Chapter 17, CE-100T-8 Ethernet Operation

C H A P T E R
17
CE-100T-8 Ethernet Operation
This chapter covers the operation of the CE-100T-8 (Carrier Ethernet) card supported on the ONS
15310-CL and ONS 15310-MA (15310-CE-100T-8). A CE-100T-8 card is also supported on the ONS
15454 (15454-CE-100T-8). Provisioning is done through Cisco Transport Controller (CTC) or
Transaction Language One (TL1). Cisco IOS is not supported on the CE-100T-8 card.
For Ethernet card specifications, refer to the Cisco ONS 15310-CL and Cisco ONS 15310-MA Reference
Manual. For step-by-step Ethernet card circuit configuration procedures and hard-reset and soft-reset
procedures, refer to the Cisco ONS 15310-CL and Cisco ONS 15310-MA Procedure Guide. Refer to the
Cisco ONS SONET TL1 Command Guide for TL1 provisioning commands. For specific details on
ONS 15310-CL and ONS 15310-MA Ethernet card interoperability with other ONS platforms, refer to
the “POS on ONS Ethernet Cards” chapter of the Ethernet Card Software Feature and Configuration
Guide for the Cisco ONS 15454, Cisco ONS 15454 SDH, and Cisco ONS 15327.
Chapter topics include:
•
CE-100T-8 Overview, page 17-1
•
CE-100T-8 Ethernet Features, page 17-2
•
CE-100T-8 SONET Circuits and Features, page 17-6
CE-100T-8 Overview
The CE-100T-8 is a Layer 1 mapper card with eight 10/100 Ethernet ports. It maps each port to a unique
SONET circuit in a point-to-point configuration. Figure 17-1 illustrates a sample CE-100T-8
application. In this example, data traffic from the Fast Ethernet port of a switch travels across the
point-to-point circuit to the Fast Ethernet port of another switch.
Figure 17-1
CE-100T-8 Point-to-Point Circuit
ONS 15310-CL
Point-to-Point Circuit
Ethernet
115797
Ethernet
ONS 15310-CL
The CE-100T-8 cards allow you to provision and manage an Ethernet private line service like a
traditional SONET line. CE-100T-8 card applications include providing Ethernet private line services
and high-availability transport. It supports ITU-T G.707 and Telcordia GR-253 based standards for
SONET.
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CE-100T-8 Ethernet Operation
CE-100T-8 Ethernet Features
The CE-100T-8 offers full TL1-based provisioning capability. Refer to the Cisco ONS SONET TL1
Command Guide for CE-100T-8 TL1 provisioning commands.
CE-100T-8 Ethernet Features
The CE-100T-8 card has eight front-end Ethernet ports which use standard RJ-45 connectors for
10BASE-T Ethernet/100BASE-TX Ethernet media. Ethernet Ports 1 through 8 each map to a POS port
with a corresponding number. The console port on the CE-100T-8 card is not functional.
The CE-100T-8 cards forward valid Ethernet frames unmodified over the SONET network. Information
in the headers is not affected by the encapsulation and transport. For example, included IEEE 802.1Q
information will travel through the process unaffected.
The ONS 15454 CE-100T-8 and the ONS 15310 CE-100T-8 support maximum Ethernet frame sizes of
1600 bytes including the CRC. The MTU size is not configureable and is set at a 1500 byte maximum
(standard Ethernet MTU). Baby giant frames in which the standard Ethernet frame is augmented by
802.1 Q tags or MPLS tags are also supported. Full Jumbo frames (9000 byte maximum) are not
supported.
The CE-100T-8 cards discard certain types of erroneous Ethernet frames rather than transport them over
SONET. Erroneous Ethernet frames include corrupted frames with cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
errors and undersized frames that do not conform to the minimum 64-byte length Ethernet standard.
Note
Many Ethernet attributes are also available through the network element default feature. For more
information on NE defaults, refer to the "Network Element Defaults" appendix in the Cisco ONS 15454
Reference Manual.
Autonegotiation, Flow Control, and Frame Buffering
On the CE-100T-8, Ethernet link autonegotiation is on by default. The user can also set the link speed,
duplex, and flow control manually under the card-level Provisioning tab of CTC.
The CE-100T-8 supports IEEE 802.3x flow control and frame buffering to reduce data traffic congestion.
Flow control is on by default.
To prevent over-subscription, buffer memory is available for each port. When the buffer memory on the
Ethernet port nears capacity, the CE-100T-8 uses IEEE 802.3x flow control to transmit a pause frame to
the attached Ethernet device. Flow control and autonegotiation frames are local to the Fast Ethernet
interfaces and the attached Ethernet devices. These frames do not continue through the POS ports.
The CE-100T-8 card has symmetric flow control and proposes symmetric flow control when
autonegotiating flow control with attached Ethernet devices. Symmetric flow control allows the
CE-100T-8 cards to respond to pause frames sent from external devices and to send pause frames to
external devices.
The pause frame instructs the source to stop sending packets for a specific period of time. The sending
station waits the requested amount of time before sending more data. Figure 17-2 illustrates pause
frames being sent and received by CE-100T-8 cards and attached switches.
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CE-100T-8 Ethernet Features
Flow Control
ONS 15310-CL
ONS 15310-CL
STS-N
Ethernet
Ethernet
SONET
Pause Frames
Pause Frames
115795
Figure 17-2
This flow-control mechanism matches the sending and receiving device throughput to that of the
bandwidth of the STS circuit. For example, a router might transmit to the Ethernet port on the CE-100T-8
card. This particular data rate might occasionally exceed 51.84 Mbps, but the SONET circuit assigned
to the CE-100T-8 port might be only STS-1 (51.84 Mbps). In this example, the CE-100T-8 sends out a
pause frame and requests that the router delay its transmission for a certain period of time. With flow
control and a substantial per-port buffering capability, a private line service provisioned at less than full
line rate capacity (STS-1) is efficient because frame loss can be controlled to a large extent.
Ethernet Link Integrity Support
The CE-100T-8 supports end-to-end Ethernet link integrity (Figure 17-3). This capability is integral to
providing an Ethernet private line service and correct operation of Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols on the
attached Ethernet devices.
End-to-end Ethernet link integrity means that if any part of the end-to-end path fails, the entire path fails.
It disables the Ethernet port on the CE-100T-8 card if the remote Ethernet port is unable to transmit over
the SONET network or if the remote Ethernet port is disabled.
Failure of the entire path is ensured by turning off the transmit pair at each end of the path. The attached
Ethernet devices recognize the disabled transmit pair as a loss of carrier and consequently an inactive
link or link fail.
End-to-End Ethernet Link Integrity Support
Ethernet port
Ethernet port
ONS 310
STS-N
Rx
ONS 310
Rx
Tx
Tx
115796
Figure 17-3
SONET
Note
Some network devices can be configured to ignore a loss of carrier condition. If a device configured to
ignore a loss of carrier condition attaches to a CE-100T-8 card at one end, alternative techniques (such
as use of Layer 2 or Layer 3 keep-alive messages) are required to route traffic around failures. The
response time of such alternate techniques is typically much longer than techniques that use link state as
indications of an error condition.
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CE-100T-8 Ethernet Features
Enhanced State Model for Ethernet and SONET Ports
The CE-100T-8 supports the Enhanced State Model (ESM) for the Ethernet ports, as well as for the
SONET circuit. For more information about the ESM, see the “Enhanced State Model” appendix in the
ONS 15310-CL and ONS 1310-MA Reference Manual.
The Ethernet ports can be set to the ESM service states including the In-Service, Automatic In-Service
(IS,AINS) administrative state. IS,AINS initially puts the port in the Out-of-Service and Autonomous,
Automatic In-Service (OOS-AU,AINS) state. In this service state, alarm reporting is suppressed, but
traffic is carried and loopbacks are allowed. After the soak period passes, the port changes to In-Service
and Normal (IS-NR). Raised fault conditions, whether their alarms are reported or not, can be retrieved
on the CTC Conditions tab or by using the TL1 RTRV-COND command.
Two Ethernet port alarms/conditions, CARLOSS and TPTFAIL, can prevent the port from going into
service. This occurs even though alarms are suppressed when a CE-100T-8 circuit is provisioned with
the Ethernet ports set to the IS,AINS state, because the CE-100T-8 link integrity function is active and
ensures that the links at both ends are not enabled until all SONET and Ethernet errors along the path
are cleared. As long as the link integrity function keeps the end-to-end path down, both ports will have
at least one of the two conditions needed to suppress the AINS-to-IS transition. Therefore, the ports will
remain in the AINS state with alarms suppressed.
ESM also applies to the SONET circuits of the CE-100T-8 card. If the SONET circuit is set up in
IS,AINS state and the Ethernet error occurs before the circuit transitions to IS, then link integrity will
also prevent the circuit transition to the IS state until the Ethernet port errors are cleared at both ends.
The service state will be OOS-AU,AINS as long as the administrative state is IS,AINS. When there are
no Ethernet or SONET errors, link integrity enables the Ethernet port at each end. Simultaneously, the
AINS countdown begins as normal. If no additional conditions occur during the time period, each port
transitions to the IS-NR state. During the AINS countdown, the soak time remaining is available in CTC
and TL1. The AINS soaking logic restarts from the beginning if a condition appears again during the
soak period.
A SONET circuit provisioned in the IS,AINS state remains in the initial Out-of-Service (OOS) state until
the Ethernet ports on each end of the circuit transition to the IS-NR state. The SONET circuit transports
Ethernet traffic and counts statistics when link integrity turns on the Ethernet port, regardless of whether
this AINS-to-IS transition is complete.
IEEE 802.1Q CoS and IP ToS Queuing
The CE-100T-8 references IEEE 802.1Q class of service (CoS) thresholds and IP type of service (ToS)
(IP Differentiated Services Code Point [DSCP]) thresholds for priority queueing. CoS and ToS thresholds
for the CE-100T-8 are provisioned on a per port level. This allows the user to provide priority treatment
based on open standard quality of service (QoS) schemes already existing in the data network attached
to the CE-100T-8. The QoS treatment is applied to both Ethernet and POS ports.
Any packet or frame with a priority greater than the set threshold is treated as priority traffic. This
priority traffic is sent to the priority queue instead of the normal queue. When buffering occurs, packets
on the priority queue preempt packets on the normal queue. This results in lower latency for the priority
traffic, which is often latency-sensitive traffic, such as VoIP.
Because these priorities are placed on separate queues, the priority queuing feature should not be used
to separate rate-based CIR/EIR marked traffic (sometimes done at a Metro Ethernet service provider
edge). This could result in out-of-order packet delivery for packets of the same application, which would
cause performance issues with some applications.
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CE-100T-8 Ethernet Features
For an IP ToS-tagged packet, the CE-100T-8 can map any of the 256 priorities specified in IP ToS to
priority or best effort. The user can configure a different ToS on CTC at the card-level view under the
Provisioning > Ether Ports tabs. Any ToS class higher than the class specified in CTC is mapped to the
priority queue, which is the queue geared towards low latency. By default, the ToS is set to 255, which
is the highest ToS value. This results in all traffic being treated with equal priority by default.
Table 17-3 shows which values are mapped to the priority queue for sample IP ToS settings. (ToS
settings span the full 0 to 255 range, but only selected settings are shown.)
Table 17-1
IP ToS Priority Queue Mappings
ToS Setting in CTC
ToS Values Sent to Priority Queue
255 (default)
None
250
251–255
150
151–255
100
101–255
50
51–255
0
1–255
For a CoS-tagged frame, the CE-100T-8 can map the eight priorities specified in CoS to priority or best
effort. The user can configure a different CoS on CTC at the card-level view under the Provisioning >
Ether Ports tabs. Any CoS class higher than the class specified in CTC is mapped to the priority queue,
which is the queue geared towards low latency. By default, the CoS is set to 7, which is the highest CoS
value. This results in all traffic being treated with equal priority by default.
Table 17-2 shows which values are mapped to the priority queue for CoS settings.
Table 17-2
CoS Priority Queue Mappings
CoS Setting in CTC CoS Values Sent to Priority Queue
7 (default)
none
6
7
5
6, 7
4
5, 6, 7
3
4, 5, 6, 7
2
3, 4, 5, 6, 7
1
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
0
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Ethernet frames without VLAN tagging use ToS-based priority queueing if both ToS and CoS priority
queueing is active on the card. The CE-100T-8 card’s ToS setting must be lower than 255 (default) and
the CoS setting lower than 7 (default) for CoS and ToS priority queueing to be active. A ToS setting of
255 (default) disables ToS priority queueing, so in this case the CoS setting would be used.
Ethernet frames with VLAN tagging use CoS-based priority queueing if both ToS and CoS are active on
the card. The ToS setting is ignored. CoS based priority queueing is disabled if the CoS setting is the 7
(default), so in this case the ToS setting would be used.
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CE-100T-8 SONET Circuits and Features
If the CE-100T-8 card’s ToS setting is 255 (default) and the CoS setting is 7 (default), priority queueing
is not active on the card, and data gets sent to the default normal traffic queue. Also if data is not tagged
with a ToS value or a CoS value before it enters the CE-100T-8 card, it gets sent to the default normal
traffic queue.
Note
Priority queuing has no effect when flow control is enabled (default) on the CE-100T-8. Under flow
control a 6 kilobyte single-priority first in first out (FIFO) buffer fills, then a PAUSE frame is sent. This
results in the packet ordering priority becoming the responsibility of the external device, which is
buffering as a result of receiving the PAUSE flow-control frames.
Note
Priority queuing has no effect when the CE-100T-8 is provisioned with STS-3C circuits. The STS-3c
circuit has more data capacity than Fast Ethernet, so CE-100T-8 buffering is not needed. Priority queuing
only takes effect when buffering occurs.
RMON and SNMP Support
The CE-100T-8 card features remote monitoring (RMON) that allows network operators to monitor the
health of the network with a network management system (NMS). The CE-100T-8 uses the ONG RMON.
The ONG RMON contains the statistics, history, alarms, and events MIB groups from the standard
RMON MIB, as well as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). A user can access RMON
threshold provisioning through TL1 or CTC. For RMON threshold provisioning with CTC, see the
Cisco ONS 15310-CL and Cisco ONS 15310-MA Procedure Guide and the Cisco ONS 15310-CL and
Cisco ONS 15310-MA Troubleshooting Guide. For TL1 information, see the Cisco ONS SONET TL1
Command Guide.
Statistics and Counters
The CE-100T-8 has a full range of Ethernet and POS statistics under Performance > Ether Ports or
Performance > POS Ports. These are detailed in the “Performance Monitoring” chapter of the Cisco
ONS 15310 Reference Manual.
CE-100T-8 SONET Circuits and Features
The CE-100T-8 has eight POS ports, numbered one through eight, which are exposed to management
with CTC or TL1. Each POS port is statically mapped to a matching Ethernet port. By clicking the
card-level Provisioning tab > POS Ports tab, the user can configure the Administrative State, Framing
Type, and Encapsulation Type. By clicking the card-level Performance tab > POS Ports tab, the user can
view the statistics, utilization, and history for the POS ports.
Available Circuit Sizes and Combinations
Each POS port terminates an independent contiguous SONET concatenation (CCAT) or virtual SONET
concatenation (VCAT). The SONET circuit is created for these ports through CTC or TL1 in the same
manner as a SONET circuit for a non-Ethernet line card. Table 17-3 shows the circuit sizes available for
the CE-100T-8 on the ONS 15310-CL and ONS 15310-MA.
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CE-100T-8 SONET Circuits and Features
Table 17-3
CE-100T-8 Supported Circuit Sizes
CCAT High Order
VCAT High Order
VCAT Low Order
STS-1
STS-1-1v
VT1.5-nV (n= 1 to 64)
STS-3c
STS-1-2v
STS-1-3v
A single circuit provides a maximum of 100 Mbps of throughput, even when an STS-3c circuit, which
has a bandwidth equivalent of 155 Mbps, is provisioned. This is due to the hardware restriction of the
Fast Ethernet port. A VCAT circuit is also restricted in this manner. Table 17-3 shows the minimum
SONET circuit sizes required for 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps wire speed service.
Table 17-4
SONET Circuit Size Required for Ethernet Wire Speeds
Ethernet Wire Speed CCAT High Order
VCAT High Order
VCAT Low Order
Line Rate 100BaseT STS-3c
STS-1-3v, STS-1-2v* Not applicable
Sub Rate 100BaseT
STS-1
STS-1-1v
VT1.5-xV (x=1-64)
Line Rate 10BaseT
STS-1
Not applicable
VT1.5-7V
Sub Rate 10BaseT
Not applicable
Not applicable
VT1.5-xV (x=1-6)
*STS-1-2v provides a total transport capacity of 98 Mbps.
The number of available circuits and total combined bandwidth for the CE-100T-8 depends on the
combination of circuit sizes configured. Table 17-5 shows the circuit size combinations available for
CE-100T-8 CCAT high-order circuits on the ONS 15310-CL and ONS 15310-MA. Table 17-6 shows the
circuit size combinations available for CE-100T-8 VCAT high-order circuits on the ONS 15310-CL and
ONS 15310-MA.
Table 17-5
CCAT High Order Circuit Size Combinations
Number of STS-3c Circuits
Maximum Number of STS-1 Circuits
None
6
1
3
2
None
Table 17-6
VCAT High Order Circuit Size Combinations
Number of STS-1-3v Circuits
Maximum Number of STS-1-2v Circuits
None
2
1
1
2
None
The CE-100T-8 supports up to eight low order VCAT circuits. The available circuit sizes are VT1.5-nv,
where n ranges from 1 to 64. The total number of VT members cannot exceed 168 VT1.5s with each of
the two pools on the card supporting 84 VT1.5s. The user can create a maximum of two circuits at the
largest low order VCAT circuit size, VT1.5-64v.
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A user can combine CCAT high order, VCAT high order, and VCAT low order circuits in any way as
long as there is a maximum of eight circuits and the mapper chip bandwidth restrictions are observed.
The following table details the maximum density service combinations.
Table 17-7
CE-100T-8 Maximum Service Densities
Service
Combination
STS-3c or
STS-1-3v
STS-1-2v
STS-1
VT1.5-xV (x=1-7)
Number of Active
Service
1
2
0
0
0
2
2
1
1
1
0
3
3
1
0
3
0
4
4
1
0
0
7(x=1-12)*
8*
5
0
2
2
0
4
6
0
1
1
6(x=1-14)
8
7
0
1
0
7(x=1-12)*
8*
8
0
0
6
0
6
9
0
0
3
5(x=1-16)
8
10
0
0
0
8 (x=1-21)
8
* This LO-VCAT Circuit combination is achievable if the first circuit created on the card is an LO VCAT circuit. If the first circuit
created on the card is HO-VCAT or CCAT STS circuits, then a maximum of six LO-VCAT circuits can be added on the card.
CE-100T-8 STS/VT Allocation Tab
The CE-100T-8 has two pools, each with a maximum capacity of three STSs. At the CTC card-level view
under the Maintenance tab, the STS/VT Allocation tab displays how the provisioned circuits populate
the two pools. This information can be useful in freeing up the bandwidth required for provisioning a
circuit, if there is not enough existing capacity on any one pool for provisioning the desired circuit. The
user can look at the distribution of the existing circuits among the two pools and decide which circuits
to delete in order to free up space for the desired circuit.
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CE-100T-8 STS/VT Allocation Tab
124894
Figure 17-4
Port 5 belongs to Pool 2
For example if a user needs to provision an STS-3c or STS-1-3v on the CE-100T-8 card shown in
Figure 17-4, an STS-3c or STS-1-3v worth of bandwidth is not available from either of the two pools.
The user needs to delete circuits from the same pool to free up bandwidth. If the bandwidth is available
but scattered among the pools, the circuit cannot be provisioned.
Looking at the POS Port Map table, the user can determine which circuits belong to which pools. The
Pool and Port columns in Figure 17-4 show that the circuit on port 5 is drawn from Pool 2, and no other
circuits are drawn from Pool 2. Deleting this one circuit will free up an STS-3c or STS-1-3v worth of
bandwidth from a single pool.
The POS Port table has a row for each port with three columns (Figure 17-4). They show the port
number, the circuit size and type, and the pool it is drawn from. The Pool Utilization table has two
columns and shows the pool number, the type of circuits on that pool, how much of the pool’s capacity
is being used, and whether additional capacity is available.
CE-100T-8 VCAT Characteristics
The ML-100T-8 card and the CE-100T-8 card (both the version for the ONS 15310-CL and
ONS 15310-MA and the version for the ONS 15454 SONET/SDH) have hardware-based support for the
ITU-T G.7042 standard link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS). This allows the user to dynamically
resize a high order or low order VCAT circuit through CTC or TL1 without affecting other members of
the VCG (errorless). ML-100T-8 LCAS support is high order only and is limited to a two member VCG.
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To enable end-to-end connectivity in a VCAT circuit that traverses through a third-party network, you
must create a server trail between the ports. For more details, refer to the "Create Circuits and VT
Tunnels" chapter in the Cisco ONS 15310-CL and Cisco ONS 15310-MA Procedure Guide.
The ONS 15454 SONET/SDH ML-Series card has a software-based LCAS (SW-LCAS) scheme. This
scheme is also supported by both the ML-100T-8 card and both versions of the CE-100T-8, but only for
circuits with the other end terminating on an ONS 15454 SONET/SDH ML-Series card.
The CE-100T-8 card allows independent routing and protection preferences for each member of a VCAT
circuit. The user can also control the amount of VCAT circuit capacity that is fully protected, unprotected
or if the circuit is on a bidirectional line switched ring (BLSR), uses protection channel access (PCA).
Alarms are supported on a per-member as well as per virtual concatenation group (VCG) basis.
Note
The maximum tolerable VCAT differential delay for the CE-100T-8 is 48 milliseconds. The VCAT
differential delay is the relative arrival time measurement between members of a virtual concatenation
group (VCG).
CE-100T-8 POS Encapsulation, Framing, and CRC
The CE-100T-8 uses Cisco EoS LEX (LEX). LEX is the primary encapsulation of ONS Ethernet cards.
In this encapsulation the protocol field is set to the values specified in Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) Request For Comments (RFC) 1841. The user can provision GPF-F framing (default) or
high-level data link control (HDLC) framing. With GFP-F framing, the user can also configure a 32-bit
CRC (the default) or no CRC (none). When LEX is used over GFP-F it is standard Mapped Ethernet over
GFP-F according to ITU-T G.7041. HDLC framing provides a set 32-bit CRC.
Figure 17-5 illustrates CE-100T-8 framing and encapsulation.
Figure 17-5
ONS CE-100T-8 Encapsulation and Framing Options
GFP-F Frame Types
Address Control Protocol
HDLC Framing Mode
Transport Overhead
Core
Header
Payload FCS
or
Payload
Header
Payload
FCS
GFP-F Framing Mode
SONET/SDH Payload Envelope
115444
Flag
GFP-Mapped
Ethernet (LEX)
Encapsulation
LEX
SONET/SDH Frame
The CE-100T-8 card supports GFP-F null mode. GFP-F CMFs are counted and discarded.
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The CE-100T-8 card is interoperable with the ML-100T-8 card and several other ONS Ethernet cards.
For specific details on ONS Ethernet card interoperability, refer to the “POS on ONS Ethernet Cards”
chapter of the Ethernet Card Guide Software Feature and Configuration Guide—for the ONS 15454,
ONS 15454 SDH and ONS 15327.
CE-100T-8 Loopback, J1 Path Trace, and SONET Alarms
The CE-100T-8 card supports terminal and facility loopbacks when in the Out of Service, Maintenance
state (OOS, MT). It also reports SONET alarms and transmits and monitors the J1 Path Trace byte in the
same manner as OC-N cards. Support for path termination functions includes:
•
H1 and H2 concatenation indication
•
C2 signal label
•
Bit interleaved parity 3 (BIP-3) generation
•
G1 path status indication
•
C2 path signal label read/write
•
Path level alarms and conditions, including loss of pointer, unequipped, payload mismatch, alarm
indication signal (AIS) detection, and remote defect indication (RDI)
•
J1 path trace for high order paths
•
J2 path trace for low order paths
•
J2 path trace for low order VCAT circuits at the member level
•
Extended signal label for the low order paths
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