Installation of Off Delay Timer Unit in Earthmoving

International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology
©2017 INPRESSCO®, All Rights Reserved
E-ISSN 2277 – 4106, P-ISSN 2347 – 5161
Available at http://inpressco.com/category/ijcet
Research Article
Installation of Off Delay Timer Unit in Earthmoving Machineries
Ajay Sonule*, Aditya Pannase, Akarshit Prasad and Manish Moroliya
Department of Mechanical Engineering, G.H. Raisoni Academy of Engineering and Technology. Nagpur 440016, India
Accepted 22 April 2017, Available online 25 April 2017, Vol.7, No.2 (April 2017)
Abstract
The project is about installation off-delay timer unit in earthmoving turbocharger machine. In this type of live project
we use off-delay timer as medium to increasing the efficiency of engine as well as turbocharger. Basically, our project
had been done on excavator XYZ 450 Z-AXIS. As we had find out the problem in excavator that when the operator
start the machine for performing some kind of work as the excavator as widely used to perform for heavy digging jobs
in mining industries so it consist of turbocharger as a main mechanical component because of it the high torque as
well as large amount of power output is generated. So, after the work done the operator turn off the machine
immediately without keeping the engine idle running for certain minute (2 to 3 min) as engine get shut down but still
the turbocharger get rotating at high rpm approx.. 2,50,000 rpm and due to that the highly back pressure of
turbocharger get strike on engine and thus the efficiency and life span of the same get hampered. Thus by introducing
off-delay timer unit in earthmoving machine i.e. excavator we decreasing the maintenance cost as well as increasing
the efficiency of engine and turbocharger. According to the industry calculation the cost for maintenance without
timer is going to be very high which is around 1,50000 and it going to decrease by introducing this timer in
excavator.
Keywords: Gasoline Engine, Exhaust Manifold, Intake Manifold, Turbocharger, Volumetric Efficiency.
Introduction
1 When
people talk about high performance engine, the
Topic of turbocharger usually comes up. Turbocharger
also appears on large diesel engine. A turbo can
significantly, Boost an engine’s horsepower without
significantly increasing its weight, which is the huge
benefit that makes turbo so popular. Turbocharger is a
type of force induction system. They compress the air
flowing into the engine. The advantage of compressing
the air is that it lets the engine squeeze more air into a
cylinder, and more air means that more fuel can be
added. Therefore, you get more power from each
explosion in each cylinder. A turbocharged engine
produces more power overall than the same engine
without the charging. This can significantly improve
the power-to-weight ratio for the engine.
In order to achieve this boost, the turbocharger
uses the exhaust flow from the engine to spin a turbine,
which in turns spins an air pump (Impeller). The
turbine in the turbocharger spins at speeds up to
1,50,000 RPM(Rotation Per Minute) that’s about 30
times faster than most car engine can go and since it is
hooked up to the exhaust, the temperatures in the
turbine are also very high. Our project will aim on
avoiding premature failure of turbocharger due to lack
of lubrication cause by sudden stop of engine.
*Corresponding author: Ajay Sonule
Consequentially we can avoid damages to engine and
other components of hydraulic excavator. It is very
essential to stop the engine by following procedure:
After making engine speed to Low Idle Speed and run it
for minimum 2 minutes, then turn Key Switch to ‘OFF’
position to stop the engine.
In usual practices nobody follows this. Just consider
an examples of car - many people come running the car
at high speed and apply the brake. Immediately turn
Key Switch to OFF position to stop the engine. Due to
this engine oil pump will not supply engine oil to
turbocharger for lubrication as engine got shut off, but
turbocharger will still continue to rotate at very high
speed. It will not stop immediately (Running RPM up to
150000). This can cause failure of turbocharger due to
lack of lubrication and consequentially failure of
engine.
We have introduced Off Delay Timer Unit to avoid
sudden stopping of engine even key switch turn to
‘OFF’ position.
Excavators are heavy construction equipment
consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab
on a rotating platform known as the house. The house
sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. They
are a natural progression from the steam shovels and
often mistakenly called power shovels. All movement
and functions of a hydraulic excavator are
603| International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.7, No.2 (April 2017)
Ajay Sonule et al
Installation of Off Delay Timer Unit in Earthmoving Machineries
accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid, with
hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors. Due to the
linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of
operation is fundamentally different from cableoperated excavators which use winches and steel ropes
to accomplish the movements.
Excavators are also called diggers, JCBs (a
proprietary name, in an example of a generic
trademark), mechanical shovels, or 360-degree
excavators (sometimes abbreviated simply to 360).
Tracked excavators are sometimes called track hoes by
analogy to the backhoe. In the UK, wheeled excavators
are sometimes known as rubber ducks.
Applications
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Fig.1: Excavator (Earthmoving machine)
Dashboard and controls of a 3.8 tons excavator
Excavators are used in many ways:
Digging of trenches, holes, foundations
Material handling
Brush cutting with hydraulic attachments
Forestry work
Forestry mulching
Demolition
General grading/landscaping
Mining, especially, but not only open-pit mining
River dredging
Driving piles, in conjunction with a pile driver
Drilling shafts for footings and rock blasting, by
use of an auger or hydraulic drill attachment
Snow removal with snowplow and snow blower
attachments
Configuration
Modern, hydraulic excavators come in a wide variety of
sizes. The smaller ones are called mini or compact
excavators. For example, Caterpillar's smallest miniexcavator weighs 2,060 pounds (930 kg) and has 13
hp; their largest model is the largest excavator
available (a record previously held by the Orenstein &
Koppel RH400) the CAT 6090, it weighs in excess of
2,160,510 pounds (979,990 kg), has 4500 hp and has a
bucket size of around 52.0 m³ depending on bucket
fitted.
Engines in hydraulic excavators usually just drive
hydraulic pumps; there are usually 3 pumps: the two
main pumps are for supplying oil at high pressure (up
to 5000 psi) for the arms, swing motor, track motors,
and accessories, and the third is a lower pressure
(~700 psi) pump for Pilot Control, this circuit used for
the control of the spool valves, this allows for a
reduced effort required when operating the controls.
Generally, the 3 pumps used in excavators consist of 2
Variable displacement piston pumps and a Gear pump.
The alignment of the pumps in the excavator unit
changes with different manufacturers using different
formats.
The two main sections of an excavator are the
undercarriage and the house. The undercarriage
includes the blade (if fitted), tracks, track frame, and
final drives, which have a hydraulic motor and gearing
providing the drive to the individual tracks, and the
house includes the operator cab, counterweight,
engine, fuel and hydraulic oil tanks. The house attaches
to the undercarriage by way of a center pin. High
pressure oil is supplied to the tracks' hydraulic motors
through a hydraulic swivel at the axis of the pin,
allowing the machine to slew 360° unhindered.
The main boom attaches to the house, and can be
one of several different configurations:
Most are mono booms: these have no movement
apart from straight up and down.
Some others have a knuckle boom which can also
move left and right in line with the machine.
Another option is a hinge at the base of the boom
allowing it to hydraulically pivot up to 180°
independent to the house; however, this is generally
available only to compact excavators.
There are also triple-articulated booms (TAB).
Attached to the end of the boom is the stick (or
dipper arm). The stick provides the digging force
needed to pull the bucket through the ground. The
stick length is optional depending whether reach
(longer stick) or break-out power (shorter stick) is
required.
On the end of the stick is usually a bucket. A wide,
large capacity (mud) bucket with a straight cutting
edge is used for cleanup and leveling or where the
material to be dug is soft, and teeth are not required. A
general purpose (GP) bucket is generally smaller,
stronger, and has hardened side cutters and teeth used
to break through hard ground and rocks. Buckets have
numerous shapes and sizes for various applications.
There are also many other attachments which are
available to be attached to the excavator for boring,
ripping, crushing, cutting, lifting, etc.
Before the 1990s, all excavators had a long or
conventional counterweight that hung off the rear of
the machine to provide more digging force and lifting
capacity. This became a nuisance when working in
confined areas. In 1993 Yanmar launched the world's
604| International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.7, No.2 (April 2017)
Ajay Sonule et al
Installation of Off Delay Timer Unit in Earthmoving Machineries
first Zero Tail Swing excavator which allows the
counterweight to stay inside the width of the tracks as
it slews, thus being safer and more user friendly when
used in a confined space. This type of machine is now
widely used throughout the world.
There are two main types of Control configuration
generally use in excavators to control the boom and
bucket, both of which spread the four main digging
controls between two x-y joysticks. This allows a
skilled operator to control all four functions
simultaneously. The most popular configuration in the
US is the SAE controls configuration while in other
parts of the world, the ISO control configuration is
more common. Some manufacturers such as Takeuchi
have switches that allow the operator to select which
control configuration to use.
Excavator attachments
Hydraulic excavator capabilities have expanded far
beyond excavation tasks with buckets. With the advent
of hydraulic-powered attachments such as a breaker, a
grapple or an auger, the excavator is frequently used in
many applications other than excavation. Many
excavators feature a quick coupler for simplified
attachment mounting, increasing the machine's
utilization on the jobsite. Excavators are usually
employed together with loaders and bulldozers. Most
wheeled, compact and some medium-sized (11 to 18tonne) excavators have a backfill (or dozer) blade. This
is a horizontal bulldozer-like blade attached to the
undercarriage and is used for leveling and pushing
removed material back into a hole.
Noble manufacturers
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New Holland
Orenstein & Koppel (O&K)
Poclain
Problem Statement
Why we want to choose this topic
In last summer holiday we had visited toXYZ coal
mines. Here we have seen the problems of excavator
machine that was when the operator suddenly stop the
machine then the turbocharger get hampered by the
speed and itslife span reduces and efficiencies
decreases.
By installation of this circuit unit these causes
reduction in maintenance cost and increase in
efficiency.
Problem Identification
Before we went to XYZ coal mine we had read the
procedure to run the excavator we have find that
excavator should run at ideal speed for 2 to 3 minutes
before switch off but when we see that the operator
suddenly switch off without dealing the machine and
thus we get reduction in efficiency and life span in this
way we have find out the problem.
Development of Project
Installation of off delay timer unit in earth moving
excavator machine increasing the efficiency, life span &
reduces maintenance cost.
Material Used
Bobcat Company
Bucyrus International
Case CE
Caterpillar Inc.
CNH Global
Doosan Infracore (formerly Daewoo Heavy
Industries & Machinery) - including Solar brand
ENMTP
Hitachi Construction Machinery
Hydrema
Hyundai Heavy Industries
John Deere
J. C. Bamford (JCB)
Kanga Loaders
Komatsu Limited
LBX (Link-Belt) Excavators
ThyssenKrupp
Kobelco
Kubota
Liebherr
LiuGong
L&T
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
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4 Terminal relay (qty 2)
5 Terminal relay (qty 1)
Off delay timer unit
Emergency stop switch
Wire cables for making wiring harness
Insulation use for protecting wires
Clips used for connecting wires.
Working
It works on the principle of relay circuit .a relay is an
electromagnetic switch operated by relatively small
electric current that can turn on or turn off a much
larger electric current. The heart of a relay is
electromagnetic coil becomes a temporary when
electricity flows through it. You can think of a relay as a
kind of electric lever.
Condition no 1:- when key switch is at off position
The battery ground terminal is connected to vehicle
frame. Current from battery positive terminal flows as
shown above when key switch is OFF.
605| International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.7, No.2 (April 2017)
Ajay Sonule et al
Installation of Off Delay Timer Unit in Earthmoving Machineries
Condition no 2:- when key switch is turned to on position
and engine started by cranking
Current from battery positive terminal flows as shown
above when key switch is ON and engine is started by
cranking. Machine is operated by the machine operator
for doing earthmoving work.
Modification done in key switch connector
Made another wiring harness consisting of three wires
and further these three wires connected to ‘Key Switch’
Condition no 3:- when key switch is turned to off position
to shut down the engine
Current from battery positive terminal flows as shown
above when key switch turned to ‘OFF’ to shut down
the engine, but we have installed OFF DELAY TIMER
UNIT which will continue to hold and connect
terminal-15 and terminal-16 of Off Delay Timer Unit
for a set time. i.e. current from terminal-15 flows to
terminal-16 and from terminal-16 to terminal-M of key
switch for a set time and engine will continue to run for
specific time as set in ‘Off Delay Timer’ After a specific
time, terminal-15 will connect to terminal-18
Note: - Key switch ‘M terminal’ supply current to all
electric components of excavator.
Calculation
ZX-450 Engine Model: - 6WG1 ISUZU
Engine high idle rpm – 1750
Engine low idle rpm – 750
When engine is running at high idle rpm at that time
turbocharger rotates approx. 3, 00,000 rpm
When engine is running at low idle rpm at that time
turbocharger rotates approx. 1, 28,571 rpm as per
below calculation
Fig.2: Off delay timer unit connected with relay
Calculation
1750  3, 00,000
750  x
low idle)
(Denotes turbocharger speed at
By installing this project we are stabilizing speed of
turbocharger at 1, 28,571 rpm for 3 min, it will avoid
premature failure of turbocharger due to lack of
lubrication
The Advantages of the project are:
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Fig.3: Key Switch
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The efficiency of engine and turbocharger get
increased
The maintenance cost of excavator regarding
engine get low down
Fuel cost comes to low
606| International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.7, No.2 (April 2017)
Ajay Sonule et al
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Installation of Off Delay Timer Unit in Earthmoving Machineries
Heats as backpressure on engine get eliminated, etc.
As by implementing this fabulous timer unit in all
vehicles and bigger machineries where turbocharger
takes place results in low maintenance cost of the
same. This helps in future very well and the cost
estimation of any machine get rigidly low down.
The applications are as follows:
Conclusion
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The life-span of engine get increased and
turbocharger also
Hoses of excavator get maximum efficiency due to
less generation of
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Its use in excavators
Sports racing car
Flying jets
Fighter jets
Diggers
Sports bikes
Hydraulic lifting cranes
Cost Estimation
Sr.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Unit
Price
OFF Delay Timer Unit
1
7600
Relay 4 Terminal
2
1750
Relay 5 Terminal
1
1690
Emergency Stop Switch
1
600
Wires
4 (Bundle)
430
Insulation
1(Bundle)
320
Tools Kit Purchased
1
800
Other Miscellaneous Items
NA
500
Total Amount
Description
Qty
Amount
8600
4500
2690
600
1720
320
800
500
19730
Future scope
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There is a great scope of this project as it is not so
costly and the materials required for the project
are available in the market.
The prototype system is only a single module for
testing and analysis of project. If the project shows
positive response then it can be converted into a
large system and we can implement in all
excavators and various applications.
Due to OFF Delay Timer Unit engine will stop after
2 min when key switch is turn to OFF position. This
will help to improve the life of turbocharger also
avoid the premature failure of turbocharger and
engine.
 Consequently engine life increases.
 We can adjust delay time by using ‘timing selector
switch’ on timer. This project is very much useful
and helpful for engines having very high HP like
earthmoving machinery, generators etc. as most of
turbocharger failure is due to lack of lubrication
cause by sudden stopping of engine by careless
behavior of operators.
Reference
Automobile engineering. Vol 1- DR.kripal Singh
Oil Hydraulic Systems by S R Majumdar.
Use Powerful Excavator Building Tamiami Trail. (September
15, 1916) The Weekly Miami Metropolis..
Industrial Expe (June 9, 1962).Lasso gives More Power to the
Hy-Mac Elbow. The Glasgow Herald..
F, Kevin. Types of Excavators and Their Uses.
Komatsu PW130-7. H.E. Services. Tips to Help You Operate
Your Mini Excavator.
How it works (2012) The track motor spool in an
Excavator Timer. Merriam-Webster online dictionary.
Merriam-Webster.
607| International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.7, No.2 (April 2017)