N° 1
1 / 07
• Coffee: The coffee tree
conquers the world
• Coffee: Nectar from
a red fruit
• Caffeine: Not only in
• Coffee: Health and
• A coffee for every
w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r
Coffee varietes:
2 ⁄ 3 Arabica
1 ⁄ 3 Robusta
E D i TO R i A l
Together with cereals,
coffee is one of the major
goods traded on the
world commodities market. A universally appreciated drink,
it can be prepared and enjoyed in
thousands of ways. Coffee is consistently the subject of many scientific
studies. Recent studies on the effects
of coffee and caffeine confirm what
we have known for a long time. Coffee has a positive effect on body and
health. Therefore, we would like to
bring the stimulating and wonderful
world of coffee closer to you.
Sascha Türler-Inderbitzin
Strategic Business Division
We would like to thank everyone for their contribution and support in completing this edition.
Special thanks goes to NESTLÉ Switzerland,
SERVICE NUTRITION, for their cooperation
and enthusiasm.
Coffee: The coffee tree
conquers the world
Coffee is an important product on the world market. Quality and
quantity depend on cooperation between economic players –
growers, producers and consumers.
The coffee shrub comes from the high plateau originally from
the Kaffa region of Ethiopia, where the fruit is still turned into
porridge. In the 11th century, coffee began its career as a hot
drink. In the 16th century, the first cafés opened in the streets of
Cairo, Constantinople and Mecca. They were cultural meeting
places for discussions, singing and playing music. Coffee drinking was already a social activity at this time. Colonization greatly
contributed to the expansion of coffee-growing in all the equatorial regions and, due to this development, the first cafés opened
in Europe in the 17th century, when this new exotic drink came
on the scene.
Coffee is grown all around the equator, from
the Tropic of Capricorn to the Tropic of Cancer
The coffee tree belongs to the rubiacea family and grows in the
tropical and sub-tropical regions above and below the equator,
known as the coffee belt. The main growing regions are Latin
America (in particular Brazil), Asia and Africa. The annual global
coffee harvest now amounts to about 7 million tons per year.
Three quarters comprises different varieties of Arabica (Coffea
arabica) and one quarter Robusta (Coffea canephora), which has
a stronger taste.
NutriPro Beverages 1/07
Main growing regions
Cote d’ivoire
Some differences between Arabica and Robusta coffee
Time from flower to ripe cherry 9 months
10–11 months
Ripe cherries
Yield (kg beans/ha)
Root system
Optimum temperature
15–24° C
24–30° C
Optimum rainfall
1500–2000 mm
2000–3000 mm
Optimum growth
1000–2000 m
0–700 m
Caffeine content of beans
0.8 – 1.4%
1.7 – 4.0%
Shape of bean
Typical brew characteristics
bitterness, full
average 1.2%
average 2.0%
(yearly average)
NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
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The roasting process
turns the bean brown
Nectar from a red fruit
The triumph of
NESCAFÉ – made
of 100% coffee
At a time when producers’ warehouses could hold no more coffee,
around the end of the 1920ies,
Brazil, which was the world’s major
coffee producing country, asked
NESTlé if there was some way to
preserve their precious merchandise.
They wanted to control the fluctuation in annual production, save
warehouse space and in particular
offer the consumer a new ready-touse product: soluble coffee in cubes.
The whole art of transforming coffee is in the control of the
different phases that preserve all its aromatic components.
The technologies first used (roasting – grinding – infusing) have
been complemented by numerous intermediary steps aimed
at optimizing coffee flavor and aroma.
From the red berry to the brown coffee bean
In the tropical climate of the coffee-growing regions, coffee trees
blossom and produce berries at precise periods of the year. These
periods vary from region to region all around the coffee belt
with the result that coffee can be harvested throughout the year.
Around 5 kg of coffee berries must be picked – by hand – to
obtain 1 kg of green coffee beans.
The preliminary treatment of the ripe berries can be dry (dry
process) or in water (washed process). In the latter case, the berries go through a de-pulper that removes the pulp and skin.
The result is parchment coffee, when the coffee bean is still covered by a thin layer of its pulp, or mucilage. It is fermented for a
few hours and then extensively rinsed in water and spread out
to dry in the sun. Finally, it is hulled, resulting in the green coffee
The idea was as brilliant as the challenge was difficult. The major problems were the solubility of the product and the preservation of the
aroma. After seven years of intense
research and development, NESTlé
finally launched its first NESCAFé in
1938. it was not in the form of cubes
but in a powder that could be served
in the quantity desired and dissolved easily.
in its 68 years, NESCAFé has benefited from many technological advances, particularly spray-drying and
freeze-drying. Currently, NESTlé is
the undisputed leader in soluble
coffee. Of the 24,500 cups of coffee
drunk around the world every
second, more than 4000 are cups
There have long been numerous
varieties of NESCAFé. They are characterized by the different amounts
of Arabica and Robusta in the blend,
by the grade of roasting and by their
caffeine content. All are subject to
the strictest purity standards:
NESCAFé is made of 100% coffee.
NutriPro Beverages 1/07
beans used by coffee manufactures. Alternatively, when undergoing dry processing the berries are dried in the sun for two to
three weeks. After this the shell, which comprises the skin, the
pulp and the parchment, is removed mechanically and the green
coffee beans are packed in bags and transported to their final
destination. Dry post-harvest treatment produces stronger tasting varieties than wet processing.
The blending of different green coffees by specialists is the first
step in defining the aroma and taste of the finished product.
Roasting is the next decisive step. The coffee beans are heated
for 5 to 15 minutes at temperatures between 190 and 250°C
(374°– 418°F). During the roasting process the beans dry and
increase in volume, and at the same time turn brown. They take
on a dark brown color and the characteristic roasted coffee aroma and flavor develop. The whole or ground roasted coffee beans
are then sold and should be used quickly.
The mystery of aroma
Aroma profiles for Arabica
and Robusta coffees
During the transformation process, all the operator’s attention is
focused on capturing the aroma. More than one thousand highly
volatile components have already been identified. They are
­created during roasting as a result of particular chemical reactions. It is interesting to note that the dominant elements, when
taken separately, do not smell like freshly roasted coffee at all.
It is only when they are put together that they are perceived
as coffee aroma. Because coffee quality is mainly identified by its
aroma, the coffee we know today does not have anything in
common with the strong, bitter and acidic drink that first conquered the world.
The two varieties Arabica and
­Robusta are clearly differentiated
by their aroma. Arabica is a variety
that is milder, more aromatic
and more acidic. It is perceived as
pleasantly acidic. It grows ideally
on high plateaus in tropical regions.
Robusta has a stronger taste, is
more bitter and grows better in
­humid valley forests. Roasting
natu­rally plays an essential role in
­developing the respective aromatic
characteristics as well.
Overall aroma
Coffee aroma
Overall taste
Coffee taste
Sweet acid
Green vegetable
NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ Professional Nutrition Magazine
w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r
Caffeine is an
alkaloid that
is found in the
beans, leaves,
and fruit of
over 60 plants,
e.g. coffee, tea yerba mate, cacao
(see above). It acts as a stimulant
on the central nervous system,
­improves alertness and awareness
and removes tiredness. The caffeine
content in coffee varies widely depending on the type of coffee (e.g.
the Robusta variety contains more
than the double the caffeine than
Arabica coffee) and the method of
preparation used. Generally, dark
roast coffee has less caffeine than
light roast because during the roasting process caffeine decreases.
17% of green coffee is used
to make soluble coffee
Soluble coffee
Around 17% of the green coffee produced worldwide is used to
make soluble coffee. The beans are first roasted and then
­extracted with water, after which the coffee extract is dried.
To give soluble coffee the quality and the exquisite aroma
of fresh coffee, NESTLÉ specialists have developed processes
that preserve coffee’s delicate aromatic components.
To produce the coffee extract, the roasted coffee must first be
ground very evenly. The ground coffee is then infused in water
above 100°C to extract the aromas and the soluble compounds,
which makes up the beverage. Aromas are captured at various
stages of the process and re-incorporated into the product during
a later phase (before drying). The extract is concentrated in evaporators. Lastly, the drying itself is done by either spray-drying
or freeze-drying. In a spray-dryer, the extract is sprayed with minuscule drops and dried with hot air. Freeze-drying heats the
frozen extract gently under very low pressure so that the ice is
transformed directly into water vapor. This gentle heating technique tends to preserve the aroma better, though both drying
processes produce soluble coffee of premium quality.
Caffeine is the most well-known
substance in coffee. It is usually appreciated for its stimulating effect.
Some consumers, however, prefer
to enjoy the full flavor of coffee
without this effect. Different processes have thus been developed to
eliminate caffeine from the coffee
bean in order to obtain a coffee
with all its flavor but without the
stimulation effect. The generally
preferred method uses water only,
but solvents or supercritical carbon
dioxide may also be used. Almost
all the methods of decaffeinating
coffee consist of soaking the beans
in water to dissolve the caffeine,
extracting the caffeine with either a
solvent or activated carbon, and
then re-soaking the beans in the
decaffeinated water to reabsorb the
flavor compounds that were removed in the initial extraction. If a
solvent is used, no residues are left
in the coffee. However, all brands
of decaffeinated coffee still contain
very low residual caffeine. Drinking
twenty cups of decaf in a row may
therefore deliver as much caffeine
as one cup of regular coffee.
NutriPro Beverages 1/07
Caffeine: Not
only in coffee
Filter coffee (150 ml)
Range [mg]
Infused tea (150 ml)
Instant tea (150 ml)
Iced tea (240 ml)
Cola-based drinks ( 300 ml)
Energy drinks l (250 ml)
Cocoa drinks (150 ml)
Chocolate milk (240 ml)
Milk chocolate (100 g)
Dark chocolate (100 g)
90 50–110
Cooking chocolate (30 g)
Soluble coffee (150 ml)
Caffeine is found in coffee, tea*
(black tea, green tea and mate),
­cocoa, guarana and cocoa-based
drinks. The caffeine content of
foods and beverages made from
these products varies according to
the plant used to begin with, the
variety, the treatment undergone
and the method of preparation.
Average value [mg]
Decaffeinated coffee (150 ml)
Espresso (30 ml)
Sodas and energy drinks
Cocoa-based beverages
*For tea the term used is theine,
which has the same chemical
structure as caffeine.
NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ Professional Nutrition Magazine
w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r
Coffee is rich in
Coffee is a major source of dietary
antioxidants, mainly polyphenols.
It is well-established that antioxidants help fight free radicals and
oxidative damage. Epidemiological
evidence has established the beneficial effects of regular coffee consumption, probably mostly linked
to polyphenol intake, which reduces
the risk of certain chronic or
degenerative diseases such as cancers, type-2 diabetes, inflammation
and liver disease. Emerging evidence also indicates the possible
positive impact of coffee on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
Polyphenols comprise a large family
of natural compounds widely
distributed in plant foods. Sources
of polyphenols include fruits (e.g.
citrus fruits, apples, grapes), vegetables (e.g. tomatoes, peppers, onions), tea, wine, dark chocolate and
coffee. They can be classified into
phenolic acids and flavonoids.
Coffee activates
the nervous system
Coffee: Health and benefits
Just like any other food, coffee contains nutrients, for example
niacin, potassium, magnesium and manganese. The physiological action of coffee comes mainly from caffeine and from its
high concentration of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds
Is there a maximum daily consumption?
Using studies for quantitative recommendations on coffee intake
is unusual. The rapid rate of absorption of caffeine, coffee’s most
well-known component, is extremely variable from one individual to another. The average half-life of caffeine (the time required
for the body to eliminate one half of the total amount of caffeine
consumed at a given time) is about 3 hours and can be considerably influenced by various factors. Pregnancy can prolong the
average half-life up to 100%, while smoking habits increase its
elimination. Contraceptives or alcohol also prolong the average
half-life of caffeine breakdown. The amount of coffee suitable
for each individual should therefore be determined by listening
to one’s body and well-being. The average daily consumption
of 3 to 5 cups of coffee per day is generally given as guidance;
this amount can have very positive effects on a person’s health
and well-being.
Caffeine and its effect on the central
nervous system
Caffeine’s effect on the nervous system is well-established.
It improves reaction and concentration and at the same time
delays fatigue. This is one of the reasons it is being studied
to counteract the effects of jet lag. Caffeine may also have an
influence on the rate of learning for certain tasks.
Caffeine also acts as a global stimulant on the metabolism. It explains the capacity for more intense and greater physical effort
at work or in an endurance sport. For example, we know that
caffeine helps cyclists and long-distance runners to accelerate
their speed performance.
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Caffeine and its effect on your heart
Coffee no longer considered to be dehydrating
Reworked interpretations of existing scientific studies show that
­coffee is no longer considered to be
dehydrating, as it only decreases
the extra­cellular water and has no
effect on the intracellular liquid
(the water in the cells).
As coffee is also virtually free of
calories, moderate coffee consumption (3–5 cups a day) can thus
­contribute positively to the recommended daily liquid intake within
a diversified and balanced diet.
Coffee is sometimes linked to certain cardiovascular problems
such as high cholesterol levels. Responsible for this effect are the
coffee oils contained in unfiltered coffee such as Turkish coffee
or Nordic-style boiled coffee. This can be easily eliminated by
­using filtration paper for coffee brews or using soluble coffee.
No other supposed effects of coffee on the cardiovascular system
have been demonstrated for moderate coffee consumption
(3–5 cups per day), despite the stimulant present in caffeine.
For example, a link between blood pressure and coffee consumption has not been demonstrated, but there are so-called
­“caffeine-sensitive” individuals, whose blood pressure rises
when they ingest caffeine. However, the increase in blood pressure for these individuals is usually quite low and lasts only
about one hour. Coffee is therefore not seen as a risk factor for
high blood pressure.
There has been some recent positive epidemiological evidence
showing that coffee consumption may contribute to a reduced
incidence of fatal heart attacks.
Coffee and health: Some myths
Much has also been said, but nothing proven, about the possible
effects coffee may have on bone density. Osteoporosis is the
demineralization of the bones, which increases the risk of fractures. This disease is linked to numerous factors; eating habits,
in particular calcium and vitamin D intake, physical exercise,
body weight, tobacco and alcohol consumption, heredity and
hormone balance. Scientific evidence shows that coffee does not
interfere with bone health if the daily calcium intake is adequate.
High caffeine intake may, however, marginally increase calcium
excretion in women with insufficient calcium intake.
Another myth is that caffeine is diuretic. Scientific evidence
clearly shows that moderate coffee consumption has no significant impact on overall fluid balance.
Pregnancy: 2–3 cups a day
Caffeine metabolism is clearly influenced by a woman’s hormonal status. Slower absorption of caffeine in pregnant women,
­resulting in the sustained presence of caffeine in the blood, has
been proven repeatedly. As caffeine also passes into the baby
through the mother’s blood, the correlation between coffee
­intake and the baby’s health has been the subject of numerous
studies on fertility, miscarriage, low birth weight, retarded development and cot deaths. No causal relation to coffee intake has
been found. The results of these studies show that 2–3 cups of
coffee per day (<300 mg caffeine/day) are usually no problem
for pregnant women and the foetus. In fact, caffeine has even
proven extremely useful in neonatology for premature babies.
Since 1913, caffeine has been known to stimulate breathing, and
carefully monitored doses of caffeine are administered to newborns with low respiratory activity as a therapeutic measure.
NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ Professional Nutrition Magazine
There are many methods
to brew a perfect cup of coffee
w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r
A coffee for every occasion
Most adults drink coffee. They have at least two good reasons:
the good taste of coffee and its stimulating effect. How coffee is
consumed is a matter of individual preference, offer and availability, and socio-cultural habits.
Caffeine prolongs
performance in
endurance exercise
After ingesting caffeine, cyclists
and runners are able to sustain
their athletic performance at a
higher level for a longer period
of time.
after ingestion
of placebo
after ingestion
of caffeine
NutriPro Beverages 1/07
Mean performance
time at 85%
VO2max [min]
Spriet LL &
Howlett RA, 2000.
A balanced breakfast is crucial for a good start to the day. It has
been proven that breakfast improves performance in the morning, in particular as far as memory is concerned, and a cup of
coffee definitely contributes to this. A breakfast rich in carbohydrates (e.g. cereal with milk or yogurt) provides energy and a
range of essential nutrients and coffee contributes to stimulate
alertness and awareness.
A heavy lunch may induce drowsiness and a lower attention
span in the early afternoon. A cup of coffee after lunch will overcome this. Fatigue also affects people working at night. Coffee
helps them to stay alert and to adapt their biological clock to the
A coffee for every taste
Coffee can be found in many forms and aromas: roasted coffee
beans, roasted ground coffee or soluble coffee. It can be consumed using different preparation methods such as those used
for filter coffee, espresso or café au lait. There is a coffee for
every taste. Flavored coffee, vanilla, hazelnut,
caramel, for example, and cappuccino are very
popular with consumers.
So many ways to make a good
cup of coffee
Turkish coffee is a specific way of preparing coffee, which is fundamentally different to other methods: the coffee is traditionally boiled three times. The necessary
equipment to prepare this coffee is an ibriq,
a small copper pot with a long wooden handle,
and a finely ground coffee (normally Arabica varieties), that is more like a powder than anything else.
In some regions a cardamom seed is added for flavor.
Espresso forms a lot of other coffee variations, such as
cappuccino (one-third espresso, one-third steamed milk and
one-third frothy milk), latte macchiato (one-third espresso and
two-thirds of frothy milk), or ristretto or corto (a very strong
espresso with only a small amount of water).
Soluble coffee is also convenient for preparing frappé, a cold
coffee drink, which was originally created in Greece. It is served
with a drinking straw, either with or without sugar or milk.
Flavored coffee is a fast-growing area of the coffee market. At
the moment there are more than 100 different flavored varieties
available. There are two ways to flavor a coffee:
a) The flavors are added directly to the roasted beans by
spraying them with a carrier oil and the particular flavoring.
b) A syrup is added to a hot brewed coffee.
NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
1. In which country did coffee
N Brazil
C Ethiopia
2. Which variety of coffee is
cultivated most?
A Coffea arabica
E Coffea canephora
3. How many aroma components
of coffee have currently been
D Five hundred
E Eight hundred
F One thousand
4. Does decaffeinated coffee still
contain some caffeine?
F Yes
G No
5. Which cup of coffee includes
more caffeine?
E A cup of filter coffee
F A cup of soluble coffee
G A cup of espresso
6. Caffeine is rich of:
A Protein
I Antioxidants
D Iron
7. For a Turkish coffee you boil
the coffee:
U Once
T Twice
N Three times
8. A latte macchiato is
D A flavored coffee
E An espresso with frothy milk
F A very strong espresso
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
More alert thanks to a morning cup of coffee
Heusser Communicates AG
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