R&S®ZVH
Cable and Antenna Analyzer
Operating Manual
Operating Manual
Test & Measurement
1309.6946.12 – 06
®
The Operating Manual describes the following R&S ZVH models and options
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R&S ZVH4 (1309.6800.24)
R&S ZVH8 (1309.6800.28)
R&S ZVH-K1 (1309.6823.02)
R&S ZVH-K9 (1309.6852.02)
R&S ZVH-K14 (1309.7007.02)
R&S ZVH-K39 (1309.6830.02)
R&S ZVH-K42 (1309.6846.02)
R&S ZVH-K45 (1309.6998.02)
The contents of this manual correspond to firmware version 1.42 and higher.
© 2013 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Muehldorfstr. 15, 81671 Munich. Germany
Phone:
+49 89 4129-0
Fax:
+49 89 4129-12 164
E-mail:
info@rohde-schwarz.com
Internet: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com
81671 Munich, Germany
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual:
R&S®ZVH is abbreviated as R&S ZVH, R&S®ZVHView is abbreviated as R&S ZVHView.
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort
to keep the safety standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the
highest possible degree of safety. Our products and the auxiliary equipment they
require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the safety standards that
apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by our
quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and
tested in accordance with the attached EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the
manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully complying with safety standards. To maintain
this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must observe all instructions and
warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these safety
instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This
product is designed for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if
expressly permitted, also in the field and must not be used in any way that may cause
personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the product is used for any
intention other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the
product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its
product documentation and within its performance limits (see data sheet,
documentation, the following safety instructions). Using the product requires technical
skills and a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore essential that only skilled and
specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be allowed to
use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz
products, this will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation.
Keep the basic safety instructions and the product documentation in a safe place and
pass them on to the subsequent users.
Symbols and safety labels
Observe product
Danger of
Warning! Hot
documen-tation
electric shock
surface
1175.6603.12 - 02
PE terminal
Ground
Ground
terminal
Attention!
Electrostatic
sensitive devices
i
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any
kind caused by dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to
the following safety instructions before and when using the product. It is also absolutely
essential to observe the additional safety instructions on personal safety, for example,
that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In these safety instructions,
the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories.
Tags and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the
reader about risks and dangers.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will
result in death or serious injury.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could
result in death or serious injury.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could
result in minor or moderate injury.
indicates the possibility of incorrect operation which can
result in damage to the product.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used
synonymously.
These tags are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the
European Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may
also exist in other economic areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to
make sure that the tags described here are always used only in connection with the
related product documentation and the related product. The use of tags in connection
with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation and in
personal injury or material damage.
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions
specified by the manufacturer. If the manufacturer's specifications are not observed,
this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable
local or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be
observed in all work performed.
1. The R&S ZVH is protected against dripping water and dust (IP degree 51). Unless
otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz
products: predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing
down, IP protection 2X, pollution severity 2, overvoltage category 2, use only in
enclosed spaces, max. operation altitude 4600 m above sea level, max. transport
altitude 12000 m above sea level. A tolerance of ±10% shall apply to the nominal
voltage and of ±5% to the nominal frequency.
1175.6603.12 - 02
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R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
2. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan
heaters. The ambient temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature
specified in the product documentation or in the data sheet. Product overheating
can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death.
Electrical Safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all to the extent
necessary, electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on
the power supply matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network.
2. If the product does not have a power switch for disconnection from the AC supply
network, the plug of the connecting cable is regarded as the disconnecting device.
In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and
accessible at all times (corresponding to the length of connecting cable, approx.
2 m). Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing disconnection
from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into
racks or systems, a disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
3. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cable on a
regular basis to ensure that it is in proper operating condition. By taking
appropriate safety measures and carefully laying the power cable, you can ensure
that the cable will not be damaged and that no one can be hurt by, for example,
tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
4. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fused with max.
16 A (higher fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of
companies).
5. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and
all the way into the socket. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may
occur.
6. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can
cause fire or electric shocks.
7. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g.
appropriate measuring equipment, fusing, current limiting, electrical separation,
insulation) should be taken to avoid any hazards.
8. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or
other industrial computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC610101/EN 61010-1 standards that apply in each case.
9. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing
while the product is in operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and
can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the product.
10. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or
similar protective devices, the supply circuit must be fused in such a way that
anyone who has access to the product, as well as the product itself, is adequately
protected from injury or damage.
1175.6603.12 - 02
iii
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
11. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that
caused by a bolt of lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person
operating the product will be exposed to the danger of an electric shock.
12. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must
not be used for this purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product
and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
13. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section
"Operating states and operating positions", item 1. Therefore, the equipment must
be protected against penetration by liquids. If the necessary precautions are not
taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product itself may be damaged,
which can also lead to personal injury.
14. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g.
AC supply network or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product.
Never use chemical cleaning agents such as alcohol, acetone or diluents for
cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make
sure that persons who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit
enough to do so; otherwise, injuries or material damage may occur. It is the
responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable personnel for operating
the products.
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled
"Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an
allergic reaction (allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you
develop an allergic reaction (such as a skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or
respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz product, consult a
physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before
you take it apart, be sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled
"Waste disposal", item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can
produce an elevated level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn
babies require increased protection, pregnant women must be protected by
appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be exposed to risks
from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take
measures to avert the potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids,
etc.) that can cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken,
e.g. protective masks and protective clothing must be worn.
1175.6603.12 - 02
iv
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel.
Before any work is performed on the product or before the product is opened, it
must be disconnected from the AC supply network. Otherwise, personnel will be
exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only
by electrical experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be
used for replacing parts relevant to safety (e.g. power switches, power
transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed after parts relevant to
safety have been replaced (visual inspection, PE conductor test, insulation
resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This
helps ensure the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed
either at all or to the extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of
explosions, fire and/or serious personal injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries
and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells) must be
handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight
must be avoided. Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors
using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored
in a box or in a drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can
be short-circuited by other conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be
removed from their original packaging until they are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of the hands of children. If a cell or a battery has been
swallowed, seek medical aid immediately.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are
stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the
skin or eyes. If contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and
seek medical aid.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes
(e.g. lithium cells) can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the
matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the
product.
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste.
Rechargeable batteries and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or
cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the national regulations regarding waste
disposal and recycling.
1175.6603.12 - 02
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R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
Transport
1. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport
the product. It is therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to
or on transport equipment such as cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is
responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the means of transport or
lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material
damage.
2. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive
the vehicle safely and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for
accidents or collisions. Never use the product in a moving vehicle if doing so could
distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the product in the vehicle to
prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
Waste disposal
1. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a
manner that goes beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal
dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel) may be released. For this reason, the product
may only be disassembled by specially trained personnel. Improper disassembly
may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal regulations must be
observed.
1175.6603.12 - 02
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R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Es imprescindible leer y observar las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones
de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros
productos siempre al día con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros
clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros productos y todos los equipos
adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de seguridad
vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean
cumplidas estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el
certificado de conformidad adjunto de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado
impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad. Para poder preservar este
estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá atenerse a
todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan
preguntas referentes a estas informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma
debida. Este producto está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el
laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de
ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna persona/cosa pueda sufrir
daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no
se hace en ninguna forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del
producto.
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es
utilizado conforme a las indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del
producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento definido (ver hoja de datos,
documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto hace
necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso
se debe tener en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal
especializado o personas instruidas en profundidad con las capacidades
correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el uso de
productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la
documentación del producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las
informaciones de seguridad elementales, así como la documentación del producto, y
entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Símbolos y definiciones de seguridad
Ver documen-
Peligro de
¡Advertencia!
Conexión a
tación de
golpe de
Superficie
conductor
producto
corriente
caliente
protector
1175.6603.17 - 02
Conexión a
tierra
Conexión a
masa
conductora
¡Cuidado! Elementos
de construcción con
peligro de carga
electroestática
i
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible
lesiones o daños por peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer
detalladamente y comprender por completo las siguientes informaciones de seguridad
antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del producto. Deberán tenerse
en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. Las referentes a la
protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las
presentes informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el
grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos
también aparatos, instalaciones así como toda clase de accesorios.
Palabras de señal y su significado
PELIGRO identifica un peligro inminente con riesgo elevado
que provocará muerte o lesiones graves si no se evita.
ADVERTENCIA identifica un posible peligro con riesgo
medio de provocar muerte o lesiones (graves) si no se evita.
ATENCIÓN identifica un peligro con riesgo reducido de
provocar lesiones leves o moderadas si no se evita.
AVISO indica la posibilidad de utilizar mal el producto y,
como consecuencia, dañarlo.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma
sinónima el término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles
en el area económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición
en otras áreas económicas o en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en
cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas sean utilizadas siempre solamente en
combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y solamente en
combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal
en combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede
llevar a interpretaciones equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u
objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a
los estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la
ventilación. Si no se siguen las indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de
muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas nacionales y
locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
1175.6603.17 - 02
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R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
1. El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante
referente a la situación y posición de funcionamient. R&S ZVH está protegido
contra roción y polvo (modo de protección IP 51). Si no se convino de otra
manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue: como
posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la
caja para abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, grado de suciedad 2, categoría de
sobrecarga eléctrica 2, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta
4600 m sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 12000 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se
aplicará una tolerancia de ±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la
frecuencia nominal.
2. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o
calefactores). La temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima
especificada en la documentación del producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de
sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios
y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en
cuanto a seguridad eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o
lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la
tension preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación
eléctrica.
2. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, se
deberá considerer el enchufe del cable de conexión como interruptor. En estos
casos se deberá asegurar que el enchufe siempre sea de fácil acceso (de acuerdo
con la longitud del cable de conexión, aproximadamente 2 m). Los interruptores de
función o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si los
productos sin interruptor están integrados en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá
colocar el interruptor en el nivel de la instalación.
3. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red.
Compruebe regularmente el correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red.
Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y de instalación adecuadas, de
que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie pueda ser
dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
4. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT
aseguradas con fusibles de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor
amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
5. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo.
Introduzca el enchufe por completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no
observación de estas medidas puede provocar chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
6. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de
enchufe ya que esto podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
1175.6603.17 - 02
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R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
7. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán
tomar las medidas apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de
medición adecuados, seguros, limitación de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento
etc.).
8. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador
industrial, debe comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC609501/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 válidos en cada caso.
9. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni
componentes de la carcasa mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a
descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y puede causar lesiones, fuego o
daños en el producto.
10. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor
automático ni otros mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación
debe estar protegido de modo que todas las personas que puedan acceder al
producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de posibles daños.
11. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída
del rayo) mediante los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal
que lo utilice quedará expuesto al peligro de choque eléctrico.
12. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no
esté destinado a ello. Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede
causar choques eléctricos, fuego o lesiones.
13. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también
el capítulo "Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso
es necesario tomar las medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En
caso contrario, existe peligro de choque eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el
producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las personas.
14. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de
tensión (p. ej. red de alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos
con un paño suave, que no se deshilache. No utilice bajo ningún concepto
productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes para lacas
nitrocelulósicas.
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración
durante el manejo. Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto
estén a la altura de los requerimientos necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas,
psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se pueden excluir lesiones o
daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar el
personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo
"Transporte".
1175.6603.17 - 02
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R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en
general la posibilidad de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos
materiales empleados, los llamados alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel). Si durante el
manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen reacciones alérgicas, como
p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la conjuntiva
o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para
investigar las causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto,
debe tenerse en cuenta imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden
a causa de su función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada.
Deben tomarse todas las medidas necesarias para la protección de las mujeres
embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos pueden correr peligro a
causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la obligación
de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto
sustancias tóxicas (gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por
eso, en caso de incendio
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con
autorización para ello. Antes de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio
desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para evitar toda posibilidad de
choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser
efectuadas solamente por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se
reponen partes con importancia para los aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe,
los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser sustituidos por partes
originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del
conductor de protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la
corriente de fuga, control de funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la
seguridad del producto.
Baterias y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las
baterías y acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o
lesiones graves con possible consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y
acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de litio) debe seguir el estándar
EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el
almacenamiento a la luz directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse
limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
1175.6603.17 - 02
v
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas
o baterías en estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por
contacto recíproco o por contacto con otros materiales conductores. No deben
extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales hasta el momento en
que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Mantener baterías y celdas fuera del alcance de los niños. En caso de ingestión
de una celda o batería, avisar inmediatamente a un médico.
5. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes
indebidos.
6. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar
en contacto con la piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua
abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un médico.
7. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen
electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la
seguridad del producto, las celdas o baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo
Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de recambios).
8. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica.
Las baterías o acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben
tratarse como residuos especiales. Respete en esta relación las normas
nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte
del producto por personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la
sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras
de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los productos de manera
segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio
de transporte o elevación utilizado.
2. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el
conductor la responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y
adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o
colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un vehículo en movimiento si
esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación
1. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente
más allá del funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas
(polvos con contenido de metales pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por
eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por personal especializado con
formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños para la
salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la
eliminación de residuos.
1175.6603.17 - 02
vi
Certified Quality System
ISO 9001
Certified Environmental System
ISO 14001
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Dear customer,
Cher client,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf
eines Rohde & Schwarz Produktes entschieden. Sie erhalten
damit ein nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden hergestelltes
Produkt. Es wurde nach den
Regeln unserer Qualitäts- und
Umweltmanagementsysteme
entwickelt, gefertigt und geprüft.
Rohde & Schwarz ist unter anderem nach den Managementsystemen ISO 9001 und ISO 14001
zertifiziert.
You have decided to buy a
Rohde & Schwarz product. This
product has been manufactured
using the most advanced methods. It was developed, manufactured and tested in compliance
with our quality management
and environmental management systems. Rohde & Schwarz
has been certified, for example, according to the ISO 9001
and ISO 14001 management
systems.
Der Umwelt verpflichtet
Environmental commitment
Vous avez choisi d’acheter un
produit Rohde & Schwarz. Vous
disposez donc d’un produit
fabriqué d’après les méthodes
les plus avancées. Le développement, la fabrication et les
tests de ce produit ont été effectués selon nos systèmes de
management de qualité et de
management environnemental.
La société Rohde & Schwarz a
été homologuée, entre autres,
conformément aux systèmes
de management ISO 9001 et
ISO 14001.
❙❙ Energie-effiziente,
❙❙ Energy-efficient
RoHS-konforme Produkte
❙❙ Kontinuierliche
Weiterentwicklung nachhaltiger
­Umweltkonzepte
❙❙ ISO 14001-zertifiziertes
Umweltmanagementsystem
❙❙ Continuous
Engagement écologique
❙❙ Produits
à efficience
énergétique
❙❙ Amélioration continue de la
durabilité environnementale
❙❙ Système de management
environnemental certifié selon
ISO 14001
1171.0200.11 V 05.01
products
improvement in
environmental sustainability
❙❙ ISO 14001-certified
environmental management
system
ISO-Qualitaets-Zertifikat_1171-0200-11_A4.indd 1
28.09.2012 10:25:08
1171020011
Quality management
and environmental
management
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
customer.support@rsa.rohde-schwarz.com
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
customersupport.la@rohde-schwarz.com
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
customersupport.asia@rohde-schwarz.com
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
customersupport.china@rohde-schwarz.com
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Documentation Overview ................................................................... 6
Conventions Used in the Documentation ......................................... 7
1 Operating the R&S ZVH ...................................................................... 8
1.1
Screen Layout and Elements......................................................................................8
1.2
Means of Input..............................................................................................................9
1.2.1
Using the Alphanumeric Keys ......................................................................................10
1.2.2
Confirming and Cancelling Entries ..............................................................................10
1.2.3
Using the Rotary Knob .................................................................................................11
1.2.4
Using the Cursor Keys .................................................................................................11
1.2.5
Remote Operation........................................................................................................12
1.3
Presetting the R&S ZVH ............................................................................................13
1.4
Configuring Measurements ......................................................................................14
1.5
Configuring the Instrument ......................................................................................15
1.6
Taking Screenshots ...................................................................................................18
1.7
Managing Datasets ....................................................................................................19
1.7.1
Saving Datasets ...........................................................................................................21
1.7.2
Restoring Datasets ......................................................................................................26
1.7.3
Deleting Datasets.........................................................................................................27
1.8
Updating the Firmware ..............................................................................................28
1.9
Installing Firmware Options .....................................................................................28
2 Cable and Antenna Test Mode ......................................................... 29
2.1
Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements ......................................................31
2.1.1
Reflection Measurements ............................................................................................31
2.1.2
Distance to Fault Measurements .................................................................................32
2.1.3
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements ...............................................................................33
2.1.4
Transmission Measurements (R&S ZVH-K39) ............................................................33
2.1.5
Selecting the Measurement Format.............................................................................34
2.1.6
Calibrating Measurements ...........................................................................................35
2.2
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests ....................................................................40
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
1
R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
2.2.1
Selecting the Cable Model ...........................................................................................40
2.2.2
Configuring the Horizontal Axis ...................................................................................43
2.2.3
Configuring the Vertical Axis ........................................................................................46
2.2.4
Setting and Triggering the Sweep ...............................................................................48
2.3
Analyzing Measurement Results..............................................................................51
2.3.1
Working with Traces ....................................................................................................51
2.3.2
Using Markers ..............................................................................................................53
2.3.3
Using Display and Limit Lines ......................................................................................57
3 Working with the Measurement Wizard .......................................... 58
3.1.1
Preparing the Measurement ........................................................................................59
3.1.2
Using the Measurement Wizard ..................................................................................62
3.1.3
Evaluating Results .......................................................................................................67
4 Spectrum Analyzer Mode (R&S ZVH-K1) ........................................ 68
4.1
Performing Spectrum Measurements ......................................................................68
4.1.1
Measuring Basic Signal Characteristics ......................................................................68
4.1.2
Measuring the Channel Power of Continuously Modulated Signals ............................69
4.1.3
Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth ............................................................................73
4.1.4
Power Measurements on TDMA Signals .....................................................................77
4.1.5
Measuring the Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) ...........................................80
4.1.6
Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask ....................................................................89
4.1.7
Measuring the Harmonic Distortion .............................................................................92
4.1.8
Measuring the AM Modulation Depth ..........................................................................94
4.1.9
Working with the Spectrogram Result Display (R&S ZVH-K14) ..................................96
4.1.10
Using Isotropic Antennas ...........................................................................................105
4.2
Configuring Spectrum Measurements ..................................................................107
4.2.1
Configuring the Horizontal Axis .................................................................................107
4.2.2
Configuring the Vertical Axis ......................................................................................111
4.2.3
Setting Bandwidths ....................................................................................................116
4.2.4
Configuring and Triggering the Sweep ......................................................................119
4.2.5
Working with Traces ..................................................................................................124
4.2.6
Using Markers ............................................................................................................129
4.2.7
Using Display Lines ...................................................................................................133
4.2.8
Using Limit Lines........................................................................................................134
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
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R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
4.3
Working with Channel Tables .................................................................................137
4.4
Using Transducer Factors ......................................................................................138
4.4.1
Unit for Measurements with Transducers ..................................................................139
4.4.2
Setting the Reference Level ......................................................................................139
4.4.3
Frequency Range of Transducer ...............................................................................140
4.4.4
Data Sets Containing Transducer Factors ................................................................140
5 Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9) ....................................................... 141
5.1
Using a Power Sensor .............................................................................................141
5.1.1
Connecting a Power Sensor ......................................................................................142
5.1.2
Performing and Configuring Measurements ..............................................................144
5.2
Using a Directional Power Sensor .........................................................................147
5.2.1
Connecting a Directional Power Sensor ....................................................................148
5.2.2
Performing and Configuring Measurements ..............................................................149
6 Network Analyzer Mode (R&S ZVH-K42)....................................... 152
6.1
Calibrating Measurements ......................................................................................154
6.2
Performing Vector Measurements .........................................................................157
6.2.1
Measuring the Transmission ......................................................................................158
6.2.2
Measuring the Reflection ...........................................................................................160
6.3
Evaluating the Results ............................................................................................162
6.3.1
Selecting the Measurement Format...........................................................................162
6.3.2
Configuring the Vertical Axis ......................................................................................169
6.3.3
Using Markers ............................................................................................................172
6.3.4
Working with Channel Tables ....................................................................................172
6.3.5
Using Limit Lines........................................................................................................172
6.3.6
Using Trace Mathematics ..........................................................................................172
6.4
Vector Voltmeter (R&S ZVH-K45) ...........................................................................173
6.4.1
Calibrating Measurements ......................................................................................174
6.4.2
Performing Measurements .....................................................................................175
6.4.3
Evaluating the Results ...............................................................................................176
7 Menu and Softkey Overview .......................................................... 177
7.1
General Functions ...................................................................................................177
7.1.1
General R&S ZVH Setup ...........................................................................................177
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
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R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
7.1.2
File Management .......................................................................................................178
7.1.3
Operating Mode Selection .........................................................................................178
7.2
Functions of the Cable and Antenna Analyzer .....................................................179
7.2.1
Frequency and Distance Parameters ........................................................................179
7.2.2
Amplitude Parameters ...............................................................................................179
7.2.3
Sweep Configuration .................................................................................................180
7.2.4
Markers ......................................................................................................................180
7.2.5
Measurement Selection and Configuration ...............................................................181
7.2.6
Measurement Format Selection.................................................................................181
7.2.7
Measurement Calibration ...........................................................................................181
7.3
Functions of the Spectrum Analyzer (R&S ZVH-K1) ............................................182
7.3.1
Measurement Selection .............................................................................................182
7.3.2
Frequency Parameters ..............................................................................................184
7.3.3
Span Selection ...........................................................................................................184
7.3.4
Amplitude Parameters ...............................................................................................185
7.3.5
Sweep Configuration and Bandwidth Selection.........................................................185
7.3.6
Trace Functionality.....................................................................................................185
7.3.7
Display and Limit Lines ..............................................................................................186
7.3.8
Markers ......................................................................................................................186
7.4
Functions of the Network Analyzer (R&S ZVH-K42) ............................................187
7.4.1
Measurement Configuration ......................................................................................187
7.4.2
Frequency Parameters ..............................................................................................187
7.4.3
Measurement Format Selection.................................................................................187
7.4.4
Amplitude Parameters ...............................................................................................188
7.4.5
Sweep Configuration .................................................................................................188
7.4.6
Trace Functionality.....................................................................................................188
7.4.7
Limit Lines ..................................................................................................................188
7.4.8
Markers ......................................................................................................................189
7.5
Functions of the Vector Voltmeter .........................................................................190
7.5.1
Vector Voltmeter Measurements ...............................................................................190
7.5.2
Frequency Parameters ..............................................................................................190
7.5.3
Amplitude Parameters ...............................................................................................190
7.5.4
Sweep Configuration .................................................................................................190
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
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R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
7.5.5
Trace Functionality.....................................................................................................191
7.6
Functions of the Power Meter ................................................................................191
7.6.1
Power Meter Measurements ......................................................................................191
7.6.2
Frequency Parameters ..............................................................................................191
7.6.3
Amplitude Parameters ...............................................................................................192
7.6.4
Sweep Configuration .................................................................................................192
8 How a Spectrum Analyzer Works .................................................. 193
Index ................................................................................................ 198
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
5
R&S ZVH
Documentation Overview
Documentation Overview
The user documentation for the R&S ZVH is divided as follows:
Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide provides basic information on the instrument's functions.
It covers the following topics:
●
●
●
●
overview of all elements of the front and rear panels
basic information on how to set up the R&S ZVH
information on how to operate the R&S ZVH in a network
instructions on how to perform measurements
Operating Manual
The Operating Manual provides a detailed description on the instrument's functions
It covers the following topics:
●
●
●
instructions on how to set up and operate the R&S ZVH in its various operating
modes
instructions on how to perform measurements with the R&S ZVH
instructions on how to work with the available software options and applications
Service Manual
The Service Manual provides information on maintenance.
It covers the following topics:
●
●
●
instructions on how to perform a performance test
instructions on how to repair the R&S ZVH including a spare parts list
mechanical drawings
Release Notes
The release notes describe the installation of the firmware, new and modified
functions, eliminated problems, and last minute changes to the documentation. The
corresponding firmware version is indicated on the title page of the release notes. The
current release notes are provided on the internet.
Internet Site
The internet site at: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/product/zvh.html provides the most
up to date information on the R&S ZVH. The most recent manuals are available as
printable PDF files in the download area.
Also provided for download are firmware updates including the corresponding release
notes, instrument drivers, current data sheets, application notes and image versions.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
6
R&S ZVH
Conventions Used in the Documentation
Conventions Used in the Documentation
The following conventions are used throughout the R&S R&S ZVH Operating Manual:
Typographical conventions
Convention
Description
“Graphical user interface elements”
All names of graphical user interface elements both on the screen
and on the front and rear panels, such as dialog boxes, softkeys,
menus, options, buttons etc., are enclosed by quotation marks.
“KEYS”
Key names are written in capital letters and enclosed by quotation
marks.
Input
Input to be entered by the user is displayed in italics.
File names, commands,
program code
File names, commands, coding samples and screen output are
distinguished by their font.
"Links"
Links that you can click are displayed in blue font.
"References"
References to other parts of the documentation are enclosed by
quotation marks.
Other conventions
●
Remote commands: Remote commands may include abbreviations to simplify
input. In the description of such commands, all parts that have to be entered are
written in capital letters. Additional text in lower-case characters is for information
only.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
7
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Screen Layout and Elements
1 Operating the R&S ZVH
This chapter provides information about basic functionality and about the user interface
of the R&S ZVH.
1.1 Screen Layout and Elements
The following figure shows the screen layout in cable and antenna test operating
mode. It shows all elements that are the same for all operating modes of the R&S ZVH.
Screen layouts that show specifics for each operating mode or measurement are
provided in the corresponding sections of this manual.
1
Measurement information
13
Trace
2
GPS status
14
Reference Position
3
Date and time
15
Active menu item
4
Battery status
16
Selectable menu item
5
Hardware settings
17
Currently selected menu item
6
GPS information
18
Unavailable menu item
7
Marker information
19
Vertical axis labeling
8
Status line
20
Selectable softkey
9
Invalid trace indicator
21
Active softkey
10
Diagram
22
Unavailable softkey
11
Horizontal axis labeling
23
Selected softkey
12
Marker
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
8
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Means of Input
1.2 Means of Input
The user interface of the R&S ZVH provides several elements for you to input data.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Alphanumeric keys
Unit keys
Rotary knob
Cursor keys
Enter key
Cancel key
Back key
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
9
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Means of Input
1.2.1 Using the Alphanumeric Keys
Using the alphanumeric keys, you can enter numeric values or characters. The
alphanumeric keys include the numbers from 0 to 9, the alphabet, a minus sign and
dot.
If you have to enter a numeric value, press the corresponding key. In case of numeric
values, each key covers just the number that's printed on it.
You can enter negative values with the minus sign key and enter values that contain
decimal places with the dot key.
If the R&S ZVH asks you to enter a character or you need to enter a character (e.g. file
names), the key assignment changes. Each key covers one number and more than
one character with the first choice being a character. If you need to enter a character,
press the key several times until the character you require is selected. The following
table shows an overview of character assignment.
You can correct entries with the BACK key. The BACK key moves the cursor one
position backwards and deletes the character that was in that place.
Key
1.
1
1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2
3
a
b
c
2
A
B
C
d
e
f
3
D
E
F
4
g
h
i
4
G
H
I
5
j
k
l
5
J
K
L
6
m
n
o
6
M
N
O
7
p
q
r
s
7
P
Q
8
t
u
v
8
T
U
V
9
w
x
y
z
9
W
X
0
0
blank
_
-
-
.
.
8.
9.
R
S
Y
Z
1.2.2 Confirming and Cancelling Entries
Depending on the input you have made, there are several ways to confirm entries.
●
Values without unit or values that have a fixed unit that you enter in an input field
can be confirmed with the ENTER key or by pressing the center of the rotary knob.
Alternatively, you can confirm such an entry by pressing the softkey that has
opened the input field in question.
●
Values that have flexible units, like frequency or time, can be confirmed with one of
the unit keys.
If you confirm a such a value with the ENTER key, the R&S ZVH always uses the
smallest possible unit (e.g. Hz).
●
If you have opened a submenu or input field by accident, you can close it without
making any changes with the CANCEL key.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
10
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Means of Input
1.2.3 Using the Rotary Knob
Using the rotary knob, you can do several things.
●
The rotary knob works like a cursor key in dialog boxes or softkey submenus. In
that case you can navigate to one of the items with the rotary knob. If the dialog
box covers more than one screen page, it also scrolls through the dialog box.
Turning it to the right corresponds to a downward movement. Moving it to the left to
an upward movement.
●
The rotary knob increases or decreases any kind of numeric value if an input field
is active.
Turning it to the right corresponds to an increase, turning it to the left to a decrease
of a numeric value.
In most cases, the rotary knob changes numeric values with a fixed step size.
●
The rotary knob moves markers around.
Again the step size is fixed.
●
Pressing the rotary knob has the same effect as pressing the ENTER key as it
confirms an entry or selection.
1.2.4 Using the Cursor Keys
Using the cursor keys, you can do several things.
●
●
The cursor keys navigate through dialog boxes or softkey submenus.
The up and down keys increase or decrease any kind of numeric value if an input
field is active.
The cursor keys change numeric values with a fixed step size.
●
The up and down keys move markers around.
The step size is fixed.
●
The left and right keys move the cursor in an input field in the corresponding
direction.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
11
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Means of Input
1.2.5 Remote Operation
Remote operation is a way to control the R&S ZVH from another device like a PC. To
use the R&S ZVH this way, you have to establish a connection between both devices
via the LAN or USB interfaces of the R&S ZVH.
The product range of the R&S ZVH provides several tools for remote operation.
Remote control with R&S ZVH-K40
The R&S ZVH-K40 is a firmware option to control the R&S ZVH with remote control
commands that are compatible to the SCPI standard.
You can download the user manual for the R&S ZVH-K40 from the R&S website.
Remote desktop with R&S ZVHView
The remote desktop is an application provided by the R&S ZVHView software. You can
use it to access and control the R&S ZVH in the R&S ZVHView environment.
While the R&S ZVH is running and connected to the control computer, the screen
contents and control elements (keys, softkeys etc.) are displayed. Thus, you can
operate the R&S ZVH just like the hardware itself.
► Connect the R&S ZVH to the control computer.
► Start the R&S ZVHView software.
► Press the "Remote Display" button (
) in the user interface.
The software opens the remote display to operate the R&S ZVH remotely.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Presetting the R&S ZVH
1.3 Presetting the R&S ZVH
Before you prepare a measurement, it is recommended to preset the R&S ZVH. During
a preset, the R&S ZVH resets all settings to their default state. Restoring the default
configuration has the advantage that old settings do not affect measurements.
The default setup is specific to the operating mode.
► Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ZVH restores its default setup.
You can also define your own default settings via a dataset. These are then loaded
after pressing the PRESET key instead of the factory default.
► Press the SETUP key.
► Press the "User Preferences" softkey.
► Select the "Preset Dataset" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the dataset that contains the settings
you would like to have as the preset settings.
► Select the dataset with the settings you want.
► Select the "Preset Mode" menu item in the "User Preferences" dialog box.
► Select the "User Defined" item from the dropdown menu.
The R&S ZVH now loads the settings of the dataset after you press PRESET.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Configuring Measurements
1.4 Configuring Measurements
The "Measurement Setup" dialog box provides an overview of the current configuration
of the R&S ZVH. In addition, you can also change the configuration in this dialog box.
► Press the SETUP key.
► Press the "Measurement Setup" softkey.
► Select one of the menu items and change the settings as you like.
Note that the contents of the "Measurement Setup" dialog box are customized for each
operating mode of the R&S ZVH. Therefore, the order and number of displayed
settings is different in each mode.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Configuring the Instrument
1.5 Configuring the Instrument
The "Instrument Setup" dialog box contains functionality that is independent of the
operating mode.
For more information see the "Quick Start Guide".
Protecting the R&S ZVH with a PIN
The R&S ZVH features a PIN protection system that protects the R&S ZVH from
unauthorized access. If PIN protection is on, you have to enter the PIN whenever you
turn the R&S ZVH on.
The protection system provides three levels of security.
●
●
PIN made up of four digits
Master PIN made up out of 10 digits.
When you enter the wrong PIN three times in a row, you have to enter the Master
PIN to unlock the R&S ZVH. By default, the Master PIN is the same as the OEM
Master PIN, but you can define a User Master PIN.
If you unlock the R&S ZVH with the User Master PIN, the PIN is automatically
reset to its default value ('0000').
●
OEM Master PIN code made up out of 10 digits.
If you
-
have defined a User Master PIN and enter the wrong User Master PIN five
times in a row or
have not defined a User Master PIN and enter the wrong PIN three times in a
row,
the only remaining way to unlock the R&S ZVH is with the OEM Master PIN. The
OEM Master PIN is a fix PIN that you receive upon delivery of your R&S ZVH. You
cannot change the OEM Master PIN.
OEM Master PIN
Make sure not to lose the OEM Master PIN that is delivered with the R&S ZVH and
keep it in a safe place away from the instrument itself.
If you use PIN protection and forget the User PINs, the OEM Master PIN is the only
way you can unlock and use the R&S ZVH.
If you unlock the R&S ZVH with the OEM Master PIN, the PIN and, if defined, the
User Master PIN are automatically reset to their default values:
'0000' (PIN) and '0000000000' (User Master PIN).
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Operating the R&S ZVH
Configuring the Instrument
If you fail to unlock the R&S ZVH with the OEM Master PIN, the R&S ZVH will
force a reboot of the software until you enter the correct OEM Master PIN.
Firmware update
If the R&S ZVH is protected with a PIN, a firmware update is only possible after you
have entered the correct PIN.
In the initial state after delivery, PIN protection is turned off. So if you want to protect
the R&S ZVH, you have to turn it on manually.
► Press the SETUP key.
► Press the "Instrument Settings" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows the "Instrument Settings" dialog box.
► Select the "PIN Code Protection" menu item.
► Press ENTER
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define a new PIN.
► Enter a 4-digit PIN.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to confirm the PIN.
► Enter the 4-digit PIN again.
If the PIN confirmation was successful, the R&S ZVH shows a corresponding
message and activates PIN protection. In that case, you have to enter the PIN
every time the R&S ZVH boots.
If the PIN confirmation was not successful, the R&S ZVH shows a corresponding
message and does not activate PIN protection. In that case repeat the last steps.
You can change the PIN any time you want.
► Select the "New PIN Code" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define a new PIN.
► Enter the new PIN.
► Confirm the new PIN.
The R&S ZVH changes the PIN accordingly.
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Operating the R&S ZVH
Configuring the Instrument
You can define a User Master PIN the same way. By default, the User Master PIN is
the OEM Master PIN as shown in the "Instrument Settings" dialog box.
► Select the "Master PIN Code" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define a User Master PIN.
► Enter a 10-digit number for the User Master PIN.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to confirm the User Master PIN.
► Confirm the PIN.
The R&S ZVH shows a message if the change was successful or not.
► Alternatively, select the "User Master PIN Code" menu item and enter a 10-digit
PIN in the input field that opens.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Taking Screenshots
1.6 Taking Screenshots
You can take and store a screenshot of the current screen anytime with the
► Press the
key.
key.
The R&S ZVH takes a screenshot.
If available, the R&S ZVH stores the screenshot on an external storage device (USB
memory stick or SD card). If both are connected, the R&S ZVH uses the SD card.
If no external device is available, the R&S ZVH stores the screenshot in its internal
memory (if there is enough left). In that case you can transfer the pictures with the
R&S ZVHView software to your computer.
Saving screenshot and dataset at the same time
Depending on the "Capture" settings available in the "User Preference" menu, using
the
key also saves a dataset in addition to the screenshot.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
Screenshot file name
All screenshots get a default file name "Screenshot####". The files also get numbers
(####) in ascending order, beginning with 0000. You can select a default file name and
start number in the "User Preference" menu.
► Press the SETUP key.
► Press the "User Preference" softkey.
► Select the "Default Filename" and "File Name Counter Starts At" items and assign
a file name and number as you wish.
Screenshot file format
The file format of screenshots is either *.png or *.jpg, depending on your configuration
in the "User Preference" menu.
► Press the SETUP key.
► Press the "User Preference" softkey.
► Select the "Capture Screen Format" item to select the screenshot file format.
Previewing screenshots
If you want to make sure if a screenshot you took contains the wanted information, you
can preview screenshots on the R&S ZVH.
► Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
► Press the "Recall Screenshot" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select a screenshot for the preview.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
1.7 Managing Datasets
The R&S ZVH provides functionality to manage (save, restore etc.) datasets available
in its internal memory or an external storage device.
Datasets
Basically, the R&S ZVH supports various types of datasets. The instructions below
primarily describe managing datasets that you create on the R&S ZVH during
measurements, for example measurement results and configurations. Note that these
datasets have the file extension .set.
Datasets with the file extension .set are an image of measurement results and
configurations. Thus, you can subsequently reproduce the context of the
measurement.
You can use datasets for documentation, for example, or use them for a more detailed
analysis later on (for example with the R&S ZVHView software). Note that datasets
also contain calibration data if calibration has been performed.
Templates
The R&S ZVH also supports various other types of datasets (or templates). Such
templates mainly contain additional requirements for a particular measurement, like
limit lines or channel tables.
Creating and editing these templates is only possible with the functionality provided by
the R&S ZVHView software package. Note that the file extension depends on the
application of the template. For example, a template containing a channel table has the
extension .chntab.
For more information on working with templates refer to the documentation of the
R&S ZVHView software package.
Data synchronization
The R&S ZVHView features a data synchronization that matches the data available on
the R&S ZVH and that on the computer with the R&S ZVHView installation.
► Press the "Synchronization Control" (
) button.
The software opens another dialog box to control synchronization.
By default, the software synchronizes a selected set of data, depending on the
synchronization direction.
●
Synchronization from PC to R&S ZVH:
button
Updates all files on the R&S ZVH that have been created or edited with the
R&S ZVHView software package (cable models, limit lines, transducers, channel
tables etc.).
●
Synchronization from R&S ZVH to PC:
button
Updates all files on the PC that have been created on the R&S ZVH (datasets,
screenshots and wizard results).
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
Removing outdated files
When you turn on "Remove Orphans", the software removes all files from the
R&S FSH that it cannot find on the PC.
Alternatively, you can synchronize all files at the same time
(templates and datasets) in one direction (PC to R&S ZVH
or R&S ZVH to PC), regardless of the file type.
► Turn on "Synchronize All".
► Press either the "FSH ← PC" button to update all files on the R&S ZVH based on
the data available on the PC or the "FSH → PC" button to update the files on the
PC based on the data available on the R&S ZVH.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
1.7.1 Saving Datasets
The R&S ZVH allows you to save the data that is currently analyzed at any time.
► Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
The R&S ZVH opens the file manager.
► Press the "Save" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the "Save Dataset" dialog box.
1
2
3
4
Available datasets and folder structure
Dataset name input field
Remaining memory on selected data storage device
File manager softkey menu
The folder structure shows all available data storage devices. Possible storage devices
are the internal memory of the R&S ZVH, an SD card or a memory stick.
The default storage device depends on which devices are connected to the R&S ZVH.
●
●
●
If an SD card is connected, datasets are always stored there first.
If a memory stick is connected, datasets are stored there only if no SD card is
connected.
The internal memory is used only if neither SD card or memory stick are connected.
The internal memory provides approximately 20 MB of data, therefore the number of
datasets you save on the R&S ZVH is limited. Each dataset needs about 100 kB of
memory, but this value can vary.
If you are using an external storage device, the number of datasets you can save is
limited only by the size of the storage device.
The R&S ZVH shows the remaining memory on the storage device in the dialog box.
► Select the storage device you want to save the data to.
► Select the folder you want to save the data to.
► Enter a file name in the corresponding input field.
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Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
The default file name for datasets is "Dataset###.set" with a new number in
ascending order for each new dataset. The file extension for datasets is .set.
If you enter another name, the R&S ZVH uses that name and assigns a new
number to the file name if you save the data set the next time. This function allows
you to assign consecutive dataset file names without entering a new name every
time you want to save a dataset.
You can enter the file name with the alphanumeric keypad. Each key covers more
than one character. To get the character you want, press the key in question the
appropiate number of times.
Instead of entering a file name character by character, you can also put a name
together using the quick naming feature. For more information see "Quick Naming
of Datasets" on page 23.
► Press the "Save" softkey.
The R&S ZVH saves the dataset.
1.7.1.1
Alternative Ways to Save Datasets
The R&S ZVH provides alternative and more comfortable ways to save datasets.
Using the
key
You can configure the
key to take a screenshot as well as saving a dataset.
► Press the SETUP key.
► Press the "User Preference" softkey.
► Select the "Capture Mode" item.
●
●
●
Select "Screen" to capture only the screenshot.
Select "Dataset" to capture only the dataset.
Select "Screen + Dataset" to capture both screenshot and dataset.
Pressing the HCOPY key saves the selected data of the current measurement.
1.7.1.2
Renaming File Names
If necessary, you can rename files or file directories directly on the R&S ZVH.
► Enter the "File Manager".
► Select the file or directory you want to rename.
► Press the "Select Action" softkey.
► Select the "Rename" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to change the name of the file.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
1.7.1.3
Quick Naming of Datasets
The R&S ZVH provides a quick naming feature that speeds up the process of naming
a file.
Putting together a file name
Basically, using the quick naming feature is a way of compiling a file name by putting
one or more predefined text modules or terms together in a logical way.
The various terms are combined in a table, each cell of which contains one term. The
table consists of 120 cells. You can define the contents of each cell freely.
► Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
► Press the "Save" softkey.
► Press the "Quick Naming" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box that contains the terms.
► Select the term you want to add with the cursor keys.
► Press ENTER to add the term to
the file name.
The current file name is displayed
in the line above the table.
So, if you perform, for example, an
ACLR measurement of an uplink
LTE signal at a certain location,
you might want that information in
the file name:
'Site_LTE_UL_ACLR'
► Press the "OK" softkey to exit the quick naming table.
After you have exited the table, the file name appears in the "Save as:" field in the
"Save Dataset" dialog box. If necessary, you can then add additional characters.
Note that by default, the R&S ZVH adds a term without separators between each term.
If you need a separator between the term, you can add a blank space or an
underscore.
► After having added a term, press the "_" softkey or the "Space" softkey.
Or to add a separator automatically upon adding a term.
► Press the "Auto Insert" softkey.
► Select the "Off" menu item to add no separator, the "_" menu item to add an
underscore or the "Space" menu item to add a blank space.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
Designing a quick naming table
The firmware of the R&S ZVH already has some basic mobile communication terms in
the table. However, you can add up to 120 terms to the table.
► Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
► Press the "Save" softkey.
► Press the "Quick Naming" softkey.
► Select one of the table cells with the cursor keys.
► Press the "Change Table Item" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define a term for the cell.
► Define a term with the number keys and confirm the term with ENTER.
The R&S ZVH adds the term to the table.
You can create and edit quick naming tables with the R&S ZVHView software package
and then transfer them into the internal memory of the R&S ZVH.
► In the "Quick Naming" softkey menu, press the "Import" softkey.
► Select the "Import Quick Naming Table" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select a file to import.
The same way, you can also export a quick naming table.
► In the "Quick Naming" softkey menu, press the "Export" softkey.
► Select the "Export Quick Naming Table" menu item.
1.7.1.4
Converting Dataset File Types
The functionality of the R&S ZVHView software allows you to convert a dataset of the
file type *.set into the *.csv format.
The conversion is possible with a command line option for the ZVHView.exe file.
The general syntax you have to use is:
ZVHView.exe -csv "<InputDataset.set>" "<DestinationFile.csv>"
Note that you have to use quotation marks for the file name if it contains blank spaces.
Example:
ZVHView.exe -csv 'Dataset.set' 'Dataset.csv'
Renames the file Datset.set into Dataset.csv.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
Environment variables
The command line option only works if you execute the command from the installation
folder of R&S ZVHView software.
Otherwise, you have to set a "Path" environment variable to the destination of the
location of the .exe file.
You can access the environment variable via the MS Windows control panel.
"Start Menu"  "Control Panel"  "System"  "Advanced System Settings"
 "Advanced" tab
 "Environment Variables" button  "System Variables"  "Path"
► Add a new variable with the installation path of the software.
The default installation path is
●
C:\Program Files\Rohde-Schwarz\ZVH View\ (for Windows XP, Vista and 7 (32-bit)
●
C:\Program Files (x86)\Rohde-Schwarz\ZVH View\ (for Windows 7 64-bit)
If necessary, change the path as required.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
1.7.2 Restoring Datasets
You can preview and load previously saved measurement results with the recall
function of the R&S ZVH. This function also provides easy access to previous
measurement settings so that you do not have to set up the R&S ZVH again.
► Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
The R&S ZVH opens the file manager.
► Select the dataset you want to use.
The R&S ZVH restores the configuration that the dataset contains.
By default, the most recently saved dataset is highlighted. If you need another dataset,
navigate to the folder or storage device that contains the dataset you need.
1.7.2.1
Previewing a Dataset
The R&S ZVH provides a preview of datasets. The preview is like a screenshot and
lets you take a quick look at that measurement and its settings. The R&S ZVH does
not yet activate the measurement settings of that dataset.
► Browse through the available datasets and select the one you want.
► Press the "Recall" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows a preview of the measurement contained in the selected
dataset. The preview shows the measurement results as well as the measurement
settings.
► Use the rotary knob to browse the previews of all datasets available in the selected
folder.
► Press the "Exit" softkey to return to the "Recall Dataset" dialog box.
1.7.2.2
Loading a Dataset
If you find a dataset whose settings you need for your current measurement task, you
can load it.
► Press the "Activate" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the dataset in question and adjusts its measurement settings
to those of the dataset.
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Operating the R&S ZVH
Managing Datasets
1.7.3 Deleting Datasets
If you have to delete a dataset, you can do so with the file manager.
► Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
► Press the "File Manager" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the file manager.
► In order to delete a single dataset, press the "Select Action" softkey. Select
"Delete" and the dataset currently selected is deleted after your confirmation.
In order to delete multiple data sets, the respective datasets have to be marked first.
► Press the "Mark" softkey to mark files for deletion
► Select the dataset you'd like to delete.
► Mark the data sets with the ENTER key.
The selected data sets should be checked in the "Status" column.
Repeat the selection by moving the cursor with the rotary knob or the cursor key
and marking more data sets with the ENTER key.
► Press the "Select Action" softkey.
► Select the "Delete" menu item and confirm with the ENTER key or the "Select
Action" softkey.
Before deleting the data set, the R&S ZVH shows a warning message that you
need to confirm. After confirming the deletion process the R&S ZVH deletes the
selected data sets from its memory.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Updating the Firmware
1.8 Updating the Firmware
You can download new firmware versions from the R&S ZVH website.
http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/product/zvh.html
The website also provides release notes for each new firmware version. The release
notes include instructions on how to perform a firmware update.
1.9 Installing Firmware Options
You can equip the R&S ZVH with several firmware options to enable additional
operating modes or special measurements.
For more information see the "Quick Start Guide"
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Installing Firmware Options
2 Cable and Antenna Test Mode
The cable and antenna test (CAT) mode provides functionality to measure cables and
antennas of transmission equipment in wireless telecommunication systems.
In a perfect system, the signal would arrive at the antenna without any losses and be
transmitted with the required power and frequency. In reality, however, you can
encounter many possible mechanical defects in the system that cause a deterioration
of the transmission quality. The figure below shows some typical defects in a
transmission system.
The R&S ZVH provides the necessary functionality to test the system equipment for its
characteristics and identify faults when it is being installed or maintained. Each
measurement provides different aspects of the test you are performing.
●
●
●
●
Reflection Measurements on page 31
Distance to Fault Measurements on page 32
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements on page 33
Transmission Measurements (R&S ZVH-K39) on page 33
Test setup
A typical test setup to test cables and antennas includes the R&S ZVH, an RF cable
(e.g. R&S FSH-Z320, order no. 1309.6600.00), a calibration standard (R&S FSH-Z28
or R&S FSH-Z29, order no. 1300.7804.03 and 1300.7504.03) and the cable under test.
Cable and antenna tests also require a tracking generator which is already part of the
R&S ZVH hardware. The tracking generator transmits a reference signal through the
internal VSWR bridge to the test port.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Installing Firmware Options
► Connect the RF cable to the RF input (port 1 or 2).
► Connect the test cable to the RF cable.
► For measurement on DUTs that need an external voltage supply (e.g. power
amplifiers), you can connect the supply voltage from a suitable AC power supply to
the BIAS Port 1 or use the internal bias.
By default, the R&S ZVH is in cable test mode after you have turned it on. To switch to
the CAT mode from another operating mode, proceed as follows.
► Press the MODE key.
► Press the "Antenna & Cable Test" softkey.
The R&S ZVH starts the antenna and cable test mode.
By default, the R&S ZVH performs measurements on port 1. It however, also supports
measurements on port 2, but you have to configure those first.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Select Driving Port" softkey.
► Select either the "Port 1" or "Port 2" menu item.
Screen layout of the cable and antenna analyzer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Cable model
Hardware settings
Marker information
Status line:
- S-matrix
- Calibration status
- Measurement format
Trace window
Marker (blue line)
Cable length information
Cable frequency information
Cable test softkey menu
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
2.1 Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
In order to get an idea about problems in a transmission system that is as exact as
possible, the R&S ZVH features several measurements. Each measurement shows
another aspect of the cable characteristics.
2.1.1 Reflection Measurements
The reflection (S11) measurement is a good way to get an idea if the transmission
system works properly. If unusual amounts of signal power are being reflected, you
can guess that there is something wrong in the system. This measurement helps to
find reflections by displaying the magnitude of the reflections in dB in a specified
frequency range.
The reflection measurement is the default measurement.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Reflection (S11)" softkey.
The R&S ZVH starts the reflection measurement over its entire frequency range.
The figure shows an example of a reflection measurement without any major faults in
the cable or the antenna.
You can perform reflection
measurements on the complete
system or on individual components of
the system. If you measure while two
or more system components are
connected, the results of the reflection
measurement are an aggregate over
these components. Therefore you can
only see the aggregated magnitude of
the reflected power in a specified
frequency range.
To draw conclusions about which component is affected and determine the location of
the fault, you need to perform further analysis using other measurements.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
2.1.2 Distance to Fault Measurements
The distance to fault (DTF) measurement determines the exact location of possible
faults in a transmission system. If you connect the end of the cable to the R&S ZVH,
the DTF measurement shows you the exact distance to the fault (in meter or feet),
regardless by what the fault is caused. In addition, the measurement shows the degree
of the fault in dB. From this information, you can determine the component that has the
fault and its seriousness.
In order to determine the distance to a cable fault, the R&S ZVH measures the
reflections of the cable under test in the frequency domain. The R&S ZVH first
determines the magnitude of the reflections for a particular frequency by comparing the
phase of the reflected signal and a reference signal created by the tracking generator.
It then performs inverse fast fourier transformation (IFFT) on the signal that has been
received. In combination with the characteristics of the cable model, the R&S ZVH is
able to determine the distance the reflections have been travelling.
Because of its sensitivity by first measuring in the frequency domain and subsequent
IFFT, the measurement is able to locate faults in a cable accurately. To keep this
accuracy, the R&S ZVH also accounts for any attenuation that occurs over distance in
a cable.
If you are measuring the cable only, make sure to terminate the other end into a load.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Distance to Fault"
softkey.
The R&S ZVH calculates the
distance to cable faults.
The figure shows the results of a DTF
measurement. The peaks that the
trace shows at the marker positions
are possible faults. Depending on the
distance, you can also get an idea of
the component that is defective.
Marker 1, for example, shows a defect in the cable. Marker 2 shows a fault at the end
of the cable, probably a bad or loose connection.
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Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
2.1.3 1-Port Cable Loss Measurements
The cable loss measurement
evaluates the power attenuation of a
cable over a specified frequency range
in dB. The amount of power that gets
absorbed depends on the frequency
and the length of the cable.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "1-Port Cable Loss"
softkey.
The R&S ZVH evaluates the cable loss over its entire frequency range.
The figure above shows the typical results of a cable loss measurement with a steadily
declining loss in amplitude.
2.1.4 Transmission Measurements (R&S ZVH-K39)
You can equip the R&S ZVH with option R&S ZVH-K39 (order no 1309.6830.02) to
enable forward transmission measurements (S21).
With the forward transmission measurement you can test if a radio signal can travel
through the line without losses. The transmission measurement helps to find faults by
displaying the magnitude of the reflections in dB in a specified frequency range.
Typically you perform transmission measurements on a filter to test if it works alright or
test the isolation of two antennas (e.g. two receiving antennas or a receiving and a
transmitting antenna).
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Transmission (S21)"
softkey.
The R&S ZVH starts the forward
transmission measurement over
its entire frequency range.
The figure shows the results of a
transmission measurement on a filter.
The results show that the filter works
as it's supposed to.
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Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
2.1.5 Selecting the Measurement Format
You can select several measurement formats for each measurement. The
measurement format selects the way the results are displayed on the vertical axis.
The R&S ZVH provides the following measurement formats in CAT mode.
●
Magnitude (dB Mag)
This is the default format. It shows the magnitude of the results in dB.
●
VSWR
The VSWR shows the standing wave ratio in a cartesian diagram. The VSWR is
the ratio of the maximum voltage and the minimum voltage that occur in an
electrical transmission line. The VSWR format is available for DTF and reflection
measurements.
●
Reflection Coeffcient
Shows the reflection coefficient of the DUT.
The reflection coefficient is the ratio of the amplitude of a reflected wave and that
of the incidental wave that occur in an electrical transmission line.
●
Cable Loss (Short + Open) / 2
This format is a refined method to calculate the cable loss.
When you select the format, the R&S ZVH asks you to calibrate the measurement
with a short and a open. This calculation method of cable loss results in a more
accurate display of the cable loss curve and helps to avoid measurement errors.
For more information on the cable loss measurement see "1-Port Cable Loss
Measurements" on page 33.
The following pictures show the results of a reflection measurement in Magnitude
format (left side) and VSWR format (right side).
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Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
2.1.6 Calibrating Measurements
To get the best and most accurate results, you have to calibrate the measurement. The
R&S ZVH provides several calibration methods. You will need one of the available
calibration standards R&S FSH-Z28, -Z29 (order no. 1300.7804.03 and 1300.7504.03)
or R&S ZV-Z121 (order no. 1164.0496.02/.03).
Alternatively, when you work with the network analyzer, you can create customized
calibration kits with the functionality of the R&S ZVHView software package and use
them on the R&S ZVH.
To successfully calibrate the test setup, you have to connect the calibration standard at
the reference plane, usually the output of the RF measurement cable.
Calibration is performed over the R&S ZVH's entire frequency range (full span). This
eliminates the need for recalibration when you change a parameter or select a different
cable or DUT.
Calibration also remains valid after turning off the R&S ZVH or changing into another
operating mode as calibration data is saved in the internal memory of the R&S ZVH. If
you save the measurement in a dataset, calibration data is part of that dataset. When
you restore the dataset and perform the same measurement again, you do not have to
recalibrate the R&S ZVH.
2.1.6.1
Calibration States
The R&S ZVH features several calibration states that it displays in the status line. The
possible states depend on the calibration type (see below).
●
(fcal)
The R&S ZVH uses factory calibration. Factory calibration is restored after a preset
or self alignment.
The calibration data for the factory calibration is already in the memory of the
R&S ZVH when it is delivered. The factory calibration is a full two-port calibration.
You can restore the factory calibration manually any time.
-
Press the CAL key.
Press the "Cal Settings" softkey.
Select the "User Calibration Off" menu item.
Note that the R&S ZVH discards user calibration over the complete frequency
range after a preset has been done in CAT mode. However, you can also define
that the R&S ZVH keeps user calibration after a preset.
-
Press the SETUP key.
Press the "User Preference" softkey.
Select the "Discard User Calibration" menu item.
Turn it "Off" to keep user calibration after a preset.
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Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
●
(fcal?)
The R&S ZVH uses factory calibration. However, the calibration is not accurate
because the TG power and receiver attenuation are not in line with the default
settings. In that case you should perform calibration.
●
(cal)
The R&S ZVH uses user calibration. To get that state you have to perform either a
full 1-port or a full 2-port calibration.
●
(cal?)
The R&S ZVH uses user calibration. However, the calibration is not accurate
because the TG power and receiver attenuation are not in line with the settings at
the time it has been calibrated. In that case you should perform calibration.
●
(norm)
The R&S ZVH uses normalization. To get that state you have to normalize the
transmission.
●
(norm?)
The R&S ZVH uses normalization. However, the normalization is not accurate
because the TG power and receiver attenuation are not in line with the settings at
the time it has been calibrated. In that case you should perform calibration.
●
(interp) (network analysis only)
The R&S ZVH interpolates the correction data between the reference points of the
calibration. Interpolation is used when you change one of the frequency
parameters (start, stop or center frequency). In that case the distribution of the
measurement points is different to the distribution during calibration. This could
result in an increasing measurement uncertainty.
When calibration has become invalid for any reason or the calibration data has
changed, you can restore the most recent calibration that was valid.
► Press the CAL key.
► Press the "Cal Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Restore Calibration Settings" menu item.
The R&S ZVH restores the calibration data and the frequency settings that were
active.
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Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
2.1.6.2
Calibration Methods
The following calibration types are available in antenna and cable test mode.
●
Full 2-Port
Both test ports are calibrated for a complete set of measurements. The calibration
routine therefore requires the connection of the standards load, open and short to
both test ports, and a through connection of the test ports. The influences of the
test setup and of the isolation between the test ports are thereby determined and
taken into account in the subsequent measurement of the device under test.
While this method is the most time-consuming during calibration, it does provide
the greatest accuracy for all measurements at both test ports without recalibration
and is thus the most flexible.
●
Full 2-Port High Accuracy
Both test ports are calibrated like the full 2-port calibration. In addition, the load
match is taken into account more accurately and correction data is applied in both
directions, forward and reverse.
This method provides even more accurate results than the normal full 2-port
calibration but takes a while longer to finish.
●
Full 1-Port
Test port 1 is calibrated for measurements on that port. The calibration routine
requires the calibration standards open, short and load to be connected one after
another.
●
Easy 1-Port
Test port 1 is calibrated for measurements on that port. The calibration procedure
requires no calibration standards as the R&S ZVH calibrates an open only.
●
Normalize Transmission
Both test ports are calibrated for transmission measurements. The calibration
routine requires only a through connection. In the subsequent measurement, the
isolation between the test ports is not taken into account, a possible cross-talk
between the test ports in the test setup is not eliminated.
●
Normalize Transmission Isolation
This calibration method works like the normalization. However, to take isolation
into account, a load match is also required.
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Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
2.1.6.3
Performing a Full 2-Port Calibration
The procedure below shows a full 2-port calibration routine. All other calibration
methods basically work the same way, except for the type and number of calibration
standards you are going to need.
► Disconnect the DUT from the RF cable.
After disconnecting the DUT, the R&S ZVH is ready for calibration.
► Press the CAL key.
► Press the "Full 2-Port" softkey.
The R&S ZVH asks you to connect
an "Open" to port 1.
► Firmly connect the "Open" of the calibration standard to port 1.
► You can abort the calibration any time by pressing the "Cancel" softkey.
► Press the "Continue" softkey to
start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the
"Open".
► Disconnect the "Open".
Next, the R&S ZVH asks you to
connect a "Short" to port 1.
► Firmly connect the "Short" of the calibration standard to port 1.
► Press the "Continue" softkey to start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the "Short".
► Disconnect the "Short".
Next, the R&S ZVH asks you to
connect a "Load" (50 Ω termination) to
port 1.
► Firmly connect the "Load" of the calibration standard to port 1.
► Press the "Continue" softkey to start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the "Load".
► Disconnect the "Load".
Next, the R&S ZVH asks you to set up
a "Through" connection from port 1 to
port 2.
► Firmly connect the "Through" connection to port 1 and port 2.
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Performing Cable and Antenna Measurements
► Press the "Continue" softkey to start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the "Through" connection.
After finishing the calibration routine, the R&S ZVH shows that calibration is
). The status line now says (Cal) to indicate
finished for a short time (
successful calibration.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2 Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
For valid measurement results, you need to specify the characteristics of the cable
under test like model or frequency range.
2.2.1 Selecting the Cable Model
To determine the speed of propagation, and therefore the precise distance to any
faults, you have to specify the cable model that you want to test.
The R&S ZVH already comes with an assortment of predefined cable models that you
can use without doing anything. If you want to test a cable that is not listed, you can
also define cable models manually, either directly on the R&S ZVH or with the "Cable
Model Editor" of the R&S ZVHView software package that is delivered with the
R&S ZVH.
2.2.1.1
Selecting a Predefined Cable Model
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "DTF Settings" softkey.
► Press the "Cable Config" softkey.
► Select the "Select Cable Model"
menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens the file
manager to select the cable
model.
► Select the cable model that you
are testing.
► Confirm the selection with the
"Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows the currently selected cable model in the diagram header.
► Select the "Deselect Cable Model" item from the "Cable Config" menu if you want
to perform measurements without using a particular cable model.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.1.2
Creating a Cable Model
The R&S ZVH provides two ways to define customized cable models.
The first way is to define a cable model with the "Cable Model Editor" that is part of the
R&S ZVHView software package. The R&S ZVHView is delivered with the R&S ZVH.
With this software, you can define a cable model on a PC and then transfer it to the
R&S ZVH. Then you can select it just like any other predefined cable model.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
If you do not have access to a PC, but still need a cable model that is not stored on the
R&S ZVH, you can also define the characteristics of a cable temporarily on the
R&S ZVH itself. It is not possible to save these in a data set, however. They are lost as
soon as you change them or load another cable model.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "DTF Settings" softkey.
► Press the "Cable Config" softkey.
► Select the "Define User Model" menu item.
A submenu opens.
► Select the "Frequency" menu item.
► Enter the frequency of the cable you are testing.
► Select the "Velocity" menu item.
► Enter the cable velocity.
► Select the "Loss" menu item.
► Enter the cable loss.
You can now perform measurements on the temporary cable definition.
Note that as soon as you change any cable parameter or load another cable
model, the temporary data is lost and you have to define it again if you have to
perform further measurements.
After you have defined the cable characteristics, you still have to activate the use of the
customized cable.
► Press the "Cable Config" softkey.
► Select the "[ ] User Model" menu item.
If the R&S ZVH uses the customized cable model, it shows an [X] at the "User
Model" menu item.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.1.3
Working with a DTF List
The DTF list shows the results of the distance to fault measurement in numerical form.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "DTF Settings" softkey.
► Press the "DTF List" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a table that lists the peaks it has found during the
measurement.
The table contains the following information.
●
Peak
Shows the peak the results refer to.
●
Distance
Shows the distance from the measurement plane to the peak.
●
Return Loss
Shows the magnitude of the peak.
To limit the information in the list, you can define a threshold for the DTF list, so that
only peaks above a certain level are included in the list.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "DTF Settings" softkey.
► Press the "DTF List Threshold" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define a threshold in dB.
► Enter the threshold you want.
The R&S ZVH now only shows the peaks that are above the level you have
entered.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.2 Configuring the Horizontal Axis
The FREQ/DIST key contains all necessary functions to define frequency and distance
parameters when performing cable measurements.
The contents of the menu depend on the currently selected measurement.
2.2.2.1
Setting the Frequency Range for DTF Measurements
In the default setting, the R&S ZVH automatically selects a center frequency of 1 GHz
and a distance of 50 m. The R&S ZVH optimizes the settings for the best resolution, if
you change the stop distance.
If you have to keep the current frequency settings, it is best to define a manual span.
Setting the frequency span
When setting the frequency range, it is best to first set the span and then the center
frequency.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "DTF Span" softkey.
By default, the R&S ZVH automatically calculates the best span ("Auto Span") for
the best length resolution. If the required span is too large for the current center
frequency, the R&S ZVH sets the center frequency to the smallest possible
frequency.
► Select the "Manual Span…" menu item
► Enter the span you need manually.
The R&S ZVH sets the new span. Note that the maximum span you can set
depends on the maximum cable distance you have defined and is never greater
than the span calculated by the "Auto Span" function. The minimum span that you
can set is 10 MHz.
Setting the displayed frequency range
After you have selected the span, you can set a particular frequency range whose
results the R&S ZVH displays.
In the default configuration, the R&S ZVH adjusts the DTF start and DTF stop
frequency according to the span and the center frequency. The distance from center
frequency to the start and stop frequency is the same. Alternatively, you can directly
set a DTF start and DTF stop frequency.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "DTF Center Freq" softkey.
► Enter the frequency that you'd like to be in the center of the horizontal axis.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the frequency range according to span and center
frequency.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "DTF Start Freq" or the "DTF Stop Freq" softkey.
► Enter the start frequency and stop frequency you need.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the frequency range according to your settings.
Note that the distance from start to stop frequency has to be equal to the span.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the values if you enter a frequency range that is not the
same as the span.
2.2.2.2
Setting the Start and Stop Distance for DTF Measurements
The start and stop distance define the scaling of the horizontal axis.
In the default setting, the horizontal axis start at 0 m and covers the maximum or stop
distance you have set. By adjusting the start and stop distance, you can zoom in to a
particular section of the cable for further analysis.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Start Dist" or "Stop Dist"softkey.
► Enter the distance you want the display to start from and to end at.
In auto span mode, the R&S ZVH adjusts the frequency settings in order to get the
best display resolution.
If you have set the span manually, the R&S ZVH zooms in to the section of the
cable you have defined. The results maintain their accuracy in that case.
2.2.2.3
Setting the Frequency Range for CAT Measurements (except DTF)
If you measure the reflection, transmission or cable loss, the displayed frequency
range is defined by the span, the center frequency or start and stop frequencies.
Defining the span
The span you should select depends on the frequency band you are analyzing and the
frequency range you need information about.
The minimum span for both measurements is 10 Hz, the maximum span depends on
the R&S ZVH and is either 3.6 GHz (R&S ZVH4) or 8 GHz (R&S ZVH8).
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Span" softkey.
► Enter the span you need.
The R&S ZVH sets the span you have entered.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
Setting the displayed frequency range
In the default configuration, the R&S ZVH adjusts the start and stop frequency
according to the span and the center frequency, with the center frequency being in the
middle of the horizontal axis. Alternatively, you can directly set the start and stop
frequency.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Center" softkey.
► Enter the center frequency you need.
Alternatively, set the frequency range independent of span and center frequency.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Start" softkey and enter a start frequency.
► Press the "Stop" softkey and enter a stop frequency.
2.2.2.4
Selecting a Signal Standard for CAT Measurements (except DTF)
When you measure the reflection, transmission or cable loss. the R&S ZVH provides
several configurations for measurements on a particular signal standard. When you
select one of these, the R&S ZVH loads the corresponding parameters like center
frequency or span and you do not have set those anymore.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Signal Standard" softkey.
► Select either the "Select Uplink" or "Select Downlink" menu items.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the standard.
► Select the standard you need.
The R&S ZVH loads the settings of the standard you have selected.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.3 Configuring the Vertical Axis
The amplitude menu contains all settings related to the level display.
2.2.3.1
Adjusting the Scale of the Diagram
The R&S ZVH provides several options to improve the vertical scaling of the
measurement diagram.
The unit of the level axis is dB.
Setting the reference value
The reference value defines the amplitude of the reference line. The unit of the
reference is dB. The R&S ZVH indicates the position of the reference value with a
yellow triangle at the vertical axis (
).
When you change the reference value, the R&S ZVH adjusts the labels of the vertical
axis. Changing the reference value changes the vertical position of the trace. It does
not change the position of the reference line.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Ref" softkey.
► Enter the reference value you want or move the reference with the rotary knob.
The R&S ZVH sets up the display accordingly.
Defining the display range
The display range defines the scale of the vertical axis and therefore the amplitude
between two horizontal grid lines.
The unit depends on the measurement format.
When you change the display range, you can increase or decrease the amplitude the
R&S ZVH displays and, e.g. include signal parts that are outside the displayed screen
area. The position of the reference value and the trace do not change.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Range/Ref Pos" softkey.
► Select one of the menu items to select the display range you want.
Adjusting the vertical axis automatically
The R&S ZVH provides an automatic scaling routine that scales the vertical axis in a
way that the results fit ideally on the display. The R&S ZVH does this by determining
the minimum and maximum trace values and scaling the vertical axis according to
these values.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Auto Scale" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs automatic adjustment of the vertical axis.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
Setting the reference position
The reference position defines the position of the reference line in the diagram. The
reference position is a linear value between 0 and 10. Each value represents one
horizontal grid line of the diagram. 0 corresponds to the top grid line and 10
corresponds to the bottom grid line.
When you change the reference position, the R&S ZVH also shifts the position of the
trace by the magnitude of the reference position change. It has no effect on the
reference value itself.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Range/Ref Pos" softkey.
► Select the "Ref Position:" menu item.
► Enter the reference position you want.
The R&S ZVH moves the trace accordingly.
2.2.3.2
Setting the Attenuation
The R&S ZVH provides functions to attenuate the signal at both the tracking generator
output and the RF input.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "TG Power" softkey.
► Enter the attenuation of the signal at the tracking generator output.
You can attenuate the signal from 0 dBm to -40 dBm.
► Press the "Receiver Att" softkey.
► Enter the attenuation of the signal at the RF input.
You can set an RF attenuation in the range from 0 dB to 40 dB in 5 dB steps.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.4 Setting and Triggering the Sweep
When setting up the sweep you have to deal with several parameters that are
interdependent. For easy and quick access, most of these parameters are combined in
the sweep menu.
2.2.4.1
Setting the Measurement Bandwidth
The measurement bandwidth determines the noise figure of the receiver. Small
bandwidths result in higher measurement dynamics for S21 measurements. However,
small bandwidths cause longer measurement times because of the settling time of the
filter. Possible bandwidths are between 100 Hz and 100 kHz in a 1-3 sequence.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
In its default state, the R&S ZVH selects the bandwidth automatically ("Auto Meas
BW" softkey). In that state, the bandwidth is coupled to the span. The default
setting is a compromise between measurement speed and good performance.
► Press the "Manual Meas BW" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the measurement bandwidth.
► Enter the measurement bandwidth you want to work with.
As an indicator that the BW is no longer coupled to the span, the R&S ZVH
displays a red dot in front of the BW item in the hardware settings.
2.2.4.2
Selecting the Sweep Mode
The sweep mode is the way the R&S ZVH performs the measurement.
In its default state, the R&S ZVH measures continuously. In this mode, the R&S ZVH
automatically repeats the sweep in the defined range of the horizontal axis (frequency
or time) and updates the trace accordingly after it has finished with one sweep.
In some cases it may be sufficient to get the results over a single sweep only, e.g. if a
particular trigger condition is met. In single sweep mode, the R&S ZVH performs the
sweep a certain number of times (depending on the number of averages you have set)
over the defined range of the horizontal axis (frequency or time) and then stops
measuring. It performs another sweep only after you tell it to.
For more information on setting the number of sweeps included in a single sweep see
"Selecting the Trace Mode (Average)".
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select the "Single Sweep" menu item.
The R&S ZVH activates single sweep mode.
► Select the "Continuous Sweep" menu item.
The R&S ZVH again starts to measure continuously.
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Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.4.3
Changing the Number of Measurement Points
The number of (measurement) points defines the number of measurements performed
during a sweep. Thus, it indirectly sets the frequencies of those measurements. The
distance from one measurement point to the next depends on the currently set
frequency range (span divided by number of points). However, the measurement
points are spread evenly over the selected frequency range.
The number of points also defines the resolution and, therefore, the accuracy of the
measurement and affects the measurement time. In the default state, the R&S ZVH
evaluates 201 measurement points. This number allows for fast measurement times
and sufficient accuracy. For measurements with a higher or lower frequency resolution,
you can change the number of measurement points. Note that measurement times
increase if you set a higher number of measurement points.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Number of Points" softkey.
► Select the number of measurement points you require from the menu.
2.2.4.4
Holding Measurements
The measurement starts as soon as you start the R&S ZVH. As the cable and antenna
tester measures continuously, the R&S ZVH provides a hold function that stops the
display update and leaves room for further analysis of the measurement results.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Hold" softkey.
The R&S ZVH interrupt the display update.
To resume the display update, press the "Hold" softkey again.
2.2.4.5
Working with Triggers
To respond to events, the R&S ZVH has a variety of trigger functions. The trigger can
either be external or generated internally.
► Press the SWEEP key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
The submenu for setting the trigger opens. By default, Free Run is active.
In CAT mode, the R&S ZVH provides the following trigger functions.
Free Run
A new sweep starts on completion of the previous sweep. This is the default setting for
the R&S ZVH.
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External Rise / External Fall
A sweep starts on the rising edge (RISE) or on the falling edge (FALL) of an external
trigger signal. The external trigger signal is fed in via the BNC connector Ext Trigger.
The switching threshold is 1.4 V, i.e. a TTL signal level.
► Select the trigger you need for your measurement.
The trigger readout (Trig) shows the current trigger setting.
When external trigger are selected, you can delay the start of the measurement with
respect to the trigger event by entering a delay time. In this way, time differences
between the trigger event and the measurement can be allowed for.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select the "Trigger Delay..." menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to specify the trigger delay.
► Enter the trigger delay you require.
The range for the trigger delay is 0 µs to 100 s. The step size depends on the
length of the delay time.
Trigger delay
Step size
0 s to 1 ms
10 µs
1 ms to 10 ms
100 µs
10 ms to 100 ms
1 ms
100 ms to 1 s
10 ms
1 s to 10 s
100 ms
10 s to 100 s
1s
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2.3 Analyzing Measurement Results
2.3.1 Working with Traces
2.3.1.1
Selecting the Trace Mode
The R&S ZVH provides several trace modes. The trace mode defines the way the
R&S ZVH writes the trace.
For information on the trace modes see "Selecting the Trace Mode".
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Trace Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Clear/Write" or "Average:" menu item.
2.3.1.2
Suppressing Interfering Signals
When performing measurements in the field, you may encounter interfering signals
from surrounding signal sources like other antennas. These signals could distort the
actual measurement and therefore lead to false assumptions about faults in the system
you are measuring.
The R&S ZVH provides a method to suppress signals resulting from interfering sources
without affecting the accuracy of the actual measurement.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Trace Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Suppression On" menu item to activate suppression of interference.
The R&S ZVH looks for signals that interfere with the measurement and
suppresses them in the result display. Faults in the system you are measuring are,
however, still displayed correctly.
The R&S ZVH automatically determines the aperture for the suppression. If you want
to apply a particular aperture, you can also set it manually.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Trace Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Aperture Manual" menu item.
The R&S ZVH turns automatic aperture calculation off. The default aperture is 1.
► Press the "Trace Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Aperture Size: 1" menu item.
► Enter a different aperture size according to your measurement.
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2.3.1.3
Working with Memory Traces
The R&S ZVH can transfer a trace to the trace memory and also display the current
trace and the trace in the trace memory for comparison. The saved trace is always
displayed in white to distinguish it from the current trace.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Trace  Memory" softkey.
The R&S ZVH transfers the trace to the trace memory.
► Press the "Show Memory" softkey.
The R&S ZVH displays the saved trace in white.
You can remove the memory trace by pressing the "Show Memory" softkey again.
The memory traces are bit-mapped into the picture memory. Therefore, when the
memory trace is recalled, it will not be adapted to any modifications of the reference
level or span that may have been made in the meantime.
When you load a data set, the R&S ZVH stores the corresponding trace in the trace
memory. You can view that trace with the "Show Memory" softkey.
2.3.1.4
Using Trace Mathematics
For more information see "Using Trace Mathematics" on page 128.
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2.3.2 Using Markers
2.3.2.1
Using Markers and Deltamarkers
The R&S ZVH has six markers, five of which can be used as either markers or delta
markers.
The markers cannot leave the trace and indicate the horizontal and vertical coordinates
of the point they are positioned on. The horizontal position of a marker is shown by a
vertical line which extends from the top to the bottom of the measurement diagram.
The marker list above the diagram area shows the exact coordinates of all markers in
use.
When measuring the distance-to-fault, the horizontal unit is meter or feet. For all other
measurements the horizontal axis is the frequency axis. The unit of the vertical axis is
dB for distance-to-fault and cable loss measurements and dBm for all others.
The position of a delta marker is indicated by a dashed line to distinguish it from a
normal marker. The delta marker level is always a relative to the main marker level and
so the delta marker level unit is always dB. The delta marker frequency is always
relative to the main marker – in other words, the delta marker frequency is the
frequency difference between the frequency at the point marked by the main marker
and the frequency at the point marked by the delta marker.
To measure complex signals, you can activate up to six markers. Marker 1 is always a
normal marker and the reference of all delta markers. Markers 2 to 6 are either
markers or delta markers depending on your set up.
Screen Layout with Active Markers
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Marker list
Marker label: M(x)
Delta marker label: D(x)
Active marker label (red label)
Delta marker (blue dotted line)
Marker (blue line)
Marker input field
Marker menu
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2.3.2.2
Positioning Markers
► Press the MARKER key.
The marker menu opens.
If, as yet, no marker has been activated, the R&S ZVH automatically activates the
main marker and positions it on the maximum level that has been measured. In
addition, the marker frequency input field opens.
You can perform the following actions:
●
Position the marker with the cursor keys.
When positioning the marker with the cursor keys, the step size is 10% of the
span.
●
Position the marker with the rotary knob
When positioning the marker with the rotary knob, the step size is one pixel.
●
Enter a marker position with the number keys and confirm the entry with one of the
unit keys.
► Confirm the marker position with the ENTER key.
The marker input field closes.
By default, the marker list above the diagram area is active. The marker list shows
the horizontal position of all markers and the corresponding vertical value. If
inactive, the list shows only the coordinates of markers 1 and 2.
You can turn it off and on again whenever you like.
► Press the "View List" softkey.
The marker list turns off or on, depending on its original state.
2.3.2.3
Positioning a Delta Marker
When a normal marker is already in use, you can add delta markers.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "New Marker" softkey.
The R&S ZVH activates a delta marker and positions it on the next maximum level
that has been measured. In addition, the delta marker input field opens.
The R&S ZVH adds the delta marker to the marker list and shows the marker
position relative to the normal marker (M1).
You can perform the following actions:
●
●
Enter a delta marker position with the number keys and confirm the entry with one
of the unit keys.
Change the delta marker position with the rotary knob or the cursor keys.
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Analyzing Measurement Results
► Confirm the delta marker position with the ENTER key.
The delta marker input field closes.
► To add more markers, press the "New Marker" softkey several times until you have
the number of markers you want in the display.
2.3.2.4
Selecting the Marker Type
When you add new markers, they will be delta markers by default. Their coordinates
are relative to the first marker (M1). You can turn delta markers into normal markers if
you need absolute information about the marker position.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Select the delta marker you want to convert with the "Select Marker" softkey.
The corresponding marker symbol turns red and the marker input field opens.
► Press the "Marker Type" softkey.
The delta marker turns into a normal marker. Its label changes accordingly (e.g. D2
to M2) and its coordinates are now absolute values.
2.3.2.5
Automatic Positioning of Markers
The R&S ZVH offers functions that make setting the markers easier or allow to make
instrument settings on the basis of the current marker position:
●
"Set to Peak"
The Peak function places the active marker or the delta marker on the highest level
value of the trace.
●
"Set to Next Peak"
The Next Peak function places the active marker or delta marker on the next
highest level value of the trace, relative to its current position.
●
"Set to Minimum"
The Minimum function places the active marker or delta marker on the lowest
value of the trace.
► Press the MKR key.
► Press the "Set to Peak", "Set to Next Peak" or "Set to Minimum" softkey.
The R&S ZVH positions the marker accordingly.
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2.3.2.6
Removing Markers
Remove markers any time you want.
Removing selected markers
► Select the marker you want to delete with the "Select Marker" softkey.
The corresponding marker symbol turns red and the marker input field opens.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Delete Marker" softkey.
► Select the "Delete Selected" menu item.
► Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH deletes the marker.
Deactivating markers
If you delete marker 1 (M1), all delta markers that are relative to that marker are also
deleted.
Removing delta markers only
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Delete Marker" softkey.
► Select the "Delete All Delta" menu item.
► Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH deletes all delta markers.
Removing all markers at the same time.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Delete Marker" softkey.
► Select the "Delete All" menu item.
► Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH deletes all markers and delta markers.
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2.3.2.7
Using Marker Search Limits
The R&S ZVH allows you to use only a limited section of the trace for the "Set to
Peak", "Set to Next Peak" and "Minimum" functions.
► Press the MKR key.
► Press the "Search Limits" softkey.
► Select the "Search Limits On/Off" menu item.
► Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH activates the marker search limits.
An [X] indicates an active search limit. Two vertical red lines show the lower and upper
limits in the diagram.
By default, the search limit range is over the whole span.
► Press the "Search Limits" softkey
► Select the "Lower Limit" menu item.
► Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the lower limit of the search range.
► Enter the lower limit.
► Confirm the entry with one of the unit keys.
If the span is wide enough, the R&S ZVH displays a red vertical line to indicate the
lower limit.
► Define the upper search limit the same way.
Deactivating marker search limits
► Press the "Search Limits" softkey.
► Select the "Search Limits On/Off" menu item.
► Confirm the selection.
The "Search Limits" softkey turns grey again and in the "Search Limits" menu, the
[X] is no longer displayed.
2.3.3 Using Display and Limit Lines
The display and limit line functionality in CAT mode is the same as that of the spectrum
analyzer mode.
For more information on using the display line see "Using Display Lines" on page 133.
For more information on using limit lines see "Using Limit Lines" on page 134.
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Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
3 Working with the Measurement Wizard
When testing antennas and cables it is often necessary to perform a sequence of
standardized and recurring measurements, often in an environment that is not easily
accessible. To make sure that measurements are performed as required and to avoid
a constant adjustment of parameters, the R&S ZVH features a measurement wizard.
The measurement wizard combines several measurement configurations to a
sequence of measurements (or measurement set). Because all relevant parameters
have been set prior to the actual measurement and cannot be changed once the
measurement procedure has begun, the wizard is a good way to avoid mistakes and
save time when setting up measurements.
This chapter describes the functionality of the measurement wizard. For details on the
individual measurements you can perform with the wizard, refer to the corresponding
chapters.
●
●
●
●
Cable and Antenna Test Mode on page 29
Spectrum Analyzer Mode (R&S ZVH-K1) on page 68
Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9) on page 141
Network Analyzer Mode (R&S ZVH-K42) on page 152
You can use the wizard for measurements in all operating modes.
Note that it is necessary to install and use the R&S ZVHView software package to use
the full functionality of the measurement wizard.
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3.1.1 Preparing the Measurement
Before you can use the measurement wizard you have to define a measurement set
with the R&S ZVHView software package and transfer it to the R&S ZVH.
The R&S ZVHView software package is delivered with the R&S ZVH. The latest
version is also available for download on the R&S ZVH website at
http://www2.rohde-schwarz.com/product/ZVH.html
3.1.1.1
Creating a Measurement Set
A measurement set consists of several datasets. A dataset is a file that contains the
settings of a specific R&S ZVH configuration, for example frequency, scaling etc. To
get hold of a dataset, set up the R&S ZVH as you need and save the configuration or
use one of the predefined datasets.
For more information on datasets see "Saving Datasets" on page 21.
► Start the R&S ZVHView software on your PC.
► Select the "Wizard Set Editor" with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog that provides all functionality to manage
measurement sets.
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Name of the measurement set
Description of the measurement task
Font type for on-screen instructions (latin and some asian fonts are supported)
Measurement set password protection
Measurement sequence control
Calibration method
Cable characteristics (length and model)
Control of cable characteristics (model and length) after individual measurements
List of datasets that are available via the PC
List of datasets that are currently part of the measurement set
File management options
Preview dataset button
► Set up the measurement set as you like by adding or removing datasets.
The editor also allows you to add comments to each measurement that is part of the
measurement set. You can also rename the measurement.
► Select one of the datasets and click on the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens another dialog box.
In this dialog box, you can
-
see the name of the selected dataset
define a name for the corresponding measurement
include instructions (verbal or graphical) about performing the measurement
define several hardware settings as described in the Quick Start Guide.
select a calibration method specific for that measurement
You can add instructions for every measurement that you include in the set to
avoid handling measurements incorrectly.
The R&S ZVH shows these instructions before the measurement starts.
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Password protection for measurement sets
It is possible to protect the contents of measurement sets with a password from
unauthorized access.
If you protect a measurement set, you are able to edit the contents of the
measurement set only after you have entered the correct password.
In addition, you can control who is using the measurement sets by limiting its access
to a particular set of R&S ZVH serial numbers only. All other devices will not be able
to process these wizard files.
3.1.1.2
Uploading Measurement Sets
In order to perform the actual measurements, you have to upload the wizard definition
file that contains the set of measurements to the R&S ZVH.
► Select the "Wizard Set Control" function with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the measurement set(s) to upload.
► Select the measurement set you want to upload.
► Copy the files with the
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3.1.2 Using the Measurement Wizard
Now that the measurement set is available on the R&S ZVH you can start performing
measurements.
3.1.2.1
Starting the Measurement Wizard
► Press the WIZARD key.
The R&S ZVH opens the wizard dialog box. The dialog box contains information
that you may later use for documentation purposes.
► Press the "Load Meas Set" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the wizard defintion file.
► Select the file that contains the
measurement set that you require.
► Confirm the selection with the
"Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH returns to the
measurement wizard dialog box. It
now displays information about the
measurement set you have just
loaded.
The dialog box contains the following information:
●
Measurement Definition
Name of the wizard definition file currently in use. Pressing the ENTER key on this
field has the same effect as the "Load Meas Set" softkey.
●
Measurement Description
Short description of the measurement task. This is a read only field that shows the
description as defined with the R&S ZVHView software.
●
User
Name of the person that performs the measurement.
●
Number of Sequence Steps to Perform
Number of individual measurements in the measurement sequence.
The field allows you to reduce the number of individual measurements and perform
only those measurements that are really necessary. If you reduce the number of
measurements, the R&S ZVH omits the last measurements in the sequence.
You can edit this field only if you have turned on the "Allow Variable Number of
Sequence Steps" in the "Wizard Set Editor" of the R&S ZVHView software.
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●
Site Name
Location of the measurement. This field is available on the R&S ZVH only.
●
Comments
Comments about the measurement, e.g. the external conditions during the
measurement.
●
GPS Position
Shows the GPS position, if you have connected a GPS receiver. Pressing the
ENTER key on this field results in an update of the GPS coordinates.
●
Use Wizard Cable Settings
Determines if you want to use the cable characteristics as defined in the
measurement set or if you want to be able change cable characteristics on site.
Select "Yes" to use the predefined cable characteristics. In That case the
parameters below will be locked.
●
Cable Model
Cable model that you perform the measurement on. You can define a cable model
with the R&S ZVHView software, but can also change the cable model on short
notice, if necessary.
●
Clear Cable Model
Deactivates the currently active cable model.
●
Cable Length
Length of the cable that you perform the measurement on.
●
Calibration
Calibration method to use before the measurement starts. This is a read only field,
the calibration method has to be defined with R&S ZVHView.
You have to calibrate the R&S ZVH before you can begin with the measurement
sequence defined in the wizard. If the R&S ZVH has already been calibrated with
the defined routine prior to starting the wizard, the R&S ZVH skips the calibration
and directly starts the measurement.
●
Measurements
List of all individual measurements (datasets) that need to be performed for
successful completion of the measurement task. The list also shows the
measurements that still need to be performed.
Some parameters of the measurement setup you can still change directly on the
R&S ZVH. These are mainly parameters whose details may not be available when you
define the measurement set or whose details may differ depending on the
measurement site, e.g. the cable length or the cable model if it is different to the one
defined previously.
► To change a parameter, select it with the cursor keys and activate the
corresponding input field with the ENTER key.
► Update all parameters that are not correct for the current measurement.
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3.1.2.2
Performing a Sequence of Measurements
Now that you have updated all parameters concerning the measurement task, you can
start the measurement procedure.
► Press the "Start Meas Set" softkey.
If you have not yet calibrated the R&S ZVH for the measurement, it asks you to
perform the calibration routine. The stages of the calibration depend on the defined
calibration routine.
For more information see "Calibrating Measurements" on page 35.
Measurement sequence
After having successfully calibrated the R&S ZVH, it starts to go through the
measurements that are part of the measurement set. The sequence of measurements
is as defined with R&S ZVHView.
Before each measurement, the
R&S ZVH shows a message box.
The message box contains the information and instructions on how to prepare and
perform the measurement that you have defined with the R&S ZVHView software.
► Make the necessary preparations, like connecting the cable.
► Press the "Confirm" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs the measurement as defined in the dataset and
measurement set. When finished, it shows the measurement results and says
.
Note that it is not possible to change any measurement parameters while using the
measurement wizard. Marker functionality and scaling parameters are, however,
available.
Changing cable characteristics
If necessary, you can define different cable characteristics (cable model and length)
after each individual measurement. This is useful, for example, if you want to do the
same measurements on different cables at one go.
This feature is available when you turn on "Prompt User to Change Cable Settings" in
the "Wizard Set Editor" of the R&S ZVHView software.
When this function is on, the R&S ZVH asks you to select new cable characteristics
during the preparation of a measurement.
► Press the "Yes" softkey if changes are required and select new cable
characteristics before proceeding with the measurement.
► Press the "No" softkey if changes are not required and proceed with the
measurement.
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After each measurement step, you have several options:
-
Continue with the next measurement ("Continue" softkey).
Finishes the current measurement and begins with the next measurement by
showing the necessary preparations.
-
Repeat the current measurement ("Repeat Meas" softkey).
Repeats the current measurement, e.g. if the results don't match your
expectations and you want to validate the results.
-
Interrupt the measurement set sequence ("Interrupt Wizard" softkey).
Interrupting the sequence of measurements may become necessary if the
measurement doesn't yield the expected results (e.g. violated limit lines).
In that case, you can interrupt the measurement sequence and try to find the
origin of the problem by using different settings or measurements than those
defined in the wizard.
When you interrupt the wizard sequence, the complete functionality is
available as if you would not use the wizard.
When you interrupt a measurement sequence, the R&S ZVH keeps the results
of measurements you have already performed.
When you are finished reconfiguring the measurement, press the WIZARD key
and resume the measurement sequence with the "Resume Sequence" softkey.
-
Skip a measurement ("Skip Meas" softkey).
Skips a single measurement and initiates the subsequent measurement.
Skipping individual measurements is possible when you turn on "Allow to skip
measurements and finish wizard sequence" in the "Wizard Set Editor" of the
R&S ZVHView software.
-
End the measurement sequence ("Finish Wizard" softkey).
Ends the measurement sequence and returns to the "Measurement Wizard"
dialog box. The results of the measurements you have already finished are
kept in the memory of the R&S ZVH.
Ending the sequence is possible when you turn on "Allow to skip
measurements and finish wizard sequence" in the "Wizard Set Editor" of the
R&S ZVHView software.
-
Abort the measurement sequence ("Cancel" softkey).
Aborts the measurement and returns to the "Measurement Wizard" dialog box.
The results of the measurements you have already finished are lost.
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When you have finished all measurements that are part of the measurement set, the
R&S ZVH asks you if you want to save the measurement results.
► Press the "Save Meas Results" softkey.
The R&S ZVH saves the results on the selected storage device.
Limited internal memory
If you have to store the results on the internal memory, make sure that it has enough
space left to store them. Else the results might get lost. If the space is not enough, you
can delete old data with the file manager.
For more information see "Deleting Datasets" on page 27.
The results for a measurement set consist of a number of files, each file corresponding
to one of the performed measurements. For easy evaluation, the R&S ZVH includes
the name of the measurement as defined in the wizard dialog or R&S ZVHView in the
file name.
All result files that belong to a measurement set are stored in the same directory. The
directory is named after the measurement name and site. The syntax is
'sitename_measurement_#'.
The R&S ZVH adds numbers in ascending order to files as well as directories if you
perform a measurement or measurement set more than once.
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3.1.3 Evaluating Results
The R&S ZVHView software provides functionality to evaluate results and compile
measurement reports. However, before you can start to evaluate the results you have
to download the results to your computer.
► Select the "Wizard Result Control" function with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the measurement set(s) to download.
► Select the measurement set you want to upload.
► Copy the files with the
button.
Now that the results are available, you can start to compile a measurement report with
the R&S ZVHView.
► Select the "Report Generator" with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog that provides all functionality to manage
measurement sets.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Source folder of the datasets
Preview of a particular dataset
Measurement data to be included in the report
Selection of the included information on each report page
Selection of the output format
Save/load a report
With the report editor, you can create measurement reports for the full measurement
set or a selection of dataset only. You can also perform simple tasks like activating or
deactivating markers that have been set during the measurement.
► Add the results you want to include in the report by setting a checkmark or
removing the checkmark in the report pane.
► Select the report format you would like.
► Create the report with the "Save" button.
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Spectrum Analyzer Mode (R&S ZVH-K1)
Performing Spectrum Measurements
4 Spectrum Analyzer Mode (R&S ZVH-K1)
If you equip the R&S ZVH with firmware option R&S ZVH-K1, you are able to perform
spectrum measurements. This measurement mode provides the functionality to
perform e.g. channel power measurements.
4.1 Performing Spectrum Measurements
In addition to basic spectrum measurements, the R&S ZVH provides several specific
measurements. These measurements, also in combination with one of the available
accessories, allow you to perform advanced and more complex measurement tasks.
4.1.1 Measuring Basic Signal Characteristics
Basic spectrum measurements determine the spectrum of a signal in the frequency
domain or keep track of a signal in the time domain. They provide a basic overview of
the input signal characteristics.
Frequency domain
In the frequency domain, the R&S ZVH analyzes the input signal characteristics over a
particular span. You can use it, for example, to obtain basic measurement results like
peak levels and the shape of the spectrum.
The horizontal axis shows the frequency, the vertical axis shows the signal levels.
The measurement in the frequency domain is the default measurement mode.
Time domain
In the time domain, the R&S ZVH analyzes the characteristics of a signal at a particular
frequency over time. The span during time domain measurements is 0 (zero span
mode). You can use time domain measurements, for example to monitor the
characteristics of a signal.
The horizontal axis shows the time, the vertical axis shows the signal levels.
To perform a time domain measurement, you have to set the span to zero manually.
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4.1.2 Measuring the Channel Power of Continuously Modulated Signals
The channel power measurement selectively measures the power of modulated
signals. Unlike a power meter that performs measurements over its entire frequency
range, the channel power measurement measures the power of a specific transmission
channel. Other signals in the frequency spectrum don't show in the results.
When measuring the spectrum within a channel, the R&S ZVH uses a resolution
bandwidth that is small compared to the channel bandwidth. It then determines the
total power of the channel by integrating the results on the trace. The R&S ZVH takes
the following parameters into account:
●
●
●
display mode (absolute or relative)
detector
resolution bandwidth
That means that you can compare the result to the result that would have been
obtained from a thermal power meter. The small resolution bandwidth acts like a
narrow channel filter and so prevents out-of-channel emissions from affecting the
result.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Channel Power" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts to measure the channel power.
By default, the 3GPP WCDMA standard is active. Two vertical lines show the
channel bandwidth.
Screen layout for channel power measurements
1
2
3
4
5
Standard
Channel bandwidth
Channel power numerical
Channel bandwidth graphical (blue lines)
Channel power measurement softkey menu
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4.1.2.1
Selecting the Standard
If you need to perform measurements that are conform to a telecommunications
standard, you can activate one of the predefined standards that are already stored in
the R&S ZVH memory. However, you can create new configurations to perform
measurements on other standards as well.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Standard" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the standard.
► Select one of the available standards.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the configuration of the selected standard. It automatically
sets the optimal span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, sweep time and
detector for the standard.
If the measurement is not according to the selected standard anymore (e.g. if you
make changes to a parameter), the R&S ZVH puts a red dot in front of the
).
standard display (
You can create and edit standards with the R&S ZVHView software and transfer them
to the R&S ZVH via the USB or the LAN interface. The number of standards the
R&S ZVH can store in its memory depends on the number of other data sets stored on
the R&S ZVH.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
4.1.2.2
Setting the Reference Level
The reference level is the power level that the R&S ZVH expects at the RF input. When
selecting the reference level, make sure that you do not overload the R&S ZVH by
applying a signal whose power exeeds the maximum reference level.
As the power is measured with a small resolution bandwidth compared to the signal
bandwidth, it is still possible to overload the R&S ZVH, even if the trace is within the
measurement diagram. To prevent an overload, perform the measurement with the
largest resolution bandwidth possible using the peak detector. If you set these
parameters, it is not possible for the trace to exceed the reference level.
To simplify operation and to prevent incorrect measurements, the R&S ZVH has an
automatic routine for setting the reference level.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Level Adjust" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs a
measurement to determine the
optimal reference level.
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It uses a resolution bandwidth of 1 MHz, a video bandwidth of 1 MHz and the peak
detector. After finishing the automatic measurement, the R&S ZVH sets the optimal
reference level.
4.1.2.3
Setting the Channel Bandwidth
The channel bandwidth specifies the frequency range around the center frequency,
over which the R&S ZVH performs the power measurement.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Chan BW" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to specify the channel bandwidth.
► Enter the channel bandwidth you need.
The R&S ZVH sets the appropriate span for the channel bandwidth that you have
entered (span = 1.2 x channel bandwidth). This ensures that no incorrect channel
power measurements are made.
The minimum channel bandwidth that you can set is 833 Hz at a span of 1 kHz.
4.1.2.4
Changing the Span
Usually, the span the R&S ZVH sets yields optimal results. But sometimes you also
need to see the spectrum outside the current span to detect other signal components
that you need to include in the measurement. Therefore, you can adjust the span to up
to ten times the channel bandwidth and hence still be able to see the spectrum outside
the measurement channel.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
In the default configuration, "Auto Span" is active. The R&S ZVH automatically sets
the optimal span for the channel power measurement.
► Press the "Manual Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the span manually.
► Enter the span you need.
The largest possible span for the channel power measurement is ten times the
channel bandwidth. At larger spans, the result of the channel power measurement
would be increasingly imprecise, because too few points of the trace would be in
the channel you are measuring.
► Press the "Auto Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH again calculates the span automatically.
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4.1.2.5
Measuring the Maximum Channel Power
If signal levels fluctuate significantly, you can define the maximum channel power with
the Max Hold function.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Power Display" softkey.
► Select the "Max Hold" menu item.
The power display switches from "Power" to "Max Power".
If you want to deactivate the Max Hold function and return to the normal power display,
activate Clear/Write.
► To deactivate the Max Hold function, press the "Power Display" softkey.
► Select the "Clear/Write" menu item.
The power display returns to "Power" display.
4.1.2.6
Unit for Power Display
The R&S ZVH can apply different units to the power output. The default unit is dBm.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Power Unit" softkey.
► Select the unit you want from the submenu.
The R&S ZVH displays the power level in the selected unit.
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4.1.3 Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth
The proper operation of a transmission network requires that all transmitters adhere to
the bandwidths assigned to them. The occupied bandwidth is defined as the bandwidth
that contains a specified percentage of the entire power of the transmitter.
Numerous standards require a occupied bandwidth of 99 %. Therefore this is the
default setting. If you need another percentage for the occupied bandwidth you can set
values from 10 % to 99.9 %.
After entering the channel bandwidth, the R&S ZVH automatically selects the
measurement parameters so that you can attain the best result.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the measurement menu.
► Select the "Occupied BW" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts to measure the occupied bandwidth.
Two vertical lines show the occupied bandwidth.
Screen layout for the occupied bandwidth
1
2
3
4
5
5
Standard
Occupied bandwidth numerical
Channel bandwidth
Power percentage
Occupied bandwidth graphical (blue lines)
Occupied bandwidth measurement softkey menu
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4.1.3.1
Selecting a Standard
If you need to perform measurements that are conform to a telecommunications
standard, you can activate one of the predefined standards that are already stored in
the R&S ZVH memory. However, you can create new configurations to perform
measurements on other standards as well.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Standard" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the standard.
► Select one of the available standards.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the configuration of the selected standard. It automatically
sets the optimal span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, sweep time and
detector for the standard.
You can create and edit standards with the R&S ZVHView software and transfer them
to the R&S ZVH via the USB or the LAN interface. The number of standards the
R&S ZVH can store in its memory depends on the number of other data sets stored on
the R&S ZVH.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
If you make changes to the settings or create datasets, note that
●
●
●
●
●
4.1.3.2
the span is always coupled to the channel bandwidth. Changes to either of those
automatically adjust the other (= 5 x channel bandwidth).
the resolution bandwidth should be between 1 % and 4 % of the channel
bandwidth. This ensures that the occupied bandwidth is measured with high
accuracy.
the video bandwidth must be at least three times the resolution bandwidth. This
prevents incorrect results due to the compression of signal peaks by the video
filter.
you use the RMS detector if possible. This ensures that the power measurement is
always correct irrespective of the waveform being investigated.
the sweep time must be set so that the result is stable. If you increase the sweep
time, the R&S ZVH also increases the integration time for the RMS detector and
thus ensures more stable measured values.
Setting the Reference Level
The reference level is the power level that the R&S ZVH expects at the RF input. When
selecting the reference level, make sure that you do not overload the R&S ZVH by
applying a signal whose power exeeds the maximum reference level.
As the power is measured with a small resolution bandwidth compared to the signal
bandwidth, it is still possible to overload the R&S ZVH, even if the trace is within the
measurement diagram.
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To prevent an overload, perform the measurement with the largest resolution
bandwidth possible using the peak detector. If you set these parameters, it is not
possible for the trace to exceed the reference level.
To simplify operation and to prevent incorrect measurements, the R&S ZVH has an
automatic routine for setting the reference level.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Level Adjust" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs a measurement to determine the ideal reference level.
It uses a resolution bandwidth of 1 MHz, a video bandwidth of 1 MHz and the peak
detector. After finishing the automatic measurement, the R&S ZVH sets the ideal
reference level.
4.1.3.3
Setting the Channel Bandwidth
The channel bandwidth specifies the frequency range around the center frequency,
over which the R&S ZVH performs the power measurement.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Chan BW" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to specify the channel bandwidth.
► Enter the channel bandwidth you need.
The R&S ZVH sets the appropriate span for the channel bandwidth that you have
entered (span = 5 x channel bandwidth). This ensures that no incorrect channel
power measurements are made.
The minimum channel bandwidth that you can set is 2 kHz at a span of 1 kHz.
4.1.3.4
Defining the Percentage of Occupied Bandwidth
By default, the power percentage inside the occupied bandwidth is 99 %, a number
most standards require. If you measure standards that specify another power
percentage you can change that value.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "% Power BW" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the power percentage.
► Enter the power percentage you need.
The value you enter here is the power percentage that has to be inside the channel
bandwidth relative to the power over the total span (the percentage of the total
power).
The R&S ZVH now displays the occupied bandwidth graphically in the trace
window and numerically above the trace window.
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4.1.3.5
Changing the Span
Usually, the span the R&S ZVH sets yields optimal results. But sometimes you also
need to see the spectrum outside the current span to detect other signal components
that you need to include in the measurement. Therefore, you can adjust the span to up
to ten times the channel bandwidth and still be able to see the spectrum outside the
measurement channel.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
In the default configuration, "Auto Span" is active. The R&S ZVH automatically sets
the optimal span for the channel power measurement.
► Press the "Manual Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the span manually.
► Enter the span you need.
The largest possible span for the channel power measurement is ten times the
channel bandwidth. At larger spans, the result of the channel power measurement
would be increasingly imprecise, because too few points of the trace occur in the
channel to be measured.
► Press the "Auto Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH again calculates the span automatically.
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4.1.4 Power Measurements on TDMA Signals
When TDMA (time division multiple access) methods are used, e.g. for GSM, several
users share a channel. Each user is assigned a period of time or timeslot. With the
TDMA power measurement, you can determine the power over one of the timeslots.
The TDMA power measurement is a measurement in the time domain (span = 0 Hz).
You can start it on an external or video trigger and specify the power measurement
time.
To prevent incorrect power measurements in the time domain, make sure that the
whole signal is within the selected resolution bandwidth. If the resolution bandwidth is
too small, the displayed power will be lower than the actual power.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the measurement menu.
► Select the "TDMA Power" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts to measure the TDMA power.
Two vertical lines define the measurement range.
Screen layout for TDMA power measurements
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Standard
TDMA power
Measurement limits
Trigger delay
Trigger level
Measurement time
TDMA power measurement softkey menu
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4.1.4.1
Selecting a Standard
If you need to perform measurements that are conform to a telecommunications
standard, you can activate one of the predefined standards that are already stored in
the R&S ZVH memory. When starting the measurement in the default configuration,
the R&S ZVH automatically activates the GSM/EDGE standard. However, you can
create new configurations to perform measurements on other standards as well.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Standard" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the standard.
► Select one of the available standards.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the configuration of the selected standard. It automatically
sets the optimal settings for the selected standard.
You can create and edit standards with the R&S ZVHView software and transfer them
to the R&S ZVH via the USB or the LAN interface. The number of standards the
R&S ZVH can store in its memory depends on the number of other data sets stored on
the R&S ZVH.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
4.1.4.2
Setting the Burst Length
The burst length is the measurement time that the R&S ZVH performs measurements
with. The burst length can be equal or less than the sweep time.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Burst Length" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the burst length.
► Enter the length of the burst you need.
The R&S ZVH performs the measurement over the time you have entered.
If the measurement time you have entered was greater than the sweep time, the
R&S ZVH sets a burst length equal to the sweep time. To work with a greater burst
length, you have to increase the sweep time first.
The minimum burst length is the time corresponding to one trace pixel (= sweep
time / 631).
4.1.4.3
Setting the Reference Level
The reference level is the power level that the R&S ZVH expects at the RF input. When
selecting the reference level, make sure that you do not overload the R&S ZVH by
applying a signal whose power exeeds the maximum reference level.
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Because the resolution bandwidths of the R&S ZVH are implemented digitally after the
A/D converter, the signal level at the A/D converter can be higher than the level
indicated by the trace, depending on the selected resolution bandwidth.
To prevent the A/D converter from being overloaded, the signal must be measured at
the widest resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth with the peak detector. The trace
maximum then determines the best reference level.
To simplify operation and to prevent incorrect measurements, the R&S ZVH has an
automatic routine for setting the reference level.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Level Adjust" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs a measurement to determine the ideal reference level.
It uses a resolution bandwidth of 3 MHz, a video bandwidth of 3 MHz and the peak
detector. After finishing the automatic measurement, the R&S ZVH sets the ideal
reference level.
4.1.4.4
Using a Trigger
Usually you will apply a trigger when measuring bursts.
If a trigger is active, the R&S ZVH uses the video trigger for TDMA measurements by
default. The video trigger level is at 50 % of the range of the vertical axis but is
variable. This means, the R&S ZVH triggers a measurement if the rising edge of the
burst exceeds this 50 % line.
If the DUT features some sort of trigger equipment, you can also use an external
trigger to trigger measurements.
► Connect the DUT trigger output to the R&S ZVH trigger input.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select either the "External Rise" or "External Fall" menu item (rising or falling
edge).
The R&S ZVH activates the trigger and shows the results of the measurement.
It may be that the burst is not completely visible on the display. To correct that and
make the whole burst visible, you can set a trigger delay.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select the "Trigger Delay" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the trigger delay.
► Adjust the trigger delay until the burst is visible inside the vertical lines that show
the measurement range.
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4.1.5 Measuring the Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR)
The Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) measurement is a method to measure
the power over more than one transmission channel and also evaluate the power of
the adjacent (or alternate) channels of the transmission channel. The ACLR performs
measurements according to a specific channel configuration, e.g. a particular radio
communications standard.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the measurement menu.
► Select the "ACLR" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts to measure the adjacent channel leakage ratio.
In principle, the ACLR measurement works like the channel power measurement in
that it determines the spectrum within the channel using a resolution bandwidth that is
small compared to the channel bandwidth. In addition to the channel bandwidth, the
ACLR measurement is also defined by the channel spacing, the bandwidth of adjacent
channels and the adjacent channel spacing. The R&S ZVH supports measurements on
up to 12 carrier channels and 12 adjacent channels to either side of the carrier. When
measuring more than one carrier or adjacent channels, the R&S ZVH shows the
powers of each channel in a list below the marker list. The channel itself is marked by
red (transmission channels) or green (adjacent channels) vertical lines.
Screen Layout for ACLR measurements
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Standard
Marker information
Limit check information
Channel information
TX channel (red line)
Adjacent channel (green line)
Alternate channels (green lines)
Marker (blue line)
ACLR softkey menu
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The predefined standards are the same as for channel power measurements (3GPP
WCDMA, cdmaOne and CDMA2000 1x systems). However, you can also customize
the settings to set up the R&S ZVH for other radio communication standards. You can
define the settings directly on the R&S ZVH or define and manage them using the
R&S ZVHView software.
When customizing settings, make sure to consider the following points to get valid and
accurate measurement results:
●
Reference level
Make sure not to overload the R&S ZVH as the power is measured with a
resolution bandwidth that is small in comparison with the signal bandwidth. As with
Channel Power measurements, automatically set the reference to an optimal level
with the "Level Adjust" softkey.
●
Setting the span
The frequency span must at least cover the carriers and the adjacent channels
plus a measurement margin of about 10 % to get valid results.
If the span is automatically calculated by the R&S ZVH with the "Auto Span"
function, the span is calculated as follows:
(No. of transmission channels - 1) x transmission channel spacing +
2 x transmission channel bandwidth + measurement margin
with the measurement margin being approx. 10 % of the value obtained by adding
the channel spacing and the channel bandwidth.
Selecting the frequency span
If the frequency span is too large in comparison to the channel bandwidth (or the
adjacent-channel bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the trace are
available per channel. This reduces the accuracy of the waveform calculation for the
channel filter used, which has a negative effect on the measurement accuracy. It is
therefore strongly recommended that the formulas mentioned be taken into
consideration when selecting the frequency span.
●
Setting the resolution bandwidth:
The RBW should not be too high or too small to get both an acceptable
measurement speed and a suppression of spectral components outside the
channels. As a rule of thumb, it is recommended to set it to about 1 % to 4 % of the
channel bandwidth.
You can select a larger resolution bandwidth if the spectrum within the channel to
be measured and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting, e.g. for
standard cdmaOne at an adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a resolution
bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct results since the spectrum in the
neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant level.
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For standard NADC/IS136 this would not be not possible, for example, since the
spectrum of the transmit signal penetrates into the adjacent channels and a too
large resolution bandwidth causes a too low selection of the channel filter. The
adjacent-channel power would thus be measured too high.
If the RBW is automatically calculated by the R&S ZVH with the "Auto RBW"
function, the RBW is calculated as follows:
RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth
The R&S ZVH then selects the maximum possible resolution bandwidth resulting
from the available RBW steps (1, 3).
●
Setting the video bandwidth
To obtain correct power measurements, the video signal must not be limited in
bandwidth. A restricted bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause
signal averaging and thus result in a too low indication of the power (-2.51 dB at
very low video bandwidths). Therefore, the VBW should be at least three times the
resolution bandwidth.
If the VBW is automatically calculated by the R&S ZVH with the "Auto VBW"
function, the VBW is calculated as follows:
VBW ≥ 3 x RBW
The R&S ZVH then selects the smallest possible VBW with regard to the available
step size.
●
Selecting the detector:
It is best to use the RMS detector. This detector correctly indicates the power
irrespective of the characteristics of the signal to be measured. The whole IF
envelope is used to calculate the power for each measurement point. The IF
envelope is digitized using a sampling frequency which is at least five times the
resolution bandwidth which has been selected. Based on the sample values, the
power is calculated for each measurement point using the following formula:
PRMS =
1 N 2
⋅ si
N i =1
∑
with
si = linear digitized video voltage at the output of the A/D converter
N = number of A/D converter values per measurement point
PRMS = power represented by a measurement point
When the power has been calculated, the power units are converted into decibels
and the value is displayed as a measurement point.
In principle, the sample detector would be possible as well. Due to the limited
number of measurement points used to calculate the power in the channel, the
sample detector would yield less stable results.
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4.1.5.1
Selecting a Standard
If you need to perform measurements that are conform to a telecommunications
standard, you can activate one of the predefined standards that are already stored in
the R&S ZVH memory. Those predefined standards have already been set up to yield
the best results. However, the R&S ZVH provides functionality to create new
configurations to perform measurements on other test setups as well.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Standard" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the standard.
► Select one of the available standards.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the configuration of the selected standard. It automatically
sets the optimal span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, sweep time and
detector for the standard.
You can create and edit standards with the R&S ZVHView software and transfer them
to the R&S ZVH via the USB or the LAN interface. The number of standards the
R&S ZVH can store in its memory depends on the number of other data sets stored on
the R&S ZVH. For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
4.1.5.2
Configuring the Measurement
In addition to creating and editing standards with the R&S ZVHView software, the
R&S ZVH also provides functionality to set up a measurement configuration.
Setting the number of transmission channels
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Tx Channels" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the number of transmission channels.
► Enter the number of transmission channels you need for the measurement.
Setting the number of adjacent channels
► Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Adj Channels" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the number of adjacent channels.
► Enter the number of adjacent / alternate channels you need for the measurement.
The borders of Tx channels are displayed red in the trace diagram, the borders of
adjacent and alternate channels are displayed green.
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Setting the channel bandwidth
The channel bandwidth specifies the frequency range around the center frequency,
over which the R&S ZVH performs the power measurement.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Channel BW" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box
to specify the channel bandwidth
for all channels.
► Select the channel you want to
change the bandwidth for.
► Activate the input by pressing the
ENTER key.
► Enter the channel bandwidth you need.
The R&S ZVH sets the appropriate span for the channel bandwidth that you have
entered according to the criteria desribed above. This ensures that no incorrect
channel power measurements are made.
The minimum channel bandwidth that you can set is 833 Hz at a span of 1 kHz.
Setting the channel spacing
In case of the R&S ZVH, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the
center frequency of the transmission channel and the center frequency to the next
transmission channel or the distance between the center frequency of the transmission
channel and the center frequency of the adjacent channel.
Specific channel spacing definitions
Note that some some radio communication standards, e.g. CDMA2000 DS / MC1 /
MC3 and IS95 B / C, IS97 B / C, IS98 B / C, define the channel spacing differently,
namely the distance from the center of the transmission channel to the closest border
of the adjacent channel. The R&S ZVH does not consider these specifics. It always
regards the channel spacing as the distance between the center of a channel and the
center of its neighboring channel.
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► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Channel Spacing"
menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box
to define the spacings for all
transmission channels and
adjacent / alternate channels.
► Select the channel you want to
change the spacing for.
► Activate the input by pressing the
ENTER key.
► Enter the channel spacing you need.
The R&S ZVH now takes the new values into account for future measurements.
When performing measurements on multi-carrier signals, you can define the spacing of
the transmission (Tx) channels to one another. By default, the R&S ZVH assumes
equal spacing between all Tx channels in the system. Therefore, the spacing you enter
for the first two Tx channels is automatically applied to all other Tx channels.
If you do measurements on systems with a different channel spacing for each Tx
channel, you can also set the channel spacing for each Tx channel separately by
entering the respective number in the fields.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency
is as follows:
●
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
●
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency between
those two channels. This frequency is aligned to the center frequency.
Adjacent or alternate channel spacing is also available for single-carrier
measurements. The R&S ZVH can perform measurements on up to 12 adjacent
channels. Usually the first adjacent channel to the Tx channel is referred to as the
Adjacent Channel (ADJ). All others are called Alternate Channels (ALT1 to ALT11).
By default, the R&S ZVH assumes that the distance of the adjacent channels to each
other is the same. In that case, you only have to enter the first spacing value. The
R&S ZVH then calculates all higher adjacent channels from that value. If you change
the spacing of one of the higher channels, the R&S ZVH only updates the channel
spacings above the one you have changed, but not those below.
So, for example, if you set the first adjacent channel spacing (ADJ) to 20 kHz, the
following spacings are 40 kHz (ALT1), 60 kHz (ALT2), 80 kHz (ALT3), 100 kHz (ALT4),
120 kHz (ALT5) and so on.
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If you then change the spacing of the third alternate channel (ALT3) to 100 kHz, the
R&S ZVH adjusts the alternate channels above the third one accordingly: 125 kHz
(ALT4), 150 kHz (ALT5) and so on.
4.1.5.3
Normalization of Measurement Results
By default, the power of the channels and adjacent channels is displayed in the unit
dBm. It is also possible to display the power density of the signal to, for example,
measure the signal/noise power density or obtain the signal to noise ratio.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Channel Pwr/Hz" menu item.
The R&S ZVH activates normalization and switches the unit from dBm to dBm/Hz.
The channel power density in dBm/Hz corresponds to the power inside a
bandwidth of 1 Hz and is calculated as follows:
channel power density = channel power - log10(channel bandwidth)
4.1.5.4
Displaying Absolute and Relative Results
You can set up the result display to either show the absolute power of the adjacent
channels or the power relative to one of the transmission channels.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Power Display" softkey.
► Select either the "Absolute" menu item to display the absolute results or the
"Relative" menu item to display the power relative to one of the transmission
channels.
4.1.5.5
Selecting the Reference Channel
When determining relative power values for the adjacent channels, you can set a
specific transmission channel as the reference channel.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
► Select the "ACLR Ref Setting" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a another submenu to select the reference channel.
► Select the method of determining the reference channel.
The following methods are available:
-
Tx Channel
Select a specific transmission channel by entering its number as the reference.
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-
Min Power Tx Channel
The channel with the lowest power level is the reference channel.
-
Max Power Tx Channel
The channel with the highest power level is the reference channel.
-
Lowest Highest Channel
The outer left-hand transmission channel is the reference channel for the lower
adjacent channels. The outer right-hand transmission channel is the reference
channel for the upper adjacent channels.
4.1.5.6
Setting and Checking the Limits
Limit checks in ACLR measurement mode are independent of limit line handling. You
can define a limit for each of the adjacent channels. Limits for adjacent channels can
be set either in absolute or relative terms.
Defining relative limits
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Channel Settings"
softkey.
► Select the "Channel Limit Relative"
menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box
to define the relative limits for each
adjacent channel.
► Select the channel you want to
define a limit for.
► Activate the input by pressing the "Select" softkey.
The channel turns green and the check box in the first column is marked.
► Enter the limit value you need.
The R&S ZVH automatically activates the check flag, so that the limit is included in
future limit checks.
► To deactivate the limit check for a specific channel, move the cursor to the channel
in question with the rotary knob or the cursor keys and deselect it with the "Select"
softkey.
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Defining absolute limits
► Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Channel Limit Absolute" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to define the absolute limits for each adjacent
channel.
► The procedure of defining absolute limits is analogous to that of defining relative
limits.
Performing a limit check
► Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Check Channel Limits" menu item.
The R&S ZVH automatically
performs limit checks.
The results of the limit check are displayed in the table above the trace. If a result
fails the limit check, it turns red and has a star (*) in front of its power level.
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4.1.6 Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement is a method to detect spurious
emissions or intermodulation products of a signal. When performing a SEM
measurement, the R&S ZVH checks the signal against a spectral mask to see whether
the signal complies with a specific standard or not. Therefore, the R&S ZVH provides
predefined spectrum emission masks for various telecomunications standards.
However, you can define your own spectral masks with the R&S ZVHView software to
perform measurements in frequency ranges other than the predefined ones. To learn
how to define Spectrum Emission Masks, refer to the R&S ZVHView manual.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the measurement menu.
► Select the "Spectrum Emission Mask" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts to measure the spectrum emission mask.
Note that the frequency range of the actual measurement depends on the start and
stop frequency you have set on the R&S ZVH. Correct measurement results are
therefore only possible if the frequency ranges of the SEM are inside the current span
of the R&S ZVH.
Screen Layout for the SEM measurement
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Standard
Marker information
SEM list
Limit check result
Spectrum emission mask (red line)
Trace (yellow line)
Peak (P<x>) and normal markers (M<x> and D<x>) (blue line)
SEM softkey menu
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4.1.6.1
Selecting a Standard
If you need to perform measurements that are conform to a telecommunications
standard, you can activate one of the predefined standards that are already stored in
the R&S ZVH memory. However, you can create new configurations to perform
measurements on other standards as well.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Standard" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the standard.
► Select one of the available standards.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the configuration of the selected standard. It automatically
sets the optimal span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, sweep time and
detector for the standard.
You can create and edit standards with the R&S ZVHView software and transfer them
to the R&S ZVH via the USB or the LAN interface. The number of standards the
R&S ZVH can store in its memory depends on the number of other data sets stored on
the R&S ZVH.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
4.1.6.2
Optimizing Measurement Settings
After selecting the standard and applying the signal to the R&S ZVH, you can optimize
measurement settings to avoid overloading the R&S ZVH.
► Press the "Adjust Settings" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs a measurement to determine the ideal reference level ans
span..
4.1.6.3
Viewing the Results in a Table
You can add a table to the display that shows the measurement results in numerical
form.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "View List" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows a list above
the trace diagram.
If the list contains more than four entries, you can scroll through the list with the
rotary knob or the cursor keys to see the other results. Note that scrolling works
only if there is no active input field.
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The list contains the following information:
●
Tx Power
Power level of the transmission channel.
●
Tx Bandwidth
Bandwidth of the transmission channel.
●
PASS / FAIL information
,
If the signal is within the limits of the spectral mask, the R&S ZVH shows
if not it shows
.
●
Range [Hz]
Frequency range. The first number is the start frequency, the second number the
stop frequency of each defined frequency range. The character following the
number indicates the unit (k = kHz, M = MHz, G = GHz)
●
RBW [Hz]
Resolution bandwidth the corresponding frequency range is measured with.
●
Power Abs
Absolute peak power in the corresponding frequency range.
●
Power Rel
Relative peak power in relation to the channel power of the reference channel.
●
Δ Limit
Minimum distance from the limit line to the trace in the corresponding frequency
range. Negative values or a zero indicate a passed SEM limit check, positive
values indicate a violation of the limit check.
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4.1.7 Measuring the Harmonic Distortion
The Harmonic Distortion measurement is an easy way to identify the harmonics of a
DUT. In addition to the graphic display of the harmonics, this measurement mode also
calculates the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and shows the results.
You can perform a Harmonic Distortion measurement in frequency sweep (span > 0)
and zero span mode (span = 0). When starting the measurement, the R&S ZVH looks
for the first harmonic of the signal (= the highest signal) in the defined frequency range.
It then adjusts the frequency axis so that all harmonics are visible. In zero span mode,
the center frequency remains the same.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Harmonic Distortion" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts to measure the harmonic distortion.
The search for harmonics starts as soon as you enter the Harmonic Distortion
measurement. Upon entering the measurement, the R&S ZVH automatically adjusts
the settings in order to display the selected number of harmonics (default = 2) on the
screen.
Screen layout for the harmonic distortion measurement
1
2
3
4
5
6
Harmonics list
Total harmonic distortion in %
Total harmonic distortion in dB
Trace
Markers indicating harmonics (blue lines)
Harmonic distortion softkey menu
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4.1.7.1
Defining the Number of Harmonics
By default, the R&S ZVH shows the signal and its first harmonic. Each harmonic is
indicated by a marker that the R&S ZVH places on the harmonic (here M1 and M2).
Note that all of the markers that have been set are normal markers that show the
absolute frequency of the harmonic.
At the same time, the R&S ZVH also calculates the values for the total harmonic
distortion (THD) and shows the results in a box above the trace diagram. The values
are output in % as well as dB.
If you want to see more than one harmonic, the R&S ZVH can show up to six
harmonics.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Harmonics" softkey.
► Enter the number of harmonics you'd like to see.
4.1.7.2
Optimizing the Display of Harmonics
The R&S ZVH places the markers on the other harmonics even if they are outside of
the display range.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Adjust Settings" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs a measurement to determine the ideal reference level,
frequency and span in order to display all harmonics.
4.1.7.3
Activating the Harmonics List
To see the exact frequency of the harmonic, you can activate the marker list that
shows the value for each harmonic or marker.
► Press the MKR key.
► Press the "View List" softkey.
The R&S ZVH displays the marker list that contains the values for each harmonic.
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4.1.8 Measuring the AM Modulation Depth
The AM Modulation Depth measurement analyzes AM modulated signals and
calculates the modulation depth of the signal using the measurement results. Note that
the measurement works properly only if you apply an AM modulated signal.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the measurement menu.
► Select the "AM Modulation Depth" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts to measure the AM modulation depth.
After you have started the measurement, the R&S ZVH places three markers on the
trace. The first marker is placed on the peak power level. The R&S ZVH assumes that
position as the level of the carrier. The second and third markers are delta markers.
These are placed symmetrically on the adjacent peak values to the left and right of the
carrier.
Screen layout for the AM modulation depth measurement
1
2
3
4
5
6
Marker list
Modulation depth
Trace
Threshold line
Markers (blue lines)
AM modulation depth softkey menu
By default, delta marker 2 is active for editing. If you move the delta marker to another
position, the other delta marker will be moved by the same distance relative to the
normal marker. Note that this happens only if you move delta marker 2 (D2). When
moving delta marker 3 (D3), only this marker is repositioned.
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From the values of the markers, the R&S ZVH then calculates the AM modulation
depth. The AM modulation depth is the ratio between the power values at the
reference marker and at the delta markers. When the powers of the two AM side bands
are not the same, the R&S ZVH uses the mean value of the two sideband values.
If the R&S ZVH is unable to find any AM modulated a carriers, it shows the message
.
4.1.8.1
Setting a Threshold
You can set a threshold that defines the minimum power level the signal must have. If
the power of the signal is below the threshold, the R&S ZVH will not set the markers
and therefore will not calculate the modulation depth.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Threshold" softkey
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the threshold.
► Enter the threshold value you need.
The threshold is represented as a horizontal blue line in the diagram area.
4.1.8.2
Optimizing the Settings
In order to get the best results, you can use the automatic adjustment routine that the
R&S ZVH offers.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Adjust Settings" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs a sweep and repeats the peak search sequence for the
three markers.
4.1.8.3
Activating the Marker List
To see the exact frequency of the carrier and its sidebands, you can activate the
marker list that shows the value for each marker.
► Press the MKR key.
► Press the "View List" softkey.
The R&S ZVH displays the marker list that contains the values for carrier and
sideband.
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4.1.9 Working with the Spectrogram Result Display (R&S ZVH-K14)
With option R&S ZVH-K14, you can view measurement results in a spectrogram.
The spectrogram result display shows the spectral density of a signal in the frequency
domain and over time simultaneously.
Like other result displays, the horizontal axis represents the frequency span. The
vertical axis represents time. Time in the spectrogram runs chronologically from top to
bottom. Therefore, the top of the diagram is the present. A third dimension shows the
amplitude for each frequency by mapping different colors to every power level. The
result is therefore a two dimensional diagram.
The color the R&S ZVH assigns to a power level that was measured depends on:
●
●
●
the color table you have selected
the spectrogram reference level
the spectrogram level range
The spectrogram consists of horizontal lines, each one pixel high, that are called
frames. In the default state, a frame is added to the spectrogram after each sweep.
This means that the amount of data in a frame depends on the sweep time. As the
spectrogram in the R&S ZVH runs from top to bottom, the outdated time line(s) move
down one position, so that the present frame is always on top of the diagram.
Therefore, the sequence of frames is chronological.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Spectrogram" menu item.
The R&S ZVH starts the spectrogram result display.
Screen layout for the spectrogram
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Result display
Marker and time line information
Spectrum result display (optional)
Marker/ delta marker (vertical lines)
Spectrogram
Time lines T1 and T2 (horizontal lines)
Scroll direction
Spectrogram softkey menu
By default, the spectrogram result display consists of two windows. The upper window
shows the measured spectrum as a trace line. The lower window shows the
measurement results in a spectrogram. The chronological information in the
spectrogram is restricted by the internal memory of the R&S ZVH. The R&S ZVH
stores 1024 frames or spectrums that have been measured in its memory. As the
height of the display is smaller, some of the data becomes invisible after a time.
4.1.9.1
Controlling the Spectrogram Update
The spectrogram starts running as soon as you enter the spectrogram mode, if you are
in continuous sweep mode.
If you are in single sweep mode, the R&S ZVH does not add a line to the spectrogram
until you initiate the next single sweep.
You can stop the update of the spectrogram in continuous sweep mode.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Hold" softkey.
Note that in continuous sweep mode the measurement in the spectrum result
display does not stop. The trace in the upper window still updates continuously.
Only the spectrogram view stops.
► Press the "Hold" softkey again.
The R&S ZVH resumes updating the spectrogram.
The spectrogram result display is filled with results until you change a measurement
setting. As soon as a setting is changed, the spectrogram clears and starts to fill again.
You can also clear the spectrogram manually.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Clear" softkey.
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4.1.9.2
Browsing Through the Signal History
There are two ways to view parts of the measurement result history that have moved
outside the visible area of the spectrogram.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Spectrogram Settings" softkey.
► Select the "[ ] Spectrogram Full Screen" menu item.
The R&S ZVH now uses the full diagram area of the screen for the spectrogram.
The number of lines in the spectrogram and therefore the displayed time period
more than doubles.
► The "Spectrogram Full Screen" menu item is marked by an [X].
It may, however, be necessary that the spectrum result display is still visible to
evaluate measurement results. For this purpose, the spectrogram has an (invisible)
scrollbar that you can use to scroll up and down the spectrogram to the frame that
you'd like to see.
Scrolling through the spectrogram
Turn the rotary knob or use the UP and DOWN cursor keys whenever you are viewing
the spectrogram.
The R&S ZVH scrolls through the spectrogram history.
Note that this is only possible as long as no input field or menu is active. To resume
the spectrogram scroll function in this case,
► Press the CANCEL key
► Use the rotary knob or the UP and DOWN cursor keys again.
The R&S ZVH resumes scrolling through the spectrogram history.
The symbols on the right side of the spectrogram indicate the position of the
spectrogram part currently displayed on the screen:
●
●
●
A single down arrow in the right lower corner of the spectrogram indicates that the
uppermost frame still represents the most recently recorded trace.
Two arrows (one up, one down) indicate that the spectrogram area displayed is
somewhere in the middle of the available history.
A single up arrow in the upper right corner of the spectrogram indicates that the
lowest line of the spectrogram represents the end of the history buffer.
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4.1.9.3
Configuring the Display
As colors are an important part of the spectrogram, the R&S ZVH offers various ways
to customize the display for best viewing results.
The first and most obvious way to configure the display is to select a different color
scheme.
► Press the "Spectrogram Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Spectrogram Color Table" menu.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu that contains several color schemes.
●
●
●
●
●
●
Default
Green-Yellow
Green-Blue
Black-White
Red-Purple
Blue-Black
The following examples are based on the green-yellow color scheme.
► Select the color scheme you are most comfortable with.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the screen colors according to your selection.
It is possible that the color distribution is not ideal in the current configuration. You
have two ways to set things straight.
By cutting the reference level, you can eliminate amplitudes from the color map
that are not part of the signal.
Example: By default, the spectrogram reference level is 30 dBm.
That means that signal parts with
an amplitude of 30 dBm would be
yellow in the spectrogram, and
signal parts with a very small
amplitude would be dark green.
Everything in between is a shade
of the colors between. As the
colors are distributed over a very
large range (about a 150 dBm or
more), it is likely that you can not
distinguish details in the signal you
have measured.
Therefore you should adjust the color map to the overall shape of the signal you
are measuring. Let's say, for example, that the signal has an amplitude range of
about 30 dB with the maximum amplitude at about -60 dBm and the minimum
amplitude at about -100 dBm and the Green-Yellow color scheme.
With the default settings, the spectrogram is made up exclusively of green colors
and it's not easy to distinguish amplitude levels. That's because the yellow color
shades are completely out of range.
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To get a better result, change the spectrogram reference level to a level near the
maximum power level that has been measured first.
► Press the "Spectrogram Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Spectrogram Reference Level" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to enter the spectrogram reference level.
The reference level should be near the maximum level that has been measured
while the spectrogram was running. In the example, the reference level should be
at about -60 dBm.
► Enter the reference level you need.
The R&S ZVH now shifts the reference level of the spectrogram to the value you
have entered.
Note that the spectrogram reference level does not affect the spectrum result
display, as well as the spectrum reference level ("Amplitude" menu) does not affect
the spectrogram. In the screenshot the spectrum trace is therefore exactly the
same as in the previous picture.
The result however, still does not
show signal differences in detail.
The only thing that happened is
that the colors have shifted, in the
example to yellow, because the
color that corresponds to the
reference level has shifted from
green to yellow. All other colors
that are part of the color scheme
are still unused, because the
spectrogram level range is still the
same (150 dB).
► Press the "Spectrogram Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Spectrogram Level Range" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to enter the spectrogram level range. In the
example, the level range of the signal is from about -60 dBm to about -100 dBm.
► Therefore set the level range to
40 dB to get the whole signal.
As the level range is now adjusted,
the R&S ZVH is able to map its
complete color range to the level
range of the signal.
This means that signal parts with a
low amplitude are in a shade of
green while signal parts with a
high amplitude are yellow.
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The best way to display a spectrogram is therefore to reduce the level range until
the lowest signal part is mapped to the lower end of the color map and the highest
signal part to the upper end of the color map.
In a last step you can configure the spectrogram in a way that it only shows signal
peaks in color and the noise floor in black. To get a result like that you have to
reduce the level range, until the noise floor is outside the displayed range.
► Instead of entering a level range of 40 dB, enter a level range of 35 dB or even
30 dB.
This will provide a high contrast
between signal parts that are
above the noise floor, and the
noise floor, which is drawn in
black.
To show details of the noise floor
and exclude the peak levels you
have to lower the spectrogram
reference level, until it is just
above the noise floor.
The R&S ZVH will then display the signal parts that are above the reference level
in only one color, which is the color at the upper border of the color map.
4.1.9.4
Recording a Spectrogram
You can save the data of the spectrogram for documentation or for further analysis of
the recorded data.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Save Spectrogram" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box
to save the current spectrogram.
► Enter the name of the spectrogram
with the alphanumeric keys.
By default, the R&S ZVH saves
the spectrogram as
'Spectrogram###' with ascending
numbers.
► Press the "Save" softkey to store
the spectrogram.
Now that you have saved the spectrogram, you can replay it any time you want.
The number of spectrograms that you can store on the R&S ZVH internal memory
depends on the other datasets that are currently on the R&S ZVH.
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4.1.9.5
Playback of a Spectrogram
If you have recorded a spectrogram and have saved it in internal memory, a memory
stick or the SD card, you can view the results of that measurement at a later time.
► Press the "Playback" softkey
or
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Spectrogram Playback" menu item.
Recalling a previously stored spectrogram
► Press the "Recall Spectrogram" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select a file that contains the spectrogram
data. The file extension for spectrogram data is *.spm.
► Select the file you need.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the spectrogram and shows the data in the display.
In general you can do the same things on a recalled spectrogram as in the
spectrogram recording mode, e.g. customize the display to your needs.
In addition to that functionality, it is possible to view not only the spectrum that belongs
to the currently selected spectrogram frame, but also the spectrums of all frames that
are in the memory of the R&S ZVH.
Working with time lines in playback mode
To find a particular point in time and display the corresponding spectrum you can use
two time lines:
When entering the playback mode the R&S ZVH displays two time lines in the
spectrogram.
The first time line (T1) corresponds to
an absolute time value, the second
(T2) is a time relative to the first time
line. Both time lines are positioned on
the most recent spectrogram line at
the top of the result display.
You can now select a specific spectrogram frame that is in the memory of the
R&S ZVH.
► Press the "Select Time Line" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the position of the first time line (T1).
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► Position the time line by entering a number or moving it with the rotary knob.
Entering 0 sets the time line marker on the most recent frame. The maximum value
that you can enter is 1024 (the maximum number of frames the R&S ZVH can
store in its memory).
Note that not all frames are visible on the screen. If a frame is part of the history
outside the visible area, the time line is also not visible and you have to scroll
through the spectrogram to be able to see it again.
The upper window will display the spectrum of the frame at the time line position. By
moving the time line you can thus browse through the history of spectra stored in
memory.
In the marker information field, the R&S ZVH shows the time stamp of the time line.
The time stamp of the first time line T1
is always referred to the top-most
frame (e.g. a time stamp of
00:00:50:000 means that the data was
measured 50 seconds prior to the topmost frame).
► Press the "Select Time Line"
softkey again.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field
to define the position of the
second time line (T2).
► Enter a number with the number keys, the rotary knob or the cursor keys.
The R&S ZVH positions the second time line on the selected frame. Again it shows
the time stamp of the time line in the marker information field (ΔT value). For the
second time line (T2), the information is relative to the first one (T1). This means
that the time stamp of the second time line can be negative, if you have set it on a
frame above the first time line.
If you scroll the time line through the frames of the spectrogram with the rotary knob or
the cursor keys, the R&S ZVH will show the spectrum corresponding to the selected
frame in the upper window of the display.
You can use the spectrogram playback for a detailed analysis of the signal levels over
time and compare signal details in the spectrum result display, e.g. with the help of
markers.
In addition to the time line (horizontal marker), you can also use (vertical) markers in
the spectrogram.
With the help of the marker and the time line, you are able to find the exact moment
when a specific event has occurred in the spectrum.
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► Press the MARKER key.
The R&S ZVH activates a marker
and sets it on the peak level of the
currently displayed spectrum.
► Use the rotary knob or the cursor
keys to move the marker on the
horizontal axis to the frequency
you want to analyze, or enter the
frequency directly with the number
keys.
► Press the "Select Time Line" softkey and browse through the spectrums using the
rotary knob or the cursor keys until the spectrum of interest is displayed in the
upper window.
The time stamp of the selected time line gives you a precise indication on when the
event shown in the spectrum occurred.
For more information on marker functionality, see
●
"Using Markers" on page 53
Switching back to active spectrogram recording
To resume recording of a new spectrogram
► Press the "Live Update" softkey at any time you are in playback mode.
The R&S ZVH switches back to performing live measurements.
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4.1.10 Using Isotropic Antennas
The R&S ZVH supports measurements with an isotropic antenna.
You can use any isotropic antenna available with the R&S TS-EMF system (order no.
1158.9295.05). Each of those antennas supports a different frequency range between
9 kHz and 6 GHz.
Test setup
The test setup consists of an R&S ZVH and one of the isotropic antennas. The
necessary cables are provided with the antennas.
► Connect the RF cable with the N coaxial connector to the RF input (port 1).
► Connect the control cable to the power sensor interface (9-pin D-Sub connector)
with the adapter cable that comes with the antenna.
If necessary, you can connect an additional extension cable (R&S TS-EMFZ2,
order no. 1166.5708.02).
Starting the measurement
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Isotropic Antenna" menu item.
After you have turned the isotropic antenna on, the R&S ZVH uses the isotropic
antenna for all measurements.
Note that when you turn the isotropic antenna on without having selected a
transducer factor first, the R&S ZVH asks you to select a transducer factor.
Using transducer factors
The isotropic antenna is in effect a transducer. Because it has a characteristic
frequency response, it is necessary to correct the measurement results by these
characteristics.
The transducer factors for each of the supported isotropic antennas are provided with
the R&S ZVH. The factors contain typical correction values for all three antenna
elements as well as the correction values for the cable.
► Press the AMPT key.
► Press the "Transducer" softkey
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the transducer factor.
► Select the "Primary Transducer" menu item.
► Select the transducer factor.
The file you have to select depends on the antenna you are using. The file type of
transducer factors for isotropic antennas is *.isotrd.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
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If you are using the extension cable R&S TS-EMFZ2, you have to take this into
account as a secondary transducer.
► Press the "Transducer" softkey.
► Select the "Select Secondary Transducer" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select transducer factors with the unit dB.
► Select the transducer factor for the extension cable.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
For more information see "Using Transducer Factors" on page 138.
You can create and edit transducer factor with the R&S ZVHView software package
and then transfer them into the internal memory of the R&S ZVH. Each transducer
factor may consist of up to 1000 reference values.
Display of the antenna directions
An isotropic antenna consists of three orthogonal elements. Each of these elements
measures the field strength from a different direction (x-, y- and z-axis).
Decrease of measurement speed
Because the R&S ZVH performs a measurement on each of the three antenna axes,
the update rate of the results decreases slightly.
You can select to display different aspects of the measurement.
► Press the "Meas Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Iso Direction [ ]" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a new menu to select the measurement aspect.
●
"Auto"
Shows the total field strength over all three antenna axes.
The displayed result is a combination of the results for each antenna element. After
measuring each of the three directions individually, the R&S ZVH calculates the
total field strength (Er) based on the results for each antenna element.
Er = E x2 + E y2 + E z2
●
"X"
Shows the field strength measured on the antenna's x-axis only.
●
"Y"
Shows the field strength measured on the antenna's y-axis only.
●
"Z"
Shows the field strength measured on the antenna's z-axis only.
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4.2 Configuring Spectrum Measurements
4.2.1 Configuring the Horizontal Axis
The FREQ/DIST key contains all necessary functions to configure the horizontal axis
for spectrum measurements.
The contents of the menu depend on the currently selected measurement.
Usually, the horizontal axis contains frequency information in spectrum mode. You can
specify the frequency in terms of the center frequency or by defining a start and stop
frequency for a particular span.
If you know the frequency of the signal you are measuring, it is best to match the
center frequency to the signal's frequency. If you are investigating signals, e.g.
harmonics, that are within a particular frequency range, the best option is to enter a
start and stop frequency to define the span.
4.2.1.1
Defining the Center Frequency
The center frequency represents the frequency at the center of the horizontal axis in
the diagram area.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
The R&S ZVH opens the frequency menu.
When you press the FREQ/DIST key, the R&S ZVH automatically opens an input
field to define the center frequency. If the input field is inactive, you can open it with
the "Center Freq" softkey.
► Enter the center frequency you need.
The frequency you have entered becomes the new center frequency.
While adjusting the center frequency, you may obtain a value that is outside the
R&S ZVH maximum span. If this happens, the R&S ZVH automatically reduces the
span.
4.2.1.2
Defining a Frequency Step Size
If you set the center frequency with the rotary knob or the cursor keys, the distance of
each step that you take depends on the span. With the rotary knob, the smallest
possible step is a pixel. As the trace consists of 631 pixels, each step is equal to 1/630
of the span. With the cursor keys, the step is 10% of the span or one division of the
grid.
You can set another step size.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "CF Step Size" softkey.
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The R&S ZVH opens a submenu that contains possible step sizes.
-
0.1 x Span
The step size equals 10% of the span or 1 division of the horizontal axis.
-
=Center
The step size equals the center frequency.
This step size is ideal for measurements on harmonics. When you increase or
decrease the center frequency, the center frequency automatically moves to
the next harmonic.
-
Manual…
Define any step size you want.
This step size makes it easy to investigate a spectrum with frequencies at
constant intervals.
► Select the step size you need from the menu.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the step size accordingly.
If you set the step size to 10% of the span or to the center frequency, the R&S ZVH
sets the step size internally. Manually defining the step size opens an input field to
define the step size.
4.2.1.3
Setting a Frequency Offset
For measurements on frequency converters such as satellite downconverters, it is
often convenient to reference the results to the frequency prior to conversion. For this
purpose, the R&S ZVH offers a frequency offset that arithmetically shifts the center
frequency to higher or lower frequencies. Thus, the R&S ZVH displays the input
frequency of the DUT.
Positive frequency offset is possible in the range from 1 Hz to 100 GHz, in steps of
1 Hz. The maximum negative frequency offset depends on the start frequency you
have set. The start frequency, taking into account the frequency offset, is always
≥ 0 Hz.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Freq Offset" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the frequency offset.
► Enter the frequency offset you need.
The R&S ZVH adds the frequency offset to the center frequency you have set. A
red dot at the center frequency display indicates that a frequency offset has been
set.
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4.2.1.4
Defining a Start and Stop Frequency
Defining a start an stop frequency is best suited for example for measurements on
harmonics or signals whose exact frequency is unknown.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Start Freq" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the start frequency.
► Enter the start frequency you need.
► Set a stop frequency with the "Stop Freq" softkey.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the horizontal axis according to your input, beginning with
the start frequency and ending with the stop frequency.
If you have entered a stop frequency that is outside the maximum frequency range,
the R&S ZVH sets the stop frequency to the possible maximum.
The label of the horizontal axis changes from "Center" and "Span" to "Start" and
"Stop".
4.2.1.5
Setting the Span
The span is the frequency range around the center frequency that a spectrum analyzer
displays on the screen. The span you should select depends on the signal and the
measurement that you are performing. A rule of thumb is that it should be at least twice
the bandwidth occupied by the signal.
The available span for frequency domain measurements depends on the instrument
model.
●
●
R&S ZVH4: 10 Hz to 3.6 GHz
R&S ZVH8: 10 Hz to 8 GHz
If you set a span of 0 Hz (zero span), the R&S ZVH performs measurements in the
time domain.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
When you press the FORMAT/SPAN key, the R&S ZVH automatically opens an
input field to define the span. If the input field is inactive, you can open it with the
"Manual Span" softkey.
► Enter the span you need.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the span of the horizontal axis.
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If you have to switch between full span and a smaller span, you can do so without
having to enter the numeric values.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
► Press the "Full Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH displays the spectrum over its entire frequency range.
► Press the "Last Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH restores the span that you have set just before displaying the entire
frequency range.
Time domain measurements
You can also activate time domain measurements without having to enter the value
manually. When measuring in the time domain, the span is 0 Hz. In that state, the
R&S ZVH measures the signal at the current center frequency only. Instead of
displaying the spectrum, the R&S ZVH shows the signal power over a certain time
period. The horizontal axis becomes the time axis. The display always starts at 0 s and
stops after the currently set sweep time.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
► Press the "Zero Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH sets a span of 0 Hz and performs the measurement in the time
domain.
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4.2.2 Configuring the Vertical Axis
All relevant settings to configure the vertical axis are available in the amplitude menu.
You can access it via the SCALE/AMPT key.
4.2.2.1
Setting the Reference Level
The reference level is represented graphically by the grid line at the top of the diagram.
The reference level sets the input signal gain up to the display stage. If the reference
level is low, the gain is high. That means that even weak signals are displayed clearly.
If you are measuring strong signals, you have to set a high reference level in order to
prevent an overload of the signal path of the analyzer and to keep the signal within the
display range. If you are measuring the spectrum of a composite signal, make sure that
the reference level is high enough to cover all signals and that all signals are within the
measurement diagram.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
When you press the AMPT key, the R&S ZVH automatically opens an input field to
define the center frequency. If the input field is inactive, you can open it with the
"Ref Level" softkey.
► Enter the reference level you require.
If you change the reference level, the R&S ZVH adjusts the position of the trace as
you make the changes.
By default, the reference level corresponds to the grid line at the top of the diagram.
You can also change the position of the reference level to another grid line if you have
a signal that would otherwise overlap with the top of the diagram area. The R&S ZVH
indicates the current reference level position with a triangle at the corresponding grid
).
line on the vertical axis (
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Range / Ref Pos" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu.
► Select the "Ref Position 10…" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the reference position.
► Enter the number of the grid line you want the reference level at.
The range is from 0 to 10. "0" corresponds to the lowest grid line, "10" corresponds
to highest grid line.
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4.2.2.2
Setting a Display Range
The display range determines the scaling or resolution of the vertical axis. In the
default state, the display range is a logarithmic scaling over a 100 dB. This
corresponds to 10 dB per grid division. The R&S ZVH provides other display ranges
that either increase or decrease the resolution of the vertical axis.
However, increasing resolution does not increase the accuracy of, for example, the
marker level readout, but only makes it easier to read values off the trace.
You can also select a linear scale for the vertical axis. In that case, the power levels
are expressed as a percentage of the reference level. Linear scaling is useful to
display AM modulated carriers in the time domain, for example.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Range / Ref Pos" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu to select the display range.
► Select the display range you need.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the vertical axis accordingly.
4.2.2.3
Selecting the Display Unit
By default, the vertical axis (and therefore the reference level) is scaled in dBm.
However, the units dBmV, dBµV, Watt and Volt are also available. Selecting the right
unit is relevant for the marker level display because the unit of the marker level is the
same as that of the reference level.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Unit" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu to select the display unit.
► Select one of the available units.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the labels of the vertical axis accordingly.
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4.2.2.4
Setting a Reference Offset
You can define a reference offset for the reference level. With a reference offset, you
can increase the reference level by a certain amount. This is useful, for example, if an
attenuator or amplifier has been inserted before the RF input. The R&S ZVH
automatically takes the loss or gain into account when the level is displayed and no
manual calculations are necessary. A loss introduced at the RF input must be entered
as a positive number and a gain as a negative number.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Ref Offset" softkey.
The R&S ZVH open an input field to
► Enter the offset you need.
The R&S ZVH includes the offset in the measurement.
To indicate an offset other than 0, the R&S ZVH puts a red dot at the "Ref:"
).
hardware setting (
4.2.2.5
Setting the RF Attenuation
RF attenuation adjusts the input range inside the analyzer. It is coupled directly to the
reference level. If you have set a high reference level, RF attenuation is turned on in
10 dB steps according to the table below so that the input mixer always remains in the
linear range.
The R&S ZVH provides three attenuation modes.
●
Auto Low Distortion
If this mode is active, the R&S ZVH sets the RF attenuation 10 dB higher
according to the table below, making the stress of the input mixer 10 dB less at the
specified reference level. If the spectrum is densely occupied with signals, e.g. in a
television cable network, the input mixer reduces the R&S ZVH inherent spurious
products. However, the inherent noise display of the R&S ZVH increases due to
the increased attenuation in front of the input mixer.
●
Auto Low Noise
If this mode is active, the R&S ZVH sets the RF attenuation 10 dB lower. This
increases the sensitivity of the R&S ZVH, which means that the inherent noise
display decreases due to the lower attenuation in front of the input mixer.
●
Manual
Manual selection of the attenuation.
You can check the status of the RF attenuation and the preamplifier in the
measurement setup dialog and the hardware settings area of the display.
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Reference Level
Preamplifier OFF
Preamplifier ON
RF Attenuation
RF Attenuation
Low Noise
Low Distortion
Low Noise
Low Distortion
≤-30 dBm
0 dB
0 dB
0 dB
0 dB
-29 to -25 dBm
0 dB
0 dB
0 dB
5 dB
-24 to -20 dBm
0 dB
0 dB
0 dB
10 dB
-19 to -15 dBm
0 dB
5 dB
5 dB
15 dB
-14 to -10 dBm
0 dB
10 dB
10 dB
20 dB
-9 to -5 dBm
5 dB
15 dB
15 dB
25 dB
-4 to 0 dBm
10 dB
20 dB
20 dB
30 dB
1 to 5 dBm
15 dB
25 dB
25 dB
35 dB
6 to 10 dBm
20 dB
30 dB
30 dB
40 dB
11 to 15 dBm
25 dB
35 dB
35 dB
40 dB
16 to 20 dBm
30 dB
40 dB
40 dB
40 dB
21 to 25 dBm
35 dB
40 dB
40 dB
40 dB
26 to 30 dBm
40 dB
40 dB
40 dB
40 dB
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "RF Att / Amp / Imp" softkey.
► Select either the "Auto Low Distortion" or the "Auto Low Noise" menu item.
The R&S ZVH sets the attenuation according to the table above.
► Select the "Manual: 0 dB" menu item for manual selection of the RF attenuation.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the RF attenuation. You can set the
attenuation from 0 dB to 40 dB in 5 dB steps.
To indicate a manual attenuation, the R&S ZVH puts a red dot at the "Att:"
).
hardware setting (
4.2.2.6
Using the Preamplifier
To increase the input sensitivity, the R&S ZVH provides an integrated 20 dB
preamplifier after the input mixer.
In the default state of the R&S ZVH, the preamplifer is turned off. If you want to
measure signals with low powers, you can turn it on.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "RF Att / Amp / Imp" softkey.
► Select either the "Preamp On" or "Preamp Off" menu item.
The R&S ZVH turns the preamplifier on and off.
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4.2.2.7
Setting the Input Impedance
In the default state, the input impedance is 50 Ω.
The R&S ZVH can also handle 75 Ω systems. The R&S ZVH does not select a 75 Ω
RF input per se. Instead it selects a 75 Ω matching pad connected at the RF input. The
50/75 Ω matching pad R&S RAZ is recommended for 75 Ω matching (see
recommended accessories). The R&S ZVH automatically considers the conversion
factor when a value of 75 Ω is set.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "RF Att / Amp / Imp" softkey.
► Select the impedance you need.
You can also use other matching pads (e.g. R&S RAM or R&S FSH-Z38) by
activating transducer factors.
4.2.2.8
Using Transducer Factors
For more information see "Using Transducer Factors".
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4.2.3 Setting Bandwidths
The bandwidth menu contains all settings to set up filter bandwidths available in the
R&S ZVH. You can access it with the SWEEP/BW key.
4.2.3.1
Setting the Resolution Bandwidth
The resolution bandwidth in a spectrum analyzer determines the frequency resolution
for frequency domain measurements and therefore determines how well it can
separate adjacent frequencies. The results as you see them on the display depend on
the passband of a resolution filter.
The resolution bandwidth (RBW) has several effects on measurements.
●
●
●
To be able to display two or more signals whose frequencies are close together
separately, you need a (resolution) filter whose bandwidth is small enough. The
frequency difference between two sinusoidal carriers can not be less than the
selected resolution bandwidth if the carriers are to be resolved, for example.
The bandwidth of the resolution filter also affects the noise that is displayed by the
R&S ZVH. The smaller the bandwidth, the less noisy the results are. The rule is,
that if you increase or decrease the bandwidth by a factor of 3, the noise goes
down or up by 5 dB. If you change the bandwidth by a factor of 10, the displayed
noise changes by 10 dB.
The resolution bandwidth affects the speed of the measurement. If you want to
display the true spectrum, the resolution filters have to settle at all frequencies that
are of interest. Narrow bandfilters have a longer settling time compared to wide
ones. Therefore the sweep time increases the smaller the resolution bandwidth
gets. The rule is, that if you reduce the bandwidth by a factor of 3, the sweep time
goes up by a factor of 9. If you reduce the bandwidth by a factor of 10, the sweep
time goes up by a factor of 100.
The R&S ZVH has resolution bandwidths from 1 Hz to 3 MHz in a 1-3-10 sequence.
Additionally, the R&S ZVH provides a 200 kHz resolution bandwidth that you have to
select and enter manually.
Setting the 200 kHz resolution bandwidth
The 200 kHz bandwidth is not coupled to the span, so it will not be selected if
automatic selection of the RBW is on.
In fact, you have to enter the 200 kHz resolution bandwidth with the number keys.
When using the rotary knob or the cursor keys, the 200 kHz bandwidth will be skipped.
In the R&S ZVH's default state, the resolution bandwidth is coupled to the span, i.e. if
you change the span, the R&S ZVH adjusts the resolution bandwidth. Therefore, you
do not have to set the resolution bandwidth manually in many cases, because the
R&S ZVH automatically sets the resolution bandwidth if you change the span.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
By default, the resolution bandwidth is coupled to the span.
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► Press the "Manual RBW" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the resolution bandwidth.
► Enter the resolution bandwidth you need.
The R&S ZVH uses the resolution bandwidth you have entered for the
measurement.
If the resolution bandwidth is no longer coupled to the span, the R&S ZVH puts a
).
red dot at the "RBW" hardware setting (
► Press the "Auto RBW" softkey to again couple the resolution bandwidth to the
span.
Automatic adjustment of the sweep time
In its default mode, the R&S ZVH automatically adjusts the sweep time as soon as you
change the resolution bandwidth. This is to make sure that the settling time required for
the selected resolution filter is properly taken into account.The maximum allowed
sweep time is 1000 s. For narrow resolution filters this value would be exceeded for
large spans. In order to avoid this, the R&S ZVH adjusts the span automatically as
soon as the maximum sweep time is reached.
4.2.3.2
Setting the Video Bandwidth
The video bandwidth (VBW) basically smoothes the trace by reducing the noise and
therefore making power levels easier to see.
The noise reduction is a result of the video filter. This lowpass filter defines the video
bandwidth and filters the higher frequency parts of the voltage from the signal. Video
voltage is the (DC) voltage that results from the IF signal passing through the envelope
detector which removes the IF components and outputs the envelope only. This output
is also known as the video signal.
The figure below shows that process on an AM modulated signal in the time domain.
In case of an AM modulated signal, the envelope (or video) signal contains a DC
component that corresponds to the level of the carrier. The video signal also contains
an AC component whose frequency is the same as the AM frequency.
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If the bandwidth of the video filter is less than the frequency of the AC component, it is
suppressed depending on its maximum frequency. If the AM component should be
displayed truly, the cutoff frequency of the filter has to be greater than the modulation
frequency.
If there is noise on the sine signal, the modulation signal can be thought of as noise. If
the video bandwidth is reduced, the high-frequency noise components above the cutoff
frequency of the video filter will be rejected. The smaller the video bandwidth, the
smaller the noise amplitude at the video filter output.
The R&S ZVH provides video bandwidths from 1 Hz to 3 MHz in a 1-3-10 sequence. In
its default state, the video bandwidth is coupled to the resolution bandwidth and is the
same as the resolution bandwidth. If you change the resolution bandwidth, the
R&S ZVH adjusts the video bandwidth accordingly.
The effects of the video bandwidth on measurements are as follows.
●
●
●
if you are performing measurements on modulated signals, the video bandwidth
must be sufficiently large so that significant modulation components are not
rejected (≥ RBW)
if you want to keep signals free of noise, you should select the smallest video
bandwidth possible (≤ 0.1 x RBW)
if you are performing measurements on pulsed signals, the video bandwidth should
be at least three times greater than the resolution bandwidth so that the pulse
edges are not distorted
Like the resolution bandwidth, the video bandwidth has an effect on sweep speed.
Before each measurement, the video filter has to settle.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "VBW" softkey.
► Select the "Manual" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the video bandwidth.
► Enter the video bandwidth you need.
The R&S ZVH uses the video bandwidth you have entered for the measurement.
If the video bandwidth is no longer coupled to the resolution bandwidth, the
).
R&S ZVH puts a red dot at the "VBW" hardware setting (
► Press the "VBW" menu item.
► Select the "Auto" menu item to again couple the video bandwidth to the RBW.
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4.2.4 Configuring and Triggering the Sweep
You can find all necessary settings to configure the sweep itself in the sweep menu. To
access it, press the SWEEP/BW key.
4.2.4.1
Setting the Sweep Time
The sweep time is the time it takes the R&S ZVH to get the results that are contained
in one trace.
In the frequency domain (span > 0), the sweep time is the time it takes the R&S ZVH to
measure the spectrum in the specified span. To avoid the display of spurs in the
spectrum, the sweep time has to meet some conditions.
●
●
The sweep time depends on the resolution bandwidth. If the sweep time is too
short, the resolution filter has no time to settle. In that case, the displayed levels
will be too low. For more information see "Setting the Resolution Bandwidth".
The sweep depends on the span. If you increase the span, you also have to
increase the sweep time.
In its default state, the R&S ZVH couples the sweep time to the span and the
resolution bandwidth to avoid invalid settings. If the coupling is active, the R&S ZVH
always sets the shortest possible sweep time to make sure that the display of the
spectrum is correct and valid.
The R&S ZVH requires a minimum sweep time of 20 ms for every 600 MHz of span. If
you increase the span, the R&S ZVH will also increase the sweep time.
In the time domain (span = 0), the R&S ZVH shows the video voltage over time. The
horizontal axis becomes a time axis that starts at 0 s and ends at the sweep time that
you selected. The range of the sweep time in the time domain is from 200 µs to 1000 s.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
In the default state, "Auto SWP Time" is active.
► Press the "SWP Time" softkey.
► Select the "Manual" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the sweep time.
► Enter the sweep time you need.
If the video bandwidth is no longer coupled to the span or the resolution bandwidth,
).
the R&S ZVH puts a red dot at the "SWT" hardware setting (
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4.2.4.2
Selecting the Sweep Mode
The sweep mode is the way the R&S ZVH performs the measurement.
In its default state, the R&S ZVH measures continuously. In this mode, the R&S ZVH
automatically repeats the sweep in the defined range of the horizontal axis (frequency
or time) and updates the trace accordingly after it has finished with one sweep.
In some cases it may be sufficient to get the results over a single sweep only, e.g. if a
particular trigger condition is met. In single sweep mode, the R&S ZVH performs the
sweep a certain number of times (depending on the number of averages you have set)
over the defined range of the horizontal axis (frequency or time) and then stops
measuring. It performs another sweep only after you tell it to. For more information on
setting the number of sweeps included in a single sweep see "Selecting the Trace
Mode (Average)".
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select the "Single Sweep menu item to perform measurements in single sweep
mode or the "Continuous Sweep" menu item to perform measurement
continuously.
4.2.4.3
Working with Trigger Functionality
If you have to perform measurements according to certain signal conditions, you can
use a trigger. A trigger responds to certain events. If a trigger is active, the R&S ZVH
starts to measure if the trigger conditions are met. The trigger can be generated either
externally or internally.
The R&S ZVH provides the following trigger functions.
●
Free Run
A new sweep starts on completion of the previous sweep. This is the default state
of the R&S ZVH.
●
Video Trigger
A sweep starts when the video voltage exceeds a particular level. The video trigger
is available only in the time domain (span = 0).
In the frequency domain, the R&S ZVH would never start a measurement with the
video trigger because there is no guarantee that there is a signal that generates
video voltage present at the start frequency.
●
External Trigger (rising or falling slope)
A sweep starts on the rising edge (RISE) or on the falling edge (FALL) of an
external trigger signal. The external trigger signal is fed in via the BNC connector
"Ext Trigger". The switching threshold is 1.4 V, i.e. a TTL signal level.
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●
Gated Trigger
When the gated trigger is active, a gate signal that is applied to the R&S ZVH
trigger input controls the sweep. The R&S ZVH starts measuring when the applied
gate signal becomes active and the set gate delay has expired, and it interrupts the
measurement as soon as the defined gate length is reached. With the gate signal
becoming active the next time the measurement is resumed etc.
Pulsed signals can be measured by this method, if the gate delay and gate length
are selected in a way that the measurement is only performed while the pulse is
active. Gated measurements are possible in the frequency domain (span > 0) and
the time domain (span = 0), but it is available only in combination with an external
gate signal.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu to select the trigger source.
► Select the trigger source you need.
The R&S ZVH activates the trigger.
Including a Delay Time
When you are using a video trigger in the time domain or an external trigger, you can
delay the start of the measurement with respect to the trigger event by entering a delay
time. In this way, you can include time differences between the trigger event and the
measurement.
The range of the trigger delay is from 0 µs to 100 s. The resolution depends on the
subrange.
Trigger delay
Resolution
0 to 1 ms
10 µs
1 ms to 10 ms
100 µs
10 ms to 100 ms
1 ms
100 ms to 1 s
10 ms
1 s to 10 s
100 ms
10 s to 100 s
1s
► Press the SWEEP key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select the "Trigger Delay…" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the trigger delay.
► Enter the delay time you need.
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Defining the Trigger Level
When you are using the video trigger, you have to define a trigger level. The trigger
level is a percentage of the reference level. A trigger level of 100 % is the same as the
reference level. A trigger level of, e.g. 50% corresponds to the middle of the vertical
axis. The R&S ZVH indicates the video trigger level with a triangle.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select the "Trace Video" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the trigger level.
► Enter the trigger level.
The R&S ZVH shows the trigger level by adding a horizontal line to the diagram
area.
Performing Gated Sweeps
When the external trigger is active, it is possible to perform a gated sweep.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Activate an external trigger.
Now that the external trigger is active, the "Gated Trigger" menu item becomes
available.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey again.
► Select the "Gated Trigger" menu item.
In order to get appropriate results, you have to set the gate delay and gate length in a
way that the measurement is active during the interesting part of the signal. You can
also modify the sweep time in order to match the horizontal axis to the length of the
signal and thus set the gate delay and gate length parameters more accurately.
The gate delay parameter defines the time between the trigger event and the
beginning of the actual measurement. The gate length defines the duration of the
measurement, before it is interrupted and the next gate signal is anticipated to resume
the measurement.
► Press the SWEEP/BW key.
► Press the "Trigger" softkey.
► Select the "Gate Settings" menu item.
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The R&S ZVH opens a softkey submenu to control the gate settings. At the same time,
the R&S ZVH switches into time domain, as indicated in the display.
► Press the "Manual SWP Time" softkey and set the sweep time in a way that the
portion of interest of the signal is visible on the screen.
► Press the "Gate Delay" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the trigger delay.
► Enter the delay time you need.
The measurement now starts after the delay time has passed.
► Press the "Gate Length" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the gate length.
► Enter the length of the gate.
The R&S ZVH now measures over the period of the gate length. After the gate has
closed, the R&S ZVH waits with the measurement until the next gate signal
happens.
The delay time and gate length are represented by vertical red lines in the diagram
area.
► After setting the gate delay and gate length, exit the gate settings menu with the
"Exit" softkey.
The R&S ZVH returns to the frequency domain provided it was active before
setting up the gated trigger. The original span is restored. The R&S ZVH is ready
to perform measurements with an accurately set gate.
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4.2.5 Working with Traces
The trace menu contains all functions available to customize the trace display.
4.2.5.1
Selecting the Trace Mode
The R&S ZVH provides several trace modes. The trace mode defines the way the
R&S ZVH writes the trace.
●
Clear/Write
In its default state, the R&S ZVH overwrites the trace after each sweep.
You can apply all detectors in this mode.
●
Average
The trace is the result of the moving average over several sweeps.
The R&S ZVH calculates the (moving) average of the power levels for each pixel
over a particular number of sweeps in the range from 2 to 999.
Averaging reduces the effects of noise, but has no effects on sine signals. Using
the trace averaging therefore is a good way to detect signals in the vicinity of
noise.
You can apply all detectors in this mode.
●
Max Hold
The trace shows the maximum power levels that have been measured at each
pixel.
To overwrite a max hold trace, change a parameter in a way that the results can
not be compared any more, e.g. the span. Using the max hold trace mode is a
good way to detect intermittent signals or the maximum values of fluctuating
signals, for example.
Using the max hold trace mode automatically activates the max peak detector.
●
Min Hold
The trace shows the minimum power levels that have been measured at each
pixel.
To overwrite a min hold trace, change a parameter in a way that the results can not
be compared any more, e.g. the span. Using the min hold trace mode is a good
way to highlight signals within noise or suppress intermittent signals.
Using the min hold trace mode automatically activates the min peak detector.
●
View
The view trace mode freezes the current trace and aborts the measurement.
Using the view trace mode is a good way to evaluate the trace, for example with
markers.
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► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Trace Mode" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu to select the trace mode.
► Select the trace mode you want to work with.
If you have selected the average trace mode ("Average: 10" menu item), the
R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the number of sweeps the R&S ZVH includes
in the averaging.
► Enter the number of sweeps to include in the averaging.
In continuous sweep mode, the R&S ZVH now calculates the moving average over
the number of sweeps you have specified. In single sweep mode, it stops the
measurement after finishing the sweeps and averages the traces.
4.2.5.2
Selecting the Detector
The number of measurement results collected in a single sweep usually is very high,
especially if the span is large. However, the display of the R&S ZVH can display only
631 results in horizontal direction, as it is limited by the number of pixels that are
available on the display. Therefore, it has to combine measurement results to fit them
on the display. In that case, one pixel represents a frequency range = span/631.
The detector determines the way the R&S ZVH combines and displays the results for
one pixel. The data base is the video voltage of the analyzer.
The R&S ZVH provides several types of detectors.
●
Auto Peak
If the auto peak detector is active, the R&S ZVH displays both the maximum and
the minimum power levels that were measured in the frequency range covered by
a pixel.
Therefore, the auto peak detector loses no information. If a signal power level
fluctuates (e.g. noise), the width of the trace depends on the magnitude of the
signal fluctuation.
The auto peak detector is the default detector.
●
Max Peak
If the max peak detector is active, the R&S ZVH displays only the maximum power
levels that were measured in the frequency range covered by a pixel.
The max peak detector is useful for measurements on pulse or FM signals, for
example.
●
Min Peak
If the max peak detector is active, the R&S ZVH displays only the minimum power
level that were measured in the frequency range covered by a pixel.
The min peak detector displays sine signals with the correct level and suppresses
noise. Therefore it is useful to find sine signals in the vicinity of noise.
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●
Sample
If the sample detector is active, the R&S ZVH shows one random power level that
was measured in the frequency range covered by a pixel.
The sample detector is useful for measurements in the time domain (span = 0 Hz)
as it provides the only way to represent the timing of the video signal correctly.
In the frequency domain, the sample detector is a good way to measure noise
power because noise usually has a uniform spectrum with a normal amplitude
distribution.
Signals may get lost if you are using the sample detector for measurements with a
span that is greater than "RBW*631".
●
RMS
If the RMS detector is active, the R&S ZVH measures the spectral power over one
pixel. In case of power measurements, the RMS detector always shows the true
power of a signal, regardless of the shape of the signal.
The RMS detector is best for measurements on digitally modulated signals
because it provides stable and true power readings. In combination with a high
sweep time you can increase the display stability even more because the
measurement time for each pixel increases.
Noise measurements also provide stable results if you apply the RMS detector in
combination with a high sweep time.
However, the bandwidth occupied by the signal to be measured should at least
equal the frequency covered by a trace pixel or the selected resolution bandwidth
(whichever is larger). Otherwise, the power the R&S ZVH shows is too low
because there are spectral components within the frequency range covered by the
pixel that do not originate from the signal you want to observe (e.g. noise).
To get the true power, the video bandwidth (VBW) should also be greater than the
resolution bandwidth (RBW). Otherwise, an averaging effect caused by video
bandlimiting comes into play before the RMS value is calculated.
The R&S ZVH provides automatic selection of the detector. In that case, the R&S ZVH
selects the detector that is most suitable for the current trace mode.
Trace mode
Detector
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Average
Sample
Max Hold
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
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If you select the detector manually, the detector is independent of the trace mode and
will not change.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Detector" softkey.
► Select the detector you want to use.
If you automatic detector selection is active, the corresponding menu item is
marked by an [X].
4.2.5.3
Working with a Second Trace
In spectrum mode, you can use two traces. Both traces are based on the same
settings, except the trace settings like the trace mode or the detector. You can use the
second trace to compare, for example, two different detector settings.
In the default state, only trace 1 is active.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Show" softkey.
► Select the "Trace 2" menu item.
The R&S ZVH shows the second
trace. The second trace is in a
different color. To show that the
second trace is active, the
R&S ZVH labels the "Trace 2"
menu item with an [X].
After you have activated the
second trace, this is also the
active one. All actions (like
changing the detector or trace
mathematics) apply to the active
trace.
The trace indicator shows the currently active trace with a white background.
► Press the "Select Trace" softkey.
Trace 1 becomes the active trace.
You can put both traces into the internal memory of the R&S ZVH and restore them
later. Note that the memory trace 1 and memory trace 2 have the same color (i.e.
white).
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4.2.5.4
Working with Memory Traces
You can save the image of both traces to the memory of the R&S ZVH and later
restore it and compare it to a live trace. The memory trace is always colored white to
distinguish it from the live trace.
Measurement settings
Because the memory trace is just a bitmap, any modifications to measurement settings
like span or reference level are nor reflected in the memory trace.
When you save a data set, the R&S ZVH also stores the associated trace in the trace
memory. If you restore it at a later time, you can display the memory trace as if it is a
normal memory trace.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Select the trace you want to store
in the trace memory with the
"Select Trace" softkey.
► Press the "TraceMemory"
softkey.
The R&S ZVH saves the active
trace.
► Press the "Show" softkey.
► Select the "Memory <x>" menu
item.
The R&S ZVH shows the corresponding memory trace. If active, it labels the
"Memory <x>" menu item with an [X].
4.2.5.5
Using Trace Mathematics
Trace mathematics substract the memory trace from the live trace and vice versa and
then display the results.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "TraceMemory"
softkey.
► Press the "Show" softkey.
► Press the "Trace Math" softkey.
► Select the "Trace-Memory" or
"Memory-Trace" menu item.
The R&S ZVH calculates and
shows the resulting trace.
► To turn off trace mathematics, select the "Off" menu item.
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4.2.6 Using Markers
The spectrum analyzer mode provides marker and deltamarker functionality. In
addition, you can use several marker functions.
Marker and deltamarker functionality in the spectrum analyzer mode is the same as
that of the cable and antenna analyzer.
For more information see "Using Markers" on page 53.
4.2.6.1
Using Marker Functions
In addition to the frequency and level readout, the R&S ZVH provides several, more
complex, marker functions in spectrum analyzer mode.
Deactivating marker functions
Selecting a marker function again while it is still active turns that marker function off.
Measuring the Noise Power Density
The marker noise function calculates the noise power density at the marker position in
dBm/Hz. The R&S ZVH includes several variables in the calculation of the noise power
density, including the trace pixel values, the resolution bandwidth, the detector and the
level display mode (absolute or relative). To stabilize the noise power display, the
R&S ZVH uses the pixel the marker is on and four pixels to the right and four pixels to
the left of the marker pixel.
Noise power density can provide useful information when you are measuring noise or
digitally modulated signals. However, you will get valid results only if the spectrum in
the vicinity of the marker has a flat frequency response. When measuring the noise
power density on discrete signals, results are not valid.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Marker Function"
softkey.
► Select the "Noise" menu item.
The R&S ZVH shows the level at
the marker frequency in dBm/Hz. If
you are using a delta marker for
the measurement, the results have
the unit dBc/Hz with marker 1
being the reference.
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Measuring the Frequency
The R&S ZVH provides a frequency counter. The frequency counter accurately
measures the frequency at the marker position.
When calculating the horizontal position of the marker, the R&S ZVH includes the
current span, center frequency and the frequency of the pixel the marker is on. As the
trace only has 631 pixels, the marker position is just an approximation, especially if the
span is very wide.
With the frequency counter, however, you can get a more accurate result of the
horizontal marker position. If the frequency counter is active, the R&S ZVH stops the
measurement at the marker position for a short time and measures the frequency
using the internal reference frequency.
The accuracy of the results therefore depends only on the accuracy of the internal
reference frequency (TCXO). The frequency counter has a resolution of 0.1 Hz and
therefore provides far more accurate results. Despite the accuracy, the measurement
is still fast (because of a special algorithm for the I/Q baseband signal).
The frequency counter only gives completely accurate readings for sine signals that
are at least 20 dB above the noise floor. If the S/N ratio is less, noise affects the
results.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Marker Function"
softkey.
► Select the "Frequency Count"
menu item
The R&S ZVH displays the
counted marker frequency with a
resolution of 1 Hz. If the frequency
counter is on, the marker symbol
changes from M1 to C.
Measuring the Signal Bandwidth
The "n dB Down" marker function places two temporary markers to the left and to the
right of the reference marker and measures the bandwidth between the two temporary
markers. The function therefore is a good way to measure the bandwidth of a signal or
the bandwidth of a filter, for example. The temporary markers are represented as two
vertical lines.
The distance to the reference marker is by default 3 dB below the reference marker.
You can also adjust this value manually. Entering a positive value sets the temporary
markers below the reference marker. If it is, for any reason, not possible to calculate
the frequency spacing, dashes are displayed instead of a value.
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Upon entering a negative value, the function turns into a n dB up function. You can use
a n dB up function, for example, for measurements on notch filters.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Marker Function" softkey.
► Select the "n dB Down" menu item
The R&S ZVH displays two temporary markers on the left and on the right of the
reference marker M1. It also shows the bandwidth between the n dB down
markers.
You can then adjust the distance of the temporary markers.
► Press the "Marker Function"
softkey.
► Select the "n dB Down" menu item
The R&S ZVH opens an input field
► Enter a different distance (in this
case 6 dB).
The R&S ZVH again shows the
temporary markers, this time with
a broader bandwidth.
Demodulating Signals
The R&S ZVH features an AM and FM demodulator to demodulate and monitor audio
signals. It demodulates the signal at the marker frequency.
You can listen to the demodulated signal with the internal speaker or headphones that
you can connect to the 3.5 mm headphone jack on the top of the R&S ZVH.
When demodulating an AM modulated signal, the R&S ZVH turns the video voltage
into an audible sound. You should therefore set the reference level to about the level of
the signal that you are demodulating.
If you perform measurements in the time domain, the R&S ZVH demodulates
continuously. In the frequency domain, you can define a time period the R&S ZVH
demodulates the signal at the marker frequency. The frequency sweep then stops at
the marker frequency for that time before finishing the sweep.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Marker Function" softkey.
► Select the demodulation scheme you require from the menu.
The R&S ZVH starts to demodulate the signal.
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Demodulating signals
If you turn on the demodulator, the R&S ZVH automatically turns off the noise marker
or the frequency counter.
Defining the demodulation time period
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Marker Function" softkey.
► Select the "Time…" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the demodulation time.
► Enter the demodulation time you need.
The range is from 100 ms to 500 s. In time domain the R&S ZVH demodulates
continuously, i.e. the demodulation time is not relevant.
Controlling the volume
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Marker Function" softkey.
► Select the "Volume…" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the demodulation volume.
► Enter the volume you are comfortable with.
The demodulation volume is a percentage (0 % to 100 %) with 100 % being full
volume.
For more information on general volume control see the Quick Start Guide.
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Configuring Spectrum Measurements
4.2.7 Using Display Lines
Like markers, display lines help you to determine the level of the signal.
A display line is a straight line that runs horizontally and corresponds to a certain level
value. You can move the display line to each pixel in the display. This means that the
accuracy and exact vertical position of the display line depends on the resolution of the
vertical axis. With a display range of 100 dB, for example, each pixel corresponds to
0.3 dB. In that case, the accuracy of the display line is 0.3 dB. If you enter a value with
a higher resolution, the R&S ZVH rounds that value.
You can also move the display line with the rotary knob or the cursor keys. The step
size for movement with the rotary knob is one pixel. The step size for the cursor keys is
10 % of the display range.
► Press the LINES key.
► Press the "Display Line" softkey.
The R&S ZVH displays the display line as a blue horizontal line. It shows the
vertical position of the line in a table above the diagram area.
When you activate the display line, the R&S ZVH also opens an input field to
define the vertical position of the line.
► Enter the level value you need.
The R&S ZVH positions the display line accordingly.
Alternatively you can also move the display line with the rotary knob or the cursor
keys.
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Configuring Spectrum Measurements
4.2.8 Using Limit Lines
Limit lines help you to identify if a signal complies with certain level characteristics.
A limit line is made up out of two or more points that are connected to a line. Each of
the points that define the shape of the limit line consists of two coordinates. One
coordinate defines the horizontal position (e.g. frequency), the other one the vertical
position. With the R&S ZVH you can build limit lines that consist of up to 1000 points.
Values that define the horizontal characteristics of the limit line can be either absolute
values (e.g. frequency in MHz) or relative values whose reference is the center of the
measurement trace (e.g. the center frequency). Relative values are of advantage if
you, for example, measure modulated output signals and you change the center
frequency but need the limit line to remain the same. Absolute limit lines have the file
extension ".abslim" while relative limit lines have the file extension ".rellim"
Values that define the vertical characteristsics are always level values in dB. If the
scaling of the vertical axis is currently a linear one (units V or W), the R&S ZVH
automatically switches to a logarithmic scaling after you turn on the limit line.
After turning on a limit line, the R&S ZVH checks if the signal violates the shape of the
limit line. If one or more signal levels exceed the limit value, the R&S ZVH features
several indicators that the limit check has failed.
●
●
●
A general message in the diagram header that indicates if the signal violates the
limit line, including the trace that violates the limit:
An audio signal that sounds every time a limit is violated
The trace color turns red in areas of the spectrum that violate a limit
You can create and edit limit lines with the R&S ZVHView software package and then
transfer them into the internal memory of the R&S ZVH. The number of limit lines you
can store in the memory depends on other datasets available on the R&S ZVH or, if
you are using an external storage device (e.g. memory stick), the size of it.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
4.2.8.1
Selecting a Limit Line
Before selecting a limit line, you need to decide if you want to use it as an upper or
lower limit line. In case of upper limit lines, the R&S ZVH checks if the signal is above
the limit line. In case of lower limit lines, the R&S ZVH checks if the signal is below the
limit line.
You also have to make sure that the limit line is compatible to the scale of the
horizontal axis.
► Press the LINES key.
► Depending on the application, press the "Upper Limit" or "Lower Limit" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the limit line.
► Select the "Load From File…" menu item.
► Press the "Sort/Show" softkey.
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Configuring Spectrum Measurements
► Select the "Show Compatible" menu item.
The R&S ZVH shows all limit lines that are compatible to the current settings.
► Select one of the available limit lines.
► Press the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH activates the limit line. In the diagram, the limit line is displayed as a
red line.
If you have already selected a limit line, you can turn the limit line on and off with
the "Limits On/Off" softkey.
Alternatively, you can define a threshold that works like a limit line. A threshold is a
simple horizontal limit line.
► Press the "Upper Limit" or "Lower Limit" softkey.
► Select the "Threshold" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a input field to define the threshold.
► Enter the threshold you need.
The R&S ZVH displays the line and performs a limit check for that threshold.
Threshold line and display line
Like the display line, a threshold line is a straight horizontal line. The difference is that
the R&S ZVH performs a limit check for threshold lines, but not for display lines.
A failed limit check may be an issue if you want to create a measurement report,
because measurements with failed limits are not included in this report.
Using a display line, you can use a line and are able to create a measurement report at
the same time, regardless if any limits have been violated or not.
The process of turning off a limit line completely is similar to that of selecting a line.
► Press the "Upper Limit" or "Lower Limit" softkey
► Select the "Unselect Limit" menu item.
The R&S ZVH deactivates the limit line.
4.2.8.2
Performing Limit Checks
If limit lines are active, the R&S ZVH automatically checks the trace for limit violations
after each frequency sweep. As long as the signal does not violate the limit line, the
R&S ZVH shows a "Pass" message in the measurement diagram. As soon as one
single value (i.e. one pixel) is outside of the limits, the R&S ZVH displays a "Fail"
message in the diagram area and, in addition, sounds a beep.
A limit checks relates only to the frequency range defined by the limit line, not the
span.
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Audio signal
You can turn the acoustic signal that sounds in case of a limit violation on and off.
► Press the "Options" softkey.
► Select the "Audio Beep" menu item.
An [X] in front of the "Audio Beep" menu item indicates that the beeper is active. If
the audio beep is active, the R&S ZVH beeps each time a limit is violated.
Limit violation
Note that a limit check fails only if the signal exceeds the limit line.
If the signal level is the same as the limit value, the limit check passes.
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Working with Channel Tables
4.3 Working with Channel Tables
Almost all transmission systems divide their assigned frequency ranges into channels.
Each channel corresponds to a specific frequency. To keep the handling of such
systems simple, you can use channel tables instead of entering frequencies manually.
The R&S ZVH already comes with an assortment of channel tables that you can use
without doing anything. If you want to test transmission standards that are not listed,
you can also build channel tables manually with the "Channel Table Editor" of the
R&S ZVHView software package that is delivered with the R&S ZVH. To use one of
those, you just have to copy the channel table to the R&S ZVH.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
Selecting a channel table
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Frequency Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Channel" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select a channel table.
► Select one of the available channel tables.
After activating the channel table, the R&S ZVH is set up according to the
information contained in the channel table. Instead of a center frequency, the
R&S ZVH shows the currently active channel number including the name of the
channel. The center frequency of a channel is defined in the channel table and is
the frequency corresponding to the selected channel.
Selecting a channel
Entering a center, start or stop frequency is not possible anymore. Instead you select a
channel. The R&S ZVH then adjusts the center, start and stop frequency according to
the channel table.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Center Frequency" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to select the channel.
► Enter the channel you want to perform measurements on.
The R&S ZVH changes the channel according to the channel table.
Channel numbers are assigned to frequencies as follows:
-
-
The first channel is assigned a channel number and a frequency.
All subsequent channels have ascending numbers.
The frequency spacing between channels is fixed. It can also be negative, i.e.
the center frequency of the R&S ZVH decreases with ascending channel
number.
In transmission systems containing gaps in the frequency range (as in the case
of television, for example), a channel table can comprise multiple ranges.
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Using Transducer Factors
4.4 Using Transducer Factors
The frequency-dependent transducer factor of transducers and antennas can be
directly considered in the measurement result. A transducer factor consists of a
numeric value and a unit. The R&S ZVH corrects the level values of the trace by the
values of the transducer. At the same time, the unit of the transducer is assigned to the
level axis. When field-strength measurements are performed with the aid of antennas,
for instance, the electrical field strength is directly indicated in dBµV/m on the
R&S ZVH. A transducer factor can also be used to correct a frequency-dependent
attenuation, e.g. of a cable between DUT and RF input of the R&S ZVH.
You can create and edit transducer factor with the R&S ZVHView software package
and then transfer them into the internal memory of the R&S ZVH. Each transducer
factor may consist of up to 1000 reference values.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
Interpolation between the values is performed with the aid of a modified spline
algorithm. Even if only relatively few values such as maxima, minima and turning
points are available, this algorithm can easily simulate the correction factors of
common transducers. Two transducers can be switched on at a time. The second
transducer must be assigned the unit dB. The R&S ZVH adds the two transducers to a
total transducer.
Units supported for transducer factors:
●
●
●
●
dB
dBµV/m
dBµA/m
W/m2
The unit dB does not change the unit set on the R&S ZVH. It can be used, for instance,
to compensate for frequency-dependent loss and gain at the input of the R&S ZVH.
The units dBµV/m and dBµA/m convert the output power of an antenna into electric or
magnetic field strength. The unit W/m2 is used to calculate and display the power flux
density.
For example, to compensate for the cable loss between the transducer and the RF
input, the R&S ZVH can use two transducers at the same time. One of them must have
the unit dB, however, i.e. it must correspond to one loss or gain value.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Transducer" softkey.
Transducer factor availability
Transducer factors are not available for measurements with the tracking generator or
the Power Sensors. The "Transducer" softkey is therefore inactive.
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Using Transducer Factors
You can select two transducer factors, a primary transducer and a secondary
transducer. If a transducer factor is active, the menu item has an [X] in front of it.
► Select the "Select Primary Transducer" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the transducer factor.
► Select the transducer factor you need.
► Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows the name of the active transducer on the display.
An example would be the transducer factor of the R&S HL223 antenna that is defined
between 200 MHz and 1300 MHz. The R&S ZVH therefore displays the noise in this
frequency range as a function of frequency incremented by the transducer factor.
Outside the transducer range, the R&S ZVH sets the transducer factor at zero, i.e.
measurements in this range do not yield conclusive results.
You can select a second transducer factor with the "Select Secondary Transducer"
menu item. The secondary transducer factor in that case is added to the first. The unit
of the second transducer factor must always be the relative unit dB as otherwise an
addition would not be useful. When you select a secondary transducer factor, the
dialog box shows only those transducer factors that have dB as their unit.
4.4.1 Unit for Measurements with Transducers
If the unit of the transducer is dB, the units dBm, dBmV or dBµV remain unchanged.
The linear units Volt and Watt are not permissible. They are deactivated in the units
menu.
If the unit of the transducer is dBµV/m or dBµA/m, this unit is also used for the
R&S ZVH level display. This means that both the level axis of the diagram and the
level at the marker position are assigned the unit of the transducer. If dBµV/m is
selected as the transducer unit, a switch to absolute level indication in V/m is possible.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Unit" softkey.
► Select the V(olt) menu item.
If you are using a transducer with the unit dBµA/m, it is not possible to select another
unit. Level indication is entirely in dBµA/m.
4.4.2 Setting the Reference Level
The transducer shifts the trace by its value as a function of frequency. Positive
transducer values increase the level, negative values reduce it. To ensure that the
trace is always within the diagram, the R&S ZVH adjusts the reference level
accordingly. The reference level is shifted by the maximum transducer value in the
positive or negative direction.
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Using Transducer Factors
4.4.3 Frequency Range of Transducer
If the set frequency range is wider than the span in which a transducer is defined, the
R&S ZVH assumes the transducer values outside the defined range to be zero.
4.4.4 Data Sets Containing Transducer Factors
The R&S ZVH stores data sets together with any transducer factors that may have
been active for the measurement in question. When such a dataset is recalled, the
associated transducer factor(s) are switched on as well. Transducer factors recalled as
part of a data set do however not appear in the list of transducer factors.
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Using a Power Sensor
5 Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
For highly accurate power measurements, you can connect a power sensor to the
R&S ZVH and perform measurements.
5.1 Using a Power Sensor
A power sensor measures the power in the frequency range defined in the data sheet
of the power sensor. This means that you can measure both sine signals and
modulated signals precisely over a large dynamic range.
The R&S ZVH supports the following power sensors. The information in brackets
indicates if the power sensor is connected via the power sensor port or via the USB
interface.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
R&S FSH-Z1 (power sensor port)
R&S FSH-Z18 (power sensor port)
R&S NRP-Z11 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z21 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z22 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z23 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z24 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z31 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z51 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z55 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z56 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z57 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z81 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z91 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z92 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z211 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z221 (USB)
If you are using one of the NRP power sensors you also need a passive USB adapter
(R&S NRP-Z4) to connect the power sensor to the R&S ZVH.
For more information on the characteristics of the supported power sensors see
●
●
the datasheet of the R&S ZVH
the website for R&S power sensors
http://www2.rohde-schwarz.com/en/products/test_and_measurement/power_volt_meter/NRPZ.html
The power sensor function turns the R&S ZVH into a wideband power meter. It then
always measures the power of the whole signal in the frequency range of the power
sensor. In most cases the signal shape has no effect on the measurement.
► Press the MODE key.
► Press the "Power Meter" softkey
The R&S ZVH activates the mode for power measurements.
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Using a Power Sensor
Screen layout of the power meter mode
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Connected power sensor model
Reference for relative power measurements
Power offset
Measurement time
Readout of the measured power
Analog readout of the measured power
Measurement frequency
Power sensor softkey menu
5.1.1 Connecting a Power Sensor
The R&S ZVH controls and powers the power sensors via a special interface on the
top of the instrument. You can also connect a power sensor via the USB interface on
the right.
If you are using the R&S FSH-Z1 and -Z18 power sensors, connect the power sensor
cable to the power sensor interface and screw it into position. Power sensors of the
R&S NRP product line are controlled via the USB interface with a passive USB
adapter.
After connecting the power sensor to the R&S ZVH, you can connect the DUT to the Nconnector of the power sensor.
Risk of damage to the power sensor
Before you start to work with the power sensor, make sure that the continuous power
applied to the input of the power sensor does not exceed a certain level.
Refer to the documentation of the power sensor for more information on the maximum
input power.
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Using a Power Sensor
If the R&S ZVH recognizes a power sensor, it sets up a connection via the interface
and after a few seconds shows the measured power. It displays the type of the power
sensor in the display header.
If no power sensor has been connected or it is not connected appropriately, the
R&S ZVH shows nothing.
If there are communication problems between the R&S ZVH and the power sensor, the
R&S ZVH displays one of the following error messages that indicate the possible
cause.
Message
Cause
Remedy
Error in zeroing: signal at sensor
A signal was present at the power sensor
when zeroing was performed.
Unscrew the power sensor from the device
under test and repeat zeroing.
Warning: Input overloaded
The power at the input of the power sensor
exceeds the permitted power (23 dBm =
200 mW).
Reduce the power at the sensor input.
Power sensor hardware error
Communication error between the R&S ZVH
and the power sensor.
Unscrew the sensor from the R&S ZVH and
check the connectors.
If the problem persists, contact a Rohde &
Schwarz service center.
Power sensor error
The power sensor signals an error to the
R&S ZVH.
Unknown power sensor model
connected
TheR&S ZVH cannot identify the device
connected to the power sensor interface.
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Using a Power Sensor
5.1.2 Performing and Configuring Measurements
After you have connected a power sensor, the R&S ZVH immediately starts to
measure the signal power.
Defining the center frequency
Power sensors have a memory containing correction values that are dependent on the
frequency. Hence, measurement results are the most accurate for signals whose
frequency you know.
Note that the R&S ZVH maintains the center frequency that you have set in another
operating mode. In that case it uses that frequency as the power sensor frequency.
If you want to perform measurements on another known signal, you can change the
power sensor frequency manually.
► Press the MEAS key
► Press the "Freq" softkey.
An input field to define the frequency opens.
► Enter the frequency of the signal.
The R&S ZVH transfers the new frequency to the power sensor which then
corrects the measured power readings.
Zeroing the power sensor
Offset voltages and currents have most effect on the power readout when measuring
low powers. You can compensate for these offsets by zeroing the power sensor.
Do not apply power during the zeroing process, as the power sensor cannot distinguish
between external powers and internal offsets.
► Press the "Zero" softkey.
The R&S ZVH asks you not to apply
any signals to the power sensor during
the zeroing process.
► Disconnect the power sensor from any signal sources.
► Press the "Continue" softkey to start zeroing.
► Press "Cancel" to abort zeroing, for example, if you cannot disconnect the signal
source.
The R&S ZVH immediately starts power sensor zeroing.
While zeroing is in progress, the
R&S ZVH shows the message
“Zeroing power sensor, please
wait..”.
When zeroing is over, the R&S ZVH shows the message
and switches back to the softkey menu for the power sensor.
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Using a Power Sensor
Selecting the unit for the power readout
The R&S ZVH can display measured power in relative units (dBm) or in absolute units
(W, mW, µW, nW and pW). It is also possible to set a reference level in dB.
► Press the "Unit" softkey.
A submenu to select the unit opens.
► Select the unit you want.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the result display accordingly.
Setting the reference level
If you have selected the unit dB Rel, the R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the
reference level. The R&S ZVH shows the currently set reference level in the diagram
header.
► Enter the reference level you want.
Alternatively, you can set the current level readout as the reference level.
► Press the "Ref" softkey.
The R&S ZVH sets the current result as the reference level.
It then displays the measured level relative to the reference level in dB. The unit is
automatically set to dB Rel...
Setting the averaging time
The averaging time determines the length of the measurement. The longer the
averaging time, the more stable the display, particularly if signals have low power or
are noisy.
The averaging time is either "Short", "Normal" or "Long".
●
●
●
A short measurement time provides stable and accurate results for stationary sine
signals with high levels (> -40 dBm). It is also appropriate for measurements that
require a high repition rate.
A normal measurement time increases the stability of results for signals with low
levels or modulated signals.
A long measurement time is appropriate for signals with very low power levels
(< -50 dBm)
To eliminate noise and the effects of noise on the measurement effectively, use the
R&S FSH-Z1 power sensor.
► Press the "Meas Time" softkey.
► Select the measurement time most suitable for your test setup.
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Using a Power Sensor
Taking additional loss or gain into account
At high powers that cause the power sensor maximum input level to be exceeded or at
very low levels that are below the R&S ZVH minimum sensitivity, the R&S ZVH can
take additional loss or gain between the DUT and the power sensor into account.
These are defined in terms of an offset in dB relative to the measured level. A positive
offset corresponds to a loss and a negative offset to a gain.
The R&S ZVH shows the current offset in the diagram header.
► Press the "Ref Offset" softkey.
The value entry box for the reference offset opens.
► Enter the required offset.
The offset is taken into account in the power or level display.
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Using a Directional Power Sensor
5.2 Using a Directional Power Sensor
For power measurements in both directions (forward and reverse), you can connect
directional power sensors to the R&S ZVH. The R&S ZVH supports the following
directional power sensors:
●
●
R&S FSH-Z14
R&S FSH-Z44
With a directional power sensor, the R&S ZVH measures the power of a signal from
source to load (forward power) and from load to source (reverse power). The ratio of
forward and reverse power is a measure of the load matching. The R&S ZVH displays
the results as the return loss or the standing wave ratio.
► Press the MODE key.
► Press the "Power Meter" softkey
The R&S ZVH activates the mode for power measurements.
Screen layout of the power meter mode with a directional power sensor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Connected power sensor model
Selected transmission standard
Reference for relative power measurements
Power offset
Readout of the forward power
Analog readout of the forward power
Readout of the matching value
Analog readout of the matching value
Measurement frequency
Directional power sensor softkey menu
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Using a Directional Power Sensor
5.2.1 Connecting a Directional Power Sensor
The R&S ZVH controls and powers the directional power sensors via a special
interface on the top of the instrument.
Connect the power sensor cable to the power sensor interface and screw it into
position. The power sensor itself is located between the source and the load of the test
setup. The figure below shows the way a test setup would look like.
The power sensors for the R&S ZVH have an assymetrical design. Hence, you have to
insert them into the test setup in such a way that the "Forward" arrow (12) on the
sensor points toward the load (= in the direction of the power flux).
If the R&S ZVH recognizes a power sensor, it sets up a connection via the interface
and after a few seconds shows the results. It displays the type of the power sensor in
the display header. If an error occurs, the R&S ZVH shows a corresponding message.
For more information, see "Connecting a Power Sensor".
1
2
3
4
Directional Power Sensor R&S FSH-Z14 or -Z44
Source
Load
Power sensor jack
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Using a Directional Power Sensor
5.2.2 Performing and Configuring Measurements
After you have connected a power sensor, the R&S ZVH immediately starts to
measure the signal power.
When measuring high powers, pay strict attention to the following instructions to avoid
personal injury and to prevent the power sensor from being destroyed
Risk of skin burns and / or damage to the R&S ZVH
Measuring high powers may lead to skin burns and / or damage to the R&S ZVH. You
can avoid it by:
●
Never exceeding the permissible continuous power. The permissible continuous
power is indicated on a diagram on the back of the power sensor.
●
Turning off the the RF power when connecting the power sensor.
●
Connecting the RF connectors tightly.
Defining the center frequency
To get the most accurate results, you should synchronize the frequency to that of the
signal.
Note that the R&S ZVH maintains the center frequency that you have set in another
operating mode. In that case it uses that frequency as the power sensor frequency.
If you want to perform measurements on another known signal, you can change the
power sensor frequency manually.
► Press the MEAS key
► Press the "Freq" softkey.
An input field to define the frequency opens.
► Enter the frequency of the signal.
The R&S ZVH transfers the new frequency to the power sensor which then
corrects the measured power readings.
Zeroing the power sensor
For more information see "Zeroing the power sensor".
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Using a Directional Power Sensor
Setting the power measurement weighting mode
For forward power display, the R&S ZVH provides both average power and peak
envelope power.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Fwrd Pwr Display" softkey.
► Select the weighting mode you require.
The R&S ZVH indicates the weighting mode at the Forward Power heading.
-
Forward power (AVG) = average power
Forward power (PEP) = peak envelope power
Selecting the unit for the power readout
When using a directional power sensor, the R&S ZVH displays the forward power as a
logarithmic level value in dBm (relative value) or as a linear value in W or mW
(absolute value). In addition you can define a reference level relative to which the
R&S ZVH indicates the level difference in dB. Load matching is indicated as return loss
in dB or as voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). In addition, the absolutely reflected
power can be displayed in W, or the reflected level in dBm.
For more information see "Selecting the unit for the power readout".
Setting the reference level
If you have selected the unit dB Rel for the forward power, the R&S ZVH opens an
input field to set the reference level. The R&S ZVH shows the currently set reference
level in the diagram header.
For more information see "Setting the reference level".
Selecting a standard
To ensure that true results are output when measuring modulated signals, the
R&S ZVH offers the possibility of taking correction values into account for a number of
common telecommunications standards.
► Press the "Standard" softkey.
A menu to select a standard opens.
► Select the required standard.
The R&S ZVH takes the selected standard into account. The currently active
standard is displayed in the display header.
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Using a Directional Power Sensor
Taking additional attenuation into account
When the directional power sensor is connected to a test point not directly but via a
cable, the influence of cable attenuation can be taken into account. For this purpose,
the cable attenuation for the measurement frequency in question is to be entered, i.e.
as a positive dB value if the power and matching are to be measured at the source and
the cable is connected between the source and the power sensor, and as a negative
dB value if the power and matching are to be measured at the load and the cable is
connected between the load and the power sensor. The directional power sensor then
corrects the power and matching values to produce the results that would have been
obtained if it had been directly connected to the test point.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Ref Offset" softkey.
The input field to enter the reference offset opens.
► Enter the offset you need.
The selected offset is displayed in the diagram header and is taken into account in
the power (level) and matching results.
If high powers are applied that exceed the maximum input level of the R&S FSH-Z14
or R&S FSH-Z44, a directional coupler or an attenuator has to be connected ahead of
the power sensor. In such cases, the coupling attenuation of the directional coupler or
the attenuation value of the attenuator are to be entered as positive dB values (see
above) into the R&S ZVH to ensure true measured power readout. In both cases, a
termination or an attenuator of sufficient power-handling capacity has to be connected
to the power sensor at the load end. The matching readout is irrelevant in such case
since it is likewise corrected by taking into account the attenuation value of the
termination or attenuator.
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6 Network Analyzer Mode (R&S ZVH-K42)
The network analyzer mode provides the functionality to characterize networks with
one or two ports.
All R&S ZVH models already have a tracking generator and VSWR bridge that are
necessary to use the network analyzer.
The network analyzer mode becomes available if you equip the R&S ZVH with
firmware option R&S ZVH-K42 (order no 1309.6846.02). This option enables vector
measurements to determine the reflection or transmission characteristics in both
directions of the device under test (DUT). In addition to the magnitude of the
transmistted and reflected power, vector measurements also determine the phase
characteristics of the DUT.
Although the accuracy of measurements is high in the default factory calibration, the
R&S ZVH also provides all necessary calibration methods to correct the magnitude for
these kinds of measurements and make results even more accurate.
► Press the MODE key.
► Press the "Network Analyzer" softkey.
The R&S ZVH turns on the tracking generator. Frequency and level settings are
inherited from the previous operating mode.
Defining the output level of the tracking generator
The tracking generator generates a signal at the current R&S ZVH frequency. The
nominal output level of the signal is adjustable from 0 dBm to -40 dBm in steps of 1 dB.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "TG Power" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the output level.
The output power of the tracking generator is in the range from -40 dBm and
0 dBm.
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Screen layout of the network analyzer
1
2
3
4
5
6
Result display
Measurement mode
0 dB reference
Status line
- S-matrix
- Calibration status
- Measurement format
Trace window
Network analyzer softkey menu
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6.1 Calibrating Measurements
In its default state, the R&S ZVH uses factory calibration. Factory calibration is a full 2port calibration over the complete frequency range of the R&S ZVH model. When
factory calibration is active, the status line reads
. In many cases, this calibration
already provides accurate results.
To get the best and most accurate results, however, you have to calibrate the
measurement manually, because factory calibration does not take the actual test setup
into account (e.g. cables). The R&S ZVH provides several calibration methods. You
will need one of the available calibration standards R&S FSH-Z28, -Z29 (order no.
1300.7804.03 and 1300.7504.03) or R&S ZV-Z121 (order no. 1164.0496.02/.03).
Alternatively, you can create customized calibration kits with the functionality of the
R&S ZVHView software package and transfer those to the R&S ZVH.
Before you calibrate the R&S ZVH for the current measurement, you should set the
frequency parameters, reference level and attenuation levels. If you change one of
these parameters after a successful calibration, it may become invalid.
To successfully calibrate the test setup, you have to connect the calibration standard at
the reference plane, usually the output of the RF measurement cable.
During calibration, the R&S ZVH removes systematic errors from the measurement.
This process is based on correction data it gets while performing the calibration.
The correction data for transmission measurements is based on the results of
comparing the transmission characteristics of the test setup to the frequency response
of the tracking generator. The correction data for reflection measurements is based on
the results of a reflection measurement at a short and an open on the bridge.
Calibration remains valid after turning off the R&S ZVH or changing into another
operating mode as calibration data is saved in the internal memory of the R&S ZVH. If
you save the measurement in a dataset, calibration data is part of that dataset. When
you restore the dataset and perform the same measurement again, you do not have to
recalibrate the R&S ZVH.
6.1.1.1
Calibration States
The calibration states are the same as in the cable and antenna analyzer. For more
information see "Calibration States" on page 35.
6.1.1.2
Calibration Methods
The R&S ZVH provides several calibration methods for vector measurements.
●
Full 2-Port
For more information see "Calibration Methods" on page 37.
●
Full 2-Port High Accuracy
For more information see "Calibration Methods" on page 37.
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●
Full 1-Port
For more information see "Calibration Methods" on page 37.
●
Normalize Transmission
For more information see "Calibration Methods" on page 37.
●
Normalize Transmission with Isolation
For more information see "Calibration Methods" on page 37.
6.1.1.3
Performing Calibration
The procedure is similar for all calibration methods, except that you are going to need
different type and number of calibration standards. You can find an example of a full 2port calibration procedure in the description of the cable and antenna analyzer. For
more information see "Performing a Full 2-Port Calibration" on page 38.
Selecting a calibration kit
To avoid phase errors, you have to define the characteristics of the calibration kit you'd
like to use and then select the calibration kit in use. The R&S ZVH then corrects the
measurement results accordingly.
You can either use one of the calibration kits specifically designed for use with the
R&S ZVH, e.g. the R&S FSH-Z28 and -Z29 calibration kits. Those provide an "Open",
"Short" and "Load" calibration standard in one piece. The characteristics of these
calibration kits are already part of the R&S ZVH firmware.
You can create and edit calibration kits with the R&S ZVHView software and transfer
them to the R&S ZVH via the USB or the LAN interface. The number of standards the
R&S ZVH can store in its memory depends on the number of other data sets stored on
the R&S ZVH.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19.
► Press the CAL key.
► Press the "Cal Kit" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the calibration kit. The list of supported
calibration kits covers those supported by the R&S ZVH and those that you have
customized.
► Select the calibration kit you are using.
The R&S ZVH uses the characteristics specified for the calibration kit.
You can also use calibration kits other than the R&S FSH-Z28 or -Z29 in combination
with their characteristics. However, make sure that the electrical length of the
calibration kit in use is similar to that of the R&S FSH-Z28 or -Z29. The electrical length
of the "Open" and "Short" of the R&S FSH calibration kits is 5.27 mm. If the electrical
length is different, it may cause additional phase error.
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Some measurement setups may include additional cables or adapters that may have
an additional electrical length. To correct their phase error, you can include the
electrical length of additional test equipment. The R&S ZVH distinguishes if the
equipment is connected to port 1 or port 2.
► Press the CAL key.
► Press the "Cal Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Offset Length Port 1" or "Offset Length Port 2" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the electrical length of the accessory.
► Enter the electrical length.
The R&S ZVH now includes the electrical length of the accessory for phase
measurements.
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6.2 Performing Vector Measurements
If you equip the R&S ZVH with option R&S ZVH-K42, vector measurements become
available.
Unlike scalar measurements, vector measurements also measure the phase
characteristics of a DUT. Vector measurements also have a higher dynamic range and
accuracy because of the advanced calibration methods that vector measurements
provide.
In addition to normalization, vector measurements feature full calibration methods that
require a 50 Ω termination in addition to an open or short circuit. Instead of the
characteristics of the VSWR bridge, the decisive factor of the quality of results is the
quality of the calibration standards.
Because of the higher dynamic range, vector measurements allow more accurate
measurements of well matched DUTs at a higher display resolution.
Vector measurements also unlock more measurement formats and therefore provide
more information from different perspectives about the DUT.
Supplying DC voltage to active DUTs
If you are performing measurements on active DUTs (e.g. amplifiers), you can supply
them with DC voltage by connecting an RF cable to the BIAS ports. The DC voltage is
fed in from a suitable external power supply (max. 600 mA/max. 50 V).
To measure the antenna coupling of mobile radio base stations, the DC voltage must
be supplied to two tower-mounted amplifiers (TMA). This is done by applying a
suitable voltage at the BIAS 1 and BIAS 2 BNC ports.
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6.2.1 Measuring the Transmission
The example included here is based on a transmission measurement of a two-port
filter. The filter works in the frequency from of 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz.
Test setup
► Connect the input of the DUT to the tracking generator output (port 2).
► Connect the output of the DUT to the RF input (port 1).
Preset the R&S ZVH
Before starting the measurement procedure, preset the R&S ZVH to restore the default
configuration and connect the filter between the measurement ports.
► Press the PRESET key.
► Connect the DUT.
Select the type of transmission measurement
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Transmission S21" or "Transmission S12" softkey for transmission
measurements in forward or reverse direction.
In case of a simultaneous display, the R&S ZVH shows two traces with a different
color in the result display. One for the measurement in forward direction and one
for the measurement in reverse direction. A label in the result display shows the
direction a trace belongs to.
Note that the simultaneous display of both directions is only possible with a high
accuracy calibration.
Define the frequency parameters
Before calibrating the measurement, you should define the frequency parameters to
avoid interpolation of the results.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the center frequency.
► Enter a frequency of 1950 MHz.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the span.
► Enter a span of 130 MHz to get a high resolution of the results.
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Calibrate the measurement for vector transmission measurements.
Vector measurements provide the full range of calibration methods for more accurate
results. Most full calibration methods require more than one calibration standard.
► Press the CAL key.
► Select the appropriate calibration.
► Perform calibration. For more information see "Performing Calibration".
► Reconnect the DUT.
The R&S ZVH shows the results of the vector transmission measurement on the
filter.
The R&S ZVH shows the results of
the vector transmission
measurement and therefore the
filter characteristics.
You can change the measurement
configuration (e.g. the sweep time
or detector) or format (e.g. view
phase characteristics) without
affecting the accuracy of the
measurement.
For more information see "Selecting the Measurement Format" on page 162.
Note that for calibration to remain valid, frequency parameters, bandwidth and
attenuation have to remain the same.
Depending on the calibration method, you can also select other result displays
(e.g. reflection measurements) without having to recalibrate the R&S ZVH.
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6.2.2 Measuring the Reflection
The example included here is based on a reflection measurement of the two-port filter
that was also used for the transmission measurement.
You can skip the preset, vector measurement selection and frequency settings if you
have already set up the R&S ZVH for the measurement. You can also skip the
calibration, if you have performed the appropriate calibration already.
Preset the R&S ZVH
Before starting the measurement procedure, preset the R&S ZVH to restore the default
configuration and connect the filter between the measurement ports.
► Press the PRESET key.
► Connect the DUT.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Reflection S11" or "Reflection S22" softkey for reflection measurements
on port 1 or reflection measurements on port 2.
► Press the "Reflection S11 + S22" softkey for a simultaneous display of both
reflection on port 1 and port 2.
In case of a simultaneous display, the R&S ZVH shows two traces with a different
color in the result display. One for the measurement in forward direction and one
for the measurement in reverse direction. A label in the result display shows the
direction a trace belongs to.
Note that the simultaneous display of both directions is only possible with a high
accuracy calibration.
Define the frequency parameters
Before calibrating the measurement, you should define the frequency parameters to
avoid interpolation of the results.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the center frequency.
► Enter a frequency of 1950 MHz.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Span" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the span.
► Enter a span of 130 MHz to get a high resolution of the results.
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Performing Vector Measurements
Calibrate the measurement for vector reflection measurements.
Vector measurements provide the full range of calibration methods for more accurate
results. Most full calibration methods require more than one calibration standard.
► Press the CAL key.
► Select the appropriate calibration (calibration on one or two ports).
► Perform calibration. For more information see "Performing Calibration".
► Reconnect the DUT.
The R&S ZVH shows the results of
the vector reflection measurement
on the filter.
You can change the measurement
configuration (e.g. the sweep time
or detector) or format (e.g. view
phase characteristics) without
affecting the accuracy of the
measurement. For more
information see "Selecting the
Measurement Format" on page
162.
Depending on the calibration method, you can also select another result display.
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6.3 Evaluating the Results
6.3.1 Selecting the Measurement Format
Depending on the measurement mode (scalar or vector) and result display (reflection
or transmission), you can select one of several measurement formats. Each of the
measurement formats shows a different aspect of the measurement results.
Note that some of the measurement formats become available only after you have
calibrated the measurement.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
► Select the measurement format from the menu.
The R&S ZVH displays the results in the new measurement format and adjusts the
trace and the scale of the vertical axis accordingly. The current measurement
)
format is part of the status line information (
Magnitude / dB Mag
Shows the magnitude of the transmission or reflection in dB. The diagram is a
Cartesian diagram with a logarithmic vertical axis. The horizontal axis represents the
measured frequency range.
The magnitude format is the default format for all measurements.
Available for all measurements.
Phase
Shows the phase characteristics of the DUT in degrees. The diagram is a Cartesian
diagram with a linear vertical axis. The horizontal axis represents the measured
frequency range.
In the default state, the R&S ZVH shows the phase only from -200° to +200°. In that
case, the R&S ZVH displays measurement results correctly only if the phase difference
between two adjacent test points is less than 180°.
You can unwrap the phase to expand the range of the phase.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
► Press the "Format Settings" softkey.
► Select the "Phase Wrap" or "Phase Unwrap" menu item.
Available for all vector measurements.
Simultaneous display of magnitude and phase characteristics
Selecting the "Magnitude + Phase" format results in a split screen that shows the
magnitude characteristics in the upper screen and the phase in the lower screen.
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VSWR
Shows the (voltage) standing wave ratio of the DUT.
The VSWR is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum voltage that occur in an
electrical transmission line. It is a measure of the reflected power at the input of the
DUT. The results are displayed in a Cartesian diagram with a logarithmic vertical axis.
Available for vector reflection measurements.
Reflection coefficient
Shows the reflection coefficient of the DUT.
The reflection coefficient is the ratio of the amplitude of a reflected wave and that of the
incidental wave that occur in an electrical transmission line.
You can set the unit for the reflection coefficient.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
► Press the "Format Settings" softkey.
► Select the "rho" or "mrho" menu item.
Available for vector reflection measurements.
Smith chart
Shows the measurement results in the Smith chart.
The Smith chart is a circular diagram that primarily shows impedance or reflection
characteristics of a DUT.
Available for vector reflection measurements.
For more information see "Working with the Smith Chart" on page 165
Group delay
Shows the group delay characteristics of the DUT.
The group delay is a measure that describes the time period or delay of the signal as it
goes through the DUT.
Available for vector measurements.
Electrical length
Shows the electrical length of a DUT.
The electrical length is a numerical result that displayed in addition to another
measurement format. As long as it is active, the electrical length is displayed
regardless of the currently selected format.
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The electrical length is calculated from the phase delay.
τΦ =
∆Φ
2π∆f
with ∆Φ being the phase deviation over the entire frequency range. The electrical
length is then derived by
lΦ = τ Φ c0
with c0 being the velocity of light.
By definition, the electrical length is calculated from the vacuum velocity of light and
the differential group delay ( τ g ). Here, the group delay is replaced by the phase delay
for two reasons:
●
●
An electrical length needs to be specified only for non-dispersive DUTs in which
phase delay and group delay match.
Due to the significantly wider aperture, the measurement certainty is an order of
magnitude higher in the phase delay measurement than in the group delay
measurement.
The result for the electrical length is correct only if the phase difference between two
adjacent test points does not exceed 180°.
Available for vector measurements.
Delay time
Shows the delay time of a cable.
The delay time is a numerical result that is displayed in addition to another
measurement format.
The delay time is the propagation time of the wave or the time it takes the wave to
reach its destination..
Available for the vector phase measurements.
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6.3.1.1
Working with the Smith Chart
If you are displaying measurement results in a Smith chart (available for vector
reflection measurements), the R&S ZVH provides several special functionality.
► Press the FORMAT/SPAN key.
► Press the "Smith Chart" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows the reflection of the DUT in the Smith chart.
Zooming the Smith chart
To take a better look at the results, you can zoom and enlarge a particular part of the
Smitch chart.
The R&S ZVH provides a 2x, 4x and
8x zoom.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Zoom" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu
to control the zoom function. It
also draws a rectangle on the
display that corresponds to the
parts of the display about to be
zoomed in.
The size of the rectangle depends on the zoom factor.
► Press the "Zoom Factor" softkey.
► Select the menu item with the
zoom factor you want.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the size of
the rectangle.
By default, the position of the rectangle
is the area in the center of the display.
You can also change the position of
the rectangle.
The magnitude of the shift is a percentage and ranges from -50 % to +50 % for both
vertical and horizontal directions. The zero point (0 %) in vertical and horizontal
direction is the center of the Smith diagram.
► Press the "Move X" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field.
► Enter a value between -50 % and 50 % to shift the window horizontally.
Entering negative values moves the rectangle to the left, positive values move it to
the right.
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► Press the "Move Y" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field.
► Enter a value between -50 % and 50 % to shift the window vertically.
Entering negative values moves the rectangle up, positive values move it down.
► Press the "Zoom Active" softkey.
The R&S ZVH now zooms in on
the area covered by the zoom
window. You can position the
zoom window more accurately
with the "Move X" and "Move Y"
softkeys as described.
► To deactivate the zoom
functionality, press the "Zoom
Active" softkey again.
Using markers
In addition to the standard marker functionality, the Smith chart also features several
marker output formats.
●
dB Magnitude + Phase
Shows the magnitude (in dB) and the phase at the current marker position.
●
Lin Magnitude + Phase (Rho)
Shows the converted magnitude (in %) and the phase (in rho) at the current
marker position.
●
Real + Imag (Rho)
Shows the real and imaginary components at the current marker position.
●
R + jX
Shows the real and imaginary components of the impedance at the marker
position. The imaginary component is converted to inductance or capacitance.
Marker frequency and sign are taken into account.
●
G + jB
Shows the real and imaginary components of the admittance at the marker
position. The imaginary component is converted to inductance or capacintance.
Marker frequency and sign are taken into account.
●
(R + jX/Z0)
Shows the real and imaginary components of the standardized impedance.
●
(G + jB/Z0)
Shows the real and imaginary components of the standardized admittance.
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► Press the MARKER key.
The R&S ZVH activates a marker and opens the marker softkey menu. Like usual
traces, you can move the marker around with the rotary knob or the cursor keys, or
enter a specific marker position.
In its default state, the marker position is specified by the marker frequency and
complex resistance in Ω. The complex resistance in that case is calculated according
to: (real component) + j (imaginary component)
► Press the "Marker Mode" softkey.
► Select one of the marker formats.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the marker
information accordingly.
Selecting the reference impedance
The default reference impedance (the matching point in the center of the Smith chart)
is 50 Ω. It is, however, also possible to perform reflection measurements on networks
with another impedance.
► Press the MARKER key.
► Press the "Marker Mode" softkey.
► Select the "Ref Impedance: …" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to select the reference impedance.
► Enter the reference impedance you need.
The value range is from 1 mΩ to 10 kΩ.
6.3.1.2
Working with the Dual Trace Mode
When performing vector measurements, it is possible to perform and display two
measurements simultaneously. After activating this function, the R&S ZVH shows the
two traces on two separate screens. This allows you to view any combination of two
vector measurement formats on the display.
Note that the Magnitude + Phase measurement format is an exception to this rule. This
format counts as one trace. To display the magnitude and phase as two separate
traces, assign the Phase format to trace 1 and the Magnitude format to trace 2.
► Press the TRACE key.
► Press the "Split Screen" softkey.
The R&S ZVH splits the screen. The upper screen shows trace 1, the bottom
screen shows trace 2. You can configure both screens as you like.
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Screen layout in dual trace mode
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Result display trace 1
Result display trace 2
Measurement mode
Trace window 1
Trace information trace 1
- S-matrix
- calibration status
- measurement format
Trace window 2
Measurement format trace 2
Active trace indicator
After activating the second trace, trace 1 is always the active trace. Only the active
trace can be configured, while the other is passive.
► To activate trace 2, press the "Select Trace" softkey in the trace menu.
When pressing the "Select Trace" softkey, the R&S ZVH switches between trace 1
and 2. The trace indicator shows the currently active trace:
After selecting trace 2, you can set the measurement parameters for trace 2, while
the first trace is passive.
Note that you can display all four S-parameters at the same time in dual trace
mode by displaying the transmission measurement in both directions in one
window and displaying the reflection measurement on both ports in the other
window.
For more information see "Performing Vector Measurements " on page 157.
Restoring a saved trace is possible only for the currently active trace (i.e. screen 1 or
screen 2). For more information see "Working with Memory Traces" on page 128.
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6.3.2 Configuring the Vertical Axis
Some results may not fit in the diagram area as it is configured in the default state of
the R&S ZVH (for example measurements on amplifiers).
If you are performing measurements on an amplifier, you most likely have to change
the scaling of the vertical axis in order to see the complete transmission function.
The R&S ZVH provides several ways to adjust the scaling of the vertical axis.
Changing the reference value
Changing the reference value works like an attenuation or gain in that it moves the
trace to another level. The R&S ZVH adjusts the scale of the vertical axis accordingly.
The R&S ZVH indicates the value and position of the current reference value with a
triangle at the vertical axis (
). In the default state, it is 0 dB and its position is the
grid line at the top of the diagram.
The reference value only changes the 0 dB reference without actually attenuating or
amplifying the signal level.
When changing the reference value, make sure that you do not overload the
R&S ZVH. As long as the trace is completely within the diagram area and the
reference position at the top of the diagram, the risk of an overload is eliminated.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Ref" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field.
► Enter the reference value you need to see the trace completely.
The R&S ZVH moves the trace accordingly, relabels the vertical axis and shows
the new 0 dB reference in the hardware settings display.
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Changing the reference position
Changing the reference position moves the position of the reference value up or down.
The reference position also moves the trace up or down. The levels and the reference
value, however, remain the same. The default reference position is the grid line at the
top of the diagram. The reference position is indicated by a triangle at the vertical axis
(
).
The reference position is a number between 0 and 10 with 0 being the grid line at the
bottom and 10 being the grid line at the top of the diagram.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Range/Ref Pos" softkey.
► Select the "Ref Position:" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field.
► Enter the new position of the reference value.
The R&S ZVH moves the trace accordingly and moves the triangle to the new
position.
Changing the display range
The display range is the value range the vertical axis covers. The default display range
depends on the measurement format. For more information see "Selecting the
Measurement Format" on page 162.
When you change the display range, the reference value and position remain the
same. Merely the scale of the vertical axis is compressed or expanded.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the "Range/Ref Pos" softkey.
► Select the display range you need from the submenu.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the vertical axis accordingly.
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Automatic scaling of the vertical axis
All measurement formats except the Smith chart feature an automatic scale function.
If you use automatic scaling, the R&S ZVH automatically sets the display range in a
way that the trace best fits on the display.
► Press the "Auto Scale" softkey.
For the SWR measurement format, instead of selecting one of the predefined ranges,
you can also define the exact top and bottom values of the vertical axis.
► Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
► Press the Range/Ref Pos softkey.
► Select the "Scale Max" or "Scale Min" menu items to define the top or bottom
values of the vertical axis.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the vertical axis accordingly.
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6.3.3 Using Markers
The network analyzer mode also features markers. The functionality is similar to that of
the spectrum analyzer.
For more information see "Markers" on page 180.
6.3.4 Working with Channel Tables
The R&S ZVH allows you to use channel tables in network analyzer mode.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
► Press the "Signal Standard" softkey.
► Select the signal path you need from the menu.
The R&S ZVH opens the list of channel tables loaded into the R&S ZVH via
R&S ZVHView.
► Select the channel table you need.
The R&S ZVH scans the channel table for the channels with the lowest and
highest frequencies and sets those as the start and stop frequency.
The R&S ZVH already comes with an assortment of channel tables that you can use
without doing anything. If you want to test telecommunications standards that are not
listed, you can also build channel tables manually with the "Channel Table Editor" of
the R&S ZVHView software package that is delivered with the R&S ZVH. To use one
of those, you just have to copy the channel table to the R&S ZVH.
6.3.5 Using Limit Lines
When working with the magnitude format in the network analyzer, you can use limit
lines to set limits for level characteristics on the display that must not be exceeded.
You can create and edit limit lines with the R&S ZVHView software and load them into
the R&S ZVH via the USB or the LAN interface. The number of limit lines the R&S ZVH
can store in its memory depends on the number of other data sets on the R&S ZVH.
For more information see "Managing Datasets" on page 19 und "Using Limit Lines" on
page 134.
6.3.6 Using Trace Mathematics
Trace mathematics that subtract one trace from another are available for most
measurement formats in the network analyzer mode.
For more information see "Using Trace Mathematics" on page 128.
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Vector Voltmeter (R&S ZVH-K45)
6.4 Vector Voltmeter (R&S ZVH-K45)
With firmware option R&S ZVH-K45 (order no. 1304.5658.02) you can use a R&S ZVH
with tracking generator and VSWR bridge as a vector voltmeter.
A vector voltmeter performs reflection (S11) and transmission measurements (S21).
The tracking generator provides the signal source that generates an unmodulated
sinewave signal on a single frequency. Typical applications for a vector voltmeter are:
●
●
adjustment of the electrical length of cables with a reflection measurement
testing of the antenna elements of a phase-controlled antenna-array relative to a
reference antenna with a transmission measurement
► Press the MODE key.
► Press the "Vector Voltmeter" softkey.
The R&S ZVH starts the vector voltmeter mode. It turns on the tracking generator
and the zero span mode.
Screen layout of the vector voltmeter.
1
2
3
4
5
Result display
Hardware settings
Results: magnitude
Results: phase
Vector voltmeter softkey menu
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6.4.1 Calibrating Measurements
To get the best and most accurate results, you have to calibrate the measurement. The
reflection and transmission measurement of the vector voltmeter each have their own
calibration procedures. To successfully calibrate the test setup, you have to connect
one or more calibration standards at the reference plane.
The process of calibration including the selection of a calibration kit works like that for
scalar or vector measurement. For more information see "Calibrating Measurements"
on page 154.
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6.4.2 Performing Measurements
With the vector voltmeter you can measure the reflection on port 1 and the
transmission in reverse direction.
The example included here is based on a transmission measurement of a two-port
filter. The filter works in the frequency from of 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz.
Select the type of reflection measurement
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Reflection S11" softkey for reflection measurements on port 1 or the
"Transmission S21" softkey for transmission measurements in reverse direction.
Define the frequency parameters
Before calibrating the measurement, you should define the frequency parameters to
avoid interpolation of the results.
► Press the FREQ/DIST key.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the center frequency.
► Enter a frequency of 1950 MHz.
6.4.2.1
Performing Transmission Measurements
Calibrate the measurement for transmission measurements.
► Press the CAL key.
► Press the "Full 2-Port" softkey.
► Perform calibration. For more
information see "Performing
Calibration".
► Reconnect the DUT.
The R&S ZVH shows the
characteristics of the DUT
(magnitude and phase) as
numerical values.
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6.4.2.2
Performing Reflection Measurements
Calibrate the measurement for reflection measurements.
► Press the CAL key.
► Press the "Full 1-Port" softkey (for calibration on port 1).
► Perform calibration. For more information see "Performing Calibration".
► Reconnect the DUT.
The R&S ZVH shows the characteristics of the DUT (magnitude and phase) as
numerical values.
Note that for calibration to remain valid, frequency parameters, bandwidth and
attenuation have to remain the same.
6.4.3 Evaluating the Results
6.4.3.1
Comparing Results
If you perform measurements on different DUTs whose results you'd like to compare,
you can save the current results as reference values.
► Press the MEAS key.
► Press the "Ref" softkey.
The R&S ZVH saves the results
that it got prior to pressing the
softkey as the reference result for
future measurements.
The results show the difference of
the current measurement and the
reference measurement. The unit
for reference measurements is
always dB.
The reference measurement results are always displayed below the current
measurement results for better orientation.
Note that reference measurements are only available for the "Vector Voltmeter"
measurement format.
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Menu and Softkey Overview
General Functions
7 Menu and Softkey Overview
This chapter shows an overview of all instrument functions in the form of softkey and
menu overviews.
7.1 General Functions
General functions are those that are available for all operating modes.
7.1.1 General R&S ZVH Setup
The SETUP key opens the setup menu that contains functionality to set up the
R&S ZVH in general and functionality to set up the measurement.
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General Functions
7.1.2 File Management
The SAVE/RECALL key opens the file manager that contains functionality to manage
datasets and other files.
7.1.3 Operating Mode Selection
The MODE key opens the mode menu that contains functionality to select the
operating mode of the R&S ZVH.
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Functions of the Cable and Antenna Analyzer
7.2 Functions of the Cable and Antenna Analyzer
This sections contains all softkeys and menus that are available in cable and antenna
test operating mode.
7.2.1 Frequency and Distance Parameters
The FREQ/DIST key opens the frequency menu that contains functionality to set up
the horizontal axis of the measurement diagram.
The contents of the frequency menu depend on the measurement you have currently
selected.
This is what the frequency menu looks like for distance-to-fault measurements.
This is what the frequency menu looks like for reflection, transmission and cable loss
measurements.
7.2.2 Amplitude Parameters
The SCALE/AMPT key opens the amplitude menu that contains functionality to set up
the vertical axis of the measurement diagram.
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7.2.3 Sweep Configuration
The SWEEP/BW key opens the sweep menu that contains functionality to set up and
trigger the sweep.
7.2.4 Markers
The MARKER and MKR keys open the marker menu and marker to menu that
contain functionality to use markers.
This is what the marker menu looks like.
This is what the marker to menu looks like.
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7.2.5 Measurement Selection and Configuration
The MEAS key opens the measurement menu that contains functionality to select and
configure the measurement.
Transmission S21 is available only if you have installed option R&S ZVH-K39.
7.2.6 Measurement Format Selection
The FORMAT/SPAN key opens the span menu that contains functionality to select the
measurement format.
7.2.7 Measurement Calibration
The CAL key opens the calibration menu that contains functionality to calibrate the
R&S ZVH.
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Menu and Softkey Overview
Functions of the Spectrum Analyzer (R&S ZVH-K1)
7.3 Functions of the Spectrum Analyzer (R&S ZVH-K1)
This section contains all softkeys and menus that are available in spectrum analyzer
mode.
7.3.1 Measurement Selection
The MEAS key opens the measurement menu that contains functionality to select and
configure the measurement.
The spectrogram is available only if you have installed option R&S ZVH-K14.
Channel Power
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Occupied Bandwith
TDMA Power
Spectrum Emission Mask
Harmonic Distortion
AM Modulation Depth
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Spectrogram
Spectrogram Playback
7.3.2 Frequency Parameters
The FREQ/DIST key opens the frequency menu that contains functionality to set up
the horizontal axis of the measurement diagram.
7.3.3 Span Selection
The FORMAT/SPAN key opens the span menu that contains functionality to set the
span.
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7.3.4 Amplitude Parameters
The SCALE/AMPT key opens the amplitude menu that contains functionality to set up
the vertical axis of the measurement diagram.
7.3.5 Sweep Configuration and Bandwidth Selection
The SWEEP/BW key opens a menu that contains all functionality to configure the
sweep including the bandwidths.
7.3.6 Trace Functionality
The TRACE key opens the trace menu that contains functionality to set up the traces.
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7.3.7 Display and Limit Lines
The LINES key opens a menu that contains the functionality to control display and limit
lines.
7.3.8 Markers
The MARKER and MKR keys open a menus to control markers and use marker
functions.
Softkey in the Marker Menu
Softkeys in the Marker To Menu
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Menu and Softkey Overview
Functions of the Network Analyzer (R&S ZVH-K42)
7.4 Functions of the Network Analyzer (R&S ZVH-K42)
This section contains all softkeys and menus that are available in network analyzer
mode.
Vector network analyzer functionality is available only with option R&S ZVH-K42.
7.4.1 Measurement Configuration
The MEAS key opens the measurement menu that contains functionality to select and
configure the measurement.
7.4.2 Frequency Parameters
The FREQ/DIST key opens the frequency menu that contains functionality to set up
the horizontal axis of the measurement diagram.
7.4.3 Measurement Format Selection
The FORMAT/SPAN key opens the span menu that contains available measurement
formats.
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7.4.4 Amplitude Parameters
The SCALE/AMPT key opens the amplitude menu that contains functionality to set up
the vertical axis of the measurement diagram.
7.4.5 Sweep Configuration
The SWEEP/BW key opens a menu that contains all functionality to configure the
sweep.
7.4.6 Trace Functionality
The TRACE key opens the trace menu that contains functionality to set up the traces.
7.4.7 Limit Lines
The LINES key opens a menu that contains the functionality to control limit lines.
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7.4.8 Markers
The MARKER and MKR keys open a menus to control markers and use marker
functions.
Softkey in the Marker Menu
Softkeys in the Marker To Menu
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Functions of the Vector Voltmeter
7.5 Functions of the Vector Voltmeter
This section contains all softkeys and menus that are available in vector voltmeter
mode.
7.5.1 Vector Voltmeter Measurements
The MEAS key opens a menu that contains the functionality to configure
measurements with the vector voltmeter.
7.5.2 Frequency Parameters
The FREQ/DIST key opens a menu that contains the functionality to set the frequency.
7.5.3 Amplitude Parameters
The SCALE/AMPT key contains functionality to configure level parameters.
7.5.4 Sweep Configuration
The SWEEP/BW key opens a menu that contains functionality to configure the sweep.
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Functions of the Power Meter
7.5.5 Trace Functionality
The TRACE key opens the trace menu that contains functionality to set up result
evaluation.
7.6 Functions of the Power Meter
This section contains all softkeys and menus that are available in power meter mode.
7.6.1 Power Meter Measurements
The MEAS key opens a menu that contains the functionality to configure
measurements with the power meter.
Power Meter
Directional Power Meter
7.6.2 Frequency Parameters
The FREQ/DIST key opens a menu that contains the functionality to set the frequency.
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7.6.3 Amplitude Parameters
The SCALE/AMPT key contains functionality to configure level parameters.
7.6.4 Sweep Configuration
The SWEEP/BW key opens a menu that contains functionality to configure the sweep.
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How a Spectrum Analyzer Works
Functions of the Power Meter
8 How a Spectrum Analyzer Works
Basically, it is possible to measure and analyze RF signals either in the time domain or
the frequency domain.
Measurements in the time domain show signal variations over time. You can perform
these with an oscilloscope, for example. Measurements in the frequency domain show
the frequency components of a signal. To perform measurements in the frequency
domain, you can use a spectrum analyzer.
Both modes are essentially equivalent because applying the Fourier transform to any
signal converts it into its spectral components. Depending on the signal characteristic
to be measured, one method is usually more appropriate than the other. With an
oscilloscope, it is possible to tell whether a signal is a sine wave, a square wave with a
certain on/off ratio or a sawtooth wave. However, detecting superimposed low-level
signals or monitoring the harmonic content of the signal is easier with a spectrum or
signal analyzer.
Figure 8-1 shows the theoretical basis of the two measurement methods. In the time
domain, an oscilloscope would, for example, show a section of the signal that is a
square wave. The same signal, when viewed with a spectrum analyzer, would show a
line spectrum (the fundamental and its harmonics).
Figure 8-1: Visualization of time domain and frequency domain
Applying the Fourier transform to the periodic square wave transforms it into the
frequency domain. The spectrum analyzer would show the fundamental (or frequency
of the square wave) and its harmonics.
The spectrum analyzer uses a narrow bandpass filter for measurements in the
frequency domain. Only at frequencies containing a signal there is a reading that gives
the amplitude of the frequency component.
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Figure 8-2 shows the basic principle of how a spectrum analyzer works.
Figure 8-2: Block diagram showing the basic functionality of a spectrum analyzer
The precision attenuator at the R&S ZVH input attenuates the signal to a level that the
mixer can handle without overdriving the mixer. The attenuator is directly coupled to
the reference level. You can attenuate the signal in the range from 0 dB to 40 dB in
steps of 5 dB.
The mixer converts the RF signal to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF). This process
usually involves several stages. It lasts until you get an IF for which good narrowband
filters are available. The R&S ZVH needs three mixing stages to get an IF that the filter
can handle. Figure 8-3 graphically shows the mixing process.
For models with a frequency limit of 3.6 GHz, the IFs are 4892.8 MHz, 860.8 MHz and
54.4 MHz. The conversion from a specific input frequency to the first IF is done by a
local oscillator (LO). This LO can be tuned from 4.8 GHz to 8.4 GHz. All other
conversions are handled by single-frequency oscillators.
In case of models with a frequency limit of 8 GHz, the IFs are 8924.8 MHz, 860.8 MHz
and 54.4 MHz. The conversion from the first to the second IF for these models is done
by a second local oscillator.
The frequency of the local oscillator determines the input frequency at which the
spectrum analyzer performs measurements:
fin = fLO – fIF.
The first mixer produces the sum frequency fLO + fin (= image frequency fimage) as well
as the difference frequency fLO – fin.
The image frequency is rejected by the bandpass at the IF so that it does not interfere
with the subsequent frequency conversions.
Figure 8-3: Mixing process
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The first local oscillator is tuned with a sawtooth which simultaneously acts as the x
deflection voltage for the display. In practice, synthesizer technology is used to
generate the frequency of the first local oscillator and for a digital display.
The instantaneous sawtooth voltage therefore determines the input frequency of the
spectrum analyzer.
The bandwidth of the IF filter at the IF determines the bandwidth that is used for
measurements. Pure sine signals are passed by the IF filter characteristics. This
means that signals closer together than the bandwidth of the IF filter cannot be
resolved. This is why the bandwidth of the IF filter in a spectrum analyzer is referred to
as the resolution bandwidth. The R&S ZVH has resolution bandwidths from 1 Hz to
3 MHz.
The bandlimited IF is passed to the envelope detector. The envelope detector removes
the IF from the signal and outputs its envelope. The output signal from the envelope
detector is referred to as the video signal. As it has been demodulated, it only contains
amplitude information. The phase information is lost.
With RF sine signals, the video signal is a DC voltage. With AM signals the video
signal contains a DC component whose amplitude corresponds to the carrier power
and an AC component whose frequency is equal to the modulation frequency, provided
the modulation frequency is inside the resolution bandwidth.
The video filter comes after the envelope detector. The filter is a lowpass with an
adjustable cutoff frequency which limits the bandwidth of the video signal. It is
particularly useful when sine signals are to be measured in the vicinity of the spectrum
analyzer’s intrinsic noise. The sine signal produces a video signal that is a DC voltage.
At the IF, however, the noise is distributed over the whole bandwidth or, in the case of
the video signal, over half the bandwidth of the resolution filter. By selecting a narrow
video bandwidth relative to the resolution bandwidth, the noise can be suppressed,
while the sine signal to be measured (= DC) is not affected.
The figures below show a weak sine signal. In the first picture, it is measured with a
large video bandwidth and in the second with a narrow video bandwidth.
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Functions of the Power Meter
Limiting the video bandwidth smoothes the trace considerably. This makes it much
easier to determine the level of the measured signal.
The detector comes after the video filter. The detector combines the measured
spectrum so that it can be represented as one pixel in the trace. The R&S FSH uses
631 pixels to form the trace, i.e. the whole measured spectrum has to be represented
using just 631 pixels. Common types of spectrum analyzer detectors are the peak
detector (PEAK), the sample detector (SAMPLE) and the RMS detector (RMS). An
Auto Peak detector which simultaneously displays the maximum peak and the
minimum peak is usually also provided. The Fig. below explains how these detectors
work.
The figure above shows 30 measured values which are represented by a single pixel.
The peak detector determines and displays the maximum measured value. The Auto
Peak detector takes the maximum and minimum and displays them together. The two
values are joined by a vertical line segment. This gives a good indication of the level
variation over the measured values represented by a single pixel. The RMS detector is
used by the spectrum analyzer to determine the RMS value of the measured values. It
is therefore a measure of the spectral power represented by a pixel. The sample
detector takes an arbitrary measurement value and displays it (in the Fig. above, the
first). The other measured values are ignored.
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On the basis of the operating principles of detectors, a few recommendations can be
made as to their use.
●
●
●
●
It is best to use the Auto Peak detector or the peak detector for spectrum analysis
over large frequency ranges. This ensures that all signals are displayed.
The RMS detector is recommended for power measurements on modulated
signals. However, the display range should be chosen so as not to exceed 100
times the bandwidth of the signal or the resolution bandwidth, whichever is larger.
The sample detector or the RMS detector (preferred) should be used for noise
measurements. Only these two detectors are capable of measuring noise power
correctly.
When measurements are made on sine signals, the level display does not depend
on the detector. However, if you use the RMS detector or the sample detector,
ensure that the span is not too great. Otherwise, the displayed levels of sine
signals may be lower than their true value.
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Index
Index
ACLR
absolute results .............................................................. 86
adjacent channel............................................................. 83
channel bandwidth .......................................................... 84
channel spacing.............................................................. 84
limit check ....................................................................... 87
measurement configuration............................................. 83
measurement settings..................................................... 81
normalization .................................................................. 86
reference channel ........................................................... 86
relative results ................................................................ 86
standard ......................................................................... 83
transmission channel ...................................................... 83
Adjacent channel ............................................................... 83
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) .......................... 80
Adjust level
channel power ................................................................ 70
occupied bandwidth ........................................................ 74
TDMA power................................................................... 78
Adjust settings
AM modulation depth ...................................................... 95
harmonic distortion ......................................................... 93
AM demodulator .............................................................. 131
AM modulation depth ......................................................... 94
adjust settings................................................................. 95
threshold......................................................................... 95
Amplitude................................................................. 111, 168
Antenna tests ..................................................................... 31
Attenuation ........................................................ 48, 113, 151
Audio demodulation
time .............................................................................. 132
volume .......................................................................... 132
Audio demodulator ........................................................... 131
Auto low noise/distortion .................................................. 113
Auto peak ........................................................................ 125
Auto span .......................................................................... 44
Automatic scaling............................................................... 47
Average trace .................................................................. 124
Averaging time ................................................................. 145
Bandwidth .................................................................. 49, 116
resolution ...................................................................... 116
video ............................................................................. 117
Beeper ............................................................................. 135
Burst length ....................................................................... 78
Cable loss .......................................................................... 35
Cable measurement
test setup ........................................................................ 31
Cable model ...................................................................... 41
Cable tests......................................................................... 31
Calibration ......................................................... 37, 153, 173
procedure ..................................................................... 154
state ............................................................................. 154
Calibration kit ..................................................... 37, 153, 154
Calibration method ........................................................... 154
Calibration procedure......................................................... 39
Center frequency ........................................ 44, 107, 144, 149
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Channel bandwidth
ACLR.............................................................................. 84
channel power ................................................................ 71
occupied bandwidth ........................................................ 75
Channel power................................................................... 69
adjust level ..................................................................... 70
channel bandwidth .......................................................... 71
display mode .................................................................. 72
reference level ................................................................ 70
span ............................................................................... 71
standard ......................................................................... 70
unit ................................................................................. 72
Channel spacing ................................................................ 84
Channel table .......................................................... 137, 170
Clear / write ..................................................................... 124
Clear spectrogram ............................................................. 97
Color schemes
spectrogram ................................................................... 99
Continuous sweep ..................................................... 49, 120
Conventions......................................................................... 9
Correction data ................................................................ 154
Cursor keys ....................................................................... 14
Data management ............................................................. 22
Delay time........................................................................ 121
Deltamarker ..................................................................... 129
Detector ........................................................................... 125
Directional power sensor ................................................. 147
Display configuration (spectrogram)................................... 99
Display elements ............................................................... 11
Display line ...................................................................... 133
Display mode ..................................................................... 72
Display range......................................................47, 112, 169
spectrogram ................................................................. 100
Distance parameters .......................................................... 44
Distance-to-fault................................................................. 34
Dual trace ........................................................................ 166
External trigger .......................................................... 51, 120
Factory calibration ............................................................. 37
File management ............................................................... 22
Firmware ........................................................................... 30
FM demodulator............................................................... 131
Forward power display ..................................................... 150
Frame .............................................................................. 102
spectrogram ................................................................. 102
Free run ..................................................................... 51, 120
Frequency
counter ......................................................................... 130
mode ............................................................................ 137
offset ............................................................................ 108
range ...................................................................... 44, 109
settings .................................................... 44, 107, 144, 149
start/stop................................................................. 44, 109
Full span .......................................................................... 110
Gate settings ................................................................... 122
Gated sweep ........................................................... 120, 122
198
R&S ZVH
Harmonic distortion ............................................................ 92
adjust settings................................................................. 93
harmonics ....................................................................... 93
harmonics list.................................................................. 93
THD ................................................................................ 93
History ............................................................................... 98
Hold spectrogram .............................................................. 97
Horizontal axis ........................................................... 44, 107
Impedance ....................................................................... 115
Smith chart ................................................................... 166
Input
cancellation..................................................................... 13
characters ....................................................................... 13
confirmation .................................................................... 13
numbers ......................................................................... 13
Instrument setup ................................................................ 18
Isotropic antenna ............................................................. 105
Key
Ampt (CAT)..................................................................... 47
Ampt (NA)..................................................................... 168
Ampt (SA) ..................................................................... 111
BW ............................................................................... 116
Cal .......................................................................... 37, 153
Freq (CAT)...................................................................... 44
Freq (SA) ...................................................................... 107
Marker ............................................................................ 54
Meas (CAT) .................................................................... 33
Meas (NA) .....................................................153, 156, 161
Meas (PM) ............................................................ 144, 149
Meas (SA) ...................................................................... 68
MKR -> ........................................................................... 54
Sweep .......................................................................... 119
Sweep (CAT) .................................................................. 49
Trace ...................................................................... 53, 124
Last span ......................................................................... 110
Limit check....................................................................... 135
ACLR .............................................................................. 87
Limit lines................................................................. 134, 171
Manual span ...................................................................... 44
Marker ............................................................... 54, 129, 170
automatic positioning ...................................................... 56
delta marker.................................................................... 55
distance ........................................................................ 130
format ........................................................................... 165
functions ....................................................................... 129
list ................................................................................... 55
mode ............................................................................ 165
position ................................................................... 55, 130
removal........................................................................... 57
search limit ..................................................................... 58
selection ......................................................................... 56
Smith chart ................................................................... 165
spectrogram.................................................................. 102
type ................................................................................ 56
Marker list
AM modulation depth ...................................................... 95
harmonic distortion ......................................................... 93
spectrogram.................................................................. 102
Mathematics .................................................................... 128
Max hold .......................................................................... 124
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
Index
Max peak ......................................................................... 125
Measurement................................................................... 119
ACLR.............................................................................. 80
AM modulation depth ...................................................... 94
audio demodulation ...................................................... 131
cable loss (CAT) ............................................................. 35
channel power ................................................................ 69
directional power sensor ............................................... 149
distance-to-fault .............................................................. 34
electrical length............................................................. 162
frequency counter ......................................................... 130
group delay ................................................................... 162
harmonic distortion ......................................................... 92
isotropic antenna .......................................................... 105
magnitude..................................................................... 161
n dB down .................................................................... 130
noise power density ...................................................... 129
occupied bandwidth ........................................................ 73
phase ........................................................................... 161
power sensor ................................................................ 144
reflection ......................................................................... 33
reflection (VV) ............................................................... 175
reflection coefficient ...................................................... 162
reflection vector ............................................................ 159
Smith chart ................................................................... 162
spectrogram ................................................................... 96
spectrum analyzer .......................................................... 68
spectrum emission mask ................................................ 89
TDMA power................................................................... 77
transmission (CAT) ......................................................... 35
transmission (VV) ......................................................... 174
transmission vector ....................................................... 157
vector ........................................................................... 156
vector voltmeter ............................................................ 172
VSWR .......................................................................... 162
Measurement bandwidth .................................................... 49
Measurement format .................................................. 36, 161
Measurement setup ........................................................... 17
Measurement wizard.......................................................... 59
dataset ........................................................................... 59
evaluation ....................................................................... 67
measurement set ............................................................ 59
measurements ................................................................ 64
Memory trace......................................................53, 128, 167
Menus.............................................................................. 176
cable and antenna tests ................................................ 178
general ......................................................................... 176
network analyzer .......................................................... 186
power meter ................................................................. 190
spectrum analysis ......................................................... 181
vector voltmeter ............................................................ 189
Min hold ........................................................................... 124
Min peak .......................................................................... 125
Multiple traces ................................................................. 127
n dB down........................................................................ 130
Network analysis.............................................................. 152
Noise power..................................................................... 129
Normalization (SA)............................................................. 86
Number of harmonics......................................................... 93
Occupied bandwidth .......................................................... 73
199
R&S ZVH
adjust level ..................................................................... 74
channel bandwidth .......................................................... 75
power percentage ........................................................... 75
reference level ................................................................ 74
span ............................................................................... 76
standard ......................................................................... 74
Offset
frequency...................................................................... 108
reference level .............................................................. 113
Operating mode
cable and antenna test.................................................... 31
network analyzer........................................................... 152
spectrum analyzer .......................................................... 68
Options .............................................................................. 30
Pausing measurements ..................................................... 50
Playback .......................................................................... 102
Power meter .................................................................... 141
Power percentage .............................................................. 75
Power sensor ................................................................... 142
attenuation.................................................................... 151
averaging time .............................................................. 145
directional ..................................................................... 147
errors ............................................................................ 143
reference level .............................................................. 145
standard ....................................................................... 150
unit ....................................................................... 145, 150
weighting mode ............................................................ 150
zeroing.......................................................................... 144
Preamplifier ..................................................................... 114
Preset ................................................................................ 16
Preview dataset ................................................................. 29
Primary transducer........................................................... 138
R&S ZVHView
ACLR .............................................................................. 81
calibration kit................................................................. 155
creating standards ................................... 70, 74, 78, 83, 90
isotropic antenna .......................................................... 106
spectrum emission mask ................................................ 89
RBW ................................................................................ 116
Record spectrogram ........................................................ 101
Reference channel ............................................................. 86
Reference frequency........................................................ 130
Reference impedance ...................................................... 166
Reference level ................................................................ 111
channel power ................................................................ 70
directional power sensor ............................................... 150
occupied bandwidth ........................................................ 74
offset ............................................................................ 113
power sensor ................................................................ 145
spectrogram.................................................................. 100
TDMA power................................................................... 78
transducer .................................................................... 139
Reference position ............................................. 48, 111, 169
Reference value......................................................... 47, 168
Reflection........................................................................... 33
Resolution bandwidth............................................... 116, 119
Result table
spectrum emission mask ................................................ 90
RF attenuation ................................................................. 113
RMS ................................................................................ 126
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
Index
Rotary knob ....................................................................... 14
Sample ............................................................................ 126
Scaling................................................................47, 112, 169
horizontal axis............................................................... 107
Screen layout..................................................................... 11
ACLR.............................................................................. 80
AM modulation depth ...................................................... 94
CAT mode ...................................................................... 32
channel power ................................................................ 69
file manager .................................................................... 24
harmonic distortion ......................................................... 92
measurement wizard ...................................................... 62
occupied bandwidth ........................................................ 73
power meter ................................................................. 142
power meter (directional) .............................................. 147
report generator .............................................................. 67
spectrogram ................................................................... 97
spectrum emission mask ................................................ 89
TDMA power................................................................... 77
w/ active markers ............................................................ 54
wizard set editor ............................................................. 60
Screenshot ........................................................................ 21
Search limits ...................................................................... 58
Secondary transducer ...................................................... 138
Signal standard .................................................................. 46
Single sweep ............................................................. 49, 120
Smith chart ...................................................................... 164
Softkey
new marker..................................................................... 55
Softkeys........................................................................... 176
cable and antenna tests ................................................ 178
general ......................................................................... 176
network analyzer .......................................................... 186
power meter ................................................................. 190
spectrum analysis ......................................................... 181
vector voltmeter ............................................................ 189
Span .......................................................................... 44, 109
channel power ................................................................ 71
occupied bandwidth ........................................................ 76
Spectrogram ...................................................................... 96
clear ............................................................................... 97
display configuration ....................................................... 99
display range ................................................................ 100
hold ................................................................................ 97
marker .......................................................................... 102
playback ....................................................................... 102
record ........................................................................... 101
reference level .............................................................. 100
time line ........................................................................ 102
Spectrogram colors ............................................................ 99
Spectrogram history ........................................................... 98
Spectrum analyzer ............................................................. 68
Spectrum emission mask ................................................... 89
adjust settings................................................................. 90
result table ...................................................................... 90
standard ......................................................................... 90
Split screen ...................................................................... 166
Standard
ACLR.............................................................................. 83
channel power ................................................................ 70
200
R&S ZVH
directional power sensor ............................................... 150
occupied bandwidth ........................................................ 74
power sensor ................................................................ 150
spectrum emission mask ................................................ 90
TDMA power................................................................... 78
Start length ........................................................................ 45
Start/stop frequency ................................................... 44, 109
Step size .......................................................................... 107
Stop length ........................................................................ 45
Sweep ..................................................................... 119, 125
Sweep mode.............................................................. 49, 120
Sweep number................................................... 49, 120, 124
Sweep time ...................................................................... 119
Synchronization ................................................................. 22
TDMA power ...................................................................... 77
adjust level ..................................................................... 78
burst length ..................................................................... 78
reference level ................................................................ 78
standard ......................................................................... 78
THD ................................................................................... 93
Threshold
AM modulation depth ...................................................... 95
Time domain ...................................................... 77, 110, 120
Time line .......................................................................... 102
Total harmonic distortion .................................................... 93
Trace ............................................................................... 124
Trace (second)................................................................. 127
Trace average.................................................................. 124
Trace mathematics .......................................................... 128
Trace memory.................................................................. 128
Trace mode ............................................................... 52, 124
Trace selection ................................................................ 127
Tracking generator ........................................................... 152
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 06
Index
Tracking generator power .................................................. 48
Transducer .............................................................. 115, 138
unit ............................................................................... 139
Transmission (CAT) ........................................................... 35
Transmission channel ........................................................ 83
Trigger ....................................................................... 51, 120
Trigger delay.................................................................... 121
Trigger level ..................................................................... 122
Unit .................................................................................. 112
channel power ................................................................ 72
directional power sensor ............................................... 150
power sensor ................................................................ 145
transducer .................................................................... 139
User interface .................................................................... 11
VBW ................................................................................ 117
Vector measurement........................................................ 152
Vertical axis ............................................................. 111, 168
Video bandwidth .............................................................. 117
Video trigger .................................................................... 120
View trace ........................................................................ 124
Volume ............................................................................ 132
Weighting mode ............................................................... 150
X axis......................................................................... 44, 107
Y axis....................................................................... 111, 168
Zero span ........................................................................ 110
Zeroing ............................................................................ 144
Zoom ............................................................................... 164
ZVHView
cable model .................................................................... 42
channel table ........................................................ 137, 170
limit lines............................................................... 134, 171
measurement wizard ...................................................... 59
201
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