state of ohio department of transportation columbus, ohio

STATE OF OHIO
DEPARTMENT OF
TRANSPORTATION
COLUMBUS, OHIO
CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL
SPECIFICATIONS
ONLINE VERSION 10/20/2017
An Equal Opportunity Employer
Be advised:
The page numbers in this online only document WILL NOT MATCH
the page numbers in the official printed specification due to page size
and formatting differences.
Copies of the Construction and Material Specifications may be purchased by contacting:
Ohio Department of Transportation
Office of Contracts
P.O. Box 899
Columbus, Ohio 43216-0899
Telephone (614) 466-3778, 466-3200
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table Of Contents 3
100 General Provisions 8
101 Definitions And Terms 8
102 Bidding Requirements And Conditions 17
103 Award And Execution Of Contract 21
104 Scope Of Work 22
105 Control Of Work 25
106 Control Of Material 31
107 Legal Relations And Responsibility To Public 34
108 Prosecution And Progress 43
109 Acceptance, Measurement, And Payment 54
200 Earthwork 73
Item 201 Clearing And Grubbing 73
Item 202 Removal Of Structures And Obstructions 75
Item 203 Roadway Excavation And Embankment 80
Item 204 Subgrade Compaction And Proof Rolling 89
Item 205 Chemically Stabilized Embankment 93
Item 206 Chemically Stabilized Subgrade 95
Item 208 Rock Blasting 99
Item 209 Linear Grading 110
250 Pavement Repairs 112
Item 251 Partial Depth Pavement Repair 112
Item 252 Full Depth Rigid Pavement Removal And Flexible Replacement 113
Item 253 Pavement Repair 114
Item 254 Pavement Planing 115
Item 255 Full Depth Pavement Removal And Rigid Replacement 117
Item 256 Bonded Patching Of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 121
Item 257 Diamond Grinding Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 124
Item 258 Load Transfer Retrofit 126
300 Bases 129
Item 301 Asphalt Concrete Base 129
Item 302 Asphalt Concrete Base 130
Item 304 Aggregate Base 132
Item 305 Portland Cement Concrete Base 135
Item 320 Rubblize And Roll 136
Item 321 Cracking And Seating Non- Reinforced Concrete Pavement 138
400 Flexible Pavement 140
Item 401 Asphalt Concrete Pavements—General 140
Item 402 Asphalt Concrete Mixing Plants 152
Item 403 Asphalt Concrete Quality Control And Acceptance 154
Item 407 Tack Coat 163
Item 408 Prime Coat 165
Item 409 Sawing And Sealing Asphalt Concrete Pavement Joints 166
Item 410 Traffic Compacted Surface 168
Item 411 Stabilized Crushed Aggregate 170
Item 421 Microsurfacing 172
Item 422 Chip Seal 179
Item 423 Crack Sealing, Hot Applied 187
Item 424 Fine Graded Polymer Asphalt Concrete 190
Item 441 Asphalt Concrete - Mix Design And Quality Control 192
Item 442 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 200
Item 443 Stone Matrix Asphalt Concrete 203
Item 446 Asphalt Concrete Core Density Acceptance 207
Item 448 Asphalt Concrete Acceptance 210
450 Rigid Pavement 211
Item 451 Reinforced Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 211
Item 452 Non-Reinforced Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 227
Item 455 Quality Control Plan, Testing And Assurance For Qc/Qa Concrete 228
Item 499 Concrete—General 236
500 Structures 243
Item 501 Structures—General 243
Item 502 Structures For Maintaining Traffic 249
Item 503 Excavation For Structures 250
Item 504 Sheet Piling Left In Place 254
Item 505 Pile Driving Equipment Mobilization 255
Item 506 Static Load Test 256
Item 507 Bearing Piles 258
Item 508 Falsework And Forms 262
Item 509 Reinforcing Steel 264
Item 510 Dowel Holes 268
Item 511 Concrete For Structures 269
Item 512 Treating Concrete 285
Item 513 Structural Steel Members 296
Item 514 Painting Of Structural Steel 310
Item 515 Prestressed Concrete Bridge Members 329
Item 516 Expansion And Contraction Joints Joint Sealers And Bearing Devices 339
Item 517 Railings 343
Item 518 Drainage Of Structures 345
Item 519 Patching Concrete Structures 347
Item 520 Pneumatically Placed Mortar 349
Item 522 Structural Plate Corrugated Metal Structures On Footings 353
Item 523 Dynamic Load Test 354
Item 524 Drilled Shafts 355
Item 526 Approach Slabs 361
600 Incidentals 363
Item 601 Slope And Channel Protection 363
Item 602 Masonry 368
Item 605 Underdrains 372
Item 606 Guardrail 375
Item 607 Fence 377
Item 608 Walks, Curb Ramps, And Steps 379
Item 609 Curbing, Concrete Medians, And Traffic Islands 381
Item 610 Cellular Retaining Walls 385
Item 611 Pipe Culverts, Sewers, Drains, And Drainage Structures 388
Item 613 Low Strength Mortar Backfill 406
Item 614 Maintaining Traffic 409
Item 615 Roads And Pavements For Maintaining Traffic 423
Item 616 Dust Control 426
Item 617 Reconditioning Shoulders 427
Item 618 Rumble Strips On Shoulders 429
Item 619 Field Office 430
Item 620 Delineators 433
Item 621 Raised Pavement Markers (Rpm) 434
Item 622 Concrete Barrier 437
Item 623 Construction Layout Stakes And Survey Monuments 439
Item 624 Mobilization 442
Item 625 Highway Lighting 444
Item 626 Barrier Reflectors 455
Item 630 Traffic Signs And Sign Supports 457
Item 631 Sign Lighting And Electrical Signs 466
Item 632 Traffic Signal Equipment 470
Item 633 Traffic Signal Controllers 481
Item 638 Water Mains And Service Branches 486
640 Pavement Marking 494
Item 641 Pavement Marking—General 494
Item 642 Traffic Paint 499
Item 643 Polyester Pavement Marking 502
Item 644 Thermoplastic Pavement Marking 504
Item 645 Preformed Pavement Marking 507
Item 646 Epoxy Pavement Marking 509
Item 647 Heat-Fused Preformed Thermoplastic Pavement Marking 513
Item 648 Spray Thermoplastic Pavement Marking 515
650 Roadsides 518
Item 651 Topsoil Stockpiled 518
Item 652 Placing Stockpiled Topsoil 519
Item 653 Topsoil Furnished And Placed 520
Item 654 Renovating Existing Soil 521
Item 656 Roadside Cleanup 522
Item 657 Riprap For Tree Protection 523
Item 658 Tree Root Aeration 525
Item 659 Seeding And Mulching 526
Item 660 Sodding 536
Item 661 Planting Trees, Shrubs, Perennials And Vines 539
Item 662 Landscape Watering 543
Item 666 Pruning Existing Trees 544
Item 670 Erosion Protection 545
Item 671 Erosion Control Mats 546
700 Material Details 548
700.00 Minimum Requirements For Sampling Materials 548
701 Cementitious Materials And Carbonate Micro-Fines 588
702 Asphalt Material 589
703 Aggregate 598
704 Masonry Units 615
705 Concrete Incidentals 616
706 Concrete And Clay Pipe 624
707 Steel, Aluminum, And Plastic Pipe 647
708 Paint 660
709 Reinforcing Steel 664
710 Fence And Guardrail 667
711 Structural Steel And Structure Incidentals 673
712 Miscellaneous 680
720 Delineator Materials 687
721 Raised Pavement Marker Materials 688
725 Highway Lighting Materials 690
726 Barrier Reflector Materials 703
730 Traffic Sign And Support Material 704
731 Sign Lighting And Electrical Signs Material 708
732 Traffic Signal Material 710
733 Traffic Signal Controller Material 721
740 Pavement Marking Material 746
748 Water Main And Service Branch Material 753
100 GENERAL PROVISIONS
101 DEFINITIONS AND TERMS
101.01
General. These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of
the Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform
Work are written as commands. For example, a requirement to provide cold-weather protection would be expressed
as, “Provide cold-weather protection for concrete,” rather than “The Contractor shall provide cold-weather
protection for concrete.” In the imperative mood, the subject “the Bidder” or “the Contractor” is understood.
All requirements to be performed by others have been written in the active voice. Sentences written in the active
voice identify the party responsible for performing the action. For example, “The Engineer will determine the
density of the compacted material.” Certain requirements of the Contractor may also be written in the active voice,
rather than the active voice and imperative mood, if the sentence includes requirements for others in addition to the
Contractor. For example, “After the Contractor provides initial written notice, the Engineer will revise the Contract
as specified in 104.02.”
Sentences that define terms, describe a product or desired result, or describe a condition that may exist are written
in indicative mood. These types of sentences use verbs requiring no action. For example, “The characteristics of
the soils actually encountered in the subgrade may affect the quality of the cement and depth of treatment
necessary.”
101.02
Abbreviations. The following abbreviations, when used in the Contract Documents, represent the
full text shown.
AAN
AASHTO
AC
ACBFS
ACI
ACIA
ADT
ADTT
AIC
AISC
AISI
ANFO
ANSI
AOS
AREA
AMRL
ASCE
ASME
ASTM
AWG
AWPA
AWS
AWWA
BBR
BMP
American Association of Nurserymen
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Asphalt Cement (pavement), Alternating Current (traffic)
Air Cooled Blast Furnace Slag (aggregate)
American Concrete Institute
Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter (traffic controller)
Average Daily Traffic
Average Daily Truck Traffic
Amps Interrupting Capacity
American Institute of Steel Construction
American Iron and Steel Institute
Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil
American National Standards Institute
Apparent Opening Size (fabric)
American Railway Engineering Association
AASHTO Material Reference Library
American Society of Civil Engineers
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Wire Gauge
American Wood Preservers' Association
American Welding Society
American Water Works Association
Bending Beam Rheometer (asphalt binder test)
Best Management Practice (erosion)
BOF
BSG
BTEX
BUSTR
C&MS
CAPWAP
CBAE
CCRL
CCS
CECI
CFR
CIE
CPESC
CRS
CRSI
CSS
CVN
CWT
DC
DCA
DDD
DET
DGE
DLS
DNR
DRC
DSR
DZA
EAF
EDA
EEI
EIA
EPA
EQS
FAA
FCM
FEMA
FHWA
FRP
FSS
GGBFS
GS
HDPE
HMWM
ICEA
IEEE
IES
IMSA
IPCEA
IPS
ISSA
ITE
Basic Oxygen Furnace (aggregate)
Bulk Specific Gravity
Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (a soil test)
Bureau of Underground Storage Tank Regulations (Division of Fire Marshal)
Construction and Material Specifications
Case Pile Wave Analysis Program
Cut Back Asphalt Emulsion
Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory
Crushed Carbonate Stone
Contactors Erosion Control Inspector
Code of Federal Regulations
Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (illumination)
Certified Professional in Erosion and Sediment Control
Cationic Rapid Set (asphalt emulsion)
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
Cationic Slow Set (asphalt emulsion)
Charpy V-notch (steel test)
Hundred Weight (100 lbs)
Direct Current
District Construction Administrator
District Deputy Director
District Engineer of Tests
District Geotechnical Engineer
Data Logging System (traffic markings)
Department of Natural Resources
Dry Rodded Condition (asphalt aggregate test)
Dynamic Shear Rheometer (asphalt binder test)
Deficient Zone Average (concrete test)
Electric Arc Furnace
Earth Disturbing Activity
Edison Electric Institute
Electronic Industries Alliance
Environmental Protection Agency
Exceptional Quality Solids (compost)
Fine Aggregate Angularity (asphalt aggregate)
Fracture Critical Member (steel test)
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation
Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Federal Specifications and Standards, General Services Administration
Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
Granulated Slag
High Density Polyethylene
High Molecular Weight Methacrylate
Insulated Cable Engineers Association
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Illuminating Engineering Society
International Municipal Signal Association
Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association
International Pipe Standard
International Slurry Seal Association
Institute of Transportation Engineers
IZEU
Inorganic Zinc Epoxy Urethane
JMF
Job Mix Formula
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LWT
Loaded Wheel Test (asphalt test)
MBF
Thousand Board Feet (wood)
MC
Medium Cure (asphalt emulsion)
MCB
Microchannel Bus (traffic controller)
MOV
Metal Oxide Varistor (traffic controller)
MPI
Magnetic Particle Inspection (steel test)
MSG
Maximum Specific Gravity (asphalt)
MTD
Maximum Theoretical Density (asphalt)
NACE
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program
NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NHI
National Highway Institute
NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology
NOI
Notice of Intent
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
OAC
Ohio Administrative Code
ODOT
Ohio Department of Transportation
OEPA
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
OH
Open Hearth (aggregate)
OHWM Ordinary High Water Mark
OMM
Office of Materials Management (the Central Office Laboratory)
OMUTCD Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices
ORC
Ohio Revised Code
ORDC
Ohio Rail Development Commission
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTE
Office of Traffic Engineering
OWPCA Ohio Water Pollution Control Act
OZEU
Organic Zinc Epoxy Urethane
PAT
Project Average Thickness (concrete test)
PAV
Pressure Aging Vessel (asphalt binder test)
PB
Polybutylene (conduit)
PCC
Portland Cement Concrete
PCS
Petroleum Contaminated Soil
PDA
Pile Dynamic Analysis (steel piling)
PE
Polyethylene (conduit)
PG
Performance Grade (asphalt binder grading system)
pH
Potential of Hydrogen
PLS
Pure Live Seed
PVC
Polyvinyl chloride
QA
Quality Assurance
QC
Quality Control
QCFS
Quality Control Fabricator Specialist (structures)
QCP
Quality Control Program, or Plan, or Points (steel test)
QCQC
Quality Control Qualification Committee
QPL
Qualified Products List
RAP
Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement
RAS
Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles
RC
Rapid Cure (asphalt emulsion)
REA
Rural Electrification Administration
RFI
RH
RMS
RPCC
RPM
RS
RTFO
RUS
SAE
SBA
SBR
SBS
SCD
SDS
SF
SI
SM
SMA
SPD
SPST
SS
SSD
SSPC
SWPPP
TCE
TMPTA
TNP
TODS
TSEC
TSR
UF
UL
USACE
USC
VA
VAC
VCA
VECP
VMA
VME
WDT
WEAP
WPS
WZRPM
XCU
101.03
follows:
Radio Frequency Interference (traffic controller)
Relative Humidity
Root Mean Square (traffic controller)
Recycled Portland Cement Concrete
Raised Pavement Marker (traffic)
Rapid Set (asphalt emulsion)
Rolling Thin-Film Oven (asphalt binder test)
Rural Utilities Service
Society of Automotive Engineers
Styrene Butadiene Amine
Styrene Butadiene Rubber
Styrene Butadiene Styrene
Standard Construction Drawing
Safety Data Sheets
Standard Fabricated members (structures)
International System of Units (Metric)
AASHTOWare Project Sitemanager ™
Stone Matrix Asphalt
Surge Protection Device (traffic controller)
Single Pole / Single Throw (traffic controller)
Slow Set (asphalt emulsion)
Saturated Surface Dry (aggregate)
Society for Protective Coatings
Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan
Trichloroethylene
Tri-methyolpropane Tri-acrylate (paint)
Total Neutralizing Power
Tourist-Oriented Directional Signs
Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control
Tensile Strength Ratio (asphalt mix test)
Unique Fabricated members (structures)
Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.
United States Army Corps of Engineers
United States Code
Verification Acceptance
Volts Alternating Current
Volume of Coarse Aggregate (asphalt mix test)
Value Engineering Change Proposal
Voids in the Mineral Aggregate
VersaModule Eurocard (traffic controller)
Watchdog Timer
Wave Equation Analysis (steel piling)
Welding Procedure Specification (steel test)
Work Zone Raised Pavement Marker (traffic)
Explosion, Collapse and Underground
Definitions. The following terms or pronouns, when used in the Contract Documents, are defined as
Advertisement. The public announcement, as required by law, inviting Bids for Work to be performed or
materials to be furnished.
Award. The written acceptance by the Director of a Bid.
Bid. The offer of a Bidder, on the prescribed form properly signed and guaranteed, to perform the Work and to
furnish the labor and materials at the prices quoted.
Bid Documents. The Bid Documents include the Invitation for Bids, Addenda, Proposal, Expedite file, contract
form and required bonds, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, Special Provisions, general and detailed
plans, Plan notes, standard construction drawings identified in the Plans, notice to Contractor, and any other
document designated by the Department as a Bid Document, all of which constitute one instrument.
Bidder. An individual, firm, or corporation submitting a Bid for the advertised Work, acting directly or through
the duly authorized representative, and qualified as provided in ORC 5525.02 to 5525.09.
Bridge. A structure, including supports, erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as water, a highway,
or a railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads and having a length
measured along the center of roadway of 10 feet (3.048 m) or more between undercopings of abutments or extreme
limits of openings for multiple boxes.
A. Length. The length of a bridge structure is the over-all length measured along the centerline of the roadway
surface.
B. Roadway Width. The clear width measured at right angles to the longitudinal centerline of the bridge between
the bottom of curbs or guard timbers or, in the case of multiple heights of curbs, between the bottoms of the lower
risers. For curb widths of 1 foot (0.3 m) or less, the roadway width is measured between parapets or railings.
Calendar Day or Day. Every day shown on the calendar.
Certified Test Data. A test report from a manufacturer’s or an independent laboratory approved by the Director
listing actual test results of samples tested for compliance with specified Department requirements. The Department
will accept certified test data from manufacturers’ laboratories if their products have been used satisfactorily on
prior Department contracts and their test data has been confirmed. Include a statement that the test data furnished
is representative of the material furnished to a Department project or to a supplier. The report is identified by
number or date and identifies the Department project or supplier to which the material is shipped. Submit reports
signed by a person having legal authority to act for the manufacturer or independent laboratory.
Change Order. A written order issued by the Director to the Contractor, covering changes to the terms and
conditions, plans and/or quantities, within or beyond the scope of the Contract and establishing the basis of payment
and time adjustments for the work affected by the changes.
Claims. Disputes that are not settled through Steps 1 and 2 of the Dispute Resolution and Administrative Claim
Process. The Dispute becomes a Claim when the Contractor submits a Notice of Intent to File a Claim.
Completion Date. The date, as shown in the Contract Documents, on which the Work contemplated shall be
completed.
Construction Limits. These limits must encompass all Work. This includes removals, room for construction
equipment to complete work, site access, etc.
Contract. The written agreement between the Department and the Contractor setting forth the obligations of the
parties, including, but not limited to, the performance of the Work and the basis of payment.
Contract Bond. The approved forms of security, executed by the Contractor and its Sureties, guaranteeing
complete execution of the Work as required by the Contract Documents and the payment of all legal debts
pertaining to the construction of the Project which security shall comply with and be subject to ORC 5525.16 and
5525.13, and related provisions.
Contract Documents. The Contract Documents include the Invitation for Bids, Addenda, Proposal, contract
form and required bonds, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, Special Provisions, general and detailed
plans, Plan notes, standard construction drawings identified in the Plans, notice to contractor, Change Orders,
Supplemental Agreements, Extra Work Contracts, “Accepted” and “Accepted as Noted” Working Drawings, and
any other document designated by the Department as a Contract Document, all of which constitute one instrument.
Contract Item (Pay Item). A specifically described unit of Work for which a price is provided in the Contract.
Contract Price. The amount of compensation bid by the Contractor for a Contract Item in the Proposal or the
amount of compensation established for a Contract Item added or modified pursuant to the Contract Documents.
Contract Time. The number of workdays or calendar days, including authorized adjustments, allowed for
completion of the Project. When a specified Completion Date is shown in the Contract Documents instead of the
number of workdays or calendar days, completion of the Project shall occur on or before that date. Specified
Completion Date and Calendar Day Contracts shall be completed on or before the day indicated even when that
date is a Saturday, Sunday, or holiday.
Contractor. The individual, firm, or corporation contracting with the Department for performance of prescribed
Work, acting directly or through a duly authorized representative and qualified under the provisions of ORC
5525.02 to 5525.09 inclusive, and any amendments thereto.
County. The designated county in which the Work specified is to be done.
Culvert. Any structure not classified as a Bridge that provides an opening under the roadway.
Department. The Department of Transportation, State of Ohio.
Director. Administrative head of the Department appointed by the Governor.
Disputes. Disagreements, matters in question and differences of opinion between the Department’s personnel
and the Contractor.
District Testing. The Departments district testing laboratories.
Engineer. Duly authorized agent of the Department acting within the scope of its authority for purposes of
engineering and administration of the Contract.
Engineered Drawings. A type of Working Drawing that requires the practice of engineering as defined in ORC
4733.01(E). Examples of Engineered Drawings include: Excavation Bracing Plans, Demolition Plans, Erection
Plans, Falsework Plans, Cofferdam Plans, Causeway Plans, Jacking and Temporary Support Plans, Plans for Heavy
Equipment on Structures, Plans for structures for Maintaining Traffic, and Corrective Work Plans.
Equipment. All machinery and equipment, together with the necessary supplies for upkeep and maintenance,
and also tools and apparatus necessary for the proper construction and acceptable completion of the Work.
Extra Work. An item of Work not provided for in the Contract as awarded but found essential to the satisfactory
completion of the Contract within its intended scope.
Extra Work Contract. A Contract concerning the performance of Work or furnishing of materials involving
Extra Work. Such Extra Work may be performed at agreed prices or on a force account basis as provided in ORC
5525.14.
Fabricator. The individual, firm, or corporation that fabricates structural metals or prestressed concrete members
as an agent of the Contractor.
Final Inspector. An Engineer appointed by the DDD who inspects the completed Work and accepts it if it
complies with the Contract Documents.
Inspector. The Engineer’s authorized representative assigned to make detailed inspections of Contract
performance.
Invitation for Bids. The invitation for Proposals for all Work on which Bids are required. Such Proposal will
indicate with reasonable accuracy the quantity and location of the Work to be done or the character and quality of
the material to be furnished and the time and place of the opening of Proposals.
Laboratory. The testing laboratories of the Department, including the Office of Materials Management (OMM)
located at 1600 West Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio, and the District testing facilities.
Materials. Any materials or products specified for use in the construction of the Project and its appurtenances.
Partnering. A collaborative process for project cooperation and communication meant to achieve effective and
efficient contract performance and completion of the Project within budget, on schedule, safely and with requisite
quality in accordance with the contract.
Plans. The drawings, standard construction drawings and supplemental drawings provided by the Department
that show the location, character, dimensions, and details of the Work.
Prebid Question.
A written inquiry submitted by a prospective bidder.
Profile Grade. The trace of a vertical plane intersecting the top surface of the proposed wearing surface, usually
along the longitudinal centerline of the roadbed. Profile grade means either elevation or gradient of such trace
according to the context.
Project Limits. Project limits are points on the mainline centerline of construction where the proposed
improvement, as described in the project description on the Title Sheet (excluding incidental construction), begins
and ends
Project Right-of-Way. That portion of the Right-of-Way between the beginning and end of the Project.
Project. The specific section of the highway together with all appurtenances and Work to be performed thereon
under the Contract.
Proposal. The approved form on which the Department requires Bids to be prepared and submitted for the Work.
Proposal Guaranty. The security furnished with a Bid to guarantee that the Bidder will enter into the Contract
if its Bid is accepted.
Questionnaire. The specified forms on which the Contractor shall furnish required information as to its ability
to perform and finance the Work required under ORC 5525.01.
Reasonably Close Conformity. Reasonably close conformity means compliance with reasonable and customary
manufacturing and construction tolerances where working tolerances are not specified. Where working tolerances
are specified, reasonably close conformity means compliance with such working tolerances. Without detracting
from the complete and absolute discretion of the Engineer to insist upon such tolerances as establishing reasonably
close conformity, the Engineer may accept variations beyond such tolerances as reasonably close conformity where
they will not materially affect the value or utility of the Work and the interests of the Department.
Registered Engineer. An engineer registered with the Ohio State Board of Registration for Professional
Engineers and Surveyors to practice professional engineering in the State of Ohio
Registered Surveyor. A surveyor registered with the Ohio State Board of Registration for Professional Engineers
and Surveyors to practice professional surveying in the State of Ohio.
Right-of-Way. A general term denoting land, property, or interest therein, usually in a strip, acquired for or
devoted to a highway.
Road. A general term denoting a public way for purposes of vehicular travel, including the entire area within the
Right-of-Way, as defined in ORC 5501.01.
Roadbed. The graded portion of a highway within top and side slopes, prepared as a foundation for the pavement
structure and shoulder.
Roadside. The areas between the outside edges of the shoulders and the Right-of-Way boundaries. Unpaved
median areas between inside shoulders of divided highways and infield areas of interchanges are included.
Roadside Development. Those items necessary to the highway that provide for the preservation of landscape
materials and features; the rehabilitation and protection against erosion of all areas disturbed by construction
through seeding, sodding, mulching, and the placing of other ground covers; such suitable planting; and other
improvements as may increase the effectiveness and enhance the appearance of the highway.
Roadway. The portion of a highway within limits of construction.
Shop Drawings. Drawings accepted by the Contractor and submitted to the Department that describe portions of
the Work fabricated off site that are incorporated permanently with the project. Department acceptance is not
required.
Shoulder. The portion of the roadway contiguous to the traveled way for accommodation of stopped vehicles,
for emergency use, and for lateral support of base and surface courses.
Sidewalk. That portion of the roadway primarily constructed for the use of pedestrians.
Signatures on Contract Documents. All signatures on Contract Documents must meet the requirements of
102.06.
Special Provisions. Additions and revisions to the standard and Supplemental Specifications covering conditions
peculiar to an individual Project.
Specifications. The directions, provisions, and requirements contained herein as supplemented by the
Supplemental Specifications and Special Provisions.
State. The State of Ohio acting through its authorized representative.
Street. A general term denoting a public way for purpose of vehicular travel, including the entire area within the
Right-of-Way.
Structures. Bridges, culverts, catch basins, drop inlets, retaining walls, cribbing, manholes, endwalls, buildings,
sewers, service pipes, underdrains, foundation drains, and other features that may be encountered in the Work and
not otherwise classed herein.
Subcontractor. An individual, firm, or corporation to whom the Contractor sublets part of the Contract to be
performed on the job site, who prior to such undertaking receives the written consent of the Director, and who is
qualified under ORC 5525.02 through 5525.09 inclusive.
Subgrade. The portion of a Roadbed upon which the pavement structure and shoulders are constructed.
Substructure. All of that part of the structure below the bearings of simple and continuous spans, skewbacks of
arches, and tops of footings of rigid frames, together with backwalls and wings.
Superintendent. The Contractor’s authorized representative in responsible charge of the Work.
Superstructure. The entire structure except the Substructure.
Supplement. A list of requirements for fabrication plants, methods of test, or other miscellaneous requirements
that are maintained on file in the Office of the Director.
Supplemental Agreement. A written agreement executed by the Contractor and by the Director covering
necessary alterations.
Supplemental Specifications. Detailed specifications supplemental to or superseding these Specifications.
Surety. The corporation, partnership, or individual, other than the Contractor, executing a bond furnished by the
Contractor.
Titles (or Headings). The titles or headings of the sections and subsections herein are intended for convenience
of reference and shall not be considered as having any bearing on their interpretation.
Waters of the United States. Waters that are under the jurisdiction of the Corps of Engineers under the Clean
Water Act as defined by 33 CFR Ch. II Part 328, which as applied to Ohio means: the Ohio River and Lake Erie
and any other river, stream, creek, lake, pond, or wetland that drains directly or indirectly into the Ohio River or
Lake Erie.
Work. All labor, materials, equipment, tools, transportation, supplies, and other incidentals and all tasks that
comprise the project or any portion thereof, as described by the Contract Documents.
Work Limits. Work Limits are the extreme limits of the contractor’s responsibility on a project, including all
temporary and incidental construction, with the exception of work zone traffic control devices required for
maintenance of traffic.
Workday. A calendar day that the Contractor normally works.
Working Drawings. Contractor submitted drawings for work, not otherwise defined in the Bid Documents, and
require Department acceptance. Examples of Working Drawings include: Engineered Drawings, installation plans,
certified drawings, and any other supplementary plans or similar data that the Contractor is required to submit for
acceptance.
101.04
Interpretations. In order to avoid cumbersome and confusing repetition of expressions in these
Specifications, it is provided that whenever anything is, or is to be, done, if, as, or, when, or where “contemplated,
required, determined, directed, specified, authorized, ordered, given, designated, indicated, considered necessary,
deemed necessary, permitted, reserved, suspended, established, approval, approved, disapproved, acceptable,
unacceptable, suitable, accepted, satisfactory, unsatisfactory, sufficient, insufficient, rejected, or condemned,” it
shall be understood as if the expression were followed by the words “by the Engineer” or “to the Engineer.”
102 BIDDING REQUIREMENTS AND CONDITIONS
102.01
Prequalification of Bidders. A Bidder must be prequalified by the Department according to ORC
Chapter 5525 and the rules and regulations governing prequalification in order to submit a Bid. Upon request, the
Department will provide a prequalification application, applicable rules and regulations, and other relevant
information. For prospective Bidders that are not yet prequalified, furnish the Department with a properly
completed prequalification application at least 30 days before the date specified for the receipt of Bids. The
prequalification certificate is the Bidder’s license to Bid and perform construction for the Department.
For foreign Contractors, refer to ORC 5525.18 and Ohio Administrative Rule 5501:2-3-07.
The Department will perform contractor performance evaluations for each contractor and subcontractor on every
ODOT-let construction project. Evaluations shall be well documented, objective, and performed in a timely
manner, in accordance with Supplement 1131. The contractor’s average scores for the previous calendar year will
be used in the calculation of the contractor’s bidding capacity. The contractor has the right to appeal an evaluation.
102.02
Contents of Bid Documents. Use the Proposal to prepare and submit Bids for the Work. Upon
request, the Department will provide Bid Documents that include or reference the following:
A. Location and description of the Project.
B. Estimate of quantities and description of the Work.
C. Time to complete the Work.
D. Amount of the Proposal Guaranty.
E. Department’s deadline for receiving a completed Bid.
F. Schedule of contract items.
G. Standard Specifications, Special Provisions, Supplemental Specifications, and the Plans.
H. Proposal.
102.03
Issuance of Proposals.
A. General. Upon request, the Department will provide applicable rates and other relevant information for
obtaining bidding information and submitting a Bid.
B. Department Will Not Issue. The Department may refuse to sell or issue Bid Documents to a prospective
Bidder for any of the following reasons:
1.
The prospective Bidder owes the Department for previously issued plans.
2.
The prospective Bidder has defaulted on previous contracts.
3.
The prospective Bidder is debarred from bidding on and receiving Department contracts.
4.
The prospective Bidder is currently in the debarment process.
102.04
Interpretation of Quantities in Proposal. The quantities in the Bid Documents are approximate and
the Department uses them for the comparison of Bids only.
The Department will only pay the Contractor for the actual quantities of Work performed and accepted according
to the Contract Documents. The Department may increase, decrease, or omit the scheduled quantities of Work as
provided in 109.04 without invalidating the Bid prices.
102.05
Examination of Bid Documents and Project Site and Submission of Prebid Questions. Carefully
examine the Bid Documents and perform a reasonable site investigation before submitting a Bid. Submitting a Bid
is an affirmative statement that the Bidder has investigated the Project site and is satisfied as to the character,
quality, quantities, and the conditions to be encountered in performing the Work. A reasonable site investigation
includes investigating the Project site, borrow sites, hauling routes, and all other locations related to the
performance of the Work.
When available, the Department will include in the Contract Documents or provide for the Bidder’s review at
the Department’s offices or website, one or more of the following:
A. Record drawings.
B. Available information relative to subsurface exploration, borings, soundings, water levels, elevations, or
profiles.
C. The results of other preliminary investigations.
A reasonable site investigation includes a review of these documents.
Should a question arise at any time during the examination of Bid Documents or investigation of the site the
Bidder may seek clarification by submitting a Prebid Question. Submit all Prebid Questions in writing via the
Department’s website. The Department will post a response on its website to all questions submitted before a
deadline of 10:00 am four working days prior to the public opening of Bids. Responses to Prebid Questions posted
on the Department’s website are not revisions to the Bidding Documents and are not binding. The Department is
not obligated to respond to, or otherwise act upon, a Prebid Question submitted after this deadline, but reserves the
right to act upon any information received.
102.06
Preparation of Bids. Prepare a Bid according to this subsection and the requirements found in the
Bid Documents. Properly complete the Expedite file and submit it using the software specified in the Bid
Documents rather than completing it by handwriting, typing, or using unauthorized computer-generated forms.
Provide a unit price for each item listed in the Proposal. Calculate and place the products for the respective unit
prices and quantities in the “Bid Amount” column. For a lump sum item, place the same price in the “Unit Price”
column and in the “Bid Amount” column pertaining to that item. Indicate the total Bid amount by adding the values
entered in the “Bid Amount” column for the listed items. Submit the Expedite file using the software specified in
the Bid Documents.
Properly execute the Proposal by completing the miscellaneous section and attaching the required signatures in
the space provided in the Expedite file.
ENTITY SUBMITTING PROPOSAL
REQUIRED SIGNATURE
Individual
Partnership
Joint Venture
Corporation
Limited Liability Company
The individual or a duly authorized agent.
A partner or a duly authorized agent.
A member or a duly authorized agent of at least one of the joint
venture firms.
An authorized officer or duly authorized agent of the corporation.
Also, show the name of the state chartering the corporation and
affix the corporate seal.
A manager, a member, or a duly authorized agent.
102.07
Duty to Notify of Errors in Bid Documents. Notify the Department of errors and omissions in the
Bid Documents. Make notification by submitting a question in the manner described in 102.05. The Contractor’s
duty to disclose errors and omissions is not only a bidding requirement but is also a legal requirement that cannot
be ignored.
Failure to provide the required notification prior to the opening of bids shall constitute a waiver by the Contractor
and does not obligate the Department for any costs based upon any apparent or patent ambiguity arising from
insufficient data or obvious errors in the Bid documents. Knowingly withholding information regarding an error or
omission in the Bid Documents, or intentionally misrepresenting an item of Work for financial or competitive gain
may result in civil or criminal penalties in excess of the value of the item bid.
102.08
Unbalanced Bidding. Bid all items correctly and price each quantity as indicated in the Bid
Documents. The Department will reject a Mathematically Unbalanced Bid if the Bid is also Materially Unbalanced.
A Mathematically Unbalanced Bid is a Bid containing lump sum or unit price items that do not include reasonable
labor, equipment, and material costs plus a reasonable proportionate share of the Bidder’s overhead costs, other
indirect costs, and anticipated profit. A Materially Unbalanced Bid is when the Department determines that an
award to the Bidder submitting a Mathematically Unbalanced Bid will not result in the lowest ultimate cost to the
Department.
102.09
Proposal Guaranty. The Department will reject a Bid submitted without a Proposal Guaranty in the
amount designated and payable to the Director. Submit the required Proposal Guaranty in one of the following
forms:
A. Properly executed project Bid bond submitted on the Department’s form.
B. Properly executed electronic bid transfer to the Department's account.
C. Certified check drawn on the account of the Bidder submitting the Bid.
D. Cashier’s check.
E. Properly executed electronic project Bid bond submitted using the software specified in the Bid Documents.
When submitting a Bid bond, ensure that the Surety is licensed to do business in the State.
If the Department invites alternate Bids and the Bidder elects to Bid more than one alternate, the Bidder may
submit one Proposal Guaranty in the amount required for a single alternate. The Proposal Guaranty covers each
individual Bid.
If the Department invites combined Bids and the Bidder elects to Bid only on one package, then the Bidder must
submit only one Proposal Guaranty. If the Bidder bids on the combined Bid package, the Bidder must submit a
Proposal Guaranty in the amount required for the combined Bid. The combined Proposal Guaranty covers each
individual Bid.
102.10
Delivery of Bid. Unless otherwise indicated in the Proposal, all Bids must be submitted using the
electronic Bid submission software specified in the Proposal. The Department will accept Bids until the time and
date designated in the Notice to Bidders. The Department will return Bids received after the designated time to the
Bidders unopened. The Department will return all Bids not prepared and submitted in accordance with the Proposal.
102.11
Withdrawal of Bids. After Bids are opened, ORC 5525.01 requires that a Bidder identify a mistake
in its Bid within 48 hours of the Bid opening. After Bids are opened the Bidder must provide a written request to
withdraw a Bid already filed with the Department. Any Bidder for whom a request to withdraw its Bid is approved
by the Department will not be permitted to participate in any manner in a contract awarded for that project for
which the Bid was withdrawn.
102.12
Combination Proposals. The Department may elect to issue Bid Documents for projects in
combination or separately, so that Bids may be submitted either on the combination or on separate units of the
combination. The Department reserves the right to make awards on combination Bids or separate Bids to the best
advantage of the Department. The Department will not consider combination Bids, other than those it specifically
identifies in the Bid Documents. The Department will write separate Contracts for each individual Project included
in the combination.
102.13
Public Opening of Bids. The Department will publicly open Bids at the time and place indicated in
the notice to Contractors. The Department will announce the total Bid amount for each Bid.
Bidders or their authorized agent and other interested persons are invited to the opening.
The Department may postpone the receipt of Bid time or the opening of Bids time. If the Department changes
the hour or the date of the receipt of Bids or the opening of Bids, it will issue an addendum or public notice to
notify prospective Bidders.
102.14
Disqualification of Bidders. The Department will declare a Bid non-responsive and ineligible for
award when any of the following occur:
A. The Bidder lacks sufficient prequalification work types or dollars to be eligible for award.
B. The Bidder fails to furnish the required Proposal Guaranty in the proper form and amount.
C. The Bid contains unauthorized alterations or omissions.
D. The Bid contains conditions or qualifications not provided for in the Bid Documents.
E. The Proposal is not prepared as specified.
F. A single entity, under the same name or different names, or affiliated entities submits more than one Bid for
the same Project.
G. The Bidder fails to submit a unit price for each contract item listed, except for lump sum items where the
Bidder may show a price in the “Bid Amount” column for that item.
H. The Bidder fails to submit a lump sum price where required.
I. The Bidder fails to submit a complete Expedite file using the software specified in the Proposal.
J. The Bidder is debarred from submitting Bids.
K. The Bidder has defaulted, has had a Contract terminated for cause by the Department, has either agreed not to
Bid or has had debarment proceedings initiated against the Bidder’s company and/or its key personnel.
L. The Bidder submits its Bid or Proposal Guaranty on forms other than those provided by the Department.
M. The Bidder fails to properly complete the supplemental questionnaire section of the Expedite file.
N. The Bidder submits a Materially Unbalanced Bid as defined by 102.08.
O. The Bidder fails to acknowledge addenda.
P. The Department finds evidence of collusion.
Q. Any other omission, error, or act that, in the judgment of the Department, renders the Bidder’s bid nonresponsive.
102.15 Material Guaranty. Before any Contract is awarded, the Department may require the Bidder to furnish
a complete statement of the origin, composition, and manufacture of any or all Materials to be used in the
construction of the Work together with samples. The Department may test the samples as specified in these
Specifications to determine their quality and fitness for the Work.
102.16 Certificate of Compliance with Affirmative Action Programs. Before any Contract is awarded, the
Department will require the Bidder to furnish a valid Certificate of Compliance with Affirmative Action Programs,
issued by the State EEO Coordinator dated prior to the date fixed for the opening of bids.
102.17 Drug-Free Safety Program. During the life of this project, the Contractor and all its Subcontractors,
that provide labor on the Project site, must be enrolled in and remain in good standing in the Ohio Bureau of
Worker’s Compensation (“OBWC”) Drug-Free Safety Program (“DFSP”) or a comparable program approved by
the OBWC.
In addition to being enrolled in and in good standing in an OBWC-approved DFSP or a comparable program
approved by the OBWC, the Department requires each Contractor and Subcontractor that provides labor, to subject
its employees who perform labor on the project site to random drug testing of 5 percent of its employees. The
random drug testing percentage must also include the on-site supervisors of the Contractors and Subcontractors.
Upon request, the Contractor and Subcontractor shall provide evidence of required testing to the Department.
Each Subcontractor shall require all lower-tier Subcontractors that provides labor on the project site with whom
the Subcontractor is in contract for the Work to be enrolled in and be in good standing in the OBWC-approved
DFSP prior to a lower-tier Subcontractor providing labor at the Site.
The Department will declare a bid non-responsive and ineligible for award if the Contractor is not enrolled and
in good standing in the Ohio Bureau of Workers’ Compensation’s Drug-Free Safety Program (DFSP) Discount
Program or a similar program approved by the Bureau of Workers’ Compensation within 8 days of the bid opening.
Furthermore, the Department will deny all requests to sublet when the subcontractor does not comply with the
provisions of this section.
Failure of the Contractor to require a Subcontractor to be enrolled in and be in good standing in the an OBWCapproved DFSP prior to the time that the Subcontractor provides labor at the Site, shall result in the Contractor
being found in breach of the Contract and that breach shall be used in the responsibility analysis of that Contractor
or the Subcontractor who was not enrolled in a program for future contracts with the State for five years after the
date of the breach.
103 AWARD AND EXECUTION OF CONTRACT
103.01
Consideration of Proposals. After opening and announcing the Bids, the Department will compare
the Bidders’ proposed prices. The proposed price is the summation of the products of the estimated quantities
shown in the Proposal and the unit Bid prices. If the amount shown for the proposed product differs from the actual
product of the unit Bid price and the estimated quantity, then the actual product will govern.
The Department may reject any or all Bids, waive technicalities, or advertise for new Bids without liability to
the Department.
103.02
Award of Contract. The Department will award a Contract or reject Bids within 10 days after Bid
opening. The Department will mail a letter to the address on the Bid notifying the successful Bidder of Bid
acceptance and Contract award. The Department will award to the lowest competent and responsible bidder. The
Department will not award a Contract until it completes an investigation of the apparent low Bidder.
If the Department’s estimate for the cost of the improvement is not confidential, the Department will not award
a Contract for an amount greater than 5 percent more than the Department’s estimate. If the Department’s estimate
is confidential, the Department may award the Contract according to ORC 5525.15.
103.03
Cancellation of Award. The Department may cancel a Contract award at any time before all parties
sign the Contract without liability to the Department.
103.04
Return of Proposal Guaranty. Immediately after the opening and checking of Bids, the Department
will return all Proposal Guaranties provided in the form of a certified check or cashier’s check, except to the three
lowest Bidders. Within 10 days after opening bids, the Department will return the Proposal Guaranties of the two
remaining unsuccessful Bidders. After the successful Bidder submits the signed Contract, Contract Bonds, and
other Contract Documents, and after the Department signs the Contract, the Department will return the Proposal
Guaranty to the successful Bidder. The Department will not return Bid bonds.
103.05
Requirement of Contract Bond. Furnish Contract Bonds within 10 days after receiving notice of
award. Furnish Contract Bonds to the Director on the prescribed form, in the amount of the Contract, and according
to ORC 5525.16.
103.06
Execution of Contract. Sign and return the Contract, along with the certificate of compliance,
Contract Bonds, and other required Contract Documents, within 10 days after notice of award. The State does not
consider a proposal binding until the Director signs the Contract. If the Director does not sign the Contract within
20 days after receiving the successful Bidder’s signed Contract, certificates, Contract Bonds, and other Contract
Documents, the successful Bidder may withdraw the Bid without prejudice.
103.07
Failure to Execute Contract. If the successful Bidder fails to sign the Contract and furnish the
Contract Bonds, the Department will have just cause to cancel the award. The successful Bidder shall forfeit the
Proposal Guaranty to the Department, not as a penalty, but as liquidated damages. The Department may award the
Contract to the next lowest responsive Bidder, re-advertise the Work, or take any other action decided by the
Director.
104 SCOPE OF WORK
104.01
Intent of the Contract Documents. The intent of the Contract Documents is to provide for the
construction and completion of the Work. Perform the Work according to the Contract Documents.
104.02
Revisions to the Contract Documents.
A. General. The Department reserves the right to revise the Contract Documents at any time. Such revisions do
not invalidate the Contract or release the Surety, and the Contractor agrees to perform the Work as revised.
The provisions of this section are subject to the limitation of ORC 5525.14.
B. Differing Site Conditions. During the progress of the Work, if subsurface or latent physical conditions are
encountered at the site differing materially from those indicated in the Contract Documents or if unknown physical
conditions of an unusual nature, differing materially from those ordinarily encountered and generally recognized
as inherent in the Work provided for in the Contract Documents, are encountered at the site, notify the Engineer as
specified in 108.02.F of the specific differing conditions before they are disturbed or the affected Work is
performed.
Upon notification, the Engineer will investigate the conditions and if it is determined that the conditions
materially differ and cause an increase or decrease in the cost or time required for the performance of any Work
under the Contract, the Department will make an adjustment and modify the Contract as specified in 108.06 and
109.05. The Engineer will notify the Contractor of the determination whether or not an adjustment of the Contract
is warranted.
C. Suspension of Work. If the performance of all or any portion of the Work is suspended or delayed by the
Engineer in writing for an unreasonable period of time (not originally anticipated, customary, or inherent to the
construction industry) and the Contractor believes that additional compensation or time is due as a result of such
suspension or delay, notify the Engineer as specified in 108.02.
Upon receipt of notice, the Engineer will evaluate the Contractor’s request. If the Engineer agrees that the cost
or time required for the performance of the Work has increased as a result of such suspension and the suspension
was caused by conditions beyond the control of and not the fault of the Contractor, its suppliers, or subcontractors
at any approved tier, and not caused by weather, the Engineer will make an equitable adjustment (excluding profit)
and modify the contract as specified in 108.06 and 109.05. The Engineer will notify the Contractor of its
determination whether or not an adjustment to the Contract Documents is warranted. Failure of the Engineer to
suspend or delay the Work in writing does not bar the Contractor from receiving a time extension or added
compensation according to 108.06 or 109.05.
The Department will not make an adjustment under this subsection in the event that performance is suspended
or delayed by any other cause, or for which an adjustment is provided or excluded under any other term or condition
of this Contract.
D. Significant Changes in Character of the Work. The Engineer may increase or decrease quantities and alter
the Work as necessary to complete the Project. The Engineer will make appropriate adjustments according to
108.06 and 109.05, if such alterations significantly change the character of the Work.
If the Contractor disagrees as to whether an alteration constitutes a significant change, use the notification
procedures specified in 108.02.G.
The term “significant change” is defined as follows:
1. when the character of the Work as altered differs materially in kind or nature from that involved or
included in the original proposed construction; or
2. when the product of the quantity in excess of the estimated quantity of a contract item and the unit price
exceeds the limits set forth in Table 104.02-1.
TABLE 104.02-1
Contract Price
Up to $500,000
$500,001 to $2,000,000
Over $2,000,000
Contract Limits
$25,000
5% of Total Contract Price
$100,000
A quantity underrun is defined as follows:
1.
the estimated quantity of a contract item exceeds four units, and
2.
the decrease in quantity of any unit price Contract Item exceeds 25 percent of the estimated quantity, and
3.
the total of all such adjustments for all Contract Items is more than $800.
Then after the determination of final quantities according to 109.12.C, the Engineer will adjust the unit prices
for the affected Contract item by multiplying the bid unit price by the factor obtained from Table 104.02-2.
TABLE 104.02-2
% Decrease
25
26 to 27
28 to 29
30 to 31
32 to 33
34 to 35
36
37 to 38
39
40 to 41
42
43
44 to 45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
Factor
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.35
1.36
1.38
1.39
1.41
1.43
1.44
1.46
1.49
% Decrease
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80 and over
Factor
1.51
1.53
1.56
1.58
1.61
1.64
1.68
1.71
1.75
1.79
1.84
1.89
1.94
2.00
When the increase in quantity or decrease in quantity of any unit price contract item does not exceed the limits
set forth in Tables 104.02-2 and 104.02-3, the change is considered a minor change. The Department will pay for
minor changes in the Work at the unit bid price.
E. Eliminated Items. The Department may partially or completely eliminate contract items.
The Department will only make an adjustment to compensate the Contractor for the reasonable cost incurred
in preparation to perform significantly changed work as set forth in 104.02.D or work completely eliminated prior
to the date of the Engineer’s written order to significantly change or completely eliminate the Work. The adjustment
will be determined according to 109.04 and 109.05. Such payment will not exceed the price of the Contract Item.
The Department will not seek a savings for maintaining traffic, mobilization, and construction layout stakes
items for Eliminated Items of Work, unless there is a significant change.
F. Extra Work. Perform Extra Work as directed by the Engineer. The Department will pay for Extra Work as
specified in 109.05. Time extensions, if warranted, will be determined according to 108.06.
G. Unilateral Authority to Pay. The Department has unilateral authority to pay the Contractor sums it determines
to be due to the Contractor for work performed on the project. This unilateral authority to pay by the Department
does not preclude or limit the rights of the Department and the Contractor to negotiate and agree to the amounts to
be paid to the Contractor.
104.03
Rights in and Use of Materials Found on the Work. Upon obtaining the Engineer’s approval, the
Contractor may use material, such as stone, gravel, or sand, found in the plan excavation for another Contract Item.
The Department will pay for both the excavation of the material under the corresponding Contract Item and for the
placement of the excavated material under the Contract Item(s) for which the excavated material is used. Excavate
or remove material only from within the grading limits, as indicated by the slope and grade lines.
Obtain written permission from the Engineer according to 107.11.A.
104.04
Cleaning Up. Maintain the Project in a presentable condition. Remove all rubbish, layout stakes,
sediment control devices as directed by the Engineer, excess material, temporary structures, and equipment,
including stream channels and banks within the Right-of-Way at drainage structures, and all borrow and waste
areas, storage sites, temporary plant sites, haul roads, and other ground occupied by the Contractor in connection
with the Work. Establish suitable vegetative cover in these areas by seeding and mulching according to Item 659,
except for cultivated fields. Leave the Project site in an acceptable condition as determined by the Engineer. The
cost of cleanup is incidental to all contract items. The Department may withhold 10 percent of the Bid amount for
the mobilization contract item, if included, until performance under this section is complete. See 624.04.
105 CONTROL OF WORK
105.01
Authority of the Engineer. The Engineer will decide questions concerning all of the following:
A. The quality and acceptability of Materials furnished.
B. The quantity of Work performed.
C. The Contractor’s rate of progress.
D. The interpretation of the Contract Documents.
E. Acceptable fulfillment of the Contract.
F. Contractor compensation.
The Engineer may suspend all or part of the Work when the Contractor fails to correct conditions that are unsafe
for the workers or the general public, fails to comply with the Contract Documents, or fails to comply with the
Engineer’s orders. The Engineer may suspend the Work due to adverse weather conditions, conditions considered
adverse to the prosecution of the Work, or other conditions or reasons in the public interest.
The Engineer’s acceptance does not constitute a waiver of the Department’s right to pursue any and all legal
remedies for defective work or work performed by the Contractor in an un-workmanlike manner.
105.02
Plans and Working Drawings. The Plans show details of structures, the lines and grades, typical
cross-sections of the Roadway, and the location and design of structures. Keep at least one set of Plans at the Project
at all times.
Prepare working drawings when required by the Contract Documents and after verifying applicable field and
plan elevations, dimensions, and geometries. Where Work consists of repairs, extension, or alteration of existing
structures, take measurements of existing structures to accurately join old and new Work.
Unless otherwise indicated, the Department will review working drawing submittals to ensure conformance with
the Contract and to provide the Contractor a written response to document the results of its review as follows:
A. “ACCEPTED.” The Department accepts the submittal for construction, fabrication, or manufacture.
B. “ACCEPTED AS NOTED.” The Department accepts the submittal for construction, fabrication, or
manufacture, subject to the Contractor’s compliance with all Department comments or corrections to the submittal.
If also marked “RESUBMIT,” the Department still accepts the submittal, but requires the Contractor to provide a
corrected submittal to the Department.
C. “NOT ACCEPTED.” The Department does not accept the submittal. The submittal does not conform to
Contract requirements. Do not begin construction, fabrication, or manufacture of Work included in the submittal.
Revise the submittal to comply with Department comments or corrections and Contract requirements and provide
the revised submittal to the Department for another review.
“Accepted” and “Accepted as Noted” Working Drawings are Contract Documents as defined in 101.03. The
Department’s acceptance will not relieve the Contractor of responsibility to complete the Work according to the
Contract nor relieve a signatory engineer’s responsibility as defined by OAC 4733-23. Include the cost of furnishing
Working Drawings in the cost of the Work they cover.
105.03
Conformity with Contract Documents. Perform all Work and furnish all Materials in reasonably
close conformity with the lines, grades, cross-sections, dimensions, and material requirements as shown on the
Plans and as specified.
If the DCA determines the Work is not in reasonably close conformity with the Contract Documents and
determines the Contractor produced reasonably acceptable Work, the DCA may accept the Work based on
engineering judgment. The DCA will document the basis of acceptance in a Change Order that provides for an
appropriate adjustment to the Contract Price of the accepted Work or Materials. If the DCA determines the Work
is not in reasonably close conformity with the Contract Documents and determines the Work is inferior or
unsatisfactory, remove, replace, or otherwise correct the Work at no expense to the Department.
105.04
Coordination of the Contract Documents. The Contract Documents are those defined in 101.03. A
requirement appearing in one of these documents is as binding as though it occurs in all. The Engineer will resolve
discrepancies using the following descending order of precedence:
A. Addenda.
B. Proposal and Special Provisions.
C. Plans.
D. Supplemental Specifications.
E. Standard Construction Drawings.
F.
Standard Specifications.
Immediately notify the Engineer upon discovering any latent error or omission in the Contract Documents.
105.05
Cooperation by Contractor. The Department will supply the Contractor with two sets of the
Contract Documents, except for the standard construction drawings, which will only be supplied if requested. The
Department will provide only one copy of these Specifications.
Provide the constant attention necessary to progress the Work according to the Contract Documents. Cooperate
with the Engineer, inspectors, and all other Contractors on or adjacent to the Project.
105.06
Superintendent. Provide a Superintendent for the Project that is available and responsive at all times
and is responsible for all aspects of the Work, irrespective of the amount of subcontract Work. The Superintendent
must be capable of reading and understanding the Contract Documents and experienced in the type of Work being
performed. The Superintendent shall receive instructions from the Engineer or the Engineer’s authorized
representatives. The Superintendent shall promptly execute the Engineer’s orders or directions and promptly supply
the required materials, equipment, tools, labor, and incidentals.
105.07
Cooperation with Utilities. Unless otherwise provided for by the Contract Documents, the
Department will direct the utility owners to relocate or adjust water lines, gas lines, wire lines, service connections,
water and gas meter boxes, water and gas valve boxes, light standards, cableways, signals, and all other utility
appurtenances within the limits of the proposed construction at no cost to the Contractor.
If the Contractor is directed by a utility company to perform any work not specifically contained in this note, the
Department will not compensate the Contractor for this work unless the Department approves the request in writing
before the work begins. If the work is not preapproved by the Department, the Contractor will be responsible for
obtaining reimbursement for its work from the utility company which directed the Contractor to perform the work.
In the event that the Contractor requests that additional work, not specifically contained in this note, be performed
by a utility company, the Contractor will be responsible for reimbursing the utility company for the additional work
unless the Department has agreed in writing to pay for the additional work before the work begins.
The Contract Documents will indicate various utility items and indicate a time frame or date when the
Department expects the owners to complete utility relocation or adjustment. Provide utility owners adjusting
facilities during construction with adequate notification of the scheduled Work to prevent conflict with the
Contractor’s schedule of operations.
When bidding, consider all permanent and temporary utility appurtenances in present and relocated positions as
shown in the Contract Documents.
According to ORC 153.64 and at least 2 Workdays prior to commencing construction operations in an area that
may affect underground utilities shown on the Plans, notify the Engineer, the registered utility protection service,
and the owners that are not members of the registered utility protection service.
The owner of the underground utility shall, within 48 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays,
after notice is received, start staking, marking, or otherwise designating the location, course, 2 feet (0.6 m),
together with the approximate depth of the underground utilities in the construction area.
If the utility owners fail to relocate or adjust utilities as provided for in the Contract Documents and the
Contractor sustains losses that could not have been avoided by the judicious handling of forces, equipment, and
plant, or by reasonable revisions to the schedule of operations, then the Engineer will adjust the Contract according
to 108.06 and 109.05.
105.08
Cooperation Between Contractors. At any time, the Department may contract for other work on or
near the Project.
Separate Contractors working within the limits of the Project shall conduct their work without interfering with
or hindering the progress or completion of Work being performed by other Contractors and shall cooperate with
each other as directed by the Engineer.
105.09
Authority and Duties of the Inspector. Inspectors are authorized to inspect the Work and the
preparation, fabrication, or manufacture of materials. Inspectors are not authorized to alter or waive requirements
of the Contract Documents. Inspectors are authorized to notify the Contractor of Work that does not conform to
the Contract; reject materials that do not conform to Specification requirements; and until the issue is decided by
the Engineer, suspend portions of the Work if there is a question regarding the Contract Documents, use of
unapproved material, or safety. Inspectors are not obligated or authorized to provide direction, superintendence, or
guidance to the Contractor, its crew, its subcontractors, or suppliers to accomplish the Work.
Any action or inaction of the Inspector does not constitute a waiver of the Department’s right to pursue any and
all legal remedies for defective work or work performed by the Contractor in an un-workmanlike manner.
105.10
Inspection of Work. The Engineer may inspect materials and the Work. Provide the Engineer or the
Engineer’s representative access to the Work, information, and assistance necessary to conduct a complete
inspection. Notify the Engineer at least 24 hours prior to all required inspections.
When directed by the Engineer, remove or uncover completed Work to allow inspection. After the Engineer’s
inspection, restore the Work according to the requirements of the Contract Documents. If the inspected Work
conformed to the requirements of the Contract Documents, the Department will pay for uncovering or removing
and restoring the Work as Extra Work according to 109.05. If the inspected Work did not conform to the Contract
Documents, the Department will not pay for uncovering or removing and restoring the Work.
The Department shall have the discretion to dictate the level of inspection for any item of work. The Contractor
bears sole responsibility for the quality of work and compliance with the contract regardless of the Department’s
level of inspection.
The Department’s failure to identify defective Work or material shall not, in any way, prevent later rejection
when defective Work or material is discovered, or obligate the Department to grant acceptance under 109.11 or
109.12.
Inspection of Work may include inspection by representatives of other government agencies or railroad
corporations that pay a portion of the cost of the Work. This inspection will not make other government agencies
or railroad corporations a party to the Contract and will not interfere with the rights of the Contractor or Department.
105.11
Removal of Defective and Unauthorized Work. Work that does not conform to the requirements
of the Contract is defective.
Unless the Department formally accepts defective Work according to 105.03, immediately remove and replace
defective Work.
Unauthorized Work is Work done contrary to the instructions of the Engineer, beyond the plan lines, or any extra
work done without the Department’s permission. The Department will not pay for unauthorized Work. The
Engineer may order the Contractor to remove or replace unauthorized Work at no expense to the Department.
If the Contractor fails to comply with the Engineer’s orders under the provisions of this subsection, the DCA
may correct or remove and replace defective or unauthorized Work and deduct the costs from the Contract Price.
105.12
Load Restrictions. Comply with all legal load restrictions when hauling materials on public roads.
Operate equipment of a weight or so loaded as to not cause damage to structures, to the roadway, or to other
types of construction. Comply with subsection 501.05.B.6 for allowed loads on bridges.
Do not use off road vehicles on bases or pavements unless permitted by the DCA in writing.
Do not haul on concrete pavement, base, or structures before the expiration of the curing period.
Do not exceed the legal load limits in this section unless permitted by the Director in writing.
105.13
Haul Roads. Prior to hauling equipment or materials, provide written notification to the Engineer of
the specific roads or streets on the haul route. If the haul route includes roads and streets that are not under the
jurisdiction and control of the State and the DCA determines that State controlled roads are not available or practical
for a haul route, the Contractor may use local roads and streets that are not restricted by local authorities. If the
DCA determines that state controlled roads are available and practical for a haul route, revise the proposed haul
route provided in the original written notification and resubmit to the DCA.
If the Engineer determines that haul route roads were properly used during construction to haul equipment and
materials and that the haul route roads were damaged, then the Engineer may order the Contractor to perform
immediate and practical repairs to ensure reasonably normal traveling conditions. The Engineer will pay for repairs
according to applicable provisions of 109.04 and 109.05.
The Contractor shall not file a claim for delays or other impacts to the Work caused by disputes with the local
authorities regarding the use of local roads or streets as haul routes. The Contractor shall save the State harmless
for any closures or hauling restrictions outside the Project limits beyond the control of the Department.
105.14
Maintenance During Construction. Maintain the Work during construction and until Final
Inspector accepts the work under 109.12, except for portions of the Work accepted under 109.11. The Contractor
is responsible for damage done by its equipment.
Maintain the previous courses or subgrade during all construction operations, when placing a course upon other
courses of embankment, base, subgrade, concrete or asphalt pavement, or other similar items previously
constructed. This maintenance includes, but is not limited to draining, re-compacting, re-grading, or if destroyed,
the removal of Work previously accepted by the Department.
Maintain the Post Construction Storm Water Best Management Practice (BMP) features. Prevent sediment laden
surface water from coming in contact with the BMP features during construction.
Maintain the Work during construction and before acceptance of the Work under 109.12, except for portions of
the Work accepted under 109.11. The Department will not provide additional compensation for maintenance work.
105.15
Failure to Maintain Roadway or Structure. If the Contractor, at any time, fails to comply with the
provisions of 105.14, the Engineer will immediately notify the Contractor of such noncompliance. If the Contractor
fails to remedy unsatisfactory maintenance within 24 hours after receipt of such notice, the Engineer may
immediately proceed to maintain the Project, and deduct the entire cost of this maintenance from monies due or to
become due the Contractor on the Contract.
105.16
Borrow and Waste Areas. Prior to beginning borrow or wasting operations, obtain the Engineer’s
written approval of a detailed operation plan that addresses the following concerns:
A. Control of drainage water.
B. Cleanup, shaping, and restoration of disturbed areas.
C. Disposal of regulated materials.
D. Avoidance of regulated areas.
E. Excavation and filling of waste and borrow areas.
F.
Saving of topsoil.
G. Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control BMPs required for compliance under the Clean Water Act, Ohio
Water Pollution Control Act, (OWPCA) (ORC Chapter 6111) and the NPDES permit.
Perform all engineering necessary to ensure long term stability of all side slopes and foundations of all borrow
and waste areas. Furnish a certification by a Registered Engineer attesting to the stability of all borrow and waste
areas. All damage resulting from the instability of borrow and waste areas, the removal of borrow materials, the
placement of waste materials, or the hauling of material to and from these areas is the sole responsibility of the
Contractor. Repairs to approved haul roads will be made in accordance with 105.13.
Perform all engineering, including any field investigation, necessary to ensure long term stability of all side
slopes and foundations of all borrow and waste areas.
Ensure that all side slopes of all waste areas do not reduce horizontal sight distance as defined by the current
version of the Department’s Location and Design Manual.
Have the proposed borrow and waste areas reviewed by an environmental consultant that is pre-qualified by the
Department for ecological work. Have the environmental consultant certify that the proposed borrow and waste
operations will not impact the “Waters of the United States” or an isolated wetland. If consultant certification is
not provided, obtain the 404/401 permits necessary to perform the operations as proposed. Have the environmental
consultant certify that the work conforms to the requirements of the permit(s). Provide all documentation submitted
to obtain the appropriate permit(s) and a copy of the permit(s) to the Department’s Office of Environmental
Services.
If burning is permitted under the OAC-3745-19 and ORC 1503.18, submit a copy of the Ohio EPA permit and
the Ohio DNR permit to the Engineer and copies of all information used to obtain the permit.
Prior to the disposal of waste materials, submit to the Department an executed copy of the Contract or permission
statement from the property owner. The Contract or permission statement must indicate that the waste materials
are not the property of the Department. Further, it must expressly state that the Department is not a party to the
Contract or permission statement and that the Contractor and property owner will hold the Department harmless
from claims that may arise from their contract or permission statement.
Restoration of all borrow or waste areas includes cleanup, shaping, replacement of topsoil, and establishment of
vegetative cover by seeding and mulching according to 104.04 and Item 659. Ensure the restored area is well
drained unless approval is given by the Engineer to convert a pit area into a pond or lake, in which case confine
restoration measures to the disturbed areas above the anticipated normal water level.
For waste sites shown on the plan, the plan will indicate if the clearances have or have not been obtained for the
project right-of-way locations. No extension of time or additional compensation will be paid for any delays due to
not having the written permit(s) to waste in a floodplain.
The allowed use of Project Right-of-Way and other Department property for borrow and waste is detailed in
104.03 and 107.11.
Borrow and Waste Area shall adhere to 107.10.
The cost of work described herein is incidental to the Contract, unless included under another item of work.
105.17
Construction and Demolition Debris. OAC-3745-37, OAC-3745-400, and ORC Chapter 3714
regulates the use and disposal of construction and demolition debris. Notify the local Board of Health or the local
Ohio EPA office 7 days before placing Clean Hard Fill off the Right-of-Way. Submit copies of this notification to
the Engineer.
Legally dispose of debris containing wood, road metal, or plaster at a licensed construction and demolition debris
site.
Under the regulations cited above the disposal of brush, trees, stumps, tree trimmings, branches, weeds, leaves,
grass, shrubbery, yard trimmings, crop residue, and other plant matter is restricted. If allowed by the Contract
Documents, the Contractor may waste brush, trees, stumps, tree trimming, branches, weeds, leaves, grass,
shrubbery, yard trimmings, crop residue, and other plant matter within the Right-of-Way. Otherwise, submit a plan
and any required permits to legally dispose of these materials off the Right-of-Way to the Engineer. Provide all
documents submitted to obtain this permit to the Engineer.
If the Project contains garbage or solid and hazardous waste, the Contract Documents will detail the removal of
these items.
When wasting PCC, mix the PCC with at least 30 percent natural soil to construct an inner core in the waste area.
Cover this inner core with 3 feet (1.0 m) of natural soil on the top and 8 feet (2.4 m) on the side slopes. Place and
compact the material according to 203.06.D to prevent future settlement and sliding.
Clean Hard Fill consisting of reinforced or non-reinforced concrete, asphalt concrete, brick, block, tile or stone
that is free of all steel as per 703.16 shall be managed in one or more of the following ways:
1. Recycled into a usable construction material.
2. Disposed in licensed construction and demolition debris facility.
3. Used in legitimate fill operations on the site of generation according to 105.16.
4. Used in legitimate fill operations on a site other than the site of generation to bring a site up to grade.
A Beneficial Reuse Certification form needs to be properly executed by the Recipient prior to any material
leaving the project.
105.18
Acceptance. The Department will accept Work according to 109.12 or completed sections of the
Project according to 109.11.
105.19
Value Engineering Change Proposals. The Department will Partner with the Contractor by
considering the Contractor’s submission of a Value Engineering Change Proposal (VECP) which will reduce
construction costs and possibly time on projects that do not contain Design Build provisions or incentive provisions
based on time. The purpose of this provision is to encourage the use of the ingenuity and expertise of the Contractor
in arriving at alternate plans, specifications or other requirements of the contract. Savings in construction costs and
possibly time will be shared equally between the Contractor and the Department. The Contractor’s costs for
development, design and implementation of the VECP are not eligible for reimbursement. The VECP must not
impair any of the essential functions and characteristics of the project such as service life, reliability, economy of
operation, ease of maintenance, safety and necessary standardized features. The submission of the value
engineering change proposal shall conform to Supplement 1113. Acceptance of a VECP is at the sole discretion of
the Director.
The Department will not approve VECPs with any of the following characteristics:
A. Consist only of non-performing items of work contained in the plans.
B. Include plan errors identified by the Contractor as part of the cost reduction.
C. The VECP designer/consultant for the Contractor is also the designer of record for ODOT.
D. Changes to any special architectural or aesthetic treatments.
E. Requires concrete beams to be installed with less than 17' vertical clearance over a state highway.
F.
Changes the type or buildup of permanent pavement.
G. Compromises controlling design criteria or would require a design exception as discussed in Volume I, Section
100, of the Location and Design Manual.
H. Proposes a time savings for any project which has an Incentive / Disincentive clause, which was awarded based
on A+B Bidding or Lane Rental.
Engineering and drawing development and implementation costs for the VECP are not recoverable.
The Contractor shall have no claim against the Department for any costs or delays due to the Department’s review
or rejection of the VECP.
If the Department already is considering revisions to the contract which are subsequently proposed as a VECP,
the Department may reject the Contractor’s initial VECP or portions thereof and may proceed with such revisions
without any obligations to the Contractor.
106 CONTROL OF MATERIAL
106.01
Source of Supply and Quality Requirements. Notify the Engineer of the proposed sources of supply
before the delivery of materials. The Engineer may approve materials at the source of supply before delivery. If the
proposed sources of supply cannot produce the specified material, then furnish materials from alternate sources
without adjustment to the Contract Price or Completion Date.
106.02
Samples, Tests, and Cited Specifications. The Engineer will inspect and determine whether the
materials comply with the specified requirements before they are incorporated into the Work. The Department may
sample and test materials or require certifications. Unless specified, the Department will pay for and test materials
according to AASHTO, ASTM, or the methods on file in the office of the Engineer. A qualified representative of
the Department will take test samples according to Departmental procedures. Read any reference to other
specifications or testing methods to mean the version in effect at the pertinent Project Advertisement date. All
materials being used are subject to inspection, test, or rejection at any time before their incorporation into the Work.
The Department will furnish copies of the tests to the Contractor’s representative upon request. Furnish the required
samples and specified material certifications at no expense to the Department other than provided in 109.03.
Equip all transports and distributors hauling asphalt material with an approved submerged asphalt material
sampling device.
106.03
Small Quantities and Materials for Temporary Application. The Engineer may accept small
quantities and materials for temporary application that are not intended for permanent incorporation in the Work.
The Engineer may accept these small quantities and materials for temporary application in either of the following
cases:
A. Where similar materials from the same source have recently been approved.
B. Where the materials, in the judgment of the Engineer, will serve the intended purpose.
106.04
source.
Plant Sampling and Testing Plan. The Engineer may undertake the inspection of materials at the
In the event plant sampling and testing is undertaken, the Contractor and its material provider shall meet the
following conditions:
A. Cooperate and assist the Engineer with the inspection of materials. Provide full entry to the Engineer at all
times to such parts of the plant as may concern the manufacture or production of the materials being furnished.
Agree to all documentation and inspection requirements of the TE-24 plant sampling and testing plan.
B. If required by the Engineer, arrange for the inspector to use an approved building on site. The building should
be located near the plant and independent of any building used by the material producer.
C. Maintain and provide adequate safety measures at the plant at all times.
The Department reserves the right to retest all materials that have been tested and accepted at the source of supply
before their incorporation into the Work. After the approved materials have been delivered to the site, the
Department may reject all materials that when retested do not meet the requirements of the Contract Documents.
106.05
Storage of Materials. Properly store all materials to ensure the preservation of their quality and
fitness for the Work. The Engineer may re-inspect stored materials before their incorporation into the Work, even
though they were approved before storage. Locate stored materials to facilitate their prompt inspection. The
Contractor may use approved portions of the Project Right-of-Way for storage; however, if any additional space is
required, the Contractor must provide it at the Contractor’s expense. Do not use private property for storage
purposes without written permission from the owner or lessee. If requested by the Engineer, furnish copies of the
written permission. Restore all storage sites to their original condition at no expense to the Department. The
Contractor and property owner will hold the Department harmless from claims that may arise from their contract
or permission statement. This subsection does not apply to the stripping and storing of topsoil, or to other materials
salvaged from the Work.
Areas used to Store Materials shall conform to 107.10.
106.06
Handling Materials. Handle all materials in such manner as to preserve their quality and fitness for
the Work. Transport aggregates from the storage site to the project site in vehicles constructed to prevent loss or
segregation of materials after loading and measuring. Ensure that there are no inconsistencies in the quantities of
materials loaded for delivery and the quantities actually received at the place of operations.
106.07
Unacceptable Materials. Unacceptable materials are all materials not conforming to the
requirements of these Specifications at the time they are used. Immediately remove all unacceptable materials from
the project site unless otherwise instructed by the DCA. The DCA will determine if unacceptance materials may
remain conforming to Supplement 1102. The DCA must approve the use of previously identified unacceptable
materials that have been corrected or repaired. If the Contractor fails to comply immediately with any order of the
DCA made under the provisions of this subsection, the DCA will have authority to remove and replace defective
materials and to deduct the cost of removal and replacement from any monies due or to become due to the
Contractor.
106.08
Department-Furnished Material. Furnish all materials required to complete the Work, except when
otherwise provided in the Proposal.
The Department will deliver the Department-furnished materials to the Contractor at the points specified in the
Contract Documents.
Include the cost of handling and placing of all Department-furnished materials in the contract price for the
contract item for which they are used.
The Department will hold the Contractor responsible for all material upon delivery of the materials to the Project
site. The Department will make deductions from any monies due the Contractor to make good any shortages and
deficiencies, for any cause whatsoever, and for any damage that may occur after such delivery, and for any
demurrage charges.
106.09
Steel and Iron Products Made in the United States. Furnish steel and iron products that are made
in the United States according to the applicable provisions of Federal regulations stated in 23 CFR 635.410 and
State of Ohio laws, and ORC 153.011 and 5525.21. “United States” means the United States of America and
includes all territory, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
A. Federal Requirements. All steel or iron products incorporated permanently into the Work must be made of
steel or iron produced in the United States and all subsequent manufacturing must be performed in the United
States. Manufacturing is any process that modifies the chemical content; physical shape or size; or final finish of a
product. Manufacturing begins with the initial melting and mixing, and continues through the bending and coating
stages. If a domestic product is taken out of the United States for any process, it becomes a foreign source material.
B. State Requirements. All steel products used in the Work for load-bearing structural purposes must be made
from steel produced in the United States. State requirements do not apply to iron.
C. Applications.
1. When the Work is federally funded both the Federal and State requirements apply. This includes all
portions of the Work, including portions that are not federally funded.
2.
When the Work has no Federal funds, only the State requirements apply.
D. Exceptions. The Director may grant specific written permission to use foreign steel or iron products in bridge
construction and foreign iron products in any type of construction. The Director may grant such exceptions under
either of the following conditions:
1. The cost of products to be used does not exceed 0.1 percent of the total Contract cost, or $2,500, whichever
is greater. The cost is the value of the product as delivered to the project.
2. The specified products are not produced in the United States in sufficient quantity or otherwise are not
reasonably available to meet the requirements of the Contract Documents. The Director may require the Contractor
to obtain letters from three different suppliers documenting the unavailability of a product from a domestic source,
if the shortage is not previously established.
E. Proof of Domestic Origin. Furnish documentation to the Engineer showing the domestic origin of all steel
and iron products covered by this section, before they are incorporated into the Work. Products without a traceable
domestic origin will be treated as a non-domestic product.
106.10
Qualified Products List. The Department may use Qualified Product Lists (QPL) for approval of
manufactured materials. The Office of Materials Management (OMM) will maintain the QPL and the standard
procedure for the QPL process. Inclusion of a material onto the QPL will be determined by OMM with support
from other Department offices. To be kept on the QPL, manufacturers must recertify their material according to
the Department’s standard procedure by January 1 of each year. When a material requires QPL acceptance, only
provide materials listed on the QPL at the time of delivery of the material to the project. Provide the Engineer
documentation according to the Department’s standard procedure that, at the time of delivery, the material provided
is on the QPL.
106.11
Maritime Transportation. On federal-aid projects, ensure that project-specific materials or
equipment transported by ocean vessel are in compliance with 46 CFR 381 and the Cargo Preference Act. Transport
at least 50% of any equipment or materials on privately owned United States-flag commercial vessels, if available.
107 LEGAL RELATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITY TO PUBLIC
107.01
Laws to be Observed. Stay fully informed of all Federal and State laws, all local laws, ordinances,
and regulations, and all orders and decrees of authorities having any jurisdiction or authority that affect those
engaged or employed on the Work, or that affect the conduct of the Work. Observe and comply with all such laws,
ordinances, regulations, orders, and decrees. The Contractor shall protect and indemnify the State and its
representatives against any claim or liability arising from or based on the violation of any such law, ordinance,
regulation, order, or decree, whether by the Contractor or the Contractor’s employees, subcontractors, or agents.
The Contractor, under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act and related statutes, agrees that in the hiring of employees
for the performance of Work under this Contract or any subcontract hereunder, neither the Contractor, the
subcontractor, nor any person acting on behalf of such Contractor or subcontractor shall, by reasons of race,
religion, color, sex, national origin, disability or age, discriminate against any citizen of the United States in the
employment of labor or workers, who is qualified and available to perform the Work to which the employment
relates.
Neither the Contractor, the subcontractor, nor any person on their behalf shall, in any manner, discriminate
against or intimidate any employee hired for the performance of Work under this Contract on account of race,
religion, color, sex, national origin, disability or age.
Comply with OAC-4123:1-3, entitled “Specific Safety Requirements of the Industrial Commission of Ohio
Relating to Construction,” as amended, and with the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and Code
of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Chapter XVII, Part 1926 and as amended.
107.02
Permits, Licenses, and Taxes. Procure all permits and licenses; pay all charges, fees, and taxes; and
provide all notices necessary and incidental to the due and lawful prosecution of the Work.
107.03
Patented Devices, Materials, and Processes. Before employing any design, device, material, or
process covered by letters of patent or copyright, provide for its use by suitable legal agreement with the patentee
or owner. The Contractor and the Surety shall indemnify and save harmless the State, any affected third party, or
political subdivision from any and all claims for infringement of patented design, device, material, process, or any
trademark or copyright, and shall indemnify the State for any costs, expenses, and damages that it may be obliged
to pay by reason of any infringement, at any time during the prosecution or after the completion of the Work.
107.04
Restoration of Surfaces Opened by Permit. The Director may grant to the municipality in which
the Work is performed a reservation of rights to construct or reconstruct any utility service in the highway or street
or to grant permits for same, at any time.
Any individual, firm, or corporation wishing to make an opening in the highway must secure a permit. Allow
parties bearing such permits, and only those parties, to make openings in the highway. When ordered by the
Engineer, make in an acceptable manner all necessary repairs due to such openings. The necessary repairs will be
paid for as Extra Work, or as provided in the Contract Documents, and will be subject to the same conditions as
the original Work performed.
107.05
Federal-Aid Provisions. When the United States Government pays for all or any portion of the
Project’s cost, the Work is subject to the inspection of the appropriate Federal agency.
Such inspections will not make the Federal Government a party to this Contract. The inspections will in no way
interfere with the rights of either party to the Contract.
107.06
Sanitary Provisions. Provide and maintain sanitary accommodations in a neat condition for the use
of employees and Department representatives that comply with the requirements of the State and local Boards of
Health, or of other authorities having jurisdiction over the Project.
107.07
Public Convenience and Safety. At all times, ensure that the Work interferes as little as possible
with the traffic. Provide for the safety and convenience of the general public and the residents along the highway
and the protection of persons and property. Do not close any highways or streets unless specifically allowed by the
Contract.
107.08
Bridges Over Navigable Waters. Conduct all Work on navigable waters so that it does not interfere
with free navigation of the waterways and that it does not alter the existing navigable depths, except as allowed by
permit issued by the U.S. Coast Guard. Work within the flood plain of a navigable stream may require a permit
from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. If an U.S. Army Corps of Engineers permit is required, provide all
documentation submitted to obtain the permit(s) and a copy of the permit(s) to the Department.
107.09
Use of Explosives. When the use of explosives is necessary for the prosecution of the Work, exercise
the utmost care not to endanger life or property, including new Work. The Contractor is responsible for all damage
resulting from the use of explosives.
Obtain written permission to perform in-stream blasting from the Chief of the Division of Wildlife, Ohio DNR
according to ORC 1533.58. Provide the Engineer with all documentation submitted to obtain this permit and with
a copy of the permit.
The Contractor agrees, warrants, and certifies that it will observe State laws and local ordinances and regulations
relative to the use and storing of explosives kept on the Project site.
Perform all blasting operations according to Item 208.
107.10
Protection and Restoration of Property. The Contractor is responsible for the preservation of all
public and private property impacted by the Contractor’s operations.
The Contractor is responsible for all damage or injury to property, during the prosecution of the Work, resulting
from any act, omission, neglect, defective work or materials, or misconduct in the manner or method of executing
the Work. The Contractor will remain responsible for all damage and injury to property until the Project is accepted
under 109.12, except for portions of the Work accepted under 109.11.
If the Contractor causes any direct or indirect damage or injury to public or private property by any act, omission,
neglect, or misconduct in the execution or the non-execution of the Work, then it must restore, at its own expense,
the property to a condition similar or equal to that existing before the damage or injury.
If mail boxes, road, or street name signs and supports interfere with the Work, then remove and erect them in a
temporary location during construction in a manner satisfactory to and as directed by the Engineer. After
completion of the Work and before final acceptance of the Project, erect the mailboxes, road, or street name signs
and supports in their permanent locations according to the plans unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.
Consider the cost of this Work as incidental to the affected items.
Cooperate with the Engineer in protecting and preserving survey monuments that are affected by the Work as
required by ORC 5519.05. At the beginning of the Work, verify the position of all survey monuments in the area
to be improved, according to 623. If survey monuments not shown in the Contract Documents are unexpectedly
encountered, then protect, reference, and preserve them in the same manner as survey monuments that are shown
in the Contract Documents.
Do not create staging areas, store materials and equipment, or borrow or waste materials in areas labeled as an
environmental resources areas in the Contract Documents. All properties to be utilized by the Contractor outside
the project Work Limits must be cleared for all environmental resource impacts prior to the beginning of work.
Environmental resources include but may not be limited to:
1.
Cultural Resources
a.
Buildings, structures, objects, and sites eligible for or listed on the National Register of Historic Places
b. Historic or prehistoric human remains, cemeteries, and/or burial sites (pursuant with ORC 2909.05
and 2927.11
2.
Ecological Resources
a.
Wetlands
b.
Streams
c.
Wooded areas with trees to be removed in excess of 8 inches diameter at breast height
3.
Public Lands
a.
Lands meeting the criteria of 49 U.S.C. 303, 23 CFR 771.I35: 4(f).
b.
Lands meeting the criteria of 16 U.S.C. 4601-4, 36 CFR59.1: 6(f).
4.
FEMA Mapped 100 year Floodplains
5.
Hazardous Waste Areas
Except for locations utilized specifically for:
1. Parking of equipment between workdays for maintenance type projects:
2. Reuse of Clean Hard Fill as described in CA-EW-20 (ODOT Beneficial Reuse Form). Prior to transferring
Clean Hard Fill from the project, fully execute form CA-EW-20 and provide appropriate documentation to the
Engineer as described for each reuse option.
All areas proposed to be utilized by the Contractor outside the project construction limits and not described above
shall be reviewed by environmental Contractor(s) that are prequalified by the Department for each environmental
resource. Exception (1.) noted above only applies to projects with “maintenance” in the project description. Have
the consultant(s) certify that the proposed site to be utilized for the Contractor will not impact:
1.
Cultural Resources
2.
Ecological Resources
3.
Public Lands
4.
FEMA Mapped 100 year Floodplains
5.
Hazardous Waste Areas
Provide all documentation and the consultant certification to the Office of Environmental Services with a copy
to the Engineer.
Should the areas proposed for use by the Contractor outside the project right of way limits contain environmental
resources the Contractor is responsible to the Department for all environmental clearances and permits prior to the
beginning of work.
107.11
Contractor’s Use of the Project Right-of-Way or Other Department-Owned Property.
A. Disposal of Waste Material and Construction Debris and Excavation of Borrow on the Project Rightof-Way or on Other Department-Owned Property. Dispose of waste material according to 105.16 and dispose
of construction debris according to 105.17. In addition to the rights granted in 104.03, the Contractor’s use of the
Project Right-of-Way or other Department-owned property for the disposal of waste material and construction
debris and excavation of borrow material is restricted as follows:
1. If the Contract Documents identify locations for the disposal of waste material and construction debris or
excavation of borrow material within the Project Right-of-Way or on other Department-owned property, then only
perform these operations in these designated locations.
2. If the Contract Documents do not identify locations for the disposal of waste material and construction
debris or excavation of borrow material within the Project Right-of-Way or on other Department-owned property,
then do not Bid assuming that the Department will make such locations available.
If the Contractor’s request to use locations within the Project Right-of-Way or on other Department-owned
property is approved by the Engineer, then the Department may allow the Contractor to dispose of waste material
and construction debris or excavate borrow material for a fee of $0.50 per cubic yard.
B. Contractor’s Use of Portable Plants Within the Project Right-of-Way or on Other Department-Owned
Property. The Contractor’s use of portable plants within the Project Right-of-Way or on other Department-owned
property is limited as follows:
1. If the Contract Documents identify locations within the Project Right-of-Way or on other Departmentowned property to place a portable plant, then only place a portable plant in these designated locations subject to
the requirements of 107.11.C.
2. If the Contract Documents do not identify locations within the Project Right-of-Way or on other
Department-owned property to place a portable plant, then do not bid assuming that the Department will make such
locations available.
However, the Department will consider a Value Engineering Change Proposal (VECP) for the placement of a
portable plant within the Project Right-of-Way or on other Department-owned property and, if accepted, may allow
the use of a particular site on its property subject to the requirements of 107.11.C.
C. Placement of a Portable Plant within the Project Right-of-Way or on Other Department-Owned
Property. To place a portable plant within the Project Right-of-Way or on other Department-owned property,
comply with the following requirements:
1.
Local noise ordinances.
2. Obtain any necessary EPA permits for the operation of the plant. Provide the Department with a copy of
the information submitted to obtain the permit and a copy of the permit.
3. Provide the Engineer written certification that the plant will supply material only for the Project for which
it was approved. Do not use the plant to supply any other project or to sell materials commercially.
4. Submit a traffic control plan to the Engineer for approval that details the anticipated truck movements and
provides acceptable protection, warning, and guidance to motorists, pedestrians, and the workers.
D. Equipment Storage and Staging. The Contractor may use, fee-free, any portion of the Project within the
Project Right-of-Way for staging, equipment storage, or an office site with the approval of the Engineer, provided
such usages do not interfere with the Work and are not prohibited by the Contract Documents. Do not bid in
anticipation of using any properties within the Project Right-of-Way or Department-owned property outside the
Project Right-of-Way for equipment storage or staging.
E. Equipment Removal and Site Restoration. Remove all Contractor equipment and completely restore all
utilized sites used as required by 104.04 before Final Acceptance as provided in 109.12.
107.12
Responsibility for Damage Claims and Liability Insurance. The Contractor shall indemnify and
save harmless the State and all of its representatives, municipalities, counties, public utilities, any affected railroad
or railway company, and any fee owner from whom a temporary Right-of-Way was acquired for the Project from
all suits, actions, claims, damages, or costs of any character brought on account of any injuries or damages sustained
by any person or property on account of any negligent act or omission by the Contractor or its subcontractors or
agents in the prosecution or safeguarding of the Work.
The Contractor shall procure and maintain insurance for liability for damages imposed by law and assumed under
this Contract, of the kinds and in the amounts hereinafter provided from insurance companies authorized to do
business in the State by the Ohio Department of Insurance. The cost of insurance is incidental to all contract items.
Before the execution of the Contract by the Director, furnish to the Department a certificate or certificates of
insurance in the form satisfactory to the Department demonstrating compliance with this subsection. Provide an
insurance certificate or certificates that show that the Contractor’s liability and auto policies coverage are not
reduced, restricted, or canceled until 30 days written notice has been given to the Department by the insurer. Mail
all certificates and notices to: Administrator, Office of Contracts, Ohio Department of Transportation, 1980 West
Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio 43223. Upon request, the Contractor shall furnish the Department with a certified
copy of each policy, including the provisions establishing premiums.
The types and minimum limits of insurance are as follows:
A. Workers’ Compensation Insurance. Comply with all provisions of the laws and rules of the Ohio Bureau of
Workers’ Compensation covering all operations under Contract with the Department whether performed by it or
its subcontractors. In addition, if a portion of the Work is performed from a barge or ship or requires unloading
material from a barge or ship on a navigable waterway of the United States, it is the responsibility of the Contractor
to arrange coverage for that portion of the Work under the Longshore and Harborworkers’ Compensation Act [33
USC Section 901 et seq.] and the Jones Act [5 USC Section 751 et seq.] and provide proof of coverage to the
Department.
B. Commercial General Liability Insurance. The minimum limits for liability insurance are as follows:
General Aggregate Limit
Products - Completed Operations Aggregate Limit
Personal and Advertising Injury Limit
Each Occurrence Limit
$2,000,000
$2,000,000
$1,000,000
$1,000,000
Obtain the above minimum coverages through primary insurance or any combination of primary and umbrella
insurance. In addition, the Department will require the General Aggregate Limit on a per project basis.
Ensure that the Commercial General Liability Insurance policy names the State of Ohio, Department of
Transportation, its officers, agents, and employees as additional insureds with all rights to due notices in the manner
set out above. Obtain Explosion, Collapse, and Underground (XCU) coverage at the same limits as the commercial
general liability insurance policy. In addition, if blasting is to be performed, obtain XCU coverage providing a
minimum Aggregate Limit of $5,000,000 and Each Occurrence Limit of $1,000,000. Submit proof of insurance,
endorsements, and attachments to the Engineer prior to starting the Work.
C. Comprehensive Automobile Liability Insurance. The Comprehensive Automobile Liability policy shall
cover owned, non-owned, and hired vehicles with minimum limits as follows:
Bodily Injury and Property Damage Liability Limit, Each Occurrence
$1,000,000
Insurance coverage in the minimum amounts set forth neither relieves the Contractor from liability in excess of
such coverage, nor precludes the Department from taking such other actions as are available to it under any other
provisions of this Contract or otherwise in law.
Clearly set forth all exclusions and deductible clauses in all proof of insurance submitted to the Department. The
Contractor is responsible for the deductible limit of the policy and all exclusions consistent with the risks it assumes
under this Contract and as imposed by law.
If the Contractor provides evidence of insurance in the form of certificates of insurance, valid for a period of
time less than the period during which the Contractor is required by terms of this Contract, then the Department
will accept the certificates, but the Contractor is obligated to renew its insurance policies as necessary. Provide new
certificates of insurance from time to time, so that the Department is continuously in possession of evidence that
the Contractor’s insurance is according to the foregoing provisions.
If the Contractor fails or refuses to renew its insurance policies or the policies are canceled or terminated, or if
aggregate limits have been impaired by claims so that the amount available is under the minimum aggregate
required, or modified so that the insurance does not meet the requirements of 107.12.C, the Department may refuse
to make payment of any further monies due under this Contract or refuse to make payment of monies due or coming
due under other contracts between the Contractor and the Department. The Department in its sole discretion may
use monies retained pursuant to this subsection to renew or increase the Contractor’s insurance as necessary for the
periods and amounts referred to above. Alternatively, should the Contractor fail to comply with these requirements,
the Department may default the Contractor and call upon the Contractor’s Surety to remedy any deficiencies.
During any period when the required insurance is not in effect, the Engineer may suspend performance of the
Contract. If the Contract is so suspended, the Contractor is not entitled to additional compensation or an extension
of time on account thereof.
Nothing in the Contract Documents and insurance requirements is intended to create in the public or any member
thereof a third party beneficiary hereunder, nor is any term and condition or other provision of the Contract intended
to establish a standard of care owed to the public or any member thereof.
107.13
Reporting, Investigating, and Resolving Motorist Damage Claims. The Contractor and the
Department are required to report, investigate, and resolve motorist damage claims according to 107.10 and 107.12
and as follows.
When a motorist reports damage to its vehicle either verbally or in writing to the Contractor, the Contractor shall
within 3 days make and file a written report to the District’s construction office In the event that the Department
directly receives the motorist’s claim, the Department shall within 3 days send the claim report to the Contractor.
In the event the Contractor has not agreed to resolve the motorist claim, the District’s construction office shall
forward the report to the Department’s Court of Claims Coordinator who, as a co-insured party, may then contact
the Contractor’s insurance company and request that the insurance company investigate and resolve the claim. If
the Contractor or their insurance company does not resolve the claim in a timely manner, the Department may
advise the motorist of the option of pursuing the claim in the Ohio Court of Claims.
In the event of a lawsuit filed against the Department in the Ohio Court of Claims by the motorist, the Department,
as co-insured party, may request the Contractor’s insurance company to defend this lawsuit and hold the
Department harmless according to 107.12.
If the lawsuit claim amount is $2,500 or less and the Court of Claims Coordinator determines that the Contractor
is responsible for the claimed damages then the Department's Court of Claims Coordinator may, after notifying the
Contractor, determine that it would be in the best interest of the Department to settle the claim. Any settlement
amount including court costs may be assessed to the Contractor and deducted from the project. The Engineer will
notify the Contractor prior to executing the deduction. The Contractor or the Contractor's insurance company may
within 14 days appeal the assessment decision of the Court of Claims Coordinator to the District Construction
Engineer. The decision of the DCA will be made within 14 days and will be administratively final.
107.14
Opening Sections of Project to Traffic. The Engineer may order the Contractor to open a section of
the Work to the safe use of traffic at any time. The Department will make an adjustment according 108.06 and
109.05 to compensate the Contractor for the added costs and delay, if any, resulting from such an opening.
107.15
Contractor’s Responsibility for Work. Until the Final Inspector accepts the Work during the Final
Inspection according to 109.12.A, the Contractor is responsible for the Project and will take every precaution
against injury or damage to any part thereof by the action of the elements or from any other cause, whether arising
from the execution or from the non-execution of the Work. Rebuild, repair, restore, and make good all injuries or
damages to any portion of the Work occasioned by any of the above causes before final acceptance. Bear the
expense of the repairs except when damage to the Work was due to unforeseeable causes beyond the control of and
without the fault or negligence of the Contractor. Unforeseeable causes include but are not restricted to; (a)
earthquake, floods, tornados, high winds, lightning or other catastrophes proclaimed a disaster or emergency, (b)
slides, (c) civil disturbances, or (d) governmental acts.
In the event that the Engineer determines that damage to completed permanent items of Work results from traffic
using a substantially completed section of Roadway, the Department may compensate the Contractor for repair of
the damage as authorized by Change Order. To receive compensation for the damage the Contractor must meet the
following requirements.
A. Notify the Engineer of each occurrence of damage in writing within 10 Calendar Days.
B. Contact the local law enforcement agency to determine if the accident was investigated and a report filed. If
an accident report was filed, obtain the report and notify the motorist, and copy their insurance company, via
registered mail that the motorist is responsible for the cost of damage repairs. If the motorist does not respond
within 30 days, make a second attempt to contact the motorist and copy the insurance company via registered mail.
C. If no response is received from the motorist or insurance company within 30 days, send a letter to the Engineer
within eighteen months of the event and include documentation of good faith effort to seek recovery from
responsible parties.
D. The Department will make an adjustment according to 108.06 and 109.05 to compensate the Contractor for
the added costs and delays, if any, resulting from repairing damaged Work.
If there is no accident report on file and no means of identifying the guilty motorist, the Contractor will likewise
be compensated to repair the damaged Work.
In case of suspension of Work by the Contractor or under the provisions of 105.01, the Contractor is responsible
for the Project and shall take necessary precautions to prevent damage to the Project; provide for normal drainage;
and erect any necessary temporary structures, signs, or other facilities at its expense. During such period of
suspension of Work, properly and continuously maintain in an acceptable growing condition all living material in
newly established plantings, seedings, and soddings furnished under the Contract, and take adequate precautions
to protect new tree growth and other important vegetative growth against injury.
The Engineer may direct the Contractor to remove graffiti any time during the Work. The Department will make
an adjustment according to 108.06 and 109.05 to compensate the Contractor for the added costs and delays, if any,
resulting from all ordered graffiti removal.
107.16
Contractor’s Responsibility for Utility Property and Services. At points where the Contractor’s
operations are adjacent to properties of railway, cable, telephone, and power companies, or are adjacent to other
property, and any damage to their property may result in considerable expense, loss, or inconvenience, do not
commence with the operation until all arrangements necessary for the protection of the property have been made.
Cooperate with the owners of any underground or overhead utility lines in their removal and rearrangement
operations to ensure these operations progress in a reasonable manner, that duplication of rearrangement Work may
be reduced to a minimum, and that services rendered by those parties will not be unnecessarily interrupted.
In the event interruption to underground or overhead utility services results from an accidental breakage or from
being exposed or unsupported, immediately alert the occupants of nearby premises as to any emergency that the
accidental breakage may create at or near such premises. Then notify the Engineer and the owner or operator of the
utility facility of the disruption and cooperate with the said utility owner or operator in the restoration of service.
If water service is interrupted, perform the repair work continuously until the service is restored unless the repair
work is performed by the local governmental authority. Do not begin Work around fire hydrants until the local fire
authority approves provisions for continued service.
107.17
Furnishing Right-of-Way. The Department is responsible for securing all necessary Right-of-Way
in advance of construction. The Bid Documents will indicate any exceptions. The Department will notify all
prospective Bidders in writing before the date scheduled for receipt of Bids regarding the specific dates certain
parcels will be made available to the Contractor.
107.18
No Waiver of Legal Rights. The following Department actions do not waive the Department’s rights
or powers under the Contract, or any right to damages herein provided:
A. Inspection by the Engineer or by any of Engineer’s duly authorized representatives.
B. Any order, measurements, or certificate by the Director, or Department representatives.
C. Any order by the Director or Department representatives for the payments of money or the withholding of
money.
D. Acceptance of any Work.
E. Any extension of time.
F. Any possession taken by the State or its duly authorized representatives.
The Department will not consider any waiver of a breach of this Contract to be a waiver of any other subsequent
breach.
107.19
Environmental Protection. Comply with all Federal, State, and local laws and regulations
controlling pollution of the environment. Avoid polluting streams, lakes, ponds, and reservoirs with fuels, oils,
bitumens, chemicals, sediments, or other harmful materials, and avoid polluting the atmosphere with particulate
and gaseous matter.
By execution of this contract, the Contractor, will be deemed to have stipulated as follows:
A. That any facility that is or will be utilized in the performance of this contract, unless such contract is exempt
under the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1857 et seq., as amended by Pub.L. 91-604), and under the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., as amended by Pub.L. 92-500), Executive Order
11738, and regulations in implementation thereof (40 CFR 15) is not listed, on the date of contract award, on the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) List of Violating Facilities pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20.
B. That the firm agrees to comply and remain in compliance with all the requirements of Section 114 of the Clean
Air Act and Section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and all regulations and guidelines listed
thereunder.
C. That the firm shall promptly notify the Department of the receipt of any communication from the Director,
Office of Federal Activities, EPA, indicating that a facility that is or will be utilized for the contract is under
consideration to be listed on the EPA List of Violating Facilities.
D. That the firm agrees to include or cause to be included the requirements of paragraph 1 through 4 of this
Section in every nonexempt subcontract, and further agrees to take such action as the government may direct as a
means of enforcing such requirements.
Fording of streams is prohibited. Causeways for stream and river crossings or for Work below a bridge are
permitted provided:
A. The causeway complies with the requirements of the 404 Permit the Department obtained for the Project.
B. The Contractor obtains a 404 Permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers if the Department has not
obtained such a permit. Obtain the 404 Permit prior to beginning construction of the causeway. The Department
does not guarantee that the Contractor will be able to obtain a 404 Permit.
Comply with all current provisions of the Ohio Water Pollution Control Act (OWPCA), (ORC Chapter 6111).
The Department will obtain a storm water permit under the OWPCA provisions when the plan work acreage
requires a permit. Apply for a permit to cover operations outside the Project limits shown on the plans as required
by the OWPCA provisions. When the Department has not applied for a permit on the Project and a permit is
required under the provisions of the OWPCA because of the total area of the Contractor’s work, apply for, obtain,
and comply with the required permit for both the Work within Project limits and the Contractor’s work.
The Department has obtained the required permits from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Ohio EPA for
Work in the “Waters of the United States” and isolated wetlands under ORC Chapter 6111. Comply with the
requirements of these permits.
When equipment is working next to a stream, lake, pond, or reservoir, appropriate spill response equipment is
required. Do not stockpile fine material next to a stream, lake, pond, or reservoir.
Take precautions to avoid demolition debris and discharges associated with the excavation and hauling of
material from entering the stream. Remove any material that does fall into the stream as soon as possible.
When excavating in or adjacent to streams, separate such areas from the main stream by a dike or barrier to keep
sediment from entering the stream. Take care during the construction and removal of such barriers to minimize
sediment entering the stream.
Contain, collect, characterize and legally dispose of all liquid waste and sludge generated during the work. Do
not mix wastes with storm water. Do not discharge any liquid waste without the appropriate regulatory permits.
Manage liquid waste and sludge in accordance with ORC Chapter 6111 and all other laws, regulations, permits and
local ordinances relating to this waste. Liquid waste management is incidental to the Work unless otherwise
specified in the contract.
Control the fugitive dust generated by the Work according to OAC-3745-17-07(B), OAC-3745-17-08, OAC3745-15-07, and OAC-3745-17-03 and local ordinances and regulations. Prior to the initiation of abrasive coating
removal, pavement cutting or any other construction operation that generates dust, demonstrate to the Engineer that
construction related dust will be controlled with appropriate Reasonable Available Control Measures (RACM) as
described in OEPA Engineering Guide #57.
In addition, use dust control measures when fugitive dust creates unsafe conditions as determined by the
Engineer. Perform this work without additional compensation except for Item 616.
Perform open burning according to 105.16.
107.20
Civil Rights. Comply with Federal, State, and local laws, rules, and regulations that prohibit unlawful
employment practices including that of discrimination because of race, religion, color, sex, national origin,
disability or age and that define actions required for Affirmative Action and Disadvantaged Business Enterprise
(DBE) programs.
107.21
Prompt Payment. In accordance with ORC 4113.61, make payment to each subcontractor and
supplier within 10 Calendar Days after receipt of payment from the Department for Work performed or materials
delivered or incorporated into the Project, provided that the pay estimate prepared by the Engineer includes Work
performed or materials delivered or incorporated into the public improvement by the subcontractor or supplier.
Contractors are prohibited from holding retainage from bonded subcontractors. For unbonded subcontractors,
promptly release any retainage held, as set forth in any subcontractor or supplier agreement, within 10 days of
department's acceptance of the work involving the subcontractor or supplier from whom retainage has been held.
For the sole purpose of establishing a time frame for the release of the subcontractor or supplier retainage,
acceptance of subcontractor or supplier work will occur when the subcontractor or supplier has complied with the
requirements of 109.12.A, and B. No subcontract provision shall permit the Contractor to delay subcontractor’s
retainage payments until the Project’s final payment.
Also require that this contractual obligation be placed in all subcontractor and supplier contracts that it enters
into and further require that all subcontractor and suppliers place the same payment obligation in each of their
lower tier contracts. If the Contractor, subcontractors, or supplier subject to this provision fail to comply with the
10 Calendar Day requirement, the offending party shall pay, in addition to the payment due, interest in the amount
of 18 percent per annum of the payment due, beginning on the eleventh Calendar Day following the receipt of
payment from the Department and ending on the date of full payment of the payment due plus interest.
Repeated failures to pay subcontractors and suppliers timely pursuant to this subsection will result in a finding
by the Department that the Contractor is in breach of Contract and subject to all legal consequences that such a
finding entails. Further, repeated failures to pay timely pursuant to this subsection will result in a lower evaluation
score for the Contractor and those subcontractors who are subject to evaluation by the Department.
107.22
Unmanned Aircraft Systems. If the project requires or anticipates the use of Unmanned Aircraft
Systems within ODOT Right of Way, the Contractor will follow proper risk assessment and federal regulations in
accordance with Supplement 1132.
108 PROSECUTION AND PROGRESS
108.01
Subletting of the Contract. Perform Work amounting to not less than 50 percent of the Contract
Price with its own organization, unless otherwise approved by the Director. The phrase “its own organization”
includes only workers employed and paid directly, inclusive of employees who are employed by a lease agreement
acceptable to the Department, and equipment owned or rented with or without operators by the Contractor. The
phrase does not include employees or equipment of a subcontractor, assignee, or agent of the Contractor. Obtain
the Director’s written consent to subcontract, sublet, sell, transfer, assign, or otherwise relinquish rights, title, or
interest in the Work. Provide the Director with a copy of all Disadvantaged Business Enterprise subcontracts.
The Contractor’s percentage of the total Contract Price includes the cost of materials and manufactured products
purchased by the Contractor, but not the cost of materials and manufactured products purchased by subcontractors.
The Director will calculate the Contractor’s percentage based on the quantities shown in the Proposal and the
unit prices of the contract items to be performed by the Contractor’s organization. If the Contractor performs only
a portion of a contract item, then the Director will determine the proportional value administratively on the same
basis. The Director will follow this procedure even when the part not subcontracted consists only of the
procurement of materials. However, if a firm both sells the materials to the Contractor and performs the Work of
incorporating the materials into the Project, then the Department will consider these two phases in combination and
as a single subcontract. If an affiliate of the firm either sells the materials or performs the Work, the Department
may refuse approval. An affiliate is one who has some common ownership or other close relation to said firm.
Use actual subcontract prices for calculating compliance with any Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE)
percentage subcontracting obligations. If only a part of a contract item is sublet, then determine its proportional
value administratively on the same basis. The Director will follow this procedure even when the part not sublet
consists only of procuring materials. However, if a firm both sells the materials to the Contractor and performs the
work of incorporating the materials into the Project, then the Department will consider these two phases in
combination and as a single subcontract. If an affiliate of the firm either sells the materials or performs the Work,
the Department may refuse approval.
108.02
Partnering. It is the intent of the Department to partner every project. The purpose of Partnering is
to develop a proactive effort and spirit of trust, respect, and cooperation among all stakeholders in a project.
Partnering does not affect the terms and conditions of the Contract. The Partnering process in this section is Selffacilitated Partnering performed by the Project personnel. Costs associated with the Self-facilitated Partnering
process are incidental to the Contract.
A. Preconstruction Meeting. Meet with the Engineer for a Preconstruction Meeting before beginning the Work.
At or before the meeting, submit the initial progress schedule to the DCA. Prepare the schedule according to 108.03.
Furnish a list of proposed subcontractors and material suppliers at or before the Preconstruction Meeting. If
the Contractor fails to provide the required submissions at or before the Preconstruction Meeting, the Engineer may
order the meeting suspended until they are furnished. Do not begin the Work until the meeting is reconvened and
concluded or the Engineer gives specific written permission to proceed.
B. Initial Partnering Session. In conjunction with the Engineer, determine whether the Initial Partnering
Session will be conducted as part of the Preconstruction Meeting or as a separate meeting. Partnering shall have its
own agenda with specific time set aside to develop the necessary partnering protocols. Develop the Partnering
agenda with the Engineer.
Identify and invite all stakeholders necessary to make the Project successful including utility companies, other
transportation entities (i.e., railroads), community leaders, all Project participants including subcontractors.
During the Initial Partnering Session, consider developing Partnering teams consisting of Department and
Contractor senior personnel and Project personnel. Consider the following items for discussion:
1. Identifying and developing a consensus on project goals consistent with the contractual obligations,
including specific goals concerning safety, quality, schedule, and budget.
2.
Deciding how the teams will measure progress on Project goals.
3. Identifying any potential risks to the Project’s success, mitigation strategies and an implementation plan
for the appropriate strategies.
4. Defining key issues, project concerns, joint expectations, roles of key partnership leaders, lines of decision
making authority, and share relevant information to help determine the scope of the Partnering efforts.
5. Identifying any opportunities for project enhancement, enhancement strategies and a specific action plan
for implementing strategies.
6.
Developing a communication protocol to enhance communication on the Project
7. Developing an issue identification and resolution process that identifies and attempts to resolve issues at
the level closest to the work. The issue identification and resolution process will develop all the necessary steps for
issue elevation including Notice and Mitigation defined in 108.02.F and the Dispute Resolution and Administrative
Claims Process defined in 108.02.G.
C. Progress Meetings. Hold monthly Progress Meetings unless the frequency is otherwise determined at the
Preconstruction Meeting. Coordinate with the Engineer to determine agenda topics prior to each meeting. The
purpose of Progress Meetings is to keep open communication between the Contractor and the Engineer. The senior
personnel team is encouraged to participate in all Progress Meetings. Include Partnering as an agenda item at the
Progress Meetings.
D. Post-milestone Meeting. In conjunction with the Engineer, determine whether the Post-milestone Meeting
will be conducted as part of the Progress Meeting or as a separate meeting for multi-year, multi-phase, or projects
with critical items of work or milestone dates. Consider discussing and updating items from the Initial Partnering
Session in addition to items specific to the Project. All stakeholders should be invited to attend.
E. Partnering Monitoring. Monitor the progress of the Partnering relationship based on the goals decided during
the Initial Partnering Session. On-line surveys of Project participants may be used to monitor progress on Project
goals and help identify issues as they arise. The on-line surveys are consistent with the Department’s Partnering
Project Rating Form which is located on the Division of Construction Management’s Partnering website:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/ConstructionMgt/Pages/Partnering.aspx
F. Mitigation and Notice. Mitigation of any issue, whether caused by the Department, Contractor, third-party or
an intervening event, is a shared contract and legal requirement. Mitigation efforts include, but are not limited to,
re-sequencing work activities, acceleration, and substitution of materials. The Contractor and Engineer must
explore and discuss potential mitigation efforts in a timely manner.
1. Contractor Initial Oral Notification. Provide immediate oral notification to the Engineer upon discovering
a circumstance that may require a revision to the Contract Documents or may result in a dispute. Upon notification,
the Engineer will attempt to resolve the identified issue as quickly as possible.
2. Contractor Written Early Notice. If the Engineer has not resolved the identified issue within two (2)
working days after receipt of oral notification, provide written notice to the Engineer of any circumstance that may
require a revision to the Contract Documents or may result in a dispute. This early notice must be given by the end
of the second working day following the occurrence of the circumstance.
The Engineer and Contractor shall maintain records of labor, equipment, and materials used on the disputed
work or made necessary by the circumstance. Such records will begin when early notice is received by the Engineer.
Tracking such information is not an acknowledgement that the Department accepts responsibility for payment for
this disputed work.
If an issue is not resolved through the initial mitigation efforts, either abandon or escalate to the Dispute and
Administrative Claims Process defined in 108.02.G.
G. Dispute Resolution and Administrative Claims Process. Whenever an issue is elevated to a dispute, the
parties shall exhaust the Department’s Dispute Resolution and Administrative Claim process set forth below as a
condition precedent to filing an action in the Ohio Court of Claims. The following procedures do not otherwise
compromise the Contractor’s right to seek relief in any Ohio Court with legal jurisdiction.
All parties to the dispute must adhere to the Dispute Resolution and Administrative Claim process. Do not
contact Department personnel who are to be involved in a Step 2 or Step 3 review until a decision has been issued
by the previous tier. Department personnel involved in Step 2 or Step 3 reviews will not consider a dispute until
the previous tier has properly reviewed the dispute and issued a decision.
Failure to meet any of the timeframes outlined below or to request an extension will terminate further review
of the dispute and serve as a waiver of the Contractor’s right to file a claim.
Disputes and claims by subcontractors and suppliers may be pursued by the Contractor on behalf of
subcontractors or suppliers. Disputes and claims by subcontractors and suppliers against the Department but not
supported by the Contractor will not be reviewed by the Department. Disputes and claims of subcontractors and
suppliers against the Contractor will not be reviewed by the Department.
Continue with all Work during the Dispute Resolution and Administrative Claims process, including that
which is in dispute. The Department will continue to pay for Work.
The Department will not make the adjustments allowed by 104.02.B, 104.02.C, and 104.02.D if the Contractor
did not give notice as specified in 108.02.F.1 and 108.02.F.2. This provision does not apply to adjustments provided
in Table 104.02-2.
1. Step 1 (On-Site Determination). The Engineer will meet with the Contractor’s superintendent within two
(2) working days of receipt of the Contractor Written Early Notice set forth in 108.02.F.2. They will jointly review
all pertinent information and contract provisions and negotiate in an effort to reach a resolution. The Engineer will
issue a written Step 1 decision within fourteen (14) calendar days of the meeting. If the dispute is not resolved,
either abandon or escalate the dispute to Step 2.
2. Step 2 (District Dispute Resolution Committee). Each District will establish a District Dispute Resolution
Committee (DDRC) which will be responsible for hearing and deciding disputes at the Step 2 level. The DDRC
will consist of the District Deputy Director, District Construction Administrator and the Planning and Engineering
Administrator or designees (other than the project personnel involved in the dispute).
Within seven (7) calendar days of receipt of the Step 1 decision, either abandon the dispute or submit a written
request for a Step 2 meeting to the District Construction Administrator (DCA). The DCA will assign the dispute a
dispute number. Within fourteen (14) calendar days of submitting the request for a Step 2 meeting, submit three
(3) complete copies of the Dispute Documentation to the DCA as follows:
a) Identify the Dispute on a cover page by county, project number, Contractor name, subcontractor or
supplier if involved in the dispute, and the dispute number.
b) Clearly identify each item for which additional compensation and/or time is requested.
c) Provide a detailed narrative of the disputed work or project circumstance at issue. Include the dates of the
disputed work and the date of early notice.
d) Reference the applicable provisions of the plans, specifications, proposal, or other contract documents in
dispute. Include copies of the cited provisions in the Dispute Documentation.
e)
Include the dollar amount of additional compensation and length of contract time extension requested.
f)
Include supporting documents for the requested compensation stated above.
g) Provide a detailed schedule analysis for any dispute involving additional contract time, actual or
constructive acceleration, or delay damages. At a minimum, this schedule analysis must include the Schedule
Update immediately preceding the occurrence of the circumstance alleged to have caused delay and must comply
with accepted industry practices. Failure to submit the required schedule analysis will result in the denial of that
portion of the Contractor’s request.
h) Include copies of relevant correspondence and other pertinent documents.
Within fourteen (14) calendar days of receipt of the Contractor’s Dispute Documentation, the Engineer will
provide the Contractor with all documentation it intends to rely on at the DDRC meeting to rebut the Contractor’s
dispute.
After allowing at least fourteen (14) calendar days for the Contractor to review the Engineer’s Dispute
Documentation, the DDRC will conduct the Step 2 meeting with Contractor personnel who are authorized to
resolve the dispute. The DDRC will issue a written Step 2 decision to the Contractor and the Dispute Resolution
Coordinator within fourteen (14) calendar days of the meeting. If the dispute is not resolved, either abandon or
escalate the dispute to Step 3.
3. Step 3 (Director’s Claims Board Hearing or Alternative Dispute Resolution). Submit a written Notice of
Intent to File a Claim to the Dispute Resolution Coordinator in the Division of Construction Management within
fourteen (14) calendar days of receipt of the Step 2 decision. The dispute becomes a claim when the Dispute
Resolution Coordinator receives the Notice of Intent to File a Claim. Include the Contractor’s request for either: 1)
a Director’s Claim Board hearing on the claim or 2) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).
a) Director’s Claims Board Hearing. The Director’s Claims Board (the “Board”) will consist of the Deputy
Director of the Division of Construction Management, Deputy Director of Engineering and a District Construction
Administrator from a district not involved in the claim, or their designees. A representative from the Division of
Chief Legal Counsel and Equal Opportunity may be present to observe the hearing. The Director or designee will
be responsible for deciding claims.
(1) Submit six (6) complete copies of the Claim Documentation to the Dispute Resolution
Coordinator within thirty (30) calendar days of receipt of the Notice of Intent to File a Claim. This timeframe may
be extended with approval of the Dispute Resolution Coordinator.
In addition to the documentation submitted at Step 2:
(a) Enhance the narrative to include sufficient description and information to enable understanding
by a third party who has no knowledge of the dispute or familiarity with the project.
(b) Certify the claim in writing and under oath using the following certification:
“I, (Name and Title of an Officer of the Contractor) certify that this claim is made in good faith, that all
supporting data is accurate and complete to the best of my knowledge and belief, and that the claim amount
accurately reflects the contract amendment for which (Contractor Company name) believes the Department is
liable.”
Sign and date this claim certification and have the signature notarized pursuant to the laws of the State
of Ohio. The date the Dispute Resolution Coordinator receives the certified claim documentation is the date of the
Department’s Receipt of the Certified Claim for the purpose of the calculation of interest as defined in 108.02.G.4.
The Dispute Resolution Coordinator will forward one (1) complete copy of this documentation to the District.
(2) Within thirty (30) calendar days of the District’s receipt of the Contractor’s Claim
Documentation, the District will submit six (6) complete copies of its Claim Documentation to the Dispute
Resolution Coordinator. This timeframe may be extended with approval from the Dispute Resolution Coordinator.
At a minimum, the District’s Claim Documentation should include:
(a) An overview of the project
(b) A narrative of the disputed work or project circumstance at issue with sufficient description and
information to enable understanding by a third-party who has no knowledge of the dispute or
familiarity with the project
(c) The dates of the disputed work and the date of early notice
(d) References to the applicable provisions of the plans, specifications, proposal, or other contract
documents. Copies of the cited provisions shall be included in the claim document
(e) Response to each argument set forth by the Contractor
(f) Any counterclaims, accompanied by supporting documentation, the District wishes to assert
(g) The status of the negotiations of the Claim that have occurred to-date, including the amount of
any offers and counteroffers made by the parties
(h) Copies of relevant correspondence and other pertinent documents
(3) Within fourteen (14) calendar days of receipt of the District’s Claim Documentation, the Dispute
Resolution Coordinator will forward one (1) complete copy to the Contractor and will schedule a hearing on the
dispute.
Once a hearing date has been established, both the Contractor and District shall provide the Dispute
Resolution Coordinator with a list of names of persons who may be presenting information at the hearing. Unless
otherwise permitted by the Board, the exchange of documentation and all disclosures specified in this step of the
process shall be completed at least fourteen (14) calendar days prior to the hearing.
Upon request or at the Board’s discretion, the Board may delay the hearing to allow more time for
preparation and review, or to fulfill requests for more documentation.
The Board will hear the entire claim on behalf of the Director. The Board may have its own technical
advisors at the hearing for consultation and assistance in reviewing the claim. The Contractor and District will each
be allowed adequate time to present their respective positions before the Board. The Contractor and District will
also each be allowed adequate time for rebuttal, limited to the scope of the opposing party’s presentation. The
Board may suspend any portion of a presentation or rebuttal it deems to be argumentative, repetitive, or irrelevant
to the claim. The Contractor’s position will be presented by one or more of the Contractor’s employees who are
thoroughly knowledgeable of the claim. The Contractor may have legal counsel present during the hearing to
observe or for private consultation. Similarly, the District’s position will be presented by one or more District
representatives who are thoroughly knowledgeable of the claim.
The Board may, on its own initiative, request information in addition to that submitted for the hearing.
If the Contractor fails to reasonably comply with such request, the Board may render its decision without such
information.
Upon completion of the hearing and following consideration of any additional information submitted
upon request, the Board will submit a written recommendation on the disposition of the claim to the Director. The
Director or designee will ratify, modify, or reject the recommendation of the Board and render a decision within
sixty (60) calendar days of the hearing. Within thirty (30) calendar days of receipt of the Board’s decision, either
accept or reject the decision in writing. In the event the Contractor fails to do so, the Board may revoke any offers
of settlement contained in the decision.
The decision of the Director is the final step of the Department’s Dispute Resolution Process and may
not be appealed within the Department. The Director is not bound by any offers of settlement or findings of
entitlement made during Steps 1 and 2 of the Dispute Resolution Process.
b) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). In lieu of the Director’s Claim Board hearing, the parties may opt
to proceed through an Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Process. The parties will then choose either arbitration
or mediation in the manner in which those methods are practiced by the Department and allowed by law.
The Dispute Resolution Coordinator will coordinate the agreement of the parties to the ADR method, and
the selection of a neutral third-party or technical expert. The fees of the neutral third-party or technical expert will
be shared equally between the Department and the Contractor. The Dispute Resolution Coordinator will obtain a
written agreement, signed by both parties, that establishes the ADR process. The neutral third-party or technical
expert will have complete control of the claim upon execution of the ADR agreement.
4. Interest on Claims. The Department will pay interest in accordance with ORC Section 5703.47 on any
amount ultimately found due on a claim which is not paid within 30 days of the Dispute Resolution Coordinator's
Receipt of the Certified Claim.
H. Post Construction Meeting. The District will conduct a Post Construction Meeting with the Contractor prior
to the project finalization. The District will invite the design agency and any other stakeholders deem necessary
including utility companies, other transportation entities (i.e. railroads), community leaders, all Project participants
including subcontractors performing critical work to attend this meeting.
Consider the following items for discussion:
1,
Project Safety.
2.
How were the goals evaluated or measured?
3.
How were foremen/ workers involved in the Partnering process?
4.
How were the subcontractors involved in the Partnering process?
5.
How were relationships with key stakeholders managed?
6.
Teambuilding activities or unique motivational activities.
I. Partnering Close-Out Survey. Complete the final Partnering evaluation to get participants’ feedback and
improve the Partnering process. The Partnering Close-Out Survey is located on the Division of Construction
Management’s Partnering website:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/ConstructionMgt/Pages/Partnering.aspx
108.03
Prosecution and Progress. Start the Work according to 108.02. Notify the Engineer at least 24 hours
before starting the Work. If the prosecution of the Work is suspended, notify the Engineer a minimum of 24 hours
in advance of resuming operations.
Pursue the Work diligently and continuously as to complete the Project by the Completion Date.
A. Progress Schedule.
1. General. Furnish a bar chart progress schedule to the District Construction Engineer for review at or before
the Preconstruction Meeting. The Engineer will review the schedule and within 14 calendar days of receipt, will
either accept the schedule or provide the Contractor with comments. Acceptance of the schedule does not revise
the Contract Documents. Provide clarification or any needed additional information within 10 days of a written
request by the Engineer. The Department will withhold Estimates until the Engineer accepts the schedule. The
Engineer will not measure or pay for the preparation of the schedule and schedule updates directly, but the cost of
preparing and updating the schedule is incidental to all Contract Items.
a.
Include the following Administrative Identifier Information:
(1) Project Number
(2) County
(3) Route Number
(4) FHWA Number
(5) PID Number
(6) Contract Number
(7) Date of Contract
(8) Completion Date
(9) Contractor's Name
(10) Contractor's Dated Signature
(11) ODOT's Dated Acceptance Signature
Provide a working day schedule that shows the various activities of Work in sufficient detail to
demonstrate a reasonable and workable plan to complete the Project by the Completion Date. Show the order and
the sequence for accomplishing the Work. Describe all activities in sufficient detail so that the Engineer can readily
identify the Work and measure the progress of each activity. The bar chart schedule must reflect the scope of work,
required phasing, maintenance of traffic requirements, interim completion dates, the Completion Date, and other
project milestones established in the Contract Documents. Include activities for submittals, working and shop
drawing preparation, submittal review time for the Department, material procurement and fabrication, and the
delivery of materials, plant, and equipment, and other similar activities. The schedule must be detailed on letter or
legal sized paper.
b.
Activity requirements are discussed in further detail as follows:
(1) Activity Description. Assign each activity an unambiguous descriptive word or phrase. For
example, use "Excavate Area A," not "Start Excavation."
(2) Activity Original Duration. Indicate a planned duration in calendar days for each activity. Do not
exceed a duration of 20 working days for any activity unless approved by the Engineer. Do not represent the
maintenance of traffic, erosion control, and other similar items as single activities extending to the Completion
Date. Break these Contract Items into component activities in order to meet the duration requirements of this
paragraph.
2. Early Completion Schedule. An Early Completion Schedule is defined as a baseline schedule or update
schedule which anticipates completion of all work prior to the Completion Date established by the contract
documents and the Contractor submits as an Early Completion Schedule. In the event that an Early Completion
Schedule is accepted, the Engineer will initiate a change order amending the Completion Date to the finish date
shown on the accepted Early Completion Schedule. The amended Completion Date will be effective upon
execution of that change order and all contract provisions concerning the Completion Date such as incentives,
disincentives, excusable delays, compensable delays, and liquidated damages will be measured against the
amended Completion Date. The Contractor may elect not to execute the change order amending the Completion
Date; however, in so doing, the Contractor waives its rights to delay damages in meeting the projected early
Completion Date.
3. Updated Progress Schedule. Submit an updated progress schedule when ordered by the Engineer. The Engineer
may request an updated progress schedule when progress on the work has fallen more than 14 calendar days behind
the latest accepted progress schedule. Information in the updated schedule must include a "% work completed"
value for each activity.
4. Recovery Schedule. If the progress schedule projects a finish date for the Project more than 14 calendar days
later than the Completion Date, submit a revised schedule showing a plan to finish by the Completion Date. The
Department will withhold Estimates until the Engineer accepts the revised schedule. The Engineer will use the
schedule to evaluate time extensions and associated costs requested by the Contractor.
108.04
Limitation of Operations. Limit operations to prevent unnecessary inconvenience to the traveling
public. If the Engineer concludes that the extent of the Contractor’s Work unnecessarily inconveniences the public
or concludes limiting operations are necessary to protect the existing or new construction from damage, the
Engineer will require the Contractor to finish portions of Work in progress before starting new Work.
108.05
Character of Workers Methods and Equipment. Provide personnel with sufficient skills and
experience to perform assigned tasks.
Ensure that no debarred individuals listed on the Federal website: www.epls.gov or State debarment list at the
website: www.dot.state.oh.us/divisions/contractadmin/ act in any ownership, leadership, managerial, or other
similar position that could influence the operations of an entity doing business with the Department.
If the Engineer gives written notification that specific Contractor or subcontractor personnel are improperly
performing the Work, intemperate, disorderly, or creating a hostile work environment, remove the identified
personnel from the Project. Do not allow removed personnel to return to the Project without the Engineer’s
approval.
The Engineer may suspend the Work by written notice under this subsection for the following reasons:
A. The Contractor does not furnish sufficient skilled and experienced personnel to complete the Project by the
Completion Date.
B. The Contractor does not remove personnel from the Project as directed in writing by the Engineer.
Use equipment of sufficient size and mechanical condition to complete the Project by the Completion Date.
Ensure that the equipment does not harm the roadway, adjacent property, other highways, workers, or the public.
If the Contract Documents do not prescribe the methods and equipment required to accomplish the Work,
determine the methods or equipment necessary to complete the Work according to the Contract.
If the Contract Documents specify methods and equipment to perform the Work, use such methods and
equipment, unless others are authorized by the Engineer. Obtain the Engineer’s written approval before substituting
alternate methods or equipment. To obtain the Engineer’s approval, submit a written description of the alternate
methods and equipment proposed and an explanation of the reasons for making the change. The Engineer’s
approval of the substitute methods and equipment does not relieve the Contractor of the obligation to produce Work
according to 105.03. If after trial use of the substituted methods or equipment, the Engineer determines that the
Work does not conform to the Contract Documents, then complete the remaining Work using the specified methods
and equipment. Remove all deficient Work and replace it according to the Contract Documents, or take such other
corrective action as directed by the Engineer. The Engineer’s authorization to substitute alternate methods and
equipment will not change the basis of payment for the construction items involved or the Contract Time.
108.06
Determining a Time Extension to the Completion Date and Payment for Excusable Delays.
A. General. The Department will only extend the Completion Date if an excusable delay, as specified in 108.06.B
or 108.06.D, delays Work on the critical path shown on the accepted progress schedule and impacts the Completion
Date. The critical path is defined as; the longest path of activities in the project that determines the project schedule
completion date. The activities that make-up the critical path of activities are the “Critical Activities.” Any
extension of the Completion Date will be executed by a change order.
Mitigation of any delay, whether caused by the Department, Contractor, third-party or an intervening event, is
a shared contract and legal requirement. Mitigation efforts include, but are not limited to, re-sequencing work
activities, acceleration, and continuation of work through an otherwise planned shutdown period. The Contractor
and Engineer must explore and discuss potential mitigation efforts in a timely manner.
The Department will not evaluate a request for extension of the Completion Date unless the Contractor notifies
the Engineer as specified in 108.02.F. Notification shall be in writing to the Engineer within 30 days following the
termination of the event giving rise to the request and shall be accompanied by supporting analysis and
documentation.
The Engineer will evaluate the Contractor’s analysis and determine the time extension due, if any. The
Engineer will measure all time extensions in Calendar Days. For delays measured in Workdays, the Engineer will
convert Workdays to Calendar Days by multiplying by 1.4 for a 5-day work week or less; 1.2 for a 6-day work
week; and 1 for a 7-day work week; and extend the Completion Date by the resulting number of Calendar Days
plus any holidays the Contractor does not normally work that occur in the extension period. When the conversion
of Workdays to Calendar Days results in a decimal of 0.5 or greater, the Engineer will round the number of Calendar
Days to the next highest whole number. When the conversion results in a decimal less than 0.5, the Engineer will
delete the decimal portion of the Calendar Days.
The Engineer will not grant an extension of time for delays incurred from December 1 to April 30 unless the
Contractor’s accepted progress schedule depicts work on the critical path occurring during this period.
The Engineer may order the Contractor to continue Work after November 30 and compensate the Contractor
for costs incurred due to cold weather Work.
The Contractor’s plea that insufficient time was specified is not a valid reason for an extension of time.
The Department will relieve the Contractor from associated liquidated damages, as specified in 108.07, if the
Engineer extends the Completion Date under 108.06.A.
The extended Completion Date shall then have the same standing and effect as though it was the original
Completion Date.
If the Contractor contends that an excusable delay is also compensable, as specified in 108.06.D, submit a
detailed cost analysis of the requested additional compensation along with the request for extension of Completion
Date.
B. Excusable, Non-Compensable Delays. Excusable, non-compensable delays are delays that are not the
Contractor’s or the Department’s fault or responsibility. The Engineer will not grant additional payment for
excusable, non-compensable delays.
The following are excusable, non-compensable delays:
1.
Delays due to floods, tornadoes, lightning strikes, earthquakes, or other cataclysmic phenomena of nature.
2.
Delays due to weather as specified in 108.06.C.
3. Extraordinary delays in material deliveries the Contractor or its suppliers cannot foresee or avoid resulting
from freight embargoes, government acts, or area-wide material shortages. Delays due to the Contractor’s,
subcontractor’s, or supplier’s insolvency or mismanagement are not excusable.
4.
Delays due to civil disturbances.
5.
Delays from fires or epidemics.
6. Delays from labor strikes that are beyond the Contractor’s, subcontractor’s, or supplier’s power to settle
and are not caused by improper acts or omissions of the Contractor, subcontractor, or supplier.
7.
Added quantities that delay an activity on the critical path.
8.
All other delays not the Contractor’s and Department’s fault or responsibility.
C. Extension to the Completion Date for Weather or Seasonal Conditions. A weather day is defined as a
workday that weather or seasonal conditions reduced production by more than 50 percent on items of work on the
critical path. Submit the dates and number of weather days in writing to the Engineer at the end of each month. In
the event the Contractor fails to submit weather days at the end of each month the Engineer will determine the dates
and number of weather days from project records.
Delays caused by weather and seasonal conditions should be anticipated and will be considered as the basis
for an extension of time when the Contractor’s accepted progress schedule depicts Work on the critical path and
the actual workdays lost exceeds the number of work days lost each month as determined by Table 108.06-1.
TABLE 108.06-1
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Number of Workdays
Lost Due to Weather
8
8
7
6
5
5
4
4
5
6
6
6
This table applies to the duration between contract execution and original completion date. Extensions for
weather days beyond the original completion date will be for the actual workdays lost each month.
The Engineer will not consider weekends and holidays as lost workdays unless the Contractor normally works
those days or unless the Engineer directs the Contractor to work those days.
D. Excusable, Compensable Delays. Excusable, compensable delays are delays that are not the Contractor’s
fault or responsibility, and are the Department’s fault or responsibility or are determined by judicial proceeding to
be the Department’s sole responsibility or are the fault and responsibility of a local government. For the following
excusable, compensable delays, the Engineer will extend the Completion Date if the conditions specified in
108.06.A are met:
1.
Delays due to revised Work as specified in 104.02.B, 104.02.D, or 104.02.F.
2.
Delays due to utility or railroad interference within the Project limits.
3.
Delays due to an Engineer-ordered suspension as specified in 104.02.C.
4. Delays due to acts of the government or a political subdivision other than the Department; however, these
compensable delay costs are limited to escalated labor and material costs only, as allowed in 109.05.D.2.b and
109.05.D.2.d.
5.
Delays due to the neglect of the Department or its failure to act in a timely manner.
Compensation for excusable, compensable delays will be determined by the Engineer according to 109.05.D.
E. Non-Excusable Delays. Non-excusable delays are delays that are the Contractor’s fault or responsibility. All
non-excusable delays are non-compensable.
F. Concurrent Delays. Concurrent delays are separate critical delays that occur at the same time. When a noncompensable delay is concurrent with a compensable delay, the Contractor is entitled to additional time but not
entitled to additional compensation.
108.07
Failure to Complete on Time. If the Contractor fails to complete the Work by the Completion Date,
then the Director, if satisfied that the Contractor is making reasonable progress, and deems it in the best interest of
the public, may allow the Contractor to continue in control of the Work. The Department will pay the Contractor
for Work performed on the Project less any liquidated damages incurred.
If the Work is not completed by the Completion Date and the Director permits the Contractor to remain in control,
prosecute the Work at as many different places, at such times, and with such forces as the Director requests. Provide
a written plan for the completion of the Work.
For each calendar day that Work remains uncompleted after the Completion Date, the Department will deduct
the sum specified herein from any money due the Contractor, not as a penalty, but as liquidated damages. The
Director will adjust the Completion Date or other contractually mandated dates for delays specified in 108.06.B.7
and 108.06.D.
Permitting the Contractor to continue and complete the Work or any part of the Work after the Completion Date,
or after extensions to the Completion Date, will in no way operate as a waiver on the part of the Department of any
of its rights under the Contract.
The Director may stop deducting liquidated damages when:
A. The Work is substantially complete and the project is available for use as intended by the contract.
B. The Contractor is diligently pursuing the remaining Work.
C. The Work remaining will not interfere with the intended use of the project and will not impact traffic. For the
limited purposes of assessing liquidate damages, the closing of a shoulder is not considered an impact upon traffic.
D. All contract safety items are complete and operational. These safety items include but are not limited to signs,
pavement markings, guardrail, attenuators, and signals. Raised pavement markers (RPM) are required safety items
if the roadway section involved had RPMs before the project started.
E. Deemed reasonable and appropriate by the District Deputy Director.
TABLE 108.07-1 SCHEDULE OF LIQUIDATED DAMAGES
Original Contract Amount
(Total Amount of the Bid)
From More Than
To and Including
$0.00
$500,000
$500,000
$2,000,000
$2,000,000
$10,000,000
$10,000,000
$50,000,000
Over $50,000,000
Amount of Liquidated
Damages to be Deducted for each
Calendar Day of Overrun in Time
$400
$600
$900
$1,400
$2,900
108.08
Unsatisfactory Progress and Default of Contractor. The Director will notify the Contractor in
writing of unsatisfactory progress for any of the following reasons:
A. The Contractor has not commenced the Work by the dates established in the schedule.
B. The Contractor does not proceed with the Work in a manner necessary for completion of the Project by the
Completion Date.
C. The Contractor is performing the Work improperly.
D. The Contractor abandons, fails, or refuses to complete the Work.
E. Any other reason the Director believes jeopardizes completion of the Work by the Completion Date.
If the Contractor does not respond to the satisfaction of the Director, the Director may declare the Contractor in
default and may notify the Contractor and Surety that the responsibility to complete the Work is transferred to the
Surety. Upon receipt of this notification, the Contractor’s right to control and supervise the Work will immediately
cease. In such a case, the Director will proceed as specified in ORC 5525.17. The defaulted Contractor will not be
compensated for costs resulting from the default and is not eligible to be retained by the Surety to complete the
Work. If it is determined that the Department’s default of the Contractor according to 108.08 is wrongful, then the
default will revert to a termination of the Contract according to 108.09.
108.09
Termination of the Contract for Convenience of the Department. The Director may terminate the
Contract at any time for the convenience of the Department. The Department will compensate the Contractor
according to 109.04 and 109.05 for termination of the Contract for the convenience of the Department. This
subsection is subject to the provisions of ORC 5525.14.
108.10
Payroll Records. Keep payroll records as specified in ORC 4115.07 or as required by Federal law.
Authorized representatives of the Director may inspect the certified payroll and other payroll records. Upon
completion of the Work and before receiving the final estimate and when required by ORC 4115.07, submit an
affidavit stating that wages have been paid according to the minimum rates specified in the Contract Documents.
109 ACCEPTANCE, MEASUREMENT, AND PAYMENT
109.01
Measurement of Quantities. The Department will measure the quantities of Work and calculate
payments based on the method of measurement and basis of payment provisions provided in these Specifications.
When the following units of measure are specified, the Department will measure quantities as described below
unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents. The accuracy of individual pay item estimate payments will
be one decimal more accurate than the unit of measure denoted for the pay item.
Lump Sum. Not measured. Describes payment as reimbursement for all resources necessary to complete the
Work. When a complete structure or structural unit is specified as the unit of measurement, the unit will include all
necessary fittings and accessories.
Each. Measured by the number of individual items of Work completed.
Foot (Meter). Measured parallel to the longitudinal base or foundation upon which items are placed, or along
the longitudinal surface of the item. Measured vertically to the nearest 0.1 foot (0.01 m), with a minimum vertical
measurement of 1 foot (0.10 m), at each unit.
Square Yard or Square Foot (Square Meter). Measured by a two-dimensional area method on the surface of
the item.
M Square Feet. One thousand square feet.
Cubic Yard (Cubic Meter). Measured by a three-dimensional volume method. Measure all “loose material” or
material “measured in the vehicle” by the cubic yard (cubic meter). Haul material “measured in the vehicle” in
approved vehicles and measure in the vehicle at the point of delivery. For this purpose, use approved vehicles of
any type or size satisfactory to the Engineer, provided the vehicle’s bed is of such type that the actual contents are
readily and accurately determined. Unless all approved vehicles on a job are of uniform capacity, each approved
vehicle must bear a legible identification mark indicating the specific approved capacity. The Inspector may reject
all loads not hauled in such approved vehicles.
Cubic Yard (Cubic Meter) for Asphalt Concrete. Measure as specified in 401.21.
Acre (Hectare). Measured by a two-dimensional area method on the surface to the nearest 0.1 acre (0.05 ha).
Pound (Kilogram). Measured by actual item net weight avoirdupois (mass).
Ton (Metric Ton). The term “ton” means the short ton consisting of 2000 pounds avoirdupois. The term “metric
ton” means 1000 kilograms. Weigh all materials that are proportioned by weight on accurate and approved scales
that are operated by competent, qualified personnel at locations approved by the Engineer. However, car weights
will not be acceptable for materials to be passed through mixing plants. If trucks are used to haul material being
paid for by weight, weigh the empty truck at least once daily and as the Engineer directs and only if the weight of
the truck is used in determining the ticket weight. Place a plainly legible identification mark on each truck bearing
the weight of the truck.
For Work on a tonnage basis, file with the Engineer receipted freight bills for railroad shipments and certified
weight-bills when materials are received by any other method, showing the actual tonnage used. For Work on a
volume basis, itemize evidence of the volume used.
Gallon (Liter). Measured by actual item liquid volume. The Department will measure the following materials
by the gallon (liter) at the following temperatures:
Temperatures
60 F (16 C)
100 F (38 C)
300 F (149 C)
Items
Creosote for Priming Coat, Creosote Oil, Creosote Solutions for
Timber Preservatives, Asphalt Primer for Water-proofing, and
Liquefier
RC, MC Asphalt Emulsions, CBAE, Primer 20, and Primer 100
Asphalt Binder
Measure tank car outage of asphalt material at its destination before any material has been removed from the tank
car according to Supplement 1060.
Convert the net weight of asphalt material shipments to gallons (liters) at the specified pay temperature according
to Supplement 1060.
Convert the gallons (liters) at the measured temperature to gallons (liters) of asphalt material at the specified pay
temperature according to Supplement 1060.
M Gallon. One thousand gallons.
Thousand Board Feet, MBF (Cubic Meter). Measure timber by MBF (cubic meter) actually incorporated in
the structure. Base the measurement on nominal widths, thicknesses, and the extreme length of each piece.
Standard Manufactured Items. When standard manufactured items are specified such as fence, wire, plates,
rolled shapes, pipe conduit, etc., and these items are identified by size, unit weight, section dimensions, etc., such
identification will be to nominal weights or dimensions set by the industry.
109.02
Measurement Units. The Department will measure using either English or metric units as indicated
in the Contract Documents. Use the Tables 109.02-1 and 109.02-2 to convert units when required. If Tables 109.021 and 109.02-2 do not provide a required factor, then use the appropriate factor provided in the IEEE/ASTM SI 10.
TABLE 109.02-1 ENGLISH TO SI (METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS
Symbol
Length
mil
in
ft
yd
mi
Area
in²
ft²
yd²
ac
ac
mi²
Volume
fl oz
gal
ft³
yd³
Mass
oz
lb
T
Temperature
°F
Illumination
fc
fl
When You Know
mils
inches
feet
yards
miles
Multiply By
25.4
25.4
0.3048
0.9144
1.609347
To Find
Symbol
micrometers
millimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
µm
mm
m
m
km
square inches
square feet
square yards
acres
acres
square miles
645.16
0.09290304
0.8361274
0.4046873
4046.873
2.589998
square millimeters
square meters
square meters
hectares
square meters
square kilometers
mm²
m²
m²
ha
m²
km²
fluid ounces
gallons
cubic feet
cubic yards
29.57353
3.785412
0.02831685
0.7645549
milliliters
liters
cubic meters
cubic meters
mL
L
m³
m³
ounces
pounds
2000 pounds
28.34952
0.4535924
0.9071847
grams
kilograms
metric tons
g
kg
t
Celsius
°C
10.76391
3.426259
lux
candelas per
square meter
lx
cd/m²
1.355818
4.448222
47.88026
newton meter
newtons
pascals
Nm
N
Pa
0.006894757
megapascals
MPa
Fahrenheit
foot-candles
foot-lamberts
Force and Pressure or Stress
pounds-force foot
lbfft
lbf
pounds force
lbf/ft² (psf)
pounds force per
square foot
lbf/in² (psi)
pounds force per
square inch
C = (F-32)/1.8
TABLE 109.02-2 SI (METRIC) TO ENGLISH CONVERSION FACTORS
Symbol
µm
mm
m
m
km
mm²
m²
m²
ha
m²
km²
mL
L
m³
m³
g
kg
t
°C
lx
cd/m²
Nm
N
Pa
MPa
When You Know
Multiply By
To Find
Length
micrometers
0.03937
mils
millimeters
0.03937
inches
meters
3.28084
feet
meters
1.093613
yards
kilometers
0.62137
miles
Area
square millimeters 0.00155
square inches
square meters 10.76391
square feet
square meters 1.19599
square yards
hectares
2.4710437
acres
square meters 0.000247
acres
square kilometers 0.3861
square miles
Volume
milliliters
0.033814
fluid ounces
liters
0.264172
gallons
cubic meters
35.31466
cubic feet
cubic meters
1.30795
cubic yard
Mass
grams
0.035274
ounces
kilograms
2.204622
pounds
metric tons
1.1023114
2000 pounds
Temperature
Celsius
F = 1.8C + 32
Fahrenheit
Illumination
lux
0.09290304
foot-candles
candelas per
0.29186352
foot-lamberts
square meter
Force and Pressure or Stress
newton meters 0.7375621
pounds-foot force
newtons
0.22480892
pound force
pascals
0.02088543
pounds force per
square foot
megapascals
145.03774
pounds force per
square inch
Symbol
mil
in
ft
yd
mi
in²
ft²
yd²
ac
ac
mi²
fl oz
gal
ft³
yd³
oz
lb
T
°F
fc
fl
lbf ft
lbf
lbf/ft² (psf)
lbf/in² (psi)
109.03
Scope of Payment. Payment of the Contract Price is full compensation for all resources necessary to
complete the Contract Item and maintain the Work. Assume liability for risk, loss, damage, or expense resulting
from the Work. The Contract Price and Contract Time shall only be changed by written Change Order or as
determined by the Department in writing in accordance with the contract documents.
109.04
Compensation for Altered Quantities, Eliminated Items or Termination of the Contract for
Convenience of the Department. If the agreed quantities of contract items vary from the quantities in the Contract,
the Department will make payment at the original Contract unit prices for the agreed quantities of Work.
A. If an item is eliminated in accordance with 104.02.E or the contract is terminated in accordance with 108.09
the Department will pay the following in addition to that provided by 104.02.D:
1. Restocking charges supported by paid invoices and an additional 5 percent markup on the compensation
for overhead and profit.
2. The cost of material transferred to the Department or a local government agency in lieu of restocking or
disposal. The allowed compensation is the paid invoice cost plus 15 percent markup, but no more than the unit bid
price for the reference number involved.
3. Hauling costs, if not included in restocking charges, for returned material and for material delivered to
the Department.
B. If the project is terminated for convenience of the Department, the Department will negotiate compensation
with the Contractor for actual costs incurred as a result of the termination. The Department will pay for Extra Work
as stipulated in approved Extra Work Change Orders or written authorizations subject to the limitations set forth
in ORC 5525.14. Such authorizations for emergencies and to avoid Project delays are in advance of an approved
Extra Work Change Order and commit the Department only to the terms of the authorizations. The Department
will pay for Extra Work after the approval of the subsequent Change Order.
109.05
Changes and Extra Work.
A. General. If the Department revises the Contract under: 104.02, 105.07, 105.10, 105.13, 107.10, 107.14,
107.15, 108.09, 109.06, or 109.07, the Department will pay for changes and Extra Work with a Change Order using
the sequence specified in 109.05.B through 109.05.E.
In establishing the method of payment for contract changes or extra work orders, force account procedures
shall only be used when strictly necessary, such as when agreement cannot be reached with the Contractor on the
price of a new work item, or when the extent of work is unknown or is of such character that a price cannot be
determined to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The reason or reasons for using force account procedures shall be
documented.
Unless otherwise stated in 109.05, the compensation provided in 109.05.B through 109.05.E constitutes
payment in full for all changes and Extra Work completed by original Contract Price, agreed unit price, agreed
lump sum price, and for work performed on a force account basis, including:
1.
Administration.
2.
Superintendence.
3.
Project and field office overhead.
4.
Home office overhead.
5.
Use of tools and equipment for which no rental is allowed.
6.
Profit.
7.
Taxes other than sales tax.
8. Premiums on insurance including additional premiums for Commercial General Liability Insurance
required by 107.12.B and any additional coverage carried by the Contractor or subcontractor, excluding pollution
and railroad General Liability Insurance. The Department will pay the Contractor’s pollution and railroad liability
insurance premiums, if required by the contract, by a separate Change Order for the cost of the premium without
any markup. When the Contractors or subcontractors basic rate for General Commercial Liability Insurance
required by 107.12.B is greater than 5 percent of payroll, the Department will pay directly without markup the
portion of the premium in excess of 5 percent and provide copies of paid premiums.
Sales tax will not be allowed on any item for which tax exemption was obtained.
B. Negotiated Prices. Negotiated prices for changes and Extra Work shall be comparable to prices that would
have resulted from a competitive bid contract. The Engineer and Contractor will negotiate agreed unit or lump sum
prices using one or more of the following methods:
1.
Original Contract prices for similar work but adjusted for:
a.
b.
c.
increased or decreased material costs specified in 109.05.C.3.
increased or decreased labor costs specified in 109.05.C.2
increased or decreased equipment costs specified in 109.05.C.4
Adjustments of these prices for inflation or markup for subcontractor work is not allowed.
2. State-wide average unit price awarded for the item or items as listed in the Department’s annual “Summary
of Contracts Awarded.” These prices may be adjusted for inflation using factors issued by the Office of
Construction Administration. No markup for subcontractor work is allowed.
3. Average price awarded on three different projects of similar work and quantity. These prices may be
adjusted for inflation using factors issued by the Office of Construction Administration. No markup for
subcontractor work is allowed.
4.
Prices computed by the Office of Estimating.
5.
Cost analysis of labor, material, equipment, and markups as allowed in 109.05.C.
6.
For the cost of compensable delays as defined in 108.06, prepare a cost analysis as allowed by 109.05.D.
Provide proposed pricing and cost justification for changes or Extra Work within 5 business days after the
Department’s request. The Department will respond within 5 business days after receipt of the Contractor’s
proposal. The Department and the Contractor can mutually agree to extend these 5-day time limits.
If the Department negotiates with the Contractor but does not agree on a price adjustment, the Engineer may
direct the Contractor to perform all or part of the revised Work under force account.
C. Force Account.
1. General. The Engineer may direct the Contractor to perform the revised Work under force account.
Submit a written proposal and estimated costs for the Work, including the planned equipment, materials, labor, and
a work schedule.
The Department will pay the Contractor as specified in 109.05.C as full compensation for performing the
force account Work. The Project and Contractor personnel will document the labor and equipment used on the
force account work on a Daily Force Account Record. At the end of each Workday, the Project and Contractor
personnel will compare and sign the Daily Force Account Record. The Department will make no force account
payment before the Contractor submits an itemized statement of the costs for that work.
The Engineer will examine and, if found to be acceptable, approve all rates and costs submitted by the
Contractor.
Provide the following content in itemized statements for all force account work:
a.
Name, classification, date, daily hours, total hours, rate, and amount for all labor.
b. Designation, dates, daily hours, total hours of actual operation and idle time, Blue Book rate with
reference or category, and amount for each unit of equipment and the applicable Blue Book hourly operating cost
for each unit of equipment and invoices for all rental equipment. The designation includes the manufacturer’s name
or trademark, model number, and year of manufacture.
c.
Quantities of materials and prices.
d.
Transportation charges on materials, free on board (F.O.B.) at the job site.
e. Cost of workers’ compensation insurance premiums, all applicable insurance premiums,
unemployment insurance contributions, and social security tax and fees or dues required by a collective bargaining
agreement. Express each of these items of cost as a percentage of payroll, except fees or dues, which should be
expressed as a cost per hour.
f. Documentation showing payment for all surveying, professional, or similar specialized Work not
normally a part of a Department contract.
g. If materials are taken from Contractor’s stock and original receipted invoices for the materials and
transportation charges do not exist, provide an affidavit and certify all of the following:
(1) The materials were taken from the Contractor’s stock.
(2) The quantity shown was actually used for the force account work.
(3) The price and transportation costs represent the actual cost to the Contractor.
h. Documentation showing payment to trucking firms and owner-operators. Submit documentation
showing owner-operations status. When the trucking is subject to prevailing wage, submit payroll and equipment
usage records according to 109.05.C.1.a, 109.05.C.1.b, and 109.05.C.1.e.
i. Provide “receipted invoices” for all costs substantiated by an invoice.
If only part of the expenditure represented by an invoice is applicable to force account work, or if the
invoice represents expenditure for more than one item of work, clearly indicate the actual amount of expenditure
applicable to each item of work.
2. Labor. The Department will pay the wages and fringe benefits currently in effect for each hour the Work
is performed by all labor employed in the Work and all foremen in direct charge of the specific operation. The
Department will pay an additional 38 percent markup on these wages and benefits. “Fringe benefits” are the actual
costs paid to, or on behalf of, workmen by reason of health and welfare benefits, pension fund benefits, or other
benefits, when such amounts are required by prevailing wage laws or by a collective bargaining agreement or other
employment contracts generally applicable to the classes of labor employed on the Project.
The Department will pay the actual itemized cost, without markup, of the following payroll taxes and
legally required insurances:
a. Social Security Tax.
b. Medicare Tax.
c. Ohio Workers’ Compensation Premiums.
d. State and Federal Unemployment Insurance.
e. Longshore and Harborworkers’ Compensation Insurance for work from a barge or ship, or unloading
material from a barge or ship.
Provide itemized statements in addition to the documentation requirements for all labor including the
name, classification, date, daily hours, total hours, rate, and amount. If any person is paid more than the one rate, a
separate listing shall be made for that person for each rate paid. Provide itemized statements for Ohio Workers’
Compensation insurance premiums, all applicable insurance premiums, State and Federal Unemployment
Insurance contributions, and Social Security Tax and fees or dues required by a collective bargaining agreement.
Express each of these items of cost as a percentage of payroll, except fees or dues, which shall be expressed as a
cost per hour.
Instead of itemizing the cost of Social Security Tax, Ohio Workers’ Compensation, and State and Federal
Unemployment Insurance, the Contractor may elect to receive as compensation for these payroll taxes and
premiums, an amount equal to 22 percent of the paid wages. If the Contractor pays fringes directly to the worker
in lieu of paying into a fringe benefit program, then the Department will treat these fringe payments as paid wages
when calculating the allowed 22 percent compensation.
The Department will pay, without markup, the actual itemized cost of fees and dues paid to labor unions
or to business associations when they are based on payroll hours and required by a collective bargaining agreement.
The Department will not pay for wages or benefits for personnel connected with the Contractor’s forces
above the classification of foreman that have only general supervisory responsibility for the force account work.
If the foreman or timekeeper is employed partly on force account work and partly on other work, the
Contractor shall prorate the number of hours between the force and non-force account work according to the
number of people on each task as shown on payrolls.
The Department will pay the prevailing wage and fringe rates that apply to the Project for the
classifications required for Extra Work. The Contractor must provide payroll records for pay rates higher than the
prevailing wages and establish that the higher than prevailing rates are paid for original Contract Work. The
Department will pay for foremen and time keepers not covered by prevailing wages not more than the salaried rate
they receive when engaged in original Contract Work.
The Department will pay actual costs for subsistence and travel allowances when such payments are
required by the collective bargaining agreement or other employment contracts applicable to the classes of labor
employed on the Project. The Department will not pay a percent markup on these costs.
3. Materials. The Department will pay the Contractor’s actual invoice costs, including applicable taxes and
actual freight charges, for Engineer approved materials the Contractor uses in force account Work. The Department
will pay an additional 15 percent markup on these costs.
Freight or hauling costs charged to the Contractor and not included in unit prices shall be itemized and
supported by invoices. The cost of owned or rented equipment used to haul materials to the project is not part of
the materials cost. Such equipment, when used for hauling materials, shall be listed under cost of equipment.
Provide itemized statements in addition to the documentation requirements for all equipment including
the quantity and price of each material and transportation charges free on board (F.O.B.) at the job site. Attach
invoices to support the quantities of materials used, unit prices paid and transportation charges. If the Contractor
uses materials from the Contractor’s stock and original receipted invoices for the materials and transportation
charges do not exist, the Department and the Contractor will agree on a price that represents the actual cost to the
Contractor. Provide an affidavit and certify all of the following:
a.
The materials were taken from the Contractor’s stock.
b.
The quantity shown was actually used for the force account work.
c.
The price and transportation costs represent the actual cost to the Contractor.
Do not incorporate materials into the Work without a price agreement.
4.
Equipment.
a. General. The Department will pay the Contractor’s costs for equipment the Engineer deems
necessary to perform the force account work for the time directed by the Engineer or until the Contractor completes
the force account Work, whichever happens first. The Department will pay the Contractor the established rates for
equipment only during the hours that it is operated, except as otherwise allowed elsewhere in these Specifications.
The Department will pay for non-operating hours at the idle equipment rate as specified in 109.05.C.4.c. Report
equipment hours to the nearest 1/2 hour. The established equipment rates in these Specifications include
compensation for overhead and profit except as otherwise specified.
The Department will pay for use of Contractor-owned equipment the Engineer approves for force
account Work at established rates. The Department will pay the rates, as modified in 109.05.C.4.b, given in the
Equipment Watch Cost Recovery (formerly Rental Rate Blue Book), by EquipmentWatch, a division of Penton
Business Media, Inc.
Provide, and the Engineer will confirm, the manufacturer’s ratings and manufacturer-approved
modifications required to classify equipment for rental rate determination. For equipment with no direct power
unit, use a unit of at least the minimum recommended manufacturer’s rating.
The Department will not pay rental for small tools or equipment that show a daily rate less than $5.00
or for unlisted equipment that has a value of less than $400.
Tool trucks will be allowed for compensation if they are used at the force account site. Only the tools
used from the tool truck will be allowed for compensation. Tools in the tool truck that are not used in the force
account work will not be compensated. A tool trailer that remains at the Contractor’s office or yard will not be
allowed on the force account work. Tool trailers that are taken to the force account site will be allowed for
compensation along with the tools used on the force account work that were taken from the trailer.
Treat traffic control devices used in Maintaining Traffic and owned by the Contractor as owned
equipment. Allowed rates for common traffic control devices and concrete barrier that are not listed in the Blue
Book will be as determined by the Department.
Use Engineer approved equipment in good working condition and providing normal output or
production. The Engineer may reject equipment not in good working condition or not properly sized for efficient
performance of the Work.
For each piece of equipment used, whether owned or rented, provide the Engineer with the following
information:
(1) Manufacturer’s name or trademark.
(2) Equipment type.
(3) Year of manufacture.
(4) Model number.
(5) Type of fuel used.
(6) Horsepower rating.
(7) Attachments required, together with their size or capacity.
(8) All further information necessary to determine the proper rate.
(9) Dates, daily hours, total hours of actual operation and idle time,
(10) Blue Book rate with reference or category,
(11) Amount
(12) Applicable Blue Book hourly operating cost
(13) Invoices for all rental equipment.
b. Hourly Owned Equipment Rates. The base rate for the machine and attachments represent the major
cost of equipment ownership, such as depreciation, interest, taxes, insurance, storage, and major repairs. The hourly
operating rate represents the major costs of equipment operation, such as fuel and oil lubrication, field repairs, tires,
expendable parts, and supplies.
For all equipment used on force account work, determine, and have the Department confirm, the
hourly owned equipment rates as follows:
HOER = [RAF  ARA  (R / 176)] + HOC
Where:
HOER = hourly owned equipment rate
RAF = regional adjustment factor shown in the Blue Book
ARA = age rate adjustment factor shown in the Blue Book
R = current Blue Book monthly rate
HOC = estimated hourly operating cost shown in the Blue Book
However, compensation for equipment normally used on a 24 hours per day basis will not exceed the
monthly rate plus adjustments and operating costs.
The rate adjustment factor assigned to any attachment will be the yearly factor as determined for the
base equipment.
When multiple attachments are included with the rental equipment, only the attachment having the
highest rental rate will be eligible for payment, provided that the attachment has been approved by the Engineer as
being necessary to the force account Work.
When a piece of owned equipment is not listed in the Blue Book, use the rate for similar equipment
found in the Blue Book or use 6 percent of the purchase price as the monthly rate (R) and add the hourly operating
rate found in the Blue Book for similar equipment of the same horsepower.
For equipment brought to the Project exclusively for force account work and on the Project for less
than a month, multiply the monthly rate (R) by the factor listed below:
TABLE 109.05-1
Working Hours
Less than or equal to 8.0
8.1 to 175.9
176 or greater
Factor
2.00
2.048 - (hours/168)
1.00
The term “WORKING HOURS,” as used in Table 109.05-1, includes only those hours the equipment
is actually in operation performing force account work; apply the factor, as determined above, to these actual
working hours only. Calculate compensation for any idle time according to 109.05.C.4.c without application of the
factor.
The Department will pay as working equipment for the entire Workday equipment used intermittently
during the Workday. The following criteria qualify for intermittently used equipment:
(1) Equipment dedicated to the force account exclusively all day and not used on bid work.
(2) Equipment works before and after the intermittent idle period and its total working time during
the Workday is at least 2 hours.
Equipment that is captive to the force account work (i.e. it must remain at the force account site), but
does not qualify for intermittently used owned equipment, is paid as idle equipment according to 109.05.C.4.c. for
the time it is not working.
c. Hourly Idle Equipment Rate. For equipment that is in operational condition, on site, and necessary
for force account Work, but is idle, the Department will pay an hourly idle equipment rate. The procedure to
determine the hourly idle equipment rate for Contractor owned equipment is as follows:
HIER = RAF  ARA  (R / 176)  (1/2)
Where:
HIER = Hourly idle equipment rate.
RAF = Regional adjustment factor shown in the Blue Book.
ARA = Age rate adjustment factor shown in the Blue Book.
R = Current Blue Book monthly rate.
If rented equipment necessary for force account work is idle, the Department will pay the Contractor
for the actual invoiced rates prorated for the duration of the idle period. The actual invoiced rates must be reasonably
in line with the Blue Book rates and approved by the Engineer. The Department will pay a 15 percent markup for
overhead and profit for the actual invoiced rates during the idle period.
The Department will not pay idle owned equipment costs for more than 8 hours in a 24-hour day or
40 hours in a week.
The Department will not pay for inoperable equipment.
The Engineer may order specific equipment to the site up to 5 days before its planned usage. If this
equipment is not used for other work, the Department will pay for it as idle equipment until used.
The Department will pay for the cost of idle owned or rented equipment when the Work was
suspended for the convenience of the State. The Department will not pay the cost of idle equipment when the Work
was suspended by the Contractor for the Contractor’s own reasons.
The Department will only pay for the number of Calendar Days during the existence of the
suspension. The Department will not compensate the Contractor for days that the Engineer determined were lost
to weather.
The Department will only pay for equipment physically located at the Project site that was received
to prosecute the scheduled work during the delay.
Compensation for idle equipment will stop at the completion of the force account Work or at the end
of the suspension of Work.
d. Rented Equipment. The Department will pay a 15 percent markup for overhead and profit for all
rented equipment, its corresponding Blue Book hourly operating costs, and State and Local sales taxes.
(1) Equipment Rented Solely for Force Account Work. If the Contractor rents or leases
equipment from a third party exclusively for force account Work, the Department will pay the actual invoiced
amount. The actual invoiced rates must be reasonably in line with the Blue Book and approved by the Engineer.
The Department will pay a 15 percent markup for overhead and profit for all rented equipment paid for by the
actual invoices. Add the Blue Book hourly operating cost to the marked up actual invoiced rates.
(2) Equipment Rented for Original Contract Work, but Used for Force Account Work. If the
Contractor uses rented equipment currently on the Project for original Contract Work to perform force account
Work, then determine the hourly outside-rented equipment rate as follows:
HRER = (HRI 115%) + HOC
Where:
HRER = hourly rented equipment rate
HRI = hourly rental invoice costs prorated for the actual number of hours that rented equipment is
operated solely on force account work. Use a monthly invoice rate divided by 176, a weekly
invoice rate divided by 40, or a daily invoice rate divided by 8.
HOC = hourly operating cost shown in the Blue Book
The Department will not compensate for rental rates that exceed the Blue Book rates unless approved
in advance of the Work by the Engineer.
e. Moving of Equipment. The Department will also pay for the time required to move needed
equipment to the location of the force account work and to return it to its original location. The Department will
pay for loading and transportation costs instead of moving time if equipment is moved by means other than its own
power. Moving time back to the original location or loading and transportation costs will not be allowed if the
equipment is used at the site of the force account work on contract items or related work.
The Department will consider the actual cost of transferring the equipment to the Project and returning
it to the original location as an additional expense and pay for it as specified, for equipment moved on the Project
exclusively for force account work.
The Engineer will confirm the original location of the equipment before the Contractor moves and
uses it for force account work.
If the equipment is transported by a common carrier, the allowance is the invoiced amount paid for
the freight plus 15 percent. However, if the Contractor’s forces transport the equipment, the allowable
compensation will be Blue Book rate of the hauling unit and hourly Blue Book operating cost plus the driver’s
wages and the cost of loading and unloading the equipment calculated according to 109.05.C.2.
5. Foreman’s Transportation. The Department will pay the Blue Book rate for every hour the foreman’s
truck is on the force account site or moving to or from the site. This rate includes equipment cost, fuel and
lubricants, overhead, profit, and mobile phone or two-way radios.
6. Subcontract Work. For Work performed by an approved subcontractor, the Department will pay an
amount to cover administrative costs of 8% on the first $10,000 of work and 5% for work in excess of $10,000 as
provided in 109.05.C.2 through 109.05.C.5. No additional mark-up is allowed for work of a sub-subcontractor or
trucking services employed by a subcontractor.
7. Final Adjustment to Premium for Contract Bonds. The final bond premium amount for the payment
and performance bonds will be computed based on the actual final contract value. For the purpose of computing a
bond premium adjustment the actual final contract value is defined as the whole sum of money, excluding any bond
premium adjustment, which is passed from the Department to the Contractor as a result of the completion of the
Work. If the actual final contract value is different from the original contract value, the premium shall be adjusted
accordingly; either by refund of part of the original bond premium by the Contractor if the original contract value
is larger than the actual final contract value; or by payment of additional bond premium by the Department if the
original contract value is smaller than the actual final contract value. Additional payment by the Department or
refund by the Contractor will be based on the difference between the invoiced bond premium for the original
contract value and the invoiced bond premium for the actual final contract value without any markup. A final bond
premium adjustment will not be made when the actual final contract value differs from the original contract value
by less than $ 40,000.00.
8.
Trucking.
a. Trucking firms and owner operators not subject to prevailing wage will be paid at the invoiced cost
plus 8% on the first $10,000 of trucking and 5% for trucking in excess of $10,000 to cover administrative costs.
b. Trucking that is subject to the prevailing wage law will be compensated according to 109.05.C.1,
109.05.C.2, 109.05.C.4, 109.05.C.6, 109.05.C.10, and 109.05.C.11.
Provide documentation showing payment to trucking firms and owner-operators and owner-operations
status. When the trucking is subject to prevailing wage, submit payroll and equipment usage records according to
109.05.C.2 and 109.05.C.4.
9. Professional and Specialized Work. The following work, when performed by a firm hired by the
Contractor, is paid at the reasonable and fair market invoiced cost plus 8% on the first $10,000 of work and 5% for
work in excess of $10,000.
a.
Surveying.
b.
Engineering design.
c. Specialized work that is not normally part of a Department Contract and is not normally subject to
prevailing wage.
d. Installation, periodic maintenance, and removal of traffic control devices under Item 614 performed
by a traffic control service or rental company, provided the workers are not on the Project full-time. Maintenance
of Traffic services performed by LEO.
e.
Other professional or specialized work not contemplated at the time of Bid.
Provide documentation showing payment for professional and specialized Work.
10. Payment for Force Account Work. Submit an analysis of estimated cost prepared in accordance with
109.05C for work that will be performed on a force account basis. Attach an original affidavit to the analysis stating:
“Labor rates shown are the actual rates paid for labor, unit prices for materials and rates for owned and rented
equipment have been estimated on the basis they are not in excess of those charged in the area in which the work
will be performed.”
The Engineer will process an Estimated Cost of Force Account (ECFA) if the amount of the force account
work is likely to be greater than $100,000 and is expected to take more than two weeks to complete. The Engineer
will process an Actual Cost of Force Account (ACFA) to make any necessary adjustment between the ECFA and
the final itemized costs for the force account work.
For force account work estimated to be less than $100,000 and anticipated to require less than two weeks
to perform, the Engineer will process an Actual Cost of Force Account (ACFA) at the conclusion of the work.
Submit biweekly itemized statement of costs prepared from the Daily Force Account Records to the
Engineer as the work is being performed. The Engineer will process estimates as the force account work is
performed. Payment will only be made upon receipt of the Contractor’s itemized statement of costs.
Upon conclusion of the work performed by an ECFA or work performed by an ACFA submit an itemized
statement of the actual costs prepared from the Daily Force Account Record and utilizing the Department’s
electronic template titled “Electronic Force Account.” Submit a compact disk (CD), labeled with the Contractor’s
name and the project number, and a hard copy of the “Electronic Force Account.” The “Electronic Force Account”
template can be downloaded from the following website:
www.dot.state.oh.us/divisions/constructionmgt/admin/pages/default.aspx
The Engineer may approve an alternative electronic template provided all calculations and printouts are
equivalent to those generated by the “Electronic Force Account” template.
Attach an original affidavit to the hard copy stating:
“The name, classification, total hours worked and rates paid each person listed on the Summary of Actual Cost
are substantiated by actual records of persons employed on the force account work. All unit prices for materials
and rates for owned and rented equipment listed on the Summary of Actual Costs are substantiated by actual
records of materials and equipment actually used in performance of the force account work and the price of any
owned equipment not previously agreed upon does not exceed prices charged for similar equipment in the area in
which the work was performed.”
Daily Force Account Records signed by both the Department and Contractor will govern over other
Department and Contractor records subject to the following:
a. When the Contractor is subject to a Union Contract that requires a minimum number of paid hours,
the compensation will be for the verified contract minimum hours.
b. Material quantity disagreements will be resolved by field measurements of the installed quantities or
the Engineer’s estimate of the amount of temporary or un-measurable material used. The Engineer may also review
and consider the Contractor’s material invoices and material certifications to make the final determination.
In the event the Contractor declines to sign the Daily Force Account Record, the Department’s records
shall govern. Any resulting dispute must be pursued in accordance with 108.06.G.
D. Delay Costs.
1. General. If the Department agrees that it has caused a delay, the Department will pay for the costs
specified in 109.05.D as allowed by 108.06.D, unless these costs have been previously paid as listed in 109.05.B
or 109.05.C. Such payment constitutes full compensation for any and all delay costs
The Department will make no payment for delays occurring during the period from December 1 to April
30 unless the Contractor’s approved progress schedule depicts critical Work occurring throughout this period.
The Department will not pay for delay costs until the Contractor submits an itemized statement of those
costs. Provide the content specified in 109.05.C.1, for the applicable items in this statement and as follows:
a. Proof of cost of Superintendent, or other project staff salaries, wages, and payroll taxes and insurance.
b. Proof of cost of office rent, utilities, land rent, and office supplies.
c. Proof of escalated cost for labor and material.
d. Proof of material storage costs.
2.
Allowable Delay Costs
a. Extended Labor. Compute labor costs during delays as specified in 109.05.C.2 for all non-salaried
personnel remaining on the Project as required under collective bargaining agreements or for other Engineerapproved reasons.
b. Escalated Labor. To receive payment for escalated labor costs, demonstrate that the Departmentcaused delay forced the Work to be performed during a period when labor costs were higher than planned at the
time of Bid. Provide adequate support documentation for the costs, allowances, and benefits specified in
109.05.C.2. The Department will pay wages and fringes with a 20 percent mark-up to cover administrative costs.
c. Idle Equipment or Equipment Demobilization. The Department will pay the Contractor according
to 109.05.C.4.c for idle equipment, other than small tools, that must remain on the Project during the delays. The
Department will pay the Contractor’s transportation costs to remove and return equipment not required on the
Project during the delays. No other equipment costs are recoverable as a result of delay.
d. Material Escalation or Material Storage. The Department will pay the Contractor for increased
material costs or material storage costs due to the delay. Obtain the Engineer’s approval before storing materials
due to a delay. Payment will be based upon the accepted quantity of work performed during the period for which
escalated costs have been approved. The Department will pay increased material costs with an 8 percent mark-up
to cover administrative costs and any material waste inherent to the Work.
e. Field Overhead. The Department will pay any Contractor or subcontractor for field overhead costs
which include the cost of supervision, field office and office supplies, and utilities for which payment is not
provided for in 109.05.D.2.f, during a delay period provided all of the following criteria are met:
(1) The Contractor or subcontractor has incurred an excusable, compensable delay that delays the
Work at least 10 Calendar Days beyond the original Completion Date. These days are cumulative throughout the
project.
(2)
The delay for which payment of field overhead is sought is only due to delays defined in
108.06.D.2, 108.06.D.3, 108.06.D.5 or for delays due to revised Work as specified in 104.02.B or 104.02.F.
The Department will pay the salary and fringes plus a 5 percent markup for field personnel identified
in Table 109.05-4.
TABLE 109.05-4
Original Contract Amount
Up to $5,000,000
$5,000,001 to $50,000,000
Over $50,000,000
Field Personnel
One Superintendent
One Superintendent,
One Assistant Superintendent or One Engineer,
One Clerk
One Superintendent,
One Assistant Superintendent,
One Engineer, One Clerk
Superintendent’s transportation is compensable at the same rate allowed for foreman’s transportation
in 109.05.C.5, which includes the cost of mobile communication devices. The allowed hours are when the
superintendent is at the project site.
Superintendent’s subsistence, provided this is the company’s terms of compensation to such
employees, as documented by the Contractor’s written company policy or contracts with their employees.
The Contractor’s or subcontractor’s field office costs include field office trailers, tool trailers, office
equipment rental, temporary toilets, and other incidental facilities and supplies. Compute these costs on a Calendar
Day basis. Owned trailers are paid at the Blue Book rate. Rented trailers are paid at the invoiced cost plus a 15
percent markup. Rented office space, toilets, and office equipment are allowed a 5 percent markup. Purchased
office supplies are allowed a 5 percent markup.
Office utilities include, but are not limited to, telephone, electric, water, and natural gas. Compute
these costs on a Calendar Day basis and allow a 5 percent markup.
f. Home Office Overhead. The Department will pay the Contractor for home office overhead,
unabsorbed home office overhead, extended home office overhead, and all other overhead costs for which payment
is not provided for in 109.05.D.2.e, including overhead costs that would otherwise be calculated using the Eichleay
formula or some other apportionment formula, provided all of the following criteria are met:
(1) The Contractor has incurred an excusable, compensable delay that delays the Work at least 10
Calendar Days beyond the original Completion Date. These days are cumulative throughout the project.
(2) The delay for which payment of home office overhead is sought is only due to delays defined in
108.06.D.2, 108.06.D.3 and 108.06.D.5.
Any subcontractor that has approved C-92’s for subcontracted work totaling $4,000,000 or more is
eligible for reimbursement of home office overhead provided the criteria set forth in 109.05.D.2.f.(1) and
109.05.D.2.f.(2) are met.
Payment will be made for every eligible day beyond the original contract completion date at the rate
determined by 109.05.D.2.f.i. Payment for eligible days occurring during an unanticipated construction period will
be calculated in accordance with 109.05.D.2.f.ii. Payment for eligible days occurring during an unanticipated
winter period will be calculated in accordance with 109.05.D.2.f.iii.
(i) Home Office Overhead Daily Rate
Calculate the home office overhead daily rate using the following formula:
Daily HOOP = (A × C)/B
Where:
A = original contract amount
B = contract duration in Calendar Days
C = value from Table 109.05-5
TABLE 109.05-5
Original Contract Amount
Up to $5,000,000
$5,000,001 to $25,000,000
Over $25,000,000
Daily HOOP =
C
0.08
0.06
0.05
home office overhead daily rate
Contract duration term, B, includes every Calendar Day from the execution of the Contract,
unless otherwise specified by the Director, to the original Contract Completion Date.
When the Contractor requests home office overhead compensation for a subcontractor, use the
above formula to calculate the subcontractor’s Daily HOOP; however, in the subcontractor calculation, A is equal
to the subcontractor’s portion of the original contract amount as determined by the sum of all approved C-92’s
issued for the subcontracted work.
(ii) Home Office Overhead Payment for an Unanticipated Construction Period
Calculate the home office overhead payment for an unanticipated construction period occurring
between May 1 and November 30 using the following formula:
CP HOOP = Daily HOOP × D
Where:
D=
sum of all excusable, compensable delays in Calendar Days minus the sum of all delays
due to 108.06.D.1 and 108.06.D.4 in Calendar Days
Daily HOOP =
daily home office overhead rate
CP HOOP = home office overhead payment for an unanticipated construction period occurring
between May 1 and November 30
The excusable, compensable delay term, D, is the additional, unanticipated extended period for
work performed between May 1 and November 30 in Calendar Days.
(iii) Home Office Overhead Payment for an Unanticipated Winter Period
Calculate the payment for home office overhead for an unanticipated winter period occurring
between December 1 and April 30 using the following formula:
WP HOOP = Daily HOOP × F × D/E
Where:
D = sum of all excusable, compensable delays in Calendar Days minus the sum of all delays
due to 108.06.D.1 and 108.06.D.4 in Calendar Days
E = sum of all excusable, compensable delays in Calendar Days plus the sum of all excusable,
non-compensable delays in Calendar Days
F = 151 for a non-leap year or 152 for a leap year
Daily HOOP = daily home office overhead rate
WP HOOP = home office overhead payment for an unanticipated winter period occurring
between December 1 and April 30
Payment for Home Office Overhead for an unanticipated winter period will not be made when
the value of the remaining work is below the lesser of $500,000.00 or 10 percent of the estimated final contract
value.
(iv) Total Home Office Overhead Payment
Calculate the total home office overhead payment using the following formula:
Total HOOP = CP HOOP + WP HOOP
Where:
CP HOOP = home office overhead payment for an unanticipated construction period occurring
between May 1 and November 30
WP HOOP = home office overhead payment for an unanticipated winter period occurring
between December 1 and April 30
Total HOOP = total home office overhead payment
g. Subsistence and Travel Allowance. The Department will pay costs for subsistence and travel
allowances for labor that must remain on the Project during the delays, when such payments are required by the
collective bargaining agreement or other employment contracts applicable to the classes of labor employed on the
project. Overnight lodging will be reimbursed if the person is at a location greater than forty-five miles from their
residence up to a maximum of $106 per day. Meals and incidental expenses will reimbursed up to a maximum of
$56 per day. The Department will not pay a percent markup on these costs.
E. Changes in Materials. Changes in material specifications that result in increased cost to the Contractor are
compensated by lump sum adjustment to the reference number. The allowed compensation is equal to the invoice
supported material cost increase plus 15 percent markup for profit and overhead.
Material cost savings resulting from a specification change shall be credited to the project by a lump sum
adjustment to the reference number plus a 15 percent markup if the originally specified material has not been
ordered.
If the original material was ordered before the Contractor was informed of the change, the savings markup
allowed is 2.5 percent in order to exclude profit on the original bid price and pay only for incurred overhead.
109.06
Directed Acceleration. The Engineer may order the Contractor to accelerate the Work to avoid delay
costs or to complete the Project early. The Director and the Contractor will negotiate acceleration costs.
109.07
Inefficiency. The Department will compensate the Contractor for inefficiency or loss of productivity
resulting from 104.02 Revisions to the Contract Documents. Use the Measured Mile analysis comparing the
productivity of work impacted by a change to the productivity of similar work performed under un-impacted
conditions to prove and quantify the inefficiency.
109.08
Unrecoverable Costs. The Contractor is not entitled to additional compensation for costs not
specifically allowed or provided for in 109.05 including, but not limited to, the following:
A. Loss of anticipated profit.
B. Consequential damages, including loss of bonding capacity, loss of bidding opportunities, insolvency, and the
effects of force account work on other projects, or business interruption.
C. Indirect costs.
D. Attorney’s fees, claim preparation expenses, and the costs of litigation.
109.09
Estimates. If satisfactory progress is being made, the Contractor will receive monthly payments
equaling the Work and materials in place. The monthly payment is approximate, and all partial estimates and
payments are subject to correction in the Final Estimate and payment. Payment for Work and materials shall not,
in any way, prevent later rejection when defective Work or material is discovered, or constitute acceptance under
109.11 or 109.12.
Except for estimates generated during Project finalization, the Department will not pay an estimate until the
Contractor certifies to the Engineer that the work for which payment is being made was performed in accordance
with the contract. Certification will be made on forms provided by the Department.
The Department may pay estimates twice each month if the Engineer concludes the amount of work performed
is sufficient.
No estimate or payment shall be construed as acceptance of defective Work or improper materials.
The Department will not pay the adjusted final estimate until the Contractor remedies all defective Work and
accepted Work damaged by the Contractor’s operations.
Interest will be paid in accordance with ORC 126.30 when warranted.
109.10
Payment for Delivered Materials. The Department will pay, up to 75 percent of the applicable
contract item, for the invoiced cost of the delivered and approved materials before they are incorporated in the
Work, if the approved materials are delivered, accepted, and properly stored on the project or stored in acceptable
storage places in the vicinity of the Project.
The Department will pay for the cost of approved materials before they are incorporated in the Work when asked
by the Contractor, if the Engineer determines that it is not practical to deliver the material to the Project site. This
provision applies only to bulky materials that are durable in nature and represent a significant portion of the project
cost, such as aggregates, steel, and precast concrete. The Department will pay for un-fabricated structural steel if
the following requirements are met:
1. The Contractor has provided both the Engineer and the Office of Materials Management an itemized invoice
from the steel mill for the steel for which reimbursement is requested
2. Project structural Steel design plans are complete with no forthcoming revisions. For design build projects,
Contractor accepted show drawings per 501.04, will need to be provided.
3. Contractor accepted certified test data for all steel in question along with mill shipping notices have been
received by the Office of Materials Management per 501.06.
4. The steel is properly stored to allow inspection by the Office of Materials Management. It shall also be properly
set apart from other material and identified as belonging to ODOT.
5. The Contractor will provide the Engineer a written statement that under 106, the Contractor is responsible for
the steel that has been paid for until the actual steel is erected and accepted in the field.
6. Payment shall only be authorized after all the aforementioned documentation has been received by the Office
of Materials Management and the steel has been inspected by the Office of Materials Management to verify that
all steel listed in the itemized invoice has been received by the fabricator and properly stored. The amount to be
paid shall be equivalent to the itemized invoice from the steel mill, but shall not exceed 50% of the bid price for
the structural steel.
The Department will not pay delivered materials on small warehouse items or for plant materials.
109.11
Partial Acceptance. Upon completion of a portion of the Work, the Contractor may request
acceptance of a completed portion of the Work.
A. An inspection may be performed on a completed portion of the project roadway section provided:
1.
2.
3.
4.
All safety items are in place including permanent pavement markings.
Traffic is in its final pattern.
A completed portion of the project constitutes a completed geographic section of the project or a
direction of traffic on a divided highway.
Is in accordance with other contract provisions.
B. An inspection may be performed on a completed bridge provided:
1.
All work on the bridge and approaches are complete, including all safety items and permanent
pavement markings.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The Contractor will not return to the bridge for any work except as allowed in 4.
Traffic is in its final pattern.
Painting of structural steel is either completed or scheduled to be performed.
Is in accordance with other contract provisions.
The Final Inspector will grant written partial acceptance for that portion of the Work or reject the Contractor’s
request. Such written partial acceptance will designate what portion of the Work is accepted, the date of acceptance,
and the warranty provisions started by the partial acceptance.
Partial acceptance will relieve the Contractor of maintenance responsibility for the designated portion of the
Work. This does not relieve the Contractor of responsibility to correct defective Work or repair damage caused by
the Contractor or waive any other remedy to which the Department is entitled at law or in equity.
109.12
Final Acceptance.
A. Final Inspection. The Department will perform a Final Inspection for the sole purpose of relieving the
Contractor of maintenance responsibility for the Work.
The Final Inspection shall be a limited visual review of the Work and shall only serve as the Department’s
verification that the Work appears substantially complete. Final Inspection does not waive any available rights or
remedies of the Department, nor divest the Contractor of any responsibility for compliance with the contract or
liability for damages.
Notify the Engineer when the Project is complete and all of the Engineer’s punch list items are complete. If
the Engineer agrees the Project is complete, then within 10 business days the District Final Inspector will inspect
the Work and categorize it as one of the following:
1.
Unacceptable or not complete.
2.
Substantially complete with punch list items found by the Final Inspector.
3.
Substantially complete.
If the Final Inspector finds the Work substantially complete or substantially complete with punch list items,
then the Contractor’s maintenance responsibilities end on the day of the Final Inspection, except for any
maintenance related to unfinished punch list items. This does not relieve the Contractor of responsibility to correct
defective Work or repair damage caused by the Contractor or waive any other remedy to which the Department is
entitled at law or in equity. The Final Inspector will issue a Final Inspection Report that will document the findings
of the inspection and start any warranty period.
B. Punch List. The Final Inspector will issue to the Contractor a written punch list of work required as a condition
of acceptance. The Final Inspector’s punch list will stipulate a reasonable time to complete the required Work.
Failure of the Contractor to complete the punch list items by the stipulated time will result in the assessment of
fifty percent of the Liquidated Damages according to 108.07 for each Calendar Day for every day beyond the
stipulated time the punch list work remains incomplete and beyond the revised Completion Date.
C. Finalization. The Contractor shall accept the final quantities as determined by the Engineer or provide a
written notice indicating the reason for disagreement within 30 Calendar Days of receiving the Engineer’s list of
final quantities. The prescribed 30 Calendar Day period can be modified by mutual agreement of the Contractor
and the District Construction Engineer. If no notice of disagreement is received, then the final payment will be
based on the Engineer’s list of final quantities.
Supply all documents necessary for Project finalization within 60 Calendar Days from the date that the Work
is physically complete. These documents include:
1.
Delinquent material certifications.
2.
Delinquent certified payrolls or required revised payrolls.
3.
Wage affidavit required by ORC Chapter 4115 on projects without any Federal funding.
4.
Delinquent force account records.
5.
If applicable, DBE affidavits.
6.
Any other document required to complete finalization of the project.
Failure to submit these acceptably completed documents will result in an administrative fee of $100 per
Calendar Day for every day that any of the required documents remain delinquent, starting 30 Calendar Days after
receipt of written notification from the Engineer of a document deficiency.
D. Final Payment. Final payment is based on:
1. The agreed final quantities or as determined by the Engineer if agreement is not possible, no compensation
for unauthorized work is allowed.
2.
Finding of substantial completion by the Final Inspector.
3.
Receipt of acceptable finalization documents.
4.
Contractor certification that the Work was performed in accordance with the contract.
E. Completion of Contract and Continuation of Contractor’s Responsibility. The Contract is complete,
except for items covered by the required bonds, when the Contractor receives final payment. The DCA will issue
a letter confirming completion of the contract, noting any exception as provided in Items 659 and 661 and any
warranty. The date the final payment is approved by the District constitutes acceptance for the purpose of ORC
5525.16. Neither Completion of the Contract nor substantial completion relieves the Contractor of any
responsibilities to properly perform or correct the Work or to repair damage or waives any remedies to which the
Department is entitled at law or in equity.
200 EARTHWORK
ITEM 201 CLEARING AND GRUBBING
201.01
201.02
201.03
201.04
201.05
201.06
Description
General
Clearing and Grubbing
Scalping
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
201.01
Description. This work consists of clearing, grubbing, scalping, removing trees and stumps, and
removing all vegetation and construction debris from the limits shown on the plans, except such objects that are to
remain or are to be removed according to other items of work.
Use removed or excavated materials in the work when the material conforms to the specifications; if not then
recycle, burn, or dispose of the material according to 105.16 and 105.17.
201.02
General
A. Remove or save all trees, shrubs, and plants as designated on the plans. Preserve all vegetation and objects not
designated for removal. Paint cut or scarred surfaces of trees or shrubs selected for retention according to 666.04.
B. In order to retard and prevent the spread of destructive insects, limit the movement of regulated articles
according to Ohio Administrative Code 901:5. Observe requirements for handling and transporting of regulated
articles in quarantined areas as defined by the Ohio Department of Agriculture.
Follow all other federal and state destructive insect quarantines.
C. Restrictions on when the Contractor may perform the clearing and grubbing work are located in other parts of
the Contract Documents.
201.03
Clearing and Grubbing. Clear and grub all trees and stumps marked for removal and all surface
objects, brush, roots, and other protruding obstructions not designated to remain, except for special treatments listed
below:
A. In locations to be seeded, remove stumps at least 6 inches (150 mm) below ground surface.
B. In unseeded areas to be rounded at the top of backslopes, cut the stumps flush with or below the surface of the
final slope line.
C. The Contractor may leave undisturbed stumps and roots, and nonperishable solid objects 6 inches (150 mm)
above the existing ground surface in the plan embankment construction locations when both of the following
conditions are true:
1. The embankment height is greater than 9 feet (3 m) as measured vertically from the existing ground
surface to the proposed ground surface, and
2.
The slope of the existing ground is 8:1 or flatter.
D. In locations outside of the construction limits of the cut and embankment areas not to be seeded, the Contractor
may leave sound stumps 24 inches (0.6 m) above the existing ground surface.
Except in areas to be excavated, backfill stump holes and other holes created by removing obstructions with Item
203 embankment material. Place and compact according to Item 203.
Remove low hanging, unsound, or unsightly branches on trees or shrubs designated to remain. Trim branches of
trees extending over the roadbed to provide a clear height of 20 feet (6 m) above the roadbed surface.
Dispose of debris contaminated with garbage, solid waste, or hazardous waste or material according to other
contract items.
201.04
Scalping. Scalping includes removing surface material such as roots, sod, grass, residue of
agricultural crops, sawdust, and decayed vegetable matter. The depth of scalping does not include topsoil or other
material below the scalping operation. The Engineer will not require areas to be scalped in the plan embankment
construction locations when both of the following conditions are true:
1. The embankment height is greater than 9 feet (3 m) as measured vertically from the existing ground
surface to the proposed ground surface, and
2.
The slope of the existing ground is 8:1 or flatter.
Scalp all other areas where excavation or embankment is required.
201.05
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure by one of the following methods:
If Clearing and Grubbing is specified in the Contract, the Department will not measure the area cleared and
grubbed.
If Item 201 Tree Removed or Item 201 Stump Removed is specified in the Contract, the Department will measure
trees and stumps designated for removal according to the following table.
TABLE 201.05-1
Tree or Stump Diameter
Over 12 inches to 24 inches
Over 24 inches to 36 inches
Over 36 inches to 60 inches
Over 60 inches
Pay Item Designation
18-inch size
30-inch size
48-inch size
60-inch size
Over 0.3 m to 0.6 m
Over 0.6 m to 0.9 m
Over 0.9 m to 1.5 m
Over 1.5 m
0.5 m size
0.8 m size
1.2 m size
1.5 m size
The Department will measure the diameter of trees at a height of 54 inches (1.4 m) above the ground. Trees 12
inches (0.3 m) and less in diameter are classified as brush. The Department will measure stumps by taking the
average diameter at the cutoff.
201.06
Basis of Payment. If Item 201 Clearing and Grubbing is specified in the Contract, the Department
will pay for all work described, including backfilling holes, scalping, and removing all trees and stumps, at the
lump sum price bid. If Item 201 Tree Removed or Item 201 Stump Removed is specified in the Contract, the
Department will consider the remaining work described incidental and will not pay for performing this work
directly.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
201
201
201
Lump Sum
Each
Each
Clearing and Grubbing
Tree Removed, ___ Size
Stump Removed, ___ Size
ITEM 202 REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS
202.01
202.02
202.03
202.04
202.05
202.06
202.07
202.08
202.09
202.10
202.11
202.12
202.13
Description
General Construction Requirements
Structures Removed
Pipe Removal
Pavement, Walks, Curbs, Steps, Gutters, or Traffic Dividers Removed
Buildings Demolished
Septic Tanks and Privy Vaults Removed
Underground Storage Tanks Removed
Guardrail and Fence Removed
Manhole, Catch Basin, and Inlet Removed
Manhole, Catch Basin, and Inlet Abandoned
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
202.01
Description. This work consists of removing, entirely or in part, and disposing of all buildings,
fences, guardrails, structures, old pavements, abandoned pipe lines, storage tanks, septic tanks, privy vaults, and
other obstructions not designated or permitted to remain, except for utilities and obstructions to be removed and
disposed of under other items in the Contract. This work also consists of backfilling the resulting trenches, holes,
and pits, and salvaging designated materials.
When specific pay items for removal of structures and obstructions are not listed in the Contract Documents,
perform this work under Item 203.
202.02
General Construction Requirements. Raze, remove, and dispose of all buildings and foundations,
structures, fences, guardrails, old pavements, abandoned pipe lines, storage tanks, septic tanks, privy vaults, and
other obstructions within the Right-of-Way, except for utilities and those items where other provisions have been
made for removal. Remove and store, at the specified locations within the Project limits, or reuse all designated
salvageable materials.
The Department will take ownership of all salvageable items specified for storage. Reuse all salvageable items
specified for reuse on the project. When the Contract Documents do not indicate for storage or for reuse, take
ownership of the material.
Use removed or excavated materials in the Work when the material conforms to the specifications; if not, then
dispose of the material according to 105.16 and 105.17.
Do not remove any item in use by traffic until after making arrangements to accommodate traffic.
When backfilling is required, backfill the resulting cavities, voids, or trenches with either Item 203 embankment
material or Item 611 Structural Backfill Type 1 or 2. Use Item 611 Structural Backfill when the removed item is
under the proposed pavement or paved shoulder and when the site limits the use of compaction equipment larger
than an 8-ton (7 metric tons) roller; otherwise the Contractor may use Item 203 embankment material. Place and
compact the embankment or Item 611 Structural Backfill according to 203.
For backfilled areas outside the plan construction limits, provide a final grade that presents a neat, well-drained
appearance that conforms to the final topography and prevents water from draining onto adjacent properties.
202.03
Structures Removed. Remove bridges, culverts, and other structures indicated for removal in the
Contract Documents. If within a stream, remove the substructures of existing structures, including piling, down to
the proposed stream bottom. For those parts outside the stream, remove substructures to a minimum of 1 foot (0.3
m) below proposed ground surface. Remove, as necessary, those portions of existing structures that lie entirely or
partially within the limits for a new structure to accommodate the construction of the proposed structure.
Where alteration of an existing structure requires removal of portions of the structure, remove those portions
with sufficient care as to avoid damage to the remaining portion of the structure. In case of damage to the existing
structure, repair or replace the structure at no expense to the Department. Remove any existing welded form
hangers, welded attachments two inches or longer measured parallel to the long axis of the top flange of steel beams
or girders, and welded attachments that interfere with the placement of welded shear connectors.
If removing a bridge or portion of a bridge with an asphalt wearing course, remove the wearing course separately
before removing the bridge or portion of the bridge.
Backfill the cavity created by the removal item according to 202.02, except when the cavity lies within the limits
of subsequent excavation or other work.
202.04
Pipe Removal. Remove and reuse, store, or dispose of pipe, or culvert as specified in the Contract
Documents.
If removing an existing concrete waterline pipe that was constructed before 1980, it may be an asbestos pipe.
Test the pipe by using a Department prequalified environmental consultant to determine if it is an asbestos pipe. If
it is determined that the pipe is asbestos, then a certified asbestos Contractor must perform the removal. Dispose
of all asbestos pipe at a solid waste facility that is licensed by the Local Health Department and permitted by the
OEPA.
Seal openings left in walls of manholes or catch basins that are to remain in place, and remove and dispose of
pipe headwalls.
If an adjacent existing pipe is encountered during removal operations and the pipe is inactive or is to be
abandoned, plug or seal the remaining ends of the pipe before proceeding with backfilling operations. Perform
plugging by using approved precast stoppers. Perform sealing by using masonry bulkheads.
Remove a sufficient section of the pipe to allow the Engineer to determine the quality of the pipe and the
possibility of its removal without damage to pipe specified for reuse or storage. If the Engineer determines the pipe
is salvageable, carefully remove the remainder of the pipe to avoid breaking or damaging the pipe. Transport and
store the removed pipe, as necessary before relaying. Replace sections of pipe lost or damaged by negligence or by
use of improper methods at no additional cost to the Department. Clean all pipe before reusing. Remove salvageable
pipe under Item 202 Pipe Removed for Reuse or Storage.
If the Engineer determines the pipe is unusable, take ownership of the pipe, and dispose of or recycle it according
to 202.02. Remove unusable pipe under Item 202 Pipe Removed.
Before backfilling the trench, excavate the caved material, as necessary.
Backfill trenches resulting from the removal of pipe according to 202.02, except when the trench lies within the
limits of subsequent excavation or other work.
202.05
Pavement, Walks, Curbs, Steps, Gutters, or Traffic Dividers Removed. As designated, remove
and dispose of the existing wearing course, concrete base course, concrete pavement, asphalt wearing course on
brick or concrete base, concrete walks, concrete steps, concrete gutters, stone or concrete curbs, and concrete traffic
dividers. If removing only a portion of an existing pavement, walk, step, gutter, curb, or traffic divider, saw or
otherwise cut a neat joint at the removal limit if it does not occur at an existing joint.
If Item 202 Pavement Removed is specified in the Contract, remove all asphalt, concrete, or brick from the
surface to the bottom of the pavement courses as shown on the plans. If 202 Base Removed is specified in the
Contract, remove the specific layer as shown on the plans. If Item 202 Wearing Course Removed is specified in
the Contract, remove all asphalt from the surface to the top of the concrete or brick or remove the specific layer or
layers shown on the plans.
Backfill the cavity created by the removal item according to 202.02, except when the cavity lies within the limits
of subsequent excavation or other work.
202.06
Buildings Demolished. Do not disturb buildings and appurtenances designated for demolition until
the Engineer provides a Notice of Possession and Approval to Proceed. Immediately after receiving approval,
schedule and perform the demolition under the Engineer’s direction in order to accommodate utility rearrangements
and clearance of structures. Whether the building is located partially or totally on temporary or permanent Rightof-Way perform the demolition the same.
The Contractor may use buildings located partially on and off the permanent Right-of-Way for storage, office,
living quarters, or other purposes. The agreement shall allow such use during the period of the Contract and save
the Department harmless from any claims whatsoever by reason of such use.
Remove foundations; floors; floor slabs; and basement, pit, well, and cistern walls to a minimum of 1 foot (0.3
m) below the grade of the surrounding area.
Completely remove all tanks and clear basements of all materials, debris, appliances, wood or metal partitions,
and wood floors so only masonry walls and concrete basement floors remain. Break up and remove all floor slabs
under which a pit, well, cistern, or tank exists. Break up basement floors to be left in place, and seal remaining
drains with masonry or with precast clay or concrete stoppers.
Take ownership of all materials, except those belonging to a public or private utility. Notify the owners of water,
electric, or gas meters when the meters are ready for removal. Disconnect all utilities according to local
requirements.
After completing demolition work and obtaining the Engineer’s approval, immediately backfill the cavity created
by the removal item according to 202.02, except when the cavity lies within the limits of subsequent excavation or
other work.
202.07
Septic Tanks and Privy Vaults Removed. Empty all septic tanks and privy vaults. Dispose of the
removed contents in a manner that conforms to the requirements of the State and Local Boards of Health or other
authorities having jurisdiction.
Completely remove and dispose of septic tanks and privy vaults located above the subgrade or finished ground
surface. For septic tanks and privy vaults located below the subgrade or finished ground surface, remove tops and
walls to a minimum depth of 3 feet (1 m) below subgrade or 1 foot (0.3 m) below finished ground surface. Break
up floors and seal remaining drains with masonry or with precast clay or concrete stoppers.
Backfill the cavity created by the removal, partial removal, or emptying operation according to 202.02, except
when the cavity lies within the limits of subsequent excavation or other work.
202.08
Underground Storage Tank Removed. Remove and dispose of underground storage tanks or
regulated underground storage tanks, as designated in the Contract Documents, and according to the requirements
of the authorities having jurisdiction.
If Item 202 Regulated Underground Storage Tank Removed is specified in the Contract, remove the tank
according to the Bureau of Underground Storage Tank Regulations of the Division of Fire Marshal (BUSTR), Ohio
EPA, and all applicable Federal, State, and local regulations. Removal includes obtaining the required permit,
disposing of the tank and its contents, testing the excavated material, and preparing the closure report. Provide a
Certified Tank Installer to supervise the removal. Provide an independent non-Contractor employee BUSTR
inspector or a State Certified BUSTR inspector to perform the BUSTR required inspections. For tanks containing
hazardous substances other than petroleum, use the Ohio EPA regulations in addition to State Fire Marshal
regulations.
Completely remove regulated underground storage tank and contents. Take ownership and dispose of tanks
according to 202.02 and the above requirements. If because of leakage from the tank, any contaminated water or
soil disposal or remediation is required, perform the necessary work under other items in the Contract or according
to 109.05.
If Item 202 Underground Storage Tank Removed is specified in the Contract, completely remove and dispose of
the tank. Dispose of the removed contents in a manner that conforms to the requirements of the State and local
Boards of Health, or other authorities having jurisdiction.
Backfill the cavity created by the removal items according to 202.02, except when the cavity lies within the limits
of subsequent excavation or other work.
202.09
Guardrail and Fence Removed. Carefully dismantle and store existing guardrail (including anchor
assemblies and terminal assemblies, and any attached posts, signs, and delineators) and fence when designated for
reuse or storage by the Department. Dispose of wood posts and other materials not considered salvageable
according to 202.02.
When fence is designated for replacement, do not remove the existing fence until the replacement material is on
site. Begin the new installation within 7 workdays of beginning the removal process.
When guardrail is designated to be replaced and traffic is being maintained in the adjacent lane, do not leave
hazards unprotected except for the actual time required to remove the existing guardrail and install the proposed
guardrail in a continuous operation. Do not remove the guardrail until the replacement material is on the site and
ready for installation. The Engineer will suspend work for failure to comply with this requirement.
Backfill the cavity created by the removal item according to 202.02, except when the cavity lies within the limits
of subsequent excavation or other work.
202.10
Manhole, Catch Basin, and Inlet Removed. Remove existing drainage structures of the types
designated for removal. Take ownership of castings unless otherwise noted on the plans.
Backfill the cavity created by the removal item according to 202.02, except when the cavity lies within the limits
of subsequent excavation or other work.
202.11
Manhole, Catch Basin, and Inlet Abandoned. Remove existing drainage structures of the types
designated to be abandoned to a minimum of 1 foot (0.3 m) below the finished subgrade or ground surface. Do not
damage pipes that are to remain. Take ownership of castings unless otherwise noted on the plans.
Connect existing pipes with new pipe through the structures. Seal the existing inlet and outlet pipes with precast
vitrified or concrete stoppers or with masonry of a type and thickness to fill the inlet or outlet pipe.
After connecting or sealing the existing pipes and removing the walls to the required depth, backfill the remaining
cavities according to 202.02. If using connecting pipes, carefully hand tamp backfill under and around the pipe
according to 202.02.
202.12
Method of Measurement. If the Contract specifies that removal of structures and obstructions is on
a lump sum basis, the work will include all structures or obstructions encountered at locations or within areas
designated in the Contract Documents. However, the Department will measure asphalt wearing course removal on
a bridge separate from the lump sum item for structure removal.
If the Contract specifies that removal of specific items is on a unit basis, the Department will measure the quantity
of each item by the unit stipulated in the Contract. If removal of steps is measured by the foot (meter), the
Department will measure the number of feet (meters) along the front edge of each tread. If the steps have an integral
wall, the Department will include the thickness of the integral wall with the tread width measurement.
202.13
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for all work involved in the removal and storage,
reuse, or disposal of structures and obstructions, including excavation and backfill incidental to their removal,
removing the contents of the underground storage and septic tanks and the custody, preservation, storage on the
Right-of-Way, and disposal as provided in this specification.
For pipe removed and reused or stored, the Department will pay for the accepted work under Item 202 Pipe
Removed for Reuse or Storage. For unusable pipe removed, the Department will pay for the accepted work under
Item 202 Pipe Removed.
If the Contract Documents do not include a pay item for Item 202 Asbestos Pipe Removed, then the Department
will pay for removal and disposal of asbestos pipe according to 109.05.
When removed pavement is replaced with embankment material, the Department will pay for the embankment
material under the applicable 203 or 204 pay item. When pipe is removed from beneath existing pavement, the
Department will pay for pavement removal under the applicable pay item for pavement removal or excavation, and
the Department will pay for new pavement under the applicable pavement pay item.
Include all of the costs and work associated with compliance of the rules or regulations under Item 202 Regulated
Underground Storage Tank Removed. If the underground storage tank is not regulated, the work does not include
obtaining inspection services, permits, testing excavated material, or closure reporting and the payment will be
under Item 202 Underground Storage Tank Removed.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
202
202
Lump Sum
Lump Sum, or
Cubic Yard or Pound
(Cubic Meter
or Kilogram)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Foot
(Square Meter)
Lump Sum, or
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot or
Square Yard
(Meter or
Square Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Each
Lump Sum
Each
Each
Each
Each
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Each
Each
Each
Each
Structure Removed
Portions of Structure Removed
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
Pipe Removed for Reuse or Storage
Pipe Removed
Asbestos Pipe Removed
Pavement Removed
Wearing Course Removed
Base Removed
Walk Removed
Steps Removed
Curb Removed
Curb and Gutter Removed
Gutter Removed
Curb Removed for Storage
Precast Traffic Divider Removed for Reuse or Storage
Building Demolished
Underground Storage Tank Removed
Regulated Underground Storage Tank Removed
Septic Tank Removed
Privy Vault Removed
Guardrail Removed
Guardrail Removed for Reuse or Storage
Fence Removed for Reuse or Storage
Manhole Removed
Manhole Abandoned
Catch Basin or Inlet Removed
Catch Basin or Inlet Abandoned
ITEM 203 ROADWAY EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT
203.01
203.02
203.03
203.04
203.05
203.06
203.07
203.08
203.09
203.10
Description
Material Definitions
Restrictions on the Use of Embankment Materials
General
Embankment Construction Methods
Spreading and Compacting
Compaction and Moisture Requirements
Earthwork Construction Tolerances
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
203.01
Description. This work consists of preparing areas upon which embankments are to be placed;
excavating for roadways and channels, including the removal of all material encountered not being removed under
another item; constructing embankments with the excavated material and material from other approved sources as
necessary to complete the planned embankments; furnishing and incorporating all water required for compacting
embankment; disposing of unsuitable and surplus material and finishing shoulders, slopes, and ditches.
All excavation is considered unclassified excavation. If the excavation contains regulated materials such as
garbage, solid waste, and hazardous waste or material, the Contract Documents will detail the removal for these
items.
Use removed or excavated materials in the Work when the material conforms to the specifications; if not, then
recycle or dispose of the material according to 105.16 and 105.17.
203.02
Material Definitions.
A. Asphalt Concrete. Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) that is blended to meet the requirements in 703.16.
B. Base. Selected material of planned thickness placed on the subgrade as a foundation for other bases, or asphalt
or concrete pavements. The base is a part of the pavement structure.
C. Borrow. Material obtained from approved sources, located outside the construction limits that is required for
the construction of the embankment. When borrow is specified or used, use suitable materials that conform to
203.02.R.
D. Compaction Testing. The Department will perform the compaction testing of embankment and subgrade
according to Supplement 1015.
E. Embankment. A structure consisting of suitable materials conforming to 203.02.R and constructed in lifts to
a predetermined elevation and cross section.
F. Excavation. The excavation and disposal of all materials required by the Contract Documents.
G. Maximum Dry Density. The maximum dry density is determined according to AASHTO T 99, AASHTO T
272, or Supplement 1015. The Department will use this maximum dry density for compaction acceptance.
H. Natural Granular Materials. Natural granular materials include broken or crushed rock, gravel, sand, durable
siltstone, and durable sandstone that can be placed in an 8-inch (200 mm) loose lift.
I. Natural Soil. All natural earth materials, organic or inorganic, resulting from natural processes such as
weathering, decay, and chemical action.
J. Optimum Moisture Content. The water content at which the maximum dry density is produced in an
embankment material. The optimum moisture content is determined according to AASHTO T 99, AASHTO T 272,
or Supplement 1015.
K. Petroleum Contaminated Soil (PCS). Petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) that is regulated under OAC1301:7-9-16.
L. Random Material. Mixtures of suitable materials that can be placed in 8-inch (200 mm) loose lifts.
M. Recycled Portland Cement Concrete. Recycled Portland cement concrete (RPCC) that is blended to meet
the requirements in 703.16.
N. Recycled Materials. Fly ash, bottom ash, foundry sand, recycled glass, tire shreds, or other materials or
manufacturing bi-products not specifically named as suitable materials in 203.02.R.
O. Rock. Sandstone, siltstone, limestone, dolomite, glacial boulders, brick, and RPCC too large to be placed in
an 8-inch (200 mm) loose lift.
P. Shale. A fine-grained sedimentary rock formed from the lithification of clay, silt, or mud. Shale has a laminated
structure, which splits easily (is fissile). For the purpose of this specification, mudstone and claystone are also
considered to be shale. Shale is classified as durable or nondurable according to 703.16.D.
Q. Slag Materials. Slag materials include air cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS), granulated slag (GS), open
hearth (OH) slag, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag, and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag meeting the requirements
in 703.16.
R. Suitable Materials. All suitable materials are restricted in 203.03. Furnish soil or embankment material
conforming to 703.16, when Item 203 Embankment is specified. Furnish material that conforms to 703.16.B or
703.16.C when Item 203 Granular Embankment is specified. Furnish material that conforms to 703.16.C when
Item 203 Granular Material Types A, B, C, D, E or F are specified. Do not use recycled materials unless specifically
allowed by the Supplemental Specifications.
203.03
follows:
Restrictions on the Use of Embankment Materials. Suitable materials are further restricted as
A. Use silt identified as ODOT Group Classification A-4b and RAP only if placed at least 3 feet (1 m) below the
surface of the subgrade.
B. Do not place RPCC and RAP in any location where it would inhibit the growth of vegetation.
C. Do not use any suitable material that cannot be incorporated in an 8-inch (200 mm) lift in the top 2 feet (0.6
m) of the embankment.
D. Do not use nondurable shale in the top 2 feet (0.6 m) of the embankment that is not completely compacted and
pulverized into a soil with 100 percent of the material passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve.
E. If using RPCC, OH slag, EAF slag, BOF slags, or blends of these materials, place these materials at least 1
foot (0.3 m) below the flow line of the underdrains.
F. Do not use RPCC, OH slag, EAF slag, BOF slags, granulated slag, or blends of these materials for underwater
applications.
G. Do not use materials that cannot be satisfactory placed and compacted to a stable and durable condition.
H. Material excavated in the work that contains excessive moisture is unsuitable for embankment construction
unless dried. Dry or aerate such material before incorporating in the work. The Contractor may elect to waste this
material, instead of drying it.
I. If Granular Material Type E in 703.16.C is allowed or specified, use a geotextile fabric conforming to 712.09,
Type D on the top, bottom, and around the Type E material to prevent piping of the material into the Type E
material.
J. If electing to use PCS, submit the information stated below in a suitable format at least 10 workdays before
the intended usage.
1. Have an independent ODOT consultant pre-qualified in remedial design environmental site assessment
review the proposed usage. The consultant shall provide all documentation used to ensure that the proposed usage
obeys all Ohio EPA regulations. The consultant shall coordinate all EPA required meetings, documentation, and
testing requirements. The consultant shall randomly monitor the construction to ensure that the environmental
requirements are carried out on the project. The consultant shall report any discrepancies to the Department and
the Contractor. The consultant shall certify the report or reports to the Department.
2.
Use PCS that conforms to all current environmental policies, rules, and regulations and the following:
a.
Use PCS material that does not exceed the petroleum constituent concentrations stated below:
Benzene (B)
Toluene (T)
Ethyl benzene (E)
Total Xylenes (X)
35 parts per million
109 parts per million
32 parts per million
165 parts per million
b. Include test results from BTEX testing by using U.S. EPA test method SW 846, method 8020, or
equivalent method.
c.
Perform the tests on every 100 tons (90 metric tons) of PCS used.
203.04
General. Perform the required clearing and grubbing before starting the excavation, grading, and
embankment operations.
Coordinate the clearing and grubbing with the installation of sediment and erosion controls.
Remove all existing pavement before the embankment construction.
Temporarily discontinue operations when the excavating operations encounter remains of prehistoric
archaeological sites, historical archaeological sites, or human remains. The Engineer will contact the Department’s
Office of Environmental Services to determine the disposition thereof. Preserve the artifacts or other archeological
items or human remains until a determination as to what the disposition and/or removal of such items is made by
the Office of Environmental Services. Such excavation is considered Extra Work.
If the Contractor encounters any abnormal material such as, but not limited to, drums, tanks, or stained earth or
any unusual odors during construction operations, the Contractor shall temporarily discontinue the work in this
area, leave equipment in place, cordon off the area, and notify the Engineer. The area is considered to contain
hazardous waste or material and must be handled according to The Construction Inspection Manual of Procedures,
Item 202 Removal of Structures and Obstructions, Section- Regulated Waste Requirements, Regulated Wastes
Found During Construction.. Upon notification by the Engineer to resume work, the Contractor may file for an
extension of time according to 108.06.
A. Drainage and Maintenance of the Work. Maintain a well-drained embankment and excavation operation. If
trenching for narrow widening and in other areas of the embankment construction, construct ditches of an adequate
depth and at frequent intervals across the berm or embankment to maintain drainage. Deepen side ditches when
necessary to ensure thorough embankment or subgrade drainage.
Construct the embankment with sufficient cross-slope to drain in case of rain.
If precipitation saturates the embankment construction, stay off the embankment construction until the
embankment dries or stabilizes. Expedite the construction by removing the saturated embankment or dry the
embankment by scarifying, plowing, disking, and recompacting the embankment.
Throughout the embankment construction operation and at the end of each day’s operation, shape to drain,
compact, and recompact the work area to a uniform cross section. Eliminate all ruts and low spots that could hold
water.
If using embankment construction or cut areas to haul on, continuously move the hauling equipment around
on the area to take advantage of the compactive effort. Continually re-grade and compact the haul roads and
maintain the construction according to 105.13 and 105.14.
Plug and cover the upstream ends of all pipe lines encountered during earthwork operations.
B. Rock or Shale Blasting Operations. Conform to Item 208 when blasting.
C. Slides and Breakages. Remove all slides and breakages beyond the limits of the planned finished work when
caused by improper excavation methods.
D. Shoulders, Slopes, and Ditches. When specified, place the topsoil in areas to be seeded or sodded according
to Item 659. Build shoulders to the lines shown on the plans and to the tolerances specified in 203.08. Reshape
shoulders, slopes, and ditches that have been damaged by erosion during construction.
Keep new and existing pavement, and the paved area of the berm clear of earth stockpiles or other berm
materials.
E. Pavement Widening Construction. Locate sound pavement edges, and cut and trim pavement to a neat line.
Repair and restore damage caused by the equipment or methods. Include the cost of cutting, trimming, and disposal
under Item 203 Excavation.
F. Borrow. Unless otherwise designated in the Contract, make arrangements for obtaining borrow and pay all
costs involved. If borrow is specified, use all suitable excavated material in the work prior to using the borrow
material.
Place borrow used as embankment according to all the requirements for constructing embankment.
Blade and leave all borrow areas in such shape as to allow accurate measurements after the excavation has
been completed.
Notify the Engineer sufficiently in advance of opening any borrow areas so that cross section elevations and
measurements of the ground surface after stripping may be taken.
Construct borrow areas that conform to 105.16; clean up the borrow areas according to 104.04.
G. Staged Construction and Waiting Periods. If specified in the Contract Documents, control the rate of fill
accordingly. Adhere to the rate of fill and to the waiting periods during the work.
203.05
Embankment Construction Methods. Embankment construction includes preparing areas upon
which embankments are to be placed; placing and compacting approved material within roadway areas where
unsuitable material has been removed; and placing and compacting approved material in holes, pits, and other
depressions within the roadway.
If scalping is required, scarify, plow, disk, and compact the existing embankment foundation. Compact the top
8 inches (200 mm) of the foundation to 95 percent of the maximum dry density or to a maximum test section dry
density according to Supplement 1015. If the foundation cannot be compacted, the Department will design
replacement material or the Engineer may increase the lift thickness of the next layer of embankment.
The Engineer may increase the lift thickness of the next embankment layer to bridge the soft or wet foundation
areas that will not support the weight of the trucks or hauling equipment. Dump successive loads of rock, durable
shale, or granular material in a uniform lift. Do not exceed the thickness required to support the equipment placing
the material. Manipulate, blade, distribute, level, and doze the material in place until the area is stabilized and
material is above the normal water elevation. Once the bridging has been accomplished, construct the remaining
lifts according to 203.06.
If the existing slope is steeper than 8:1, bench into the existing slope as follows:
A. Scalp the existing slope according to Item 201.
B. Cut horizontal benches in the existing slope to a sufficient width to blend the new embankment with the
existing embankment and to accommodate the placement, and compaction operations and equipment.
C. Bench the slope as the embankment is placed, and compact into layers.
D. Begin each bench at the intersection of the existing slope and the vertical cut of the previous bench. Recompact
the cut materials along with the new embankment.
If constructing embankment on only one side of abutments, wing walls, piers, or culvert headwalls, construct the
embankment so that the area immediately adjacent to the structure is not compacted in a manner that causes
overturning of or excessive pressure against the structure. If constructing embankment on both sides of a concrete
wall, pipe, or box type structure, construct the embankment so that the elevation on both sides of the structure is
always approximately the same.
203.06
Spreading and Compacting. Do not construct frozen embankment material or place embankment
material on frozen ground.
Spread all embankment material, except for rock in 203.06.C. and RPCC in 203.06.D, in successive horizontal
loose lifts, not to exceed 8 inches (200 mm) in thickness. Compact all embankment material lifts, except for Type
D granular material, Type E granular material, rock and durable shale, to the specified density and moisture controls
in 203.07.
When a minimum effective weight requirement is specified in 203.06 or 203.07, the Contractor may use a
vibratory roller which meets the requirement using a combination of weight and equivalent centrifugal force from
vibration. In all cases, submit documentation from the manufacturer that shows the roller meets the minimum
effective weight requirements.
The Engineer may reduce the minimum number of passes if additional passes are detrimental to compaction or
stability.
A. Soil and Granular Embankment. For soil or granular material, when a test section is used, use a minimum
compactive effort of eight passes with a steel drum roller having a minimum effective weight of 10 tons (9 metric
tons).
Compact Type D and Type E granular material using at least ten passes of a smooth drum vibratory roller
having a minimum effective weight of 10 tons (9 metric tons). Add water to Type D granular material as needed
or directed by the Engineer.
B. Shale. The Engineer will test shale for durability according to 703.16.D, to determine if compaction testing is
required. For nondurable shale, when a test section is used, use a minimum compactive effort of ten passes with a
footed drum roller having a minimum effective weight of 15 tons (14 metric tons) or with rollers meeting the
requirements of 703.16.D.
Use water to aid in breaking down large particles and to bring the shale to at least 2 percent above optimum
moisture content.
Compact durable shale, as defined in 703.16.D, with a minimum compactive effort of ten passes of a footed
drum roller having a minimum effective weight of 15 tons (14 metric tons) or with rollers meeting the requirements
of 703.16.D. When durable shale is mixed with fine material, use fine material that is at least 2 percent above
optimum moisture content. No density testing will be required. If shale mixtures contain large particles of shale,
break down the particles during placement until the voids are filled.
Place and compact shale and rock mixtures using the same procedure as for shale. Reduce rock size in a shalerock mixture to less than or equal to 8 inches (200 mm), or separate rock greater than 8 inches (200 mm) from the
mixture and use as rock fill. Use the construction methods for rock when the shale-rock mixture contains less than
15 percent shale.
C. Rock. Reduce the rock until it is small enough to be incorporated into the following horizontal lift thickness:
Place rock in a maximum loose lift thickness 6 inches larger than the largest diameter of the rock pieces or 3 feet
(1 m), which ever results in the smaller lift thickness. When placing rock fill within a length of six times the height
of the fill at an abutment, place rock fill in loose lifts not to exceed 18 inches (0.5 m). [For example, if the fill height
is 20 feet (6 m), then the rock fill within 120 feet (36 m) of the abutment is placed in less than 18-inch (0.5 m) loose
lifts.]
Do not dump the rock, but distribute and place the full width of the lift by blading or dozing to ensure proper
placement. Evenly distribute the larger rocks, and reduce the voids, pockets, and bridging to ensure minimum
deformation. Incorporate smaller rock pieces in the upper portions of each rock lift to fill the voids during this
manipulation.
When placing embankment material other than rock on top of the rock lift, level and smooth the rock surface
using suitable leveling equipment and evenly distribute the smaller rock, rock spalls, or finer rock fragments.
Roll all rock lift surfaces with eight passes of a vibratory footed drum roller having a minimum effective weight
of 10 tons (9 metric tons).
When constructing rock and other embankment materials at approximately the same time, perform the
following:
1.
Use the rock at the base of the embankment.
2.
Use rock in the outer portions of the embankment.
3.
Use the larger rocks on the outside side slopes.
4.
Use the other embankment material in the inner portion of the fill.
5.
Keep the top of the other embankment materials higher than the rock.
6.
Construct the other embankment materials to a sufficient width to allow the specified compaction.
7. When rock is placed on top of other embankment material, construct the other embankment material at a
center-to-side slope grade of approximately 4 percent.
D. Random Materials. Reduce the random material until it is small enough to incorporate into an 8-inch (200
mm) lift, except for RPCC in 203.06.D.1 through 203.06.D.4.
When using a uniformly graded mixture, use material with a moisture content less than 2 percent below
optimum to obtain compaction. When large pieces are incorporated in the lifts, use fine material with a moisture
content less than 2 percent below optimum to obtain compaction.
Compact natural soil and natural granular material blends with RAP or RPCC to the same requirements as a
granular embankment in 203.06.
When using RPCC slabs or large RPCC pieces in the embankment construction, conform to the following:
1. Use natural soil or natural granular material that is less than 2 percent below optimum moisture content in
the blend. Reduce the slabs or pieces to less than 3  3 feet (1  1 m) in size and place the blend in a maximum
loose lift thickness of 12 inches (300 mm).
2. Manipulate, level, and distribute the mixture by blading or dozing to fill the voids and pockets, and reduce
bridging.
3. Compact the natural soil or natural granular embankment to the compaction and moisture requirements in
203.07.
4. When the RPCC slabs or large RPCC pieces consists of more than 50 percent of the embankment lift,
place the blended material in maximum loose lifts of 18 inches (0.5 m). Do not place one slab directly on the other.
Compact, manipulate, level, and distribute as stated in 203.06.D.1 through 203.06.D.3.
E. Areas Inaccessible to Rollers. For areas inaccessible to rollers, such as adjacent to culverts, retaining walls,
or other structures, construct the embankment in 6-inch (150 mm) horizontal loose lifts.
203.07
Compaction and Moisture Requirements. Construct all embankments, except rock and durable
shale, using moisture and density controls. Unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents, the Engineer
will perform all compaction tests according to Supplement 1015.
A. Moisture Controls. Sprinkle enough water on embankment material that contains too little moisture to wet it
to a moisture content needed to meet the density requirements. Apply the water using tank trucks equipped with
suitable sprinkling devices. Thoroughly incorporate the water into the material by using discs, plows, or other
approved equipment. Continue to water and to manipulate until the required moisture is uniformly distributed
throughout the lift.
Before or during compaction, allow the embankment material that contains excess moisture to dry to a moisture
content needed to meet the density requirements. Continue drying until the required moisture is uniform throughout
the lift. However, for material that displays pronounced elasticity or deformation under the action of loaded rubber
tire construction equipment or other equipment, reduce the moisture content to secure stability. Expedite and
manipulate the embankment material by drying the wet embankment material by using plows or discs; by adding
dry material, lime, lime kiln dust, or cement; or by other methods.
Do not mix shale in the lifts to reduce the moisture content of the embankment material.
B. Compaction Requirements. Compact all embankment materials, except for rock and durable shale, in
horizontal lifts to a dry density greater than the percentage of maximum dry density in Table 203.07-1, or to 98
percent of the maximum dry density determined by the test section methods specified in Supplement 1015.
TABLE 203.07-1 EMBANKMENT COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS
Maximum
Dry Density
[lb/ft³ (kg/m³)]
90 to 104.9 (1440 to 1680)
105 to 119.9 (1681 to 1920)
120 and more (1921 and more)
Minimum Compaction
Requirements in Percent of
Maximum Dry Density
102
100
98
If needed for compaction acceptance, construct a test section using the following:
1. Use at least the same number of passes and compactive effort used to construct the test section to construct
the production embankment areas.
2.
Construct a new test section when the material, supporting foundation, or embankment changes.
3.
Reduce the moisture content if the material becomes unstable.
203.08
Earthwork Construction Tolerances. Finish the completed excavation and embankment to the cross
sections shown on the plans. Check the excavation and embankment work with templates, slope boards, electronic
methods, or other methods specified in Item 623. The Engineer will allow occasional deviations in the work within
the following tolerances:
A. When topsoil is specified, use the following:
1.
In fill areas, construct the embankment to the bottom of the topsoil depth.
2.
In cut areas, excavate additional depth to allow for the topsoil.
3.
For cuts or fills, the cross sections show the finished grade, which is the top of the topsoil.
B. For the backslopes (cut slopes), from the back of the ditch to the existing ground, and for the foreslopes (fill
slopes), from the edge of the graded shoulder to the bottom of the ditch, do not allow deviations greater than 1 foot
(0.3 m) as measured in the horizontal plane.
C. Do not construct shoulders and ditches less than the horizontal measurement from the centerline or to a higher
elevation than shown on the plans. However, the cross section may vary below the plan grades by less than 1/2 inch
(15 mm) at the pavement edge and by less than 2 inches (50 mm) elsewhere.
D. Construct or fine grade the subgrade to within 1/2 inch (15 mm) of the plan elevation at any location. Construct
or fine grade the subgrade to within 1/2 inch (15 mm) of the plan grade as measured with a 10-foot (3 m)
straightedge applied to the surface parallel to the centerline of the pavement.
E. For all rock or shale cut slopes that do not require control blasting techniques, rake excavate, hoe, ram, or
mechanically shape these slopes to obtain a neat and smooth appearance.
203.09
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Excavation by the number of cubic yards
(cubic meters) of material in the original position, acceptably excavated, using the average end area method.
The Department will measure Embankment; Rock; Granular Embankment; and Granular Material, Type ___ by
the number of cubic yards (cubic meters) of material in the final position, acceptably placed, using the average end
area method.
Measurement will include overbreakage or slides not attributable to carelessness of the Contractor, embankment
settlement caused by soft embankment foundation, unsuitable materials excavated and removed to obtain proper
stability in cut sections and in foundation areas for fill sections.
The Department may use three-dimensional measurements where it is impractical to measure material by the
cross section method due to the erratic location of isolated deposits.
The Department will not measure excavation or embankment outside plan limits.
The Department will measure Borrow by the cubic yard (cubic meter) or ton (metric ton) as specified in the
Contract Documents.
The Contract Documents will specify borrow only when the measurement of the material in its final location by
volume is impractical. For example, this would apply when the borrow material is to be placed in locations that are
under water or in locations with extremely soft foundations. In addition, the Department may specify borrow when
additional material is needed and when Item 209 is specified. In this case, the Department will pay for borrow
under 209 Borrow.
The Department will measure the volume of borrow material in a natural formation either by the average end
area method or by weight.
Where measurement is by the average end area, the Department will take cross sections after the surface has
been cleared and scalped and again after the borrow area excavation has been completed. The cross sections
determine the volume for payment.
Where the total weight is measured and converted to volume, the Department will determine material density in
pounds per cubic yard (kilograms per cubic meters) in its original position by a series of representative field
measurements made after clearing and scalping have been performed, and as the excavation exposes the borrow
material. Weigh the acceptable material, minus excess moisture, excavated from the borrow area for incorporation
into the embankment, and furnish the Department with load slips. The Department will determine the cubic yards
(cubic meters) for payment by dividing the total weight of the borrow material by the average weight per cubic
yard (cubic meter) of the undisturbed material. If the moistures of the in-place borrow site density test material is
not within 2 percent of the accepted delivered material, the Department will calculate volume based on the dry
densities and weights.
The Department will calculate the volume of borrow from sources other than natural in-place formations, such
as processed slag, sand, stone or gravel, and quarry material as follows: Determine the material in-place compacted
density in pounds per cubic yard (kilograms per cubic meter). The volume paid will be the total weight of the
material furnished, minus excess moisture, divided by 95 percent of the average embankment density. If the
moisture content of the accepted in-place density test material is not within 2 percent of the delivered material, the
Department will calculate volume based on the dry densities and weights. Where measurements show that
completed embankment exists outside the plan cross sections or outside the allowable tolerances, the Department
will multiply the quantity outside plan lines by a shrinkage factor to determine the quantity deducted from the
measured borrow quantity. The shrinkage factor is determined by dividing the volume or weight of the material
excavated or used as borrow by the volume or weight of the material compacted in place.
When the measurement is by weight, the Department will accept the material based on the freight bills and weight
and volume evidence according to 109.
203.10
Basis of Payment. If the Contract does not include 201 Clearing and Grubbing or an estimated
quantity for 201 Tree Removed or 201 Stump Removed, or an estimated quantity for the pay items under Item 202,
the Department will not pay for this work directly but will considered it incidental to pay items under Item 203.
The Department will not pay for additional wasting cost of material excavated in the work that was wasted instead
of being dried as detailed in 203.03.H.
If the Contractor elects to use PCS, the Department will not pay for additional work necessary to comply with
the requirements specified in 203.03.J.
If during excavation the Contractor encounters remains of prehistoric archaeological sites, historical
archaeological sites, or human remains, the Department will pay for such excavation according to 109.05.
If during excavation the Contractor encounters hazardous material or waste, the Department will pay according
to 109.05.
If necessary during the construction in 203.03.H, 203.04.A, or 203.07.A, the Department will not pay for
removing the saturated embankment or drying the embankment.
If caused by improper excavation methods, the Department will not pay for removing slides and breakages
beyond the limits of the planned finished work. The Department will pay for the removal of slides and breakages
beyond the limits of the planned finished work according to 109.05, when there is no Contractor fault or neglect.
If caused by the lack of implementing erosion controls, the Department will not pay for reshaping shoulders,
slopes, and ditches damaged by erosion during construction.
If caused by the Contractor’s equipment or methods, the Department will not pay for repairing or restoring
damaged areas designated for salvage.
When topsoil is specified, the Department will not make deductions or additions from the earthwork quantities
for the topsoil.
The Department will not adjust earthwork quantities when the volume between two consecutive cross-sections
differs by less than 5 percent from the plan quantity, unless the difference between the actual quantity and plan
quantity is greater than 1000 cubic yards (1000 m³) for all pay items measured by the cubic yard (cubic meter)
under Item 203, combined. For quantity differences greater than 5 percent or greater than 1000 cubic yards (1000
m³), submit supporting documentation to the Engineer. However, the Department will adjust earthwork quantities
for changes less than 5 percent or 1000 cubic yards (1000 m³) when the change results from the following:
undercutting, foundation settlement, changes to grades or slopes, and removing slides. For quantities measured for
payment, the Department will use the plan cross sections, corrected for errors, as the original field cross sections.
Additional cross sections may be interpolated from the plans at points necessary to more accurately determine
quantities.
The Department will pay according to 109.05 for changes or extra work that increases the haul distance more
than 1/2 mile (1 km) to the work detailed in the Contract Documents. The Department will pay for additional
quantities that increase the haul distance 1/2 mile (1 km) or less at the unit bid price.
When specified, the payment for borrow includes all work to complete the embankment construction to the cross
sections shown on the plans. The Department will not make additional payment for the embankment construction
of the borrow material. When borrow is not specified, all work is included in the excavation or embankment pay
items.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
203
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard or Ton
(Cubic Meter or
Metric Ton)
Cubic Yard or Ton
(Cubic Meter or
Metric Ton)
Cubic Yard or Ton
(Cubic Meter
or Metric Ton)
Cubic Yard or Ton
(Cubic Meter
or Metric Ton)
Excavation
203
203
203
203
203
Embankment
Granular Embankment
Granular Material, Type ___
Borrow
Rock
ITEM 204 SUBGRADE COMPACTION AND PROOF ROLLING
204.01
204.02
204.03
204.04
204.05
204.06
204.07
204.08
204.09
Description
Materials
Compaction of the Subgrade
Unstable Subgrade
Rock, Shale, or Coal Subgrade
Proof Rolling
Spreading and Placing of Materials
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
204.01
Description. This work consists of preparing suitable subgrade material by drying, compacting, proof
rolling, and grading. This work also consists of removing unsuitable subgrade material and constructing new
embankment to the limits shown on the plans.
The contract documents provide the anticipated amount of excavation for unsuitable subgrade material which
includes unsuitable soil, rock, shale, and coal in the subgrade, and for unstable subgrade material.
Use removed or excavated materials in the Work when the material conforms to the specifications; if not, then
recycle or dispose of the material according to 105.16 and 105.17.
204.02
Materials. Furnish suitable material conforming to 203.02.R, 203.03, and 703.16, except use soils in
the top 12 inches (300 mm) of the subgrade that have a maximum dry density of at least 100 pounds per cubic foot
(1600 kg/m³).
Furnish material that conforms to 703.16.B or 703.16.C when Granular Embankment is specified. Furnish
material that conforms to 703.16.C when Granular Material, Type ___ is specified, except do not use RPCC, EAF
slag, or BOF slag.
Do not use Granular Material Type D, E, or F in the location where underdrains are to be constructed.
Furnish geotextile fabric that conforms to 712.09, Type D
204.03
Compaction of the Subgrade. Compact subgrade materials that have a maximum dry density of 100
to 105 pounds per cubic foot (1600 to 1680 kg/m³) to not less than 102 percent of maximum dry density. Compact
all other subgrade materials to not less than 100 percent of maximum dry density. Determine the maximum dry
density using AASHTO T 99, AASHTO T 272, or test section method described in Supplement 1015, according
to the Engineer. Unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents, the Engineer will perform all compaction
tests according to Supplement 1015. The Department may check for compaction before or after the fine grading
operation.
If needed for compaction acceptance, use the test section method as follows:
A. Use a minimum of eight passes with a steel drum roller having a minimum effective weight of 10 tons (9 metric
tons).
B. Use 98 percent of the test section maximum dry density for acceptance of the production subgrade compaction.
C. Use at least the same number of passes and compactive effort used to construct the test section for the
production subgrade compaction.
D. Construct a new test section when the subgrade material, supporting foundation or embankment material
changes.
E. Reduce the moisture content if the material becomes unstable. The Engineer may reduce the minimum number
of passes if the passes are detrimental to compaction.
Use the moisture controls specified in 203.07.A.
Compact the subgrade under pavements to a depth of 12 inches (300 mm) below the subgrade surface and 18
inches (450 mm) beyond the edge of the surface of the pavement, paved shoulders, or paved medians. Compact all
subgrades under paved driveways, paved mailbox turnouts, curbs and gutters to a depth of 12 inches (300 mm)
below the subgrade surface.
Maintain and drain the subgrade according to 203.04.A.
204.04
Unstable Subgrade. If satisfactory subgrade stability cannot be obtained by moisture control and
compaction according to 204.03, the Engineer will direct the Contractor to remove the unstable material and to
construct the replacement material to the finished grade within the tolerances specified in 203.08.
Conduct the removal and replacement operations to allow the Engineer to measure the cross-sections before
placing the replacement material.
Remove the unstable subgrade material to the depth determined by the Engineer or specified in the Contract
Documents. Replace with suitable material according to 204.07.
204.05
Rock, Shale, or Coal Subgrade. If an aggregate base is not a part of the pavement design, excavate
the subgrade 2 feet (0.6 m) below the final subgrade elevation where rock, shale, or coal is encountered. If an
aggregate base is part of the pavement design, reduce the above 2-foot (0.6 m) excavation depth by the thickness
of the aggregate base or bases. Maintain a total excavation depth of 2 feet (0.6 m) below the bottom of the asphalt
or concrete pavement.
Excavate for a width of 1 foot (0.3 m) beyond the shoulders. Replace with suitable material according to 204.07.
204.06
Proof Rolling. Test the stability and uniformity of the subgrade compaction by proof rolling.
A. Use a proof roller conforming to the following:
1.
Four heavy pneumatic tire wheels mounted on a rigid steel frame.
2.
Wheels evenly spaced in one line across the width of the roller.
3.
Wheels arranged so that all wheels carry approximately equal loads when operated over an uneven surface.
4.
A maximum center-to-center spacing between adjacent wheels not exceeding 32 inches (0.8 m).
5.
A body for ballast loading capable of varying the gross load from 25 to 50 tons (23 to 45 metric tons).
6. Tires capable of operating at inflation pressures ranging from 90 to 120 pounds per square inch (620 to
830 kPa). Provide a tire pressure gage for measurement before use.
7.
Tires filled with liquid from 90 to 95 percent by volume.
Provide ballast that consist of blocks of known weight, sand bags with a weight of 100 pounds (45 kg), bags
of other material of known weight, or other suitable material such that the total ballast weight is readily
determinable at all times. Provide sufficient ballast to load equipment to a maximum gross weight of 50 tons (45
metric tons).
Furnish the Engineer information verifying that the weights and tire pressures can be met.
B. After compacting the subgrade according to 204.03 and before placing overlying course, proof roll designated
subgrade areas. If proof rolling is performed after the underdrains are installed, do not use the proof roller within 1
1/2 feet (450 mm) of the underdrains.
Ensure that the subgrade moisture content at the time of proof rolling is within 2 percent of the moisture used
for acceptance in 204.03.
Adjust the load and tire inflation pressure as directed by the Engineer or according to the following:
1. For soils classified as A-3, A-4, A-6, or A-7-6, use a 35-ton (32 metric tons) roller with a tire pressure of
120 pounds per square inch (820 kPa).
2. For granular soils, and soil, rock, and granular mixtures, use a 50-ton (46 metric tons) roller with a tire
pressure of 120 pounds per square inch (830 kPa).
3. When proof rolling areas where unsuitable or unstable subgrade materials have already been excavated
and replaced with granular material, use the weight and tire pressure appropriate for the original subgrade material
type.
Measure the tire pressure in the presence of the Engineer. Operate equipment at a speed between 2 1/2 and 5
miles per hour (4 and 8 km/hr). Adjust the speed to allow the Engineer to measure the deflections, ruts, or elasticity.
Make only one trip of the proof roller over any area. Offset trips to completely cover the subgrade area.
Where proof rolling indicates areas of unstable subgrade, the Engineer will investigate for the source of the
problem. The Contractor is responsible for all problems found in the materials constructed under the Contract
Documents. Correct all deficiencies found. Correct the subgrade to a uniform and satisfactory stability as directed
by the Engineer.
After proof rolling, check the subgrade for conformance to the plans, and correct all surface irregularities.
Shape the subgrade within the tolerances specified in 203.08.
204.07
Spreading and Placing of Materials. Place materials, conforming to 204.02, in 8-inch (200 mm)
loose lifts. The Engineer may increase the lift thickness depending on the stability of the bottom of the excavation.
The Engineer may increase the lift thickness up to 24 inches (600 mm) to obtain stability at the top of the lift. Doze,
track, or manipulate the material to maximize the density and stability. Once stability is achieved, compact
according to 204.03.
When specified, place geotextile fabric at the bottom of the cut or at locations designated in the Contract
Documents. Place the geotextile fabric smooth and free of tension or wrinkles. Fold or cut the geotextile fabric to
conform to curves. Overlap a minimum of 18 inches (450 mm) at the ends and sides. Hold the geotextile fabric in
place with pins or staples.
End dump the suitable material on the geotextile fabric. Do not operate the equipment directly on the geotextile
fabric. Unless stated otherwise, spread the end dumped material and maintain a minimum lift thickness of 12 inches
(300 mm).
When granular material Type E is specified or allowed, use a geotextile fabric on the top, bottom and around the
Type E granular material to prevent piping of material into the Type E granular material. The Engineer may use
granular material Type E when excess water is at the bottom of the cut.
204.08
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Subgrade Compaction by the number of
square yards (square meters) computed from the profile grade and typical sections and actually compacted. The
Department will measure 18 inches (450 mm) beyond the edge of the pavement surface, paved shoulders, and
paved medians. The Department will measure the surface area of the paved driveways, paved mailbox turnouts,
curb, and gutter.
The Department will measure Proof Rolling by the number of hours accepted. The Department will not measure
idle time for repairs, servicing, loading and unloading ballast, adjusting tire pressure, bad weather, wet subgrade,
usage at times and at locations other than Department directed, and stand-by time to be available when next needed
or other cause for stand-by time.
The Department will measure Excavation of Subgrade; Embankment; Granular Embankment; and Granular
Material, Type ___ according to 203.09. All excavation is unclassified.
The Department will measure Geotextile Fabric by the number square yards (square meters) of surface area of
geotextile fabric placed. The Department will not measure the specified lap length.
204.09
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay according to 109.05 for changes or extra work that
increases the haul distance more than a 1/2 mile (1 km) to the work detailed in the Contract Documents. The
Department will pay for additional quantities that increase the haul distance 1/2 mile (1 km) or less at the unit bid
price.
If unstable subgrade results from inadequate surface drainage or lack of maintenance, as required by 203.04.A,
the Department will not pay for replacing the unstable subgrade and disposing of the removed material.
For problems identified in 204.06 that are the result of soils or conditions at lower elevations than the Contract
work, the Department will pay for the corrections.
The Department will pay for the subgrade compaction in areas requiring excavation and replacement in 204.04,
204.05, and 204.07. The Department will not pay for subgrade compaction in areas stabilized under Item 206.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
204
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Hour
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Subgrade Compaction
204
204
204
204
204
204
Proof Rolling
Excavation of Subgrade
Embankment
Granular Embankment
Granular Material Type ___
Geotextile Fabric
ITEM 205 CHEMICALLY STABILIZED EMBANKMENT
205.01
205.02
205.03
205.04
205.05
205.06
205.07
Description
Materials
Submittals
Construction
Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
205.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a chemically stabilized embankment by mixing
cement or lime into the embankment soil using the method for the specified chemical.
The Contract Documents include an estimated quantity for the specified chemical.
205.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Portland cement ............................................................................... 701.04
Lime (quick lime) .........................................................................712.04.B
Furnish water conforming to 499.02. Furnish suitable natural soil, from on or off the project site, conforming to
703.16 and 203.03.
205.03
Submittals. Submit, for the Engineer’s acceptance, a report that lists the type of equipment to be
used, speed of the intended equipment usage, rate of application of the chemical, and calculations that demonstrate
how the required percentage of chemical will be applied. Submit the report to the Engineer for acceptance at least
2 workdays before the stabilization work begins.
If the pay item for Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils is included in the Contract Documents, prepare
and submit reports according to Supplement 1120.
205.04
Construction. Perform chemically stabilized embankment work when the air temperature is 40 F (5
C) or above and when the soil is not frozen.
Do not perform this work during wet or unsuitable weather.
Drain and maintain the work according to 203.04.A.
A. Spreading. If the pay item for Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils is not included in the Contract
Documents, use the following spreading percentage rate for the specified chemical. The percentage is based on a
dry density for soil of 110 pounds per cubic foot (1760 kg/m³):
TABLE 205.04-1
Chemical
Cement
Lime
Spreading Rate
6%
5%
Spread the chemical uniformly on the surface using a mechanical spreader at the approved rate and at a constant
slow rate of speed.
Use a distribution bar with a maximum height of 3 feet (1 meter) above the ground surface. Use a canvas
shroud that surrounds the distribution bar and extends to the ground surface.
Minimize dusting when spreading the chemical. Control dust according to 107.19. Do not spread chemical
when wind conditions create blowing dust that exceeds the limits in 107.19.
Do not spread the chemical on standing water.
B. Mixing. Immediately after spreading the chemical, mix the soil and chemical by using a power driven rotary
type mixer. If necessary, add water to bring the mixed material to at least optimum moisture content for cement,
and to at least 3 percent above optimum moisture content for lime. Continue mixing until the chemical is thoroughly
incorporated into the soil, all soil clods are reduced to a maximum size of 2 inches (50 mm), and the mixture is a
uniform color.
For areas not under pavements or paved shoulders, the Contractor may use a spring tooth or disk harrow in
place of the power-driven rotary type mixer by modifying the above procedure as follows:
1.
Open the soil with a spring tooth or disc harrow before spreading.
2.
Spread the chemical.
3. Use a minimum disc harrow coverage of ten passes in one direction and ten passes in the perpendicular
direction to thoroughly incorporate the chemical into the soil. Continue mixing until all soil clods are reduced to a
maximum size of 1 inch (25 mm) and the mixture is a uniform color.
C. Compacting. Construct and compact chemically stabilized embankment according to 203.07, except use 98
percent of the maximum dry density for acceptance.
Determine the maximum dry density for acceptance using the Ohio Typical Moisture Density Curves, the
moisture density curves from the Contractor’s mixture design submittal, or the maximum dry density obtained by
test section method.
205.05
Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils. When included in the plans, perform a mixture
design for chemically stabilized soils according to Supplement 1120.
205.06
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure chemically stabilized embankment by the
number of cubic yards (cubic meters) used in the complete and accepted work, as determined by Item 203.
The Department will measure cement and lime by the number of tons (metric tons) incorporated in the complete
and accepted work.
205.07
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay lump sum for all work, labor, and equipment described
in 205.05. The Department will pay two-thirds of the lump sum amount bid when the sampling and testing is
complete and the report is accepted by the Department. The Department will pay one-third of the lump sum amount
bid when the chemically stabilized embankment is completed and accepted by the Department, and the field
verification test results are all submitted.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
205
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Ton (Metric Ton)
Ton (Metric Ton)
Lump Sum
Cement Stabilized Embankment
205
205
205
205
Lime Stabilized Embankment
Cement
Lime
Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils
ITEM 206 CHEMICALLY STABILIZED SUBGRADE
206.01
206.02
206.03
206.04
206.05
206.06
206.07
206.08
Description
Materials
Submittals
Test Rolling
Construction
Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
206.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a chemically stabilized subgrade by mixing cement
or lime into the subgrade soil using the method for the specified chemical. The Contract Documents include an
estimated quantity for the specified chemical.
206.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Portland cement ............................................................................... 701.04
Lime (quick lime) .........................................................................712.04.B
Furnish water conforming to 499.02.
For the curing coat, furnish rapid setting emulsified asphalt conforming to 702.04.
206.03
Submittals. Submit a report that lists the type of equipment to be used, speed of the intended
equipment usage, rate of application of the chemical, and calculations that demonstrate how the required percentage
of chemical will be applied. For phased work, list in the report the procedure to be used to construct the chemically
stabilized subgrade to ensure full depth and continuity across phase interfaces. Submit the report to the Engineer at
least 2 workdays before the stabilization work begins. Department acceptance of the report is not required. The
absence of Department acceptance does not supersede the Engineer’s authority as defined in 105.01.
If the pay item for Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils is included in the Contract Documents, prepare
and submit reports according to Supplement 1120.
206.04
to 204.06.
Test Rolling. When specified, test roll prior to chemical stabilization with a proof roller conforming
206.05
Construction. Perform chemical stabilization work (including the curing period) when the air
temperature is 40 F (5 C) or above and when the soil is not frozen. Do not perform this work during wet or
unsuitable weather.
Where phasing for maintenance of traffic uses part width stabilization of the subgrade, ensure that the required
chemical spreading rate, mixing depth, and compaction are provided at the interface between adjacent phases.
A. Spreading. Shape the subgrade to the approximate profile grade prior to spreading the chemical so as to permit
the construction of a uniformly compacted course of chemically treated soil to the thickness shown on the plans.
The addition of the chemical will raise the subgrade profile approximately 1 inch (25 mm). Remove this excess
material during the fine grading.
If the pay item for Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils is not included in the Contract Documents,
use the following spreading percentage rate for the specified chemical. The percentage is based on a dry density
for soil of 110 pounds per cubic foot (1760 kg/m3):
TABLE 206.05-1
Chemical
Cement
Lime
Spreading Rate
6%
5%
Spread the chemical uniformly on the subgrade using a mechanical spreader at the approved rate and at a
constant slow rate of speed.
Use a distribution bar with a maximum height of 3 feet (1 meter) above the subgrade. Use a canvas shroud that
surrounds the distribution bar and extends to the subgrade.
Minimize dusting when spreading the chemical. Control dust according to 107.19. Do not spread the chemical
when wind conditions create blowing dust that exceeds the limits in 107.19.
Do not spread the chemical on standing water.
B. Mixing. Immediately after spreading the chemical, mix the soil and chemical as follows.
1. Cement. Mix the chemical and soil using a power driven transverse type mixer equipped with a computer
controlled volumetric water readout. Continue mixing until the cement is thoroughly incorporated into the soil and
is a uniform color.
Do not water during the initial mixing.
Perform the initial mixing so that 60 percent of the soil mixture passes the No. 4 sieve (4.75 mm) and 100
percent passes the 1 inch sieve (25mm), exclusive of aggregate larger than the No. 4 sieve (4.75 mm) size.
After the initial mixing, remix the soil and introduce water through the mixer to bring the mixed material
to at least optimum moisture. Uniformly distribute the water in sufficient quantity to hydrate the cement.
If the chemical and soil can be mixed to the required gradation and the water can be added to bring the
soil mixture to the required moisture content in one mixing, then only one mixing of the soil, water and chemical
is required.
Restrict the addition of water when the moisture content of the soil exceeds 3 percent above optimum
moisture. Add water to the mixed soil within 2 hours after the initial mixing.
Once the water is added to the mixture, complete the mixing, compacting, and shaping within 2 hours
from start to finish.
2. Lime. Mix the lime and soil using a power driven transverse type mixer equipped with a computer
controlled volumetric water readout. If necessary, add water to bring the mixed material to at least 3 percent above
optimum moisture content. Continue mixing until the lime is thoroughly incorporated into the soil, all soil clods
are reduced to a maximum size of 2 inches (50 mm), and the mixture is a uniform color.
After the initial mixing, lightly compact the material to seal it against rain or excessive drying by using a
steel wheel or pneumatic tire roller.
Allow the lime and soil mixture to cure (mellow) for a period of not less than 24 hours and not more than
7 days. If more than 7 days elapse between initial mixing and final mixing, add an additional 0.5 percent of lime
during the final mixing. Furnish the additional lime at no cost to the Department unless the delay beyond the 7-day
limit is caused by conditions beyond the Contractor’s control.
Perform the final mixing until the soil mixture is completely pulverized with all clods reduced to a
maximum size of 1 inch (25 mm) and at least 60 percent of the clods passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve, exclusive
of aggregate larger than the No. 4 sieve (4.75 mm). Continue mixing until the lime is uniformly distributed
throughout the pulverized soil.
During final mixing, return the mixture to the moisture contents stated above, then shape and compact the
mixture.
3. Mixture Depth Check. Check the uniformity of the mix by digging trenches or a series of holes at regular
intervals for the full depth of treatment and inspecting the color and depth of the exposed material. Use diluted
hydrochloric acid or phenolphthalein to indicate the presence of calcium and ensure that the chemical is mixed to
the desired depth.
C. Compacting. Start compaction no more than 30 minutes after the final mixing.
Compact all chemically stabilized subgrade to the requirements in 204.03, except use 98 percent of the
maximum dry density for acceptance. Determine the maximum dry density for acceptance by using the Ohio
Typical Moisture Density Curves, the moisture density curves from the Contractor’s mixture design submittal, or
the maximum dry density obtained by test section method. Unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents,
the Engineer will perform all compaction tests according to Supplement 1015.
Use a vibratory footed roller weighing at least 10 tons (9 metric tons).
Use the moisture controls according to 203.07.A, except ensure that the moisture content at time of compaction
is at or above optimum.
Perform the final rolling using a smooth drum roller. Do not use vibration during the final rolling.
The Contractor may either shape and fine grade the chemically stabilized subgrade before the curing period,
or shape the subgrade before the curing period and fine grade after the curing period. If fine grading before the
curing period, fine grade the same day as mixing, compacting, and shaping. If fine grading after the curing period,
shape the subgrade approximately 1 inch (25 mm) above the profile grade and typical sections. In either case, fine
grade the subgrade to the profile grade and typical sections within the tolerances in 203.08.
D. Curing. Immediately after the compaction and shaping of the chemically stabilized subgrade, cover the surface
with curing coat for curing the chemically stabilized subgrade. Use a rate of 1 gallon per 30 square feet (1.36 liters
per square meter) for emulsions.
Apply the curing coat before the surface dries. If the curing coat is delayed or the surface starts to dry out,
indicated by turning white, apply water for temporary curing until the curing coat can be applied. Do not apply the
curing coat unless the curing coat can set up before it rains. When the application of curing coat must be delayed,
keep the chemically stabilized subgrade wet by using water until the curing coat can be applied.
Cure the chemically stabilized subgrade for at least five days before the placement of the overlying course.
E. Proof Rolling. After the curing period, proof roll the chemically stabilized subgrade according to Item 204.
F. Protection. Drain and maintain the work according to 203.04.A.
Do not operate any equipment on the chemically stabilized subgrade during the curing period.
Do not allow the chemically stabilized subgrade to freeze during the cure period.
Cover the completed chemically stabilized subgrade with the aggregate base within 60 calendar days.
206.06
Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils. When included in the plans, perform a mixture
design for chemically stabilized soils according to Supplement 1120.
206.07
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure chemically stabilized subgrade by the
number of square yards (square meters) computed from the profile grade and typical sections accepted in place.
The Department will measure cement and lime by the number of tons (metric tons) incorporated in the complete
and accepted work.
The Department will measure Test Rolling according to 204.08 as specified for Proof Rolling.
The Department will measure Curing Coat by the number of square yards (square meters) computed from the
profile grade and typical sections accepted in place.
206.08
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay lump sum for all work, labor, and equipment described
in 206.06. The Department will pay two-thirds of the lump sum amount bid when the soil sampling and testing is
complete and the report is accepted by the Department. The Department will pay one-third of the lump sum amount
bid when the chemically stabilized subgrade is completed and accepted by the Department, and the field verification
test results are all submitted.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
206
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Cement Stabilized Subgrade, __inches deep
206
Lime Stabilized Subgrade, __ inches deep
206
206
206
206
206
Ton (Metric Ton)
Ton (Metric Ton)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Hour
Lump Sum
Cement
Lime
Curing Coat
Test Rolling
Mixture Design for Chemically Stabilized Soils
ITEM 208 ROCK BLASTING
208.01
208.02
208.03
208.04
208.05
208.06
208.07
208.08
208.09
208.10
208.11
208.12
208.13
208.14
208.15
208.16
208.17
208.18
208.19
208.20
208.21
208.22
Description
Regulations on the Use of Explosives
Product Specifications
Stabilization
Blasting Plan Submittal
Production Holes
Blasting Test Sections
Safety Procedures
Presplitting
Cushion Blasting
Sliver Cuts
Blaster
Blasting Consultant
Pre-Blast Condition Survey
Vibration Control and Monitoring
Airblast and Noise Control
Hydrologist
Flyrock Control
Public Meetings
Record Keeping
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
208.01
Description. This work consists of using production and controlled blasting techniques to fracture
rock or shale and to construct stable final rock cut faces.
Controlled blasting refers to the controlled use of explosives and blasting accessories in carefully spaced and
aligned drill holes to produce a free surface or shear plane in the rock along the specified excavation backslopes.
Controlled blasting techniques include presplitting, cushion blasting, and sliver cut blasting.
If the designed cut slope is steeper than 1:1 and deeper than 5 feet (1.5 m), use controlled blasting techniques,
even if the main excavation is ripped or excavated. In rare instances, the Department will specify presplitting for 1
to 1 slopes. For all slopes that do not require controlled blasting techniques, rake, excavate, hoe ram, or
mechanically shape these slopes to obtain a neat and smooth appearance.
Production blasting refers to the rock fragmentation blasts resulting from more widely spaced production holes
drilled throughout the main excavation area adjacent to the controlled blast line. Detonate production holes in a
controlled delay sequence.
208.02
Regulations on the Use of Explosives. Perform all blasting operations according to all applicable
Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, and the provisions of 107.09. These regulated blasting operations
include but are not limited to the following:
A. Storage and handling of explosives, blasting agents, and detonators.
B. Use of explosives in character and amount as allowed.
C. Storage plan, including the type of magazine or explosive storage facility to be used on the job site.
D. Record keeping, placarding, safe distances, and all other requirements concerning storage.
E. Obtaining and displaying magazine permits.
208.03
Product Specifications. Be aware that delay elements in blasting caps may deteriorate with age.
Aged explosives are known to deliver much less than the rated energy.
If evaporation occurs or if improperly mixed, bulk explosives (such as ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) may not
contain the proper amount of diesel oil. Low diesel oil drastically reduces the energy content of the explosive and
commonly produces reddish brown or yellow fumes upon detonation even in dry blast holes.
Use products conforming to manufacturers’ specifications. Ship the manufacturer recommended expiration dates
with the products delivered to the project. Do not use any blasting product that is either excessively old or in a
deteriorated condition. Cease all work until the product’s age or quality is determined.
208.04
Stabilization. Remove or stabilize rock along the cut face that is loose, hanging, or creates a
potentially dangerous situation during or upon the completion of the excavation in each lift. Do not drill the next
lift until this work is performed.
208.05
Blasting Plan Submittal. Submit three copies of the Blasting Plan to the Engineer and one copy of
the Blasting Plan to the Office of Construction Administration for review at least two weeks before beginning
drilling and blasting operations, or at any time the drilling and blasting methods change. If the drilling and blasting
methods change, submit four copies of the changed sections one week prior to the work.
The Blasting Plan shall include, at a minimum, the following:
A. General details of the drilling and blasting patterns and controls proposed to use for both the controlled and
production blasting.
B. Station limits of proposed shots. Critical distances to structures. Place the pre-blast survey limits detailed in
208.14 on the Right-of-Way or plan view sheets.
C. One plan and section view for each main excavation cut showing the proposed typical range of drill patterns
including a range of values for the free face, burden, blast hole spacing, blast hole diameters, blast hole angles, lift
heights, and subdrill depths.
D. A typical loading diagram showing the type and amount of explosives, primers, and initiators and location and
depth of stemming.
E. Typical range of initiator sequence of blast holes including delay times and delay system.
F.
Manufacturers’ data sheets for all explosives, primers, and initiators to be employed.
G. Use the blaster’s plan form or the blasting plan forms in FHWA Publication FHWA-HI-92-001 Rock Blasting
and Overbreak Control. Adapt these forms to meet the project requirements.
In a subsequent submittal, submit one Detailed Plan for all test sections. (Submit or fax at least 24 hours before
the shot.) Detail the specific proposed amounts of materials and work described in 208.05.A through 208.05.G
above on this Detailed Plan.
The Blasting Plan submittal is for quality control, informational, and record keeping purposes. The review of the
Blasting Plan does not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility for using existing drilling and blasting technology
and for obtaining the required results.
If specified in the Contract, use an approved blasting consultant, conforming to 208.13, to assist with the blast
design and to ensure that the Blasting Plan is carried out on the project.
208.06
Production Holes. Perform all production blasting, including blasting carried out in conjunction with
the blasting test section requirements of 208.07, according to the following requirements:
A. Drill the production blast holes on the patterns and to the depths submitted in the Blasting Plan and Detailed
Plan, as specified in 208.05, but not exceeding a depth of 60 feet (18 m). Drill the production blast holes within
two blast hole diameters of the staked collar location. If the blaster does not drill the production holes then the
blaster shall inspect the holes and review the drilling logs prior to loading the holes.
B. Deepen or clean-out blast holes if they are plugged or unable to be fully loaded. Check and measure blast holes
before any explosives are loaded into any of the holes to eliminate any safety hazard resulting from drilling near
loaded holes.
C. Maintain a burden distance that is equal to or less than the bench height in order to control the blasting effects.
D. Drill the row of production blast holes immediately adjacent to the controlled blast line on a plane
approximately parallel to the controlled blast line. Drill the production blast holes no closer than 6 feet (2 m) to the
controlled blast line. Drill the bottom of the production holes no lower than the bottom of the controlled blast holes
except by the amount of subdrilling used in the production holes. Do not exceed 6 3/4 inches (170 mm) in diameter
for the production blast holes. Delay the detonation sequence of the production holes toward a free face.
E. Maintain a stemming depth of at least 0.7 times the burden distance. If water is present or when blasting within
200 feet (61 m) of a structure, use crushed No. 8 coarse aggregate for holes less than 4 inches (100 mm) in diameter
and crushed No. 57 coarse aggregate for holes 4 inches (100 mm) in diameter and larger for the stemming material.
Use the coarse aggregate gradations of Nos. 8 and 57 gradations on Table 703.01-1. If gravel is used, use crushed
material with a minimum of two mechanically fractured faces on 60 percent of the material. In other locations, the
Contractor may use drill cuttings for stemming, if it does not compromise the shot integrity.
F.
Take all necessary precautions in the production blasting to minimize blast damage to the rock backslope.
G. Drill a line of buffer holes on a parallel plane adjacent to the presplit holes if presplit results are not satisfactory
and production holes are damaging the presplit line. Drill the buffer hole 3  1 inch (75  25 mm) in diameter. Drill
the line of buffer holes approximately 3 feet (1 m) from the presplit line, and space 3 to 5 feet (1 to 1.5 m) centerto-center. Do not load the buffer holes with more than 50 percent of the full explosive load that could be placed in
a 3-inch (75 mm) production hole. Delay the detonation sequence toward a free face.
208.07
Blasting Test Sections. Before commencing full-scale blasting operations, demonstrate the adequacy
of the proposed Blasting Plan. Drill, blast, and excavate short test sections to determine which combination of
methods, hole spacing, and charge works best. Use a test section with lengths up to 150 feet (45 m) for presplitting
and 120 feet (36 m) for production blasting when field conditions warrant.
Do not exceed a production hole depth of 30 feet (9 m) for the first test section.
Begin the controlled blasting tests for presplitting with the controlled blast holes spaced 36 inches (900 mm)
apart, then adjust, if needed, until the spacing for full-scale presplit blasting operations is approved. A new test
section is required to increase the spacing for the presplitting to a maximum of 48 inches (1200 mm).
Perform two test sections on every project. Use explosive depths greater than 20 feet (6.1 m) for these test
sections. Use one test section for controlled blasting and one test section for production blasting.
Apply the requirements specified for controlled and production blasting operations to the test section blasting.
For controlled blasting and for production blasts within 10 feet (3 m) of the finished slope, do not drill ahead of
the test shot area until the test section has been excavated and the results evaluated. If the test shots are
unsatisfactory, revise methods as necessary to achieve the required results. Unsatisfactory test shot results include
an excessive amount of fragmentation beyond the indicated lines and grade, excessive flyrock, or violation of other
requirements within Item 208.
If the drilling and blasting methods do not produce the desired result of a uniform slope and shear face, within
the tolerances specified, drill, blast, and excavate short sections, not exceeding 150 feet (45 m) in length for a
presplit line or 120 feet (36 m) for a production hole line, until a technique produces the desired results.
The blasting consultant shall witness the test sections drilling and loading operations and be present when all test
sections are shot. The time spent witnessing these operations is considered part of the time required to observe the
loading, drilling, and blasting operations, as specified in 208.13.
208.08
Safety Procedures
A. Warnings and Signals. Establish a method of warning all employees on the job site of an impending blast.
Define the limits of the blasting area where there is a flyrock danger. Control the access to the blasting area to
prevent the presence of livestock or unauthorized persons at least ten minutes before each blast.
Notify all employees in the area that a blast shall be fired with a one minute signal. After the blast is over,
sound an “all clear” signal so all employees in the area understand that all blasting operations are finished.
One minute before the blast, sound three long signals, lasting five seconds, on an air horn or siren. For the all
“clear” signal, sound one long signal, lasting at least five seconds, to indicate that all blasting has ceased.
Fill out the Department’s Blast Site Security Plan Form (CA-EW-11).
B. Lightning Protection. Furnish, maintain, and operate lightning detection equipment during the entire period
of blasting operations and during the periods that explosives are used at the site. If the lightning detection device
indicates a blasting hazard potential, evacuate personnel from all areas where explosives are present. If a lightning
detector indicates a blasting hazard, perform the following:
1.
Clear the blasting area of all personnel.
2.
Notify the Engineer of the potential hazards and precautions to be taken.
3.
Terminate the loading of holes and return the unused explosives to the day storage area.
4. If blast holes are loaded and would pose a hazard to traffic if detonated, close the roads until the lightning
hazard has passed.
5.
When the hazard dissipates, inform the Engineer that production blasting can continue.
C. Check for Misfires. Observe the entire blast area for a minimum of five minutes following a blast to guard
against rock fall before commencing work in the cut. The five minute delay between blasting and not allowing
anyone but the blaster to enter the area is needed to make sure that no misfires have occurred.
During the five minute delay, the blaster is responsible for going into the shot area and checking all the holes
to make sure that they have detonated. If any holes have not fired, the blaster shall handle these misfires before
others enter the work area.
Halt the blasting operations if the methods being employed result in the required slopes not being in a stable
condition or the safety and convenience of the traveling public is jeopardized.
D. Misfire Handling Procedures. If a visual inspection indicates that complete detonation of all charges did not
take place, proceed as follows:
1. If the system was energized and no charges fired for electric systems, test the lead wire continuity before
inspection of the remainder of the blast. For nonelectric systems, check the lead in or tube to make sure that
detonation has entered the blast area.
2. If an inspection of the electrical trunkline or lead in tubing-line indicates that there is a break in the line
or if the tubing did not fire, repair the system and refire the blast. If the inspection indicates that the trunkline has
fired, and misfired charges remain, the blaster shall do the following:
a.
Exclude all employees except those necessary to correct the problem.
b.
Close traffic, if a premature explosion could be a hazard to traffic on nearby roads.
c. Correct the misfire in a safe manner. If the misfire poses a problem that the blaster cannot safely
correct, the Contractor shall call a consultant or an explosive company representative skilled in the art of correcting
misfires to correct the problem.
208.09
Presplitting. Perform all presplitting, including that carried out in conjunction with the blasting test
section requirements of 208.07, according to the following requirements:
A. Completely remove all overburden soil and loose or decomposed rock along the top of the excavation for a
distance of at least 30 feet (9 m) beyond the end of the production hole drilling limits, or to the end of the cut,
before drilling the presplitting holes.
B. Remove potentially dangerous boulders or other material located beyond the excavation limits.
C. Drill the presplit holes 3  1 inch (75  25 mm) in diameter.
D. Control the drilling operations by using proper equipment and technique to ensure that no hole deviates from
the plane of the planned slope by more than 12 inches (300 mm) either parallel or normal to the slope.
E. Extend presplit holes a minimum of 30 feet (9 m) beyond the limits of the production holes to be detonated,
or to the end of the cut as applicable.
F. Drill the presplit holes for any individual lift to a vertical depth of less than or equal to 30 feet (9 m).
Demonstrate that the blast can stay within the above tolerances and produce a uniform slope. If more than 5 percent
of the presplit holes are misaligned in any one lift, reduce the depth of the lifts until the 12-inch (300 mm) alignment
tolerance is met.
G. If a cut height requires more than one lift or if there is a slope change (for example, when changing from a 1:1
slope to a 0.75:1 slope), use a maximum 2-foot (0.6 m) offset between lifts for drill equipment clearances. Begin
the presplit blast hole drilling at a point that allows for the necessary offsets and adjust to compensate for any drift
that may occur in the upper lifts. Move the controlled blast line back if required to accommodate for these
conditions.
H. The Contractor may drill 2 feet (0.6 m) below ditch bottom to remove the toe berm.
I. Before placing charges, determine if the hole is free of obstructions for its entire depth. Exercise all necessary
precautions so that the placing of the charges will not cause caving of material from the walls of the holes.
J. Drill hole conditions may vary from dry to filled with water. Use whatever types of explosives and blasting
accessories necessary to accomplish the specified results.
K. Use a maximum diameter of explosives that is not greater than one-half the diameter of the presplit hole.
L. Do not use bulk ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) in the presplit holes.
M. Use only standard explosives manufactured especially for presplitting in the presplit holes.
N. If using a continuous column cartridge type of explosives with detonating cord, assemble and affix the
detonating cord according to the explosive manufacturer’s instructions. Furnish a copy of the instructions to the
Engineer.
O. The Contractor may make the bottom charge of a presplit hole larger than the line charges but not large enough
to cause overbreak. Place the top charge of the presplitting far enough below the collar, and reduce the charge
sufficiently, to avoid overbreaking and heaving.
P. Stem the upper portion of all presplit holes, from the topmost charge to the hole collar. Use stemming material
conforming to the stemming specified for the production holes in 208.06.
Q. As long as equally satisfactory presplit slopes are obtained, either presplit the slope face before drilling for
production blasting or presplit the slope face and production blast at the same time, provided the presplitting drill
holes are fired first. If required to reduce ground vibrations or noise, delay the presplit holes, except that the holeto-hole delay must be less than 25 milliseconds.
R. Do not deviate the presplit slope face more than 1 foot (0.3 m) from a plane passing through adjacent drill
holes, except where the character of the rock is such that irregularities are unavoidable. Measure the 1-foot (0.3 m)
tolerance perpendicular to the plane of the slope. Do not encroach on the roadbed with any portion of the slope.
S. Use the same diameter and drilled in the same plane and to the same tolerance as the presplit holes when using
unloaded and unstemmed guide holes between presplit holes.
T. Detonate the presplit line before detonating any production holes, except when the closest horizontal distance
between the production line and presplit line is greater than 50 feet (16 m).
208.10
Cushion Blasting. If the horizontal distance from the cut face to the existing rock face is less than 15
feet (4.5 m), the Contractor may use cushion blasting instead of presplitting. Perform cushion blasting according
to 208.09, except as follows:
A. Detonate along the cut face after the detonation of all production holes.
B. Between the trim line and the nearest production row, use a difference in delay time of 25 to 75 milliseconds.
208.11
Sliver Cuts. For sliver cuts, pioneering the top of cuts and preparing a working platform to begin the
controlled blasting and drilling operations may require unusual working methods and use of equipment. Use angle
drilled holes or fan drilled holes during the initial pioneering operations to obtain the desired rock face. Apply the
hole diameter requirements for controlled blasting for pioneering work. Do not exceed a hole spacing of 36 inches
(900 mm).
208.12
Blaster. Use an experienced blaster in charge of all blasting operations. Use a blaster with at least
five years of proven experience in heavy construction or highway rock blasting and with a sufficient amount of
proven experience of the type of highway rock blasting required by the Contract.
Before or at the preconstruction conference, submit a resume of the credentials of the proposed blaster. Include
in the resume a list of at least five heavy construction or highway rock blasting projects on which the blaster was
responsibly in charge of the rock blasting. List a description of the projects, with details of the blasting operations.
List the names and telephone numbers of project owners with sufficient knowledge of the projects to verify the
submitted information. Obtain approval of the blaster before beginning any drilling and blasting work. Allow 30
days for the review of this documentation. The blaster shall perform the following:
A. Control the ground vibrations by the use of properly designed delay sequences and by using allowable charge
weights per delay.
B. Base the allowable charge weights per delay on vibration levels that will not cause damage.
C. Establish the allowable charge weights per delay by carrying out trial blasts and measuring the vibration levels.
D. Independently measure the vibrations and airblast at the closest structure using the criteria and limits set in
208.15 and 208.16. Ensure that only trained and certified personnel set up the seismographs.
E. Use appropriate blast hole patterns, detonation systems, and stemming to prevent venting of blasts and to
minimize airblast and noise levels produced by the blasting operations.
F.
Carry out the trial blasts according to the blasting test section requirements of 208.07.
G. Report the vibrations (velocity and frequency) and airblasts on both seismographs before the next blast. This
report shall denote whether or not these numbers exceeded the allowable set by the vibration specialist.
H. Modify 208.12.A through 208.12.F above as required to limit ground vibrations and airblast to the levels
established by the vibration specialist, and the airblast and noise control specialist.
I.
Coordinate and review the blast hole layout and drilling operations.
The blaster, blasting contractor, or the Contractor shall obtain insurance as specified in 107.12. Present a
certificate of insurance 10 days before the blasting operations begin.
208.13
Blasting Consultant. If specified in the Contract, retain an experienced and recognized blasting
consultant to assist in the blast design. The blasting consultant shall assist in the design of both the controlled and
production blasting.
Retain a blasting consultant with at least five years of proven experience in heavy construction or highway rock
blasting design and with a sufficient amount of proven experience of the type of highway rock blasting design
required by the Contract. The Contractor shall not use a blasting consultant that is an employee of the Contractor,
explosives manufacturer, or explosives distributor.
Before or at the preconstruction conference, submit a resume of the credentials of the proposed blasting
consultant. Include in the resume a list of at least five heavy construction or highway rock blasting projects on
which the blasting consultant was responsibly in charge of the rock blasting design. List a description of the
projects, with details of the blast plans and modifications made during the project. List the names and telephone
numbers of project owners with sufficient knowledge of the projects to verify the submitted information. Obtain
approval of the blasting consultant before beginning any drilling and blasting work. Allow 30 days for the review
of this documentation.
The blasting consultant shall observe the loading, drilling, or blasting operations for at least 8 hours per week if
these operations are in progress for 40 or more hours per week. The blasting consultant shall witness the drilling,
loading and blasting of the first shot in each major cut. At a minimum, the blasting consultant shall witness the
drilling, loading and blasting of every 20th shot on the project. The blasting consultant shall write a written report
to the Engineer at least once a month detailing the blasting operations. The time spent writing this report is not
considered part of the time required to observe the loading, drilling, and blasting operations. The Contractor shall
coordinate the blasting consultant’s hours with the Engineer.
208.14
Pre-Blast Condition Survey. If specified in the Contract, conduct a pre-blast survey of any buildings,
structures, or utilities within 1500 feet (460 m) or to the nearest structure up to a 1/2-mile (0.8 km) radius of the
blasting operations. Use a greater radius if the structures are potentially at risk from blasting damage. The
Contractor shall use a survey method acceptable to its insurance company. The Contractor is responsible for any
damage resulting from blasting.
If owners or occupants fail to allow access to the property for the pre-blast survey, send a certified letter to the
owner or occupant. Make the notification effort and the certified letter part of the pre-blast survey records.
Submit a copy of the pre-blast survey records to the Engineer before beginning the blasting operations at the
critical blasting locations.
Notify occupants of local buildings before the commencement of blasting.
208.15
Vibration Control and Monitoring. If specified in the Contract, use vibration control and
monitoring if blasting near buildings, structures, or utilities that may be subject to damage from blast induced
ground vibrations. The vibration specialist interprets the seismograph records to ensure that the seismograph data
is effective in the control of the blasting operations with respect to the existing structures.
Retain an experienced vibration specialist to establish the safe vibration limits. Use a vibration specialist with at
least five years of proven experience in monitoring vibrations on heavy construction or highway rock blasting
projects and with a sufficient amount of proven experience of the type of highway rock blasting vibration
monitoring required by the Contract.
Use a vibration specialist that is an expert in the interpretation of the vibration data. The Contractor shall not use
a vibration specialist that is an employee of the Contractor, explosives manufacturer, or explosives distributor.
Before or at the preconstruction conference, submit a resume of the credentials of the proposed vibration
specialist. Include in the resume a list of at least five heavy construction or highway rock blasting projects on which
the vibration specialist was responsibly in charge of monitoring the rock blasting vibrations. List a description of
the projects, with details of the vibration interpretations made on the project. List the names and telephone numbers
of project owners with sufficient knowledge of the projects to verify the submitted information. Obtain approval
of the vibration specialist before beginning any drilling and blasting work. Allow 30 days for the review of this
documentation.
The vibration specialist shall perform the following:
A. Monitor each blast with an approved seismograph located between the blast area and the closest structure
subject to blast damage.
B. Use a seismograph capable of recording particle velocity for three mutually perpendicular components of
vibration in the range generally found with controlled blasting.
C. Furnish the data recorded for each shot before the next blast and include the following:
1.
Identification of instrument used.
2.
Name of approved observer and interpreter.
3.
Distance and direction of recording station from blast area.
4.
Type of ground at recording station and material on which the instrument is sitting.
D. Ensure that the peak particle velocity of each component of the safe limits of the nearest structure subject to
vibration damage is not exceeded.
E. The vibration specialist may elect to summarize and report this information monthly, when the blaster
measures the vibration and airblast with its own seismograph and reports the measurements on the vibration
specialist’s seismographs.
F. Establish what vibration limits are being used and explain why they are being used to the Engineer before
blasting begins near structures denoted in the pre-blast survey in 208.14.
G. Stop all operations if the vibration limits are exceeded until the vibration specialist reports to the Engineer that
no damage has occurred or will occur and that corrective action has been taken to lower the vibration.
208.16
Airblast and Noise Control. If specified in the Contract, install an airblast monitoring system
between the main blasting area and the nearest structure subject to blast damage or annoyance.
Retain an experienced airblast and noise control specialist. Use an airblast and noise control specialist with at
least five years of proven experience in airblast and noise control on heavy construction highway rock blasting
projects and with a sufficient amount of proven experience of the type of rock blasting airblast and noise control
monitoring required by the Contract. Use an airblast and noise control specialist that is an expert in airblast and
noise control. The Contractor shall not use an airblast and noise control specialist that is an employee of the
Contractor, explosives manufacturer, or explosives distributor.
Before or at the preconstruction conference, submit a resume of the credentials of the proposed airblast and noise
control specialist. Include in the resume a list of at least five heavy construction or highway rock blasting projects
on which the airblast and noise control specialist was responsibly in charge of the airblast and noise control of the
rock blasting operations. List a description of the projects, with details of the airblast and noise control monitoring
made on the project. List the names and telephone numbers of project owners with sufficient knowledge of the
projects to verify the submitted information. Obtain approval of the airblast and noise control specialist before
beginning any drilling and blasting work. Allow 30 days for the review of this documentation.
The airblast and noise control specialist shall perform the following:
A. Use equipment of the type specifically manufactured for the purpose to make the airblast measurements. Hold
peak overpressure below 134 dB at the nearest structure or other designated location. Lower the overpressure limit
if it proves too high based on damage or complaints.
B. The airblast and noise control specialist may establish the peak overpressure limits higher than 134 dB. Submit
information explaining why higher limits are needed and are safe to the Engineer before blasting begins near
structures denoted in the pre-blast survey in 208.14.
C. Furnish a permanent signed and dated record of the peak overpressure measurements to the Engineer
immediately after each shot or use the same reporting procedures and time frames denoted for vibration in 208.15.
D. Stop all operations if the overpressure limits are exceeded until the airblast and noise control specialist reports
to the Engineer that no damage has occurred or will occur and that corrective action has been taken to lower the
airblast.
208.17
Hydrologist. If specified in the Contract, use a qualified hydrologist to monitor before, during, and
after blasting or major excavation the quantity and quality of the water supplies within 1500 feet (460 m) of the
blasting or major excavation areas. The water supplies shall include, but not be limited to, all wells, springs, or
other water supplies for human consumption.
Retain an experienced hydrologist. The Contractor shall not use a hydrologist that is an employee of the
Contractor, explosives manufacturer, or explosives distributor.
Before or at the preconstruction conference, submit a resume of the credentials of the proposed hydrologist.
Include in the resume a list of at least five heavy construction or highway projects on which the hydrologist was
responsibly in charge of monitoring water quality and quantities. List a description of the projects, with details of
the water monitoring or modeling performed on the projects. List the names and telephone numbers of project
owners with sufficient knowledge of the projects to verify the submitted information. Obtain approval of the
hydrologist before beginning any major excavation, drilling, or blasting work. Allow 30 days for the review of this
documentation.
The hydrologist shall perform, at minimum, all of the following:
A. Review the available public records, including Ohio DNR well logs, to obtain background information and to
identify the locations and geology of water supplies within 1500 feet (460 m) of the blasting areas or major
excavations.
B. Examine private wells, and public and industrial water supplies (as allowed by property owners or occupants),
and measure water levels and well depths with a water level meter. Clean the water level meter before and between
each use.
C. Collect water quality data (pH, e-coli, specific conductivity, turbidity, sulfate, and iron) from private wells,
and public and industrial water supplies to determine the major excavation work or blasting effects on the water
supplies by using field instruments.
D. Measure the water quality and water level for a minimum of two times per week for two weeks before, during,
and two weeks after major excavation or blasting within 1500 feet (460 m) of the water supplies.
E. Perform an associated field survey of the locations and elevations of wells and springs.
F. Evaluate the need for piezometers to monitor the ground water conditions. Place and monitor the piezometers
as necessary.
G. Provide a monitoring plan report detailing the proposed activities, frequencies, testing, and any
recommendations for monitoring the water supplies as detailed in 208.17.A through 208.17.F above. Submit this
report at least 10 days before beginning the scheduled blasting or major excavation.
H. Provide a monthly report of the conclusions and results of the monitoring plan.
I. Provide a final report on the final condition or effect of the blasting or major excavation on the water supplies.
Submit this report within 30 days after the blasting or major excavation is completed on the project.
J. Meet with the Engineer in order to coordinate this work and provide input, update the project schedule, report
progress (including completed work and updated schedule), and make recommendations. Allow for ten meetings.
The Contractor is not responsible for damages to the above denoted water supplies if the blasting or excavation
is done according to this specification. The Contractor is responsible for damage caused by negligence, vibration
or noise above the allowable limits, flyrock, or back break.
208.18
Flyrock Control. Before firing any blast in areas where flying rock may result in personal injury or
unacceptable damage to property or the work, cover the rock with blasting mats, soil, or other equally serviceable
material to prevent flyrock.
If flyrock leaves the construction site or lands on a traveled road, the Contractor shall cease all blasting operations
until the blasting consultant specified in 208.13 reviews the site and determines the cause and solution to the flyrock
problem. Before blasting proceeds, submit a written report addressing the following:
A. Why the flyrock left the construction site or landed on a traveled road.
B. What corrective measures were taken to prevent this from reoccurring?
208.19
Public Meetings. If a blasting consultant, vibration specialist, airblast and noise control specialist, or
hydrologist are specified in the Contract, make the consultant, specialists, Contractor’s superintendent and blaster
available for one day to prepare for and participate in a public meeting organized by the Engineer and conducted
by the Contractor to inform the public about anticipated drilling and blasting operations. The consultant and
specialists shall be prepared to answer any questions dealing with the magnitude of seismic motion, vibrations,
airblast overpressure, flyrock, and water problems that may affect the public.
208.20
Record Keeping.
A. Daily Explosive Material Consumption. Keep a daily record of the transactions at each storage magazine.
Update inventory records at the close of every business day. Show on the records the class and quantities received
and issued and total remaining on hand at the end of each day. Check the remaining explosive inventory each day
and report any discrepancies that would indicate a theft or loss of explosive material.
B. Report of Loss. If a loss or theft of explosives occur, report all circumstances and details of the loss or theft
immediately to the nearest Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, as well as to the local law enforcement
authorities and the Engineer.
C. Daily Drilling and Blasting Logs. On a weekly basis, provide a daily log of the drilling and blasting
operations. Update the log at the close of each business day.
Fill out the Department or blaster’s drilling form to document the following: burden, spacing, bench height,
hole depth and diameter, and subdrill depth. Document additional information about the drilling such as voids, mud
seams, air pressure loss and lack of cuttings. The driller shall give this form to the blaster and the Department.
Document on the blasting log the number of blasts, times and dates of blasts, the blasting locations and patterns,
and all of the following information:
1.
Station limits of the shot.
2. Plan and section views of drill pattern including free face, burden, blast hole spacing, blast hole diameters,
blast hole angles, lift height, and subdrill depth.
3. Loading diagram showing type and amount of explosive, primers, and initiators and location and depth of
stemming.
4.
Initiators sequence of blast holes including delay times and delay system in each blast hole.
5.
Trade names and sizes of all explosives, primers, and initiators employed.
6.
Signature of the blaster in charge.
7. Use the blaster’s blasting form or the Blasting Report form in FHWA Publication FHWA-HI-92-001 Rock
Blasting and Overbreak Control. Adapt these forms to meet the project requirements.
The drilling and blasting logs are for quality control, informational, and record keeping purposes. Review of
the blast log by the Engineer does not relieve the Contractor of responsibility for the accuracy and adequacy of the
drilling and blasting log.
D. Video Recording of Blasts. Record video of each blast. Index the recordings in a manner that permits easy
and correct identification of each blast. Submit copies of the blast recordings on a weekly basis. If submitting the
video recordings as electronic data files, furnish them in a video format acceptable to the Engineer and capable of
being viewed on the Department’s computers.
208.21
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Presplitting by the number of square yards
(square meters) along the slope face of the cut. The horizontal measurement will begin at the first hole and end at
the last hole of the cut, and the vertical slope measurement will be along the sloped drill hole.
208.22
Basis of Payment. The Department will not make separate payment for the production blasting
operations. Payment for the production blasting is incidental to the other work items in the Contract requiring
blasting. The Department will pay for additional excavation volume resulting from the 2-foot (0.6 m) offsets at the
Contract unit price for Item 203 Excavation. The Department will pay for the removal of this material beyond the
excavation limits under 109.05.
The Department will pay lump sum for all work for the Pre-Blast Condition Survey, Blasting Consultant, Airblast
and Noise Control, Vibration Control and Monitoring, and Hydrologist. The same person or consultant may
perform the pre-blast survey, vibration control and monitoring, airblast and noise control, and the work required of
the hydrologists. The Department may make intermediate payments based on the percentage of the work completed
for Pre-Blast Condition Survey, Blasting Consultant, Airblast and Noise Control, Vibration Control and
Monitoring, or Hydrologist.
Payment for guide holes is incidental to Presplitting. Payment for all of controlled blasting is included in the
payment for Presplitting.
The Department will pay for stabilization under 109.05 if caused by geology. The Department will not pay for
stabilization if caused by the Contractor’s blasting operations.
The Department will pay for the placement and monitoring of piezometers according to 109.05.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
208
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Presplitting
208
208
208
208
208
Pre-Blast Condition Survey
Blasting Consultant
Airblast and Noise Control
Vibration Control and Monitoring
Hydrologist
ITEM 209 LINEAR GRADING
209.01
209.02
209.03
209.04
209.05
209.06
209.07
209.08
209.09
Description
Materials
Construction Requirements
Ditch Cleanout
Reshaping Under Guardrail
Preparing Subgrade for Shoulder Paving
Grading Tolerances
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
209.01
Description. This work consists of performing linear grading within the specified alignment detailed
in the Contract Documents and within the grading tolerances.
Use removed or excavated materials in the Work when the material conforms to the specifications; if not, then
recycle or dispose of the material according to 105.16 and 105.17.
209.02
209.03
204.
Materials. Furnish suitable materials as defined in 203.02.R.
Construction Requirements. Construct embankment and subgrade work according to Items 203 and
When off-project-limit embankment material is needed for the work, an estimated quantity for Item 209 Borrow
will be specified in the Contract Documents.
209.04
Ditch Cleanout. Reestablish the cross-section of the existing ditch. Use the required embankment
material to fill the eroded conditions. The compaction requirements specified in Item 203 do not apply.
209.05
Reshaping Under Guardrail. Reshape graded shoulders at locations where the existing guardrail is
removed or where the new guardrail is to be erected to ensure a smooth drainable surface free of all irregularities.
209.06
Preparing Subgrade for Shoulder Paving. Prepare the subgrade for shoulder paving by excavating
the existing shoulder material to the depth shown in the plan. Trim unsound or broken edges of asphalt concrete or
concrete pavement to a line established by the Engineer. Remove any unstable material and shape and compact the
subgrade.
Compact the subgrade according to 204.03. Backfill areas graded in excess of the depth shown on the plans with
Item 617 compacted aggregate at no expense to the Department.
209.07
Grading Tolerances. Do not encroach on stream channels, impact wetlands, or extend beyond
construction limits, Right-of-Way or easement limits. Do not make alignment or profile grade adjustments that
adversely affect drainage. Construct the work to the tolerances in 203.08.
209.08
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Linear Grading, Reshaping Under
Guardrail, and Preparing Subgrade for Shoulder Paving by the number of either stations or miles (meters or
kilometers) completed and accepted, along each side of the pavement. The Department will not make deductions
for intersections and other gaps.
The Department will measure Ditch Cleanout by the number of feet (meters) measured along the centerline of
the ditch.
The Department will measure Borrow according to 203.09.
209.09
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay according to 109.05 for changes or extra work that
increases the haul distance by more than 1/2 mile (1 km) to the work detailed in the Contract Documents. The
Department will pay for additional quantities that increase the haul distance 1/2 mile (1 km) or less at the unit bid
price.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
209
Station or Mile
(Meter or Kilometer)
Feet (Meters)
Station or Mile
(Meter or Kilometer)
Station or Mile
(Meter or Kilometer)
Cubic Yard or Ton
(Cubic Meter
or Metric Ton)
Linear Grading
209
209
209
209
Ditch Cleanout
Reshaping Under Guardrail
Preparing Subgrade for Shoulder Paving
Borrow
250 PAVEMENT REPAIRS
ITEM 251 PARTIAL DEPTH PAVEMENT REPAIR
251.01
251.02
251.03
251.04
251.05
Description
Removal of Existing Pavement
Placement of Asphalt Concrete
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
251.01
Description. This work consists of partial depth removal of existing pavement in areas exhibiting
deterioration at the surface, applying tack coat, and placing and compacting asphalt concrete.
251.02
Removal of Existing Pavement. The Engineer will designate the location and limits of areas to be
repaired. Provide the Engineer with aerosol spray paint to outline those areas for repair. Construct rectangular repair
areas with dimensions as required to envelop surface deterioration. Unless otherwise specified, extend repair areas
the full width of a traffic lane. Remove pavement to the depth shown on the plans.
Remove the pavement to the specified depth within the designated limits without loosening or otherwise
damaging adjacent pavement. Dispose of removed pavement according to 202.
Trim the limits of the repair to form a vertical face 1.5 inches (38 mm) deep from the surface unless the repair is
covered with an overlay within 60 days.
251.03
Placement of Asphalt Concrete. Apply 407.02 material to thoroughly coat the exposed surface and
to fill cracks and joint openings.
Place and compact approved asphalt concrete meeting the design requirements of the item shown in the pay item
description in one or more lifts as necessary to finish flush with the adjacent pavement surface. Place surface course
mixes at a maximum 2 inch (50 mm) lift thickness and intermediate courses at a maximum 3 inch (75 mm) lift
thickness.
Thoroughly compact the final lift using a Type I pneumatic tire roller conforming to 401.13. As the rolling
progresses, add additional asphalt concrete, as necessary, to produce a smooth surface flush with the adjacent
pavement surface.
Continuously compact each lift while the material is in a workable condition throughout the depth of the lift.
Ensure that each lift is thoroughly compacted to a suitable density that will not result in displacement under traffic.
If the Contract does not include resurfacing, seal the perimeter surface of the repaired area by applying a 2 to 4
inch (50 to 100 mm) wide strip of approved 705.04 material or 702.01 approved PG binder.
251.04
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure the quantity of Partial Depth Pavement
Repair by the number of square yards (square meters) or cubic yards (cubic meters) of pavement repaired in the
complete and accepted work, calculated using the dimensions established by the Engineer.
251.05
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing all materials, including aerosol spray
paint, tack coat, asphalt concrete, and perimeter seal.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
251
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Partial Depth Pavement Repair (441)
251
251
251
Partial Depth Pavement Repair (442)
Partial Depth Pavement Repair (441)
Partial Depth Pavement Repair (442)
ITEM 252 FULL DEPTH RIGID PAVEMENT REMOVAL AND FLEXIBLE
REPLACEMENT
252.01
252.02
252.03
252.04
252.05
252.06
Description
Removal of Existing Rigid Pavement
Correction of Subgrade
Placement of Asphalt Concrete
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
252.01
Description. This work consists of the full depth removal of existing rigid pavement, correcting the
subgrade, placing and compacting asphalt concrete, and restoring the shoulders.
252.02
Removal of Existing Rigid Pavement. Conform to 255.03, except the last paragraph does not apply.
252.03
Correction of Subgrade. Shape and recompact the subgrade as the Engineer directs. Clean all
vertical faces of the existing pavement, and coat them with asphalt material according to 401.14.
252.04
Placement of Asphalt Concrete. Construct the pavement replacement by placing and compacting
Item 301, 441 Type 2, or 442 19mm material in two or more lifts according to 401.16.
Thoroughly and uniformly compact all lifts before the final lift using suitable mechanical compaction equipment
operated over the entire replacement area.
Thoroughly compact the final lift using a pneumatic tire roller conforming to 401.13. As the rolling progresses,
add additional asphalt concrete, as necessary, to produce a smooth surface flush with the adjacent pavement surface.
Continuously compact each lift while the material is in a workable condition throughout the depth of the lift.
Ensure that each lift is thoroughly compacted to a suitable density that will not result in displacement under traffic.
Trim the limits of the repair to form a vertical face 1.5 inches (38 mm) deep from the surface unless the repair is
covered with an overlay within 60 days.
If the Contract does not include resurfacing, seal the perimeter surface of the repaired area by applying a 2 to 4
inch (50 to 100 mm) wide strip of approved 705.04 material or 702.01 approved PG binder.
After completing repairs, restore the existing shoulders to the condition that existed prior to the repair work.
252.05
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure the quantity of Full Depth Rigid Pavement
Removal and Flexible Replacement by the number of square yards (square meters) of rigid pavement repaired in
the complete and accepted work, calculated using the dimensions established by the Engineer.
The Department will measure the quantity of Full Depth Pavement Sawing by the number of feet (meters) of full
depth saw cuts in the complete and accepted work. The Department will not measure offset saw cuts. The
Department will not measure additional cuts made to facilitate the removal of the pavement
252.06
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing all materials, including aerosol spray
paint, removing pavement, correcting the subgrade, placing flexible pavement, sealing, and restoring the shoulders.
Include the cost of removal, disposal, and replacement of pavement damaged adjacent to the repair area in the
contract unit price for Full Depth Rigid Pavement Removal and Flexible Replacement.
Include the cost of any additional concrete sawing and removal depths less than 1 inch (25 mm) greater than
those shown in the plans.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
252
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Full Depth Rigid Pavement Removal and Flexible Replacement
252
Full Depth Pavement Sawing
ITEM 253 PAVEMENT REPAIR
253.01
253.02
253.03
253.04
253.05
Description
Removal of Existing Pavement
Placement of Asphalt Concrete
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
253.01
Description. This work consists of removing existing asphalt concrete, brick, portland cement
concrete, or aggregate pavement courses; shaping and compacting the exposed material; and placing new asphalt
concrete pavement or aggregate and asphalt concrete pavement courses.
The plans show details about the repairs and replacement material.
253.02
Removal of Existing Pavement. The Engineer will designate the location and limits of areas to be
repaired. Provide the Engineer with aerosol spray paint to outline those areas for repairs. Repair the full depth of
the pavement, unless otherwise shown on the plans.
Cut the existing pavement at the limits specified and as necessary to prevent disturbing or undermining the
remaining pavement during removal. Completely remove pavement in the repair area to the specified depth without
displacing, undermining, or otherwise damaging the remaining pavement. Dispose of removed pavement according
to 202.
Trim the limits of the repair to form a vertical face 1.5 inches (38 mm) deep from the surface unless the repair is
covered with an overlay within 60 days.
253.03
Placement of Asphalt Concrete. Shape and compact the exposed underlying material as the
Engineer directs. Before placing asphalt concrete, clean all vertical faces of the existing pavement and coat them
with asphalt material according to 401.14. Place the replacement material in lifts as the Engineer directs.
Thoroughly and uniformly compact each lift using suitable compaction equipment as the Engineer directs. Finish
the final lift flush with the adjacent pavement surface.
Thoroughly compact the final lift using a pneumatic tire roller conforming to 401.13. As the rolling progresses,
add additional asphalt concrete, as necessary, to produce a smooth surface flush with the adjacent pavement surface.
Continuously compact each lift while the material is in a workable condition throughout the depth of the lift.
Ensure that each lift is thoroughly compacted to a suitable density that will not result in displacement under traffic.
If the Contract does not include resurfacing, seal the perimeter surface of the repaired area by applying a 2 to 4
inch (50 to 100 mm) wide strip of approved 705.04 material or 702.01 approved PG binder.
After completing repairs, restore the existing shoulders to the condition that existed prior to the repair work.
253.04
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure the quantity of Pavement Repair by either
the number of square yards (square meters) or cubic yards (cubic meters) of pavement repaired in the complete and
accepted work, calculated using the dimensions established by the Engineer.
253.05
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing all materials, including aerosol spray
paint and replacement and restoration materials; cutting, removing, and disposing of existing pavement; shaping
and compacting the exposed underlying material; placing new pavement; and restoring the shoulders.
The Department will not pay for additional work to repair damage caused by the pavement sawing or pavement
removal.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
253
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Pavement Repair
253
Pavement Repair
ITEM 254 PAVEMENT PLANING
254.01
254.02
254.03
254.04
254.05
254.06
254.07
Description
Equipment
Planing
Surface Patching
Surface Tolerances
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
254.01
Description. This work consists of planing asphalt concrete and disposing of the cuttings, and, if
specified in the Contract, patching the planed surface.
254.02
Equipment. Use self-propelled planing equipment that has sufficient power and stability to
consistently and efficiently meet the requirements of 254.05 and the plans. Use equipment with either grinding,
sawing, or milling type cutters. Ensure that the cutters are mounted rigidly to the carrier and are adjustable to
control the depth of cut and cross-slope. Use equipment with a suitable carrier wheelbase or with an automatic
control system having an external reference. Ensure that cross-slope adjustments or automatic controls are capable
of producing either a variable or a constant cross-slope, as required.
For small or confined areas, the Contractor may use suitable supplemental equipment or methods approved by
the Engineer.
254.03
Planing. Make one or more planing passes, as necessary, over the designated area to the depth
specified in the plans. Remove irregularities such as bumps, corrugations, and wheel ruts, when required, to
establish a new pavement surface elevation or cross-slope.
Remove cuttings from the surface following each pass. Before opening the completed area to traffic, thoroughly
clean the surface of all loose material that would create a hazard or nuisance, or would redeposit into the surface
texture. Dispose of cuttings according to 202.
Implement effective measures to control dust, pavement contamination, and the scattering of loose particles
during planing and cleaning operations.
If planing damages the adjacent pavement, repair the damaged area to the Engineer’s satisfaction. Ensure that
the repaired area matches the adjacent pavement in terms of smoothness and mix type.
254.04
Surface Patching. Patch areas of the planed surface that the Engineer designates that have spalling
or dislodged unsound pavement. Before patching, clean areas of loose material, coat with 407.02 asphalt material,
and fill with Item 441 Type 1 or 442 9.5mm or 12.5mm material. Level and compact new material flush to the
adjacent planed pavement.
254.05
Surface Tolerances. Plane the surface free from grooves, ridges, gouges, or other irregularities
detrimental to the safe operation of vehicles on the planed surface.
If the Contract specifies planing without resurfacing, plane the surface to a smoothness of 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3
mm in 3 m). If the Contract specifies resurfacing after planing, plane the surface to a smoothness of 1/4 inch in 10
feet (6 mm in 3 m). Match the surfaces at the edges of adjacent passes within 1/8 inch (3 mm). Ensure that the
cross-slope of the planed surface is within 3/8 inch in 10 feet (10 mm in 3 m) of the specified cross-slope.
254.06
Method of Measurement. The Engineer will measure the quantity of Pavement Planing, Asphalt
Concrete by the number of square yards (square meters).
The Engineer will measure the quantity of Patching Planed Surface by the number of square yards (square
meters).
254.07
Basis of Payment. The Department will not pay for repairs due to damage caused by planing
operations. If the depth of the planed surfaces is increased by more than 3/8 inches (10 mm) the Department will
compensate for the additional work.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
254
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Pavement Planing, Asphalt Concrete
254
Patching Planed Surface
ITEM 255 FULL DEPTH PAVEMENT REMOVAL AND RIGID REPLACEMENT
255.01
255.02
255.03
255.04
255.05
255.06
255.07
255.08
255.09
255.10
Description
Materials
Removal of Existing Pavement
Correction of Disturbed Subgrade
Placing Dowels and Tiebars
Placement of Portland Cement Concrete
Wearing Course Replacement
Opening to Traffic
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
255.01
Description. This work consists of full depth removal of existing pavement; removing subbase where
specified; compacting the subgrade; furnishing and placing dowels, tiebars, and mesh where specified; placing,
consolidating, finishing, and curing new portland cement concrete to the level of the adjacent portland cement
concrete pavement; replacing wearing course where required; and restoring affected shoulders.
255.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Concrete, Class QC 1, QC MS, QC FS ................................................ 499
Curing materials, Type 2 ................................................................. 705.07
Non-shrink non-metallic grout ........................................................ 705.20
Reinforcing steel ............................................................................. 709.00
Preformed elastomeric joint sealer .................................................. 705.11
Tiebar ............................................................................... 705.01 or 709.00
Dowel bars and basket assemblies ................................... 705.01 or 709.13
Expansion shield anchors Type A ................................................... 712.01
Use epoxy coated hook bolt, wiggle bolt, and coupling.
Select and furnish grout from the Qualified Product List issued by the Laboratory that firmly anchors the dowel
or tiebar within 30 minutes.
A. Rapid Repair Concrete Mix Materials. If the bid item requires RRCM (Rapid Repair Concrete Mix) do not
use the Concrete classes listed above. Develop a specialized mix design as follows:
Use one of the following special rapid early repair admixture systems such as
1.
4 x 4 concrete system
2.
Rapid -1
3.
Other manufactured systems acceptable to the Director
Develop a RRCM concrete mix design that will achieve a flexural strength of 400 psi (2.8 MPa) in not less than
4 hours and not more than 6 hours using 6 in x 6 in (150 mm x 150 mm) beam samples conforming to ASTM C293.
Use cements conforming to 701.02, 701.04 or 701.05
Use fine aggregate conforming to 703.02.A
Use coarse aggregate(s) conforming to 703.02.B and 703.13
Provide concrete with 4 to 8 percent air content.
During the testing of the RRCM mix design develop the mix’s maturity curve according to Supplement 1098 (S
1098) using the actual materials that will be used on the project.
Document and submit to the Engineer the RRCM mix design results showing flexural strength, time to strength,
materials, sources of materials, quantities of materials and batching requirements.
The Engineer will have 10 days review the mix design and accept or reject.
255.03
Removal of Existing Pavement. The Engineer will locate and mark all areas for repair before the
start of diamond sawing. Provide the Engineer with aerosol spray paint to outline those areas for repair.
Saw cut the existing rigid pavement to the full depth at the limits of the area designated by the Engineer using a
diamond saw blade. Where there is an existing asphalt concrete overlay on top of the concrete pavement to be
removed, the Contractor may make either a full depth saw cut through the asphalt concrete overlay and the concrete
pavement, or make an offset saw cut through the asphalt concrete overlay. If making an offset saw cut through the
asphalt concrete overlay, remove the overlay as necessary to provide clearance for the full depth saw cut through
the concrete pavement. The Contractor may elect to make additional cuts to facilitate the removal of the pavement.
Remove pavement in the repair area by the lift-out method without damaging or undermining the remaining
pavement. After the repair area is isolated by full depth saw cuts, drill holes through the deteriorated slab, and
install lift pins. Vertically lift the pavement out of the repair area. Remove loose debris left behind after lift-out
using hand methods. Dispose of removed pavement according to Item 202.
Do not break the pavement and clean out the material using a backhoe unless the Engineer determines that the
lift-out method is not feasible due to deteriorated pavement or existing asphalt concrete repairs.
If the bottom face of the adjacent concrete pavement is deteriorated for a height greater than one-fourth (1/4) the
thickness of the rigid pavement, make additional full depth saw cuts as directed by the Engineer along the full
width of the lane or lanes to remove the deteriorated areas. Repair pavement damaged during the pavement sawing
or pavement removal according to Item 255 or Item 256.
255.04
Correction of Subgrade. After removing the pavement full depth and before installing dowels or
tiebars, shape and re-compact the subgrade to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Use concrete to replace any subgrade
material removed as part of the rigid pavement replacement.
255.05
Placing Dowels and Tiebars. Drill dowel and tiebar holes using hydraulic, electric, or pneumatic
percussion drills without spalling or damaging the existing concrete. Provide drills capable of independent
adjustment of each drill shaft in the horizontal and vertical direction. When drilling dowels, use a device capable
of drilling a minimum of three holes at a time. For patches 10 feet (3 m) or greater in length, provide tie bars or
wiggle bolts of the size and spaced as shown on the standard construction drawings along the longitudinal joint(s).
Blow all drilled holes clean with oil-free compressed air. Maintain holes dry and frost free before grouting the
dowels or tiebars. Pneumatically inject grout starting at the rear of the drilled holes and drawing a bead of material
towards the front. Inject a sufficient amount of grout to fill all voids around the dowels and tiebars. Use a grout
retention disc with a radius slot as shown in the standard drawings to retain the grout within the drilled holes. Place
the grout retention disc on the dowels and tiebars at the end to be inserted in the hole. Insert dowels and tiebars in
the holes and rotate the dowels and tiebars approximately one full revolution. Ensure a small amount of grout
extrudes through the radius slot in the grout retention disc when the dowels and tiebars are installed. Hold dowel
bars in proper alignment until the grout has hardened.
255.06
Placement of Portland Cement Concrete. Do not place any portland cement concrete for rigid
pavement replacement until the grout around the dowels and tiebars has hardened. Coat dowel bars with bond
breaking material conforming to 451.09.B. Place portland cement concrete according to 451.07. Use forms when
placing Portland cement concrete against asphalt concrete or any unbound material. Cast each patch in one
continuous operation. Consolidate the concrete around the perimeter of the patch and within the limits of the patch
area using an internal type vibrator. Use approved internal type vibrators capable of visibly affecting the concrete
for a distance of 12 inches (0.3 m) from the vibrator head.
When using RRCM concrete install maturity sensors to measure the maturity of each day’s placement according
to Supplement 1098. If RRCM placement from one location to another is delayed by more than 1 hour treat the
delayed placement as a new day’s placement and install additional maturity sensors according to Supplement 1098.
Ensure that batch tickets of the delivered RRCM conform to the accepted mix design. Provide batch tickets in
accordance with 499.07.
Screed repairs less than 12 feet (3.7 m) in length parallel to the centerline. Screed repairs 12 feet (3.7 m) in length
and longer perpendicular to the centerline.
While the concrete is still in a plastic state, test the surface for trueness and for being flush with the edges of the
adjacent slabs using a 10-foot (3 m) straightedge. Place the straightedge parallel to the pavement centerline with
half of the straightedge resting on the adjacent pavement, and draw the straightedge across the patch to test the
patch edges. Check areas within the patch length in a similar manner. Where the straightedge shows deviations,
correct all high or low areas exceeding 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3 mm in 3 m). Recheck the concrete surface after making
corrections to ensure conformance to the above tolerance. Make additional checks and corrections until patch is
within tolerance.
Texture the new concrete surface similar to that of the surrounding pavement.
Apply the liquid membrane-forming curing compound at a minimum rate of 1 gallon (1 L) of material for each
150 square feet (3.7 m²).
255.07
Wearing Course Replacement. Trim the limits of the repair to form a vertical face 1.5 inches (38
mm) deep from the surface. Replace the removed asphalt concrete overlay with material as shown on the plans.
Compact the material as approved by the Engineer using any of the roller types specified in 401.13. Apply Item
407 tack coat to the replacement surfaces.
Before opening the rigid replacement to traffic, restore the shoulders to the original line and grade. Use either
aggregate or asphalt concrete as shown on the plans or as the Engineer directs. Fill the low areas, and compact them
flush with the surrounding shoulder.
Seal the perimeter surface of the repaired areas by applying a 2 to 4 inch (50 to 100 mm) wide strip of approved
705.04 material or 702.01 approved PG binder.
255.08
Opening to Traffic. Do not open the rigid replacement to traffic until the concrete attains a modulus
of rupture of 400 pounds per square inch (2.8 MPa).
For RRCM mixes do not open the rigid replacement to traffic until the RRCM attains a modulus of rupture of
400 pounds per square inch (2.8 MPa) based on maturity testing.
If maintaining traffic in adjacent lanes, schedule work in order to place the concrete in the prepared repair area
within 48 hours after removing pavement. In accordance with standard drawing MT-101.90, drums may be used
as a separator to the adjacent traveled lane for repairs 60 feet (18 m) or less in length.
If unable to complete placement of the concrete in the exposed repair area by the end of a daily work shift, fill
or cover repair areas less than 4 feet (1.2 m) from the traveled lane. Fill using a temporary patch material suitable
to the Engineer or cover unfilled repair areas 10 feet (3 m) or less in length with a steel plate.
Do not leave repair areas unfilled with concrete when work is suspended on weekends or holidays. If unable to
complete placement of the concrete in the exposed repair area before suspending work for a weekend or holiday or
within the 48-hour time specified above, fill the repair area with an asphalt concrete mixture or other suitable
temporary patch material with a durable surface as the Engineer directs. Maintain the temporary patches while they
are in service.
255.09
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure the quantity of Full Depth Pavement
Removal and Rigid Replacement by the number of square yards (square meters) repaired in the complete and
accepted work.
The Department will measure the quantity of Full Depth Pavement Sawing by the number of feet (meters) of
perimeter full depth saw cuts in the complete and accepted work. The Department will not measure offset saw cuts.
The Department will not measure additional cuts made to facilitate the removal of the pavement.
255.10
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing all materials, including paint;
developing and testing the concrete mix, removing pavement by any method; removing subbase for undercut
replacement; compacting subbase and subgrade; placing rigid pavement, including concrete necessary to replace
removed subbase or subgrade; furnishing and placing dowels, tiebars, and mesh; performing maturity testing and
acceptance; placing, maintaining, removing, and disposing of temporary patches, and restoring the shoulders.
The Department will not pay for additional concrete sawing and removal depths within 1 inch (25 mm) greater
than those shown on the plans.
The Department will not pay for additional work to repair damage caused by pavement sawing, pavement drilling
or pavement removal.
The Department will include tack coat in the cost of the asphalt concrete. The Department will pay for asphalt
concrete according to Item 301, Item 441, or Item 442.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
255
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Full Depth Pavement Removal and Rigid Replacement, Class ___
255
Full Depth Pavement Sawing
ITEM 256 BONDED PATCHING OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
256.01
256.02
256.03
256.04
256.05
256.06
256.07
256.08
256.09
256.10
Description
Materials
Equipment
Removal of Unsound Concrete
Preparation of Patch Area
Bonding Grout Installation
Placing Patching Material
Curing and Loading
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
256.01
Description. This work consists of bonded patching of portland cement concrete pavements at spall
areas adjacent to cracks or joints or other areas of the pavement as designated by the Engineer. This work involves
removing all loose and unsound concrete and asphalt material patches; removing sound concrete as directed;
preparing the surface; applying a bonding grout if required; reconstructing the joint or crack; and mixing, placing,
finishing, and curing of the patching material called out in the pay item description.
256.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Portland cement ............................................................................... 701.05
Fine aggregate .................................................................................. 703.02
Coarse aggregate, No. 8 size............................................................ 703.02
Curing material ................................................................................ 705.07
Air-entraining admixture ................................................................. 705.10
Quick setting concrete mortar .......................................................... 705.21
256.03
Equipment. Use a milling machine, concrete saw, jackhammers, or other approved equipment to
remove existing surface material. Provide oil and moisture free compressed air for cleaning and abrasive blasting
the prepared area. Provide an on-site concrete mixer capable of mixing a minimum of 2-cubic foot (0.06 m³) batches
of patching material. Provide chipping hammers not heavier than the nominal 35-pound (16 kg) class.
256.04
Removal of Unsound Concrete. The Engineer will locate and mark all areas to be repaired prior to
concrete sawing. Provide the Engineer with aerosol spray paint to outline the areas for repair. Repair areas will be
rectangular or square in shape with dimensions as required to envelope the surface deterioration.
Saw the perimeter of all areas designated for removal to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) to produce a vertical or
slightly undercut face. Make additional saw cuts as required to facilitate removal. Remove all unsound concrete,
all asphalt material, and all obviously loose and disintegrated concrete within the patch area. Remove sound
concrete where required to achieve the minimum depth within the patch area. Remove concrete by jack hammering
or milling. The minimum depth of any partial depth repair is 1 1/2 inch (38 mm) except at the perimeter saw cuts.
Operate chipping hammers at an angle of less than 45 degrees measured from the surface of the pavement. During
removal of unsound concrete, remove all pavement reinforcing exposed in the patch areas using a cutting tool or a
torch.
256.05
Preparation of Patch Area. Before placing the patching material or before applying the bonding
grout, if used, abrasive blast the exposed concrete surfaces to which the patching material is to bond until free of
loose particles, oil, dust, traces of asphalt concrete and joint sealer, and other contaminates. Do not begin abrasive
blasting operations until implementing reasonably available engineering controls to limit fugitive dust that are
acceptable to the Engineer. Conform to State, regional, and local government agency requirements regarding
control of dust generated by the blasting operation. Remove all sandblasting residue with compressed air just prior
to placing the patching material or just prior to applying the bonding grout, if used. For Types B and C patching
materials that do not use water as the activator, perform additional surface preparation according to the patching
material manufacturer’s recommendations.
Recreate joints and cracks through or along the patch using a joint board that extends below the prepared surface
and has a width equal to the existing joint or crack. One hour after placing the patching material, remove the joint
board in a manner that does not damage the patch.
256.06
Bonding Grout Installation. For bonding Type A patches, use grout that consists of equal parts, by
volume, of portland cement and sand, mixed with sufficient water to form a stiff slurry. Using a stiff brush or
broom, apply a thin, uniform coating of grout to the prepared surface. Scrub the grout onto the dry surfaces of the
prepared area to be patched immediately before placing the patching material. Do not allow excess grout to collect
in low spots. Do not allow the grout to dry before placing the new concrete. Paint grout over all sawed joints
between the patch and adjacent concrete immediately after completing the finishing.
For bonding Types B and C patches, conform to the patching material manufacturer’s recommendations.
256.07
Placement of Patch Material. Use Type A, B, or C patch material as follows:
A. Type A. Provide patch material consisting of one part high early strength portland cement, one and a half parts
fine aggregate, and one and a half parts coarse aggregate by volume. Add sufficient air-entraining admixture to
maintain an air content of 8 ±2 percent. Add enough water to obtain the minimum slump practical for placing, and
do not allow slump to exceed 4 inches (100 mm). Mix the materials on site. Do not use ready-mixed concrete. Place
the concrete mixture in the patch area while the bonding grout is still wet. Slightly overfill, vibrate, and strike off
the concrete.
B. Type B. Provide patch material consisting of quick setting concrete mortar 705.21, Type 1 or 2. Mix and place
the mortar according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Add coarse aggregate, as needed, according to the
manufacturer’s instructions. Place the concrete mixture in the patch area. If the manufacturer’s requirements
specify using bonding grout, place the concrete mixture while the bonding grout is still wet. Slightly overfill,
vibrate, and strike off the concrete.
C. Type C. Provide patch material consisting of a blend of quick setting concrete mortar 705.21, Type 2 and
selected aggregates with an activator. Mix and place these materials according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. Add coarse aggregate, as needed, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Place the
concrete mixture in the patch area. If the manufacturer’s requirements specify using bonding grout, place the
concrete mixture while the bonding grout is still wet. Slightly overfill, vibrate, and strike off the concrete.
Screed patches 12 feet (3.7 m) and less in length parallel to the centerline. Screed patches over 12 feet (3.7 m)
in length perpendicular to the centerline.
While the concrete is still in a plastic state, test the surface for trueness and for being flush with the edges of
the adjacent slabs using a 10-foot (3 m) straightedge. Place the straightedge parallel to the pavement centerline
with the ends resting on the adjacent pavement and draw the straightedge across the patch. Where the straightedge
shows deviations, correct all high or low areas exceeding 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3 mm in 3 m). Recheck the concrete
surface after making corrections to assure that the patch area meets the surface tolerance before the patching
material hardens.
Texture the new concrete surface similar to that of the surrounding pavement.
256.08
Curing and Opening to Traffic. Cure Type A patches according to 451.11, except allow the patch
to attain a modulus of rupture of 400 pounds per square inch (2.8 MPa) before opening to traffic. Cure Types B
and C patches according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
256.09
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure the quantity of Bonded Patching of Portland
Cement Concrete Pavement, Type ___ by the number of square feet (square meters) of the exposed surface of all
patches, irrespective of the depth of the patch, repaired in the complete and accepted work. If the actual measured
area of a patch is less than 2 square feet (0.2 m²), the Engineer will increase each such measurement to 2 square
feet (0.2 m²).
256.10
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
256
Square Feet
(Square Meter)
Bonded Patching of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement, Type __
ITEM 257 DIAMOND GRINDING PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
257.01
257.02
257.03
257.04
257.05
257.06
Description
Equipment
Construction
Final Surface Finish
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
257.01
Description. This work consists of diamond grinding and texturing Portland cement concrete
pavement longitudinally to substantially eliminate joint and crack faulting and to restore proper riding
characteristics to the pavement surface.
257.02
Equipment. Provide grinding equipment that is a power driven, self-propelled machine that is
specifically designed to smooth and texture Portland cement concrete pavement with diamond blades or diamond
impregnated cylinder rings. Mount the blades or cylinder rings on an arbor head. Provide a grinding head at least
3 feet (0.9 m) wide. Ensure the equipment is capable of grinding the surface in the longitudinal direction without
causing spalls or other damage at cracks, joints and other locations. Ensure the equipment is capable of correcting
the pavement profile and providing proper cross slope on the concrete pavement.
Provide equipment with an effective wheelbase of at least 12.0 feet (3.6 m); a set of pivoting tandem bogey
wheels at the front of the machine and rear wheels that travel and track in the fresh cut pavement. Ensure the center
of the grinding head is no further than 3.0 feet (0.9 m) forward from the center of the back wheels. Ensure the
equipment is of a shape and dimension that does not encroach on traffic movement outside of the work area.
Furnish and maintain a profiler conforming to Supplement 1058 for daily use during the grinding operations.
Provide all necessary supplies to fully operate and graph the results of testing the ground pavement for smoothness.
The Engineer will verify the profiler according to Supplement 1058.
257.03
Construction. The plans will designate the areas of pavement surfaces to be ground. Grinding of
bridge decks, approach slabs, and roadway shoulders will not be required unless indicated on the plans or required
to provide drainage. Perform grinding in a manner that eliminates crack or joint faults while providing positive
lateral drainage by maintaining a constant cross-slope between grinding extremities in each lane. Transition
auxiliary or ramp lane grinding as required from the mainline edge to provide positive drainage and an acceptable
riding surface.
Ensure the operation results in pavement that conforms to the typical cross-section and the requirements specified
for the final surface finish, however, it is the intention of this specification that the faulting at joints and cracks be
eliminated and the overall riding characteristics be restored within the limits specified. To accomplish the
smoothness required, grinding may not be required on 100 percent of the pavement surface.
During initial grinding operations, use the profiler to test the pavement surface as soon as the concrete has been
ground full lane width. This initial testing is to aid the Contractor in evaluating the grinding methods and equipment
being used. Subsequent to the initial testing, run daily profiles of each day's grinding the next working day.
Remove all grinding residue. Remove solid residue before it is blown by traffic action or wind. Do not allow
residue to flow across lanes used by the traveling public or into gutters or drainage facilities.
257.04
Final Surface Finish. Produce a pavement surface that is true to grade with the ground area consisting
of a longitudinal corduroy-type texture. Ensure the peaks of the ridges are approximately 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) higher
than the grooves with 53 to 57 evenly spaced grooves per foot (174 to 187 per meter).
Measure the finished pavement surface for riding quality.
Produce a mainline riding surface which does not exceed an IRI of 95 inches per mile (1.50 m/km), nor any
localized surface deviations in excess of 0.4 inches in 25 feet (10 mm in 7.6 m), as measured with the approved
profiler. Use equipment conforming to Supplement 1058 and obtain a profile and smoothness measurements using
ProVAL and Supplement 1110. The Engineer will witness the testing of the pavement surface’s wheel paths. The
wheel paths are located parallel to the centerline of the pavement and approximately 3 feet (0.9 m) from the center
of the lane measured transversely. Maintain the alignment of the profiler with reference to the pavement edge at all
times. Re-grind any 0.10 mile (0.16 km) sections with an IRI greater than 95 inches per mile (1.5 m/km) until the
measured IRI is less than 95 inches per mile (1.5 m/km).
Provide the necessary traffic control and survey stationing for initial measurements or any subsequent
measurements. Measure the entire length of pavement, event marking the profile runs such that the data can later
be identified when the profile sensor(s) is within 1.0 foot (0.3 m) of any bridge deck, pressure relief joint, approach
slab, or pavement not included in the grinding area identified in the plans or established by the Engineer.
Ensure transverse joints and cracks are flush with adjacent surfaces. The Engineer will visually inspect transverse
joints and cracks to ensure that adjacent surfaces are in the same plane. Adjacent sides of joints or cracks within of
1/16 inch (1.5 mm) of each other will be considered flush. Ensure the transverse slope of the pavement is uniform
to a degree that no depressions or misalignments of slope greater 1/4 inch in 12 feet (6 mm in 3.6 m) are present.
Use a straightedge placed perpendicular to the centerline to measure depressions and misalignments. Straightedge
requirements do not apply outside of area ground.
257.05
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure diamond grinding by the number of square
yards (square meters) of pavement ground and accepted. The quantity of diamond grinding will be determined by
multiplying the width specified on the plan by the total length of the diamond ground surface.
257.06
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing all labor, materials, tools, equipment
and incidentals and for doing all work involved in grinding the existing surface, removing residue, cleaning the
pavement, and testing with a profiler.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
257
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Diamond Grinding Portland Cement Concrete Pavement
ITEM 258 LOAD TRANSFER RETROFIT
258.01
258.02
258.03
258.04
258.05
258.06
Description
Materials
Equipment
Construction
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
258.01
Description. This work consists of sawing slots across transverse cracks, cleaning the slot, injecting
caulking filler, placing a dowel or deformed bar in the slot, and filling the slot with a patching material.
258.02
Materials. Furnish a one part silicone sealant which does not require a primer for bond to concrete
and conforms to the following Table:
Properties
Flow, ASTM D5893
Extrusion Rate, C1183 method A
Tack free time @ 77 °F ±3 °F (25 °C ±2 °C) – ASTM
C679
Specific Gravity - ASTM D 792, Method A
Durometer Hardness - Shore A, cured 7 days @ 77 °F ±3
°F (25 °C ±2 °C) and 45 to 55% R.H.; ASTM D 2240
Tensile Stress -@ 150% elongation, 7 day cure @ 77 °F
±3 °F (25 °C ±2 °C) and 45 to 55% R.H.; ASTM D 412,
Die C
Elongation - 7 day cure @ 77 °F ±3 °F (25 °C ±2 °C) and
45 to 55% R.H.; ASTM D 412, Die C.
Bond to Concrete Mortar Briquettes - Air cured 12 days
@ 77 °F ±3 °F (25 °C ±2°C);[1]
Requirements
0.3 inches(7.6 mm) maximum
75 to 350 grams/minute
20 to 90 minutes
1.010 to 1.515
10 to 25 at 0 °F (-18 °C)
45 psi (310 kPa) maximum
800% minimum
50 psi (345 kPa) minimum
Extend 100% and compress 50%; No adhesive
or cohesive failure after 10 cycles at 0 °F (-18
°C)
9 months from date of shipment from
Shelf Life
manufacturer
[1]Bond to Concrete Mortar Briquettes molded in accordance with AASHTO T 132 sawed in half and bonded with
a thin section of sealant and tested in accordance with AASHTO T 132. Briquettes will be dried to constant
weight in oven at 212 °F ±9 °F (100 °C ±5 °C).
[2]Movement Capability and Adhesion: Prepare 1-inch × 2-inch × 3-inch (25 mm × 50 mm × 75 mm) concrete
blocks in accordance with ASTM C 719. A sawed face will be used for bond surface. Seal 2 inches (50 mm) of
block leaving 1/2 inch (13 mm) on each end of specimen unsealed. The depth of sealant will be 3/8 inch (10
mm) and the width 1/2 inch (13 mm). Subject sealant to movement in accordance with ASTM C 719. The
magnitude of the movement will be as specified, and the rate of extension or compression will be 1/8 inch (3.2
mm) per hour.
Movement Capability and Adhesion [2]
Furnish materials conforming to:
Aggregate .................................................................................. 703.02.A.3
Curing material ................................................................... 705.07, Type 2
Dowel bars ....................................................................... 709.13 or 705.01
Deformed bars ................................................................. 705.01 or 709.00
Bar chairs ..................................................709.14 or non-metallic material
Preformed filler ................................................................................ 705.03
Patching material. Must meet the performance requirements of ASTM C928, Table 1, R3 concrete material
with the following exceptions and additions:
Final Set Time (ASTM C403)............................... 25 minutes minimum
Length Change (ASTM C157)
@ 4 days .....................................................................±0.13% maximum
Freeze Thaw Durability Factor (ASTM C666) Procedure A @ 300 cycles or Procedure B @ 350 cycles,
Durability Factor: ............................................................ 90% minimum
Furnish patching material according to the Departments Qualified Products List (QPL)
Mix prepackaged materials that contain all aggregates needed to produce the desired concrete as specified by the
manufacturer. For bagged cementitious materials that need additional aggregates, grade the aggregate according to
the patching material manufacturer’s recommendation except ensure that 100% passes the 1/2-inch (12.5 mm) sieve
and a minimum of 85 percent, by weight, passes the 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) sieve.
258.03
Equipment. Furnish equipment to create slots that has a power driven gang type assembly, consisting
of diamond blade saws, capable of sawing a minimum of six sawcuts at one time to the required dimensions,
without damage to the surrounding pavement.
Furnish jack hammers weighing less than 30 pounds (13.6 kg).
Furnish abrasive blast equipment capable of removing the saw slurry or other foreign material from the exposed
surfaces leaving a clean, newly exposed concrete surface free of spalls, laitance, and all contaminants detrimental
to achieving an adequate bond. Ensure water blasting pressure with abrasives in the water is 10,000 psi (690 bar)
or less.
258.04
Construction. The Engineer will locate and mark cracks to be retrofitted. Provide the Engineer with
aerosol spray paint to mark the cracks to be retrofit.
Construct 2 1/2-inch (65 mm) wide slots into the pavement to the required depth to place the center of the bar at
mid-depth in the concrete slab. Ensure the slots are parallel to the centerline of the pavement. Saw the sides of the
slots using the required sawing equipment. Make multiple saw cuts parallel to the centerline if necessary to properly
remove material from the slot and to provide a level surface for the feet of the bar chairs. Chip out the concrete
using jack hammers to create the slot. Do not operate jack hammers in a manner that causes damage to the
surrounding concrete. Construct three slots, on one foot (0.3 m) centers, in each wheel path, as shown in the
standard drawings.
Do not allow traffic across the crack once the concrete has been removed from the slots until all six retrofit bars
are in place, cured and completed. Do not allow the tires of construction vehicles to travel on slots where concrete
has been removed.
Clean the sides of the slots by approved blast methods to produce a rough surface. Ensure any blasting operation
does not damage the surrounding pavement. Do not begin abrasive blasting operations until implementing
reasonably available engineering controls to limit fugitive dust that are acceptable to the Engineer. Conform to
state, regional, and local government agency requirements regarding control of dust generated by the blasting
operation.
Caulk cracks at the bottom and sides of the slot with an approved silicone sealant in order to prevent any grout
from entering the crack. Apply the sealant with a pressure applicator that forces it into the crack.
Place a 1/2 inch (13 mm) thick preformed filler board on dowel bars to maintain the crack, as shown in the
standard drawings. Ensure the filler board fits tight around the dowel and to the bottom and sides of the slot.
Maintain the filler board in a vertical position and tight to all sides during placement of the patching material.
Ensure the filler board extends from the bottom of the slot to the surface of the pavement. If for any reason the
filler board shifts during placement of the patching material, redo the dowel bar retrofit at no expense to the
Department.
Ensure the bar chair firmly holds the bar centered in the slot. Obtain the Engineer’s approval before using any
bar chairs. The Engineer will reject any chair design that may allow movement of the bar during the placement of
grout.
Provide smooth dowel bars 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter and 18 inches (460 mm) long. Center the filler
board on dowel bars. Coat dowel bars with a thin uniform coat of new light form oil as a bond-breaking material
just prior to installation in the slot. Place an expansion cap on each end of dowel bars prior to installation. Ensure
the expansion caps are tight fitting and made of non-metallic material which will allow 1/4 inch (6 mm) movement
at each end of the dowel.
Provide #11 (#36M) deformed bars 18 inches (460 mm) long.
Use two chairs to firmly hold the bar in the slot during placement of the patching material. Furnish chairs that
are a nominal 2 1/2 inches (65 mm) wide and center the bar across the crack. Ensure dowel bars vary no more than
1/4 inch (6 mm) from parallel to the pavement surface and the centerline of the pavement. Just prior to placement
of the patching material, make one or more passes of an air blast to provide a dust-free, clean slot to insure an
adequate bond of the patching material.
Mix, place, and cure the patching material in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Consolidate
the patching material using a vibrator approved by the Engineer. Place the patching material in the slot and finish
to produce a smooth, even surface.
Repair any damage to the pavement due to the Contractor’s operation at no expense to the Department.
Cure the patching material for a minimum of four hours before placing any vehicle loads on the repair, or as
directed by the Engineer.
258.05
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure the quantity of Retrofit Dowel Bars and
Retrofit Deformed Bars by the actual number in the complete and accepted work.
258.06
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing all materials including paint; sawing
and cleaning the slots; installing dowel chairs, dowels, deformed bars, bond breaker material, dowel bar end caps,
sealant/caulking material, filler material, and patching material.
The Department will not pay for additional work or materials required due to shifting of the filler board.
The Department will not pay for any additional work to repair damage to the pavement caused by the Contractor.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract unit price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
258
258
Each
Each
Retrofit Dowel Bar
Retrofit Deformed Bar
300 BASES
ITEM 301 ASPHALT CONCRETE BASE
301.01
301.02
301.03
301.04
301.05
301.06
Description
Composition
Mixing
Spreading and Finishing
Spreading and Surface Tolerances
Basis of Payment
301.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a base course of aggregate and asphalt binder, mixed
in a central plant and spread and compacted on a prepared surface.
The requirements of Item 401 apply, except as modified by this specification.
301.02
Composition. Furnish aggregate for the mix that conforms to the following gradation:
Sieve Size
2 inch
1 inch
1/2 inch
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 50
No. 200
(50 mm)
(25.0 mm)
(12.5 mm)
(4.75 mm)
(2.36 mm)
(1.18 mm)
(300 µm)
(75 µm)
Total Percent Passing
100
75 to 100
50 to 85
25 to 60
15 to 45
10 to 35
3 to 18
1 to 7
Submit for OMM’s approval the desired percentage of the aggregate passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve and blend
of individual components. The Contractor may use reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement according to 401.04.
OMM will establish the required binder content within a range of 4.7 to 7 percent. Do not make changes in these
JMF values due to unsatisfactory results or other conditions except as authorized by OMM. Obtain a new JMF
approval for any desired change to an existing JMF.
301.03
Mixing. If using a batch plant, use screens with openings of sizes that result in a reasonably balanced
separation of the dried and heated aggregate into a minimum of two bins.
301.04
Spreading and Finishing. Ensure that the maximum compacted depth of any one layer is 6 inches
(150 mm). Ensure that the temperature of the mixture when delivered to the paver is a minimum of 250 °F (120
°C). Ensure the temperature of the mixture is sufficient for the roller coverage to be effective in compacting the
mixture.
301.05
Spreading and Surface Tolerances. Do not exceed 3/8 inch (10 mm) in surface variation from the
testing edge of a 10-foot (3 m) straightedge. If using Item 301 Asphalt Concrete Base as a subbase for a rigid
pavement or base, do not exceed a variation of 1/4 inch (6 mm).
Correct variations in excess of slope or surface tolerances by adding or removing material in a manner
satisfactory to the Engineer. The Contractor may use asphalt concrete approved by the Engineer.
301.06
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities, complete in place, at the contract
price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
301
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Asphalt Concrete Base
ITEM 302 ASPHALT CONCRETE BASE
302.01
302.02
302.03
302.04
302.05
302.06
Description
Composition
Mixing
Spreading and Finishing
Spreading and Surface Tolerances
Basis of Payment
302.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a base course of aggregate and asphalt binder, mixed
in a central plant and spread and compacted on a prepared surface.
The requirements of Item 401 apply, except as modified by this specification.
302.02
A.
Composition
General. Furnish a mixture that conforms to the following gradation:
Sieve Size
Total Percent Passing
2 inch
(50 mm)
100
1 1/2 inch
(37.5 mm)
85 to 100
1 inch
(25.0 mm) [1]
68 to 88
[1]
3/4 inch
(19.0 mm)
56 to 80
[1]
1/2 inch
(12.5 mm)
44 to 68
3/8 inch
(9.5 mm) [1]
37 to 60
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
22 to 45
No. 8
(2.36 mm)
14 to 35
No. 16
(1.18 mm)
8 to 25
No. 30
(600 µm)
6 to 18
No. 50
(300 µm)
4 to 13
No. 200
(75 µm)
2 to 6
[1]Provide aggregate to retain a minimum of 7 percent of the material on each of these sieves. This requirement
applies to the gradation of the JMF and the mix production according to Item 403.
In the design of the asphalt concrete base, the requirements of Item 441 apply, except as follows:
The Contractor may use reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement according to 401.04. Should problems with
proper coating or other material issues related to the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement or reclaimed
asphalt shingles be evident, OMM may restrict the allowable percentage of reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement
to the reduced limits shown in tables 401.04-1 and 401.04-2 or may eliminate use of reclaimed asphalt shingles. In
this case the virgin binder content will be adjusted by OMM.
Add hydrated lime in the dry form at a rate of 0.75 percent by the dry weight of aggregate for asphalt concrete
base, if antistrip additive is required and hydrated lime is used.
Design the asphalt concrete base to yield 4.0 percent air voids and the following properties:
Property
Binder Content, %
Stability, lb (N), 70 blow
Flow, 0.25 mm, 70 blow
Voids in Mineral Aggregate %
Note 1: See tables in 401.04
Acceptable Range of Values
Minimum
Maximum
Note 1
6.0[Total]
3000 (13,345)
--28
12.0
--
Use equipment that meets the requirements of a Level 3 laboratory as specified in Supplement 1041. Ensure
that the following equipment is designed and manufactured according to ASTM D5581 to prepare and test a
Marshall specimen with a 6.0-inch (152.4 mm) diameter and a 3.75 ±0.05 inch (95 ±1.3 mm) height:
1.
Specimen mold assembly
2.
Specimen extractor
3.
Compaction hammer.
4.
Compaction pedestal specimen mold holder.
5.
Marshall test apparatus.
Produce batches of asphalt concrete base in the amount that will result in a compacted specimen 3.75 ±0.05
inch (95 ±1.3 mm) in height. This amount is about 4050 grams.
B. Compaction of Specimens. Fill the mold with asphalt concrete base by placing approximately one-half of the
batch in the mold and spading it vigorously with a heated spatula or trowel 15 times around the perimeter and ten
times over the interior. Place the second half of the batch in the mold and spade the mixture in the same manner.
Compact the specimen on both sides with 70 blows.
C. Stability Correlation Ratios. Convert measured stability values for specimens that depart from the standard
3.75-inch (95 mm) thickness to an equivalent 3.75-inch (95 mm) value by multiplying the stability value by the
appropriate correlation ratio as follows:
Approximate Thickness of Specimen, inches (mm)
3 1/2
(89)
3 9/16
(90)
3 5/8
(92)
3 11/16
(94)
3 3/4
(95)
3 13/16
(97)
3 7/8
(98)
3 15/16
(100)
4
(102)
302.03
Correlation Ratio
1.12
1.09
1.06
1.03
1.00
0.97
0.95
0.92
0.90
Mixing. Conform to the requirements of 301.03.
302.04
Spreading and Finishing. Ensure that the compacted depth of any one layer is a minimum of 4 inches
(100 mm) and a maximum of 7.75 inches (190 mm). If the plan thickness is 7.0-7.75 inches (178 mm – 190 mm)
and District Testing confirms the JMF and mixture production has 95% passing the 1.50 inch (37.5 mm) sieve, the
302 may be placed in two lifts if requested by the Contractor. One lift of plan thickness will be required if top size
aggregate dragging occurs. Ensure that the temperature of the mixture when delivered to the paver is a minimum
of 250 °F (120 °C). Ensure the temperature of the mixture is sufficient for the roller coverage to be effective in
compacting the mixture.
302.05
Spreading and Surface Tolerances. Conform to the requirements of 301.05.
302.06
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities, complete in place, at the contract
price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
302
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Asphalt Concrete Base
ITEM 304 AGGREGATE BASE
304.01
304.02
304.03
304.04
304.05
304.06
304.07
304.08
Description
Materials
Before Spreading
Spreading
Compaction
Finished Surface
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
304.01
Description. This work consists of furnishing, placing, and compacting one or more courses of
aggregate on a prepared surface, including furnishing and incorporating all water required for compaction.
304.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to 703.17.
304.03
Before Spreading. The Engineer will sample the Contractor’s stockpile to determine the initial
moisture content to be used for compaction. The Engineer will develop a moisture-density curve to determine the
optimum moisture content.
Use material that has reasonably uniform moisture content. Ensure the moisture content is not less than 2 percent
below the optimum moisture content before spreading. Add water to the stockpile if necessary to meet this moisture
requirement.
Handle the material in a manner to minimize segregation. If segregation occurs, thoroughly mix or regrade the
stockpile.
304.04
Spreading. Spread the material on the prepared surface. Do not use frozen material and do not spread
on frozen surfaces.
Do not exceed a compacted lift thickness of 8 inches (200 mm) when using vibratory rollers with effective
weights greater than 12 tons (11 metric tons). Do not exceed a compacted lift thickness of 6 inches (150 mm) when
using vibratory rollers with effective weights from 10 to 12 tons (9 to 11 metric tons). Do not exceed a maximum
compacted lift thickness of 4 inches (100 mm) when these vibratory rollers are not used. The effective weight of a
vibratory roller is the weight plus the centrifugal force from vibration. Submit documentation from the
manufacturer that shows the vibratory roller meets the minimum effective weight requirements.
Place the material in two or more approximately equal lifts when the specified compacted thickness exceeds the
maximum allowed.
Place the material with self-propelled spreading machines capable of placing the material true to line and grade.
Spreading machines such as spreader boxes or pavers are allowed. Do not use graders or dozers without spreader
boxes to spread the material except for areas described in the next paragraph. Spread the material such that it
minimizes segregation and requires minimal blading or manipulation. The Department may perform in-place
gradation testing in areas that are visually segregated according to Supplement 1090.
The Contractor may use hand-placing methods, dozers or graders when the total area of the material is 2000
square yards (1700 m²) or less or in small areas where self-propelled spreading machines are impractical. Small
areas include lane widths less than 12 feet (3.7 m) or lengths less than 1000 feet (305 m). The Department will not
take in-place gradation tests in these small areas.
The Department may test for in-place gradation after spreading but before compaction testing according to
Supplement 1090.
304.05
Compaction. Add water or dry the material to bring it to within 2 percent of the optimum moisture
content before compacting. Maintain the moisture content within this range during all compaction operations. The
Engineer will determine the percentage of moisture to apply or to be dried from the material. Uniformly apply the
water or dry the material throughout the lift and in a manner that does not soften or disturb the lower courses.
Reduce the moisture content if the material becomes unstable during the compaction operation.
Compact each lift of material immediately after spreading. Use rollers that correspond with the lift thickness as
described in 304.04. The Contractor may use lighter rollers or vibratory equipment in small areas as specified in
304.04 or when heavier rollers are not practical. Approved compaction equipment may consist of vibratory rollers,
static rollers, or vibratory equipment.
At the beginning of the compaction operation, construct a test section according to Supplement 1015. Use a
minimum compactive effort of eight passes to construct the test section. Use and adjust the vibration on the
vibratory rollers to maximize the density and stability. Construct a new test section when the material changes or
when the supporting materials change appreciably.
Unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents, the Engineer will perform all compaction tests according
to Supplement 1015.
The Engineer will use 98 percent of the test section maximum dry density for acceptance of the production
material. Use at least the same number of passes and compactive effort used to obtain the test section maximum
dry density for the production material. At a minimum, use eight passes in the production area. The Engineer may
reduce the minimum passes if the passes are detrimental to compaction.
The Engineer may check the production material density before or after the finishing operations.
Maintain the surface of each lift during the compaction operations in such a manner that the surface texture is
reasonably uniform and the material is firmly keyed.
Cover the aggregate base with the next layer of pavement before the end of the construction season. If the
aggregate base is not covered up, then assume all liability for contamination of, damage to and instability of the
base, subgrade and underdrains.
Provide drainage and maintain the material according to 203.04.A.
304.06
Finished Surface. Ensure that the finished surface does not vary more than 3/8 inch (10 mm) from a
10-foot (3 m) straightedge parallel to the centerline or more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) from a template conforming to
the required cross-section. Furnish straightedges, templates, or other devices satisfactory to the Engineer, and check
the surface for conformance with these requirements.
Do not construct the aggregate base at a consistent depth below the required minimum compacted depth
thickness. When the depth is found to be less than the required depth, provide the Engineer with a written corrective
action plan for approval.
304.07
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Aggregate Base by the number of cubic
yards (cubic meters) computed from the profile grade and typical sections, compacted in place.
Where variable depth is specified, the Department will measure the number of cubic yards (cubic meters) of
aggregate base by converting from weight using the following conversion factors:
TABLE 304.07-1
Material
Conversion Factor
Crushed stone
4000 lb/yd³
2375 kg/m³
Crushed gravel
4000 lb/yd³
2375 kg/m³
[1]
Crushed slag
less than 90 lb/ft³ (1450 kg/m³)
3600 lb/yd³
2140 kg/m³
90 to 100 lb/ft³ (1450 to 1600 kg/m³)
4000 lb/yd³
2375 kg/m³
more than 100 lb/ft³ (1600 kg/m³)
4500 lb/yd³
2670 kg/m³
Granulated slag
2800 lb/yd³
1660 kg/m³
[1]Based on average dry rodded weight of standard size of slag aggregates on record at the Laboratory.
The conversion factors listed are the long gradation weights. These numbers are based on the dry
rodded weights of No. 67, 57, or 8 gradation. The Department will determine slag weights based
on weights obtained from the original source.
The Department will verify that the moisture content of the delivered material is less than 2 percent above
saturated surface dry (SSD). If the moisture content is greater than 2 percent above SSD, then the Department will
calculate the number of cubic yards (cubic meters) based on the dry density and dry weight.
The Department will determine the pounds per cubic yard (kilograms per cubic meter) for aggregate mixtures by
using 100 percent of the test section maximum dry density obtained in 304.05.
304.08
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
304
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Aggregate Base
ITEM 305 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE BASE
305.01
305.02
305.03
305.04
Description
Construction
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
305.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a portland cement concrete base on a prepared
surface.
305.02
Construction. The requirements of Item 451 apply, except as follows.
Do not comply with the requirements of 451.08.
Provide dowels at transverse contraction joints in mainline pavement, ramps, acceleration/deceleration lanes, or
collector/distributor lanes. Dowels for contraction joints in concrete shoulders on mainline pavement, ramps,
acceleration/deceleration lanes, or collector/distributor lanes are not required unless the contraction joint is located
within 500 feet (150 m) of a pressure relief joint.
Do not place construction joints within 6 feet (1.8 m) of another parallel joint.
Modify the curing membrane application rate specified in 451.11 to 200 square feet per gallon (5 m²/L) of treated
pavement surface.
Produce a final surface with a uniform, gritty, longitudinal, or transverse texture using a broom drag in either
direction.
Ensure that pavement surface variations do not exceed 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m).
Impressing station numbers into the plastic concrete as specified in 451.10 is not required.
305.03
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Concrete Base by the number of square
yards (square meters) completed and accepted in place. The width equals the base width shown on the typical crosssection of the plans plus additional widening as the Engineer directs in writing. The Department will field measure
the length along the centerline of each roadway or ramp.
305.04
Basis of Payment. For base found deficient in thickness, the Department will pay a reduced price
according to 451.18.A.
The Department will not make additional payment over the Contract unit price for any base with an average
thickness in excess of that shown on the plans.
For base found deficient in strength, the Department will pay a reduced price according to 451.18.B and table
451.19-2. Use the determination and pay procedures for non QC/QA items.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows.
Item
Unit
Description
305
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Concrete Base
ITEM 320 RUBBLIZE AND ROLL
320.01
320.02
320.03
320.04
320.05
320.06
Description
Materials
Equipment
Construction Details
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
320.01 Description. This work consists of rubblizing and rolling reinforced concrete pavement before placing
an asphalt concrete pavement.
320.02 Materials. Furnish filler aggregate conforming to Item 304.
320.03 Equipment. Use a self-contained and self-propelled unit of either the resonant frequency type or the
multiple head breaker type for rubblizing the concrete pavement.
If using a resonant frequency unit, ensure that it is capable of producing low amplitude, 2000-pound-force (8900
N) blows at a rate of not less than 44 blows per second.
If using a multiple head breaker unit, ensure that it has the capability of rubblizing the full 12-foot (3.6 m) lane
width in a single pass. Ensure the breaking head consists of 12 to 16 hammers, each weighing 1000 to 1500 pounds
(450 to 680 kg). Attach each hammer to a hydraulic lift cylinder that operates as an independent unit, develops
2000 to 12,000 foot-pounds (2700 to 16,000 J) of energy depending on lift height selected, cycles at a rate of 30 to
35 impacts per minute, and has a maximum lift height of 60 inches (1.5 m).
Use a vibratory steel wheel roller having a total weight of not less than 10 tons (9 metric tons).
320.04 Construction Details. Make a full depth saw cut or cut load transfer devices at joints on ramps or
mainline where the rubblizing abuts concrete pavement or approach slabs that are to remain in place permanently
or temporarily for maintenance of traffic.
Before the rubblizing operations begin, the Engineer will designate a test section. Rubblize the test section
according to this specification. After rubblizing, excavate a test pit, where the Engineer designates, to check for
proper particle size throughout the thickness of the concrete. Fill in the test pit using the excavated material and
additional filler aggregate as necessary. Compact the test pit as part of the rolling operation. Excavate at least one
test pit, at the location designated by the Engineer, for each production day or every 7040 square yards (5886 m2),
whichever is greater.
Adjust the rubblizing procedure to maintain the proper particle sizes. Control the operating speed of the
rubblizing equipment such that: 75% of the rubblized particles above the reinforcing steel are reduced to 3 inches
(75 mm) in their largest dimension, 90% of the rubblized particles below the reinforcing steel do not exceed 9
inches (230 mm) in their largest dimension, and no particles exceed 12 inches (300 mm) in their largest dimension.
Before placing the initial asphalt concrete course, compact the rubblized pavement with two passes of the
vibratory roller. Operate the roller in the vibratory mode and at a speed not to exceed 6 feet (1.8 m) per second.
Leave steel reinforcement in place in the rubblized pavement. However, cut off any exposed steel reinforcement
below the surface and remove it from the site.
Fill depressions 1 inch (25 mm) or greater in depth compared to the immediate surrounding area resulting from
the rubblizing, the compactive effort, or the steel reinforcement removal, with the filler aggregate. Strike off excess
aggregate level with the surrounding area. Compact filled depressions with the same roller and compactive effort
previously described.
Do not allow traffic on the rubblized pavement before the asphalt concrete base and intermediate courses are in
place.
Do not allow more than 48 hours to elapse between rubblizing the pavement and placing the initial asphalt
concrete course. However, in the event of rain, the Engineer may waive this time limitation to allow sufficient time
for the rubblized pavement to dry to the Engineer’s satisfaction. If the Engineer waives the time limitation, cease
rubblizing the pavement until the Engineer allows paving to resume.
320.05 Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Rubblize and Roll by the number of square
yards (square meters). The Engineer will use the width of the concrete pavement prior to rubblizing and will
measure the length along the centerline of each roadway or ramp.
The Department will measure the Filler Aggregate by the number of cubic yards (cubic meters) furnished, placed,
and compacted.
320.06 Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
320
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Rubblize and Roll
320
Filler Aggregate
ITEM 321 CRACKING AND SEATING NONREINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT
321.01
321.02
321.03
321.04
321.05
Description
Equipment
Construction Details
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
321.01
Description. This work consists of cracking and seating non-reinforced concrete pavement or
concrete base before placing an asphalt concrete pavement.
321.02
Equipment. Use devices for cracking the concrete capable of producing the desired crack pattern
without extensive spalling or excessive shattering. Extensive spalling is spalling over 1 1/4 inches (30 mm) in
depth. Do not use whiphammers.
Use watering equipment capable of wetting the cracked surface uniformly to reveal the crack pattern.
Use a 50-ton (45 metric tons) pneumatic tire roller conforming to the requirements of Item 204 for seating the
cracked concrete slabs. Use pneumatic tire towing equipment capable of moving the roller forward and backward
along predetermined lines.
321.03
Construction Details. Demonstrate, to the Engineer’s satisfaction, the ability of the selected
equipment and procedures to produce cracking of acceptable quality by cracking at least three, but no more than
five, concrete slabs. When cracking the test slabs, furnish and apply water to dampen the cracked concrete to
enhance visual determination of the cracking pattern. In addition to 107.07, provide positive provision to contain
any flying debris during cracking operations.
Crack concrete into nominal 4  4-foot (1.2  1.2 m) segments. In the event panels are already cracked into
segments, crack these segments further into nominally equal-sized square or rectangular pieces having longitudinal
and transverse dimensions not more than 5 feet (1.5 m) and not less than 3 feet (0.9 m), wherever feasible. Do not
allow the cracking equipment to impact the slabs within 1 foot (0.3 m) of another break line, joint, or the edge of
the concrete.
Furnish and apply water to a check section of three to five slabs at least once each day to verify that a satisfactory
crack pattern is being maintained. Make adjustments to the energy or striking pattern when the Engineer deems it
necessary, based on the check sections.
Roll the cracked concrete until the concrete pieces are firmly seated. Perform rolling with at least two coverages
as specified in Item 204. The Engineer will determine the maximum number of coverages of the roller on the test
sections to ensure seating without damage to the concrete.
Before placing the asphalt concrete, remove all loose pieces of broken concrete that are not firmly seated. Repair
all voids, such as spalls, removed loose pieces, joints, or cracks that, in the Engineer’s opinion, will make uniform
compaction of the first asphalt concrete course difficult. Repair voids by applying 407 tack coat, filling with asphalt
concrete, and compacting as directed by the Engineer.
Do not allow traffic on the cracked concrete before the asphalt concrete base and intermediate courses are in
place.
321.04
Method of Measurement. The Engineer will measure the area of non-reinforced concrete pavement
or concrete base satisfactorily cracked and seated in square yards (square meters). The Engineer will use the width
of the concrete pavement prior to cracking and will measure the length along the centerline of each roadway or
ramp.
321.05
Basis of Payment. Include the cost of all crack pattern test and check sections including water; and
for repairing of joint, cracks, spalls, and voids in the contract unit price for Cracking and Seating Non-Reinforced
Concrete Pavement.
The Department will pay for the accepted quantities at the contract price as follows.
Item
Unit
Description
321
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Cracking and Seating Non- Reinforced Concrete Pavement
400 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
ITEM 401 ASPHALT CONCRETE
PAVEMENTS—GENERAL
401.01
401.02
401.03
401.04
401.05
401.06
401.07
401.08
401.09
401.10
401.11
401.12
401.13
401.14
401.15
401.16
401.17
401.18
401.19
401.20
401.21
401.22
Description
Mix Design and Quality Control
Materials
Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Pavement and Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles
Mixing Plants
Weather Limitations
Notification
Asphalt Binder
Aggregate Preparation
Mixing
Hauling
Spreading Equipment
Rollers
Conditioning Existing Surface
Spreading, Finishing and Night Work
Compaction
Joints
Asphalt Binder Compatibility
Spreading and Surface Tolerances
Asphalt Binder Price Adjustment
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
401.01
Description. This specification is applicable to all types of asphalt concrete pavements irrespective
of gradation of aggregate, kind, and amount of asphalt binder, or pavement use. Deviations from these general
requirements are covered in the specific requirements for each type according to the appropriate contract item or
items.
Work consists of one or more courses of asphalt concrete constructed on a prepared foundation. The asphalt
concrete consists of a mixture of graded aggregate and specified type and grade of asphalt binder.
Control all production processes to assure the Engineer that the mixture delivered to the paving site is uniform
in composition, conforms to the specification requirements and that the placed mixture is free of any defect (ex.
segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture and texture uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within
the Contractor’s control at project completion.
The asphalt concrete pavement thickness shown on the plans or stated in the Proposal is for exclusive use in
calculating the weight required to be placed per unit of surface area.
401.02
Mix Design and Quality Control. Use an approved Job Mix Formula (JMF). The quality control
and acceptance requirements of Item 403 apply unless otherwise specified.
If required to perform the mix design or quality control, provide a laboratory and personnel meeting the
requirements of Supplement 1041 to perform mix design and quality control tests.
Calibrate asphalt content nuclear gauges according to Supplement 1043 using personnel with a minimum Level
2 approval according to Supplement 1041. Mix and test the calibration verification sample with a Department
employee present. Provide and dispose of the solvent used for cleaning the asphalt content nuclear gauge pans.
401.03
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Asphalt binder
(asphalt concrete, 401.14, 401.15) ............................................... 702.01
Asphalt material (401.14, 401.18) ..............................................................
.......................................................SS875.02, 702.01, 702.04, or 702.13
Aggregates (base courses) ............................................................... 703.04
Aggregates (intermediate and
surface courses) ............................................................................ 703.05
Mineral filler ................................................................................... 703.07
Sample aggregate, asphalt binder, asphalt material, and mineral filler according to 106.01.
If 100 percent of coarse aggregate in an asphalt mix design is steel slag (703.01.E), the Contractor may include
steel slag as a maximum of up to 50 percent of fine aggregate. If a steel slag source causes bulking (expansion
resulting in flushing or material loss) in asphalt concrete courses, OMM will place limits on the amount of steel
slag allowed in a mix design. Bulking may be shown through testing, such as ASTM D 4792, or through field
failure such as, but not limited to, flushing on newer pavement or apparent over-asphalting in production. The
Department may require the steel slag processor at any time to perform additional testing to verify steel slag
properties. Potential pavement performance problems due to poor control of steel slag aggregate include bulking,
poor gradation and specific gravity control resulting in highly variable void properties, excess soft pieces resulting
in pock marks, flushing, etc.
Take prompt corrective action if mixture delivered to the paving site is not uniform in composition, does not
conform to the specification requirements or is not free of any defect (ex. segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture
and texture uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within the Contractor’s control as determined
by the Engineer. The Engineer will stop conditional acceptance of the asphalt concrete for failure to correct
problems.
401.04
Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Pavement and Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles. Provide reclaimed
asphalt concrete pavement (RAP) and/or reclaimed asphalt shingles (RAS) according to the following requirements
when choosing to use them in a mix. Failure to follow these requirements will result in a rejection of the Contractor
QCP (403.03); restriction of any RAP or RAS use at the facility; and/or a change to Unconditional Acceptance at
the facility.
Job Mix Formula. The Contractor may use a blend of new materials in combination with RAP obtained from
verifiable Department or Ohio Turnpike Commission projects and/or RAS obtained from un-used manufactured
shingle waste or used roofing tear-off shingles as listed in Tables 401.04-1 and 401.04-2 and as follows. If the RAP
is not from the above sources or the source is unknown, process and blend the RAP into a single uniform stockpile,
test according to Level 3 Asphalt Mix Design requirements and obtain District Testing approval for use. Obtain
written approval from OMM for use of unusually large, old RAP stockpiles of unknown content and/or age. Include
approved methods in the QCP for ongoing processing and testing of these piles. Ensure no foreign or deleterious
material (703.04, 703.05) is present in RAP. All RAS suppliers must be approved and meet the requirements of
Supplement 1116.
Ensure that the JMF falls within the specified limits of the required mix item. Ensure the JMF submittal includes
the percentages of RAP, RAS, virgin aggregates, and virgin asphalt binder required for the mix item. Report all
RAP and RAS test results, including binder blend analysis, in the JMF submittal. Identify the RAP in the JMF
submittal as to project origin and mix type(s). Identify the approved manufactured shingle waste manufacturer
source or the approved tear-off RAS processor in the JMF submittal.
Determine RAP properties and uniformity as follows. Determine the final RAP gradation and asphalt binder
content on a minimum of four separate stockpile (or roadway for concurrent grinding) samples all agreeing within
a range of 0.4 percent for asphalt binder content and 5 percent passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve. If fractionated
RAP is used use a suitable sieve for determining gradation uniformity. Determine RAP binder content from a
centrifuge extraction test. Do not use reflux extraction or oven burnoff.
Determine RAS properties and usage as follows. Use no more than 5.0 percent RAS by dry weight of mix. When
using RAP and RAS in combination use no more than 3.0 percent RAS. For design assume 18.0 percent available
RAS binder. Determine gradation and specific gravity according to AASHTO PP 78-14, Section 5 or subsequent
AASHTO applicable standard. Provide the required certification forms in the JMF submittal documenting that the
RAS meets AASHTO MP 23-14, section 4 and that RAS from roofing tearoffs conforms to the EPA’s NESHAP,
40 CFR 61 Subpart M, and other applicable agency requirements for asbestos.
RAP and RAS Usage Limits and Requirements. Process and use RAP and RAS as follows.
Process and use RAP by one of the following two methods. Note on the JMF submittal RAP page which of
Method 1 or Method 2 methods described below apply to the RAP. When using RAS without RAP apply the virgin
binder requirements of Table 401.04-2 Method 2. Use PG64-28 virgin binder in all 442 intermediate courses
regardless of the percentage of RAP used. If greater than 25 percent RAP is used in a JMF submittal use PG58-28
or PG64-28 virgin binder. If 26-30 percent RAP is used in the JMF submittal, the Contractor may submit a 3000
gram RAP sample along with a blend chart, according to Level 3 Mix Design procedures, to determine the grade
of virgin asphalt binder to use. When using both 15 percent or greater RAP and 3 percent RAS in an intermediate
or base course use PG58-28 or PG64-28. ODOT may request RAP and/or RAS samples or binder properties at any
time.
A. Method 1 Standard RAP. Include RAP in a JMF submittal according to the Standard RAP/RAS Limits Table
401.04-1 unless specified differently in the applicable mix specification. For mixes that will contain up to 10
percent RAP and no RAS, the JMF submittal is not required to include the RAP except when a virgin polymer
asphalt binder is used in a surface course. For surface course JMFs having polymer asphalt binder only submit at
0 or 10 percent RAP.
TABLE 401.04-1 METHOD 1 – STANDARD RAP/RAS LIMITS
Asphalt Mix
Application
Percent
RAP by
Dry Weight RAS Usage [1]
of Mix,
Max.
442 Polymer Surface
Course
10%
441 Surface Course
20%
441, 442 Intermediate
Course
35%
301 Base Course
50%
302 Base Course
40%
(30%)
None
Manufacturing
waste only
Manufacturing
waste and
tear-offs
Manufacturing
waste and
tear-offs
Manufacturing
waste and
tear-offs
Total Virgin Asphalt
Binder Content,
Min.
Comments
5.2
Polymerized binder is virgin.
(For non-polymer virgin
binder allow 20% max RAP)
5.0
Polymer or non-polymer virgin.
3.0
Any mix type used as an
intermediate course.
2.7
OMM will establish the asphalt
binder content.
2.0
A lower RAP limit of 30
percent will be required if
poor production mixing or
coating is evident.
[1]No more than 5.0% RAS by dry weight of mix
RAP Processing for Table 401.04-1 Method 1-Standard RAP. For surface courses process RAP to less than
0.75 inch (19 mm) and place a 0.75 inch (19 mm) screen on the cold feed. For other courses place a 2-inch (50
mm) screen on the cold feed. Ensure that the RAP is the proper size to allow for complete breakdown in the plant.
If mixing is incomplete, place a smaller screen on the cold feed.
B. Method 2 Extended RAP. Include RAP in a JMF submittal according to the Extended RAP/RAS Limits
Table 401.04-2 unless specified differently in the applicable mix specification. Only use Method 2 with counter
flow drum plants or mini-drum batch plant configurations meeting 402. For mixes that will contain up to 15 percent
RAP and no RAS, the JMF submittal is not required to include the RAP unless a virgin polymer asphalt binder is
used in a surface course. For JMFs having polymer asphalt binder do not submit at 1 through 9 percent RAP.
TABLE 401.04-2 METHOD 2-EXTENDED RAP/RAS LIMITS
Asphalt Mix
Application
442 Polymer
Surface Course
441 Surface
Course
441, 442
Intermediate
Course
301 Base Course
302 Base Course
Percent RAP
by
RAS Usage [1]
Dry Weight of
Mix, Max.
15%
25%
40%
55%
45%
(35%)
None
Manufacturing
waste only
Manufacturing
waste and tearoffs
Manufacturing
waste and tearoffs
Manufacturing
waste and tearoffs
Total Virgin
Asphalt
Binder
Content, Min.
Comments
5.0
Polymerized binder is virgin. (For
non-polymer virgin binder allow
25% max RAP
5.0
Polymer or non-polymer virgin.
3.0
Any mix type used as an
intermediate course.
2.5
OMM will establish the asphalt
binder content.
1.8
A lower limit of 35 percent will be
required if poor coating is evident.
The virgin requirement of 302.02
does not apply.
[1]No more than 5.0% RAS by dry weight of mix
RAP Processing for Table 401.04-2 Method 2-Extended RAP. Process RAP by means of fractionation or
by additional in line processing. Include in the QCP additional methods and procedures to dictate how this is to be
accomplished at plants. Specify documentation method for RAP measurement. Fractionation is the process of
creating separate piles of RAP from one pile when split over a specific sieve or sieves. Test fractionated piles to
show uniformity. For additional in line processing only process RAP from a uniform, tested and approved stockpile
by passing the RAP over a double deck screen placed in-line between the RAP cold feed bin and the mixer. Use a
9/16 inch (14.3 mm) screen for surface and intermediate mixes and a 1.5 inch (37.5 mm) screen for base mixes. Do
not use concurrent project RAP in a stream process.
C. RAS Processing and Usage. Include RAS in a JMF submittal according to the Standard RAP/RAS Limits
Table 401.04-1 or Extended RAP/RAS Limits Table 401.04-2 unless specified differently in the applicable mix
specification. When using RAS without RAP apply the virgin binder requirements of Table 401.04-2 Method 2.
Ensure RAS is processed to have 100 percent passing the 1/2 inch (12.5 mm) sieve and at least 85 percent
passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve. Ensure RAS has less than 1.0 percent deleterious materials and 0.1 percent
metals by weight. Do not blend RAS from manufacturing waste and RAS from roofing tearoffs.
Ensure the QCP includes RAS usage methods before using RAS. Include in the Contractor QCP what
Contractor requirements apply to the RAS processor.
Introduce and control RAS in asphalt plants in the same manner as RAP is introduced and controlled. RAS for
base courses may be preblended with RAP if using rate control equipment to ensure uniformity of blending and if
satisfactory blend and production is achieved. RAS may be preblended with a small amount of virgin aggregate
meeting 703.05 to minimize stockpile agglomeration. Include in the Contractor QCP blending equipment type and
operation and uniformity testing requirements for preblended RAP and RAS or RAS and virgin aggregate. Other
methods must be approved by OMM.
RAP and RAS QC and Management Requirements. Maintain as part of the QC records the signed certification
forms as required in Supplement 1116.
Always note on the daily quality control report how much RAP and RAS is actually being used. Apply a tolerance
of ± 5.0 percent on the amount of RAP used if needed for a quality control adjustment but do not exceed the limits
of Table 401.04-1 or Table 401.04-2, whichever applies. If this adjustment is not adequate for maintaining control
of the mix submit a new JMF for approval. Do not apply this tolerance to RAS.
Include in the QCP methods to be used to meet Method 1 and Method 2 requirements above and the following
requirements:
Provide enough space for meeting all RAP and RAS handling requirements at a hot mix facility. Provide a clean,
graded base for stockpiles that does not collect water. Test blended RAP and RAS stockpiles to assure uniform
gradation and asphalt binder content. Ensure uniform stockpile properties match the JMF submitted RAP and RAS
properties unless the uniform stockpile will be processed into the asphalt plant using plant cold feed in line
processing.
If the uniform stockpile will be processed into the asphalt plant using plant cold feed in line processing determine
the processed RAP properties for use in the mix design. Record in the JMF submittal both the uniform stockpile
and in line processed RAP properties.
If desired, when applying Method 1 Standard RAP requirements, use concurrent Department project RAP in a
stream process in place of stockpiling and testing for uniformity but do so in the following manner. Concurrent
project RAP must be taken from one existing mix type on the concurrent project or two existing mix types if both
mix types are taken at the same time in one pass of the milling machine. Submit a new JMF for each existing mix
type on the project (or each milling pass of two types) desired for use as concurrent project RAP. Include in the
QCP methods of validating RAP properties when using concurrent project RAP. If these requirements are not met
blend and test for uniformity and apply the stockpile requirements of this specification.
Maintain in the plant lab and control room an up to date and dated site map of all tested and untested RAP and
RAS stockpiles. Give each stockpile a unique identification and identify if RAS piles are from un-used
manufactured shingle waste or used roofing tear-off shingles. Provide in the plant lab RAP and RAS properties for
each uniform, blended stockpile cross referenced with its identification. In addition, provide the date the stockpile
processing was completed and the stockpile estimated size in tons. Provide signage at all RAP and RAS piles. Do
not add to a stockpile once it is tested for uniformity. Provide signage at all uniform stockpiles to inform haulers
that uniform piles are not to be added to.
Stockpiles and processing methods are subject to inspection and approval by the Laboratory at any time.
Rejection of stockpiles can occur for the presence of foreign or deleterious materials, lack of uniformity, incomplete
mixing in the asphalt mixture, adding to piles, or moving RAP or RAS in a way not traceable through the QCP
records and methods. OMM will resolve disputes over acceptability of RAP or RAS.
401.05
Mixing Plants. The Department will approve mixing plants before preparation of the mixtures.
Schedule a date with the Department for approval inspection to be at least 1 week before mix production. Do not
produce mixtures for projects from un-approved plants. General requirements for asphalt concrete mixing plants
are specified in Item 402. Set the asphalt binder controls for the computerized plant at the virgin asphalt binder
content of the JMF at all times unless change is authorized by OMM.
Asphalt mixtures may be produced using the warm mix asphalt method according to 402.04 except as restricted
by specification.
401.06
Weather Limitations. Place asphalt concrete only if the surface is dry and if weather conditions are
such that proper handling, finishing, and compaction can be accomplished. Never place asphalt concrete if the
surface temperature is below the minimum established in Table 401.06-1.
TABLE 401.06-1
Course Thickness
Minimum Surface Temperature
3.0 inches (75 mm) and over
36 F [1]
(2 C [1])
1.5 to 2.9 inches (38 to 74 mm)
40 F
(5 C)
1.0 to 1.4 inches (25 to 37 mm)
50 F
(10 C)
Less than 1.0 inch (25 mm)
60 F
(16 C)
Variable Intermediate,
40 F
(5 C)
0 to 3.0 inches (0 to 75 mm)
[1]Instead of 36 F (2 C), use a minimum air temperature of 40 F (5 C) if paving on an
aggregate base or subgrade.
In addition to the above surface temperature requirements, do not place surface courses if the air temperature is
less than 40 F (5 C).
For any surface course with a polymer modified asphalt binder, ensure that the paving surface is at least 50 F
(10 C) and the air temperature is at least 50 F (10 C).
Do not schedule the placement of any surface course with a polymer modified asphalt binder after November 1,
regardless of pavement or air temperature.
401.07
Notification. Notify the Engineer at least 24 hours before starting paving on a project. After starting,
if paving operations are stopped for 1 week or more, notify the Engineer at least 24 hours before resuming paving
on a project.
401.08
Asphalt Binder. Heat the asphalt binder and deliver it to the mixer within the temperature range
specified in Table 702.00-1. Do not use asphalt binder while it is foaming in a storage tank. Take samples using
correct new containers from the binder line between the last piping ‘tee’ and inlet into the plant unless a different
storage method requires a different sampling location.
401.09
Aggregate Preparation. Feed aggregates in their proper proportions and at a rate to permit correct
and uniform control of heating and drying. Remove all aggregates in the plant that will produce a mix outside the
temperature limits or that contain excessive moisture or expanding gases causing foaming in the mixture, and return
them to the proper stockpiles.
401.10
Mixing. Maintain the temperature of the mix at the plant within the range in JMF or according to the
specification. Ensure the mixture is workable and temperature is sufficient for compaction at the point of placement.
The Engineer will verify the required temperature of the mixture on arrival at the project site based on the
temperature range in the JMF and heat losses in transit.
For batch plants, after all of the aggregate is in the mixer, add the asphalt binder in an evenly spread sheet over
the full length of the mixer. The mixing time is defined as the interval between the start of application of the asphalt
binder and the opening of the mixer gate. Discharge all asphalt binder required for one batch in 30 seconds or less.
After the asphalt binder is added, apply the mixing time determined by OMM but not less than 30 seconds.
401.11
Hauling. Use trucks for hauling asphalt concrete that have tight, clean, smooth metal beds from which
the entire quantity of mixture is discharged smoothly into the spreading equipment.
Before loading, apply a thin coating of an approved release agent to the inside surfaces of the truck bed to prevent
adhesion of mixture to the bed surfaces. OMM maintains a list of approved release agents. Do not use fuel oil for
this purpose. Drain truck beds after applying the release agent and before loading. Load trucks in manner to
minimize segregation of the mixture according to the approved QCP.
Do not clean out truck beds on the roadway ahead of the paver. Provide a location away from the roadway or off
the project for cleaning trucks. If there is excessive sticking of material in truck beds, the sticking is in areas of the
truck that would indicate excessive cooling of the mix (front corners, bottom, etc.) due to a long haul, and it is not
resolved in a reasonable time, the Engineer will require an insulated bed. The Contractor may only make procedure
changes for better mix handling at the discretion of OMM.
Equip each truck with a securely fastened, waterproof cover of suitable material to protect the mixture from wind
and weather. At the request of the Engineer, remove covers before dumping into the paver.
If transporting hot asphalt concrete at prevailing air temperatures below 50 F (10 C) or if the length of haul
exceeds 20 miles (32 km), insulate all truck beds to maintain workable mix temperature, and ensure that all covers
are fastened to exclude the wind. Do not exceed a distance of 50 miles (80 km) from the asphalt concrete plant to
the paving site except by specific permission of the Department. Completely discharge the mixture into the
spreading equipment and within 90 minutes of loading.
401.12
Spreading Equipment. Use self-contained spreading equipment of sufficient size, power, and
stability to receive, distribute, and strike-off the asphalt concrete at rates and widths meeting the typical sections
and other details shown on the plans. Use spreading equipment that has automatic control systems that maintain
the screed in a constant position relative to profile and cross-slope references. Ensure control of the screed position
is reasonably independent of irregularities in the underlying surface and of the spreader operation. Equip asphalt
spreading equipment to prevent the segregation of coarse aggregate from the remainder of the asphalt concrete
when the material moves from the hopper to the screed. Use means and methods approved by the asphalt spreader
manufacturer consisting of but not limited to any combination of chain curtains, deflector plates, or other such
devices.
The Engineer will base final approval of spreading equipment on the demonstrated capability of the equipment
to place the mixture to the required cross-section, profile and alignment in an acceptable, finished condition ready
for compaction.
Where the use of standard full-scale spreading equipment is impractical due to the size or irregularity of the area
to be paved, use specialized equipment or hand methods approved by the Engineer to spread the asphalt concrete.
Anti-Segregation Equipment. When specified, provide a Material Transfer Vehicle (MTV) with paver hopper
insert; a Material Transfer Device (MTD) with paver hopper insert; or a remixing paver specifically manufactured
to eliminate segregation. Use paver hopper inserts with a minimum capacity of 10 tons (9 metric tons). Remixing
may be done by the MTV or MTD, in the paver hopper insert, or by the remixing paver.
Provide and operate equipment in a manner that does not result in physical segregation, and limits temperature
differentials to less than 35 °F (20 °C) throughout the mixture.
Use anti-segregation equipment when paving intermediate and surface courses on all mainline lanes of the
traveled way including express lanes, collector-distributor lanes, continuous center turn lanes, acceleration/
deceleration lanes, and ramp lanes.
On the first day or night of paving any JMF, perform a test strip of a minimum of 1000 ft (300 m) in length.
Notify the Engineer a minimum of 24 hours prior to performing the test strip. Demonstrate to the Engineer that the
selected equipment is not physically segregating the mix and consistently limits the temperature differential of the
mat surface, measured transversely, to 35 °F (20 °C) or less. Document results of each test strip on Department
form CA-FP-5. Remove equipment or JMF that provides a mat with physical segregation, does not meet the
temperature differential requirement, or both. Perform a new test strip any time placement equipment or JMF is
replaced. If the Contractor is unable to produce a satisfactory test strip in two attempts per JMF, cease paving and
provide a written plan to the DCA for approval prior to continuing the paving operation.
Cease the paving operation in the events of; equipment breakdown, inability to consistently provide a mat free
of physical segregation, inability to consistently meet the temperature differential requirements, or any
combination. Do not resume paving until equipment is replaced with suitable equipment. The Engineer may allow
paving to continue if an isolated area of mat temperature differential is in excess of 35 °F (20 °C). The Engineer
may require additional evaluation of the area to determine the acceptability of the material.
401.13
Rollers. Use only steel wheel and pneumatic tire types of rollers meeting the minimum requirements
of the following tables. Conform to manufacturer’s specifications for all ballasting.
TABLE 401.13-1 ROLLER CAPACITY
Roller Type
Tandem
Three-Wheel
Trench
Pneumatic Tire, Type I
Pneumatic Tire, Type II
Vibratory, Vibrating Roll
Vibratory, Static Roll (not vibrating)
Maximum Capacity
square yards per hour (m²/hr)
700 (600)
700 (600)
15 per inch width (13 per 25 mm width)
1000 (850)
700 (600)
15 per inch width (13 per 25 mm width)
3 per inch width (3 per 25 mm width)
TABLE 401.13-2 STEEL WHEEL ROLLERS
Roller Type
Total weight, tons
(metric tons)
Compression rolls,
pounds per inch width
(kN/m), minimum
Three-Wheel
10
(9)
300
(53)
Tandem
8 to 12
(7 to 11)
200
(35)
Vibratory Static Trench
8 to 12
(7 to 11)
120
300
(21)
(53)
TABLE 401.13-3 PNEUMATIC TIRE ROLLERS
Type I
Tire size, minimum
Wheel load, minimum
Average tire contact pressure, minimum
Type II
Tire size, minimum
Wheel load, minimum
Average tire contact pressure, minimum
9.00  20 in (229  508 mm)
5000 lb. (2250 kg)
85 psi (590 kPa)
7.50  15 in (191  381 mm)
2000 lb. (900 kg)
55 psi (380 kPa)
For pneumatic tire rollers, use self-propelled, reversible units with vertical oscillation on all wheels on at least
one axle. Determine the tire inflation pressure necessary to meet the specified minimum contact area and contact
pressure requirements. Furnish the tire manufacturer’s charts or tabulations to the Engineer for verification of the
required inflation pressure. Check tire inflation pressure as the Engineer directs and maintain it within 5 pounds
per square inch (35 kPa) of the required pressure.
Provide rolls and wheels with the necessary accessories to prevent adhesion of the mixture, and keep them
properly moistened with water, water containing a detergent, or water containing an approved additive. Do not use
excess liquid.
401.14
Conditioning Existing Surface. Clean the surface on which the asphalt concrete is to be placed, and
keep it free of accumulations of materials that would, in the judgment of the Engineer, contaminate the mixture,
prevent bonding, or interfere with spreading operations. Where approved subgrade or pavement courses previously
constructed under the Contract become loosened, rutted, or otherwise defective, correct the deficiency according
to the contract item or items involved before the spreading of a subsequent pavement course.
If a quantity of asphalt concrete is specified for use in spot leveling or patching, spread and compact the material
needed to effect the corrections as directed by the Engineer.
If placing asphalt concrete against a vertical pavement face, curb, gutter, manhole, or other structure, clean the
surface of foreign material and apply a thick, uniform coating of 702.01 PG binder, Supplemental Specification
875.02 Hot Applied Asphaltic Joint Adhesive, or 702.13 SBR Asphalt Emulsion to provide 100 percent coverage.
401.15
Spreading, Finishing and Night Work
Spreading and Finishing. Do not co-mingle multiple JMFs in the same asphalt paver. Spread the mixture at a
rate calculated using the specified thickness and the compacted width of the pavement course being placed, and the
weight-to-volume conversion factors established in 401.21. Maintain the actual rate of spreading the mixture equal
to the required calculated rate within the tolerance specified in 401.19. For pavement courses specified for leveling,
the actual rate of spreading the mixture may vary from the required calculated rate as approved by the Engineer to
accomplish the intended purpose.
For intermediate courses, make the maximum compacted depth of any one layer 3 inches (75 mm).
Spread and finish the mixture using approved equipment or methods such that compaction can follow
immediately. Preheat screeds and extensions before placing any asphalt concrete. Use side plates sufficient to
contain the mixture laterally during spreading. Use only screed extensions, rigid or extendable, having the same
features as the main screed including, but not limited to, vibration, heating, pre-strikeoffs, and tamping bars. When
using front-mounted hydraulically extendable screeds at a fixed paving width use full width auger extensions and
full tunnel extensions. When using fixed screed extensions use full width auger extensions and full tunnel
extensions. Do not allow a buildup of excess material in front of the screed. Where excessive buildup of material
is not controlled, the Engineer will require paver changes to correct the problem.
Ensure the paver operation, screed, screed extension, and, or, mix design provide a mat, prior to compaction, that
is free of texture inconsistencies, shadowing, streaking, tearing, pulling, or other deficiencies. Take immediate
action to correct the paver operation, screed, screed extensions, or, mix design. The Engineer may stop placement
until corrections are completed.
Use strike-off plates/strike-off extensions only on irregular areas such as mailbox turnouts, driveway turnouts,
and other irregular non-travelled roadway areas. The Engineer may approve the use of strike-off plates/extensions
on variable width shoulders if the use of a standard extendable screed extension with the same features as the main
screed is not practicable. Perform supplemental hand forming and tamping where irregularities develop and where
placing the mixture by hand methods.
Take prompt corrective action if placed mixture exhibits any defect (ex. segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture
and texture uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within the Contractor’s control and as
determined by the Engineer. Remove and replace, or otherwise correct in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer,
any portion of the pavement course found to be defective in surface texture or composition before or after
compaction. Coordinate the spreading operation with the rate of production and delivery of the mixture to attain
uniform, continuous progress. Avoid erratic spreader operation due to irregular contact with the hauling vehicle,
surging in the feed and distribution of the mixture, or other cause. Maintain sufficient control of the spreading
equipment with regard to line and grade references so that the pavement course, when compacted as specified, is
in reasonable conformance with the Contract Documents.
Do not displace or damage bridge deck waterproofing membranes during spreading operations on the
membranes.
Do not allow traffic on the compacted mixture until it has cooled sufficiently to prevent glazing as determined
by the Engineer.
After completion of the surface course, seal gutters with asphalt binder as directed by the Engineer. Apply the
material at a uniform width of approximately 4 inches (100 mm) and at a rate just sufficient to fill surface voids.
Night Work. Do not start night work or carry on day work into night work without operating an adequate and
approved lighting system. Night work is defined as work performed from 30 minutes after sunset to 30 minutes
before sunrise.
Operation of adequate lighting system consists of furnishing, installing, operating, maintaining, moving, and
removing night time lighting to illuminate construction work areas for night work. Obtain the Engineer’s approval
of the lighting at the beginning of the project and before starting the paving operation by measuring the luminance.
Provide an illuminated zone around all operating machinery. Provide an illuminated zone of at least 5 Footcandles (55 lux) of lighting luminance in the immediate vicinity of pavers, rollers, grinding equipment, material
transfer vehicles, etc., and at least 1 Foot-candle (10 lux) at 25 feet (7.6 m) from this equipment. Provide an
illuminated zone of at least 5 Foot-candles (55 lux) of lighting luminance in the immediate vicinity of coring
equipment and at least 1 Foot-candle (10 lux) at 10 feet (3 m). Position the light sources so they don’t interfere
with or impede traffic in any direction and do not cause glare for motorists or point onto adjacent properties. Provide
a photometer capable of measuring the level of luminance on each night project. Take luminance measurements at
a height of 20 inches (500 millimeters) above the roadway.
Obtain the luminance level any time requested by the Engineer. Test the illumination levels on the site each time
a change in lighting configuration is made. Replace non-functioning lamps immediately. Check the luminaires
aiming daily. Clean the luminaires regularly. Correct any deficient lighting within one hour or the Engineer will
terminate construction activities.
When the total project includes more than one continuous lane mile (including bridges) of surface course paving
in combination with night paving, and no pay item for anti-segregation equipment, provide anti-segregation
equipment according to 401.12, for only the surface course. No additional payment will be made for this antisegregation equipment.
401.16
Compaction. Immediately after spreading the asphalt concrete and adjusting any surface
irregularities, compact the mixture uniformly using rollers conforming to 401.13. Do not use a spreading rate that
exceeds the total of the specified capacities of the rollers in use. However, if compacting a mixture spread as an
intermediate or pre-leveling course less than 1-inch (25 mm) thick do not use a spreading rate that exceeds twice
the total capacity of the rollers in use.
Coordinate the spreading of the mixture with the required roller coverage, considering the rate of cooling of the
mixture as affected by lift thickness and environmental conditions. Complete the required roller coverage during
the period of time in which the temperature of the mixture is sufficient for the roller coverage to be effective in
compacting the mixture.
Compact base mixtures using a combination of both steel wheel and Type I pneumatic tire rollers; however, in
small areas, compact these mixtures as the Engineer approves using any of the rollers specified in 401.13.
Compact intermediate and surface mixtures using a three-wheel roller in the breakdown position (roller
immediately behind the paver) of the roller train; however, in small areas, compact these mixtures as the Engineer
approves using any of the roller types specified in 401.13.
Compact variable depth courses using a combination of both steel wheel and pneumatic tire rollers; however, in
small areas, compact these mixtures as the Engineer approves using any of the roller types specified in 401.13.
For surface courses using a polymer modified asphalt binder give a copy of the JMF approval letter containing
the design compaction temperature to the Engineer before any mix is placed. Unless otherwise specified ensure
that the mix temperature immediately before rolling is not less than 290 °F (145 °C) if placing hot mix asphalt, and
not less than 250 °F (121 °C) if placing warm mix asphalt according to 402.04. Do not compact polymer asphalt
concrete surface courses with pneumatic tire rollers.
When using pneumatic tire rollers, ensure for any mix that surface deviations and deformations caused by the
tires are removed with steel wheel rollers. Do not use pneumatic tire rollers if any resultant surface deformations
cannot be removed.
Do not use vibratory rollers on courses with a thickness under 1-1/2 inches (38 mm).
If using vibratory rollers, supplement them with three-wheel or pneumatic tire rollers.
Unless otherwise directed, begin rolling at the sides and proceed longitudinally parallel to the centerline at a
slow, uniform speed. After each coverage or complete round trip, move the roller towards the crown of the road to
begin its next pass, overlapping the previous pass by at least one-half the width of the previous pass. On
superelevated curves, begin rolling at the low side and progress toward the high side. Where a longitudinal joint is
being made, roll the joint then follow the applicable rolling procedure.
Continue rolling until full coverage of the course is complete and all roller marks are eliminated. Take care to
prevent displacement of the edge line and grade. Where displacement occurs, correct the area immediately in a
manner satisfactory to the Engineer.
Along curbs, headers, walls, and in other areas not accessible to rollers, thoroughly compact the mixture with
hot, hand tampers or with mechanical tampers. On depressed areas, the Contractor may use trench rollers or rollers
fitted with compression strips.
Replace mixture that becomes loose, broken, contaminated, or otherwise defective with fresh, hot mixture.
Compact it to match with the surrounding area.
401.17
Joints. Place the asphalt concrete mixture as continuous as possible. Set up joints at the proper height
above the adjacent construction to receive maximum compaction. Where the edge of the new pavement is
significantly rounded, trim it to a vertical face before placing the adjacent pavement. On projects where traffic is
allowed to cross the edge of the new pavement lane, complete the longitudinal joint of the adjacent lane or shoulder
within 24 hours.
Construct longitudinal joints using string line or other controls as a point of reference to provide a straight
longitudinal joint. Prior to placing adjacent pavement, trim any locations along the longitudinal joint that deviate
horizontally from the point of reference. Maintain a consistent overlap of 1 to 1 1/2 inches (25 to 38 mm) on
adjacent pavement when closing longitudinal joints. Where phasing for maintenance of traffic will not allow
lapping cold longitudinal joints according to Standard Drawing BP-3.1, provide a minimum of 6 inches (150 mm)
offset between cold joints for each course placed.
Form hot longitudinal joints using pavers operating in contiguous lanes, one just ahead of the other. Maintain the
distance between pavers in adjacent lanes such that it does not exceed the distance that a normal size load of mixture
will cover. Alternate loads of mixture between the pavers. Do not allow rollers performing the initial rolling
operation in one lane closer than 12 inches (0.3 m) to the longitudinal joint until the adjacent lane is placed.
Instead of hot joint construction using multiple pavers, the Contractor may use full width construction with a
single unit paver.
Compact all cold longitudinal joints on intermediate and surface courses using a three-wheel roller.
For surface courses, form or cut all transverse construction joints to a vertical.
Seal all cold longitudinal construction joints by coating the entire face of the cold joint with a certified 702.01
PG binder or Supplemental Specification 875.02 Hot Applied Asphaltic Joint Adhesive to provide 100 percent
coverage of the joint. Overlap the joint edges by at least 1/2 inch (13 mm). Seal all cold transverse construction
joints with a certified 702.01 PG binder, Supplemental Specification 875.02 Hot Applied Asphaltic Joint Adhesive
or 702.13 SBR Asphalt Emulsion to provide 100 percent coverage of the joint or with a certified 702.04 asphalt
material applied at a rate of 0.25 gallon per square yard (1 L/m²).
401.18
Asphalt Binder Compatibility. If excess fat spots, regular random areas of flushing, or excess drain
down occur on a project that are not attributable to over rolling, plant operation, or mix quality compared to the
JMF, the Department will consider the asphalt binder incompatible. The Department will reject any on-hand asphalt
binder because of incompatibility. The Department may use its discretion in determining if problem areas can be
corrected, or if removal and replacement is required. Demonstrate to OMM through reporting actual testing analysis
the compatibility of another asphalt binder and that proper equipment is in place in order to be allowed to resume.
401.19
Spreading and Surface Tolerances. If a uniform course is specified, make checks and adjustments
to maintain the rate of spreading within a tolerance of ±5 percent of the required calculated weight per unit of area.
If a variable depth course is specified, place the mixture as shown on the plans.
If a longitudinal profile is specified by elevations on the plans, do not allow the completed pavement surface to
deviate more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) at any point from parallel with the specified profile. Before placing the surface
course, check the profile of the preceding course at 50-foot (15 m) intervals along the outside edge of each traffic
lane and along any additional line described in superelevation tables, and submit a tabulation of all results that
includes documentation of all deviations from the above tolerance to the Engineer. Perform corrective work
necessary for compliance with the profile tolerance before placing the surface course. The requirements of this
paragraph do not apply to small incidental areas of pavement less than 500 feet (150 m) in length.
Do not vary the transverse slope of the surface of the completed course from the specified slope by more than
3/8 inch in 10 feet (10 mm in 3 m).
Do not vary the surface of each completed intermediate or surface course from the testing edge of a 10-foot (3
m) rolling straightedge by more than 1/4 inch (6 mm). Furnish straightedges, straightedges equipped with levels,
or other devices such as approved profilers conforming to Supplement 1058 and using ProVAL software.
Equipment will be satisfactory to the Engineer.
Check the surface course for variations in slope or surface at locations where bumps are suspected when directed
by the Engineer.
Correct variations in excess of slope or surface tolerance by removing mixture to neat lines and replacing, or by
surface grinding in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer.
401.20
Asphalt Binder Price Adjustment. A contract item is eligible for a price adjustment when the
contract’s proposal specifically includes an Asphalt Binder Price Adjustment note and the contract item meets the
quantity limitations of the proposal note.
401.21
Method of Measurement. The Contractor is responsible for recording the net weight of each
truckload of mixture to the nearest 100 pounds (50 kg) in triplicate on plant ticket forms approved by the
Department. If the pay quantities are established by platform scales, provide a tare weight for each truck at the
beginning of each day’s operation and a minimum of every 4 hours of operation each day. The Engineer may
require additional tare weight measurements at any time. The Engineer will have the right to monitor all weighing
operations and may require reweighing trucks at any time or location. Correct any discrepancies immediately.
Continued non-compliance will result in the Department taking necessary and appropriate action, such as, but not
limited to, assigning a Department ticket writer to the plant. Send one copy of the plant ticket with each load
delivered to the paver and present it to the Engineer.
The Engineer will convert the total of the weights recorded on the plant tickets representing mixture finished
according to contract requirements to cubic yards (cubic meters) using a conversion factor established by OMM.
OMM will establish this conversion factor from the approved JMF. However, if a mix design is not available,
OMM will use the conversion factors in Table 401.21. If a uniform course is specified, the Department will not
pay for a number of cubic yards (cubic meters) that exceeds the quantity calculated from plan lines and dimensions.
TABLE 401.21
Aggregate
Gravel and stone
Slag less than 90 lb/yd³ (less than 1450 kg/m³) [1]
Slag 90 to 100 lb/yd³ (1450 to 1600 kg/m³) [1]
Slag more than 100 lb/yd³ (more than 1600 kg/m³) [1]
[1]Based on average dry rodded weight at the Laboratory.
lb/yd³
4000
3600
4000
4300
(kg/m³)
(2370)
(2135)
(2370)
(2550)
401.22
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for all work performed and measured as specified above
according to the appropriate contract items for each type.
The cost of sealing the joints is included in the unit price bid for the asphalt concrete.
The Department will assess all costs against the Contractor that it incurs as a result of taking necessary and
appropriate action due to the Contractor’s continued non-compliance.
The Department will not pay for removing and replacing incompatible asphalt binder areas.
ITEM 402 ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXING PLANTS
402.01
402.02
402.03
402.04
Description
Calibration
Polymer Binders
Water Injection System for Warm Mix Asphalt
402.01
Description. This specification consists of the minimum requirements for an asphalt concrete mixing
plant to produce asphalt concrete mixes according to Department specifications.
Ensure asphalt concrete mixing plants conform to the requirements of Supplement 1101 in addition to the
following.
402.02
Calibration. Ensure the plant is calibrated according to Supplement 1101 when producing any
asphalt concrete for the Department. Ensure that the calibration is accurate within 1.0 percent. When performing a
complete calibration for ODOT projects notify District Testing 24 hours in advance of the calibration.
402.03
Polymer Binders. If an asphalt binder is modified by SBR at an asphalt concrete mixing plant, equip
the plant with an automated SBR flow control and monitoring system. Obtain OMM’s approval of the system
before operating and demonstrate the system calibration to District Testing. If District Testing waives the
demonstration, provide a letter documenting calibration data for the flow system to District Testing for each project.
Obtain written approval from OMM for the use of SBR and ensure the QCP contains methods for properly
controlling and sampling SBR binder blends.
For drum mix plants, introduce the SBR directly into the asphalt binder line through means of an in-line
motionless blender or other device approved by OMM which is able to provide a homogeneous blend. Ensure the
in-line motionless blender design provides aggressive interaction of asphalt binder and SBR emulsion to provide a
homogenous blend at the sampling port. Some blenders such as ‘swirl’ type blenders do not accomplish proper
blending. The Astec in line SBR blender or similar design accomplishes proper blending. Locate a sampling valve
between the in-line blender and the plant drum, at least 12 ft (3 m) downstream of the in-line blender and at least 5
ft (1 m) downstream of a piping elbow. Ensure the sampling valve port is at least 1 in (25.4 mm) in diameter.
Ensure the sampling valve can be opened quickly for maximizing sample flow for the purpose of obtaining a proper
sample. In place of an in-line sampling valve, a sample may be taken from a 3 to 5 gal (11 to 19 L) surge tank as
long as the tank is downstream of the required blender and the in-line flow can be quickly and directly diverted to
the surge tank. Contents of the tank should be drained into a 5 gal (19 L) sampling bucket and stirred before filling
the required sample container. Provide a sampling valve port that is in a position to safely obtain the required
sample volume in the required 5 gal (19 L) sampling bucket. Provide a stable sampling rack to obtain a sample.
For batch plants, add the SBR after the aggregate has been completely coated with asphalt binder. Continue
mixing for a minimum of 20 seconds after SBR is added and long enough to provide a uniform mixture.
Ensure the SBR pumping and metering system is capable of adding the SBR within the limits of 702.01. For
drum plants ensure the SBR pump is automatically controlled by an independent computer and interfaced with the
asphalt binder flow to automatically maintain the SBR flow within specification limits. Produce asphalt mixtures
for placement in automatic SBR control mode only.
Ensure the SBR meter is accurate to ± 2.0 percent over a flow range typical of that used at the asphalt plant
(typically 0.8 to 12 gpm (0.05 to 0.76 L/s) at drum plants and 10 to 25 gpm (0.63 to 1.58 L/s) at batch plants).
Ensure the SBR meter is a magnetic flow meter consisting of a metering flow tube which utilizes Faraday’s Law
of Induction to measure the flow and includes a transmitter to transmit the flow signal to a totalizer located in the
control room of the asphalt plant. Locate the SBR meter downstream of any recirculation lines. Provide a means
for removing the SBR line at the in-line blender to be able to obtain a sample of the SBR for calibration purposes.
Obtain OMM approval for use of any other type of SBR meter. Ensure the totalizer displays total volume
measured and flow rate in standard engineering units. Ensure the totalizer is interfaced with a data logger that
produces printouts of the logged data every five minutes for a drum plant or every batch for a batch plant. Ensure
the logged data includes time, date, flow rate, and flow total except flow rate is not necessary for batch plant
production.
Balling or wadding of SBR or uncoated aggregate indicates improper mixing; cease production immediately and
until corrected to District Testing satisfaction.
402.04
Water Injection System for Warm Mix Asphalt.
When allowed by specification use a water injection system approved by OMM for the purpose of foaming the
asphalt binder and lowering the mixture temperature. Only use equipment that has been proven stable and effective
through project use on non-ODOT projects. Ensure equipment for water injection meets the following
requirements:
A. Injection equipment computer controls are in the plant control room and are tied to the plant computer
metering.
B. Injection equipment has variable water injection control controlled by the plant operation rate and the water
injection can never exceed 2.2 percent by weight of asphalt binder.
C. Water injection rate cannot be manually overridden by the plant operator once in the computer.
D. Injection equipment stops water flow when a control or equipment failure in the injection system occurs.
E. The water injects into the asphalt binder flow before the asphalt binder spray hits aggregate. Do not allow
water to touch aggregate before the binder spray.
F.
Injection equipment includes water storage and pump control tied to the injection computer controls.
G. Water storage low water alarm installed in the control room.
H. Provide a PG binder sampling valve between the last piping tee on the tank side of the line and the injection
equipment to sample PG binder before water is injected.
ITEM 403 ASPHALT CONCRETE QUALITY CONTROL AND ACCEPTANCE
403.01
403.02
403.03
403.04
403.05
403.06
403.07
403.08
Description
General
Quality Control Program (QCP)
Plant Calibration
Quality Control Tests
Verification Acceptance (VA)
Unconditional Acceptance
Acceptance Tables for 448 Mixes
403.01
Description. This specification outlines the Contractor requirements for controlling asphalt concrete,
asphalt concrete base, or other asphalt mixtures as specified.
403.02
General. The Department will verify quality control by Department Verification Acceptance (VA)
tests and monitoring reviews as specified. If the Contractor fails to operate according to its Quality Control Program
(QCP), the Department will accept asphalt mixtures by Unconditional Acceptance.
Restoration of VA procedures will be by the Department’s Quality Control Qualification Committee (QCQC)
based on District recommendation and review of the Contractor problems, resolutions and QCP.
Acceptance does not relieve the Contractor of responsibility for supplying and installing a finished product
conforming to all requirements of the Contract.
403.03
Quality Control Program (QCP). Create and implement a Quality Control Program (QCP) for each
paving season. The QCP will cover processes conducted to provide an asphalt mixture at the paving site that is
uniform in composition, conforms to the specification requirements and that when placed is free of any defect (ex.
segregation, lack of mixture and texture uniformity, raveling, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within the Contractor’s
control at project completion. A minimum of 3 weeks before mix production, but no later than February 28, submit
a hard copy of the proposed QCP to OMM for review and acceptance.
Send a hard copy and a digital copy (if available) of the acceptance letter and accepted QCP to District Testing
in every District in which work is performed. Keep copies of the letter and the QCP in each Contractor plant
laboratory and plant operation control room. Digital copies of the QCP and letter in pdf format are allowed in each
Contractor plant laboratory and plant operation control room with the following requirements: The file icon must
be appropriately labeled and be on the computer desktop of a computer in each area, the QCP must contain page
numbering and a Table Of Contents inside the front cover locating all sections by page number , and out of date
QCPs must be removed from the computer desktop.
Failure to comply with the approved QCP may result in removal of personnel in accordance with Supplement
1041, removal from VA, and adversely affect the Contractor’s Prequalification rating.
The QCP is a reflection of a Contractor’s sincerity and ability in producing a quality product. Development of
this program beyond the minimum requirements specified below is encouraged and is taken into consideration by
the QCQC when reviewing Contractor plant operation for qualification for VA.
Include in the program:
A. The assignment of quality control responsibilities. Quality control includes all efforts required to achieve a
product meeting specifications. List individuals as required below and note their designated responsibilities to meet
QCP requirements. Provide a Quality Control Manager holding a Supplement 1041 Level 3 approval and who is a
company employee. Assign Level 2 technicians for all Level 2 QC testing duties, and provide a list designating
their responsibilities and expected actions. Ensure only approved personnel handle and test samples at all times. If
Level 2 consultant technicians are used provide a document in the QCP and to them listing designated
responsibilities and expected actions (if different from employee expectations). Define who is responsible at plants
and specific methods for ensuring haul vehicles meet all requirements and proper bed release products are used.
Provide a Field Quality Control Supervisor (FQCS), holding Supplement 1041 Field Quality Control Supervisor
approval and who is a company employee, who is routinely and usually at the paving site during placement of any
non-temporary asphalt concrete pavement. Ensure personnel obtaining and handling cores at the project site are
approved Level 2 technicians, FQCS or personnel approved by OMM.
B. Means for annual training of company and consultant technicians and their supervisors in ethical conduct
according to company expectations. Document how and when training is given, what the expectations are, how
expectations are communicated and list all personnel trained. Describe the QC Manager’s and technician
supervisor’s responsibilities and methods in ensuring ethical conduct is maintained throughout the year.
C. Provisions to meet the Department mix specifications.
D. Procedures for extra testing (e.g., job start, responses to poor test results or field mix problems, aggregate stock
testing, reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement checks, moistures) and any other testing necessary to control materials
not already defined in these Specifications.
E. Specify warning bands to be used by technicians for all tests and give specific instruction how the warning
bands will be used for tests in concert with Table 441.10-1 specification requirements.
F. Methods to maintain all worksheets, including all handwritten records, and other test and sample records from
the plant or project for the duration of the contract or 5 years, whichever is longer. Define the test record process.
Define company records retention requirements. Provide copies of all test reports and forms used in the quality
control process.
G. Procedures for equipment calibration and documentation for Level 2 lab equipment. Provide documentation
that all Level 2 lab equipment has been calibrated at the time of the Level 2 lab approval inspection. Procedures
for calibration record storage.
H. Method of Quick Calibration and documentation for each plant type.
I. Procedure for random sampling to be used at the plant and documentation method. Procedures for sample
taking, tracking, handling and documentation method for all samples taken at the project paving site including
taking of all cores used for density determination or density gauge correlation.
J. All procedures to meet the processing, testing and documentation requirements for RAP and RAS in 401.04
including test forms, record keeping, technician responsibilities, etc.
K. Procedure for ensuring that every Contractor employee involved in the testing of asphalt mix and operation of
the asphalt plant facility has read the QCP and has on site access to all applicable Department specifications,
proposals, policies, and the current approved JMF.
L. Procedure for ensuring asphalt binder Bills of Lading with BOL load number, binder source and grade are
reviewed against running JMFs and record of review listing the above information be kept in the plant lab for the
duration of the project. Means to meet the handling and storage requirements of 402.03 and asphalt binder suppliers
for all asphalt binders.
M. Means to meet delivered mixture uniformity/coating and hauling/trucking requirements.
N. Define the roles and responsibilities of the Field Quality Control Supervisors. List approved Field Quality
Control Supervisors.
O. Signature of the Quality Assurance Manager and, if different, the person in authority to enforce all operations
covered by the QCP as outlined in this subsection.
403.04
Plant Calibration. Conform to the requirements of Item 402.
Before manufacturing asphalt concrete, demonstrate to the Monitoring Team that the Contractor’s facility
adequately meets the specification requirements. Calibrate the plant using procedures approved by the Department.
Perform initial calibrations in the presence of the Monitoring Team. District Testing may request a letter of
certification and certified data documenting the calibration results, instead of having the Monitoring Team present.
Verify the calibrations biweekly using a Quick Calibration. However, District Testing may request additional
Quick Calibrations if there are mix production problems or plant operation concerns. The Quick Calibration is a
quality control procedure developed by the Contractor that verifies the accuracy of a facility to proportion materials
to meet the current JMF. Include the Quick Calibration procedure and data forms in the QCP in accordance with
403.03.H. If the difference between current calibration and the Quick Calibration is within 2 percent, then the
current calibration is acceptable. If the 2 percent variation is exceeded, perform a recalibration of the facility.
Document the Quick Calibration procedure as specified in the QCP and post the procedure and results in plain view
in the plant control room and plant laboratory for reference by the Monitoring Team. Document all data from
calibrations in a format approved by OMM, and retain the data for review by the Monitoring Team.
If asphalt concrete is being produced from a batch type facility, verify the accuracy of the aggregate and asphalt
binder weighing devices on a biweekly basis. Include the verification procedure in the QCP. Document the
verification procedure as specified in the QCP and post the procedure and results in plain view in the plant control
room and plant laboratory for reference by the Monitoring Team. Do not allow the deviation between the plant
recorded weights and actual weights to exceed 1 percent. Record all data from verification of weighing devices in
a format approved by OMM, and retain the data for review by the Monitoring Team.
403.05
Quality Control Tests. Perform quality control tests to control the asphalt concrete mix within the
appropriate specifications.
For items that use 446 and 448 acceptance, perform all mix testing and quality control according to 441.09. The
Contractor may test a 448 Sublot sample instead of the required quality control test provided the sample is tested
in the half day in which the Sublot sample mix was produced and is tested for all required quality control properties.
For mixes that do not use 446 and 448 acceptance (Basic mixes, e.g. Items 301, 302, and Supplemental
Specification 803), test the mix according to 441.09 for asphalt binder content and gradation. Other requirements
of 441.09 and 441.10 do not apply. Control the Basic mixes as follows:
A. If a single asphalt binder content is more than 0.5 percent beyond the JMF, immediately take and test an
additional sample.
B. If two consecutive asphalt binder content tests are more than  0.5 percent beyond the JMF, notify the
Monitoring Team and cease production until the problem is corrected.
C. If the Range difference in any three consecutive asphalt binder content tests is greater than 0.7 percent (for 302
mix) or 0.6 percent (Basic mix, other than 302) immediately notify the Monitoring Team.
D. If the Range difference in any three consecutive gradation tests for the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve is greater than
10.0 percent, immediately notify the Monitoring Team.
E. If Range deviations as specified in 403.05.C or 403.05.D continue, cease production.
Range is defined as the difference between the largest and the smallest test result.
403.06
Verification Acceptance (VA). District Testing will perform VA testing. If the random Department
VA sampling and testing verifies the accompanying Contractor tests, the average of the Contractor’s quality control
tests for each day or night (for Basic mix), the average of the Contractor’s tests for each Lot (for 448 acceptance
mix) or daily average MSG (446 acceptance mix) will be used to determine acceptance.
A. Sampling. District Testing will perform the VA by testing independent and split samples.
For plant sampling for Basic mixes or 441 quality control testing, the Contractor’s technician will randomly
select the truck in which to take a sample by using a random number procedure as outlined in the QCP. The
Contractor’s technician will give no indication to anyone of the time that the sample is to be taken. For other than
job start, previous mix production problems, low production tonnage, or as requested by the Monitoring Team,
exclude the first three trucks from sampling. Include the random number, sample tonnage location, and time of
sampling on the daily Quality Control Report (Contractor form TE-199) with each test. Tests, other than the
required random sample tests, are at the Contractor’s discretion according to the QCP.
Provide a clean area of sufficient size and a hard surface to perform sample splitting. Split samples by
quartering and recombining only as described in AASHTO T 248, Method B for hard surfaces for the Department
and Contractor’s sample. The split sample size required is generally 22 to 27 pounds (10,000 to 12,000 g). A
mechanical quartering device approved by OMM may be used in lieu of the above but only split according to the
procedure outlined in the Contractor QCP. Ensure that every quality control or 448 Sublot sample taken by the
technician has a labeled split for the Department. Wrap and label split samples as to Lot or Sublot, time, location
(tonnage), and accompanying Contractor test identification. The Monitoring Team will pick up all Department split
samples within 4 workdays. Sample mishandling (careless identification, changing sample size, consistency, or
pre-testing) will result in a change to Unconditional Acceptance.
For 448 acceptance mixes, conform to the procedures of Supplements 1035, 1038, 1039, and 1043 except take
samples from a truck at the plant. If workmanship problems continue on the project (segregation, etc.) or if quality
control problems persist, District Testing may require sampling on the road according to Supplement 1035. Lots
will be 3000 tons (3000 metric tons), and Sublots will be 750 tons (750 metric tons). However, when production is
limited to less than 3000 tons (3000 metric tons), consider the quantity produced as a partial Lot. For partial Lots
of 1500 tons (1500 metric tons) or less sample and test at least two sublot samples regardless of the tons produced.
Split and test all sublot samples taken by the Contractor from locations selected by the Monitoring Team or
Engineer. The Contractor may test a QC sample at the required Sublot sample location as both a QC and Sublot
test provided the sample is tested for all required quality control properties. Test results will apply for both QC and
sublot requirements. A change in the location of the Sublot sample must be approved by the Monitoring Team and
be reasonably close to the original location. This allowance does not apply to any other samples including
Department VA sample locations selected by the Monitor. Label Department split samples as Sublot or quality
control samples.
For 446 acceptance mixes MSG VA testing will be performed by District Testing on a minimum of one in
every four required District sampled Daily samples. Other properties can be tested for by the District as desired.
B. Reporting. Report all testing performed and sample identification on a Quality Control Report (Contractor
form TE-199). Record on the TE-199 if the mixture produced was ran at the asphalt plant as a hot mix asphalt
(HMA) or as a warm mix asphalt (WMA) produced according to 402.04 or another approved method. Deliver (fax,
e-mail, hand) completed Quality Control Reports to District Testing by the end of each day in which testing is
conducted. If desired by District Testing and always for unsigned E-mail versions, mail the originals. After startup
adjustments, report any plant operation changes on the Quality Control Report. Ensure that each Quality Control
Report contains technician comments as to production quality, input materials received and condition, and includes
any other quality control activities as specified in the QCP. Ongoing problems with inadequate, incomplete, or
illegible reporting will result in a change to Unconditional Acceptance. The Contractor’s technician must sign each
Quality Control Report.
Report test results to the accuracy of the following decimal places. When the figures to be dropped in rounding
off are exactly one-half of unity in the decimal place to be retained, round the value up to the nearest number in the
decimal place to be retained.
Asphalt Binder Content
No. 200 (75 µm) sieve
Other sieves
BSG
Single Test
0.1
0.1
Whole number
0.001
Average
0.01
0.01
0.1
0.001
For 448 acceptance mixes, track the Item 448 Sublot and Lot tonnages through the project and identify on the
Quality Control Report each random Sublot test as to Lot number and Sublot tonnage location. In addition to the
Quality Control Report submit the TE-448 Department form with lot identification and actual sieve weights for
each Sublot sample from the technician’s gradation worksheets. Attach computerized plant printouts representing
samples tested to that day’s report, if desired by the Monitoring Team, or otherwise keep them with the quality
control records. Ensure that the technician notes on the accompanying printout from which tonnage the quality
control sample was taken with accompanying test results for AC content and percent passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm)
sieve. Keep remaining printouts in the plant laboratory for the duration of the project. Keep a copy of all quality
control reports for a project in the Contractor’s plant laboratory.
C. Department Verification Testing and Monitoring. For Basic, 446 and 448 acceptance mixes the Monitor
will randomly choose one Department sample in a maximum of every four production days for VA testing to
confirm Contractor testing and mix control. More frequent VA samples can be taken when desired. The Department
VA sample location will be chosen randomly by the Monitor, including where in the truck to take the sample, if
applicable. The Contractor technician will take the sample from the truck with the Monitor witnessing. The Monitor
will keep the sample in the Department’s possession until delivered to District Testing or testing is complete. The
Monitor will have enough sample taken to split with the Contractor. The Monitor will split the sample in the
Contractor lab. The Monitor will have the sample tested at District Testing or as noted below. The Contractor will
test his split of the VA sample with the Monitor witnessing. The Department will use its VA test result, the
Contractor result of the split, as well as the most recent previous day (or night) Contractor quality control and/or
sublot test in the comparison for the Department VA testing.
The Monitor may opt to test the Department VA sample in the plant laboratory with the Contractor’s
permission, according to the Contractor’s safety practices, and with the restriction of only the Contractor’s
technician physically placing a sample pan in the AC Gauge. However, if the Monitor tests VA samples on
Contractor equipment, test a VA sample on District Testing equipment a minimum of one time in 15 production
days from a given plant regardless of the number of projects or JMFs tested in the Level 2 lab. Record the results
and testing location in the District Testing project record. One day may be added to the above Department sample
testing frequency for each day production is less than 500 tons (450 metric tons).
For 446 acceptance mixes MSG VA testing will be performed by District Testing on a minimum of one in
every four required District-sampled Daily samples. This result will be compared to that days Contractor average
of MSG QC test results.
For all mixes, the District may increase the number of VA testing samples if desired.
All Department VA test results will be given to the Contractor by a reasonable arrangement acceptable to both.
Department VA sample testing not completed in a timely manner is of no value in verifying quality control testing
quality for Contractor test acceptance and/or investigating problem causes. As such, if not completed in a timely
manner, Contractor tests will automatically stand and the District will note the problem in the District’s VA record.
TABLE 403.06-1 DEPARTMENT VERIFICATION ACCEPTANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL TEST
COMPARISON
Percent Asphalt Binder
VA [1]
QC/lot test [2]
±0.3
±0.4
±0.3
±0.3
Percent Passing No. 4 (4.75mm)
VA [1]
QC/lot test [2]
±4.0
±5.0
±4.0
±4.0
MSG Comparison
VA [3]
Basic
446, 448
0.010
446
[1]District VA mix test deviation from Contractor split.
[2]District VA mix test deviation from most recent previous day (or night) QC and/or lot test.
[3]Deviation of District Daily sample MSG compared to QC MSG daily average.
If the Department VA tests confirm Contractor testing is within the verification tolerances, but a pattern of
high or low results exist that suggests mix control is not at the JMF, then investigate with the Monitoring Team’s
assistance to correct the problem to the Monitoring Team’s satisfaction. Direct any questions regarding
interpretation of circumstances to OMM.
D. Contractor Tests are Verified. Production is acceptable if:
1.
The Monitoring Team verifies the Contractor’s QCP is being fully followed; and
2.
The Department VA tests are within the limits specified in 403.06.C; and
3.
For Basic mixes, the remaining sieves do not exceed the limits of the applicable specification.
Failure on the Contractor’s part to respond and resolve Monitoring Team concerns may result in a change to
Unconditional Acceptance.
Acceptance is based on Table 403.06-2.
TABLE 403.06-2 MIX ACCEPTANCE
Mix Type
Acceptance Tolerances or Method
Deviation
Range
from JMF [1]
Asphalt Binder Content
±0.5%
1.0
Basic Mixes
(no acceptance limits stated in appropriate
No. 4 (4.75mm) sieve
±6%
12
specification)
Basic Mixes
(acceptance limits stated in appropriate
Use acceptance limits in appropriate specification
specification)
448 Acceptance Mixes
Calculate pay factor according to 403.08
446 Acceptance Mixes
Calculate pay factor according to 446.04
[1] Based on the average of the day or night QC Tests
E. Contractor Tests not Verified. If the Department MSG VA test shows the MSG comparison tolerance in
Table 403.06-1 is not met, a single Department tested MSG for that day and every prior production day back to
when the Department MSG VA last met the tolerance will be used for each 446 Day/Lot density determination.
The Contractor may request a review with the Department occasionally for the purpose of determining the cause
of a comparison problem. Department decisions upon review are final. If a Contractor is requesting a review of
every occurrence of lack of comparison and the Department test is always found correct, the Department may deny
that Contractor further reviews. For all other mixes, if the Department VA test does not verify the accompanying
Contractor tests within the verification tolerances, then the Monitoring Team will investigate.
If the deviation between the District and Contractor test is greater than the limits in Table 403.06-3 immediately
cease production until resolved. If the deviation is less than the limits in Table 403.06-3 and discrepancies continue,
perform additional tests to aid in problem solving.
TABLE 403.06-3 DEVIATION LIMITS
Property
Asphalt Binder Content
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve
Mix
All
All, except 302
302
Limits
±0.5 %
±6.0%
±7.0%
Additional tests may include any testing necessary to resolve the problem. If the additional testing does not
resolve the problem by one-half production day or 1000 tons (1000 metric tons), whichever occurs first, to the
Monitoring Team’s satisfaction, stop production, if not already, until problems are resolved. Contact OMM for
assistance in resolving problems. If the District testing program is confirmed by the additional tests and Monitoring
Team investigation and no reason to question the original test exists, then the original District VA tests will stand.
After the above investigation, one of the three following actions will occur:
1. Mix Production Compares Well to the JMF. If the District test and investigation shows mix is actually
controlled well compared to the JMF in spite of the Contractor test, the District does not have to test additional
samples if the Contractor testing problem is corrected.
2. Mix Production Does Not Compare Well to the JMF. If the District tests and investigation shows lack
of Contractor mix control compared to the JMF the District will test the remaining Department split or Daily
samples for the days or Lots represented by the original tests. The District will use the test results to calculate the
acceptance. While working with the District, immediately take steps to correct the problem according to the QCP.
Failure to achieve a quick resolution will result in a change to Unconditional Acceptance.
3. District Testing Problem. If the District testing program has a problem as confirmed by the additional
testing and District review, the District will correct the problem, throw out the original District test results and take
new samples from the samples representing the days or Lots in question for the VA tests.
F. Contractor Removal, Restoration. For 446 MSG, for a given Contractor facility, if in a series of 15 or more
Contractor/ Department MSG comparison tests (VA, Monitoring tests) the Contractor MSG is lower than the
Department MSG by more than 0.002 and occurs a minimum of 65 percent of the time the facility will be removed
from Department MSG Verification Acceptance and operate under 403.07. (At a minimum, a report will be issued
annually of the Contractor/ Department MSG comparison status of each facility for this determination. This
frequency may be increased.)
For all other mixes, if repeated problems with poor comparison of tests are not the District’s fault; or poor
comparison of Contractor tests to the JMF; or with plant operation, input materials, or any of the other requirements
of Department specifications occur in a single project or successive projects, the District will request an opinion
from the QCQC before notifying the Contractor of removal from Department VA. The District will immediately
notify the Contractor of the removal with a follow up letter from District Testing. Once notified, acceptance of
asphalt mixtures is by Unconditional Acceptance. Restoration of the VA procedures may occur on a future project
with a District recommendation to the QCQC based on consistent improved plant operation and mix control, a
review of the Contractor problems and resolutions, and a review of the QCP by the QCQC.
403.07
occur.
Unconditional Acceptance. If the Contractor is removed from Department VA, the following will
The Contractor must bring its QCP and operation to a level acceptable to the District and QCQC before
production continues. District Testing will ensure that the project C-95 (Contractor’s Prequalification Rating
survey) reflects the change to Unconditional Acceptance in all of the appropriate C-95 categories. The Department
will accept all material for Department projects from the facility under Unconditional Acceptance. While the
facility is under Unconditional Acceptance, acceptance of small quantities under the small quantities policy will
not apply.
Quality control testing requirements specified in 403.05 are modified as follows:
A. The required number of test series is a minimum of four each per production day or night. If a production day
is less than 6 hours, the Department may reduce the frequency but not less than one test series per every 3 production
hours. This requirement does not apply to 446 MSG as outlined below.
B. For Basic mixes, if the variation from the JMF for one test is 8 percent passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve or
0.3 percent asphalt binder content, investigate and correct the problem, then resample and test. Maintain the
moving average of three tests within 4 percent passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve and 0.2 percent asphalt binder
content. In addition to the Quality Control Report, maintain control charts according to 441.10 for asphalt binder
content and the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve. If the Range difference in any three consecutive tests is greater than 0.6
percent for asphalt binder content or 10.0 percent passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve, notify the Monitoring Team.
If Range deviations as specified continue, cease production.
For 446 MSG, the Department will test a single daily MSG for each corresponding 446 Day/Lot density
determination from the facility. The facility can be returned to Department MSG VA when the 65 percent criteria
(see 403.06 F) is not exceeded in a series of 30 comparison tests.
C. Report each day’s testing on a Quality Control Report, according to 446.03. Report all testing performed by
the Contractor’s technician on the Quality Control Report. After startup adjustments, report any plant operation
changes on the Quality Control Report. Ensure that each Quality Control Report contains technician comments as
to production quality, input materials received and condition, and includes any other quality control activities
required in the QCP. The Contractor’s technician must sign each Quality Control Report. Attach each day’s
computerized plant printouts to that day’s report. The technician must note on the accompanying printout from
which tonnage the quality control sample was taken with accompanying test results for asphalt binder content and
percent passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve. Keep a copy of all Quality Control Reports for a project in the
Contractor’s plant laboratory.
The District will monitor according to 441.06, except notification for ceasing production does not have to be in
writing. Additional samples may be obtained for Department test at any time.
For Basic mixes, if the average of the Lot or partial Lot acceptance tests for any sieve other than the No. 4 (4.75
mm) sieve exceeds the specification limits, the pay factor is determined as follows:
TABLE 403.07-1 BASIC MIX PAY FACTORS
Number of Tests
Pay Factor
1
0.98
2
0.97
3
0.96
4
0.95
For 448 acceptance mixes, the Department will perform acceptance sampling and testing according to 403.06
and 403.08, except the Lot size will be 5000 tons (5000 metric tons) with 1250 ton (1250 metric tons) Sublots.
Sublots and acceptance samples may be taken from the roadway or plant at the Districts discretion. Department
testing under Unconditional Acceptance will receive a lower testing priority than other VA projects.
403.08
Acceptance Tables for 448 Mixes. A Lot is considered acceptable for gradation and asphalt binder
content if the deviation of the average from the JMF and the Range is no more than the tolerances shown in Table
403.08-1.
TABLE 403.08-1 DEVIATION FROM THE JMF
AND RANGE TOLERANCES [1]
Deviation from JMF
Mix Property
(Percent)
Asphalt Binder Content
0.3
1/2 inch (12.5 mm) sieve
6
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve
5
No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve
4
[1] Based on average of four Lot Acceptance tests.
Range
(Percent)
1.0
15
15
15
If the average of the Lot acceptance tests for a particular sieve or sieves, or for asphalt binder content deviates
from the JMF by more than the tolerances shown in Table 403.08-1, but falls within the tolerances shown in Table
403.08-2, then the Lot is considered reasonably acceptable and may remain in place with payment at a reduced pay
factor as show in Table 403.08-2.
If the Range of the Lot acceptance tests for asphalt binder content or for any particular sieve, or sieves, exceeds
the tolerance shown in Table 403.08-1, the Department will apply a pay factor of 0.95.
TABLE 403.08-2 448 ACCEPTANCE SCHEDULE [1]
Mix
Property
Pay
2
3
4
Factor
Tests
Tests
Tests
1.00
0 to 0.47
0 to 0.36
0 to 0.30
0.98
0.48 to 0.54
0.37 to 0.42
0.31 to 0.35
Asphalt
0.90
0.55 to 0.61
0.43 to 0.48
0.36 to 0.40
Binder
0.80
0.62 to 0.68
0.49 to 0.54
0.41 to 0.45
Content
0.60
0.69 to 0.75
0.55 to 0.59
0.46 to 0.50
[2]
> 0.75
> 0.59
> 0.50
1.00
0 to 8.5
0 to 6.9
0 to 6.0
0.99
8.6 to 9.9
7.0 to 8.1
6.1 to 7.0
1/2 inch
0.97
10.0 to 11.3
8.2 to 9.2
7.1 to 8.0
(12.5 mm)
0.94
11.4 to 12.7
9.3 to 10.4
8.1 to 9.0
sieve
0.90
12.8 to 14.1
10.5 to 11.5
9.1 to 10.0
[3]
> 14.1
> 11.5
> 10.0
1.00
0 to 7.1
0 to 5.8
0 to 5.0
0.99
7.2 to 8.5
5.9 to 6.9
5.1 to 6.0
No. 4
0.97
8.6 to 9.9
7.0 to 8.1
6.1 to 7.0
(4.75 mm)
0.94
10.0 to 11.3
8.2 to 9.2
7.1 to 8.0
sieve
0.90
11.4 to 12.7
9.3 to 10.4
8.1 to 9.0
[3]
> 12.7
> 10.4
> 9.0
1.00
0 to 5.7
0 to 4.6
0 to 4.0
0.99
5.8 to 7.1
4.7 to 5.8
4.1 to 5.0
No. 8
0.97
7.2 to 8.5
5.9 to 6.9
5.1 to 6.0
(2.36 mm)
0.94
8.6 to 9.9
7.0 to 8.1
6.1 to 7.0
sieve
0.90
10.0 to 11.3
8.2 to 9.2
7.1 to 8.0
[3]
> 11.3
> 9.2
> 8.0
[1]Based on average of Lot Acceptance tests from the JMF.
[2]Remove and replace material
[3]Engineer will determine if the material may remain in place. Pay factor for material allowed to remain in place
is 0.70.
The Department will determine payment for the Lot by multiplying the contract unit price by the pay factor.
When any pay factors for a specific Lot are less than 1.00, use the lowest pay factor to calculate the payment.
The Department will base acceptance of partial Lots on the average and the Range of the results of tests on the
number of samples obtained.
ITEM 407 TACK COAT
407.01
407.02
407.03
407.04
407.05
407.06
407.07
407.08
Description
Materials
Equipment
Weather Limitations
Preparation of Surface
Application of Asphalt Material
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
407.01
Description. This work consists of preparing and treating a paved surface with asphalt material, and
cover aggregate if required.
407.02
Materials. Conform to the applicable requirements of 702 for the asphalt material and use one of the
following types: 702.04 RS-1, SS-1, SS-1h, CRS-1, CSS-1, or CSS-1h; 702.12 Non-Tracking Asphalt Emulsion or
702.13 SBR Asphalt Emulsion.
Supply 702.12 Non-Tracking Asphalt Emulsion any time Item 407 Non-Tracking Tack Coat is specified.
Conform to 703.06 for cover aggregate.
407.03
Equipment. Provide adequate cleaning equipment, spreader boxes, and distributors.
Use distributors designed, equipped, maintained, and operated to apply asphalt material at the specified rate per
square yard (square meter) with uniform pressure over the required width of application. Ensure that the distributor
includes a tachometer, pressure gauges, and an accurate volume measuring device or a calibrated tank. Mount an
accurate thermometer with a range covering the specified application temperature for asphalt material at
approximately center height of the tank with the stem extending into the asphalt material. Ensure that the distributor
has a full-circulating system with a spray bar that is adjustable laterally and vertically. Ensure that the spray bar
will maintain a constant height above the pavement under variable load conditions. Supply each distributor with
suitable charts showing truck and pump speeds and other pertinent application data necessary to obtain the required
results.
Do not use equipment that cannot obtain the correct tack application.
407.04
Weather Limitations. Do not apply the asphalt material if the surface temperature is below the
minimum placement temperature for the pavement course to be placed, as specified in 401.06.
407.05
Preparation of Surface. Ensure that the surface is thoroughly clean and dry when the asphalt material
is applied. Remove material cleaned from the surface and dispose of it as the Engineer directs.
407.06
Application of Asphalt Material. Uniformly apply the asphalt material with a distributor having
clean nozzles functioning properly.
For irregular areas such as driveways and intersections, apply the asphalt material using a method the Engineer
approves.
If paving asphalt concrete directly onto Portland cement concrete or brick pavement, tack the pavement with
SBR asphalt emulsion conforming to 702.13.
Apply the asphalt material in a manner that offers the least inconvenience to traffic. Only apply the asphalt
material to areas that will be covered by a pavement course during the same day. Ensure the tack breaks before
releasing to construction traffic unless the paver is equipped with a spray bar system to apply tack just prior to mat
placement.
Apply asphalt material to obtain uniform coverage within the range specified in Table 407.06-1, as directed by
the Engineer. Obtain the Engineer's approval for the quantity, rate of application, temperature, and areas to be
treated before application of the asphalt material. The Engineer will determine the actual application in gallons per
square yard (liters per square meter) by a check on the project.
TABLE 407.06-1
TYPICAL TACK COAT APPLICATION RATES
Existing Pavement
New Asphalt
Oxidized Asphalt
Milled Asphalt Surface
Milled PCC Surface
PCC Surface
Application Rate
gal/yd2 (L/m2)
0.05 to 0.06 (0.23 to 0.27)
0.08 to 0.09 (0.36 to 0.41)
0.08 to 0.09 (0.36 to 0.41)
0.06 to 0.08 (0.27 to 0.36)
0.06 to 0.08 (0.27 to 0.36)
The application is considered satisfactory when the actual rate is within ±10 percent of the required rate and the
material is applied uniformly with no visible evidence of streaking, ridging or pickup by construction traffic. The
Engineer will require proper correction when ridging, streaking, pickup or other non-uniform coverage is observed.
Correct non-uniform tack only in areas of non-uniform coverage. Do not reapply tack in areas where the tack meets
uniformity and application requirements.
If the coverage is not uniform and not corrected the total square yardage of non-uniform application will be
considered non-specification material. The Engineer will determine the number of gallons (liters) for non-payment
by using the approved rate of application times the total square yards (square meters) of non-uniform application.
407.07
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Tack Coat and Non-Tracking Tack Coat by
the number of gallons (liters) of undiluted asphalt material applied for each according to Item 109.
407.08
Basis of Payment. The cost of cover aggregate is incidental to Tack Coat.
The Department will not pay for non-uniformly applied materials as defined in 407.06.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
407
407
Gallon (Liter)
Gallon (Liter)
Tack Coat
Non-Tracking Tack Coat
ITEM 408 PRIME COAT
408.01
408.02
408.03
408.04
408.05
408.06
408.07
408.08
408.09
408.10
Description
Asphalt Material
Cover Aggregate
Weather Limitations
Equipment
Preparation of Surface
Application of Asphalt Material
Application of Cover Aggregate
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
408.01
Description. This work consists of preparing and treating an existing surface with asphalt material,
and cover aggregate if required.
408.02
Asphalt Material. Conform to the applicable requirements of 702 for asphalt material and use one
of the following types: 702.02 MC-30, MC-70, or MC-250; or 702.03 Primer 20.
408.03
or 703.06.
Cover Aggregate. Use cover aggregate conforming to No. 9 size or gradation requirements of 703.05
408.04
Weather Limitations. Do not apply asphalt material on a wet surface. Do not apply prime coats for
asphalt concrete or surface treatment work when the atmospheric temperature is below 50 F (10 C) or when the
air temperature within the preceding 24 hours has been 40 F (5 C) or lower. Do not apply prime coats on stabilized
or granular base courses when the atmospheric temperature is below 40 F (5 C).
408.05
Equipment. Use equipment conforming to 407.03.
408.06
Preparation of Surface. Shape the surface to be primed to the required grade and section. Ensure the
surface is free from all ruts, corrugations, segregated material or other irregularities and is smooth and uniformly
compacted at the time of application of the asphalt material. Clean the surface in a manner that will thoroughly
remove all mud, earth, and other foreign material. Take care to clean the edges of road to be primed to ensure
uniform application of the asphalt material directly onto the existing base or pavement surface. Remove material
cleaned from the surface and dispose of it as the Engineer directs.
408.07
Application of Asphalt Material. Apply asphalt material in a uniform manner spread to the width
of the section to be primed by means of a distributor conforming to 407.03. Take care that the application of asphalt
material at the junction of spreads is not in excess of the specified amount. Squeegee excess asphalt material from
the surface. Correct skipped areas or deficiencies.
Do not allow traffic on the prime coat until the asphalt material has been absorbed by the surface and will not be
picked up. Obtain the Engineer's approval for the quantity, rate of application, temperatures and areas to be treated
before application of the prime coat.
408.08
Application of Cover Aggregate. If, after applying the prime coat, the asphalt material fails to
penetrate and traffic must use the roadway, spread cover aggregate in the amount required to absorb any excess
asphalt material.
408.09
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Prime Coat by the number of gallons (liters)
according to 109.
408.10
Basis of Payment. The cost of cover aggregate is incidental to Prime Coat.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities, complete in place, at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
408
Gallon (Liter)
Prime Coat
ITEM 409 SAWING AND SEALING ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENT JOINTS
409.01
409.02
409.03
409.04
409.05
Description
Materials
Construction Details
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
409.01
Description. This work consists of saw cutting and sealing the finished surface of the asphalt concrete
pavement and shoulders directly over and in line with transverse joints in the underlying Portland cement concrete
pavement.
409.02
Materials. Use joint sealant conforming to 705.04 and approved by OMM before shipment to the
project. Use a 1/2 inch (13 mm) diameter closed cell foam backer rod that will form and maintain a reservoir of
sealant as specified in 409.03.
409.03
Construction Details. Saw cut, clean, and seal transverse joints as a continuous operation. If the
surface course is not placed within 5 days after the intermediate course is placed, make a 1/8-inch (3 mm) wide
saw cut that is one-fourth the depth of the intermediate course over contraction joints and a 1/2-inch (13 mm) wide
cut that is one-fourth the depth of the intermediate course over expansion joints.
Saw joints in the surface course as soon as the saw can be operated without damaging the asphalt concrete, but
no later than 48 hours after the asphalt concrete is placed.
Locate the sawed joints directly over each transverse pavement joint in the concrete pavement, including joints
at full-depth pavement repairs. Accurately locate joints with pins or stakes before paving. Pre-mark the saw cut on
the new asphalt with a chalk line or other acceptable method. Obtain the Engineer's approval of the method for
locating and accurately marking the proposed saw cuts before starting any resurfacing operations.
Saw all transverse joints and create a joint sealant reservoir according to Table 409.03-1. Use either dry or wet
cutting. Make one or two passes to create the saw cut and joint sealant reservoir.
TABLE 409.03-1
Measurement
Saw cut depth
Backer rod diameter
Joint sealant reservoir
Width
Depth
Recess below surface course
Inch (mm)
2 (50)
1/2 (13)
3/8 (10)
3/4 (19)
1/8 (3)
Clean dry sawed joints with compressed air to remove dirt, dust, or deleterious matter. Use an air compressor
with a minimum rated capacity of 100 pounds per square inch (689 kPa) and sufficient hose for continuous cleaning
operations.
Clean wet sawed joints with a water blast to remove sawing slurry, dirt, or deleterious matter. Dry wet sawed
joints with a propane torch or lance unit capable of producing a blast of hot air at 2000 F (1093 C) and with a gas
velocity of 2000 feet per second (610 m/s).
Extend the transverse saw cut joints the full width of the asphalt over the concrete pavement and paved shoulders.
Do not allow traffic to knead together or damage the sawed joints before sealing.
Heat joint sealant material in a kettle or melter constructed as a double boiler, with the space between the inner
and outer shells filled with oil or other heat transfer medium. Provide positive temperature control and mechanical
agitation.
Heat the material according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. Consider the first gallon (4 L) of material
that flows out of the applicator wand at the start of the day spoil, and discard it into a container so designated.
After cleaning, place the backer rod in the sawed joints, then immediately seal the joints with sealant applied
through a nozzle projected into the sawed joint, filling from the bottom up. Ensure that the sealant completely fills
the joint such that after cooling, the level of the sealant is below the surface by less than 1/8 inch (3 mm). Fill any
depression in the seal greater than 3/16 inch (5 mm) to the specified limit by adding additional sealant. Do not
overfill the joints. Take care in the sealing of the joints so that the final appearance will present a neat line.
409.04
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Sawing and Sealing Asphalt Concrete
Pavement Joints by the number of feet (meters) of joints sawed and sealed.
409.05
Basis of Payment. The Department will not pay for saw cuts in the intermediate course.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
409
Foot (Meter)
Sawing and Sealing Asphalt Concrete Pavement Joints
ITEM 410 TRAFFIC COMPACTED SURFACE
410.01
410.02
410.03
410.04
410.05
410.06
410.07
Description
Materials
Conditioning of the Subgrade
Spreading and Shaping
Maintaining
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
410.01
Description. This work consists of furnishing and placing an aggregate wearing course on the
completed and accepted subgrade or temporary road.
410.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to 703.18 for the type of material specified (Type A, Type
B, or Type C).
410.03
Conditioning of the Subgrade. Eliminate wavy and irregular surfaces and maintain the subgrade in
this condition until the application of material under this item. If the subgrade is soft due to rain, frost, or snow,
place material only as permitted.
410.04
Spreading and Shaping. Uniformly spread the material using an approved spreader box or by other
methods. Spread the amount of material shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. After spreading, blade
and shape the materials to the specified cross-sections. Haul the material to its place on the road over the previously
spread material. Conduct the hauling to obtain uniform compaction over the entire width of the surface material
without rolling.
410.05
Maintaining. After shaping the material, blade it as directed by the Engineer. Open the road to traffic
immediately after all the material has been spread and shaped.
Correct all holes, ruts, defects, or soft places that occur in the subgrade or surface by adding material and
dragging. Maintain the surface, slopes, shoulders, ditches, and drainage structures until the work on this item has
been completed and accepted.
410.06
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Traffic Compacted Surface, Type ___ by
the number of cubic yards (cubic meters) or tons (metric tons) of accepted material placed, shaped, and maintained
as specified.
The Department will measure the cubic yards (cubic meters) of aggregate used loose in the vehicle at the point
of delivery or calculate it by converting from weight using the following conversion factors:
TABLE 410.06-1
Material
Conversion Factor
Gravel, bank run or crusher run
2700 lb/yd³
1600 kg/m³
Limestone, crusher run
2500 lb/yd³
1485 kg/m³
Gravel, Size No. 4 and 57
2500 lb/yd³
1485 kg/m³
Limestone, Size No. 4 and 57
2400 lb/yd³
1425 kg/m³
Crushed slag [1]
less than 80 lb/ft³ (1300 kg/m³)
2000 lb/yd³
1185 kg/m³
80 to 90 lb/ft³ (1300 to 1450 kg/m³)
2100 lb/yd³
1250 kg/m³
90.1 to 100 lb/ft³ (1451 to 1600 kg/m³)
2300 lb/yd³
1365 kg/m³
100.1 to 125 lb/ft³ (1601 to 2000 kg/m³)
2700 lb/yd³
1600 kg/m³
more than 125 lb/ft³ (2000 kg/m³)
3000 lb/yd³
1780 kg/m³
Recycled Portland Cement Concrete
2250 lb/yd³
1335 kg/m³
Recycled Asphalt Pavement
2650 lb/yd³
1570 kg/m³
[1]Based on average dry rodded weight determined by the Laboratory. The conversion factors listed are the
long gradation weights. These numbers are based on the dry rodded weights of Nos. 67, 57, or 8 gradation.
The Department will determine slag weights based on weights obtained from the original source.
The Department will classify salvaged or mixed materials according to the material that makes up the majority
of the mixture.
Ensure that the moistures of the delivered material are less than 2 percent above saturated surface dry condition;
if not, the Department will base payment on the dry densities and dry weights.
Furnish freight bills, and weight and volume evidence according to 109.
410.07
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
410
Cubic Yard or Ton
(Cubic Meter
or Metric Ton)
Cubic Yard or Ton
(Cubic Meter
or Metric Ton)
Traffic Compacted Surface, Type A or B
410
Traffic Compacted Surface, Type C
ITEM 411 STABILIZED CRUSHED AGGREGATE
411.01
411.02
411.03
411.04
411.05
Description
Materials
Construction Methods
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
411.01
Description. This work consists of placing a compacted course or courses of crushed aggregate.
411.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to 703.18.
411.03
Construction Methods. Construct the subgrade according to Item 204. Use the spreading and
compaction requirements of Item 304, except as modified by the following:
A. Use a maximum compacted lift thickness of 6 inches (150 mm).
B. Perform the initial compaction of the material by using crawler type tractors, tamping rollers, trench rollers,
suitable pneumatic tire equipment, or other suitable equipment.
C. Perform final compaction of the surface of the stabilized crushed aggregate by using approved pneumatic tire
equipment.
Unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents, the Engineer will perform all compaction tests according
to Supplement 1015.
411.04
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Stabilized Crushed Aggregate by the
number of cubic yards (cubic meters) computed from the profile grade, cross-sections and typical sections,
compacted in place.
When the plans provide for the use of material in variable width or depth of course and the quantity cannot be
readily calculated from the profile grade, typical sections and cross-sections, the Department will measure the cubic
yards (cubic meters) by converting from weight using the following conversion factors:
TABLE 411.04-1
Material
Conversion Factor
Crushed stone
3800 lb/yd³
2250 kg/m³
Crushed gravel
3900 lb/yd³
2310 kg/m³
Crushed slag [1]
less than 90 lb/ft³ (1450 kg/m³)
3600 lb/yd³
2140 kg/m³
90 to 100 lb/ft³ (1450 to 1600 kg/m³)
4000 lb/yd³
2375 kg/m³
more than 100 lb/ft³ (1600 kg/m³)
4500 lb/yd³
2670 kg/m³
Granulated slag
2800 lb/yd³
1660 kg/m³
Recycled Portland Cement Concrete
3400 lb/yd³
2020 kg/m³
Recycled Asphalt Pavement
4000 lb/yd³
2375 kg/m³
[1]Based on average dry rodded weight of standard size of slag aggregates on record
at the Laboratory. The conversion factors listed are the long gradation weights.
These numbers are based on the dry rodded weights of Nos. 67, 57, or 8 gradation.
The Department will determine slag weights based on weights obtained from the
original source.
The Department will classify salvaged or mixed materials according to the material that makes up the majority
of the mixture.
Ensure that the moistures of the delivered material are less than 2 percent above saturated surface dry condition;
if not, the Department will base payment on the dry densities and dry weights.
Furnish freight bills or certified weight bills according to 109.
411.05
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
411
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Stabilized Crushed Aggregate
ITEM 421 MICROSURFACING
421.01
421.02
421.03
421.04
421.05
421.06
421.07
421.08
421.09
421.10
421.11
421.12
421.13
421.14
Description
Materials
Proportioning
Weather Limitations
Mixing Equipment
Equipment Calibration
Spreading Equipment
Surface Preparation
Test Strip
Application
Acceptance
Performance Review
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
421.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a cold laid polymer modified emulsified asphalt
pavement course to fill ruts or provide a leveling and/or surface course for existing pavements. Warrant the
microsurfacing for two years.
421.02
Materials. Use a polymer modified emulsified asphalt binder (Binder) consisting of the following:
Use a quick-traffic CSS-1hM (as defined below). Use only emulsion certified according to Supplement 1032.
Do not use port addition of the polymer to the emulsified asphalt. Provide to the Engineer certified test data and a
statement from the Binder manufacturer with each load of Binder that the Binder is the same formulation as used
in the mix design.
Ensure the Binder meets the following and specification limits will be producible for at least 30 days from sample
date:
Tests on emulsion, AASHTO T 59, unless otherwise designated:
CSS-1hM [1]
Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 77 °F (25 °C) (SFS)
20 to 100
Storage Stability Tests, 24-hr (% difference), max.
1
Particle Charge Test
Positive
Sieve Tests (%) (Distilled Water), max.
0.10
Distillation to 177 °C, Residue % solids, min.[2]
62
Tests on distillation residue:
Penetration, 25 °C, 100 g, 5 sec (dmm) AASHTO T 49
40 to 90
Ductility, 25 °C, 5 cm/min, (cm), min. AASHTO T 51
40
Solubility in trichloroethylene, (%), min. AASHTO T 44 [3]
97.5
Elastic Recovery, 10 °C, 20 cm (%), min. AASHTO T 301 [4]
45
Softening Point, Ring & Ball (°C), min. AASHTO T 53
60
[1]
Pre-blend only: Use a minimum of 3.0% SBR solids based on weight of the asphalt binder.
Use Natural SBR latex modifier or synthetic SBR latex modifier conforming to 702.14. Use only
one type of latex. Mill or blend the SBR Emulsion into the emulsified solution prior to the
emulsification process.
[2]
See Supplement 1013. For natural latex, use the Oven Evaporation method in AASHTO T 59
in place of distillation and use this residue for further testing.
[3]
On the base asphalt only. Solubility in N-Propyl Bromide (ASTM D7553) can be used in
place of trichloroethylene.
[4]
Straight molds. Hold at test temperature for 90 minutes. Place in ductilometer and elongate
20 cm at 5 cm/min. Hold for 5 minutes and cut. After 1 hour retract the broken ends to touch and
measure the elongation (X) in centimeters to the nearest 0.01 cm. Use the following formula to
calculate the elastic recovery: Percent Recovery = ((20-X)/20) x 100. Report results to nearest
0.1%.
Conform to 703.01 and 703.05 for aggregate, except as follows:
Percent by weight of fractured pieces
Sand Equivalence (ASTM D 2419)
100
45 minimum
Conform to Gradation A for the aggregate for leveling and surface courses and to Gradation B for the aggregate
for rut fill courses according to the following:
Sieve Size
3/8 inch
(9.50 mm)
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
No. 8
(2.36 mm)
No. 16
(1.18 mm)
No. 30
(600 µm)
No. 50
(300 µm)
No. 100
(150 µm)
No. 200
(75 µm)
Total Percent Passing
A
B
100
100
85 to 100
70 to 90
50 to 80
45 to 70
40 to 65
28 to 50
25 to 45
19 to 34
13 to 25
12 to 25
–
7 to 18
5 to 15
5 to 18
Screen the aggregate for oversize material prior to use. For mineral filler, use Portland cement conforming to
ASTM C 150, Type I. Use water conforming to 499.02. Use mix set additives as required.
421.03
Proportioning. Submit to OMM a sample of the Binder to be used and a complete mix design
prepared by an approved laboratory. Verify the compatibility of the aggregate, Binder, mineral filler, and other
additives. Make the mix design with the same materials that will be used on the project.
A. Ensure that the mix design:
1.
Has aggregate meeting the gradation specified.
2. Has residual asphalt by dry weight of aggregate of 7.0 to 8.5 percent for leveling and surface courses or
6.5 to 8.0 percent for rut fill courses.
3.
Has a mineral filler content of 0.3 to 3.5 percent by dry weight of aggregate.
4.
Meets the specified properties of the following International Slurry Seal Association (ISSA) tests:
ISSA Test No.
TB-139 (1-90)
TB-114 (1-90)
TB-100 (90)
TB-144 (2-89)
TB-113 (1-90)
Description
Wet Cohesion
30 minutes min. (set time)
60 minutes min. (traffic)
Wet Stripping
Wet Track Abrasion Loss
1-hour soak
6 day soak
Saturated Abrasion Compatibility
Mix Time @ 25 C
Mix Time @ 40 C
Specification
12 kg-cm min.
20 kg-cm min or near spin
90 percent min.
450 g/m² max.
650 g/m² max.
3 g loss max.
Controllable to 120 seconds
Controllable to 35 seconds
Check the ISSA TB-139 (set time) and ISSA TB-113 (mix time) tests at the highest temperature expected during
construction. For the ISSA TB-113 test at 104 °F (40 °C), preheat all ingredients and containers.
B. The JMF should report the following (all percentages are based on the dry weight of the aggregate):
1.
Source of each individual material.
2.
Aggregate gradation.
3.
Percentage of aggregate.
4.
Sand equivalence of the aggregate.
5.
Percentage of mineral filler (minimum and maximum).
6.
Percentage of water (minimum and maximum).
7.
Percentage of mix set additives (if required).
8.
Percentage of Binder and type.
9.
Quantitative effects of moisture content on the unit weight of the aggregate.
421.04
Weather Limitations. Apply the mixture only when it is not raining and the existing pavement
surface and atmospheric temperature is a minimum of 45 F (7 C) and rising and there is no forecast of an
atmospheric temperature below 32 F (0 C) within 24 hours from the time the mixture is applied. Between
September 30 and May 1, do not apply the mixture if the existing pavement surface temperature is less than 50 F
(10 C).
421.05
Mixing Equipment. Produce the mixture in a self-propelled, front feed, continuous loading mixing
machine equipped with a conveyer belt aggregate delivery system and an interconnected positive displacement,
water jacketed gear pump to accurately proportion aggregate and asphalt emulsion. Locate the mineral filler feed
so the proper amount of mineral filler is dropped on the aggregate before discharge into the pugmill. Provide a
spray bar to completely prewet the aggregate dropping down to the pugmill with additive and water before
introduction of asphalt emulsion. Ensure that the twin-shaft, multi-blade pugmill is a continuous flow type and
minimum of 49 inches (1.25 m) long. Ensure that the blade size and side clearances meet the equipment
manufacturer’s recommendations. Introduce the emulsion within the first one-third of the mixer length to ensure
proper mixing of all materials before exit from the pugmill.
Equip the machine with opposite side driving stations to allow full control of the machine from either side. Equip
the mixer with a remote forward speed control at the back mixing platform so the back operator can control forward
speed and level of mixture in the paving or rut box. Provide material control devices that are readily accessible and
positioned so the amount of each material used can be determined at any time.
Equip the mixing machine with a water pressure system and nozzle type spray bar to provide a water spray ahead
of and outside the spreader box when required. Apply water at a rate that will dampen the surface, but will not
create free flowing water ahead of the spreader box.
The Contractor may use truck-mounted machines with a conveyer belt aggregate delivery system and without
the front feed, continuous loading feature on projects of less than 15,500 square yards (13,000 m2), on spot repairs,
on projects with multiple routes where every route is less than 15,500 square yards (13,000 m2), or where specified
in the plans.
421.06
Equipment Calibration. Before mix production, calibrate the mixing equipment in the presence of
the Engineer. Generate documentation for the Engineer, including individual calibrations of each material at
various settings. Perform a new calibration if there is any change in the mix design. Supply all of the equipment,
materials, and scales necessary to perform the calibration. Following calibration and adjustments for changes in
the mix design do not make any further calibration adjustments to the mixing equipment without the Engineer’s
approval.
421.07
Spreading Equipment. If a leveling or surface course is specified, apply the mixture uniformly by
means of a conventional spreader box attached to the mixer.
If a rut fill course is specified, apply the mixture with a V-shaped rut filling spreader box attached to the mixer.
Equip the rut filling spreader box with a steel strike-off.
Equip the spreader box with paddles mounted on an adjustable shaft to continually agitate and distribute the
materials throughout the box. Ensure that the equipment provides sufficient turbulence to prevent the mix from
setting in the box or causing excessive side build-up or lumps. To prevent loss of the mixture from the box, attach
flexible seals, front and rear, in contact with the road. Operate the spreading equipment in such a manner as to
prevent the loss of the mixture on superelevated curves.
For surface courses, attach a secondary strike-off to the spreader.
The Contractor may use burlap drags or other drags, if necessary, to obtain the desired finish. Replace drags
having excessive build-up.
421.08
Surface Preparation. Before applying the mixture, thoroughly clean the surface.
Remove raised pavement markers according to 621.08, when specified. The Contractor may fill the depression
caused by the removal of the casting with material meeting this specification.
Remove all existing pavement markings, except 740.02 (traffic paint), using an abrasion method conforming to
641.10.
Seal visible joints and cracks longer than 2 feet (600mm) in length according to Item 423.
Apply a tack coat conforming to Item 407, consisting of a minimum of 15% asphalt residue. Apply the tack coat
at a rate of 0.06 to 0.12 gallon per square yard (0.25 to 0.45 L/m²).
Protect drainage structures, monument boxes, water valve, etc. during material application.
421.09
Test Strip. Construct a continuous 1000-foot (300 m) long by lane width test strip consisting of all
the application courses specified. Construct the test strip at the same time of day or night the full production will
be applied. The Contractor may construct the test strip in 2 days or nights if multiple course applications are
specified.
The Engineer will evaluate the completed test strip after 24 hours of traffic to determine if the mix design is
acceptable. The Contractor may begin full production after the Engineer accepts the test strip.
If the microsurfacing is being applied between May 1 and September 30, the Department will waive the test strip
if the Contractor has constructed a Department accepted test strip during the same timeframe with the same
materials and mix design.
421.10
Application. Apply the paving mixture in a manner to fill cracks, shallow potholes, and minor surface
irregularities and achieve a uniform surface without causing skips, lumps, or tears. Carry a sufficient amount of
material at all times in all parts of the spreader box to ensure complete coverage. Avoid overloading of the spreader
box. Do not allow lumping, balling, or unmixed aggregate in the spreader box.
If a rut fill course is specified, apply enough material to fill the wheel paths without excess crowning (overfilling).
An excess crown is defined as 1/8 inch (3 mm) after 24 hours of traffic compaction. Apply rut fill courses in widths
from 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 m) for each wheel path. Provide a smooth, neat seam where two rut fill passes meet.
Take care to restore the designed profile of the pavement cross-section. Feather the edges of the rut fill course to
minimize the use of excess material.
If a leveling course and a surface course are specified, apply the paving mixture at 14 ± 2 pounds per square yard
(7.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) for the leveling course and 16 ± 1 pounds per square yard (8.7 ± 0.6 kg/m²) for the surface course.
Apply the two courses at a minimum combined rate of 30 pounds per square yard (16.3 kg/m²), regardless of the
above tolerances.
If a surface course is specified and it is not placed on a Microsurfacing Leveling Course, apply the paving mixture
at a rate of 21 to 24 pounds per square yard (11.4 to 13.0 kg/m²).
For leveling and surface courses, provide a smooth, neat seam of 1 to 3 inches (25 to 75 mm) where two passes
meet. Immediately remove excess material from the ends of each run.
Construct surface courses wide enough to cover the outside edges of rut fill and leveling courses. Maintain
straight edge lines along curbs and shoulders. Do not allow runoff in these areas. Ensure that lines at intersections
are straight.
Use squeegees and lutes to spread the mixture in areas inaccessible to the spreader box and areas requiring hand
spreading. The Contractor may adjust the mix set additive to provide a slower setting time if hand spreading is
needed. Do not adjust the water content to adjust the setting time. If hand spreading, pour the mixture in a small
windrow along one edge of the surface to be covered and spread it uniformly by a hand squeegee or lute. Provide
uniform appearance of the entire surface area regardless of the means used to spread material.
Ensure that the microsurfacing cures at a rate that will permit traffic on the pavement within 1 hour after
application without damaging the pavement surface. However, should the Contractor have concerns about adequate
cure, work out an arrangement agreeable to the Engineer before releasing traffic on the pavement.
If there is an excessive streaking problem created by high amounts of oversize material in the mix, stop applying
the mixture and take steps to correct the streaking problem. Do not resume work until the Engineer is satisfied the
problem has been corrected.
If a section of pavement is not going to be exposed to traffic within 48 hours, compact it with a pneumatic tire
roller after curing. Conform the pneumatic tire roller to 401.13, and inflate the tire pressure to 40 to 60 pounds per
square inch (275 to 400 kPa).
421.11
Acceptance. Maintain continuous control of the binder to dry aggregate proportioning to conform to
the approved mix design within a tolerance of ±2 gallons per ton (±8.5 L/metric ton). Control the spread rate to not
less than the specified quantity of aggregate per square yard (square meter) on a dry weight basis.
Within one hour of start of production obtain and label a binder and diluted tack coat sample from the distributor
trucks and give the samples to the Engineer the same day. Provide and sample the binder and diluted tack coat in
one quart plastic containers with plastic screw tops. Label and retain one sample of each per each additional day
for the Department. Take more samples when requested by the Engineer.
The Engineer will base acceptance of the binder-to-dry aggregate proportion and spread rate on the Engineer’s
summary of quantities used each day. The Engineer will approve and accept a day’s application of microsurfacing
provided:
A. The Engineer’s summary indicates conformance with the above control requirements for proportioning and
spread rate and
B. The pavement is free from excessive scratch marks, tears, rippling and other surface irregularities, longitudinal
joints and lane edges coincide with any lane lines and edge lines and transverse joints are uniform, neat and provide
a smooth transition.
The spread rate requirement does not apply to rut fill courses if the Contractor filled the wheel paths according
to this specification.
421.12 Performance Review. Perform remedial actions for any defect exceeding the threshold levels in Table
421.12-1 for a period of two years from the date of substantial work complete as documented on the Department’s
Form C-85. Contact the Department to schedule a final performance review at least 60 days prior to the end
performance review period. The Department will review the pavement before the end of the two year performance
review period to determine if remedial action is required. The Department will issue the results in writing to the
Contractor upon completion of the performance review.
Remedial Actions. Perform Remedial Actions by September 30th of the same year as the review. If the
Department determines that immediate repairs are necessary, due to a potential hazard to the traveling public, the
Department will notify the Contractor and establish a date that all repairs are to be finished.
Provide construction traffic control when performing any work required or allowed by this specification in
accordance with current Department policy and the Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Obtain
Department approval for the time the work will be performed.
Provide approved materials, equipment, and labor to perform Remedial Actions at no additional cost to the
Department. Prior to performing a Remedial Action, submit a Remedial Action plan to the DCA for approval. State
in the plan when and how the Remedial Action will be performed; what material will be used; and how traffic will
be controlled. Warrant Remedial Action work for the remainder of the warranty period.
Use only microsurfacing for permanent repair and resurfacing areas. Perform temporary repairs using material
approved by the DCA. Replace temporary repairs with a permanent repair as soon as weather permits.
Replace pavement markings or raised pavement markers (RPM) removed, obliterated, or damaged while
performing a Remedial Action with equivalent approved pavement markings or RPMs products at no cost to the
Department.
The Contractor is not responsible for pavement damage beyond the Contractor’s control (i.e., car fire, oil spill,
structural issues etc.).
TABLE 421.12-1
Threshold Level (6)
Defect Type
(1)
(allowable distress levels)
2
Bleeding / Flushing
300 square feet (28 m )
(2)
Surface Loss
20 square feet (1.8 m2)
(3)
Raveling
300 square feet (28 m2)
Rutting (4) (5)
0.25 inch (6.5 mm) continuous in any Segment.
Notes:
(1) Excess asphalt binder that creates a shiny, reflective condition that becomes tacky to the touch at
higher temperatures.
(2) Loss of surface by traffic wear, debonding, or delamination.
(3) “Moderate” level raveling as defined in the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP)
“Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Project” (SHRP-P-338).
(4) Measure the wheel path with a 4 foot (1.2 m) straight edge.
(5) Only applies during the first 120 days of Warranty or after any Warranty work.
(6) Based on 1000 foot (300 m) lane Segment. The beginning of a Segment is the beginning of any
distress type.
If any 1000 foot (300 meter) lane segment has repairs or defects greater than 5 percent of the area, resurface with
a full lane width of microsurfacing meeting the requirements of this specification.
421.13
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Microsurfacing, Surface Course and
Microsurfacing, Leveling Course by the number of square yards (square meters), complete and accepted in place.
The Department will base the width of the pavement course on the width shown on the plans, specified in this
specification, or directed by the Engineer. The Department will measure the length along the centerline of each
roadway or ramp.
The Department will measure the number of raised pavement markers removed.
The Department will measure Microsurfacing, Rut Fill Course by the number of tons (metric tons) of dry
aggregate used, complete and accepted in place. The Department will base the weight of the dry aggregate used on
the ticket net weight of individual loads from an approved scale.
421.14
Basis of Payment. The cost of tack coat and Item 423 Crack Sealing is incidental to Microsurfacing.
The Department will pay for removal of existing pavement markings according to 421.08 under Items 643, 644,
645, 646, 647, and 648 as specified. The Department will pay for removal of existing raised pavement markers
according to Item 621 Raised Pavement Markers Removed.
The Department will pay for the construction of accepted test strips at the individual bid prices for the courses
constructed.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
421
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Ton
(Metric Ton)
Microsurfacing, Surface Course
421
421
Microsurfacing, Leveling Course
Microsurfacing, Rut Fill Course
ITEM 422 CHIP SEAL
422.01
422.02
422.03
422.04
422.05
422.06
422.07
422.08
422.09
422.10
422.11
422.12
422.13
422.14
Description
Materials
Equipment
Weather Limitations
Test Strip
Surface Preparation
Binder Application
Cover Aggregate Application
Construction Operation
Quality Control
Acceptance
Performance Review
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
422.01
Description. This work consists of preparing and applying a single or double chip seal. Warrant
exposed chip seals for two years.
422.02
Materials. Use polymer emulsified binder conforming to 702.16 Type A.
Provide aggregate consisting of washed limestone or washed dolomite conforming to 703.05. Do not use an
aggregate source designated with “SR” on the Aggregate Source Group list in accordance with 703.01.F.
Additionally the following requirements apply:
Stockpile the material to be used for the chip seal at the aggregate source.
Obtain five (5) samples from the stockpile and perform gradation testing on each sample and determine the
percent passing for each sieve size listed in Table 422.02-1
A. Calculate the total range for the No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve for all five samples. The range will not exceed 6%.
B. Calculate the percent passing the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve for each sample. No single sample value will exceed
2.0 percent.
C. Calculate the average of each sieve for all five samples. Ensure the average value for each sieve is within the
requirements of Table 422.02-1.
Submit a letter to the Engineer and District Testing containing the JMF gradations and the calculations to show
the cover aggregate meets requirements.
If a staging location will be used for the chip seal aggregate first move the initially tested aggregates from the
aggregate source stockpile to the staging location and construct a staging stockpile. Then obtain five (5) aggregate
samples from the staging location stockpile and perform gradation testing on each sample to determine the percent
passing for each sieve size listed in Table 422.02-1.
Evaluate the staging location aggregate samples the same as the aggregate source samples except allow an
average for the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve not greater than 1.7 percent.
Submit the JMF gradations from the staged stockpile and the calculations to show the cover aggregate meets
requirements in letter form to the Engineer and District Testing.
If the chip seal aggregates fail to meet requirements, either at the aggregate source or the staging location, rewash and/or rework the aggregate materials and retest the new stockpiles.
TABLE 422.02-1
Sieve Size
1/2 inch
3/8 inch
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 200
[1]Washed gradation value
(12.5 mm)
(9.5 mm)
(4.75 mm)
(2.36 mm)
(1.18 mm)
(75 µm)
Total Percent Passing
Type A
Type B
100
85 to 100
100
5 to 25
85 to 100
0 to 10
5 to 30
0 to 5
0 to 10
[1]
0 to 1.5
0 to 1.5 [1]
The District may obtain and test verification samples of the JMF aggregates at any time. If a single verification
sample is either outside the values in Table 422.02-1 with the exception that the No. 200 (75 µm) value is not
greater than 2.0 percent, the district will obtain five (5) samples and retest to determine if the aggregate JMF falls
within the limits of Table 422.02-1. If the JMF verification test doesn’t meet the source or staging location limits
the stockpile is not acceptable.
422.03
Equipment. Provide equipment conforming to the requirements of this section. Obtain approval of
equipment before starting the job.
Use equipment for binder distribution conforming to 407.03, except ensure that it has a computerized rate control
that automatically adjusts the binder pump to the unit ground speed and has a gauge or meter in plain view for
reading gallons (liters). Use appropriate spray nozzles for the material and rate specified. Adjust spray bar and
nozzles to provide triple lap coverage.
Use Type II pneumatic tire rollers conforming to 401.13 with the exception of the requirements of Table 401.131 Roller Capacity. Use a minimum of 3 Type II pneumatic tire rollers capable of ballast loading. The roller weight
must be between 6 to 8 Tons (5 to 7 metric tons) each to achieve a minimum contact pressure of 80 psi (550 kPa).
Tires must be inflated to the proper pressure as specified by the roller manufacturer. Use self-propelled aggregate
spreaders with a variable width aggregate hopper capable of placing from 8 to 16 feet (2.4 to 4.8 m) in any
increment and a computerized rate control that automatically adjusts the aggregate output to the unit ground speed.
Equip spreaders with pneumatic tires, a screen to remove oversized material, revolving cylinders, and adjustments
necessary to produce a uniform distribution of particles at the specified rate.
Furnish power sweepers, pickup sweepers, or rotary brooms as required for the initial surface preparation and
for removing loose aggregate particles.
Furnish accurate thermometers for determining any of the applicable temperature requirements of this
specification.
422.04
Weather Limitations. Place the chip seal when the pavement temperature is between 60 F (16 C)
and 140 F (60 C). Do not schedule the performance of this work for the time period before May 1 or after
September 15. Do not place chip seal if any of the following conditions exist:
A. The atmospheric temperature is below 70 °F (21 °C).
B. Impending weather conditions do not allow for proper curing.
C. If temperatures are forecasted below 50 °F (10 °C) within 24 hours from the time of work.
422.05
Test Strip. Construct a continuous 1000-foot (300 m) long by lane width test strip in the presence of
the Engineer. Do not waive test strips regardless if the same materials have been used on another project.
Determine the initial binder application rates and aggregate application rates for the test strip to achieve 2/3
aggregate embedment.
For a single chip seal, Type A, an initial target rate of 0.37 ±0.03 gallon per square yard (1.68 L/m²) is
recommended for the test strip. For a single chip seal, Type B, an initial target rate of 0.35 ±0.03 gallon per square
yard (1.58 L/m²) is recommended for the test strip. For double chip seal, a target rate of 0.36 ±0.03 gallon per
square yard (1.63 L/m²) for the first course and 0.33 ±0.05 gallon per square yard (1.49 L/m²) for the second course
is recommended for the test strip. Notify the Engineer of the initial target rates.
Calibrate the aggregate spreader to ensure a uniform application rate in both the transverse and longitudinal
directions. Verify the application rates with a one square yard (one square meter) piece of cardboard or other
material to collect and weigh the aggregate. Adjust spreader rates to maintain application rate within 10% of the
target rate. Do not over apply cover aggregate relying on vacuum and broom sweeping to pick up all excess.
Amounts of loose aggregate that create a nuisance to the public will result in work stoppage. If work is stopped by
the Engineer recalibrate the aggregate spreader determining a new application rate and apply cover aggregate at
the new rate. Verify the aggregate gradation meets 422.10.C. during the test strip and provide the results to the
Engineer.
The Engineer and Contractor will review the test strip the next workday for streaking, ridging, bleeding,
aggregate loss or other problems. If the review shows the test strip meets the requirements of 422.11 and the
application rate and quality control tests show all is in control compared to the JMF, then progress with the work.
Should problems be noted, the Engineer may require another test strip.
JMF gradation targets may be adjusted once within the limits of Table 422.02-1 based on results of the approved
test strip. Provide adjusted gradation targets to the Engineer and the DET prior to progressing with the work.
422.06
Surface Preparation. Clean the pavement according to 407.05. If necessary, clean areas of the
pavement with a hand broom.
Remove all existing pavement markings, except 740.02 (traffic paint), using an abrasion method conforming to
641.10.
For a single chip seal either remove and replace any existing raised pavement markers or protect the existing
raised pavement markers from the single chip application process.
For a double chip seal application remove the raised pavement markers according to 621.08.
Do not place material until the Engineer approves the existing surface.
422.07
Binder Application. Before applying binder, ensure that sufficient cover aggregate is available for
immediate application. Apply the binder at the target rate(s) established from a successful test strip. Ensure
distributor spray bar and nozzles are set to provide triple overlap coverage with no streak or drill patterns on the
road surface.
Maintain the binder temperature from 150 to 185 F (65 to 85 C) during construction, including the start of each
day. Reheat the binder at a rate of no more than 25 F (14 C) per hour, when the binder is allowed to cool below
150 F (65 C).
If the target application rates are not the optimum application rates to achieve proper stone embedment during
the actual application, immediately notify the Engineer. Proper stone embedment is 2/3 of the stone chip height
and can be checked by pulling out several chips by hand. Adjust and document the new application rate by
stationing. Recheck stone embedment after adjustment and obtain the Engineer’s approval of the new rate.
Do not allow the binder to streak on the road surface. If the Engineer determines that streaking is occurring, cease
operations until the Engineer is satisfied that streaking has been eliminated.
At the beginning and at the end of a contract section, start and stop the application on a removable protective
cover (paper, metal sheets, or other suitable material) sufficiently wide enough to allow full application on the
surface being treated. Make transverse and longitudinal laps in such manner to ensure that the texture of the finished
surface is uniform and continuous. To prevent lapping at transverse junctions, promptly shut off the binder spray
at the end of the application. Before continuing the application, place a removable protective cover a sufficient
distance back from the joint on the cover aggregate so the sprayers are operating at full force when the distributor
has attained the predetermined speed upon reaching the uncovered surface. Upon completion, remove all removable
protective covers.
422.08
Cover Aggregate Application. Verify the application rate with a one square yard (one square meter)
piece of cardboard or other material to collect and weigh the aggregate before placing binder. Adjust if necessary
and re-verify. Record final results and inform the Engineer. Immediately after applying the binder, apply cover
aggregate uniformly without ridges or laps at the specified rate adjusted as directed by the Engineer to produce a
minimum of excess loose particles. Spread the material in such manner that the tires of the truck or aggregate
spreader at no time contact the uncovered and newly applied binder. Before rolling, correct deficiencies in the
application of cover aggregate in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer.
After rolling, protect the surface from traffic damage during the period required for the binder to cure sufficiently
and prevent dislodging of the aggregate particles by normal traffic. During this period and as directed by the
Engineer, correct deficiencies in cover aggregate by spreading additional aggregate or by light brooming.
Apply cover aggregate at a rate necessary to provide full coverage of the binder and to avoid tracking. Do not
over apply cover aggregate relying on vacuum and broom sweeping to pick up all excess. Nuisance to the public
amounts of aggregate will result in work stoppage. If work is stopped by the Engineer recalibrate the aggregate
spreader determining a new application rate and apply cover aggregate at the new rate. If the target rate needs
adjustment due to the gradation of the aggregate or due to existing surface conditions of the pavement, immediately
notify the Engineer and document the new rate by stationing.
422.09
Construction Operation. Establish stations at 1000-foot (300 m) intervals on the entire project
before placing materials. Clearly identify and maintain the stations until project completion.
Keep the binder distributor, aggregate spreader, and rollers as close to each other as possible. Do not allow the
binder distributor to be more than 150 feet (45 m) ahead of the aggregate spreader.
Perform rolling immediately after placing the aggregate, but before the binder sets up. Do not leave aggregate
unrolled for more than 5 minutes. Perform a minimum of two complete roller passes over the aggregate. A single
complete pass is forward and backward over the same path. For each new pass, overlap the previous pass by about
one-half the width of the roller. Use a minimum of three rollers, and roll in a longitudinal direction at a speed not
greater than 5 miles per hour (8 km/h). Do not operate rollers at speeds that cause pick-up or dislodging of aggregate
particles.
Within 4 hours of placement but after the binder sets, sweep the pavement as needed to remove all loose
aggregate. Use pickup sweepers in curbed areas and where aggregate shoulders do not exist. Do not sweep loose
aggregate onto lawns, curbed areas, or intersections.
If the pavement cannot be swept within the 4-hour period due to problems associated with the stone moisture,
binder, breaking, humidity, or other unknown, the Engineer may suspend the operation until the problem is resolved
or more suitable conditions are obtained to maintain the 4-hour time frame for sweeping. Extend sweeping 1 foot
(0.3 m) beyond the edge of the chip seal to help prevent migration of loose aggregate back onto the pavement. Do
not re-use aggregate from a chip seal that is swept from the pavement or that is already loose off the pavement
edge.
Perform a final sweeping immediately before application of permanent pavement markings or a fog seal, if a fog
seal is required. Use pickup sweepers in curbed areas and where aggregate shoulders do not exist. Do not sweep
loose aggregate onto lawns, curbed areas, or intersections. The Contractor is responsible for claims of damage to
vehicles prior to the final sweeping.
Wait at least 24 hours before placing the second course of a double chip seal. Ensure the first course of a double
chip seal meets the gradation of Table 422.02-1 Type A and the second course meets the gradation of Table 422.021 Type B. Ensure that the first course meets requirements of this specification and is cured and capable of
withstanding construction traffic without damage. If loose aggregate is evident, sweep the first course again just
prior to placing the second course. Correct damage to the underlying chip seal before placing the second course.
Place the longitudinal construction joint on a lane line or as directed by the Engineer. For double chip seal, place
the longitudinal construction joint for the first course 6 inches (150 mm) off the centerline and place the second
course so the longitudinal joint is at the centerline.
Before opening to traffic, post the roadway with “Loose Gravel/Fresh Tar” signs and a “35 mph” speed plaque
mounted below the sign. Ensure that signs conform to Item 614. Place these signs in the advance warning area and
just beyond each intersecting road throughout the length of the activity area. Remove the signs as directed by the
Engineer.
On two-lane roads or pavements where traffic is maintained on a chip seal constructed that workday, provide a
traffic control pilot vehicle operated at no more than 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) in the immediate work area.
Protect all utility castings, monument boxes, and other similar items using tarpaper or other approved material.
Remove protection before sweeping and opening to traffic.
422.10
Quality Control
A. General. Use the methods described in this section to measure compliance. If test results exceed any of the
identified quality control tolerances, stop placement and immediately notify the Engineer and District Testing.
Identify the cause of exceeding any of the identified quality control tolerances and document in detail the corrective
action necessary to bring the deficiency into compliance. Obtain the Engineer’s approval before resuming work.
Upon resuming work, take another sample and immediately provide the test results to the Engineer. If the tolerances
are exceeded, stop the work. Do not resume work until approved by the Engineer and District Testing. The
Department can obtain samples of materials at any time. Aggregate samples can be taken from sources, on-hand
stockpiles or the aggregate spreader box. Work can be stopped and materials can be rejected on the basis of poor
Department test results. Any deficient materials found to be incorporated in the project will be evaluated per
Supplement 1102.
B. Binder. Within one hour of start of production obtain and label a binder sample from the distributor truck and
give the sample to the Engineer the same day. Provide and sample the binder in one quart plastic containers with
plastic screw tops. Label and retain one sample per each additional day for the Department. Take more samples
when requested by the Engineer.
For the binder application rate, as determined by a yield check, do not exceed a tolerance of ±0.02 gallon per
square yard (0.09 L/m²) from the established application rate.
C. Coarse Aggregate. At a minimum test one sample taken from the aggregate spreader box at production start
and sample and test one sample from the aggregate spreader box randomly during the day. Provide the Engineer
with a split sample that is a minimum of 22lbs (10,000g) from each day’s random sample for verification testing.
An aggregate spreader box sample may be taken by laying a piece of suitable material under the spreader as it
moves forward. Include additional testing when directed to sample and test by the Engineer. Sample and test
aggregate according to AASHTO T 2, AASHTO T 248, and Supplement 1004 (AASHTO T 11 where required).
Use washed gradations for determining the percent passing the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve. Submit daily test results to
the Engineer prior to beginning the next day’s production. The Contractor may use additional tests. These may
include dry gradations for control purposes but acceptance of on-hand aggregate will be based on washed gradations
only. Reject and do not use aggregate creating dusting nuisance to the public on the project.
Reject truckloads of aggregate if water is seen coming from the truck bed.
Reject aggregate that does not meet the following requirements:
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve from JMF
No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve from JMF
No. 200 (75 µm) sieve from JMF
Aggregate moisture content
(by dry weight)
±5.0%
±3.0%
±1.0%, 2.05% upper limit
4.0% max. for aggregates with an Absorption > 2.0%,
3.0% max. for aggregates with an Absorption ≤ 2.0%
D. Documentation. Provide the Engineer a daily report with the following:
1.
Project number, county, route.
2.
Date, air temperature, pavement temperature, and humidity.
3.
Binder temperature.
4.
Beginning and ending stations.
5.
Target binder and aggregate application rates.
6.
Yield checks on binder (three per day, minimum).
7.
Yield checks on aggregate (three per day, minimum).
8. Gradation, moisture content, and station (One sample from spreader box at production start, one random
sample during the day and any other samples when directed by the Engineer).
9.
Length, width, and total area.
10. Condition of “Loose Stone” signs with “35 mph” speed plaques.
11. Contractor representative’s signature.
Provide a bill of lading for binder and aggregate when requested or at project completion.
422.11
Acceptance. Inspect the chip seal daily for deficiencies resulting from poor workmanship, flushing,
tracking from equipment, surface patterns, loss of stone, and sweeping. Inspect workmanship for untreated areas,
minimum overlap on longitudinal joints, and minimum overlap on construction joints.
Verify the following for daily acceptance:
A. Finished surface has no more than four tears or untreated areas greater than 1 inch (25 mm) wide and 4 inches
(100 mm) long in any 120-square yard (100 m2) area.
B. Joints appear neat and uniform without buildup, uncovered areas, or unsightly appearance.
C. Longitudinal joints have less than a 2-inch (50 mm) overlap on the adjacent passes.
D. Transverse joints have no more than 1/4-inch (6 mm) difference in elevation across the joint as measured with
a 6-foot (2 m) straightedge.
E. Chip seal edge is neat and uniform along the roadway lane, shoulder, and curb lines.
F. Chip seal edge has no more than 2-inch (50 mm) variance in any 100 feet (30 m), along the roadway edge or
shoulder.
G. Typical stone chip embedment is 2/3 of typical stone chip height.
For project acceptance, the Contractor and Engineer will review the completed work 25 to 35 days after
placement. The finished work must meet the following requirements:
Defect [1]
Surface patterns
Severity
Alternate lean and heavy lines
(Ridges or streaking over the surface)
Bleeding/flushing
Distinctive appearance
(Excess binder on surface)
Loss of cover aggregate
Patches or lines of aggregate lost from surface
[1]No more than 20% of any 120 square yard (100 m2) area can contain any defect. The
measurement of the 120 square yard (100 m2) area begins at the start of the defect.
Perform all corrective work to the satisfaction the Engineer.
422.12
Performance Review. Perform remedial actions for any defect exceeding the threshold levels in
Table 422.12-1 for a period of two years from the date of substantial work complete as documented on the
Department’s Form C-85. Contact the Department to schedule a final performance review at least 60 days prior to
the end performance review period. The Department will review the pavement before the end of the two year
performance review period to determine if remedial action is required. The Department will issue the results in
writing to the Contractor upon completion of the performance review.
Remedial Actions. Perform Remedial Actions between May 1 and September 1. If the Department determines
that immediate repairs are necessary, due to a potential hazard to the traveling public, the Department will notify
the Contractor and establish a date that all repairs are to be finished.
Provide construction traffic control when performing any work required or allowed by this specification during
the warranty period in accordance with current Department policy and the Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control
Devices. The Department will approve when the work is performed.
Provide approved materials, equipment, and labor to perform Remedial Actions at no additional cost to the
Department. Prior to performing a Remedial Action, submit a Remedial Action plan to the DCA for approval. State
in the plan when and how the Remedial Action will be performed; what material will be used; and how traffic will
be controlled. Warrant Remedial Action work for the remainder of the warranty period.
Replace pavement markings or raised pavement markers (RPM) removed, obliterated, or damaged while
performing a Remedial Action with pavement markings or RPMs equal approved products at no cost to the
Department.
The Contractor is not responsible for pavement damage beyond the Contractor’s control (i.e., car fire, oil spill,
structural issues, etc.).
TABLE 422.12-1
Each segment will be 300 ft (91 m) in length and the width of the lane. The beginning point of a 300
ft (91 m) segment starts at the beginning of any individual defect type. For loss of aggregate, the
beginning point of a 300 ft (91 m) lane segment will exclude locations where vehicles turn from or
onto other state highways.
Defect
Severity
Threshold Levels
Surface Patterns
Severe - light and heavy lines over
40% of segment length affected,
the pavement surface
continuous or localized
Bleeding/ Flushing
Moderate - excess binder on surface 5% of segment length affected
(loss of stone/tire contact) not
continuously or total of 20%
subject to wearing off quickly
localized problems
Loss of Aggregate
Moderate- patches of aggregate loss 10% of segment length affected
continuously or total of 20%
localized problems
422.13
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Single Chip Seal or Double Chip Seal by
the number of square yards (square meters), completed and accepted in place. The Department will determine the
width by measuring the actual width of the chip seal. The Department will determine the length along the centerline
of each roadway or ramp.
The Department will measure the number of raised pavement markers removed if a Double Chip Seal is specified.
422.14
Basis of Payment. The Department will not pay for materials, equipment, or labor to make
corrections.
The Department will pay for removal of existing pavement markings according to Items 643, 644, 645, 646, 647,
and 648 as specified.
The cost of any removal and replacement, or protection of existing raised pavement markers on a single chip seal
according to 422.06 is incidental to this item.
The Department will pay for removal of existing raised pavement markers on a Double Chip Seal application
according to Item 621 Raised Pavement Markers Removed.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
422
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Single Chip Seal, Type __
422
Double Chip Seal
ITEM 423 CRACK SEALING, HOT APPLIED
423.01
423.02
423.03
423.04
423.05
423.06
423.07
423.08
423.09
423.10
423.01
sealant.
423.02
Description
Materials
Equipment
Weather Limitations
Preparation
Mixing Type II and III
Application of Sealant
Opening to Traffic
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
Description. This work consists of preparing and sealing pavement cracks with a hot applied crack
Materials. Furnish hot applied crack sealant, of the type specified, conforming to:
Type I ............................................................................................... 705.04
Type II ......................................................................................... 702.17.B
Type III ......................................................................................... 702.17.C
Type IV ........................................................................................ 702.17.D
Furnish Type I crack sealant material according to the Department’s TE-24 system before shipping to the project.
Obtain approval of other crack sealants according to 702.17.
423.03
Equipment. Equipment used in the performance of this work is subject to the Engineer’s approval
and to the requirements of 108.05.
For Type I crack sealant, heat the sealant in a kettle or melter constructed as a double boiler, with the space
between the inner and outer shells filled with oil or other heat-transfer fluid. Use a kettle or melter with positive
temperature control of the oil bath, and provide a mixing vat, mechanical agitation, and recirculating pumps. Do
not apply direct heat to the sealant.
For Types II, III, and IV crack sealants, heat the sealant in a kettle or melter constructed as a double boiler, with
the space between the inner and outer shells filled with oil or other heat-transfer fluid. Use a kettle or melter with
separate thermometers for the oil bath and mixing vat. Equip the kettle with a full sweep type agitator. Also, equip
the kettle with a 2-inch (50 mm) minimum recirculating pump to provide circulation of the materials when not
applying the crack sealant. Do not apply direct heat to the sealant.
For Types I and IV crack sealants, use a mechanical applicator wand capable of continuously feeding the sealant
through nozzles shaped to penetrate the cracks. A positive sealant flow shutoff mechanism is required. Ensure that
the wand produces a band according to the tolerances of 423.07.
For Types II and III crack sealants, use a mechanical applicator wand head capable of placing the crack sealant
according to the tolerances of 423.07 while filling the cracks. A positive sealant flow shutoff mechanism is required.
Use portable air compressors capable of furnishing at least 100 pounds per square inch (690 kPa) of air pressure
at the nozzle. Use compressors equipped with traps that maintain the compressed air free of oil and water.
Use water cleaning equipment capable of delivering water at 2000 pounds per square inch (14 MPa) of pressure
from a nozzle to the crack being cleaned.
Use a propane lance unit capable of producing a blast of hot air that operates at 1000 F (538 C) and a gas
velocity of 2000 feet per second (600 m/s).
Use mechanical and power driven routing and sawing equipment capable of following close to the path of cracks
and of widening the cracks to the required dimension without causing excessive spalling or damage to the adjacent
pavement. For sawing equipment, use diamond saw blades with a diameter of 8 inches (200 mm) or less.
423.04
Weather Limitations. Do not seal cracks if the surface is visibly damp or the temperature is below
45 F (7 C).
423.05
Preparation. Fill all visible cracks according to 423.07 or as directed by the Engineer.
If routing is specified, rout cracks with an opening less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) to provide a sealant reservoir with
a nominal size of 3/4 inch (19 mm) wide by 1 inch (25 mm) deep.
If sawing is specified, saw all cracks to 3/4 to 7/8 inch (19 to 22 mm) wide and 7/8 to 1 inch (22 to 25 mm) deep.
Use hand tools or a lightweight chipping hammer to remove all slivers of asphalt concrete less than 1 inch (25 mm)
wide remaining along the crack after sawing. Immediately before sealing, sandblast both faces of the sawed crack
to remove all contamination and to texture the faces. If the crack below the sealant reservoir is greater than 3/8 inch
(10 mm) wide, insert a backer rod into the crack to form the bottom of the reservoir at the proper depth.
Before applying the hot sealant, clean cracks by an approved method or methods to remove dust, dirt, moisture,
vegetation, and other foreign material. Keep the cracks clean and dry until all sealing operations are completed.
423.06
Mixing Type II and III. Use weigh tickets in determining the specified proportion of fiber to blend
into the binder. Add fibers to the binder, and mix thoroughly in the kettle. Do not allow the temperature of the
sealant in the field application to exceed the safe heating temperature recommended by the manufacturer. Do not
heat Type III crack sealant to greater than 295 F (146 C).
423.07
operation.
Application of Sealant. Perform the crack sealing operation within 250 feet (76 m) of the cleaning
Seal only cracks that are wide enough to permit entry of sealant. Seal tightly closed cracks (less than 1/4-inch (6
mm) wide) only if they show signs of raveling or spalling. Do not seal cracks greater than 1-inch (25 mm) wide,
and do not seal spalls or cavities greater than 4 inches (100 mm) wide, unless otherwise directed.
For Types I and IV crack sealants, fill the entire crack reservoir with the sealant from the bottom up to
approximately 1/16 inch (2 mm) above the pavement surface. Immediately scrape the filled cracks with a V-shaped
or U-shaped squeegee, or similar hand tool, to smooth the overfill. This may require more than one application of
sealant. The Engineer will not accept the work if the band of sealant on the pavement surface is greater than 2
inches (50 mm) wide.
For Types II and III crack sealants, place the sealant such that it fills the cracks with a band of sealant within 2
to 4 inches (50 to 100 mm) wide. The Engineer will not accept the work if the thickness on the pavement is greater
than 3/16 inches (5 mm).
423.08
Opening to Traffic. Do not allow traffic on the sealant until it has cured and the possibility of tracking
no longer exists. However, if the Engineer determines it is necessary to allow traffic to pass over the sealant before
adequate curing, dust Portland cement or other approved material over sealed cracks to eliminate pickup or tracking.
423.09
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Crack Sealing, of the type specified, by the
number of pounds (kilograms) of hot applied sealant in place, completed, and accepted.
The Department will measure Crack Sealing, of the type specified, by the square yards of sealing completed and
accepted.
423.10
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
423
Pound (Kilogram)
or Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Pound (Kilogram)
or Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Pound (Kilogram)
Crack Sealing, Type I
423
423
Crack Sealing with Routing, Type I
Crack Sealing with Sawing, Type I
423
423
423
423
or Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Pound (Kilogram)
or Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Pound (Kilogram)
or Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Pound (Kilogram)
or Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Pound (Kilogram)
or Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Crack Sealing, Type II
Crack Sealing, Type III
Crack Sealing, Type II or III
Crack Sealing, Type IV
ITEM 424 FINE GRADED POLYMER ASPHALT CONCRETE
424.01
424.02
424.03
424.04
424.05
424.06
424.07
424.08
424.09
424.10
Description
Composition
Materials
Mixing
Weather Limitations
Spreading, Compacting and Finishing
Surface Tolerances
Acceptance
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
424.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a surface course of aggregate and polymer modified
asphalt binder mixed in a central plant and spread and compacted on a prepared surface. The requirements of 401
apply, except as modified by this specification.
424.02
Composition. For Type A mixes use 8.5 percent modified asphalt binder by total mix weight.
For Type B mixes, submit a proposed JMF according to 441.02 to the Laboratory that meets the requirements of
a Type 1 surface course, except as follows:
A. Minimum VMA, 15.0 percent
B. Minimum total binder content, 6.4 percent
C. Design air voids, 4.0 percent
D. For projects with less than 1500 trucks use 50 blows, for projects with greater than or equal to 1500 trucks use
75 blows. If multiple traffic segments occur on a project use 75 blows for the project.
424.03
Materials. Furnish clean, uncoated aggregate conforming to the applicable requirements of Table
424.03-1 and quality requirements of 703.05.
Use a PG 76-22M asphalt binder; or a PG 64-22 asphalt binder modified by adding 5.0 ±0.3 percent by weight
Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) solids and meeting the requirements of PG 76-22. Provide SBR conforming to
702.14. Provide mineral filler conforming to 703.07. Provide binders conforming to 702.01.
Ten percent RAP may be used in a Type B mix if all requirements of footnote [3] are met by the RAP. Do not
use RAP in a Type A mix.
TABLE 424.03-1 - MIX GRADATION
Sieve Size
1/2 inch
3/8 inch
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100
No. 200
(12.5 mm)
(9.5 mm)
(4.75 mm)
(2.36 mm)
(1.18 mm)
(600 µm)
(300 µm)
(150 µm)
(75 µm)
Total Percent Passing
Type A [1][2]
Type B [1][3][4]
100
100
95 to 100
95 to 100
85 to 95
90 to 100
53 to 63
80 to 100
37 to 47
60 to 90
25 to 35
30 to 65
9 to 19
10 to 30
-3 to 10
3 to 8
[1]Gradation includes any mineral filler and is specified in percent passing.
[2]Use natural sand with at least 50 percent silicon dioxide by weight according to ASTM C 146. Include with a
JMF submittal certified test data from an AASHTO accredited laboratory showing conformance to the 50
percent silicon dioxide requirement. Ensure data is no more than one year old at time of submittal.
[3]Fine Aggregate - Use natural sand with at least 50 percent silicon dioxide by weight according to ASTM C 146.
Include with a JMF submittal certified test data from an AASHTO accredited laboratory showing conformance
to the 50 percent silicon dioxide requirement. Ensure data is no more than one year old at time of submittal. For
50 blow mixes, use no more than 20 percent limestone sand, No. 10 limestone, or combination of both by weight
of total aggregate. For 75 blow mixes, use 20 percent limestone sand, No. 10 limestone, air cooled slag sand or
combination thereof by weight of total aggregate. If 10 percent RAP is used the silicon dioxide content of the
total natural sand blend must be at least 50 percent. Contact OMM for guidance on submitting RAP aggregate
silicon dioxide data.
[4]Coarse Aggregate - For 50 blow mixes, for the final blend of all coarse aggregate use a minimum 10 percent
two or more fractured faces aggregate. For 75 blow mixes, use 100 percent two or more fractured faces
aggregate. Meet the two or more fractured faces aggregate criteria of ASTM D5821-13.
424.04
Mixing. Ensure the mixing plant conforms to 402. Discharge the mix from the plant at temperatures
from 335 °F to 370 °F (168 °C to 188 °C) for hot mix asphalt or 300 °F to 340 °F (149 °C to 171 °C) for warm mix
asphalt.
424.05
Weather Limitations. Do not place the asphalt concrete when the surface of the existing pavement
is less than 60 °F (15 °C) or the air temperature is less than 60 °F (15 °C).
424.06
Spreading Compacting and Finishing. Compact Type A or B mixes conforming to 401.13 and
401.16. If compacting a mixture 1 inch (25 mm) thick or less do not use a spreading rate that exceeds twice the
total capacity of the rollers in use. Use a minimum of two rollers. Do not allow traffic on the compacted mixture
until it has cooled sufficiently to prevent damage.
424.07
Surface Tolerances. Ensure the completed surface course conforms to 401.19.
Remove raised pavement markers according to 621.08. The Contractor may fill the depression caused by the
removal of the casting with material meeting this specification.
424.08
Acceptance. For Type A mixes comply with acceptance requirements of 301. For Type B mixes
comply with all requirements of 448.
424.09
Method of Measurement. For Type A mixes use a unit weight conversion of 1.75 tons/cubic yard
(2.08 metric tons/cubic meter).
The Department will measure the number of raised pavement markers removed.
424.10
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for removal of existing raised pavement markers
according to Item 621 Raised Pavement Markers Removed.
The Department will make payment for accepted quantities, completed in place, at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
424
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Fine Graded Polymer Asphalt Concrete, Type A
424
Fine Graded Polymer Asphalt Concrete, Type B
ITEM 441 ASPHALT CONCRETE - MIX DESIGN AND QUALITY CONTROL
441.01
441.02
441.04
441.05
441.06
441.07
441.08
441.09
441.10
441.11
441.12
441.13
441.14
Description
Composition
Antistrip Additive
JMF Field Adjustment
Monitoring
Quality Control Program
Testing Facilities
Quality Control Tests
Control Charts
Quality Control Reports
Mixture Deficiencies
Acceptance
Basis of Payment
441.01 Description. This work consists of constructing a surface course or an intermediate course of aggregate
and asphalt binder mixed in a central plant and compacted on a prepared surface. This specification includes general
requirements applicable to all types of asphalt concrete pavements where the Contractor is responsible for
performing the mix design and quality control. Deviations from these general requirements will be covered in the
specific requirements for each type. The requirements of Item 401 apply, except as follows.
Control all production processes to assure the Engineer that the mixture delivered to the paving site is uniform
in composition, conforms to the specification requirements and that the placed mixture is free of any defect (e.g.
segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture and texture uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within
the Contractor’s control at project completion.
When specified, provide anti-segregation equipment for all courses of uniform thickness in accordance with
401.12.
441.02 Composition. Compose the asphalt concrete of approved aggregates, asphalt binder and, if required,
other modifiers. Develop a JMF to comply with the mix design criteria and submit it to OMM on approved forms
at least two weeks prior to the start of production for preliminary approval. OMM may require additional time prior
to preliminary approval to perform tests on lab or plant produced mixtures to ensure adequate mix performance.
OMM will notify the Contractor if additional time for testing is required. Based on the results of this testing, OMM
may require the Contractor to design a new JMF.
Perform the mix design and supply all required data in a manner taught in Level 2 Asphalt Technician School,
Level 3 Asphalt Mix Design School and in the Asphalt Institute Manual Series No. 2. OMM may visit the Level 3
mix design lab for review. Use a 2-hour cure for all mix samples. Ensure the cure temperature and specimen
compaction temperature are the same. Select the JMF asphalt binder content using the Design Air Voids and ensure
the JMF meets the other requirements of Table 441.02-1. Determine Air Voids from specimens prepared and tested
according to Supplement 1036. Provide a mix design with at least four asphalt binder content points, including a
minimum of two points above and two points below the JMF asphalt binder content. Submit no more than two
JMFs for each asphalt concrete pay item per project. Additional submittals are at the discretion of OMM. Unless
otherwise directed submit a 5-pound (2500 g) minimum uncompacted sample (all mixes) representing the JMF.
Submit additional samples as requested by OMM.
Do not start mix production without a preliminary JMF approval and 48 hour notification of District Testing.
Final approval of a JMF will be based upon field verification. According to 441.12 the JMF can be rejected for
failure to verify in the plant or at the project.
Do not apply the gradation requirements of 703.05 for fine aggregate.
If the F/A ratio using total asphalt binder content is greater than 1.0 recalculate it using the effective asphalt
binder content. Calculate the effective asphalt binder content according to the Asphalt Institute Manual Series No.
2 . The value (calculated to the nearest percentage point) of the Fifty to Thirty (F-T) value, is the percent of total
aggregate retained between the No. 50 (300 m) and No. 30 (600 m) sieves, minus the percent of total aggregate
retained between the No. 30 (600 m) and No. 16 (1.18 mm) sieves.
Use a PG 64-22 asphalt binder for a Type 1 Intermediate course unless RAP and/or RAS used according to
401.04 require a virgin binder grade change. Use a PG 64-22 asphalt binder for a Type 2 intermediate course unless
RAP and/or RAS used according to 401.04 require a virgin binder grade change. Use a PG 64-22 asphalt binder
and Type 1 surface gradation for asphalt concrete for driveways and under guardrails.
Identify the PG Binder supplier, as well as the polymer type if applicable, on the JMF submittal. A change in
polymer asphalt binder or polymer source will require a redesign. Provide on one page neatly summarized, dated
test results for the requirements of Table 702.01-1. Ensure data is no more than two months old. If SBR polymer
is added at the asphalt concrete mixing plant, provide in the JMF data from the SBR polymer supplier for total
solids (percent) and ash (percent) according to the 702.14. As well, provide the target amount of SBR polymer
greater than or equal to 3.5 percent to achieve the properties specified. Include a letter of certification from the
polymer supplier verifying percent butadiene in the SBS or SBR polymer. Report in the JMF submittal results of
temperature-viscosity testing for mixing and compaction temperatures. For polymer asphalt binders, supplier
recommended temperatures may be used in lieu of the temperature-viscosity results, but the temperature-viscosity
results must still be reported.
TABLE 441.02-1
Asphalt Mixture Composition
Type 1
Type 1
Surface
Intermediate
Property
1 1/2 inch (37.5 mm)[1]
1 inch (25.0 mm)[1]
3/4 inch (19.0 mm)[1]
1/2 inch (12.5 mm)[1]
100
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)[1]
90-100
No. 4 (4.75 mm)[1]
45-57
No. 8 (2.36 mm)[1]
30-45
No. 16 (1.18 mm)[1]
17-35
12-25
No. 30 (600 m)[1]
5-18
No. 50 (300 m)[1]
2-10
No. 100 (150 m)[1]
No. 200 (75 m)[1]
Asphalt Binder[2]
5.8-10.0
F/A Ratio, max.[3]
1.2
F-T Value[4]
+2
Blows[5]
50
Stability, min., pounds[5] (N)
1200 (5338)
Flow, 0.25 mm[5]
8 to 16
Design Air Voids[6]
3.5
VMA, min.[7]
16
[1]
Sieve, percent passing
[2]
Percent of total mix
[3]
Using effective asphalt binder content
[4]
Percentage points maximum
[5]
AASHTO T 245
[6]
Percent, Supplement 1036
[7]
Percent, Supplement 1037
441.03
100
90 to 100
50-72
30 to 55
17 to 40
12 to 30
5 to 20
2 to 12
5.0 to 10.0
1.2
+2
50
1200 (5338)
8 to 16
3.5
16
Type 2
Intermediate
100
95-100
85-100
65-85
35-60
25-48
16-36
12-30
5 to 18
2 to 10
4.0 to 9.0
1.2
50
1200 (5338)
8 to 16
4.0
13
Use of Reclaimed Pavement. Comply with the requirements of 401.04.
441.04
Antistrip Additive. If the proposed JMF contains any gravel coarse aggregate, or contains more than
25 percent natural sand, or contains more than 20 percent reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement containing gravel
coarse aggregate, or is designed according to Item 442 conduct the following tests:
Moisture damage potential test
Washed gradation
Adherent fines test for each component
Supplement 1051
AASHTO T 11 as modified by Supplement 1004
ASTM D 5711
Modify the mix with one of the following antistrip additives if the results of the moisture damage potential test
show the Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) of the asphalt concrete mix to be less than 0.80 for 442 mixes or 0.70 for
all other mix types:
Liquid Antistrip Material. Include liquid antistrip material at a rate of 0.5 to 1.0 percent by weight of the asphalt
binder. However, if 442 is specified, include liquid antistrip material at a rate of 0.50 to 1.25 percent by weight of
the asphalt binder. Ensure the TSR of the asphalt concrete mix is greater than or equal to 0.80 after the addition of
the liquid antistrip material.
Hydrated Lime. Include hydrated lime in the dry form at a rate of 1.0 percent by the dry weight of aggregate
for asphalt concrete. Conform to AASHTO M 303, Type 1 for hydrated lime. Ensure the TSR of the asphalt
concrete mix is greater than or equal to 0.80 after the addition of the hydrated lime. Provide the Engineer the
following information for each shipment of hydrated lime: Letter of certification, Production date, Shipment date,
Shipment destination, Batch or lot number and Net weight. The Laboratory may obtain samples of the hydrated
lime at any time to verify quality. If the quality of the hydrated lime is in question, the Laboratory may require
independent laboratory testing.
Include the antistrip additive in the mix design. Submit the following to OMM with the proposed JMF:
A. All TSR data (before and after the addition of the antistrip additive).
B. Rate of addition of the liquid antistrip material, if used.
C. If using liquid antistrip material submit product information, information on use by other State DOTs using
the liquid antistrip material, and a letter of certification. If using hydrated lime submit certified test data showing
the hydrated lime conforms to AASHTO M 303, Type 1.
D. Results of the washed gradation test of the individual components of the mix used in determining the combined
gradation.
E. Results of the adherent fines testing for each component.
OMM may perform additional tests on lab or plant produced mix according to Supplements 1004, 1051, and
1052. If a change in the aggregate production is suspected, the Laboratory may require the Contractor to perform
washed gradations on components and calculate adherent fines to determine the need for additional TSR review.
Store and introduce antistrip additives into the plant according to Supplement 1053. Obtain Laboratory approval
of the antistrip additive storage and feed systems prior to the start of production.
Provide delivery tickets to the Engineer at the end of the project and at the end of each construction year on a
multiple year project. The Engineer will verify the number of pounds of antistrip additive used is within 10 percent
of the calculated amount of antistrip additive required for the total weight of asphalt binder, based on the JMF, used
in the asphalt concrete.
441.05 JMF Field Adjustments. During the first three days of production the Contractor may adjust the JMF
gradation within the below limits without a redesign of the mixture. For projects with less than 3 days of production,
give District Testing written notice of any JMF gradation adjustments within 1 workday following the last day of
production. Limit adjustments of the JMF to conform to actual production, without a redesign of the mixture, to 3
percent passing each of the 1/2 inch (12.5 mm), No. 4 (4.75 mm), and No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieves and 1 percent
passing the No. 200 (75m) sieve. Do not exceed the limits in Table 441.02-1 and Table 442.02-2 in the adjusted
JMF. The adjustment on the 1/2 inch (12.5 mm) sieve applies only to Type 2 mixes. Determine the need for any
JMF gradation adjustments in the time specified. Should no adjustments be made, the Department will base
acceptance on conformance to the original JMF. After the time period specified, the Department will allow no
further adjustment of the JMF.
Should a redesign of the mixture become necessary, submit a new JMF according to the requirements for the
initial JMF. A new acceptance lot will begin when a new JMF established by a redesign of the mixture becomes
effective. Make any adjustment of this new JMF as provided for the original JMF. Record both the design JMF and
the adjusted JMF in effect during production of an acceptance lot on the Quality Control Report for that lot. In the
event that a new JMF is proposed and approved, also make a notation on the ticket for the first load produced under
the new JMF.
441.06 Monitoring. The Department will establish District Monitoring Teams for the purpose of verifying all
Contractor mixture production processes. Verification may be accomplished by obtaining split samples from
Contractor QC or independent samples from the plant or roadway. If independent samples are taken split them for
Contractor testing. If the mixture quality verifies then production may continue. If mixture quality does not verify
then the Monitoring Team and Contractor will cooperatively investigate and resolve the problem. Whenever results
are disputed OMM will investigate and conduct additional testing to resolve. Based on their review, the Monitoring
Team may at any time disallow production to continue.
441.07 Quality Control Program. Submit a QCP according to 403.03. Include an example control chart
according to 441.10 with the QCP. Use quality control technicians working in the plant lab during all mixture
production and that are approved by the Department. Technician approval will be according to Supplement 1041.
441.08 Testing Facilities. Provide testing facilities at the plant site conforming to Supplement 1041.
441.09 Quality Control Tests. Perform quality control tests to control the asphalt concrete mix within the
specifications. As required by mix type, ensure that these quality control tests measure the asphalt binder content,
gradation, air voids, and Maximum Specific Gravity (MSG) according to the Contractor’s QCP. Perform each
quality control test a minimum of one time each half of a production day or night (two tests per production day or
night), or one each 1400 tons (1300 metric tons), whichever is less.
Perform more sampling and testing than the minimum specified at the start of production. Additionally perform
more sampling and testing than the minimum during production when the quality control tests show the asphalt
concrete being produced is outside the warning bands as shown in the Contractor’s QCP. Immediately resolve
problems indicated by any test result exceeding the warning bands and immediately retest to validate corrections
have returned the materials to within the warning band limits. The Contractor may determine the method of testing
of the asphalt concrete beyond the minimum specified, and will detail the methods technicians will follow in the
Contractor’s QCP.
Should additional testing as required above not be performed District Testing, after consultation with OMM, will
require the testing frequency be increased to all tests every two hours of production for the remainder of the project.
If this occurs, District Testing will request an opinion from the QCQC for action(s) against the technician and/or
Contractor including but not limited to warning, removal and/or a change of the facility to Unconditional
Acceptance.
Record the results of every test performed.
Perform the required quality control tests as follows:
A. Asphalt Binder Content. Determine the asphalt binder content of a sample of asphalt concrete by performing
an Asphalt Content (AC) Gauge test according to Supplement 1043. Make all printouts available for review by the
Monitoring Team at any time. Offset the AC Gauge for each JMF on each project at the project’s start. Perform the
offset using the solvent extraction method for every QC sample according to Supplement 1038 and the AC Gauge
Verification and Offset Record until the offset is established. Use solvent extraction according to Supplement 1038
when an AC Gauge problem exists and for testing cooled samples that cannot adequately be tested in an AC Gauge
test.
Total, for each day’s production, the flow meter printouts for SBR polymer added at the asphalt concrete
mixing plant. Calculate the percent of polymer versus neat asphalt binder in the mix each day and record on the
TE-199. Hold calculation worksheets and printouts in the plant laboratory for review by the Monitoring Team. A
+/- 0.2 percent tolerance from the target amount of SBR polymer will be used as a guide for an acceptable amount
of SBR polymer, but consistently low will not be acceptable. Only take SBR PG-Modified Binder samples using a
five gallon (19 L) bucket. Take 1 gallon (4 L) to clean the valve port and discard. Take 2 gallons (7.5 L) again, stir
its contents and transfer to the required sample containers.
Determine the moisture content of the asphalt concrete for each AC Gauge test. Maintain the moisture content
at 0.8 percent or less.
B. Gradation. Perform at least one gradation test each production day on aggregate remaining after removing
the asphalt binder with a solvent from an asphalt concrete sample used in an AC Gauge test (solvent sample) or on
aggregate remaining after removing the asphalt binder with a preapproved asphalt ignition oven according to
Supplement 1054 and from an asphalt concrete sample used in an AC Gauge test (ignition oven sample). Use only
an asphalt ignition oven to obtain an aggregate sample from an asphalt concrete sample having a polymer modified
PG Binder. District Testing may make an exception to this for SBS polymer as long as no issues arise. Correct each
solvent sample for ash. Perform all other gradations on solvent samples, ignition oven samples, or on samples
obtained according to the Contractor’s QCP.
The gradation results of all the sieves must be representative of the JMF. If the Contractor fails to control the
entire gradation, the Laboratory may require a redesign according to 441.02.
When the F-T value is specified for a mix in 441.02 calculate it for each gradation analysis. Maintain the F-T
value at +4 percentage points or less for these mixes.
Calculate the F/A ratio for every solvent sample or ignition oven sample analysis. Maintain the F/A ratio so
no F/A ratio is greater than 1.2 for all mixes. Use the asphalt binder content determined by the AC Gauge for
calculating the F/A ratio. If the F/A ratio is greater than 1.0, recalculate the F/A ratio using the effective asphalt
binder content. Calculate the effective asphalt binder content on the calculation sheet using the asphalt binder
content determined by the AC Gauge and attach it to the Quality Control Report. Use bulk and effective aggregate
specific gravities and remaining values needed in the calculation from the approved JMF. Do not deviate from
these values without OMMs approval. If the F/A ratio is greater than 1.0 for ignition oven samples, calculate the
F/A ratio using the percent passing the No. 200 (75 m) sieve from a washed gradation of the ignition oven sample
according to AASHTO T 30.
C. Air Voids and MSG. Determine the air voids of the asphalt concrete by analyzing a set of compacted
specimens and a corresponding MSG determination according to Supplement 1036. Ensure that the cure
temperature and specimen compaction temperature are the same. Use a 1-hour cure for all mix samples used in
voids analysis. The Contractor may use a 2-hour cure time if voids are consistently near the low void warning band.
In this case, use the 2-hour cure for all voids testing through the remainder of the project. For hot mix asphalt use
the JMF lab compaction temperature. For warm mix asphalt according to 402.04 use a lab compaction temperature
30.0 ºF (16.7 ºC) less than the JMF lab compaction temperature for hot mix asphalt. Use a compaction temperature
tolerance of +/- 5.0 ºF (3.0 ºC). Record on the TE-199 if the mixture produced was ran at the asphalt plant as a hot
mix asphalt (HMA) or as a warm mix asphalt (WMA) produced according to 402.04 or another approved method.
Calculate the Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA) value for every set of compacted specimens according to
Supplement 1037.
Calculate the average of all the MSG determinations performed each production day and report this average
on the Quality Control Report. When the range of three consecutive daily average MSG determinations is equal to
or less than 0.020, average these three average MSG determinations to determine the Maximum Theoretical Density
(MTD). After the MTD is established, compare all individual MSG determinations to the MTD.
Whenever compacted specimens are to be made and an MSG determination is to be run, take a sample of
sufficient size to run a corresponding AC Gauge test. When the air void and MSG test results are recorded reference
them to the AC Gauge test of the sample.
D. Other Requirements. Supply proper containers and take two 1 quart (1 L) asphalt binder samples from the
first transport truck load of each different asphalt binder grade of the project before incorporation into the storage
tank. Label the samples with binder grade, supplier, project number and date and retain them in the plant laboratory
for future reference by the Department. Discard the samples at project finaling if not taken by the Monitoring Team.
Retain a split sample for each AC Gauge test and MSG test and all compacted specimens for monitoring by
the Department. Maintain MSG samples in the state described in ASTM D 2041, Section 9.2. The Contractor may
dispose of the AC Gauge test samples after two days and all other split samples after seven days if the Department
does not process the split samples.
Measure the temperature of the mixture and record. Validate the results on the load tickets at least once during
each hour of production.
The Contractor may conduct additional testing of any type. Record such additional testing along with all other
quality control records and have these records readily available for the Monitoring Team’s review. The Laboratory
may observe, review, and approve the procedures at any time.
441.10 Control Charts. Maintain up to date control charts showing each individual test result and also the
moving accumulative range as follows:
A. Plot tests showing the percent passing for the 1/2 inch (12.5 mm), No. 4 (4.75 mm), No. 8 (2.36 mm), and No.
200 (75 µm) sieves, the percent asphalt binder content, the MSG, and the percent air voids. Round all percentages
to the nearest whole percent; except, round asphalt binder content, the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve, and air voids to the
nearest 0.1 percent.
B. Show the out of specification limits specified in Table 441.10-1 and QCP Warning Band Limits on the control
charts.
C. Label each control chart to identify the project, mix type and producer.
D. Record the moving accumulative range for three tests under each test point on the chart for air voids and asphalt
binder content. Accumulative range is defined as the positive total of the individual ranges of two consecutive tests
in three consecutive tests regardless of the up or down direction tests take. If more than the minimum required
testing (i.e. two tests per production day or night, 441.09 first paragraph) is performed do not include the result in
accumulative range calculations.
Stop production and immediately notify the Monitoring Team when either E or F occurs:
E. Any two tests in a row or any two tests in two days are outside of the specification limits of Table 441.10-1.
F. Any four consecutive moving accumulative ranges greater than specification limits of 2.50 percent for air
voids or 0.60 percent for asphalt binder content occur.
Any mixture sent to the paving site without stopping production and notifying the Monitoring Team, when
required by this specification, will be considered non-specification material.
Do not restart production until an adequate correction to remedy problems is in place and the Monitoring Team
is satisfied. Following a shutdown restart production in a manner acceptable to District Testing. When production
problems cannot be solved within one day after a plant shut down a Contractor’s representative holding Level 3
Asphalt Department approval is required to be at the asphalt plant until a full production day is achieved with
results satisfactory to the Monitoring Team.
TABLE 441.10-1
Mix Characteristic
Out of Specification Limits[5]
Asphalt Binder Content[1]
-0.3% to 0.3%
[1]
1/2 inch (12.5 mm) sieve
-6.0% to 6.0%
[1]
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve
-5.0% to 5.0%
[1]
No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve
-4.0% to 4.0%
[1]
-2.0% to 2.0%
No. 200 (75 m) sieve
[2]
Air Voids
2.5% to 4.5%
[3]
Air Voids
3.0% to 5.0%
[4]
MSG
-0.012 to 0.012
[1]deviation from the JMF
[2]for Design Air Voids of 3.5%
[3]for Design Air Voids of 4.0%
[4]deviation from the MTD
[5]unless otherwise restricted by mix type specification
441.11 Quality Control Reports. Use Contractor Form TE-199 for the Quality Control Report. Record all test
results on the Quality Control Report. Document all decisions regarding responses to test results on the Quality
Control Report (referring to the particular test), including reasons why a particular problem may exist, what action
was taken to correct the problem (plant operation or testing), and what communication with Department personnel
took place. Submit one Quality Control Report to District Testing no later than specified. Retain copies of all
records documenting the quality control inspections and tests throughout the life of the Contract and furnish them
to District Testing on request.
441.12 Mixture Deficiencies. Control all production processes to assure the Engineer that the mixture delivered
to the paving site is uniform in composition; within the specification requirements and limits; conforms to the JMF:
and that the placed mixture is free of any defect (ex. segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture and/or texture
uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within the Contractor’s control. Correct obvious pavement
problems according to 401.15. If the Department has any suspicion that other mixture composition or pavement
problems exist, the Monitoring Team will conduct an initial investigation through review of data and/or sampling
of the asphalt pavement. Should a Department investigation determine that the Contractor’s QCP is not controlling
the mixture in a manner to achieve mixture quality as described above, the Contractor quality control data may be
rejected. In that case the Department will conduct a thorough investigation by testing samples from the roadway
and use those test results in determining disposition of the non-specification material.
A mixture is not uniform in composition if multiple random non-specification individual tests or any four
consecutive non-specification moving accumulative ranges exist. The mixture can be rejected, production can be
stopped and/or a redesign can be called for by the Department. OMM will not approve any redesign it determines
is unsatisfactory to provide acceptable mix performance. Submit this new design for approval according to 441.02
and at no additional cost to the Department.
When any out of specification material, based on quality control tests not within the limits of Table 441.01-1, is
sent to the paving site the Engineer will determine disposition of the material according to Supplement 1102.
441.13 Acceptance. The Department will base acceptance of the asphalt concrete mix on the item specified in
the Contract item description. (i.e., Item 446, Item 448).
441.14 Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
441
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type 1, (448), PG64-22
441
441
441
441
441
441
441
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type 1, (446), PG64-22
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type 1, (448), PG70-22M
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type 1, (446), PG70-22M
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, Type 1, (448)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, Type 2, (448)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, Type 2, (446)
Anti-Segregation Equipment
ITEM 442 SUPERPAVE ASPHALT CONCRETE
442.01
442.02
442.03
442.04
442.05
442.06
442.07
442.08
Description
Type A Mix Design
Type B Mix Design
Asphalt Binder
Quality Control
Compaction
Acceptance
Basis of Payment
442.01
Description. This work consists of gyratory mix design, material, and quality control requirements
for constructing a Superpave asphalt concrete pavement surface or intermediate course. The asphalt concrete
pavement course consists of aggregate, and asphalt binder mixed in a central plant and spread and compacted on a
prepared surface.
The requirements of Item 441 apply, except as modified by this specification.
When specified, provide anti-segregation equipment for all courses of uniform thickness in accordance with
401.12.
442.02
Type A Mix Design. Design the mixture composition for a Type A mix according to 441.02 and the
most recent Asphalt Institute Manual Series No. 2 (MS-2) for design procedures and material properties except as
modified by this subsection. Include in the JMF submittal the standard Department cover and summary page; all
printouts from the gyratory compactor (all gyratory points not necessary); and analysis covering the required mix
properties. Unless otherwise directed submit one compacted gyratory sample and loose mix for compaction of
another sample, in addition to a 5-pound (2000 g) loose sample, for each JMF.
The Contractor may use the Marshall flow test in design as an indicator of potential for excess tenderness.
Supply aggregate according to the lane current average daily truck traffic (Lane ADTT) as follows unless
otherwise shown on the plans:
Lane ADTT = Current ADT × T24 × 0.45
Where:
Current ADT = current average daily traffic count from the plans
T24 = percent trucks per day from the plans
TABLE 442.02-1 GYRATION LEVEL AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
Coarse
Fine
Lane
Aggregate
Aggregate
ADTT
Nini
Ndes
Nmax
Angularity
Angularity
<4000
7
65
105
95 [1] /90 [2]
44
[1]
[2]
>4000
7
65
105
100 /100
44
[1]Percent fractured (one or more faces) according to ASTM D5821
[2]Percent fractured (two or more faces) according to ASTM D5821
Flat and
Elongated
Particles
10
10
Sand
Equivalent
45
50
Submit aggregate to be used to OMM for approval a minimum of 3 weeks before submitting a JMF for approval.
If fine aggregate is from crushed carbonate stone or air-cooled blast furnace slag, the Department will not require
the fine aggregate angularity (FAA) test. The Department will allow a blend of a material not meeting the FAA
with a material that meets the FAA, but calculate the FAA result based on the individual Department FAA results
and actual blend percentages. Obtain OMM approval of any blends.
The restricted zone does not apply. Use control points according to MS-2, except as specified in Table 442.022.
TABLE 442.02-2 AGGREGATE GRADATION REQUIREMENTS
9.5 mm mix
12.5 mm mix
19 mm mix
Sieve Size
Total Percent Passing
1 1/2 inch
(3.75 mm)
–
–
100
3/4 inch
(19 mm)
–
100
85 to 100
1/2 inch
(12.5 mm)
100
95 to 100
90 max
3/8 inch
(9.5 mm)
90 to 100
96 max
–
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
70 max
52 to 60[1]
–
No. 8
(2.36 mm)
34 to 52
34 to 45
28 to 45
No. 200
(75 µm)
2 to 8
2 to 8
2 to 6
[1] For the No. 4 sieve do not exceed 63 in production.
Ensure that the F/A ratio is a maximum of 1.2. Use a 2-hour cure for the mix design.
If more than 15 percent fine aggregate not meeting FAA is used, perform a loaded wheel test (LWT) according
to Supplement 1057. To estimate a LWT sample mix volume, use the bulk density from gyratory specimens at Ndes.
Results less than 0.20 inch (5.0 mm) at 120 F (49 C) are considered passing.
The Contractor may use reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement according to 401.04. Test design volumetric
properties at Ndes. Test Nmax for the required criteria. Ensure that the VMA is not less than the minimum values of
Table 442.02-3.
TABLE 442.02-3 VMA CRITERIA
Mix
9.5 mm
12.5 mm
19.0 mm
VMA (percent minimum)
15.0
14.0
13.0
442.03
Type B Mix Design. Apply the mix design specified in 442.02 for a Type A mix except as modified
by this subsection:
Modify the Coarse Aggregate Angularity of Table 442.02-1 according to Table 442.03-1.
TABLE 442.03-1
Lane ADTT
Coarse Aggregate Angularity
<4000
65 [1] /65 [2]
>4000
75 [1] /70 [2]
[1]Percent fractured (one or more faces) according to ASTM D5821
[2]Percent fractured (two or more faces) according to ASTM D5821
Ensure that at least 50 percent by weight of virgin fine aggregate is aggregate meeting FAA or is crushed
carbonate stone or air-cooled blast furnace slag. Modify the No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve requirement for a 12.5 mm mix
in Table 442.02-2 to 34 to 40 percent. Apply an F-T value of +2 according to 441.02 and 441.09.
442.04
Asphalt Binder. Use a PG 70-22M asphalt binder for surface courses and a PG 64-28 asphalt binder
for intermediate courses.
The minimum total asphalt binder content for a surface course is 5.7 percent.
442.05
Quality Control. Conform to 441.09, except as specified in this subsection. Ensure that plant
operation and quality control testing conform to the Contractor’s Quality Control Program (QCP).
For 12.5mm mixes ensure the percent passing the No. 4 sieve does not exceed 63 in production. If two tests in
a row or any two tests in two days (QC and/or 448 sublot) exceed 63 stop production and notify District Testing.
Use a gyratory compactor conforming to the requirements of Superpave. If the gyratory compactor was moved
to the plant before production, calibrate it and present the results to District Testing.
Determine bulk gravity for air voids determination on specimens compacted to Ndes. For 12.5mm mixes, compact
one set of samples to Nmax a minimum of once each day for the first 3 production days. Ensure that density at Nmax
is less than 98.0 percent of MSG. The Monitoring Team will not allow production to continue if Nmax is greater
than or equal to 98.0 percent of MSG unless acceptable corrections proven by resample and test are made.
If the design gradation requires an LWT test, take a sample sufficient to run a LWT test once each day for the
first 3 days and test it according to Supplement 1057. The Contractor may perform the LWT test in the Contractor’s
Level 2 laboratory, but must compact the sample the same day the sample was taken, cure it overnight, and test it
the following day. Give the test result and sample density to District Testing the day of the LWT test. Report the
LWT data on the Quality Control Report.
442.06
tender.
Compaction. Cease production if compaction causes bumps in the mix or the mix is excessively
442.07
Acceptance. The Department will base acceptance of the asphalt concrete mix on the method
specified in the Contract line item description (i.e., 446, 448).
442.08
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
442
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, 12.5 mm, Type A (446)
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
442
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course12.5 mm, Type B (446)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, 9.5 mm, Type A (446)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, 9.5 mm, Type B (446)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, 19 mm, Type A (446)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, 19 mm, Type B (446)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, 9.5 mm, Type A (448)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, 9.5 mm, Type B (448)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, 12.5 mm, Type A (448)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, 12.5 mm, Type B (448)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, 9.5 mm, Type A (448)
Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, 9.5 mm, Type B (448)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, 19 mm, Type A (448)
Asphalt Concrete Intermediate Course, 19 mm, Type B (448)
Anti-Segregation Equipment
ITEM 443 STONE MATRIX ASPHALT CONCRETE
443.01
443.02
443.03
443.04
443.05
443.06
443.07
443.08
443.09
Description
Quality Control Program
Composition
Mixing
Storage
Quality Control
Construction
Acceptance
Basis of Payment
443.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a stone matrix asphalt concrete (SMA) course
consisting of aggregate, asphalt binder, and additives.
The requirements of 442 and 446 apply except as follows. Do not use the warm mix asphalt method (402.04) for
this item.
443.02
Quality Control Program. Update the Quality Control Program meeting 403.03 to include a section
for how the quality control, production and placement of SMA will meet this specification. Submit the revised
program to OMM with the SMA mix design to be approved.
443.03
Composition. Discuss the mix design approach with OMM during the mix design process and prior
to submittal.
A. Design Limits. Submit a JMF to the Laboratory which meets the requirements of Table 443.03.1 and Table
443.03-2.
TABLE 443.03-1 MIX GRADATION
Sieve size
3/4 inch
(19.0 mm)
1/2 inch
(12.5 mm)
3/8 inch
(9.5 mm)
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
No. 8
(2.36 mm)
No. 50
(300 µm)
No. 200
(75 µm)
Total Percent Passing
100
85 to 100
50 to 75
20 to 28
15 to 24
10 to 20
8 to 12
TABLE 443.03-2 MIX PROPERTIES
Property Description
Binder, % [1]
VMA, % [2]
Draindown Test, % [3]
Design Air Voids, %
Design Gyrations [4]
VCA MIX / VCA DRC [5]
TSR [6]
F/A
Specification
5.8 to 7.5
16.0 to 19.0
0.3
3.5
65
< 1.0
0.80
NA
[1]By total mix
[2]Based on bulk gravity
[3]AASHTO T305 conducted at mix production temperature (not compaction temperature)
[4]Nini and Nmax do not apply
[5]VCA = Volume of Coarse Aggregate (Calculated for mix and dry rodded conditions according to AASHTO
PP41- 02 or newer version.)
[6]Unconditioned specimens will have a minimum 65 psi (450 kPa) retained strength.
Compact specimens at 300 °F (149 °C) for PG 70-22M and 310 °F (154 °C) for PG 76-22M.
B. Asphalt Binder. Provide asphalt binder conforming to 702.01.
C. Coarse Aggregate. Use approved coarse aggregates. Ensure coarse aggregates meet 703.05 and Table 443.033.
TABLE 443.03-3 AGGREGATE REQUIREMENTS
Tests
ASTM D 4791
ASTM D 5821
AASHTO T 96
Description
% Flat and Elongated Ratio at
3:1, (max. to min.)
5:1, (max. to min.)
% Crushed, one / two faces
LA Abrasion (stone or gravel)
Specification
20 max
5 max
100 / 90 min
35 max
D. Mineral Filler. Conform to 703.07. Use mineral filler in the JMF with a plasticity index (AASHTO T 90) not
greater than 4 (does not apply to hydrated lime). Reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement passing the 5/8 inch (16
mm) sieve may be used as filler only. Do not account for reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement binder content. Do
not use quicklime (CaO). Do not premix filler with another aggregate. Cover mineral filler piles to protect from
rain.
Blend the mineral filler, asphalt binder and fiber stabilizer into a homogenous mixture and test the mortar for
the following properties of Table 443.03-4.
TABLE 443.03-4 MORTAR TEST REQUIREMENTS
Tests
AASHTO T315
AASHTO T315 & T240
AASHTO R28 & T313
Description
Unaged DSR, G*/ sin  (kPa)
RTFO Aged DSR, G*/ sin  (kPa)
PAV Aged BBR, Stiffness (MPa)
Specification
5 minimum
11 minimum
1500 maximum
E. Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Pavement. Do not use reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement except as described
in D above.
F. Fiber Stabilizer. Choose and meet the requirements of one of the following fiber stabilizers. Submit with the
JMF submittal the fiber manufacturer’s most recent actual test data and a certification of compliance for the fiber
type to be used. Protect the fiber stabilizer from moisture or other contamination.
Cellulose Fibers. Add the fiber at a dosage rate of 0.3 to 0.4 percent by weight of the total mix as directed by
District Testing to control draindown in production.
1. Fiber Length (max) 0.25 inches (6.35 mm)
2. Sieve Analysis – Alpine Sieve Method
Sieve size
Total Percent Passing
No. 100 (150 µm)
60 to 80
Sieve Analysis – Ro-Tap Sieve Method
Sieve size
Total Percent Passing
No. 20 (850 µm)
80 to 95
No. 40 (425 µm)
45 to 85
No. 100 (150 µm)
5 to 40
3. Ash Content 18% non-volatiles (±5%)
4. pH 7.5 (±1.0)
5. Oil Absorption (times fiber weight) 5.0 (±1.0)
6. Moisture Content (max) 5.0%
Cellulose Pellets. Cellulose pellets consist of cellulose fiber and may be blended with 0 to 20 percent asphalt
binder. Meet the cellulose fiber requirements above. If no asphalt binder is used, add the pellet at a dosage rate of
0.3 to 0.4 percent by weight of the total mix as directed by District Testing to control draindown in production.
Adjust the fiber dosage to maintain the desired fiber amount when fiber is pre-blended with binder.
Maximum Pellet size
Binder
1/4 cubic inch (4000 mm3)
25 to 80 pen.
Mineral Fiber. Use mineral fibers made from virgin basalt, diabase, or slag treated with a cationic sizing agent
to enhance disbursement of the fiber as well as increase adhesion of the binder to the fiber surface. Add the fiber
at a dosage rate of 0.3 to 0.4 percent by weight of the total mix as directed by District Testing to control draindown
in production.
Average Fiber length (max)
0.25 in (6.35 mm)
Average Fiber thickness (max)
0.0002 in (0.005 mm)
Shot content (ASTM C612)
Percent Passing No. 60 (250 µm) sieve
90 to 100
Percent Passing No. 230 (63 µm) sieve
65 to 100
[1]
Degradation (max)
30 percent
[1] (GeorgiaDOT-124/McNett) - copy available from OMM .
443.04
Mixing. Conform to the following additional requirements.
A. Fiber Stabilizer. Furnish feeder equipment specifically manufactured to uniformly feed fiber into the plant
and that is automated through connection with plant controls. Include a low level and no-flow indicator, print out
the feed rate of the feeder supply system, and include a transparent pipe section for observing flow consistency.
District Testing will approve the fiber feed system prior to the start of production by a trial load of SMA and
inspection of the bag house collected material. Conduct and document a weekly quick check of the fiber feed
calibration according to the Quality Control Plan. Conduct a daily check of fiber usage by calculating and
documenting on the TE 199 that fiber usage is within 10 percent of the intended usage.
In drum plants, add the fibers in loose form, by an automated calibrated feed system, such that the fibers are
coated by asphalt binder before being caught in the drum air flow.
In batch plants, distribute the fiber uniformly before injecting asphalt binder and increase mixing time a
minimum of 5 seconds.
B. Mineral Filler. Filler may be fed through a hopper if consistency of flow is achieved. If a problem in feeding
consistency occurs a pneumatic system will be required. Feed filler into the weigh hopper or pug mill of a batch
plant, or at a point away from the flame on a drum plant.
443.05
Storage. Do not store the SMA at the plant for more than 2 hours. Do not exceed a mix temperature
of 350 °F (180 °C). Provide SMA at a minimum of 300 °F (148 °C) when it arrives at the paver, unless otherwise
approved by OMM. If draindown occurs shorten the storage time and increase the fiber dosage.
443.06
Quality Control. Ensure an employee of the Contractor with a Level 3 rating is at the plant or
construction site during production of the SMA for any test strips and through at least one full production day
satisfactory to the District.
Perform quality control tests every 3 hours of production. The increased frequency of quality control testing may
require additional quality control personnel at the plant. Determine the asphalt binder content, gradation, moisture
content, air voids, VMA, and MSG of the SMA. For each test series calculate the VCAMIX / VCADRC. If the
limit of 1.0 is exceeded stop production until resolved. Perform a draindown test once each day of production and
raise fiber dosage 0.1 percent if the test limit is exceeded. Do not exceed the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve design bands
by the moving average of three tests. Compact specimens at 300 °F (149 °C) for PG 70-22M and 310 °F (154 °C)
for PG 76-22M. Due to sample variability with SMA, a larger than usual sample size from which material is
obtained for the various tests is required.
443.07
Construction. At least 24 hours prior to beginning a test strip meet with the Engineer and District
Testing and provide a written summary of steps taken to assure mix quality and construction practices account for
the special needs of SMA production and placement. Send a copy of the written summary to OMM.
A. Test Strips and JMF Adjustment. Do not begin full production of the SMA until receiving authorization
from District Testing. This authorization will be based on the successful construction of one or more test strips.
Test strips consist of 50 to 100 tons of SMA produced and placed in accordance with these specifications. Cease
SMA production that day unless another test strip is needed. Place test strips in one continuous mat. The test strip
will be included in the first lot for determining density for payment.
During the construction of a test strip, perform one set of quality control tests as described above and obtain
and test 3 random cores of the compacted pavement. Within 1 working day after a test strip is completed, the
Laboratory and the Contractor's Level 3 employee will determine if any changes in the SMA JMF, production, or
placement procedures are needed. A redesign of the JMF or another test strip may be required. OMM will notify
District Testing of any JMF adjustments. Do not start production until notified by District Testing.
B. Compaction. Start compaction immediately after the SMA has been placed. Use only steel wheel rollers.
Vibratory rollers in vibratory mode, set at a high frequency and low amplitude, can be used as the breakdown roller
only. Always operate the breakdown roller immediately behind the paver. If isolated, small fat spots develop, apply
sand immediately during compaction. If continuous and/or large fat spots develop, cease production until resolved.
Do not compact SMA that is below 230 °F (110 °C).
C. Hauling. Do not allow trucks to dump any mix on the project mat after delivering mix to the paver. Provide a
suitable place for bed cleaning off of the mat.
443.08
Acceptance. After accepting the test strips, the Department will accept SMA according to 446.04.
443.09
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities of Stone Matrix Asphalt
Concrete, complete in place, including test strip, at the contract price as modified by 446.04, as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
443
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Stone matrix asphalt concrete, 12.5mm, PG70-22M, (446)
443
Stone matrix asphalt concrete, 12.5mm, PG76-22M, (446)
ITEM 446 ASPHALT CONCRETE CORE DENSITY ACCEPTANCE
446.01
446.02
446.03
446.04
446.05
Description
Monitoring
Reports
Density Acceptance
Joints
446.01
Description. This specification describes the acceptance criteria for asphalt concrete surface and
intermediate courses. The Department will base acceptance of the compacted mixture in place on the level of
density attained as sampled by the Contractor and analyzed by the Department.
446.02
Monitoring. If there is poor comparison between the Department’s comparison samples and the
Contractor’s quality control tests, the Monitoring Team may at any time disallow acceptance to continue under
446. In this case, accept per 448 and 446. The Department will notify the Contractor in writing to stop production.
446.03
Reports. Submit the Quality Control Report according to 441.11 on the workday following the
production day of the material represented by the report.
446.04
Density Acceptance. The requirements of 401.13 do not apply. However, rollers must fully and
satisfactorily provide the required compaction, be mechanically sound, and meet Asphalt industry standards. The
Department retains the right to reject the use of rollers which are not in good repair, or are not designed to do the
work required. A three-wheel roller according to 401.17 is not required.
Obtain ten, 4-inch cores for the Department to test to determine the in-place density of the compacted mixture as
a percentage of the average QC Maximum Specific Gravity (MSG) for the production day the material was placed.
If Department MSG VA tests show poor comparison to the average QC MSG according to 403.06 use Department
determined MSG results in the density calculation for each production day. Compact shoulders using the same
equipment and procedures as used on the mainline pavement. The requirements of 401.16, except for the last four
paragraphs, are waived.
Payment for compaction of the completed mainline pavement and ramps is by Lot, based upon the degree to
which density is attained. Payment for shoulders depends on the degree to which the density is obtained on the
adjacent mainline pavement lane or ramp. However, when a cold longitudinal joint is made between a mainline
pavement lane and an adjoining shoulder, payment for the shoulder will be based on the degree to which the density
is obtained on the shoulder.
A Lot consists of an area of pavement placed during a production day, including the shoulders. If less than 400
tons (400 metric tons) is produced in a production day, then that production day is combined with the next
production day into a single Lot. If greater than 250 tons (250 metric tons) and less than 400 tons (400 metric tons)
are produced on the last day of production for the project, then the day’s production is a separate Lot. If less than
250 tons (250 metric tons) is produced on the last production day for the project, it is part of the previous Lot for
acceptance, provided the previous Lot was placed within 3 days; otherwise, it is a separate Lot.
Within 48 hours after the pavement is placed, obtain ten cores for each Lot at random locations the Engineer
determines. Only obtain core samples in the presence of the Engineer and immediately surrender each core sample
to the Engineer for testing. The Engineer will divide a Lot into five equal sublots and calculate two random core
locations in each sublot as described below using ODOT TE-217 procedure. Both mainline pavement and ramps
will be included in Lot determinations. The Engineer will not give the Contractor random core locations early in
the Lot placement. The Engineer will tell the Contractor the method used to determine random locations as noted
below before project start and will use the same method for all Lots.
Cores will be taken from each lot as follows. Three cores will be taken from cold longitudinal joints (joint cores)
and seven cores will be taken from the mat (mat cores). If locations not according to this specification are given,
immediately inform the Engineer. Do not take joint cores from ramp joints. Take joint cores from the first, last and
randomly from one of the three remaining sublots. Determine by random number the longitudinal location of the
joint core, and which pavement edge to be cored when the mat placed has both confined and unconfined edges.
Except where notched wedge joints are used, take joint cores such that the core's closest edge is 4 inches (100 mm)
from the edge of the mat. Obtain the mat cores from at least twelve inches away from the longitudinal joint. Locate
cores obtained for Contractor quality control (QC sister core) longitudinally from and within four inches (100 mm)
of the random core. In addition to the QC sister cores, three extra cores may be taken from the first lot of a JMF
for testing to correlate density gauges. Do not take additional cores beyond what is noted above unless clearly
identified in the Contractor’s QCP. Clearly label all cores with mat locations so that they may be readily identified.
Any unlabeled cores may be destroyed by the Department. Notify the Laboratory if any questions arise. Do not
store additional cores anywhere (project, in vehicles or at the plant) beyond those required to be taken for testing.
Test all Contractor QC cores and maintain records of all tests (core tests and correlated gauge tests) per the QCP.
Destroy all cores immediately after testing is complete.
Notched Wedge Joints: When notched wedge joint construction is used do not take cores on the sloped face of
the wedge before the adjoining lane (matching pass) is placed. Take cores such that the core's closest edge is six
inches (150 mm) from the edge of the joint upper notch. When a nine inch or wider wedge joint is used take the
core three inches from the upper wedge joint notch.
The Department will determine the pay factor for each Lot cored by the pay schedule in Table 446.04-1 for Lots
with three cold longitudinal joint cores and Table 446.04-2 for Lots with less than three cold longitudinal joint
cores. The Department will verify the MTD if the MSG determination has a deviation from the MTD of less than
or equal to 0.020. If the MTD is not verified, establish a new MTD according to the procedures established in
441.09. If less than 10 cores are available for determining the mean, OMM will determine disposition of the Lot.
Fill core holes by the next workday with asphalt concrete. Before filling, ensure the holes are dry and tack them
with asphalt material conforming to 407.02. Properly compact the asphalt concrete used for filling the hole and
leave it flush with the pavement.
TABLE 446.04-1 FOR LOTS WITH 3 COLD JOINT CORES
[1]
Pay Factor
Intermediate Course
Mean of Cores
Surface Course
[2]
[2]
98.0% or greater
[2]
97.0 to 97.9%
0.94
96.0 to 96.9%
1.00
0.94
[4]
93.4 to 95.9%
1.04
1.00
92.4 to 93.3%
1.00
1.00
91.4 to 92.3%
0.98
1.00
90.4 to 91.3%
0.90
0.94
89.4 to 90.3%
0.80
0.88
[3]
[3]
88.4 to 89.3%
[2]
[2]
Less than 88.4%
[1] Mean of cores as percent of average MSG for the production day.
[2] For surface courses, remove and replace. For other courses, the District will determine whether the
material may remain in place. If the District determines the course should be removed and replaced, the
Contractor will remove and replace this course and all courses paved on this course. The pay factor for
material allowed to remain in place is 0.60.
[3] The District will determine whether the material may remain in place. If the District determines the
course should be removed and replaced, the Contractor will remove and replace this course and all
courses paved on this course. The pay factor for such material allowed to remain in place is 0.70.
[4] No incentive will be paid if any single cold joint core is less than 91.0%.
TABLE 446.04-2 FOR LOTS WITH LESS THAN 3 COLD JOINT CORES
[1]
Pay Factor
Intermediate Course
[2]
[2]
0.94
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.94
0.88
[3]
[2]
Mean of Cores
Surface Course
98.0% or greater
[2]
97.0 to 97.9%
0.94
96.0 to 96.9%
1.00
94.0 to 95.9%
1.04 [4]
93.0 to 93.9%
1.00
92.0 to 92.9%
0.98
91.0 to 91.9%
0.90
90.0 to 90.9%
0.80
89.0 to 89.9%
[3]
Less than 89.0%
[2]
[1]Mean of cores as percent of average MSG for the production day.
[2]For surface courses, remove and replace. For other courses, the District will determine whether the material
may remain in place. If the District determines the course should be removed and replaced, the Contractor will
remove and replace this course and all courses paved on this course. The pay factor for material allowed to
remain in place is 0.60.
[3]The District will determine whether the material may remain in place. If the District determines the course
should be removed and replaced, the Contractor will remove and replace this course and all courses paved on
this course. The pay factor for such material allowed to remain in place is 0.70.
[4]No incentive will be paid for lots where 3 joint cores are required to be taken but less than 3 cores are taken.
446.05
Joints. Construct joints according to 401.17. Make a hot longitudinal joint between the mainline
pavement lane and the adjoining shoulder and all ramps and the adjoining shoulders. If a hot longitudinal joint is
specified between the mainline pavement lanes, the Contractor may construct a cold longitudinal joint between the
mainline pavement lanes and the adjoining shoulders. Cold longitudinal joints in mainline pavement will be tested
according to 446.04.
ITEM 448 ASPHALT CONCRETE ACCEPTANCE
448.01
448.02
448.03
448.04
Description
Density
Reports
Acceptance
448.01
Description. This specification describes the acceptance criteria for asphalt concrete surface and
intermediate courses. The Department will determine acceptance of the mixture by Lot, based on the composition
of random samples taken and tested by the Contractor and verified by the Department.
448.02
Density. Conduct density gauge quality control testing on the asphalt mat according to Supplement
1055. Conduct density gauge testing on uniform courses of 1.0 in (25mm) or more plan thickness. Conduct density
gauge testing on projects of two adjacent lanes or more and with at least one continuous mile (1.6 kilometers) of
paving (excepting bridges, intersections etc.). Do NOT enter a density gauge offset of any kind into the gauge. If
an offset is already in the gauge remove it. Verify to the Engineer daily that no offset is present in the gauge. All
values used in controlling mat density according to Supplement 1055 will be as calculated and written on forms
supplied in Supplement 1055.
When Supplement 1055 density gauge testing is required, the requirements of 401.16, except the last four
paragraphs, are waived. The requirements of 401.13 do not apply. However, rollers must fully and satisfactorily
provide the required compaction, be mechanically sound, and meet Asphalt industry standards. The Department
retains the right to reject the use of rollers which are not in good repair, or are not designed to do the work required.
A three-wheel roller per 401.17 is not required.
448.03
Reports. Refer to Item 403 for reporting requirements of asphalt mixtures tested at the asphalt plant.
Report density gauge QC testing results according to Supplement 1055.
448.04
Acceptance. Refer to Item 403 for acceptance requirements. If a project includes 448.02 Density,
acceptance will include any density deductions according to Supplement 1055.
450 RIGID PAVEMENT
ITEM 451 REINFORCED PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
451.01
451.02
451.03
451.04
451.05
451.06
451.07
451.08
451.09
451.10
451.11
451.12
451.13
451.14
451.15
451.16
451.17
451.18
451.19
451.20
451.21
Description
Materials
Pavement Quality Control
Equipment
Setting Forms
Fine Grading of Subgrade or Subbase
Placing Concrete
Placing Reinforcement
Joints
Finishing
Curing
Removing Forms
Surface Smoothness
Profile Grinding
Pavement Grooving Corrections
Sealing Expansion Joints
Opening to Traffic
Pavement Thickness and Concrete Strength
Price Adjustments
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
451.01 Description. This work consists of constructing a pavement composed of reinforced portland cement
concrete on a prepared surface.
451.02 Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Concrete, either Class QC 1, QC MS, .................................................. 499
* Class RCA ................................................................ Supplement 1117
Joint sealer ....................................................................................... 705.04
Preformed filler ................................................................................ 705.03
Curing materials......................................... 705.05, 705.06, 705.07 Type 2
Tiebar steel, epoxy coated ............................................................... 709.00
Reinforcing steel .................................................... 709.09, 709.10, 709.12
Dowel bars and basket assemblies ................................................... 709.13
* Use of Recycled Concrete aggregate as part of a concrete mix can be accepted with conformance to
Supplement 1117
451.03 Pavement Quality Control. When the concrete pavement bid item includes “with QC/QA”, provide
complete quality control of the concrete manufacturing, placing and curing operations and quality control testing
of the work conforming to Item 455. The Engineer will review and accept the plan prior to beginning of any paving
operations.
When the concrete pavement bid item includes “with QC/QA” the Engineer will perform Quality Assurance
conforming to Item 455.
451.04 Equipment. Furnish self-propelled spreading and finishing machines capable of consolidating and
finishing the concrete and producing a finished surface meeting the requirements specified. Ensure that all paving
equipment is operated in a manner that does not result in segregation of the mixture or loss of air entrainment in
the mixture.
Construct pavement using either fixed forms or slip form paving equipment that conforms to the following:
A. Fixed Form Construction. Spread, screed, and consolidate concrete using one or more machines between
previously set side forms. Furnish an adequate number and capacity of machines to perform the work at a rate equal
to the concrete delivery rate. Furnish machines capable of uniformly distributing and consolidating the concrete
without segregation.
Provide machines capable of operating on two side forms, on adjacent lanes of pavement and one side form,
or on two adjacent lanes as necessary. When placing concrete adjacent to an existing pavement lane, take measures
to protect the adjacent pavement from damage. Remove from the work any machine that causes displacement of
the side forms from the line or grade or causes undue delay, as determined by the Engineer, due to mechanical
difficulties.
Finish small areas, irregular areas, and areas that are inaccessible to finishing equipment using other methods
as approved by the Engineer. Accomplish vibration of these areas using hand held or machine mounted internal
vibrators. Continue vibration to achieve adequate consolidation, without segregation, for the full depth and width
of the area placed.
Use straight edge side forms made of steel and of a depth equal to the specified pavement thickness. Do not
use bent or damaged side forms or forms with damaged joint locks or pin pockets. Provide forms in sections of not
less than 10 ft (3 m) in length without horizontal joints in the height of the form. Utilize forms with a nominal base
width of at least 3 inches (75 mm). Ensure forms are capable of supporting the paving equipment without shifting
or deforming during paving. Clean and oil all forms each time they are used. If the radius of the circular pavement
edge is 100 feet (30 m) or less, use flexible or curved forms of a design acceptable to the Engineer. Provide adequate
devices to securely set forms and withstand operation of the paving equipment. Do not use built-up forms except
to construct pavement of a specified thickness whose total area for the project is less than 2000 square yards (1650
m2). Provide forms with adequate joint locks to tightly join ends of abutting form sections together.
B. Slip Form Construction. Place concrete using an industry-standard slip form paver designed to spread,
consolidate, screed, and finish the freshly placed concrete in one complete pass of the machine and with a minimum
of hand finishing providing a dense and homogeneous pavement.
Consolidate the full width and depth of concrete pavement placed by a single pass of approved internal
vibrators. Operate the vibrators at a frequency range of 7000 to 11,000 impulses per minute. Attach vibrators to
either the spreading or finishing equipment in such a manner that they do not come in contact with preset dowel
basket assemblies, the subgrade, reinforcing mesh, or side forms. Do not operate vibrators in a manner to cause a
separation of the mix ingredients (segregation); i.e., either a downward displacement of large aggregate particles
or an accumulation of laitance on the surface of the concrete. Avoidance of segregation may require reduction in
the vibration frequency within the range specified when forward motion of the paver is reduced. Connect the power
to all vibrators so they stop when the machine motion is stopped. Stop paving operations if any vibrator fails to
operate within the above specified range.
Provide an electronic monitoring device that displays the operating frequency of each internal vibrator when
paving mainline, ramps, acceleration/deceleration lanes, and collector distributor lanes. Ensure the monitoring
device has a readout display near the paver operator’s controls visible to the operator and the Engineer. Operate
the monitoring device continuously while paving and display all vibrator frequencies with manual or automatic
sequencing among individual vibrators. Using the monitoring system, record the following minimum information:
time of day, station location, paver track speed, and the frequency of each individual vibrator. Make recordings
after each 25 feet (8 m) of paving or after 5-minute intervals of time. If not using a monitoring system with a
recorder, make and record readings every 30 minutes. Provide vibration data, in electronic format, to the Engineer
prior to the next concrete placement.
Electronic vibration monitoring devices are not required for paving machines used to construct shoulders,
gores, or for any construction project with a total of less than 10,000 square yards (8000 m 2) of pavement. When
electronic monitoring devices are not required, use a tachometer or similar device to demonstrate to the Engineer
the paving equipment vibration meets specification.
Operate the slip form paver with as nearly a continuous forward movement as possible. Coordinate all
operations of mixing, delivering, and spreading concrete to provide uniform progress with minimal stopping and
starting of the paver. If for any reason it is necessary to stop the forward movement of the paver, immediately stop
the consolidation devices. Unless controlled from the machine, do not apply any other tractive force to the machine.
Accurately control the finish grade of the pavement from a pre-set grade line parallel to the finish grade. Use
equipment with controls that will trace the grade line and automatically adjust the grade of the screed.
In areas where adjoining concrete pavement is to be constructed, ensure that the surface at the edge of the
pavement on either side of the longitudinal joint does not vary more than 1/4 inch (6 mm) below the typical section.
Ensure that the outside edges of the pavement does not vary more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) below the typical section.
Ensure that all pavement edges are nearly vertical with no projections or keyways exceeding 1/2 inch (13 mm).
In the area of construction joints placed at the end of the days run, the Engineer will allow a reduction of
approximately 2 inches (50 mm) in overall width.
451.05 Setting Forms. Set all forms in conformance to the required grade and alignment. Ensure the entire length
of the forms is supported on thoroughly compacted material for the entire operation of placing and finishing the
concrete. Set side forms with the top face of the form varying not more than 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3 mm in 3 m) from
true plane, and the vertical face varying not more than 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m) from true plane. Test the
forms for variations from the above requirements and reset as necessary. Do not use loose earth, pebbles, etc., to
shim the forms. Immediately before placing concrete, the Engineer will approve the alignment and grade of all
forms set.
451.06 Fine Grading of Subgrade or Subbase.
A. Fixed Form Construction. After side forms have been set to line and grade and securely fastened, use a
subgrade or subbase planer to remove a slight amount of material and bring the surface to final grade and a smooth
dense condition. Check the subgrade or subbase using a multiple pin template operated on the forms or other
methods approved by the Engineer. Correct and retest all high or low spots.
Instead of the above operation, the Contractor may place forms on subgrade or subbase prepared according to
451.06.B.
B. Slip Form Construction. After the subgrade or subbase is placed and compacted to the required density, use
an automatic subgrading machine to cut the areas for pavement and the areas that will support the paving machine
to the plan elevation. Construct the grade sufficiently in advance of placing the concrete to permit the Engineer to
check the grade.
451.07 Placing Concrete. When constructing on subgrade or subbase, immediately before placing concrete,
bring the surface to a thoroughly moistened condition by sprinkling with water as directed by the Engineer.
When constructing on asphalt concrete, coat the surface with curing membrane at least one day prior to placing
concrete. Apply the curing membrane at a minimum rate of 1 gallon (1 L) for each 150 square feet (3.7 m 2) of
surface treated using an approved self-propelled mechanical sprayer. Provide an adequate shield to protect the fog
spray from the wind. Thoroughly agitate the curing material before use.
Deposit concrete on the grade in a manner that requires as little rehandling as possible. Do not allow workers to
walk in the freshly mixed concrete unless wearing clean boots or shoes, free of earth or any foreign material.
When using dowel basket assemblies, place concrete in such a manner that the assemblies are not disturbed. Do
not allow concrete to discharge onto any dowel basket assembly unless the hopper is well centered on the assembly.
Use a separate internal vibrator to consolidate concrete around dowel basket assemblies.
Do not operate mechanical equipment other than saws on newly placed concrete pavement prior to opening to
traffic according to 451.17. If only finishing equipment is carried on an existing lane, paving may be permitted
after that lane has been in place for at least 3 days and after specimen beams shall have attained a modulus of
rupture of 500 psi (3.5 MPa).
When the width of pavement being placed in one operation is 12 feet (3.6 m) or more and the total area of any
given width of pavement on the project exceeds 10,000 square yards (8300 m2), use a separate standard
manufacture, self-propelled concrete placer/spreader that receives concrete into a hopper adjacent to the area to be
paved, delivers the concrete in front of the slipform paver, and uniformly spreads the concrete at the proper
thickness for the full width being paved. When a slipform paver is equipped with a dowel bar inserter, the separate
placer/spreader requirement may be waived provided the concrete is delivered in front of the slipform paver at a
consistent and uniform thickness for the full width being paved and the slipform paver is capable of spreading,
consolidating, screeding, and float finishing the freshly placed concrete. Provide the Engineer documentation that
the slipform paver will meet this specification.
Do not mix, place, or finish concrete after dark without operating an adequate and approved lighting system.
When the air temperature is 35 F (2 C) or below, ensure the concrete has a temperature of between 50 and 80
F (10 and 27 C) at the point of placement.
When the air temperature is greater than 35 F (2 C) before placing, maintain a concrete temperature of not
more than 95 F (35 C).
Do not place concrete on any surface that is frozen or has frost.
Make two test beams from each 7500 square yards (6300 m2) of concrete or fraction thereof incorporated in the
work each day. Construct and test concrete beams for modulus of rupture according to Supplement 1023.
451.08 Placing Reinforcement. Place pavement mesh of the size and at the locations within the concrete slab
shown on the standard construction drawings. When placing reinforced concrete pavement in two layers, strike off
the entire width of the bottom layer to a length and depth that allows laying the mat of reinforcement on the concrete
and in its final position without further manipulation. After installing reinforcement directly upon the concrete,
place, strike off, and screed the top layer of concrete. When reinforced concrete pavement is placed in one layer
and in advance of placing concrete, position and securely anchor the reinforcement to the underlying base or
pavement. As an alternative, after spreading the concrete and while it is in a plastic condition, use mechanical or
vibratory means to place reinforcement in the concrete.
Where reinforcement is overlapped, securely fasten mats of reinforcement together at the edges of the sheets and
at two additional points along the lap. Use reinforcing steel free from dirt, oil, paint, and grease.
451.09 Joints. Unless otherwise directed, construct all transverse joints normal to the centerline of the pavement
lane and of the type, dimensions, and at locations specified.
Determine contraction and longitudinal joint sawing time limits to protect the concrete from early cracking by
using HIPERPAV software. Provided the curing compound damage caused by sawing is repaired according to
451.11 and to the Engineer’s satisfaction, the Contractor may operate the sawing equipment necessary to saw joints
on the newly constructed pavement. Obtain HIPERPAV according to Supplement 1033.
Twenty four hours before placing concrete pavement create a HIPERPAV project date file according to
Supplement 1033.
Provide the completed file and the printout to the Engineer. When HIPERPAV predicts early age slab cracking
will occur, whether due to standard construction practices, joint sawing methods, mix design or curing, either do
not start construction until modifications have been made to eliminate HIPERPAV’s predicted slab cracking or do
not pave.
Perform a HIPERPAV analysis for each pour.
If software analysis determines joint sawing could exceed 24 hours, ensure all joints are sawed within 24 hours.
A HIPERPAV analysis showing paving can proceed does not eliminate the requirements of 451.17.
Accurately mark both edges of the pavement with the correct locations of all joints to be saw cut. Ensure the
method of marking remains clearly visible after the paver passes and until the joint saw cut is completed.
A. Longitudinal Joint. Construct longitudinal joints between simultaneously placed lanes by sawing.
When a standard (water cooled diamond bladed) concrete saw is used to make the longitudinal joint between
simultaneously placed lanes, saw the joint within the timeframe provided in the HIPERPAV output but not more
than 24 hours. For pavement less than or equal to 10 inches (255 mm), saw the joint to a minimum depth of onefourth the specified pavement thickness. For pavements greater than 10 inches (255 mm) thick, saw the joint to a
minimum depth of one-third the specified pavement thickness. Saw joints 1/4 ± 1/16 inch (6 ± 1.6 mm) wide
measured at the time of sawing.
When using early-entry (dry cut, light weight) saws to make the longitudinal joint between simultaneously
placed lanes, only use saw blades and skid plates as recommended by the saw manufacturer for the coarse aggregate
type being used in the concrete. Perform the early-entry sawing after initial set and before final set. Saw the joint
1/8 inch (3 mm) wide and 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 inches (56 to 63 mm) deep.
Place deformed epoxy coated steel tiebars, epoxy coated hook bolt with epoxy coated coupling,or epoxy coated
hook bolt alternate (wiggle bolt) with epoxy coated coupling, in longitudinal joints during consolidation of the
concrete. Install them at mid-depth in the slab by approved mechanical equipment. As an alternate procedure,
rigidly secure them on chairs or other approved supports to prevent displacement. Provide tie bars, hook bolts, or
wiggle bolts of the size and spaced as shown on the standard construction drawings. If used, securely fasten hook
bolts or wiggle bolts with couplings to the form at the longitudinal construction joint as shown on the standard
construction drawings.
B. Transverse Joints. Unless otherwise directed, construct all transverse joints normal to the centerline of the
pavement lane and of the type, dimensions, and at locations specified.
For all transverse joints, install round, straight, smooth, steel dowel bars of the size shown in Table 451.09-1.
Thickness of Pavement
Less than 8 1/2 inches (215 mm)
8 1/2 to 10 inches (215 to 255 mm)
Over 10 inches (255 mm)
TABLE 451.09-1 DOWEL SIZE
Tubular Dowel
Diameter of Solid
Dowel
Outside Diameter
Wall Thickness
1 inch (25 mm)
1 5/16 inches (33 mm),
1 1/4 inches (32 mm)
0.120 inches (3 mm)
or 1 3/8 inches (35 mm)
1 1/2 inches (38 mm)
1 5/8 inches (41 mm) 0.120 inches (3 mm)
Ensure each end of tubular dowel is fitted with a snug fitting plug style insert cap that does not exceed the
outside diameter of the tubular dowel, to prohibit any intrusion of concrete or other materials.
Within 2 hours prior of placing concrete coat the full length of all dowels with a thin uniform coat of new light
form oil as a bond-breaking material.
1.
Load Transfer Assemblies.
Use load transfer (dowel basket) assemblies in transverse contraction joints conforming to and placed
according to the standard drawings to hold the dowels in a position parallel to the surface and centerline of the slab
at mid-depth of the slab thickness.
Preset all dowel basket assemblies before the day’s paving unless the Engineer determines complete
presetting is impractical.
Completely install dowel basket assemblies before shipping and spacer wires are removed. Immediately
before paving, remove all shipping and spacer wires from the dowel basket assemblies, check that the assemblies
are held firmly in place, and check that the dowels are parallel to the grade and parallel to centerline of pavement.
For each load transfer assembly, provide a continuous assembly between longitudinal joints or between
the longitudinal joint and pavement edge. Drive at least eight 1/2-inch (13 mm) diameter steel pins a minimum of
18 inches (460 mm) long at an angle to brace the assembly from lateral and vertical displacements during the
placing of concrete. Drive two of these pins opposite each other at each end of the assembly, and drive the remaining
pins in staggered positions on each side of the assembly. Where it is impractical to use the 18-inch (460 mm) length
pins, such as where hardpan or rock is encountered, and provided the assembly is held firmly, the Engineer may
authorize use of shorter pins. Where the dowel basket assembly is placed on material that may allow settlement or
distortion, anchor the assembly with a combination of pins and steel plates, or by some other means satisfactory to
the Engineer to prevent settlement.
When concrete pavement is placed on an existing concrete pavement or on a stabilized base, secure dowel
basket assemblies from lateral and vertical displacement during concrete placement using power-driven fasteners
and appropriate clips or pins driven in predrilled holes of a diameter slightly less than the pin diameter. Use either
of the above methods or a combination of the two in sufficient numbers to adequately secure the basket assemblies.
Where widths other than 12 feet (3.6 m) are specified, the Contractor may use standard dowel basket
assemblies with dowel spacings adjusted as follows. Maintain 6-inch (150 mm) dowel spacing at the longitudinal
joint and increase the spacing at the outer edge of the lane up to 12 inches (300 mm). Where an odd width of lane
occurs and if the standard dowel basket assembly would provide for a space exceeding 12 inches (300 mm), place
a dowel 6 inches (150 mm) from the outer edge of the lane. Hold such a dowel rigidly in proper position by a
method satisfactory to the Engineer or cut and splice a dowel basket assembly of greater length than required to
attain the required length.
2.
Slip Form Paver with Mechanical Dowel Bar Inserter.
The Contractor may propose to use a slip form paver with mechanical dowel bar inserter (DBI) to place
dowels in transverse contraction joints the full thickness of pavement and spaced according to the standard
construction drawings. Submit details and specifications of the proposed equipment to the Engineer at least 14
calendar days prior to mobilizing the equipment to the project.
The use of any slip form paver with DBI is allowed only after acceptable performance is demonstrated
with a test section and approved by the Engineer. Continued verification during all contract paving is required for
each production day as detailed below.
Provide all equipment, perform all testing, and evaluate the slip form paver with DBI as detailed in the
following sections.
a.
MIT Scan-2 Equipment and Reporting
Provide MIT Scan-2 equipment to determine the location of dowel bars in either fresh or hardened
concrete including horizontal translation, longitudinal translation, vertical translation, horizontal skew, vertical tilt,
and cover.
Provide equipment for determining dowel bar alignment that has an onboard computer that runs the
test; collects and stores the test data on a memory card; performs the preliminary evaluation; and provides a printout
of results immediately after scanning. Provide a copy of MagnoProof or other required software to the Engineer to
analyze equipment data and generate a detailed report of all required alignment parameters in an Excel and a
graphical color representation.
Ensure the equipment is properly calibrated conforming to the manufacturer’s specifications and for
the specific project conditions. Provide calibration documentation to the Engineer prior to the start of construction.
Establish a standard protocol for scanning direction.
Provide trained personnel to operate the equipment and documentation of training prior to start of
construction.
Provide a print out, at the time of scanning, for horizontal translation, longitudinal translation, vertical
translation, horizontal skew, vertical tilt, and cover for each bar in each joint scanned. For each Test Section and
daily, for each day of production, provide a complete report to the Engineer at the completion of scanning along
with a digital copy of all data collected in the manufacturer’s native file format as well as all calibration files.
Include the standard report generated using the MagnoProof software in Excel format and with color graphical
representation of each joint. Include in the report: project contract number, county-route-section, placement date,
scan date, station location and lane, joint ID number, name of operator, and all required alignment parameters.
If non-magnetic dowel bar materials are to be used, propose and demonstrate alternative measurement
equipment to the Engineer showing capability to provide measures equal or similar to the acceptance and rejection
criteria of Table 451.09-2. Obtain the Engineer's approval of alternative equipment prior to paving. If no alternative
equipment can demonstrate the required capability, do not use the slip form paver with DBI.
Prior to paving, review the measurement equipment applicability for the project conditions with the
Engineer, including: ambient moisture conditions, dowel material, metallic concrete aggregate and potential
contributors to magnetic interference (presence of tiebars, reinforcing steel or other embedded or underlying steel
items that may affect measurement accuracy). Establish how the measurement device can meet the project
conditions. If the measurement device cannot meet the project conditions, do not use the slip form paver with DBI.
b. Acceptance/Rejection
The required dowel bar tolerances are given in Table 451.09-2. Dowel bar alignment is measured as
detailed below. Any dowel bar exceeding any Acceptance Tolerance in Table 451.09-2 is considered misaligned.
Rejection Criteria is in absolute inches.
TABLE 451.09-2
INDIVIDUAL DOWEL BAR ALIGNMENT TOLERANCES
Acceptance Tolerance
Rejection Criteria
(inches)
(inches)
Horizontal Translation a
±2.0
±3.0
b
Longitudinal Translation
±2.0
±4.0
c
Vertical Translation
±1.0
± T/6
Horizontal Skew d
±0.60
±1.0
e
Vertical Tilt
±0.60
±1.0
Cover f
2.5 minimum
a. Horizontal Translation - the total difference, measured horizontally, between the actual dowel bar location and
the plan required dowel bar location along the transverse contraction joint.
b. Longitudinal Translation - the total difference, measured in the longitudinal direction, from the center of the
transverse contraction joint to the actual dowel bar center. Also termed as “side shift”.
c. Vertical Translation - the total difference, measured vertically, between the centerline of the actual dowel bar
location and the mid-depth of the slab. (T = Pavement Thickness in inches)
d. Horizontal Skew - the total difference, measured from end to end of a dowel bar, of the dowel in the horizontal
plane.
e. Vertical Tilt - the total difference, measured from end to end of a dowel bar, of the dowel bar in the vertical
plane.
f. Cover - the least distance between the surface of embedded reinforcement and the outer surface of the concrete.
Alignment Parameter
Perform a Joint Score Analysis conforming to CPTP Tech Brief Best Practices for Dowel Placement
Tolerances (FHWA-HIF-07-021) for every joint. Joint Score is a measure of the combined effects of horizontal
skew and vertical tilt. To calculate the Joint Score: calculate the Single Dowel Misalignment (SDM) by the square
root of the sum of the squares of the Horizontal Skew and Vertical Tilt of each dowel in the joint; determine the
weighing factor (W) for each bar from Table 451.09-3; sum the W values for every dowel in the joint and add one
(1).
   () = √( )2 + ( )2
Joint Score (JS) – Evaluated for a single transverse joint between adjacent longitudinal joint(s) and/or
pavement edge(s) (i.e., a typical 12 ft [3.6 m] standard lane or up to 14 ft [4.3 m] widened lane), and calculated as:

  () = 1 + ∑ 
=1
Where:
n
=
number of dowels in the single joint
Wi
=
weighting factor (Table 451.09-3) for dowel i
TABLE 451.09-3
WEIGHTING FACTORS IN JOINT SCORE (JS) DETERMINATION
Single Dowel Misalignment (SDM)
SDM ≤ 0.6 in. (15 mm)
0.6 in. (15 mm) < SDM ≤ 0.8 in. (20 mm)
0.8 in. (20 mm) < SDM ≤ 1 in. (25 mm)
1 in. (25 mm) < SDM ≤ 1.5 in. (38 mm)
1.5 in. (38 mm) < SDM
W, Weighting Factor
0
2
4
5
10
Joint Score Trigger (JST) – A scaling of the Joint Score risk value to account for the actual number
of dowels required in a single joint for pavement width other than 12 ft (3.6 m), calculated as:
   () = 10 ∗
#      
12
Include the Joint Score and Joint Score Trigger for every joint scanned in the report to the Engineer.
Any joint with a Joint Score equal to or greater than the Joint Score Trigger is considered locked and rejectable.
3.
Test Section
Prior to production use of a DBI slip form paver, perform at least a 500-foot (150 m) long test section for
acceptance of the machine. Measure the alignment and location of each dowel bar in the test section using the MIT
Scan-2. The test section will be considered acceptable if the following acceptance criteria are met:
a.
Each Joint Score (JS) is less than Joint Score Trigger (JST);
b.
Ninety percent (90%) of the dowel bars meet the Acceptance Tolerances of Table 451.09-2;
c.
None of the dowels exceed the Rejection Tolerances of 451.09-2.
If the test section acceptance criteria is not met, use the data to refine the paving process and
reduce/eliminate misalignments and mislocations. Modify, repair or replace any slip form paver with DBI that does
not meet the acceptance criteria and perform another test section. Do not begin production paving until the slip
form paver with DBI test section acceptance criteria is met.
Perform corrective action of all joints in the test section according to Section 5 below.
Perform a new test section for any new slip form paver with DBI that will be used for any contract item
of work.
Perform a new test section at the beginning of every construction season; after major paver
maintenance/repairs; at mobilization or remobilization to a project, for major concrete mix design changes or
different concrete mix designs; and as required by Section 4 of this specification.
If the length of the section to be paved makes it unreasonable to perform the test section, scan all joints
for conformance with the requirements of Section 2, Acceptance/Rejection. Correct any joints with dowels found
to be rejectable or JS greater than JST according to Section 5, Corrective Action.
Determine during the test section if embedded tiebars are affecting the Rejection Tolerances and JS’s. If
the test section demonstration shows interference, exclude from the JS and JST calculations any dowel bar(s) closer
than 12 in. (300 mm) in any direction to tiebars in the longitudinal joint(s). At the Engineer’s discretion, establish
the location of excluded dowels by another equivalent non-destructive method or by probing.
4.
Paving Quality Control Testing (QCT) for Dowel Bar Inserters
When using the accepted slip form paver and DBI for any contract item of work, perform quality control
scans with the MIT-Scan 2 equipment at the following minimum:
a. Measure the alignments and location for every 10th joint and calculate the JS and JST for each
measured joint. Acceptable QCT is when all measures are within the acceptance tolerances in Table 451.09-2 and
JS is less than JST.
i. When the daily QCT finds more than 10 percent of the joints scanned have dowels exceeding the
acceptance tolerances of Table 451.09-2 but the JS is less than the JST, increase the scanning frequency to every
5th joint. Evaluate the paving process to reduce/eliminate misalignments and mislocations and continue to pave.
The QCT frequency will revert back to every 10th joint when two consecutive days of scanning every 5th joint
show no dowels exceeding the acceptance tolerances of Table 451.09-2 and all JSs are less than the JST.
ii. When QCT finds any individual dowel bars exceeding the rejection criteria of Table 451.09-2 or
the JS is found to exceed the JST, the joint is considered to be locked and immediate investigation needs to be
made as follows:
1. Scan joints in front and behind the locked joint location until five (5) consecutive joints in
both directions are found with no dowel bars exceeding the rejection criteria of Table 451.09-2 and no JS is found
to exceed the JST.
2. If the additional scanned joints show no additional dowel bars exceeding the rejection criteria
of Table 451.09-2 and no JS exceeding the JST, evaluate equipment to determine what caused the original problem.
Before continuing paving increase the frequency of QCT to conform to 4.a.i.
3. If the additional scanned joints show additional dowel bars exceeding rejection criteria of
Table 451.09-2 or joints with a JS exceeding the JST, stop paving. Investigate to determine the cause of the dowel
bar rejection issues and provide the causes and alternative corrections to the Engineer.
The Engineer will determine if the corrections will correct the problem and may allow paving to
temporarily continue to validate if the corrections work. During any evaluation, scan all joints to determine if the
corrections were successful. If successful, continue QCT scanning at the frequency of 4.a.i. If not successful,
discontinue paving, repair or replace the slip form paver and DBI, and repeat the Test Section
b. All dowel bars found beyond rejection criteria of Table 451.09-2 or joints with a JS exceeding the
JST require a corrective action proposal conforming to Section 5, Corrective Action.
Provide report formats as described in Section 1, MIT Scan-2 Equipment and Reporting.
5.
Corrective Action
Submit a proposal for corrective action to the Engineer for any dowel that exceeds the rejection criteria in
Table 451.09-2 or any joint that has a JS greater than the JST. As a minimum, include the following in the corrective
action proposal:
1. Locations of rejectable dowels with identification information as described in Section 1, MIT Scan2 Equipment and Reporting.
2.
Reporting.
Locked joint identification information as described in Section 1, MIT Scan-2 Equipment and
3. Proposed method of remediation for each identified location, including supporting documentation of
the effectiveness of the means of proposed remediation.
The Department may not require corrective action for random dowels that exceed the rejection criteria of
Table 451.09-2 depending on location; what alignment parameter was the cause for the rejection; and the frequency
of the rejectable dowels.
The Department may not require corrective action for all JS exceeding the JST, if they are random in
nature. Up to two (2) consecutive joints with a JS exceeding the JST may be accepted, provided that the adjacent
three (3) joints before or after do not have dowels exceeding Table 451.09-2 rejection limits and have JS’s less than
the JST. The Department will require corrective action where there are more than two (2) consecutive joints with
a JS exceeding the JST.
Do not proceed with any corrective action until the Engineer approves the proposed method(s) of
correction.
C. Expansion Joints. Where a pressure relief joint is not provided adjacent to a bridge structure, construct
expansion joints at the first two regularly spaced joint locations adjacent to the bridge approach slab on each side
of the bridge. If the pavement is constructed in two or more separately placed lanes, construct the transverse
expansion joints in a continuous line for the full width of the pavement and shoulders.
Construct expansion joints according to the standard construction drawings. Install the face of the expansion
joint perpendicular to the centerline except when expansion joint is installed at a skewed bridge approach slab.
Use round, straight, smooth, steel dowels, and within 2 hours of placing concrete, coat the dowels with a thin
uniform coat of new light form oil as a bond-breaking material to provide free movement. After coating the dowel,
install a sleeve of metal or other approved material approximately 3 inches (75 mm) long, with crimped end,
overlapping seams fitting closely around the dowel, and a depression or interior projection to stop the dowel a
sufficient distance from the crimped end to allow 1 inch (25 mm) for longitudinal dowel movement with pavement
expansion on one free end of each dowel. If approved by the Engineer, use other means to allow for 1 inch (25
mm) of expansion.
Punch or drill proper size dowel holes into the preformed expansion joint filler to assure a tight fit around each
dowel.
Form a 1-inch (25 mm) wide and 1-inch (25 mm) deep opening on top of the expansion joint filler and seal
this opening with 705.04 joint sealers.
D. Contraction Joints. For pavement less than or equal to 10 inches (225 mm) thick, saw contraction joints with
a standard (water cooled diamond bladed) concrete saw to a minimum depth of one-fourth of the specified
pavement thickness. For pavement greater than 10-inches (255 mm) thick, saw contraction joints to a minimum
depth of one-third the specified pavement thickness. When cutting joints using a standard (water cooled diamond
blade) saw ensure the joint is 1/4 ± 1/16-inch (6 ± 1.6 mm) wide when measured at the time of sawing.
When using the option of early-entry (dry cut, light weight) saws, only use saw blades and skid plates as
recommended by the saw manufacturer for the coarse aggregate type being used in the concrete. Perform the early
entry contraction joint sawing after initial set and before final set. Saw the contraction joint 2-1/4 to 2-1/2-inches
(56 to 63 mm) deep. Ensure any early entry saw joints are approximately 1/8-inch (3 mm) wide at the time of
sawing.
If the pavement is constructed in two or more separately placed lanes, install the joints continuous for the full
width of the pavement. Saw the pavement with sawing equipment approved by the Engineer as soon as the saw can
be operated without damaging the concrete. Provide saws with adequate guides, blade guards, and a method of
controlling the depth of cut. After wet sawing, clean the joint using a jet of water. After dry sawing clean the joint
using air under pressure. During sawing of contraction joints, maintain a standby saw in working condition with
an adequate supply of blades.
E. Construction Joints. Install dowelled construction joints at the end of each day’s work and when work is
suspended for a period of more than 30 minutes.
Use dowels in transverse construction joints. Within 2 hours prior to placing concrete, coat the free half of all
dowels with a thin uniform coat of new light form oil. Use an adequate bulkhead, with openings provided for dowel
bars spaced as specified and shaped to fit the typical section of the pavement, to form a straight joint. During
placing of concrete, hold dowels rigidly in position.
Locate construction joints at or between contraction joints. If located between contraction joints, construct the
construction joint no closer than 10 feet (3 m) to the last contraction joint.
451.10 Finishing. Use 10-foot (3 m) straightedges to continually check the finished concrete surface for trueness.
If the pavement surface is dragged with a diagonal pipe float machine, occasionally check the surface while the
concrete is plastic. Do not add water to aid finishing.
Before the concrete initially sets, round the edges of the pavement along each side of each slab and on each side
of transverse expansion joints to the radius specified using an approved edging tool. Before texturing the surface,
eliminate tool marks left by the edging tool.
Texture the surface in the longitudinal or transverse direction using a broom to produce a uniform, gritty, texture.
Immediately following the broom drag texture, tine the pavement in the longitudinal direction using an approved
device that produces uniform tine spacing 3/4 inches (19 mm) apart, 1/8 inch deep (3 mm) and 1/8 inch wide (3
mm). Do not tine within 3 inches (75 mm) of pavement edges or longitudinal joints. Only use equipment that will
tine the full width of the pavement in one operation and uses string line controls for line and grade to assure straight
tining texture.
Use transverse tining in small areas only with the approval of the Engineer. Use equipment that produces a
random pattern of grooves [0.05 inch (1.3 mm) to 0.08 inch (2.0 mm) deep and 0.10 inch (3 mm) wide] spaced at
3/8 to 1-3/4 inches (10 to 45 mm), with 50 percent of spacings less than 1 inch (25 mm). Transverse tining may be
used as an option for shoulders of main line or shoulders of ramps and gore areas. Tine all mainline shoulders or
all ramp shoulders in a consistent direction if choosing this option. Request the use of transverse tining and identify
the locations, at least one week prior to paving, for approval by the Engineer.
Demonstrate to the Engineer methods to ensure the groove depth meets this specification.
Before the concrete finally sets, impress complete station numbers into the pavement every 100 feet (50 m), e.g.,
1+00 (2+050). Mark station equations in the pavement as shown on the plans. Ensure that the numerals are 3 to 4
inches (75 to 100 mm) high and 1/4 inch (6 mm) deep. Place the station numbers parallel with and facing the right
edge of the pavement, and centered 12 inches (0.30 m) in from the right edge. On divided highways, provide station
numbers on both pavements. When placing concrete shoulders with the traveled lane, place station numbers 12
inches (0.30 m) in from the outside edge of the shoulder and facing the pavement.
451.11 Curing. Immediately after the finishing operations have been completed and after all free water has
dissipated, spray and seal all exposed concrete surfaces with a uniform application of curing membrane in such a
manner as to provide a continuous uniform film without marring the surface of the concrete. Apply a minimum of
1 gallon (1 L) of material for each 150 square feet (3.7 m2) of surface treated using an approved self-propelled
mechanical sprayer. Provide an adequate shield to protect the fog spray from the wind. Before each use, thoroughly
agitate the curing material.
On pavement with integral curb or small and irregular areas that are inaccessible to the mechanical spray
machine, apply the curing material by a hand-held sprayer.
As soon as the forms have been removed, immediately correct all honey-comb areas and coat the edges of the
pavement with the curing material.
Respray all areas of curing material film damaged during the sawing of joints.
The Contractor may water cure concrete with wet burlap cloth, waterproof paper, or polyethylene sheeting. Apply
curing as soon as possible and without marring the concrete surface. Unless the specimen beams have attained a
modulus of rupture of 600 psi (4.2 MPa) keep the entire surface of the top and sides of the newly placed concrete
covered for seven days. Protect concrete from freezing until beams attain a strength of 600 psi (4.2 MPa).
The above requirements for curing are minimum requirements only. Repair or replace all concrete showing injury
or damage due to insufficient curing at no additional cost to the Department.
451.12 Removing Forms. Remove forms in a manner that doesn’t damage the pavement.
451.13 Surface Smoothness. After final concrete curing and cleaning the pavement surface, test the pavement
surface for smoothness using a 10-foot (3 m) rolling straightedge. Provide a two or four-wheeled device with an
indicator wheel at the center that detects high and low areas in the pavement surface. Provide equipment that
actuates a pointer scale, issues an audio alert, or marks the pavement with paint or dye when encountering any high
or low areas in excess of a preset tolerance. Tow or walk the rolling straightedge over the completed pavement.
Test all wheel paths in the presence of the Engineer. Locate wheel paths parallel to the pavement centerline and
approximately 3 feet (1 m) measured transversely from the center of the lane. Maintain alignment of the rolling
straightedge with reference to the pavement edge at all times. Other devices such as approved profilers conforming
to Supplement 1058 and using ProVAL software may be used with approval of the Engineer.
Correct all surface variations so indicated to within the specified tolerance and in a manner that provides a surface
texture conforming to 451.10. For corrective grinding provide equipment conforming to 451.14. Ensure pavement
surface variations do not exceed 1/8 inch in a 10-foot (3 mm in a 3 m) length of pavement. For ramp pavements
and for those pavements with curvature greater than 8 degrees, or with grades exceeding 6 percent, ensure the
surface variations do not exceed 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m).
Repair or replace sections of pavement containing depressions that cannot be corrected by grinding as directed
by the Engineer.
451.14 Profile Grinding. To correct surface variations exceeding tolerances specified in 451.13 use grinding
equipment conforming to Item 257.
451.15 Pavement Grooving Corrections. When pavement tining locations are found out of conformance with
451.10 correct the tining using power driven, self-propelled machines specifically designed to groove concrete
pavement with diamond impregnated blades or diamond impregnated cylinder rings. Furnish blades or cylinder
rings mounted on an arbor head so that the resulting grooves comply with 451.10. Furnish grooving equipment
with a depth control device that will detect variations in the pavement surface and enable adjustment of the cutting
head to maintain the specified groove depth.
If a pavement area was diamond ground to bring the pavement’s surface smoothness within the tolerances of
451.13, that pavement area does not require tining restoration conforming to 451.10.
Vary from these requirements only for small areas and only with written permission from the Engineer.
451.16 Sealing Expansion Joints. As soon as feasible after completing sawing, but before the pavement is open
to construction equipment and traffic, seal expansion joints with material conforming to 705.04. Just before sealing,
thoroughly clean each joint of all foreign material, using approved equipment. Ensure the joint faces are clean and
dry when the seal is installed.
451.17 Opening to Traffic. When 7 days have elapsed, the Contractor may use the completed pavement for
traffic, including construction traffic. If a modulus of rupture of 600 psi (4.2 MPa) has been attained, the Contractor
may open the pavement to traffic when 5 days have elapsed. If necessary to open a portion of the pavement in less
than 5 days, with the proviso that the pavement will be cured for a minimum of 3 days, use a high early strength
concrete composed of additional 701.04 or 701.05 cement, or non-chloride accelerating admixture to obtain a
modulus of rupture of 600 psi (4.2 MPa) in 3 days or less.
Pavement Repairs before Department Acceptance. Remove and replace or repair diagonal cracks;
longitudinal cracks; transverse cracks; spalled pavement surfaces, and any pavement panels with cement balls or
mud balls; as approved by and at no cost to the Department. Do not repair single hairline transverse cracks in the
middle third of panels with reinforcing conforming to BP-1.1. Submit a repair plan with the location, type of repair,
materials to be used and procedures to the Department for approval. Do not perform any repairs without Department
approval.
The Engineer may approve repair of isolated transverse or diagonal cracks with a full depth repair according to
Item 255 and applicable standard construction drawings. Repair cracks by replacing the pavement the full width
between longitudinal joints, perpendicular to the centerline and at least 6 feet (1.8 m) longitudinally. Install smooth
dowel bars at the interface between the original pavement and the replaced pavement section. Locate and size the
repairs to ensure that the repair limits are at least 7 feet (2.1 m) away from any transverse joint.
The Engineer may approve repair of isolated longitudinal cracks within 15 inches (380 mm) of a tied longitudinal
joint by routing and sealing the crack according to Item 423. For other longitudinal cracks, repair the same as for
transverse or diagonal cracks stated above.
The Engineer may approve repair of isolated spalled pavement with Item 256 Bonded Patching of Portland
Cement Concrete Pavement.
Repair all cement balls or mud balls by coring out the area full depth with a diamond core bit and replacing the
removed concrete with the same concrete as in the pavement. Remove and replace any pavement panel with 5 or
more cement balls or mudballs. Locate the limits of the repair along the longitudinal joints and at least 1-foot (0.3
m) past the transverse joints to remove any existing dowel bars. Install smooth dowel bars at the transverse limits
of the repairs. Install Type D (Drilled Tied Longitudinal) Joint along the longitudinal limits.
451.18 Pavement Thickness and Concrete Strength.
As determined by measurement of cores cut as specified in this section, construct the concrete not
more than 0.2 inch (5 mm) less than the specified thickness. Core pavement at the direction of the Engineer and at
locations the Engineer determines according to Supplement 1064.
A.
Thickness.
For the purpose of coring, the Department will consider the entire pavement area of a specified thickness a lot.
To determine the number of cores, each lot will be divided into sublots. A sublot consists of 2000 square yards
(1650 m2) of a pavement lot or major fraction thereof.
Take one random core for each sublot but not less than 3 cores for any pavement lot cored. If a core shows a
deficiency in thickness of more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the specified thickness, take additional cores to
determine the limits of the deficiency. Follow the procedures below:
1. Take a core 5 feet (1.5 m) longitudinally on both sides of the deficient core. If both the cores are less than
1/2-inch (13 mm) deficient in thickness, the zone of deficiency has been determined.
2. If either or both 451.18.A.1 cores are more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) deficient in thickness, cut a core 50 feet
(15 m) longitudinally from the deficient core(s). If the 50 foot (15 m) core(s) is more than 1/2 inch (13 mm)
deficient, cut additional cores at 100 foot (30 m) longitudinal intervals until a core is less than 1/2 inch (13 mm)
deficient; until the pavement ends; or until overlapping an adjacent pavement sublot’s core in the same lane.
3. If a pavement sublot has cores more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) deficient in thickness and the sublot’s
constructed width is greater than 12 feet (3.6 m) obtain cores transverse to the location of the deficient cores. Obtain
transverse cores at a location 1/2 the distance from the deficient core to the furthest edge of pavement. Obtain a
transverse core for each core more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) deficient.
4. The Engineer will use the cores that measure less than 1/2 inch (13 mm) deficient in thickness to define
the limits of the deficiency.
If any deficient core is greater than 1 inch (25 mm) deficient in thickness determine the limits of over 1 inch
(25 mm) deficiency by following 451.18.A.1 thru 4 to determine the limits. Remove and replace those areas greater
than 1 inch (25 mm) deficient in thickness.
The Engineer will calculate average thickness of concrete pavement placed as follows:
When zones of deficient thickness greater than 1/2 inch (13 mm) to 1 inch (25 mm) are allowed to remain in
place, the Engineer will calculate two average thicknesses. A Project Average Thickness (PAT) including all cores
not more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) deficient. Cores that exceed the specified thickness by more than 1/2 inch (13 mm)
will be considered as the specified thickness plus 1/2 inch (13 mm) when calculating the PAT. A second Deficient
Zone Average (DZA) will include all cores with thickness deficiency greater than 1/2 inch (13 mm) to 1 inch (25
mm). The pavement represented by each of the two averages, PAT or DZA, will be calculated and paid separately.
The Engineer will determine and apply deductions to each separately placed width of pavement.
For any pavement areas removed and replaced, re-core those areas following this section of the specifications.
Include those core values into the calculations for average pavement thickness.
Unless the Director requests, do not core any widening less than 5 feet (1.5 m) in width or any pavement area
less than 2000 square yards (1650 square meters).
Fill all core holes with concrete of the same proportions and materials used in the pavement.
B. Strength. Obtain an additional core at the same location as the thickness core from each pavement sublot to
determine compressive strength. .
For concrete pavement bid items “with QC/QA”, the AASHTO accredited laboratory will test the QC cores
for compressive strength according to ASTM C 42. Test the QC cores from 28 to 90 days of age. Notify the
Engineer when the QC cores will be tested.
The Engineer will require one QA core for every 10 sublots for verification testing of compressive strength.
Obtain the QA core from the same location as the QC core tested for compressive strength. At least one QA core
will be required per lot. Provide the QA cores to the Engineer for testing at District Testing. Notify the Engineer
of the date that the corresponding QC core will be tested. The QA cores will be tested on the same date. The
Engineer will verify the QC cores versus the QA cores according to 455.
Calculate an average and standard deviation for each lot according to Supplement 1127. Determine the pay
factors according to table 451.19-2.
Do not calculate an average and standard deviation for high-early strength concrete QC cores. Determine the
pay factors for individual sublots according to Table 451.19-2.
For concrete pavements bid items “without QC/QA”, the Department will perform the strength testing. Provide
the Engineer with the cores for strength testing. Pay factors for sublot cores will be calculated based on the highearly strength concrete pay factors in Table 451.19-2.
451.19 Price Adjustments. Payment will be made at the unit bid price upon completion of any section of
pavement. Final pay adjustments to the bid price will be made upon completion of the pavement operations and all
thickness, strength and smoothness data is tabulated and pay adjustments applied according to 451.19.A through
451.19.D.
A. Pavement Thickness. Price adjustments for thickness deficiencies will be calculated according to Table
451.19-1
TABLE 451.19-1
CONCRETE PAVEMENT THICKNESS PAY FACTOR (PFT)
Deficiency in Thickness as Determined by Cores
0.0 to 0.2 inch (0.0 to 5 mm)
Proportional Part of Contract Price
100 percent
0.3 to 0.5 inch (6 to 13 mm)
0.6 to 1.0 inch (15 to 25 mm)*
 [
 6
]

 6
 [
]

Greater than 1.0 inch (25 mm)
Remove and replace
* The DCA will determine whether pavement areas from 0.6 inch (15 mm) to 1 inch (25 mm) deficient in thickness
will be allowed to remain in place at the reduced price or must be removed and replaced.
PAT = Project Average Thickness
PST = Plan Specified Thickness
DZA = Deficient Zone Average
B. Concrete Strength. Record the compressive strength results for each sublot of concrete. High-early strength
mixes, QC MS and QC FS, mixes, are calculated separately. Determine the strength pay factor according to Table
451.19-2.
TABLE 451.19-2
CONCRETE PAVEMENT STRENGTH PAY FACTOR
Design Strength = f’c from 499 or as per plan
Individual Sublot Core Strength = x
Project Average Strength (̅ ) = ∑1  ÷ 
Project Standard Deviation (δ) = √∑( − ̅ )2 /( − 1)
Project Required Strength (f’cr) = f’c + 1.65 δ
Strength Pay Factor (PFS) = ̅ / f’cr *
* When PFS is greater than 1.00, pay the unit bid price
For high-early strength sublots, determine the pay factor separately as follows:
If the individual sublot core strength (x) is greater than f’c,
PFS = 100% of the Unit bid price for the quantity represented.
If the individual sublot core strength (x) is less than f’c, the
PFS = (/f’c) of the Unit bid price for the quantity represented.
C. Pavement Smoothness. When the Project plans include Proposal Note 420 determine a lump sum payment
adjustment following the requirements of Proposal Note 420.
D. Multiple Deficiencies. When a pavement exhibits multiple deficiencies for thickness and strength, the reduced
unit price will be calculated for each deficiency and the lowest reduced unit price will be used. Adjustment for
smoothness under 451.19.C will conform to the lump sum requirements of 451.19.C.
451.20 Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Reinforced Concrete Pavement by the number
of square yards (square meters) completed and accepted in place. The width equals the pavement width shown on
the typical cross-section of the plans plus additional widening as the Engineer directs in writing. The Department
will field measure the length along the centerline of each roadway or ramp. The Department will determine the
area based on the above width and length.
451.21 Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing and placing all materials including
reinforcing steel, dowels, and joint materials; for furnishing the 10-foot (3 m) rolling straightedge; and for coring
and testing the pavement. For pavement found deficient in thickness or compressive strength, the Department will
pay a reduced price according to 451.19.
The Department will not pay extra for pavement with an average thickness in excess of that shown on the plans.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
451
451
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Reinforced Concrete Pavement Class ____
Reinforced Concrete Pavement Class ____ with QC/QA
ITEM 452 NON-REINFORCED PORTLAND CEMENT
CONCRETE PAVEMENT
452.01
452.02
452.03
452.04
Description
Construction
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
452.01
Description. This work consists of constructing a non-reinforced portland cement concrete pavement
on a prepared surface.
452.02
Construction. The requirements of Item 451 apply, except as follows.
Do not comply with the requirements of 451.08.
Provide dowels at transverse contraction joints in mainline pavement, ramps, acceleration/deceleration lanes, or
collector/distributor lanes. Dowels for contraction joints in concrete shoulders on mainline pavement, ramps,
acceleration/deceleration lanes, or collector/distributor lanes are not required unless the contraction joint is located
within 500 feet (150 m) of a pressure relief joint.
Space contraction joints according to the standard construction drawings. If Item 452 pavement is specified for
shoulders and is tied longitudinally to Item 451 or 305 pavement, match the joints in the shoulder pavement to the
spacing and alignment of the adjacent pavement.
Do not place construction joints within 6 feet (1.8 m) of another parallel joint.
If making pavement repairs before Department acceptance under 451.17, repair all cracks exclusive of size or
location
452.03
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Non-Reinforced Concrete Pavement by the
number of square yards (square meters) completed and accepted in place. The width equals the pavement width
shown on the typical cross-sections of the plans plus additional widening as the Engineer directs in writing. The
Department will field measure the length along the centerline of each roadway or ramp.
452.04
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for furnishing and placing all materials, for surface
testing, and for coring the pavement.
For pavement found deficient in thickness or compressive strength, the Department will pay a reduced price
according to 451.19.
The Department will not make additional payment over the contract unit price for any pavement with an average
thickness in excess of that shown on the plans.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
452
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Non-Reinforced Concrete Pavement, Class _____
452
Non-Reinforced Concrete Pavement, Class ______ with QC/QA
ITEM 455 QUALITY CONTROL PLAN, TESTING AND ASSURANCE FOR QC/QA
CONCRETE
455.01
455.02
455.03
455.04
455.05
455.06
455.07
General
Quality Control Plan Basic Requirements
Additional Quality Control Plan Requirements for Structures
Additional Quality Control Plan Requirements for Concrete Pavement
Department Quality Assurance
QCP Submittal and Corrective Action
Basis of Payment
455.01
General. Use this specification for items 451, 452, 305 and 511 when the bid item description requires
QC/QA. This specification defines the minimum Quality Control Plan (QCP) requirements, the Contractor’s
minimum quality control (QC) materials testing and the Department’s quality assurance (QA) materials verification
testing requirements.
Develop a QCP to assure that all materials and construction practices for the item will conform to the
specifications. Establish the responsibilities, duties and frequency for both in-process controls and quality control
testing at the concrete’s source and at the job site.
455.02
Quality Control Plan Basic Requirements. Submit a complete QCP that includes, at a minimum,
the following:
A. Basic Information. Provide the following information:
1. The name and location of the Department inspected and approved concrete producer.
2. The Department accepted Job Mix Formula (JMF) to be used for each item.
3. The name and accreditation of the AASHTO accredited laboratory to be used for testing fresh and hardened
concrete properties for structures or pavements. Provide notification to the Department immediately when there is
a change in accreditation status.
4. Name of the person(s) who is responsible for compliance with the QCP; acts as liaison to the Department;
reports any non-specification test results and assures that adjustments are made to remedy problems.
5. Names of all technicians from the AASHTO accredited laboratory who will perform project site inspection,
sampling and testing. Provide additional technician names when plant sampling and testing is also required. Use
ACI certified Concrete Field Testing Technicians - Grade I to perform concrete sampling and testing. Provide
copies of their ACI certificates.
6. Names of all technicians from the AASHTO accredited laboratory who will perform compressive strength
testing. Use ACI certified Concrete Strength Testing Technicians to perform compressive strength testing. Provide
copies of their ACI certificates.
7. Calibration records of test equipment to be used on the project.
8. Develop and provide example forms for reporting QC test results to the Engineer conforming to 455.03.C
or 455.04.G.
B. Minimum Quality Control at the Concrete Source. Address how the following items will be controlled in
the QCP:
1. Verify that the material sources are certified for the type of work in which they are to be used.
2. Verify that aggregates, cementitious materials and admixtures sources and design weights match the
proposed JMF.
3. Describe how aggregates will be hauled, stockpiled and handled to minimize segregation, avoid
contamination, and assure a uniform gradation.
4. Describe procedures and frequency used to control and measure aggregate moistures.
5. Provide the batching sequence and mixing procedures to be used to assure that material balling does not
occur.
6. Describe how adjustments to the SSD aggregate design weights in the JMF are made to compensate for
moisture contained in the aggregates during batching.
7. Describe how adjustments to mix water will be made to compensate for aggregate moistures to assure the
JMF’s water-cementitious ratio (W/Cm) is not exceeded.
8. Define how the batching tolerances of 499.06 are assured.
9. Provide the information reported on the batch ticket and how it will be validated to meet the requirements
of 499.07.
10. Describe the method and frequency of assuring that the combined aggregate gradation remains within Zone
II of the Coarseness Factor Chart. If adjustments are made to the JMF proportions, provide the individual aggregate
gradations, combined aggregate gradation, and verification that the proportions remain within Zone II of the
Coarseness Factor Chart to the Engineer prior to placement.
11. If using a non-potable water source, describe the procedures and frequency to verify that the water meets
the requirements of ASTM C1602.
a. If a reclaiming system is used, describe the method and frequency of testing to ensure that the water
contains no more than 0.06% chlorides.
12. Describe how and when the water is removed from the mixer prior to batching a new load of concrete.
13. Describe methods to verify that the storage and dispensing methods for the admixtures comply with the
manufacturer’s recommendations.
14. Describe methods to keep the concrete temperature within specifications and how to mitigate effects of
changes to the set time.
15. Define the desired slump and tolerance for concrete in each construction item.
455.03
Additional Quality Control Plan Requirements for Structures. In addition to basic QCP minimum
requirements of 455.02, provide the following for structures:
A. Material Quality Control Requirements. Provide the following controls for the concrete materials:
1. Divide the concrete for the project into lots and sublots and define the placement sequence for each work
item as follows:
a. Division of Lots. A lot consists of concrete of the same JMF. Divide lots by substructure and
superstructure items. Include approach slab concrete with the superstructure lot. Combine structural components
requiring the same class of concrete with different reference numbers into a single lot. However, one exception is
a slipformed parapet may be considered separately from a bridge deck of same class of concrete.
b. Division into QC Sublots. Divide each lot into sublots of not more than 50 yd3 (40 m3) for obtaining
QC samples. In no case should there be less than 3 sublots in a lot. The Engineer will approve the sublot division.
2. Determine and define the sampling location based on placement method (i.e. pumping, tremie, direct chute
deliver, etc.).
a. Define in the QCP plan equipment and methods to be used for 455.03.A.3.b.
3.
Perform the following Quality Control Testing for Air content and slump at a minimum:
Air Content. Sample the concrete to perform the QC testing at the point of placement. Use the following quality
control procedures during placement:
a. Sample and test the air content on at least the first three (3) loads of concrete delivered for each day’s
placement. Ensure the air content is within the specified parameters in Table 499.03-1 prior to extending the testing
frequency to each sublot.
b. For concrete delivered to the point of placement by means of pumping equipment, describe the
methods that will be used to provide back-pressure in the system in order to minimize the amount of air loss and
maintain a continuous flow of concrete in the pipe lines and boom during the pumping operation. Obtain concrete
samples at the point of placement without interrupting the continuous flow of concrete by either passing the pump
line over a sampling container or obtain a composite sample from five different portions of the deposited concrete
prior to vibration. Sample and test the air content at the point of placement for the first three (3) loads to ensure
that it is within the specified parameters in Table 499.03-1 prior to extending the frequency to each sublot.
c. When the Engineer determines concrete cannot feasibly be sampled at the point of placement, provide
a trial placement of concrete to verify that the air content is within the limits of Table 499.03-1.
If a load of concrete is tested and found to have an air content beyond the limits of Table 499.03-1, do not
accept and place that load unless it can be adjusted to be within the specified limits. Do not adjust the air content
using a defoaming agent.
Notify the Engineer and test at least the next three loads for air content to ensure that the results are again
within the limits of Table 499.03-1. The sampling frequency may then be extended back to one test for every sublot.
Slump. Perform slump testing at the point of discharge when strength specimens are obtained. Ensure that the
slump is within the specified parameters of Table 499.03-3.
4. Establish who is responsible for reporting air and slump results to the Engineer within 1 day after each
placement.
5. Describe the methods for initial curing, transporting, curing, testing and reporting test results of the QC
compressive strength specimens to the Engineer within five (5) days or the completion of testing.
a.
Define the unique sample identification and tracking method of concrete specimens.
6. QC Compressive Strength Testing. Perform QC sampling for compressive strength, at the point of
discharge for each sublot from the load randomly determined by the Engineer. The Contractor may sample at the
point of placement if air content exceeds the limits of Table 499.03-1 at the point of discharge.
For each sublot make one (1) set of three (3) – 4 x 8 inch (100 x 200 mm) QC compressive strength
cylinders. Perform all required making, curing, transporting, capping and testing of the samples to conform to the
applicable ASTM specifications.
Have the AASHTO accredited laboratory perform the compression testing on the cylinders.
7. Field Cured Strengths. Determine whether field cured cylinders, beams or maturity curve acceptance will
be used for 511.13 and 511.14 strength testing. Define how many cylinders or beams will be made per placement.
a. Field Cured Samples. Describe the methods for transporting, testing and reporting the test results of
field cured samples for falsework removal and opening to traffic.
b. Define the reporting methods to be used to keep the Engineer informed that field cured strength results
conform to the requirements for construction, falsework removal and opening to traffic.
If developing a maturity curve, provide the maturity curve to the Engineer with the QCP conforming to
Supplement 1098.
B. Construction Process Quality Control Requirements. In addition to the requirements of 455.02, Provide
the following for the construction processes:
1. Establish and define in the QCP the minimum required rate of concrete delivery for continuous placement
for each construction item; determine if the plant capacity is capable of providing the concrete at the established
rate; and determine how many trucks will be used to provide the concrete at the specified rate of delivery.
2. Describe the procedures and equipment to be used for delivering and placing concrete for each item;
methods of consolidating, finishing and grooving the concrete; and methods of curing the concrete.
3. Describe methods and frequency of assuring the grade, super elevation, slab thickness, reinforcing steel
cover, etc. meets the plan dimensions.
4.
Establish the orientation of the finishing machine on a skewed superstructure to conform to 511.07.
5.
Describe the methods to be used to meet cold or hot weather procedures as necessary.
6. Describe methods to prevent the evaporation rate from exceeding the specification requirements and
actions to be taken when ambient and concrete temperatures exceed the requirements of 511.07.
7.
Describe the methods of protecting concrete if inclement weather occurs.
8.
Describe how and when the vibrator frequency is verified to conform to 511.07.
9. Describe the placement procedures to be used to assure that the tolerances for slipformed concrete meets
the requirements of 511.08.
10. Describe the methods and schedule for providing control joints in parapets according to 511.08.
11. Describe the lighting plan equipment and methods, when necessary for placement according to 511.07.
C. Reporting. For the laboratory tested QC air content results report the following information within one day of
completing the testing. For the laboratory tested QC compressive strength results report the following information
within five (5) days of completing the testing:
1.
Sample ID, as provided by the Department *
2.
Project number
3.
Producer name
4.
Class of concrete
5.
Batch ticket number
6.
Date sampled
7.
Lot and sublot identification
8.
Placement and sample location
9.
Air content
10. Slump
11. Concrete temperature
12. Batch weight *
13. Unit weight *
14. Specimen size *
15. Date tested *
16. Age *
17. Individual strength results and average strength *
18. Type of fracture *
19. Laboratory name
20. Technician name
* Not required when reporting air content test results.
455.04
Additional Quality Control Plan Requirements for Concrete Pavement. In addition to the
requirements of 455.02, provide the following information:
A. Division of Pavement into Lots. For the purpose of thickness and strength determination, a lot consists of the
entire pavement area of the same pavement thickness and the same class of concrete. Areas using high-early
strength concrete are considered a separate lot. In the QCP define the lots for the project. The Engineer will approve
the lot division.
B. Division of Lots into Quality Control Sublots. Provide the placement sequence and placement widths for
the pavement work and determine the sublot division conforming to Supplement 1064. Provide the Engineer the
proposed sublots. The Engineer will approve the sublot division.
C. Material Control Requirements. During production of the concrete pavement, perform the following quality
checks:
1.
Check the aggregate stockpile conditions, gradation and moisture condition daily.
a.
gradation.
Provide the name and OAIMA Level II certification of the person(s) performing the aggregate
b. Define the methods of reporting results to the Engineer including whether the concrete aggregate
proportions still conform to the mix’s well graded requirements.
2. For portable plants, assure that the plant is inspected by the Department prior to placing concrete. Describe
the procedures and frequencies to verify the mixer blades condition and the scale, gage, meter and admixture
dispenser operation.
3.
During paving, perform the following:
a. Air, Slump and Temperature. Sample and test the concrete at least each ½ day of operation at the
placement location.
4. Testing for opening the pavement to traffic early according to 451.17. Describe the methods to be used to
assure the modulus of rupture obtains 600 psi (4.2 MPa). Define the methods to report results to the Engineer.
D. Pavement Cores for Compression and Thickness. Define at what age the sublot cores for strength and
thickness will be taken. Define the age the cores will be tested for compressive strength. Take strength cores at the
same location as the cores for thickness determination. Determine sublot core locations according to Supplement
1064.
1. Pavement Thickness Measurement. Define who will be measuring the pavement thickness according to
Supplement 1064. Define the frequency of reporting pavement thickness results to the Engineer. When the sublot
core’s thickness is deficient, follow the requirements of 451.18 for additional core locations to determine the
deficiency’s limits.
2.
Define how the Engineer will be provided access to witness the measurements.
3.
Define the method and frequency of reporting pavement thickness results to the Engineer
E. Concrete Strength. For each sublot, test the core strengths using an AASHTO accredited laboratory.
1.
Propose the method and frequency of reporting the results to the Engineer for acceptance.
F. Construction Process Requirements
1. Define the minimum required rate of concrete delivery for continuous placement and assure that the
equipment and transportation is adequate to provide the concrete at that rate.
2.
Describe the methods of protecting the concrete in the case of inclement weather.
3. Describe the methods and frequency of controlling and checking the plastic thickness during paving and
reporting issues to the Engineer.
4.
Define fine grading methods and equipment
5.
Define the procedure and frequency of conditioning the subbase or subgrade before pavement placement.
6. Define who will perform the HIPERPAV analysis required in 451.09 and the proposed timeframe the
Engineer will have to review the report.
7. Describe equipment and methods for consistently delivering and evenly spreading the concrete in front of
the paver.
8. Describe the procedure for dowel bar or load transfer device installation and methods for determining
proper placement location after concrete placement. Assure methods conform with 451.09.B.
9. Describe the type of tie bar or alternate bolt that will be utilized at each longitudinal joint location and
methods of placement. Describe the methods and monitoring frequency that will be utilized to assure tie bars are
placed and conform with 451.09.A in the finished pavement.
10. Describe methods of monitoring the vibrator operation and frequency, time of day, station location and
track speed according to 451.05.B.
11. Describe methods that will be used to ensure that in place concrete conforms to the air entrainment and
uniformity requirements after placement and finishing are complete.
12. Define materials, methods and controls for curing and joint sealing and assuring application requirements.
13. Describe joint sawing methods and proposed timing to the sawing operation.
14. Describe finishing and pavement grooving methods.
15. Pavement Smoothness.
a.
Define methods to check pavement smoothness conforming to 451.13 and reporting to the Engineer.
b. If other smoothness tolerances are required in the contract define the methods to measure, evaluate,
and report the results to the Engineer.
G. Reporting Requirements.
1.
2.
Report the following QC testing information to the Engineer daily.
a.
Project number
b.
Class of concrete
c.
JMF number
d.
Batch ticket number
e.
Date and time sampled
f.
Air content
g.
Slump
h.
Concrete temperature
i.
Aggregate moistures results
j.
Aggregate gradation results
k.
Laboratory name
l.
Technician name
Report the pavement thickness measurements conforming to the form in Supplement 1064.
3. Report the compressive strength test results from the QC cores sampled according to 451.18.B with the
following information:
a.
Pavement lot
b.
Class of concrete
c.
JMF number
d.
Sublot number
e.
Core location
f.
Placement date
g.
Age at time of testing, in days
h.
Compressive strength.
i.
Name of Concrete Producer
j.
Name of Contractor
k.
Name of laboratory
455.05
Department Quality Assurance. The Department will perform Quality Assurance materials
verification sampling and testing as specified or as deemed necessary.
A. Structure Concrete. The Engineer will perform and determine random number locations for QC compressive
strength testing of each sublot.
1. Random Number Determination. The Engineer will determine a random number for each sublot to
determine from which load the QC sample will be taken using the table in Supplement 1127 or a random number
generator.
2. Slump and Air. The Engineer will perform side-by-side air and slump field testing with the Contractor
and compare results. If the difference between the Department’s and the Contractor’s test result is greater than the
tolerances listed below, the Contractor and Engineer will determine the reason for slump or air content differences
and make necessary adjustments. The Engineer may stop the placement until the reason for the difference is
established and corrected. The Engineer will check one of the first three loads delivered. Once the results are within
the tolerances listed below, the Engineer may reduce the QA sampling and testing frequency to 10% of the
Contractor’s subsequent QC tests.
Slump ±1 inch (25 mm)
Air Content ±1%.
3. Compressive Strength. The Engineer will obtain compressive strength QA samples from the same location
as the Contractor’s quality control samples at a frequency of one QA sample for every 10 sublots, or at least one
per lot. The Engineer will make six (6) 4 x 8 inch (100 x 200 mm) cylinders for each sample. The Engineer will
mark the cylinders with identification and the Contractor shall provide initial curing at the project.
After the initial curing at the project site, deliver three (3) QA cylinders to District Testing and three (3)
QA cylinders to the AASHTO accredited laboratory for standard curing and testing. The AASHTO accredited
laboratory will test the QA sample and the QC sample and report the test results on the form accepted by the QCP.
Distinguish the QA from the QC results for the sublot.
The Engineer will compare and verify that the tested QC and the matching tested QA test results are within
14% of the Department tested QA result. If the comparison is favorable, the Contractor QC testing is considered
verified.
a. When the comparison of the results are more than 14%, investigate the results with the Engineer to
determine the reason for the difference. If the reason for the difference cannot be determined to the Engineer’s
satisfaction, the Engineer will require the Contractor to either non-destructively test or core the concrete represented
by the cylinder tests to determine compressive strength. Hire a second independent AASHTO accredited laboratory
to perform this additional testing. The Engineer will witness the testing and evaluate the results. The Department
will reimburse the Contractor for all testing costs when the Department’s results are in error. If the QC results are
found to be valid, use the QC results. If the QC results are not valid, use the core results to determine the
compressive strength values for pay factors per 511.22.A.
B. Pavement and Base Concrete. The Engineer will perform side-by-side sampling and testing with the
Contractor and compare results.
1. Air Content and slump. The Department will perform quality assurance testing of the air content on at
least 10 percent of the Contractor’s QC samples. The results will be compared and if the difference between the
Department’s and the Contractor’s test results is greater than ±1% or ±1.0 inch the Contractor and Engineer will
determine the reason for difference and make necessary adjustments. The Engineer may stop the placement until
the reason for the difference is established and corrected. Make any required modifications or changes to the QCP,
the technician, and equipment before continuing paving.
2. Compressive Strength. The Engineer will randomly select 1 out of every 10 QC core locations to have an
additional core obtained as a QA strength sample according to Supplement 1127. The QA core sample will be
provided to the Engineer and District Testing will cure and test the QA core at the date specified by the Contractor.
The Engineer will compare and verify that the Department tested QA core and the matching Contractor
tested QC core test result are within 13% of the District Testing QA result. If the comparison is favorable, the
Contractor QC testing is considered verified.
If the difference between core results is greater than 13%, the Engineer will investigate both the
Contractor’s AASHTO accredited laboratory and District Testing for the accuracy of the equipment and procedures
for conducting the compressive strength testing of the cores. If the investigation does not determine the reason for
the discrepancy between cores, the Contractor will re-core the sublot in dispute and the core will be tested at OMM.
The OMM core result will be compared to the Contractor’s QC core result. If the comparison is within 13%, the
Contractor’s QC result will be accepted and considered verified. If not within the 13% range, the project sublots
will be re-cored by the Contractor and tested by the Department. The results will be used for payment under
451.19.B.
455.06
QCP Submittal and Corrective Action. Submit the proposed QCP to the Engineer for acceptance
at least 10 days prior to placing concrete.
If the submitted QCP is not accepted by the Engineer, revise and resubmit the QCP and provide an additional 10
days for acceptance. Reschedule the concrete placement, when necessary, to allow time for the review and
acceptance of the QCP.
The QCP acceptance is based on the concept that the proposed QCP procedures will provide work meeting all
specification requirements. If the accepted QCP is not being followed the Engineer will require compliance or resubmittal of any modifications for review and acceptance.
When the actual work produced by the QCP does not conform to specification requirements, the Engineer will
require modification of the QCP to return the work to conformance. When notified by the Engineer propose
modifications to the QCP for acceptance. Do not continue work until the Engineer has either accepted the revised
QCP or determined work can continue.
455.07
Basis of Payment. The cost of developing and implementing the QCP is incidental to the cost of the
concrete sold with the QC/QA requirement.
ITEM 499 CONCRETE—GENERAL
499.01
499.02
499.03
499.04
499.05
499.06
499.07
499.08
Description
Materials
Concrete Mix Design
Adjustments and Controls
Equipment
Handling, Measuring, and Batching Materials
Batch Plant Tickets
Mixing Concrete
499.01
Description. This specification consists of proportioning requirements for Portland concrete mix
designs, mixing, and controls of Portland cement concrete.
499.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Portland cement ..................................................... 701.01, 701.02, 701.04
.................................................. 701.05 and 701.09 or blended cement[1]
Microsilica ....................................................................................... 701.10
Ground granulated blast furnace slag
(GGBFS) ...................................................................................... 701.11
Fly ash .............................................................................................. 701.13
Carbonate Micro-Fines ................................................................... 701.14
Fine aggregate [2][3] .......................................................................... 703.02
Coarse aggregate[3]........................................................... 703.02, 703.13[4]
Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) ............................ Supplement 1117
Air-entraining admixture ................................................................. 705.10
Chemical admixture for concrete[5] ................................................. 705.12
[1]
If blended cement is used, provide mill certification of all the cement and pozzolanic components and final
product for approval by the Office of Materials Management
[2]
703.02 natural sand or sand manufactured from stone as specified in Item 703.02.A.3 is required in 255,
256, 451, 452, 526, and 511 deck slabs.
[3]
Aggregates may be standard gradation sizes from 703.02 and Table 703.01-1 or they may be a modified
gradation defined with the mix design submittal and certified by the Office of Materials Management under
Supplement 1069.
[4]
Applies only to 305, 451 and 452 concrete.
[5]
Admixtures shall contain no more than 50 parts per million chloride ions by weight of cement except for
Type C accelerating admixtures or calcium chloride for QC-FS only
Use water for concrete mixing free from sewage, oil, acid, strong alkalis, vegetable matter, clay, and loam.
Potable water is satisfactory for use in concrete. Non-potable water will meet the requirements of ASTM C1602.
Water from a reclaiming system will contain no more than 0.06% chlorides. Test the non-potable water monthly
and maintain data verifying that the water meets the requirements. Provide the data at the Engineer’s request.
499.03
Concrete Mix Designs. Develop concrete mix designs with 1 inch maximum nominal size coarse
aggregate according to ACI 301, Section 4 meeting the requirements of Table 499.03-1. Limit the pozzolan content
of any mix design according to Table 499.03-2. The design air for concrete with 1” nominal maximum size
aggregate is 7 percent. Develop concrete mix designs per this specification and Supplement 1126.
Only use mix designs accepted by the Department and issued a JMF number.
TABLE 499.03-1 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Quantities per Cubic Yard (Cubic Meter)
Provide Concrete with 7±2% Air Content
Cementitious
Permeability [1]
Design Strength
Content [2]
Aggregate
Class
Maximum
psi (MPa)
Minimum.
Requirements
(Coulombs)
lbs (kg)
QC 1
4,000 (28.0) at 28 days
2,000
520 (236)
Well-Graded
QC 2
4,500 (31.0) at 28 days
1,500
520 (236)
Well-Graded
QC 3
1,500
520 (236)
Well-Graded or as per
As per plan
Special
or as per plan
or as per plan
plan
QC 4 Mass
4,000 (28.0)
2,000
470 (213) [4] [5] Well-Graded or as per
Concrete
or as per plan [3]
or as per plan
or as per plan
plan
1 inch or 3/8 inch
QC 5 [8]
4500 (31.0) at 28 days
N/A
520 (236)
nominal maximum size
1 inch nominal
QC MS
See Supplement 1126
N/A
800 (363)
maximum size
1 inch nominal
QC FS
See Supplement 1126
N/A
900 (408)
maximum size
1 inch nominal
QC Misc [6] 4,000 (28.0) at 28 days
N/A
550[7] (249)
maximum size
[1] AASHTO T277 Modified.
[2] Cementitious Content includes cement, pozzolan, and carbonate micro-fines materials,
denoted as Cm.
[3] Strength for Mass Concrete (QC 4) may be tested at either 28 or 56 days.
[4] Do not use Type III cement or accelerating admixtures in mass concrete.
[5] The maximum fly ash or GGBFS content may be increased up to 50%.
[6] For QC Misc mixes only –Water/Cementitious ratio limited to 0.50 maximum.
[7] Cement or a combination of cement and up to15% fly ash or up to 30% GGBFS.
[8] For QC 5 mixes with 3/8 inch nominal size, provide an air content of 8±2%.
Determine the permeability by testing according to AASHTO T277 except moist cure the permeability samples
for 7 days at 73 °F (23 °C) followed by 21 days of moist curing at 100 °F (38 °C). Perform permeability testing at
28 days.
Limit pozzolan materials as a percent of total cementitious content according to Table 499.03-2:
TABLE 499.03-2 POZZOLAN MATERIALS
MATERIAL
MAXIMUM CONTENT (%)
Fly Ash
GGBFS
Micro-Silica
25
30
10
[1]
20
Carbonate Micro-Fines
When using multiple pozzolan materials, do not exceed the individual
maximum contents above for each material. A combination of pozzolan
materials may not exceed 50% of the total cementitious content by weight.
[1]
Not for use in QC 2 or QC 3 concrete.
A. Slump. Maintain slump within the nominal slump range in Table 499.03-3. If below the maximum watercementititous ratio of the Job Mix Formula (JMF), adjust the quantity of water to meet slump requirements. Do not
use concrete with a slump greater than the maximum shown in Table 499.03-3. Conduct tests on the plastic concrete
for pavement at the point of placement or at an Engineer-designated location.
TABLE 499.03-3 CONCRETE SLUMP
Nominal Slump
Maximum Slump
inch (mm)[1]
inch (mm)[2]
Concrete pavement (305, 451, 452, 615)
1 to 3 (25 to 75)
4 (100)
Structural Concrete (511, 610, 622)
1 to 4 (25 to 100)
5 (125)
Superstructure concrete (511, 526)
2 to 4 (50 to 100)
4 (100)
Non-reinforced concrete (601, 602, 611, 608, 609, 622)
1 to 4 (25 to 100)
5 (125)
[1]
This nominal slump may be increased to 6 inches (150 mm), provided the increase in slump is
achieved by adding a chemical admixture conforming to the requirements of 705.12, Type F or G.
[2]
This maximum slump may be increased to 7 inches (180 mm), provided the increase in slump is
achieved by adding a chemical admixture conforming to the requirements of 705.12, Type F or G.
Type of Work
B. Air Content. Ensure that the air content in all concrete at the point of placement is within the percentage
range specified in Table 499.03-1.
499.04 Adjustments and Controls. Provide the following adjustments and controls during batching and
placement of the concrete:
A. Batch the concrete to the proportions of the accepted JMF. Provide a workable and finishable mix. Adjustments
to the JMF’s aggregate proportions up to 100 lbs (44 kg) for workability may be made. Adjustments greater than
100 lbs (44 kg) may be made if approved by the Engineer. Maintain an absolute volume of 27.0 cubic feet/cubic
yard for the adjusted concrete mix. For Well Graded JMF adjustments, maintain the combined aggregate gradation
within the optimal zone II requirements for well-graded mixes as defined in Supplement 1126. If outside the optimal
zone II of the Coarseness Factor Chart adjust the JMF’s proportions to maintain the combined gradation within
Zone II and report the JMF changes to the Engineer.
B. Handle, haul and store aggregates to minimize segregation, avoid contamination, and assure a uniform grading
within the specified gradation. Do not combine aggregates from different sources or of different gradings in the
same stockpile. Do not use segregated or contaminated aggregates.
C. Remove all wash water by reversing each truck drum at the plant immediately prior to reloading.
D. Adjust the SSD aggregate design weights in the JMF to compensate for the moisture contained in the
aggregates and moisture the aggregates will absorb during batching. Adjust the mix water to compensate for the
aggregate moistures.
E. Use only compatible admixtures in the concrete. Dispense all admixtures according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. Furnish a volumetric dispenser for the Type F or G admixture or ensure that there is a gage on
each truck-mounted Type F or G admixture dispensing tank. If any admixture is added at the job site, mix the load
for a minimum of 5 minutes.
F. Do not exceed the maximum water/cementitious ratio of the accepted JMF. Use a water-reducing admixture
conforming to 705.12; proportionately increase the cementitious content; or develop and submit for acceptance a
new JMF. Adjust the absolute volume of the aggregates if the cement content is increased.
G. If during placement of concrete, cement or microsilica balling is observed, take corrective action with further
mixing. If after corrective action, balling continues, reject the load. Revise the mixing process and/or loading
sequence to prevent further balling.
H. If slump loss occurs before placement of the concrete, the concrete may be “replasticized” with an admixture
to restore plasticity. The Engineer will recheck the slump range and air content to ensure conformance to the
specifications. If after “replasticizing” the components of the load are segregated, the Department will reject the
load.
I.
Completely discharge the concrete from each delivery truck within the time requirements of 499.08.
J. Provide sufficient quality control at the plant to assure conformance with this specification and project
requirements.
K. Use an approved set-retarding admixture conforming to 705.12, Type B or D when the concrete temperature
exceeds a nominal temperature of 75 F (24 C).
499.05 Equipment. Use a Department approved batch plant and trucks. Provide batching and mixing equipment
meeting the following requirements:
A. Batching Plants. Operate each plant so that aggregate materials are not segregated and there is no
intermingling of the materials before batching. Use weighing mechanisms that allow a visible means of checking
weights and produce a printed record. Use dispensing mechanisms for water and admixtures that allow a visible
means of checking quantities and produce a printed record.
Use cement and aggregate weighing mechanisms that are accurate to within 0.5 percent of the correct weight.
Ensure that devices for weighing or metering water are accurate to 1.0 percent throughout the range used.
Maintain a certification from a Sealer of Weights and Measures or a scale servicing company attesting to the
accuracy of the weighing and metering devices. A Certificate of Performance issued by the National Ready Mixed
Concrete Association may be used instead of the Sealer of Weights and Measures or a scale servicing company.
Do not use plants with a certification or certificate older than 12 months
Maintain the services of a scale servicing company or ten standard test weights to reach a capacity of 500
pounds (227 kg) for testing the weighing devices at the batch plant. Ensure all device-testing weights are sealed by
the Ohio Department of Agriculture every 3 years.
The Engineer may test weighing and dispensing devices as often as necessary to ensure continued accuracy.
B. Mixers. Provide mixers and agitators conforming to AASHTO M 157, Sections 10, 11.2, 11.5, and 11.6,
except that the Department will allow mechanical counters.
For bodies of non-agitating concrete hauling equipment, provide smooth, mortar-tight, metal containers
capable of discharging the concrete at a satisfactory controlled rate without segregation. Provide covers when
required by the Engineer. The Engineer will allow trucks having dump bodies with rounded corners and no internal
ribs or projections for non-agitating hauling.
C. Concrete Pumping and Conveying Equipment. Provide concrete pumping and conveying equipment in
accordance with ACI 304.2R and ACI 304.4R. Conduct a pre-placement meeting to discuss concrete pumping and
conveying procedures to maintain air content within specified limits per Table 499.03-1.
499.06 Handling, Measuring, and Batching Materials. Do not stockpile aggregates from different sources or
different gradations together. Do not use aggregates that have become segregated or mixed with foreign material.
The Engineer may direct reworking or cleaning, or may reject aggregates that have become segregated or mixed
with earth or foreign material.
Prior to and during batching, maintain all coarse aggregates at a uniform moisture content.
For all slag aggregates or other aggregates with a reported absorption above 3.0 percent, maintain the moisture
contents at or above the ODOT-reported SSD for that aggregate as follows:
A. Use appropriate stockpile watering systems capable of raising and maintaining aggregate moisture at or above
SSD. Test the moisture content of the watered aggregate stockpiles at least five (5) locations to assure the stockpile
is at or above SSD.
B. Have processes to maintain the aggregate stockpile at SSD until stockpile draining for SSD consistency has
begun. Twenty-four (24) hours before batching concrete with the aggregate, shut down the stockpile watering
process to allow drainage and to establish a uniform moisture content.
C. Test aggregate moisture content at least once per half day, but not less than twice per day, during concrete
production. If the moisture content varies between tests by more than 1 percent increase the moisture testing
frequency to assure correct batching information.
D. Provide the moisture content test results as part of all quality control plant ticket information.
Separately weigh the amounts of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Use a separate weighing device for
cementitious materials.
Batch each material to ensure weights are within the tolerance specified in Table 499.06-1, based on the amount
specified in the approved JMF.
TABLE 499.06-1 CONCRETE BATCHING TOLERANCES
Material
Cement
Pozzolan
Carbonate Micro-Fines
Aggregates
Water[1]
Chemical Admixtures
[1]Measured by weight or volume
Batching Tolerance (%)
±1.0
±1.0
±1.0
±2.0
±1.0
±3.0
499.07 Batch Plant Tickets. Furnish a concrete batch plant ticket to the Engineer for each load of concrete
incorporated into the project. Provide computer generated batch tickets. At a minimum, include the information
listed in Table 499.07-1 on each ticket:
TABLE 499.07-1 EVERY BATCH TICKET
Name of ready-mix batch plant
Batch plant No.
Batch plant location
Serial number of ticket
Date
Truck number
Class of concrete
JMF Number
Batch time
Batch size
Actual weights of cementitious
material:
Cement
Fly ash
GGBFS
Microsilica
Carbonate Micro-Fines
Other
Actual weights of aggregates:
Coarse
Intermediate
Fine
Other
Actual weight of water
Actual volume of admixtures:
Air-entrainer
Superplasticizer
Water-reducer
Retarder
Other
Aggregate moisture contents:
Coarse aggregate
Intermediate aggregate
Fine aggregate
Water-cementitious ratio,
leaving the plant
yd3 (m3)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
lb (kg)
fl oz (mL)
fl oz (mL)
fl oz (mL)
fl oz (mL)
fl oz (mL)
%
%
%
Provide the information in Table 499.07-2 with batch tickets for each day’s first load of concrete and for each
JMF. Include Table 499.07-2 information on the batch ticket or furnish the information on a separate computergenerated or handwritten form attached to the batch ticket.
If during the concrete manufacturing process any of the information listed in Table 499.07-2 changes, resubmit
Table 499.07-2 information with the first batch ticket supplied with the changed concrete.
TABLE 499.07-2 FIRST TICKET EACH DAY, EACH JMF
Cementitious Materials:
Source:
Grade or Type:
Cement
Fly ash
GGBFS
Microsilica
Carbonate Micro-Fines
Other
Admixtures
Brand:
Type:
Air-entrainer
Retarder
Superplasticizer
Water-reducer
Other
The provided concrete batch ticket information is according to ASTM C 94/C 94M, Section 13.
The Engineer may require supporting data to validate the basis for furnished aggregate moisture contents.
499.08 Mixing Concrete. Use a central mix plant or in truck mixers to mix the concrete.
When using a central mix plant, mix the concrete not less than 60 seconds Begin the mixing time when all
materials are in the drum and end the mixing time when discharge begins. Include transfer time in multiple drum
mixers in the mixing time. Remove the contents of an individual mixer drum before a succeeding batch is emptied
into the drum.
When concrete is mixed using a truck mixer for complete mixing, mix each batch of concrete at the rotation rate
designated on the mixer as mixing speed for not less than 70 revolutions of the drum. Transport mixed concrete
from the central mixers in truck mixers, truck agitators, or trucks having non-agitating bodies. Within 90 minutes
after cement and water are combined, deliver and completely discharge concrete.
When concrete is delivered in transit mixers and before discharging any of a batch, the Engineer may allow
adding water within the specified water-cement ratio limits. Perform sufficient mixing, a minimum of 30
revolutions at mixing speed, to adjust the slump and to regenerate the specified air content throughout the batch.
When approved by the Engineer, the Contractor may use approved admixtures (705.12, Type F or G) for
retempering the load to adjust the slump after the start of discharge. Mix for a minimum of 30 revolutions at mixing
speed after addition of the admixture.
Use admixtures containing no more than 50 parts per million chloride by weight of cement only when specified
in the Contract Documents, the accepted JMF, or with the Engineer’s written permission.
Ensure that the temperature of all concrete does not exceed 95 F (35 C) until incorporated into the work.
500 STRUCTURES
ITEM 501 STRUCTURES—GENERAL
501.01
501.02
501.03
501.04
501.05
501.06
501.07
General
Verification of Dimensions
Notification of Fabricator
Shop Drawings
Submittal of Engineered Drawings
Test Reports
Welded Attachments
501.01
General. This specification includes the general requirements for building the various items that
constitute the completed structure.
Perform the work, including fabrication, erection, and construction, so that the entire structure and all its
component parts will function as designed.
501.02
Verification of Dimensions. Verify that all dimensions established by the Engineer are correct.
501.03
Notification of Fabricator. When furnishing materials under Items 513, 515, 516, 517, and 518,
select a fabricator from the pre-qualified fabricators list in effect the date of the Contract letting. Before or at the
preconstruction conference, provide a written notification to the DCA and OMM of the selected steel fabricators
and precast concrete fabricators.
501.04
Shop Drawings. Provide shop drawings detailing structural steel, metal structural elements,
prestressed concrete members, precast concrete structural elements, and other similar materials requiring either
shop or field fabrication. Include the PID (Project Identification Number).
A. Contractor Acceptance of Shop Drawings for Items 513 and 515. Submit shop drawings to the OMM and
the District Office of Planning and Engineering before the start of fabrication on Item 513, UF Level or at least 3
days before the pre-fabrication meeting, per 513.07 or 515.07 as follows:
For structures carrying railroad traffic, submit four copies of the prepared shop drawings at least 40 days prior
to the pre fabrication meeting to each railroad company involved for review and approval. Resolve all railroad
comments prior to submitting drawings to OMM. The submission to OMM shall include one set of shop drawings
accepted by each railroad company involved; copies of all documentation between the railroad(s) and the
Contractor; four sets of Contractor accepted shop drawings, and the Contractor’s written acceptance letter. Also
furnish the fabricator’s quality control specialist with one additional set of these drawings before the pre-fabrication
meeting.
For all other structures, the submission to OMM shall include a written acceptance letter and four copies of
each drawing, unless additional copies are requested. Also, furnish the fabricator’s quality control specialist with
one additional set of these drawings before the pre-fabrication meeting.
Have competent individuals prepare and check the shop drawings The preparer(s) and checker(s) shall initial
each sheet and shall be different individuals . Provide, on the cover sheet or submittal letter, the first name, last
name and initials of each preparer and checker performing work on the shop drawings. Have an Ohio Registered
Engineer sign, seal and date the shop drawing cover sheet or submittal letter according to ORC 4733 and OAC
4733-35 confirming that the shop drawings meet the intent of the contract. If multiple preparers or multiple checkers
created the drawing, then the cover sheet or submittal letter shall clearly indicated the portions for which each
person is responsible. Have all questions and comments addressed before submitting the shop drawings.
The Contractor’s written acceptance letter shall document acceptance of the shop drawings including
confirmation of field verification, as required, and descriptions of issues resolved between the Contractor, the
fabricator, or the Department.
By accepting these shop drawings, the Contractor represents to the Department that all dimensions and
elevations of existing conditions shown on the plans have been field measured and verified, and that these shop
drawings comply with all the materials requirements, construction requirements, contract requirements, and
performance criteria. The Contractor further represents that these drawings have been coordinated and verified with
the details of the work to be performed by other fabricators and entities on the project. The Department will not
make any allowance for additional cost or delays to the Contractor for incorrect fabrication as a result of failure to
coordinate or perform this acceptance.
If the Department requests changes on these shop drawings, or the Contractor makes changes in addition to
those expressly requested, revise the shop drawings and submit a new cover sheet, signed, sealed and dated by an
Ohio Registered Engineer with suitable revision marks to identify the changes.
Schedule the pre-fabrication meeting after OMM receives the drawings. Fabrication may begin after the prefabrication meeting is complete or after receipt of Item 513, UF Level drawings.
B. Fabricator Coordination of Shop Drawings for Items 516, 517, and 518. The Contractor and fabricator
must coordinate these shop drawings. Ensure that shop drawings meet requirements for materials, field
measurements, construction requirements, contract requirements, performance criteria, and similar data. The
coordination must also include details of the work to be performed by other fabricators and entities on the project.
The Department will not make allowance for additional cost or delays to the Contractor for incorrect fabrication as
a result of failure to coordinate or perform this coordination.
Submit two copies of the shop drawings to the Engineer and one copy to the District Office of Planning and
Engineering with the materials delivered to the project. Do not incorporate material into the work until after
submitting the drawings. Department approval of these shop drawings is not required.
C. Shop Drawing General Requirements. Specific requirements are specified in Item 513, 515, 516, 517, or
518.
Shop drawings shall be neatly and accurately drawn on 11 x 17 inch or 22 x 34-inch (280 x 432 mm or 559 x
864 mm) sheets. Submit the shop drawings electronically in pdf format.
501.05
Submittal of Engineered Drawings. Design and perform all procedures as directed by the AASHTO
Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges or the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications except as
modified below:
Perform daily inspections to ensure the work governed by the Engineered Drawing is functioning as designed.
Report malfunctioning work to the Engineer immediately.
A. Projects with Railroad Involvement. Prepare and provide Engineered Drawings listed in this section as
follows:
Have competent individuals prepare, check and initial each Engineered Drawing. The preparer and checker
shall be different individuals. Provide, on the cover sheet or submittal letter, the first name, last name and initials
of each preparer and checker performing work on the Engineered Drawings. Have an Ohio Registered Engineer
sign, seal, and date the cover sheet or submittal letter according to ORC 4733 and OAC 4733‐35. If multiple
preparers or multiple checkers created the drawing, then the cover sheet or submittal letter shall clearly indicate the
portions for which each person is responsible.
Submit Engineered Drawings to all involved railway companies at least 50 days before planned construction
begins. Obtain acceptance from all involved railroad companies. Furnish the Engineer copies of all correspondence
with the railroad, documentation of railroad acceptance and the Engineered Drawings accepted by the railroad.
Schedule an Engineered Drawing meeting to be held 7 days, or less at the discretion of the Engineer, after
submitting railroad accepted drawings to the Engineer. The signatory Engineer responsible for the Engineered
Drawing design, the Superintendent, the Engineer and the Inspector will participate in the meeting in person, via
conference call or via video conference. The Engineer will invite the responsible designer of the Plans for
assistance. The purpose of the meeting shall be to review the drawings; resolve all issues to the Engineer’s
satisfaction and ensure all parties are in agreement with the work to commence. At the conclusion of the meeting,
the Engineer will provide a written response to the submittal in accordance with 105.02. Do not begin work until
the Engineer’s acceptance has been received.
Perform all work in accordance with the ODOT accepted Engineered Drawings. Immediately cease all
operations that deviate from the ODOT accepted Engineered Drawings. If a deviation is necessary, prepare revised
Engineered Drawings as noted above and furnish the Engineer a copy of a revised Engineered Drawings including
documentation of acceptance from all involved railroad companies. Schedule an Engineered Drawing meeting as
noted above to be held 24 hours, or less at the discretion of the Engineer, after submitting the revised railroad
accepted drawings. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Engineer will provide a written response to the submittal
in accordance with 105.02. Do not begin work until the Engineer’s acceptance has been received.
The Department will consider delays resulting from Engineered Drawing deviations as non-excusable in
accordance with 108.06.E.
This section applies to Engineered Drawings for the following:
1.
Bracing adjacent to the railroad tracks. Perform work according to 501.05.B.1.
2.
Demolition of structures over or within 14 feet of railroad tracks. Perform work according to 501.05.B.2.
3. Erection of structural members over or within 14 feet of railroad tracks. Perform work according to
501.05.B.4.
B. Projects without Railroad Involvement. Prepare and provide Engineered Drawings listed in this section as
follows:
Have competent individuals prepare, check and initial each Engineered Drawing. The preparer and checker
shall be different individuals. Provide, on the cover sheet or submittal letter, the first name, last name and initials
of each preparer and checker performing work on the Engineered Drawings. Have an Ohio Registered Engineer
prepare, sign, seal and date the cover sheet or submittal letter according to ORC 4733 and OAC 4733-35. If multiple
preparers or multiple checkers created the drawing, then the cover sheet or submittal letter shall clearly indicated
the portions for which each person is responsible.
Schedule an Engineered Drawing meeting to be held 7 days, or less at the discretion of the Engineer, after
submitting drawings to the Engineer. The signatory Engineer responsible for the design, the Superintendent, the
Engineer and the Inspector will participate in the meeting in person, via conference call or via video conference.
The Engineer will invite the designer of the contract Plans for assistance. The purpose of the meeting shall be to
review the drawings; resolve all issues to the Engineer’s satisfaction and ensure all parties are in agreement with
the work to commence. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Engineer will provide a written response to the
submittal in accordance with 105.02. Do not begin work until the Engineer’s acceptance has been received.
Perform all work in accordance with the accepted Engineered Drawings. Immediately cease all operations that
deviate from the accepted Engineered Drawings. If a deviation is necessary, prepare revised Engineered Drawings
as noted above and furnish the Engineer a copy of revised Engineered Drawings. Schedule an Engineered Drawing
meeting as noted above to be held 24 hours, or less at the discretion of the Engineer, after submitting the revised
drawings. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Engineer will provide a written response to the submittal in
accordance with 105.02. Do not begin work until the Engineer’s acceptance has been received.
The Department will consider delays resulting from Engineered Drawings deviations as non-excusable in
accordance with 108.06.E.
This section applies to Engineered Drawings for the following:
1. Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing. If a complete design is not provided in the plans, provide Engineered
Drawings for excavations when the edge line of a roadway used to maintain traffic is located within a distance of
one-half times the excavation height or for excavations that expose any side of an excavation to a height exceeding
eight feet.
The Contractor may construct the design(s) shown on the plans without an Engineered Drawing submittal or
prepare an alternate design. Submit Engineered Drawings for all alternate Cofferdam and Excavation Bracing
designs. Perform all Work as specified below:
a.
Locate Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing according to the contract, if shown.
b.
Maintain temporary horizontal and vertical clearances according to the contract.
c.
Include the effects of AASHTO live, dead and temporary construction load surcharges as necessary.
d. Design Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing to support the sides and bottom of an excavation for all
phases of work in accordance with the latest AASHTO Guide Design Specifications for Bridge Temporary Works,
Section 4 and the latest edition of either the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications or the AASHTO
Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.
2. Demolition of Bridges or portions of Bridges in which the work endangers the public welfare, or life,
health or property. Perform all Work as specified below:
a. Provide temporary devices or structures necessary to protect traffic during all demolition activities.
Provide traffic protection when demolition is located less than 12' horizontally from active traffic on structures of
less than 25' vertical clearance. Increase the 12' minimum horizontal distance 1 foot for each 2 feet of additional
height greater than 25'.
b. Never lift the portions of structure being removed over active traffic. Before releasing traffic make
the remaining structure stable.
c. Design traffic protection devices or structures when over live traffic, for a minimum load of 50 pounds
per square foot plus the weight of equipment, debris and any other load to be carried. Include any portion of the
deck that cantilevers beyond the fascia beams or girders.
d. In lieu of temporary devices or structures required in “a” above, provide a vertical barrier. Design the
vertical barrier with rigid or flexible materials specifically designed for demolition containment. Extend the
enclosure up to the bottom of the deck and down to the ground. Maintain all materials free of tears, cuts and holes.
e.
f.
Maintain temporary horizontal and vertical clearances according to the contract.
Locate structural members to be reused before performing any removal operations.
g.
Do not damage structural members being reused during any removal operation.
h.
Perform Work so that all members are stable during all operation and loading conditions.
i. Provide the method and sequence of the removal operations. Include the type and location of equipment
to be used during the demolition.
j.
Perform Work according to 501.05.B.6.
3. Falsework for cast-in-place concrete slab bridges. Perform all work according to 508 and as specified
below:
a. Provide a camber table to account for the deflection of the falsework loaded with its self weight and
the weight of wet concrete. Also include in the table, the specified camber to compensate for slab deflection after
the falsework is released.
b.
Maintain temporary horizontal and vertical clearances according to the contract.
c. As a minimum design falsework over waterways for a five year flood or with 75 percent of the
effective waterway opening of the proposed structure. The Contractor is responsible for any damages caused by
upstream flooding due to insufficient temporary structure size or the accumulation of debris or sediment in the
channel.
d. Support falsework foundations located within the ten year flood limits on rock, shale or piles driven
to a minimum depth of 15 feet, and to sufficient penetration to carry superimposed loads or until refusal on rock.
e. The incorporation of structural steel shapes, used as temporary support members, into a finished
concrete slab superstructure is prohibited.
f.
Design falsework in accordance with the latest AASHTO Guide Design Specifications for Bridge
Temporary Works, Section 2.
4.
Erection of steel or precast concrete structural members as specified below:
a.
Never lift structural members over active traffic. Before releasing traffic make structural members
stable.
b. Supply any temporary supports or braces necessary to maintain structural stability and prevent lateral
movement until completion of all construction activities.
c.
Perform Work according to 501.05.B.6, 513 or 515.
d.
Do not field weld temporary members to permanent steel members.
e.
Maintain temporary horizontal and vertical clearances according to the contract.
f.
Provide drawings with at least the following information:
(1) Site Plan of the work area showing permanent support structures (piers and abutments); roads;
railroad tracks; waterways; overhead and underground utilities; and other information pertinent to erection.
(2) Erection sequence for all members, noting any temporary support conditions, such as holding
crane positions, temporary supports, falsework etc. Member reference marks, when reflected on the erection plans,
should be the same used on the shop drawings.
(3) Primary member delivery location and orientation.
(4) Maintenance of Traffic during erection operations.
(5) Location of each crane for each primary member pick, showing radius and crane support (barges,
mats, etc.).
(6) Capacity chart for each crane configuration and boom length used in the work.
(7) Center of gravity locations for primary member.
(8) Rigging weights, capacity and arrangement for primary member picks.
(9) Lifting weight of primary member picks, including all rigging and pre-attached elements.
(10) Details of any temporary lifting devices to be bolted or welded to permanent members, including
method and time (shop or field) of attachment; capacity; and method, time, and responsibility for removal.
(11) Blocking details for bridge bearings.
5.
Jacking and support of existing structures as specified below:
a. Support the structure on temporary supports and brace as necessary to maintain structural stability
and prevent lateral movement until completion of the permanent supports. Do not rely on jacks lifting system
alone,(e.g. hydraulic system), to support the structure except during the actual jacking operation. Remove all
temporary supports upon completion of the jacking procedure.
b.
Maintain a maximum differential jacking height of 1/4 inch between any adjacent beam lines.
c.
Maintain a maximum differential jacking height of 1 inch between any adjacent abutments or piers.
d.
Place jacks and any load plates at least 2 inches from the edges of any concrete substructure seats.
e.
Do not field weld temporary members to permanent steel members.
f.
Maintain temporary horizontal and vertical clearances according to the contract.
6. When the total load applied to a structure during construction, (new or structure being rehabilitated),
exceeds 75 percent of the legal limit, (The Legal Limit is 80,000 lbs. or percentage thereof if posted), the load
effects on the structure shall be analyzed based on the operating level calculated by the Load Factor Rating Method
as given in the AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation.
7.
Structures for maintaining traffic in accordance with Item 502.
a.
501.05.A.
For structures located over or within 14 feet of railroad tracks, submit plans in accordance with
b.
Perform Work according to 501.05.B.6..
C. Corrective Work. Unless otherwise noted, before performing corrective work on structure items, 507, 511,
513, 515, 516, 517 and 524, prepare a Corrective Work Plan (CWP). Submit three copies of the CWP to the
Engineer for acceptance 30 days, or less at the discretion of the Engineer before construction begins. Have an Ohio
Registered Engineer prepare, sign, seal and date each CWP. Obtain Department acceptance before beginning
corrective work.
Perform all work in accordance with the accepted CWP. Immediately cease all operations that deviated from
the accepted CWP. If a deviation is necessary, furnish the Engineer three copies of a revised CWP. The revised
CWP shall be signed, sealed and dated by an Ohio Registered Engineer. Obtain Department acceptance of revised
CWP prior to performing corrective work.
Perform all corrective work, including the preparation of the CWP and revisions at no expense to the
Department. The Contractor shall reimburse the Department for all CWP review costs of the Designer of Record.
The Department will consider delays resulting from all corrective work as non-excusable in accordance with
108.06.E.
501.06
Test Reports
A. Contractor Acceptance of Materials for Item 513. Submit certified test data to the Director showing
compliance with the requirements of Item 711. Accompany all certified test data with copies of mill shipping
notices or invoices showing the quantity and size of material being accepted.
Check this material data and provide a letter of written acceptance. Submit the material data and letter of
written acceptance to the Director so that the Director receives them at least 7 days before final shop inspection
Item 513, Levels 1 through 6 or before final shop inspection Item 513, UF Level.
Submit a single copy of this material data for each structure, except where the structure carries railway traffic.
Submit one additional copy to each railway company involved.
Additionally for Item 513, Levels 1 through 6 structural steel members, submit one copy of main material,
certified test data with a letter documenting the QCFS acceptance to the QA shop inspector before the material
passes check point one.
The Department will not accept materials for final inspection at the fabrication shop until the Director receives
the Contractor accepted material data.
B. Fabricator Certification of Materials for Items 516, 517, and 518. Ensure that a letter of certification
accompanies the fabricated material shipped to the job site, in a format approved by the Director, stating all
materials conform to contract requirements. For these materials, the fabricator must retain certified test data, copies
of mill shipping notices, or invoices showing the quantity and size of material being accepted. This data shall
provide complete traceability to the producing mill and proof of domestic origin, as required by ORC 153.011.
Do not deliver materials to the project without the certification letter.
501.07 Welded Attachments.
Prepare and provide a detailed request showing weld size, length, type and location for welding permanent or
temporary attachments to main structural members not shown or permitted by contract. Submit request to the Office
of Structural Engineering at least 20 days before construction begins. Obtain acceptance before performing work.
Perform work according to 513.
ITEM 502 STRUCTURES FOR MAINTAINING TRAFFIC
502.01
502.02
502.03
502.04
502.05
Description
Design and Construction
Maintenance
Removal
Basis of Payment
502.01
Description. This work consists of preparing plans, providing, maintaining, and subsequently
removing temporary structures.
502.02
Design and Construction. As a minimum, design the temporary structure for a 5-year flood or with
75 percent of the effective waterway opening of the proposed structure. The Contractor is responsible for any
damages caused by upstream flooding due to insufficient temporary structure size or the accumulation of debris or
sediment in the channel. Provide a clear roadway width of at least 23 feet (7.0 m) measured from face to face of
guardrails. If the existing structure or approaches or both have sidewalks provide at least one sidewalk at least 5
feet (1.2 m) wide with adequate connections to existing walks and in compliance with accessibility standards.
Design the temporary structure according to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications except that the
design live loading, HL-93 may be reduced by 25 percent.
Submit working drawings in accordance with 501.05.
Drive piling to sufficient penetration to carry the superimposed loads according to Item 507, but not less than 24
tons (24 metric tons) per pile. Perform dynamic load testing to determine required blow count if piles are not driven
to rock.
If the plans state that the existing superstructure may be used instead of new construction, do not alter it to meet
either the above width or strength requirements. Instead, move or dismantle and re-erect with sufficient care to
avoid any reduction of capacity. If the superstructure has been restricted by posting to loads less than permitted by
statute, move the posting signs to the temporary road, unless the superstructure is strengthened to a legal load
capacity. If planning to use the existing superstructure on the temporary road, notify the Engineer at least 3 days
before the superstructure is moved to allow the Department to establish a detour. Complete the bridge within 48
hours after traffic has been routed over the detour.
502.03
Maintenance. Maintain all portions of the temporary structure in good condition with respect to both
safety and smoothness for travel as long as it is needed for maintenance of traffic. Satisfactorily maintain the
channel and waterway opening.
502.04
Removal. If the temporary structure is no longer needed, take ownership and remove it from the site
according to Item 202.
502.05
Basis of Payment. Payment is full compensation for erection, maintenance, performing dynamic load
testing, and subsequent removal of temporary structures.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
502
Lump Sum
Structure for Maintaining Traffic
ITEM 503 EXCAVATION FOR STRUCTURES
503.01
503.02
503.03
503.04
503.05
503.06
503.07
503.08
503.09
503.10
Description
Classification
Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing
Protection for Excavation
Footings in Rock
Approval of Foundations
Disposal of Excavated Material
Backfill
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
503.01
Description. This work consists of designing cofferdams and excavation bracing, and excavating
materials not removed under other items of work that must be removed to enable construction of bridges, and other
structures. Included in this work are:
A. constructing, maintaining, and subsequently removing cofferdams and excavation bracing;
B. dewatering and backfilling the excavation;
C. protecting the excavation against collapse; and
D. disposing of materials not required or suitable for backfill.
503.02
Classification. Excavation is classified as unclassified excavation, unclassified excavation including
rock (or shale), or rock (or shale) excavation.
503.03
Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing. This item includes the preparation of an Engineered drawing
according to 501.05 and the construction, maintenance, and subsequent removal of all cofferdams and excavation
bracing. A cofferdam is an enclosure within a water environment constructed to allow dewatering for the purpose
of creating a dry work environment. Excavation bracing is that required to safely support the sides of excavations,
embankments, adjacent buildings, tracks, or other premises.
Construct cofferdams and excavation bracing such that support members clear the top of the footings by at least
1 foot (0.3 m). If this is not practical, support members shall be structural steel and left it in place. If bracing is to
be left in place and the ends would not be visible when the structure is completed, burn off the steel ends flush with
the concrete surface. If ends would be visible, form a 6 inch (150 mm) deep recess around the steel embedment
and remove the external portion of the embedment to provide at least 3 inches (75 mm) of clearance to the finished
concrete face. Completely fill the resulting recess with concrete.
Where water is not encountered, the Contractor may place excavation bracing at the plan dimension of the footing
and use it as formwork for footing concrete. Leave this sheeting in place at least to the top of the footing, or properly
separate it from the footing concrete so that it may be removed without damaging the concrete.
Where water is encountered, and cofferdams are necessary, construct them practically watertight before
excavating below water level. Make provisions outside the footing to drain, collect, and remove water. When
placing concrete, keep the excavation dewatered until the concrete is above the prevailing water level. Effectively
protect footing concrete from erosion. If using a concrete seal to stop the flow upward from the bottom of a
cofferdam, place the seal below the planned footing and consider it as a part of the cofferdam. The Department will
not pay for a seal unless it is shown on the plans.
Unless otherwise shown in the plans, design and construct cofferdams to accommodate a water elevation 3 feet
(1.0 m) above the ordinary high water mark shown on the plans. If the actual water elevation exceeds 3 feet (1.0
m) above the stated ordinary high water mark, the Department will reimburse the Contractor for any resulting
damage to the work protected by the cofferdam provided the Contractor has exercised normal due diligence. If the
actual water elevation exceeds 3 feet (1.0 m) above the ordinary high water mark and causes a delay to the project,
the Department will grant the Contractor an excusable, non-compensable delay in accordance with 108.06.B.
Establish a monument upstream of all proposed cofferdams to visually monitor the water elevation in the
waterway. Maintain the monument throughout the project. Provide a visual mark on the monument that identifies
the required high water elevation as defined above. Ensure that the monument can be read from the bank of the
waterway. Have this elevation set and certified by an Ohio Registered Surveyor.
Cofferdams may be designed and constructed to accommodate a lower water elevation; however, the Department
will not reimburse the Contractor for repairs to work damaged nor grant additional time unless the water elevation
exceeds 3 feet (1.0 m) above the ordinary high water mark shown on the plan.
Submit any request for reimbursement for repair to work damaged or for delay to the Engineer with information
substantiating that the water elevation was more than 3 feet (1.0 m) above the ordinary high water mark shown on
the plans.
503.04
Protection for Excavation. Protect all excavations from caving. Do not disturb the material below
the bottom of footings. Perform blasting in a manner that avoids damage to the material supporting the structure
vertically or laterally and that avoids subsequent slides that damage the structure, road, or adjacent property. If the
material below the bottom of footings not supported by piles is disturbed, remove it and fill the entire space with
concrete at no expense to the Department. Under footings supported on piles, replace and compact the overexcavated or disturbed material as the Engineer directs. If backfilling is necessary to correct caving or slides,
backfill according to 503.08.
Excavation adjacent to railroad tracks are subject to the supervision of the involved railway company. Provide
sufficient bracing to ensure the proper support of the roadbed and tracks.
503.05
Footings in Rock. Where rock or shale excavation is a separate pay item, fill the portion of the
excavation into rock or shale that is below the top of footing with concrete.
If removing rock or shale as part of Unclassified Excavation and the footing is designed to be keyed into the
bedrock, confine the excavation into bedrock for the minimum specified depth of keying within the area bounded
by the outer edge of the footing. Fill excavation outside these limits and within and below the keyed depth with
concrete.
503.06
Approval of Foundations. Notify the Engineer when the excavation is to be completed to the depth
shown on the plans. Do not place footings until the Engineer has approved the subfoundation.
503.07
Disposal of Excavated Material. Dispose of excavated material not needed or not suitable according
to 105.16 and 105.17. Use other suitable excavation material for backfill.
503.08
Backfill. Backfill all excavations made under this item with materials conforming to 203.02.R, except
behind abutments and below the approach slabs use materials conforming to Item 203 Granular Material Type B.
Place and compact the backfill materials according to 203.06 and 203.07, except as modified by this subsection.
Do not place backfill material against any structural element until the Engineer has approved the element.
In bridge abutment areas compact backfill material to meet the compaction requirements in 203.07. Elsewhere,
compact backfill material to 95 percent of the maximum laboratory dry density.
When a test section method is used for compaction acceptance: Use compaction equipment with a total weight
or a centrifugal force of least 1 ton (0.9 metric tons). Supply the manufacturers’ information to verify this
information. Use at least six passes to construct the production areas. Use at least 97 percent of the test section
maximum dry density for acceptance of the production areas.
The Contractor does not have to place backfill material around piers that are not within the embankment area or
adjacent to a roadway or a railway in thin layers or compact it, but should leave the backfill material in a neat
condition with a compensating allowance made for settlement.
Backfill in front of abutments and around piers to the ground lines shown on the plans.
Backfill all structural foundation units as soon as practical after the required conditions of this subsection are met
to avoid the ponding of surface water and the accumulation of debris. Simultaneously backfill in front of and behind
abutments, piers, wing walls, and retaining walls.
Carefully backfill against waterproofed surfaces to avoid damage to the waterproofing material.
503.09
Method of Measurement. After the requirements of Items 201, 202, and 203 have been met, the
Department will measure excavation on a lump sum basis or by the number of cubic yards (cubic meters) as follows:
A. Bounded on the bottom. Bounded bottom plane of the footing, crossbeam, or wall.
B. Bounded on the top
1.
In cut sections, by the surface of the remaining ground.
2.
In fill sections:
a.
If excavation is performed before embankment is placed, by the surface of the original ground.
b.
If excavation is performed after embankment is placed, by the surface of the embankment.
C. Bounded on the sides
1.
For Unclassified Excavation, 1 foot (0.3 m) outside the outer edge of the footing, crossbeam, or wall.
2.
For Rock Excavation or Shale Excavation:
a.
If Rock Excavation is included in the Contract, by the outer edge of the footing or wall.
b.
If rock or shale is removed as part of Unclassified Excavation Including Rock and/or Shale:
(1) Above the minimum specified depth of keying, the same as described in 503.09.C.1.
(2) For the remainder of the excavation, the same as described in 503.09.C.2.a.
For keys below footings, the Department will determine the volume of keys by the number of cubic yards
(cubic meters) shown on the plans.
The Department will measure Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing on a lump sum basis.
503.10
Basis of Payment. If an Item for Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing is not included in the Contract
for payment, perform work according to 503.03 and the Department will pay for Cofferdams and Excavation
Bracing under the contract unit price for excavation.
The elevations shown on the plans for the bottoms of footings are considered as approximate. When excavation
below plan elevation for footings is required, the Department will pay for the 3 feet (0.9 m) immediately below the
plan elevation within the lateral limits described in 503.09.C.1 at the unit price bid for the class of excavation.
The Department will consider additional excavation to a maximum depth of 1 foot (0.3 m) within the lateral
limits described in 503.09 as incidental to the lump sum price. Excavation deeper than 1 foot (0.3 m) below plan
elevation may be provided for as Extra Work, as described in 109.05.
If Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing is a separate pay item, the lump sum price includes any extra cost involved
for cofferdams for additional depth up to 3 feet (0.9 m) below plan elevation. Excavation deeper than 3 feet (0.9
m) below plan elevation and the additional cofferdams necessitated by this excavation may be provided for as Extra
Work, as described in 109.05. The Contractor shall provide additional fill material and subsequent excavation to
provide the minimum cover over culverts to accommodate heavy earth moving equipment at no expense to the
Department.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
503
503
Lump Sum
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Lump Sum
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cofferdams and Excavation Bracing
Unclassified Excavation
503
503
Unclassified Excavation
Unclassified Excavation Including Rock
503
503
503
503
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Unclassified Excavation Including Shale
Unclassified Excavation Including Rock and/or Shale
Rock Excavation
Shale Excavation
ITEM 504 SHEET PILING LEFT IN PLACE
504.01
504.02
504.03
504.04
504.05
Description
Materials
Driving
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
504.01
Description. This work consists of furnishing and driving steel sheet piling to be left in place,
including furnishing and installing any specified anchors or other attachments to structures.
504.02
Materials. Furnish new sheet piling conforming to 711.03. The Contractor may use used sheet piling
in good condition that conforms to project requirements provided it is inspected and approved by the Engineer.
504.03
Driving. Drive steel sheet piling to the tip elevation shown on the plans. Thread each sheet pile with
adjacent sheets. Use corner piles, junction piles, and interlocking connectors as necessary so that all sheet piles are
interlocked.
504.04
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Steel Sheet Piling Left In Place [Minimum
Section Modulus of ____ cubic inches per foot (____ mm³/m)] of Wall by measuring the number of square feet
(square meters) in the plane of the face of the sheeting, completed and accepted in place.
504.05
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
504
Square Foot
(Square Meter)
Steel Sheet Piling Left In Place [Minimum Section Modulus
of____ cubic inches per foot (____ mm³/m)] of Wall
ITEM 505 PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT MOBILIZATION
505.01 Description
505.02 Basis of Payment
505.01 Description. This work consists of mobilizing pile driving equipment to and from the project site and, as
necessary, to install the required piling.
This work includes the fixed costs that are related to the installation of the required piling.
505.02 Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities, after the first service pile is installed,
at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
505
Lump Sum
Pile Driving Equipment Mobilization
ITEM 506 STATIC LOAD TEST
506.01
506.02
506.03
506.04
Description
General
Test Procedure
Basis of Payment
506.01
Description. This work consists of applying a static load to a driven pile and furnishing instruments
and facilities to obtain load-displacement data required to determine the ultimate bearing value of the pile. When
subsequent static load tests are specified, the Office of Geotechnical Engineering will determine whether
subsequent static load tests are to be performed and the location of all piles to be tested.
506.02
General. Perform the static load test according to ASTM D1143, Procedure A: Quick Test, except as
modified below.
Use the hammer selected for driving the test pile to drive all piles represented by the test. If the Contractor finds
it necessary to use a different hammer, the Office of Geotechnical Engineering will determine if an additional static
load test is necessary.
If using anchor piles to apply the load to the test pile, locate the anchor piles to provide a minimum clear distance
of 8 feet (2.5 m) from the test pile. The Contractor may use battered piles as anchor piles, provided the horizontal
forces in the anchor system are balanced and excessive bending stresses are not induced in the piles. The Contractor
may also use bearing piles meeting these requirements as anchor piles. After the test has been completed, remove
or cut off at least 1 foot (0.3 m) below the bottom of the footing or finished surface of the ground all anchor piles
outside the limits of the footing. Cut off anchor piles, other than bearing piles, within the limits of the footing 3
inches (75 mm) above the bottom of the footing. Redrive all bearing piles used as anchor piles that are displaced
upward during the application of the test load according to the plan requirements.
For the duration of the test, provide adequate facilities to record load and displacement readings. To avoid column
buckling of the pile, ensure that tested piles are substantially vertical and that the load is applied to the pile at a
point as near the ground surface as possible.
Provide equipment and loading apparatus to apply a maximum test load of twice the ultimate bearing value. Have
a Registered Engineer design the loading apparatus. Determine if piles on the plan order list for cast-in-place
reinforced concrete piles have a pile wall thick enough to support the maximum test load of twice the ultimate
bearing value. The minimum pile wall thickness to support twice the ultimate bearing value is:
t (inch) =
2 R (lb)
113,000 D (inch)
t (mm) =
2 R (N)
780 D (mm)
Where:
t = pile wall thickness in inches (mm)
R = ultimate bearing value in pounds (N)
D = diameter of pile in inches (mm)
If the pile wall thickness for the test pile is less than t, before performing the static load test, either drive a test
pile with a thicker pile wall, or fill the pile with concrete and allow the concrete to cure for 5 days. The static load
test is unacceptable if the pile fails internally during the test due to improper installation or procedure by the
Contractor.
506.03
Test Procedure. Apply the load at least 5 days after placing concrete in the pile or 72 hours after
driving both the test pile and the anchor piles.
Use displacement indicators as the primary system to measure axial movement of the test pile top, with a
redundant secondary system as described in ASTM D1143.
Apply the test load in increments of approximately one-tenth the ultimate bearing value. Between each load
increment, keep the test load constant for 15 minutes. Add load increments until the test load reaches twice the
ultimate bearing value or until continuous jacking is required to maintain the test load. Remove the test load in five
approximately equal decrements, keeping the test load constant for 15 minutes between decrements. If it is
necessary to remove and reapply the load during the test, use the same loading procedure to reapply the test load.
Record test readings taken at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 15 minutes after completing application of each load increment.
Record test readings taken at 1 and 15 minutes after each load decrement and after removing all load from the test
pile.
Determine the load test ultimate bearing value (Qf) using the Davisson criteria. First plot the displacement versus
load on the pile (Q). Next, draw a line representing the theoretical elastic deformation of the pile, using the
following equation.
d=
QL
AE
Where:
d = Elastic deformation of pile in inches (mm)
Q = Test load in pounds (N)
L = Length of pile in inches (mm)
A = cross-sectional area of pile in square inches (mm²)
E = Elastic modulus of pile in lb/in² (MPa)
for steel E=29,000,000 lb/in² (200,000 MPa)
Draw the Davisson criteria line parallel to the theoretical elastic deformation but offset by the following formula:
0.15 inch + 0.008×D (3.8 mm + 0.008×D)
Where:
D = Diameter or width of the pile in inches (mm).
The test load ultimate bearing value (Qf) is the load corresponding to where the Davisson criteria line crosses the
load-displacement curve. See the figure below.
Within four days of completing the static load test, submit a report to the Engineer which contains the information
required according to ASTM D 1143 and the load displacement graph described above.
506.04
Basis of Payment. If the Contractor subsequently finds it necessary to use a different hammer, the
Office of Geotechnical Engineering will determine if an additional static load test is necessary; the Contractor shall
complete any such additional test at no additional cost to the Department.
The cost of furnishing test piles with thicker pile walls is included under Static Load Test.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
506
506
Lump Sum
Each
Static Load Test
Subsequent Static Load Test
ITEM 507 BEARING PILES
507.01
507.02
507.03
507.04
507.05
507.06
507.07
507.08
507.09
507.10
507.11
507.12
507.13
507.01
Description
General
Materials
Driving of Piles
Determination of Required Driving Criteria
Cast-in-Place Reinforced Concrete Piles
Steel H-Piles
Timber Piles
Splices
Defective Piles
Prebored Holes
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
Description. This work consists of furnishing and driving bearing piles.
507.02
General. Install piles of the specified type, length, and sizes shown on the plans. Furnish the piles
according to the itemized order list shown on the plans. If additional length is needed to obtain bearing, furnish the
additional length as determined by the Engineer. The length of the piles given in the order list is not necessarily
based on available or practical lengths, but the estimated length from the bottom of each pile to the elevation of the
cutoff. The Contractor may increase or decrease the pile lengths to suit the lengths available, to facilitate the method
of operation, which may involve providing fresh heading as a result of hammer misalignment or a worn hammer
cushion, or to provide lengths determined practical to have delivered to the project site and driven.
507.03
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to the following:
Reinforcing steel ................................................................................... 509
Concrete, Class QC1 ............................................................................. 511
Chemical admixture for concrete, Type F ....................................... 705.12
Steel H-piles..................................................................................... 711.03
Steel pile points................................................................................ 711.07
Steel for reinforced concrete piles ................................................... 711.03
Galvanized steel ............................................................................... 711.02
Timber.............................................................................................. 711.26
Provide a concrete slump from 6 to 8 inches (150 to 200 mm) with the use of a superplasticizer.
507.04
Driving of Piles. Drive piles to refusal on bedrock; until obtaining the required ultimate bearing value,
which may include a modification for scour, set-up, or negative skin friction; or to the minimum penetration pile
tip elevation shown on the plans.
If piles begin to crush, immediately cease driving and repair or replace the pile. The counting of blows will cease
until the crushed pile is either repaired or replaced.
For piles subject to scour, notify the DGE if the required ultimate bearing value is obtained before the pile has
penetrated 80 percent of its estimated depth before appreciably overdriving the pile. The DGE will study the
conditions and determine the final penetration, the driving requirements, the use of another pile type, and the use
of prebored holes.
All piles raised during the driving of adjacent piles shall be driven down again.
Use a hammer that will achieve the required ultimate bearing value for the pile and large enough to permit a
dynamic load test to verify that the ultimate bearing capacity shown on the plans can be achieved.
The ram of an air-operated or diesel hammer shall weigh at least 2700 pounds (12,000 N).
The ram of a drop hammer for permanent piles shall weigh at least 3000 pounds (13,300 N). The height of fall
for drop hammers shall not exceed 7 feet (2.1 m). Do not use drop hammers to drive piles that are to be driven to
an ultimate bearing value in excess of 70 tons (620 kN).
When using open ended diesel hammers, provide electronic equipment, such as a saximeter, or equivalent, for
the Engineer’s use to accurately measure and record the stroke for each unit of length driven .
Attach a gage to closed end diesel hammers, accessible to the Engineer, to monitor the pressure in the bounce
chamber. Include a graph with the gage to convert pressure to energy.
Attach an impact energy monitor, or a method to accurately measure the stroke within 2 inches (50 mm) to
hydraulic hammers, accessible to the Engineer, to monitor the energy of each blow.
Use securely anchored driving leads and a cap device with sliding jaws to engage the leads to guide the pile and
maintain the pile alignment with the stroke of the hammer. Accurately align the travel of the hammer with the axis
of the pile.
Cushion the hammer and pile to prevent the impact of driving forces from damaging the top of the pile. Shape
the cap and pile top to uniformly distribute the hammer blow to the top surface of the pile.
Do not use a follower unless approved by the Office of Geotechnical Engineering. If the Office of Geotechnical
Engineering does approve the use of a follower, account for the increased energy loss when determining the
required driving criteria.
If a static load test is required, the Contractor may not drive piles except the test and anchor piles before
conducting the test and the required depth of penetration has been determined.
Do not use water jets.
After being driven, cut off the piles at the elevation and angle shown on the plans. Ensure that the actual pile
embedment into the concrete is within 2 inches (50mm) of the embedment shown in the plans.
Maintain a minimum radius of 15 feet (4.5 m) between simultaneous work of placing concrete and driving piles.
If concrete is placed within the 15-foot (4.5 m) radius, suspend driving operations until the concrete has cured for
5 days.
507.05
Determination of Required Driving Criteria. Determine the required driving criteria to achieve the
ultimate bearing value of a driven pile as if the pile was a single isolated pile using the results of dynamic pile
testing as specified in Item 523. The driving criteria may consist of a minimum blow count with a minimum hammer
stroke, a minimum depth of penetration, or both.
To determine the minimum blow count for battered piles, divide the minimum blow count for vertical piles with
the same ultimate bearing value by an efficiency factor (D) that is less than one. This will result in an increased
minimum blow count for the battered piles. Compute the efficiency factor (D) as follows:
D=
1 - (U × G)
(1+G²)0.5
Where:
U = Coefficient of friction
use 0.05 for double-acting air operated or diesel hammers,
use 0.1 for single-acting air operated or diesel hammers, and
use 0.2 for drop hammers.
G = Amount of batter (H/V; 1/3, 1/4, etc.)
507.06
Cast-in-Place Reinforced Concrete Piles. Provide cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles
conforming to one or more of the types described below. Measure the pile diameter as follows:
A. Plain cylindrical casing, the outside diameter.
B. Cylindrical casings with vertical fluting, the diameter of a circle circumscribing the outermost points or ridges.
C. Cylindrical casing with circumferential corrugations, the average of the outside diameters measured at the
bottom and top of the corrugations or continuously welded helical corrugations with diameters measured at tops of
the corrugations.
D. Tapered piles, the top diameter as determined in 507.06.A, 507.06.B, or 507.06.C, but the pile tip diameter
shall not be less than 8 inches (200 mm).
Ensure that the pile casings are watertight after being driven. If furnished, shoes or points shall not project more
than 1/4 inch (6 mm) outside the vertical surface of the casing.
For plain cylindrical casings, the minimum pile wall thickness, t, is the greater of either 0.250 inches (6.66 mm)
or the thickness determined using the following formula:
t (inches)
=
R (lb)
900,00
0
t (mm)
=
R (N)
157,60
6
Where:
R = Ultimate bearing value in pounds (newtons)
For fluted piles, the minimum pile wall thickness shall be t/1.4.
For cast-in-place piles containing reinforcing steel, place reinforcing steel as stated in the second and third
paragraph of 524.09 and place concrete according to 524.11.
After installation, cover the tops of driven casings until the concrete is placed. Before placing concrete, remove
accumulated water or other foreign matter in a driven casing. Place concrete for cast-in-place piles using methods
that prevent voids, however, do not vibrate the concrete.
507.07
Steel H-Piles. Steel H-piles shall consist of structural steel shapes of the kind and size specified.
The Engineer may allow installation of steel piles of the specified type, which the Contractor has from previous
projects or stock, if the Contractor furnishes mill certifications and the pile sections are identified with the material
specification number, grade, and heat number. This identification may be in the form of information painted on the
steel piles or a tag physically attached to the steel.
507.08
Timber Piles. Provide timber piles of sufficient length to remove broomed or split portions caused
by driving. Symmetrically trim piles right truncated cone at the tip. If steel shoes or points are specified, carefully
shape the tip of the pile so that the steel shoe or point fits snugly and symmetrically.
Handle and store timber piles to prevent warping.
If specified, provide creosoted piles conforming to 712.06.
507.09
Splices. To the fullest extent practical, avoid splicing steel casings and structural shapes. Splice pile
casings and structural shapes either before or after driving a segment. If spliced after driving a segment, splice the
piles at least 3 feet (1 m) above the ground and inspect the splice while the pile is driven a minimum of 150 blows.
Align segments to make the axis of all segments common.
Use full penetration butt welds to splice steel pile casings according to AWS D1.1 and structural shapes according
to AWS D1.5. Non-destructive testing is not required.
Do not splice timber piles.
Pile Points. When specified in the plans, select a product from the Department’s Approved List. Weld the pile
points to the pile according to AWS D1.5 or the manufacturer’s written welding procedure supplied to the Engineer
before the welding is performed. Submit a notarized copy of the mill test report to the Engineer.
507.10
Defective Piles. Install the piles, so that after driving, they are within 12 inches (300 mm) from the
location shown on the plans for piles capped below final grade, and within 3.0 inches (75 mm) from the plan
location for pile caps above the ground surface. Piles not meeting these location tolerances are defective piles.
Pipe piles are defective if not water tight or if damage reduces the cross-sectional area by more than 20 percent.
Provide the Engineer with a light that allows inspection of the entire length of the interior of a driven casing.
Replace, repair, or drive a substitute pile beside the defective pile. The location tolerance for underground piles
does not apply to substitute piles beside defective underground piles. The off-location limits do apply to the
substitute pile that project above the ground. If a defective pile is removed, fill the hole remaining in the ground
with sand. Cut off a defective pile left in place under a footing 3 inches (75 mm) above the elevation of the bottom
of the footing. Cut off a defective pile left in place but not under a footing at least 1 foot (0.3 m) below ground
level. Fill defective pipe piles left in place with concrete.
When the outside rows of bearing piles are not located within tolerances specified above, increase the size of the
footing to provide a minimum distance between the pile and footing edge of at least 75 percent of that shown on
the plans.
507.11
Prebored Holes. Locate prebored holes as shown on the plans. Provide augured hole diameters:
A. For round piles, from 2 inches (50 mm) less to 4 inches (100 mm) more than the pile diameter.
B. For steel H-piles, from 6 inches (150 mm) less to 2 inches (50 mm) more than the pile’s diagonal dimension
but shall be such as to produce satisfactory pile driving results.
Backfill voids between the pile and the prebored hole with a granular material satisfactory to the Engineer.
507.12
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure piles driven by the number of feet (meters).
The Department will determine the sum as the lengths of all non-defective piles measured along the axis of each
pile from the bottom of each pile to the elevation of cutoff. Unless a separate pay item is specified in the Contract,
the Department will include Steel Points or Shoes in the measured length of driven piles. If a separate pay item is
specified in the Contract, the Department will measure Steel Points or Shoes by the number of each.
The Department will measure piles furnished by the number of feet (meters) of plan specified order length plus
any additional order length specified by the Engineer. The Engineer will include the length of undriven piles as
furnished, but the Contractor will not receive additional compensation for hauling the piles off the project.
For plan specified prebored holes, the Department will measure Prebored Holes by the number of feet (meters)
of prebored hole lengths for non-defective piles measured from the surface of ground at the time of boring to the
bottom of the hole. The Department will not measure preboring to facilitate the pile driving operation.
507.13
Basis of Payment. When the Contractor elects to prebore to facilitate the pile driving operation,
include the cost for preboring in the unit price bid for piles driven.
The Department will consider the cost of furnishing and installing the reinforcing steel to be included in the unit
price bid for piles driven.
The Department will not pay for any splices due to the Contractor furnishing pile lengths shorter than plan order
lengths. The Department will not pay for increased pile lengths made by the Contractor unless the Engineer
determines that the additional lengths are needed to achieve bearing. If additional penetration is necessary in order
to achieve the required bearing, the Department will pay for required splices at a negotiated price.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
507
507
507
507
507
507
507
507
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Foot (Meter)
Each
Steel Piles HP________, Furnished
Steel Piles HP________, Driven
___" (___ mm) Cast-In-Place, Reinforced Concrete Piles, Furnished
___" (___ mm) Cast-In-Place, Reinforced Concrete Piles, Driven
Timber Piles, Creosoted
Timber Piles, Untreated
Prebored Holes
Steel Points or Shoes
ITEM 508 FALSEWORK AND FORMS
508.01
508.02
508.03
508.04
508.05
Description
Falsework
Forms
Oiling Forms
Basis of Payment
508.01
Description. This work consist of designing and building of falsework and forms for the purpose of
holding concrete in place until it has set up.
508.02
Falsework. Provide substantial and rigid falsework that does not unduly obstruct any waterway,
highway, or railway. Arrange intermediate supports in the completed structure to produce the camber necessary to
conform to the plan profile of the roadway.
Do not allow the maximum deflection in the longitudinal falsework members at the edges of the concrete deck
to exceed 1/2 inch (13 mm) or the amount obtained by the following formula, whichever is greater.
d
S  100
1000
S  2540 

d 

1000 

Where:
d = the maximum deflection in inches (millimeters)
S = the distance between supports in inches (millimeters)
For transverse falsework members, and for longitudinal falsework members other than those near the edges of
the deck, increase the permissible deflection obtained from the above formula by 75 percent.
To compensate for falsework deflection, build camber into the falsework. In addition to falsework defection,
build the following amounts of camber into the falsework to compensate for slab deflection after falsework is
released:
A. Equal to 1/800 of the span for continuous spans.
B. Equal to 0.000018 S³ (0.016 S³) for simple spans, where S is the length of the slab span in feet (meters) for
camber expressed in inches (millimeters).
Provide camber to conform to the profile grade.
If the falsework does not rest in rock, shale, or other firm foundation material, support falsework on piling driven
to sufficient penetration to carry the superimposed loads according to Item 507, but not less than 16 tons (16 metric
tons) per pile. Perform dynamic load testing to determine required blow count if piles are not driven to rock. Do
not use expansion anchors to support falsework on piers or abutments. Use double hardwood wedges as necessary
to facilitate vertical adjustment.
Remove and replace any part of the structure made unsatisfactory by incorrect camber, settlement or form
deformation.
Construct falsework for arches so it may be released gradually.
Remove falsework only after the concrete conforms to 511.14 and before final acceptance of the structure. Cut
off or pull falsework piling. Cut off piles to at least the slope line, riprap line, or stream bed.
Locate the lower contact point of overhang falsework within 8 inches (200 mm) of the top of the rolled beam or
steel girders bottom flange.
Submit falsework plans for cast-in-place concrete slab superstructures according to 501.05.
If a thickened edge is shown on the plans, the Contractor may develop the edge by sloping the bottom of the slab
for a minimum of 9 feet (2.7 m) from the edge, instead of the section shown.
Do not place spandrel walls, decks of arches, sidewalks and curbs, or any superimposed concrete to be completed
after constructing the main supporting member or the deck until the falsework for the main supporting member has
been removed or released.
For continuous concrete slab or beam superstructures, do not place concrete on a span until the falsework and
forms are complete for the adjacent spans. Do not release or remove falsework from a span until the concrete in
adjacent spans has been placed a sufficient length of time to meet all requirements for the removal of falsework as
set forth in 511.14. Inserts cast into prestressed members for the purposes of falsework support shall be galvanized
according to 711.02 and shall be shown in the shop drawings according to 515.06.
508.03
Forms. Place all concrete in proper forms. Do not use unprotected sides of the excavation, instead of
forms, unless as specified in 503.04 for rock or shale excavation. For dry excavation specified in 503.03, the
Contractor may use the sheeting as forms for footings.
Construct substantial, unyielding, and mortar tight forms, designed to produce a finished concrete conforming to
the proper dimensions and contours. Make forms for exposed surfaces of approved material requiring a minimum
number of joints or of dressed lumber of uniform thickness using form liner approved by the Engineer. Use forms
and form liners to reduce the joints showing on the finished surface to a minimum. Arrange joints to coincide with
rustication grooves shown on the plans. Properly brace or tie forms together using approved form ties that do not
allow metal within 2 inches (50 mm) of an exposed surface of the finished structure after the forms are removed.
For ties in the region of exposed surfaces, use an approved insert. Remove all forms and do not allow material,
except reinforcing supports specified in 509.08, to remain in the concrete.
In forming pier, intermediate, or end diaphragms for prestressed or post-tensioned concrete members, do not
damage reinforcing steel, strands, or precast concrete in the placement of post installed anchors in these members.
Properly brace diaphragm forms externally or use approved form tie inserts cast into these members.
For concrete decks separated by an open median or temporarily separated by a closure section, construct
falsework and forms for each deck or section of deck independent of the adjacent structure or remaining
superstructure.
Immediately before placing concrete, provide temporary openings at the base of column and wall forms and in
the bottom of all narrow, deep members where necessary to facilitate cleaning or inspection.
Provide a 3/4-inch (20 mm) bevel on all exposed edges using a triangular strip built into the forms.
If rustication is used, fasten molding that is surfaced on all sides to the forms in such a manner that the molding
remains in the concrete when the forms are removed. Do not remove this molding until the concrete has set
sufficiently to prevent damage to the edges of the concrete.
If weep holes through abutments or retaining walls are shown on the plans, form weep holes to obtain a smooth
circular opening between 3 and 4 inches (75 and 100 mm) and a straight gradient of 0.08 through the wall.
508.04
Oiling Forms. Before placing reinforcing steel, coat the inside of forms with non-staining mineral
oil or other approved material.
508.05
Basis of Payment. The Department will not separately pay for falsework and forms. The cost of this
work is included for payment in the price bid for the item for which falsework and forms are used.
The Department will not pay for removal and replacement of any part of the structure made unsatisfactory by
settlement or form deformation.
The Department will not pay for dynamic load testing required in 508.02 to determine blow count if piles are not
driven to rock.
ITEM 509 REINFORCING STEEL
509.01
509.02
509.03
509.04
509.05
509.06
509.07
509.08
509.09
509.10
509.11
Description
Materials
Care of Material
Method of Placing
Bending
Approval of Placing
Splicing
Supports
Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
509.01
Description. This work consists of furnishing and placing supports, mechanical connectors, tie wires,
and reinforcing steel of the quality, type, size, and quantity designated, including steel dowels.
509.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Epoxy coated reinforcing steel ........................................................ 709.00
Reinforcing steel, deformed bars ........................... 709.01, 709.03, 709.05
Spiral reinforcing steel ..................................................... 709.01 or 709.08
Bar mats and wire fabric ........................................ 709.09, 709.10, 709.12
Plastic supports ................................................................................ 709.15
For metal bar supports used at or near the surface of the concrete, furnish either galvanized steel, stainless steel,
epoxy coated steel or plastic coated steel.
Provide sufficient additional reinforcing steel to replace reinforcing steel removed by the Department for
sampling. Replace random samples in the structures with additional steel, spliced according to 509.07.
When providing reinforcing steel for spiral cages, galvanized steel conforming to ASTM A767, Class 1, may be
provided only for the spiral reinforcing steel in lieu of epoxy coated reinforcing steel. The galvanized coated
reinforcing steel will meet all other requirements of 509. Where a sample splice is needed use the lap length
requirements for epoxy coated. The Galvanized coating will be applied after the reinforcing has been fabricated. If
the galvanized surface becomes damaged during handling in the field, repairs will conform to ASTM A780. Use
bar supports and tie wires which are plastic coated or epoxy coated. Only suppliers certified under Supplement
1068 may provide this reinforcing.
509.03
Care of Material. Upon delivery to the project and before use, stack reinforcing steel off the ground
and keep it free from dirt, oil, grease, or avoidable rust. Before placing in the concrete, ensure the reinforcing steel
is clean and free of loose rust.
509.04
Method of Placing. Place reinforcing steel in the positions shown on the plans, and firmly secure the
steel during the placing and setting of concrete. Tie bars in the superstructure at all intersections, except tie bars at
alternate intersections where bar spacing is less than 1 foot (0.3 m) in any direction. The Contractor may place up
to 25 percent of the upper longitudinal bars in a bridge deck slab beneath the upper transverse bars to support the
top mat. Do not drive or force reinforcing steel into concrete after its initially set.
Welding on reinforcing is prohibited, except as permitted by 709.10 and 709.12. The Engineer will allow the
Contractor to fabricate reinforcing bar cages for prestressed beams if fabrication is done in a manner satisfactory
to the Director.
Install reinforcing steel with at least the following clearances from the concrete surface:
A. 2 1/2 inches [-0 inch, +0.5 inch] (65 mm [-0 mm, +13 mm]) to the top of sidewalks..
B. 3 inches [-0 inch] (75 mm [-0 mm]) at the faces of footings placed against rock or earth.
C. 1 1/2 inches [-0 inch, +0.25 inch] (38 mm [-0 mm, +6 mm]) to the bottom of a cast-in-place deck slab.
D. 2 1/2 inches [-0.25 inch, +0.75 inch] (65 mm [-6 mm, +19 mm]) between the reinforcing steel and the top
surfaces of cast-in-place concrete deck slabs.
E. 2 inches [-0 inch, +0.5 inch] (50 mm [-0 mm, +13 mm]) at all other surfaces.
509.05
Bending. Bend reinforcing steel to the dimensions shown on the plans and in Table 509.05-1 (509.051M). Reject reinforcing steel showing transverse cracks.
TABLE 509.05-1 STANDARD BENDS
Dimension %
A
Dimension %
A
D
D
Dimension %
A
D
Bar
Nominal Dimensions
180 Bend
90 Bend
135 Bend
Bar Diameter Area Weight D
A
D
A
D
A
Size
in
in²
lb/ft
in
in
in
in
in
in
3
0.375
0.11 0.376 2 1/4
5
2 1/4
5
1 1/2
4
4
0.500
0.20 0.668
3
6
3
7
2
4 1/2
5
0.625
0.31 1.043 3 3/4
7
3 3/4 8 1/2
2 1/2 5 1/2
6
0.750
0.44 1.502 41/2
8
4 1/2
10
7
0.875
0.60 2.044 5 1/4
10 5 1/4
12
8
1.000
0.79 2.670
6
11
6
131/2
9
1.128
1.00 3.400 9 1/2
15 9 1/2 15 1/2
10
1.270
1.27 4.303 10 3/4 17 10 3/4
18
11
1.410
1.56 5.313
12
19
12
20
14
1.693
2.25
7.65 18 1/4 27 18 1/4
25
18
2.257
4.00 13.60
24
36
24
33
Tolerances: For diameter of bends, “D”, the tolerance may be plus or minus the diameter
of the bar. Standard fabricating tolerances shall be in accordance with the CRSI
Manual of Standard Practice. No weight allowances will be made for tolerances.
TABLE 509.05-1M STANDARD BENDS
Dimension %
D
A
Dimension %
D
A
Dimension %
A
D
Bar
Nominal Dimensions
180 Bend
90 Bend
135 Bend
Bar Diameter Area Weight D
A
D
A
D
A
Size
mm
mm² kg/m mm mm mm
mm
mm
mm
#10M
9.5
71
0.560
60
130
60
130
40
105
#13M
12.7
129
0.994
75
155
75
180
50
115
#16M
15.9
199
1.552
95
180
95
215
65
140
#19M
19.1
284
2.235
115
205
115
255
#22M
22.2
387
3.042
135
255
135
305
#25M
25.4
510
3.973
150
280
150
345
#29M
28.7
645
5.060
240
380
240
395
#32M
32.3
819
6.404
275
430
275
455
#36M
35.8
1006 7.907
305
485
305
510
#43M
43.0
1452 11.38
465
685
465
635
Tolerances: For diameter of bends, “D”, the tolerance may be plus or minus the diameter
of the bar. Standard fabricating tolerances shall be in accordance with the CRSI
Manual of Standard Practice. No weight allowances will be made for tolerances.
509.06
place.
Approval of Placing. Before placing concrete, obtain the Engineer’s approval of reinforcing steel in
509.07
Splicing. Splice reinforcement only as specified or determined by the Engineer. Splice spiral
reinforcement by lapping 1 1/2 turns. Do not replace spiral reinforcement removed for a material sample if the
sample is from the end of the spiral and less than or equal to 30 inches (0.8 m) long.
Mechanical connectors shall be capable of developing 125 percent of the yield strength of the connected bars.
For threaded connections, do not reduce the nominal area of the bars shown in the plans without increasing the
grade of the reinforcing bar shown in the plans. The total slip of the bar within the splice sleeve of the connector
after loading in tension to 30.0 ksi (207 MPa) and relaxing to 3.0 ksi (21 MPa) shall not exceed the following
measured displacements between gage points clear of the splice sleeve:
A. For bar sizes up to No. 14: 0.01 in. (0.25 mm)
B. For No. 18 bars: 0.03 in. (0.76 mm)
Splice Nos. 14 and 18 (Nos. 45M and 55M) reinforcing steel bars with mechanical connectors.
The Department will not permit lap splices for these size bars.
Splice Nos. 14 and 18 (Nos. 45M and 55M) reinforcing steel bars with mechanical connectors. The Department
will not permit lap splices for these size bars.
Splice additional steel used to replace random samples as follows:
TABLE 509.07-1
Bar
Size
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Lap Length (inches)
Uncoated
Epoxy Coated
22
27
29
35
34
41
43
52
57
69
72
87
92
111
113
137
TABLE 509.07-1M
Bar
Size
13M
16M
19M
22M
25M
29M
32M
36M
Lap Length (mm)
Uncoated Epoxy Coated
560
690
740
890
870
1040
1090
1320
1450
1750
1830
2210
2340
2820
2870
3480
509.08
Supports. Use precast mortar blocks, metal supports, or plastic supports of adequate strength, of the
proper depth, and in sufficient number to support reinforcing steel. Space supports for reinforcing steel no more
than 4 feet (1.2 m) apart transversely and longitudinally. Metal supports shall have a shape that is easily enveloped
by the concrete.
Mortar blocks may only be used to support the lower matt of reinforcing steel in concrete that is cast directly
against bedrock or soil.
509.09
Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel. Use plastic coated or epoxy coated bar supports and tie wires to
protect the epoxy coating from physical damage, as specified in 709.00, during placement and to prevent electrical
coupling between mats. Carefully handle and install bars to perform minimal patching at the job site. Repair
physical damage to the epoxy coating with a patching material all damaged coating areas greater than 1/4-inch (6
mm) square or 1/4-inch (6 mm) diameter; approximately 1/8-inch (3 mm) square or 1/8-inch (3 mm) diameter if
the opening is within 1/4-inch (6 mm) of an equal or larger opening; or, a length of 6 inches (150 mm) regardless
of area. Coating damage in cases where the damaged area is less than specified above need not be repaired. Use
patching material of the same composition and quality as the original coating. Prepare the surface to a near white
metal.
If repair is required, clean and repair the damaged areas and allow adequate cure time before placing concrete.
The Engineer will approve the installation once patching has been done as outlined above.
509.10
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel by the
number of pounds (kilograms) shown on the plans. Additional measurements or calculations are not required.
If the Contractor believes the pay weight, as shown on the plans, is in error, the Contractor is responsible to prove
this discrepancy by recalculating the total weight for the reference number involved. The Contractor shall submit
its figures to the Engineer for review and approval. The number of pounds (kilograms) of reinforcing steel shall be
the actual number of pounds (kilograms) of the various sizes incorporated in the concrete as shown on the plans,
completed and accepted.
If the weight of the reinforcing steel is recalculated, determine the number of pounds (kilograms) from the
number, length, and weight of the bars as shown on the steel list of the plans, based on the weight per foot (meter)
shown in the Table 509.05-1 (509.05-1M) with deductions for bars not used, and addition for extra bars used as
directed by the Engineer.
509.11
Basis of Payment. The Department will not include the supports, mechanical connectors, and tie
wires in the calculated weights but will consider them incidental to the price bid.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract price as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
509
Pounds (Kilograms)
Epoxy Coated Reinforcing
ITEM 510 DOWEL HOLES
510.01
510.02
510.03
510.04
510.05
510.06
Description
Materials
Drilling of Holes
Placement
Curing and Loading
Basis of Payment
510.01
Description. This work consists of drilling holes into concrete or masonry, and furnishing and placing
grout into the holes. The furnishing and placing of steel for dowels is included in Item 509.
510.02
Materials. Cement grout consists of one part of hydraulic cement conforming to Item 701 and three
parts sand conforming to 703.03, by volume, and water.
Furnish nonshrink, nonmetallic grout conforming to 705.20.
510.03
concrete.
Drilling of Holes. Drill holes at the location and the depth shown on the plans without spalling the
Drill holes for cement grout at least 1/2 inch (13 mm) larger in diameter than the dowel bar. Drill holes diameters
for nonshrink, nonmetallic grout at least 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) larger in diameter than the dowel bar. Drill hole for
encapsulated type nonshrink, nonmetallic grout as recommended by the manufacturer.
Instead of drilling holes, the Contractor may install formed holes with laitance removed.
510.04
Placement. Do not install grout if the temperature of the concrete into which the grout is being placed
is below 40 F (4 C). Force dowel bars into the holes, to the specified depth, spreading the grout around the bar
and solidly filling the hole.
Before installing cement grout and dowels, saturate cement grout dowel holes with water then blow out all excess
water. Place enough cement grout to completely fill the holes during dowel installation. If cement grout does not
completely fill the hole, remove the dowel, pour additional grout into the hole, and reinstall the dowel.
Before installing nonshrink, nonmetallic grout and dowel, clean and dry the grout holes. Immediately after
mixing, place a sufficient amount of nonshrink, nonmetallic grout to provide complete coverage around the dowel
to ensure anchorage. If nonshrink, nonmetallic grout does not completely fill the hole, pour additional grout in until
the hole is filled flush.
Obtain the correct protrusion of the anchors or dowels, and hold dowels in the plan position within the holes until
the grout has initially hardened.
If horizontal holes are specified, provide a means of retaining the grout in the hole flush with the vertical face
and remove this material after the grout has hardened. Do not use material for retaining the grout that bonds to the
grout.
510.05
follows:
Curing and Loading. Before applying any stresses to dowels, cure nonshrink, nonmetallic grout as
Daily Minimum Ambient Temperature
33 to 50 F (1 to 10 C)
51 to 68 F (11 to 20 C)
above 68 F (above 20 C)
510.06
Minimum Curing Time
3 hours
1 1/2 hours
1 hour
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
510
510
Each
Each
Dowel holes with cement grout
Dowel holes with nonshrink, nonmetallic grout
ITEM 511 CONCRETE FOR STRUCTURES
511.01
511.02
511.03
511.04
511.05
511.06
511.07
511.08
511.09
511.10
511.11
511.12
511.13
511.14
511.15
511.16
511.17
511.18
511.19
511.20
511.21
511.22
511.23
511.24
Description
Materials
Concrete
Quality Control Requirements and Mass Concrete
Mixing of Concrete
Slump
Placing Concrete
Slipform Construction of Bridge Railing
Construction Joints
Work Stoppage
Depositing Concrete Under Water
Depositing and Curing Concrete During Cold Weather
Removal of Forms
Curing and Loading
Surface Finish
Roadway Finish
Bridge Deck Grooving
Sidewalk Finish
Joints, Cracks, Scaling and Spalls
Compressive Strength
Air Content
Pay Factors
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
511.01 Description. This work consists of providing falsework and forming, furnishing, placing, consolidating,
finishing, and curing portland cement concrete. This work also includes diamond saw cutting longitudinal grooves
into the surface of superstructure concrete. Construct falsework and forms as required in Item 508.
511.02 Materials. Furnish materials conforming to 499.02, except as modified below.
Use the same kind and color of aggregate for all concrete above the ground line in a given substructure unit and
for all concrete in a given superstructure.
Use high molecular weight methacrylate resin sealer conforming to 705.15.
Use curing materials conforming to 705.05; 705.06 (white opaque); or 705.07;Type 1 or 1D.
Use 1/4-inch (6 mm) gray sponge joint filler conforming to 711.28, or use preformed filler conforming to 705.03.
Use preformed elastomeric compression joint seals conforming to 705.11.
511.03 Concrete. Provide concrete for structures according to 499.03, using Class QC 1, QC 2, QC 3 or QC 4
as specified in the Contract.
At least 10 days before placing concrete, submit, in writing, the Department accepted Job Mix Formula (JMF)
to the Engineer. The Engineer will review the mix design for conformance to contract requirements; otherwise the
mix design is for the Engineer’s information.
511.04 Quality Control Requirements and Mass Concrete. When the concrete bid item requires QC/QA,
develop and submit a Quality Control plan (QCP) for the work and perform quality control testing of the concrete
conforming to Item 455.
When the concrete bid item requires QC/QA, The Engineer will perform Quality Assurance conforming to 455.
When the concrete bid item does not require QC/QA, the Engineer will make acceptance test cylinders as follows:
Structures of 20-foot (6.1 m) span or less.
At least one set of test cylinders for each 50 cubic yards
(35 m³) of concrete.
Structures over 20-foot (6.1 m) span.
A set of test cylinders from each 200 cubic yards (150 m³)
of concrete, or fraction thereof that is incorporated into the
work each day.
With any 511 concrete bid item provide and maintain a Concrete Cylinder Curing Box (CCCB) capable of
holding at least 12 4 × 8 inch (100 × 200 mm) cylinders at a temperature of 60 to 80 F (15 to 27 C) degrees no
matter what the ambient temperature. The box will have a sealed lid. If the project has numerous 511 concrete bid
items CCCB are not required for each bid item. Locate the CCCB at a site that is convenient to the concrete work
and will eliminate handling damage to both the Contractor QC or QA cylinders and the Department Cylinders.
Move the CCCB as needed during the project when the distance from the concrete work increases the possibility
of cylinder handling damage.
A. Mass Concrete Requirements. For concrete components with a minimum dimension of 5-ft (1.5-m) or
greater, develop a concrete mix design QC-4 for mass concrete according to 499.03. Develop a Thermal Control
Plan (TCP) to control placement of the mass concrete so that the highest maximum internal temperature of the
placed concrete is not greater than 160 ⁰F (71 ⁰C) and the maximum differential concrete temperature does not
exceed 36 ⁰F (20 ⁰C) over 28 days from time of placement.
For drilled shafts with a dimension of 7-ft (2.1-m) diameter or greater, develop a concrete mix design QC-4
for mass concrete, QC 4 according to 499.03. Develop a TCP to control placement of the mass concrete so that the
highest maximum internal temperature of the placed concrete is not greater than 160 ºF (71 ºC).
Submit the TCP to the Engineer for acceptance at least 10 calendar days prior to placement along with the
approved JMF (s).
As a minimum, the TCP shall include the following information:
1.
Duration and method of curing.
2. Procedures to control concrete temperature at the time of placement. The mix shall contain no frozen
pieces of ice after blending and mixing components.
3.
Methods and equipment used for controlling temperature differentials.
4. Temperature sensor types, locations and installation details. As a minimum, concrete temperatures shall
be monitored at the calculated hottest location, on at least 2 outer faces, 2 corners, and top surfaces.
5. Temperature monitoring and recording system; operation plan; recording and reporting plan with example
output; and a remedial action plan.
6.
Criteria for form removal to control the maximum temperature differential.
As an alternative to the maximum differential concrete temperature specified above, the Contractor may
propose maximum differential temperature limits based on strength gain with time. The TCP for the alternative
proposal shall include the methods used to determine the temperature and supporting data and design to support
the accuracy of the method chosen. Provide complete calculations and basis for increasing the maximum
differential temperature specification. The TCP for the alternative proposal shall also provide the Engineer with
tables that define ambient temperatures for acceptable concrete placement, the required temperature of the concrete
for the ambient air temperature, the maximum predicted concrete temperature, the maximum predicted differential
temperature, the time for removal of forms, the allowable air temperature for form removal, and the predicted
maximum and differential temperature from placement to age of 28 days. The Department will consider all cracking
of a mass concrete placement where the differential temperature exceeded 36 ºF (20ºC) the responsibility of the
Contractor.
Upon the Engineer’s acceptance of the TCP, continuously monitor all temperature sensors over the required
age of the concrete. If the maximum limit or differential temperature limits are exceeded at any time, immediately
take action to retard and reduce the out-of-specification temperatures. If a mass concrete placement temperature
exceeds the specification limits of the currently accepted TCP, re-engineer, revise and resubmit the TCP. Do not
place additional mass concrete until the revised TCP is accepted.
The Department will consider in-place mass concrete that exceeds the temperature limits or that cracked, as
defective and resulting delays as non-excusable. Determine the extent and effect of the damage and submit a
proposed repair plan to the Engineer to return the concrete to acceptable quality. The Department will determine if
the proposed repair methods are acceptable or if removal is required.
511.05 Mixing of Concrete. Mix concrete according to 499.08.
511.06 Slump. Within the slump ranges specified in 499.03, provide a slump that produces concrete that is
workable in the required position, flows around reinforcing steel, and coats individual particles of coarse aggregate
with mortar containing the proportionate amount of sand.
511.07 Placing Concrete. Submit to the Engineer a description of proposed placing procedures and notify the
Engineer at least 24 hours in advance of placing concrete. If the concrete bid item requires QC/QA, include the
submittal as part of the QCP.
Place and finish concrete to the lines and grades shown in the plans.
Unless otherwise noted, the proposed beam seat elevations shown in the plans for prestressed beam
superstructures are based on the design midspan camber for prestressed beams which are 30 days old (D30). Adjust
each beam seat elevation using measured midspan camber data provided by the fabricator if available. In the
absence of measured midspan camber, adjust each beam seat elevation using the following:
ΔY = Dt – D30 ≥ 0
Where:
ΔY = Distance that each seat elevation shall be lowered from plan elevation to account for midspan camber
growth rounded to the nearest 1/8-inch
Dt
=
(1 + ψ) D0
D30
=
Design Midspan Camber at Day 30 provided in the plans; inch
D0
=
Design Midspan Camber at Day 0 provided in the plans; inch
ψ
=
1.97 KS KF KTD
KS
=
1.45 – 0.13 (V/S) ≥ 1.0
V/S = Ratio of the prestressed concrete member’s volume-to-surface area exposed to the atmosphere. For
each of the standard I-beam sections, this ratio is provided on PSID-1-13; inch
KF
=
5/(1 + f′ci)
f′ci
=
Compressive strength of prestressed concrete at release provided in the plans; ksi
KTD
=
t/(61 - 4 f′ci + t)
t = Age of prestressed concrete measured between release of prestressing force (eg. 0.75 days) and time of
deck placement; days
Provide the Engineer with revised plan sheets and Design Camber calculations or measured camber data signed,
sealed and dated by an Ohio Registered Professional Engineer at least 7 days prior to constructing the beam seats.
The revised plan sheets shall include the measured camber data (if available), Design Camber (D t) and beam age
(t) assumed for establishing the revised elevations. Provide haunch reinforcement for prestressed I-beam members
according to the ODOT Bridge Design Manual, Figure 302.5.2.3-2 as necessary to extend the beam’s composite
reinforcement at least two inches into the deck thickness. All revisions resulting from adjusted beam seat elevations
shall be clearly marked as revised. Do not begin work until the Engineer approves the revised plan.
Provide coverage over or around reinforcing steel as described in 509.04.
Conform to the following tolerances from plan dimensions:
TABLE 511.07-1
PLACEMENT TOLERANCES
Deviation from plumb for exposed surfaces
Vertical alignment (Deviation from a line parallel to the grade
line)
Longitudinal alignment (Deviation from a line parallel to the
centerline or baseline)
Width dimensions of walls for exposed surfaces
Bridge Slab thickness
Elevations of beam seats
Slope, Vertical Deviation from Plane
Slope, Horizontal Deviation from Plane
± ¾ inch (19 mm)
± ½ inch in 20 feet (13 mm in 6 m)
Max. ±1 inch (25 mm)
±½ inch in 20 feet (13 mm in 6 m)
Max. ±1 inch (25 mm)
±½ inch (13 mm)
±¼ inch (6 mm)
±1/8 inch (3 mm)
±0.2%
±0.4%
Until discharged in the work, ensure that the temperature of all concrete does not exceed 95 F (35 C).
When placing superstructure and approach slab concrete assure the ambient air temperature is 85 °F (30 °C) or
less and not predicted to go above 85 °F (30 °C) during the concrete placement; and evaporation rates, determined
according to Figure 1 in ACI 308, do not exceed 0.1 lbs/ft2/hour (0.5 kg/m2/hour).
Determine and document the ambient air temperature, concrete temperature, deck surface temperature, relative
humidity, and wind velocity, subject to verification by the Engineer. Measure data required in Figure 1 from within
10 feet (3 m) of the area where the superstructure concrete is placed.
Figure 1 does not apply to substructure items and formed parapets. Figure 1 applies to slip-formed parapets and
approach slabs.
To meet favorable atmospheric conditions, may require the Contractor to place concrete at night. At least 24
hours before placing concrete at night, submit a lighting plan for the work area to the Engineer. Obtain the
Engineer’s approval of the lighting plan before placing the concrete. Direct lights so that approaching traffic is not
affected or distracted.
Before placing a concrete deck on continuous steel beams or girders, complete all of the main beam or girder
splices at least two piers beyond the pier or piers supporting the concrete.
Before placing concrete for backwalls above the approach slab seat with steel expansion joints, backfill the
abutments to within 2-feet (0.6 m) of the bridge seat elevation, erect structural steel or prestressed concrete beams
and place superstructure concrete in the adjacent span,. Use the steel expansion joint as a template for the top of
the backwall. If temporary bolts are used to support the backwall portion of an expansion device during the placing
of the backwall concrete, remove the bolts after the concrete has taken its initial set and before a change in
temperature causes superstructure movement sufficient to damage the backwall.
Before placing concrete, assure the Engineer of an adequate and uniform source of supply of concrete to allow
proper placing and finishing, and of the availability of coverings to protect the concrete from rain.
Do not add or apply water to the concrete after it has left the truck and before applying curing materials according
to 511.14.
Before placing concrete, thoroughly clean all forms and structural steel that contact the concrete and ensure that
the space to be occupied by the concrete is free of laitance, silt, dirt, shavings, sawdust, loose and built-up rust, and
other debris.
Deposit concrete using methods that ensure reinforcing steel is completely enveloped in concrete mortar and that
allow inspection of concrete enveloping the reinforcing steel. Use a method or device to convey the concrete from
the mixer to the work that prevents coarse aggregate separating from the mortar. If depositing concrete in shallow
members, such as slabs, place it with as short a vertical drop as possible. Place the concrete over a section to
maintain a practically horizontal surface. If using a chute, slope the chute to allow concrete to flow without
segregation. Place concrete as near as possible to its final position.
Drop concrete into the forms with a free-fall distance of 5 feet (1.5 m) or less. As necessary, use drop chutes to
limit the free fall to 5 feet (1.5 m) and to ensure the delivery ends as vertical as possible.
For concrete delivered to the point of placement by means of pumping equipment, ensure the air content at the
point of placement is within the specified parameters of Table 499.03-1. Adjust the pumping pressure, boom angles
and use pumping aids to lower the friction in the piping to meet the specified parameters. Provide a hose at the end
of the line that is at least 0.5 inch (12 mm) smaller in diameter than the line on the boom to minimize free-fall and
maintain a continuous flow of concrete in the pipe lines and boom during discharge.
Deliver and distribute the concrete at a uniform and adequate rate no more than 10 feet (3 m) directly in front of
the finishing machine by suitable mechanical equipment. For structures with a skew angle greater than fifteen (15)
degrees, Orient the finishing machine according to 511.16. For structures with a skew angle greater than fifteen
(15) degrees and up to fifty (50) degrees, load the concrete at the skew angle. For structures with a skew angle
greater than fifty (50) degrees, load the concrete as close to the skew angle of the structure as possible, but do not
allow the leading edge of the concrete placement to exceed twenty (20) feet (6.1 m) ahead of the finishing machine.
Place concrete in structures using vibration. Furnish and use sufficient vibration equipment of the type and size
approved by the Engineer to properly compact the concrete immediately after it is placed in the forms. The vibrators
shall generally be of a type that is applied directly to the concrete and have a frequency of at least 4500 impulses
per minute. If the concrete is inaccessible for this method of vibration, apply the vibrators to the outside of the
forms.
Do not move concrete using a vibrator. Vibrate freshly deposited concrete at the point deposited. Slowly insert
and withdraw the vibrators vertically into the concrete until the concrete is thoroughly compacted but not
segregated. During vibration, do not disturb partially hardened concrete.
As necessary, spade along form surfaces, in corners, and in locations impossible to reach with vibrators to ensure
smooth surfaces and dense concrete. Closely observe the results obtained on the first concrete placed, and, if
necessary, modify the mix according to this specification to secure the best results.
FIGURE 1 ACI 308-81
511.08 Slipform Construction of Bridge Railing. If slipforming, provide finished concrete conforming to the
following tolerances from plan dimensions:
TABLE 511.08-1
SLIPFORMED BRIDGE RAILING TOLERANCES
Reinforcing steel cover
Top width dimension
Bottom width dimension
Surface flatness
Vertical alignment (Deviation from a line parallel to
the grade line)
-1/2 inch, +1/2 inch (-13 mm, +13 mm)
-0, +1/4 inch (+6 mm)
-0, +1/2 inch (+13 mm)
1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m)
1/2 inch in 20 feet (13 mm in 6 m)
Max. ±1 inch (25 mm)
Tie all joints and splices in bridge railing reinforcing steel. Before placing concrete, perform a slipforming dry
run to verify reinforcing clearance and rigidity of the reinforcing cages. Adjust and stabilize the cage as necessary
to establish the required clearances and to ensure the cage will not move during slipforming. The Contractor may
add any additional diagonal reinforcing steel between the front and rear vertical reinforcing faces to establish the
required rigidity.
Repair or patch honeycombing, cracking, tearing, and other defects immediately after concrete exits the slipform
equipment. Completely fill defects with concrete without using water to smooth or close the surface. If the
slipforming exhibits more than infrequent defects, stop work and make adjustments to produce a slipformed surface
that does not require repairs. Do not broom finish the surface of the bridge railings.
After the concrete initially sets, but before any shrinkage cracks develop, saw control joints 1 1/4 inches (32 mm)
deep into the perimeter of the parapet. Generally, initial set is within 6 hours of batching of the concrete. Ensure
that all joints are sawed within 24 hours of placement. Saw control joints using an edge guide, fence, or jig to
ensure that the joint is straight, true, and aligned on all faces of the parapet. The joint width shall be the width of
the saw blade, a nominal 1/4 inch (6 mm). After the concrete curing period specified in Item 511.14 has been
reached, sawcut at least 4 inches (100 mm) deep around the perimeter of the front face, top and back face of the
top portion of parapet, no lower than 12 and ½ inches (313 mm) above the top of the concrete deck slab. Caulk the
control joints with a polyurethane or polymeric material conforming to ASTM C 920, Type S.
Slip formed concrete requires different slumps than those listed in Item 499 or other plan specified concrete.
Provide a slump such that the concrete exiting the slipform does not pull but is stiff enough to prevent waviness
and sags in the finished surfaces. Cure slipform concrete according 511.14, Method A. Because slipformed concrete
has a low water-cement ratio, timely application of the water cure is critical in helping control shrinkage cracks.
Furnish platforms as necessary to protect traffic passing under the bridge from falling debris during the
slipforming operation, to allow access for completing the finishing operation, and to allow the Engineer access to
the outside of the parapet.
The Engineer will inspect the slipformed surface for horizontal cracking no earlier than 21 days after completion
of the slipforming operation. Repair all horizontal cracks by epoxy injection. If a concrete sealer was applied, repair
damage to the sealer after completing the epoxy injection.
511.09 Construction Joints. If construction joints are shown on the plans, place all concrete between
consecutive joints in a continuous operation. Follow the requirements of 511.14 when placing concrete against a
construction joint.
Obtain the Director’s approval before placing any construction joint not shown on the plans or required by
511.07.
Before placing concrete, determine the location where the day’s concrete placing ends. If practical, end placing
the day’s concrete perpendicular to the lines of principal stress and in regions of small shear. Do not install
horizontal joints in concrete girders and beams.
Form construction joints using bulkheads with keyways. Locate keyways clear of exposed surfaces by
approximately one-third the thickness of the joint. Construct transverse or longitudinal construction joints in deck
slabs with keys located between the reinforcing mats and having a depth of ¾ inch (19 mm).
Where practical, avoid horizontal joints in piers, abutments, and retaining walls, otherwise locate horizontal
joints 2 feet (0.6 m) or more above the normal water level.
For construction joints not shown on the plans and above ordinary low water, in abutments, and in retaining walls
that retain earth fills, install a 36-inch (1 m) strip of Type 2 membrane waterproofing according to Item 512 to the
back of the joint.
Avoid joints in cantilevered members.
Dampen the surface of the concrete of the horizontal construction joints immediately before placing adjoining
concrete.
Place and protect horizontal construction joints between bridge slabs and superimposed curbs, parapets,
sidewalks, and median strips in the same manner as the remainder of the slab. Cure the construction joints according
to 511.14.
Avoid disturbing the bond between protruding reinforcing steel and the deck concrete. If using the curb areas to
place the deck, tie and brace the reinforcing steel to prevent its movement.
Where walls or columns support slabs or beams, place concrete in wall or column to the bottom of the slab or
beam and allow the concrete to settle for at least 2 hours before placing concrete in the slab or beam.
511.10 Work Stoppage. If the work is unexpectedly interrupted by breakdowns, storms, or other causes,
rearrange the freshly deposited concrete to provide a suitable construction joint. If this joint occurs at a section with
shear stress, prevent a plane of weakness by providing an adequate mechanical bond across the joint by forming a
keyway, inserting reinforcing steel, or by some other means satisfactory to the Engineer.
511.11 Depositing Concrete Under Water. Except for cofferdam seals and drilled shafts, do not place concrete
under water.
511.12 Depositing and Curing Concrete During Cold Weather. If placing concrete when the atmospheric
temperature is 32 °F (0 °C) or less, or if weather forecasts predict these temperatures during the curing period,
follow the procedures of this subsection.
Heat the water or aggregate, or both, as necessary to produce concrete with a temperature when placed of at least
50 °F (10 °C) but not greater than 70 °F (21 °C).
Place concrete against materials with a temperature of greater than 32 °F (0 °C). If necessary, heat the forms,
reinforcing steel, and foundation materials before placing the concrete.
Maintain the concrete surface temperature between 50 and 100 °F (10 and 38 °C) for a period of not less than 5
days, except as modified in 511.12.C. After the minimum cure period of 5 days, reduce the concrete surface
temperature at a rate not to exceed 20 °F (11 °C) in 24 hours until the concrete surface temperature is within 20 °F
(11 °C) of atmospheric temperature.
Install sufficient high-low thermometers to readily determine the concrete surface temperature. For deck slabs,
install high-low thermometers to measure deck bottom surfaces, deck fascia surfaces, and deck top surfaces.
Maintain the concrete curing temperature using a heated enclosure, insulated forms, or by flooding, except cure
deck slabs less than 10 inches (250 mm) thick using more than just insulated forms.
Remove falsework and open cold weather concrete to traffic according to 511.14.
A. Heated Enclosure. Construct the heated enclosure to surround the top, sides, and bottom of the concrete.
Construct strong and wind proof enclosures that contain adequate space to allow free circulation of air around the
forms and concrete.
Before placing concrete, construct the enclosure and heating devices to the extent allowed by the concrete
operation. As the concreting operation progresses and as soon as possible after placing concrete, complete
construction of the enclosures and apply heat. Supply heat by a method that continuously maintains a reasonably
uniform temperature throughout the enclosures and does not discolor the concrete.
Vent combustion-type heating devices outside the enclosure.
If dry heat, other than free steam, maintains the enclosure temperature, immediately cover exposed concrete
with two thicknesses of burlap. Continuously wet the burlap and, except for required rubbing of the concrete, do
not remove the burlap during the heating period.
If wood forms without liners are left in place more than 2 days after the placing of concrete, thoroughly wet
the forms at least once each day for the remainder of the heating period. If forms are removed during the heating
period, thoroughly drench the concrete with water and, for the remainder of the heating period, cover and wet the
concrete with burlap as specified above.
B. Insulation. Install sufficient thermometers to readily determine the concrete surface temperature. If the surface
temperature approaches 100 °F (38 °C), loosen or otherwise vent the forms or insulation to keep the surface
temperature within the limits specified above. If insulation does not maintain the minimum required temperature,
promptly enclose the concrete as specified in 511.12.A or flood the concrete as specified in 511.12.C.
Use a wind and water resistant insulating material. Ensure edges, corners, and other points of extreme exposure
are adequately insulated. Place a tarpaulin or other Engineer approved waterproof cover over the insulation to
protect the concrete top surface.
C. Flooding with Water. The Contractor may flood the concrete with water provided flooding does not damage
the concrete. Heat the water to a temperature from 50 to 100 °F (10 to 38 °C). The Contractor may stop using
heated water after 48 hours if the concrete remains flooded to a depth of 1 foot (0.3 m) above its highest elevation
for at least the next 120 hours.
511.13 Removal of Forms. To facilitate finishing, remove forms from vertical surfaces that receive a rubbed
surface finish as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently that rubbing will not damage it.
511.14 Curing and Loading. Remove falsework and open structures to traffic only after the concrete has reached
the strength specified by Table 511.14-1A for concrete bid items requiring QC/QA. Use Table 511.14.1B for
concrete items not requiring QC/QA. Do not shorten the minimum required Method A curing time regardless of
strength test results.
TABLE 511.14-1A
LOADING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE REQUIRING QC/QA
Removing Falsework
Traffic [3]
Span[1]
Any Span
All pier caps
Any
Required Strength [2]
Compressive Strength ≥ 0.85% f’c
orFlexural Strength (Center point)
≥ 650 psi (4.5 Mpa)
[1] Span is defined as the horizontal distance between faces of the supporting elements when measured
parallel to the primary reinforcement.
[2] Field cured samples. The maturity curve method may be used for determining the strength
according to Supplement 1098 in lieu of field curing samples
[3] When placing concrete for a superstructure between October 15 and March 15, open the deck to
traffic no sooner than 30 days after placement.
TABLE 511.14-1B
LOADING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE NOT REQUIRING QC/QA
Age of Concrete in Days
Span[1]
No Beam Test Beam Test [2]
Removing Falsework
Over 10 feet (3 m)
14
5
10 feet (3 m) or less and all pier caps
7
3
[3]
Traffic
Any
14
7
[1]Span is defined as the horizontal distance between faces of the supporting elements when
measured parallel to the primary reinforcement.
[2]Applicable only when the average modulus of rupture for two tests is not less than 650 psi (4.5
MPa).
[3]When placing concrete for a superstructure between October 15 and March 15, open the deck to
traffic no sooner than 30 days after placement.
Take enough specimens to verify compliance with the strength requirements of Table 511.14-1A. Obtain samples
from the first and last sublots of continuously placed concrete for quantities of 500 yd3 or less, and one extra set of
specimens for each additional 500 yd3 or fraction thereof. Obtain samples in equally spaced increments throughout
the placement as directed by the Engineer. Delays in placements of more than 4 hours are not considered
continuously placed and are to be treated as separate placements.
If the air temperature surrounding the concrete is maintained between 32 and 50 °F (0 and 10 °C), and if the
provisions of 511.12 do not apply, maintain the concrete above 32 °F (0 °C) for 7 days or until a successful strength
test conforming to Table 511.14-1A, except this time shall not be less than 5 days.
Do not apply loads to or perform work on new concrete until workers and construction materials will not damage
the concrete or interfere with its curing. Allow at least 36 hours and until the field cured compressive strength
cylinders or maturity results reach 85% f’c; or if using flexural beams, the average of two beam tests is greater than
650 psi (4.5 MPa) before loading new concrete. Do not interfere with curing of new concrete.
Cure concrete as follows:
TABLE 511.14-2
CURING REQUIREMENTS
Location
Curing Method [1]
Superstructure concrete
Method A
Concrete to which sealer is applied
Method A
Construction joints
Method A
Top surface of concrete deck superstructure concrete Method A followed by Method B
Concrete with waterproofing
Method A or Method B
All other concrete
Method A or Method B
[1]Method A is water curing. Method B is membrane curing. If using Method B on areas
to be waterproofed, remove the curing membrane.
Concrete curing methods are as follows:
A. Method A, Water Curing. With the exception of the top surface of deck superstructure concrete, protect
surfaces not covered by forms immediately after final finishing with two thicknesses of wet burlap. Keep burlap
wet for at least 7 days by the continuous application of water. If forms are removed before 7 days, immediately
drench the exposed concrete with water and cover it with burlap. Continuously apply water to the burlap for the
remainder of the curing period.
Instead of continuous application of water, with the exception of the top surface of deck superstructure
concrete, the Contractor may cover the wet burlap with white polyethylene sheeting or plastic coated burlap
blankets conforming to 705.06. Place plastic coated burlap blankets wet and with the burlap side against the
previous layer of wet burlap. Sufficiently lap and secure adjoining plastic coated blankets or polyethylene sheets
at the laps and edges to form a seal that maintains the concrete wet at laps and edges. Cover white polyethylene
sheeting or plastic coated blankets containing holes or tears with an additional covering of plastic sheeting or
blankets as directed by the Engineer.
Cover the top surface of deck superstructure concrete with a single layer of clean wet burlap after it is bull
floated if necessary, and finished. Keep the burlap wet by a continuous flow of water through soaker hoses and
cover the hoses with a 4 mils (100 m) white opaque polyethylene film for 7 days. After 7 days, allow the surface
of the deck to dry.
After curing the top surface of the deck superstructure concrete for 7 days, remove the burlap and standing
water. Within 12 hours after removing the burlap, apply a curing membrane and cure the concrete according to
Method B.
B. Method B, Membrane Curing. Immediately after the free water has disappeared on surfaces not protected
by forms, apply curing material conforming to 705.07, Type 1 or 1D. If forms are removed before the end of the
7-day curing period, apply curing material on the concrete exposed by removing the forms.
Thoroughly mix curing material immediately before use. Apply the membrane curing material at the rate of at
least 1 gallon per 200 square feet (1 L/5 m2) of surface and in a fine mist to provide a continuous, uniform, and
water impermeable film without marring the concrete surface
Do not allow workers, materials, and equipment on the concrete during the curing period, unless adequately
protecting the membrane curing material from damage. .
If the film is broken or damaged during the specified curing period, reapply curing material as specified above
to the damaged or affected areas.
511.15 Surface Finish. For concrete that is to be sealed according to 512.03, perform surface profiling according
to 512.03.F, immediately after removing forms. Clean, dampen, and fill with mortar all cavities produced by form
ties, honeycomb spots, broken corners or edges, and other defects. Use a mortar of the same proportions used in
the concrete being finished. Finish other contiguous exposed surfaces on the structure in a similar manner and to
the extent required to produce a uniform appearance.
On all exposed surfaces, remove fins and irregular projections with a stone or power grinder, taking care to avoid
contrasting surface textures.
A. Grout Cleaning. If grout cleaning is shown on the plans or necessary for corrective work, wet the concrete
surface and then uniformly cover the concrete with a grout consisting of one part cement, 1 1/2 parts fine sand
conforming to 703.03, and sufficient water to produce a mortar with the consistency of thick paint. Use white
portland cement in the grout in the quantity determined by the Engineer necessary to match the color of the concrete.
Uniformly apply the grout with brushes or spray guns, completely filling air bubbles and holes. Immediately after
applying the grout, vigorously scour the concrete surface with a cork or other suitable float. While the grout is still
in a plastic condition and while the grout does not pull from the holes or depressions, finish the surface with a
sponge rubber or other suitable float, removing excess grout. After the grout thoroughly dries, vigorously rub the
surface with dry burlap, removing dried grout until there is no visible film of grout remaining on the surface.
Perform the entire cleaning operation of each area on the same day. Remove dark spots or streaks that remain after
the cleaning operation using a fine grained silicon carbide stone. Stop rubbing with the silicon carbide stone before
the surface texture changes. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, perform grout cleaning during the final
project clean up.
B. Rubbed Finish. If a rubbed finish is shown on the plans, if possible, remove forms within 2 days after placing
concrete. Finish the surface as specified above to correct defects. After the mortar used for finishing is thoroughly
set, and for a minimum of 2 hours before starting the rubbed finish, thoroughly saturate the concrete with water.
Rub surfaces to be finished with a medium coarse silicon carbide stone until all form marks, projections, and
irregularities are removed, all voids are filled, and a uniform surface is obtained. Leave the paste produced by
rubbing in place. Other than water, do not apply additional material to the surface. After placing concrete above
the finishing area, obtain the final finish by rubbing the concrete with a fine silicon carbide stone and water until
the entire surface is of a smooth texture and uniform in color. Protect surfaces with a rubbed finish from damage
caused by subsequent construction operations. If damaged, clean and refinish the surface as specified above.
511.16 Roadway Finish. Finish and test concrete deck slabs according to 451.13. Do not groove or broom finish
a strip of surface 9 to 12 inches (220 to 300 mm) wide adjacent to curbs and barriers. Provide a broom drag finish
on concrete deck slabs in the longitudinal or transverse direction.
The Engineer will approve the finishing machine. Provide a self-propelled machine with forward and reverse
drive mechanisms that enable precise control of machine velocity in both directions. The machine shall have two
rotating rollers, leveling augers, and either a vibrating pan or vibrating rollers. Field verify that the vibrating
frequency of the pans or rollers are from 1500 to 5000 pulses per minute. Do not use vibrating rollers that have fins
protruding more then 1/4 inch (6 mm) from the roller. Use a finishing machine capable of finishing transversely
while traveling in both directions across the deck. Provide screeds capable of rising above the concrete surface.
Provide a finishing machine capable of finishing the full width of the decks between curbs or parapet walls. The
wheels of the finishing machine shall run on temporary riding rails adequately supported on the structural steel or
falsework of the deck. Make the rail and rail supports of steel and arrange the rail and rail supports so that the
weight of the finishing machine and the operator cause zero vertical deflection while traveling across the deck.
Ensure the rail is straight, with no sections exceeding a tolerance of 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3 mm in 3 m) in any
direction. Elevate support rails a sufficient distance above the slab to allow the simultaneous hand finishing of areas
not machine finished. Fabricate and install rail supports to allow removal to at least 2 inches (50 mm) below the
top of the slab. Fill holes formed by the removal of rail supports during the final finishing of the slab.
For structures with a skew angle greater than fifteen (15) degrees and up to fifty (50) degrees, place the finishing
machine within 5°of the skew angle of the structure. For structures with a skew angle greater than fifty (50) degrees,
place the finishing machine at fifty (50) degrees.
511.17 Bridge Deck Grooving. After water curing the concrete and either before applying curing compound or
some period after applying curing compound and before opening the bridge to traffic, saw longitudinal grooves
into the deck, unless specified otherwide in the plans. If sawing grooves after applying the curing compound and
the concrete deck is less than 30 days old, reapply the curing compound after removing standing water, within 12
hours after sawing grooves in the deck.
Use diamond blades mounted on a multi-blade arbor on self-propelled machines that were built for grooving of
concrete surfaces. The groove machines shall have depth control devices that detect variations in the pavement
surface and adjust the cutting head height to maintain the specified depth of the groove. The grooving machines
shall have devices to control alignment. Do not use flailing or impact type grooving equipment. More than one size
grooving machine may be required in order to saw the grooves as specified. Maintain a minimum of ¾ inch (19
mm) to a maximum of 2 ¼ inches (56 mm) transverse distance between adjacent passes of the grooving machine
head.
Provide an experienced technician to supervise the location, alignment, layout, dimension, and grooving of the
surface.
Saw grooves parallel to the bridge centerline in a continuous pattern across the surface. Begin and end sawing 9
to 12 inches (220 to 300 mm) from any device in place in a bridge deck, such as scuppers or expansion joints. Stop
sawing a minimum of 2 inches (50 mm) to a maximum of 24 inches (600 mm) from skewed expansion joints.
Maintain a clearance of a minimum of 2 inches (50 mm) and a maximum of 4 inches (100 mm) from the grooves
to longitudinal joints in the deck. Maintain a minimum clearance of 9 inches (220 mm) to a maximum of 30 inches
(750 mm) clearance between the grooves and the curb or parapet toe. However, at no point shall un-grooved
portions of deck extend beyond edge line and into the temporary or permanent travelled lanes. Saw grooves in a
uniform pattern spaced at 3/4 inch minus 1/4 inch or plus 0 (19 mm minus 6 mm or plus 0). Saw grooves
approximately 0.15 inches (4 mm) deep and 0.10 inches (3 mm) wide.
For staged, or phase bridge deck work, saw the grooves parallel to the final, permanent bridge centerline. If the
different stages or phases of the bridge deck work occur within one construction season, any stage opened to traffic
shall receive an interim coarse broom finish during placement, then saw the longitudinal grooves after the final
stage. The interim broom finish will not be allowed as a surface texture when opened to traffic over a winter season.
Saw longitudinal grooves in the deck prior to opening to traffic for a winter season.
For bridge decks that widen from one end to the other, saw the longitudinal grooves parallel to the centerline of
the roadway. On the side of the bridge that widens, saw the longitudinal grooves to follow the edge line. Saw
longitudinal grooves in the gore areas, avoiding the overlapping of grooves.
At the beginning of each work shift, furnish a full complement of grooving blades with each saw that are capable
of cutting grooves of the specified width, depth, and spacing.
If during the work, a single grooving blade on a machine becomes incapable of cutting a groove, continue work
for the remainder of the work shift. The Contractor is not required to cut the groove omitted because of the failed
blade. Should two or more grooving blades on a machine become incapable of cutting grooves, cease operating the
machine until it is repaired.
Continuously remove all slurry and remaining residue from the grooving operation and leave the deck surface in
a clean condition. Prevent residue from grooving operations from flowing across shoulders or across lanes occupied
by public traffic or from flowing into gutters or other drainage facilities. Remove solid residue before the residue
is blown by passing traffic or by wind.
Provide water as necessary to saw grooves according to this subsection.
511.18 Sidewalk Finish. After placing, strike off the concrete with a template and finish the concrete with a float
to produce a sandy texture.
511.19 Joints, Cracks, Scaling and Spalls. After completing all curing operations and allowing the deck to
thoroughly dry, seal the following areas with a high molecular weight methacrylate (HMWM) sealer. Flood the
areas and squeegee off the excess material as specified in Item 512 before opening the deck to traffic:
A. Transverse joints in the deck.
B. Joints between the concrete deck and steel end dams.
C. Longitudinal joints in the deck.
D. Longitudinal joints between the deck and safety curb, barriers, and parapets, etc.
E. Cracks discovered in the deck of the top and bottom surfaces before opening the deck to traffic, that are 10
mils or 0.010 inches (0.254 mm) or less in width.
Determine the extent (and effect) of deck cracking on the top and bottom surface area, that are 10 mils or 0.010
inches (0.254 mm) or more in width, of deck scaling that is greater than 0.250 inches (6.25 mm) deep on the deck
surface, and of deck spalling on more than one area or an area greater than 32 square yards (26.76 square meters),
and submit a proposed repair plan to the Engineer. The Department will determine if the proposed repair methods
are acceptable.
511.20
Compressive Strength. Sample and test concrete strength according to 511.04.
A. Concrete Requiring QC/QA. When the bid item requires QC/QA, the Engineer will evaluate the QC
compressive test sublot results according to Supplement 1127 and as follows:
If a single reported compressive strength test result for a sublot of concrete is less than 88% f’c reevaluate the
in place concrete as follows:.
The Engineer will determine the location for evaluating the strength of the sublot represented by the low
compressive strength concrete. Evaluate using either nondestructive testing or cores. The Engineer will accept the
concrete if the reported nondestructive test results are greater than the specified f’c. The Department will use the
original cylinder results for calculating the compressive strength pay factor (PFc) if non destructive testing is used.
If cores are tested the core results will be used in place of the original cylinder results for pay factor determination.
If the nondestructive test results are less than the specified f’c, the Department will require the concrete to be
cored. The Engineer will determine the locations for the required concrete cores. Provide all concrete cores to the
Engineer for testing by the Department. Patch core holes with approved patching material. If the core results are
above 88% f’c, the Department will use the core strength results for calculating the compressive strength pay factor
(PFc).
If the core results indicate that the compressive strength of the concrete is below 88% f’c, submit a plan for
corrective action to the Engineer for approval. If the corrective plan is not approved, the Engineer will require the
Contractor to:
1.
Remove and replace the unacceptable sublot and retest the new sublot at no cost to the Department or
2.
Leave the unacceptable material in place and pay for the sublot with a pay factor of 0.75.
If three or more sublot compressive strength acceptance test results are less than f’c but greater than 88% f’c
the Engineer will require an investigation of the reasons for the consistent low strengths. Until the investigation is
completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer no additional placements of the concrete JMF will be made.
Investigations should include all facets of the concrete operation including batching, mixing, delivery, clean up,
sampling, testing, quality control plan, etc. If the Engineer is unsatisfied with the results of the investigation, the
JMF and the quality control plan will become not approved. Develop and submit a new JMF and quality control
plan conforming to the requirements of 499.03 and 511.04. Pay factors under 511.22 for these low strength sublots
will be based on the original reported cylinder strengths.
B. Concrete Not Requiring QC/QA. When the bid item does not require QC/QA, the Engineer will evaluate the
strength results following the requirements of Table 511.22-2 and as follows:
If a single compressive strength test result is less than f’c the material will be considered unacceptable material
and the Department will determine acceptance according to Item 106.07.
If three or more compressive strength test results are less than f’c the Engineer will require an investigation of
the reasons for the consistent low strengths. Until the investigation is completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer
no additional placements of the concrete JMF will be made. Investigations should include all facets of the concrete
operation including batching, mixing, delivery, clean up, sampling, testing, etc. If the Engineer is unsatisfied with
the results of the investigation, the JMF will become not approved. Develop and submit a new JMF conforming to
the requirements of 499.03.
511.21
Air Content. For concrete that requires QC/QA, test the air content of the concrete according to Item
455. When QC/QA concrete is not required, the Department will test the air content as directed by the Engineer.
A. Concrete Requiring QC/QA. Any concrete with air results outside the requirements of Table 499.03-1 that
is placed into the structure is unacceptable material according to item 106.07. The amount of unacceptable material
will be the amount represented by the test result. Reevaluate the unacceptable material at no cost to the Department
as follows:
1.
Core the location containing the unacceptable concrete. Patch the core hole with approved material.
a. For concrete with high air content, test a core for compressive strength. Concrete with a minimum
strength of f’c may be left in place.
b. For concrete with low air content, test the core to determine the in-place hardened air content, specific
surface and spacing factor according to ASTM C 457. Remove and replace unacceptable materials with specific
surface results less than 600 in-1 (25 mm-1) or spacing factor results are more than 0.008 in (0.20 mm).
Hire an independent laboratory acceptable to the Department to perform the testing.
B. Concrete Not Requiring QC/QA. Any concrete with air results outside the requirements of Table 499.03-1
that is placed into the structure is unacceptable material, according to item 106.07. The amount of unacceptable
material will be the amount represented by the test result. Reevaluate the unacceptable material at no cost to the
Department as follows:
1. The Department will core the location containing the unacceptable concrete. Patch the core hole with
approved materials.
a. For concrete with high air content, the Department will test a core for compressive strength. Concrete
with a strength of f’c may be left in place.
b. For concrete with low air content the Department will determine the in-place hardened air content,
specific surface and spacing factor according to ASTM C 457. Remove and replace unacceptable materials with
specific surface results less than 600 in-1 (25 mm-1) or spacing factor results of more than 0.008 in (0.20 mm).
511.22 Pay Factors. Apply pay factors as follows:
A. Concrete Requiring QC/QA
The Department will use pay factors based on the percent within limits (PWL) to establish a final adjusted
price. The PWL will be established per lot(s) accepted in the QCP for each bid item quantity of concrete. The
Department will calculate a PWL according to Supplement 1127 using either the Contractor’s verified QC
compressive test results or core results when the QC could not be verified. The compressive strength pay factor
(PFC) from Table 511.22-1for the lot will be applied to each bid item represented in the lot. The Department will
combine approach slab and deck concrete test results in the same lot to determine final pay factors.
TABLE 511.22-1
PAY FACTORS FOR CONCRETE REQUIRING QC/QA
PWL
85 % – 100 %
84%
83%
82%
81%
80%
79%
78%
77%
76%
75%
< 75%
PFC
1.00
0.995
0.990
0.985
0.980
0.975
0.970
0.965
0.960
0.955
0.950
See below
If the PWL value determined for the lot of concrete is below 75%, submit a plan for corrective action to the
Engineer for approval. If the corrective plan is not approved, the Engineer will require the Contractor to:
1.
Remove and replace the lot of unacceptable material at no cost to the Department, or
2
Leave the unacceptable material in place and pay for the lot of with a pay factor of 0.75.
B. Concrete Not Requiring QC/QA
For concrete items that the Department performs compression testing, the Department will use pay factors
based on the individual compressive strength results for the quantity represented by the test results to establish an
adjusted price to the items. The pay factors from Table 511.22-2 will be applied to items represented by the tests.
TABLE 511.22-2
PAY FACTORS FOR CONCRETE NOT REQUIRING QC/QA
Individual Test Results
≥ f’c
< f’c
Pay Factor (PFC)
1.00
Follow 106.07
511.23 Method of Measurement. The Department will measure the appropriate concrete item by the number of
cubic yards (cubic meters) determined by calculations from plan dimensions, in place, completed and accepted.
The Department will make deductions for portions of primary structural members embedded in concrete. The
Department will not make deductions for the volume of reinforcing steel, conduits or embedded piles.
Superstructure concrete includes the concrete in deflective parapets not having a metallic railing.
The Department may measure deck concrete by either volume or area using plan dimensions.
The Department will calculate separate quantities of concrete due to unacceptable compressive strength, 511.21
and air content, 511.22.
511.24 Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities of concrete as follows.
Work necessary to adjust seat elevations and deck haunches for prestressed beam members is incidental to the
affected structural concrete items. The Department will pay for final quantities as measured and field verified.
The Department will not pay for additional reinforcing steel required to adequately stabilize the cages.
The Department will not pay for repairs to horizontal cracks by epoxy injection or, if a concrete sealer was
applied, for repairs to the sealer after the completing the epoxy injection.
The Department will not pay extra for any type of surface finish specified in 511.15, the cost being considered
as included in the price bid for concrete.
If the Contractor elects to saw the deck after applying the curing compound, the Department will not pay to
reapply the curing compound.
All costs for sealing as specified in 511.19 are incidental to the appropriate concrete item. The Department will
not make separate payment for sealing.
The Department will not pay separately for the concrete cylinder curing box (CCCB).
The Department will not pay for the re-evaluation of low strength test results, 511.20.A.
The Department will initially pay the full bid price to the Contractor upon completing the work. The Department
will calculate the final adjusted payment for each item as follows:
PF1 - The final adjusted pay per cubic yard (cubic meter) or square yard (square meter), for accepted quantities
of concrete:
PF1 = (Contract Bid Price) x PFC
PF2 - The final adjusted pay per cubic yard (cubic meter) or square yard (square meter) for unacceptable
quantities of concrete due to compressive strength or low air content and allowed to stay in place, according to
511.20 or 511.21.
PF2 = (Contract Bid Price) x 0.75
Calculate the adjusted price per bid item by multiplying PF1 or PF2 by the appropriate quantities of concrete,
then sum the values. Subtract the full bid price paid to the Contractor from the adjusted price to determine the
difference. The Department will execute final adjustments by change order upon receipt of all test data.
The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
511
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Class ___ Concrete, _____
511
511
511
511
Class ___ Concrete, _____ with QC/QA
Class QC 1 Concrete, Substructure
Class QC 1 Concrete, Substructure with QC/QA
Class QC 2 Concrete, Bridge Deck
511
511
511
511
511
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Cubic Yard
(Cubic Meter)
Class QC 2 Concrete, Bridge Deck with QC/QA
Class QC 2 Concrete, Bridge Deck (Parapet)
Class QC 2 Concrete, Bridge Deck (Parapet) with QC/QA
Class QC 3 Concrete, _____ with QC/QA
Class QC 4 Mass Concrete, Substructure with QC/QA
ITEM 512 TREATING CONCRETE
512.01
512.02
512.03
512.04
512.05
512.06
512.07
512.08
512.09
512.10
Description
Materials
Sealing of Concrete Surfaces
Sealing Concrete Bridge Decks with HMWM Resin
Soluble Reactive Silicate (SRS) Concrete Treatment
Treating Concrete Bridge Decks with Gravity-Fed Resin
Sealing Cracks by Epoxy Injection
Waterproofing
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
512.01
Description. This work consists of sealing and treating concrete surfaces, sealing cracks in concrete,
and applying waterproofing to structures.
512.02
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to:
Asphalt cement ........................................................... 702.01 (PG 64 - 22)
Asphalt primer for........................................... 702.02 (RC-70 or RC-250),
waterproofing ............................................................................... 702.05
HMWM Resin ................................................................................. 705.15
Epoxy-Urethane Sealer ................................................................ 705.23.A
Non-epoxy Sealer .........................................................................705.23.B
Soluble Reactive Silicate (SRS) ...................................................... 705.24
Gravity Fed Resin ............................................................................ 705.25
Epoxy injection Materials ................................................................ 705.26
Sand ..................................................703 with the following exceptions:
Maximum moisture content of 0.5 of the percent of absorption when treated according to California Test
226.
Gradation:
Sieve Size
Total Percent Passing
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
100
No. 8
(2.36 mm)
90 to 100
No. 20
(850 µm)
5 to 15
No. 50
(300 µm)
0 to 5
Emulsified asphalt primer, ......................................... 702.04 (MS-2, SS-1)
Asphalt for waterproofing................................................................ 702.06
Hot applied joint sealer .................................................................... 705.04
Type 3 membrane primer................................................................. 705.04
Waterproofing fabric ....................................................................... 711.24
Sheet Type 2 membrane waterproofing ........................................... 711.25
Sheet Type 3 membrane waterproofing ........................................... 711.29
512.03
Sealing of Concrete Surfaces. This work consists of applying an approved sealer on existing and
new concrete surface areas after the concrete is cured and repairs completed and cured. Apply the sealer to locations
described in the plans. Apply the sealer listed in the pay item description. Choose a type of sealer if no sealer is
listed in the pay item description.
A. Equipment. Use application equipment recommended by the sealer manufacturer. Use spray equipment,
tanks, hoses, brooms, rollers, coaters, squeegees, etc., that are clean, free of foreign matter, oil residue and water.
B. Mixing. Mix the sealer according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedures. Furnish the Engineer with
the manufacturer’s application instructions. Do not mix or apply the sealer until the manufacturer’s written
recommendations are supplied to the Engineer. Mix and maintain materials at a uniform consistency during
application.
C. Storage. Store all sealer components in tightly sealed containers, in a dry location, and as recommended by
the manufacturer. Deliver unopened drums or containers of the sealer or sealer components to the job site with the
manufacturer's numbered seal intact.
D. Application submittals. At least five (5) days before sealing, provide the Engineer the sealer manufacturer’s
written requirements for application equipment, mixing equipment, mixing procedures, mixing time, storage
requirements, recoat times and temperatures, and MSDS sheets.
E. Surface Condition. Apply sealers only to surfaces which are dry, free from dust, dirt, oil, wax, curing
compounds, efflorescence, laitance, coatings and other foreign materials. Visually inspect all surfaces before
applying sealer. Remove all structurally unsound surfaces and weak sections.
Perform all concrete patching prior to surface profiling. Perform concrete patching on areas identified by the
Engineer according to 519. Cure repaired areas for at least seven (7) days.
Air dry all concrete surfaces for at least ten (10) days after completion of required curing.
For accelerated cure of precast concrete, obtain the required 28 day strength and air dry the surfaces at least
ten (10) days after completing accelerated cure.
F. Surface Preparation and Profiling. Remove dust, dirt, oil, wax, curing compounds, efflorescence, laitance,
coatings and other foreign materials from surfaces to be sealed.
For Epoxy-Urethane sealers, use one or both of the following methods to produce a surface profile that feels
and looks like 100 grit sandpaper or coarser. Provide the Engineer sandpaper for comparison. Perform the ASTM
D7682-12, Method B, Standard Test Method for Replication and Measurement of Concrete Surface Profile Using
Replica Putty to obtain a replica coupon of the prepared concrete surface on a flat, test section, on the first day of
production, and as requested by the Engineer. With a micrometer, measure the surface profile obtained on the
coupon, and provide the coupon to the Engineer.
1.
Water blast at 7,000 psi (48 MPa) minimum, or
2. Abrasive blast, followed by air brooming or power sweeping, to remove dust and sand from the surface
and opened pores.
3.
or use a combination of water blast and abrasive blast.
Install suitable traps, filters, drip pans and other separation devices in the cleaning equipment so oil and other
foreign material are not deposited on the surface.
If the concrete surface had curing compound applied, acid test the surface after blasting to see if the curing
compound was removed. Perform the acid test for every 500 square feet (47 square meters). Use a solution of 1
part 20º Baume muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Apply 4 to 5 drops to the concrete surface. If foaming/fizzing
occurs the curing compound is removed. Rinse the tested location with an ammonia solution to neutralize the
concrete area tested (1 cup ammonia to 5 gallons water).
(NOTE: Muriatic acid and ammonia can be bought in a hardware store. Muriatic acid is used to clean masonry.
Only dilute by pouring the acid into the water. DO NOT pour the water into the acid.)
When surfaces show intermittent or no foaming, use chemicals or other cleaning compounds to remove the
curing compounds. Only use products approved by the sealer manufacturer. Furnish the Engineer documentation
of the sealer manufacturer’s approval and method to test if materials are removed.
Ensure that all wastes generated by the surface preparation operation are managed in accordance with 107.19.
G. Application and Coverage. Apply the sealer between twelve and (12) hours and 48 hours after surface
preparation by water blasting methods. Apply the sealer within 48 hours after surface preparation by abrasive
blasting methods Do not apply sealer if rain is anticipated within six (6) hours after application. Clearly mark where
the sealer application stops if not continuous.
1.
Epoxy-Urethane sealers
a. Apply the epoxy coat of the epoxy-urethane sealer at the coverage rate of 120 square feet per gallon
(2.9 square meters per liter). Use a coverage rate of 150 square feet per gallon (3.6 square meters per liter) when
the Laboratory’s qualified products list for the epoxy authorizes it. Apply the urethane coat of the epoxy-urethane
sealer at a rate of 200 square feet per gallon (4.8 square meters per liter). When surfaces are not smooth and flat,
adjust the given coverage rates by the following formulas to determine the correct coverage rate.
(1) For surfaces using large stone liners and standard concrete =
specified coverage rate (sq ft/gal [sq m/l]) × 0.8
(2) For surfaces using large stone liners and porous concrete =
specified coverage rate (sq ft/gal [sq m/l]) × 0.7
(3) For surfaces using fluted liners and standard concrete =
specified coverage rate (sq ft/gal [sq m/l]) × 0.5
b. Provide documentation to the Engineer that the ambient, surface and material temperature is 50 ºF
(10 ºC) or above, 5 ºF higher than the dew point, and the relative humidity is 80% or below during the application
of the sealer.
c.
Apply with a brush, squeegee, roller or spraying equipment and as recommended by the manufacturer.
d. Apply one coat of epoxy and one coat of the urethane top coat. Time between coats shall meet the
manufacturer’s written recommendation provided to the Engineer during 512.03.D. Use epoxy and urethane from
the same manufacturer. Achieve specified coverage regardless of the number of passes per coat.
e. Tint so the final color is Federal Color Standard No. 17778 - Light Neutral. Pigment content shall be
limited so as not to reduce sealing effectiveness of the second coat. Refer to the plans for colors for specific projects.
f.
Sags and runs are not acceptable in the sealer.
g. For sealed sidewalks or other horizontal surfaces with repetitive foot traffic or vehicular traffic,
integrate 1 1/2 lbs per square yard (0.8 kg/m²) of silica sand into the surface of the second coat to produce a nonskid
surface satisfactory to the Engineer.
2.
Non-epoxy sealer
a. Apply the sealer according to the manufacturer’s recommended mode of application and under the
observation of the Engineer.
b.
Coverage.
(1) Surfaces subject to abrasive wear (bridge decks, bridge deck shoulders and sidewalks);
Minimum, one gallon (3.875 liter) of sealer for each 100 square feet (9.0 square meters).
(2) Curbs, vertical surfaces of beams and deck slabs subject to direct roadway drainage; Minimum,
one gallon (3.875 liter) for each 125 square feet (11.5 square meters).
(3) Other surfaces (for example, parapets, abutments, pier caps and median dividers); Minimum, one
gallon (3.875 liter) for each 150 square feet (14.0 square meters).
Stone or fluted formed concrete surfaces may require additional sealer materials for coverage.
c. Apply sealer on horizontal surfaces in a one-pass operation at the required coverage. An acceptable
application procedure consists of saturating the surface and waiting a few seconds for the sealer to completely
penetrate the concrete surface. Broom in the sealer if recommended by the manufacturer.
d. Apply sealer on vertical surfaces to saturate the surface. The surface is saturated when runs of 6 to 12
inches develop. Apply additional passes in 10 to 15 minute intervals until the coverage rate is achieved. Apply
sealers with brush or roller if recommended by the manufacturer.
e. After 10 to 15 minutes, squeegee off excess material on smooth finished or dense concretes where
the required coverage is not absorbed.
f.
Tint clear non-epoxy sealers with a vanishing dye that will not damage the concrete.
g. Do not apply sealer if the ambient temperature is below 40 °F (5 °C) or will fall below 32 °F (0 °C)
within 12 hours after application.
H. Test Site/Application. Apply epoxy-urethane or non-epoxy sealer to measured coverage areas, both on
horizontal and vertical surfaces, and on different concrete types, demonstrating:
1.
The project’s visual effects for the epoxy-urethane sealer application at the required coverage rate.
2. Visually, the absorption necessary to achieve the specified coverage rate for the non-epoxy sealer. Use at
least 1/2 gallon (2 liter) of sealer, following the manufacturer’s recommended method of application, for the total
of the test surfaces.
3. Apply to the deck, safety curb or sidewalk for the horizontal test surfaces and use an abutment parapet or
pier face for the vertical test surface so different textures are tested.
I. Appearance. Epoxy-Urethane sealers: Uniform appearance and the final color shall visually match the test
section. Recoating, removal and re-application or other methods recommended by the manufacturer will be
required to correct final appearance. Non-Epoxy Sealers: The sealer shall result in a uniform appearance.
J. Traffic. Allow traffic on deck shoulder areas after 12 hours of drying time for an epoxy-urethane sealer. Keep
traffic off a non-epoxy sealer until the sealer is dry.
K. Safety Precautions. Follow precautions defined on the manufacturer’s MSDS. Provide the Engineer a copy
of the MSDS sheet for information before any work commences.
L. Protection of Adjoining Surfaces and the Public. Protect the public during all operations, especially when
applying sealer to the fascia or the underside portions of a bridge that spans an area used by the public.
During sealing, mask off, or use other means of protection, for surfaces not being sealed. Protect asphalt and
mastic type surfaces from spillage and heavy overspray. Do not apply sealers to joint sealants which have not cured
according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Joint sealants, traffic paints and asphalt overlays may be applied to
the treated surfaces 48 hours after the sealer has been applied. Protect nearby steel, aluminum or glass surfaces
when non-epoxy overspray could be deposited on those surfaces.
M. Environmental Requirements. Protect plants and vegetation from overspray by covering with drop cloths.
N. Superintendent. In addition to the requirements of 105.06, the Superintendent must successfully complete a
Sealing of Concrete Surfaces training prequalification course offered by the Department. The course must have
been completed within the past four years and an individual course certificate must have been received by the
Superintendent. Present certificate to the Engineer prior to beginning the sealing of concrete surfaces work. Work
will not be permitted to begin until after the Superintendent provides a valid course certificate.
512.04
Sealing Concrete Bridge Decks with HMWM Resin. This work shall consist of preparing and
treating the concrete wearing surfaces of bridge decks with a penetrating sealer in accordance with these
specifications, in reasonably close conformity with the plans and the manufacturer’s recommendation and as
directed by the Engineer.
A. Limitations. Do not perform this work during the period beginning November 1st and ending March 31st.
B. Surface Preparation. Remove roadway dirt and debris from the area of the deck to be treated. Sweep, abrasive
blast, then with the use of a manual or power broom sweep and blow with compressed air so that the surfaces to
which the sealer is to be applied is dry and free of dust and dirt. Use high pressure compressed air to blow all loose
material from visible cracks. Fit the cleaning equipment with suitable traps, filters, drip pans, driers and other
devices to prevent oil and other foreign material from being deposited on the surface. Do not allow traffic on the
clean surface prior to application of the sealer. Remove existing pavement markings using a method as specified
in 614.11.G.1.a. The cost of removal is incidental to the Work. Remove all traces of asphalt or petroleum products
and concrete curing seals by abrasive blasting prior to air sweeping.
C. Installation. Provide a compatible promoter/initiator system capable of providing the same physical qualities
of the hardened resin as if promoted/initiated with 2 percent cobalt naphthanate (6 percent) and 2 percent cumene
hydroperoxide. Store materials at 65 to 80 °F (18 to 27 °C). Provide a system that has a resin gel time of not less
than 40 minutes to not more than 1 1/2 hours at the time and temperature of application.
Adjust the gel time to compensate for the change in temperature throughout the day. The temperature of the
surfaces to be treated may range from 50 °F (10 °C) to 120 °F (49 °C). Arrange to have a technical representative
on site to provide mixing proportions equipment suitability, and safety advice. Any conflict between these
provisions and representative's advice shall be resolved at the job site. The technical representative shall remain at
the job site until such time as he and the Engineer agree that the Contractor is qualified in all aspects of the
application of the sealer.
Do not allow the promoter and initiator, if supplied separate from the resin, to contact each other directly. Do
not store containers of promoter or initiators together in a manner that will allow leakage or spillage from one to
contact the containers or materials of the other.
Machine application of the resin may be performed by using a two-part resin system utilizing a promoted resin
for one part and an initiated resin for the other part. This two-part resin system may be combined at a spray bar
through positive displacement atomization of the resin. Do not use compressed air to produce the spray.
Use appropriate cleaning and flushing of equipment, tools, etc., with an appropriate solvent, as approved by
the Engineer, in such a manner to minimize personal and environmental hazards. Advise workman that the resin
will soften gum rubber soles, and a face-mask should be used to protect from accidental splashes. Clothing and
leather saturated with resin will harden and become useless.
Prior to resin application the surface to be treated shall be visibly dry and its temperature between 50 °F (10
°C) and 120 °F (49 °C). Do not apply the resin within 24 hours after a rain or when rain is forecast within 12 hours
or when the ambient air temperature is below 50 °F (10 °C). Pre-mark the deck to control mixed material usage
and to provide a rate of application of approximately 100 square feet per gallon (2.45m²/L). The exact rate shall be
determined by the Engineer prior to commencing full-scale deck treatment operations.
Before using the material submit to the OMM copies of the manufacturer’s certified test data showing that the
material complies with the requirements of this specification. The test data shall be developed by an independent
approved testing laboratory, and shall include the brand name of the material, name of manufacturer, number of
the lot tested and date of manufacture. When the material has been approved by the OMM, further testing by the
manufacturer will not be required unless the formulation or manufacturing process has been changed, in which
case new certified test results will be required. The manufacturer shall certify that the formulation is the same as
that for which data has been submitted. The state reserves the right to sample and test delivered lots for compliance.
Flood the deck surfaces resin, allowing penetration into the concrete and filling of all cracks. Limit the initiated
mix of promoted resin to 5 gallons (19 L) at a time for manual application. A significant increase in viscosity shall
be cause for rejection. Apply the treatment within 5 minutes after complete mixing. Redistribute excess material
by squeegee or brooms within 10 minutes after application.
Take all steps necessary to prevent the resin from flowing into lanes open to traffic. Broadcast sand over the
entire treated area of the bridge deck by mechanical means to affect a uniform coverage of 0.80 to 1.2 pounds per
square yard (0.43 kg/m² to 0.65 kg/m²). The sand shall be uniformly graded aggregate conforming to the quality
requirements of 703 and shall conform to the following limits for grading:
Sieve Size
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
No. 8
(2.36 mm)
No. 20
(850 µm)
No. 50
(300 µm)
Total Percent Passing
100
90 to 100
5 to 15
0 to 5
It is the intention of the specification to allow the use of commercially available blast sands applied by a
common lawn broadcast type seeder/spreader. Place sand between 10 to 15 minutes behind the resin spreading
front and before any jelling of the resin occurs. If the surface contains large deep cracks, the low-viscosity liquid
could run completely through the concrete slab. Apply a second coat in these areas after the first coat has started
to cure.
Before the monomer hardens, fill imperfections or spalls with standing liquid with commercial quality concrete
or sandblast sand, and finished to a uniform surface. The sand shall have a maximum moisture content of 0.5 of
the percent of absorption when tested in accordance to a California Test 226.
Do not permit traffic and equipment on the tested deck until it is tack free and a minimum of 6 hours have
elapsed since treatment and the sand cover adheres sufficiently to resist brushing by hand. Protect the treatment
from moisture for not less than 4 hours after placement.
512.05
Soluble Reactive Silicate (SRS) Concrete Treatment. This item consist of the necessary labor,
materials and equipment to prepare and treat portland cement concrete surfaces with a reactive silicate sealer
meeting these specifications.
A. Equipment. Use application equipment that is recommended by the manufacturer. Use spray equipment,
tanks, hoses, brooms, rollers, coaters, squeegees, etc., that are thoroughly clean, free of foreign matter, oil residue
and water prior to applying the treatment.
B. Cleaning and Surface Preparation. . Do not begin sealing until all concrete repairs have been completed and
reached the design strength of the patch material .
Thoroughly clean the surface to remove dust, dirt, oil, wax, curing components, efflorescence, laitance,
coatings and other foreign materials. Sweep, abrasive blast, then with the use of a manual or power broom sweep
and blow with compressed air so that the surfaces to which the sealer is to be applied is dry and free of dust and
dirt. Use high pressure compressed air to blow all loose material from visible cracks. Obtain the approval of the
manufacturer or its representative before the use of chemicals and other cleaning compounds to facilitate the
removal of these foreign materials. Apply the treatment within 48 hours following surface preparation.
Fit cleaning equipment with suitable traps, filters, drip pans and other devices to prevent oil and other foreign
material from being deposited on the surface.
C. Test Application. Treat a measured test coverage area on horizontal and vertical surfaces of the different
components of the structure to be treated for the purpose of demonstrating the desired physical and visual effect of
an application or of obtaining a visual illustration of the absorption necessary to achieve the specified coverage rate
prior to final application. In the latter case, use at least 1/2 gallon (2 L) of treatment following the manufacturer’s
recommended method of application for the total of the test surfaces. Locate horizontal test surfaces on the deck
and on the safety curb or sidewalk and locate vertical test surfaces on an abutment parapet and pier face so that the
different textures are displayed.
D. Application. Apply the concrete treatment to concrete surfaces as designated on the plans. Apply the SRS by
thoroughly saturating the concrete surfaces at an application rate specified by the manufacturer.
Apply the SRS when the concrete surface temperature is above 35 °F (2 °C). Use a surface thermometer on
the concrete to establish the temperature of the concrete if the air temperature at the time of application is 45 °F (7
°C) or below.
Spread the SRS from puddles to dry areas.
If unable to complete the entire application continuously, note and clearly mark the location where the
application was stopped.
E. Protection of Adjoining Surfaces and the Public. Protect by masking off or by other means adjoining
surfaces of the structure which are not to be sealed when applying a treatment. Make provision to protect the public
when treating the fascia of a bridge and/or portions of the underside of the deck of a bridge that spans an area used
by the public.
Protect asphalt and mastic type surfaces from spillage and heavy overspray. Do not apply joint sealants, traffic
paints and asphalt overlays to the treated surfaces until 48 hours after the treatment has been applied. Cover
adjoining and nearby surfaces of aluminum or glass where there is a possibility of the treatment being deposited
on the surfaces.
Protect plants and vegetation from overspray by covering with drop cloths. Follow precautions as indicated on
the manufacturer’s MSDS.
F. Opening to Traffic. Only allow traffic on a deck after a treated area does not track.
512.06
Treating Concrete Bridge Decks with Gravity-Fed Resin. This work shall consist of preparing and
treating the concrete bridge deck with a gravity-fed crack welding system in accordance with these specifications
in reasonably close conformity with the plans and the manufacturer’s recommendations and as directed by the
Engineer.
A. Limitations. Do not perform this work during the period beginning November 1st and ending March 31st.
Prior to resin application insure that the surface to be treated is visibly dry with a temperature between 40 °F
(4 °C) and 100 °F (38 °C). Do not apply the resin within 24 hours after a rain, during rain, when rain is forecast
within 12 hours or when the ambient air temperature is below 40 °F (4 °C).
B. Surface Preparation. First remove roadway dirt and debris from the area to be treated. Sweep abrasive blasted
surfaces to which the sealer is to be applied, then manual or power broom swept and blown with compressed air so
that they are dry and free of dust and dirt. Use high pressure compressed air to blow all loose material from visible
cracks. Use a high pressure water blast followed by an air blast if particles are highly embedded in the cracks, to
clean cracks. Fit the cleaning equipment with suitable traps, filters, drip pans, dryers and other devices to prevent
oil and other foreign material from being deposited on the surface. Do not allow traffic on the clean surfaces prior
to application of the sealer. Remove existing pavement markings using a method as specified in 614.11.G.1.a. The
cost of removal is incidental to the Work. Remove all traces of asphalt or petroleum products and concrete curing
by the abrasive blasting prior to air sweeping.
C. Application Pre-mark the deck to control mixed material usage and to provide a rate of application of
approximately 100 to 150 square feet per gallon (2.45 to 3.68 m²/L). The Engineer will determine the exact rate
but will not exceed 150 square feet per gallon (3.68 m²/L). Flood the area to be sealed with resin. Allow the resin
to penetrate into the concrete and fill all cracks. Mix the resin to a limit of 5 gallons (19 L) at a time for manual
application. Reject resin with a significant increase in viscosity. Redistribute excess material by a squeegee within
10 minutes after application. Front and back movement with the squeegee is recommended over cracks and patch
perimeters to enhance penetration. Take all steps necessary to prevent the resin from flowing into lanes open to
traffic. Broadcast sand over the entire sealed area of the bridge deck by mechanical means to effect a uniform
coverage of 1 to 2 pounds per square yards (0.54 kg/m² to 1.08 kg/m²).
Protect the treatment from moisture for not less than 6 hours after placement.
D. Traffic. Do not permit traffic on the treated deck until the resin is tack free, a minimum of 6 hours has elapsed
since treatment, and the sand cover adheres sufficiently to resist brushing off by hand.
512.07
Sealing Cracks by Epoxy Injection. This specification covers the repair of dry, moist or wet cracks
or fractures that are 2 to 100 mils (50 to 2500 µm) in thickness in reinforced concrete members. The repair is by
means of an epoxy injection system. This system shall consist of a paste epoxy used to seal the surface cracks and
an injection epoxy used under low pressure, 200 psi (1400 kPa) max., to penetrate and fill the cracks and bond the
crack surfaces together. Material for each epoxy shall consist of a two-component modified resin bonding system.
The unmodified resin shall be known as Component A and the hardener as Component B.
Arrange to have a manufacturer’s representative at the job site to familiarize him and the Engineer with the epoxy
materials, application procedures and recommended pressure practice. This representative shall direct at least one
complete crack or area injection and be assured prior to his departure from the project that the personnel are
adequately informed to satisfactorily perform the remaining repairs.
Furnish the Engineer a copy of the manufacturer’s comprehensive preparation, mixing and application
instructions which have been developed especially for use with the proposed epoxy injection system. Ensure that
any significant changes to these instructions which are recommended by the representative for an unanticipated
situation have been approved by the Engineer prior to the adoption of such changes.
Clean concrete surfaces adjacent to the cracks to be sealed only to the extent necessary to achieve an adequate
bond with the paste epoxy, and only by procedures which will not cause abrasive grits or concrete dust to penetrate
the cracks. Do not permit the use of solvents or thinners in cracks or on bonding surfaces.
Install injection ports or tees in cracks to be injected. Space injection ports or tees at 6 to 12 inches (150 to 300
mm) vertically and 6 to 18 inches (150 to 450 mm) horizontally but in no case closer together than the thickness of
the concrete member if full depth penetration is desired unless otherwise specified or directed. Set ports or tees in
dust free holes made either with vacuum drills or chipping hammers. Seal all surface cracks in the area to be
repaired, after injection ports or tees have been inserted into the holes, with paste epoxy between ports to ensure
retention of the pressure injected epoxy within the confines of the member. The Department will allow an
alternative procedure of sealing the cracks before the injection holes have been made. Limit the application of paste
epoxy to clean and dry surfaces. Limit substrate temperatures to not less than 45 °F(7 °C) during epoxy applications.
Begin the epoxy injection at the bottom of the fractured area and progress upward using a port or tee filling
sequence that will ensure the filling of the lowermost injection ports or tees first.
Establish injection procedures and the depths and spacings of holes at injection ports or tees. Use epoxy with
flow characteristics and injection pressure that ensure no further damage will be done to the member being repaired.
Ensure that the epoxy will first fill the innermost portion of the cracked concrete and that the potential for creating
voids within the crack or epoxy will be minimized.
Remove the injection ports or tees flush with the concrete surface after the fractured area has been filled and the
epoxy has partially cured (24 hours at ambient temperature not less than 60 °F (16 °C), otherwise not less than 48
hours). Roughen the surfaces of the repaired areas to achieve uniform surface texture. Remove any injection epoxy
runs or spills from concrete surfaces.
Obtain two 4-inch (100 mm) diameter core samples in the first 100 linear feet (30 m) of crack repaired and one
core for each 100 linear feet (30 m) thereafter. Take the core samples from locations determined by the Engineer
and for the full crack depth. Cores will be visibly examined by the Engineer to determine the extent of epoxy
penetration. Repair the core holes in the concrete with material specified in 705.21.
512.08
Waterproofing
A. General. Apply an even and uniform coating of asphalt materials using brushes, squeegees, or spray
equipment.
If using spray equipment, provide portable power pressure type spraying equipment capable of being moved
to the location of the waterproofing operation.
Protect concrete surfaces not covered with waterproofing from overspray, spilling, or otherwise marring of the
surface with the asphalt materials.
Ensure that the edge of any exposed application is sharply defined true to line with a uniform exposure.
Do not apply waterproofing fabric or membranes over attachments and hardware. Seal the discontinuities in
waterproofing with Asphalt, 702.06, or hot applied joint sealer, 705.04.
B. Preparation of Surface
1. Asphalt Materials. Remove concrete projections. Using wire brushes and clear water, remove dirt and the
outside film of cement. Before applying asphalt materials, ensure that the concrete is clean and dry and the concrete
temperature is at least 40 F (4 C).
2. Membranes. Remove protrusions from the concrete. Sweep off dirt and dust, and blow the concrete clean.
Fill joints or cracks greater than 3/8 inch (10 mm) wide with portland cement mortar. In addition to the above,
remove oil and grease from surfaces for Type 3 membranes using water and a detergent designed to remove oil and
grease from concrete. Flush residual detergent from the surface. Do not allow traffic on the cleaned surface.
C. Primer Coat. Apply the primer coat at the rate of 0.10 to 0. 20 gallon (0.50 to 1.00 L) of asphalt material per
square yard (square meter).
For primer coats applied between June 1 and September 1, use asphalt primer for waterproofing or emulsified
asphalt primer conforming to 512.02.
For primer coats applied between September 1 and June 1, use asphalt primer for waterproofing conforming
to 512.02.
If practical, apply asphalt emulsion using spray equipment.
If subjected to traffic, spread sand on the primer coat for protection. Broom off excess sand before applying
asphalt waterproofing.
D. Type A Waterproofing. This type of waterproofing consists of one primer coat and at least two coats of
asphalt material conforming to 702.06 to provide a total of at least 1 gallon (5 L) of asphalt per square yard (m²)
on flat areas and at least 1/2 gallon per square yard (3 L/m²) on vertical or sloping surfaces. Start applying the
waterproofing at the lowest point, and progress to a higher elevation. Uniformly cover the surface except apply
more asphalt in corners and over construction joints. Apply the asphalt material at a temperature from 250 to 350
F (121 to 177 C).
E. Type B Waterproofing. This type of waterproofing consists of one primer coat, three coats of asphalt material
conforming to 702.06, and two layers of waterproofing fabric conforming to 711.24 applied as follows:
1. On a clean, dry, and well-primed surface, apply a thorough coating of asphalt at a temperature from 250
to 350 F (121 to 177 C).
2.
Apply the coating at a rate of at least 1/3 gallon per square yard (1.5 L/m²) of surface.
3.
While the asphalt is hot enough to penetrate the fabric, lay the fabric according to the following:
a. Surfaces Wider than Normal Fabric Strip. For the first strip, lay a half-width [normally 18 inches (0.5
m) wide] strip of fabric. For the second strip use a full-width strip of fabric, and lap the entire width of the first
strip. Lap each succeeding strip 2 inches (50 mm) more than half its full width. Lap the fabric strips in the direction
of water flow.
b. Surfaces with Same Width as Fabric Strip. For the first strip, lay a full-width strip. For the second
strip, lay another full-width strip, covering the first.
Lay each strip without wrinkles, folds, or pockets. Thoroughly coat the strip with asphalt for the full width
of the lap before laying the succeeding strip. Each application shall entirely conceal the texture of the fabric.
4.
5.
(m²).
Apply a final coat of asphalt to provide a thorough covering for the fabric.
For all three coats, use a total of at least 1 gallon (5 L) of asphalt waterproofing material per square yard
Lap ends of fabric strips at least 12 inches (0.3 m), and stagger the end joints.
F. Type E Waterproofing. This type of waterproofing consists of a cold applied liquid membrane waterproofing
material conforming to 702.08. Apply the coating when the air temperature is 40 ºF (4ºC) or above, on a clean and
dry surface, at a rate of 20 to 30 square feet per gallon (0.49 to 0.74 m²/L) to achieve a total thickness of 55 to 65
mils (1375 to 1625 μm). Cover after cured according to the manufacturer’s recommendation and within 45 days of
application.
G. Type 2 Membrane Waterproofing. This type of waterproofing consists of a rubberized asphalt and peel-andstick waterproofing membrane 711.25. Follow manufacturer’s written recommendations for application of this
product, which shall be provided to the project. After installing the primer coat, if required, remove the membrane’s
release liner and place the adhesive side on the prepared concrete surface. Lay the membrane smooth and free of
wrinkles. Lap joints in membranes by at least 1 inch (25 mm). Store membrane materials indoors at temperatures
not to exceed 120 F (49 C).
For precast concrete three- and four-sided structures, install Type 2 membrane on the exterior vertical and
exterior top horizontal surfaces.
H. Type 3 Membrane Waterproofing. This type of waterproofing consists of a primer coat conforming to
705.04 and a waterproofing membrane consisting of a high density asphalt mastic between two layers of polymeric
fabric conforming to 711.29. The application of this product shall follow the manufacturer’s written
recommendations, which shall be provided to the project.
Keep membrane and primer materials dry before installation.
Heat the membrane primer in an oil primer heated, double-jacket kettle. Use a kettle that is clean and free of
other materials with any obvious buildup scraped out. The Contractor may use a single-jacket kettle if the primer
is capable of being heated in direct fire to the application temperature. Heat primers within the manufacturer’s
recommended temperatures.
On bridges with curbs, apply the primer and membrane 3 inches (75 mm) up the curb face. On prestressed box
beam bridges with no approach slab, apply the primer and membrane 6 inches (150 mm) over the ends of the beams.
On prestressed and slab bridges with approach slabs, apply the primer 2 feet (600 mm) out onto the approach slab.
If the plans require a Type 3 membrane on the top exterior surface of precast concrete three- or four-sided
structures, apply the primer and membrane to overlay the vertical exterior sides of the structure by 12 inches
(300 mm).
Apply primer no further than 5 feet (1.5 m) in front of the membrane using a squeegee to fill all voids and
imperfections. Apply membrane from the low to the high side of the surface. Apply an extra bead of primer at the
edge of the membrane. Lap joints in membranes by at least 3 inches (75 mm). After installing the membrane over
the entire surface, seal joints in the membrane by applying primer and smoothing with a V-squeegee. If asphalt
pavement is to be placed directly over the water proofing membrane, first apply tack coat as specified in 407
without damaging the membrane.
512.09
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Waterproofing, of the type specified, by the
number of square yards (square meters) or on a lump sum basis.
The Department will measure sealing of concrete surfaces by the number of square yards (square meters) of
coated area projected to a two-dimensional surface.
The Department will measure the removal of existing coatings from concrete surfaces in square yards (square
meters) removed.
The Department will measure the sealing of concrete bridge decks with HMWM resin and treating concrete
bridge decks with SRS as the actual area in square yards (square meters ) of surfaces treated.
The Department will measure the actual length in linear feet (meters) of crack repaired by epoxy injection.
512.10
Basis of Payment. The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
The Department will consider the cost for the obtaining and repairing the two cores used by the Engineer to
determine the extent of the epoxy penetration as incidental to the work of repairing the concrete by epoxy injection.
The Department will consider the removal of dust, dirt, oil, wax, curing compounds, efflorescence, laitance, and
other foreign materials as incidental to the surface preparation of the concrete surfaces to be sealed. When the
surface to be sealed contains an existing coating, the Department will consider all materials, equipment and labor
to remove the existing coating as incidental to the removal of existing coatings.
Item
Unit
Description
512
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Square yard
(Square Meter)
Sealing of concrete surfaces
512
512
512
Sealing of concrete surfaces(non-epoxy)
Sealing of concrete surfaces(epoxy urethane)
Sealing of concrete bridge decks with HMWM resin
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
Square yard
(Square Meter)
Square yard
(Square Meter)
Foot
(Meter)
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
or Lump Sum
Square Yard
(Square Meter),
or Lump Sum
Square Yard
(Square Meter),
or Lump Sum
Square Yard
(Square Meter),
or Lump Sum
Square Yard
(Square Meter),
or Lump Sum
Square Yard
(Square Meter)
Treating concrete bridge decks with SRS
Treating concrete bridge decks with Gravity-Fed Resin
Concrete repair by epoxy injection
Type A Waterproofing
Type B Waterproofing
Type E Waterproofing
Type 2 Waterproofing
Type 3 Waterproofing
Removal of Existing Coatings from Concrete Surfaces
ITEM 513 STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS
513.01
513.02
513.03
513.04
513.05
513.06
513.07
513.08
513.09
513.10
513.11
513.12
513.13
513.14
513.15
513.16
513.17
513.18
513.19
513.20
513.21
513.22
513.23
513.24
513.25
513.26
513.27
513.28
513.29
513.30
Description
Fabricator Approval Procedure
Levels of Fabricator Qualification
General
Fabricator Documentation Responsibility
Shop Drawings
Levels 1 through 6, Prefabrication Meeting
Materials
Material Control
Care of Material
Workmanship and Straightening
Finish
Stiffeners
Fillers
Horizontally Curved Beams and Girders
Joints and Splices
Pin Holes
Pins and Rollers
Holes for High-Strength and Bearing Bolts
High-Strength Steel Bolts, Nuts, and Washers
Welding
Stud Shear Connectors
Threads for Bolts and Pins
Shop Assembly
Nondestructive Testing
Shipping, Storage, and Erection
Shop Coating
Cleaning ASTM A 709/A 709M, Grade 50W (345W) Steel
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
513.01
Description. This work consists of preparing shop drawings, furnishing and fabricating structural
steel members, nondestructive testing, fabricator performed quality control, documentation, cleaning, shop coating,
and erecting structural steel and other structural metals. Prepare shop drawings and erect structural steel according
to Item 501 and the additional requirements below. Shop painting shall conform to Item 514. The work also includes
any work to move existing steel structures to the plan location, making necessary repairs and alterations, and
connecting or joining new and old construction.
The terms “main,” “secondary,” or “detail,” as referred to in Item 513, are defined as follows: “main” refers to
material, members, and fasteners that are primarily stressed by live load and structure weight; “secondary” refers
to material, members, and fasteners that do not directly support live load or main members; “detail” refers to
essential non-structural material, members, and fasteners.
513.02
Fabricator Approval Procedure. Select fabricators that are listed by the Department before the
Contract letting date as evaluated by the Office of Materials Management and prequalified according to Supplement
1078.
The Office of Materials Management may accept subletting of processes that require specialized machinery or
knowledge. Submit written requests for subletting to the Office of Materials Management. The Office of Materials
Management will determine if the process is uncommon and will evaluate the qualifications of the proposed sublet
fabricator. The fabricator’s quality control staff shall witness and perform quality control of the sublet work.
513.03
Levels of Fabricator Qualification. There are eight levels of fabricator qualification. The Office of
Materials Management will classify each fabricator at the highest level of fabrication it is qualified to perform.
Level
SF
UF
1
2
3
4
5
6
Description of Capabilities
Standard fabricated members described and paid for as Item 516, 517, and 518 and detailed
by standard bridge drawings. Material and fabrication acceptance by certification with
random Department audits of the work and documentation.
Unique fabricated members not covered by standard bridge drawings and not designed to
carry tension live load. Examples include curb plates, bearings, expansion joints, railings,
catwalk, inspection access, special drainage, or other products. Examples also include
retrofit cross frames, retrofit gusset plates, retrofit lateral bracing, or other miscellaneous
structural members not included in Levels 1 through 6. Quality assurance of shop drawings,
material test reports, and inspection according to Supplement 1078.
Single span, straight, rolled beam bridges without stiffeners, Secondary and Detail materials
designed to carry tension live loads such as retrofit moment plates. Case II Loading. Quality
assurance of shop drawings, material test reports, and inspection according to Supplement
1078.
Multiple span, straight, rolled beam bridges without stiffeners. Case II loading. Quality
assurance of shop drawings, material test reports, and inspection according to Supplement
1078.
Single or multiple span, straight, dog legged, or curved, rolled beam bridges including
stiffeners. Case I or II Loading. Quality assurance of shop drawings, material test reports,
and inspection according to Supplement 1078.
Straight or bent welded plate girder bridges. Case I or II loading. Quality assurance of shop
drawings, material test reports, and inspection according to Supplement 1078.
Straight, curved, haunched, or tapered welded plate girder bridges. Case I or II loading.
Quality assurance of shop drawings, material test reports, and inspection according to
Supplement 1078.
Truss bridges, fracture critical bridges, fracture critical members, or fracture critical
components new or retrofitted. Case I or II loading. Quality assurance of shop drawings,
material test reports, and inspection according to Supplement 1078.
513.04
General.
Perform all steel fabrication including the shop application of coatings in a prequalified structural steel
fabricating shop consisting of adequately sized permanent buildings with equipment, heat and light, and
experienced personnel to satisfactorily perform all necessary operations. Perform flame cutting, air carbon-arc
gouging, cambering, welding, cleaning, and painting inside permanent buildings that are maintained at the required
environmental conditions. The fabricator may perform shop assembly of large pieces for fit-up of field connections
outdoors. These provisions will not apply to steel requiring fabrication at the bridge site in the repair, alteration or
extension of an existing structure.
If repairing, extending, or altering existing structures, take measurements of the existing structure as required to
accurately join old and new work. Include these measurements on shop drawings. Measurements shown on the
plans that indicate the extent and nature of repair, alterations or extension shall not relieve the Contractor of this
responsibility.
At least two weeks before starting shop fabrication, the fabricator shall notify the Office of Materials
Management and furnish a proposed fabrication schedule for the work.
Unless the Office of Materials Management provides a written waiver of a hold or witness point inspection, the
fabricator shall store members completed during the inspector’s absence in a manner that allows the inspector to
completely and safely inspect the finished work.
The fabricator shall not ship fabricated members performed under Item 513, UF Level or Levels 1 through 6
from the shop without prior hold point inspections unless the Office of Materials Management waives the
inspection. The Office of Materials Management will not conduct the scheduled final inspection until the fabricator
completes and inspects with documentation, final fabrication and shop coatings and the Contractor documents
approval of shop drawings and material test reports.
The Office of Materials Management will not conduct a final fabrication inspection of SF Level members.
Instead, the Office of Materials Management will conduct random inspections during the fabricator’s work.
The fabricator shall provide an office with the following attributes:
A. A minimum floor area of 120 square feet (11 m²).
B. A minimum ceiling height of 7 feet (2.1 m).
C. Adequate working and storage facilities with one locking file cabinet for the exclusive use of the Department’s
inspector, lighting, and electrical outlets.
D. Provisions for heating to a minimum temperature of 68 F (20 C) and adequately ventilated.
E. A telephone with direct access to an outside trunk line for the exclusive use of the inspector.
If using steel stamps for identification purposes, use the “mini-stress” or “stressless” type.
513.05
Fabricator Documentation Responsibility. The fabricator shall keep and maintain documentation
records as specified in Supplement 1078.
At the Department’s request, provide access to the above documents for audit, inspection, and copying.
513.06
Shop Drawing. Provide shop drawings conforming to 501.04 and the following requirements:
Include details, dimensions, size of materials, match mark diagrams for field connections, a diagram identifying,
by some unique mark, each area of a welded splice to be covered by a single radiograph, and other information
necessary for the complete fabrication and erection of the metal work.
For multiple span beam and girder bridges, include an overall layout with dimensions showing the relative
unloaded vertical and horizontal position of beam or girder segments with respect to a full length base or work line.
Account for camber and horizontal curvature of the beams or girders, and the effect of deck surface profile in this
layout. Show required offsets for vertical and horizontal curvature at approximately each one-fourth of span length,
at field splices, and at bearing points. For horizontally curved members, show the offset to a baseline strung from
end to end of the member, every 10 feet (3 m) of length.
Identify the grade (ASTM designation), CVN, fracture critical, or any special testing requirements for each piece
of steel. Identify pieces made of different grades of steel with different assembling or erecting marks, even if the
pieces have identical dimensions and detail.
Identify the welding procedure by the WPS number at each joint and the location and identification numbers of
all radiograph tests.
Detail structural steel to fit under full steel dead load and prior to deck placement with the webs of primary
members plumb.
513.07
Levels 1 through 6, Prefabrication Meeting. After providing the notice and schedule required by
513.04 and at least 3 days after the Department receives shop drawings, conduct a prefabrication meeting at the
fabricator’s facilities, or another location agreed to by all parties. The fabricator and its quality control specialists
for fabrication and painting, the inspector, and the Contractor, or its designated representative, shall attend the
meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to review any fabrication issues, including information on shop drawings,
inspection, hold or witness points, unique fabrication items, special processes, and both the fabrication and project
schedule. The fabrication quality control specialist shall conduct the meeting and record and distribute meeting
minutes that document all issues discussed. Fabrication may begin after the prefabrication meeting is complete.
513.08
Materials. Furnish materials conforming to 501.06.
513.09
Material Control. Identify and mark each piece of steel according to the shop drawings and the
following requirements.
Immediately after removing steel that is furnished in tagged lifts or bundles, mark the individual pieces of steel
with the ASTM A 6/A 6M specification identification color code and heat number.
The fabricator may furnish material from stock that is marked with the heat number and mill test report.
If separated from the full-size piece furnished by the supplier, mark excess material placed in stock for later use
with the heat number and, if provided, with the ASTM A 6/A 6M specification identification color code.
During fabrication, clearly and legibly mark the specification identification color code and heat number on each
piece of steel.
Before cutting steel into smaller size pieces, clearly and legibly mark each smaller size piece with the ASTM A
6/A 6M specification identification color code and heat number.
Unless otherwise approved by the inspector, mark pieces of steel that will be subject to fabricating operations
such as blast cleaning, galvanizing, heating for forming, or other operations that may obliterate paint color code
and heat number markings with steel stamps or with a substantial tag firmly attached to the piece of steel. At
locations acceptable to the Office of Materials Management, stamp the heat numbers into main material tested for
CVN.
Issue cutting instructions by cross-referencing the assembly marks shown on the shop drawings with the
corresponding item covered on the mill purchase order. The fabricator’s system of assembly-marking individual
pieces of steel and issuing cutting instructions shall provide a direct reference to the appropriate mill test report.
The fabrication quality control specialist shall provide the Engineer with a letter documenting that the fabricator
performed material control according to this specification.
513.10
Care of Material. Store structural material at the shop or field above the ground, upon platforms,
skids, or other supports. Use straight structural steel with clean and dry surfaces before working it in the shop.
Before using, clean all rusted or corroded material. Only use this material if it conforms to ASTM A 6/A 6M
thickness tolerances after cleaning.
513.11
Workmanship and Straightening. If necessary to straighten rolled material, use methods that will
not damage the member. If carefully planned and supervised, apply localized heat for straightening. Do not allow
the temperature of the heated area to exceed 1150 F (620 C) as controlled by pyrometric stick or thermometers.
Do not quench to accelerate cooling. Do not kink or offset the material if using mechanic or hydraulic force to
camber or strengthen material. Do not cold bend fracture critical materials.
Camber rolled beams as shown on the plans in the prequalified fabricating shop using heat or hydraulic jacks.
Control heating as specified above and follow a formal shop heating procedure. Camber plate girders by trimming
web plates before assembly. During fabrication, shipping, and erection, support and handle members to maintain
camber.
Fabricate structural steel to within the dimensional tolerances specified by Articles 3.5 of the AASHTO/AWS
Bridge Welding Code, with the following modifications:
A. Waviness, the deviation of the top or bottom surface of a flange from a straight line or plan curvature, shall
not exceed 1/8 inch (3 mm) when the number of waves in a 10-foot (3 m) length is four or less, or 1/16 inch (1.6
mm) when more than four, but sharp kinks or bends shall be cause for rejection.
B. For the measurement of camber during lay down, position the bearing points both horizontally and vertically
to plan dimensions 1/8 inch (3 mm).
C. Measure camber as the vertical offset between the steel and the common base line extending from abutment
bearing to abutment bearing. The maximum camber tolerance at mid-span shall be 0 inch (0 mm) and the greater
of +3/4 inch (+19 mm) or the designed haunch height. Prorate the maximum camber tolerance at mid-span between
the center of the span and each adjacent bearing to provide a smooth unbroken curve.
D. Permissible difference in horizontal curvature of top and bottom flange at any point on centerline of member,
when measured as specified in 3.5.1.4, shall not exceed 3/8 inch (10 mm)
513.12
Finish. Plane sheared edges of all main material to a minimum depth of 1/4 inch (6 mm) except for
ASTM A 709/A 709M, Grade 36 (250) steel having a thickness of 5/8 inch (16 mm) or less. Remove fins, tears,
slivers, and burred or sharp edges from steel members by grinding. If these conditions appear during the blasting
operation, re-grind and re-blast the steel members to the required surface profile.
The fabricator may flame cut structural steel. Provide a smooth surface, free from cracks and notches, and use a
mechanical guide to provide an accurate profile. Roll and flame cut surfaces according to the AASHTO/AWS
Bridge Welding Code, as amended by Supplement 1011.
Provide a surface finish for bearing and base plates and other bearing surfaces that contact each other or concrete
according to ANSI B46.1, Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay, Part I.
ANSI B46.1
Steel slabs
Heavy plates in contact in shoes to be welded
Milled ends of compression members, milled or ground ends of
stiffeners and fillers
Bridge rollers and rockers
Pins and pin holes
Sliding bearings
2000 mil
1000 mil
(50.0 µm)
(25.0 µm)
500 mil
(12.5 µm)
250 mil
125 mil
125 mil
(6.4 µm)
(3.2 µm)
(3.2 µm)
513.13
Stiffeners. Place the bearing end of bearing stiffeners flush and square with the web and in a manner
so at least 75 percent of the area of the bearing end is in contact with the inner surface of the flange. The other end
of the bearing stiffener shall have a tight fit as defined below. Position bearing stiffeners to be vertical after erection.
Weld intermediate stiffeners that are not used in pairs to the compression flange, and provide a tight fit for the
tension flange. Weld intermediate stiffeners connected to cross frame angles to the top and bottom flange.
A tight fit is defined as the contact between the stiffener and flange over some portion of the end of the stiffener
and having no gap greater than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm).
Clip stiffeners 2 1/2 inches (65 mm) along the web and 1 inch (25 mm) along the flange to clear flange-web
welds and fillet or rolled shapes.
When attaching stiffeners to the web and flanges, do not extend welds to the edge of the stiffeners or into the
clip area. Terminate these welds 1/4 ±1/8 inch at the flange connections and 1/2 ±1/4 inch at the web connection.
513.14
Fillers. Detail the shop drawings to show fill plates that compensate for the misalignment of abutting
elements due to differences in thickness of flanges and webs at the splice locations. Detail the fill plates to the
nearest 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) in thickness, but not less than 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick. However, in the final shop
assembly, furnish fills of sufficient thickness to compensate for misalignment of abutting elements due to standard
rolling mill tolerances or due to differences in thicknesses of flanges and webs at the splice location. The actual
fills used shall compensate for differences in total thickness or relative positions of more than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm)
but with no fills less than 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick. Provide fill plates in bolted joints that are flush with the perimeter
of the splice plates.
513.15
Horizontally Curved Beams and Girders. If members are to be heat curved, submit the detailed
procedure, including necessary calculations, to the Office of Materials Management. Obtain the Office of Materials
Management’s acceptance of the procedure before starting this work.
Curve beams and girders using heat according to AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, except
that the fabricator may cut flanges for girders to obtain the required alignment.
513.16
Joints and Splices. In bolted construction where tension or flexural members are spliced, maintain a
clearance of not more than 1/4 inch (6 mm) between the abutting surfaces of spliced members. For spliced
compression members, face the abutting surfaces to provide a uniform bearing when properly aligned and
completely bolted.
In welded construction, prepare abutting surfaces as shown on the shop drawings. Verify the preparation for field
welded butt joints in main members by a complete shop assembly according to 513.24.
513.17
Pin Holes. Bore pin holes after the member is fabricated and true to size, at right angles to the axis
of the member and parallel to each other. Pin holes for up to 5-inch (127 mm) diameter pins shall not exceed the
pin diameter by more than 0.020 inch (0.51 mm) and pin holes for larger pins shall not exceed the pin diameter by
more than 0.031 inch (0.79 mm).
513.18
Pins and Rollers. Use pins and rollers made from cold rolled steel, accurately turned to size, straight
and smooth, and entirely free from flaws. Pins over 9 inches (230 mm) in diameter shall be annealed. In pins larger
than 9 inches (230 mm) in diameter, bore a hole not less than 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter the full length of the
axis. Furnish one pilot and one driving nut for each size of pin.
513.19
Holes for High-Strength Bolts and Bearing Bolts. Provide cylindrical holes, perpendicular to the
member, clean cut, and free of ragged edges. Remove burrs by countersinking not more than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm)
or by grinding. Provide finished holes with a diameter not larger than the nominal diameter of the bolt plus 1/16
inch (1.6 mm). The hole diameter shall not vary by more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) from a true circle for 85 percent
of the holes in a contiguous group, and not more than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) for the remainder.
Punch holes using a die with a diameter not exceeding that of the punch by more than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm). Ream
and drill holes using twist drills and twist reamers. Wherever possible, direct the reamer by mechanical means.
Sub-drill holes 3/16 inch (5 mm) less in diameter than the nominal diameter of the bolt, and ream the holes to
size with the parts assembled, except:
A. The fabricator may sub-punch main material conforming to ASTM A 709/A 709M, Grade 36 (250) steel that
is less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) thick, and Grade 50 (345) or 50W (345W) steel that is less than 5/8 inch (16 mm)
thick.
B. The fabricator may drill full-size holes in materials assembled and adequately clamped together.
C. The fabricator may punch full-size holes in secondary and detail material conforming to ASTM A 709/A
709M, Grade 36 (250) steel that is less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) thick, and Grade 50 (345) or 50W (345W) steel that
is less than 5/8 inch (16 mm) thick.
D. The fabricator may make assemblies such as floor beams connected to girders and rolled beam spans connected
by diaphragms through steel templates.
Place all sub-punched or sub-drilled holes with sufficient accuracy such that after assembling (before reaming)
a cylindrical pin 1/8 inch (3 mm) smaller than the nominal size of the punched hole may be entered perpendicular
to the face of the member without drifting in not less than 75 percent of the contiguous holes in the same plane. All
holes shall allow a pin 3/16 inch (5 mm) smaller than the nominal size of the punched holes to be inserted in the
above manner.
Do not plug located holes without written approval from the Office of Materials Management.
Provide steel templates with hardened bushings in holes that are accurately located in relation to the centerline
of the connection as inscribed on the template. The fabricator is not required to use hardened bushings when using
a roto-broach, shell drill, or other similar tool, to make the holes.
Ream and drill holes through multiple piles only if the plies of the joint are held tightly together with bolts or
clamps and if sub-punched or sub-drilled, only if the joint is pinned. Disassemble and clean the piles of burrs and
shavings before final assembly.
The Contractor may drill or punch bolt holes full sized in unassembled pieces or connections, including templates
for use with matching sub-sized and reamed holes, using suitable numerically controlled (N/C) drilling or punching
equipment. If using N/C drilling or punching equipment, demonstrate the accuracy of the drilling or punching
procedure to the inspector according to 513.24.
After holes are reamed or drilled full size, 85 percent of the holes in any contiguous groups shall have no offset
greater than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) between adjacent plies. The remainder of the holes shall not be offset more than
1/16 inch (1.6 mm) between adjacent plies.
If requested in writing, the Office of Materials Management may consider other methods of preparing holes for
high-strength bolts.
513.20
High-Strength Steel Bolts, Nuts, and Washers. Provide high-strength steel bolts, nuts, and washers
conforming for all bolted connections including erection bolts for cross frames and lateral bracing to 711.09.
A. General. Provide the Engineer with access to the work for observing the installation and the tightening and
checking of the bolts.
Determine the required bolt length by adding the value from Table 513.20-1 to the grip. The table values
include an allowance for manufacturing tolerances and provide a bolt length for threads to protrude through the
nut. Add 5/32 inch (4 mm) for each hardened flat washer used and 5/16 inch (8 mm) for each beveled washer used.
Adjust the length, as determined by Table 513.20-1, to the next longer 1/4 inch (6 mm); when installed, the end of
the bolt shall be flush with or project several thread lengths outside the face of the nut.
TABLE 513.20-1
To determine required bolt length, add to grip[1] (inches)
Bolt Size (inches)
1/2
11/16
5/8
7/8
3/4
1
7/8
1 1/8
1
1 1/4
1 1/8
1 1/2
1 1/4
1 5/8
1 3/8
1 3/4
1 1/2
1 7/8
[1]Total thickness of all connected material excluding washers.
TABLE 513.20-1M
To determine required bolt length, add to grip[1] (mm)
Bolt Size (mm)
M16
24
M20
28
M22
31
M24
35
M27
38
M30
41
M36
47
[1]Total thickness of all connected material excluding washers.
Use bolts, nuts, and washers with a residual coating of lubricant when received. Bolts, nuts, and washers
without their original lubrication shall not be used.
B. Preparation. With the exception of metalizing, galvanizing, and both organic zinc and inorganic zinc primers,
remove coatings from joint surfaces, including surfaces adjacent to the bolt heads, nuts, and washers. Remove
lacquer, dirt, oil, loose scale, rust, burrs, pits, and other substances or defects that prevent solid seating of the parts
or interfere with the development of complete frictional contact. Do not place gaskets or other yielding material
between joint surfaces.
C. Installation. For each bolt, place a hardened washer under the element (nut or bolt head) turned in tightening.
If an outer face of the bolted parts has a slope of more than 1:20 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis, use
a smooth beveled washer to compensate for the lack of parallelism.
If necessary, the Contractor may clip washers, at one location, not closer than seven-eighths of the bolt
diameter from the center of the washer.
During final assembly of the parts to be bolted, first install a sufficient number of drift pins to provide and
maintain accurate alignment of holes and parts, then a sufficient number of bolts tightened to a snug tight condition
to bring all the parts of the joint into complete contact. Replace any bolts that were installed before installing drift
pins. Before releasing the member from the hoisting equipment, fill half the holes with drift pins and bolts tightened
to a snug tight condition in at least 50 percent of the holes (preferably, half pins and half bolts) but use at least two
drift pines in each flange and web of each beam or girder. Install bolts starting at the most rigidly fixed or stiffest
point and progress toward the free edges.
Use cylindrical drift pines that are not more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) smaller than the hole diameter.
Bolts are snug tight when an impact wrench begins to impact the nut or when a man applies full effort using
an ordinary spud wrench.
Install bolts in the remaining open holes and tighten the bolts to a snug tight fit, after which all bolts shall be
tightened completely by the turn-of-nut method.
Where difficulty is experienced with the fit of the connection and the bolts are used to draw the elements into
contact, check all bolts in the affected portion of the connection for a sustained snug tight condition.
Replace drift pins with completely tightened bolts only after all the remaining holes are filled with completely
tightened bolts.
Do not field ream holes drilled full size during fabrication.
After bolts are snug tight, the wrench operator shall match-mark the outer face of the nut with the flush or
protruding portion of the bolt using a crayon or paint. The Engineer will use the match-marks to determine the
relative rotation between the bolt and nut during final tightening using the turn-of-the-nut method.
Commence tightening at the most rigidly fixed or stiffest point and progress toward the free edges, both in the
initial snugging up and in the final tightening. If required because of wrench operation clearances, tightening may
be done by turning the bolt. If used, provide impact wrenches of adequate capacity to perform the required
tightening each bolt in approximately 10 seconds.
Do not reuse galvanized A 325 bolts. Re-tightening previously tightened bolts that became loose by tightening
adjacent bolts is not reuse.
Follow the additional bolting requirements in 513.26.
D. Bolt Tension. When all bolts in the joint are tight, the minimum bolt tension for each bolt size is shown in
Table 513.20-2.
TABLE 513.20-2
Bolt Tension[1] (kips), minimum A 325
Bolt Size (inches)
1/2
12
5/8
19
3/4
28
7/8
39
1
51
1 1/8
56
1 1/4
71
1 3/8
85
1 1/2
103
[1]Equal to 70 percent of specified minimum tensile strengths of bolts, rounded off to the nearest kip.
TABLE 513.20-2M
Bolt Tension[1] (kN), minimum A 325M
Bolt Size (mm)
M16
91
M20
142
M22
176
M24
206
M27
267
M30
327
M36
475
[1]Equal to 70 percent of specified minimum tensile strengths of bolts, rounded off to the nearest kN.
TABLE 513.20-3 NUT ROTATION FROM SNUG TIGHT CONDITION
Disposition of Outer Faces of Bolted Parts
Bolt Length
(as measured from underside Both faces One face normal to bolt axis and Both faces sloped not more than
of head to extreme end of
normal to other face sloped not more than 1:20 from normal to bolt axis
point)
bolt axis 1:20 (bevel washer not used)
(bevel washer not used)
Up to and including 4
1/3 turn
1/2 turn
2/3 turn
diameters
Over 4 diameters but not
1/2 turn
2/3 turn
5/6 turn
exceeding 8 diameters
Over 8 diameters but not
2/3 turn
5/6 turn
1 turn
exceeding 12 diameters
Attain the bolt tension specified in Table 513.20-2 by tightening all bolts, the applicable amount of nut rotation
specified in Table 513.20-3 by the turn-of-nut method.
Nut rotation is relative to bolt, regardless of the element (nut or bolt) being turned. Tighten bolts requiring 1/2
turn and less within ±30 degrees and tighten bolts requiring 2/3 turn and more within ±45 degrees.
E. Inspection.
1. The Engineer will inspect the first completed connection of each bridge according to 513.20.E.2 below
and subsequent connections the Engineer deems necessary. Thereafter, where the Engineer has approved the joint
compactness and snug-tight condition of bolts prior to bolt tightening by the turn-of-nut method, the bolt tension
as required in Table 513.20-2 shall be considered as attained if the amount of nut rotation specified by Table 513.203 is verified by the required match-marking.
2. Furnish and use manual torque wrenches to inspect bolts. Perform test to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
Calibrate the inspection torque wrenches at least once each workday using a device, approved by the Engineer, and
capable of indicating bolt tension. Use three bolts, placed and tensioned individually, representative of the grade,
size, length, and condition used in the structure to determine the job inspection torque according to 513.20.E.3.
Place a washer under the part being turned.
3. Tighten each of the three representative bolts, using any convenient manner, to the tension shown in Table
513.20-2. Then, using the inspection wrench, apply a slow steady pull to the tightened bolt and measure the torque
required to turn the nut or head 5 degrees, approximately 1 inch (25 mm) at a 12-inch (300 mm) radius in the
tightening direction. Use the average torque measured in the tensioning of the three bolts as the job inspection
torque.
4. With the Engineer present, randomly select for inspection two bolts or 10 percent of the bolts, whichever
is greater, from each connection represented by the 3-bolt sample described in 513.20.E.2. Using the inspection
wrench, apply the job inspection torque in the tightening direction. The Engineer will accept the connection if the
job inspection torque does not turn the nut or bolt head. If the job inspection torque turns a nut or bolt head, apply
the job inspection torque to all the bolts in the connection and reinspect the connection as described above.
F. Calibration Devices. The manufacturer of the calibration device or a qualified testing laboratory shall
periodically examine each calibration device at least once each year and other times if requested by the Engineer.
After calibration, the manufacturer or testing laboratory shall certify that each calibration device accurately
indicates the actual bolt tension.
513.21
Welding. Perform welding by the shielded metal-arc, submerged arc, flux cored arc, or stud welding
process. Only shielded metal arc (stick) welding is prequalified. All other welding processes require testing and
approval by the Office of Materials Management. Consideration will be given to other methods of metal-arc
welding if a written request is submitted to the Office of Materials Management.
In other respects, the AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code, as amended by Supplement 1011, shall govern the
work.
Post copies of the shop welding procedures at each welding location.
Weld only fracture critical and main members when the fabrication quality control specialist and inspectors are
physically at the facility. The fabricator shall not perform fracture critical welding without prior scheduling with
the fabrication quality control specialist and the inspector. The fabrication quality control specialist shall witness
the minimum percentages specified in Supplement 1078 and shall check all welding processes.
For non-fracture critical welds, the fabrication quality control specialist shall perform frequent inspections, and
check all welding processes.
513.22
Stud Shear Connectors. Perform stud welding according to the AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding
Code, as amended by Supplement 1011, and this subsection.
In addition to the stud bend tests of Article 7.6.6.1 of the AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code, perform bend
tests of stud shear connectors at the start of each workday, when welding has been interrupted for an hour or more,
when changing grounds, when changing weld settings, and when changing cable loop due to arc blow. Do not weld
more than 500 studs without the welds being field bend tested in accordance with the specified procedure. The
Contractor may leave in the bent position tested studs that show no sign of failure, as determined by the Engineer.
Weld stud shear connectors to the top flanges of beams or girders after the steel has been erected and suitable
scaffolding or deck forming has been provided. Studs may be welded to beam or girder webs, end dams, bearing
plates, or to other secondary members and detail material in the shop. For galvanized structures with welded shear
connectors, remove the galvanic coating by grinding at each connector prior to welding.
513.23
Threads for Bolts and Pins. Threads for pins shall conform to the Unified Standard Series ANSI
B1.1-UNC (ANSI B1.13M) Class 2A (6g) for external threads and Class 2B (6H) for internal threads, except that
pin ends having a diameter of 1 3/8 inches (35 mm) or more shall be threaded 6 threads to the inch (4.23
mm/thread).
513.24
Shop Assembly. Remove paint, grease, oil, rust, loose mill scale, and protruding edges or burrs from
all contact surfaces. Unless waived by the Office of Materials Management, do not assemble and weld flanges and
webs to form girders or other similar members and do not accomplish fabrication or assembly that interferes with
the repair of a butt weld until the fabrication quality control specialist for the A rated fabricators or the inspector
for B and C rated fabricators examines and approves radiographs of all butt welds in the component parts.
Perform fit-up work with the members assembled in unloaded positions as shown on the shop drawing layout
required by 513.06. During shop assembly, adequately support members, especially at joints, to prevent
misalignment or deflection and designate supports that prevent settlement during the fit-up, reaming or drilling of
connections. The fabrication quality control specialist shall maintain records of the actual horizontal and vertical
dimensions and relative positions of each assembly for each offset required by 513.06 and, upon request, furnish a
copy to the inspector. Reposition members that become a part of two assemblies for the second assembly to the
dimensions recorded for the first assembly.
Using steel stamps, match-mark all connecting parts assembled in the shop for the purpose of reaming or drilling
of holes for field connections or for fit-up of field welded connections before disassembly. Punch mark bearing
centerlines.
Continuous beam and plate girders, including sections adjacent to hinged, pin connected, sliding, or rocker
bearing joints, shall have at least three adjacent segments assembled, and holes reamed or drilled while assembled.
Check the fit-up of field welded connections by similar shop assembly.
Shop assemble longitudinal or transverse beams and girders that are either framed or connected by diaphragms
and floor beams to check fit-up of connections to be field welded, or to ream or drill holes for bolted connections.
Assemble trusses in lengths of at least three abutting panels before drilling or reaming field connections.
Include deck plates in the final shop assembly of bridges that involve railroad deck plates, even if welding of
these deck plates takes place in the field.
If the fabricator elects to use numerically controlled drilling or punching, the required assembly shall be
performed as specified above. The Office of Materials Management will consider the Contractor’s written request
to use other methods of checking hole alignment and match marking. If the Office of Materials Management does
not consider, or disapproves the fabricator’s proposed methods of assembly, perform the work according to 513.19
and 513.24.
After fabrication, shop assemble deck expansion devices to check fit-up, straightness, and roadway cross-slope
changes. Full width assembly is required with phased construction if expansion devices have interlocking fingers
or have mechanical devices that require exact field alignment.
The fabricator may fabricate part-width deck segments without the required shop assembly under the following
conditions:
A. The plans require a phased construction sequence.
B. Shop drawings incorporate a lay down, similar to 513.06, defining vertical offset dimensions from a full length
common baseline to all roadway changes including sidewalks, rounding, crowns, and field splice points of the
expansion device.
Secure parts not completely assembled in the shop with temporary bolts to prevent damage in handling and
shipping. In the shop, bolt field splice plates into final position shift the splice plates laterally with respect to their
final position so that the ends of the plates are flush with the ends of the member. Without the Office of Materials
Management’s written acceptance, do not weld or tack-weld to bolted assemblies. Perform authorized welding
according to 513.21.
513.25
Nondestructive Testing. Nondestructive testing shall conform to the AASHTO/AWS Bridge
Welding Code, as amended by Supplement 1011 and as specified below.
As the Engineer directs, perform ultrasonic or radiographic inspection of field welded repairs in main members
for thick scabs, deep kerfs or nicks, and similar gross flaws. Ensure that all examined welds and base metal adjacent
to a welded joint conform to the quality requirements specified in 513.21. Submit radiographs, field sketches
showing specific locations, lengths and depths of the repair, and two copies of the radiographic or ultrasonic
technical reports to the Office of Materials Management for acceptance. Receive the Office of Materials
Management’s acceptance before performing construction activities making welds inaccessible for repair.
The Contractor or fabricator shall notify the Department at least 48 hours before performing nondestructive
testing. Provide this notice even if specific hold or witness point inspections are not required by Supplement 1078.
The Office of Materials Management has the final authority to accept welds and will resolve controversies
regarding the interpretation of radiographs, magnetic particle indications, or the acceptability of welds.
A. Radiographic Inspection of Welds. Before inspection, grind welds smooth. Grind web splices only where
radiographed, except grind outside fascia surfaces the full length. Inspect the following welds:
1. The full length of all butt welds in flange material of plate girders or rolled beams. One hundred percent
of butt welds in back up bars that remain in the structure.
2. The top and bottom one-third of transverse web splices in plate girders or rolled beams and show any cope
holes. If an unacceptable weld occurs, radiograph an adjoining 12-inch (300 mm) length of weld not previously
inspected. If unacceptable flaws are found in this adjoining segment, radiograph the remainder of the weld.
3.
Butt welds in longitudinal stiffeners attached to tension areas of webs.
4.
Twenty-five percent of each longitudinal web splice as selected by the inspector.
5.
Full length of field flange cut repairs.
6.
Other welds specified in the Contract or AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code.
Use a steel stamp to make the radiograph identification mark shown on the shop drawing layout in the area
marked “Weld Identification” of Figures 6.1A through 6.1D of the AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code in a
manner to make it visible in the radiograph of the area without resorting to superimposed like markings. Place steel
stamped identification marks on flange plates so that after girder assembly the marks are on the inside of flange
and outside the area fastened to the web. Identify films of repaired welds by the letter “R”. Do not place steel
stamped identification numbers within the weld area. Use superimposed characters to make other required
markings.
Use film locations or a technique employed that will show the top and bottom images of the plate edge. Use
films 4 1/2  17 inches (114  432 mm) where practical and a minimum film size of 4 1/2  10 inches (114  254
mm).
Supply a technical report for the RT testing similar to Annex III Form III-5 of the AASHTO/AWS Bridge
Welding Code, and include the following: Project identification, member piece mark, description of the repairs
made, and the qualification level of the technician.
The Department will take ownership of contact films. For main material repairs, provide sketches that clearly
show specific locations, lengths and depths of field cuts, or damages repaired by field welding.
B. Magnetic Particle Inspection of Welds. Before magnetic particle inspection (MPI), complete welding
required to fabricate each beam or girder, correct all visual defects, and clean the weld. If the fabricator’s quality
control plan is acceptable to the Department and additional processing does not produce a potential for cracking,
the Department may allow the Contractor to perform MPI before complete welding.
Inspect welds using the procedure and techniques for the dry powder magnetic-particle examination of welds
using the prod or the yoke method according to AWS 6.7.6. The prod test equipment shall have a functioning
ammeter. Provide a prod magnetizing current of 100 amperes per inch (25 mm) of prod spacing but not less than
400 amperes. Use only aluminum prods.
Inspect at least 1 foot (0.3 m) for every 10 feet (3 m), or fraction thereof, for each size of weld in the following:
1.
Flange-to-web welds, including ends of girder after trimming.
2.
Moment plate to flange welds.
3.
Bearing stiffener welds.
4.
Other welds specified in the Contract or AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code.
5.
Field weld repairs as directed by the Engineer.
The inspector or the fabrication quality control specialist will select random test sections. Unless waived by
the Office of Materials Management, the inspector will observe inspection by C-rated fabricators. Position test
sections as necessary for the inspection and after considering the safety and convenience to the inspecting
personnel.
If a test section contains unacceptable defects, test 5-foot (1.5 m) segments on both sides of the test section,
or, if less than 5-foot (1.5 m) segments are on both sides of the test section, test the full length of the weld. Retest
welds requiring repair after repairs are complete.
MPI will not locate all surface defects of Article 9.21 of the AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code.
Unacceptable welds have MPI results that indicate defects exceed the above quality standards.
For each unacceptable defect, the fabricator shall record the piece mark, the location of the defect on the
member, the defect description, and the proposed repairs.
C. Ultrasonic Testing of Welds. Perform ultrasonic inspection of the following welds:
1. Complete joint penetration flange-to-web, T, or corner joint welds: 25 percent for non-FCM, 25 percent
compression or shear FCM, and 100 percent tension FCM.
2.
Complete penetration butt welds: 100 percent tension FCM and 25 percent compression FCM.
3.
Other welds: as specified in the Contract or AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code.
The fabrication quality control specialist shall provide the Engineer with specified certification, sketches,
technician reports, and a letter documenting that the Contractor performed nondestructive testing according to this
specification.
513.26
Shipping, Storage, and Erection. Repair or replace, at the discretion of the Office of Materials
Management, members damaged by improper handling, storing, or erection.
During transportation, place adequate blocking between members to prevent movement and facilitate unloading.
Unless reinforced by additional plates, angles, or other material bolted in place, do not use field connection holes
for tie-down. Band together bearing components.
Place material stored in the fabricating shop or in the field on skids or blocks to prevent the metal from contacting
the ground. Place and shore girders and beams in an upright position for shipping, and field and shop storage. Field
splice plates shall be bolted with temporary bolts, which shall be removed and replaced, when field splice plated
are placed in their final position or shifted laterally with respect to their final position. Keep material clean and
properly drained. Install bearing devices and anchorages according to Item 516.
Thoroughly clean bearing surfaces and surfaces to be in permanent contact before the members are assembled in
the field.
Before erecting structural steel, completely bolt up field splices and connections that started before steel erection.
During erection, the Engineer will allow drifting to draw the parts into position, but do not enlarge the holes or
distort the metal. Install drift pins and bolts according to 513.20. Fill at least three-fourths of the holes with
completely tightened bolts in splices and connections subject to construction loads during erection. Complete
permanent fastening of steel truss tension chord members before removing falsework. Permanently fasten
compression chord members after the span is released sufficiently from the falsework to bring the compression
chord joints into full bearing. Properly regulate and maintain elevations of panel points and ends of floor beams
until the falsework is removed.
Do not enlarge the holes of splices and connections between segments or elements of main members without
approval by the Office of Materials Management.
Adjust structures to the correct alignment and to the marked bearing centerlines before beginning permanent
fastening. Do not permanently fasten cross frames and lateral bracing in continuous beam or girder spans until
completing main connections in adjacent spans; however, install sufficient bracing to maintain structural stability.
For erection bolts used to fasten cross frames, use not less than 5/8-inch (16 mm) diameter, and fully tighten bolts
according to 513.20.
Erect end cross frames and end dams in a manner that ensures bearing parts remain in bearing contact.
Permanently fasten all intermediate cross frames before deck placement begins.
The webs of primary members shall be plumb before deck placement begins.
513.27
the shop.
Shop Coating. For steel surfaces specified to be coated according to Item 514, apply a prime coat in
513.28
Cleaning ASTM A 709/A 709M, Grade 50W (345W) Steel. Before the new steel is shipped, solvent
clean, where necessary, all surfaces of ASTM A 709/A 709M, and Grade 50W (345W) steel that are to be left
unpainted to remove all traces of asphalt cement, oil, grease, diesel fuel deposits, chalk, paint marks, and other
soluble contaminants according to SSPC-SP 1 Solvent Cleaning. QCP #1 and QCP #2 shall apply according to
Item 514.
Shop blast unpainted Grade 50W material to SSPC-SP 6, commercial blast. QCP #3 shall apply according to
Item 514.
After placing superstructure concrete, clean, where necessary, the exterior surface and bottom flanges of all fascia
beams or girders that are to be left unpainted to remove all traces of asphalt cement, oil, grease, diesel fuel or
petroleum deposits, concrete, and other contaminants.
Do not use acid for cleaning.
513.29
Method of Measurement. The Department will measure Structural Steel Members on a lump sum
basis or by the number of pounds (kilograms).
If payment is per pound (kilograms), submit weight computations to the Office of Materials Management based
upon the accepted shop drawings. Deduct waste material, removed by burning, cutting, machining, holes, etc., but
include groove weld bevels. Include the weight of all permanent fasteners, shop fillet welds, other metals and
preformed bearing pads. Exclude the weight of paint or galvanized coatings. Exclude thickness or weight of
members exceeding the plan requirements (due to overweight or other cause), unless authorized by the Department.
As an option, measure and record the weight of structural members before painting in the presence of the inspector.
Use the following unit weights for computations.
Steel, cast steel, and deposited weld metal
Cast iron
Phosphor or leaded bronze
Lead
Preformed bearing pads
lb/ft³
490
450
550
710
710
(kg/m³)
(7850)
(7210)
(8810)
(11370)
(11370)
The Department will measure Welded Stud Shear Connectors by the number of each installed and accepted.
513.30
Basis of Payment. If the fabricator’s proposed methods of assembly with numerically controlled
drilling or punching fail to produce specified results and the Office of Materials Management directs the Contractor
to perform work, as according to 513.19 and 513.24, the Department will not pay for this work.
For steel surfaces specified to be coated according to Item 514, the cost of applying a prime coat in the shop is
incidental to the bid for structural steel.
The Department will not pay for repairing or replacing members damaged by improper handling, storing,
transportation, or erection.
The Department will pay for the accepted quantities at the contract prices as follows:
Item
Unit
Description
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
513
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Pound (Kilogram)
Pound (Kilogram)
Pound (Kilogram)
Pound (Kilogram)
Pound (Kilogram)
Pound (Kilogram)
Pound (Kilogram)
Each
Structural Steel Members, Level UF
Structural Steel Members, Level 1
Structural Steel Members, Level 2
Structural Steel Members, Level 3
Structural Steel Members, Level 4
Structural Steel Members, Level 5
Structural Steel Members, Level 6
Structural Steel Members, Level UF
Structural Steel Members, Level 1
Structural Steel Members, Level 2
Structural Steel Members, Level 3
Structural Steel Members, Level 4
Structural Steel Members, Level 5
Structural Steel Members, Level 6
Welded Stud Shear Connectors
ITEM 514 PAINTING OF STRUCTURAL STEEL
514.01
514.02
514.03
514.04
514.05
514.06
514.07
514.08
514.09
514.10
514.11
514.12
514.13
514.14
514.15
514.16
514.17
514.18
514.19
514.20
514.21
514.22
514.23
514.24
514.01
Description
Materials
Superintendent
Quality Control
Testing Equipment
Work Limitations
Protection of Persons and Property
Pollution Control
Safety Requirements and Precautions
Inspection Access
Job Site Visual Standards
Quality Control Point Photographic Verification and Documentation
Surface Preparation
Washing Shop Primer
Handling
Mixing and Thinning
Coating Application
Removing Fins, Tears, or Slivers
Caulking
Dry Film Thickness
Final Inspection
Repair Procedures
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
Description. This work consists of cleaning and painting all steel surfaces.
514.02
Materials. On existing steel, apply a three-coat paint system consisting of an organic zinc prime coat,
an epoxy intermediate coat, and a urethane finish coat. The coating system shall conform to 708.02.
On new steel, apply a three-coat paint system consisting of an inorganic zinc prime coat, an epoxy intermediate
coat, and a urethane finish coat. The prime coat shall conform to 708.01, and the intermediate and finish coats shall
conform to 708.02. Supply the intermediate and finish coats from the same manufacturer. The Contractor is
responsible for ensuring the compatibility of the intermediate and finish coats with the prime coat.
For caulking, use a single pack moisture cured polyurethane based material, which will not shrink or sag, capable
of filling voids up to 1 inch (25 mm) wide. Only material that is listed on the OMM Qualified Product List website
may be used.
514.03
Superintendent. In addition to the requirements of 105.06, the Superintendent must successfully
complete a Bridge Painting pre-qualification course and training offered by the Department. The course must have
been completed within the past four years and an individual course certificate must have been received by the
Superintendent. Present certificate to the Engineer prior to commencing work. No work is permitted unless the
Superintendent provides a valid course certificate.
514.04
Quality Control. Quality control consists of designating quality control specialists to control the
quality of work in each phase established by Quality Control Points (QCPs). Control quality by inspection, tests,
and cooperation with inspection and testing performed by the Engineer and inspector.
A. Quality Control Specialist. Identify the individuals dedicated to performing duties as the painting quality
control specialists before starting work in the field. Provide a quality control specialist for each structure, but one
quality control specialist must be provided for ev