Core Reinstatement Procedure
1) The core, or coupon, cut from the pavement using the keyhole coring
equipment can be reinstated as a permanent repair using Utilibond after the
hole has been properly backfilled and compacted. The first step of reinstating is
to properly prepare/clean the cored hole. Wipe clean all cut surfaces of the
core and walls of the hole with a clean, damp sponge to remove all loose
cutting debris and particulate from the cut surface. Proper bonding depends on
achieving a clean surface for the bonding agent to adhere to.
2) Line the bottom of the hole with a 1"- 2" deep bed of pea gravel. Because the
pea gravel is added fill that was not present before, the backfill should be left
approximately 2 inches lower than the base of the pavement. Undercut the
bottom of the existing pavement in the hole by about 1" all around to allow the
pea gravel to fill under the pavement. Utilibond will impregnate the pea gravel
and create a solid base / plug for the core to bond to.
3) Using the core puller, lower the core back into the hole and check for level
and flushness with the existing pavement. Adjust the pea gravel until the core is
level with the surrounding pavement, and approximately 1/8" to 3/8” below the
surface of the surrounding pavement. This process is referred to as "dry fitting"
the core. This is an essential step to a successful core reinstatement. Once the
Utilibond has been added to the hole and the core has been reinserted, you will
not have a second chance to change its level to make the core level with the
surrounding pavement. Make sure it's done right the first time.
4) Prepare the bonding compound by first removing the bag (s) of Utilibond
from the pail. Add water to the level indicted on the outside of the pail. Do not
exceed or reduce the amount of water. Exact proportions of water to
Utilibond are crucial for effective performance. Use the 1-litre container
supplied in all Twin Pack pails to achieve exact water proportions.
5) Carefully open the bag(s) of Utilibond, creating a clean opening though which
to pour the Utilibond powder from.
With the mixing blade inserted into the bottom of the pail, slowly add the
Utilibond powder to the water in the pail, while engaging the drill with the
mixing blade.
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Core Reinstatement Procedure
6) Use the handheld drill and appropriate mixing blade, mix the bonding
compound until it is smooth and flowing. (Mixing time is approximately 2- 3
minutes). Once mixed the Utilibond will appear smooth and creamy with a flow
characteristic similar to that of pancake batter. Do not add additional water if
the mixture looks dry at the beginning of the mixing process. Keep mixing and
the Utilibond compound will “turn” after about one minute and begin
smoothing out.
7) Carefully pour the entire pail of Utilibond permanent pavement bonding
compound into the hole. Be careful not to disturb the layer of leveling pea
gravel in the bottom of the hole while you pour the Utilibond in.
8) Slowly lower the core down into the hole, on top of the Utilibond
compound. Move the core back and forth with the core puller, while tapping
downward to allow the bonding compound to flow up through the cut spaces
around the core (the kerf) and over flow slightly onto the surface of the
pavement. Remove the core puller and allow the Utilibond to flow up through
the centre hole. Apply gentle pressure to the top of the core, and ensure the
core is level with the pavement by allowing the excess Utilibond to flow up to
the surface from the kerf and the pilot hole. Use a flat trowel to clean up any
excess Utilibond. Drag the flat edge of a trowel across the edge of the kerf to
ensure that the core is flush with the rest of the roadway all around the
circumference.
9) Carefully clean off the excess Utilibond from the surrounding pavement
before it dries. The bonding compound will begin to set up within
approximately 15 minutes (at 70° F). Keep the exposed areas of Utilibond "wet"
while carefully cleaning off the Utilibond from the surrounding surfaces.
Thoroughly clean all mixing tools and pails before the bonding compound has a
chance to set. Dip the whitewash brush in water and carefully apply moisture to
the surface of the Utilibond in the kerf and center pilot hole, keeping it damp
until it has set-up and the surface is firm to the touch.
10) Once the core has set and gained strength (30 minutes at 70° F), use water
(high pressure is recommended) to clean off any excess debris and thoroughly
sweep the area before leaving.
Properly dispose of all excess Utilibond material, and reuse or recycle the
Utilibond pail.
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Hot Weather Core Reinstatement Procedure
UtilibondTM is specially formulated for permanently replacing excavated cores in asphalt, asphalt and concrete and
concrete road systems and sidewalks and other paved surfaces. The rapid hydration and fast strength gain of this
product allows the roadway to be reopened within 30 minutes at 70°F/21°C.
However, sometimes cores will need to be reinstated when the ambient temperatures are well above 70° F.
Utilicor deems hot weather to be temperatures when the day time highs exceed 80 °F and extreme hot weather to be
above100 °F. When reinstating cores in these hot or extreme hot weather temperatures certain procedures will help
the crews attain a proper core reinstatement. Failure to follow these instructions may result in improper or poor
reinstatements.
Utilibond™ permanent pavement bonding compound is designed to be mixed with a precise amount of water to the
proportion of Utilibond powder. This ratio must be maintained even in extreme hot weather conditions.
The precise amount of water required is one litre of water for one 22 lbs. bag of Utilibond powder. For a 44 lbs. bag of
Utilibond powder, mix with 2 litres of water. Do not alter this ratio the ultimate strength gain and performance of the
Utilibond™ will be reduced.
In the case of hot weather and extreme hot weather conditions the following tips will allow for additional working time
during the process of reinstating the core:
· Start with cold water to mix the Utilibond™ and keep the Utilibond™ in a cool place. As only two
litres of water are required for an entire 44 lbs. pail of Utilibond, filling a potable water container with cold tap
water before leaving the yard and storing it in the air conditioned cab of a work truck on site until mixing is needed
will help to inhibit the set up time of the Utilibond. Make sure the Utilibond powder is as cool as possible before
mixing.
· Reduce overall mixing time. Utilicor suggests a full three minute mix time of Utilibond™ at 70°F. At this
temperature this with help to accelerate the setting times for the product. However, in hot weather conditions we
recommend reducing this time to 1½ minutes. Once the Utilibond™ is mixed through and is lump free, with a flow
consistency of pancake batter, it is fine to stop the mixing process and start the core reinstatement.
· Keep everything wet. This would include the cored portion of the roadway and the core itself before
reinstatement occurs. Dampen all portions of the cored roadway and core with a sponge just prior to
reinstatement.
· Once the core has been reinstated keep the kerf and pilot hole portions wet. By using a wet soft bristled
brush you can “paint” the top of the reinstated core with cold water – this will help the Utilibond™ to set a little
slower and reduce any premature or rapid hydration of the Utilibond. Mke sure you keep the kerf and the pilot
hole damp.
· Keep the cores cool. In extreme hot and sunny days the asphalt cores can literally “melt” if left unprotected at
the side of the road with the sun beating down on them. An asphalt core will also have the tendency to expand, or
“mushroom” due to excessive heat when left in the sun. We recommend storage of cores for short durations in the
shade and if possible covered with wet burlap. For longer durations they should be carefully moved to an inside
warehouse location.
· Do not leave the core puller in the core for extended periods of time. Once the core has been removed
from the roadway it is imperative that the Utilicor puller be extracted from the center of the cut core. If it is left in
the core in tightened position it could possibly cause the core to split. During reinstatement on a hot day only
tighten the puller to the point that one can securely move the core.
With ambient temperatures of 70°F Utilibond has an initial set in 15 minutes, a final set at 20 minutes and is load
bearing at 30 minutes, at which time the roadway can be safely reopened to traffic.
At correspondingly higher temperatures set times will be slightly reduced .
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Cold Weather Core Reinstatement Procedure
Time and Temperature Guide to Reopen Roadway to Traffic Using Utilibond Core Bonding Compound
Reinstatement at 70°F (21°F) - 30 Minutes to safely reopen the roadway to traffic
Cores may be safely reinstated with Utilibond and the roadway safely reopened to traffic in 30 minutes when the
temperature of the pavement slab, core and bonding materials, including mixing water immediately before placement,
are at a minimum of 70°F (21°C). At that temperature the bond strength of a typical 18-inch diameter core, 8-inches
deep will be capable of supporting a wheel load of at least 30,000 lbs or 3 times the AASHTO H-25 Standard, in 30
minutes after application, and the roadway can be safely reopened to traffic at that time.
Reinstatement at 50°F (10°F) - One hour to safely reopen the roadway to traffic
Cores may be safely reinstated with Utilibond and the roadway safely reopened to traffic in 60 minutes when the
temperature of the pavement slab, core and bonding materials, including mixing water immediately before placement,
are at a minimum of 50°F (10°C). At that temperature the bond strength of a typical 18-inch diameter core, 8-inches
deep will be capable of supporting a wheel load of at least 30,000 lbs or 3 times the AASHTO H-25 Standard, in one
hour after application, and the roadway can be safely reopened to traffic at that time.
Reinstatement at temperatures BELOW 50°F (10°C)
While reinstatement of cores can be performed with Utilibond at temperatures as low as 40°F (5°C) because of the
proximity to freezing temperatures and the danger of frost crystals forming at the bonding interface, it is recommended that a source of external heat, such as a Utilicor Core Heater, be employed to raise the surface temperatures
of both the core and the surrounding pavement to 70°F (21°C) at which temperature the bond strength of a typical 18inch diameter core, 8-inches deep will be capable of supporting a wheel load of at least 30,000 lbs or 3 times the
AASHTO H-25 Standard, in 30 minutes after application, and the roadway can be safely reopened to traffic at that
time.
Reinstatement at temperatures BELOW FREEZING - 32°F (0°C)
The Core Heating procedure can also be successfully employed to facilitate core reinstatement with Utilibond at
temperatures below freezing, providing that the duration and application of external heat from an approved Core
Heater is sufficient to raise the temperature of both the core and the surrounding pavement to approximately 70°F
(21°C) and the bonding materials, including water, immediately before placement , are at the same minimum
temperature of 70°F (21°C)
As might be anticipated, the duration of
heating required to achieve these results
at below freezing temperatures, using an
approved core heater, will vary inversely
with the ambient temperature of the
pavement but should not exceed 15-20
minutes in normal circumstances at a
temperature down to 10°F (-21°C).
Once the surface temperature of the core
and the pavement reach a sustainable 70°F
(21°C), normal core reinstatement procedures can be employed and the bond
strength of a typical 18-inch diameter
core, 8-inches deep will be capable of
supporting a wheel load of at least 30,000
lbs or 3 times the AASHTO H-25
Standard, in 30 minutes after application,
and the roadway can be safely reopened
to traffic at that time.
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Cold Weather Core Heater Reinstatement Procedure
The Utilicor Core Heater should be used when ambient temperature drop below 50°F. as set up times will exceed
the 30 minute target. The Core heater must be used when ambient temperatures are below 32° F.
Before you begin, make sure the
core is dry fitted properly, as per
warm weather reinstatement.
Place the core heater base in the
hole and connect heater-blower to
unit and place core on the base.
Place core cover on top of the
Base, and open vents on top of core
cover - ignite blower and position
into baffle.
Check the temperature occasionally
with a non-contact infrared
temperature sensor.
When the surfaces of the core
reaches at least 70° F, the core
reinstatement process can begin.
Note: Make sure the Utilibond
powder is stored in a warm
location, and use warm water to
mix with.
Remove the core heater and place
the core in the opening, which will
keep the core warm while mixing
the Utilibond. Once ready, remove
core, pour in mixed Utilibond, and
reinstate the core as per normal
procedure.
The reinstated core will begin to
set up within 15-20 minutes. Take
intermittent temperature readings
to better gauge set time.
At 70° F ambient temperatures
Utilibond will reach final strength
gain in 30 minutes.
Final core reinstated.
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Valve Box / Test Station Installation
1) Core hole through
pavement around existing
valve box or location of test
station.
9) Add bag of Utilibond powder
to pail while mixing blade is
engaged.
2) Clean up area. Remove core
with core puller or sunken
valve box by hand.
10) Mix for 2 minutes or until
Utilibond is smooth and flowing.
3) After test wire is installed
and hole is back filled clean the
sides of the cored hole.
11) Add 3 litres (3 full cups) of ¼
to ½ inch pea stone to the
Utilibond, mix until blended
together. (2/3 Utilibond to 1/3 pea
stone)
4) Add 1-2 inches of pea stone
and install test box or new
valve box
12) Spray outside of cored hole
and test box with Utilicure.
Carefully pour Utilibond
mixture into the hole around
the valve box.
5) Using a straight edge, make
sure the top of the valve box is
flush with the surrounding
pavement.
13) Consolidate the mixture
into the hole to make sure
there are no voids.
6) Test box or valve box is
flush and ready for
reinstatement.
14) Smooth and remove excess
Utlibond. Trowel smooth.
7) Supplies required:
Utilibond, water, pea stone,
trowels, sponge, whitewash
brush, power drill and
Utilibond mixing blade.
15) Keep surface wet with
whitewash brush to ensure
proper hydration. Spray top
liberally with Utilicure while
setting.
8) Add one litre of water to
the pail. (for larger areas mix
both bags of Utilibond)
16) Spray top portion liberally
with Utilicure.
30 minutes @70°F the roadway
may be safely reopened to
traffic.
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Delaminated Cores and Core Farms
Delaminated Cores
Once a core has been cut, and depending on the road which it was cut from, it is not uncommon to find the core has
come apart horizontally in sections… or delaminated.
This occurs most often when the top portion of the core is asphalt and the bottom section is concrete. However,
often a road which has been milled and overlaid with a new layer of asphalt rolled over the older roadway, the binder
used to glue the new with the old will not have adhered properly, and once the core is cut and extracted the two
sections will delaminate.
By inserting the core puller all the way to the bottom of the core it is possible to remove both delaminated sections. It is
also possible to use Utilibond to bond the delaminated sections together when reinstating the core.
To reinstate horizontally delaminated cores:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Above: The core has been
extracted from the roadway, but in
two pieces.
This core has delaminated.
6)
7)
Dry fit the core 1/2” lower than normal.
Make sure the orientation of the top portion matches the bottom portion.
Mark with paint if required.
Reinstate the bottom portion first, allowing the Utilibond to flow up and on
to the top of the lower core - pour more Utilibond on top of bottom core.
Slowly lower the top portion onto the bottom portion and push down to
level with surrounding roadway.
Clean up remaining Utilibond off top of roadway and core and trowel
smooth.
Keep kerf and center pilot bit area wet with wash brush and clean water
until initial set has occurred.
Core Farms
It is also not uncommon to see the core that has been cut and extracted from the road completely fall apart, and not
be suitable for reinstatement.
In these cases it is possible to import a core from either another piece of roadway which is destined to be a trench or
an area where a larger excavation is to be performed. In this case simply have the coring equipment cut, remove and
store spare cores before actual trench or the excavation performed.
In some instances an actual “core farm” can be built where the coring crews can pre-cut cores that match the
optimal core composition and thickness. Typically these “core farms” are constructed with the same asphalt
specifications that the municipality requires in their new road construction specifications and is of a similar depth
profile.
As seen above, a Core Farm where cores can be harvested year around as needed to replace
defective cores from the field.
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Overlapping Cores
The industry standard size for keyhole is 18” in diameter. However often larger or smaller cored opening are required
due to differing applications. While spot locates for direction drilling facility verification can be as small as 12”, it is
important to remember that when the core will be reinstated there really is little to be gained by making the hole
smaller than is practical for the work to be preformed.
Often there is a need to core a larger diameter hole than the standard 18” diameter. All Utilicor equipment can
accommodate coring drum diameters up to 24”, and a combination of these larger cored openings may even be
capable of serving as a launch pits for HDD.
While not the norm, and usually due to a missed locate, it is possible to core and properly reinstate overlapping cores.
Two 18” diameter cores are cut to allow for
greater access to buried facility
Two cores that have been simultaneously
reinstated
As seen above, a triple core cut, extracted, and reinstated as one repair
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Utilibond Colors to Match Existing Roadways
Utilibond comes in two colors - Aged Asphalt and Natural Concrete. Aged Asphalt Utilibond is identical in composition to
Natural Concrete Utilibond with the exception of a carbon black additive, which once cured will dry to a darker color than
Natural Concrete Utilibond. The Natural Concrete coloured Utilibond once dried will closely match that of a typical concrete
sidewalk or concrete topped roadway.
Older roadways, which are asphalt topped, have the appearance of being lightened in shade when compared to that of a newly
constructed asphalt roadway. In these cases Aged Asphalt Utilibond will closely match that of am asphalt roadway which has been
in use for some years. However, on newly constructed asphalt topped roadways Utilibond can be mixed to appear even darker
with the addition of carbon black - which is provided in the form of UtiliBlack.
The 2 oz. container of UtiliBlack can be added to either the Aged Asphalt formulation or the Natural Concrete. Follow the
directions below.
1) Prepare the bonding compound by first removing the bag (s) of
Utilibond from the pail. Add water to the level indicted on the outside of
the pail. Do not exceed or reduce the amount of water. Proportions of
water to Utilibond are crucial for effective performance. Use the 1-litre
container supplied in all Twin Pack pails to achieve exact water
proportions.
2) Carefully open the bag(s) of Utilibond, creating a clean opening to pour
the Utilibond powder from. With the mixing blade inserted into the
bottom of the pail, slowly add the Utilibond powder to the water in the
pail, while engaging the drill with the mixing blade.
3) Using a handheld drill and appropriate mixing blade, mix the bonding
compound until it is smooth and flowing. (Mixing time is approximately 23 minutes). Once mixed the Utilibond will appear smooth and creamy with
a flow characteristic similar to that of pancake batter. Do not add
additional water if the mixture looks dry at the beginning of the mixing
process. Keep mixing and the Utilibond compound will “turn” after about
one minute and begin smoothing out.
4) Add Utiliblack to Utilibond mixture. Continue mixing until carbon black
is mixed through and proper shade has been achieved. It is important to
note that unlike Aged Asphalt Utilibond, Utilibond with Utiliblack added
will not lighten as it cures. The color seen in the pail while mixing will be
the color of the Utilibond once set.
Adjusting Aged Asphalt to a Lighter Shade
If the roadway is Asphalt topped and quite old, it may be necessary to lighten the Aged Asphalt colored Utilibond.
There are two options available to achieve a lightened Aged Asphalt:
1) Mix one bag of Natural Concrete with one bag of Aged Asphalt.
2) Once the core has been reinstated continually keep the kerf and center pilot hole area wet with water. This will
have the effect of washing out some of the carbon black in the Utilibond, and once set it will appear lighter in
color.
© 2012 Utilicor Technologies Inc.
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Tips & Tricks
Core Drum Rotation Speed
The rule of thumb here is the smaller the drum diameter the faster the rotation, and the larger the drum diameter the
slower the rotation. If a drum rotates too fast for its diameter, the diamond segments will be a "glazed", or polished,
and new diamonds will cease to be exposed. As a result the cut will take too long. Running at too slow a speed will
result in premature erosion of the diamond segments and will reduce the cuting life of the segments, and result in a
higher cost per cut.
Below are some general guidelines for setting the drums R.P.M. to get you the best penetration rate and the longest
core drum life.
•12" drum: 200 rpm to 250 rpm
•18" drum: 190 rpm to 230 rpm
•24" drum: 160 rpm to 200 rpm
Coring Drum Segments
Coring drum segments are composed of synthetic diamonds impregnated in a specially formulated matrix. As the bit is
driven into the substrate the diamonds grind away the material being cut. In the keyhole environment we are generally
cutting through two very different materials: asphalt and concrete. The asphalt cutting creates slurry that is very
abrasive, and contrary to conventional wisdom, even though asphalt is a softer material than concrete, it is more
abrasive on the segments than when cutting through concrete.
Utilicor, through years of in-field testing, has developed a segment that provides its end users with the best of both
worlds. Our ProCor coring drums are equipped to handle both asphalt and concrete and will provide quick and
efficient core cutting action with extended drum life. This means more cuts per drum and reduced cost per core cut.
Feed and Speed
Feed and speed are the two variables the core cutter has to keep in mind when cutting a core. The correct down
pressure feed rate will depend on what you are cutting through. With this in mind, all of Utilicor’s equipment comes
with a feed gauge and a rotational pressure gauge. We recommend a down pressure of 500-700 psi and a rotational
back pressure of 800-1200 psi. This should result in a penetration rate of approximately one inch per minute, through
asphalt, concrete or composite roadways and sidewalks. If you are taking longer than this, one or more parts of your
cutting equation need to be adjusted.
Water for drum cooling slurry removal
While there are core drums designed to "cut dry", in the keyhole process we recommend always using water to cool
and lubricate the drum and to carry away the slurry away that is created in coring. Water also keeps the dust down.
How much water is proper amount? We recommend a ratio of approximately one gallon per one inch of core cutting.
Too much water will clear away all the slurry too quickly, and it’s that slurry that helps to expose the new diamonds in
the segment during the coring process. Too little water will result in a thick slurry that might cause the core to get
stuck inside the core barrel. You should adjust your water flow to keep the kerf area clear, but not so much that you
flood the street. As a rule of thumb, for a 10" thick core, you should normally use about 10 gallons of water.
Coring Completion
When you are coring it is impossible to "see" when you are through the roadway or sidewalk. But there are a number
of ways that will help you to determine when to stop cutting. If you core too far below the paved surface there is a
danger that the loose dirt will work its way up into the drum and cause the core to become stuck. We have five
senses, and when you use them they will tell you when it’s time to stop coring and time to check to see if your core is
ready to be extracted.
Sound
The Utilicor core cutting process incorporates a center pilot bit which simultaneously cuts a center pilot hole through
the center of the core. This pilot bit extends an inch or two beyond the bottom of the core barrel so it will actually
cut through the pavement before the rest of the drum. When that occurs, you can usually hear a change in the coring
sound, and you will know that the bottom of the coring drum needs only to cut another inch or so.
© 2012 Utilicor Technologies Inc
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Tips & Tricks
Sight
Watch the color of the slurry. The slurry from the cutting of asphalt or concrete is a distinct and consistent color. As
soon as the core drum cuts through the bottom of the roadway or sidewalk, the slurry coming up to the surface will
look different. Watch for the change in color of the slurry, and it will help you tell when you are through. Also, watch
the Hydraulic gauge that measures pressure on the coring drum. It will often spike just as the core drum cuts through
the last portion of the core. When you see this spike in PSI you will know you are through and the core can be
extracted.
Feel
All Utilicor coring equipment is equipped with a proportional orbital feed system connected to the steering wheel that
gives the operator real time feedback from the coring operation. As you cut through different materials you will notice
a different feel. Once the drum penetrates through the asphalt or concrete and into the soil beneath the pavement, the
steering wheel will become easier to turn, and you will know that you are through. To check that the core is ready for
extraction, stop coring, lift the drum, and stick a pry bar down the center pilot hole in the middle of the core and
gently try to rock it back and forth. If it moves easily you will know that the cut is all the way through. This action will
also help to break the suction between the bottom of the core and the base of the roadway.
Extracting the Core
Cores are heavy. And larger diameter and deeper cores are very heavy. Always use caution when extracting these
from the roadway. Utilicor’s specially designed core puller is the safest way in the industry to extract a core. The
rubber stopper at the bottom will expand inside the pilot hole and the friction will create a solid hold on the core. A 5
foot pry bar can be inserted through the eye-bolt mounted on the top of the core puller and with a crew member on
either side of the core the two of you can share the load and safely lift the core out of the hole. Make sure you lift with
your legs - and never with your back. For cores too heavy for two crew members to lift, use the core hoist on the unit
or hook the core puller to a small skid steer or backhoe and lift.
Storing and Moving the Core
Cores are circular, and when turned on their side they roll. This helps when you need to move one from the middle of
the road to the side of the road. Gently tip it on its side, and roll it away. If you need to store the core for an extended
period of time, and it is a hot day, store it upside down on a flat surface. Because of the way it is poured in the first
place, the bottom of the core is usually uneven. On a hot day, if you rest the core on this uneven bottom, the asphalt is
likely to soften allowing the core to sag or deform.
Delaminated Cores
Not every core cut will be perfect. Many older roadways have been overlaid (resurfaced) with new layers of asphalt.
Sometimes entire new roadways are laid over old roadways. Every time you core it’s a bit of a crap shoot as to what
you will find. Sometimes a core will have separated between its different layers of asphalt or between the asphalt the
concrete. Make sure that you insert the core puller all the way down to the bottom so that you can pull the core (and
all of its layers) out in one piece. When you seek to reinstate this delaminated core, the bond strength of Utilibond will
effectively bond the layers together.
Marking Cores for Reinstatement
Because you will be saving the core to be reinstated at a later time, it is important to mark its orientation in the roadway before you core cut and extract it. We recommend using white marking paint with two intersecting lines that will
extend across the cutline of the kerf of the core. The letter V works best, as there is only one way to put it back to
make the lines match up. This is preferable to an X, which due to being symmetrical can result in misinterpretation of
its original orientation.
In areas when you will be cutting multiple cores, paint a number on the top of the core and mark the roadway with the
same number. Reinstatement is simplified when you know which core goes in which location.
© 2012 Utilicor Technologies Inc
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