USER`S Manual - Avalon Instruments

M-uno
Single Arm Mount
(Made in Italy)
USER’S Manual
Version 1.6.3 November 2015
All the pictures and contents included here are propriety of AVALON INSTRUMENTS They cannot be reproduced,
published, copied or transmitted in any way, including the internet, without the written permission of
AVALON INSTRUMENTS
SAFETY STANDARDS AND WARNINGS

Read carefully the manual before installing and using the mount.

Use the power cable supplied with the mount or a 12V- 3A stabilized power
supply as suggested in the manual.

Connect the power cable correctly and securely to the power socket.

Do not bend, pull or press the cable as this may damage it.

For any assistance or repair, please contact only the manufacturer.

Be sure to remove the power supply at the end of its use or before any cleaning
or maintenance.

This mount must be used exclusively by adults, do not allow use to children or
to people with reduced mental capacity.

Avoid to operate the mount except as strictly indicated in the manual.

Modifying or altering in any way the characteristics of the mount, will void the
manufacturer’s limited warranty.

Never modify the tension of the belts (by dedicated screw), these is set in the
factory and any unauthorized change will void the manufacturer’s limited
warranty.

After using it, avoid to store the mount in areas exposed to sunlight or in wet
places.
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Summary
M-uno....................................................................................................................1
Technical Specification.......................................................................................4
Forewords.............................................................................................................6
Packing Content...................................................................................................6
1.M-uno Initial Starting Setup.............................................................................6
1.1. Latitude range setting.......................................................................................................7
1.2 Tripod Preparation..............................................................................................................9
1.2.1 Baader AHT tripod plate mounting...................................................................................9
1.2.3 EQ6 tripod plate mounting.............................................................................................10
1.3 Mount installation on tripod.............................................................................................10
1.4 telescope installation........................................................................................................11
2.Telescope Balancing Operations...................................................................13
2.1 Declination axis balancing...............................................................................................13
2.2 Right Ascention Balancing..............................................................................................14
2.3 M-uno mount stationing...................................................................................................15
2.3.1 Latitude Fine Adjustment................................................................................................15
2.3.2 Azimuth Regulation........................................................................................................16
3Precise Polar Alignment..................................................................................17
3.1 Polar Alignment kit installation.......................................................................................17
3.2 Polar alignment with a Skywatcher polar scope...........................................................17
3.3 Polar Alignment with a Losmandy polar scope.............................................................19
3.4 External programs for Polar Finding..............................................................................19
APPENDIX A.......................................................................................................21
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Technical Specification
Type of mount
Single Arm Equatorial Fast-Reverse
Head weight
14,9 kg (32.8 lb)
Maximum load
20 kg (44 lb) for photographic use, 25 kg for visual
Motion System
Four-step reducer via pulley-tooth belt system on ball bearing,
with no play on both the axes
Periodical Error
Mean +/- 5-7"
Construction Material
Anodized aluminum, worked out from single blocks with high
precision CNC machines
Transmission System
Pulleys made with special glass fiber polymer and high
precision tooth belts
RA Axis
Heavy duty steel, diam. 35mm; 2 conical roller bearings, diam.
62mm + 1 roller bearing diam. 72mm + 2 roller bearing diam.
45mm – On bearings clatch system
DEC Axis
Heavy duty steel, diam. 35mm; 2 conical roller bearings, diam.
62mm + 1 roller bearing diam. 72mm + 1 roller bearing diam.
45mm – On bearings clutch system
Polar Scope
Skywatcher (optionally Losmandy)
Control System
Avalon StarGO goto system
Dovetail Plate
Losmandy, 3" (75mm), dovetail, single knob with 2 tightening
points
Warranty
2 years from the purchase date, extended to 5 years for the
transmission system
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The following drawing reports the M-Uno mount dimensional characteristics. Dimensions are in
mm.
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Forewords
This manual helps to properly setting
up the Avalon M-uno equatorial
mount on a tripod and the installation
of the telescope on the dovetail.
We suggest to read carefully this
manual for a safety using of the
mount, for having the maximum
satisfaction.
NOTE: The images shown in this
manual can refer to an early version
of the mount. The product may
change without notice, as our goal is
always to offer the best product to
our customers, constantly considering their feedback and suggestions.
Packing Content
Open the big box containing the mount and take all the components out, putting them on a
clean, flat surface..
Containt of the upper part of the box
Containt of the bottom part of the box
Component List
Car lighter power cable
Counterweight with support shaft
125/240 VAC / 12 VDC power supply with related
cable
StarGO control Keypad.
Keypad connection cable
Metric Hexagonal key set
Mount Transport Handle
Mount head with tripod plate and dovetail
platform, including the StarGO control system
USB pen drive containing all needed software and
manuals
Polar finder and illuminator led kit
Mount transport case
Fixing screws
Documentation, warranty certificate
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1.
M-uno Starting Setup
The M-uno is shipped set in factory to work at latitude values in the range 32° - 55°. To use it
outside this standard range, please read point 1.1.
It is strongly recommended to use the M-uno mount with our T-pod tripod that has been
designed to guarantee the maximum performances. In case of use of different kind of tripod it
must have dimensions and characteristics compatible with the mount weight and with the
astronomical load to be installed. At point 1.2 you can find some compatible tripod models.
In the following sections, the operations to set the correct range of latitude of the mount will be
described in detail. Furthermore also the operations to mount the M-uno on the tripod and how
to install the telescope on the M-uno will be also described together to the criteria to be
followed to choose a suitable telescope.
1.1. Latitude range setting
The latitude range setting must be performed before to install the mount on the tripod.
The M-uno can be used in a wide interval of latitude starting from about 15° to 70°. This
interval is subdivided into three sub-ranges as follows:
First range
15° --- 40°
Second range
32° --- 55°
Third range
45° --- 70°
As you can note, the three ranges are partially overlapped. The choose shall be done
maximizing the distance between the latitude of the observation site and the closed range
border. For example, if the site latitude is 53° is better to choose the third range because it as
8° distance whereas the second range closed border distance is only 2°.
The steps needed for setting the more suitable operating range are the following:
Unscrew the screws (1) and (2) under the
base
.
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Unscrew the screws from (1) to (4) on the
side plate
Remove the plate
Unscrew the two screws on the brass
contrast plug.
Screw back the brass plug using the couple
of holes 1, 2 or 3 corresponding to the
latitude range with the same ordinal (the
mount is factory shipped in position 2).
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Screw the plate back in position using the
four screws previously removed. Screw also
back the two screws under the mount base.
1.2
Tripod plate assembling
The plate for fixing the mount on the tripod comes with the mount and must be assembled on
the tripod using the following instructions.
The plate comes already provided with the correct holes for most of the tripods available on the
market as shown in the following instrucions.
1.2.1 Avalon T-pod
Place the plate on the top of the tripod and
rotate it to bring the brass contrast aligned with
one of the leg. This leg will be called “North
Leg” because it must be pointed to the North.
Fix the plate with the 3 screws that comes with
the mount.
1.2.2 Geoptik
Before fixing the plate on the tripod it is
needed to remove the existing contrast peg
letting free the hole for the plate fixing. Place
and rotate the plate to make this hole aligned
to one of the flaring holes in the plate. Fix the
plate by using the two provided flaring screws.
Be aware to fix the brass contrast with the
North leg.
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1.2.3 EQ6
The plate assembling on a EQ6 tripod is very
similar to the Geoptic tripod. Before fixing the
plate on the tripod it is needed to remove the
existing contrast peg. Place and rotate the
plate aligning the two flaring holes with the two
trhreated holes on the top of the tripod. Screw
the provided flaring screws in this holes taking
care to align the brass contrast with the North
leg.
Avalon Instrument may provide mounting plates for other types of tripod as an optional item.
1.3
Fixing the mount on the tripod
Unscrew few turns the contrast screws by
rotating the knobs for the azimuth regulation.
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Put the mount on the base plate, so that the
brass contrast plug, coming out from the plate,
will fit in the proper space between the two
contrast screws.
Screw the azimuth regulation knobs until the
screws will touch the brass plug.
Firmly screw the three fixing screws provided of
plastic knob in three two lateral holes to keep
the mount well in position.
Note: During the azimuth regulation for the
polar alignment, these three screws must be
not completely screwed to allow the mount
rotation against the base and, at the end, firmly
screwed again.
1.4
Telescope installation
The following point after the mount installation on the tripod should be that of the telescope
installlation. However, due the M-uno architecture, the polar axis can be obstructed by the tube
or by the optional extension cylinder used for mounting longer refractors. A solution to this
problem can be provided by an optional accessory to mount the polar scope on the side of the
mount making also free the original polar scope hole. This solution allows also to use this hole
for the passing through of the several electrical and control cables using especially for the
astrophotography.
Therefore, the next step should be the accurate polar alignment but, being it a topic that falls
outside the mount mechanical setup, it is postponed to a specific section which will be
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particularly deeper.
This section instead will deal with the telescope installation, operation very simple even if very
delicate, assuming that the mount has been already precisely aligned to the pole.
To mount the optical assembly on the M-uno it is necessary that it is provided of Losmandy
type, 75 mm male dovetail bar.
Remove the mount transport handle (if
installed) and bring the mount arm in the
position showed on the left picture, unlock the
declination knob and rotate the axis until the
female dovetail plate will be horizontal. Firmly
lock both the axis knobs. Open the mount
dovetail clamp by rotating its own knob.
Firmly take the OTA and insert its male
dovetail plate on the female, putting the side
closer to the ground first.
While keeping the telescope with the hands
rotate the plastic knob of the mount dovetail
clamp, as shown in the right picture, until it is
firmly locked. Before to leave the telescope,
be sure it has been correctly fixed by
examining
the
contact
between
the
female/male dovetails.
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2.
Telescope Balancing Operations
To correctly balance the telescope it must be freely moveable in both axis. The M-uno is
provided of lock levers on both axis. To manually move the telescope turn the levers in anticlockwise direction, unlocking the axis.
If the instrument is not yet balanced, especially in the DEC axis, be very careful and be sure to
have the control of your telescope before to release the locking levers. A tube very unbalanced
can move very quickly causing potential damages to the mount or to the tube itself.
2.1
Declination axis balancing
To obtain the best tracking performances from the mount, the telescope must be balanced on
both axes.
Even if the telescope does not track in Declination, it must be balanced on this axis too, to
avoid sudden movements when the declination knob is unlocked and, especially, to provide no
vibrations and a quick response while guiding. In M-uno mount it is better to start balancing the
CED axis rather than the AR, since the latter is almost auto-balanced with any telescope.
Telescope balancing in DEC:
Move the arm of the mount in the equilibrium
position, as seen in the left image, and lock the
RA axis knob.
Loosen the DEC knob and move the telescope
parallel to the ground as seen in left picture.
Release the tube SLOWLY and CAREFULLY –
to see in which direction it will possibly move
around the DEC axis.
Loose the clamp keeping the OTA and move
the tube back or forth, depending on its
movement, in order to balance it. When the
tube will not move, with the DEC knob
unlocked, the balancing will be done. Do NOT leave the telescope while the dovetail clamp is
loose, always lock the clamp before checking the balance with the new tube position!
Tighten the dovetail clamp to firmly lock the telescope tube in its new position.
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2.2
Right Ascention Balancing
The balance system of M-uno mount is different respect the other German Equatorial Mounts,
but it is quite easy to set.
The balance is performed in two phases, one approximated and the other refined.
Approximate Balancing
To approximate balancing must be performed
without the telescope on the mount.
Put the arm of the mount parallel to the ground
as seen on the left picture
Unscrew the “E” screws on both lateral flanges
and loosen the D screws just on the upper side
to allow the sliding of the arm.
The picture on the right reveals the holes that
allow to change the position of the arm, and
then change the balancing of the system
(despite what showed in the picture, you don’t
need to remove the lateral flange in order to
achieve the balancing).
The position 1 identifies the greatest distance
of the axis and it is used for greater diameter
optics, while position 3 is suitable for small
(and therefore lighter) OTAs.
Position B allow to further increase the
distance, but this is advisable only for large
diameter OTAs (for instance: Celestron C11)
because it is necessary to remove
completely the lateral shafts.
The table on the left shows the change in
vertical distance in millimeters between the
dovetail and the polar axis as a function of
the clams choosen (position A2 = 25.5 mm
is set by standard, suitable for many
catadioptric OTAs)
Warning: do not use different screws than those supplied or a serious damage of the
gear system may occur!!
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Fine balancing
Once the mount arm has been set in the correct position for an approximate balancing, fix all
screws an, if deemed necessary, perform the fine balancing. This is performed by mounting the
provided small shaft with a female dovetail in the specific male dovetail as shown in the
previous pictures. Insert the counterweight in the shaft and sliding it in the equilibrium position.
At the end firmly screws the counterweigth locking knob and the shaft end knob. Of course all
the fine balancing operations shall be performed with the telescope installed.
NOTE: It must be underlined that the M-uno does not need the small unbalance, as done with
traditional mounts based on gear-worm technology that need to be slightly unbalanced to avoid
any unwanted, pendulum-like behaviour, while crossing the meridian. This difference, due to
the tooth-belt transmission technology, is a big benefit because, once the M-uno is balanced,
the counterweights do not need to be moved anymore and this can be appreciated during long
exposures and remote observing sessions.
2.3
M-uno mount stationing
2.3.1
Latitude Fine Adjustment
Before to use the M-uno it is needed to make its polar axis parallel to the earth rotation axis.
The first operation to be performed –
after a good leveling of the mount base
– consist on approximately setting the
polar axis at an angle equivalent to the
latitude of the observation site (for
example Rome is about 42°, Milan and
Venice 45° and Palermo 38°) using the
two latitude regulation knobs, using the
scale on the side of the mount.
During this operation the mount arm
must be kept in its equilibrium position
with the counterweight down as shown
on the right.
The latitude regulation must be performed using
both hands: while screwing the front knob the
other one shall be unscrewed and vice-versa.
To increase the latitude (i.e. rise the polar axis)
the rear knob must be screwed in clockwise
direction while the front one is rotated in counterclockwise direction. The contrary to lower the axis.
NOTE: it is generally better to perform the fine
latitude operations in contrast to the gravity force,
i. e. raising the mount.
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2.3.2
Azimuth Regulation
Even the azimuth regulation is performed
using other two regulation screws
contrasting the brass pin.
The regulation is done using both hands:
when a knob is rotated in one direction the
other is rotated in the opposite direction.
This results that both knobs are rotated
simultaneously toward the operator or viceversa. The azimuth regulation knobs are
those positioned on both sides of the
mount as seen in the right picture.
Remember that the mount setup in both
Latitude and Azimuth must be performed
only before to start the observation of photographs session, during the important phase of the
precise polar alignment. Once the polar alignment has been reached, THE MOUNT MUST
NOT BE MOVED FOR ANY REASON USING ALTITUDE OR AZIMUTH KNOBS. The
telescope pointing will be performed only moving the mount in Right Ascension and
Declination, using the keypad or the software commands.
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3
3.1
Accurate Polar Alignment
Polar Alignment kit installation
The mount precise polar alignment should be performed using the polar scope.
As previously highlighted, to perform a precise polar alignment it is needed to install the
provided polar kit, which is composed by:


Polar scope support with fixing knobs and dovetail bar.
Polar scope with circular graduated scale
The M-zero mount is shipped with a Skywatcher
type polar scope (however it is possible for the
user to choose a Losmandy polar telescope as
an option).
To use the polar scope it is necessary to install
it on the lateral dovetail bar.
To mount and adjust the polar cope perform the
following operations:

Mount the polar scope support (1) on the
dovetail bar and tight the fixing knob (2).
Insert the polar scope (3) in the support
hole.
Adjust the polar scope centering using
the regulation and centering knobs (4) by
rotating the mount arm around the DEC
axis and verifying the cross remain
pointed on a fixed terrestrial object (pole,
TV antenna, etc). Regulate until the
centering is reached.


3.2
Polar alignment with a Skywatcher polar scope
Looking through this scope, with the reticle well
lighted internally, it is possible to see a reticle layout
similar to that on the right.
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As the Polaris is several tens of seconds
far away from the Celestial Pole and
therefore it appears to orbit around the
pole at a given distance, making a full
orbit, every 24 hours. The bigger circle in
the reticle shows the Polaris orbit and the
small one, with the name of the star,
represents the position of the Polaris. The
problem here is to turn the reticle around
the small cross in the center, to put the
small circle in the position where the
Polaris is seen from a given observation
site, at a specified date and time. In the
past this position was obtained using
several types of graduated circular scales.
The Avalon mounts are not provided of
these scales.
Presently the most suitable method to get
the exact Polaris position is the use of one
of the several computer programs or
mobile devices applications, both for Apple iOS or Android as, for example, “Scope Help” for
iOS or “Polar Finder” for Android. These programs, that provide the Polaris position both
visually and in the hour form, are briefly described in section 3.3.3.
Once the Polaris position has been determined and the telescope has been mounted with the
contrast blocks oriented to the North (see section 2.1) the following operation are needed:







Untight the DEC latch and rotate the axis until the hole in the axis is in the front of the
polar scope, allowing it to see the sky and the Polaris in the field of view. Tight the DEC
latch in this position.
Untight the RA latch and consequently the polar scope until the small circle in the reticle
is in the position indicated by the used application. Tight the RA latch in this position. It is
possible to have a small help verifying that the position of the figures of the Big Dipper
and Cassiopeia roughly correspond to the real position in the sky.
Untight slightly the two screws that fix the mount to the tripod to allow the mount base to
rotate respect to the tripod mounting plate.
Acting on the two azimuth regulation knobs bring the Polaris under or over the small
circle. Acting on the two altitude regulation knobs bring the Polaris inside the small
circle.
Repeat this operation until the Polaris is centered in the circle.
Tight the Azimuth and Altitude knobs against the contrast blocks.
Firmly tight the screw that lock the mount movement respect to the tripod.
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3.3
Polar Alignment with the Losmandy polar scope
The Losmandy polar scope allows a more precise alignment because it is based upon the
coincidence of three stars (Polaris,  UMi e OV Cep) position with the correspondent locations
in the scope reticle which has the following aspect:
The dotted axes shall be neglected because they belong to the Southern Hemisphere.
The alignment operations with this kind of polar scope are the following:
Untight the DEC latch and rotate the axis until the hole in the axis is in the front of the polar
scope, allowing it to see the sky. Tight the DEC latch in this position.
Untight the RA latch and consequently the polar scope until the axis in the reticle with the slot
for the Polaris (well indicated in the reticle) is roughly oriented in the position indicated by the
used application.
Act alternatively on the Azimuth and Altitude regulation knobs and on the reticle rotation until
the three stars are exactly located in the respective slots. In the three axes. Take into
consideration that the position in the slots varies depending on the year. The four slots for two
of the axes are related to the observation years reported in the border of the reticle.
When the three star are correctly positioned in the slots tight the Altitude and Azimuth knobs
against the respective contrast blocks and, at the end, firmly tight the screw that lock the mount
movement respect to the tripod.
Note: In case of difficulty to correct orientate the constellation in the right position it is possible
to have the help of the PC, smartphone or tablet applications to perform the initial orientation of
the Polaris axis.
3.4
External programs for Polar Finding
“Polar Align” Ver. 4.0 is a iOS app running on Apple’s iPhones and iPADs. This program uses
the internal GPS to evaluate the geographical coordinates of the observation site to calculate
the exact position of the Polaris Star around the celestial North Pole. It provides also some
additional information that can be useful for a correct telescope setup.
The Polaris position is represented by a yellow small circle on a larger circular reticulum. To
effectively use this app it is needed to evaluate the angle under which is the Polaris and rotate
the polar scope reticle of the same angle to bring the Polaris circle in the correct position. It
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should be noted that the reticle reproduce exactly the type of optical inversion caused by the
polar scope optics.
For the Android environment, for both smartphone and tablet of different brands, it is available,
among others, the “Polar Finder” app that, on the contrary of the iOS app, reproduce with a
good fidelity the reticula of the polar scope (provided with the M-zero and of the Losmandy
available as an option. This app is characterized by a particularly complete setup form to define
the Northern or Southern Hemisphere, the type of reticle to use among the more commons,
including those available for the M-zero.
The three following figures represent the setup, Polarscope and Losmandy reticle screenshots.
This app also takes the observation site geographical coordinates from the internal GPS if
available, otherwise it is needed to manually insert them, for the Android devices not provided
of GPS. The additional information provided by the app are similar to those provided by the
iOS app but the reticula are more easily usable being them similar tho those available for the
M-zero.
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APPENDIX A
Astrophotography Tips
This is a fast step by step guide which requires about 20-30 minutes of operation and is
dedicated to the imagers which already have some skill with telescope imaging. It allows to
take astronomical images easily with your telescope setup, particularly if you use a color
ccd camera (also a DRLs camera).
For those who have no skill at all in astronomical telescope imaging we suggest to
purchase some dedicated books and also subscribe to the several forum available on the
web.
Mount and Tripod Assembly
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Setup the tripod and using a compass make sure it is well placed on the ground.
Set the mount head on the tripod and fix it using the three supplied knobs.
Level the tripod using the level enclosed on the mount base.
Insert the counterweight kit
Set with safety the OTA and the guide scope (if available) on the mount.
Insert the imaging and guiding ccd into the telescope.
Connect all cables (CCD cable, usb cable & power cable without powering on).
Balance carefully both RA and Declination axis.
System Startup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Setup a table with the laptop.
Connect the cables to your laptop and power it on.
Power on the StarGo System.
Perform the polar alignment as previously described.
Execute the alignment on a star next to the target object.
Pointing and images parameter setting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Set the correct focus of both the imaging and guiding systems.
Point the object you to want to image using the telescope keypad or PC software.
Center the object inside the CCD camera field according to the frame you want to acquire.
Make sure that at least one star of adequate brightness appears into the guiding CCD field.
NOTE: set the "AUTOGUIDING SPEED" to a low value (suggested 0,10 / 0,20x).
Perform the guiding CCD system calibration.
Activate the guiding system and optimize the parameters while observing the trend of the
graph.
Set the final parameters for sensitivity, exposure, binning, file name, number of exposures
etc. etc.
Start the session.
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