update and its version are less than the size and the version of the same file on the Hardware
Node meaning that the update has been successfully deleted from the Container.
To revert the changes made, you can proceed as follows:
ƒ
To apply a removed update to the Container, choose this Container in the Container List
pane, select the check box of the corresponding update in the Update List pane, and click the
Apply button.
ƒ
To apply all removed updates to the Container, right-click this Container in the Container
List pane and select Restore original state on the context menu.
ƒ
To apply a certain Windows update to all Containers from which it has been removed,
choose any Container in the Container List pane, right-click the corresponding update in the
Update List pane, and select Add to all Containers on the context menu.
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136
Note: The Container Update Manager tool provides an easy and convenient way to check and
configure the Windows Server 2003 updates of any Container from a single place on the
Hardware Node. However, you can still manage the updates inside a particular Container in the
same way as you would do it on any other standalone server, i.e. logging in to the Container via
RDP and using the Add or Remove Programs applet in Control Panel.
137
CHAPTER 4
Managing Resources
The main goal of resource control in Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is to provide Service Level
Management or Quality of Service for Containers. Correctly configured resource control
settings prevent serious impacts resulting from the resource over-usage (accidental or malicious)
of any Container on the other Containers. Using resource control parameters for resources
management also allows to enforce fairness of resource usage among Containers and better
service quality for preferred Containers, if necessary. The given chapter provides information on
how you can manage Container resources in Virtuozzo-based systems.
In This Chapter
Managing Container Disk Space Quota ................................................................................ 137
Managing Container CPU Resources.................................................................................... 140
Managing Container System Resources................................................................................ 145
Managing Network Resources .............................................................................................. 147
Managing Network Bandwidth ............................................................................................. 149
Managing Container Resources Configurations ................................................................... 156
Managing Container Disk Space
Quota
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to control the amount of disk space a Container
can use. The disk space quota imposed on the Container is actually the size of its virtual hard
disk, i.e. the size of the root.efd file in the X:\vz\private\<CT_ID> directory of the
Host operating system.
The following subsections explain how to define the disk space quota parameter for your
Containers and to check its current status.
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Setting Up Disk Space Quota
In Parallels Management Console, you can set up the disk space quota parameter by performing
the following operations:
1
Click Virtuozzo Containers in the Management Console left pane, then right-click the needed
Container in the right pane, and choose Properties.
2 Click the Resources tab and select the Disk Quota item in the left part of the displayed
window.
3 In the Parameters table, double-click the Container disk space parameter to display
the Resource Counter Properties window:
Figure 74: Management Console - Setting Disk Space Quota
In this window you can change the value of disk space that can be used by the Container by
specifying the needed value in the Value field and selecting the right measurement units on
the drop-down menu. The value should be taken from the value range indicated in the
Allowed range field; otherwise, the
symbol will be displayed opposite the Allowed range
field. Mind that this value does not include the operating system files and the files of
applications added to the Container by means of application templates. As there are only
placeholders of these files inside the Container, they do not occupy any space. So, there is
no need to assign too much disk space (no more than 200-300 Mb) to individual Containers.
4 Click OK twice.
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It is possible to change the disk space quota parameter for a running Container. In this case the
changes will take effect immediately.
You can also use the vzctl set command with the diskspace option or the vzquota
utility to set up a new disk space quota for a Container. Detailed information on the vzctl and
vzquota utilities is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Checking Disk Quota Status
As the Hardware Node system administrator, you can check the quota status for any Container.
To check the quota status for a Container in Management Console, you should:
1
Open the needed Container manager window by double-clicking on the corresponding
Container line in the right pane of the Management Console window.
2 Expand the Monitor item and select the Quotas and Usage folder.
You can see the disk space statistics for the current Container in the right pane of the window:
Figure 75: Management Console - Viewing Container Disk Space Statistics
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Managing Container CPU
Resources
The current section explains the CPU resource parameters that you can configure and monitor
for each Container.
The table below provides the name and brief description for the available CPU parameters.
Parameter
Description
CPU units
This is a positive integer number that defines how much CPU time one
Container will receive in comparison with the other Containers on the
Hardware Node in case all the CPUs of the Node are fully used.
CPU limit
This is a positive number indicating the CPU time, in percent, the
corresponding Container is not allowed to exceed.
CPU guarantee
This is a positive integer number that determines the minimal guaranteed
share of the CPU time, in percent, the given Container is guaranteed to
receive.
Number of CPUs
The number of CPUs to be used to handle the processes running inside the
corresponding Container.
Managing Container CPU Usage
In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, you can configure and monitor the following
CPU resource parameters for each Container on the Hardware Node:
ƒ
CPU Units. CPU units represent a positive integer number that defines how much CPU time
one Container will receive in comparison with the other Containers on the Hardware Node
in case all the CPUs of the Node are fully used. For example, if Containers 101 and 103 are
set to receive 1000 CPU units each and Container 102 - 2000 CPU units, Container 102 will
get twice as much CPU time as Containers 101 or 103 in case all the CPUs of the Node are
completely loaded.
Note: Processes belonging to any Container are scheduled for execution on all the CPUs of
the Hardware Node. Consequently, Containers are not bound to only one CPU, and any
application inside each Container can use all the free CPU power of the Node.
By default, the Hardware Node (Container 0) receives 5000 CPU units and each Container
on the Node gets 1000 CPU units. In Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, you cannot modify what
default CPU value is to be used for the Hardware Node and any of its Containers. However,
you can change the current value of the CPU resource parameter for a particular Container
(but not for the Node itself) by means of Parallels Management Console.
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141
CPU guarantee. This is a positive integer number indicating the CPU time, in percent, the
corresponding Container is guaranteed to receive. By default, this parameter is disabled for
all Containers on the Hardware Node, i.e. the amount of CPU time allocated to a Container
depends on the value of the CPU Units parameter and the Hardware Node workload. If
both parameters - CPU Units and CPU guarantee - are set, the CPU guarantee
parameter is first taken into account when distributing processor(s) time among the
Containers existing on the Node; the remaining CPU time, if any, is given to the Containers
in accordance with the value of the CPU Units parameter.
Any Container can consume more than the guaranteed value if there are no other Containers
competing for the CPU (e.g. with higher values of the CPU Units parameter) and the
value of the CPU guarantee parameter does not equal that of the CPU limit
parameter.
ƒ
CPU limit. This is a positive integer number indicating the CPU time, in percent, the
corresponding Container is not allowed to exceed. By default, this parameter is disabled for
all Containers on the Hardware Node, i.e. any application inside any Container can use all
the free CPU power of the Node.
All three CPU resource parameters are controlled by the Virtuozzo hierarchical scheduler and
can be configured by performing the following operations:
1
Click Virtuozzo Containers in the Parallels Management Console left pane, then right-click
the needed Container in the right pane, and choose Properties.
2 Click the Resources tab and select CPU parameters in the left part of the displayed window:
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Figure 76: Management Console - Managing CPU Usage
3 In the Parameters table, double-click either the CPU Units, CPU limit, or CPU
guarantee parameter and enter the right value for the given Container in the Value field
of the Resource Counter Properties window:
ƒ
For the CPU Units parameter, you can specify any value in the range from 50 to
50000 CPU units. In case the value defined for the CPU resource parameter is set out of
icon opposite the Allowed range field.
the allowed range, you will see the
ƒ
For the CPU limit parameter, you can enter any value in the range from 10 to 100. In
case the value defined for this CPU resource parameter is set out of the allowed range,
icon opposite the Allowed range field.
you will see the
ƒ
For the CPU guarantee parameter, you can enter any value in the range from 0 to
90. In case the value defined for this CPU resource parameter is set out of the allowed
range, you will see the
icon opposite the Allowed range field.
Note: Specifying 0 as the value of the CPU guarantee parameter will remove all CPU
guarantees for the given Container.
4 Click OK.
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143
It is possible to change the CPU resource parameter for both stopped and running Containers. In
the latter case, the changes will take effect immediately.
You can also use the vzctl set command with the --cpuunits, --cpulimit, and -cpuguarantee options to set the CPU units, CPU limit, and CPU guarantee
parameters, respectively. Please consult the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide for
complete information on this command.
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Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container
If your Hardware Node has more than one physical processor installed, you can control the
number of CPUs which will be used to handle the processes running inside separate Containers.
By default, a Container is allowed to consume the CPU time of all processors on the Hardware
Node, i.e. any process inside any Container can be executed on any processor on the Node.
However, you can modify the number of physical CPUs which will be simultaneously available
to a Container. For example, if your Hardware Node has 4 physical processors installed, i.e. any
Container on the Node can make use of these 4 processors, you can set the processes inside
Container 101 to be run on 2 CPUs only by performing the following operations:
1
In Management Console, select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding
Hardware Node name.
2 Right-click the Container for which you wish to change the number of available CPUs and
select Properties on the context menu.
3 In the Parameters table on the Resources tab of the displayed window, double-click the
Number of CPUs item:
Figure 77: Management Console - Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container
4 Clear the Not limited check box and enter ' 2' in the Value field.
Note: The number of CPUs to be set for a Container must not exceed the number of
physical CPUs installed on the Hardware Node. Specifying 0 as the value of the Number
of CPUs parameter or selecting the Not limited check box will enable the Container to use
all the CPUs available on the Node.
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5 Click OK twice.
6 Restart the Container for the changes to take effect.
From this moment on, Container 101 will be bound to only two processors on the Hardware
Node instead of 4 available for the other Containers on this Node. It means that the processes of
Container 101 will be simultaneously executed on no more than 2 physical CPUs while the
other Containers on the Node will continue consuming the CPU time of all 4 Hardware Node
processors, if needed. Please note also that the physical CPUs proper of Container 101 might
not remain the same during the Container operation; they might change for load balancing
reasons, the only thing that cannot be changed is their maximal number.
You can also use the --cpus option of the vzctl set command to configure the number of
CPUs to be available to Containers on the Hardware Node. Detailed information on this
command is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Managing Container System
Resources
The resources a Container may allocate are defined by the system resource control parameters.
The table below provides the description of these parameters:
Parameter
Description
Container
memory
The size of private or potentially private memory that
can be allocated to all applications inside the 100 - 500
Container, in megabytes. Shared or potentially shared
memory (e.g. memory mapped files) is not included
in this resource parameter.
number
of The maximal number of processes the Container may
processes
simultaneously create. It is important to properly estimate
the maximal number of processes when configuring the
resource control system.
Typical value
30 - 80
Note: Multi-thread processes are treated as a single
process.
number of TS The number of terminal sessions. This parameter is usually
sessions
used to limit the number of simultaneous terminal
sessions. An incorrect configuration of this parameter can
affect the application functioning in the given Container.
2-4
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To view and/or change any of these parameters for a particular Container in Parallels
Management Console, do the following:
1
Click Virtuozzo Containers in the Management Console left pane, right-click the needed
Container in the right pane, and choose Properties.
2 Click the Resources tab and select the System parameters item in the left part of the
displayed window:
Figure 78: Management Console - Managing System Parameters
3 Double-click the necessary parameter, and, if needed, enter the right value for the given
Container in the Value field of the Resource Counter Properties window. If the parameter is
icon opposite the Allowed range field. The
set out of the allowed range, you will see the
typical values for all system parameters are given in the table above.
4 Click OK.
To manage system parameters by means of the command line, the vzctl set command is
used. Detailed information on this command can be found in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
Reference Guide.
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147
Managing Network Resources
The given section provides information on how you can enable the Quality of Service scheduler
and network browsing for your Containers.
Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container
Quality of Service (QoS) in MS Windows 2003 Server is a collection of components that enable
differentiation and preferential treatment for subsets of data transmitted over the network. QoS
provides different applications with a means which can be used to define the quality of network
resources (e.g. bandwidth) to be allocated for this or that application. For example, you can use
Quality of Service to differentiate between data transmitted by critical applications (e.g. Plesk)
and excessive data (e.g. multimedia applications) and allow preferential treatment for the critical
applications.
Windows 2003 QoS is comprised of a number of components. One of the main components
playing a central role in the provisioning of quality of service is the Quality of Service packet
scheduler. The QoS packet scheduler is the traffic control module that can be used to regulate
how much traffic an application inside your Container is allowed, thus enforcing the QoS
parameters originally set for a particular application.
By default, the QoS scheduler is disabled for all Containers residing on the Hardware Node. To
enable it for a particular Container, you should perform the following operations:
1
In Management Console, select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the Hardware Node
name.
2 Right-click the corresponding Container in the right part of Management Console and
choose Properties on the context menu.
3 On the Options tab of the displayed window, select the Enable QoS packet scheduler check
box:
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Figure 79: Management Console - Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container
4 Click OK.
5 If you have enabled the QoS packet scheduler for a running Container, restart this Container
for the changes to take effect.
After you have enabled the QoS packet scheduler, you can manage your Container as a normal
stand-alone Windows 2003 server in respect of setting and working with all Windows 2003
Quality of Service components. From this moment on, it depends entirely upon the Container
administrator to define which applications will be QoS-enabled and use all the benefits of
Microsoft Windows Quality of Service.
Note: Additional information on the QoS packet scheduler is provided in the Managing
Bandwidth section of the Windows 2003 Help system that can be invoked by selecting Help and
Support on the Windows Start menu.
You can also use the vzctl set command with the --psched on option to enable the
Quality of Service packet scheduler for a Container. Detailed information on the --psched
option is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
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149
Enabling Network Browsing for Container
The network browsing allows you to view and access all the network servers and file sharing
resources available on your Windows 2003 network. However, to start using the network
browsing feature inside a Container, which is disabled by default, you should first enable it for
this Container. To enable the network browsing for a particular Container, you should perform
the following operations:
1
In Management Console, select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the Hardware Node
name.
2 Right-click the corresponding Container in the right part of Management Console and
choose Properties on the context menu.
3 On the Options tab of the displayed window, select the Enable network browsing check box.
4 Click OK.
Now you can go to My Network Places --> Entire Network --> Microsoft Windows Network inside
your Container, view what network resources are available for the Container, and use these
resources in accordance with the rights assigned to the Container on the network.
Note: You can open My Network Places by clicking Start --> Programs --> Accessories -->
Windows Explorer and selecting the My Network Places item in the left part of the displayed
window.
Managing Network Bandwidth
This section explains how to perform the following tasks in Virtuozzo-based systems:
ƒ
Setting up network classes;
ƒ
Viewing network traffic statistics;
ƒ
Turning on and off network bandwidth management;
ƒ
Setting up the bandwidth limit for a Container.
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Configuring Network Classes
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to track the inbound and outbound network traffic
as well as to shape the outgoing traffic for Containers. In order to provide the ability to
distinguish between different kinds of traffic (e.g. domestic and international traffic), a concept
of network classes is introduced. A network class is a range of IP addresses for which Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 counts and shapes the traffic. Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 can have up to 16
different network classes specified. Each class can contain one or more IP address ranges. It is
possible to have different bandwidth shaping settings for each class.
By default, Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is pre-configured to have network class 1. Class 1 is
defined by Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 to match any IP address. It must be always present on the
Hardware Node. Other network classes should be defined after class 1. They represent
exceptions from the "matching-everything" rule of network class 1.
Note: Network class 0 defines the IP address range for which no accounting is done. Usually, it
corresponds to the Hardware Node subnet (the Node itself and its Containers). Setting up
network class 0 is not required; however, its correct setup may improve performance.
The example below illustrates how to create network class 2 matching IP addresses in the range
from 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255:
1
In the left pane of the Management Console window, right-click the Node where you wish
to create a new network class and select Network Configuration --> Configure Traffic
Accounting and Shaping on the context menu.
2 On the Accounting tab of the displayed window, click the New IP addresses range button to
display the Add IP Range window.
3 Fill in the following fields:
ƒ
type 2 as the identifier of the new network class in the Class ID field;
ƒ
specify 10.0.0.0 as the starting IP address of network class 2 in the Start IP address
field;
ƒ
indicate 255.0.0.0 as the subnet mask in the Subnet mask field (this mask denotes
that class 2 includes all IP addresses in the range from 10.0.0.0 to
10.255.255.255);
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151
provide any 'class 2'-related information in the Comment field, if necessary:
Figure 80: Management Console - Configuring Network Classes
4 Click OK.
Now you should have network class 2 displayed in the table on the Traffic Accounting and
Shaping screen. To edit or delete the newly created network class or any other existing network
class, use the corresponding buttons on the Accounting tab of the screen.
In the command line, you can use the vznetcfg utility to create new network classes on your
Hardware Node. Detailed information on this utility is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Reference Guide.
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Viewing Network Traffic Statistics
Parallels Management Console allows you to view the current network traffic statistics for any
Container on the Hardware Node. To this effect, perform the following operations:
1
Open the needed Container manager window by double-clicking the corresponding
Container in the right pane of the Management Console window.
2 Expand the Monitor item and select the Network item. You can now see the network traffic
statistics for the given Container in the right pane of the window:
Figure 81: Management Console - Viewing Current Network Traffic Statistics
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Turning On and Off Network Bandwidth Management
Traffic shaping also known as network bandwidth management allows you to control what
network bandwidth Containers on the Hardware Node receive for outgoing traffic. Traffic
shaping is off by default in Virtuozzo Containers 4.0. In order to turn traffic shaping on, you
have to complete the following steps:
Note: Container incoming traffic cannot be controlled in Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
1
In the left pane of the Management Console window, right-click the needed Node and select
Network Configuration --> Configure Traffic Accounting and Shaping on the context menu.
2 Go to the Shaping tab of the displayed window:
Figure 82: Management Console - Setting Up Traffic Shaping Parameters
3 In this window you can do the following:
ƒ
Select the Enable traffic shaping check box to globally enable traffic shaping on the
Hardware Node.
ƒ
Select the name of the corresponding network class and click the Enable button to turn
on traffic shaping for this class.
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154
Select the name of the network class for which traffic shaping has been enabled and
click the Edit button:
Figure 83: Management Console - Configuring Network Bandwidth
4 In the Rate limit field, you can specify the maximal network bandwidth, in kilobits per
second, all Containers on the Node will be able to receive for outgoing traffic within the
given network class.Note: You can also use the vznetcfg utility to configure the maximal
network bandwidth for your Containers.Click OK.
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Configuring Network Bandwidth Management for Container
Using Parallels Management Console, you can provide the network bandwidth settings for a
particular Container on the Hardware Node. To this effect, do the following:
1
Click the Virtuozzo Containers item in the Management Console left pane, right-click the
needed Container in the right pane, and choose Properties.
2 Go to the Network tab of the displayed window and select Traffic Shaping:
Figure 84: Management Console - Configuring Network Bandwidth Management for Container
3 In this window you can configure the Container network bandwidth settings as follows:
ƒ
Select the corresponding network class and click the Enable/Disable button to
enable/disable, respectively, traffic shaping for the Container within the selected
network class.
ƒ
Select the corresponding network class, click the Edit button, and specify the bandwidth
limit to be used by the Container within the selected network class.
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Select the corresponding network class and click the Scale button to scale the traffic
shaping configuration. Using this button, you can produce a "heavier" or "lighter"
configuration in comparison with the existing one. In the displayed window, determine
whether you want to enhance or attenuate the current configuration and specify the
factor. All the parameters of the existing configuration are multiplied by a given
number. A heavier configuration is produced with a factor greater than 1, and a lighter
one – with a factor between 0 and 1.
4 Click OK.
The traffic shaping settings will take effect immediately on your clicking the OK button in this
window.
Managing Container Resources
Configurations
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to create new Containers on the basis of the configuration
sample files shipped with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0. Currently, the following configuration
sample files are provided:
ƒ
basic – to be used for creating standard Containers;
ƒ
MSDE – to be used for creating Containers that are to run Microsoft SQL Server Desktop
Engines;
ƒ
Oracle – to be used for creating Containers that are to run Oracle database servers;
ƒ
Plesk – to be used for creating Containers that are to run the Plesk control panel;
ƒ
SharePoint – to be used for creating Containers that are to run SharePoint Portal
Server 2003.
If the provided configurations do not satisfy your demands, you can create your own Container
configuration files using Parallels Management Console. After that, you can copy them to any
number of Hardware Nodes, if necessary. Below in this section, the process of Container
configuration file creating and copying is described.
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Creating Container Configuration Sample
If you are not satisfied with the Container configuration sample files shipped with Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0, you can create your own ones. Parallels Management Console provides a special
wizard for creating Container configuration sample files. The Create Sample Configuration
wizard will guide you through the process and gather all the necessary information. In order to
invoke the wizard, click the name of the Hardware Node where you wish to create the sample
file and, in the right pane, follow the Create Container Sample Configuration link at the
Hardware Node dashboard.
The Create Configuration Sample Wizard opens:
Figure 85: Management Console - Choosing Container Configuration Sample
On the first step of the wizard, you will be asked to choose a variant of the Container
configuration sample file creation. You can choose between two options:
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ƒ
You can set the Container sample configuration manually. Select the Set Container sample
configuration manually radio button if there are no sample Container configurations that can
be used as the basis for the new one. In this case you should define all resources parameters
one by one.
ƒ
You can use one of Container configuration samples that are shipped with Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 or have been already created by you. You can make use of this option if your
new configuration sample differs from the existing one only slightly and can be created by
adjusting some of its parameters. The information on the sample files shipped with Parallels
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is provided in the Managing Container Resources Configuration
section (on page 156). All the available configuration samples are listed in the table below
the Use one of Container configuration samples option. Just select the Use one of Container
configuration samples radio button, click on the needed sample, and proceed with adjusting
it.
Next the wizard will prompt you to specify the basic configuration sample file parameters:
Figure 86: Management Console - Entering Container Sample Name and Description
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In this window you should choose a name for the sample file. You can type any alphanumeric
identifier (without spaces) you consider reasonable for this file and that will be used to refer to
the Container sample configuration. Besides, you can enter any relevant comment on the file; it
will be displayed within the list of Container sample configurations. Click Next.
Next, you are to choose the OS template that will be used as the basis for creating Containers.
OS templates are used to create new Containers. In Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, you can use only
the Windows Server 2003 OS template to create a Container. If you do not want the Container
sample to predefine any specific OS template, select none in the Name column. Click Next to
proceed after the selection.
Then, you can choose application templates to add to Containers which will be created from this
sample configuration. All application templates available on your Hardware Node are listed in
the table of the Select Application Templates window. Typical examples of application templates
are msde, openssh, etc. After selecting the necessary application templates, click Next.
Note: The Select Application Templates screen is displayed only if you chose the OS template
on the previous step of the wizard.
After that, you will be asked to define the Container resources parameters:
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Figure 87: Management Console - Defining Resources Parameters
In this window you can adjust the following resources parameters:
ƒ
CPU usage parameters (see page 140);
ƒ
disk space quota parameters (see page 137), and
ƒ
a number of system resource control parameters (see page 145).
To configure a resource parameter, expand the corresponding group and double-click the
parameter you wish to adjust. After you have set the necessary parameters, click Next.
If you are creating your new sample on the basis of an existing Container configuration sample,
have configured some resource parameter values, and now wish to reset them to the values from
the original configuration sample, click the curved arrows over the Resource counters table.
On the next step, you can specify a number of network settings for the configuration sample
file:
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Figure 88: Management Console - Specifying Network Parameters for Sample
In this window you can use the provided Add, Remove, and Edit buttons for the corresponding
operations on Container search domains and DNS servers.
In the Configure Offline Services for Container Configuration Sample window, you can determine
whether the Container created on the basis of the given configuration sample can be directly
managed by its Administrator from any browser at its own IP address using different Virtuozzo
Tools (e.g., Parallels Power Panel). You can also specify what offline services will be available
for this Container. Detailed information on offline management functionality is provided in the
Configuration Container Offline Management section (on page 308).
The next window of the Create Configuration Sample wizard allows you to configure the
network shaping parameters allowing you to to control what network bandwidth a Container
based on the configuration sample being created will receive for outgoing traffic:
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Figure 89: Management Console - Specifying Traffic Shaping Parameters
Detailed information on how to configure the network shaping settings is provided in the
Managing Network Bandwidth section (on page 149).
On the next step, you can specify the Terminal Services mode in which the Container created on
the basis of the given configuration sample will be set right after its creation. For detailed
information on Terminal Services, please turn to the Configuring Terminal Services Inside
Container subsection (on page 45).
Finally, you will be prompted to configure the automatic boot mode. Select the Yes radio button
if you want the Containers based on the configuration sample being created to start
automatically on the Hardware Node boot. To start the Containers manually, select No.
The last screen summarizes all the data you have provided on the previous steps. If you are
satisfied with the entered information, click Finish to start creating the Container sample
configuration file. Otherwise, you can return to the previous steps by clicking the Back button
and change the corresponding parameters.
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Now, you can use the new Container sample configuration file to create Containers on its basis.
It will be displayed on the first screen of the Create Containers wizard together with the
configuration files shipped with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
Copying Container Configuration Sample
Parallels Management Console provides you with the opportunity to quickly disseminate one or
more sample Container files over several Hardware Nodes, or simply copy it/them to another
Node. This is particularly useful when you have created a custom configuration file on one of
the Nodes and wish to use it on the other Nodes as well.
To copy a sample Container file, you should perform the following operations:
1
Select the Container Samples item in the Hardware Node main tree.
2 Right-click the sample configuration file and choose Tasks -> Copy to Another Hardware
Node:
Figure 90: Management Console - Copying Container Sample
3 In the displayed window:
ƒ
Select the Hardware Node(s) where you want to copy the files (you might use the Select
All and Deselect All buttons to this effect).
ƒ
Select the action that will be performed in case a configuration sample file with the same
name already exists on the Destination Node.
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4 Click the Copy button. In the Copying Status column, you may view the result of the
operation.
5 If the copy operation has completed successfully, click Close to close the window. If not,
click the Details button to learn more about the error(s) that occurred during the operation
process. This is the only case when this button becomes active.
If you take default Virtuozzo sample configuration files, modify them, and copy to another
Node preserving the default names, chances are that files with the same names already exist on
the destination Node. To resolve this conflict, you are supposed to choose at the bottom of the
window one of the three corresponding options, which best fits your needs.
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Saving and Uploading Configuration Sample to/from Local Computer
Parallels Management Console allows you to upload a new sample file to your Node from and
save any of the existing configuration sample files to your local computer.
In case you have one or more new configuration sample files that you would like to upload to
your Hardware Node(s), you should first have these files accessible from the computer where
Parallels Management Console is installed (e.g. insert the CD-ROM with the Container sample
file(s) into the computer CD-ROM drive or copy the sample file(s) to the computer hard disk).
After that, you should do the following to upload your new sample file(s) to the Node:
1
Right-click the Container Samples item under the Hardware Node name in the Management
Console left pane and select Tasks --> Upload Container Sample from Local Computer on the
context menu.
Figure 91: Management Console - Uploading Container Sample
2 In this window you should provide the right path to the configuration file you wish to
upload using the Browse button. You can also:
ƒ
Change the original name of the configuration sample file by typing the desired name in
the Container sample configuration name field. This name will be used to refer to this
sample file in the Container configuration sample files listing.
ƒ
Provide the description of the sample file in the Description field. This description will
be displayed to the right of the sample file in the Container configuration sample files
listing.
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3 When you are ready, click the Upload button in the right part of the window to upload the
sample file to the Node.
After the configuration sample file has been successfully uploaded, you can find it in the
X:\Program Files\SWSoft\Virtuozzo\Configs folder on your Hardware Node.
You can also save any of the configuration sample files available on your Node to a computer
where Management Console is installed. To this effect, you should perform the following
operations:
1
In the Management Console left pane, select the Container Samples item under the
corresponding Hardware Node name in the Management Console left pane.
2 In the Management Console right pane, right-click the configuration sample file you wish to
download and select Tasks --> Save to Local Computer on the context menu.
3 In the displayed window, provide the path to the location on the computer hard disk where
you wish to save the sample file.
4 Click Save.
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Scaling Container Configuration Sample
Any configuration sample can prove insufficient for your needs. For example, you might have
an application that does not fit into existing configurations. The easiest way of producing a
Container configuration is to scale an existing one. Scaling produces a “heavier” or “lighter”
configuration in comparison with an existing one. All the parameters of the existing
configuration are multiplied by a given number. A heavier configuration is produced with a
factor greater than 1, and a lighter one – with a factor between 0 and 1.
If you scale a configuration sample file, it is correspondingly modified. That is why, it is
recommended to create a copy of the configuration sample file you are going to scale before
scaling it.
To scale an existing configuration using Parallels Management Console, you should perform the
following operations:
1
Select the Container Samples item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 Right-click the sample configuration file which you are going to scale and select Properties
on the context menu.
3 Go to the Resources tab and click the Scale button:
Figure 92: Management Console - Scaling Container Sample
In this window you are supposed to do the following:
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168
ƒ
determine whether you want to enhance or attenuate the current configuration and
specify the factor;
ƒ
choose what groups of parameters will be scaled under the Apply scaling to group.
4 Click OK to save the changes.
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Applying New Configuration Sample to Container
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 enables you to change the configuration sample file a Container is
based on and, thus, to modify all the resources the Container may consume and/or allocate at
once. To this effect, you should perform the following operations in Parallels Management
Console:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item in the Hardware Node main tree.
2 Right-click the corresponding Container and choose Tasks --> Apply Container Sample on
the context menu:
Figure 93: Management Console - Applying New Resource Configuration
3 In the Apply Container Sample window you should select a sample file you wish to base the
Container on and the parameters to be changed in accordance with this configuration
sample. If you wish to change all the resource parameters for the Container, select the check
box next to the Applicable parameters item or click the Select All button to the right of the
table. Otherwise, expand the Applicable parameters item and select the check boxes next to
the parameters to be configured.
4 Click OK.
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170
You can also use the --applyconfig option of the vzctl set command to modify the
configuration file a Container is based on. Detailed information on this command is provided in
the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Note: Before applying a new Container sample to your Container, make sure you are aware of
the resource values defined in this Container template and to be set for the Container. Detailed
information on Container samples is provided in the Managing Container Resources
Configurations section (on page 156).
171
CHAPTER 5
Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers
System Up-to-Date
This chapter provides information on how you can update the Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 software
and Windows Server 2003 installed on your Hardware Node. It also describes how to deploy
local WSUS (Windows Server Update Services) and VUS (Virtuozzo Updates Services) servers
allowing you to easily and effectively manage Virtuozzo Containers and Windows updates in
your local network.
In This Chapter
Updating Virtuozzo Containers Software ............................................................................. 172
Updating Windows Server 2003 ........................................................................................... 176
Deploying Local WSUS and VUS Servers ........................................................................... 177
Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System Up-to-Date
172
Updating Virtuozzo Containers
Software
Virtuozzo Containers for Windows is constantly developing: there appear new versions of the
Virtuozzo Containers core and of existing Virtuozzo utilities, new functionality is implemented,
new templates and utilities are added from time to time. As these changes grow in number, new
Virtuozzo Containers updates are released.
The Virtuozzo Containers software is provided with a special module - Virtuozzo Update
Services (VUS) - helping you deploy Virtuozzo Containers updates to your Hardware Node. By
default, the Virtuozzo Containers installation configures VUS in such a way as for the latter to
be able to automatically check the Virtuozzo Update Center (accessible at
http://vzwinupdate.swsoft.com) for the latest Virtuozzo Containers updates and to download
them to your Node. After new updates have been successfully downloaded to the Hardware
Node, the red-and-grey ( ) icon is shown in the system tray of your display. To install the
downloaded updates, double-click the icon to launch the Virtuozzo Containers for Windows
Update wizard. You will be presented with the Welcome to the Virtuozzo Update Wizard screen:
Figure 94: Running Virtuozzo Update Wizard
In this window you can do the following:
ƒ
If your Hardware Node does not use a proxy server, i.e. it is directly connected to the
Internet, just click Next to start updating your Virtuozzo Containers software.
ƒ
Otherwise, click the Proxy Settings button on the Welcome to the Virtuozzo Update Wizard
screen to display the Proxy Settings window:
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Figure 95: Specifying Proxy Parameters
This window allows you to do one of the following:
ƒ
Select the Do not use proxy server radio button if your Hardware Node does not use a
proxy server, i.e. it is directly connected to the Internet.
ƒ
Select the Load Internet Explorer proxy settings radio button to use your Internet
Explorer proxy settings to connect to the Virtuozzo Update Center. This option is
selected by default.
ƒ
Select the Specify a proxy server radio button to use a proxy server differing from the
one specified in your Internet Explorer proxy settings to connect to the Virtuozzo
Update Center. In this case you should specify the IP address and the port of the proxy
server you are going to use to connect to the Internet in the Address and Port fields,
respectively.
ƒ
If your proxy server is password-protected (i.e. you use a special user name and
password to log in to the proxy server), you should also select the Proxy server requires
authentication check box and specify the corresponding credentials in the Proxy user
name and Proxy password fields.
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174
After you click Next in the Welcome to the Virtuozzo Update Wizard window, you will be
presented with a list of Virtuozzo Containers updates currently available for your Hardware
Node. Select the corresponding updates and click Next to install them on the Hardware Node.
You may want to modify the default Virtuozzo Containers update settings to meet your
requirements. To this effect, right-click the
The Update Settings window is displayed:
icon and choose Properties on the context menu.
Figure 96: Defining Virtuozzo Update Settings
In this window you can modify the Virtuozzo Containers update settings in the following way:
ƒ
Select the Keep my Virtuozzo Containers installation up to date ... check box to globally
enable automatic updates on your Hardware Node and set the schedule when the Virtuozzo
Containers software is to be updated in the fields provided under Automatically check for
new updates.
ƒ
Expand the Update Settings item, select VzWin4.0, and configure the Virtuozzo Containers
update settings as follows:
ƒ
Automatically download and install updates. Select this radio button if you wish
Virtuozzo Containers updates to be automatically downloaded and installed on your
Hardware Node on the schedule you specify in the fields provided under Automatically
check for new updates on the Update Settings screen.
ƒ
Automatically download updates and notify me before installation. Select this radio button
if you wish Virtuozzo Update Services to automatically download the updates in the
background of your system on the schedule you specify in the fields provided under
Automatically check for new updates on the Update Settings screen. By default, this radio
button is selected. We recommend that you leave this option checked, which will always
keep you informed of new Virtuozzo Containers updates.
While using this option, please keep in mind the following:
Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System Up-to-Date
175
a
If there are no updates for your Virtuozzo Containers installation, the red-and-grey (
icon is shown in the system tray of your display.
b
After the download of new updates is complete, the icon changes its color from red-andgrey to red ( ), and when you place the mouse on the icon, the following message is
displayed: New Virtuozzo updates are available. When you double-click
the icon, the Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Update Wizard is invoked that helps you
install the downloaded updates in a few simple steps described above.
ƒ
Notify me before installing or downloading updates. Select this radio button if you wish
VUS to check the Virtuozzo Update Center for available updates on the schedule you
specify in the fields provided under Automatically check for new updates on the Update
Settings screen and to inform you in case it finds any updates for your Node. After you
)
choose this option, the red-and-grey ( ) icon will be displayed in the system tray
notifying you each time new Virtuozzo Containers updates are ready to be downloaded
from the Virtuozzo Update Center. In this case the icon changes its color from red-andgrey to red, and when you place the mouse on the icon, the following message is
displayed: New Virtuozzo updates are available. After you double-click
the icon, the Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Updates Setup Wizard is invoked that
helps you download and install the corresponding Virtuozzo Containers updates in a few
simple steps described above.
Note: If you do not want the
icon to be displayed in the system tray, right-click it and
select Exit on the context menu. In this case the icon will automatically appear again as soon
as new Virtuozzo Containers updates are ready to be downloaded or/and installed on your
Hardware Node.
ƒ
Turn off automatic Virtuozzo Containers updates. Select this radio button to disable the
automatic update of the Virtuozzo Containers software and to manually update your
Virtuozzo Containers software with the help of the Virtuozzo for Windows Update Wizard.
To invoke the wizard, select Programs --> Parallels --> Parallels Virtuozzo Containers -->
Virtuozzo Update Wizard on the Windows Start menu. This is the same wizard that is
icon in the
launched when the automatic update is enabled and you double-click the
system tray to download or/and install new Virtuozzo Containers updates (please see the
information above to learn how to work with the wizard). It is highly recommended to
regularly run this wizard to ensure that you always use the latest Virtuozzo Containers
version.
ƒ
In the Install from section, you can configure the location of the repository storing
Virtuozzo Containers updates. By default, the Virtuozzo Update Center accessible at the
Parallels web site is used to check for the available Virtuozzo Containers updates (the
Virtuozzo Update Center check box is selected). However, you can select the Another
location check box and specify the URL to another location with Virtuozzo Containers
updates (please notice that you should enter the full path to the update.xml file in the
field provided). For example, if you have a local VUS server set up in your local
network, you can specify the URL of this server to configure the Hardware Node to
obtain Virtuozzo Containers updates from your local VUS server. Detailed information
on how to deploy a local VUS server is provided in the Deploying Local VUS Server
section (on page 181).
ƒ
The Download Folder button allows you to modify the folder where Virtuozzo
Containers updates are to be downloaded before they are installed on your Hardware
Node. By default, the X:\Program Files\SWsoft\Virtuozzo\Updates
folder is used.
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176
Note: Make sure that you always run the latest Virtuozzo Containers version. Along with
getting new Virtuozzo Containers functionality, this will allow you to have the latest Windows
Server 2003 updates installed on your Hardware Node. More information on Windows Server
2003 updates is provided in the Updating Windows Server 2003 subsection (on page 176).
Updating Windows Server 2003
Any standard Windows Server 2003 installation supports the Automatic Updates feature, which
allows Windows Server 2003 to periodically check the Windows Update Web site for available
updates, download these updates, and install them on your server. To be compatible with this
feature, the Virtuozzo Containers installation configures the Windows Automatic Updates
feature in such a way as to be able to automatically connect to the Virtuozzo Update Center
instead of the Windows Update site and download Windows updates from this center.
All Windows updates in the Virtuozzo Update Center are checked for their compatibility with
the Virtuozzo Containers software and can be fearlessly installed on your Node. However, to be
consistent with new Windows updates, the Virtuozzo Containers software may (and usually
does) undergo some slight changes. It means that only those Windows updates can be
downloaded and installed on your server that are compatible with your current version of
Virtuozzo Containers. To be sure you have the latest Windows updates, you should update your
Virtuozzo Containers software at regular intervals. Detailed information on Virtuozzo
Containers updates is provided in the Updating Virtuozzo Containers Software subsection (on
page 172).
Thus, the Windows Server 2003 update procedure might look as follows.
1
The latest Virtuozzo Containers updates are downloaded and installed on your Hardware
Node, which may be done by manually running the Virtuozzo Update wizard or enabling
the automatic update of Virtuozzo Containers software (for more information see the
previous section).
2 The Windows Automatic Update service connects to the Virtuozzo Update Center and
downloads the corresponding Windows update to the Node.
Note: Please make sure that the Windows Automatic Update service is turned on on the
Hardware Node; otherwise, you will not be able to download Windows Server 2003
updates.
3 After you have confirmed the installation, the Windows update is installed on the Node.
When deploying Windows Server 2003 updates on your Hardware Nodes, please keep in mind
the following:
ƒ
You do not have to update operating systems installed inside Containers residing on your
Hardware Node. They are automatically updated during the Host OS update.
ƒ
Please do not try to update Windows Server 2003 manually by clicking Start --> Windows
Update, connecting to the Windows Update Web site, downloading new updates from this
site, and installing them on your Node. It may cause the Virtuozzo Containers software to
malfunction.
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177
Deploying Local WSUS and VUS
Servers
The given section provides information on how you can centralize the process of managing
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 updates by setting up a local VUS server.
Setting Up Local WSUS Server
A WSUS (Windows Server Updates Services) server is a standard Microsoft server component
providing you with the possibility of managing and distributing Windows Server 2003 updates
in your local network through a Web-based tool. In Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, you can make use
of the WSUS server software as follows:
ƒ
Set up a local WSUS server in your network, configure it to get Windows Server 2003
updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center (these updates are tested for their compatibility
with Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0), and distribute the obtained updates to your
Hardware Nodes.
ƒ
The WSUS server software (namely, WSUS 2.0 with Service Pack 1) should also be
installed on your local VUS server for the latter to be able to get Virtuozzo Containers
updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center. The downloaded updates can be distributed later
on to any of the Hardware Nodes in your local network.
To deploy a local WSUS server in your corporate network, please use the following guidelines
when installing WSUS 2.0 with Service Pack 1 on your server:
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, a local WSUS server can be set up only on
a server that is also to act as a local VUS server. Detailed information on how to deploy local
VUS servers is provided in the Setting Up Local VUS Server subsection (on page 181).
1
On the Select Update Source screen, clear the Store updates locally check box.
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Figure 97: Installing WSUS - Selecting Update Source
2 On the Web Site Selection screen, make sure that the Use the existing IIS Default Web site
radio button is selected:
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Figure 98: Installing WSUS - Defining Web Site
3 On the Mirror Update Settings screen, select the This server should inherit the settings from
the following server check box and type vzwinupdate.swsoft.com in the Server name
field:
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Figure 99: Installing WSUS - Setting Update Server
This will make the server where you are installing WSUS a replica of the Virtuozzo
Update Center from where Windows Server 2003 updates will be downloaded to your
local WSUS server. The specified server will also be used by the VUS software to
obtain the latest Virtuozzo Containers updates.
In all other respects, the process of installing and configuring WSUS on your server does not
differ from that of installing and configuring WSUS on any other standalone server.
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181
Setting Up Local VUS Server
By default, the Virtuozzo Update Services (VUS) component is configured during the Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 installation on your Hardware Node to download Virtuozzo Containers updates
from the Virtuozzo Update Center (accessible at http://vzwinupdate.parallels.com). However, if
you have more than one Hardware Node in your network, you may wish to set up a special local
VUS server that will automatically download and store the latest Virtuozzo Containers updates
from the Virtuozzo Update Center and to configure VUS on your Nodes to obtain updates from
this server. Deploying a local VUS server in your network brings the following advantages:
ƒ
You can greatly save bandwidth on the Internet connection since you download available
updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center to the local VUS server only once and all
Hardware Nodes obtain the updates directly from the VUS server in your local network.
ƒ
You can lock the downloaded updates on the local VUS server for the time needed to
validate these updates against their compatibility with your working environments. This
ensures that only those updates will be deployed on your production Hardware Nodes that
have been thoroughly tested and approved by your IT department.
ƒ
You do not need to have all your Hardware Nodes connected to the Internet in order to get
the latest Virtuozzo Containers updates. Only the local VUS server must be directly
connected to the Internet to obtain available updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center.
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Planning Your VUS Deployment
Before installing the product, you should carefully plan the structure of the VUS network
infrastructure and the roles the individual computers are to perform in it. The following picture
demonstrates a typical VUS infrastructure you may wish to deploy in your working
environments:
Figure 100: Designing VUS Infrastructure
In this example the principal roles of computers comprising the VUS infrastructure are the
following:
1
Virtuozzo Update Center. It is a repository on the Parallels Update Web site storing the
latest Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 updates downloaded from the Windows Update Web site.
2 Local VUS server. It is a server running the Windows Server 2003 operating system, and
having the VUS software installed. This server is located in your local network and
separated from the Internet by the corporate firewall. At regular intervals, this server
synchronizes with the Virtuozzo Update Center by connecting to the Virtuozzo Update
Center and checking for available Virtuozzo Containers updates. If there are any updates
present, they are downloaded to the VUS server. The downloaded updates are then tested on
the Test Node against their compatibility with the existing working environments and, if
approved, distributed to the production Hardware Nodes (shown as Client Node 1, Client
Node 2, and Client Node 3 in the picture above).
3 Test Node. It is a server running the Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows software and
used to test the Virtuozzo Containers updates downloaded from the Virtuozzo Containers
Update Center to the local VUS server against their compatibility with the current working
environments. Usually, you are supposed to check for the updates compatibility before
distributing the updates to the Client Nodes.
4 Client Nodes. These are production servers running the Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for
Windows software and hosting a number of Containers. These servers are configured to
obtain the tested and approved Virtuozzo Containers updates from the local VUS server.
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Installing VUS on Local Server
To set up a local VUS server that will serve the production Hardware Nodes in your local
network by providing them with the necessary Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 updates, you should
complete the following tasks:
1
Prepare the server to be used as your local VUS server for installing the VUS software on it.
2 Download the VUS setup file and install the VUS software on the prepared server.
Preparing Server for VUS Installation
The VUS software can be installed on any server (including Containers) running the 32-bit
version of Windows Server 2003. The following software should be additionally installed on the
server:
ƒ
Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 or higher;
ƒ
Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 or higher;
ƒ
Microsoft ASP.NET 2.0 or higher;
ƒ
Microsoft Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) 2.0 with Service Pack 1.
Note: If you are going to deploy VUS inside a Virtuozzo Container, do not install the
aforementioned software inside your Container. It has already been installed on the Hardware
Node during the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 installation and is automatically available to
any of the Containers residing on the Node.
Along with installing the applications above, you may also need to complete a number of
additional tasks before running the VUS setup.
ƒ
If there is a corporate firewall between your local network and the Internet, you need to
configure the firewall by opening ports 80 and 443 to ensure that the Virtuozzo Update
Center can be accessed by your local VUS server from inside your network.
ƒ
If there is the Citrix Metaframe application installed on your server, you need to remove this
application before proceeding with the VUS installation.
Installing VUS
After preparing the server, you can install the VUS software on it by doing the following:
1
Follow the http://download.parallels.com/virtuozzo/virtuozzo4.0/windows/vusinstall.exe
link and download the VUS setup file to the prepared server.
2 Double-click the vusinstall.exe file to launch the Virtuozzo Update Services wizard.
3 On the Welcome page, click Next.
4 Read the terms of the license agreement carefully, select the I accept the terms of the License
Agreement radio button, and then click Next.
5 On the Customer Information page, type your personal information in the fields provided and
click Next:
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Figure 101: Installing VUS - Entering Personal Information
6 On the Ready to Install the Program page, click the Install button to start installing VUS on
your server:
Figure 102: Installing VUS - Starting Installation
Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System Up-to-Date
185
7 After the VUS software has been successfully installed on the server, click Finish to exit the
wizard.
If you deploy VUS inside a Virtuozzo Container, keep in mind the following:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Make sure that the Container is configured to automatically start on the Hardware Node
boot. For example, you can do this using Parallels Management Console:
ƒ
select the Virtuozzo Containers item in the left pane of the Management Console
window;
ƒ
in the right pane, right-click the Container and select Properties on the context menu;
ƒ
go to the Options tab and ascertain that the Start Container on Hardware Node boot check
box is selected. If it is not, select the check box and click OK.
Make sure that the IIS (Internet Information Services) services inside the Container is
running and configured to automatically start on the Container boot. For example, you can
do this as follows:
ƒ
in Parallels Management Console 4.0, select the Virtuozzo Containers item in the left
pane of the Management Console window;
ƒ
in the right pane, double-click the Container and, in the displayed window, select the
Services item;
ƒ
ascertain that the IIS Admin Service service is running and its startup type in the
Startup Type column is set to automatic. If the service is stopped, right-click it and
select Start on the context menu. If the service is not configured for the automatic
startup, right-click it and select Properties on the context menu; then, on the General tab
of the Service Properties window, select the automatic item on the Startup type dropdown menu and click OK.
During the VUS installation, the DotNet and MSDE applications are automatically
installed on the server (irrespective of whether it is a standalone server or a Container),
which is necessary for the proper VUS server functioning. If you have the msde and
dotnet3.0_frmwk-3.0 application templates installed on your Node, you can speed up
the process of deploying VUS inside your Container and save about 250 Mb of disk space
by applying these templates to the Container before starting the VUS installation.
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Synchronizing VUS Server With Virtuozzo Update Center
After you have successfully installed the VUS software, you are ready to synchronize your local
VUS server with the Virtuozzo Update Center (accessible at http://vzwinupdate.swsoft.com).
During the first VUS synchronization:
ƒ
A virtual directory is created under the default Web site in IIS (Internet Information
Services) on the local VUS server. This directory is then used to access the Virtuozzo and
Windows Server 2003 updates downloaded from the Virtuozzo Update Center. You can
view the created directory by opening Computer Management and expanding the Services
and Applications --> Internet Information Server (IIS) Manager --> Web Sites --> Default Web
Site item in its left pane. For example:
Figure 103: Synchronizing VUS Server - Viewing Virtual Directory
In the picture above, the directory created during the synchronization and storing Virtuozzo
Containers update has the name of vzwin.
Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System Up-to-Date
187
ƒ
A number of Virtuozzo Containers products are registered on the local VUS server. The
Virtuozzo Update Center stores updates for a number of Virtuozzo-related products
including different versions of the Virtuozzo Containers software (e.g. Virtuozzo Containers
3.5.1 or Virtuozzo Containers 4.0) and of the Virtuozzo Tools (e.g. Parallels Management
Console 4.0). Any version of the Virtuozzo Containers software or of the Virtuozzo Tools is
registered in the VUS Manager as a separate product; so, you can configure the majority of
parameters for the corresponding product independently from all the other products
registered on the VUS server.
ƒ
All available Virtuozzo Containers software and tools updates are downloaded from the
Virtuozzo Update Center to the local VUS server. At subsequent synchronizations, your
local VUS server will check if any new updates are present in the Virtuozzo Update Center
and download only new updates.
You can synchronize the local VUS server with the Virtuozzo Update Center using the VUS
Manager - a special Virtuozzo GUI tool used for managing Virtuozzo Containers software and
tools updates on your local VUS server. To launch the tool, select Start --> Programs -->
Parallels --> Virtuozzo Update Services --> Virtuozzo Update Services Manager on your VUS
server:
Figure 104: VUS Manager - Registering Virtuozzo Products
In the displayed window, click the Synchronize button to start the synchronization process.
Upon the synchronization completion, you will see all the registered products (including the
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 software) under the Products item in the left pane of the VUS
Manager:
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Figure 105: VUS Manager - Viewing Registered Product
In our example, the Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 software has been registered in the VUS Manager
with the name of VZWIN40. To view detailed information on Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
4.0, expand the Products item in the left frame of the VUS Manager and click the VZWIN40
name:
Figure 106: VUS Manager - Viewing Detailed Information on Virtuozzo Containers
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In the right frame of the VUS Manager, you can view the following information on the
registered product:
ƒ
Name: the name under which the corresponding product is registered in the VUS Manager
(in our case it is VZWIN40). This name corresponds to the folder displayed under the
Products item in the left frame of the VUS Manager.
ƒ
Description: the description of the registered product.
ƒ
Manifest URL: the path to the default Virtuozzo Containers manifest file in the Virtuozzo
Update Center.
ƒ
Approval policy: the current updates approval policy that will be used to deploy Virtuozzo
Containers updates to all the Hardware Nodes in your local network. Detailed information
on how to manage the updates approval policy is given in the Configuring Updates Approval
Policy subsection (on page 195).
ƒ
Synchronization policy: The synchronization mode currently set for the VUS server.
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Adding and Removing Products in VUS Manager
To register a new product in the VUS Manager, do the following:
1
In the left frame of the VUS Manager, click Options:
Figure 107: VUS Manager - Registering New Product
2 In the right frame of the VUS Manager, under Product List, click Reload.
To remove a product that you do not need any more from the VUS Manager, you can perform
the following operations:
1
In the left frame of the VUS Manager, expand the Products item to view all the products
currently registered in the VUS Manager.
2 Select the name of the product you wish to delete from the VUS Manager.
3 On the VUS Manager main menu, click Edit --> Delete product.
4 In the displayed dialog window, click Yes to confirm your decision.
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Viewing Updates Information
To view the updates that were downloaded from the Virtuozzo Update Center during the
synchronization, do the following:
1
In the left frame of the VUS Manager, expand the Products item and then the name of the
product whose updates you wish to view.
2 If the product includes the updates from several architectures (e.g. i386 and x64-86), select
the appropriate architecture by clicking its name. For example:
Figure 108: VUS Manager - Viewing Updates Information
The table in the right frame of the VUS Manager displays brief information on the currently
available updates:
Column Name
Description
Name
The update name.
Type
The type of the update.
Status
The update status. It can be either 'approved' meaning that the update can
be distributed to your Hardware Nodes or 'not approved' meaning that the
distribution of the update is suspended until it is approved.
Description
The update description.
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To view detailed information on an update, just click its name in the table. For example:
Figure 109: VUS Manager - Viewing Update Details
At the bottom of the right frame, you can view the following information on the update:
Column Name
Description
Update ID
The identifier used to uniquely identify the update among all the other
updates in the Virtuozzo Update Center.
Name
The name assigned to the update.
Status
The update status. It can be either 'approved' meaning that the update can be
distributed to your Hardware Nodes or 'not approved' meaning that the
distribution of the update is suspended until it is approved.
Platform
The system architecture for which the update was issued.
Type
The type of the update.
Reboot
Denotes if the Hardware Node reboot is required after the update
installation.
Version
The version of Virtuozzo Containers to which the updated should be applied.
Description
The update description.
Links
The link to the Parallels web site describing the update in detail.
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Configuring VUS Server Synchronization Mode
The VUS server synchronization process involves downloading Virtuozzo Containers software
and Virtuozzo Tools updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center to your local VUS server. By
default, you are supposed to manually perform the synchronization each time you wish to check
for available updates and to download them to the local VUS server. To this effect, just launch
the VUS Manager (by selecting Programs --> Parallels --> Virtuozzo Update Services -->
Virtuozzo Update Services Manager on the Windows Start menu) and, in its right frame, click the
Synchronize button.
At the same time, you can enable the VUS server to automatically synchronize with the
Virtuozzo Update Center on a set schedule. For this purpose, proceed as follows:
1
In the left frame of the VUS Manager, click the Schedule item.
2 In the right frame of the VUS Manager, select the Synchronize radio button and set the time
when the VUS server synchronization is to take place. For example:
Figure 110: VUS Manager - Synchronizing Local VUS Server
You can also select the Synchronize upon VUS server startup check box to make your local
VUS server synchronize with the Virtuozzo Update Center each time you launch the VUS
Manager.
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194
3 Click the Save changes button.
If you have more than one product registered in the VUS Manager (e.g. Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 and Parallels Management Console 4.0) and have configured the VUS server to
automatically check for updates in the Virtuozzo Update Center, all the available updates from
all the registered products will be downloaded to the VUS server on the specified schedule or on
the VUS Manager start up. However, you can exclude particular products from being
synchronized together with the other registered products by doing the following:
1
In the left frame of the VUS Manager, expand the Products item.
2 Select the name of the product you wish to exclude from the synchronization process.
3 Select the Exclude product from synchronization check box.
4 Click the Save changes button.
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Configuring Updates Approval Policy
The VUS updates approval mechanism allows you to define the updates approval policy for
deploying Virtuozzo Containers updates to the Hardware Nodes in your local network. By
default, all updates downloaded from the Virtuozzo Update Center are automatically approved
for installation. However, you can change the default policy and defer the distribution of
Virtuozzo Containers updates to your Nodes till they are thoroughly tested by your IT
department against the compatibility with your working environments. To this effect:
1
Launch the VUS Manager by selecting Programs --> Parallels --> Virtuozzo Update Services
--> Virtuozzo Update Services Manager on the Windows Start menu.
2 Expand the Products item and click the name of the product for which you wish to change
the updates approval policy.
3 In the right frame of the VUS Manager, under Auto-approve new updates, clear the check
boxes next to the system architectures for which you wish to disable the automatical updates
distribution:
Figure 111: VUS Manager - Configuring Updates Approval Policy
4 Click the Save changes button.
From this moment on, the distribution of any updates downloaded from the Virtuozzo Update
Center to the local VUS server will be deferred till you test and approve them, i.e. all Hardware
Nodes configured to get Virtuozzo Containers updates from the VUS server will see only the
updates approved by you. To manually approve an update for installation:
1
Expand the Products item and then the name of the product whose update you wish to
approve.
2 If the product includes the updates for several system architectures (e.g. i386 and x64-86),
select the appropriate architecture.
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3 In the right frame of the VUS Manager, right-click the update you wish to approve and
select Approve update on the context menu. For example:
Figure 112: VUS Manager - Approving Virtuozzo Update
Please notice that selecting a higher update version will also approve all the updates with
lower versions. For example, if you have the VZU40010, VZU40011, and VZU40012
updates not approved and change the status of the VZU40012 update to 'approved', the
VZU40010 and VZU40011 updates will also be approved.
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Running Reports
The Report section of the VUS Manager allows you to view the synchronization information
over a specific time span in the past. To view a status report for synchronizations, do the
following:
1
Launch the VUS Manager by selecting Programs --> Parallels --> Virtuozzo Update Services
--> Virtuozzo Update Services Manager on the Windows Start menu.
2 In the left frame of the VUS Manager, select the Report item.
3 In the right frame of the VUS manager, under View, specify the time period for which you
would like to view the logs. By default, the results for the last synchronization are displayed.
4 Click the Apply button.
You will be presented with a window like the following:
Figure 113: VUS Manager - Running Reports
In this window you can view the following update statistics:
ƒ
Last synchronization: detailed information on the last synchronization: the time when the
synchronization was started and when it was finished, the type and status of the
synchronization.
ƒ
Synchronization summary: a summary of all updates synchronized for the specified time
period.
ƒ
Synchronization events: lists all the events occurred during the synchronization process.
You can remove all the synchronization history by clicking Sync --> Delete history on the VUS
Manager main menu.
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Configuring Hardware Node to Receive Updates From VUS Server
Now that you have set up the local VUS server, you should configure your production Hardware
Nodes to get updates from the local VUS server. To this effect, perform the following
operations on each Node you wish to obtain updates from the VUS server:
1
Select Programs --> Parallels --> Parallels Virtuozzo Containers --> Virtuozzo Update Wizard
on the Windows Start menu.
2 Click the Proxy Settings... button, expand Virtuozzo Update Settings in the left pane of the
Virtuozzo Update Settings window, and select VzWin4.0.
3 Select the Another location... radio button and, in the Another location field, specify the path
to
the
updates.xml
file
on
the
local
VUS
server:
http://vzwinupdate.swsoft.com/vzwin/v4.0/updates.xml.
Figure 114: Setting Path to Local VUS Server
4 Click OK.
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Defining Update Source for VUS Server
You can specify the location from which your local VUS server will get updates for the
products registered in the VUS Manager. You can choose between two choices:
ƒ
Leave the local VUS server to get updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center. This is the
default behaviour.
ƒ
Make the local VUS server to get updates from another server (called VUS upstream server)
running Virtuozzo Update Services. In this case the VUS upstream server is configured to
get updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center and your local VUS server is configured to
obtain updates from the VUS upstream server. The following picture demonstrates an
example of such a network configuration:
Figure 115: Deploying Chain of VUS Servers
In this example:
ƒ
The VUS Upstream Server is configured to download the Virtuozzo Containers software
and Virtuozzo Tools updates from the Virtuozzo Update Center.
ƒ
The VUS server is configured to obtain the Virtuozzo Containers software and Virtuozzo
Tools updates from the VUS upstream server.
ƒ
Three production Hardware Nodes - Client Node 1, 2, and 3 - connect to the VUS upstream
server and get the approved updates from this server.
ƒ
Three production Hardware Nodes - Client Node 4, 5, and 6 - connect to the VUS server
and get the approved updates from this server.
This type of configuration may be useful for many types of VUS deployments. For example,
you might use it to download updates from the Internet only once and then distribute the
downloaded updates among several downstream VUS servers, thus, saving bandwidth on your
Internet connection. You might also use this configuration to scale VUS in a large organization
to distribute the workload among several local VUS servers.
To set a new VUS upstream server for your local VUS server, proceed as follows:
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1
200
On the local VUS server, launch the VUS Manager by selecting Programs --> Parallels -->
Virtuozzo Update Services --> Virtuozzo Update Services Manager on the Windows Start
menu.
2 Click Options, select the Custom server radio button, and type the URL of the VUS
upstream server in the field provided. For example:
Figure 116: VUS Manager - Setting VUS Upstream Server
3 Click Save Changes.
Please keep in mind that changing to a new upstream server will reset all the settings of the
previous upstream server and remove all the registered products and their updates from the local
VUS server.
201
CHAPTER 6
Managing Hardware Nodes
The current chapter centers on all those operations you can perform on your Hardware Nodes.
You will learn how to manage your Virtuozzo licenses, to update the Virtuozzo Containers
software software and the Windows Server 2003 operating system on your Node, to unite your
Nodes into a group, to view and configure a number of Virtuozzo-related parameters.
In This Chapter
Managing Virtuozzo Licenses............................................................................................... 201
Managing Files ...................................................................................................................... 211
Managing IP Addresses Pool on Node.................................................................................. 215
Managing Virtuozzo Licenses
The given section provides information on managing Virtuozzo licenses. In particular, you will
know how to view the current license status, to install a new license on your Hardware Node or
to update an existing one, to transfer the license from one Node to another, etc.
Managing Hardware Nodes
202
Understanding Licensing
Running Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows involves dealing with two types of licenses.
Here we will try to make an overview of all these licenses - either those issued by Parallels
directly or related to the Windows Server 2003 operating system.
First of all, Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is installed on servers running Windows Server 2003
(English, German, French, Spanish, Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, or Japanese
Standard or Enterprise Edition). Before the Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 installation, you should
install and activate a licensed Windows Server 2003 operating system on your server. Besides,
while running the Virtuozzo initial configuration wizard, you will be prompted to use the same
licensed CD with the Windows Server 2003 OS to add the necessary binary files to the
Hardware Node to make the Windows Server 2003 OS template fully functional.
Another license - Virtuozzo license - is needed to be able to start using the Virtuozzo Containers
software and Virtuozzo management tools (Parallels Management Console, Parallels
Infrastructure Manager, and Parallels Power Panel). To this effect, you should install the
Virtuozzo license on your server after or when installing Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 on it. Every
Hardware Node hosting one or more Containers shall have its own license. Licenses are issued
by Parallels and define a number of parameters in respect of your Node. The main licensed
parameters are listed below:
ƒ
The number of CPUs which can be installed on the Hardware Node; please keep in mind
that each of the Dual Core and Hyperthreading processors is regarded as one CPU.
ƒ
The number of users which can simultaneously use Parallels Management Console and
Parallels Infrastructure Manager to manage the Hardware Node and its Containers.
ƒ
The license expiration date. Any license can be time-limited or permanent.
Virtuozzo licenses have a start date and, if they are time-limited, may also have an
expiration date specified in them. You shall have to set up your system clock correctly;
otherwise, the license validation may fail.
ƒ
The number of Containers the Hardware Node will be able to host.
ƒ
The platform and architecture with which the Virtuozzo Containers software is compatible.
ƒ
The possibility of managing the Hardware Node by means of Parallels Infrastructure
Manager.
Virtuozzo licenses can be shipped in one of the following ways:
ƒ
as an activation code: in this case you are provided with a special alphanumeric code which
must be activated before starting to use Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 on your Hardware Node.
During the activation, the code is sent to the Parallels Key Authentication (KA) server
which, in its turn, verifies the code, generate a special license file, sends it back to the Node,
and installs it there.
ƒ
as a product key: in this case you are provided with an alphanumeric key which is installed
on your Hardware Node directly without connecting to the Parallels KA server and
exchanging any information with it.
Managing Hardware Nodes
203
Installing Virtuozzo License on Hardware Node
To install a Virtuozzo license on the Hardware Node, you should perform the following
operations in Parallels Management Console:
1
Click on the corresponding Hardware Node name and follow the Manage License link at the
Hardware Node dashboard.
2 In the Manage Licenses window, click the Install License button.
3 In the Choose License Installation Method window, select the Enter a new Virtuozzo license
key radio button and click Next:
Figure 117: Management Console - Installing License on Hardware Node
4 Enter the Virtuozzo product key number or the activation code in the field provided and
click Next.
5 In the Review License Details window, you can view detailed information on the license that
will be installed on your Node. Click the Install button to initiate the installation process.
If you are activating your Virtuozzo Containers installation by means of an activation key, you
should have an active Internet connection to successfully complete the Virtuozzo license
installation. Otherwise, you will be presented with the corresponding warning message
informing you of the steps you have to take to activate your license. As a rule, these steps
include the following:
1
Visiting the http://www.swsoft.com/en/support/virtuozzo/activate web page and activating
the Virtuozzo license manually.
2 Providing the following information on this web page:
Managing Hardware Nodes
204
ƒ
In the Product Code field, specify your license activation code (e.g. A6C400-WT1321PFHB48-VIPG61-PDRT56).
ƒ
In the HWID field, provide the ID of your Hardware Node. You can find this ID in the
Management Console warning message displayed after clicking the Install button in the
Review License Details window.
3 Clicking the Activate License button.
If you have entered the correct information on the Virtuozzo License Activation page, you will be
provided with a link to a Virtuozzo license file that you should download to and install on the
Hardware Node to start using Virtuozzo Containers 4.0. To install the obtained Virtuozzo
license file on the Node, do the following:
1
Follow the Manage License link at the Hardware Node dashboard.
2 In the Manage Licenses window, click the Install License button.
3 Select the Upload the Virtuozzo license file radio button in the Choose License Installation
Method window and click Next:
Figure 118: Management Console - Uploading Virtuozo License File
4 In the Specify Virtuozzo License File window, you can do one of the following:
ƒ
enter the path to the license file in the field provided or use the Browse button to specify
the location of the license file or
ƒ
select the Paste the license text in the area below radio button and copy the contents of
the license file in the field at the bottom of the window.
When you are ready, click Next.
Managing Hardware Nodes
205
5 In the Review License Details window, you can view detailed information on the license that
will be installed on your Node. Click the Install button to upload the license to the Hardware
Node and install it there.
You can also use the vzlicload utility to install a Virtuozzo license. Detailed information on
this utility is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide.
Updating Virtuozzo License
Parallels Management Console allows you to update the Virtuozzo license currently installed on
the Hardware Node. To this effect, you should perform the following operations:
1
Make sure that the computer where Management Console is installed and the Hardware
Node where you are planning to update the license are connected to the Internet.
2 Click the corresponding Hardware Node name and follow the Manage License link at the
Hardware Node dashboard.
Figure 119: Management Cosole - Updating Virtuozzo License
3 In the Manage Licenses window, click the Update License button. Management Console will
try to connect to the Parallels Key Authentication (KA) server, retrieve a new license, and
install it on the Node.
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, you can update Virtuozzo licenses
installed on the Hardware Node with the help of activation code only. If you wish to update a
Virtuozzo product key, please contact a Parallels sales representative to learn how you can do it.
Managing Hardware Nodes
206
Transferring License to Another Node
Sometimes you may wish to transfer Virtuozzo licenses from one Hardware Node to another.
For example, this may be the case if the Node where the Virtuozzo license is installed starts
experiencing problems for some reason or other or requires the hardware upgrade.
The procedure of transferring a Virtuozzo license from one Hardware Node to another depends
on the license type and can be one of the following:
ƒ
ƒ
If you have activated your Virtuozzo Containers installation by means of a Virtuozzo
product key, you can transfer the installed license from the Source to the Destination Node
as follows:
ƒ
Make sure that the Source Node is down or the license is removed from this Node;
ƒ
Log in to the Destination Node;
ƒ
Install the Virtuozzo Server product key on the Destination Node. Detailed information
on how to install Virtuozzo licenses is provided in the Installing Virtuozzo License
subsection.
If you have activated your Virtuozzo Containers installation by means of a Virtuozzo
activation code, you should do the following to transfer the Virtuozzo Server license from
the Source to the Destination Node:
1. Ascertain that the Source Node is shut down or the license is removed from this Node.
2. Make sure that the Destination Node and the computer where Parallels Management
Console is installed are connected to the Internet.
3. In Management Console, click the Destination Node name and follow the Manage
License link at the Hardware Node dashboard.
4. In the Manage Licenses window, click the Install License button.
Managing Hardware Nodes
207
5. Select the Transfer a license from another Hardware Node radio button in the Choose
License Installation Method window and click Next.
Figure 120: Management Console - Transferring License to Another Node
6. In the Enter Product Activation Code window, enter the activation code and click the
Install button. Management Console will connect to the Parallels KA server, inform the
server of its intention to transfer the license to a new Hardware Node, get a new license
file from the KA server, and install it on the Destination Node.
Managing Hardware Nodes
208
Viewing Virtuozzo License
In order to view the information on the Virtuozzo license installed on the Hardware Node and
check its current status, click on the corresponding Hardware Node name and follow the Manage
License link at the Hardware Node dashboard:
Figure 121: Management Console - Viewing License
The command output shows the full information about the Hardware Node license. The main
Virtuozzo license parameters which may be of interest to you are listed in the following table:
Column Name
Description
Product
The product name for which the license has been issued.
Serial
The Virtuozzo license serial number.
Status
The status of the license currently installed on the Hardware Node. The
information on all license statuses is provided in the Virtuozzo License
Statuses subsection (on page 209).
Expiration date
The license expiration date, if it is time-limited.
Version
The Virtuozzo Containers version with which the license is compatible.
Grace period
The period, in seconds, during which Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 continues
functioning after your license has expired.
Architecture
The system architecture with which the license is compatible.
Platform
The operating system with which the license is compatible.
Key number
The number under which the Virtuozzo license is registered on the
Parallels Key Authentication server.
Managing Hardware Nodes
209
Number of CPUs
The total number of central processor units (CPUs) which can be
installed on the Hardware Node.
Total Containers
The total number of Containers which can simultaneously run on the
Hardware Node.
Parallels Agent allowed
Indicates whether you are allowed to use the Parallels Agent functionality
on the given Hardware Node:
Parallels
allowed
Power
ƒ
yes: the Parallels Agent functionality is enabled;
ƒ
no: the Parallels Agent functionality is disabled.
Panel Indicates whether you can manage Containers residing on the given
Hardware Node by means of Parallels Infrastructure Manager:
ƒ
yes: the 'Parallels Infrastructure Manager' functionality is enabled;
ƒ
no: the 'Parallels Infrastructure Manager' functionality is disabled.
Parallels
Infrastructure The number of users able to simultaneously connect to the Node through
Manager users
Infrastructure Manager.
Parallels
Management The number of users able to simultaneously connect to the Node through
Console users
Management Console.
Advanced
management
backup Indicates whether the 'backup' functionality is enabled for the given
Hardware Node:
Workflow management
ƒ
yes: the 'backup' functionality is enabled;
ƒ
no: the 'backup' functionality is disabled.
Indicates whether the 'Container requesting' functionality is enabled for
the given Hardware Node:
ƒ
yes: the 'Container requesting' functionality is enabled;
ƒ
no: the 'Container requesting' functionality is disabled.
You can also use the vzlicview utility to display the Virtuozzo license contents and check its
current status. Detailed information on this utility is given in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
for Windows Reference Guide.
Virtuozzo License Statuses
When viewing information on your license, please pay special attention to the license status that
can be one of the following:
ACTIVE
The license installed on the Hardware Node is valid and active.
VALID
The license the utility parses is valid and can be installed on the Hardware Node.
EXPIRED
The license has expired and, therefore, could not be installed on the Hardware Node.
GRACED
The license has been successfully installed on the Hardware Node; however, it has
expired and is currently on the grace period (i.e. it is active till the end of the grace
period).
INVALID
The license is invalid (for example, because of the Hardware Node architecture
mismatch) or corrupted.
Managing Hardware Nodes
210
Virtuozzo License Expiration
As soon as the Virtuozzo license period expires, the Hardware Node will continue working for a
grace period, and then finally the Virtuozzo Containers software will stop functioning. The
grace period is measured in seconds, you can see its value in the license properties. During this
period, you can request a new license by Parallels and install it on your Node. For example, the
following picture demonstrates the license where the grace period is set to 3600 seconds:
Figure 122: Management Console - Virtuozzo License Expiration
If the license expires in less than a week, a special warning informing you of the time left till the
license expiration will be displayed every time you launch Parallels management Console (until
you select the Do not show this dialog window again check box in this warning). Besides, you
will see the
symbol in the Management Console left pane opposite the corresponding
Hardware Node name. Following the Manage License link at the Hardware Node dashboard will
take you to the Manage Licenses screen where you will be able to view the details of the
currently installed license as well as to update it or to install a new Virtuozzo license by clicking
the Install License button and following the instructions of the Install New Virtuozzo License
wizard.
Managing Hardware Nodes
211
Managing Files
Parallels Management Console provides you with a special file manager allowing you to
perform various operations on files and folders located on the Hardware Node. You can access
the file manager by clicking the File Manager item under the corresponding Hardware Node
name. After expanding the File Manager item, you will see a list of drives available on the
Hardware Node:
Figure 123: Management Console - Managing Files on Hardware Node
The principles of working with the Hardware Node file manager are standard. You can move
thru the hierarchy of drives and folders by double-clicking their names or selecting the
necessary drives and folders in the left pane. Use the menu items, toolbar buttons, table view,
and context menus to perform the following tasks:
ƒ
View the contents of simple text files;
ƒ
View the principal information about a file/folder available on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
Upload any number of files or whole folders from your local computer (the computer where
Parallels Management Console is installed) to any folder on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
Download any number of files from the Hardware Node to your local computer;
ƒ
Create new folders within the drives on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
Copy files to another drive/folder on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
Move files to another drive/folder on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
Delete files/folders from the Hardware Node;
ƒ
Rename files/folders/directories on the Hardware Node.
Parallels Management Console provides a user-intuitive interface for performing all these tasks.
Managing Hardware Nodes
212
Uploading Files to Node
In Parallels Management Console, you can upload any number of files or whole folders from the
local computer (the computer where Management Console is installed) to any folder on the
Hardware Node. Under the corresponding Hardware Node name, right-click the File Manager
item and select Tasks -> Upload Local File(s) on the context menu. The Upload Files Wizard
opens:
Figure 124: Management Console - Choosing Hardware Nodes for Uploading Files
It is a three-step wizard. On the first step of the wizard, you should define the Hardware Node(s)
and the path on this Node (these Nodes) where the files will be uploaded. Click the Add button
to open the Select Containers window and select the Hardware Node you wish to add it to the
upload list. Repeat this sequence for every Hardware Node where you wish to upload files and
then click OK. After that, you should enter the path where the files are to be uploaded or browse
for this path on the remote Node. Click Next when you are finished.
On the second step of the wizard, you should specify the local files you wish to upload to the
Hardware Node(s) that you specified on the previous step.
Managing Hardware Nodes
213
Figure 125: Management Console - Uploading Files to Hardware Node
Click the Add button and select a file or a group of files from a single folder for uploading. You
can also upload the whole folder by clicking the Add Directory button. If you need to upload
files from various local folders, click the Add button the required number of times. After you
have added all the files and folders to be uploaded, click Next.
The next window lets you review all the information provided by you on the previous steps of
the wizard. Make sure the settings are correct. To change the settings, click the Back button and
make the necessary corrections. After you click Next, the uploading process begins. The
operation progress is graphically displayed in the window of the Upload Files Wizard. You can
see how each of the selected files is being consecutively uploaded to the Hardware Node. Please
wait for the operation to finish.
After the uploading process has finished, you will get informed of the results of the operation.
The table in the displayed window lets you view the results regarding every file uploaded to the
Node. Click Finish to exit the wizard.
Managing Hardware Nodes
214
Downloading Files to Local Computer
Parallels Management Console allows you to download any file or folder located on the
Hardware Node to the computer where Management Console is installed. To this effect, do the
following:
1
Expand the File Manager item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 Select the file/folder you wish to download to your local computer (you can use
CTRL+Click to select or deselect the file/folder, SHIFT+Click to select a range of
files/folders, CTRL+A to select all files/folders).
3 Right-click it and choose Tasks --> Copy To Local Computer on the context menu.
4 In the displayed window, specify the folder on your local computer where you wish to
download the selected file/folder.
5 Click OK.
Managing Hardware Nodes
215
Managing IP Addresses Pool on
Node
The given section provides information on how you can manage IP addresses pools for your
Hardware Nodes.
Configuring Hardware Node IP Addresses Pool
After you have registered a Hardware Node in Parallels Management Console, you can create
and configure the IP addresses pool for Containers which will be hosted on this Node. This
helps you ensure a unified space of Container IP addresses within your Hardware Node.
To create a new IP addresses pool or configure an existing one, do the following:
1
Right-click the corresponding Hardware Node name and select Network Configuration --> IP
Addresses Pool on the context menu:
Figure 126: Management Console - Configuring Node IP Addresses Pool
Managing Hardware Nodes
216
2 On the Pool Configuration tab of the IP Addresses Pool Configuration window, use the
provided buttons to make a new pool or configure an existing one. Pools are comprised of
continuous ranges of IP addresses. Every range may be characterized by the starting IP
address, the ending IP address, and the number of IP addresses within the range. Obviously,
it is enough to know any two of these three parameters to deduce the third one. The
information on the operations you can perform using the buttons to the right of the IP
address ranges in pool table is presented below:
Button
Description
Add Range
Displays a window where you can define a new range for the IP addresses pool of the
given Hardware Node.
Delete
Deletes the IP addresses range selected in the table.
Edit
Displays a window where you can edit the parameters of the range selected in the
table.
Exclude Range
Displays a window where you can exclude a certain continuous subrange of IP
addresses from the range selected in the table. As a rule, this brings about the
appearance of two new ranges instead of the selected one.
Managing Hardware Nodes
217
Viewing Allocated IP Addresses
Parallels Management Console allows you to view the IP addresses from the pool that were
already assigned to the Containers on your Hardware Node (either during the Container creation
or while configuring these Containers afterwards). To this effect, you should right-click the
corresponding Hardware Node name, select Configure IP Addresses Pool on the context menu,
and go to the Allocated tab of the displayed window:
Figure 127: Management Console - Viewing Information on IP Addresses Pool
In this window you can view the following information about your IP addresses pool:
ƒ
ƒ
Under the Usage Statistics group, you can learn:
ƒ
the number of IP addresses from the pool already assigned to the Containers on the
Node;
ƒ
the total number of IP addresses in the pool;
ƒ
the ratio of used IP addresses to the total number of IP addresses in the pool, in percent;
the graphical representation of this ratio is also provided at the top of the IP Addresses
Pool Configuration window.
The Allocated IP addresses table provides detailed information on the IP addresses already
allocated to the Containers on the Hardware Node:
Column Name
Description
IP Address
The IP address from the pool already allocated to some Container on the Node.
Environment
The hostname of the Container to which the IP address was allocated.
Managing Hardware Nodes
Hosted on
218
The name of the Hardware Node where the database of IP addresses (the IP
addresses pool) is stored.
219
CHAPTER 7
Logs and Monitors
In This Chapter
Monitoring Resources ........................................................................................................... 219
Viewing System and Virtuozzo Logs ................................................................................... 230
Subscribing to Parallels Management Console Alerts .......................................................... 231
Monitoring Top Resources Consumption ............................................................................. 234
Monitoring Virtuozzo Objects Using vzsnmp Plug-In ......................................................... 244
Monitoring Resources
You can exploit the Monitor feature of Parallels Management Console for monitoring resources.
This feature provides either the whole Hardware Node resources monitoring or the monitoring
of resources consumption by a single Container, depending on whether you use the
Management Console main window or a particular Container manager window. To open the
latter, it is enough to double-click the necessary Container in the Container table in the right
pane of the Management Console main window. The principles of working with these two kinds
of monitors are essentially the same (only the set of the parameters that can be displayed is
slightly different); therefore, they can be described together. You can access the Parallels
Management Console Monitor feature by selecting the Monitor item in the left pane of the
window you are working with.
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220
Using Charts Representation
The charts section of Parallels Management Console lets you display quite a number of charts
for monitoring various kinds of resources on a single grid. It offers means for better
visualization of charts, like assigning colors and line styles to all the elements of the grid and
charts or choosing a peculiar representation scale for each chart. You can save and load a set of
counters you would usually monitor thus avoiding the necessity of adding the counters one by
one each time you start Management Console. And, last but not least, there is a possibility to
replay the charts for any specified period of time by using logs.
The sequence of your actions may be the following:
1
To display the chart, expand the Monitor item in the window you are working with (either
the Management Console main window or a Container manager window) and click Charts
to see the monitor grid in the right pane.
2 Click the Add Counters button on the Charts toolbar.
3 In the Add Monitoring Counters dialog window, select the set of counters from which you
want to add one(s) by selecting the desired group on the Counter type drop-down menu.
4 Select the needed counters and click Add. You may use the Ctrl and Shift keys to add a
number of counters from a group. When you select a certain counter with your mouse, the
counter description is provided in the lower part of the Add Monitoring Counters dialog
window. For example:
Figure 128: Management Console - Adding Monitoring Counters
5 Click Close after you have added all the desired counters.
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221
Now that you have a number of counters on the grid, you can see a red line indicating the
current moment of time moving from left to right as time passes and new values of monitored
parameters appear on the grid. Now it’s time to customize your view and learn the other
opportunities. You may want to perform the following tasks:
ƒ
Adjust the periodicity of refreshing the information on the grid;
ƒ
Adjust the representation scale for each counter;
ƒ
Adjust colors and line styles for the visual elements;
ƒ
Highlight a certain counter;
ƒ
Save the current configuration of counters to be able to open it at any moment of time;
ƒ
Use the grid to replay some past real-time information about a set of parameters.
Adjusting Periodicity of Refreshing Information
To set the time interval at which the information is refreshed for all the charts, right-click the
Charts item in the Hardware Node or Container main tree and choose one of the following
options on the context menu:
ƒ
Update Speed --> High: choose this option to set the time interval to 1 second.
ƒ
Update Speed --> Normal: choose this option to set the time interval to 5 seconds.
ƒ
Update Speed --> Low: choose this option to set the time interval to 15 seconds.
ƒ
Update Speed --> Pause: choose this option to stop refreshing the information for the charts.
Logs and Monitors
222
Adjusting Representation Scale
The value of any counter on the grid may vary from 0 to 100. These numbers are marked on the
left of the grid. But the “weight” of these numbers is different for each counter. It is difficult to
use one and the same scale, for example, for memory usage which may amount to hundreds of
thousands of KBs and for CPU usage in percent. You can adjust the scale for each parameter
separately for their better visualization on the grid:
1
Right-click the name of the corresponding counter in the table of displayed counters below
the grid and select Properties on the context menu. For example:
Figure 129: Management Console - Adjusting Charts Scale
2 Select the necessary scale on the Scale drop-down menu on top of the grid and click Apply.
Logs and Monitors
223
Adjusting Colors and Styles
You can define the way this or that counter is displayed on the grid:
1
Right-click the name of the corresponding counter in the table of displayed counters below
the grid and choose Properties:
Figure 130: Management Console - Adjusting Charts View
2 In the corresponding boxes, adjust the color of the counter line, its width and style as
desired.
3 Click the General tab and adjust the view of the grid elements. The options on that tab are
self-explaining.
4 Click OK.
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224
Highlighting Counter
In case there are many counters being simultaneously displayed on the grid, it might be difficult
to quickly single out the needed one. Parallels Management Console provides a means for
highlighting any one of the counters at a time:
1
Click the name of the corresponding counter in the table of displayed counters below the
grid.
2 Click the Highlight Counter button on the toolbar.
The selected counter will be highlighted on the grid with a broad white line. For example:
Figure 131: Management Console - Highlighting Counter
Logs and Monitors
225
Saving Counters Configuration
You can save the information about the current set of counters in the Management Console
configuration file to call this information the next time it is needed sparing the labor of adding
the counters one by one again. Only one set of counters can thus be saved. Just right-click the
counter you wist to save and select Save Counters on the context menu. When you alter the
counters configuration (for example, when you restart Parallels Management Console, all the
counters are erased) and wish to restore the saved configuration, click the Load Counters button.
The saved set of counters will be loaded from the configuration file.
Logs and Monitors
226
Replaying Information From Logs
The function of replaying the resources consumption information over a specified time span in
the past is ensured by the background logging of all the parameters in Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0. The default periodicity of refreshing the resources consumption information in
the logs is set to be 1 (one) hour. You may have the logs collect the resources consumption
information more frequently by "accelerating" the necessary logs with the help of the Log Setup
folder under the Monitor item. For example:
1
Click Logging Period Setup under the Monitor item.
2 In the right of the Management Console window, double-click the necessary log group in
the Parameters table, or right-click it and select Properties on the context menu.
Figure 132: Management Console - Changing Logging Period
3 In the Change Logging Period window, set the update period for the given group of logs.
4 Click OK for the changes to take effect.
Note: Virtuozzo Management Console 3.x does not allow you to configure the periodicity of
refreshing the resources consumption information in the logs for Hardware Nodes running
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
The replaying proper of logs is performed using the same grid of the Charts function as for realtime monitoring. The counters are also displayed and configured in the same way as for realtime monitoring. The principal difference is that when replaying the counters, the information
for the charts is taken from the logs (both the default logs and the logs accelerated in the
Logging Period Setup section are used), and not from real-time monitoring.
To switch to the charts replaying mode:
1
Click Charts under the Monitor item.
2 On the Logged Counters tab, click the Add Counters button on the toolbar to display the Add
Logged Counters window.
3 On the Data tab of the Add Logged Counters window, click the Add button to add any of the
available counters in the same way as they are added for real-time monitoring.
Logs and Monitors
227
4 After adding the desired counters, adjust the style of their visualization with the help of the
corresponding options on the Data tab.
5 Go to the Time tab of the Add Logged Counters window, define the update period, and the
time span for which you wish to view the logs for the specified counters. For example:
Figure 133: Management Console - Replaying Logs
Logs and Monitors
228
Using Table Representation
Besides charts, it is possible to monitor many of the Hardware Node or Container parameters in
real time as a list of lines each of which reflects the name and the value of a parameter, as well
as the attributes specific for this or that kind of parameters. In such a way, you can view the
Network and Processes groups for a particular Hardware Node, and the Network, Processes,
Resources, and Quotas and Usage groups for a particular Container. Choose any of these groups
either in the Parallels Management Console main window or in a Container manager window to
see the real-time information about the selected parameters in the form of a table. For example,
if you choose Network under a Hardware Node tree, you will see the following window:
Figure 134: Management Cosole - Monitoring Traffic Parameters
The chart in the Management Console right pane shows the values for the incoming and
outgoing traffic rate in bytes per second and packets per second for all the network interfaces
present on the Hardware Node. You could view this information as a chart as well.
Logs and Monitors
229
Viewing Network Traffic Summary
Parallels Management Console allows you to view the information on all incoming and
outgoing traffic for your Hardware Node or any of the Containers residing on it over a specified
time period in the past. In order to view the traffic, perform the following operations:
1
Expand the Monitor item in the main tree under either the Hardware Node name or the
Container name and click Traffic Summary.
Figure 135: Management Console - Viewing Network Traffic Summary
2 Specify the time period for which you would like to view the logs.
3 Click Show Logs to display a list of log entries in the right pane of the window.
Logs and Monitors
230
Viewing System and Virtuozzo Logs
Parallels Management Console allows you to view the logs which are maintained on the
corresponding Hardware Node both for the Hardware Node itself and for a particular Container.
The following log types are available for a particular Hardware Node in the Management
Console main window:
Log type
Description
Virtuozzo
Full Virtuozzo chronicles, i.e. system messages.
Events
All Container-related events (start, stop, migrate, etc.).
Alerts
Resource management system messages generated in case a Container is coming very
close to the resources limits specified for it.
Operations
Asynchronous tasks performed with any Container of the Hardware Node.
For Containers, only the Events and Alerts and Tasks Log logs are available in the corresponding
Container manager window.
In order to view the logs, do the following:
1
Expand the Logs folder in the main tree under either the Hardware Node name or the
Container name and click the needed log type.
2 Specify the time period for which you would like to view the logs.
3 Click Search to display a list of log entries in the right pane of the window. For example:
Figure 136: Management Cosole - Viewing Logs
Logs and Monitors
231
Subscribing to Parallels
Management Console Alerts
Parallels Management Console allows you to subscribe to e-mail notifications about resourceoverusage system alerts. The subscription to this kind of alerts consists in specifying the e-mail
address to send notification to. However, prior to subscribing to alerts, you should provide your
e-mail relay server IP address to send e-mail notifications thru. To this effect, do the following:
1
In Parallels Management Console, click the Manage E-mail Alert Subscription link on the
Hardware Node dashboard.
2 In the Manage E-mail Alert Subscription window, click the Configure button:
Figure 137: Management Console - Setting E-mail Relay Server
3 In the displayed window, enter the IP address of the mail relay server in the E-mail relay IP
address field:
4 Click OK.
Now that you have set the e-mail relay server IP address, you can subscribe to an alert:
1
Click the Manage E-mail Alert Subscription link on the Hardware Node dashboard:
Logs and Monitors
232
Figure 138: Management Console - Subscribing to Alert
2 Type the e-mail address where the alert notification is to be sent in the To field.
3 Click the Subscribe button.
Parallels Management Console uses a pre-configured notification template. This template
includes special placeholders representing special symbols that will be substituted for in the
actual message by the actual Container name, parameter name, etc. A list of the main
placeholders is given below:
ƒ
$TITLE: the name assigned to the Container. If there is no name set for the Container, its
hostname is used;
ƒ
$ID: the name of the resource parameter (in the actual message, it will be “diskspace”,
etc.);
ƒ
$CURTYPE: the alert type (at the alert generation moment). The “yellow” alert means that
the barrier value lies in the range from 90% to 100% and the “red” alert indicates that the
limit value has been hit;
ƒ
$TOTALMAXTYPE: the maximal alert type ("yellow" or "red") registered during the time
when alerts were collected;
ƒ
$COUNT: the number of registered alerts from the time when the last e-mail notification
was sent;
ƒ
$TYPERANGE: the range of alert types registered during the time when alerts were
collected (e.g. if all types of alerts were registered, the value of this parameter in the e-mail
notification will be set to "yellow" or "red");
ƒ
$TIMERANGE: the alert time (the server time);
ƒ
$CURVALUE: the current value of the parameter (at the alert generation moment);
ƒ
$MAXVALUE: the maximal value of the parameter during the time when alerts were
collected;
Logs and Monitors
ƒ
$SOFT: the parameter value barrier;
ƒ
$HARD: the parameter value limit.
233
By default, only one alert is sent per subscription and you have to resubscribe to an alert each
time after its receiving. However, you can configure the default alert policy by doing the
following:
1
Click the Manage E-mail Alert Subscription link on the Hardware Node dashboard.
2 In the Manage E-mail Alert Subscription window, click the Configure button.
3 In the displayed window, you can choose one of the following options:
ƒ
Stop sending alerts. In this case after having received an alert, you have to resubscribe to
it again. This option is selected by default.
ƒ
Keep sending alerts. In this case you will get alerts on a permanent basis without having
to resubscribe to them each time after their receiving.
ƒ
Collect alerts before sending for... In this case alerts will be permanently collected by the
Parallels Agent software to a special database. This database will be periodically, i.e.
with the period specified in the field opposite the option name, checked and if there
were any alerts gathered during the set time, the corresponding notification will be sent
to your e-mail address. The alert checking time is measured in seconds and can be set
either by using the spin button or entering the needed period by hand.
4 After you have chosen the right option, click OK to save the settings.
Logs and Monitors
234
Monitoring Top Resources
Consumption
Parallels Management Console provides you with the ability to view the Containers with the top
resources usage. You may use this option to avoid or solve the problem of the Hardware Node
overcommitment or simply monitor the load on the Containers residing on your Node. To see a
list of the top resource demanding Containers, expand the Monitor item under the corresponding
Hardware Node name and select the Top Resource Consumers item in the Management Console
left pane.
Note: The statistics on a certain resource utilization shown in the right Management Console
pane is an averaged usage data for a given timeframe.
You can currently view the statistics on:
ƒ
CPU used: displays the CPU time usage of the Container against the entire CPU usage on
the Hardware Node, in per cent;
ƒ
CPU share used: shows the real CPU usage of the Container against the CPU limit for this
Container, in per cent;
ƒ
Total memory used: displays the statistics results of the physical memory consumption by
the Container on the Node, in megabytes or kilobytes depending on the amount of physical
memory used;
ƒ
Memory share used: shows the real memory consumption by the Container against the
physical memory usage limit set for this Container;
ƒ
Disk usage: allows you to view the disk space utilization by the Container on the Hardware
Node, in bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes depending on the amount of physical memory used;
ƒ
Disk share usage: enables you to view the real disk space utilization by the Container
against the disk space limit set for this Container, in per cent;
ƒ
Incoming traffic: reflects the incoming traffic statistics of the Container, in megabytes or
kilobytes depending on the amount of incoming traffic;
ƒ
Outgoing traffic: lists the outgoing traffic statistics results for the Container, in megabytes
or kilobytes depending on the amount of outgoing traffic.
Logs and Monitors
235
Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers
You may run the need to view the most CPU time consuming Containers on your Hardware
Node, which can help you avoid the Node overcommit and the consequent Containers operation
impairments. To view the CPU usage of all Containers on your Node, expand the Monitor item
under the corresponding Hardware Node name, select the Top Resource Consumers item in the
Management Console left pane, and click on the CPU used tab in the Management Console right
pane:
Figure 139: Management Console - Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers
The statistics results are presented in the form of the Containers With Top CPU Consumption
diagram where the Y-axis denotes the IDs of the Containers for which the CPU resource usage
statistics has been collected and the X-axis represents the averaged CPU time, in per cent,
consumed by the given Container for the selected timespan.
Note: SERVICECT in the picture above denotes a special Container needed to manage your
Containers thru Management Console and Infrastructure Manager. This Container is
automatically created during the Virtuozzo Containers installation on your Hardware Node.
The View Properties group above the diagram allows you to define the following parameters to
govern the statistics results:
ƒ
The time interval for which the CPU usage statistics is to be displayed. You can select one
of the predefined values (day, month, year) on the drop-down menu or specify the
needed period in the From and To fields.
Logs and Monitors
ƒ
236
The number of the Containers characterized by the top consumption of the CPU time. You
can set the number of Containers to be monitored in the Show top field either by using the
spin button or entering the needed value by hand.
In Parallels Management Console, you can also view the real CPU usage, in per cent, of the
Container against the CPU limit for this Container. To this effect, you should expand the
Monitor item under the corresponding Hardware Node name, select the Top Resource
Consumers item in the Management Console left pane, and click on the CPU share used tab in
the Management Console right pane:
Figure 140: Management Console - Containers With Top CPU Share Usage
The statistics results are presented in the Containers With Top CPU Share Consumption diagram
in the same form as they are depicted in the Containers With Top CPU Consumption diagram.
Logs and Monitors
237
Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers
You might need to view the Containers using extensively the physical memory (RAM) of your
Hardware Node. This can help you avoid the Node overcommit and the consequent Containers
operation impairments. To view the physical memory consumption by all Containers on your
Node, you should expand the Monitor folder under the corresponding Hardware Node name,
select the Top Resource Consumers item in the Parallels Management Console left pane, and
click on the Total used memory tab in the Parallels Management Console right pane:
Figure 141: Management Console - Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers
The statistics results are presented in the form of the Containers With Top Total Memory
Consumption diagram where the Y-axis denotes the IDs of the Containers for which the physical
memory usage statistics has been collected and the X-axis shows the averaged amount of
physical memory consumed by the given Container for the selected timespan. The measurement
units used in the diagram (bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes) vary depending on the actual memory
consumption by the corresponding Container.
Note: SERVICECT in the picture above denotes a special Container needed to manage your
Containers thru Parallels Management Console and Infrastructure Manager. This Container is
automatically created during the Virtuozzo Containers installation on your Hardware Node.
The View Properties group above the diagram allows you to define the following parameters to
govern the statistics results:
Logs and Monitors
238
ƒ
The time interval for which the physical memory usage statistics is to be displayed. You can
select one of the predefined values (day, month, year) on the drop-down menu or specify
the needed period in the From and To fields.
ƒ
The number of the Containers characterized by the top consumption of physical memory.
You can set the number of Containers to be monitored in the Show top field either by using
the spin button or entering the needed value by hand.
Parallels Management Console also allows you to view the ratio of the real physical memory
usage of the Container against the memory limit set for this Container, in per cent. To this
effect, you should expand the Monitor item under the corresponding Hardware Node name,
select the Top Resource Consumers item in the Management Console left pane, and click on the
Memory share used tab in the Management Console right pane:
Figure 142: Management Console - Containers With Top Memory Share Usage
The statistics results are presented in the Containers With Top Memory Share Consumption
diagram in the same form as they are depicted in the Containers With Top Memory Consumption
diagram.
Logs and Monitors
239
Top Disk Space Consuming Containers
You might need to view the Containers occupying the most of your Hardware Node disk space.
This can help you avoid the Node overcommit and the consequent Containers operation
impairments. To monitor the disk space usage on your Node, you should expand the Monitor
folder under the corresponding Hardware Node, select the Top Resource Consumers item in the
Management Console left pane, click on the Disk usage tab in the Management Console right
pane:
Figure 143: Management Console - Top Disk Space Consuming Containers
The statistics results are presented in the form of the Containers With Top Disk Space
Consumption diagram where the Y-axis denotes the IDs of the Containers for which the disk
space usage statistics has been collected and the X-axis shows the averaged amount of disk
space consumed by the given Container for the selected timespan. The measurement units used
in the diagram (bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes) vary depending on the actual disk space usage
by the corresponding Container.
Note: SERVICECT in the picture above denotes a special Container needed to manage your
Containers thru Parallels Management Console and Infrastructure Manager. This Container is
automatically created during the Virtuozzo Containers installation on your Hardware Node.
The View Properties group above the diagram allows you to define the following parameters to
govern the statistics results:
ƒ
The time interval for which the disk space usage statistics is to be displayed. You can select
one of the predefined values (day, month, year) on the drop-down menu or specify the
needed period in the From and To fields.
Logs and Monitors
ƒ
240
The number of the Containers characterized by the top consumption of disk space. You can
set the number of Containers to be monitored in the Show top field either by using the spin
button or entering the needed value by hand.
Parallels Management Console also allows you to view the ratio of the real disk space
consumption by the Container against the disk space limit set for this Container, in per cent. To
this effect, you should expand the Monitor item under the corresponding Hardware Node name,
select the Top Resource Consumers item in the Management Console left pane, and click on the
Disk share usage tab in the Parallels Management Console right pane:
Figure 144: Management Console - Containers With Top Disk Space Share Consumption
The statistics results are presented in the Containers With Top Disk Space Share Consumption
diagram in the same form as they are depicted in the Containers With Top Disk Space
Consumption diagram.
Logs and Monitors
241
Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers
You might need to view the most incoming-traffic active Containers on your Hardware Node.
For example, this can help you keep in check the traffic used by all the Containers on your
Node. To view the Containers incoming traffic on the Node, you should expand the Monitor
folder under the corresponding Hardware Node name, select the Top Resource Consumers item
in the Management Console left pane, and, in the Management Console right pane, click the
Incoming traffic (bytes) or Incoming traffic (packets) tab depending on whether you wish to view
the Container traffic statistics in bytes or in packets. For example:
Figure 145: Management Console - Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers
The statistics results are presented in the form of the Containers With Top Incoming Traffic (in
Bytes) or Containers With Top Incoming Traffic (in Packets) diagram where the Y-axis denotes
the IDs of the Containers for which the incoming traffic statistics has been collected and the Xaxis shows the averaged amount of incoming traffic, in bytes or in packets, for the given
Container for the selected timespan.
Note: SERVICECT in the picture above denotes a special Container needed to manage your
Containers thru Parallels Management Console and Infrastructure Manager. This Container is
automatically created during the Virtuozzo Containers installation on your Hardware Node.
The View Properties group above the diagram allows you to define the following parameters to
govern the statistics results:
ƒ
The time interval for which the incoming traffic statistics is to be displayed. You can select
one of the predefined values (day, month, year) on the drop-down menu or specify the
needed period in the From and To fields.
Logs and Monitors
ƒ
242
The number of the Containers characterized by the top consumption of incoming traffic.
You can set the number of Containers to be monitored in the Show top field either by using
the spin button or entering the needed value by hand.
Logs and Monitors
243
Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers
There might arise the need for you to view the most outgoing-traffic active Containers on your
Hardware Node. For example, this can help you monitor the traffic used by all the Containers on
your Node. To view the Containers outgoing traffic on the Node, you should expand the Monitor
folder under the corresponding Hardware Node name, select the Top Resource Consumers item
in the Management Console left pane, and, in the Management Console right pane, click on the
Outgoing traffic (bytes) or Outgoing traffic (packets) tab depending on whether you wish to view
the Container traffic statistics in bytes or in packets. For example:
Figure 146: Management Console - Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers
The statistics results are presented in the form of the Containers With Top Outgoing Traffic (in
Bytes) or Containers With Top Outgoing Traffic (in Packets) diagram where the Y-axis denotes
the IDs of the Containers for which the outgoing traffic statistics has been collected and the Xaxis shows the averaged amount of outgoing traffic, in bytes or in packets, for the given
Container for the selected timespan.
Note: SERVICECT in the picture above denotes a special Container needed to manage your
Containers thru Parallels Management Console and Infrastructure Manager. This Container is
automatically created during the Virtuozzo Containers installation on your Hardware Node.
The View Properties group above the diagram allows you to define the following parameters to
govern the statistics results:
ƒ
The time interval for which the outgoing traffic statistics is to be displayed. You can select
one of the predefined values (day, month, year) on the drop-down menu or specify the
needed period in the From and To fields.
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244
The number of the Containers characterized by the top consumption of outgoing traffic.
You can set the number of Containers to be monitored in the Show top field either by using
the spin button or entering the needed value by hand.
Monitoring Virtuozzo Objects Using
vzsnmp Plug-In
Starting with version 4.0, the Virtuozzo Containers software is provided with the vzsnmp
application allowing you to monitor network and system resources on the Hardware Node and
inside its Containers by means of the SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) protocol.
The vzsnmp package is automatically installed on the Node during the Virtuozzo Containers
4.0 installation.
When installed, vzsnmp appears as an added functionality (a plug-in) within the SNMP service
running on the Hardware Node. The vzsnmp plug-in conforms to the same SMI (Structure of
Management Information) rules as the data represented within the standard context of SNMP:
ƒ
all Virtuozzo objects are organized into a tree-like hierarchy;
ƒ
any object is made up of a series of integers corresponding to the nodes in the tree and
separated by dots;
ƒ
etc.
The root subtree containing the Virtuozzo-related objects has the object ID of
1.3.6.1.4.1.26171.1.1
and
is
described
in
the
X:\Program
Files\SWsoft\Virtuozzo\SNMP\mibs\SWSOFT-SMI.txt file on the Hardware
Node.
The vzsnmp plug-in enables you to monitor a number of objects and their states in respect of
the Hardware Node and its Containers:
ƒ
the IP addresses of all Containers (including the Service Container) on the Node;
ƒ
the hostnames of all Containers (including the Service Container) on the Node;
ƒ
the OS templates the Containers are based on;
ƒ
etc.
A full list of objects together with their statuses and statistical information that can be monitored
with the help of vzsnmp is provided in a special Virtuozzo Management Information Base
(MIB).
This
MIB
is
stored
in
the
X:\Program
Files\SWsoft\Virtuozzo\SNMP\mibs\swsoft-virtuozzo-mib.txt file on the
Hardware Node.
When working with SNMP, please keep in mind that Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 does
not maintain control over the SNMP service. You should use standard SNMP management tools
(e.g. HP OpenView NNM and Tivoli Netview) to administer this service and gather information
on Virtuozzo-specific objects. And it goes without saying that the SNMP service should be
running on the Hardware Node for you to be able to make use of it.
245
CHAPTER 8
Managing Services and Processes
This chapter provides information on what services and processes are, the influence they have
on the operation and performance of your system, and the tasks they perform in the system. You
will learn how to use:
ƒ
Parallels Management Console to manage services and processes in Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 (e.g monitor, start, stop, or restart services and processes.
ƒ
Windows Task Manager to control active processes in your system (e.g. monitor the process
currently running on the Hardware Node and inside its Containers and send different signals
to them).
In This Chapter
What Are Services and Processes ......................................................................................... 246
Main Operations on Services and Processes ......................................................................... 247
Managing Services and Processes......................................................................................... 247
Managing Services and Processes
246
What Are Services and Processes
Instances of any programs currently running in the system are referred to as processes. A
process can be regarded as the virtual address space and the control information necessary for
the execution of a program. A typical example of a process is the Notepad program (or any
other program) running on your Hardware Node or inside your Container(s). Along with
common processes, there are a great number of processes that provide an interface for other
processes to call. These are called services. In many cases, services act as the brains behind
many crucial system processes; they typically spend most of their time waiting for an event to
occur or for a period when they are scheduled to perform some task. Many services provide the
possibility for other servers on the network to connect to the given one via various network
protocols.
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 has a set of services at its disposal that perform certain tasks
on the Hardware Node or inside Containers. A number of services are launched during the
Hardware Node startup (for example, Virtuozzo KSAL Service or Virtuozzo
Management Service), which is explained by the fact that Virtuozzo Containers 4.0
requires a specific set of running services to provide virtualization capabilities for the Node.
These services are necessary for the proper functioning of your system (they are also called
critical services).
When working with services, you should keep in mind the following. During the lifetime of a
service, it uses many system resources. It uses the CPUs in the system to run its instructions and
the system's physical memory to hold itself and its data. It opens and uses files within the
filesystems and may directly or indirectly use certain physical devices in the system. Therefore,
in order not to damage your system performance you should run only those services that are
really needed at the moment.
Besides, you should always remember that running services in the Host OS is much more
dangerous than running them in Containers. In case violators get access to one of the Containers
thru any running service, they will be able to damage only the Container where this service is
running, but not the other Containers on your Hardware Node. The Hardware Node itself will
also remain unhurt. And if the service were running on the Hardware Node, it would have
damaged both the Hardware Node and all the Containers residing on it. Thus, you should make
sure that you run only those services on the Hardware Node that are really necessary for its
proper functioning. Please launch all additional services you need at the moment inside separate
Containers. It will significantly improve your system safety.
Note: In Parallels Management Console, you can view all available services/processes by
selecting Services/Monitor --> Processes in the left pane below the Hardware Node name or the
Container name.
Managing Services and Processes
247
Main Operations on Services and
Processes
The ability to monitor and control processes and services in your Virtuozzo system is essential
because of the profound influence they have on the operation and performance of your whole
system. The more you know about what each process or service is up to, the easier it will be to
pinpoint and solve problems when they creep in.
The most common tasks associated with managing services in the Host operating system of the
Hardware Node or inside a Container are starting, stopping, and restarting a service. For
example, you might need to start a service in order to use certain server-based applications, or
you might need to stop or pause a service in order to perform testing or to troubleshoot a
problem. All these operations can be performed by means of Parallels Management Console.
As for processes, the main operations you can perform on them are monitoring the processes
currently running on your Hardware Node or inside your Container(s) and making some control
operations on them. You can complete these tasks by using Parallels Management Console or
Windows Task Manager.
Managing Services and Processes
In Virtuozzo-based systems, you can use the following tools to manage (monitor and partially
configure) the services and processes present in the Host operating system of the Hardware
Node or inside a Container:
ƒ
Parallels Management Console to start, stop, or restart a service or to send different signals
to a process.
ƒ
Windows Task Manager to control the processes currently running on the Hardware and
inside its Containers.
The following subsections provide detailed information on how you can manage services and
processes by using these tools.
Managing Services and Processes
248
Managing Processes
Using Parallels Management Console to Manage Processes
In Parallels Management Console, you can view those processes that are currently running on
your Hardware Node and/or inside your Container(s). To display the processes, click the
Hardware Node name where you wish to monitor processes and then select Monitor ->
Processes. The list of the Host OS or Container OS processes should appear in the right pane:
Figure 147: Management Conole - Monitoring Active Processes
The column names and their description are presented in the table below:
Column name
Description
pid
The identifier the process belongs to.
%cpu
The CPU time in percents used by the process.
pri
The kernel scheduling priority for the process. The higher value stands
for higher process priority.
rss
The number of pages guaranteed to remain in the physical memory (not
to be dumped to the page file).
time
The total CPU time the process has used, it is displayed in the
hh/mm/ss format.
user
The user who has launched the process.
Managing Services and Processes
ctid
The ID of the Container where the process is running.
command
The command that has invoked the process.
249
To view the processes inside a Container, select the Virtuozzo Containers item in the
Management Console left pane, double-click on the corresponding Container in the right pane,
and select Monitor -> Processes in the displayed window.
You can send different signals to processes by right-clicking a process and selecting the
corresponding signal on the context menu.
Managing Services and Processes
250
Using Task Manager to Control Processes
During the Virtuozzo Containers installation, the Windows Task Manager component on the
Host OS is configured in such a way as to provide you with the possibility to view the processes
currently running on the Hardware Node and inside all its Containers. To start working with
Task Manager, right-click on the taskbar and select Task Manager on the context menu. In the
displayed Windows Task Manager window, go to the Processes tab allowing you to monitor all
running processes by using a number of counters (Image Name, CPU, Mem Usage, etc.).
Along with standard Windows counters, there is a Virtuozzo-specific counter - CTID displayed as one of the column headings on this tab. By default, Task Manager informs you
only of the processes running on the Hardware Node (i.e. inside Container 0). To additionally
display the processes that are currently running inside all Containers residing on the Node,
select the Show processes from all users check box at the bottom of the screen:
Figure 148: Task Manager - Monitoring Active Processes
As you can see in the picture above, now Task Manager also shows the processes running inside
Container 1 (i.e. inside the Service Container), Container 100, Container 101, and Container
102.
Managing Services and Processes
251
Managing Services
Parallels Management Console allows you to monitor the services present in the Host operating
system of the Hardware Node or in that of a Container. Click on the Services folder item in the
tree below the Hardware Node name or the Container name. A list of the Host OS or Container
OS services should appear in the right pane:
Figure 149: Management Console - Viewing Services
Running services are indicated with bright icons. Stopped services have shaded icons. The
Status column of the table duplicates this information in the text form.
You can manage all services available on the Node or in a Container in the same way you do it
on a usual standalone server running Windows Server 2003, i.e. start, stop, or restart services,
define their startup type (automatic, manual, disabled), view their dependencies, etc. To this
effect, select the corresponding service in the table and either use the buttons on the toolbar or
right-click the service and select Properties on the context menu.
Note: It is not necessary to use Parallels Management Console to manage the Node or Container
services. You can as well use the standard Services Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
snap-in. To this effect, run the services.msc command either on the Hardware Node or in
the Container remote desktop connection window, respectively.
252
CHAPTER 9
Managing Virtuozzo Network
The given chapter familiarizes you with the Virtuozzo network structure, enumerates Virtuozzo
networking components, and explains how to manage these components in Virtuozzo-based
systems. In particular, it provides information on:
ƒ
How you can manage physical and VLAN adapters on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
What Virtual Networks are and how you can create and manage them on the Hardware
Node;
ƒ
What the host-routed networking mode is and how to make the Container operate in this
mode;
ƒ
What the bridged networking mode is and how to make the Container operate in this mode;
ƒ
How to create virtual network adapters inside your Containers and configure their
parameters;
ƒ
How to connect Containers to Ethernet local area (LAN) and virtual local area networks
(VLAN) networks.
ƒ
How to enable the VPN (Virtual Private Network) support inside your Containers;
ƒ
How to control the amount of network traffic flowing thru a Container virtual network
adapter.
In This Chapter
Managing Network Adapters on Hardware Node................................................................. 252
Managing Virtual Networks ................................................................................................. 255
Managing Container Virtual Network Adapters ................................................................... 258
Enabling VPN Inside Container............................................................................................ 274
Enabling NAT for Container ................................................................................................ 275
Managing Network Adapters on
Hardware Node
Physical and VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) adapters installed on the Hardware Node are
used to provide Containers with access to each other and to external networks. During the
Virtuozzo Containers installation, all physical and VLAN network adapters on the Node are
registered with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, which allows you to perform the following operations
on these adapters:
ƒ
list the adapters currently installed on the Hardware Node;
ƒ
connect adapters to Virtual Networks on the Hardware Node.
Both operations are described in the following subsections in detail.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
253
Listing Adapters
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to view the physical and VLAN network adapters
currently installed on your Hardware Node by right-clicking the needed Hardware Node in
Parallels Management Console and selecting Network Configuration --> Configure Network
Adapters on the context menu:
Figure 150: Management Console - Listing Network Adapters
The Adapters table in the displayed window lists all the network adapters currently available on
the Node. To view detailed information on the corresponding adapter, select its name in the
Adapters table. All adapter-related data (its name, type, the MAC and IP address assigned to the
adapter, etc.) will be shown in the Details table at the bottom of the Hardware Node Network
Configuration window.
In the command line, you can use the vznetcfg utility to list the physical and VLAN adapters
currently available on the Hardware Node. Detailed information on vznetcfg is provided in
the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
254
Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network
Connecting a physical or VLAN adapter to a Virtual Network allows you to join all Containers
included in the Virtual Network to the network (either Ethernet or VLAN) where the
corresponding adapter is connected. To join an adapter to a Virtual Network in Parallels
Management Console, do the following:
1
Right-click the needed Hardware Node and select Network Configuration --> Configure
Network Adapters on the context menu.
2 In the Hardware Node Network Configuration window, select the name of the network adapter
(either physical or VLAN) to be joined to a Virtual Network and click Edit button.
3 Under Virtual Network, choose on the drop-down menu the Virtual Network where you wish
to join the network adapter:
Figure 151: Management Console - Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network
4 Click OK.
To disconnect an adapter from the corresponding Virtual Network, perform Steps 1 and 2 above
and, in the Properties window, choose Not connected on the drop-down menu.
In the command line, you can connect adapters to and disconnect them from Virtual Networks
by means of the vznetcfg utility. Detailed information on this utility is provided in the
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
255
Managing Virtual Networks
A Virtuozzo Virtual Network acts as a binding interface between a Container virtual network
adapter and the corresponding physical or VLAN adapter on the Hardware Node allowing you
to include your Containers in different networks (local or VLAN). Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 enables you to manage Virtual Networks as follows:
ƒ
create a new Virtual Network on the Hardware Node and remove an existing one;
ƒ
list the Virtual Networks currently existing on the Hardware Node and configure their
properties;
ƒ
delete a Virtual Network that you do need any more from the Hardware Node.
Both operations are described in the following subsections in detail.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
256
Creating Virtual Network
Virtual Networks serve as binding interfaces between the virtual network adapters inside
Containers and the physical/VLAN adapters on the Hardware Node allowing you to connect
these Containers to different Ethernet and VLAN networks. To create a new Virtual Network in
Parallels Management Console, you should perform the following operations:
1
Right-click the needed Hardware Node and select Network Configuration --> Configure
Virtual Networks on the context menu.
2 In the Virtual Networks window, click the Add button:
Figure 152: Management Console - Creating Virtual Network
3 In the displayed window:
ƒ
Specify an arbitrary name for the Virtual Network in the Name field. This name will be
used to distinguish this Virtual Network among other Virtual Networks on the Hardware
Node.
ƒ
Provide the Virtual Network description, if necessary, in the Description field.
4 Click OK.
After a while, the newly created Virtual Network will be shown in the Networks table on the
Virtual Networks screen.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
257
Listing Virtual Networks
Sometimes, you may wish to list all Virtual Networks currently existing on the Hardware Node.
To this effect, you should complete the following tasks in Parallels Management Console
1
Right-click the needed Hardware Node and select Network Configuration --> Configure
Virtual Networks on the context menu:
Figure 153: Management Console - Listing Virtual Networks
2 The Virtual Networks window list the Virtual Networks currently existing on the Hardware
Node.
The information on Virtual Networks is presented in the table having the following columns:
Column Name
Description
Name
The name assigned to the Virtual Network.
Connection Status
Indicates whether the Virtual Network is connected to some adapter
(physical or VLAN) on the Hardware Node.
Assigned
Interface
If the Virtual Network is connected to some physical or VLAN adapter on
the Node, displays the name of this adapter.
Description
The Virtual Network description, if set. You can provide or change the
description of the Virtual Network by selecting its name in the Networks
table, clicking the Edit button, and entering the needed description in the
Description field.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
258
Deleting Virtual Network
At any time, you can remove a Virtual Network that you do not need any more from the
Hardware Node. To this effect, you should perform the following operations in Parallels
Management Console:
1
Right-click the needed Hardware Node and select Network Configuration --> Configure
Virtual Networks on the context menu.
2 In the Virtual Networks window, select the name of the Virtual Network you wish to delete
and click the Remove button:
Figure 154: Management Console - Deleting Virtual Network
Managing Container Virtual Network
Adapters
Networking Modes
In Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, any Container can operate in one of the two network
modes:
ƒ
host-routed mode;
ƒ
bridged mode.
Detailed information on these operating modes is provided in the following subsections.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
259
Host-Routed Networking
A virtual network adapter is automatically made for every Container on the Hardware Node
during its creation. By default, it is set to work in the host-routed mode. The picture below
provides an example of the Virtuozzo network structure when all Containers (Container #1,
Container #2, Container #3) on the Node are functioning in the host-routed mode:
Figure 155: Virtuozzo Network - Host-Routed Networking
All Containers on the Hardware Node use the Virtuozzo Network Adapter, which is
automatically created on the Node during the Virtuozzo Containers installation, and the TCP/IP
protocol stack of the Hardware Node to send and receive data to/from other networks (shown as
the PUBLIC NETWORK in the picture above). The procedure of handling Container outgoing
and incoming traffic may be described as follows:
ƒ
All outgoing IP packets from Containers operating in the host-routed mode come to the
MAC address of the Virtuozzo Network Adapter, are transferred to the TCP/IP stack of the
Node where they are processed and then forwarded thru a public IP address of the Hardware
Node to the corresponding workstation on the public network.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
ƒ
260
All IP packets coming from the outer world and destined for Container IP addresses are sent
to the MAC address of the Hardware Node first and, afterwards, transferred to the TCP/IP
protocol stack of the Node where they are processed and forwarded to the MAC addresses
of the corresponding Containers. In this case, the Node acts as an ARP (Address Resolution
Protocol) server translating the Container IP addresses to their network addresses and
transfers the IP packets to the right Container with no modification made.
The Virtuozzo Network Adapter is also used to exchange the traffic among all the Containers
hosted on the given Hardware Node. All the network traffic of a Container is isolated from that
of the other Containers, i.e. all Containers are protected from each other in the way that makes
traffic snooping impossible.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
261
Bridged Networking
Starting with Virtuozzo Containers 3.5.1 SP1, you can also make the virtual network adapter
inside a Container operate in the bridged mode. The following figure represents an example of
the Virtuozzo network where all Containers (Container#1 and Container#2) are operating in the
bridged mode:
Figure 156: Virtuozzo Network - Bridged Networking
The bridged mode demonstrates the following differences as compared to the host-routed mode:
ƒ
A Container virtual network adapter is bound directly to a certain network adapter on the
Hardware Node (depicted as NIC #1 for Container #1 and NIC #2 for Container #2 in the
picture above).
ƒ
Neither proxy ARP entries nor entries in the routing and ARP tables for the Container are
registered on the Hardware Node, i.e. all Container outgoing and incoming network traffic is
transferred thru the selected network adapter on the Node without being processed (routed).
ƒ
All incoming/outgoing IP packets have MAC addresses of the corresponding Containers
appended to them. So, IP packets are sent directly to the MAC addresses of Containers
rather than to the MAC address of the Hardware Node network adapter.
ƒ
Any Container can see all broadcast and multicast packets received from or sent to the
selected network adapter on the Hardware Node. Thanks to this fact, all Containers are
aware of all IP packets transferred over the Virtuozzo local network and can catch the
packets destined for them. In this case the Virtuozzo network can be compared to a
broadcast domain where all IP packets can be transmitted for all Containers on the
Hardware Node to receive. While all Containers detect the IP packet transmission on the
network, only the Container to which the IP packet is addressed actually receives it.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
262
ƒ
Due to the fact that bridged Container network adapters act as full members of the network
(rather than 'hidden' beyond the Hardware Node), they are more prone to security
vulnerabilities: traffic sniffing, IP address collisions, etc. Therefore, bridged network
adapters are recommended to be used in trusted network environments only.
ƒ
There is a small productivity gain of bridged Container network adapters against the ones
operating in the host-routed mode.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
263
Creating and Deleting Container Adapters
As has been mentioned above, a default virtual network adapter is made for each Container
during its creation and set to work in the host-routed mode. However, you can create other
virtual network adapters for your Container and make them operate either in the bridged or in
the host-routed mode.
So, to create a new Container virtual network adapter, you should perform the following
operations in Parallels Management Console:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 In the Management Console right pane, right-click the Container for which you wish to
create a new network adapter and select Properties on the context menu.
3 On the Network tab of the displayed window, select the Network Adapters item.
4 Click the Add Interface button under the Interfaces table to display the Add New Virtual
Network Interface window:
Figure 157: Management Console - Setting Parameters for Container Virtual Adapter
5 In this window, you can specify the following parameters for the Container virtual network
adapter:
ƒ
On the General tab:
Managing Virtuozzo Network
264
-define the name to be assigned to the virtual network adapter in the ID field (by default,
you are offered to use the vznetN name where N denotes the index number of the
created Container network adapter);
-choose the network mode of the Container adapter by selecting the Host-routed or
Bridged button.
If the adapter is set to operate in the 'bridged' mode, you can also:
-join the virtual network adapter to a certain Virtual Network on the Hardware Node by
selecting the Connect to radio button and choosing the corresponding Virtual Network
on the drop-down menu (detailed information on Virtual Networks is provided in the
Managing Virtual Network section (on page 255));
-specify the way of assigning a MAC address to the virtual network adapter: select the
Obtain automatically radio button to automatically generate the MAC address for the
Container adapter or select the Enter manually radio button and type the needed MAC
address. Detailed information on Container MAC addresses is provided in the Managing
MAC Addresses for Container section.
ƒ
On the IP Settings tab, you can configure the following settings of the Container virtual
network adapter:
- Choose a variant of assigning an IP address to the Container virtual network adapter
under the IP Addresses group:
a
Select the Get IP address via DHCP radio button to automatically set an IP address for
the Container network adapter using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP);
this option is available only for virtual network adapters operating in the bridged mode.
b
Select the Get IP address from pool radio button to automatically assign an IP address to
the Container network adapter from the pool of IP addresses on the Hardware Node.
c
Select the Enter IP addresses manually radio button and use the Add button at the bottom
of the window to manually specify what IP addresses are to be assigned to the Container
network adapter.
- Choose a variant of setting the default gateway to be used by the Container virtual
network adapter under the Default gateway group: select the Obtain automatically radio
button to automatically set the default gateway for the Container network adapter or
select the Enter manually radio button and choose the needed gateway on the drop-down
menu. This option is available only if the Container adapter is set to operate in the
'bridged' mode.
ƒ
On the DNS tab, specify one or more DNS servers to be used by the Container virtual
network adapter.
ƒ
On the WINS tab, specify one or more WINS server to be used by the Container virtual
network adapter.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
265
6 Click OK twice.
7 Restart the Container for the changes to take effect.
After the virtual network adapter has been successfully created, it is displayed in the Interfaces
table of the Properties window.
Any existing Container network adapter (except the default one) can be deleted by completing
the following tasks:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 In the Management Console right pane, right-click the Container whose network adapter
you wish to remove and select Properties on the context menu.
3 On the Network tab of the displayed window, select the Network Adapter item in the left
pane, choose the corresponding virtual adapter in the Interfaces table, and click the Remove
button at the bottom of the table.
You can also use the vzctl set command with the --netif_add and --netif_del
options to create new Container network adapters and delete existing ones, respectively.
Detailed information on how you can do it is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for
Windows Reference Guide.
Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters
Along with creating new virtual network adapters and removing existing ones, you can perform
a variety of other operations on Container adapters the main of which are listed below:
ƒ
change the mode of a network adapter (from host-routed to bridged and vice versa);
ƒ
modify the adapter name;
ƒ
configure the virtual adapter IP addresses;
ƒ
set and modify DNS and WINS servers to be used by the virtual network adapter and
remove them, if necessary;
ƒ
modify the default gateway to be used by the virtual network adapter;
ƒ
etc.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
266
Managing Container MAC Addresses
Each Container is assigned a default Media Access Control address (MAC address) during its
creation. This MAC address remains in force during the whole Container lifecycle (i.e. from the
Container creation to the Container deletion) and uniquely identifies any particular Container.
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 uses the following approach while assigning MAC addresses
to Containers:
ƒ
If it is operating in the host-routed mode, the Container virtual network adapter gets a
random MAC address in the form of 00:FF:XX:XX:XX:XX where the XX:XX:XX:XX
part is automatically generated by Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
ƒ
If it is operating in the bridged mode, the virtual network adapter gets a random MAC
address in the form of 00:18:51:XX:XX:XX where the XX:XX:XX part is automatically
generated by Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
However, you may wish to have another (custom) MAC address assigned to your Container.
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to replace the default MAC addresses assigned to
Container virtual network adapters operating in the bridged mode with your own one by
performing the following operations in Parallels Management Console:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 In the Management Console right pane, right-click the Container whose MAC address you
wish to change and select Properties on the context menu.
3 In the displayed window, go to the Network tab and select the Network Adapters item in the
left part of the window. A list of network adapters currently existing inside the Container
will be shown in the Interfaces table in the right part of the window.
4 Select the corresponding network adapter and click the Properties button at the bottom of
the Interfaces table:
Managing Virtuozzo Network
267
Figure 158: Manangement Console - Changing Container MAC Addresses
5 On the General tab of the displayed window, select the Enter manually radio button under the
MAC group and specify the desired MAC address.
6 Click OK twice.
If a Container network adapter has a custom MAC address assigned to it, the adapter will
always get this MAC address provided there is no such MAC address already set for some other
device on the network. In the case of detecting a MAC address conflict, the corresponding
Container will not start.
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, you can assign only unicast MAC
addresses to Containers.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
268
Configuring Container TCP/IP Settings Manually
As any other standalone server, every Container must have a number of TCP/IP settings
configured in the proper way to successfully operate on a TCP/IP network. These settings
include:
ƒ
one or several IP addresses for every virtual network adapter inside the Container;
ƒ
one or several IP addresses for the default gateway to be used by the Container;
ƒ
one or several IP addresses for the default DNS server(s) to be used by the Container;
ƒ
one or several IP addresses for the default WINS server(s) to be used by the Container.
Usually, you define all these settings during the Container creation. However, if you have not
yet set any of the aforementioned settings or wish to modify any of them (e.g. to change the
gateway the Container is supposed to use), you can proceed as follows:
1
In Parallels Management Console, select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 In the Management Console right pane, right-click the Container whose settings you wish to
configure and select Properties on the context menu.
3 On the Network tab of the displayed window, select the Network Adapter item in the left pane
to view a list of network adapters currently available inside the Container.
4 Select the corresponding adapter in the Interfaces table in the right part of the window and
click the Properties button.
5 In the Virtual Network Interface Properties window, you can do the following:
ƒ
On the IP Settings tab, you can:
a
Select the Enter IP addresses manually radio button, click the Add button, and manually
type the desired IP address and subnet mask in the IP address and Subnet mask fields,
respectively.
b
Select the Get IP address from pool radio button to automatically choose and assign an
IP address to the Container network adapter from the pool of IP addresses on the Node.
Detailed information on how to manage IP addresses pools on Hardware Nodes is
provided in the Managing IP Addresses Pool on Node section (on page 215).
c
Configure the IP address of the default gateway to be used by the virtual network
adapter by typing the desired IP address in the Default gateway address field.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
269
For example:
Figure 159: Management Console - Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters
ƒ
On the DNS tab, you can use the Add button to specify one or more DNS servers that the
virtual network adapter is supposed to use.
ƒ
On the WINS tab, you can use the Add button to set one or more WINS servers to be used
by the virtual network adapter.
6 Click OK twice.
You can also use the vzctl set command to change the properties of a Container virtual
network adapter. Detailed information on this command is given in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers for Windows Reference Guide.
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Obtaining TCP/IP Settings Automatically
Along with a static assignment of network parameters to a Container, you can make the
Container receive its TCP/IP settings automatically using the Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP). This protocol enables you to automatically provide your Containers with
TCP/IP setup information. While using DHCP for Containers, all changes to the network
configuration are made centrally on the DHCP server and affect all the Containers on the given
Node, i.e. the Hardware Node administrator does not need to apply the changes to each and
every Container. The DHCP server can be set up on the Hardware Node itself or inside any of
its Containers. You can also use any other server located in the same network segment with the
Hardware Node as the DHCP server for your Containers.
Note: To allow a Container to host the DHCP server, you should make sure that the network
browsing is enabled inside this Container. For the information on how you can do it, please turn
to the Enabling Network Browsing for Container subsection.
The DHCP server can provide the following settings for a Container:
ƒ
its IP address and subnet mask;
ƒ
one or several IP addresses for the default gateway;
ƒ
one or several IP addresses for the default DNS servers;
ƒ
one or several IP addresses for the default WINS server;
ƒ
etc.
For example, if the DNS server address changes, all Containers will automatically start using
the new address the next time they contact the DHCP server.
By default, DHCP is disabled for all Containers on the Node. However, you can enable DHCP
for any Container (or for any of its virtual network adapters if the corresponding Container has
more than one virtual adapter installed) using the --dhcp option of the vzctl set
command. The Container can be operating in either mode:
ƒ
Host-routed mode:
ƒ
If the DHCP server is located on the Hardware Node or inside one of its Containers,
additional configuration changes should be made neither on the Container side nor on
the DHCP server side.
ƒ
If the DHCP server is located on a separate server in the network, you should
additionally perform the following operations:
a
configure and put into operation the DHCP relay agent on the Hardware Node and
b
set routing for the DHCP server allowing it to access the IP address of the Virtuozzo
Network Adapter.
Note: We recommend that you set your Container network adapter to operate in the bridged
mode if you wish to use a separate server for housing the DHCP server.
ƒ
Bridged mode. In this case additional configuration changes should be made neither on the
Container side nor on the DHCP server side.
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To turn on DHCP for a Container (or any of its virtual network adapters), you should perform
the following operations in Parallels Management Console:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 In the Management Console right pane, right-click the Container for which you wish to
enable DHCP and select Properties on the context menu.
3 In the displayed window, go to the Network tab and select the Network Adapters item in the
left part of the window. A list of network adapters currently existing inside the Container
will be shown in the Interfaces table in the right part of the window.
4 Select the corresponding network adapter and click the Properties button at the bottom of
the Interfaces table.
5 Go to the IP Settings tab of the Virtual Network Interface Properties window and select the
Obtain IP address via DHCP radio button:
Figure 160: Management Console - Enabling DHCP for Container Adapter
6 Click OK twice.
In the command line, you can use the --dhcp option to vzctl set to enable/disable DHCP
for a Container. Detailed information on this command is given in the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers for Windows Reference Guide.
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272
Connecting Bridged Containers to Network
With the implementation of veth virtual adapters allowing Containers to function as full
participants on the network, it has become possible to include Containers in a wide range of
network configurations the most common of which are Ethernet networks and VLANs (virtual
local area networks). The process of connecting veth virtual network adapters to an Ethernet
network or to a VLAN is carried out using certain physical and VLAN adapters, respectively,
available on the Hardware Node and involves completing the following tasks:
ƒ
creating a Virtual Network on the Node to be an intermediary between the Container
bridged adapters and the physical/VLAN adapter on the Node;
ƒ
joining the Virtual Network where the Container virtual adapters are included to the
corresponding physical/VLAN adapter on the Node;
ƒ
connecting the Container virtual adapters you wish to include in an Ethernet
network/VLAN to the Virtual Network.
After performing these operations, the Container will be able to communicate with any
computer on the network (either Ethernet or VLAN) where it is included and have no direct
access to the computers joined to other networks.
Note: The process of creating new Virtual Networks and joining physical and VLAN adapters
to these Virtual Network is described in the Creating Virtual Network (on page 256) and
Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network (on page 254) subsections, respectively.
To join a Container virtual network adapter to any Virtual Network on the Hardware Node, you
should complete the following tasks in Parallels Management Console:
1
Choose the Virtuozzo Containers item under the corresponding Hardware Node name, rightclick the Container whose network adapter you wish to join to the Virtual Network, and
select Properties on the context menu.
2 On the Network tab of the displayed window, select the Network Adapters item.
3 Double-click the Container virtual network adapter to be connected to the Virtual Network.
4 In the Virtual Network Interface Properties window, under Virtual Network, choose the needed
Virtual Network in the Connection to list. For example:
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273
Figure 161: Mannagement Console - Connecting veth Adapter to Bridge
5 Click OK twice.
Note: If you are deploying Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 in a VMware ESX Server environment,
you should perform the following operations to make your Containers operating in the bridged
mode accessible from external servers:
- Make sure that the value of the Promiscuous Mode field on the Security tab of the vSwitch
Properties window is set to Accept.
- Ensure that the ESX Server adapter always has one and the same MAC address assigned.
Managing Virtuozzo Network
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Enabling VPN Inside Container
Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a technology allowing you to establish a secure network
connection over an insecure public network. In Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, you can make
Containers operate as VPN clients connecting to VPN remote access servers. By default, the
VPN support inside a Container is disabled. However, you can use the --vpn option of the
vzctl set command to enable a Container to take advantage of the VPN technology
benefits. Let us assume that you wish to turn on the VPN support inside Container 101. To this
effect, you should execute the following commands on the Hardware Node:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --vpn on --save
Command 'set' is successfully finished
Please note that the changes made to Container 101 will take effect on the next Container
startup.
To check that the VPN support is now turned on inside Container 101, run the following
command:
C:\...\Administrator>vzlist -o nettype 101
NETTYPE
routed+vpn
The command output shows that Container 101 is currently operating in the host-routed mode
and the VPN support is enabled inside the Container.
From this moment on, you can start connecting Container 101 to private networks in the same
way as you would do it on any other standalone server (e.g. using the New Connection Wizard
which can be launched by double-clicking the New Connection Wizard icon in the Network
Connections applet).
At any time, you can disable the VPN support inside Container 101 by issuing the following
command:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --vpn off --save
Command 'set' is successfully finished
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275
Enabling NAT for Container
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to enable Network Address Translation (NAT) - a
method of connecting multiple servers to the Internet (or any other IP network) using a single IP
address - for Containers running in both the host-routed mode and the bridged mode. NAT
grants your Containers access to network resources by using the Hardware Node IP address(es).
So, if you use NAT, your Container does not have its own IP address on the external network.
Instead, a separate private network is set up on the Hardware Node and all your Containers are
assigned private IP addresses on that network. A special NAT device on the Hardware Node
transmits network data between the Containers and the external network. This device identifies
incoming data packets intended for each Container and sends them to the correct destination.
Figure 162: Virtuozzo Network - Using NAT
In the picture above, Container #1 and Container #2 are assigned private IP addresses of
10.0.0.101 and 10.0.0.102, respectively. In its turn, the Hardware Node has a public IP
address (122.122.145.101) assigned to it. This public IP address is used by both
Containers to access servers on external networks (shown as PUBLIC NETWORK in the
picture). It means that when traffic passes from either Container to the public network, the
Container private address in each IP packet is translated to the public address of the Hardware
Node. When a reply returns to the Hardware Node, the NAT device on the Node determines to
what Container this reply should be forwarded.
You can use the --nat option of the vzctl set command to enable NAT for any Container
on the Node. For example, you can issue the following command to switch on NAT for
Container 101:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --nat on --save
Command 'set' is successfully completed
Managing Virtuozzo Network
276
This command enables on NAT for the default virtual network adapter inside Container 101;
this adapter is made by default inside every Container during its creation. If you have more than
one virtual network adapter inside the Container, you should additionally specify the --netif
option when running the vzctl set command. For example, to enable NAT for the virtual
network adapter with the name of vznet1, you can proceed as follows:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --netif vznet --nat on --save
Command 'set' is successfully completed
If there are several physical network adapters installed on the Hardware Node, you can also
enable NAT for a particular Container virtual network adapter on a particular physical adapter.
For example, you can execute the following command to turn on NAT for Container 101 as
regards to a physical network adapter on the Node having the MAC address of 00-0A-BB32-F1-FD:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --nat on
--preferred_adapter 00-0A-BB-32-F1-FD --save
Command 'set' is successfully completed
Note: For any Container virtual network adapter operating in the bridged mode, you can enable
NAT on all physical network adapters on the Hardware Node except for the one to which the
Container adapter is bound. So, if you have NIC1, NIC2, and NIC3 installed on the Node and
the Container adapter is bound to NIC1, you can turn on NAT for this adapter on NIC2 and
NIC3 only.
At any time, you can disable NAT for any Container on the Hardware Node. For example:
ƒ
To disable NAT for the default virtual network adapter inside Container 101:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --nat off --save
Command 'set' is successfully completed
ƒ
To disable NAT for the vznet1 (non-default) virtual network adapter inside Container
101:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --netif vznet1 --nat off --save
Command 'set' is successfully completed
ƒ
To disable NAT for the default virtual network adapter inside Container 101 as regards to a
physical network adapter on the Node with the MAC address of 00-0A-BB-32-F1-FD:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --nat off
--preferred_adapter 00-0A-BB-32-F1-FD --save
Command 'set' is successfully completed
277
CHAPTER 10
Advanced Tasks
In This Chapter
Migrating Physical Server to Container ................................................................................ 277
Managing Memory Resources in Virtuozzo-Based Systems ................................................ 287
Managing External Drives and Image Files for Container ................................................... 294
Managing Types of Container Virtual Hard Disks ............................................................... 304
Customizing Container Desktop ........................................................................................... 306
Configuring Container Offline Management ........................................................................ 308
Reinstalling Container........................................................................................................... 311
Updating Parallels Management Console ............................................................................. 312
Configuring Parallels Agent.................................................................................................. 314
Managing Virtuozzo Global Parameters ............................................................................... 315
Migrating Physical Server to
Container
This section provides information on how you can migrate an external physical server to a
Container on your Hardware Node.
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Overview
Along with migrating Containers between your Hardware Nodes, you may wish to move a
stand-alone physical server running the Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2000
operating system to a Container on your Node. The migration process includes copying the
whole contents of the physical server (i.e. all its files, folders, network settings, and so on) to a
Container on the Hardware Node. After the server migration, you will have its exact copy in a
Container including the applications, the IP addresses, etc.
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to migrate a physical server to a Container on the
Hardware Node:
ƒ
By using Parallels Management Console;
ƒ
By using the vzp2v Virtuozzo command line utility;
ƒ
By using Parallels Infrastructure Manager.
Parallels Management Console is considered a standard tool for migrating a physical server to a
Container on your Hardware Node. It enables you to easily and quickly move virtually any
stand-alone physical server running Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2000 to a
Container. The migration procedure by means of Management Console is described in the
following subsections.
You can also resort to the help of the vzp2v utility and Parallels Infrastructure Manager to
migrate a physical server to a Container. Detailed information on how to do it is provided in the
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide and Parallels Infrastructure Manager
Administrator's Guide, respectively.
Migration Requirements
To avoid delays and problems while migrating your physical server to a Container on the Node,
please make sure that the following requirements are fulfilled in respect of the server and the
Hardware Node:
1
The physical server to be migrated must be running either the Windows Server 2003 or
Windows Server 2000 operating system. If the physical server to be migrated is running
Windows Server 2003, you should ascertain that the Hardware Node where this physical
server is to be moved has the same major and minor versions and Service Pack, if any, of
Windows Server 2003 installed.
2 A network connection can be established between the physical server to be migrated and the
Hardware Node.
3 The Server and Remote Registry services are running on the physical server.
4 The Volume Shadow Copy and Microsoft
Provider services are enabled on the physical server.
Software
Shadow
Copy
5 The default administrative shares (especially, ADMIN$) are enabled on the physical server.
6 The following ports are opened on the physical server:
ƒ
standard Windows Server 2003 ports used to access the physical server via the network
sharing and remote registry capabilities (e.g. 445, 137, 138);
ƒ
Virtuozzo-specific ports: 4433, 4434, 4435.
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7 We also recommend that you disable your antivirus program on the physical server before
migrating it to a Container on the Hardware Node.
8 If you are going to migrate a physical server running the Windows Server 2000 operating
system and acting as a domain controller, you should first prepare your server for migration
by using the adprep utility. Detailed information on how you can do it can be found in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base at http://support.microsoft.com/kb/331161 and in the Windows
Server TechCenter at http://technet2.microsoft.com/WindowsServer/en/Library/bc5ebbdba8d7-4761-b38a-e207baa734191033.mspx?mfr=true.
Migration Restrictions
Although Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to migrate virtually any physical server
running the Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2000 operating system to a Container on
your Hardware Node, there is a number of limitations which should be taken into account before
deciding on the migration process:
ƒ
Non-NTFS volumes cannot be migrated from the physical server to a Container on the
Hardware Node.
ƒ
After the physical server migration, the Quality of Service packet scheduler is disabled
inside the Container irrespective of its state on the server before the migration began. Please
consult the Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container subsection to learn how to enable it inside
your Container.
ƒ
If you are migrating a physical server running the Windows Server 2000 operating system,
please keep in mind the following:
ƒ
ƒ
During the migration, the reboot of the physical server running Windows Server 2000 is
required to complete the installation of Virtuozzo-specific drivers on this server.
ƒ
The Windows components installed on the physical server and not included in the
Windows Server 2003 OS template will not be migrated to the Container on the
Hardware Node and should be installed anew inside the Container after migration. You
can learn what Windows components are incorporated in the OS template by doing the
following:
a
creating a new Container on your Node;
b
logging in to the Container via RDP;
c
opening the Control Panel applet and double-clicking Add or Remove Programs;
d
selecting the Add/Remove Windows Components tab in the Add or Remove Programs
window;
e
checking what components are currently installed inside the Container in the Windows
Components window.
ƒ
Some applications may fail to start or work not as expected after their migration to the
Container on the Node. This is due to substantial changes and enhancements in the
Windows Server 2003 technology in comparison to Windows Server 2000, i.e. new
features implemented in Windows Server 2003 might break compatibility with a number
of applications running under Windows Server 2000.
You cannot migrate physical servers running the 32-bit version of Windows Server
2003/Windows Server 2000 to Hardware Nodes running the 64-bit version of Virtuozzo
Containers, neither can you move physical servers running the 64-bit version of Windows
Server 2003/Windows Server 2000 to Nodes running the 32-bit version of Virtuozzo
containers.
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280
Migrating Physical Server to Container in Parallels Management
Console
Parallels Management Console provides a special wizard allowing you to quickly and reliably
migrate a stand-alone physical server to a Container on your Node. You can launch the Migrate
Physical Server to Container wizard by right-clicking the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
Hardware Node where you wish to migrate the physical server and choosing Tasks --> Migrate
Physical Server to Container on the context menu. You will be presented with the following
window:
Figure 163: Management Console - Logging In to Physical Server
Th information you should enter in the fields provided is presented in the table below:
Field Name
Description
Server IP Address or Hostname
The IP address or hostname of the physical server you wish to
migrate.
Advanced Tasks
User Name
281
The user name used to log in to the physical server. You can
specify the Administrator user in this field, which is offered
by default, or may use any other account to log in to the server.
However, in the latter case you should make sure that the specified
user has all the rights and privileges of the Administrator user.
You can also use a domain user account to log in to the physical
server. In this case you should specify the corresponding user name
in one of the following forms:
User Password
ƒ
user_name@domain_name or
ƒ
domain_name\user_name.
The password used to log in to the physical server by the user
specified in the User Name field.
Clicking Next in the Login to the Server being Migrated window starts the process of connecting
to the physical server and collecting information on the server configuration. The process is
displayed in the progress bar of the Collecting Server Configuration window. After the wizard
has successfully connected to the physical server and finished collecting information on its
configuration, the following window is displayed:
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282
Figure 164: Management Console - Reviewing Server Configuration
The Review Server Configuration window allows you to check the configuration of the server
you are going to migrate into a Container. The information on the server is divided into three
groups for your convenience:
ƒ
The System Configuration group including information on the operating system the server is
running, the number and power of the processor(s) installed on the server, etc.
ƒ
The Network Configuration group containing information on the server hostname, the
name(s) and IP address(es) of the network adapter(s) used to handle network traffic of the
server, the IP address(es) of the default gateway used by the server to access other networks,
and so on.
ƒ
The Disk Configuration group holding data on the disk drive(s) of the physical server: their
name, type, block size, disk space, etc.
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283
After reviewing information on the server and clicking Next, you will be presented with the
Select Partitions to Migrate window. In this window you should specify one or several disk
drives on your physical server that will be migrated to a Container on the Hardware Node by
selecting check boxes near the corresponding disk drive(s). The contents of the selected disk
drive(s) (files, folders, etc.) will be then moved to your Container. To facilitate working with
your physical server disk drives, you can make use of the Select All and Deselect All buttons to
select and deselect all disk drives at once, respectively.
Note: The system drive of the physical server (the C:\ drive in the picture above) is always
selected and cannot be excluded from the migration.
The next screen allows you to specify the Container main parameters:
Figure 165: Management Console - Specifying Main Parameters for Container
In this window you can do the following:
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284
ƒ
Select the Use precalculated configuration radio button to create the Container by using the
configuration file that was automatically generated by the wizard on the basis of the
resources consumption on your physical server.
ƒ
Select the Use the following Container Sample radio button to create the Container on the
basis of one of the Container configuration sample files available on your Node. All the
Container samples you can choose from are listed in the table in the centre of the window.
ƒ
Container Name: type an arbitrary name to be assigned to the Container.
ƒ
Description: provide the Container description, if necessary.
ƒ
Container ID: you can manually enter the ID to be assigned to the Container or leave the
Assign Container ID automatically radio button selected to make the wizard automatically
choose the appropriate ID for the Container. When setting the ID manually, make sure that
there is no Container on the Node with the ID specified in the Container ID field.
ƒ
Hostname: define the hostname of the Container which will be used to identify the
Container on a network. You can manually enter the desired hostname in the Hostname field
or select the Assign hostname automatically radio button make the wizard automatically
choose the appropriate hostname for the Container.
The Specify OS Template window allows you to choose an OS template and its version the
Container will be based on. By default, Parallels Management Console automatically searches
for the most compatible OS template. However, you can select any OS template listed in the
table on this screen and create the Container on its basis.
Clicking Next on the Specify OS Template screen displays the window where you are asked to
specify the Container network parameters:
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285
Figure 166: Management Console - Defining Network Parameters
In this window you can:
ƒ
View and configure the settings of the venet0 virtual network adapter that will be created
inside the Container. venet0 is the default network adapter created inside each Container
on the Node. You can change the IP address to be assigned to the venet0 adapter (by
default, the IP address of the physical server is set) by selecting the adapter name in the
Interfaces table, clicking the Properties button, and, in the displayed window, entering the
needed IP address(es).
ƒ
Create additional virtual network adapters for the Container by clicking the Add Interface
button and entering the necessary information in the displayed window. For example, if the
physical server has obtained its TCP/IP-settings thru the DHCP protocol, you may need to
create a new virtual network adapter, set it to work in the bridged mode, and attach the
adapter to the corresponding physical network adapter on the Node to provide network
connectivity for the resulting Container. For detailed information on Container virtual
network adapters, please turn to the Managing Container Virtual Network Adapters section.
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286
On the next step, you can use the provided Add, Remove, and Edit buttons to configure search
domains to be used by the Container.
After you have set the Container network parameters, click Next to open the window allowing
you to adjust the resources parameters for the Container:
Figure 167: Management Console - Specifying Resource Parameters
All the resources are grouped by their relations to several subsystems for you to easier find
information on the resource that interests you: CPU parameters, Disk Quota parameters, and
System Parameters.
The last screen of the wizard allows you to review once more the configuration of the physical
server to be migrated and to view the migration settings made on the previous steps. You can
also select the Shut down server and start Container after migration check box at the bottom of
the screen to automatically stop the physical server and start the Container after the successful
migration. This may be necessary to avoid the conflict of the physical and virtual servers due to
the identical network settings. If you are satisfied with the parameters set, click Finish to start
migrating the physical server to the Container.
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287
Configuring Container Resources Parameters After Migration
You may wish to configure the resources parameters for the Container where your physical
server was migrated. By default, the resources parameters are in the following state after the
migration:
ƒ
The disk space quota imposed on the Container is calculated on the basis of the amount of
disk space used on all disk drives that were migrated to the Container plus some additional
free disk space needed for the Container error-free performance.
ƒ
The Container is allocated 1000 CPU units.
ƒ
The Number of TS sessions and Container memory parameters are set to
'unlimited'.
You can configure any of the aforementioned parameters by using Parallels Management
Console or Virtuozzo command line utilities. Detailed information on how you can do it is
provided in the Managing Resources chapter (on page 137).
Managing Memory Resources in
Virtuozzo-Based Systems
The given section provides information on how you can manage memory resources in
Virtuozzo-based systems.
Managing Memory Resources on Node
Like any other standalone server running Windows Server 2003, any Hardware Node can be
defined in the memory terms by the following main components:
ƒ
Physical memory: physical memory (RAM) installed on the Hardware Node. The amount of
physical memory present on the Hardware Node determines the number and performance of
Containers you are able to create and simultaneously run on the given Node. For example,
to painlessly run as many as 10 Containers, the Hardware Node should have at least 1 Gb of
physical memory.
ƒ
Virtual memory: paging file used by the operating system on the Hardware Node to simulate
more RAM than actually exists on the Hardware Node, thus, allowing you to run larger
programs or more programs concurrently. We recommend that you set the size of the paging
file by 2 - 2.5 times more than the amount of physical memory installed on the Node.
ƒ
Kernel memory: the amount of memory used by the operating system on the Hardware
Node. This kind of memory is protected and cannot be accessed by regular applications.
ƒ
System memory pools: paged and non-paged memory pools that the kernel-mode
components on the Hardware Node use to allocate system memory. The initial size of these
pools is automatically calculated on the system start-up and depends on the amount of
physical memory installed on the Node. Thereafter, the pools size is adjusted dynamically
and can vary widely depending on the applications and services that are currently running in
the system. However, the maximal size of the pools cannot exceed:
ƒ
on 32-bit versions of Windows Server 2003:
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288
-for the paged pool - 512 Mb;
-for the non-paged pool - 256 Mb.
ƒ
on 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003:
-for the paged pool - 128 Gb;
-for the non-paged pool - 128 Gb.
On 32-bit systems, the paged pool and, especially, the non-paged pool (which cannot exceed
256 Mb in size) may become a bottleneck and degrade the overall system performance (or
even make the system unstable). Therefore, you are highly recommended to regularly check
the amount of each memory pool and to keep their size within 450 Mb for the paged pool
and 200 Mb for the non-paged pool.
The process of monitoring and configuring all the aforementioned components on the Hardware
Node does not differ from that on a standalone server. For example, you can increase the
amount of physical memory available on the Hardware Node by installing new storage modules
or modify the size of the paging file to meet your demands. You can also use standard Windows
performance monitoring tools (Task Manager, Performance Monitor, Process Explorer, Process
Viewer, etc.) to monitor the main memory parameters.
Managing Container Memory Resources
The memory capabilities of any Container residing on the Hardware Node are determined by the
following main memory components
ƒ
Private (or potentially private) memory: memory allocated (or that can be allocated) to all
processes inside a particular Container.
ƒ
Shared (or potentially shared) memory: memory simultaneously used (or that can be used)
by two or more processes inside two or more Containers.
ƒ
System memory pools: memory pools (paged and non-paged) that the kernel-mode
components inside a Container use to allocate system memory.
Detailed information on these components and the ways to manage them in Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 is provided in the following subsections in detail.
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289
Memory Sharing Among Containers and Copy-On-Write Protection
The usage of shared memory in Virtuozzo-based systems represents one of the key concepts in
the Virtuozzo virtualization technology. In Virtuozzo Containers 4.0, the shared memory
management is based on the Virtuozzo templates technology and carried out via Virtuozzo File
System (VZFS). VZFS allows you to effectively utilize the Hardware Node physical memory
resources by sharing them among Containers as follows:
ƒ
All Containers on the Hardware Node based on the same OS template share one and the
same running instance of the Windows Server 2003 operating system.
ƒ
All applications added to Containers using the corresponding application templates and
simultaneously launched inside two or more Containers share the same code (dynamic code
libraries or DLLs) and data (shared memory regions) in the Hardware Node physical
memory.
In both cases, the DLL code and data are loaded into the physical memory only once and shared
among the processes inside the corresponding Containers.
The following picture demonstrates three MS SQL applications added to Container#1,
Container#2, and Container#3 by means of the MS SQL template, simultaneously launched
inside these Containers, and sharing two memory pages ('page 1' and 'page 2'):
Figure 168: Sharing Memory Among Containers
Sharing memory among similar processes inside Containers allows you to save megabytes of
physical memory, thus, considerably improving scalability and total system performance.
At the same time, VZFS does not forbid you to modify any template-based applications or some
of their data inside Containers. In this case the 'copy-on-write' page protection mechanism
comes into effect. So, when a user modifies shared data from inside a Container, VZFS creates a
private copy of this data transparently for the user of this Container so that the modifications do
not affect the other applications sharing the data. As an example, the following picture shows
the situation when a user inside Container#3 has attempted to modify some data on 'shared page
2' simultaneously used by three MS SQL applications (processes):
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Figure 169: Copy-On-Write Protection
As can be seen from the picture above, a new page ('copy of shared page 2') has been allocated
in the physical memory of the Hardware Node. It contains the copy of the original page contents
(i.e. of 'shared page 2') including the changes made to the page by the user inside Container#3.
The newly created page is private to the MS SQL application running inside Container#3 and
not visible to the processes inside Container#1 and Container#2 which continue using 'shared
page 2'. As for 'shared page 1', all three processes keep sharing its original copy since no
attempts to modify it have been made on the Containers part.
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Managing Container Private Memory
As distinct from shared memory visible to and used by more than one process inside different
Containers, private memory can be defined as memory which is available to a particular
Container and can be used exclusively by the processes inside this Container. By default, any
Container can consume all free memory on the Hardware Node. However, you can configure
the maximal amount of private memory that can be allocated to the processes inside a Container
by performing the following operations in Parallels Management Console:
1
Click Virtuozzo Containers in the Management Console left pane, right-click the needed
Container in the right pane, and choose Properties on the context menu.
2 Click the Resources tab and select the Memory-related parameters item in the left part of the
displayed window:
3 Double-click the Container memory parameter, and, if needed, clear the Not limited
check box and enter the right value for the given Container in the Value field of the
Resource Counter Properties window:
Figure 170: Management Console - Setting Container Private Memory
The
symbol near the Allowed range field in the Resource counter properties window, if
displayed, means that the corresponding system resource control parameter is set out of the
allowed, which may cause your Container to malfunction. In this case you should check the
current value of this parameter and correct it by entering the right value within the limits
specified in the Allowed range field.
Note: When deciding on the amount of private memory to be allocated to your Containers,
make sure that the total amount of memory allocated to all Containers on the Hardware
Node does not exceed the amount of physical and virtual memory available on this Node.
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4 Click OK.
To manage the amount of private memory for a Container by means of the command line, the
vzctl set command is used. Detailed information on this command can be found in the
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
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Managing Container Memory Pools
On the Container start-up, two types of dynamically sized memory pools, that the kernel-mode
components use to allocate system memory, are created:
ƒ
'Non-paged pool': a region of memory in the Container system space that cannot be paged to
disk and is guaranteed to reside in the Container memory at all times.
ƒ
'Paged pool': a region of memory in the Container system space that can be paged in and out
of the system.
As has been mentioned in the Managing Memory Resources on Node section (on page 287), the
maximal size of these pools cannot exceed the following values:
ƒ
on 32-bit systems: 512 Mb for paged pools and 250 Mb for non-paged pools;
ƒ
on 64-bit systems: 128 Gb for both paged and non-paged pools.
However, Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to reduce the maximal size of the
paged and non-paged pools inside a Container using the vzctl set utility. For example, this
can be of service to you if you wish to eliminate the possibility of pools memory leaks inside
Containers (which may have a negative impact on the overall Hardware Node performance). Let
us assume that you wish to set the paged and non-paged pools of Container 101 to 200 Mb and
50 Mb, respectively. To this effect, you can execute the following commands on the Hardware
Node:
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, the limits set for the paged and non-paged
pools are effective in respect of the Container TCP/IP software stack only.
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --pagedpoollimit 200 --save
Command 'set' is successfully finished
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --nonpagedpoollimit 50 --save
Command 'set' is successfully finished
You can check that the maximal size of both pools has been successfully modified using
standard Windows performance monitoring tools. For example, you can obtain the pools peak
values by launching the Process Explorer application, selecting System on the View menu, and
checking the pool maximums under the Kernel Memory group of the displayed window:
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Figure 171: Process Explorer - Viewing Memory Pools
Managing External Drives and
Image Files for Container
The given section provides information on how you can add new virtual drives to your
Containers and configure them to meet your demands. Besides, it explains you the way to
mount available drives and image files located on the Hardware Node to drives and files inside a
Container to make them accessible from within the Container.
Managing Container Virtual Disks
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 enables you to perform the following operations on
Container virtual disk drives:
ƒ
Add additional disk drives to your Containers;
ƒ
Increase/decrease the current size of the disk drive and modify its measurement units;
ƒ
Remove an existing disk drive from your Container.
All these operations are described below in detail.
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Adding New Disk Drive to Container
In Virtuozzo-based systems, any Container is created with only one disk storage inside it - the
C:\ disk drive. However, Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to add new virtual disk drives to
any Container residing on your Hardware Node. After a new disk drive has been successfully
added to a Container, it becomes visible:
ƒ
ƒ
On the Hardware Node:
ƒ
As a file in the .efd format in the X:\vz\private\CT_ID folder and
ƒ
As a folder in the X:\vz\root\CT_ID\ directory.
From inside the Container: log in to the Container via RDP and launch Windows Explorer.
Your new drive will be displayed among other local disk drives available inside your
Container.
You can then use the newly created virtual disk drive in the same way as you would use it on a
stand-alone computer: format it, create new files and folders within the drive, etc.
To add a new virtual disk drive to a Container, you should perform the following operations:
1
In Parallels Management Console, expand the corresponding Hardware Node name and
select the Virtuozzo Containers item to display a list of Containers currently existing on the
Node.
2 Right-click the Container you wish to add a new virtual drive to and choose Tasks -->
Manage Mount Points on the context menu.
Alternatively, you can open the Container Manager window for the given Container and
click on the Manage Mount Points link in the Actions section of the Management Console
view pane.
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3 In the opened window, click on the Add button to display the Mount Point window:
Figure 172: Management Console - Adding New Drive to Container
In this window you should do the following:
ƒ
In the Mount point list, click the drop-down arrow and select a drive letter under which
the created disk drive will be accessible inside the Container. The specified letter will be
also displayed as the name of the folder in the X:\vz\root\CT_ID directory on the
Node.
ƒ
Select the Create new image radio button to make the options below active:
-In the Size field, specify the size for your new disk drive either by using the spin button
or by entering the needed value manually. You can also change the units in which the
drive size will be measured by selecting GB (gigabytes) instead of MB (megabytes) on
the drop-down menu.
-Under the Location subgroup, choose one of the following options to specify where on
the Node the file corresponding to the created drive and having the .efd extension will
be located:
a
Select the Container private area radio button to create and locate the file in the private
area of the corresponding Container (i.e. in the X:\vz\private\CT_ID folder on
the Node). You can also specify the name of the file in the Image file name field. If you
leave this field blank, the file name will be automatically generated by Parallels
Management Console in the form of lpbkCT_Number.efd where CT_Number
denotes the index number of the disk drive automatically created inside the Container
(i.e. lpbk0000.efd for the first disk drive, lpbk0001.efd for the disk second
drive, etc.).
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297
Select the Hardware Node radio button to create and locate the file in a place other than
the Container private area. In this case you should specify the full path to the file on the
Hardware Node (e.g. C:\MyFolder\MyFile.efd).
4 Click OK.
In the command line, you can add a new virtual disk drive to your Container with the vzctl
partadd command. Detailed information on this command is provided in the Parallels
Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide.
Configuring Container Disk Drive
After a new disk drive has been created and added to your Container, you can start using it as a
usual hard disk storage on a stand-alone computer. However, in certain situations you may wish
to modify a particular disk parameter to meet your demands. For example, if may need more
disk space in a Container but do not want to add another disk drive to it, you can instead change
the maximum size of the Container disk.
The current version of Virtuozzo Containers allows you to configure your Container virtual disk
drive as follows:
ƒ
Increase/decrease the current size of the disk drive;
ƒ
Change the units in which the Container virtual disk is measured.
To change the virtual disk drive size and/or its measurement units, you should perform the
following operations:
1
In Parallels Management Console, expand the corresponding Hardware Node name and
select the Virtuozzo Containers item to display a list of Containers currently existing on the
Node.
2 Right-click the Container whose disk drive you wish to configure and choose Tasks -->
Manage Mount Points on the context menu.
Alternatively, you can open the Container Manager window for the given Container and:
ƒ
click on the Manage Mount Points link in the Actions section of the Management
Console view pane or
ƒ
expand the File Manager item, right-click the disk drive you wish to resize and select
Tasks --> Resize Drive on the context menu.
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3 In the opened window, select the disk drive to be configured and click the Resize button:
Figure 173: Management Console - Configuring Container Drive
In the Resize Image window, you can configure:
ƒ
the drive size: use the spin button or type the needed value by hand to change the current
size value. While changing the disk drive size, please note that it should not be less then
the size of files and folders located on this drive; otherwise, the drive resizing will fail.
ƒ
the units in which the drive size is to be measured: select MB (stands for megabytes) or
GB (stands for gigabytes) on the drop-down menu.
4 When you are ready with specifying new values for your virtual drive, click OK.
You can also use the vzctl set command to change the current size of a Container disk
drive. Detailed information on this command can be found in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers
Reference Guide.
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Removing Disk Drive From Container
You can remove any existing disk drive from your Container except for the C:\ drive. To
remove a virtual disk drive, you should perform the following operations:
1
In Parallels Management Console, click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
corresponding Hardware Node name to display a list of all Containers residing on the Node.
2 Right-click the Container from where you wish to remove a disk drive and select Tasks -->
Manage Mount Points on the context menu. Alternatively, you can open the Container
Manager window for the given Container and click on the Manage Mount Points link in the
Actions section of the Management Console view pane.
The Mount Points Manager window will be displayed where you can see all the drives
currently available inside your Container:
Figure 174: Management Console - Removing Drive From Container
3 Select the disk drive you wish to remove from your Container and click the Unmount button.
4 In the Delete Drive window displayed after clicking the Unmount button, you can do one of
the following:
ƒ
Click Yes without selecting the Delete image file ... check box. In this case the disk drive
will become inaccessible from within the Container (i.e. invisible in Windows Explorer)
and the corresponding folder will be deleted from the X:\vz\root\CT_ID folder on
the Hardware Node. However, the file in the .efd format in the
X:\vz\private\CT_ID folder on the Node conforming to the removed disk drive
will remain intact.
ƒ
Select the Delete image file ... check box and click Yes. In addition to the operations
performed in the previous case, this will also remove the corresponding file in the .efd
from the X:\vz\private\CT_ID folder on the Hardware Node.
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Note: While deciding on your virtual disk drive removal, please keep in mind that all
folders and files located on the drive will be deleted from the Container without affording
you an opportunity to restore them.
In the command line, you should use the vzctl partdel command to remove an existing
disk drive from your Container. Detailed information on this command is provided in the
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Managing Hardware Node Drives
In some circumstances, you may need to give your Container direct access to a drive on your
Hardware Node. Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to mount a drive on the Node to a drive
inside your Container, thus, granting you access to this drive from inside the Container. After
mounting the drive, you can log in to the Container via RDP and work with the mounted drive
in the same way as you would do it on the Hardware Node.
Virtually any drive available on the Node can be mounted to a Container, e.g.:
ƒ
a physical hard drive (SCSI or IDE/ATA);
ƒ
a DVD-ROM drive;
ƒ
a CD-ROM drive;
ƒ
a floppy disk drive, etc.
To mount a Hardware Node drive to a Container, you should perform the following operations:
1
In Parallels Management Console, click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
corresponding Hardware Node name to display a list of all Containers residing on the Node.
2 Right-click the Container where you wish to mount a drive from the Hardware Node and
select Tasks --> Manage Mount Points on the context menu.
Alternatively, you can open the Container Manager window for the given Container and
click on the Manage Mount Points link in the Actions section of the Management Console
view pane.
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3 In the opened window, click on the Add button to display the Mount Point window:
Figure 175: Management Console - Mounting Hardware Node Drive
In this window you should do the following:
ƒ
In the Mount point list, click the drop-down arrow and select a letter under which the
mounted drive will be accessible inside the Container.
ƒ
Check the Mount Hardware Node drive radio button and, on the drop-down menu, select a
letter assigned to the drive on the Node that you wish to mount to the Container.
Note: The permissions of the drive mounted to a Container correspond to those of this drive on
the Hardware Node, i.e. you are able to perform the same operations on the drive inside the
Container as you are allowed on the Node.
At any time, you can unmount the mounted drive from your Container. To this effect, do the
following:
1
In Parallels Management Console, click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
corresponding Hardware Node name to display a list of all Containers residing on the Node.
2 Right-click the Container from where the drive is to be unmounted and select Tasks -->
Manage Mount Points on the context menu.
Alternatively, you can open the Container Manager window for the given Container and
click on the Manage Mount Points link in the Actions section of the Management Console
view pane.
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3 In the Mount Points Manager window, you can see all the drives currently available inside
the Container:
Figure 176: Management Console - Removing Hardware Node Drive
Select the drive you wish to unmount from your Container and click the Unmount button.
4 In the opened window, click OK to confirm your decision.
In the command line, you can use the vzctl mountext and vzctl umountext
commands to mount/unmount your Hardware Node drives to drives inside a Container. Detailed
information on this command is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Reference Guide.
Managing Image Files
Another possibility to use Hardware Node files from inside a Container is to mount an image
file located on the Node to a drive letter inside the Container. Image files can be located
anywhere on the Hardware Node (on any of its hard disk drives, CD-ROM or floppy disks, etc.)
and must have the .efd extension.
To mount a Hardware Node image file to a drive letter inside your Container, you should
perform the following operations:
1
In Parallels Management Console, click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
corresponding Hardware Node name to display a list of all Containers residing on the Node.
2 Right-click the Container where you wish to mount an image file from the Hardware Node
and select Tasks --> Manage Mount Points on the context menu.
Alternatively, you can open the Container Manager window for the given Container and
click on the Manage Mount Points link in the Actions section of the Management Console
view pane.
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3 In the opened window, click on the Add button to display the Mount Point window:
Figure 177: Management Console - Mounting Image File
In this window you should do the following:
ƒ
In the Mount point list, click the drop-down arrow and select a letter under which the
mounted image file will be accessible inside the Container.
ƒ
Check the Mount existing image file radio button and do one of the following:
a
Type the full path to the image file on the Node by hand or
b
Use the ... button to specify the path to the image file.
Note: The permissions of the image file mounted to a Container correspond to those of this
image file on the Hardware Node, i.e. you are able to perform the same operations on the file
inside the Container as you are allowed on the Node.
At any time, you can unmount the mounted image from your Container. To this effect, do the
following:
1
In Parallels Management Console, click the Virtuozzo Containers item under the
corresponding Hardware Node name to display a list of all Containers residing on the Node.
2 Right-click the Container from where your image is to be unmounted and select Tasks -->
Manage Mount Points on the context menu.
Alternatively, you can open the Container Manager window for the given Container and
click on the Manage Mount Points link in the Actions section of the Management Console
view pane.
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3 In the Mount Points Manager window, select the image you wish to unmount from your
Container and click on the Unmount button.
4 In the displayed window, click OK to confirm your decision.
Managing Types of Container
Virtual Hard Disks
In Virtuozzo-based systems, virtual disk drives provide storage space for your Containers.
Within a Container, its virtual disk drive is represented as a physical disk and is used by the
Container as if it were a standard physical disk. Technically speaking, any Container virtual
hard disk is a file having the .efd extension and located in the X:\vz\private\CT_ID
folder on the Hardware Node hard disk (e.g. C:\vz\private\101 for storing virtual disk
drives of Container 101). The root.efd file in this folder represents the main hard disk drive
inside the Container (i.e. the system disk). You can also add new virtual disk drives to any
Container and assign arbitrary names to the .efd files representing these disks. For example,
you can create a new disk drive with the name of F:\ by using Parallels Management Console
and have it displayed as the MyDisk.efd file inside the X:\vz\private\CT_ID folder.
Detailed information on how you can add new virtual disk drives to your Container is provided
in the Adding New Disk Drive to Container section (on page 295).
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to configure virtual disk drives inside Containers by setting
them to one of the two types:
ƒ
plain. In this case the size of a virtual hard disk is fixed, i.e. all disk space is allocated
during the virtual disk creation. The disk size does not change when data is added to the
hard disk or deleted from it. This is the default type of virtual hard disks provided by
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0. For example, if you create Container 101 and set the size of its
virtual hard disk to 100 MB, the root.efd file occupying 100 MB of disk space will be
created in the X:\vz\private\101 folder on the Hardware Node.
ƒ
compact. In this case you set only the maximal size of a virtual hard disk during the disk
creation. A Container hard disk grows in size each time new data is written to the hard disk
and can increase as much as the maximum size specified when the hard disk was created.
The initial size of the .efd file created on the Hardware Node is 15-20% of its maximum
size. For example, if you create a compact hard disk and set its maximum size to 100 MB,
the initial size of the .efd file will be about 15-20 MB. As the Container uses the hard
disk, the size of the .efd file grows until it reaches the 100 MB barrier.
The main advantage of this disk type is its smaller file size. Smaller files require less storage
space and can be easier moved while cloning or migrating Containers. However, it takes
longer to write data to a disk configured in this way than to plain hard disks.
Important! When creating compact virtual hard disks inside Containers, please always take
care that the maximum size of all created compact disks does not exceed the size of disk
space you are going to allocate to your Containers. However, if you find out that the disk
space on the Hardware Node is nearing its limit, you are highly recommended to stop all
Containers with compact disk drives, free some disk space on the Hardware Node, and start
these Containers anew. If, however, a Container gets corrupted for lack of disk space, please
contact the Virtuozzo Containers support team.
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By default, any Container is created with the system disk drive of the plain type. You can use
the --disktype option of the vzctl create command to create Containers having virtual
hard disks of the compact type. For example, you can issue the following command to create
Container 101 with a compact system disk drive:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl create 101 --pkgset w2k3
--ipadd 10.0.101.101 --disktype compact
Creating Container
...
You can also modify the type of the existing virtual hard disk(s) inside a Container using the -disktype option of the vzctl set command. Please keep in mind that the changes will be
applied to all virtual disk drives inside the Container. For example, the following command will
set all virtual disk drives inside Container 101 to the compact type:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --disktype compact
Command 'set' is successfully finished
After having changed the type of the virtual disk drive(s) inside Container 101, you should
restart the Container for the changes to take effect. Please keep in mind that it may take up to
several minutes to convert all Container disk drives (depending on their size).
Shrinking Container Virtual Disks
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows you to shrink virtual disk drives of the compact type inside
Containers. Shrinking a virtual disk means removing unused (empty) disk space from a
Container, thus, reducing the amount of space the virtual disk occupies on the Hardware Node.
Let us assume that you have created the F:\ virtual disk drive of the compact type inside
Container 101, performed a number of disk-related operations (added new files and folders to
the disk, deleted existing files and folders from it, etc.), and now wish to shrink the F:\ drive to
optimize the disk space occupied by this drive on the Node. To this effect, you can execute the
following command:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl shrink 101 --drive F:\
Command 'shrink' is successfully finished
While shrinking Container virtual disks, please keep in mind the following:
ƒ
You can shrink virtual disks inside both running and stopped Containers.
ƒ
Shrinking a Container virtual disk does not reduce the maximum capacity of the virtual disk
itself, i.e. the disk can always increase as much as the maximum size specified during its
creation.
ƒ
You cannot shrink Container virtual disks of the plain type.
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Customizing Container Desktop
A Container administrator may wish to customize the Container desktop to meet their demands.
Generally, Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 allows Container administrators to configure their
Container desktops in the same way as they would do it in any other Windows system installed
on a stand-alone server: place the most frequently used icons to the desktop, arrange these icons
in the desired order, change the display settings (e.g. color scheme, font size), etc. However,
there are some Container desktop features that require the performance of additional steps in
comparison with a standard Windows system or are implemented in Virtuozzo Containers only.
These features include:
ƒ
Changing the Container desktop background (i.e. desktop wallpapers) and
ƒ
Customizing the Container ID and hostname string in the top right corner of the desktop.
To change the desktop wallpaper in a standard Windows system, one should right-click on a
spare place on the desktop, select Properties on the context menu, and, in the displayed window,
go to the Desktop tab and choose the right wallpaper. However, to allow Container
administrators to change the desktop background inside their Containers in Virtuozzo-based
systems, you should first perform the following operations:
ƒ
Restart the Terminal Server installed on your Hardware Node in case you have never done
so after the Virtuozzo Containers installation. For example, you can do it by performing the
following operations on the Node:
ƒ
Selecting Programs --> Administrative Tools --> Terminal Services Manager on the
Windows Start menu;
ƒ
Choosing This computer --> Computer_Name --> RDP-Tcp (listener) in the left pane of
the displayed window where Computer_Name denotes the hostname of your Node;
ƒ
Right-clicking RDP-Tcp (listener) and selecting Reset on the context menu.
Note: All running Containers on your Node (including the Service Container) will be
stopped during the Terminal Server restart.
ƒ
Make sure that your Remote Desktop Connection client supports the desktop background
management feature. To this effect:
ƒ
Select Programs --> Accessories --> Communications --> Remote Desktop Connection
on the Windows Start menu to open the Remote Desktop Connection dialog box.
ƒ
Click Options, go to the Experience tab, and ascertain that the Desktop background check
box is selected.
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By default, each Container on the Node has a string displayed in the top right corner of the
desktop and identifying the ID of the Container you are currently logged in to (e.g. Container
133). You can prevent the Container ID string from being displayed on the Container desktop:
ƒ
With the help of Parallels Management Console where you should right-click the
corresponding Container, select Properties on the context menu, go to the Options tab, clear
the Display Container ID on desktop check box, and click OK. Next time you log in to your
Container via RDP, the Container ID string will be absent from your desktop.
ƒ
By executing the vzctl set command and passing the --showvpsid no option to it.
Next time you log in to your Container via RDP, the Container ID string will be absent from
your desktop. For more information on this command, please consult the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers Reference Guide.
Along with displaying the Container ID string, you can make the Container desktop show the
hostname of the Container you are currently logged in to. To this effect, you should use the
vzctl set command and pass the --showhostname yes option to it. Let us assume that
Container 101 has the hostname of My_Computer and that you wish this hostname to be
displayed on the Container desktop each time you are logged in to Container 101. To display the
My_Computer legend on the Container desktop, you should execute the following command:
C:\...\Administrator>vzctl set 101 --showhostname yes
Command 'set' is successfully finished
To remove the Container hostname string from the Container desktop, you should use the
vzctl set command with the --showhostname no option.
Note: You should log off from the Container and log in to it anew every time you customize
your Container desktop by using the vzctl set command or by means of Parallels
Management Console.
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Configuring Container Offline
Management
The offline management functionality allows you to manage a particular Container with the help
of Parallels Power Panel. When offline management is enabled for a Container, this Container is
said to be subscribed to one or more offline services, which means that one or more ports of its
IP address are permanently active whatever the Container state. This is needed to ensure the
Container manageability in its down state.
The currently supported services are vzpp (for managing Containers by means of Parallels
Power Panel) and plesk (for managing Containers by means of the Plesk control panel
integrated with Parallels Power Panel). You can view the names of accessible services on your
Hardware Node in Parallels Management Console by right-clicking the needed Hardware Node
name and selecting Tasks --> Manage Offline Services on the context menu:
Figure 178: Management Console - Viewing Offline Services
All offline services currently available on your Hardware Node are listed in the Offline services
configuration table in the displayed window. By default, offline management is enabled for all
Containers residing on the Node. To start using the offline management feature, inform the
Container administrator of the TCP port which is the value of the Service Port column. This
TCP port number should be entered in the address line of an Internet browser after the Container
IP address when managing a Container by means of Virtuozzo Power Panes or the Plesk control
panel. So, it will be enough to enter
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https://<CT_IP_address_or_hostname>:<TCP_port>
in the address line of any browser and to log in as Administrator with the appropriate password
(set during the Container creation) to start to remotely manage the corresponding Container.
This way of logging in to a Container is very handy for Container administrators because they
need to know only the IP address/hostname of their Container and its Administrator credentials
to be able to manage the Container. No additional information (e.g. the Service Container or
Hardware Node IP address) is required.
In case the Plesk control panel application is installed in a Container and this Container is
subscribed to the plesk service, the Plesk admin account can also be used by the Container
administrator for logging in to Parallels Power Panel. The Plesk control panel is integrated with
Parallels Power Panel is such a way that the Virtuozzo menu item on the Plesk menu allows the
Container administrator to access the standard Parallels Power Panel functionality, whereas all
the other menu items on the Plesk menu ensure the standard Plesk functionality.
At any time, you can disable the offline management for a Container by doing the following:
1
In the left pane of the Management Console window, select the Virtuozzo Containers item
under the corresponding Hardware Node name.
2 In the right pane, right-click the Container on the Container list and select Properties on the
context menu.
3 On the Network tab of the displayed window, select the Offline Management item and clear
the Enable offline management check box:
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Figure 179: Management Console - Disabling Offline Management
On this screen you can also manage the offline services which will be available to the
Container. To this effect:
ƒ
leave the Enable offline management check box selected;
ƒ
click the name of the corresponding offline service and use the the Enable/Disable
buttons to subscribe the Container to or unsubscribe it from this service.
If you have made some changes to any of the offline services and wish to restore the system
default values, click the Apply System Defaults button at the bottom of the Properties
window.
4 Click OK.
You can disable the offline management for all Containers residing on the Node at once:
1
Right-click the Hardware Node name and select Tasks --> Manage Offline Services.
2 On the Parallels Power Panel tab of the Offline Services Configuration window, clear the
Enable Parallels Power Panel and Parallels Infrastructure Manager services check box.
On the Offline Services tab, you can also manage the offline services which will be available
to all Containers on the Hardware Node:
Advanced Tasks
311
ƒ
select the corresponding offline service from the list of available services and use the
Enable/Disable buttons to enable/disable this offline service to the Containers on the
Node;
ƒ
use the Add/Delete/Edit buttons to add a new offline service, to remove an existing
offline service, or to configure the properties of any offline service in the Offline services
configuration table, respectively.
If you have made some changes to any of the offline services and wish to restore the system
default values, click the Restore Defaults button.
3 Click OK.
Reinstalling Container
Reinstalling a Container is used if a Container administrator has inadvertently modified,
replaced, or deleted any file that is part of an application or OS template, which has brought
about the Container malfunction. Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 provides you with the vzctl
reinstall command allowing you to reinstall a problem Container. For example, to reinstall
Container 101, you can issue the following command:
# vzctl reinstall 101
Reinstalling Container...
The command completed successfully
Note: The vzctl reinstall command can be performed on stopped Containers only.
When executed, the vzctl reinstall command performs the following operations:
ƒ
Creates a new private area for the problem Container from scratch using its configuration
file and its OS and application templates. Thanks to this fact, the newly created Container
retains the IP address, hostname, resource control parameters, and all the other settings of
the problem Container, i.e. a clean working copy of the problem Container is made.
ƒ
In order to retain the personal data inside the old Container, the utility also copies the
contents of the old private area to the C:\reinstall folder on the Hardware Node
(unless the --skipbackup option is given). The personal data can then be copied to the
corresponding folders of the new private area and the reinstall folder eventually
deleted.
ƒ
Retains the Administrator credentials in the users' database (unless the -resetpwdb option is specified).
Note: In the current version of Virtuozzo Containers, Parallels Management Console does not
support reinstalling Containers; this functionality is accessible only thru Parallels Infrastructure
Manager and the command line on the Hardware Node.
Advanced Tasks
312
Updating Parallels Management
Console
Starting with Virtuozzo Containers 3.5.1, you have the possibility to update your current
Parallels Management Console installation to keep it at the most recent version. Parallels
Management Console can be updated:
ƒ
By using the Parallels Management Console self-updater:
ƒ
Each time you launch Management Console, it automatically connects to the Parallels
web site and checks if new updates are available for your Management Console version.
In the case of finding any, you will be presented with the Update Parallels Management
Console window where you can perform the following operations:
Figure 180: Management Console Updater
a
Click the Install Now button to start downloading and installing the Management
Console updates listed in the Updates Found window on your computer. After initiating
the update procedure, you will be asked to close the Management Console application.
Just click OK in the displayed window to proceed with the Parallels Management
Console update.
b
Clear the Check for updates on Parallels Management Console start checkbox to prevent
Management Console from checking for available updates in future.
Advanced Tasks
ƒ
ƒ
313
If Parallels Management Console is already running on your computer, you can check
for updates by clicking Help and selecting Check for Updates on the drop-down menu. If
any updates are available for your Management Console installation, you will be
presented with the same window and can perform the same operations as is shown
above.
By using Virtuozzo Update Service (VUS). Virtuozzo Update Service (VUS) is a special
Virtuozzo module helping you deploy both the Virtuozzo and Management Console updates
(detailed information on how to use VUS to update your current Virtuozzo Containers
installation is provided in the Managing Hardware Node chapter of the Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers User's Guide). This module is automatically installed:
ƒ
On the Hardware Node - during the Virtuozzo Containers installation. In this case you
can check if new updates are available for your Parallels Management Console version
and install them in the case of finding any by selecting Programs --> Parallels -->
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers --> Virtuozzo Update Wizard on the Windows Start menu
and following the instructions of the VUS wizard.
ƒ
On a non-Virtuozzo-based system - during the Parallels Management Console
installation. In this case you can check if new updates are available for your
Management Console version and install them in the case of finding any by selecting
Programs --> Parallels --> Virtuozzo Update Service --> Virtuozzo Update Wizard on the
Windows Start menu and following the instructions of the VUS wizard.
Note: You should provide Internet connectivity for every computer where Parallels
Management Console is installed to be able to receive Management Console updates.
Advanced Tasks
314
Configuring Parallels Agent
Parallels Agent is the managing protocol and server-side software for Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
Basically, it is supposed to be the Hardware Node control interface and should be used for
tuning, monitoring, and managing the Hardware Node itself and all the Containers residing on
it. Parallels Agent was created in order to unify the way the client software accesses the
Hardware Node, to provide an easy and standard means of using Virtuozzo services, and to limit
the impact on Hardware Node resources caused by an excessive number of clients connecting to
it and using it at one and the same time, while allowing them to share the collected information
instead of repeatedly fetching it.
Parallels Agent provides a great number of different services. Among them are the following:
ƒ
Container management: creating, starting, stopping, migrating, cloning, moving, mounting,
and unmounting a Container, getting the information on the current Container statistics and
resource usage.
ƒ
Hardware Node management: fetching lists of existing Containers, Virtuozzo logs,
Hardware Node characteristics such as disk, network, and other system information, editing
sample and global Virtuozzo configuration files, etc.
Note: Detailed information on all Parallels Agent functionality is provided in the Parallels
Agent shipped with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
Parallels Management Console allows you to adjust Parallels Agent configuration by changing
some of its keys, subkeys, and parameters in the following way:
ƒ
Loading the configuration from a local file that you might have previously saved;
ƒ
Saving the current configuration to a local file;
ƒ
Reloading the Parallels Agent configuration from the Service Container to Parallels
Management Console;
ƒ
Adding a key with a specified name to the same level as the currently selected key;
ƒ
Adding a subkey with a specified name under the key currently selected;
ƒ
Adding a parameter with a specified name and value to the subkey currently selected;
ƒ
Modifying the name of the selected subkey or the name and the value of the selected
parameter;
ƒ
Deleting the selected key/parameter;
ƒ
Cutting the selected key/parameter to the clipboard;
ƒ
Copying the selected key/parameter to the clipboard;
ƒ
Pasting the selected key/parameter from the clipboard to the key currently selected;
ƒ
Creating a copy of the selected key/parameter on the same level;
ƒ
Expanding all the configuration keys/subkeys;
ƒ
Collapsing all the configuration keys/subkeys.
To perform these operations, right-click the corresponding Hardware Node and select Tasks -->
Manage Parallels Agent Configuration on the context menu:
Advanced Tasks
315
Figure 181: Management Console - Managing Parallels Agent Configuration
All operations listed above correspond to the icons on the toolbar from left to right. After you
have made the necessary corrections, click the Apply button for the changes to take effect with
Parallels Agent.
To get more information on what key, subkey, or parameter to change to achieve this or that
goal and how to change them, please consult the Parallels Agent documentation where each
option is described in detail.
Note: You cannot use Virtuozzo Management Console 3.0 for managing the Parallels Agent
configuration parameters on Hardware Nodes running Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
Managing Virtuozzo Global
Parameters
On a Windows Node, you can view the following configuration parameters:
Parameters
Description
actionlogdir
This is the folder where Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 keeps a log of
its actions.
controlpanel_port
This port must be entered in the address line of an Internet
browser after the Container IP address when managing the
Container by means of Parallels Power Panel.
Advanced Tasks
install and install32
This is the folder where Virtuozzo files are installed.
offline_management
Enables (the value is set to yes) or disables (the value is set to
no) the offline managements for all Containers on the Hardware
Node.
template
This is the folder where to find the templates installed on the
Hardware Node. It is not recommended to redefine this option
since all the templates built by Parallels use the default folder.
ct_private
This is a path to the Container private area where Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 keeps its private data.
ct_root
This is a path to the Container root folder where the Container
private area is mounted.
vz_root
This is a path to the Virtuozzo folder where Virtuozzo
Containers program files are located.
vzprivrange
The Container ID range reserved for Virtuozzo internal needs.
The default range is from 1 to 100; so, when making new
Containers, you should not choose IDs below 101.
316
To manage all the aforementioned parameters in Parallels Management Console:
1
Right-click the needed Hardware Node and select Tasks --> Manage Virtuozzo Configuration
on the context menu:
Figure 182: Management Console - Managing Global Virtuozzo Parameters
2 In the displayed window, you can:
ƒ
view a list of available Virtuozzo parameters;
ƒ
change the value of the corresponding parameter by selecting its name, clicking the ...
button, entering the new value in the displayed window, clicking OK, and then clicking
the Apply button.
Advanced Tasks
317
If you have made some changes to a parameter and now wish return to the old value, click
icon next to this parameter.
the
318
CHAPTER 11
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides the information about those problems that may occur during your work
with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 and suggests the ways to solve them, including getting technical
support from Parallels.
In This Chapter
General Considerations ......................................................................................................... 318
Problems With Container Management ................................................................................ 318
Submitting Problem Report to Technical Support ................................................................ 324
Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels Support ................................................................ 328
General Considerations
The general issues to take into consideration when troubleshooting your Virtuozzo system are
listed below. You should read them carefully before trying to solve more specific problems.
ƒ
Make sure a valid license is always installed on the Hardware Node. If your license has
expired and the grace period is over, all the Containers on your Node will be stopped!
ƒ
If a Hardware Node is experiencing slow performance, you can launch Parallels
Management Console and select the Services and Monitor --> Processes items in the
Management Console main window to find out what process or service might affect your
system performance. In case of discovering any, you can terminate the problem
process/service. Anyway, try to investigate what reason may have brought about the
problem before resorting to the last means - rebooting the Node.
ƒ
Run Virtuozzo Containers Updater at regular intervals (at least once a week). Along with
the Virtuozzo Containers updates, this will allow you to automatically download and install
the latest Windows Server 2003 updates on your Hardware Node. Please do not try to
update the Windows Server 2003 OS manually. It may cause Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 to
malfunction.
Problems With Container
Management
This section includes recommendations on how to settle some problems with your Containers.
Troubleshooting
319
Failure to Start Container
An attempt to start a Container fails.
Solution 1
Make sure you have assigned at least one IP address to the Container. If you have not, please do
it. To assign an IP address in Parallels Management Console, select the Virtuozzo Containers
item in the Management Console left pane, right-click the problem Container in the right pane,
and choose Properties on the context menu. On the Network tab of the displayed window, click
the Add IP Address button and specify a valid IP address. You can also use the vzctl set -ipadd command to add a new IP address to the Container.
Solution 2
Check if the IP address assigned to the problem Container is not already in use. You can view
all IP addresses of the existing Containers by selecting the Virtuozzo Containers item in the
Management Console left pane and examining the IP address column in the right pane or by
issuing the vzlist -a command in the command line. If the IP address of the problem
Container coincides with that of another Container, please remove it and specify a new valid IP
address, as is shown above.
Failure to Access Container From Network
Solution 1
The IP address assigned to this Container might be already in use in your network. Make sure it
is not. Otherwise, please replace the existing IP address with another one, as is described in the
previous subsection.
Solution 2
Make sure the routing to the Container is properly configured. Containers can use the default
router for your network, or you may configure the Hardware Node as rooter for its Containers.
Troubleshooting
320
Failure to Log In to Container
The Container starts successfully, but you cannot log in.
Solution 1
You are trying to connect via RDP or MS TSC, but access is denied. Probably you have not set
the password of the Administrator user yet. Detailed information on how to set the
Administrative password is provided in the Setting Administrator Password section (on page
118).
Solution 2
While connecting to the Container via RDP or MS TSC, you have got the following message:
The terminal server has exceeded the maximum amount of allowed
connections. Make sure you have no more than 2 (two) RDP/MS TSC sessions opened to
the Container at the same time. If it is the case, you should close one of your opened sessions or
install additional TSAL (Terminal Service Access License) licenses inside the Container to be
able to connect to it.
Solution 3
You are trying to connect to the Container by means of Parallels Infrastructure Manager/Power
Panel, but the corresponding page cannot be displayed by your browser. Make sure the offline
management is enabled for the given Container. To this effect:
1
Select the Virtuozzo Containers item in the Management Console left pane.
2 Right-click the problem Container in the right pane and choose Properties on the context
menu.
3 On the Network tab of the displayed window, select the Offline Management item and
ascertain that the Enable offline management check box is selected. If it is not, select it and
click OK.
Troubleshooting
321
Failure to Manage Containers in PAE-disabled System
You created a multitude of Containers on the Hardware Node. However, after a while, they
became non-operational. For example, you cannot execute the vzctl enter CT_ID
command (where CT_ID denotes the Container the command refers to), run any application
inside your Container, or may get error messages with code 128 returned (an unspecified error)
when performing Container-related operations.
The problem might be caused by the fact that your Containers and their applications have
reached the 4-gigabyte paging file limit. By default, Hardware Nodes running the 32-bit editions
of Windows Server 2003, Standard or Enterprise Edition, support only 32-bit memory
addressing and thus set the limit on paging files to 4 GB. When the 4-gigabyte limit is reached,
which is most likely the case when running tens of Containers or performance-intensive
applications in them, you may start experiencing performance problems or even get your
Containers in an non-operational state.
Note: This problem does not concern PAE(Physical Addressing Extensions)-enabled operating
systems allowing paging files up to several terabytes. PAE is automatically enabled when you
have more than 4 GB of physical memory installed on your system, or you can enable PAE
manually as is described below in Solution 2.
To be sure the problem is caused by reaching the paging file limit, you can check the size of the
pagefile.sys file located in the X:\ directory on your Node (where X is the volume where
Windows Sever 2003 is installed). By default, the pagefile.sys file is hidden. To view this
file, do the following:
1
Click on the Tools menu in any folder window and select Folder Options on the drop-down
menu.
2 On the View tab of the displayed window, under Advanced settings, clear the Hide protected
operating system files check box.
3 Click OK.
Alternatively, you can open Windows Task Manager, click on the Performance tab, and view
the paging file size in the PF Usage window.
Note: The size shown in the PF Usage window may not correspond to the size of the
pagefile.sys file because the former contains information on both the paging file itself and
the paged memory (the memory that can be moved to your hard drive) in RAM, whereas the
latter displays the size of the paging file only.
If your server is running near the maximum of the paging file limit, i.e. coming very close to 4
GB, you can take the following measures:
Solution 1
If your Hardware Node has several drives, you can create a paging file for every drive on the
Node. You can also create several paging files on a single drive by placing them in separate
folders. In the example below, we show you how to create multiple paging files in case your
Node has only one drive:
Troubleshooting
1
322
On the drive, create as many folders as the number of paging files you wish to be created
(e.g. C:\Pagefile1, C:\Pagefile2).
2 Select Start --> Run and execute the regedit command to open Registry Editor.
3 Locate
the
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\SessionMa
nager\MemoryManagement key.
4 In the right pane of the Registry Editor window, double-click the PagingFiles value to
open it for editing.
5 Remove any existing value and add the following values:
ƒ
C:\pagefile1\pagefile.sys 3000 4000
ƒ
C:\pagefile2\pagefile.sys 3000 4000
where 3000 and 4000 denote the initial size of the extra paging files and their maximum
size, respectively. The size is measured in megabytes.
6 Click OK.
7 Restart your Node for the changes to take effect.
Solution 2
Enable Physical Addressing Extensions (PAE) allowing your Host OS and applications access
to the additional physical memory (up to several terabytes). To this effect, you should perform
the following operations:
1
Select Start --> Run.
2 Type X:\boot.ini where X is the drive letter where your boot files are located.
3 Modify the line that corresponds to your Host OS by appending the /PAE switch to it.
4 Save the file and then restart the server.
Solution 3
Find out what process or service might affect your system performance, i.e. consumes a large
amount of memory (for example, by selecting the Services and Monitor --> Processes items in
the Management Console main window). In case of discovering any, you can terminate (or kill)
the problem process/service by sending the corresponding signal to it. This will free memory for
other processes running in your system.
Troubleshooting
323
Failure to Run Sound Files Inside Container
You have successfully connected to a Container thru RDP. However, you cannot play any sound
file inside this Container.
Solution
To be able to run sound files in a Container, you should perform the following operations:
Note: If you have any open RDP session, please close it before completing the tasks below.
1
Log in to the problem Container and select Programs --> Administrative Tools --> Terminal
Services Configuration on the Windows Start menu.
2 In the Terminal Services Configuration window, double-click the RDP-Tcp connection in the
right part of the screen.
3 On the Client Settings tab of the RDP-Tcp Properties window, clear the Audio mapping check
box.
4 Click the Apply button.
5 On the Hardware Node, start the Remote Desktop Connection client by choosing Programs -> Accessories --> Communications --> Remote Desktop Connection on the Windows Start
menu or by selecting Start --> Run and executing the mstsc command.
6 Click on the Options button to expand the Remote Desktop Connection window.
7 On the Local Resources tab under the Remote computer sound group, select the Bring to this
computer option on the drop-down menu.
8 On the General tab of the Remote Desktop Connection window, specify the IP address of the
Container you wish to connect to and click the Connect button.
Failure to See Mounted Drives Inside Container
You have mounted a drive from the Hardware Node to a directory inside your Container.
However, the mounted drive is not displayed among other drives in My Computer.
Solution 1
Inside your Container, open My Computer by double-clicking the My Computer icon on the
desktop and type the path to the mounted drive in the address line of Windows Explorer. For
example, if you mounted the CD-ROM from the Hardware Node, you should specify
C:\CDROM in the address line and press Enter to display the CD-ROM content.
Solution 2
Close your current terminal session and then log in to your Container anew. Open My Computer
by double-clicking the My Computer icon on the desktop. Now your mounted drive will be
shown in the My Computer folder and can be accessed by double-clicking on its name.
Troubleshooting
324
Submitting Problem Report to
Technical Support
In most cases, the Parallels support team must rely on the customer's observations and
communications with the customer in order to diagnose and solve the problem. Therefore, a
detailed problem report is extremely important. The Submit Support Issue Wizard helps you
draw up such a report and automatically send it to the Parallels support team. To invoke the
wizard, select Programs --> Parallels --> Parallels Virtuozzo Containers --> Submit Support Issue
on the Windows Start menu. You will be presented with the Welcome to ... window where you
should click Next to proceed with the wizard.
On the next screen, you will be asked to provide your contact information and detailed problem
description:
Figure 183: Submitting Problem Report to Technical Supprot
In this window you should enter your name, e-mail address, and the name of your company into
the corresponding fields. Make sure that you type a valid e-mail address; otherwise, the Parallels
support team will not be able to contact you. In the Subject field, you should also specify what
Virtuozzo problem you encountered and may provide additional information in the Issue field
which, in your opinion, can help solve the problem. If your new issue is related to some problem
you have already informed the support team of and you know the ticket ID assigned to this
problem, you can also select the This ticket is based on the old one check box and specify the ID
in the field provided.
Troubleshooting
325
Next you will be prompted to specify the time period for which the Virtuozzo logs and the
information on your system and network settings are to be collected.
Figure 184: Submitting Problem Report - Specifying Time Period
This window allows you to choose between the two options:
ƒ
Select the Collect logs and minidumps for... radio button and specify the time period, in days,
for which the data are to be gathered.
ƒ
Select the Verbose mode... radio button to collect the information contained in all Virtuozzo
and system logs on the Node.
Clicking Next in the Information About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Installation starts gathering
the Virtuozzo logs and the information on your system and network settings for the specified
period into a special file. This file will be sent to the Parallels support team upon the completion
of the wizard. The file does not contain any private information!
After the necessary information is collected, the Connection to Parallels Technical Support
window is displayed:
Troubleshooting
326
Figure 185: Submitting Problem Report - Specifying Connection Settings
In this window, you can do the following:
ƒ
If your Hardware Node does not use a proxy server, i.e. it is directly connected to the
Internet, just click Next on to send your problem report to the Parallels technical support
team.
ƒ
Otherwise, click the Proxy Settings button to display the Enter Proxy Settings window:
Figure 186: Specifying Proxy Parameters
Troubleshooting
327
This window allows you to do one of the following:
ƒ
Select the Do not use proxy server radio button if your Hardware Node does not use a
proxy server, i.e. it is directly connected to the Internet. This option is selected by
default.
ƒ
Select the Use Internet Explorer proxy settings radio button to use your Internet Explorer
proxy settings to connect to the Virtuozzo updating center.
ƒ
Select the Specify a proxy server radio button to use a proxy server differing from the
one specified in your Internet Explorer proxy settings to connect to the Virtuozzo
updating center. In this case you should specify the IP address and the port of the proxy
server you are going to use to connect to the Internet in the Address and Port fields,
respectively.
If your proxy server is password-protected (i.e. you use a special user name and
password to log in to the proxy server), you should also select the Proxy server requires
authentication check box and specify the corresponding credentials in the Proxy user
name and Proxy password fields.
Click the Next button in the Connection to Technical Support window to send the generated
report to the Parallels support team. After a while, the Congratulations! ... screen will inform you
that your report has been successfully delivered to the destination station. Click Finish to exit
the wizard.
If you do not wish to dispatch the problem report to the support team at the moment for some
reason or other, you can do it later on by manually sending the generated zip file to vzwinsupport@swsoft.com. You can find this file in the X:\VZ\Reports folder where X:\VZ\ is
the path you specified for storing all Container data while installing Virtuozzo Containers 4.0.
Troubleshooting
328
Establishing Secure Channel to
Parallels Support
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 provides you with a special tool - Virtuozzo Support Tunnel which allows you to establish a private secure channel to the Parallels support team server. After
establishing such a channel, the support team will be able to quickly and securely connect to
your Node and diagnose and solve your problem. The secure connection to your server is
achieved thru a Virtual Private Network (VPN) created between the Parallels support team
server and your Hardware Node.
To start using the Virtuozzo Support Tunnel tool, you should first obtain a special certificate
from Parallels which will uniquely identify you as a Virtuozzo user. Certificates are issued by
Parallels in the form of files and should be copied to the X:\Program
Files\SWsoft\Virtuozzo\Licenses folder on your Node. You can get a certificate in
one of the following ways:
ƒ
Visit the http://www.sw-soft.com/en/support/virtuozzo/certificates web site, fill up the
Request Virtuozzo Support Certificate form, and click the Submit button. After a while, a
certificate will be generated and sent to the email address you provided in the Request
Virtuozzo Support Certificate form.
ƒ
Contact the Parallels support team via email or by telephone and ask for a valid certificate.
After you have received a certificate and copied it to the right folder on the Node and in case
you encountered a Virtuozzo-related problem, you can do the following to get assistance from
the Parallels support:
1
Make sure that your Hardware Node is connected to the Internet.
2 On the Node, select Programs --> Parallels --> Parallels Virtuozzo Containers --> Virtuozzo
Support Tunnel on the Windows Start menu to launch the Virtuozzo for Windows Support
Tunnel wizard which will automatically perform all the necessary operations to establish the
Support Tunnel session. All you have to do is to specify a password of your choice for a
temporary account that will be created to access your Hardware Node from the outside
during the Support Tunnel session:
Note: On closing the Support Tunnel, the temporary account will be permanently deleted
from the Node.
Troubleshooting
329
Figure 187: Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels Support
After entering the desired password in the fields provided, click OK to establish a VPN
between your Node and the Parallels support server.
3 Contact the Parallels support team (by telephone or via e-mail) and inform them of the
problem you encountered. You should also mention that you have launched the Virtuozzo
Support Tunnel tool and established a VPN to the Parallels support server and provide the
password entered on Step 2.
4 After that, the Parallels support team will closely examine your problem, connect to your
Node by using the secure VPN established, if needed, and make its best to solve your
problem as quickly as possible.
Glossary
330
Glossary
Application template is a template used to install a set of applications in Containers. See also
Template.
Container (or regular Container) is a virtual private server, which is functionally identical to an
isolated standalone server, with its own IP addresses, processes, files, its own users database, its
own configuration files, its own applications, system libraries, and so on. Containers share one
Hardware Node and one OS kernel. However, they are isolated from each other. A Container is
a kind of ‘sandbox’ for processes and users. Container 0 and Container 1 are used to designate
the Hardware Node and the Service Container, respectively.
Container 0 is used to designate a Hardware Node where the Virtuozzo Containers software is
installed.
Container 1 is used to designate the Service Container.
Hardware Node (or Node) is a server where the Virtuozzo Containers software is installed for
hosting Containers. Sometimes, it is marked as Container 0.
Host Operating System (or Host OS) is an operating system installed on the Hardware Node.
MAC address stands for Media Access Control address, a hardware address that uniquely
identifies each Node in a network. The MAC layer interfaces directly with the network media.
Consequently, each different type of network media requires a different MAC layer.
OS template (or Operating System template) is used to create new Containers with a preinstalled
operating system. See also Template.
Parallels Infrastructure Manager (or Infrastructure Manager) is a tool designed for managing
Hardware Nodes and all Containers residing on them with the help of a standard Web browser
on any platform.
Parallels Management Console (or Management Console) is a Virtuozzo Containers
management and monitoring tool with graphical user interface. It is used to control individual
Hardware Nodes and their Containers. Management Console is cross-platform and runs on both
Microsoft Windows and Linux workstations.
Parallels Power Panel is a means for administering personal Containers with the help of a
standard Web browser (Internet Explorer, Mozilla, etc.) on any platform.
Parallels Virtuozzo Containers (or Virtuozzo Containers) is a complete server automation and
virtualization solution allowing you to create multiple isolated Containers on a single physical
server to share hardware, licenses, and management effort with maximum efficiency.
Private area is a part of the file system where Container files that are not shared with other
Containers are stored.
Glossary
331
Service Container is a special Container automatically created on the Hardware Node during
the Virtuozzo Containers installation and needed to manage your regular Containers by means
of Parallels Infrastructure Manager, Parallels Power Panel, and Parallels Management
Console. Sometimes, the Service Container is marked as Container 1.
TCP (TCP/IP) stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This suite of
communications protocols is used to connect hosts on the Internet.
Template is a set of original application files (packages) repackaged for mounting over
Virtuozzo File System. There are two types of templates. OS Templates are used to create new
Containers with a preinstalled operating system. Application templates are used to install an
application or a set of applications in Containers.
Virtual Environment (or VE) is an obsolete designation of a Container.
Virtuozzo Control Center (or VZCC) is an obsolete designation of Parallels Infrastructure
Manager.
Virtuozzo File System (VZFS) is a virtual file system for mounting to Container private areas.
VZFS symlinks are seen as real files inside Containers.
Virtuozzo Server license is a special license that you should load to the Hardware Node to be
able to start using the Virtuozzo Containers software. Every Hardware Node shall have its own
Virtuozzo Server license.
Virtuozzo Power Panels (or VZPP) is an obsolete designation of Parallels Power Panel.
Virtual Private Server (or VPS) is an obsolete designation of a Container.
Parallels Agent (or Parallels Agent Protocol) is an XML-based protocol used to monitor and
manage a Hardware Node. The Parallels Agent software implements this protocol and is a
backend for the Parallels Management Console.
332
Index
A About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers • 12
About This Guide • 14
About Virtuozzo Containers Software • 18
Accessing Container • 44
Active Directory • 18, 19, 22, 32, 124
Adding and Removing Products in VUS
Manager • 190
Adding New Disk Drive to Container • 295
Adjusting Colors and Styles • 223
Adjusting Periodicity of Refreshing
Information • 221
Adjusting Representation Scale • 222
Administrator
Container • 30, 147, 308
Hardware Node • 27, 29, 30
password • 30, 35, 118
Advanced Tasks • 277
Alerts • 231
Applications • 18, 19, 22, 23, 26, 32, 140, 147,
308
Applying New Configuration Sample to
Container • 169
Assigning Default Backup Node • 54
B Backing Up and Restoring Containers • 51
Backing Up Group of Containers • 64
Backing Up Single Container • 60
Backup
full • 51, 77
incremental • 51, 77
searching • 77
Backups Overview • 52
Basics of Virtuozzo Technology • 24
Before You Begin • 33
Bridged Networking • 261
Browsing Backup Contents • 68
C Changing Administrator Password • 118
Checking Disk Quota Status • 139
Choosing Container ID • 33
Citrix • 44, 48
Citrix MetaFrame XP • 48
Configuration File
copying • 163
creating • 157
overview • 156
Configuring Container Disk Drive • 297
Configuring Container Network Adapter
Parameters • 265
Configuring Container Offline Management •
308
Configuring Container Resources Parameters
After Migration • 287
Configuring Container TCP/IP Settings
Manually • 268
Configuring File Properties • 131
Configuring Hardware Node IP Addresses
Pool • 215
Configuring Hardware Node to Receive
Updates From VUS Server • 198
Configuring Network Bandwidth Management
for Container • 155
Configuring Network Classes • 150
Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container
• 144
Configuring Parallels Agent • 314
Configuring Terminal Services Inside
Container • 45
Configuring Updates Approval Policy • 195
Configuring Updates Inside Container • 134
Configuring VUS Server Synchronization
Mode • 193
Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network • 254
Connecting Bridged Containers to Network •
272
Container
accessing • 44, 47, 48
backing up • 51, 52, 77
creating • 32, 33, 35
destroying • 117
listing • 49
migrating • 115
private area • 26, 31, 35, 51, 107, 117, 315
restoring • 73
starting/stopping • 43
understanding concepts • 18, 19, 22, 32
Container Administrators' Tools • 30
Container Statuses • 50
Copying Container Configuration Sample •
163
Index
333
Copying Containers Within Hardware Node •
109
Copying Group of Containers • 113
Copying Single Container • 109
Creating and Deleting Container Adapters •
263
Creating Container • 35
Creating Container Configuration Sample •
157
Creating Container Running Windows SBS
2003 • 41
Creating New Container • 32
Creating Virtual Network • 256
Customizing Container Desktop • 306
Files
downloading • 130
uploading • 128
Firefox • 29
Firewall • 31
Forwarding SCSI Disks to Container • 122
D Hardware Node Availability Considerations •
31
Highlighting Counter • 224
Host OS • 22, 24, 124
Hostname
Container • 44
setting • 35
Host-Routed Networking • 259
Defining Default Backup Compression Level •
57
Defining Update Source for VUS Server • 199
Deleting Container • 117
Deleting Virtual Network • 258
Deploying Local WSUS and VUS Servers •
177
Distinctive Features of Parallels Virtuozzo
Containers 4.0 • 21
DLL • See Dynamic Link Library
DNS server • 29, 35
Documentation Conventions • 15
Domain • 18, 19, 22, 124
Downloading Files to Local Computer • 130,
214
Dynamic Link Library • 19, 22, 32
E Enabling NAT for Container • 275
Enabling Network Browsing for Container •
149
Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container • 147
Enabling VPN Inside Container • 274
Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels
Support • 328
F Failure to Access Container From Network •
319
Failure to Log In to Container • 320
Failure to Manage Containers in PAE-disabled
System • 321
Failure to Run Sound Files Inside Container •
323
Failure to See Mounted Drives Inside
Container • 323
Failure to Start Container • 319
Feedback • 17
G General Considerations • 318
Getting Help • 16
Glossary • 330
Groups • 124
H I Installing Virtuozzo License on Hardware
Node • 203
Installing VUS on Local Server • 183
Internet Explorer • 29, 30
IP Address
Container • 33, 308, 315
setting • 35, 109
K Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System
Up-to-Date • 171
L License
TSAL • 47, 318
Listing Adapters • 253
Listing Containers • 49
Listing Virtual Networks • 257
Log
Virtuozzo • 230
Logs and Monitors • 219
M Main Operations on Services and Processes •
247
Main Principles of Virtuozzo Operation • 24
Managing Backup Node • 74
Managing Container CPU Resources • 140
Managing Container CPU Usage • 140
Managing Container Disk Space Quota • 137
Index
Managing Container MAC Addresses • 266
Managing Container Memory Pools • 293
Managing Container Memory Resources • 288
Managing Container Private Memory • 291
Managing Container Resources Configurations
• 156
Managing Container System Resources • 145
Managing Container Virtual Disks • 294
Managing Container Virtual Network Adapters
• 258
Managing External Drives and Image Files for
Container • 294
Managing Files • 126, 211
Managing Hardware Node Drives • 300
Managing Hardware Nodes • 201
Managing Image Files • 302
Managing IP Addresses Pool on Node • 215
Managing Memory Resources in VirtuozzoBased Systems • 287
Managing Memory Resources on Node • 287
Managing Network Adapters on Hardware
Node • 252
Managing Network Bandwidth • 149
Managing Network Resources • 147
Managing Processes • 248
Managing Resources • 137
Managing Services • 251
Managing Services and Processes • 245, 247
Managing Types of Container Virtual Hard
Disks • 304
Managing Users and Groups • 124
Managing Virtual Networks • 255
Managing Virtuozzo Global Parameters • 315
Managing Virtuozzo Licenses • 201
Managing Virtuozzo Network • 252
Managing Windows Updates Inside Container
• 131
Memory Sharing Among Containers and
Copy-On-Write Protection • 289
Migrating Container • 115
Migrating Physical Server to Container • 277
Migrating Physical Server to Container in
Parallels Management Console • 280
Migration
Container to Container • 115
physical server to Container • 277, 278, 280
Migration Requirements • 278
Migration Restrictions • 279
Monitoring Resources • 219
Monitoring Top Resources Consumption • 234
Monitoring Virtuozzo Objects Using vzsnmp
Plug-In • 244
Moving Container Within Hardware Node •
107
334
Mozilla • 29, 30
N Network
browsing • 149
mask • See Subnet Mask
settings • 35
share • 19
traffic • 149, 229
Virtuozzo • 24
Networking Modes • 258
Node
Backup • 52, 73, 77
Destination • 52, 115
Hardware • 24, 27, 31, 33, 219
Source • 52, 115
O Obtaining TCP/IP Settings Automatically •
270
Offline Management • 308
Operations Inside Container • 123
Operations on Containers • 32
Organization of This Guide • 15
OS Virtualization • 22
Overview • 87, 132, 278
P PAE • See Physical Addessing Extensions
Parallels Agent • 27, 314
Parallels Infrastructure Management Overview
• 29
Parallels Infrastructure Manager • 14, 29
Parallels Management Console
overview • 14, 27
restrictions • 28
updating • 312
Parallels Management Console Overview • 27
Parallels Management Console Restrictions •
28
Parallels Power Panel • 14, 30
Password
changing • 118, 124
Container • 124
setting • 35
Physical Addessing Extensions • 321
Planning Your VUS Deployment • 182
Plesk • 26, 156, 308
Preface • 11
Problems With Container Management • 318
Processes • 245, 246, 247, 248
Q QoS Scheduler • 147
Index
R RAM • See memory
RDP • 44, 47
Registry • 19, 23, 32, 115, 308
Reinstalling Container • 311
Remote Desktop Connection • 47
Removing Disk Drive From Container • 299
Replaying Information From Logs • 226
Resource Management • 23
Resources
CPU • 140
disk space • 137, 138, 139
memory • 137, 145
monitoring • 219, 230, 231
Virtuozzo • 137
Windows Server 2003 • 147
Restoring Container Files • 71
Restoring Group of Containers • 73
Restoring Single Container • 69
Running Reports • 197
S Saving and Uploading Configuration Sample
to/from Local Computer • 165
Saving Counters Configuration • 225
Scaling Container Configuration Sample • 167
Scheduling Container Backups • 78
Searching for Container • 105
Searching for Container Backups • 77
Server
dedicated • 19
physical • 18, 19, 24
stand-alone • 18, 22, 32
Service Container • 27, 33, 308
Services • 245, 246, 247, 251
Setting Container Name • 119
Setting Default Backup Location • 56
Setting Default Backup Parameters • 53
Setting Maximal Backup Number for Parallels
Power Panel • 85
Setting Up Disk Space Quota • 138
Setting Up Local VUS Server • 181
Setting Up Local WSUS Server • 177
Shrinking Container Virtual Disks • 305
SOAP • 28
Software
virtualization • 14
Virtuozzo Containers • 24, 171, 172, 176,
201
Specifying Default Backup Type • 59
Starting, Stopping, and Querying Status of
Container • 43
335
Storing Extended Information on Container •
120
Submitting Problem Report to Technical
Support • 324
Subnet • 33, 109
Subnet Mask • 35, 109
Subscribing to Parallels Management Console
Alerts • 231
Synchronizing VUS Server With Virtuozzo
Update Center • 186
T Template
application • 23, 26
OS (Operating System) • 19, 23, 24, 26
Templates • 23
Terminal Services • 44, 47, 48, 318
Terminal Services Client • 47
Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers •
235
Top Disk Space Consuming Containers • 239
Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers •
241
Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers •
243
Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers
• 237
Transferring License to Another Node • 206
Troubleshooting • 318
Turning On and Off Network Bandwidth
Management • 153
U Understanding Licensing • 202
Understanding Templates • 26
Update
Virtuozzo • 171, 172
Windows Server 2003 • 171, 176
Updating Parallels Management Console • 312
Updating Virtuozzo Containers Software • 172
Updating Virtuozzo License • 205
Updating Windows Server 2003 • 176
Uploading Files to Container • 128
Uploading Files to Node • 212
User
Container • 22, 123, 124
domain • 18, 19, 124
Using BrightStor ARCserve for Creating
Container Backups • 100
Using Charts Representation • 220
Using EMC NetWorker For Creating
Container Backups • 96
Using NTBACKUP for Creating Container
Backups • 103
Index
Using Parallels Management Console to
Manage Processes • 248
Using Symantec Backup Exec For Creating
Container Backups • 88
Using Table Representation • 228
Using Task Manager to Control Processes •
250
Using Third-Party Backup Software • 87
Using Tivoli Storage Manager For Creating
Container Backups • 93
Utilities
backup management • 28
license management • 203
migration management • 115
V Viewing Allocated IP Addresses • 217
Viewing Network Traffic Statistics • 152
Viewing Network Traffic Summary • 229
Viewing System and Virtuozzo Logs • 230
Viewing Updates Information • 191
Viewing Virtuozzo License • 208
Virtual Private Network • 328
Virtualization
operating system • 22
Virtuozzo Applications • 19
Virtuozzo Containers
installing • 14, 32
parameters • 315
Support Tunnel • 328
technology • 18, 19, 22, 23, 24
Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit Processors
• 20
Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy • 18
Virtuozzo File System • 22
Virtuozzo File System (VZFS) • 22
Virtuozzo License Expiration • 210
Virtuozzo License Statuses • 209
Virtuozzo Server License
expiring • 210
installing • 203
overview • 202
Virtuozzo Update Services • 172
VPN • See Virtual Private Network
VUS • See Virtuozzo Update Services
VZFS • See Virtuozzo File System
W What Are Services and Processes • 246
What is Container • 19
What is Virtuozzo Containers • 18
Windows File Sharing • 44, 48
Windows Server 2003 • 24, 176, 202, 318, 321
X XML • 27
336