First Aid &amp

First Aid &amp
First Aid
Emergencies
FOR
To handle an emergency situation, use Emergency Scene Management (ESM).
Identify
yourself
offer
to help.
Use
a shield or face
mask with and
a one-way
valve when
giving AR or CPR.
If head or spinal injuries are suspected,
support the head and neck.
Assess responsiveness.
8 Send or go for medical help.
Note: Protect yourself and others by wearing non-latex gloves when giving first aid. Use a shield or face mask with a one-way valve when giving CPR.
Note: Protect
yourself and others by wearing vinyl gloves when giving first aid.5
Take
charge.
6
2 Call out for help.
3 Assess hazards and make the area safe.
7
4 Find out what happened.
1
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR – Adult)
Choking (Adult)
1
Open airway – push back on forehead and lift chin.
2
Check breathing. If the casualty is not breathing...
If a choking person can speak, breathe or cough – STAND BY
and encourage coughing.
3
Pinch nose and make a tight seal over the mouth. Give 2 breaths.
If a conscious person cannot speak, breathe or cough:
4
Make sure casualty is on a firm flat surface.
5
Place hands on centre of chest.
6
Position shoulders directly over hands and keep elbows locked.
7
Compress firmly 30 times then give 2 breaths. Push hard - Push fast
8
Continue cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until help arrives.
1
Stand behind person and find top of the hip bones with
your hands.
2
Place a fist midline against the abdomen.
3
Grasp fist with other hand and press inward and upward
forcefully.
4
Continue until object is expelled or person becomes
unconscious.
FIND TOP OF HIPBONES
OPEN AIRWAY
POSITION YOUR HANDS IN THE
CENTRE OF THE CHEST
CHECK BREATHING
BREATHE INTO CASUALTY TWICE
PLACE FIST MIDLINE ON ABDOMEN
PRESS INWARD AND UPWARD
If the person becomes unconscious ease him or her to the
ground and send for medical help
1
Open the mouth and look for obstruction.
2
Open the airway and check breathing. If not breathing…
3
Give two breaths. If air doesn’t go in the first time,
reposition the head and try again.
4
Begin CPR. Give 30 compressions.
5
Each time you finish 30 compressions, look in mouth
before giving the first breath.
PRESS DOWN FIRMLY 30 TIMES, THEN GIVE 2 BREATHS.
CONTINUE CPR UNTIL HELP ARRIVES
Emergency Numbers
Bleeding
To control severe bleeding
AMBULANCE ________________________________________
Immediately apply direct pressure to the wound
over a pad of dressings
FIRE _______________________________________________
Keep the casualty lying down
POLICE _____________________________________________
CONTROL BLEEDING IMMEDIATELY
FAMILY DOCTOR ______________________________________
POISON INFORMATION CENTRE __________________________
Unconsciousness
NOTE: This poster is a step-by-step guide to what you can do until medical
help arrives. These tips do not take the place of first aid training.
Get medical help. Make certain
person is breathing and then place
the casualty in the recovery position.
If the casualty is not breathing, start CPR
RECOVERY POSITION
9901/10/00
w w w. s j a . c a
First Aid
Emergencies
FOR
INFANTS AND CHILDREN
To handle an emergency situation, use Emergency Scene Management (ESM).
Identify
yourself
offer
to help.
Use
a shield or face
mask with and
a one-way
valve when
giving AR or CPR.
If head or spinal injuries are suspected,
support the head and neck.
Assess responsiveness.
8 Send or go for medical help.
Note: Protect yourself and others by wearing non-latex gloves when giving first aid. Use a shield or face mask with a one-way valve when giving CPR.
Note: Protect
yourself and others by wearing vinyl gloves when giving first aid.5
Take
charge.
6
2 Call out for help.
3 Assess hazards and make the area safe.
7
4 Find out what happened.
1
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Choking (Child)
1
Open airway – push back on forehead and lift chin.
2
Check breathing. If the casualty is not breathing...
3
Make a tight seal over mouth and nose of an infant (under 1 year).
Pinch nose of a child (1-8 years) and make a tight seal over the
mouth. Give 2 breaths.
4
Make sure casualty is on a firm flat surface.
5
For a child place hands on centre of chest
6
Position shoulders directly over hands and keep elbows locked.
7
Compress firmly 30 times then give 2 breaths. Continue cycles of
30 compressions and 2 breaths until help arrives.
OPEN AIRWAY
CHECK FOR BREATHING
BREATHE INTO CASUALTY 2X
PLACE HANDS ON CENTRE
OF CHEST
If a choking child can speak, breathe or cough – STAND BY and encourage coughing.
If a conscious child cannot speak, breathe or cough:
1
Stand behind the child and find top of the hip bones with your hands.
2
Place a fist midline against the abdomen.
3
Grasp fist with other hand and press inward and upward forcefully.
4
Continue until object is expelled or child becomes unconscious.
PLACE FIST MIDLINE ON ABDOMEN
If the child becomes unconscious ease him or her to the ground
and send for medical help
1
Open the mouth and look for obstruction.
2
Open the airway and check breathing. If not breathing…
3
Give two breaths. If air doesn’t go in the first time, reposition
the head and try again.
4
Begin CPR. Give 30 compressions.
5
MAKE A FIST
THRUST INWARD AND UPWARD
Each time you finish 30 compressions, look in mouth before giving a breath.
Choking (Infant)
COMPRESS FIRMLY 30 TIMES THEN GIVE 2 BREATHS. CONTINUE CYCLES
OF 30 COMPRESSIONS AND 2 BREATHS UNTIL HELP ARRIVES.
1
For an Infant place 2 fingertips on the infant’s breastbone just
below the nipples.
2
Use 2 fingers to press down firmly on the breastbone.
3
Compress firmly 30 times then give 2 breaths.
4
Continue cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until help arrives.
PLACE 2 FINGERTIPS ON THE INFANT’S
BREASTBONE JUST BELOW THE NIPPLES
Bleeding
PRESS DOWN FIRMLY 30 TIMES THEN GIVE 2 BREATHS..
REPEAT UNTIL HELP ARRIVES
To control severe bleeding
If infant is making high pitched noises or is having trouble breathing:
1
Give 5 forceful blows between the shoulder blades.
2
Turn infant over and give five chest thrusts using two fingers on
the infant’s breastbone just below the nipple line.
3
Repeat 5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts .
4
Continue until object is expelled or child becomes unconscious.
If the infant becomes unconscious place him or her on a firm flat surface
and send for medical help
1
Open the mouth and look for obstruction.
2
Open the airway and check breathing. If not breathing…
3
Give two breaths. If air doesn’t go in the first time, reposition the head
and try again.
4
Begin CPR. Give 30 compressions.
5
Each time you finish 30 compressions, look in mouth before giving a breath.
5 CHEST THRUSTS
Unconsciousness
Immediately apply direct pressure
to the wound over a pad of dressings.
Get medical help. Make certain child is breathing and then
place in the recovery position.
Keep the casualty lying down.
If not breathing begin CPR
RECOVERY POSITION
CONTROL BLEEDING IMMEDIATELY
Emergency Numbers
AMBULANCE ________________________________________
5 BACK BLOWS
NOTE: This poster is a
FIRE _______________________________________________ step-by-step guide to
what you can do until
POLICE _____________________________________________ medical help arrives.
These tips do not take
FAMILY DOCTOR ______________________________________ the place of first aid
training.
POISON INFORMATION CENTRE __________________________
w w w. s j a . c a
Animal CPR Instructions
Page 1 of 3
At the request of several users, we have translated the 3-fold brochure, published in Acorbat (pdf) format
(click here) as a simple web page. As in the printed version, please do not modify the contents if you make a
copy; but feel free to give links/printouts to anyone...
Save a Life:
Learn Animal CPR
For the EMS Provider and Pet
Owner
A. Airway
A. Heimlich
The first step in animal CPR,
after determining nonresponsiveness, is to obtain a
patent airway. You should not
continue on, until this step has
been achieved.
After attempting to ventilate:
Lori H. Feldman, DVM
Henry J. Feldman, MA EMT-M
(c) 1996
Dr. Feldman is a Massachusetts and
New York Licensed Veterinarian
and a member of the Veterinary
Emergency and Critical Care
Society. This document is primarliy
aimed at EMS and Emergency
Medical personel who may
encounter animals in arrest.
Pet owners should consult their
veterinarian for specific details on
http://members.aol.com/henryhbk/acpr.html
1. Turn the animal upside
down, with its back against
your chest
2. With both arms, give 5
sharp thrusts (bear hugs)
to the abdomen. Perform
each thrust as if it is the
one that will expel the
object
3. Stop, check to see if the
object is visible in the
airway, if so, remove it and
give 2 mouth-nose rescue
breaths. If the breaths do
not go in, go back to step
1
1. Carefully pull the tongue
out of the animal's mouth
WARNING: even an
unresponsive dog may
bite by instinct!!
2. Make sure that the neck is
reasonably straight; try to
bring the head in-line with
the neck.
WARNING: Do not
hyperextend in cases
where neck trauma
exists
Use gravity to help you expel
3. Attempt 2 rescue breaths,
the object
by closing the mouth, and
performing mouth-tonose ventilations. If they
go in with no problems
continue to B-Breathing.
4. Reposition the neck and
try step 3 again.
10/27/2003
Animal CPR Instructions
Page 2 of 3
try step 3 again.
5. Visibly inspect the airway
by looking into the mouth,
and down the throat for
foreign objects occluding
the airway. Unlike humanCPR, rescuers may reach
into the airway and
remove foreign objects
that are visible
6. Proceed to the Heimlich
maneuver
procedures outlined here.
web:
http://members.aol.com/henryhbk
email: [email protected]
B. Breathing
1. After achieving a patent
airway, one must determine
whether the animal is
breathing, and whether this
breathing is effective:
2. Carefully pull the tongue out of
the animalÕs mouth
WARNING: even an
unresponsive dog may bite
by instinct!!
3. Make sure that the neck is
reasonably straight; try to
bring the head in-line with the
neck.
WARNING: Do not
hyperextend in cases where
neck trauma exists
4. Ventilate the animal by closing
the mouth, and performing
mouth-to-nose ventilations. If
they do not go in with ease go
to A-Airway
5. Ventilate at 20 breaths per
minute If supplemental Oxygen
is available, and the animal is
breathing on its own, use a
high-flow blowby.
WARNING: Do not attempt
to intubate the animal,
without prior training, and
Do not proceed with CPR,
even if the animal goes into
cardiac arrest. You must clear
the airway first.
C. Circulation E. Extra
This is the final step of CPR and
should only be initiated after the
airway and breathing steps have
been completed:
http://members.aol.com/henryhbk/acpr.html
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
During an emergency it is very
important that you remain calm.
Animals can sense your unease,
but cannot understand what is
happening and you cannot
Make sure that there are verbally tell them. Your body
no major (pooling/spurting language is very important. Be
blood) points of bleeding. calm, yet deliberate in your
Control as necessary
actions.
Lay the animal on its right
side
When you determine that you
Locate your hands where either have corrected the lifeits left elbow touches the threatening problem, or are
chest. Approximately the unable to stabilize the animal, you
middle of the rib-cage
should transport to the nearest
Compress the chest 15
emergency veterinary hospital.
times followed by 2 rescue
breaths (3 compressions Notify your emergency clinic that
every 2 seconds)
you are coming in with a dog in
Compress
respiratory arrest with a foreign
? 1/2" - small dogs
body airway obstruction and/or
? 1" - medium dogs < cardiac arrest.
? 1.5" - large dogs
Repeat as necessary
Give them the following
information via phone if possible:
?
?
?
?
Your name
Your ETA
Steps taken (CPR, O2...)
Breed/size
10/27/2003
Animal CPR Instructions
without prior training, and
properly sized ET tubes.
6. Proceed to C-Circulation,
while continuing respiratory
support as necessary
Page 3 of 3
?
Important:
?
Breed/size
If a foreign body, what the
suspected object is
If a poison or medication
has been ingested
Mechanism of injury (hit
by car...)
Animals do not have palpable
?
carotid pulses. You can only
obtain a femoral pulse in the
inguinal crease. (Palpate
carefully on a conscious dog!) Write the phone number of the
24 hour animal hospital nearest
you here:
For more information, please send mail to [email protected]
http://members.aol.com/henryhbk/acpr.html
10/27/2003
Government
of Canada
Gouvernement
du Canada
Office of Critical
Infrastructure Protection and
Emergency Preparedness
Bureau de la protection
des infrastructures essentielles
et de la protection civile
Basic
Rescue
Skills
INTRODUCTION
THIS REVISED BOOKLET WAS PRODUCED BY
OFFICE OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION AND
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS IN CONSULTATION WITH
St. John Ambulance Saint-Jean
City of Toronto Fire Academy
SCR Emergency
Measures Consultants
and
The Volunteer Group
Sauvetage Canada Rescue
Canadian Association of Fire Chiefs
Christopher J. Naum
L.A. Emergency Management + Training Consultants
Syracuse, New York, USA
Cette publication est aussi disponible en français.
Elle s’intitule : Les techniques élémentaires du sauvetage
Illustrations in Section 7
© 1997 Priory of Canada of the Most Venerable
Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.
All rights reserved.
© Public Works and Government Services Canada 2002
Catalogue No. D82-22/2002E
ISBN 0-662-33184-2
In natural or technological disasters, people
could be trapped in the wreckage of their homes
or places of work. Many of them could die unless
rescued quickly. Although specialized dog teams
and sophisticated listening devices are available
to help search for trapped people, the bulk of
rescue work is done by local first responders:
fire, ambulance, and police personnel, who are
trained and certified. The first responders are
often assisted by the general public; but it takes
more than just willing hands to save lives.
Untrained, unorganized people may endanger
themselves and those they are trying to rescue.
(In the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, more than
130 untrained and unequipped rescuers died in
their attempt to save other lives.)
Those wishing to assist should await the arrival
of the first responders and follow their instructions.
It is important to note that anyone entering a
damaged structure should ask themselves whether
or not the damage may be the result of a criminal
act. If that possibility exists, it is of the utmost
importance that the integrity of the crime scene
be preserved to assist law enforcement officials
in the prosecution of the criminals. If you must
enter the structure in order to rescue someone,
only circulate where absolutely necessary, and
try moving as little as possible along the way.
Take note of the things you have moved, and
report it to the officials in charge.
The purpose of this booklet is to provide basic
information about rescue work in damaged
structures to individuals interested in the subject.
This booklet does not constitute training, nor is it
1
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
a complete technical manual, but it will familiarize
you with some of the skills required. You will
need further training before you attempt to do
any of the activities described in this booklet.
The techniques described here may be learned
and practised using the materials and know-how
available in most communities in Canada.
Those who wish to study this subject in more
detail should seek further instruction from their
municipal and provincial/territorial emergency
measures organizations or fire services. Training
may also be obtained from non-governmental
and volunteer organizations that are often involved
in assisting authorities in emergency response.
These organizations have experienced personnel
capable of advising or training others for rescue
work during a disaster.
While early response is vital to the survival of
disaster victims, the Office of Critical Infrastructure
Protection and Emergency Preparedness (OCIPEP)
does not endorse entry into damaged structures
by untrained, uncertified individuals.
Disaster rescue, by its very nature is a high-risk
activity. OCIPEP accepts no responsibility for
any accident or injury caused by the misuse
or misinterpretation of information contained
in this booklet. The reading of this booklet alone
cannot be considered adequate training for a
rescuer. Knowledge must be linked with training,
practical experience and strict adherence to safety.
SAFETY
Safety must be foremost in your mind. As such,
radioactive materials, and includes goggles
No matter how urgent the situation appears never
it is important to communicate the location
or face shields, coveralls, gloves, knee
enter a damaged building without first getting
of collapsed structures or broken pipes to the
guards, boots, and an appropriate mask.
advice from a rescue expert. Take measures to
authorities, thus allowing them to efficiently
coordinate their rescue efforts. Rescue sites will
2nd
control hazards and protect the rescuers first. Find
Full protective clothing
out as much as you can about the structure you
Clothing designed to prevent gases/vapours,
often be unstable and hide many dangers: broken
are about to enter. Use your power of observation
liquids and solids from coming into direct
glass, protruding nails, weakened floors or stairs,
and your ability to obtain information to enhance
contact with the skin and may include hel-
downed electrical wires, escaping gas, broken
your safety and chances of success. Clearing
met, face mask, coat and pants (customarily
sewer and water pipes. Structures that appear
debris from the opposite side of the building
worn by firefighters), gloves, rubber boots,
to be solid may not be. The dust generated by a
where people are less likely to be is a waste
bands (light-reflecting material) around
collapse may contain dangers, as well as possi-
of precious time.
waist, arms and legs, as well as coverings
bly cover up wounded or dead victims. Always
for other parts of the head not protected
Reconnaissance is the first step in any rescue.
by the face mask or helmet.
Doing this first step well, will build a solid base
Special protective clothing
for your rescue efforts. As you are conducting
Protect yourself from injury or death by staying
Clothing specially designed to protect
your reconnaissance try to locate casualties by
in a safe area while waiting for the first responders
against a specific product hazard; for
calling out: “Rescue party here! Can you hear
after (if it is possible) having called them. They
example, strong acids, radioactive materials,
me? If you can’t call out, tap in a series of
are the only ones who are trained and equipped to
cryogenic gases or poisonous substances.
three.” Remember you won’t help anybody
wear the protective clothing described below,
and avoid kneeling in the rubble.
3rd
attempt such rescues. They are used to managing
by becoming a casualty yourself.
emergency sites and know where everyone is
Confined spaces:
working at all times so that if there is an accident
Entry into confined spaces is one of the most
(explosion, building collapse) it is easier to reach
hazardous tasks faced by rescue personnel.
the trapped person(s). If you wish to assist
A confined space:
the first responders, you must follow their
• has limited access because of construction,
instructions exactly.
Wearing protection:
There are three levels of protective clothing that
When you are given permission to enter a building,
always work with a partner. Move slowly and
test each step. Walk close to walls. Walk backward
and close to walls when descending stairs.
location or contents
Look out for unsafe walls. Blocked or jammed
• has the capability of developing a buildup of
doors may be supporting debris on the other
hazardous gas/vapour/ dust/fumes, or an
side. Look for weakened stairways, projecting
oxygen deficient atmosphere.
glass fragments, splintered woodwork, projecting
should be used in rescue work.
nails and spikes, escaping gas, flooding of
Entry into a confined space may require special1st
2
Normal protective clothing
ized equipment such as a self-contained breath-
Such clothing can be worn within an
ing apparatus. Many community organizations
area that is not contaminated with gases,
provide awareness training for confined spaces
chemicals, flammable liquids, or any
and associated equipment.
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
basements and exposed wiring.
3
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
HOW TO ACQUIRE THE “SUPPLEMENTARY SKILL”
Don’t pull at projecting debris.
To stay alive in rescue work you must understand the dangers you may meet
and the precautions you must take. This is the “supplementary skill.”
In any neighbourhood, new buildings are constantly going up and old ones are
being torn down. Study them. Learn how houses are made.
To get experience at working in voids, you can simulate collapsed houses by building
“rafts” of old lumber. Lean them against walls to form the type of void you want.
Pile on old crates, etc., to make it realistic. With two such rafts you can simulate
any type of void (see page 7). You don’t need a lot of money if you have a little
imagination. Be sure it will not slip and injure someone before you practice this.
Rescue parties must often use whatever comes to hand. Learn to improvise. Make a
Don’t touch any wires.
list of the tools owned by neighbours. In particular, ladders, car jacks, axes, carpenters’
Don’t smoke or light matches.
tools, blankets, rope, first-aid supplies, garden tools, flashlights, helmets and gloves.
Know where you can lay your hands on these tools at a moment’s notice.
Don’t create
sparks or turn
on the electrical
power before
first checking
for the presence
of gas.
Don’t throw debris aimlessly.
4
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
5
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
SKILLS
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
TYPES OF COLLAPSE AND FORMATION OF VOIDS
Rescue is seldom a one-person effort. The ability
Most buildings are vulnerable to the effects of
to work as a team greatly enhances rescue efforts.
natural and technological disasters such as tor-
or less predictable patterns. Often the collapsing
Each individual in a team has experience or skills
nadoes, earthquakes, floods or explosions. But
structure forms what are called voids where people
that may be useful. Disaster situations will bring
the extent of the damage depends on the type
may live for some time. Rescue workers should
people together who have never met before and
of disaster and the construction of the building.
know how to locate and search these voids.
unite them in the pursuit of the common goal
of saving lives. Taking a few minutes to find out
about the skills and experience of each member
of the team is an important first step. The strength
of a team lies in the versatility of its members
and its ability to draw on this diversity of
knowledge and experience.
Most un-reinforced buildings collapse into more
V-Shape Floor Collapse
Void
Modern factories and office buildings for example,
Void
When a floor or roof or other large sections are
are framed in steel and are more resistant to
supported on one side and collapse or sag on
unusual violence than neighbourhood business
the other, they form a lean-to collapse.
premises and homes. Beware of steel framed
buildings that were recently on fire as they are
more prone to collapsing. However, in a disaster
The floors of a house or building are not con-
Lean-to Floor
Collapse
structed to carry tonnes of wreckage and as a
result when the weight of heavy loads, such as
such as a major earthquake, nearly every type
Rescue workers should have a knowledge of
of structure will be affected – some buildings will
ropes and knots and lashing. They should know
collapse and others will be left with weakened
furniture and equipment, or rubble and debris,
is concentrated near the centre of a floor, a
Void
V-type collapse may occur.
how to use jacks and levers, chain hoists and
floors and walls. Remember that no matter what
ladders. They should learn about shoring up
the scale of the damages, the techniques you use
When load-bearing external walls are weakened,
buildings with materials found on the spot. They
to rescue people remain the same.
destroyed or sucked outwards, the bulk of the
should know how to handle casualties; a first-aid
course is mandatory.
debris falls on the ground or street. The floors,
Rescue workers should understand the patterns
roof and some of the internal walls are deprived
in which particular types of buildings collapse,
And, there is another thing they should learn...
both for their own safety and that of others. They
to stay alive while rescuing others. To do this
must also keep untrained people from poking
they should understand something about the
around in the rubble and debris. This may cause
way buildings are constructed and how they
further collapse and harm trapped survivors.
of support and collapse in a heap, separated only
Pancake Floor Collapse
as remain. This is called a pancake collapse.
There may be voids formed by the furniture
supporting the collapsed floors, and it is possible
collapse. They should learn to work as safely
to crawl through these voids in comparative safety
as possible in collapsed buildings, rubble and
provided that such supports are not disturbed.
debris.
6
by the furniture and such portions of the walls
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
7
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
RESCUE SKILL NO. 1
KNOT TYING
Although there are other knots and hitches that
Running End: the end you are working
with in tying the knot
Running End
different sizes.
Standing End
depend on your being able to tie the right knot
The double sheet bend is more secure than the
securely at the moment it’s needed in light or
Standing
End
dark, rain or shine. The use of natural fibre
rope must be discouraged for the rescue of
Running End
great difference in the size of the rope as shown
for tying all ropes together, and can be used
fibre rope will suffice. Beware of ropes or straps
for joining ropes with chains.
Standing End
that have been in the sun for some time, this
Both knots have the advantage that they do not
may have weakened them.
Running End
single sheet bend and is used when there is a
here. In rescue work, a double sheet bend is used
human life. For most other operations, natural
Standing End
Sheet Bend
A sheet bend is used for joining two ropes of
here are the most common and should be learned
if you are to be a good rescue worker. Lives may
Standing End: the inactive end of the rope
Double sheet bend
can be used in rescue work, the ones mentioned
slip when the rope is wet.
Simple Figure Eight Knot
Bowline
This knot, from the figure eight family, is used
The bowline makes a loop that won’t tighten.
mainly as a stop knot to prevent a free end of
Running End
rope from running through a pulley or a block.
Useful as a general purpose knot.
Round Turn and Two Half Hitches
Reef-Knot
This knot is used for securing a rope to a spar,
A useful knot for general purposes. Used
picket or anchorage. It is particularly useful
mainly for tying bandages.
where guy lines are secured to pickets and an
Standing End
Clove Hitch
adjusting knot is required.
A quickly tied hitch which forms the basis of
Timber Hitch
many securing knots. Useful for anchoring a
Running End
rope to an object.
Running End
to secure a rope to a spar, plank or pole. When
Standing End
Figure Eight-on-a-Bight
lifting spars, planks or poles this knot should
This is a widely used knot for tying/ attaching
be used in conjuction with a half hitch placed
Standing End
safety lines, persons on the rope, anchor lines,
Standing End
rescue devices and other equipment.
Running End
Running End
8
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
This is a quickly made temporary knot used
9
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
at the upper end of the object being raised.
RESCUE SKILL NO. 2
RESCUE SKILL NO. 3
USE OF LEVERS AND JACKS
CRIBBING
When buildings collapse, people are frequently
Cribbing is essential in many extrication operations. Its most common
pinned under falling debris. Often this debris is
use is to stabilize objects. Wood selected for cribbing should be solid,
too heavy to lift by hand. You must, therefore,
straight, and free of major flaws such as large knots or splits. Cribbing
be able to use levers and jacks.
surfaces should be free of any paint or finish because this can make the
18”(46 cm) min.
Cribbing
wood slippery, especially when it is wet. Cribbing can be made out
Any sturdy piece of wood or metal will make a
lever. Any solid object, such as a piece of masonry,
makes a good fulcrum. Learn to improvise.
Lever
Make sure the fulcrum is placed so it won’t sink
under pressure. If necessary provide a wider
base by putting the fulcrum on a board that will
Force
spread the load on the ground. If the load slips
or your lever collapses, the victim may be
Fulcrum
Shim
of pieces of timber found in the debris and cut to size. Pieces of 2X2
(5 cm X 5 cm) and 4X4 (10 cm X 10 cm) as well as wedges cut in
this size timber are very useful.
Wedges
Cribbing involves multiple pieces of wood laid on the side and crossed.
It spreads the load well and has many load transfer surfaces. It also
has lateral stability depending on the ratio of width to height. The
height should not be more than three times the width. (Note: pieces
{
Do not stack cribbing
more than two high in the
same direction.
should not be less than two feet (60 cm) long.)
injured even more. Always work from a secure
position, keeping both feet on the ground.
The safest way to use a lever is to make a short
lift at a time and, for safety, crib the progress
as you go. (See Rescue Skill No. 3.)
Wood Cribbing 4X4
(10 cm X 10 cm),
6X6 (15 cm X 15 cm) laid flat
A jack is a mechanical device designed to lift
2X2 (5 cm X 5 cm)
Crosstie
Limit based on 500 PSI
(pounds per square inch)
crossgrain bearing
(3,447.5 kPa)
heavy loads. You can use it in a more confined
space than a lever. But it also needs care and
practice to be used safely. You can practice
4X4 crib capacity = 24000 lb.
(10,886 kg)
6X6 crib capacity = 60000 lb.
(27,215.5 kg)
using levers and jacks with equipment like this.
When using levers and jacks, be sure not to
use metal against metal. Use rags or wood to
Note: using 3 pieces per layer
as in 3X3 (7.5 cm X 7.5 cm)
crosstie will double the
capacity.
prevent sparks and slippage.
3X3 (7.5 cm X 7.5 cm )
Crosstie
Crosstie Platform
10
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
11
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
RESCUE SKILL NO. 4
RESCUE SKILL NO. 5
CHAIN HOIST AND FLOOR JACK
LADDERS
Swivel
Hook
Snatch Block
Chain Hoist
Electric winches, chain hoists and cable comealongs (manual winches) are found in most
garages (and on farms), and a garage owner
is a fine addition to your rescue team. Chain
hoists are useful but are hard to work at night.
They are not practical for horizontal pulls.
Metal ladders are valuable pieces of rescue
equipment. They can be used for bridges. When
using a ladder as a bridge, make sure you have
Ladder as a Bridge
left plenty of overlap at each end (a minimum
of three rungs). Place boards over the rungs to
improve the footing. (Keep in mind that metal
ladders conduct electricity so be careful where
you place them.)
Swivel
Locking
Device
A snatch block can be opened from the side
to allow easier threading of the rope/cable.
To erect a ladder, have one person “foot” it to
prevent slipping. Another option is to lash the
Floor Jack
bottom of the ladder to some secure object.
A hydraulic service jack (floor jack) has the
advantage of no loose chain to get in the way.
Shell
It takes little space and can be set up quickly.
Remember not to use metal against metal and
Center Pin
Securing and
Anchoring Ladders
make sure that as you lift, you use a crib.
Sheave
12
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
13
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
RESCUE SKILL NO. 6
STRUTTING AND SHORING
Once you’ve cleared fallen debris – or if a struc-
To Climb a Ladder
ture is liable to collapse further – you should
Hold on to the rung, not the beam, unless
shore it up with timbers. Strutting is the same
you’re carrying something. Stand on the centre
process applied to doors and windows.
of the rungs. Look up, not down.
If you must stand still on a ladder, lock yourself
in place by passing one leg through the rungs,
Cleat
Wall Plate
There are three main types of shoring – raking,
flying and dead shore. Don’t overdo things with
shoring. The idea is support, not reconstruction.
gripping the rung with the knee.
Brace
The Raking Shore
Setting It Safely
Raker
This is intended to hold a bulging wall from further
To determine how far the base of the ladder
collapse. As the value of this shore depends on
should be placed from the wall, divide the
its rigidity, common sense is the best guide in
working height by four. For added safety,
putting it in a firm place.
when working from a height such as a
rooftop, ensure that at least three rungs
The Flying Shore
extend beyond the working height.
Sole Piece
This shore uses a sound wall to support a sagging
wall. It can be used for walls up to 7.62 m (25 ft.)
Straining Pieces
Wire Bound
apart. You’ll see from the diagram that it is really
only a series of four raking shores, each based
on the horizontal beam holding the wall plates in
position. A raking shore can do almost anything
a flying shore can do, and with a lot less fuss.
Double
Wedges
Wall
Plates
Cleat
Struts
1/4 of the
Working Height
Sole Plate
Soft
Ground
Ladder Hard
Ground
Sole Plate
14
Ladder
Sole Plate
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
Tighten Opposite Wedges
(Double Wedges)
Do NOT
place ladder
like this
15
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
Horizontal
Beam
RESCUE SKILL NO. 7
EMERGENCY HANDLING
OF CASUALTIES
The Dead Shore
This type of shore bears a lot of weight. Therefore
the sole piece and head piece should be very
solidly positioned. The dead shores or temporary
columns in the form of upright struts, are used
to provide safe working conditions for rescuers
by supporting unsound floors or beams and
The prime purpose of all rescue work is to get
you or respond to your attempts to wake him,
the injured people out of danger and to medical
check to see if he is breathing. Your aim is to
help as quickly as possible. When the number
keep the casualty alive until medical help arrives.
of casualties outnumbers the immediate help
Do not waste time dealing with minor injuries until
available the aim becomes one of trying to
all casualties have been found and stabilized.
ensure the best use of time to effectively help
providing vertical support for openings cut in
the most people. This decision-making process
masonry walls.
is called “triage.” In triage, those responding
to the incident are called upon to examine all
casualties quickly and rank them according to
the level of need for both first aid and transportation to medical help.
If the person is not breathing, try to find someone
nearby who is able to do artificial respiration
until help gets there. If the casualty is bleeding
severely, apply a pressure bandage before moving
to the next casualty. Remember, time is valuable.
Give first aid for life- threatening conditions quickly
and go to the next casualty.
In any rescue or multiple casualty situation,
confusion may be evident. It is essential that
individuals charged with helping injured people
be able to remain calm and act quickly but
Head Piece
carefully, always attentive to potential hazards
to either themselves or other people in the area.
In any situation where you suspect a possible
Braces
head or spinal injury if the life of the casualty
is not under immediate threat, seek the help of
If you’re alone and must move the casualty
quickly, try one of the following rescue carries.
Human Crutch
casualties who can help
anatomical alignment (nose, belly button, inside
themselves. It is an
of ankles). If the person is not in this position, get
easy way to move the
the help of qualified personnel.
less seriously injured.
casualty, provided it is safe, and check for
responsiveness. If the person does not answer
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
the best method and route to carry the casualty.
and that your life is not in danger, maintain normal
are involved in the incident. Go to the nearest
16
have to. Scan the escape routes to determine
This method is only for
Try to establish quickly how many casualties
Struts
Never move the casualty any further than you
specialists. If it is essential to move the casualty
Sole Piece
Double Wedges
ONE-RESCUER METHODS
17
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
Drag Carry
This carry is used to drag a casualty who is
either lying on his back or in a sitting position.
Ease your hands under the casualty’s shoulders
and grasp the clothing on each side, supporting
the head between your forearms. Drag the casualty
backward only as far as necessary for his/her
safety. But be careful, make sure not to choke
the casualties when pulling on their clothing.
Blanket Drag
An alternate method to the drag carry, the rescuer
TWO-RESCUER METHODS
If there are two of you to do the carrying, try
one of these emergency methods:
Chair Lift
The chair carry can be used for a conscious or
unconscious casualty, but not for suspected
head/spinal injuries. For protection, secure the
casualty’s hands across his or her chest, and if
the casualty is unconscious, secure the person
to the chair.
can use a blanket to support and pull the casualty.
Two-hand Seat Carry
Pick-a-Back
This is another way to carry a conscious casualty
Simply lift the casualty from a standing or sitting
position onto your back. Don’t try it if the casualty
is unconscious, or has arm injuries.
who can neither walk nor support the upper body.
Make a hook with your fingers by folding them
towards your palm and grab onto your partner’s
“hook”. If you don’t have any gloves, use a
Removal Downstairs
piece of cloth to protect your hand from the
Don’t try this if you suspect head/spinal injuries,
other person’s nails. This is yet another good
or broken limbs. Use a mattress or rug under
reason to wear gloves.
the person if one is available.
Four-hand Seat Carry
Firefighter’s Crawl
This is also a good carry for a conscious casu-
Use a triangular bandage, a torn shirt, etc.,
alty who can use hands and arms for support.
to tie the casualty’s hands together, and place
them around your neck. This way you can
move a person much heavier than yourself.
18
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
19
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
Three Person
Lift and Carry
MULTI-RESCUER METHODS
IMPROVISED STRETCHERS
If there are more than two of you to do the job,
If a commercially prepared stretcher is not
there are a number of different methods that
available, you can improvise one by using a
can be used to carry casualties.
tabletop, door, or two rigid poles and a blanket,
Three Person Lift and Carry
This is an excellent way of lifting a badly hurt
or clothing. Don’t use non-rigid stretchers for
casualties with suspected head and spinal
injuries.
person without complicating most injuries. The
1.
casualty can be carried forward, sideways or
Blanket and Poles Stretcher
lowered onto a stretcher.
1. Place the blanket flat on the ground and
Blanket Lift
Don’t use this lift if head/spinal injuries are
suspected.
2.
place a pole one-third of the way from the
end. Fold the one-third length of the blanket
over the pole.
2. Place the second pole parallel to the first so
1. Roll the blanket or rug lengthwise for half its
that it is on the doubled part of the blanket,
width. Position bearers at the head and feet
about 15 cm (6 in) from the doubled edge.
to keep the head, neck and body in line.
2. Kneel at the casualty’s shoulder and position a
bearer at the waist to help logroll the casualty
3. Fold the remaining blanket over the two
poles. The casualty’s weight on the blanket
holds the folds in place.
onto the uninjured side. Turn the casualty as a
3.
unit so that his/her body is not twisted during
Stretchers from Found Materials
the logroll.
Doors, short ladders, sheets of galvanized
3. Roll the casualty back over the blanket roll to
lay face up on the blanket. Unroll the blanket and
metal, etc. can all be used to improvise stretchers. Keep a good eye out for suitable materials.
NOTE: Test an improvised stretcher
then roll the edges of the blanket to each side of
Make sure the stretcher and casualty will clear
the casualty. Get ready to lift the casualty –
with someone equal to or heavier than
passageways and that the stretcher
have bearers grip the rolls at the head and
the casualty to ensure that it will hold.
is strong enough to hold the casualty.
shoulders, and at the hips and legs.
Check the clearance of an improvised
stretcher to ensure that it will pass
4. Keep the blanket tight as the casualty is lifted
4.
20
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
through hallways, doors and stairways
and placed on the stretcher.
without harm to the casualty.
21
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
BLANKETING STRETCHERS
CARRYING STRETCHERS
One blanket can be used to wrap the casualty
A stretcher should be carried by at least four
let the front part protrude through the door. One
for warmth and provide easy access to the
people, normally facing the direction of travel,
rescuer at a time moves through the doorway,
casualty’s wounds.
with the casualty’s feet first. They should carry
then regrasps the stretcher.
If going through a doorway, the front bearers
should move to the middle of the stretcher and
2
head first if going uphill or upstairs, and when
4
Place a blanket diagnonally on the length of the
stretcher. Fold the overhanging edges and tuck
them on both sides of the stretcher bed to keep
loading into an ambulance or onto a bed. Remind
Avoid crossing a wall or high obstacle, even if
rescuers that someone should keep watching
it means a longer carry. Where a wall must be
the casualty, while they are transporting.
crossed, follow these steps:
them off the ground.
3
After the casualty has been placed on the stretcher,
bring the bottom corner (1 in the figure) over
the feet and tuck between the ankles. The corner
1
at the head (2) is brought around the head and
neck towards the chest. Cover the casualty with
the two other sides (3 and 4).
Lashing Casualty to Stretcher
Whenever casualties have to be carried over
uneven ground or debris, they should be lashed
to the stretcher using clove hitches. A clove hitch
Uneven Ground and Obstacles
1. Lift the stretcher so that the front handles
are supported by the wall. The people in the
When crossing uneven ground, a stretcher
rear hold the stretcher level, while the front
should be carried by four people and kept as
person crosses the wall.
level as possible. The rescuers must adjust the
height of the stretcher to compensate for dips
and rises in the terrain (Figure 1).
2. All bearers lift together and move the stretcher
forward until the rear handles rest on the wall.
The people in the rear then cross the wall.
If the ground is unstable, the stretcher should be
passed along a row of 6-8 people, rather than
have bearers move over the rubble, especially
when set down, since the lashing could tighten
around the casualty.
on the stretcher handle starts the lashing. This
is followed by a series of half hitches positioned
around the casualty at mid-chest, at the hip, where
the legs join the torso, and just below the knee.
Figure 1
22
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
23
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
EXTRICATION FROM
A SITTING POSITION
FIVE STAGES OF RESCUE
Sometimes in earthquakes or blasts, casualties
work but, generally speaking, five stages of rescue
are found sitting in their vehicles. When there
are followed by trained rescue parties.
is an immediate danger and you are alone and
Stage 1 – Reconnaissance and
Dealing with Surface Casualties
must move a seated casualty from a vehicle,
proceed as follows:
No hard and fast rules can be laid down for rescue
Examine the site. Deal with surface casualties.
1. Disentangle the person’s feet from the wreckage
and bring the feet foward to exit. Ease your
Gather all possible information about other
occupants of the building.
forearm under the person’s armpit on the exit
side, extending your hand to support the chin.
2. Ease the person’s head gently backward to
rest on your shoulder while keeping the neck
as rigid as possible.
Stage 2 – Location and Removal
of Lightly Trapped Casualties
Search immediately accessible areas for casualties
who can be rescued with minimal effort. Maintain
contact with casualties inside who can be seen or
3. Ease your other forearm under the armpit
heard but who cannot be moved immediately.
on the opposite side and hold the wrist of
the casualty’s arm which is nearest the exit.
Note: The use of trained air scenting dogs can
greatly increase the likelihood of finding trapped
4. Establish a firm footing and swing around
and unconscious casualties.
with the casualty, keeping as much rigidity in
Stage 4 – Further Exploration and
Selected Debris Removal
Search farther into the ruins where the chances
of trapped people remaining alive seem remote.
This may include removing debris from the more
likely places where casualties may be located.
Stage 5 – Systematic Debris Removal
Strip selected areas of debris until all supposed
casualties are accounted for. This includes removal
of the dead and body parts. Identify buildings
that have already been searched by using spray
paint or signs. This method can also be used to
mark buildings that may contain bodies.
VISUAL TRAINING AIDS
Check with your provincial emergency measures organization for availability of the following training aids:
• Rescue Party
• Five Stages of Rescue
the neck as possible. Drag the casualty from
Dogs used in this fashion should not wear collars
the vehicle to a safe distance, with as little
or harnesses that might trap them when moving
twisting as possible.
through debris. The paws should be checked
• Rescue Reconnaissance
IMPROVISATION
regularly for injuries.
Any casualty who has been injured may experience increased distress and pain as a
result of rescue efforts. Remember never to move the casualty any further than necessary
to wait safely for additional help. Do only what is necessary to ensure the casualty’s safety
and to preserve life. Continue to reassure the conscious casualty and, where available,
Stage 3 – Exploration
of Likely Survival Points
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
practise rescue work. Information on appropriate
equipment and training may be available from
Search the ruins and rescue all persons who can
your local emergency measures organization
be seen or heard. This may include a calling
(page 28). Learn the proper procedures now so
and listening period.
that you will be able to respond effectively in an
emergency.
have someone stay with him/her until help arrives.
24
You don’t need a lot of expensive equipment to
25
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
SOME DOS AND DON’TS
SOME DOS AND DON’TS
DO
DON’T
Do It in the Dark
WHAT TO DO:
To be a good rescue worker you should master
• Think before you act, and be careful.
all the skills we’ve outlined in this booklet. You
should be able to do them in the dark. Practise
tying knots blindfolded and in cramped quarters.
In many places you may find a casualty simulation
group. Take advantage of their services.
is greater than the help available, do not
waste time. Use your resources wisely.
• Warn or have somebody warn the authorities
about the damages and the number of casualties
in your sector.
• Do a reconnaissance before you start work.
This will not be time wasted.
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE BEFORE
AN EMERGENCY:
• Walk as close as possible to the wall when
• Volunteer to get involved with your municipality’s
• Use gloves when removing debris by hand.
on damaged stairs and upper floors.
implementation of an Emergency Plan. Call
City Hall and let them know you’re interested.
• In situations where the number of casualties
• Be careful how you move debris from the
• Examine a casualty before removal and give
first aid for all life-threatening conditions only.
• Free the nose and mouth of a casualty from
dust and grit to ease breathing.
• Keep a casualty warm to slow the progress
of shock.
• Make sure that the stretcher is properly
• Move an injured person without rendering first
aid unless the casualty is in immediate danger.
• Smoke or strike matches in case there is a
gas leak.
• Crawl over debris or disturb parts of the
damaged structure unless you are compelled
to by circumstances.
• Pull timber out of the wreckage indiscriminately
or you may cause further collapse.
• Enter any site without informing the other
blanketed so that the casualty has the maxi-
members of your party, or if possible, without
mum amount of warmth and comfort.
a companion to help in case of accident.
vicinity of a casualty.
• Use appropriate procedures to carry a
• Make a family Emergency Plan by consulting
our "Be Prepared Not Scared: Emergency
Preparedness Starts With You" brochure.
• Protect a casualty from falling debris and dust
stretcher over debris and obstacles.
by using blankets, tarpaulins, corrugated iron
sheets, etc.
• Keep a list of all casualties handled.
• Prepare a Family Emergency Kit, in case you
need to evacuate the premises.
• Keep off wreckage as much as possible and
leave it undisturbed or the neutral voids may
• Get your First-Aid training.
• Know your emergency telephone numbers.
• Get all the safety equipment necessary to your
protection (gloves, safety glasses, helmet,
work boots, anti-dust mask).
be destroyed by further collapse.
• Be careful how you remove debris and obstacles,
especially from voids, to prevent further collapse.
• Exercise great care when using sharp tools
in debris.
• It is often necessary to use props or struts
to strengthen a floor loaded with debris before
passing over or working underneath it.
26
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
27
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
• Touch loose electrical wiring.
• Throw debris aimlessly – you may have to
move it again.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
For more information on emergency preparedness,
PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL
EMERGENCY MEASURES
ORGANIZATIONS
Québec
Saskatchewan
Direction générale de la sécurité civile et de la
Saskatchewan Emergency Planning
sécurité incendie
Telephone: (306) 787-9563
Telephone: (418) 646-7950
Fax: (306) 787-1694
measures organization.
Newfoundland and Labrador
Fax: (418) 646-5427
OFFICE OF CRITICAL
INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Public Affairs Division
Toll Free Emergency Number: 1 866 776-8345
Alberta
Emergency Measures Organization
Telephone: (709) 729-3703
Emergency Number: (418) 643-3256
Emergency Management Alberta
Fax: (709) 729-3857
Or one of the Direction générale de la sécurité
please contact the Office of Critical Infrastructure
Protection and Emergency Preparedness Canada
or your provincial/ or territorial emergency
122 Bank Street, 2nd floor
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0W6
Telephone: (613) 944-4875
Toll free: 1-800-830-3118
Fax: (613) 998-9589
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.ocipep-bpiepc.gc.ca
Prince Edward Island
civile regional offices:
Bas-Saint-Laurent-Gaspésie- Îles-de-la-Madeleine:
Telephone: (780) 422-9000
Toll free in Alberta, dial 310-0000-780-422-9000
Fax: (780) 422-1549
Emergency Measures Organization
(418) 727-3589
British Columbia
Telephone: (902) 888-8050
Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean-Côte-Nord:
Fax: (902) 888-8054
Provincial Emergency Program (PEP)
(418) 695-7872
Telephone: (250) 952-4913
Nova Scotia
Capitale Nationale-Chaudière- Appalaches-
Fax: (250) 952-4888
Emergency Measures Organization
Nunavik: (418) 643-3244
Telephone: (902) 424-5620
Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec: (819) 371-6703
Fax: (902) 424-5376
Montréal-Laval-Laurentides- Lanaudière:
New Brunswick
(514) 873-1300
Northwest Territories
Emergency Measures Organization
Telephone: (867) 873-7785
Fax: (867) 873-8193
Montérégie-Estrie: (514) 873-1324
Emergency Measures Organization
Outaouais-Abitibi-Témiscamingue-
Yukon
Toll free: (800) 561-4034
Nord-du-Québec: (819) 772-3737
Emergency Measures Organization
Fax: (506) 453-5513
Ontario
Telephone: (506) 453-2133
Telephone: (867) 667-5220
Fax: (867) 393-6266
Emergency Management Ontario
Telephone: (416) 212-3468
Fax: (416) 212-3498
Nunavut
Nunavut Emergency Management
Telephone: (867) 975-5300
Manitoba
Emergency Measures Organization
Telephone: (204) 945-4772
Toll free: 1-888-826-8298
Fax: (204) 945-4620
28
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
29
BA S I C R E S C U E S K I L L S
Fax: (867) 979-4221
SAFE GUARD
SAFE GUARD is a national information program based on
partnerships and aimed at increasing public awareness of
emergency preparedness in Canada.
The SAFE GUARD program brings together government,
private and voluntary organizations that are part of the
emergency planning, response and recovery community.
The triangle depicted in the program logo is the international
symbol of emergency preparedness. The jagged line evokes
the maple leaf, Canada’s internationally recognized symbol.
SAFE GUARD
is a progam of the Office of Critical
Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness.
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