Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and

Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University
Power and Electrical Engineering
2010
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 27
Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption
Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and
Saving Bulbs
Argo Rosin, Tallinn University of Technology, Taavi Moller, Tallinn University of Technology,
Madis Lehtla, Tallinn University of Technology, Hardi Hoimoja, Tallinn University of Technology
Abstract. This article analyses household electricity
consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption
of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff
energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the
evaluation of profitability of common investments of
consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more
efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and
shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system.
Keywords: energy management, home appliances, pattern
classification, energy efficiency, energy storage, profitability
I. INTRODUCTION
According to a report by the U.S. Department of Energy in
2008 [1], 74% of the nation’s electricity consumption occurs
in buildings. This represents 39% of the total energy
consumption among all sectors. There are two general
approaches for energy consumption management in buildings:
reducing consumption and shifting consumption [2]. The
former can be done through raising awareness among
subscribers for more careful consumption patterns as well as
constructing more energy efficient buildings [3]. It is different
DSM (demand-side management) systems for loads priority
based scheduling [4, 5, and 6], which feasibility is
questionable. For small customers/households exists very
simple and fast profitable solutions for energy consumption
costs reducing (for example in household device integrated
scheduling functionality), just before the investments must be
analyzed consumption patterns.
Electricity consumption in the households and the service
sector in Estonia makes up about 62% of the total
consumption. Electrical energy consumption of households is
about 27% of the total energy consumption. Use of the multitariff system with large tariff differences is a major factor in
changing customer habits and behaviour. It is important to
take into account all the preferences of a customer, like
minimized electricity cost, habits, convenience, high quality
and availability. To provide convenience and reduce
residential electricity costs in the real-time or multi-tariff
system, it is required to investigate the load/consumption
patterns, customer behaviour and behavioural predictability to
develop optimal control methods, which take into account
customer habits and load differences.
The inquiry of household owners and energy consumption
analysis has shown low awareness about the energy
consumption of loads, consumption shifting possibilities and
feasibility. About 80% of household owners know that using
saving bulbs and consumption shifting to the low tariff period
reduces the costs. But less than 20% of people are not aware
of consumption distribution between the loads like lighting,
water heating etc; high and low tariff consumption distribution
by loads; and investments feasibility of energy consumption
shifting or energy saving devices.
In the household without energy generation units, the main
cost reducing possibilities are shifting of loads and/or
replacing the less efficient loads with more efficient ones.
Profitability of load replacing depends on energy costs,
consumption amount, investments (replacement costs),
exploitation costs and lifetime of the device. The shifting
profitability depends on load priorities and storage
possibilities. The household consumption is not a homogenous
group, the different appliances has different regimes, priorities
and roles [9]. P. Kadar has divided household electrical
appliances to the three groups: critical load, flexible load,
autonomous flexible intelligent load.
Authors have opinion, that consumption priorities can be
divided into three main groups: not shiftable (I), almost
shiftable (II), and shiftable (III). Shiftable loads can be defined
as loads that can be shifted from a high tariff period to a low
tariff period without any investments to additional electrical or
thermal energy storage systems. Shiftability is closely related
to customer’s needs or convenience and depends on the
functional possibilities of the loads, technical characteristics
and
surrounding
environment
(including
building
construction). For example, living room windows on the west
side of a building will reduce lighting costs. By shiftability,
most loads can be divided into three priority groups:
I – cooking stoves, kitchen ventilation, coffee machines
(without thermos), bathroom lighting and ventilation, TV sets,
PCs with modem, home cinema and audio systems, and local
lighting.
II – lighting, refrigerators, boiling kettles, coffee machines
(with thermos), vacuum cleaners, electric irons, and floor
heating for drying purposes.
III – water heaters, washing machines, dishwashers, and
floor heating for heating purposes.
This publication is based on the PQ2010 conference
publication. On the following publication is more precisely
described economy and profitability calculation method. Also
it describes additionally energy consumption by tariffs, and
15
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University
Power and Electrical Engineering
2010
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 27
loads distribution by day of the week. Additionally is new
shifting feasibility analysis with real time tariff.
II. LOAD CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF ENERGY
CONSUMPTION PATTERNS
The object of analysis was a 3-room (67.4 m2) apartment
with four habitants (2 adults, 2 children). The object built in
2005 has a two-tariff energy measurement system. The high
tariff period in the winter time is on the workday from 7 to 11
o’clock (on the summer time from 8 to 24 o’clock). The rest is
low tariff period, including the weekend For energy
consumption measurements 12 Voltcraft Energy Logger 4000
devices were used. The total measurement error was less than
5% comparing with main energy meter.
The following analysis is based on the four week
measurement.
Lighting
7,44%
Floor heating
3,31%
The average high tariff consumption is about 48% from the
total consumption of the researched object. The average high
and low tariff energy consumption of the loads is presented in
Fig. 2.
Based on the customer activity or action, the three main
load groups can be defined (in Fig. 3):
1. eating (refrigerators, boiling kettles, coffee machines,
dishwashers, cooking stoves, and ventilation) - 31%
2. hygiene (washing machines, water heaters, irons,
vacuum cleaners, floor heating, and bathroom lighting)
- 56%
3. free-time/vacationing (lighting, TV sets, modems, PCs,
video recorders, and telephone)- 13%
Free-time/
vacationing
13%
Eating
31%
Cooking stove,
ventilation
21,30%
Water heater
48,84%
Bathroom lighting
2,13%
Electric iron, vacuum
cleaner
0,44%
TV, modem, PC,
Video
5,57%
Hygiene
56%
Washing machine
1,27%
Dishwasher
3,12%
Coffee machine
0,32%
Refrigerator
5,47%
Boiling
kettle
1%
Fig. 3. Consumption by customer needs or action
Fig. 1. Energy consumption of loads
III. ANALYSIS OF TIME-DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY
The total energy consumption by load is shown in Fig. 1. As
a result of the analysis of the customer behaviour and habits,
the consuming preferences can be classified as follows.
1. Loads with shiftable consumption are water heaters,
dishwashers, and washing machines - about 54% from
the total consumption.
2. Almost shiftable loads are refrigerators, boiling kettles,
coffee machines, floor heating, irons, and vacuum
cleaners - about 10% from the total consumption.
3. Non-shiftable loads are TV sets, PCs with a modem,
home cinema and music centers, cooking stoves,
kitchen ventilation, bathroom lighting and ventilation about 36 % from the total consumption.
7
6
kWh/24h
5
4
3
2
E_lt
E_ht
Fig. 2. Average high and low tariff energy consumption of loads
16
Bathroom lighting
Cooking stove,
ventilation
Lighting
Floor heating
Water heater
Dishwasher
Coffee machine
Boiling kettle
Refrigerator
Washing
machine
TV, modem, PC,
Video
0
Electric iron,
vacuum cleaner
1
CONSUMPTION AND CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR
There are three peak hours for energy consumption:
1. the morning on the workday (from 7 to 8 o’clock)
2. the midday on the holiday ( from 12 to 14 o’clock)
3. the evening on the workday or holiday (from 19 to 21
o’clock)
Main loads, which affect the local extremums are: in the
morning – water heater; in the midday – water heater and
cooking stove; in the evening – water heater, cooking stove
and lighting.
A. Workday – energy consumption
On the workday two local peaks can be detected: the
morning and the evening. Both local extremums are located in
the high tariff period and is affected mostly from water heater,
cooking stove and lighting consumption. The main
consumption time of water heater is between 7 to 11 and 18 to
24. The main consumption time of cooking stove is from 17 to
21 (Fig. 5). To take into account customer comfort, energy
consumption cost and consumption balancing, it is optimal to
shift half of the high tariff consumption of water heater from 7
to 12 to the low tariff period between 2 and 6 o’clock and
another half high tariff consumption from 18 to 23 to the high
tariff period between 14 and 18 o’clock.
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University
Power and Electrical Engineering
2010
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 27
B. Holiday – energy consumption
On the holiday, two local extremums can be detected: the
midday and the evening. These local extremums are located in
the low tariff period and are mostly caused by water heater,
cooking stove and lighting consumption. The main
consumption time of cooking stove and water heater is from
12 to 20 (Fig. 6). On the holiday with existing tariffs, there is
no need for load shifting. From the viewpoint of
homogenization/balancing the total consumption, water heater
should be switched off between 12...16 and 17...20 o’clock.
C. Average energy consumption
The average energy consumption per day is about 25 kWh.
On the workday, high tariff consumption is 78% (Fig. 7). The
5
After defining cost reducing possibilities, investment costs
and their feasibility should be determined.
4
5
4,5
4,5
4
3,5
3,5
4
3,5
3
3,5
3
2,5
2
2
1,5
kWh
2,5
1
2
1,5
1
1
0,5
23:59
E_lt
E_ht
TV,modem,PC, video
Washing machine
Refrigerator
Boiling kettle
Coffe machine
Dishwasher
Electric iron, vacum cleaner, other
Water heater
Floor heating
Cooking stove, ventilation
Bathroom/toilet lighting
0,5
Lighting
E_lt
TV,modem,PC, video
Washing machine
Refrigerator
Boiling kettle
Coffe machine
Dishwasher
Electric iron, vacum cleaner, other
Water heater
Floor heating
Lighting
Cooking stove, ventilation
23:59
22:59
21:59
20:59
19:59
18:59
17:59
16:59
15:59
14:59
13:59
12:59
11:59
9:59
10:59
8:59
7:59
6:59
5:59
4:59
3:59
0
2:59
0
0:59
22:59
21:59
20:59
19:59
18:59
17:59
16:59
15:59
14:59
13:59
12:59
11:59
9:59
10:59
8:59
7:59
6:59
5:59
4:59
3:59
2:59
1:59
0
0:59
0
0,5
1:59
0,5
2,5
2
1,5
1,5
1
3
2,5
kW h
3
kWh
4
kW h
loads that mostly affect daily total consumption is water
heater, cooking stove, lighting, refrigerator and TV/PC (Fig.
4).
Based on the measurements and considerations above, the
main cost reduction possibilities are:
1. shifting of systems, such as water heater, floor heating,
dishwasher and washing machine, from the high tariff
to the low tariff period and
2. lighting energy saving by dimmering, by using
presence sensors and/or more efficient lighting bulbs.
Bathroom/toilet lighting
Fig. 4. Average loads and high-low tariff energy consumption distribution
2,5
Fig. 6. Average loads and high-low tariff energy consumption distribution in
the holiday
2,5
2
40
35
2
30
1,5
1
kWh
25
kWh
kWh
1,5
20
1
15
0,5
10
0,5
5
E_lt
Washing machine
Coffe machine
Water heater
E_ht
Refrigerator
Dishwasher
Floor heating
Cooking stove, ventilation
Bathroom/toilet lighting
0
23:59
22:59
21:59
20:59
19:59
18:59
17:59
16:59
15:59
14:59
13:59
12:59
11:59
10:59
9:59
8:59
7:59
6:59
5:59
4:59
3:59
2:59
1:59
0
0:59
0
Monday
E_lt
Washing machine
Coffe machine
Water heater
Cooking stove, ventilation
TV,modem,PC, video
Boiling kettle
Electric iron, vacum cleaner, other
Lighting
Fig. 5. Average loads and high-low tariff energy consumption distribution in
the workday
IV. PROFITABILITY EVALUATION
A universal simplified formula (1) for savings calculation in
the two tariff system is the following:
S = ( Eh , b − Eh, a ) ⋅ ph + ( El , b − El , a ) ⋅ pl =
= ( Eh, b ⋅ ph + El , b ⋅ pl ) − ( Eh , a ⋅ ph + El , a ⋅ pl )
,
Tuesday
(1)
Wednesday
Thursday
E_ht
Refrigerator
Dishwasher
Floor heating
Bathroom lighting
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
TV, modem, PC, Video
Boiling kettle
Electric iron, vacuum cleaner
Lighting
Ea
Fig. 7. Energy consumption by tariffs and loads distribution by days of the
week
where Eh,b - energy consumption before shifting or power
saving at the high tariff period; El,b - energy consumption
before shifting or power saving at the low tariff period; Eh,a energy consumption after shifting or power saving at the high
tariff period; El,a - energy consumption after shifting or power
saving at the low tariff period; ph - high tariff price €/kWh; pl low tariff price €/kWh.
17
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University
Power and Electrical Engineering
2010
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 27
t cycle = const (in hours) ∧ p h = const ∧ p l = const
profitability of 38.35 € investment for the shifting equipment
If
,
(2) is about ten and a half months. If the shifting equipment

 Ph ,b i , Ph, a i , Pl ,b j , Pl ,a j in Watts
then the following formula (3) is used for real-time energy
saving calculation:
S=
tcycle
1000
th ,n
tl , m
i = t h ,1
j = tl , 1
⋅ ( p h ⋅ ∑ ( Ph ,b i − Ph ,a i ) + pl ⋅ ∑ ( Pl ,b j − Pl ,a j ))
(3)
If the cycle time is a minute, then tcycle = 1/60 hours
(water heater, floor heating) lifetime is 10 years, it can be
reduced (without changes in consumption) additionally during
the exploitation time up to 340 €, which compensates all the
exploitation costs (including new water heater cost) (Fig.8.).
With existing tariff prices the described investment is
profitable if annually 199 kWh of the high-tariff energy
consumption is shifted to the low tariff period or investment in
10 years is not higher than 444.5 €.
A. Profitability of consumption shifting
22,50
In an ideal case, when 100% of the working load in the high
tariff period is moved 100 % to the low tariff period, the
consumption costs can be reduced in Estonia up to 35...36%.
20,00
17,50
15,00
If
Year
12,50
 E h ,b + E l , b = E h , a + E l , a ≡ E Σ , b = E Σ , a

E h,b
E h ,b
E h,a

k h = E + E = E = const ∧ k h , s = E = const ∧ p h > p l
h ,b
l ,b
Σ ,b
h ,b

10,00
, (4)
7,50
5,00
2,50
then
∆p = p h − p l ∧ k s = 1 − k h, s = 1 −
if
E h, a
E h ,b
=
E h ,b − E h , a
E h ,b
,
45%
then
Si
tlife ≥ t , ok
⇒
Eh ,b ⋅ k s ⋅ ( ph − pl )
tlife < t , not ok
(7)
(8)
Consumption by water heater, washing machine,
dishwasher and floor heating accounts for 56.5% from the
total consumption. High tariff consumption of these devices is
about 45% (annually 2295.8 kWh) from the total
consumption. If 55 % (annually 1263 kWh) of the
consumption of these devices are removed from the high tariff
to the low tariff period, the annual saving is about 44.45 € and
18
750,00
675,00
600,00
525,00
450,00
375,00
300,00
225,00
60%
70%
80%
90%
Lifetime of load
B. Profitability of more efficient device use
Economy by power saving depends directly on the reduced
power (9).
where ∆p - difference between high and low tariff; ks shifted energy from total energy consumption in percent.
t=
55%
By shifting 100% of the high tariff energy to the low tariff
period the annual saving is 80.82 €.
(6)
Before shifting the high tariff energy consumption is
about 48% from the total energy consumption, the
difference between the tariffs is 0.0352 €/kWh. The
computational profitability time (8) of an investment can
be calculated as follows:
50%
Fig. 8. Profitability by the high tariff consumption shifting to the low tariff
period with a different shifting coefficient ks (load high tariff consumption
before shifting was 45% from the total consumption).
If
S s = EΣ,b ⋅ kh ⋅ k s ⋅ ∆p ,
150,00
Total investment, EUR
(5)
where EΣ,b - load (group) total energy consumption before
shifting; EΣ,a - load (group) total energy consumption after
shifting; kh - load high tariff consumption from total energy
consumption in percent (before shifting); kh,s - load high tariff
consumption after shifting from high tariff consumption
before shifting.
Simplified formula (7) for shifting economy calculation
75,00
0,00
0,00
Eh , b

1
− Eh ,b ∧ Eh , a = Eh ,b ⋅ k h, s ∧ El , a = Eh ,b ⋅ ( − k h, s )
El ,b =
kh
kh
,

S = E ⋅ (1 − k ) ⋅ ( p − p ) = E ⋅ k ⋅ (1 − k ) ⋅ ( p − p )
h,b
h, s
h
l
Σ ,b
h
h, s
h
l
 s
then
Eh ,b + El ,b > Eh ,a + El ,a ≡ EΣ ,b > EΣ,a

k = EΣ,a = Eh,a = El ,a = Pa = const
 e EΣ,b Eh ,b El ,b Pb

,
E h ,b
k = Eh ,b = Eh ,a =
=
const
 h EΣ,b EΣ,a Eh,b + El ,b

 ph > pl , t a = tb
(9)
Eh, b

− Eh , b
Eh, a = Eh, b ⋅ ke , El , a = El , b ⋅ ke , El , b =
kh


1 − kh
pl ) =
S s = Eh, b ⋅ (1 − ke ) ⋅ ( ph −
,
kh

= EΣ, b ⋅ (1 − ke ) ⋅ (kh ⋅ ph + (1 − kh ) ⋅ pl )


(10)
where EΣ,b - total energy consumption of the load before
power saving; EΣ,a - total energy consumption of the load after
power saving; kh - high tariff consumption of the load from
total energy consumption in percent; ke - consumption after
saving from consumption before the saving.
If
k l = 1 − k h ∧ k e, s = 1 − k e = 1 −
E h,a
E h ,b
=
E h,b − E h ,a
E h,b
(11)
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University
Power and Electrical Engineering
2010
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 27
S s = EΣ ,b ⋅ ke,s ⋅ (kh ⋅ ph + kl ⋅ pl )
Then
(12)
where kl - low tariff consumption from total consumption in
percent; ke,s - saved energy from total consumption before the
saving. If consumption and consumption time after the
investment stays similar to that before the investment, the
simplified formula (13) is as follows:
S = Qb ⋅ (1 −
Pa
),
Pb
(13)
where Pb - installed power before load exchange, Pa - total
power after load exchange, Qb - cost before the load exchange
(before power saving). The following formula (14) and figure
show the calculation of the profitability time of the investment
costs of a saving bulb.
t=
Si
tlife ≥ t , ok
⇒
EΣ ,b ⋅ (1 − k e ) ⋅ ( k h ⋅ ph + (1 − k h ) ⋅ pl )
tlife < t , not ok
(14)
Today lighting takes 7.4% from the total consumption. If
halogen bulbs (15 x 40W) are changed to the saving bulbs
(type G-9, 15 x 9 W), the annual saving is about 42.25 € and
profitability of 72 € (15 x 4.8 €) investment is about 1 year 8
months. If habits do not change, lifetime of a saving bulb is
approximately 2 years and 8 months (Fig. 9.), which makes an
additional profit of 42.25 €. With existing customer habits
(lighting high-tariff consumption 58.7%) and tariff prices, a 72
€ investment is profitable if the investment to one saving bulb
is not higher than 7.67 €.
not known. What is the optimal tariff changing frequency and
customer response time in the real-time tariff system? The
profitability of the energy management system depends
directly on these parameters. On the demand side it needs
more investments for more sophisticated power (or energy)
management systems (including control and energy storage
systems). Today the energy management systems with AC/AC
converters or without DC-bus and storage batteries for shifting
are not profitable. The alternative is to use the storage systems
with DC converters in the households, which are cheaper, but
profitability depends highly on the shifting system
manufacturer and functionality of load. The profitability of the
storage systems depends also on the real-time tariff changing
frequency. For example, fast changes in the real-time tariffs
mean additional investments to supply system and/or grid
(current peaks on the lower tariff period) and/or more
expensive storage systems (fast charging storage batteries).
Based on Fig. 5 and 6 the average workday consumption
per hour is 0.9 kW, and average holiday consumption per hour
is 1.4 kW. If lighting equipment is replaced with more
efficient devices and water heater consumption is shifted with
timer or by real-time price based control algorithm to low
tariff period, the daily electricity consumption of high tariff
period will be about 5...7 kWh with peak power 5...7 kW.
Price of such shifting equipment (UPS) is at least 3000 €.
Based on difference of low and high tariff electricity prices
and UPS-system life-time and prices, today such systems are
not profitable. To guarantee the feasibility of UPS-system, it
should be at least 15 times cheaper, or low and high tariff
difference should be increased at least 10 times.
V. CONCLUSION
4
3,5
3
Year
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
143,80
134,21
124,63
115,04
105,45
95,87
86,28
76,69
67,11
57,52
47,93
38,35
28,76
0
Total investment, EUR
Profitability, year
Lifetime, year
Fig. 9. Profitability of investment to saving bulbs
The stand-by consumption includes TV, video, modem, PC,
washing machine, dishwasher and wireless phone. The annual
stand-by consumption is about 701 kWh (80 W/h), i.e.
additional annual saving possibilities in the consumption costs
about 56.4 €.
C. Shifting feasibility with real-time or multi tariff
Usage of real-time tariff system makes micro generation
units more profitable (and reduce investment risks), but the
profitability of customer’s investments to the complex
(intelligent) shifting equipment with real-time tariff is
questionable. The reason is that the difference between
maximum and minimum tariffs in the real-time tariff system is
The main reason to change the habits is the net profit.
Investments to more efficient systems are not feasible if the
lifetime of these systems is equal to or shorter than the
profitability time. Today the investments to the load shifting
are smaller (and shifting functionality is already integrated to
many household systems), profitability time is at least 1.5
times shorter (including higher net profit) than investments to
power saving.
Investments to shifting and energy saving devices are
approximately 110 € and total annual savings after
investments are 86.7 € (12% from total consumption costs),
which results in investment profitability of about 1 year, 3
months and one week.
The high tariff energy consumption on the workday by
shifting and using of saving bulbs is reduced from 78% to
53%. The total high-tariff energy consumption by shifting and
using of saving bulbs is reduced from 48% to the 32% (Fig.
10). Total energy consumption is reduced to 5.6%.
Small investments, to saving bulbs, timers or presence
sensors are profitable within 1...2 years. With existing tariffs
system, it is no needs to expensive scheduling or power
management systems.
Customers with higher energy consumption or more storage
capacities integrated to the system will be provided more
saving possibilities. Small investments, to saving bulbs, timers
19
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University
Power and Electrical Engineering
2010
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 27
or presence sensors are profitable within 1...2 years. With [5] Mauri G., Moneta D, Gramatica P., Automation systems to support smart
energy behaviour of small customers, CIRED Seminar 2008 SmartGrids
existing two-tariff system, it is no needs to expensive
for Distribution, Frankfurt, 23-24 June 2008.
scheduling or power management systems.
[6] Majid, M.S., Rahman, H.A., Hassan, M.Y., Ooi, C.A., Demand Side
Management Using Direct Load Control for Residential Research and
Development, 2006. SCOReD 2006. 4th Student Conference on 27-28
100%
June 2006, pp. 241 - 245.
90%
[7] Molderink, A., Bakker, V., Bosman, M.G.C., Hurink, J.L., Smit, G.J.M.,
80%
A three-step methodology to improve domestic energy efficiency
70%
Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), Publication Year: 2010 ,
pp: 1 – 8.
60%
[8] Molderink, A., Bakker, V., Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, J.L.; Smit, G.J.M.,
50%
Domestic energy management methodology for optimizing efficiency in
40%
Smart Grids, PowerTech, 2009 IEEE Bucharest Publication Year: 2009 ,
30%
Page(s): 1 - 7.
20%
[9] Kadar P., ZigBee controls the household appliances; Intelligent
10%
Engineering Systems, 2009. INES 2009. International Conference on
0%
Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 189 - 192.
Workday before
Workday after
E_ht
Total before
Total after
E_lt
Fig. 10. Low and high tariff energy consumption before and after changes
Based on these considerations the paper gives some
suggestions for energy saving or shifting and future views for
household product development:
•
instead of PC should be used accumulator integrated
laptop PCs;
• boiling kettle and coffee machine with thermos
functionality;
• accumulators integrated LED-lighting for consumption
shifting;
• division of bathroom/toilet/cellar and other similar
lighting on two independent groups (an manually
controlled emergency lighting group and another
automatically controlled lighting group with presence
sensor);
• using of appliances with scheduling functionality
and/or remotely controllable power converters;
• in new buildings using on the household switchboard
level DC-bus and on the feeders instead of MCBs the
intelligent power AC/DC and DC/AC converters.
The research work continues and analyses of about 100
households have been planned in 2010-2011.
VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors thank Estonian Ministry of Education and Research
(Tallinn University of Technology Grant No BF123, BF124,
B613A) for financial support of this study.
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Argo Rosin received the Dipl.Eng, M.Sc. and
Dr.Sc.techn. degrees in electrical engineering from
Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia, in
1996, 1998 and 2005, respectively. He is presently a
Senior Researcher in the Department of Electrical
Drives and Power Electronics, Tallinn University of
Technology. He has published more than 40 papers on
energy management, control and diagnostic systems
development and is the holder of an Patent in this
application field. His research interests include
modeling and simulation of power management and industrial control
systems. He is member of Estonian Association of Engineers, Estonian
Association of Transport and Roads.
Taavi Möller received the B.Sc and M.Sc degrees in
electrical engineering from Tallinn University of
Technology, Tallinn, Estonia, in 2001 and 2004,
respectively. At the present time he is a researcher in
the Department of Electrical Drives and Power
Electronics. He has over 10 publications in the field of
electrical drives, power electronics and information
technology. His research interests include flexible
automation systems (remote control of electrical
drives), SmartGrid Technology and its Applications in Estonian Power
System.
Madis Lehtla received the Dipl.Eng, M.Sc. and
Dr.Sc.techn. degrees in electrical engineering from
Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia, in
1998, 1999 and 2006, respectively. He is presently a
Senior Researcher in the Department of Electrical Drives
and Power Electronics, Tallinn University of
Technology. He has over 30 publications and owns two
Utility Models in the field of power electronics and
electrical drives. His research interests are in digital
control of switching power converters, including modelling, design, and
simulation.
Hardi Hõimoja received the Dipl.Eng degree in
electrical engineering from Tallinn University of
Technology, Tallinn, Estonia, in 1998, respectively. At
the end of 2009 he defended the PhD Thesis devoted to
energy efficiency estimation and energy storage
calculation methods for industrial applications. At the
present time he is a researcher in the Department of
Electrical Drives and Power Electronics. He has over 20
publications and owns a Utility Model in the field of
electrical drives and power electronics.