AA2008-5 AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT

AA2008-5
AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT
INVESTIGATION REPORT
AIR CENTRAL CO., LTD.
BOMBARDIER DHC-8-402, JA849A
KOCHI AIRPORT, JAPAN
MARCH 13, 2007
May 28, 2008
Aircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation Commission
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
The investigation for this report was conducted by Aircraft and Railway Accidents
Investigation Commission, ARAIC, about the aircraft accident of Air Central Co.,Ltd.
Bombardier DHC-8-402 in accordance with Aircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation
Commission Establishment Law and Annex 13 to the Convention of International Civil
Aviation for the purpose of determining cause of the aircraft accident and contributing to
the prevention of accidents and not for the purpose of blaming responsibility of the
accident.
This English version report has been published and translated by ARAIC to make its
reading easier for English speaking people those who are not familiar with Japanese.
Although efforts are made to translate as accurate as possible, only the Japanese version is
authentic. If there is difference in meaning of the texts between the Japanese version and
the English version, texts in the Japanese version are correct.
Norihiro Goto,
Chairman,
Aircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation Commission
AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT
AIR CENTRAL CO., LTD.
BOMBARDIER DHC-8-402, JA849A
KOCHI AIRPORT, JAPAN
AT ABOUT 10:54 JST, MARCH 13, 2007
2008, May 22
To be adopted by the Aircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation Commission
(Air Sub-committee )
Chairman
Norihiro Goto
Member
Yukio Kusuki
Member
Shinsuke Endo
Member
Noboru Toyooka
Member
Yuki Shuto
Member
Akiko Matsuo
1.
PROCESS AND PROGRESS OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
1.1
Summary of the Accident
On March 13, 2007 (Tuesday), a Bombardier DHC-8-402, registered JA849A, operated
by Air Central Co., Ltd. took off Osaka International Airport at 08:21(JST) as All Nippon Airways
flight 1603 on a regularly scheduled service under the arrangement of joint business of
transportation, and landed at its destination, Kochi Airport, without the nose landing gear
extended and received a damage of the forward lower fuselage.
There were 60 persons on board, including the pilot in command (PIC), three other
crewmembers and 56 passengers, and nobody was injuried.
1.2
1.2.1
Outline of the Accident Investigation
Investigation Organization
On March 13, 2007, the Aircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation Commission
assigned an investigator-in-charge and another investigator to the investigation of the accident.
In addition, an investigator was appointed on March 14, 2007. Furthermore on March 26, 2007,
two investigators were appointed.
1.2.2
Representative and Adviser of Foreign State
An accredited representative and a technical adviser from Canada, the state of design
and manufacture of the aircraft involved in this accident, participated in the investigation.
1.2.3
Implementation of Investigation
March 13 and 14, 2007
On-site investigation and interviews
March 22 and 23, 2007
Search for fall-offs at Osaka International Airport
and Kochi Airport
March 29 - June 30, 2007
Parts investigation
April 11, 2007, April 20, 2007
Maintenance Record investigation
May 7, 2007 - July 11, 2007
Aircraft and Maintenance Record investigation
September 26 - 28, 2007
Manufacturing process investigation
(Bombardier Inc. and Goodrich Corp.)
December 7, 2007
1.2.4
Interviews
Comments from Parties Relevant to the Cause of the Accident
Comments were taken from the parties relevant to the cause of the accident.
2
1.2.5
Comments from Participating State
Comments were invited from the participating state.
3
2.
FACTUAL INFORMATION
2.1
History of the Flight
On March 13, 2007, a Bombardier DHC-8-402, registered JA849A (hereinafter referred
to as “the Aircraft”), operated by Air Central Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “the Company”),
took off Osaka International Airport at 08:21 Japanese Standard Time (JST)(unless otherwise
indicated, all times are JST, UTC+9h) bound for Kochi Airport as All Nippon Airways
(hereinafter referred to as “ANA”) Flight 1603 on a regularly scheduled service under the
arrangement of joint business of transportation∗1. The PIC took the left seat as Pilot Flying
(primarily responsible for aircraft maneuvering duty) while the first officer took the right seat as
Pilot Not Flying (primarily responsible for non-maneuvering duty). (When the Aircraft departed
from Osaka International Airport, the first officer assumed the role of PF while the PIC assumed
the role of PNF. They exchanged their roles when it became clear that the nose landing gear could
not be extended.)
The flight plan submitted to the Osaka International Airport Office (JCAB) was as
outlined below.
Flight rules:
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)
Departure aerodrome:
Osaka International Airport
Estimated off-block time:
08:10
Cruising speed:
306 knots
Cruising altitude:
FL160
Route:
SETOH (Reporting point) - KTE (Kagawa
VOR/DME) - KRE (Kochi VOR/DME)
Destination aerodrome:
Kochi Airport
Estimated flight time
0 hr and 41 min
Fuel loaded in terms of Endurance 2 hr and 45 min
Alternate aerodrome:
2.1.1
Osaka International Airport
Flight History based on Digital Flight Data Recorder, Cockpit Voice Recorder and Air
Traffic Control Communications Records
08h47m40s
Kochi Aerodrome Control Facility (hereinafter referred to as “the
Tower”) issued to the Aircraft a landing clearance to Runway 32 of
Kochi Airport.
∗1
“Arrangement of joint business of transportation” refers to an arrangement whereby a domestic airline
transportation service is jointly provided by two Japanese operators, which are jointly responsible to passengers
or freight owners for transportation (including liability to customers for damages) in conformity with a Circular
issued by the Director of the Aviation Industries Division, Administration Department, Japan Civil Aviation
Bureau, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
4
08h49m50s
The Aircraft reported to the Tower that the landing gear could not be
extended, so troubleshooting would be made while making holding
flight over Katsura Beach∗2.
09h14m00s
The Aircraft requested the Tower for permission to make a low pass at
500 feet over the runway so that mechanics on the ground could check
the condition.
09h21m00s
The Aircraft carried out the 1st low pass.
09h35m05s
The Aircraft carried out the 2nd low pass.
09h57m58s
The Aircraft made an attempt to extend the nose landing gear∗3 by
utilizing acceleration force during a steep turn.
10h19m25s
The Aircraft requested the Tower for permission to conduct a
touch-and-go so as to apply an impact to the nose landing gear.
10h25m23s
The Aircraft carried out a touch-and-go.
10h34m00s
The PIC directed the cabin attendants to move some passengers to aft
cabin.
10h35m00s
Fire extinguishing agent was sprayed on the runway between T-2∗4 and
T-3 by the airport fire service.
10h47m14s
The Aircraft requested the Tower for landing clearance.
10h52m10s
The Tower notified the Aircraft of wind direction of 120 degrees and
wind velocity of 1 knot.
10h54m16s
The Aircraft landed without the nose landing gear extended, and
stopped around the mid length of the runway.
Based principally on the records of the digital flight data recorder (hereinafter referred
to as “DFDR”), after the Aircraft touched down on the runway at 106 knots with the main landing
gears, it continued rolling maintaining its pitch attitude horizontal at first, and then lowered its
nose slowly, which touched the runway (at 79 knots) 12 seconds later than the main landing
gears. With its nose touching the runway surface, the Aircraft continued to decelerate
maintaining on the runway centerline, and slowly came to rest at around the mid length of the
runway 22 seconds after the nose touchdown.
2.1.2
Statements of Crewmembers
(1) PIC
∗2
“Katsura Beach” is located about 20 km to the southwest of Kochi Airport.
“Gear” and “landing gear” have the same meaning.
∗4
“T-2” and “T-3” are the names of taxiway of Kochi Airport, the numbers of which are given sequentially from the
threshold of Runway 32 of the airport. (See Figure 2.)
∗3
5
The first officer, who was the PF at the time of departure, performed the pre-departure
exterior check of the main and nose landing gears, and reported to me, “No abnormality has been
found in the exterior check.”
While making a visual approach to Runway 32 of Kochi Airport, the gear lever∗5 was
operated to down position at an altitude of 1,500 ft as usual. Then, we confirmed that, on the
landing gear control panel of the instrument panel, two green lights for the main landing gears,
one amber light for the doors of the nose landing gear, and at the bottom, the red nose landing
gear unsafe advisory light illuminated.
At this point, I requested the Tower, “Holding at 3,000 ft over Katsura Beach for
troubleshooting.”
As the first action, I carried out the “alternate landing gear extension check list” (refer
to Clause 2.16) with the gear lever in down position. I tried it twice, but the situation did not
change.
Next, the first officer opened the gear alternate extension door located on the floor left
aft of the right pilot seat and pulled the nose landing gear release handle, but the display on the
instrument panel did not change.
The first officer said that he had felt “the operation was somewhat heavy.”
As I turned on the check switch of the Landing Gear Downlock Verification Light∗6 , as
written in the last part of the check list, only the two lights for the main landing gears
illuminated, but the light for the nose landing gear did not illuminate.
From this point, I thought that the nose landing gear was not extended.
When we reported to the Company (mechanics stationed at Kochi Airport, the same
hereinafter in 2.1.2) these actions and their results over the VHF radio, they instructed us, “Turn
on the Taxi light∗7 and make a low pass to show if the taxi light can be lit .” So I made a low pass
at an altitude of about 300 ft, and the Company reported to us “The nose landing gear door is not
open.”
When I made the first low pass, I also checked the CBs∗8, but there were no tripped CBs.
After the low pass, we were holding over Katsura Beach at an altitude of 3,000 ft.
At the second low pass, we were instructed, “Operate the gear lever to up position and
try the alternate extension before the low pass.” So I operated the gear lever to up position.
Although the red and green lights for the main landing gears on the landing gear control panel
went off, the amber light for the door of the nose landing gear was flickering. It gave me an
∗5
The word “gear lever” in this report is called “landing gear selector lever” by the aircraft manufacturer.
“The Landing Gear Downlock Verification Light” is located under the alternate gear extension door; when the
landing gears (NG, LH, RH) are Downlocked, corresponding green lights illuminate when the Check switch is
turned on.
∗7
When the Taxi light switch in the cockpit is turned on, the taxi light installed in the nose landing gear turns on if
the landing gear is downlocked
∗8
“CB” means a circuit breaker.
∗6
6
impression of illuminating for a moment and then going off.
Although I implemented the alternate gear down extension procedure, nothing
changed. After I pulled the handle, I think that the amber and red lights for the nose landing gear
on the landing gear control panel illuminated.
The light below the alternate extension door on the floor did not turn on even after the
check switch was operated to on position.
After low passes twice, I made a steep turn with a bank angle of about 50 degrees and at
a speed of about 170 knots, but the nose landing gear was not extended. Then, I applied several
hard pitch changes in an attempt to extend the nose landing gear, but it did not extend.
Next the Company instructed us, “Give a shock to the gear by touch-and- go.”
Upon the touchdown of the main wheels, I immediately applied power and took off, but
the nose landing gear was not extended, so we headed for Katsura Beach.
Again, the Company instructed us, “Operate the gear lever to down position and then to
up position as soon as the green lights for the main landing gear downlock illuminate, and repeat
the operation,” so I made the operation about ten times, but the nose landing gear did not extend.
At that point, the Company told us to check the CB once again. In addition, they told us,
“Operate the steering tiller∗9,” so I did it, but nothing changed.
Then, the Company instructed us, “Pull the nose gear alternate release handle with force
as there are sticky feels twice when it is pulled,” so the first officer left his seat and pulled the
handle with all his might, but the nose landing gear did not extend.
We performed normal gear down and alternate extension operations at least twice after
that.
Then, the Company suggested us, “Proceed with the operation with confirmation by the
mechanic,” so the first officer read out the checklist as he performed the operation, and the
mechanic confirmed that the operation was conducted according to the procedure, but the
situation remained the same.
At this point, I decided to land with the nose landing gear not extended, because the
quantity of remaining fuel was getting short of 1,000 pounds. I planned to have about 700 pounds
of fuel, thinking, “I want to land with fuel permitting go-around once.”
We conducted the emergency landing checklist for the Aircraft, but because there was no
such checklist as the nose gear up landing for the Aircraft, we started to prepare recalling that
of another type of aircraft from my experience.
During periodic emergency escape training, I have twice or so undergone the training
based on a scenario I wrote by myself in which the main landing gear or nose landing gear is not
extended. An actual aircraft was used on the ground, and company employees assumed the role of
∗9
“Steering tiller” means the steering handle installed on the left side of the left pilot seat, and is operated during
taxiing.
7
passengers. Recalling that training, I considered adjustment of center of gravity position. After
confirming the position, I instructed the cabin crew to move five to ten passengers to aft cabin.
I decided to use the flap of 35 degrees to get the lowest Vso∗10 in order to shorten the
landing distance, to make touchdown before the aiming point marking, and to keep the nose
afloat as long as possible to reduce the shock.
I made an announcement to the passengers, “After landing an emergency escape may be
done if there is a possibility of fire. Should that happen, stay calm and follow the instruction of the
CAs∗11.”
I thought, “Use of reverse pitch increases drag, may bring the nose down abruptly and
make it difficult to maintain heading after landing,” so I decided not to use reverse pitch during
landing roll, and it was after the nose touched down on the runway that I moved the power levers
from Flight Idle to DISC∗12 position. When the Aircraft finally came to rest, I presumed there was
remaining fuel for about 20 minutes of flight.
As to the fire extinguishing agent, the Tower asked us, “Where should it be sprayed?”
but, as I could not predict where the nose would touch down, so I requested, “Please spray it
beyond T-2.” I expected that the agent would be sprayed over a longer distance, but it was too
short considering the result.
(2) First officer
I conducted the exterior check visually at Osaka International Airport, and found no
abnormality. I did not sense any abnormality after takeoff, and there was nothing unusual during
the flight.
As the nose landing gear could not be downlocked, we headed for Katsura Beach for
troubleshooting. We carried out the Alternate Manual Extension there, but the situation did not
change.
I contacted with the Company and received advice. I conducted the checklist and
reported that the verification light did not illuminate.
As the company told me, “We’d like to check if the taxi light is lit,” we performed a low
pass, but it was confirmed that they could not see the light from the ground.
We carried out low passes twice. The first low pass was carried out after conducted the
alternate procedure with the gear lever in down position, and the second low pass was carried out
after conducted the alternate procedure with the gear lever in up position at first.
Because we implemented the first Alternate Manual Extension Procedure with the gear
∗10
Vso means the stall speed in landing configuration (gear down, flap full down)
“CA” stands for cabin attendants
∗12
“DISC” means to make propeller pitch to zero degree hydraulically by operating the power lever to DISC
∗11
position. Then the propellers act as discs that increase air drag and thereby creating a braking effect.
8
lever in down position, I moved the gear lever in up position to return to the original condition,
then the amber light for the nose landing gear door started flickering (about once every two
seconds).
Then we conducted the Alternate Checklist, but the situation remained the same. When
the alternate handle is pulled, I usually feel two cushions, but at that time, I could pull it
smoothly. I had an experience to use the alternate handle on a simulator, but the feel was
different from that of the simulator.
As I was told that the nose landing gear might be extended by a steep turn, we tried at a
bank angle of 50 degrees, but nothing changed.
After the second low pass, the Company instructed us, “Give a shock to the gear by
touch-and-go in order for its extension”, so we performed a touch-and-go, but there was no change.
Then, the Company instructed us, “Repeat to operate the gear lever up and down,” so we
repeated the operation ten times or more, but nothing changed.
Also, the Company instructed us , “Pull the alternate handle as hard as possible,” I stood
up and pulled it, but there was no change.
As we received the instruction, “Perform opening and closing of the gear door,” I
performed the operation to up and down the main and nose landing gear more than ten times, but
nothing changed.
The Company told us, “Check the CB,” so I checked it but found no problem.
Furthermore, as we were instructed, “Operate the steering tiller,” the PIC operated it
but there was no change.
As the remaining fuel was getting low, we considered a belly landing.
After we carried out the Alternate Manual Extension procedure by reading it out with
the mechanic on the ground, we made the landing.
(3) Two CAs
After we had prepared to land at Kochi Airport, the PIC told us over the interphone, “As
the nose gear cannot be extended, we are holding and troubleshooting, ” so I announced to the
passengers that we were holding over Kochi and it would take a while before arrival. After about
20 minutes had passed, the PIC told us over the interphone, “There is some possibility of
performing STEP ∗13,” and the PIC made an announcement to the passengers, “We are not
successful to extend the nose landing gear, and in the course of troubleshooting with the
assistance of the mechanics on the ground, so please wait a while. “ It seemed that some
passengers were wondering what would happen, but most of them were calm without showing
∗13
“STEP” is the word commonly used among crews of the Company, which means the steps to be taken for cabin
preparation performed by the CAs before emergency landing or ditching, which are stipulated by the cabin
attendant duty manual byelaw of the Company.
9
any uneasiness.
As we were already prepared for landing, the seat belt sign remained illuminated. But
some passengers asked to use the lavatory, and I conveyed their request to the PIC. Then the seat
belt sign was turned off, and as many as ten passengers used the lavatory. The PIC told us over
the interphone, “I’ll make a steep turn and a touch-and-go to give a shock to extend the gear. In
case of doing STEP, explain well about the brace position (shock resistant posture). I think it
necessary to ask some passengers to move to the aft cabin.” We felt that we were able to stay calm
while preparing in mind to carry out STEP.
The PIC made an announcement each time we made a steep turn and a touch-and-go,
so the passengers kept calm and none of them asked questions about the cause or what was going
on. Then, the PIC instructed us over the interphone, “We are planning to land in 15 minutes with
the gear not extended. Proceed with STEP.” At that time, we confirmed with the PIC that CAs
would be given notice before two minutes and before thirty seconds and that the aircraft would be
in nose down attitude after landing. The PIC made an announcement to the passengers, “We
will land in 15 minutes with the nose gear not extended, and we might have to make an
emergency escape, but please feel safe and follow the guidance of the cabin attendants as they
have had sufficient training.” I checked the number of vacant seats in the aft cabin and reported it
to the PIC, whereupon the PIC instructed me to move seven passengers sitting close to the wing.
So I asked them and they all swiftly moved. We made an announcement to take off scarves,
neckties, necklaces and sharp-edged articles, and we explained and confirmed how to take the
brace position, then we turned off the unnecessary electric power in the cabin so as to prevent any
possibility of fire, and took our seats. There came an announcement saying, “Two minutes before
landing,” followed by another announcement saying, “30 seconds before landing, take the brace
position.” We repeatedly yelled at passengers in loud voices to take the brace position.
When the aircraft came to rest, the passengers remained seated and everybody clapped
their hands. It seemed to us that the aircraft attitude was not different from usual. Seeing that
fire extinguishing agent was being sprayed, we felt relieved from the fear of fire, and waited for
instructions from the PIC. The PIC made an announcement to the passengers, “We have landed.
They are spraying fire extinguishing agent for precaution. Please remain seated until further
instructions.”
The PIC told us over the interphone, “There’s no fire but they are spraying fire
extinguishing agent for precaution. Buses will come later. Because the aft cabin is higher than
normal, mechanics will open the forward door from the outside.” We announced to the passengers
that we would guide them to the lobby by bus. Meanwhile, the passengers kept cool, with some
taking out from the seat pockets sharp edged articles they had taken off from themselves, and
others getting ready to disembark by putting on their neckties, and so on. As the PIC told us over
the interphone, “The emergency door on the right forward will open,” we instructed passengers in
10
front of the door to move. We announced that we would guide them in order, let disembark the
passengers of the forward cabin first, asked if they had suffered any injuries or sickness, but
received no complaint. After we went outside, we noticed that the aircraft was apparently in nose
down attitude. We think that we did it well as the passengers stayed calm and cooperative.
The accident occurred around at the mid length of Runway 32 of Kochi Airport at
approximately
10:54.
(Airport
reference
point:
Latitude
33°32′34″North,
Longitude
133°40′48″East)
(See Figures 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and photos 1 and 2.)
2.2
Injury to Persons
None
2.3
Damage to Aircraft
The main structural members (such as frames, stringers, skins) of the lower part of the
forward fuselage of the Aircraft were damaged. The VHF antenna (No. 2) installed in that
position was also damaged.
2.4
Damage to Objects other than Aircraft
Runway centerline lights: eleven lights were broken.
2.5
(1)
Pilot Information
PIC
Male, Age 36 years
Airline Transport Pilot Certificate (Airplane)
Type rating: De Havilland DHC8
February 5, 2003
October 27, 2005
1st class Aviation Medical Certificate
Validity
Until June 19, 2007
Total flight time
(2)
7,978 hr and 56 min
Flight time in the last 30 days
84 hr and 06 min
Flight time on the type of aircraft
897 hr and 29 min
Flight time in the last 30 days
84 hr and 06 min
First officer
Male, Age 34 years
Commercial Pilot Certificate (Airplane)
Type rating: De Havilland DHC8
July 22, 1994
August 25, 2006
Instrument Rating
May 8, 2003
1st class Aviation Medical Certificate
Validity
Until May 18, 2007
11
Total flight time
3,504 hr and 13 min
Flight time in the last 30 days
67 hr and 49 min
Flight time on the type of aircraft
412 hr and 49 min
Flight time in the last 30 days
67 hr and 49 min
2.6
Aircraft Information
2.6.1
Aircraft
Type
Bombardier DHC-8-402
Aircraft serial number
4106
Date of manufacture
June 12, 2005
Certificate of airworthiness
No. Dai-18-139
Validity
Until June 4, 2007
Category
Airplane, Transport category
Total time in service
2,966 hr and 52 min
Total cycles in service
4,197 cycles
Time in service since last regular inspection
("L" inspection on March 7, 2007)
15 hr and 48 min
(See Figure 3.)
2.6.2
Weight and Balance
It is estimated that the weight and center of gravity of the Aircraft at the time of this
accident were 49,210 lb and 27.3 % mean aerodynamic chord (MAC), respectively. It is estimated
that both of them were within the allowable limits (the maximum landing weight is 61,750 lb and
range of center of gravity is 15.7 - 34.1 % MAC corresponding to the weight at the time of the
accident).
2.7
Meteorological Information
The observation data of the aviation weather at Kochi Airport around the time of the
accident were as follows.
10:00 Direction of wind... variable; Velocity of wind... 2 knots; Prevailing visibility... 40
km; Clouds: amount... FEW, Type... unknown, Ceiling... 3,000 ft; Temperature...
10°C; Dew point... -3°C; Altimeter setting (QNH)... 30.03 inHg
10:55 Direction of wind... variable; Velocity of wind... 2 knots; Prevailing visibility... 40
km;
Clouds:
amount...
FEW,
Type...
cumulus,
Ceiling...
3,000ft;
Temperature... 11°C; Dew point... -1°C; Altimeter setting (QNH)... 30.03 inHg
12
2.8
Information on DFDR and CVR
The Aircraft was equipped with a DFDR, manufactured by Honeywell Inc. (P/N ∗
14980-4700-027)
of the U.S.A., and a Cockpit Voice Recorder (P/N 980-6022-011, hereinafter
referred to as “CVR”), manufactured by Allied Signal Inc. (the current Honeywell Inc.) of the
U.S.A.
The DFDR retained all records from when the Aircraft departed Osaka International
Airport to when the Aircraft came to rest and the power was turned off after the accident. The
precise time of DFDR was determined by comparing the time of the DFDR's record of the VHF
transmission key, which was used for communications with the Air Traffic Control (ATC) with the
time of the ATC communication records.
The Aircraft's CVR is capable of recording data for at least two hours before the
equipment stops itself. The CVR retained the audio data related to the accident.
2.9
Accident Site Conditions
Kochi Airport has a 2,500m-long, 45m-wide runway that is oriented in the 14/32
direction and is grooved over a 2,500meter-long, 30meter-wide area.
The Aircraft came to rest on the runway centerline approximately 35 m beyond the
runway halfway marking.
The contact marks made by the aircraft nose were found on the runway from about 900
m beyond the threshold up to 1,285 m, the point at which the Aircraft came to a rest.
(See Figure 2 and photos 1 and 2.)
2.10 Accident Aircraft Conditions
With the nose wheels retracted, the main structural members of the lower part of the
forward fuselage were damaged by the contact against the runway during landing.
The airframe was jacked up during the on-site investigation conducted on March 14,
2007, and the followings were found.
(1) The doors of the nose landing gear remained closed.
(2) The interior of the nose gear well was inspected using a bore scope∗15, then a portion of the
nose gear door was cut off for further observation, which resulted in that the spacer (called
“bushing” on the manufacturer’s drawing and “spacer” on the part catalogue) protruded aftward
from the hinge of the toggle links (P/N 47842-5 and 47848-3) which are part of the door linkage
mechanism of the nose landing gear, interfering with the support fitting (P/N 85312193-007)
located just aft of the toggle links, which is supporting the door linkage mechanism.
∗14
“P/N” means part number.
∗15
“ Bore scope” is an endoscope used for maintenance inspection.
13
As a result, because the toggle link assy was hindered from folding sufficiently upward, the
door linkage mechanism didn’t function and the doors of nose landing gear didn’t open.
(3) When the protruded spacer was pushed back to its correct position, the nose landing gear
was extended by its own weight.
(4) As a result of investigating the toggle link assy, the following parts were found to be missing.
▪ Bolt (NAS6205-14D)
1 each
▪ Washer (NAS1515M7L)
1 each
▪ Washer (NAS1149F0563P)
1 each
▪ Castellated nut (MS14145L5)
1 each
▪ Cotter pin (MS24665-153)
1 each
(5) Neither on the toggle link surface to be under the bolt head nor on the toggle link surface to
be in contact with the castellated nut and washer, there exhibited any marks such as stains or
peeling of paint that would have indicated the existence of the bolt.
(6) After this accident had occurred, the function of PSEU (Proximity Sensor Electronics Unit)∗16
was investigated using a BITE check∗17, but no abnormality was detected.
(See Figures 7, 8, 9 and photos 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 18.)
2.11 Information on Fire Fighting
Three fire engines were dispatched, one of which sprayed 3,000 liters of fire
extinguishing agent between T-2 and T-3 on the runway before the Aircraft landed.
2.12 Test and Research for Fact-Finding
2.12.1
Nose Landing Gear System
According to the Company’s Airplane Operations Manual for the type of the Aircraft, the
nose landing gear system of the Aircraft is outlined as follows.
(1)
There are four doors for the nose landing gear, of which the two aft doors are mechanically
linked with the strut of the nose landing gear, and they close when the nose landing gear is
retracted and they open when it is extended.
The two forward doors open and close hydraulically before and after the nose landing gear
is retracted or extended. That is, to extend the nose landing gear, the two forward doors
open, the nose landing gear UPLOCK is released, then the nose landing gear is extended,
and after that the two forward doors close again.
(2)
The landing gears is operated by the No.2 hydraulic system, when the No.2 system is
∗16
“PSEU” is a computer that controls the Landing Gear, the Landing Gear Door, and the like using signals from
the Landing Gear sensors (20 units).
∗17
“BITE” stands for Built In Test Equipment, and is able to perform a system check by itself.
14
available. But should any failure occur in the hydraulic system, they can be extended by the
alternate landing gear extension system.
To use the alternate landing gear extension system, at first, the INHIBIT switch located
near the right hand overhead panel is operated to INHIBIT position. Setting the switch to
INHIBIT isolates all hydraulic pressure from the landing gear system. Then, by pulling the
RELEASE handle located on the floor behind and left of the right pilot seat, the central
hinge part of the toggle link assy shown in Figure 8 is moved upward, pulling the bell clank
connected to the right end of the toggle link assy to turn clockwise, further making the push
rods connected to both ends of the bell crank to push open the doors and with the door
opening, the gear UPLOCK is released, then letting the nose landing gear extended with its
own weight, and finally gear DOWNLOCK is engaged.
(3)
The Landing Gear Advisory Lights display the positions of the hydraulic gear doors and the
gear lock conditions. There are, from the top to bottom row, amber lights (door lights), green
lights (gear safe lights) and red lights (gear unsafe lights). The door lights (amber)
illuminate during gear door operation and go off when the operation is completed. The left
and right landing gear advisory lights indicate the conditions of the respective main landing
gears, while the lights in the middle indicate the condition of the nose landing gear.
(4) Installation of the spacer in the toggle link assy
The spacer is installed into the toggle link assy in parallel with the fuselage axis, put
between the bolt head and the flange of the forward flange bushing of the toggle link, and
tightened with the castellated nut.
Should the bolt be absent, the spacer can move only aftward as the flange bushing prevents
the spacer from moving forward. That is, in case that the bolt becomes absent, the spacer
would migrate out aftward under the influence of the nose landing gear retract/extend
operation, airframe vibration, aircraft acceleration, and so on.
The gap between the spacer and the support fitting positioned at the back of the toggle link
assy is as close as 0.206 - 0.221 inches (the minimum gap between the bolt head and the
support fitting is 0.05 inches), meaning the relative location susceptible to interference if the
spacer migrates out.
A debris guard (P/N: 83220012-003) is attached on the support fitting to protect the landing
gear door linkage mechanism including the toggle link assy, from debris. To access the toggle
link assy the debris guard has to be removed in advance.
(See Figures 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.)
2.12.2
Investigation of Dirt on the Contact Surface of the Bolt/Nut of the Toggle-Link Assy
As described in 2.10 (4) and (5), the bolt and nut were not found in the toggle link assy of
the Aircraft. Moreover, there were no traces that could indicate the existence of the bolt head and
15
the nut/washer. Concerning this point, five other aircraft of the same type were investigated,
which had the bolt and the nut/washer properly attached. On these five aircraft, on the surface of
the toggle link assy surrounding the hole, there were stains which indicate the existence of the
bolt head, and stains and peeling of the paint which indicate the existence of the nut/washer.
(See Photos 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11.)
2.12.3
Investigation of Impact Marks on Mechanical Stopper
The impact marks on the mechanical stopper of the toggle link assy measured
approximately 13.5 mm in width on the Aircraft, which was wider than approximately 8.0 mm in
width measured on the other aircraft that had properly assembled toggle link assy.
(See Figure 7 and Photos 16 and 17.)
2.12.4
Investigation of Toggle Link Assy
To presume the circumstances under which the bolt and other parts of the Aircraft were
missing, a detailed investigation of the spacer and the support fitting removed from the Aircraft
immediately after the accident was commissioned to an Independent Administrative
Organization, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (hereinafter referred to as "JAXA") from
March to June 2007.
According to its report, the results of the investigation are as follows.
(1)
Based on the analysis of the linkage mechanism, it is estimated that the load applied
through the toggle link assy to the spacer was 2,350N - 10,100N, considering that the weight
of the nose landing gear and its extension actuator load were added to the nose landing gear
door actuator load.
Furthermore, based on the analysis by the Finite Element Method∗18, it is probable that the
spacer gets deformed if the load applied to the spacer through the toggle link assy exceeds
5,000N.
(2) The wear condition on the inner surface of the flange bushing of the toggle link assy was
compared with a new flange bushing, and it is considered that at least a bolt specified on the
drawing has not been installed through the toggle link assy.
(3) The impact marks on the bottom surface of the support fitting was caused by the pressure
yield∗19 by the contact load from the spacer, and it is estimated that the load was 862N~
2,451N.
(4) As for the paint peeled off the side surface of the support fitting, it is probable that the paint
∗18
“Finite element method” is a method of numerical analysis for stress or strain by applying the boundary
condition, by assuming the complicated structure as a complex of tiny elements.
∗19
“Pressure yield” means, in case of contact of solid materials, creation of plastic deformation caused by the load
applied.
16
came off while the fitting was being removed, as the spacer had contacted with the support
fitting besides that the repainted layer had been apt to be peeling off easily.
(5) It is probable that the two spots within the impact marks on the mechanical stopper of the
toggle link assy were made after the spacer had been deformed.
(See Figure 7 and photos 3, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16.)
2.13
Investigation of the Toggle Link Maintenance Work for the Aircraft
The investigation was conducted on the implementation of the maintenance work
related to the toggle link.
2.13.1
Prior to Delivery of the Aircraft
After the final assembly, the Aircraft made its first flight on June 12, 2005 at
Bombardier Inc., conducted several test flights to correct discrepancies and was issued the
airworthiness certificate of Canada on June 19, then left Bombardier Inc. on July 13, arrived at
Osaka International Airport on July 16 and was delivered to the airline.
2.13 .2
Consignment of Maintenance
The Aircraft was operated, flight by flight, by either the Company or Air Nippon
Network Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "A-net").
Because the Company consigned the maintenance management∗20 to A-net, A-net was
managing all of the maintenance of the Aircraft. Meanwhile, A-net consigns part of maintenance
work to five companies including ANA and the Company.
2.13 .3
Maintenance Work in Japan
After the Aircraft arrived in Japan, the maintenance work carried out by the
companies described in 2.13.2 up to the time of this accident was investigated with the use of the
flight log books and MERS∗21, and it was found out that any maintenance work had not been
carried out for the malfunctioned location (toggle link) related to this accident.
The investigation was conducted for the following range of maintenance work. The
time for the scheduled maintenance (C maintenance: 4,000 hr), in which check items are listed
after making access to the toggle link, had not reached yet.
(1) Scheduled maintenance
∗20
“The consignment of the maintenance management” refers to an arrangement whereby companies that operate
aviation transport business consign their maintenance management of aircraft to other companies, under the
permission by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or by the Director of Regional Civil
Aviation Bureau in accordance with Clause 1, Article 113-2 of the Civil Aeronautics Law.
∗21
“MERS” stands for Maintenance and Engineering Resource System, the name of a maintenance management
system employed by the ANA group.
17
(2) Pre-departure maintenance
(3) Maintenance according to the landing gear related SB applicable to the Aircraft
(4) Corrective action of landing gear malfunctions that occurred of the Aircraft
(5) Corrective action of malfunctions that occurred of parts other than the landing gear of the
Aircraft
(6) Special checks and modification works
(7) Issuance of toggle link-related parts
(8) Re-painting of the support-fitting
2.14
Investigation at Bombardier
By visiting the factory of Bombardier Inc., the manufacturer of the Aircraft, the records
of the manufacturing process of the Aircraft were investigated in the presence of the Canada
Transport Safety Board (TSB of Canada). There were repair records related to the toggle link.
2.14.1
Records on Assembly of Toggle Link
The nose landing gear door linkage mechanism, including the toggle link assy, was
delivered by Goodrich Corp. to Bombardier Inc. in a provisionally assembled condition.
The hinge part of the toggle link assy had been assembled except for the cotter pins.
When the nose landing gear door linkage mechanism was installed on the airframe at
the Bombardier Inc., the hinge part of the toggle link assy was not disassembled, and there was
no record on it.
2.14.2
Records on Repair of Toggle Link
When the ground function test on the landing gear was carried out on June 16, 2005
after completion of the aircraft assembly at Bombardier Inc., the door was operated by hydraulic
pressure as the safety pin∗22 to keep the nose landing gear doors in open position had not been
sufficiently inserted, which resulted in damaging the toggle link and the support fitting.
Thereupon, the toggle link and the support fitting were replaced.
Records of the work performed were available (including records of corrective action to
malfunction, instruction, implementation, inspection), but there were no documents indicating
the work procedures or records of specific inspections to the work, nor were there any descriptions
of the bolt tightening torque value for connecting the toggle links. (The toggle link assy was
disassembled, installed, then reconnected. Although the bolt tightening torque value for
connection was specified in the drawings of Goodrich Corp., the supplier of the toggle link assy,
this was not specified in the Assembly Manual of Bombardier Inc.)
∗22
A “safety pin” is a pin inserted into the support fitting so that the landing gear door does not close in case the
hydraulic pressure is applied by mistake while work is being conducted inside the wheel well.
18
Moreover, although the part control record (Non-Conformance Report ) indicated that the
nose landing gear door linkage mechanism, including the toggle link assy, was replaced as a
whole, whereas in actual work only the toggle link assy was replaced .
(See Figure 10.)
2.15
Investigation at Goodrich
The manufacturing records related to the Aircraft and quality control were investigated
by visiting the factory of Goodrich Corp., the supplier of the landing gear system of the Aircraft.
The lot production records of the nose landing gear door linkage mechanism including
the toggle link assy that was shipped at the time when the landing gear was installed to the
Aircraft was investigated, but no particular problems had been found.
2.16
”The Alternate Landing Gear Extension” checklist in accordance with the airplane
operations manual of the Aircraft is given below.
ALTERNATE LANDING GEAR EXTENSION
Condition: Use this checklist when attempt landing gear down with LDG GEAR INOP caution
light illuminates, or unable normal landing gear extension.
CAUTION: Landing gear cannot be retracted.
CAUTION: Nosewheel steering is inoperative.
NOTE: To control the aircraft direction during landing roll with nose wheel steering
inoperative, depending on crosswind condition, differential brake or power usage
together with rudder operation is required.
Airspeed.............................. 185KIAS MAX
PF
[Max. Speed with landing gear doors open.]
Landing Gear Extension Inhibit Switch....... INHIBIT
PNF [PF]
[If LDG GEAR INOP caution light was out, it will illuminate when the L/G
INHIBIT switch is selected to INHIBIT.]
NOTE: Leave Landing Gear INHIBIT Switch at INHIBIT.
LANDING GEAR Lever
.........................
Landing Gear Alternate Release Door...........
DOWN
PNF
OPEN
PNF
Main Gear Release Handle...........PULL FULLY DOWN
PNF
[Check L DOOR and R DOOR amber doors open and LEFT and RIGHT green
19
locked down advisory lights illuminate.]
Landing Gear Alternate Extension Door......... OPEN
PNF
NOTE: Landing Gear Alternate Release and Extension Door must stay fully open
after alternate landing gear extension.
If LEFT and/or RIGHT green gear safe advisory lights do not illuminate:
Main Gear
Alternate Extension Hand Pump......... OPERATE
PNF
[Insert the Hydraulic Pump handle in the socket and operate pump until LEFT and
RIGHT green advisory lights illuminate.]
Nose Gear Release Handle............. PULL FULLY UP
PNF
[Check N DOOR amber doors open and NOSE green gear locked down advisory lights on the
landing gear control panel illuminate.]
Landing Gear Downlock
Verification Lights.........
....... ON, CHECK, OFF
PNF
[Check the three green landing gear downlock verification lights under the landing gear
alternate extension door are on.]
ANTI SKID Switch........................................... TEST
PNF
[Make sure INBD ANTI SKID and OUTBD ANTI SKID caution lights go off after three
seconds.]
2.17
”The Alternate Landing Gear Extension” in accordance with the Airplane Operations
Manual of the Aircraft is given below.
5-13-5 Alternate Gear Extension
The alternate extension system (Figure 5.13-20 ) gives a means of extending the landing gear
when:
・ LDG GEAR INOP caution light is on
・ Landing gear indication fails
・ Loss of No.2 hydraulic system pressure
The landing gear extension INHIBIT switch is installed in the flight compartment ceiling,
adjacent to the main LANDING GEAR ALTERNATE RELEASE door. Setting the switch to
INHIBIT isolates all hydraulic pressure from the landing gear system.
20
When the main LANDING GEAR ALTERNATE RELEASE door on the flight compartment
ceiling is opened it mechanically opens a bypass valve in the normal hydraulic extension system,
and gives access to the MAIN L/G RELEASE handle. Pulling the handle releases the main
landing gear doors and uplocks. The main gear will free fall but may not fully extend. The
LANDING GEAR ALTERNATE EXTENSION door, on the flight compartment floor, must then
be fully opened giving access to the alternate extension handpump and the NOSE L/G RELEASE
handle. Opening the door mechanically operates the MLG alternate selector valve. If the MLG
does not reach the down and locked position, the extension pump handle, located behind the
copilot, is inserted into the pump handle socket and operated to complete main gear extension
and subsequent downlock (Figure 5.13-21). Both the LANDING GEAR ALTERNATE
EXTENSION door and the MAIN LANDING GEAR ALTERNATE RELEASE door must be left
fully open after alternate landing gear extension.
When the NOSE L/G RELEASE handle is pulled, the nose gear uplock and doors are released and
the nose gear free falls to a down and locked position, assisted by the airflow to a down and locked
position.
(See Figure 5)
21
3
3.1
ANALYSIS
The PIC and the first officer possessed adequate airman certificates and valid aviation
medical certificates.
3.2
The Aircraft had a valid airworthiness certificate and had been maintained and checked
properly.
3.3
Based on the statements by the PIC and the first officer, it is estimated that because the
landing gear could be retracted without problem after taking off Osaka International Airport,
they could not notice the abnormality in the landing gear system of the Aircraft until the gear
down operation before landing at Kochi Airport.
3.4
Based on the results of the investigation outlined in 2.10, it is recognized that the event in
which the nose landing gear of the Aircraft was not extended before landing at Kochi Airport, was
caused by that the doors of the nose landing gear remained closed though the gear down operation
was made, which prevented the nose landing gear from extending.
3.5
Based on the results of the investigation outlined in 2.10, it is recognized that the event in
which the doors of the nose landing gear did not open, was caused by that, during flight with the
gear retracted, the spacer migrated out aftward in excess of the limit from the hinge part of the
toggle link assy, which comprises part of the door linkage mechanism of the nose landing gear,
and when the gear down operation was made later, in the course of opening the doors of the nose
landing gear, the toggle link assy was folding upward, the spacer interfered with the support
fitting, which prevented the movement of the toggle link assy.
3.6
It is estimated that the event in which the spacer migrated out of the toggle link assy of the
Aircraft was caused by that the bolt to be installed through the spacer, had been missing, and
during operations of the Aircraft (4,197 landing cycles, during which NLG door made 16,788
movements), the spacer was gradually pulled aft out of the toggle link assy under the influence of
the nose landing gear retract/extend operation, airframe vibration, aircraft acceleration, and so
on.
It is estimated that the spacer interfered with the support fitting because, as described in
2.12.1 (4), the spacer and the support fitting are in relative location susceptible to interference if
the spacer migrates out aftward in case that the bolt is missing.
3.7
Based on the investigation results of 2.12.2, it is estimated that the bolt and castellated
22
nut/washer had not been present since shortly after the manufacture of the Aircraft up until the
occurrence of this accident, because there are no stains, peeled paint and the like on a surface of
the toggle link which is located underside of the bolt head if the bolt is installed, and on the other
surface of the toggle link, to which the castellated nut/washer would have made contact, and
those conditions are different from other aircraft on which those parts are installed.
It is estimated that the bolt had been missing since early time based on the investigation of
the inner surface of the flange bushing as described in 2.12.4 (2), as well. Furthermore, as
described in 2.12.3, it is estimated that the impact marks on the mechanical stopper were
widened because the mechanical play of the toggle link grew larger as the bolt had not been
installed.
(See Photo 16.)
3.8
With regard to the maintenance work which could result in a missing bolt, as described in
2.13.3, there are no records to show that any maintenance work involving the toggle link be
performed after the Aircraft had been imported to Japan, on the other hand, a set of nose landing
gear door linkage mechanism including the toggle link assy, and the support fitting were replaced
as a repair in the manufacturing process, as described in 2.14.2. It is considered that at the time
of this repair in the manufacturing process, only the toggle link assy was taken from the set of
nose landing gear door linkage mechanism, the hinge part of the toggle link assy, which is to be
installed in the airframe without prior disassembly, was disassembled once, and the toggle link
assy was installed without re-attachment of the bolt, nut and the like.
3.9
Although this was an important repair work on the mechanism related to the
retraction/extension of the nose landing gear, as described in 2.14, no document to indicate the
repair procedure was prepared, nor were specified definite inspection items. As the connecting
bolt tightening torque value is specified on the drawings of the Goodrich Corporation, the supplier
of the nose landing gear door linkage mechanism including the toggle link assy, it is considered
that all parts, including the bolt, would have been re-installed if procedure document specifying
such as the torque value had been prepared and if the workers had been instructed to follow the
procedure.
The tightening torque of the toggle link bolt had not been specified in the assembly manual
of Bombardier Inc. when the Aircraft was manufactured, however, the manual was amended
after this accident and the torque value was specified.
3.10
From the statements of the crew members, it is considered that, at the time of the
occurrence of the malfunction, the Aircraft had enough fuel for two hours of flight, which enabled
the crew members to consider and implement counter measures in calmness, so it is thought that
23
the contents and timing of the announcements and instructions to the passengers were
appropriate, and it is estimated that the crewmembers’ actions gained from the training helped
passengers keep calmness. In addition, it is considered that the maneuver operations at the
time of the landing were appropriate.
24
4 PROBABLE CAUSE
It is recognized that this accident was caused by that, in spite of gear down operations in
flight by normal and alternative procedures, the nose landing gear could not be extended because
the doors of the nose landing gear remained closed, and when the Aircraft landed in this
configuration, the lower part of the forward fuselage contacted the runway surface and was
damaged.
It is recognized that the doors of the nose landing gear remained closed because the
spacer migrated out from the hinge part of the toggle link assy, which was part of the nose
landing gear door linkage mechanism, interfered with the support fitting, thereby prevented the
movement of the toggle link assy, which resulted in restraining the movement of the entire nose
landing gear door linkage mechanism.
It is estimated that the spacer migrated out because the bolt, nut and the like were not
installed, and the spacer was gradually pulled aft out of the toggle link assy under the influence of
retractions/extensions of the nose landing gear, airframe vibration, aircraft acceleration and so
on, during operations of the Aircraft. Regarding that the bolt, nut and the like were not installed,
it is considered that these parts were not re-installed at the time of the repair in the
manufacturing process of the Aircraft.
25
5 SAFETY RECOMMENDATION
In view of this accident, the Aircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation Commission
recommends Transport Canada to take necessary measures in the following respects:
In the repair considered to have contributed to the occurrence of this accident, although
the important parts were replaced, there were no documents indicating clearly the replacement
procedures, which it is considered to have resulted in errors taking place during the work.
Consequently, Transport Canada should encourage Bombardier Inc. to improve further their
quality control system, especially concerning repairs.
26
6 SUPPLEMENT
6.1
The Japan Civil Aviation Bureau issued the Airworthiness Directive (TCD-7074-2007:
issued and effective on March 13, 2007), in which “the prevention of malfunction which prevents
the nose landing gear extension” was instructed.
6.2 The manufacturer of the Aircraft issued the All Operator Message No. 210 (13 MAR 07) and
No. 211 (14 MAR 07) to request operators of the same type of the Aircraft to provide information
and conduct inspections for the malfunction.
6.3 The Japan Civil Aviation Bureau issued a circular (KOKU-KU-KI No. 1317 dated March 15,
2007) to Japanese operators of the Bombardier DHC-8 series aircraft, and thereby instructed
them to implement detailed check of the nose landing gear door mechanism at every A
maintenance (400 hr check), and to include the check in their Maintenance Manuals.
6.4
According to Bombardier Inc., there have been nine cases in which DHC-8 series aircraft
have landed with nose landing gear retracted since 1987, however, the Kochi accident was the
first NLG up landing involving a type DHC-8-400(hereinafter “DHC-8” is omitted.).
Subsequently, there has been another unrelated event where a type400 landed with its NLG
retracted. The seven remaining events involve types100, 200 and 300 aircraft. The types100, 200
and 300 are different from the type400 and have a different landing gear supplier. None of these
events involved missing hardware in the NLG system.
27
Figure 1 Estimated Flight Route
N
Osaka
International Airport
大阪国際空港
Kochi
Airport
高知空港
00
10 0100Km
Km
Figure 2
Sketch of the accident scene
Wind Direction Variable
Wind Velocity
2 kt
Estimated position where the nose
touched down
Estimated position where the
main-wheels touched down
T-3 Taxiway
Approach Direction
About
285m
Length 2,500m, Width 45m
Position the aircraft stopped
PAPI
T-2 Taxiway
About 900m
About 500m
About 500m
About 1,285m
Source: JCAB’s drawing for making construction
0
300
600m
Figure 3 Three views of Bombardier DHC-8-402
Unit: m
8.36
28.42
32.84
Figure 4
Landing Gear Control Panel Explanation
Airplane Operations Manual
Airplane Operations Manual
AMBER
GREEN
RED
Figure 5.13-3 Landing Gear Control Panel
航空局標識工平面図を使用
Figure 5
Alternate Gear Extension System
Quoted from Airplane Operations Manual
航空局標識工平面図を使用
Figure 6
Nose Landing Gear Alternate Extension System
NLG RELEASE HANDLE
To Door Lock
Release
Mechanism
Link position when the nose
gear doors opened
Cable from Cockpit Handle
Fig – A
TOGGLE- LINK
When the Cable is pulled, the Toggle-Link is pushed to upward
航空局標識工平面図を使用
TOGGLE- LINK
Figure 7
Details of the Toggle-Link
Quoted from CMM
Washer
Washer
Bolt
Flanged Bushing
Cotter Pin
Castellated Nut
Spacer
Flanged Bearing
Spacer
Bolt
航空局標識工平面図を使用
Missing parts are indicated in boxes
Figure 8
Nose Landing Gear Door Linkage Mechanism
Gear Doors closed
This figure shows the view from the rear of the
fuselage to the front.
Support Fitting is located in the rear of the
Nose Landing Gear Door Linkage Mechanism
such as Toggle-Link.
Door Actuator
Bell Crank
Support Fitting
Toggle-Link
Interfered point
between spacer and
support fitting
The point that missing bolt
should have existed
L/H Door
R/H Door
Gear Doors open
Toggle-Link
This figure is drawn based on the
manufacturer’s documents.
Figure 9
Nose Landing Gear Door Linkage Mechanism
Figure 10
Method to use safety pin
Safety Pin is installed through Debris Guard
Safety Pin is installed without Debris Guard
Toggle-Link
Safety Pin
Debris Guard
Support Fitting
Bell-crank
Safety Pin
Nose Gear Door
Quoted from Manufacturer’s Document
Photo 1
Accident Aircraft (1)
Photo 2
Accident Aircraft (2)
Photo 3
Nose Gear Door Linkage Mechanism in the Gear Well
After Gear Down(Doors are open)
Viewed from aft to forward in the Gear Well
Door Actuator
FWD Bulkhead
Spacer
Support Fitting
Bell-crank
Toggle-Link
Interfered Point
R/H Door Rod
L/H Door Rod
Quoted from AMM
Missing Bolt
Photo4
Spacer Interfered Point
Viewed from right hand to left hand in the gear well
FWD
Interference Point
Spacer
Support Fitting
Toggle-Link
Photo 5
Spacer removed from the accident aircraft
and new bolt for reference
Spacer
Missing Bolt(This bolt is
new)
Photo 6 Toggle-Link of the accident aircraft (1)
(Two toggle links are disconnected)
Surface of bolt head side
Surface of castellated nut side
S f
(Ph
)
Mirror
Toggle-Link
Maintenance Mirror
Photo 7
Toggle-Link removed from the accident aircraft (2)
(Spacer is installed later)
Mechanical Stopper
Bolt Head Side
Photo 8
Toggle-Link removed from the accident aircraft (3)
Mechanical Stopper
Washer/ Nut Side
Photo 9
Toggle-Link of aircraft A
Stains
Photo 10
Toggle-Link of aircraft B
Bolt Head Side
Photo 11
Bolt Head Side
Toggle-Link of aircraft C
Photo 12
Inner Surface of Flanged Bushing
removed from the accident aircraft
Washer/Nut Side
Photo 13
Inner Surface of Flanged Bushing
removed from aircraft D
Washer/Nut Side
Photo 14
Inner Surface of new Flanged Bushing
Washer/ Nut Side
Photo 15
Peeling off of the paint of the Support Fitting
Contact Mark
Photo 16
Impact mark on the mechanical
stopper of the accident aircraft
Hinge axis
about 13.5mm
Photo 17
Impact mark on the mechanical
stopper of other aircraft
Hinge axis
About 8.0mm
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