Espresso drinks: User Manual
ESPRESSO DRINKS: USER MANUAL
MAKING DRINKS WITH YOUR MACHINE
DAVID LE
User Manual
Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................... 3
What is espresso? ............................................................................. 3
Common Drinks................................................................................. 4
Espresso – Espresso straight from the machine ........................... 4
Americano – Espresso poured over hot water ............................. 4
Latte – Espresso with steamed milk (less foam) ........................... 5
Cappuccino – Espresso with steamed milk (more foam).............. 5
Making Espresso Drinks ........................................................................ 6
Required Tools .................................................................................. 6
Coffee Grinder............................................................................... 6
Espresso Machine ......................................................................... 7
Brush ............................................................................................. 8
Tamper .......................................................................................... 8
Frothing Pitcher ............................................................................ 9
Espresso Shot Glass....................................................................... 9
Thermometer ................................................................................ 9
Making the Espresso Shot ................................................................... 10
Tools ................................................................................................ 10
Steps................................................................................................ 10
Grind the coffee beans using the grinder ................................... 10
Remove portafilter from the espresso machine ......................... 11
Ensure portafilter is clean with the brush................................... 11
Fill the portafilter with ground coffee beans .............................. 12
Compact the grounds.................................................................. 13
Insert portafilter into the espresso machine .............................. 14
Place espresso shot glass under the portafilter .......................... 14
Run the machine ......................................................................... 14
Steaming Milk ..................................................................................... 15
Tools ................................................................................................ 15
1
Beverages ........................................................................................ 15
Steps................................................................................................ 15
Pour the milk into the frothing pitcher ....................................... 15
Steam the milk: Foam ................................................................. 16
Turn off the steam wand ............................................................ 17
Clean the steam wand ................................................................ 17
Pouring the milk – Latte art ................................................................ 18
Pour espresso into a cup ............................................................. 18
Pour the steamed milk ................................................................ 18
Pouring versus spooning the foam ............................................. 18
Latte Art (most importantly) ....................................................... 19
Making the Drinks ............................................................................... 21
Other Common Drinks .................................................................... 22
2
Introduction
Espresso is both a coffee and a brewing method. In this manual,
instances of espresso is meant to be referred to as the coffee
beverage. The beverage has become popular all over the world,
especially after the introduction of home-brewing machines. Popular
in shops, variations of espresso are made by adding syrups, whipped
cream, milk, or spices.
This manual describes the processes of creating basic espresso-based
drinks; espresso, café Americano, café latte, and cappuccino. Anyone
interested in using an espresso machine to produce these drinks will
find this guide useful.
What is espresso?
Espresso is made by forcing hot water through compacted coffee.
Compacting the ground coffee beans is known as tamping, which
allows the water to evenly perforate the grounds. The resulting fluid
is thick and contains both solid and dissolved components. There are
3 components in a shot of espresso coffee, as shown in Figure 1. The
crema is a thin layer of foam at the top of a cup of espresso. The body
is the middle layer, and the heart is at the very bottom. The heart of
the espresso shot is bitter, which balances the espresso’s aroma.
Figure 1: Compnents in a shot of espresso
3
Common Drinks
Espresso – Espresso straight from the machine
This kind of coffee is made by forcing hot pressurized water through
finely ground coffee beans. Espresso is thicker than coffee brewed
through other methods, and because of espresso’s brewing, the
resulting drink is more concentrated as well. Espresso is the base for
many drinks.
Figure 2: A shot of espresso
Americano – Espresso poured over hot water
An Americano, or Café Americano, is espresso poured over hot water.
Usually in equal parts, the water is added to dilute the strong taste of
espresso.
Figure 3: Cafe Americano, or an Americano, is diluted espresso
4
Latte – Espresso with steamed milk (less foam)
This drink is made with espresso coffee and frothed milk, followed
with a layer of foam. There are variations which replace the milk or
espresso, such as matcha or chai.
Figure 4: Cafe Latte
Cappuccino – Espresso with steamed milk (more foam)
A cappuccino, like the latte, consists of shots of espresso and
steamed milk. The difference between the two drinks is that a
cappuccino contains more foam than a latte.
Figure 5: Cappuccino
5
Making Espresso Drinks
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Making the Espresso Shots
Steaming the Milk
Pouring the Milk
Required Tools
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Coffee Grinder
Espresso Machine
Espresso Machine: Portafilter
Espresso Machine: Steaming Wand
Brush
Tamper
Frothing Pitcher
Espresso Shot Glass (2)
Thermometer
Coffee Grinder
6
Espresso Machine
Portafilter
7
Steam Wand
Brush
Tamper
8
Frothing Pitcher
Espresso Shot Glass
Thermometer
9
Making the Espresso Shot
Espresso refers to the brewing method for coffee. This process forces
hot pressurized water through finely ground coffee beans.
Tools
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Grinder
Tamper
Brush
Espresso Shot Glass
Espresso Machine: Portafilter
Steps
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Grinding the coffee beans
Remove portafilter from the espresso machine
Ensure portafilter is clean
Fill and press the ground coffee beans into the portafilter
Insert into the machine
Run machine
Cleaning the machine
Clean the perforator
Grind the coffee beans using the grinder
The ground coffee beans should clump loosely and appear like a fine
powder; however, it should still feel rough when it is rubbed between
your fingers. It is better to grind coffee beans as you need them. In
doing so, the shot of espresso will be fresher and taste better.
It is possible to use a food processor (blade chopper), but then
uneven consistency results in different sized chunks. These chunks
can be over or under extracted.
The heat produced in this process can make the espresso bitter as
well.
A good alternative is a burr grinder which crushes coffee beans
between a grinding wheel and a non-moving surface. The result is a
uniform grind size and the coffee grounds are not over heated.
10
Remove portafilter from the espresso machine
Removing the portafilter from the espresso machine is necessary to
clean the part, as well as refill the portafilter with new coffee
grounds.
Note: the saying Righty-Tighty,
Lefty-Loosey. Twisting left will
loosen the portafilter while
twisting right will secure it.
Figure 6: Twist off the portafilter
Ensure portafilter is clean with the brush
Use the brush to clean out any residue from prior brews. Sometimes,
there will be a ‘cake’ of coffee, so this should be removed. This is
usually done by tapping the portafilter upside down over a waste bin.
The chunks will prevent the water from perforating the pressed
coffee uniformly.
Figure 7: Used portafilters have coffee chunks stuck, cloging the pores
11
Ground coffee beans are organic!
Compost them instead of
throwing them into the trash.
Fill the portafilter with ground coffee beans
Fill the portafilter with about 18 grams of finely ground coffee. Most
portafilters will have a mark on them indicating the suggested
amount after the coffee has been compacted.
Some coffee grinders will automatically dispense the proper amounts
of ground coffee directly into the portafilter.
Figure 8: Filling the portafilter with coffee grounds
12
Note: Overfilling the portafilter
can clog the machine while it is
running, preventing uniform
water pressure throughout the
portafilter.
Compact the grounds
Tamping refers to pressing the ground coffee beans into the
portafilter. Use the flat end of the tamper.
When you tamp by hand, you are tightening the top layer of the
ground beans. At the bottom of the ‘puck’, the grounds are almost
not compacted at all, providing a freer space for water to flow
through. Because water flows to areas of least resistance, aim to have
a flat and level surface to ensure even extraction.
Knocking is used to settle any loose coffee sitting above the top layer.
This can be done by hitting the sides of the portafilter with the
tamper. After knocking the loose bits down, tamper again to finally
seal the top layer.
Figure 9: Tamping produces a smooth top layer
13
Insert portafilter into the espresso machine
Lift the filled portafilter into the espresso machine and twist right to
secure it.
Place espresso shot glass under the portafilter
Portafilters will usually have spouts where the espresso coffee exits.
Placing the shot glasses under each spout prevents losing precious
coffee.
Run the machine
Most machines will run for a determined amount of time. Some shot
glasses will have a line indicating the typical 2 ounce requirement for
a shot, but it is possible to determine when to shut off the water by
looking at the color of the crema.
The crema should come out consistently, and as viscously as possible.
The layering of the espresso shot should happen once the espresso
hits the cup.
The fluid coming out of the portafilter contains the oils and flavors
that make espresso so rich. The color is golden-brown which gets
lighter as more fluid is pushed through the portafilter. The flow
should be stopped just before the crema comes out off-white.
Figure 10: Extracting the coffee
14
Good extraction results in a first
drop being crema.
Stop the flow just before the color
of the crema coming out of the
portafilter turns yellow or offwhite.
Steaming Milk
Proper cappuccinos and lattes require microfoam. Microfoam is
sweet and comes from correctly frothed milk. These tiny bubbles are
are not very visible to the naked eye, and in the pitcher, should have
a nice sheen. In fact, if the foam becomes thicker with large bubbles,
the appearance and taste suffer.
While the milk is frothing, the steam wand will also heat the milk.
Frothing and heating milk do not happen simultaneously and they
depend on the machine being used, so special care and practice is
needed to get the right consistency and temperature for your drink.
Tools
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Frothing Pitcher
Thermometer
Espresso Machine: Steam Wand
There are a variety of milk to
choose from, each with a different
taste and texture when they are
steamed!
Which one works for you?
Beverages
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Homo milk
2% milk
Soy milk
Almond milk
Steps
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Pour milk into frothing pitcher
Steam the milk: Temperature
Steam the milk: Foam
Turning off the steam wand
Clean steam wand
Pour the milk into the frothing pitcher
The amount depends on the size of the pitcher and the size of the cup
you will be drinking out of. Place the thermometer into the pitcher.
Note: Be aware that frothing the
milk will make it expand.
Too much milk and without
enough practice with the
steaming wand could spill the
contents of your pitcher!
15
Steam the milk: Foam
Steaming the milk takes a lot of practice to achieve a silky microfoam
while raising the temperature to the desired amount. These
instructions go step by step and should help you on your way.
Clean the steaming wand
Clean off any residue on the wand. Also run the steaming wand in the
air to remove any milk inside the wand.
Lower nozzle of the steaming wand
It is important to lower the steaming wand far below the surface of
the milk.
CAUTION: The steaming wand
releases pressurized, hot water.
This can cause burning.
Handle the steam wand by
grasping the parts covered in
rubber or by using a cloth.
Figure 11: Lower the steam wand to the surface of the milk
Raise frothing pitcher until the head of the wand is fully submerged
under the milk
Raising and lowering the pitcher, as opposed to the steaming wand,
gives you more control. If you use one hand to raise the pitcher, the
other hand is free to stop the steaming wand.
Note: Tilt the pitcher to help
prevent splashing.
When you start the steaming
process, you will feel and hear the
pitcher rumble. The wand is too
close to the pitcher walls. This is
okay, just lower the pitcher a
little.
Tilt the frothing pitcher
Tilting the pitcher allows for a rotation of the liquid. This helps
prevent splashing.
Turn on the steaming wand
16
Lower the frothing pitcher until you hear a hissing noise and hold until
desired foam
Foam should be building up at a quick pace. Foam is created near the
surface where air is mixed into the milk. Lowering the pitcher until
you have right amount of foam. Raise the pitcher to reduce the foam.
Figure 12: Volume of the foam increases
Raise the frothing pitcher and hold until desired temperature
The temperature before milk scalds is different for each type of milk
you use. Aim for a temperature of roughly 150-170 F. Of course, you
can use any temperature you desire.
Note: Children’s tongues are more
delicate. Lower the temperature
to prevent burning.
Note: The temperature will
continue to rise even after turning
off the steaming wand.
Figure 13: A thermometer saves tongues
Turn off the steam wand
With the pitcher controlled, turn off the wand while the spout is
under the milks surface.
Clean the steam wand
Clean the wand by turning it on briefly in the air, and by wiping off
residue with a wet cloth.
17
Pouring the milk – Latte art
This is probably the most important part of presenting the espresso
drink! Many designs have been made and it is easy to forget the
proper ratios of espresso to milk to foam.
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Pouring the espresso into a cup
Pouring the milk
Pouring foam versus spooning foam
How-to of various art
Pour espresso into a cup
Pour the steamed milk
A good latte and cappuccino pour will have crema rise to the top of
the cup. Determining whether you want the foamed milk on top of
the crema or under depends on the height you pour.
Pouring the milk higher from the cup will result in a smooth layer of
crema-foam on the surface. The color should stay a medium brown.
Most latte art is dependent on this step.
Figure 14: Steamed milk being poured. Lower elevations of pouring result in white
foam on the surface
Pouring versus spooning the foam
It is common for baristas to hold the foam back with a spoon while
pouring steamed milk for a latte or cappuccino. When the amount of
milk is satisfied, they will spoon the foam. This would be done if there
was too much foam, or when the foam bubbles are too large.
Spooning foam into a cup results in blobs that ruin the flat brown
surface of crema. A good barista will be able to steam the milk
perfectly and pour the milk without ruining the crema surface.
18
Note: Raise the pitcher when you
pour out the milk!
Latte Art (most importantly)
The fun part about making lattes is making neat designs on the drink.
This is done by adjusting the pour; swivelling left and right, raising
and lowering the pitcher, and even spooning on foam. Sometimes,
the use of garnishing is done with syrups, candies, powdered nuts,
and whipped cream.
Note: Make sure to have a cloth
ready for any spills!
Making nice designs takes a lot of practice.
The first thing you should do is pour the milk leaving room for the art.
A few centimeters should do the trick.
Art 1
Note: Another approach would be
to tilt and move the cup for the
last flick.
Or you can use a toothpick to drag
the foam along the center of the
waves.
Figure 15: Latte art
This design is created by pouring the milk at a high elevation at one
end of the cup to the other, while swivelling the pitcher left and right.
All this while lowering the pitcher enough for the foam to appear on
the surface. Then, just as you get to the other end, raise the pitcher,
flicking it upwards. The directed pour is quick and should be aimed
towards the center track backwards along the path to the starting
end.
Hearts are made similarly; with a singly blot of foam.
19
Art 2
Figure 16: Latte art
This design is made using chocolate syrup and a toothpick. For this
design, pour the milk such that the milk spirals around the cup,
extending inwards or out. The chocolate syrup is added in the same
way, and using the toothpick, drag lines radiating from the center.
20
Making the Drinks
Figure 17: Common Espresso Drinks
There are different variations of espresso based drinks, and they
differ by composition and ratios.
21
Other Common Drinks
22
Americano ...................... 1, 3, 4
Brush ........................ 1, 6, 8, 10
Café Americano ...................... 4
cappuccino ................... 3, 5, 18
Coffee Grinder.................... 1, 6
crema ......................... 3, 14, 18
Espresso .. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10,
15, 21
Frothing Pitcher ....... 1, 6, 9, 15
Latte ............. 1, 2, 5, 18, 19, 20
Portafilter..................... 6, 7, 10
Steaming Wand...................... 6
Tamper..................... 1, 6, 8, 10
Thermometer........... 1, 6, 9, 15
Wand................................ 8, 15
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