Chapter 3: Introduction to Database Solutions

Class X: Chapter 3
Chapter 3: Introduction to Database
Solutions
Summative Assessment
Short Answer Questions
Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs)
10. What is Base?
1.A
is a structured collection of data.
a. Data
b. Table
c. Traditional database d. None of these
Ans. b
2.
refers to the process of sharing a
single piece of data among different users.
a. Data sharing
b. Data redundancy
c. Data inconsistency d. None of these
Ans. a
3. The following is a type of database:
a. Flat-file database
b. Relational database
c. Distributed database d. All of these
Ans. BASE, also known as OpenOffice BASE or OO BASE, is a database
application in the OpenOffice suite. BASE is a popular relational
database management system or RDBMS. Using BASE, you can
easily manage your data into a single zip file that stores all the
related files. In BASE, a database file is stored with the .odb
extension. The .odb implies OpenOffice database. A BASE database
file contains data in four elements, namely table, form, query, and
report.
11. Define DBMS and its functioning.
Ans. DBMS is a program that controls the creation, maintenance, and
use of a database. In DBMS, data is stored centrally. This allows
users to easily access and share data as a common resource.
DBMS helps in the integration of stored data by preventing
inconsistencies and duplicate data. In addition, accessing,
retrieving, and modifying the stored data is easy. DBMS also allows
multiple users to access the data at the same time. Moreover, the
access to the database is controlled. In other words, unauthorized
users are prevented from accessing the database.
Ans. d
12. How does DBMS ensure data security?
4.
Ans. The data that is stored in a database may contain valuable
or sensitive information. For example, the database of an
organization can contain personal information about its
employees or information about the financial deals made with
other organizations. Such type of information is highly sensitive
and may damage the organization or its goodwill if it were to fall
in wrong hands. Therefore, it is important that such information
should be provided adequate security. DBMS provides security for
data by ensuring that only authorized users are able to access the
database. Authorized users have the rights or permission to access
or change the database. This not only helps keep track of the users
who access and make changes in the database, but also prevents
others without right credentials to access the database.
Ans.
is the process of fetching
information from the database.
a. Retrieving
b. Classifying
c. Summarizing
d. Sorting
a
Very Short Answer Questions
5.What do you understand by a record?
Ans. A record is a set of information usually stored in the rows and
columns of a table..
6.Is it possible to completely remove data duplication
from a database?
Ans. No, it is not possible to completely remove data duplication from
a database.
7.What do you understand by a primary key?
Ans. A primary key refers to a key that helps in uniquely identifying a
record in a table.
8.What do you mean by a foreign key?
Ans. Foreign key refers to a key that is a reference of a primary key in
another table. This implies that the records in the primary key and
foreign key columns are same in both the tables.
9.Can a primary key contain a NULL value?
Ans. No, a primary key column cannot contain a NULL value.
Long Answer Questions
13. Explain the relationship between two tables through
an example.
Ans. The Employees_Details table contains the following fields:
Emp_
Code
Emp_
Name
Emp_
Address
Emp_
ContNo
Emp_
Grade
Emp_
Salary
The Department table contains the following fields:
Dept_ID
Dept_
Name
Emp_
Code
Emp_
Name
Designation
Salary_
Scale
The relationship between these two tables is created on the basis
of a common field named Emp_Code. A relationship between
these tables is established to fetch any information from both the
Introduction to Database
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Class X: Chapter 3
tables. Further, establishing a relationship among tables allows you
to link them to get meaningful information.
through security checks. In other words, authorized users have the
rights or permission to access or change the database.
14. What points do you need to remember while
designing a database?
21. How does DBMS help in reducing data inconsistency?
Ans. The points that you should keep in mind while designing the
database are:
a. The purpose of your database
b. The tables you require
c. The fields you require
d. The primary key in a table
e. The relationship between tables
15. Explain data redundancy using a suitable example.
Ans. Duplication or repetition of data is known as data redundancy.
For example, suppose there is a residential school that uses the
traditional file system to store data. In this school, data related
to the students is stored in two files, Student_Details and Hostel_
Student_Details. While the Student_Details file contains data
related to all the students of the school, the Hostel_Student_
Details file contains data about the students who live in the hostel.
This implies that the Student_ Details file contains data about all
the students, that is, those who study in the school as well as
those who live the hostel. In such a case, there is duplication of
data (data redundancy) because the records of the hostel students
are maintained in both the files.
16. Explain the primary key with the help of an example.
Ans. Primary key refers to the key that helps in uniquely identifying
the records in a table. One important characteristic of the primary
key is that its column cannot contain a NULL value. Let us find the
primary key in the Student_Details table in the Student database.
This table contains four fields—Student Name, Student Roll no,
Student Address, and Student Marks. Among all these fields,
Student Roll no is the only field in which the records or values
would be always unique. It is for this reason that the primary key
for the Student_Details table has been set in this field or column.
17. Why do we need to establish a relationship in a
database?
Ans. In a database, a relationship among tables is established on
the basis of common fields between them. The main reason for
establishing a relationship among tables is that it allows you to
fetch any information from them.
18. Is the relational database similar to the flat-file
database? If no, explain how both types of databases
are different from each other?
Ans. No, the relational database is not similar to flat-file database. A
flat-file database refers to a database in which all the data is stored
in a single file, for example, a student database in a school. The
most common example of this type of database is a spreadsheet.
On the other hand, a relational database refers to a database in
which data is stored in multiple tables. These tables are linked to
one another through common fields.
19. How does a primary key help in reducing data
duplication?
Ans. A primary key refers to a key that helps in uniquely identifying
a record in a table. Thus, a column with a primary key will not
contain duplicate information in any of its records.
20. What do you understand by authorized users?
Ans. Authorized users are those users whose credentials are verified
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Foundation of Information Technology
Ans. Data inconsistency occurs due to the problem of data redundancy.
For example, you may have two or more copies of the same
record stored at different locations in the database created in the
traditional file system. The information in these copies may not
match, which can be due to several reasons. One reason may be
that the user updates the records at one location in the database
but forgets to make the corresponding changes in the same
data saved at other locations in the database. This leads to data
inconsistency.
DBMS helps reduce data redundancy since the entire data is stored
at one central location. This allows users to easily access and share
data as a common resource. In addition, accessing, retrieving, and
modifying the stored data is easy. DBMS also allows multiple users
to access the data at the same time. Moreover, the access to the
database is controlled. In other words, unauthorized users are
prevented from accessing the database.
22. What is the difference between a primary key and a
foreign key?
Ans. A primary key refers to the key that helps in uniquely identifying
the records in a table. On the other hand, a foreign key refers
to a key that is a reference of a primary key in another table
which implies that the records in the primary key and foreign key
columns are the same in both the tables. The other difference is
that a primary key column cannot contain a NULL value; whereas,
a foreign key column can contain a NULL value.
Formative Assessment
Application-Oriented Questions
1. Create a database that contains two tables. With the
help of these tables, explain the concepts of primary
key and foreign key.
Ans. Let’s assume that there is a database named Student. The Student
database contains two tables named Student_Details and Student_
Marks. Let’s understand the concept of the primary key and
foreign key with the help of these tables:
€€ Primary key: Refers to the key that helps in uniquely
identifying the records in a table. One important characteristic
of the primary key is that its column cannot contain a NULL
value. Let’s find the primary key in the Student_Details table
in the Student database. This table contains four fields—
Student Name, Student Roll no, Student Address, and Student
Marks. Among all these fields, Student Roll no is the only field
in which the records or values would be always unique. It is
for this reason that the primary key for the Student_Details
table has been set in this field or column.
€€ Foreign key: Refers to a key that is a reference of a primary key
in another table. This implies that the records in the primary
key and foreign key columns are the same in both the tables.
Suppose there are two tables in the Student database—
Student_Details and Student_Marks. The Student_Details table
contains the fields Student Name, Student Roll no, Student
Address, and Student Marks. The Student_Marks table contains
the fields Student Roll no, Student Name, and Student Marks.
In this case, the Student Roll no field (that is the primary key in the
Student Details table) is a foreign key in the Student_Marks table,
Class X: Chapter 3
as shown in the following tables:
Primary key in the
Student_Details table
Student
Name
Student
Roll No
Student Address
Student
Marks
Deepika
Stud001
Preet Vihar
87
Geeta
Stud002
Pandav Nagar
96
Deepinka
Stud003
Shalimar Bagh
80
Foreign key in the
Student_Marks table
Student Name
Student Roll No
Student Marks
Deepika
Stud001
87
Geeta
Stud002
96
Deepinka
Stud003
80
2.If a database contains two or more tables and these
tables are linked by common fields, what type of
database is it?
Ans. This type of database is Relational Database Management System
(RDBMS). A relational database refers to a database in which data
is stored in multiple tables. These tables are linked to one another
through common fields.
3.A database has all the records stored in a single file
in a sequential manner. What type of database is it?
Ans. In the flat-file database, all the data is stored in a single file in
sequential manner.
4.A table named Employee_Details contains
information about all the employees working in an
organization. This table has the Emp_Code field as
the primary key. Another table named Department
contains information about all the departments in
the organization. This table also contains a field
named Emp_Code. The Emp_Code field, which
is a primary key in the Employee_Details table, is
present as a reference of the primary key in the
Department table. What type of key is it?
Ans. The key which is the reference of the primary key in the other
table is known as the foreign key.
5.What type of information would you include in a
personal database? How many tables do you need to
create the database? How many fields do you need for
your tables? Identify the primary key for each table.
Ans. Personal database contains personal information. For example, as
a student, if you create a personal database for a student, then
it contains information related to the students, such as name,
roll number, class, address, and contact number. A table can have
any number of tables and any number of fields. Suppose that you
are Mohit and want to store your personal details in a database,
named as Personal_Details. The Personal_Details database has a
table named Marks_Details.
The Marks_Details table has several fields, which are:
1.Name
2.RollNo
3.Address
4. Contact Number
5.Class
6.Semester
7.English
8.Maths
9.Science
10.Hindi
11.SST
12. Total Marks
13.Grade
In the Marks_Details table, the Semester field is capable for being
a primary key as we know that a primary key is used to uniquely
identify a record in a table. Other fields, such as Name, Roll No,
Address, Contact No, and Class, can contain duplicate values and
therefore, cannot become primary keys.
6.Discuss with your parents how they manage records
of their daily expenses. Further, create a database
for them so that they can manage the records more
easily and effectively.
Ans. My parents manually manage records of their daily expenses. This
process is very cumbersome and time consuming. To make their
work easier, I created a database with the name, Expenditure,
having following fields:
S.No
Item
Name
Date of
Purchase
Quantity
Cost per
unit
Total
Amount
Unsolved Examination Questions
1.a. W
rite any two uses of Database Management
System.
b. What is a Primary key? Give an example.
[Outside Delhi 2007 (1 mark)]
Ans. a. Two uses of Database Management System are:
DBMS helps in the integration of stored data by
preventing inconsistencies and duplicate data.
DBMS also allows multiple users to access the data at the
same time.
b. Primary key refers to the key that helps us uniquely identify
records in a table. One important characteristic of the primary
key is that its column cannot contain a NULL value. The
Employee_Details table contains the fields Emp_Code, Emp_
Name, Emp_Address, and Emp_Salary in which Emp_Code
can be created as a primary key.
2.Give one use of a database.
[Delhi 2003 (1 mark)]
Ans. A database is used to store and retrieve information in a computer
system at a central location.
3.What is a primary key? [Delhi 2003 (1 mark)]
Ans. Primary key refers to the key that helps in uniquely identifying the
records in a table.
4.Mention any two advantages of using a database.
(Delhi 2002 [2 marks])
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Class X: Chapter 3
Ans. The two advantages of using a database are:
€€ It reduces data redundancy
€€ It reduces data inconsistency
5.What is the difference between rows and columns in
a table?
(Delhi 2002 [2 marks])
Ans. The differences between rows and columns in a table are as
follows:
€€ A row is also known as a record; whereas, a column refers
to a field.
€€ A row represents a complete set of information; whereas, a
column (or field) represents the smallest unit of information
in a table.
€€ Records are composed of fields, each of which contains one
item of information. On the other hand, each field of a table
has a name and contains related information.
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Foundation of Information Technology