SERVICE MANUAL
LAUNDRY
ELECTROLUX ZANUSSI S.p.A.
Spares Operations Italy
Corso Lino Zanussi,30
I - 33080 PORCIA /PN (ITALY)
Fax +39 0434 394096
Publication
number
599 35 23-17
EN
Edition: 2002-05-02
SOI/DT 2002-05 eb
Washing machines &
Dryers
P6000 (Nexus) Series:
Structural characteristics,
electrical components and
accessibility
Production: ZP - Porcia Italy
1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
3
PURPOSE OF THIS SERVICE MANUAL ............................................................................................... 7
IMPORTANT NOTES .............................................................................................................................. 7
WASHING PRINCIPLES ......................................................................................................................... 8
3.1
Washing ........................................................................................................................................... 8
3.1.1
Results of the wash................................................................................................................... 8
3.2
Fabrics ............................................................................................................................................. 9
3.2.1
Natural and artificial fibres......................................................................................................... 9
3.2.2
Washing the various types of fibres........................................................................................... 9
3.2.3
Washing animal fibres: .............................................................................................................. 9
3.2.4
International symbols for washing of fabrics............................................................................ 10
3.3
Classification of soiling ................................................................................................................... 11
3.4
Mechanical action .......................................................................................................................... 11
3.5
Duration of the washing cycle......................................................................................................... 11
3.6
Water ............................................................................................................................................. 12
3.6.1
Formation of lime scale and ferrous oxide............................................................................... 12
3.6.2
Hardness of the water ............................................................................................................. 12
3.6.3
Total water hardness............................................................................................................... 13
3.7
Detergents ..................................................................................................................................... 14
3.7.1
Composition of a detergent ..................................................................................................... 14
3.7.2
Functions of the principal components of a detergent ............................................................. 14
3.7.3
Functions of other components of a detergent ........................................................................ 15
3.7.4
Detergent quantities ................................................................................................................ 16
3.7.5
Washing additives ................................................................................................................... 17
3.7.6
Bleaching ................................................................................................................................ 17
3.8
The function of the water temperature............................................................................................ 18
3.8.1
Using the correct temperature................................................................................................. 18
3.9
Washing machine programmes...................................................................................................... 19
4 FRONT-LOADING WASHING MACHINE ............................................................................................. 20
4.1
Traditional washing system ............................................................................................................ 20
4.1.1
Recovery of detergent loss from the circulation hose .............................................................. 21
4.2
Drain circuit with "ECO-BALL" ball valve ........................................................................................ 22
4.2.1
“ECO-BALL” ball valve ............................................................................................................ 22
4.2.2
Ball valve: operating principle.................................................................................................. 23
4.3
“JETSYSTEM” washing system ..................................................................................................... 24
4.3.1
JETSYSTEM hydraulic circuit (first version) ............................................................................ 24
4.3.2
Jetsystem “DIRECT SPRAY” washing system ........................................................................ 25
4.3.3
Circuit with heat exchanger ..................................................................................................... 25
4.3.4
“NEW JET” recirculation circuit–P63BD version (large door)................................................... 26
5 WASHER-DRYERS .............................................................................................................................. 27
5.1
Drying system ................................................................................................................................ 27
5.2
Drying circuit (type "A" condenser) ................................................................................................. 27
5.3
Drying circuit (type "B" condenser) ................................................................................................. 28
5.3.1
“HP” version ............................................................................................................................ 28
6 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS.................................................................................................... 29
6.1
“NEXUS” technology ...................................................................................................................... 29
6.1.1
Washing machine with 32 cm-depth cabinet ........................................................................... 30
6.2
Base............................................................................................................................................... 30
6.3
Control panel support ..................................................................................................................... 30
6.4
Cabinet........................................................................................................................................... 31
6.4.1
Types of cabinet...................................................................................................................... 31
6.5
Porthole door.................................................................................................................................. 33
6.5.1
Examples of porthole doors..................................................................................................... 33
6.5.2
Porthole door with button-actioned aperture............................................................................ 34
6.6
Control panel.................................................................................................................................. 35
6.6.1
Examples of control panels ..................................................................................................... 35
6.7
Washing groups ............................................................................................................................. 36
6.7.1
Damper ................................................................................................................................... 36
6.7.2
Types of washing groups ........................................................................................................ 37
6.7.3
Washing group in Carboran .................................................................................................... 38
6.7.4
Stainless steel washing group................................................................................................. 39
6.7.5
Drum ....................................................................................................................................... 40
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6.7.6
Drum rotation drive belt ........................................................................................................... 41
6.8
Detergent dispenser ....................................................................................................................... 42
6.8.1
Detergent dispenser with distribution levers ............................................................................ 42
6.8.2
Detergent dispenser with multiple-outlet solenoid valve ("long" version) ................................. 44
6.8.3
Detergent dispenser with multiple-outlet solenoid valve ("short" version)................................ 46
6.9
Drain/circulation circuits ................................................................................................................. 48
6.9.1
Washers with traditional washing systems .............................................................................. 48
6.9.2
Washers with traditional washing system and “ECO-BALL” ball valve .................................... 49
6.9.3
Washers with traditional washing system and “P66" (32 cm) cabinet...................................... 50
6.9.4
Jetsystem washing machines (with circulation pump) ............................................................. 51
6.9.5
“NEW JET” circulation circuit (Circulation pump) – version P63BD ......................................... 52
6.9.6
Jetsystem washing machines (Circulation pump) with Heat exchanger .................................. 53
6.9.7
Jetsystem washing machines with NEAT cabinet (JETSY- IZ)................................................ 54
7 WASHER-DRYER COMPONENTS ...................................................................................................... 55
7.1
Fan assembly................................................................................................................................. 55
7.2
Heater element casing ................................................................................................................... 56
7.3
Drying condenser ........................................................................................................................... 57
7.3.1
Determining the drying time .................................................................................................... 58
7.3.2
Condensation water fill............................................................................................................ 59
7.4
Duct................................................................................................................................................ 59
8 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS.............................................................................................................. 60
8.1
Control systems ............................................................................................................................. 60
8.2
Suppressor..................................................................................................................................... 61
8.2.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 61
8.2.2
Electrical symbols ................................................................................................................... 61
8.2.3
Circuit diagrams ...................................................................................................................... 61
8.2.4
Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 61
8.3
Push-button.................................................................................................................................... 62
8.3.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 62
8.3.2
Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 62
8.3.3
Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 62
8.4
Door safety interlock (traditional version) ....................................................................................... 63
8.4.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 63
8.4.2
Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 64
8.4.3
Circuit diagrams ...................................................................................................................... 64
8.4.4
Version with pneumatic device................................................................................................ 64
8.4.5
Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 64
8.5
Instantaneous door safety interlock................................................................................................ 65
8.5.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 65
8.5.2
Operating principle .................................................................................................................. 65
8.5.3
Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 66
8.5.4
Circuit diagram ........................................................................................................................ 66
8.6
Solenoid valve................................................................................................................................ 67
8.6.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 67
8.6.2
Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 68
8.6.3
Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 68
8.7
Pressure switch.............................................................................................................................. 69
8.7.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 69
8.7.2
Pressure switch hydraulic circuit ............................................................................................ 69
8.7.3
Operating principle .................................................................................................................. 70
8.7.4
Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 70
8.7.5
Circuit diagram ........................................................................................................................ 70
8.7.6
Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 70
8.8
Analogue (electronic) pressure switch............................................................................................ 71
8.8.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 71
8.8.2
Operating principle .................................................................................................................. 71
8.8.3
Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 72
8.8.4
Circuit diagrams and operating frequency ............................................................................... 72
8.8.5
Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 72
8.9
Water distributor............................................................................................................................. 73
8.9.1
General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 73
8.9.2
Operating principle .................................................................................................................. 73
8.9.3
Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 74
8.9.4
Contact closure diagram ......................................................................................................... 74
8.10 Induction (asynchronous) motors .................................................................................................. 75
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8.10.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 75
8.10.2 Reversal of direction of rotation during washing...................................................................... 76
8.10.3 Electrical symbols ................................................................................................................... 76
8.10.4 Circuit diagrams ...................................................................................................................... 76
8.10.5 Motor with speed variator ........................................................................................................ 77
8.10.6 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 77
8.11 Commutator motor ........................................................................................................................ 78
8.11.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 78
8.11.2 Operating principle .................................................................................................................. 78
8.11.3 Electrical symbols ................................................................................................................... 80
8.11.4 Circuit diagram ........................................................................................................................ 81
8.11.5 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 81
8.12 AC/DC converter ........................................................................................................................... 82
8.12.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 82
8.12.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 82
8.12.3 Circuit diagram ........................................................................................................................ 82
8.13 Heating element ............................................................................................................................ 83
8.13.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 83
8.13.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 84
8.13.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 84
8.14 Heat exchanger ............................................................................................................................. 85
8.14.1
General characteristics .......................................................................................................... 85
8.14.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 85
8.14.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 85
8.15 Drying heater (washer-dryers)....................................................................................................... 86
8.15.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 86
8.15.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 86
8.15.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 86
8.16 Bi-metal thermostats ..................................................................................................................... 87
8.16.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 87
8.16.2 Operating principle .................................................................................................................. 87
8.16.3 Electrical symbols ................................................................................................................... 87
8.16.4 Manual-reset thermostat ......................................................................................................... 87
8.16.5 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 87
8.17 Adjustable thermostat.................................................................................................................... 88
8.17.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 88
8.17.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 88
8.17.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 88
8.18 NTC temperature sensor ............................................................................................................... 89
8.18.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 89
8.18.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 89
8.18.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 89
8.19 Drain pump.................................................................................................................................... 90
8.19.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 90
8.19.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 90
8.19.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 90
8.20 Circulation pump ........................................................................................................................... 91
8.20.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 91
8.20.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 91
8.20.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 91
8.21 Drying timer (washer-dryers) ......................................................................................................... 92
8.21.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 92
8.21.2 Circuit diagram ........................................................................................................................ 92
8.21.3 Contact closure diagram ......................................................................................................... 92
8.21.4 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 92
8.22 Fan motor (washer-dryers) ............................................................................................................ 93
8.22.1 General characteristics ........................................................................................................... 93
8.22.2 Electrical symbol ..................................................................................................................... 93
8.22.3 Checking for efficiency ............................................................................................................ 93
8.23 Circuit diagrams ............................................................................................................................ 94
8.23.1 Wiring diagram ........................................................................................................................ 94
8.23.2 Basic circuit diagram ............................................................................................................... 96
9 ACCESS TO COMPONENTS ............................................................................................................... 97
9.1
Work-top ........................................................................................................................................ 97
9.1.1
Pressure switch....................................................................................................................... 97
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9.1.2
Suppressor/motor capacitor .................................................................................................... 97
9.1.3
Solenoid valve (version fitted to the cabinet) ........................................................................... 97
9.1.4
Solenoid valve (version fitted to detergent dispenser) ............................................................. 97
9.2
Control panel (standard version) .................................................................................................... 98
9.2.1
Control panel – versions for “soft” cabinet ............................................................................... 98
9.2.2
Control panel – versions for “square” cabinets ........................................................................ 98
9.2.3
Timer....................................................................................................................................... 99
9.2.4
Water distribution camme........................................................................................................ 99
9.2.5
Detergent dispenser lever mechanism feeler arm ................................................................... 99
9.2.6
Push-button............................................................................................................................. 99
9.2.7
Adjustable thermostat ............................................................................................................. 99
9.3
Electronic control systems............................................................................................................ 100
9.3.1
Main PCB (MWM-EWM2000) ............................................................................................... 100
9.3.2
Control/display board ............................................................................................................ 100
9.3.3
Control panel – “input” version .............................................................................................. 100
9.3.4
Electronic pressure switch..................................................................................................... 100
9.4
Access from the porthole door...................................................................................................... 101
9.4.1
Porthole door ........................................................................................................................ 101
9.4.2
Porthole door hinge............................................................................................................... 101
9.4.3
Door safety interlock ............................................................................................................. 101
9.4.4
Bellows seal .......................................................................................................................... 101
9.5
Rear cabinet shell ........................................................................................................................ 102
9.5.1
Motor..................................................................................................................................... 102
9.5.2
Electronic speed control system / AC/DC converter .............................................................. 102
9.5.3
Thermostat/NTC sensor ........................................................................................................ 103
9.5.4
Heating element .................................................................................................................... 103
9.5.5
Detergent dispenser.............................................................................................................. 104
9.5.6
Removing the duct from the dispenser.................................................................................. 104
9.5.7
Water distributor.................................................................................................................... 104
9.5.8
Adjusting the dispenser levers .............................................................................................. 105
9.5.9
Damper ................................................................................................................................. 105
9.5.10 Drum pulley........................................................................................................................... 105
9.5.11 Pressure chamber................................................................................................................. 105
9.6
Washing group (Carboran-inox) ................................................................................................... 106
9.7
Drum and tub shells (Carboran) ................................................................................................... 106
9.7.1
Drum shaft bearings.............................................................................................................. 106
9.7.2
Drum spider .......................................................................................................................... 106
9.7.3
Front counterweight (Carboran tub) ...................................................................................... 107
9.7.4
Rear counterweight (Carboran tub) ....................................................................................... 107
9.8
Components of stainless steel tubs.............................................................................................. 107
9.8.1
Tub spider ............................................................................................................................. 107
9.8.2
Drum shaft bearings.............................................................................................................. 107
9.8.3
Tub support band .................................................................................................................. 108
9.8.4
Drum ..................................................................................................................................... 108
9.8.5
Replacing the stainless steel tub ........................................................................................... 108
9.8.6
Rear counterweight ............................................................................................................... 108
9.9
Drum lifter .................................................................................................................................... 109
9.10 Access to the pumps/manifolds ................................................................................................... 110
9.10.1 Drain pump (standard version).............................................................................................. 110
9.10.2 Drain pump - models with P66 (32cm) cabinet...................................................................... 110
9.10.3 Drain pump - models with RIM and P63 soft BD cabinets ..................................................... 110
9.10.4 Drain pump - models with Neat cabinet (Jetsy- IZ)................................................................ 111
9.10.5 Circulation pump (standard version)...................................................................................... 111
9.10.6 Circulation pump - “New Jet” version .................................................................................... 111
9.10.7 Filter/pump assembly - models with Neat cabinet (Jetsy- IZ) ................................................ 111
9.10.8 Circulation pump - models with Neat cabinet (Jetsy- IZ) ....................................................... 111
9.10.9 Drain filter body (standard version) ....................................................................................... 112
9.10.10 Heat exchanger (certain Jetsystem models only)................................................................. 112
9.10.11 Base .................................................................................................................................... 112
9.11 Front cabinet shell ....................................................................................................................... 113
9.12 Access to specific washer-dryer components.............................................................................. 114
9.12.1 Bellows seal and drying duct................................................................................................. 114
9.12.2 Rear cabinet shell ................................................................................................................. 115
9.12.3 Motor-Fan assembly ............................................................................................................. 115
9.12.4 Motor / Fan............................................................................................................................ 115
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9.12.5 Drying heater casing ............................................................................................................. 116
9.12.6 Drying heaters....................................................................................................................... 116
9.12.7 Drying and safety thermostats............................................................................................... 116
9.12.8 Temperature sensor / Safety thermostat ............................................................................... 116
9.12.9 Drying condenser .................................................................................................................. 116
9.12.10 NTC sensor for control of drying times (models with electronic control)............................... 116
10
TOOLS AND MATERIALS ............................................................................................................... 117
10.1 Standard tools ............................................................................................................................. 117
10.2 Materials...................................................................................................................................... 118
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1 PURPOSE OF THIS SERVICE MANUAL
The purpose of this Service Manual is to provide Service Engineers, who already have the basic knowledge
necessary to repair household washing machines, with information of a general nature regarding the P6000
(Nexus) range of washing machines.
More detailed information regarding specific models may be found in the Service Notes and Service
Manuals (issued separately) for each specific model or functionality.
This information covers:
Circuit diagrams
Timer diagrams
Exploded diagrams of spare parts
Lists of spare parts
Functions and diagnostics.
2 IMPORTANT NOTES
Repairs to electrical appliances must be effected only by qualified personnel.
Before accessing the components inside the appliance, always remove the plug from the power socket.
Where possible, ohmic measurements should be effected rather than direct measurement of voltage
and current.
Functional operation of the appliance may be checked when the rear panel has been removed.
However, under no circumstances must a spin cycle be performed with washing in the drum. In addition,
spin tests without washing must be performed with care and for short periods only. The front panel alone
is not sufficient to maintain the balance of the appliance during spinning.
Certain metal components inside the appliance may have sharp edges. Care should be taken to avoid
cuts or abrasions.
Before laying the appliance on the floor, always drain any water by removing the filter or laying the drain
hose flat on the floor.
Never lay the appliance on its right side (i.e. timer / electronic control unit side); this would cause the
water in the detergent dispenser to fall onto electrical components, thus damaging them.
After removing the rear panel of the cabinet, the appliance should be laid down on the front panel only,
preferably placing a sheet of cardboard on the floor to protect the paintwork.
After removing the rear panel from the appliance,
it is necessary to cover the two extremities of the
upper cross-member with protective material, for
example by wrapping them in a cloth or fitting the
terminal section of the drain hose. This precaution
is necessary because the edges of the brackets
are sharp, and might otherwise cause injury to the
head when working on the appliance from the
rear.
Important!
After repairing the appliance, always perform the
final tests.
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3 WASHING PRINCIPLES
3.1
Washing
The washing of the fabrics consists of transferring the dirt from the
fabrics to the water, and is achieved using the following:
detergent
mechanical action
temperature
time
The washing operation comprises four phases:
1. Soaking (the fabrics must be completely soaked).
2. Dispersal of the dirt (which must be separated from the fabrics).
3. Suspension of the dirt (once removed from the fabrics, the dirt must not re-deposit, but must be held in
suspension).
4. Elimination of the dirt by means of draining and rinses.
3.1.1
Results of the wash
In order to obtain satisfactory washing results, it is necessary to know:
!
the nature of the fibres
!
the nature of the soiling
!
the hardness of the water
!
the products used for the wash (detergent, conditioners, bleach etc.)
and then to select the appropriate washing cycles.
The results of the wash depend on a number of factors:
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
type of fabric
type of water
type of soiling
type and quantity of detergent
temperature of the water
efficiency of the rinses
time and speed of the spin cycles
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3.2
Fabrics
3.2.1
Natural and artificial fibres
NATURAL FIBRES
Wool
ANIMAL FIBRES
Special wool
Silk
Cotton
Linen
CELLULOSE VEGETABLE FIBRES Canapa
Hemp
Ramie
ARTIFICIAL FIBRES
Viscosa rayon
Cupro rayon
Special rayons
ARTIFICIAL CHEMICAL FIBRES
Rayon and polynosics
Acetate rayon
Triacetate rayon
Polyammide fibres
Polyurethane fibres
SYNTHETIC CHEMICAL FIBRES
Polyureic fibres
Polyester fibres
Polytechnical fibres
3.2.2
Washing the various types of fibres
3.2.3
Washing animal fibres:
Neutral detergents
Greater quantity of water
Maximum temperature 40°C
Minimum mechanical agitation, short times
Cellulose vegetable fibres:
Alkaline (Base) detergents
Bleach (if used): Sodium hypochlorite (NaClo)
High water temperature (if OK for coloureds; for linen, if heavily soiled, bleaching is preferable to
washing at high temperatures).
Normal quantity of water
Vigorous and prolonged mechanical action
Spinning
Artificial chemical fibres:
Neutral detergents
Less mechanical action and minimum spinning
Greater quantity of water
Maximum temperature: 70°C (whites), 50°C (coloureds); bleach with a diluted solution of Sodium
hypochlorite (NaClo) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
Synthetic chemical fibres:
Stronger detergents
Maximum temperature 40-60°C
Short wash
Medium spin speed
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3.2.4
International symbols for washing of fabrics
Labels marked with the following symbols are affixed to the garments, and provide valuable information
relative to their treatment.
WASHING
ACTION
NORMAL
Wash at
95°C
Wash at
60°C
Wash at
40°C
Wash at
30°C
Delicate
hand-wash
DO NOT
WASH
DELICATE
BLEACH
IRONING
DRYCLEANING
May be bleached in COLD water
Hot iron
max 200°C
Medium iron
max 150°C
DO NOT BLEACH
Cool iron
max 110°C
These symbols are used by the dry-cleaner to identify the
correct solvent and cleaning process for each garment to be
dry-cleaned
DO NOT IRON
DO NOT DRYCLEAN
Normal temperature
Reduced temperature
DRYING
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Can be dried in a tumble-dryer
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DO NOT DRY IN A TUMBLE-DRYER
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3.3
Classification of soiling
The dirt in the fabrics consists essentially of:
PROTEICN-BASED substances
OXIDABLE substances
GREASE
VARIOUS substances
CHEMICAL substances
Protein soiling (enzymatic) - sensitive to ENZYMES
Blood, Eggs, Chocolate, Grass etc.
Oxidable substances - sensitive to BLEACH
Wine, Tea, Coffee, Fruit etc.
Greasy soiling - sensitive to SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS
Oil, Butter, Salt etc.
Various types of soiling - sensitive to specific products
Rust, Chewing-gum, Mildew
Chemical soiling - sensitive to specific products
Ink, Mercury-Chrome, Deodorants, Paints
3.4
Mechanical action
The mechanical action of the appliance is produced by the combination of clockwise/anti-clockwise rotation
of the drum, which agitates the wash load in the washing solution. This action tends to transfer the dirt from
the fabrics to the washing solution (water + chemical products).
The mechanical action may be VIGOROUS or DELICATE:
Vigorous drum movement in alternating directions (clockwise and anti-clockwise) is suitable for cotton
and polyester fabrics.
Delicate drum movement in alternating directions (clockwise and anti-clockwise) is suitable for wool and
delicate fibres.
3.5
Duration of the washing cycle
Each washing cycle requires a minimum duration in order to guarantee satisfactory results. The duration of
the cycle depends on the type of fabric, the type of soiling and the quantity of washing in the drum.
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3.6
Water
Water is the most important element in the washing process, and is fundamental to the final result. Ideally,
the water used for the wash should have the following composition:
Clear and transparent, a low level of hardness, absence of manganese, low iron and mineral salt
content.
The water may contain various substances (mineral and others) in varying quantities:
Fe (iron), Mg (manganese), Si (silicon), Na (sodium), Ca (calcium), K (potassium).
Some of these substances, if they exceed a certain level or are present in combination, may lead to the
formation of ferrous oxide, which causes the well-known phenomenon of "rust spots".
In addition, if present in excessive quantities in the water, some substances may react with the chemicals
contained in the detergent, altering its characteristics and preventing it from performing with full efficiency.
During the heating phase, calcium and manganese - if present in excessive quantities - react at
temperatures in excess of 60°C, producing calcareous substances that, suspended in the washing solution,
may adhere to the fabrics.
These calcareous substances may precipitate, forming a scale build-up on the internal components of the
appliance (tub, heating element, filter body etc.).
3.6.1 Formation of lime scale and ferrous oxide
As rain falls through the atmosphere, it dissolves the gases that it contains: when it comes into contact with
carbon dioxide, the rain absorbs the gas and transforms it into droplets of dilute carbonic acid (H2O+CO2 =
H2CO3).
When the carbonic acid falls onto calcareous rocks, it reacts with the limestone to form a solution of Calcium
bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3)2.
The problems of rust spots deposited on the washing are due mainly to the presence of ferrous oxide in the
water. It is difficult to determine the quantity of ferrous oxide originally present in the water and the quantity
that forms by reaction. If a filter with a very fine mesh is installed on the tap supplying the appliance, ferrous
residue will be deposited after only a few days. This is one of the major obstacles to achieving a satisfactory
washing result.
3.6.2 Hardness of the water
According to current conventions, the hardness of the water refers to the concentration of calcium and
magnesium ions. In general, a distinction is made between total hardness, permanent hardness, temporary
hardness, alkaline (carbonate) and non-alkaline hardness.
The total hardness indicates the concentration of calcium and magnesium, while the temporary hardness
refers only to magnesium and calcium bicarbonate, which precipitate when the water boils.
Permanent hardness is caused by all the salts which, after boiling, do not precipitate in the same way as
carbonates, but instead remain suspended in the solution (thus including sulphates, chlorides and calcium
and magnesium nitrates).
The alkaline (or carbonate) hardness refers to soluble bicarbonates, hydroxides and carbonates. The excess
hardness with respect to the alkaline hardness is referred to as the non-alkaline (non-carbonate) hardness.
The hardness of the water is caused by soluble calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) salts, expressed as
calcium carbonate, measured in "°F", and calcium oxide, which is measured in "°D".
From a toxicological viewpoint, hard water does not appear to be harmful to human beings. On the contrary,
it has been observed that the presence of calcium and magnesium helps to prevent certain illnesses such as
hypertension and cardiac arrest.
However, at an industrial level, hard water may cause scale to form on mechanical parts due to the
presence of carbonates, sulphates and alkaline-terrous metal silicates. This scale build-up can significantly
reduce the efficiency of a machine. Especially at risk are components such as heat exchangers, boilers,
domestic appliances (washing machines, dishwashers etc.), because the reaction is endothermic. In other
words, the formation of carbonates is facilitated by an increase in temperature. In the dyeing industry,
calcium and magnesium may cause certain colouring agents to precipitate, thus causing uneven distribution
of the colour on the fabrics.
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3.6.3
Total water hardness
Total hardness is the sum of the temporary hardness (caused by calcium and magnesium bicarbonates) and
the permanent hardness (caused by sulphates, chlorides and calcium/magnesium nitrates).
Hardness expressed in French degrees (°F) represents the quantity of calcium carbonate, in grammes,
contained in 100 litres of water.
Hardness expressed in German degrees (°D) represents the quantity of calcium oxide, again in
grammes per 100 litres of water.
Conversion of °F - °D:
1 °D = 1,79 °F
1 °F = 0,56 °D
Classification of total water hardness expressed in °F and °D
SOFT
AVERAGE HARDNESS
HARD
VERY HARD
°F
0 – 14
15 – 26
27 – 39
> 40
°D
0-7
7 - 14
14 - 21
> 21
Negative effects of hard water:
Reduction in the effectiveness of anionic surface-active agents.
Increase in the quantity of dirt re-deposited.
Increase of residue deposited on the fabrics.
Increase of scale formation on the heating elements.
Hard water may cause the formation of incrustation on mechanical parts, due to the presence of carbonates,
sulphates and alkaline-terrous metal silicates. This may also lead to a considerable reduction in the
efficiency of the appliance, since the reaction is endothermic; in other words, the increase in temperature
favours the formation of carbonates.
The most important of the soluble salts present in water are calcium bicarbonate and magnesium
bicarbonate. When the water is heated to over 60°C, these react and precipitate to form limescale (which
deposits on the fabrics and causes stiffness).
Water softening mechanisms
Hard water can be softened in three ways:
SEQUESTRATION: soluble compounds such as TPF, polycarboxylics, citrates
PRECIPITATION: insoluble compounds such as soaps, sodium carbonate
ION EXCHANGE: insoluble compounds such as zeolites, lamellar silicates.
Water softeners are used only for washing temperatures in excess of 60°C, i.e. when the high temperature
causes the calcium to precipitate.
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3.7
Detergents
Modern detergents are less aggressive than those used in the past, partly for reasons of environmental
protection and partly to prevent damaging the fibres. If used correctly, these offer an excellent protective
treatment and a high level of washing power.
Detergents that contain no phosphates are far more sensitive to the reaction with calcium. When the door of
a washing machine is opened, the user will immediately observe that the interior is clean and shiny if highquality detergents have been used.
3.7.1
Composition of a detergent
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS (soap and active washing substances)
ZEOLITES (water softeners)
ALKALIS
BLEACHING AGENTS
OPTICAL WHITENERS
OTHERS: Enzymes, stabilizing agents, CMC, colouring agents, perfumed essences, TAED, PVP,
lipase, protease.
3.7.2
Functions of the principal components of a detergent
1. SOAP: A detergent that is soluble in water, composed of sodium or potassium salts, fatty acids (such as
oleic or stearic). The main function of soap is to dissolve grease. During the washing cycle, the grease
precipitates, creating insoluble calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) salts which, if present in excessive
quantities, tend to become attached to the fabrics (black balls).
2. SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS: synthetic substances with wetting and detergent properties, and able to
reduce the surface tension thus facilitating the penetration of the washing solution into the fabrics to
dissolve the dirt. These agents disperse and emulsify the dirt and grease, which are then held in
suspension in the washing solution.
3. SILICATES: alkaline substances that improve the washing result, protecting the fabrics or dishes and
the appliance itself from corrosion. Not aggressive to the skin.
4. ANTI-FOAM (regulator): the correct quantity of foam is necessary for the effectiveness of the
mechanical action, and therefore influences the intensity of the wash (large quantities of foam reduce
the mechanical action and vice versa). Anionic surface-active agents generally increase the quantity of
foam.
5. ZEOLITES: Zeolite is an insoluble solid that absorbs or fixes calcium ions, replacing them with sodium
ions (to reduce hardness), thus increasing the effectiveness of the detergent.
6. ALKALIS: alkalis make the washing solution alkaline, increasing the washing power and swelling the
fibres so that the dirt is dissolved more easily. In addition, alkalis help to remove scale build-up from the
appliance.
7. BLEACHES: bleaches are generally perborates (substances that generate active oxygen). Active
oxygen is released during the washing phase between 60°C and 90°C, and requires the presence of
stabilizers to ensure uniform action. The oxidizing power of the active oxygen released eliminates
substances that stain the fibres.
8. OPTIC WHITENERS (also known as blueing agents): optic whiteners are organic chemical substances
that can transform ultraviolet light into visible "BLUE" light (yellow + blue = white).
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3.7.3
Functions of other components of a detergent
1. ENZYMES: Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells (animal and vegetable) and are able to
transform organic materials with a high molecular weight, such as starches, proteins and fats, into more
easily soluble products. These integrate with and facilitate the action of the detergent, eliminating
protein-based dirt. Their direct action also facilitates the removal of other types of dirt. In order to give
positive results, enzymatic products must be used at temperatures between 40°C and 60°C (maximum).
At higher temperatures, the proteins contained in the enzymes (which are temperature-labile) are
vulnerable to denaturing. Denaturation causes irreversible alterations in the structure, leading to the
loss of the enzymatic action.
Protease - which is present in enzymatic detergents - is equally active in the presence of fresh and old
proteins alike.
Enzymatic detergents are especially active in both the pre-wash phase and in separate soak cycles.
In all soak processes, products containing enzymes able to dissociate the proteins improve the results
of the wash considerably. In addition, enzymes vertically break down scale incrustations deposited on
the appliance, thus helping to detach the alkalis present in the detergent.
2. STABILIZING AGENTS: These are chemical products designed to control the uniformity of the bleach
by stabilizing the washing solution.
3. CMC: CMC is used to hold the dirt in suspension so that dirt particles are not re-deposited on the
fabrics.
4. COLOURING AGENTS: These serve exclusively to make the product more attractive to the eye.
5. PERFUMED ESSENCES: Give the washing a pleasant fragrance.
6. TAED: TAED reacts with the perborate to form peracetic acid, which has strong bleaching and
disinfectant properties even at low temperatures (reacting from a temperature of just 30°C). However, if
the TAED content is excessive, coloured fabrics may fade. By itself, perborate reacts at temperatures in
excess of 60°C, while perborate with TAED begins to react at 30°C.
7. PVP: An ingredient that prevents colour transfer.
8. LIPASE: Chemical substances (enzymes) that dissolve fats by hydrolization.
9. PROTEASE: Chemical substances that destroy proteins (casein, albumin, gelatin, blood protein,
perspiration, food residue, fruit juice). These release albumin molecules, which become soluble in water.
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3.7.4
Detergent quantities
- efficiency of the washing programme according to the load and the water hardness.
In order to perform its function completely and correctly, the appropriate quantity of detergent must be used,
which depends on the quantity of water that is contained in the tub of the washing machine, the type of
washing cycle, the type of fabrics, the type of soiling and the quantity of washing in the drum.
Small quantities of detergent will be insufficient for efficient washing. But excessive quantities of detergent
will cause yellowing of the fabrics, since the final rinse will not be sufficient to remove all the excess
detergent, traces of which will remain on the fabrics.
The detergent properties of the soap are considerably reduced when the water is hard. The harder the
water, the greater is the possibility that calcareous soap will precipitate: 1 gramme of calcium bonds to 16
grammes of soap, thus making the soap ineffective and reducing the washing power significantly.
The combination of calcareous soap forms lumps of fat which remain attached to the dirt. This fatty
substance tends to deposit on the edges of the sink, on the bathtub and on the seals of the washing
machine. It also deposits easily on the fabrics, turning them a greyish colour (stains); in addition, it
considerably reduces the capacity of the fabrics for absorption.
The hardness of the water not only reduces the washing power of the detergent, but also reduces the
softness, resistance and whiteness of the fabrics washed.
When hardening agents such as Ca (calcium) and Mg (magnesium) react with certain components of the
detergent, the fabrics may become encrusted (calcium and detergent deposits) after a number of washes.
These give the fabrics a greyish colour and make them rough to the touch, as well as reducing their capacity
for absorption significantly. This phenomenon is especially noticeable in the case of terrycloth garments
(shower robes, towels etc.), causing them to lose their particular properties and to wear out faster.
Quantities recommended by the producers
Normal/concentrated detergent:
150 - 300 g. / 15 g. per 15l. H2O
Obviously, appliances designed with reduced consumption in mind (energy label) and belonging to
energy classes A, B, C and D are designed to wash using up to 50% less detergent than other
appliances.
PRE-WASH DETERGENTS:
COMPLETE DETERGENTS:
SPECIAL DETERGENTS:
Powder detergents
# WITH ENZYMES
# REDUCED-FOAM
# EXTRA-FOAM (for hand washing)
# FOR DELICATE FABRICS AND WOOL
# FOR COLOURED FABRICS
Liquid detergents
# FOR HDLD COLOUR-FAST COLOUREDS
# FOR SYNTHETIC FIBRES
# LDLD FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE WASHING (DELICATES)
# FOR WOOL AND DELICATE SYNTHETIC FIBRES
# FOR HEAVY-DUTY HAND- OR MACHINE WASHING
# FOR PRE-TREATMENT OF PERSISTENT STAINS
Compact detergents
# EXCELLENT FOR ALL WASHES - THE QUANTITY DEPENDS ON THE BRAND
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3.7.5
Washing additives
1. SOFTENER: (Cationic surface-active agent + fragrance): This additive is introduced automatically by the
appliance during the final rinse. It softens the surface of the fabric, which thus remains soft to the touch
and easier to iron. If used incorrectly before or during the wash, or if introduced too early into the tub by
the water fill system, its action is rendered ineffective by the surface-active agents contained in the
detergent.
2. BLEACH: (sodium hypochlorite) - Used for white fabrics, before the main wash cycle. 150 ml of bleach
will be sufficient for a short, low-temperature wash. Care should be taken when bleaching: certain stains
(blood, perspiration), if bleached before the enzyme-based function, may become permanently fixed to
the fabric, giving an unsatisfactory washing result. In normal washes, the bleach must be introduced
automatically by the washing machine during the first rinse, at the end of the washing phase and after
the detergent has performed its functions, since it destroys the enzymes contained in the detergent. If
the stains have already become permanent after a previous wash, they will be impossible to remove.
3. DELICATE BLEACH (hydrogen peroxide) - Oxygen is not as strong as chloride, especially if the water is
very hard. It must always be used together with the detergent, both for hand washing and when using a
washing machine. It may be used for pre-treatment, but always followed by a wash using detergent. It
may be used at all temperatures and during the wash (together with detergent), or poured directly onto
the fabrics.
3.7.6
Bleaching
Bleaching is generally performed after the wash (by hand or in a machine), except in the case of wine, tea or
coffee stains etc.
Light-sensitive stains (tomato etc.), if appearing on the fabrics after the wash, may disappear when the fabric
is exposed to sunlight for a time (action of the sun's rays).
If a white fabric is treated with a bleach and then exposed to sunlight, the optical effect may be cancelled,
and yellowish stains may become noticeable. However, these will tend to disappear when the garment is no
longer exposed to the sun.
Using bleaches
Various types of bleach exist to suit different conditions of use, since they remain active either within or in
excess of certain temperatures.
Hypochlorite: must always be used cold (during the 1st rinse)
Peroxide: may be used above 60° during the washing phase
Delicate bleach (solid): a teaspoonful should be added to the detergent. Suitable for all types of fabrics,
including coloureds. Active at medium and high temperatures.
Delicate bleach (liquid, i.e. hydrogen peroxide) should be introduced into the appropriate compartment.
Active perborate: active at temperatures in excess of 60°C.
N.B. If hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite are used for bleaching, or in the presence of "activators"
attached to the garments (ferrous accessories such as buttons, buckles, zips, hooks etc.), these may
cause holes in the fabric or stiffness of the fibres due to re-deposited oxides which form the wellknown "rust spots".
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3.8
The function of the water temperature
The variety and quality of natural and synthetic fibres which comprise the fabrics, which are sometimes
present in percentages that are not declared correctly on the labels, make it necessary in many cases to use
a detergent whose washing action is effective at low temperatures. As a result, the consumer today tends to
use washing programmes with a maximum temperature of about 60°C, partly due to increasing sensitivity to
energy savings.
Manufacturers of detergents, in line with this trend, have modified the quality of their products to meet this
need, and frequently emphasize these characteristics in their promotional activities.
Temperature helps to dissolve the dirt (solvent effect)
Temperature facilitates and accelerates the chemical reactions, especially when bleaching.
The "CORRECT" temperature in the various phases of the washing cycle:
reduces the cohesion of the dirt
facilitates the suspension of the dirt in the water
facilitates the reaction of the alkalis (swelling the fabrics so that the dirt is dissolved more easily)
High temperatures do not facilitate the removal of all types of dirt; in fact, blood, egg-yolk, milk etc. are more
easily removed if washed in cold water; if hot water is used, these stains adhere more strongly to the fibres
and become more difficult to remove.
3.8.1
Using the correct temperature
The temperature of the washing solution is used to remove the dirt and to ensure hygiene.
HIGH TEMPERATURE = 80 - 90°C
Suitable for difficult soiling: cotton and linen (whites) with bleach, perborate and hydrogen peroxide.
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE = 50 - 60°C (most washing cycles)
Suitable for washing colour-fast fabrics: cotton and linen (coloured) with hypochlorite-Based bleaches.
LOW TEMPERATURE = 30 - 40$C
Suitable for washing wool, synthetic fabrics, other delicate fibres, and for soaking of fabrics soiled with blood
or protein-based substances.
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3.9
Washing machine programmes
Pre-wash
(not for wool and, in some
cases, delicate fabrics)
Wash
1st rinse
2nd (3rd) rinse
Final rinse (softener)
(Rinse-hold)
Final spin
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.
-
Water fill with detergent introduced from the pre-wash compartment
Brief heating phase and hot wash (30 - 40°C)
Drain
(Brief spin)
Water fill with detergent introduced from the wash compartment
Heating and hot wash
30%90$C for cotton and linen
30%60$C for synthetic fibres
30%40$C for wool, silk and delicate fabrics
Maintenance phase (mechanical action after the heating phase)
Cooling water fill (in cotton cycles, reduces the temperature of the drain
water, in synthetic cycles as an anti-crease cycle)
Drain
Brief spin (cotton/linen only)
Water fill (and, if selected, introduction of bleach for cotton/linen only)
Cold wash
Drain
Brief intermediate spin (if selected - cotton/linen only)
Water fill
Cold wash
Drain
Brief intermediate spin (if selected - cotton/linen only)
Water fill to softener compartment
Cold wash
In cotton/linen cycles, the programme generally passes to the subsequent
phase; it stops with water in the tub (rinse-hold) only if this function has
been selected (certain models only)
The cycle generally stops with water in the tub (rinse-hold) for synthetic,
delicates and wool cycles if there is no rinse-hold button or selector. If these
are featured (rinse-hold, delicate spin, anti-crease etc.), the cycle may stop
or pass to the subsequent phase according to the option selected.
Drain
Final spin
at maximum speed for cotton/linen
brief and at reduced speed for synthetics, delicates and wool (certain
models only)
STOP
Washer-dryers only:
Drying
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1. Drying with heating at reduced power for cotton/linen; half-power for
synthetic fabrics
2. Cooling phase
STOP
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4 FRONT-LOADING WASHING MACHINE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
4.1
Timer
Detergent dispenser
Steam venting hose
Pressure switch
Tub suspension spring
Tub
Detergent entry tube
Tube between solenoid and
detergent dispenser
Water fill solenoid
Water fill hose
Rear counterweight
Drum pulley
Bearings
Thermostat
Heating element
Drain hose
Motor pulley
Motor
Damper
Drain pump
Pressure chamber
Drain filter
Tube between tub and filter body
Door safety interlock
Porthole door
Bellows seal
Front counterweight
Drum
Traditional washing system
In a washing machine, the dirt in the fibres is removed by a combination of mechanical and chemical
actions.
The solenoid valve ducts water through the detergent dispenser, where it collects the detergent and passes
into the tub. The correct water level is controlled by one or more pressure switches.
The fabrics loaded into the drum are maintained in constant movement by the rotation of the drum.
The particles of dirt, after being separated from the fibres of the fabric by the chemical action of the
detergent and the temperature of the water, are removed by the passage of the water through the fibres.
This action is obtained by a continuous series of immersions and agitations of the fabrics in the washing
solution.
The heating element is switched on until the selected temperature is reached; the temperature of the water
is controlled by thermostats or sensors.
At the end of the washing cycle, the dirty water is drained by the drain pump.
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4.1.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Recovery of detergent loss from the circulation hose
Detergent dispenser
Drum
Tube between the tub and the filter body
Drain filter
Circulation hose
The water that passes through the re-circulation circuit during the movement of the drum - which acts as the
impeller of a pump - prevents detergent residue from depositing in the lower section of the hydraulic circuit
(filter body).
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4.2
Drain circuit with "ECO-BALL" ball valve
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
4.2.1
Timer
Detergent dispenser
Steam venting tube
Pressure switch
Tub suspension spring
Tub
Detergent entry tube
Tube between solenoid and detergent
dispenser
Solenoid valve
Water fill hose
Rear counterweight
Drum pulley
Bearings
Thermostat / temperature sensor
Heating element
Drain hose
Motor pulley
Motor
Damper
Drain pump
Pressure chamber
Drain filter
Tub drain hose
Sphere (eco-ball)
Door interlock
Porthole door
Door seal
Front counterweight
Drum
“ECO-BALL” ball valve
The "Eco-ball" valve consists of a sphere
contained inside the tube that connects the tub to
the filter body. Its purpose is to keep the washing
water (contained in the tub) separate from the
water in the drain circuit.
Advantages with respect to a conventional circuit:
Energy savings: the water inside the drain circuit is not heated.
The detergent does not deposit on the filter body, thus improving the quality of the wash (reduction in
mechanical detergent losses).
Better rinsing efficiency.
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4.2.2
Ball valve: operating principle
During the water fill and washing phases, the sphere is raised by the water contained in the drain circuit
to the uppermost position, thus preventing water from passing between the tub and the filter body. To
ensure correct operation of the system, it is important to ensure that the drain hose is always correctly
connected to the corresponding support on the rear panel (at a height of at least 60 cm.).
During the drain phases, the suction effect
created by the operation of the pump causes the
sphere to move downwards, thus allowing the
water to flow through the drain circuit.
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4.3
“JETSYSTEM” washing system
In the "Jetsystem" washing system, considering that the removal of the dirt is performed solely by the
water that passes through the fibres, the remaining part of the washing solution has been eliminated.
In other words, this system is based on the possibility of washing the fabrics using only the water used
to wet them; the quantity of water introduced into the appliance is therefore proportional to the type and
quantity of the fabrics in the drum.
The water is introduced by the solenoid valve; its level is controlled by a pressure switch.
The water present in the bottom of the tub is circulated by a pump, which ducts it to the fabrics through
an aperture in the bellows seal (or through an aperture in the upper section of the tub).
The mechanical action is provided by the bi-directional rotation of the drum at low speed; the wash load
is continuously rotated inside the drum by three drum lifters.
4.3.1
JETSYSTEM hydraulic circuit (first version)
1. Water fill solenoid valve
2. Detergent dispenser
3. Tube from detergent dispenser to tub
4. Tub
5. Drum
6. Drum lifter
7. Tube between tub and filter body
8. Filter body
9. Tube between filter body and
circulation pump
10. Circulation pump
11. Circulation tube
12. Thermostat
13. Heating element
14. Steam venting tube
15. Drain pump
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4.3.2
Jetsystem “DIRECT SPRAY” washing system
(current production)
1. Water fill solenoid
2. Detergent dispenser
3. Tube from detergent dispenser to tub
4. Tub
5. Drum
6. Drum lifter
7. Tube between tub and filter body
8. Filter body
9. Tube between filter body/circulation pump
10. Circulation pump
11. Circulation tube
12. Door seal
13. Heating element
14. Thermostat
15. Drain pump
4.3.3
Circuit with heat exchanger
(certain older models only)
1. Water fill solenoid
2. Detergent dispenser
3. Tube from detergent dispenser to tub
4. Tub
5. Drum
6. Drum lifter
7. Tube between tub and filter body
8. Filter body
9. Motor
10. Circulation pump
11. Circulation tube
12. Door seal
13. Heat exchanger
14. Thermostat
15. Drain pump
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4.3.4
“NEW JET” recirculation circuit–P63BD version (large door)
1. Water fill solenoid
2. Detergent dispenser
3. Tube from detergent
dispenser to tub
4. Tub
5. Drum
6. Drain hose
7. Drain filter
8. Drain pump
9. Tube between tub and filter
body
10. Circulation pump intake tube
11. Circulation pump
12. Circulation tube
13. Heating element
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5 WASHER-DRYERS
5.1
!
!
!
!
!
Drying system
The drying system is based on forced-air circulation with water-jet condensation. The maximum drying
capacity is equivalent to half the maximum load of dry washing. If a full load is washed, two drying
cycles are necessary. If a half-load is washed, the drying cycle can be programmed for automatic
execution at the end of the washing cycle.
During the drying phases, the drum rotates in alternate directions at low speed. The fan ducts the
heated air from the heating elements to the inside of the tub, where it removes the humidity from the
washing. The cold-water jet, coming into contact with the hot and humid air, generates a heat exchange
and thus condenses the humidity. The cooled, dry air is ducted back to the fan, again heated by the
heating element, and is then circulated back into the drum.
In cycles for SYNTHETIC fibres, only one branch of the heating element is switched on (half power). In
COTTON cycles, both branches are powered (full power).
The cooling water and condensation are drained off by the drain pump.
During the last few minutes of the drying cycle, the heating elements are switched off, while the fan
continues to operate in order to complete the cooling phase.
5.2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Drying circuit (type "A" condenser)
Fan
Fan motor
Heating element casing
Drying heaters
Duct
Door seal
Tub
Tube between tub and condenser
Drying condenser
Coupling
Water fill solenoid
Water fill hose to condenser
Steam venting tube
Air-break
Drain filter
Drain pump
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5.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Drying circuit (type "B" condenser)
Fan
Fan motor
Drying heaters
Heating element casing
Duct
Door seal
Tub
Tube between tub and condenser
Drying condenser
Coupling
Water fill solenoid
Condenser fill hose and steam vent
Drain filter
Drain pump
5.3.1
“HP” version
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6 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
6.1
“NEXUS” technology
These appliances are produced using the NEXUS technology, a patented system consisting of five subassemblies:
Base
Cabinet
Control panel support
Washing group
Work-top
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Base
Front cabinet shell
Rear cabinet shell
Control panel support
Work-top
Washing group
Suspension spring
Damper
Detergent dispenser
Drain filter body
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Control panel
Front cabinet shell
Base
Main PCB
Tub
Pressure switch tubes
Pressure chamber
Tube between tub and filter body
Temperature sensor
Motor
Drive belt
Drum pulley
Rear counterweight
Cable clamp
Solenoid valve
Control panel support
Detergent dispenser
Main terminal block
Pressure switch
Drain hose
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6.1.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
6.2
1.
2.
3.
4.
Washing machine with 32 cm-depth cabinet
Front cabinet shell
Tub
Drum rotation motor
Drain pump
Damper
Heating element
Thermostat
Pressure switch
Capacitor/suppressor
Base
Base
Base
Filter body
Drain pump
Dampers
The base is built in "CARBORAN", a speciallydeveloped plastic.
As well as the two cabinet shells, the filter body, drain
pump, dampers and (if featured) the circulation pump
and motor control system are all housed in the base.
6.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
Control panel support
Timer
Adjustable thermostat
Push-button
Detergent dispenser
The control panel support (in galvanized sheet metal) is secured by a series of screws to the two cabinet
shells.
Several components are fitted to the support: timer, adjustable thermostat, pushbuttons, capacitor, pressure
switches, detergent dispenser and control panel.
Also secured to the support are the two suspension springs for the washing group.
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6.4
Cabinet
The cabinet consists of two half-shells in enamelled sheet metal, which are
secured to a Carboran base. The support cross-member (in galvanized sheet
metal) is screwed to the upper section of the cabinet. The work-top is screwed to
the rear section of the cabinet shell.
Under-counter versions are fitted with tops in galvanized sheet metal.
The cabinets are available in a range of different versions that can be installed in
any part of the home (bathroom, kitchen, etc.):
32cm
(P66)
42/45cm (P61)
52/54cm (P65)
57/60cm (P62, without plinth)
57/60cm (RIM)
57/60cm (P63, with plinth)
62 cm
(NEAT)
6.4.1
Types of cabinet
P61soft
(85x60x45)
Types of cabinet and dimensions in cm (HxWxD)
(the height includes the 3cm top, if featured))
P63soft
P65soft
(85x60x57)
(85x60x54)
P61 square
(85x60x42)
P63soft (large door)
(85x60x57)
P65 square
(85x60x52)
P63 double door
(85x60x57)
P62 soft
(85x60x57)
P63 soft
(85x60x57)
P66
(85x60x32)
RIM
(85x60x57)
P62 square
(85x60x57)
P63 soft (large door)
(85x60x57)
P66 built-in
(78x60x32)
P64 built-in
(82x60x54)
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31
NEAT
(85x60x62)
599 35 23-17
SOI/DT 2002-05 eb
P63 square
P62 (P65) soft
P62 INPUT
NEAT(JETSY- IZ)
RIM
P63 soft - large door
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6.5
Porthole door
Several types of porthole door may be fitted:
" standard (26 cm) or large (30 cm)
" angle of aperture (130$ or 180$)
" alignment with front panel (flush or protruding)
" differently-styled surrounds
" type of aperture (various handles, or button on control panel)
6.5.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Examples of porthole doors
Front surround
Door glass
Rear surround
Hinge
Masking plate
Handle
Hinge pin
Latch
Spring
Flange
6.5.1.1
Handle assembly
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Front surround
Rear surround
Latch
Hinge pin
Latch spring
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Handle
Hinge pin
Latch
Latch spring
Handle spring (certain models only)
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6.5.2
Porthole door with button-actioned aperture
On certain models, the door can be opened by pressing
a button on the control panel.
All models with the P66 (32 cm) cabinet are fitted with
this feature.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Door aperture button
Spring
Support
Wire
Lever
Door safety interlock
Latch aperture lever
Control panel support
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6.6
Control panel
The plastic control panel is secured to the control panel
support by anchor tabs and one or more screws.
The shape of the control panel depends on the styling
and therefore the brand of the appliance.
Various types of control panels are available for each
styling, each fitted with a different number of buttons and
knobs.
6.6.1
Examples of control panels
ALFA
DELTA3
ELIPSE
GAMMA
MULTIPANEL
AEG
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SIGMA
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6.7
Washing groups
The washing group is suspended from the support cross-member by two helical springs.
The oscillation of the washing group is absorbed by the two dampers attached to the base.
Balancing of the washing group is provided by a front counterweight in cement and by a rear counterweight.
Some models are not fitted with the rear counterweight.
6.7.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
Damper
Rubber vibration damper
Shaft
Shaft seals
Cylinder
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6.7.2
Types of washing groups
Appliances in the NEXUS range may be fitted with washing groups of varying dimensions and spin speeds.
CARBORAN
Load capacity (cotton)
Rated
Max.
3 Kg
3,5 Kg
4 Kg
4,5 Kg
4,5 Kg
5 Kg
5 Kg
5,5 Kg
5,5 Kg
6,5 Kg
Type
G17
G18
G19
G20
G21
Type
G10
G11
G12
G13
26 l
38 l
42 l
46 l
54 l
STAINLESS STEEL (not used for new models)
Load capacity (cotton)
Rated
Max.
4 Kg
4,5 Kg
4,5 Kg
5 Kg
5 Kg
5,5 Kg
5,5 Kg
6,5 Kg
Spin speed
400
500
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Residual humidity
85 %
78 %
66 %
60 %
53 %
52 %
44 %
CARBORAN
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Drum volume
37
Drum volume
38 l
42 l
46 l
54 l
Efficiency of spin
F
E
D
C
B
B
A
STAINLESS STEEL
599 35 23-17
6.7.3
Washing group in Carboran
The tub consists of two half-shells in Carboran, secured
together by a series of self-tapping screws.
The two counterweights are screwed to the half-shells.
The bellows seal is secured to the front half-shell by a metal
elastic ring.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Front half-shell
O-ring
Rear half-shell
Drum
Front counterweight
Counterweight anchor
screw
Bellows seal
Ring securing the seal to
the tub
Ring securing the seal to
the cabinet
Rear counterweight
Washing group
suspension springs
Damper
Damper hinge pin
Half-shell anchor screws
6.7.3.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Sup
por
t
for
bea
ring
s
Single-bearing version
Rear tub shell
Bearing support
Drum shaft
External bearing
Internal bearing
Drum shaft bushing
Drum shaft seal
Drum
Ring
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6.7.4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Stainless steel washing group
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Tub casing
Band spring
Tub support band
Drum
Flange seal
Front flange
Front counterweight
Retaining ring
Ring securing the seal to the tub
Bellows seal
Ring securing the seal to the cabinet
Rear counterweight
Tub spider
Idle pulley
Motor
Spider with two bearings
Single-bearing spider
1. Tub spider
2. Internal bearing
3. External bearing
4. Seal
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1. Tub spider
2. Bearing
3. Seal
4. Ring
39
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6.7.5
Drum
The drum consists of a stainless steel casing to which the two
flanges are crimped.
Three Carboran lifters are pressure-fitted to the internal face of
the drum.
The drum spider, in aluminium alloy, is secured to the edge of
the drum by screws.
A brass bushing is pressure-fitted to the drum shaft.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Drum casing
Flange
Drum lifter
Drum spider
Screws
Drum shaft
Drum shaft bushing
Drum spider
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6.7.6
Drum rotation drive belt
These appliances are fitted with elastic drive belts. The motor is
mounted in a fixed position, and no regulation is possible.
1. Motor pulley
2. Elastic drive belt
3. Drum pulley
Different types of drive belts, produced by various manufacturers and with different characteristics, are used
in production:
"
"
rubber belts (black)
plastic belts (yellow)
The length marked on the drive belt (1217, 1280 etc.) is the working length based on the belt mounted on
the pulleys, which is calculated according to the following parameters:
& D = diameter of drum pulley
& de = diameter of motor pulley
I = centre-line distance between the pulleys
For a given working length, the belts - which consist of different materials - have a different degree of
elasticity. This means that, when not fitted to the appliance, their lengths may be different. It is normal that
the length of a plastic belt not fitted to the pulleys is three or four centimetres greater than that of a rubber
belt.
The belts are of the poly-V type, and are marked with two further parameters:
"
"
shape of the drive belt (J / H)
number of teeth (4, 5, 6, 8)
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6.8
Detergent dispenser
6.8.1 Detergent dispenser with distribution levers
This type of detergent dispenser is used in models featuring:
" electromechanical timers
" hybrid timers
" MWM electronic control systems, which feature an electromechanical distributor for movement of the
levers
Two versions of this dispenser exist: one is larger, the other is of reduced size (ecological).
6.8.1.1
Operating principle
Irrespective of the shape of the detergent dispenser, the operating principle remains the same:
The water is ducted through the intake nozzle to the distributor. According to the position of the timer camme
during the washing cycle, the distributor ensures that the water is ducted through only one channel of the
feed duct, so that the detergent is removed from the appropriate compartment only.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Duct
Water intake
Distributor
Eccentric camme
Timer
Camme
Lever mechanism
Detergent drawer
Detergent dispenser
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cold water solenoid valve
Hot water solenoid valve (not all models)
Water distributor
Water distribution ducts
Detergent drawer
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"LONG" DISPENSER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. Detergent drawer
Fill hose
12. Siphon for additives
Washer
13. Spring
Cable clamp
14. Distributor pin
Extension hose
15. Eccentric lever
Water fill solenoid
regulation camme
(cold)
16. Lever arm
Water fill solenoid
(hot) (certain models 17. Camme
18. Timer
only)
19. Detergent entry tube
Dispenser nozzle
20. Clip
Water distributor
21. Steam venting tube
Dispenser duct
Detergent dispenser
Detergent dispenser
3 compartments
4 compartments
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"SHORT" DISPENSER (ecological)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
43
11. Detergent drawer
Fill hose
12. Siphon for additives
Washer
13. Spring
Cable clamp
14. Distributor pin
Extension hose
15. Eccentric lever
Water fill solenoid
regulation camme
(cold)
16. Lever arm
Water fill solenoid
(hot) (certain models 17. Camme
18. Timer
only)
19. Detergent entry tube
Dispenser nozzle
20. Clip
Water distributor
21. Steam venting tube
Dispenser duct
Detergent dispenser 22. Solenoid valve support
Detergent dispenser
3 compartments
4 compartments
599 35 23-17
6.8.2 Detergent dispenser with multiple-outlet solenoid valve ("long" version)
Various versions of this type of detergent dispenser are used in washers and washer-dryers featuring:
" EWM2000 control system
" EWM1000 control system
The water is ducted into the detergent compartment by a solenoid valve with one inlet and 2 or 3 outlets.
Some models are fitted with a second solenoid valve for the introduction of hot water. The detergent drawer
may consist of 3 or 4 compartments.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
"
"
"
Fill hose
Washer
Cable clamp
Solenoid valve support
Water fill solenoid (cold)
Water fill solenoid (hot) (certain
models only)
Tube
Dispenser nozzle
Dispenser duct
Detergent dispenser
Steam venting tube
Detergent drawer
Siphon for additives
Detergent entry tube
Clip
Water duct with four compartments
2- or 3-way water inlet nozzle
3- or 4-compartment detergent drawer
' 2-way solenoid valve
SOI/DT 2002-05 eb
"
"
"
Water duct with four compartments and flow
deviator
2-way water inlet nozzle
4-compartment detergent drawer
Combinations of solenoid valves
2-way solenoid valve +
solenoid valve for introduction of hot
water
44
3-way solenoid valve
599 35 23-17
6.8.2.1
"
"
Principles of operation
Water fill to pre-wash compartment
(Pre-wash solenoid valve)
This version is used in models with three compartments
(EWM1000) and 3 or 4 compartments (EWM2000). The detergent
contained in compartment "a" is introduced at the beginning of the
pre-wash phase.
In certain models featuring the "stains" option, compartment "a" may
be used (as an alternative) to contain the stain-removal product,
which is introduced during the wash phase.
Water fill to wash compartment
(Washing solenoid valve)
"
In all models, compartment "b" is used to contain the detergent,
which is introduced at the beginning of the wash phase.
Water fill to conditioner compartment
(pre-wash and wash solenoid valves)
"
"
"
"
In all models, compartment "d" is used to contain the conditioner,
which is introduced at the beginning of the final rinse.
Water fill to pre-wash and bleach compartment
(Pre-wash solenoid valve)
In EWM1000 models with 4-compartment detergent dispensers,
water is ducted into compartments "a" and "c", though not at the
same time.
If the user selects the pre-wash option, water is ducted through
compartments "a" and "c" at the beginning of the pre-wash phase.
If this option has not been selected, water is ducted through the
compartments at the beginning of the first rinse.
Water fill to bleach compartment
(Bleach solenoid valve)
In EWM2000 models with 4 compartments, water is ducted through
compartment "c" at the beginning of the final rinse.
Hot water fill
(Wash + hot water solenoid valve)
"
In models featuring the hot water solenoid valve (EWM2000 only),
the wash and hot water solenoid valves are actioned simultaneously
to duct mixed water (hot and cold) through the wash compartment.
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6.8.3
Detergent dispenser with multiple-outlet solenoid valve ("short" version)
Various versions of this type of detergent dispenser are used in washers featuring:
" EWM2000 control system
" EWM1000 control system
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Fill hose
Washer
Cable clamp
Solenoid valve support
Water fill solenoid (cold)
Water fill solenoid (hot) (some
EWM2000 models only)
Tube
Dispenser nozzle
Dispenser duct
Detergent dispenser
Steam venting tube
Detergent drawer
Siphon for additives
Detergent entry tube
Clip
Version: EM2000 drawer with 3-4 compartments
EWM1000 drawer with 3 compartments
"
"
"
Version: EM1000 drawer with 4 compartments
Water duct with four compartments
2- or 3-way water inlet nozzle
3- or 4-compartment detergent drawer
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"
"
"
46
Water duct with four compartments and "fork"
2-way water inlet nozzle
4-compartment detergent drawer
599 35 23-17
6.8.3.1
"
"
Operating principle
Water fill to pre-wash compartment
(Pre-wash solenoid valve)
This version is used in EWM2000/1000 models with 3compartment detergent dispensers. The detergent contained
in compartment "a" is introduced at the beginning of the prewash phase.
In certain models featuring the "stains" option, compartment
"a" may be used (as an alternative) to contain the stainremoval product, which is introduced during the wash phase.
Water fill to wash compartment
(Washing solenoid valve)
"
In all models, compartment "b" is used to contain the
detergent, which is introduced at the beginning of the wash
phase.
Water fill to conditioner compartment
(pre-wash and wash solenoid valves)
"
"
"
"
"
In all models, compartment "d" is used to contain the
conditioner, which is introduced at the beginning of the final
rinse. The pre-wash and wash solenoid valves are actioned
simultaneously.
Water fill to pre-wash and bleach compartment
(Pre-wash solenoid valve)
In models (EWM2000) with 4-compartment detergent
dispensers, water is ducted into compartment "c" by a special
solenoid valve at the beginning of the first rinse.
Water fill to pre-wash and bleach compartment
(Pre-wash solenoid valve)
In models with 4 compartments (EWM1000), water is ducted
through compartments "a" and "c", though not simultaneously.
If the user selects the pre-wash option, water is ducted
through compartments "a" and "c" at the beginning of the prewash phase.
If this option has not been selected, water is ducted through
the compartments at the beginning of the first rinse.
Hot water fill
(Wash + hot water solenoid valve)
"
In models featuring the hot water solenoid valve (EWM2000
only), the wash and hot water solenoid valves are actioned
simultaneously to duct mixed water (hot and cold) through the
wash compartment.
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47
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6.9
Drain/circulation circuits
The drain circuit differs according to the structure of the model and the washing system used.
6.9.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Washers with traditional washing systems
Tub
Tube between tub and filter body
Filter body
Drain pump
Drain hose
Circulation tube
1. Tube between tub and
filter body
2. Pressure chamber
3. Filter body
4. Washer
5. Cap
6. Drain filter
7. Washer (OR)
8. Drain pump
9. Pump cover
10. Drain hose
11. Circulation tube
6.9.1.1 Drain filter
The drain filter features a fine mesh which traps all objects. The filter mesh must be cleaned frequently.
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48
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6.9.2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Washers with traditional washing system and “ECO-BALL” ball valve
Drain pump
Pump cover
Filter body
Drain filter
Washer
Filter knob
Tube between tub and filter body
Ball
Pressure chamber
6.9.2.1 Drain filter
This drain system is self-cleaning: the filter traps only objects of a certain size.
The drain tube is used to empty the drain circuit.
The pump impeller can be inspected after unscrewing the filter.
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6.9.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Washers with traditional washing system and “P66" (32 cm) cabinet
Tub
Pressure chamber
Tube between tub and pump
Drain pump
Drain hose
In these appliances, the drain circuit is self-cleaning: the siphon on the tube between the tub and the pump
traps objects (coins, hair clips etc.) that might jam the pump.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Tube between tub and drain pump
Pressure chamber
Drain pump
Drain hose
Pump cover
Coupling
Circulation tube
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599 35 23-17
6.9.4
1.
2.
3.
4.
Jetsystem washing machines (with circulation pump)
Filter body
Circulation pump
Circulation tube
Drain pump
1. Tube between tub and filter
body
2. Pressure chamber
3. Filter body
4. Washer
5. Cap
6. Drain filter
7. Washer (OR)
8. Drain pump
9. Pump cover
10. Drain hose
11. Circulation pump
12. Circulation tube
13. Pump cover
6.9.4.1 Drain filter
The drain filter features a fine mesh which traps all objects. The filter mesh must be cleaned frequently.
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6.9.5
“NEW JET” circulation circuit (Circulation pump) – version P63BD
1. Tube between tub and filter
body
2. Filter body
3. Drain filter
4. Washer
5. Filter knob
6. Drain pump
7. Pump cover
8. Circulation pump intake tube
9. Circulation pump
10. Pump cover
11. Circulation tube
12. Pressure chamber
6.9.5.1
Drain filter
This drain system is self-cleaning: the filter traps only objects of a certain size.
The drain tube is used to empty the drain circuit.
The pump impeller can be inspected after unscrewing the filter.
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52
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6.9.6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Jetsystem washing machines (Circulation pump) with Heat exchanger
(featured on a few older models only)
Filter body
Heat exchanger (Heating element)
Safety thermostat
Thermostats
Circulation pump
Circulation tube
Return tube
Drain pump
1. Tube between tub and
filter body
2. Pressure chamber
3. Filter body
4. Washer
5. Cap
6. Drain filter
7. Washer OR
8. Drain pump
9. Pump cover
10. Drain hose
11. Circulation pump
12. Circulation tube
13. Pump cover
14. Heat exchanger (Heating
element)
15. Cover
6.9.6.1 Drain filter
The drain filter features a fine mesh which traps all objects. The filter mesh must be cleaned frequently.
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6.9.7
Jetsystem washing machines with NEAT cabinet (JETSY- IZ)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Drain pump
Filter
Filter body
Circulation pump
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Tube between tub and filter body
Pressure chamber
Filter body
Washer
Cap
Drain filter
Washer (OR)
Drain pump
Pump cover
Drain hose
Circulation pump
Circulation tube
Pump cover
Drain tube
6.9.7.1 Drain filter
The drain filter features a fine mesh which traps all objects. The filter mesh must be cleaned frequently.
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7 WASHER-DRYER COMPONENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.1
Tub
Drying condenser
Fan
Drying heater casing
Cold water fill solenoid
Drain pump
Fan assembly
The fan ducts the air from the condenser to the casing
containing the heating elements. The fan is actioned by a
drive belt attached to the fan motor.
1. Fan
2. Motor
3. Drive belt
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Fan cover
Fan duct
Spacer
Bearings
"Seeger" rings
Spindle fastening
Pulley
Fan
Nut
7.1.1.1
Delivery of the fan
! standard version: 55 m3 of air/hr
! “High Performance” version: approximately 80m3 of air/hr
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7.2
Heater element casing
The heating element casing consists of two halfshells in aluminium alloy. The shells are joined
together by screws and sealed with silicone.
The casing is insulated by two half-shells in basalt
rock wool encased in a sheet of aluminium and
secured by two straps. The air is heated by two
heating elements.
During delicate drying, one of the heating elements
is switched off. The casing is fitted with
thermostats that control the temperature of the air.
"Standard" version
with electromechanical timer
1 Heater element casing
Drying heaters
2
(700 + 700W)
"Standard" version
with electronic
control system
Heater element casing
Drying heaters
(700 + 700W)
3
------
NTC sensor for control
of drying temperature
4
Drying thermostat
(normally-closed,
opens at 106$C, recloses at 90$C)
5
6
Manual-reset
thermostat (normallyclosed, opens at
150$C)
Automatic-reset safety
thermostat (normallyclosed, opens at 98$C,
re-closes at 75$C)
SOI/DT 2002-05 eb
Full-power thermostat
(only for appliances
with MWM electronic
control) (normallyopen, closes at 85°C)
Manual-reset
thermostat (normallyclosed, opens at
150$C)
Automatic-reset safety
thermostat (normallyclosed, opens at 98$C,
re-closes at 75$C)
56
"Mediterranean"
version
(electromechanical"
Heater element casing
Drying heaters
(700 + 400 W)
Manual-reset
thermostat (normallyclosed, opens at
140°C)
Drying thermostat
(normally-closed,
opens at 94$C, recloses at 87$C)
------
------
“High Performance”
version (electronic
control system)
Heater element casing
Drying heaters
(1000 + 1000W)
NTC sensor for control
of drying temperature
Automatic-reset safety
thermostat (normallyclosed, opens at
110$C, re-closes at
94$C)
Manual-reset
thermostat (normallyclosed, opens at
150$C)
------
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7.3
Drying condenser
The drying condenser consists of a plastic structure which is connected to the lower section of the tub by a
rubber sleeve, and to the fan by a seal. The condenser is attached to the base of the appliance.
The humid air enters from the lower section of the condenser, while a jet of cold water is introduced from the
upper section. The shape of the condenser is such as to create a turbulence between the flow of humid air
and the jet of cold water. This condenses the humidity contained in the air. Therefore, the fan receives cold,
dry air, which is then re-circulated and again heated. The cooling water and the condensation run down to
the bottom of the tub, to be discharged by the drain pump.
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Type “A” condenser
Type “B” condenser
1. Solenoid valve
2. Tube from solenoid valve to
coupling
3. Coupling
4. Steam venting tube (washing)
5. Tube from detergent dispenser
to tub
6. Condensed water fill hose
7. Drying condenser
1. Solenoid valve
2. Tube from solenoid valve to
coupling
3. Coupling
4. Condensed water fill hose and
steam vent (washing)
5. Tube from detergent dispenser
to tub
7. Drying condenser
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7.3.1
Determining the drying time
(models with electronic control system only)
In certain models with electronic control (EWM2000/MWM), the user can select automatic drying cycles. In
this case, the drying time is determined according to the desired degree of humidity.
The electronic control system utilizes an NTC sensor, fitted to the drying condenser, to calculate the drying
time.
Type “A” condenser
1. Drying condenser
2. NTC temperature sensor
Type “B” condenser
1. Drying condenser
2. NTC temperature sensor
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7.3.2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Condensation water fill
Solenoid valve
Tube from Solenoid valve to Coupling
Coupling
Tube from Coupling to condenser
Siphon on Tube from detergent dispenser to tub
The condensation water is delivered by a section of the cold water solenoid valve, whose delivery is 0.4
litres per minute.
The solenoid valve is connected by a hose to a coupling; the water is ducted from this coupling to the upper
section of the condenser. A small hole inside the coupling allows a tiny quantity of water to flow to the
bottom of the detergent dispenser. This ensures that there is always water inside the siphon on the hose
between the detergent dispenser and the tub, thus preventing steam from being expelled from the tub and
the detergent dispenser during drying.
7.4
1.
2.
3.
4.
Duct
Duct
Screw
Bellows seal
Wire clamp
The front duct directs the hot air coming from the heating elements directly to the interior of the drum,
passing through the bellows seal. The duct consists of two channels in aluminium alloy, joined together by
screws and sealed with silicone. The duct, too, is insulated by two basalt rock wool half-shells encased in a
sheet of aluminium and secured in position by two straps.
The duct is secured to the front cabinet shell by a screw; the seal between the duct and the bellows seal is
provided by a steel wire clamp.
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8 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
8.1
Control systems
The operation of the appliance depends on the type of control system used, since the control system
governs the various operations comprising the washing cycle.
Types of control systems
"
Electromechanical timers (F50-F51-F52-F53): the controls are
actuated by the commutator contacts, which are actioned by a
series of cammes. This movement is transmitted to the cammes
by a synchronous motor via a series of gears and levers.
"
Integrated hybrid timers (VD54-VD55-VS60-VS71-VS81):
These consist of two components: an electromechanical timer
and a control PCB. The control board is soldered directly to the
connectors of the timer, and performs the following functions:
- controls the washing programmes and the various options
- powers the timer motor
- powers and controls the drum rotation motor
All the other components of the appliance are powered by the
timer contacts.
"
Hybrid timers (VA20, VA30J): These consist of two
components: an electromechanical timer and a control PCB. The
control board is fitted to the base of the appliance, and performs
the following functions:
- controls the washing programmes and the various options
- powers the timer motor
- powers and controls the drum rotation motor
All the other components of the appliance are powered by the
electromechanical timer.
" Electronic control systems:
# EWM2000: The main PCB (1), to which the microprocessor is
fitted, powers the components of the appliance via a triac and a
relay, and controls the various parameters for the functional
control of the washing programme. The control/display board (2)
acts as an interface between the user and the main PCB. This
board is fitted with the various buttons for selection of the
washing cycle options, and a series of LEDs. According to the
model, programmes may be selected using the buttons or a
programme selector knob.
# EWM1000: The functions of the main PCB and the display board
are integrated in a single PCB (2).
For further details regarding the various functionalities, refer to the specific Service
Manuals issued for each type of timer/electronic control system.
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8.2
Suppressor
8.2.1 General characteristics
The suppressor is connected to the input of the appliances
power line, and prevents radiofrequency disturbance from
entering the power circuit.
8.2.2
Electrical symbols
8.2.3
Circuit diagrams
8.2.4
Checking for efficiency
THE APPLIANCE GENERATES RADIOFREQUENCY DISTURBANCE:
- check the efficiency of the earth circuit
THE APPLIANCE IS INOPERATIVE:
- Use an ohmmeter to check that the component is not faulty:
- across 1 - 3 about 0 (
- across 2 - 4 about 0 (
THE ELECTRICAL SAFETY CUT-OUTS INTERVENE:
- use an ohmmeter (capacitance meter) to check that the component is not short-circuited across 3 - 4
(>500K()
- check that there are no leaks to earth
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8.3
8.3.1
Push-button
General characteristics
Single-button versions are used.
These differ as regards the number and functionality of the contacts:
- switch
- deviator (single- or two-pole)
8.3.2
Electrical symbol
Normally-closed switch
Normally-open switch
Deviator
8.3.3
Checking for efficiency
DOES NOT POWER THE APPLIANCE OR DOES NOT PERFORM THE SPECIFIC FUNCTION:
- Use a tester to check for correct closure (or aperture) of the various contacts.
- Press the button and check for switching of the contacts.
IMPOSSIBLE TO ACTION THE BUTTON
- Check that the spindle is not broken and that there are no other mechanical problems
(friction/breakage of couplings to cross-member).
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8.4
Door safety interlock (traditional version)
8.4.1 General characteristics
The electromechanical door safety device performs the following functions:
When powered, the voltmetric safety interlock closes the contacts of the
main switch that powers the electrical components of the appliance (only
if the door is closed).
" During operation, the lever is blocked mechanically, preventing opening
of the door when the appliance is in operation.
When the power supply is disconnected, the door remains locked for 23 minutes to ensure that the drum comes to a stop before the door is
opened.
In more complex versions, the safety interlock also performs the following functions:
" By means of a pneumatic actuator it maintains the latch closed when there is water in the tub.
" It also acts as a support for the door aperture levers when aperture is effected using the pushbutton.
" The "door closed" pilot lamp may also be fitted using a special support.
"
1.
2.
3.
4.
P.T.C.
Bi-metal strips
Contact in rest position
Contact closed
The PTC is a ceramic resistor whose internal resistance
increases with the temperature.
In this device, the PTC is used to heat the bi-metal
strips. The temperature deforms the two strips (from A
to B), thus moving the lever which closes the contact of
the main switch.
At the same time, the latch, which is actioned by the
contact plate, moves outwards to block the lever in
position. This procedure takes place within 5 seconds
after power is supplied.
When the power supply is disconnected, the PTC cools
(1 - 2 minutes), and the strips return to their original
position, thus opening the contact and releasing the
lever.
1. Latch
2. Lever
8.4.1.1
Version with door aperture system
On certain models, the door can be opened by pressing
a button on the control panel.
In this case, the safety device is fitted with a series of
levers that release the latch.
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8.4.2
Electrical symbol
A
B
C
Common contact
PTC power supply contact
Main switch contact
8.4.3
Circuit diagrams
Connector
8.4.4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Version with pneumatic device
(certain models only)
Air intake aperture
Membrane
Latch
Spring
Lever
A tube connects the door delay device to the filter body. When the pressure on the membrane is greater
than the force exerted by the counterspring (100 ± 30 column water mm), the latch remains extended,
blocking the lever in position.
8.4.5
Checking for efficiency
THE DOOR DOES NOT OPEN AT THE END OF THE CYCLE:
- Operate the washing machine so that the door delay device is powered for about 30 seconds.
- Switch off the appliance. The door should be released within about 2 minutes. If not, the door
interlock is faulty.
THE APPLIANCE DOES NOT START AND/OR THE PORTHOLE DOOR IS NOT LOCKED:
- Operate the appliance for about 5 minutes.
- Switch off for 2 minutes.
- Switch the appliance on again. The appliance should start within no more than 5 seconds, and the
door should be locked. If not, check that the device is correctly powered (wiring - main switch timer), and replace if necessary.
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8.5
Instantaneous door safety interlock
8.5.1
General characteristics
Certain models with electronic control systems feature an
instantaneous door safety interlock. In this case, the door can
be opened as soon as the drum comes to a stop.
8.5.2
Operating principle
1. Solenoid protective PTC
2. Solenoid valve
3. Lever mechanism
4. Camme
5. Bi-metal PTC
6. Electrical contacts (main switch)
7. Locking latch
"
"
"
When the appliance is switched on by pressing the ON/OFF button, the bi-metal PTC is powered; the
camme is in a position that prevents the locking latch from moving outwards.
When the programme is started by pressing START/PAUSE, the main PCB sends a signal (duration 20
msec) to the solenoid (at least 6 seconds after switching on), which causes the camme to rotate one
position. The latch which locks the lever of the door safety interlock is raised and, at the same time, the
contacts of the main switch are closed, thus powering all the electrical components.
At the end of the programme, the PCB sends two signals (at an interval of 200 msec) (duration 20
msec):
- the first signal moves the camme by another position, though the latch is not released.
- the second signal (which is sent only if the system functions correctly) moves the camme by a
further position, which causes the latch to retract, thus releasing the device; at the same time, the
contacts of the main switch are opened.
8.5.2.1 "Door open" conditions
The main PCB, before sending the door aperture signals, checks for the following conditions:
" The drum must be stationary (no signal from the tachymetric generator)
" The water level must not be higher than the lower edge of the door
" The temperature of the water must not be higher than 40º C.
8.5.2.2 Automatic release device
In the event of a power failure, or if the appliance is switched off using the ON/OFF switch, or if there is a
fault in the solenoid valve, the bi-metal PTC cools within a period of between 55 seconds and about 4
minutes (at a temperature of 65°C), thus releasing the door.
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8.5.2.3
Protective cut-out for solenoid valve
A PTC, connected in series to the solenoid valve, serves as a current limiter (i.e. overheating cut-out) in the
following cases:
# If the triac on the main PCB is short-circuited
# If the START/PAUSE button is pressed repeatedly (more than 10 times)
8.5.3
Electrical symbol
8.5.4
Circuit diagram
1. Main switch
2. Solenoid valve
3. PTC protective solenoid valve cut-out
4. Bi-metal PTC
6. Connector
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8.6
Solenoid valve
8.6.1
General characteristics
The solenoid valve ducts water through the detergent dispenser, and is
controlled electrically by the pressure switch.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
10.
11.
Water intake
Solenoid valve body
Filter
Flow reducer
Coil
Spring
Moving core
Rubber seal
Membrane
Water outlet
When at rest, the core, upon which pressure is exerted by a spring, holds the hole in the centre of the
membrane closed; as a result, the membrane hermetically closes off access to the water intake duct.
When the coil is powered, it attracts the core, which therefore opens the small hole in the centre of the
membrane, and the valve opens.
Various types of solenoid valve may be fitted:
# solenoid valves with one inlet and one outlet
# solenoid valves with one inlet and two or three outlets. In this case, each section of the solenoid valve is
controlled by a coil.
Cold water solenoid valve
The cold water solenoid valve is fitted to all models, and has a nominal delivery of about 6.5 - 9.5 litres
per minute. The water pressure must be between 3 and 100 N/cm2.
Hot water solenoid valve
The hot water solenoid valve is added to the cold water valve on models designed for hot water fill. Its
nominal delivery is about 5 - 6 litres per minute.
Condensation solenoid valve
This solenoid valve, with one inlet and two or three outlets, is used in
washer-dryers.
One section is used for the introduction of cold water; the other, whose
delivery is about 0.4 litres per minute, is used for condensation of the
steam during the drying phase.
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8.6.2
Electrical symbol
8.6.3
Checking for efficiency
WATER FILL CONTINUES WHEN THE APPLIANCE IS SWITCHED OFF:
- Solenoid valve jammed mechanically. Replace the solenoid valve
WATER FILL CONTINUES DURING THE WASHING CYCLE:
- Check the hydraulic circuit of the pressure switch and the pressure switch itself.
NO WATER FILL:
1. The solenoid valve vibrates (noise from the coil) but does not introduce water:
- check the hydraulic circuit that supplies the solenoid valve (tap turned off, insufficient mains water
pressure, fill hose kinked or obstructed).
- Solenoid valve jammed mechanically. Replace the solenoid valve
2. The solenoid valve does not vibrate:
- Check the coil winding (3500 - 4500 ohm); if faulty, replace the solenoid valve.
- Solenoid valve jammed mechanically. Replace the solenoid valve
- Check the hydraulic circuit of the pressure switch and the pressure switch itself
- Check the timer and/or the main PCB for correct operation.
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8.7
Pressure switch
8.7.1 General characteristics
The function of the pressure switch is to determine the quantity of water to
be introduced into the tub. In other words:
! It controls the water fill levels during the washing phases.
! It acts as an anti-boiling safety device when connected in series to the
heating element.
! It can also act as an anti-overflow safety device if connected in series to
the drain pump.
! It can act as an anti-foam device during the spin phases.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Air inlet aperture
Diaphragm
Internal chamber
Contact strip (rapid cut-in)
Level regulation screw
Differential regulation screw
The internal chamber is connected via a small tube to the pressure chamber. When water is introduced into
the tub, the pressure in this chamber increases. When the pressure reaches a pre-determined level, the
membrane causes the contact strip to trip (rapid-action), which switches the contact from "empty" to "full".
Two regulation screws are fitted to the cover, one for the level, the other for the differential, i.e. the point at
which the strip returns to the "empty" position when the level of water in the tub decreases.
8.7.2
Pressure switch hydraulic circuit
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Pressure switches
Tub
Filter body
Pressure chamber on filter body
Pressure chamber on the tube between the tub
and the filter body
6. Pressure switch tubes
Normally, all appliances are fitted with one or two
pressure switches (in rare cases, an appliance may
feature three pressure switches). Each pressure
switch controls from one to three levels of water in
the tub.
The small tube from the pressure switches may be
connected to the pressure chamber, which is located
beneath the tub (this is the most common solution) or
to that on the filter body.
One or two pressure switches may be connected to
the pressure chamber, depending on the model.
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8.7.3
Operating principle
Tub empty
As there is no water in the tub,
there is no pressure on the
diaphragm, which thus remains in
the lower position due to the
counterforce exerted by the
spring.
In this position, the contact is
closed on "empty".
8.7.4
Water flows into the tub
When the connection between the
tub and the pressure chamber is
interrupted by the water, the
pressure between the pressure
chamber and the internal chamber
of the pressure switch increases.
This increase continues until the
diaphragm is raised sufficiently to
action the switch (rapid-action). In
this position, the contact is closed
on "full".
Water is drained from the tub
As the level of water in the tub
diminishes, the pressure exerted
on the diaphragm is reduced.
The diaphragm is pushed
downwards by the counterspring
until the switch resets (i.e. returns
to the "empty" position).
Electrical symbol
1. Common contact
2. Contact closed on "empty"
4. Contact closed on "full"
8.7.5
Circuit diagram
11-21-31: "Common" contact
12-22-32: "Empty" contact
14-24-34: "Full" contact
8.7.6
Checking for efficiency
Correct operation of the pressure switch depends on the correct operation of its hydraulic circuit
(tube and pressure chamber):
" Check for leaks (in which case too much water would be introduced, as the switch would not close on
"full" or, in the event of microleakage, would return to "empty".
" Check for obstruction (in which case the contacts may be jammed on "full" or "empty").
After checking the hydraulic circuit:
" Introduce water into the tub to the highest level and check that the contacts close correctly on "full".
" Drain the water from the tub and check that the contacts close correctly on "empty".
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8.8
8.8.1
Analogue (electronic) pressure switch
General characteristics
The electronic pressure switch is an analogue device whose function
is to control the level of water in the tub; it is used in certain models
with electronic control systems (EWM2000 - MWM1.5).
The electronic circuit is connected directly to the main PCB.
8.8.2
Operating principle
1. Air intake tube
2. Membrane
3. Coil
4. Electronic circuit (oscillator)
5. Core
6. Spring
7. Calibration spring
8. Connector
The pressure switch is connected via tube to the pressure chamber.
When water is introduced into the tub, this creates a pressure inside the hydraulic circuit that causes the
membrane to change position. This movement of the membrane modifies the position of the core inside the
coil, varying its inductance and thus the frequency of the oscillating circuit.
The PCB recognizes how much water has been introduced into the tub according to the frequency.
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8.8.3
Electrical symbol
8.8.4
Circuit diagrams and operating frequency
Version for MWM1.5 control systems
8.8.5
Version for EWM2000 control systems
Checking for efficiency
In the event of a fault in the pressure switch, the operation of the appliance is immediately interrupted.
Where possible, always read the alarm code.
Possible alarm codes caused by faults in the pressure switch:
MWM 1.5: E30, E32, E33, E36
EWM2000: E31, E32,E33, E34, E35
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8.9
Water distributor
8.9.1 General characteristics
The water distributor is used in models with MWM electronic control systems, and performs the following
functions:
It actions the levers in the detergent dispenser in order to duct water through the various compartments
during the course of the washing cycle.
Drawing power from the main PCB, it powers the following components:
! Cold water solenoid valve
! Circulation pump
! Drain pump
1. PCB
2. Water distributor
3. Detergent dispenser lever system
The water distributor is actioned and controlled by the electronic control system. The motor of the distributor
is powered via a triac on the main PCB.
Before the motor is switched on, all the loads are disconnected from the power supply in order to reduce
wear of the contacts.
The motor is powered only for the time necessary to move the levers from one position to the next.
During the washing programme, the distributor may perform several complete rotations in order to move to
the positions necessary for the completion of the cycle.
8.9.2
Operating principle
1. Motor
2. Gearwheel
3. Camme
4. Lever actioning arm
5. Brush contacts
6. Contact base
7. Casing
8. Cover
The motor (1), when powered, moves the camme (3) by means of the gears (2). The camme moves the arm
that moves the lever actioning arm (4).
The camme is fitted with brush contacts (5) which slide in contact with the copper tracks on the contact base
(6). The contacts close in different ways (see diagram) depending on the position of the camme.
The camme requires 15 seconds to perform one complete rotation. As the contact base is divided into 36
sections, passage from one position to the next requires about 0.4 seconds.
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A = Pre-wash
B = Wash
C = Bleach
D = Conditioner
Contact base
8.9.3
Electrical symbol
8.9.4
Contact closure diagram
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Position of lever
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8.10 Induction (asynchronous) motors
8.10.1 General characteristics
The function of the motor is to rotate the drum at different speeds:
! high speed for the spin phases
! low speed for the wash phases
The primary characteristics of these motors is that they do not
require a start-up current. Instead, the current in the rotor builds up
by induction, hence the name "induction" motor. These motors are
also termed "asynchronous" because the speed of rotation is not the
same as the synchronization speed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Shield
Bearing
Rotor
Stator
The rotor is of the "squirrel cage" type, in which the die-cast aluminium windings are housed in special
grooves in the plate pack.
The starting torque of single-phase asynchronous motors is very low. This is offset by adding a start-up
circuit which is phase-shifted by 90° with respect to the running circuit.
This 90° current phase shift is provided by a capacitor which is connected in series to the start-up winding.
This generates a rotary field that is sufficient to create the starting torque.
The stator consists of four windings:
! two high-speed two-pole windings for operation during spin phases: a start-up winding and a running
winding, with the capacitor connected in series. High-speed rotation of the drum is always in the same
direction (counter-clockwise).
! two low-speed windings for operation during washing phases. These have 12 or 16 poles, and are
identical in structural terms.
Type of
motor
2/12 poles
2/16 poles
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Capacitor ()F)
14
16/18
Motor speed (rpm at 50Hz)
Wash
Spin
~ 400
~ 2800
~ 300
~ 2800
75
Drum rotation speed (rpm)
Wash
Spin
~ 55
~ 400
~ 55
~ 500/550
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8.10.2 Reversal of direction of rotation during washing
The windings are designed to provide rotation in both directions, depending on the way in which the
capacitor is connected. Each functions alternately as a primary winding and start-up winding. When reverse
rotation is required, the switching contact of the timer reverses the connection of the capacitor between the
two windings, thus reversing the direction of rotation.
Motor stopped
Clockwise rotation
Counter-clockwise rotation
8.10.3 Electrical symbols
Motor
Capacitor
8.10.4 Circuit diagrams
Motor with traditional connection
Motor with suppressor connection
A - B Low-speed windings
D - High-speed running windings
P - Overload cut-out
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C - Common low-speed winding
E - High-speed running winding
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8.10.5 Motor with speed variator
On certain models, spin speeds from 600 to 800 rpm can be obtained
using a motor fitted with a speed variator (the speed during the washing
phase is always 55 rpm).
1. Motor
2. Speed variator
Low speed
High speed
The motor pulley consists of two disks: the first is attached to the
motor drive shaft, while the second can move axially.
At high speeds, the increased rate of rotation of the shaft (two-pole
winding), and the consequent thrust exerted by the centrifugal
mass, causes the moving disk to change position.
As a consequence, the diameter of the pulley is modified, and the
transmission ratio between the motor pulley and the drum pulley is
altered. The drum will therefore rotate at 600 rpm with the 2/12
motor, or 800 rpm with the 2/16 motor.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Moving disk
Fixed disk
Drive belt
Centrifugal mass
8.10.6 Checking for efficiency
INOPERATIVE AT LOW SPEED :
- measure the resistance of the windings. If correct, check the capacitor.
INOPERATIVE AT HIGH SPEED:
- measure the resistance of the windings. If correct, check the capacitor.
INOPERATIVE AT HIGH SPEED AND LOW SPEED:
- measure the resistance of the windings. If correct, check the capacitor.
IRREGULAR OPERATION (motor overheating cut-out):
- operate the appliance until the problem occurs, then measure the resistance of the windings.
POWER LINE CUT-OUT INTERVENES:
- check whether any of the windings / components are connected to earth or inadequately earthed, using
a tester with a minimum scale of 40 M( across each terminal and the casing (correct reading is *).
NOISE (Bearings-Magnetics-Drive belt):
- disconnect the drive belt to identify the source of the noise.
Checking for efficiency of the motor capacitor
DOES NOT START UP IN LOW SPEED AND HIGH SPEED OPERATION (noise):
- use an ohmmeter (capacitance meter) to check that the capacitor is not faulty.
OCCASIONALLY FAILS TO START UP AT HIGH SPEED (inadequate capacitance):
- use an ohmmeter (capacitance meter) to measure the capacitance of the capacitor.
THE MOTOR DOES NOT START:
- use an ohmmeter (capacitance meter) to check whether the capacitor is short-circuited.
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8.11 Commutator motor
8.11.1 General characteristics
Commutator motors are fitted to appliances with spin speeds of
between 600 and 1,600 rpm.
These motors are manufactured by:
" SOLE (formerly ZEM)
" FHP (formerly AEG)
" CESET
It is possible that motors produced by manufacturers other than the
original manufacturer may have the same part number, but these are
perfectly interchangeable.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Stator
Terminal block
Commutator
Tachymetric generator magnet
Tachymetric generator coil
Brush
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Stator
Stator winding
Brush
Commutator
Rotor winding
Motor drive shaft
Pulley
Bearing
Tachymetric generator coil
Magnet
Spring
8.11.2 Operating principle
The stator winding is connected in series to the rotor winding (i.e. they are energized in series).
Each section of the rotor winding is connected to a pair of commutator plates (also called "commutators").
The electrical contact between the commutator and the fixed circuit is provided by two brushes which slide in
contact with the commutator plates.
The speed of rotation of the motor is proportional to the power voltage supplied by an electronic control
system.
This is also known as a "universal" motor, since it can be powered either by alternating or direct current.
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8.11.2.1 Control of the speed of the motor
Speed control is obtained by using an electronic control system to vary the voltage (V) applied to the
motor.
The technique used consists of a "phase division" performed by the Triac. A Triac is a bi-directional
electronic switch. Closure of the circuit between A1 and A2 (anodes) takes place in the presence of the
appropriate signals received by the gate (G).
Start-up signals
Voltage to motor
8.11.2.2 Direction of motor rotation
The direction of rotation of the motor depends on the way in which the rotor and stator are connected
together. This connection is performed by two of the timer contacts or by the relays on the PCB.
Clockwise rotation
Counter-clockwise rotation
EC
Electronic control
system
P
Motor overload
cut-out
S
Stator
R
Rotor
T
Tachymetric
generator
TY
Triac
R1,2 Reversal relay
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8.11.2.3 Tachymetric generator
As in all motors powered in series, the speed of the commutator motor depends on the load. In other words,
its speed diminishes as the load increases This makes it necessary to ensure that the power voltage to the
motor, and therefore its speed, be constantly controlled by an electronic speed control system.
A tachymetric generator (consisting of a magnet fitted to the shaft and a coil) generates a voltage that
depends on the speed of the rotor, which is transmitted to the electronic control system.
All electronic control systems feature a system of protection (which may be more or less refined) to prevent
operation of the motor in the event of a fault in the tachymetric generator.
M
P
S
R
T
TY
R1,2
Electronic control system
Motor overload cut-out
Stator
Rotor
Tachymetric generator
Triac
Reversal relay
8.11.3 Electrical symbols
Stator
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Tachymetric generator
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Overheating cut-out
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8.11.4 Circuit diagram
P = Motor overload cut-out
R = Rotor
S = Stator
T = Tachymetric generator
8.11.5 Checking for efficiency
1. Check the connector blocks (wiring) and check for any bent or detached terminals.
2. Check for traces / residue / deposits of water or detergent and identify their source.
3. Check for any windings / components connected to mass or inadequately earthed using a tester with a
minimum scale of 40mW across each terminal and the casing (correct reading is *).
4. Check the individual windings against the values shown in the table below:
Terminals on
motor
connector
block
Components to be
checked
3-4
Tachymetric generator
winding
SOLE motor
[ (]
F.H.P. motor
[ (]
CE.SE.T. motor
[ (]
126 ÷ 147
64 ÷ 73
1.0 ÷ 2.2
1.0 ÷ 3.0
1.0 ÷ 2.0
0
0
0
171 ÷ 196
469 ÷ 540
6-7
Stator winding
(full range)
Overload cut-out
8-9
Rotor winding (④)
1.5 ÷ 3.0
1.5 ÷ 3.0
1.5 ÷ 3.0
1 - 10
Stator winding (half range
if terminal 1 is present)
0.5 ÷ 1.0
0.5 ÷ 1.5
0.5 ÷ 1.0
5 - 10
(④) excluding the resistance of the brushes
Notes:
- When checking the rotor winding, measurement should be effected around the entire surface, turning
the spindle very slowly and checking for any short-circuits between visible plates. Also check the carbon
brushes for wear.
- If noise is generated (bearings-magnet-belt), detach the drive belt from the pulleys and locate the
source.
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8.12 AC/DC converter
8.12.1 General characteristics
This component is fitted only to certain models with electronic
control, and serves to convert the alternating current generated
by the triac on the main PCB into direct current used to power the
drum rotation motor.
8.12.2 Electrical symbol
8.12.3 Circuit diagram
L1
R1
R2-R3
D1
C1-C2
1.2 mH
68 K('
100 (
25A/400 - 600V
47nF
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8.13 Heating element
8.13.1 General characteristics
The heating element that heats the washing water is
encapsulated, i.e. inserted into a watertight stainless
steel tubular casing. Typical power ratings:
1500W
1950W
2500W
3000W
(some models may be fitted with heating elements with
different power ratings)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tubular casing
Connector
Filament heating element
Insulation
8.13.1.1 Version with NTC sensor
In certain models with electronic control systems or hybrid timers, the temperature sensor is fitted to the
heating element.
1. Heating element
2. NTC sensor
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8.13.1.2 Seal
The seal between the tub and the heating element is provided by a seal which expands against the nut.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fixed flange
Washer
Moving flange
Nut
Heating element terminals
8.13.2 Electrical symbol
8.13.3 Checking for efficiency
DOES NOT HEAT:
- check that the heating element is not broken: measure the resistance across the two terminals.
INTERVENTION OF ELECTRICAL SAFETY CUT-OUTS:
- use an ohmmeter to check that the heating element is not connected to mass and check for current
leakage (40 M()
WATER LEAKS:
- check that the seal is correctly positioned and fitted.
VIBRATION OR METALLIC NOISE WHEN THE DRUM ROTATES:
- check that the heating element is correctly positioned inside the tub. If worn, replace the heating
element.
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8.14 Heat exchanger
8.14.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
General characteristics
External casing
Heat exchanger
Heating element
Thermostat
In certain Jetsystem models, the water is heated by a heat exchanger (not recent models).
The heat exchanger consists of a cylindrical body in aluminium alloy, lined with a layer of "teflon" to prevent
the formation of scale. The water to be heated flows through the heat exchanger.
The armoured spiral-shaped heating element is located inside the cylinder. A safety thermostat is positioned
in close contact with the heat exchanger. The thermostat (normally-closed) is calibrated to intervene at a
temperature of 220°C, and is connected in series to the heating element.
The external casing protects the heat exchanger unit.
8.14.2 Electrical symbol
8.14.3 Checking for efficiency
DOES NOT HEAT:
- check that the heating element is not broken: measure the resistance across the two terminals.
- check that the safety thermostat is normally closed.
INTERVENTION OF ELECTRICAL SAFETY CUT-OUTS:
- use an ohmmeter to check that the heating element is not connected to mass and check for current
leakage (40 M()
WATER LEAKS:
- check that the seal is correctly positioned and fitted.
NO RE-CIRCULATION/DOES NOT HEAT:
- check that the heat exchanger is not blocked.
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8.15 Drying heater (washer-dryers)
8.15.1
General characteristics
The armoured drying heater is inserted into a watertight stainless steel tubular casing, and consists of two
branches:
when drying cotton fabrics, both heating elements are switched on (full power).
when drying synthetic fabrics, only one element is switched on (half-power) to ensure delicate drying.
Typical electrical power ratings (depending on
the model):
1000+1000W
700+700W
700+400W
550+550W
8.15.2 Electrical symbol
8.15.3 Checking for efficiency
DOES NOT HEAT:
- check that the heating element is not broken: measure the resistance across the two terminals.
INTERVENTION OF ELECTRICAL SAFETY CUT-OUTS:
- use an ohmmeter to check that the heating element is not connected to mass and check for current
leakage (40 M().
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8.16 Bi-metal thermostats
8.16.1 General characteristics
This type of thermostat, which exists in various versions with one or two contacts (normally closed or
normally open) is utilized for a number of applications:
control of the temperature of the washing water
control of the temperature of the drying air
as a safety device for overheating during washing and/or drying.
8.16.2 Operating principle
When the bi-metal disk reaches the temperature at which the thermostat has been calibrated, it trips,
causing a lever to open (or close, depending on the version) the contacts.
During the cooling phase, the bi-metal disk returns to its original position at a pre-determined reset
temperature.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Steel capsule
Bi-metal disk
Contact
Spring
High-temperature lever
Low-temperature lever
8.16.3 Electrical symbols
Normally-closed
Normally-open
Manual reset
8.16.4 Manual-reset thermostat
In certain applications (such as washer-dryers), manual-reset safety thermostats are fitted. In this case, the
bi-metal element, after tripping as a result of overheating, does not reset automatically to its original position
when it cools.
It is necessary to press the corresponding button manually to reset the bi-metal element.
8.16.5 Checking for efficiency
1. Use a tester to check that, when cold, the contacts are in the correct position.
2. Heat the thermostat bulb and check for correct switching of the contacts.
3. Allow the thermostat to cool and check that the contacts return to their original position.
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8.17 Adjustable thermostat
8.17.1 General characteristics
Thermostats are used to control and regulate the
temperature of the washing water.
Some thermostats are based on the fluid expansion
effect, and their intervention temperatures can be
adjusted.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Bulb
Capillary
Capillary sheath
Thermostat body
Contact
Thermostats function according to the principle of the
expansion of the fluid contained in the hydraulic circuit.
When the bulb is heated, the liquid in the capillary tube
expands against the membrane.
The movement of the membrane actions a device that
opens or closes the contacts. The spindle can be used to
adjust the temperature at which switching of the contacts
occurs (0-90°C).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Bulb
Capillary
Regulation screw
Membrane
Rocker arm
Contact
8.17.2 Electrical symbol
8.17.3 Checking for efficiency
1.
2.
3.
4.
Use a tester to check that, when cold, the contacts are in the correct position (normally closed).
Heat the thermostat bulb and check for correct switching of the contacts.
Allow the thermostat to cool and check that the contacts return to their original position.
Check that the thermostat capillary is correctly secured to the tub and that the coils are present.
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8.18 NTC temperature sensor
8.18.1 General characteristics
In certain models (i.e. those with hybrid or electronic timers), an NTC sensor is used to control the washing
temperature. In these sensors, the internal resistance decreases as the temperature increases. This
reduction in resistance is detected by the electronic control system which, when the desired temperature is
reached, disconnects the heating element. Two types of sensor are produced; their shapes are different, but
their characteristics are identical.
NTC sensors are used in electronic washer-dryers to control the temperature and to calculate the drying
time.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Plastic casing
Metal capsule
NTC resistor
Terminals
1.
2.
3.
4.
NTC resistor
Metal capsule
Terminals
Plastic casing
TEMPERATURE
(ºC)
20
60
80
RESISTANCE (()
Maximum value
6335
1278
620
Rated value
6050
1250
640
Minimum value
5765
1222
660
8.18.2 Electrical symbol
8.18.3 Checking for efficiency
Use a tester to check that the resistance of the sensor corresponds to the temperature.
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8.19 Drain pump
8.19.1 General characteristics
The function of the drain pump is to discharge the water at the end of
each phase of the washing cycle. These centrifugal pumps are
actioned by a synchronous motor.
1. Impeller
2. Rotor
3. Stator
The rotor consists of a permanent magnet, and may rotate in either direction.
The rotor may rotate for approximately 15 minutes without actioning the impeller. As a result, if the impeller
is jammed by a foreign body, the rotor may perform short clockwise and anti-clockwise movements until the
blockage is removed.
These pumps have a delivery of about 22-25 litres per minute, and a maximum head of 90 cm.
8.19.2 Electrical symbol
8.19.3 Checking for efficiency
1. Check that the impeller is not jammed and check for slippage.
2. Check the resistance of the stator winding, which should be approximately 150/200 (.
Important!
If caused to run empty (i.e. disconnected from the hydraulic circuit), synchronous pumps may fail to start up.
This is because, due to their structural characteristics, they require a counter-torque on the impeller to allow
the rotor to turn in one direction or the other.
For this reason, the pumps should be tested only when fitted to the appliance and after introducing a certain
quantity of water.
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8.20 Circulation pump
8.20.1 General characteristics
Jetsystem models are fitted with a synchronous circulation
pump which continuously circulates the water from the filter
body into the tub through the bellows seal.
In certain models (those fitted with a heat exchanger, but not
more recent models) the temperature control thermostats may
be fitted to the circulation pump.
1. Water circulation outlet (delivery 8,5 - 12.5 l/min)
2. Secondary outlet (if featured)
3. Temperature control thermostats (certain models only)
8.20.2 Electrical symbol
8.20.3 Checking for efficiency
NO RE-CIRCULATION - POOR WASHING RESULTS
1. Check that the impeller is not jammed and check for slippage.
2. Check the resistance of the stator winding, which should be approximately 150/200 (.
WATER IN THE BASE AND ON THE FLOOR
Check the seals on the duct/thermostat holes
Important!
If caused to run empty (i.e. disconnected from the hydraulic circuit), synchronous pumps may fail to start up.
This is because, due to their structural characteristics, they require a counter-torque on the impeller to allow
the rotor to turn in one direction or the other.
For this reason, the pumps should be tested only when fitted to the appliance and after introducing a certain
quantity of water.
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8.21 Drying timer (washer-dryers)
8.21.1 General characteristics
The timer is a timing device that powers the components needed for
the drying cycle; it is used in models with electromechanical and
hybrid timers.
Actuation is by the contacts, which are actioned by a series of
cammes. The cammes are actioned mechanically by a synchronous
motor.
The timer consists of two parts:
1. cotton/linen drying: both drying heaters are switched on
alternately (full power)
2. drying synthetic fabrics: only one of the drying heaters is
switched on (half power).
The drying phase, which depends on the timer code, generally lasts
up to 120 minutes; the last 10-12 minutes are dedicated to the cooling
phase.
Important: Do not attempt to turn the timer counter-clockwise!
8.21.2 Circuit diagram
8.21.3 Contact closure diagram
8.21.4 Checking for efficiency
1. Check the timer motor windings for continuity.
2. Check that the contacts close as shown in the specific diagram relative to the timer.
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8.22 Fan motor (washer-dryers)
8.22.1 General characteristics
The motor which actions the air circulation fan for the drying phase is of the single-phase asynchronous
type. The rotor is of the "squirrel cage" type. The velocity of the shaft is approximately 2,800 rpm at a
voltage of 220-240V/50Hz.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Rotor
Stator
Cooling fan
Pulley
8.22.2 Electrical symbol
8.22.3 Checking for efficiency
FAN INOPERATIVE:
- Check that the rotor is not jammed.
- Check the pulley for slippage.
- Measure the resistance of the stator.
EXCESSIVE NOISE:
- Check for friction of the rotor.
- Check the bearings.
- Check the drive belt.
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8.23 Circuit diagrams
Each model produced is accompanied by a wiring diagram and a basic circuit diagram.
8.23.1 Wiring diagram
An example of a wiring diagram is shown below. The wiring diagram may be used to check for correct
connection of the wiring connectors to the various electrical components.
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8.23.1.1 Wiring
Two types of wiring harness are used for the various models:
"
"
Modular: the wiring harness consists of a series of sections fitted with connectors.
Single: the wiring consists of a single main harness. There may be separate wires for connection to
earth.
8.23.1.2 Part numbers for wiring
The various types of wiring harness are available as spare parts. The various codes are shown in the
electrical components section under reference no. 999.
Example:
Position
999
999
999
999
999
999
999
999
999
999
Part number
124 11 05-00 / 4
124 34 04-00 / 9
124 90 12-31 / 9
124 93 31-50 / 3
124 96 35-10 / 1
132 02 00-00 / 7
132 02 01-01 / 3
132 02 02-01 / 1
132 02 03-00 / 1
132 02 11-20 / 2
Description
wiring
earth wiring
power cable, 2000x3x1.5
wiring, FLAT CABLE
wiring
wiring
wiring
wiring
wiring
wiring
In order to identify the correct spare part, use the wiring diagram to identify the part number shown
alongside the wiring to be ordered; this number corresponds to the first 8 digits of the part number shown in
the list.
In the case of the wiring for the motor, for example, the wiring diagram shows code 132.02112, which
corresponds to the first 8 digits of part number 132 02 11-20 / 2
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8.23.2 Basic circuit diagram
An example of a basic circuit diagram is shown below. The circuit diagram should be used to check the
appliance for correct operation in the diagnostics phase (in conjunction with the timer diagram, if present).
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Timer connector
Internal connection to
timer or component
Timer motor
Slow camme
Fast camme
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9 ACCESS TO COMPONENTS
9.1
Work-top
a. Remove the two rear screws (1), push the work-top towards the rear of
the appliance and detach.
9.1.1 Pressure switch
a. Remove the work-top
b. Detach the wiring connectors
c. Press the anchor tabs (2) and pull towards the rear
d. Detach the pressure switch tube
e. To remove the second pressure switch (if featured, this is inside the
cross-member), press the anchor tabs and push towards the front
panel.
9.1.2 Suppressor/motor capacitor
a. Remove the work-top.
b. Detach the wiring support from the cross-member and move
downwards (3).
c. Remove the suppressor/capacitor from its housing in the cross-member
d. Detach the wiring connectors.
9.1.3 Solenoid valve (version fitted to the cabinet)
a. Remove the work-top
b. Unscrew the water fill hose from the solenoid valve
c. Detach the wiring connector.
d. Detach the solenoid valve from the support (4)
e. Remove the hose clamp and detach the solenoid valve from the hose
9.1.4
Solenoid valve (version fitted to detergent dispenser)
a. Remove the work-top
b. Unscrew the water fill hose from the extension/solenoid valve
c. Lift the rear cable clamp block and detach from the extension/solenoid
valve (5)
d. Remove the screw and detach the solenoid valve support bracket from
the detergent dispenser (6)
e. Extract the solenoid valve/extension assembly from the detergent
dispenser (7)
f. Detach the wiring connector
g. Unscrew the solenoid valve from the extension.
When re-assembling:
The seal between the solenoid valve and the detergent dispenser should
be inserted before the solenoid valve and lubricated with soapy water or
silicone oil to facilitate insertion.
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9.2
Control panel (standard version)
8
10
9
9.2.1 Control panel – versions for “soft” cabinet
a. Remove the work-top
b. Extract the detergent drawer (8)
c. Remove the screws that secure the control panel to the control panel
support (9)
d. For models with knobs external to the control panel: release the knob
cover by pressing the hole gently with a small screwdriver and turning
the knob cover counter-clockwise (10)
e. Remove the screws which secure the control panel to the crossmember and release the anchor tabs from the support (12)
f. Release the control panel from the lower right-hand guide and
remove. To facilitate its release, unscrew the screw which secures it
to the cabinet and lift the control panel support slightly (13 or 14).
g. Remove the pilot lamp from its housing in the control panel and (for
electronic models) disconnect the wiring connectors from the PCB.
When re-assembling: Ensure that the knobs/flanges are positioned
correctly!
12
13
9.2.2 Control panel – versions for “square” cabinets
a. Remove the work-top
b. Extract the detergent drawer (8)
c. Remove the screws which secure the control panel to the control
panel support (9)
d. For models on which the knobs are external to the control panel:
release the knob cover by pressing the hole gently with a small
screwdriver and turning the knob cover counter-clockwise (10-11)
e. Remove the front-mounted screws which secure the control panel
support to the cabinet (13 or 14) and, if present, those that secure the
control panel (12).
f. If present, remove the internal screw that secures the control panel to
the support.
g. Release the tabs which anchor the control panel to the support (1516) and remove the control panel. To facilitate this operation, lift the
support to release the lower anchor tabs on the control panel (17).
h. Remove the pilot lamp from its housing in the control panel and (for
electronic models) disconnect the wiring connectors from the PCB.
When re-assembling: Ensure that the knobs/flanges are positioned
correctly!
16
15
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9.2.3 Timer
Version with internal knobs on control panel:
a. Remove the work-top.
b. Remove the control panel
c. If present, remove the screw that secures the knob-spindle (or
coupling) and remove the knob.
d. Remove the two screws which secure the timer to the cross-member
(18).
e. Detach the wiring connectors and remove the timer.
18
Version with external knobs on control panel:
a. Remove the control panel
b. Remove the knob:
! Release the knob cover by pressing gently in the hole with a
small screwdriver and turning the knob cover counterclockwise (versions 10-11).
! Insert a screwdriver from the interior of the support crossmember (version 19) and remove the knob
c. Remove the screw which secures the knob-spindle (or
coupling) and remove the knob (20)
d. Detach the programme flange from the camme (if featured).
e. Remove the two screws which secure the timer to the crossmember (18)
f. Detach the wiring connectors and extract the timer.
9.2.4 Water distribution camme
a. Remove the control panel and the timer.
b. Detach the camme from the cross-member.
10
19
9.2.5 Detergent dispenser lever mechanism feeler arm
a. Remove the camme
b. Use a cross-head screwdriver to turn the latch 90°.
c. Detach the latch from the cross-member and remove the
feeler arm.
20
9.2.6 Push-button
21
a. Remove the control panel
b. Using a screwdriver, widen the pushbutton anchor pin and remove the pushbutton.
c. Remove the pushbutton. Using pliers, close the anchor tabs which secure the button to the crossmember and push towards the interior of the appliance.
d. Detach the connector
9.2.7 Adjustable thermostat
a. Remove the knob:
! Remove the control panel (if internal)
! Use a screwdriver from inside the support cross-member (if type 19)
! Release the knob cover by pressing gently in the hole with a small
screwdriver and turning the knob cover counter-clockwise (versions 10-11)
b. Remove the coupling from the thermostat spindle or remove the knob (22)
c. Detach the connectors
d. Detach the thermostat body from the plastic support and remove from the
internal side
e. Detach the bulb from the tub (see Access to the thermostat: 9.5.3)
f. Remove the capillary from the retaining clamps
When re-assembling, secure the capillary using the original clamp and loop
to form a number of spirals.
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9.3
Electronic control systems
9.3.1
Main PCB (MWM-EWM2000)
a. Remove the top.
b. Remove the screws which secure the support to the
board casing (23-24)
c. Detach the wiring from the supports
d. Extract the casing-PCB assembly
e. Detach the connectors
23
24
9.3.2 Control/display board
The way in which these boards are fastened depends on the styling version and the type of electronic
control system (MWM user interface, EWM2000 or EWM1000 electronic board). To access the board:
a. Remove the control panel
b. Release the PCB casing from the control panel or remove the screws.
For further details, refer to the specific Service Manuals for the various types of electronic control systems.
9.3.3
Control panel – “input” version
25
26
27
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
28
Remove the top (18)
Remove the detergent drawer
Remove the screws (19)
Detach the wiring connectors from the PCB (20)
Use a screwdriver to release the tab which anchors the the control
panel to the support (21) and remove the control panel from the
appliance.
9.3.4 Electronic pressure switch
a. Remove the top
b. Press down the anchor tabs and release the pressure switch from
the support.
c. Detach the connector
d. Detach the tube.
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9.4
Access from the porthole door
30
9.4.1 Porthole door
a. Remove the two screws which secure the door to the hinge (30)
b. Remove the screws which secure the surround-flange (if present)
and detach the flange from the surround.
c. Remove the glass door panel.
d. Remove the handle-latch assembly
Re-assembly:
e. Position the handle assembly in its housing in the flange so that
the spring exerts pressure correctly.
f. Refit the glass panel to the flange.
g. Replace the surround and the screws.
9.4.2 Porthole door hinge
a. Remove the porthole door.
b. Detach the seal front the front panel (31)
c. Remove the screws which secure the hinge to the front panel.
d. Remove the hinge.
9.4.3 Door safety interlock
a. Remove the seal from the front panel (31)
b. Remove the two screws which secure the door delay device to the
front panel.
c. Remove the door delay device (32)
d. Remove the cover from the door delay device.
e. In models with button-actioned aperture (standard on P66 32cm
models), detach the wire which controls door aperture.
f. Detach the wiring connectors (33)
9.4.4 Bellows seal
a. Detach the retaining ring and the seal from the front panel.
b. Remove the clamp and pull out the circulation tube (if featured) (78)
c. Remove the seal and the ring by pulling downwards (it is held in
position by an elastic ring)
31
32
33
Re-assembly:
a. Use soap and water to lubricate the seat of the seal where it comes into contact with the flange and the
metal ring.
b. Fit the seal to the flange with the drainage hole at the bottom and the internal reference notch at the top
(59).
c. Replace the metal retaining ring (check that the ring is in good condition, otherwise it should be
replaced).
d. Replace the circulation hose and the hose clamp (79).
e. Fit the seal to the front panel and replace the clamp.
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9.5
Rear cabinet shell
a. Remove the top
b. Remove the screws which secure the cabinet shell to the upper
cross-member (34)
c. Remove the screw head masking caps and remove the lateral
screws which secure the cabinet shell to the base (35)
d. Detach the wire clamp from the cabinet (36)
e. Remove the rear screws and slide the cabinet shell away from the
base (37)
N.B.: After removing the rear cabinet shell, special care must be taken
when moving the appliance. When the shell is removed, never lay the
appliance on its sides or on its back, since this might damage the
internal structure.
9.5.1 Motor
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell.
b. Detach the wiring connectors.
c. Remove the rear screws which secure the motor and loosen the
front screws (38)
d. Loosen the motor from the supports (39)
e. Remove the front screws and remove the motor.
9.5.2 Electronic speed control system / AC/DC converter
a. Detach the cable connectors
b. Press the two lateral anchor tabs and raise the cover of the casing (40).
c. Remove the electronic board.
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9.5.3 Thermostat/NTC sensor
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell.
b. Detach the drive belt from the pulleys (if necessary).
c. Detach the wiring connectors (fixed-temperature thermostats and NTC
sensors)
d. Remove the thermostat/sensor from the sealing ring (41). Refer to
section 9.2.7 for removal of the adjustable thermostat (42).
Re-assembling the NTC sensors (version with "long" bulb):
The sensor must be replaced with the groove in the connector base facing
downwards (43).
9.5.4 Heating element
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell.
b. Detach the drive belt from the pulleys.
c. Detach the wiring connectors (42).
d. Remove the screw which secures the heating element flange.
e. Push the nut on the heating element flange towards the interior of the tub (44).
f. Remove the heating element (45).
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9.5.5
Detergent dispenser
8
9
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell.
b. Unscrew the clamp and detach the tube from the
detergent dispenser to the tub
c. Detach the steam venting tube from the tub (if present)
d. Extract the detergent drawer (8)
e. Remove the screw which secures the control panel to
the detergent dispenser (9)
f. Remove the screws which secure the detergent
dispenser to the cross-member
g. Remove the solenoid valve(s) (if fitted to the dispenser)
or detach the tube(s) from the dispenser to the solenoid
valve
h. Detach the lever mechanism (46), if present
i. Release the two lateral anchor tabs from the front crossmember (47a) and, at the same time, push the detergent
dispenser towards the rear
j. Press down the lower anchor tab which secures the
dispenser to the front cross-member (47-b)
k. Lower the washing group and pull the dispenser out
9.5.6
Removing the duct from the dispenser
48
a. Remove the dispenser
b. Remove the lever regulation pin (if present) by pressing
the two anchor tabs (48)
c. Release the clamp and the anchor tabs for the duct from
the lower part of the dispenser (49)
49
From inside the dispenser, the engineer can access:
a. The water intake nozzle, which is removed by lifting from the dispenser
b. The steam venting tube
c. The water distributor
9.5.7 Water distributor
This operation may be performed without
removing the dispenser:
a.
b.
c.
d.
a
Remove the detergent drawer (8)
Release the spring (50a)
Release the anchor tab and slide out (50b)
Rotate and extract the distributor from
inside the dispenser
c
Note: When re-assembling, the specific grease
MUST be applied to the distributor (50c)
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9.5.8
Adjusting the dispenser levers
a. Turn the timer knob to the start of a programme
in which water is ducted through the washing
compartment
b. Check that the "1" is aligned with "b" on the
dispenser. If not, lift pointer "2" and rotate the
eccentric camme "3" until "1" is aligned with "b"
(51)
c. Turn the timer knob to a programme in which
water is ducted through the conditioner
compartment and check that the "1" is aligned
with the "d" on the dispenser
51
9.5.9 Damper
a. Remove the rear tub shell
b. Press the locking key and at the same time remove the
pin using pliers (52)
c. Remove the damper from the support
When re-assembling:
! Check that the pin is not damaged; if so, replace it.
! Check that the anchor tabs protrude correctly.
9.5.10 Drum pulley
a. Remove the rear tub shell
b. Detach the drive belt from the pulley
c. Block the pulley in position and remove the screw
d. Remove the pulley
9.5.11 Pressure chamber
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Loosen the clamps and detach the pressure switch tubes
from the pressure chamber
c. Remove the screw (if present)
d. Use pliers to widen the spring clip and detach the pressure
chamber from the tub hose
When re-assembling: Check that the pressure chamber is
clean and secure the tubes and clips firmly in their original
positions.
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9.6
Washing group (Carboran-inox)
a. Remove the fixing ring and detach the bellows seal from the
front panel
b. Remove the rear shell
c. Remove the clamps from the tub suspension springs (53)
d. Detach the various hoses from the tub (dispenser-tub,
steam venting hose, tub-manifold etc.)
e. Remove all the wiring connectors from the components
fastened to the tub (motor, heating element, thermostats)
and, if present, the bulb of the adjustable thermostat
f. Remove the motor to lighten the tub
g. Remove the fixing screws and remove the rear
counterweight (only if featured)
h. Remove the two pins which secure the dampers to the tub
i. Lay the appliance face down (on a sheet of polystyrene or
cardboard to prevent scratching the cabinet)
j. Use a piece of string or wire to detach the tub suspension
springs from the cross-member
k. Remove the tub from the appliance
9.7
a.
b.
c.
d.
Drum and tub shells (Carboran)
Remove the drum pulley and the motor
Remove the tub from the appliance
Remove the screws which secure the two shells together
Remove the drum
Re-assembly: It is advisable to replace the sealing ring between the two tub shells whenever the tub is
opened. Connect the hoses to the tub in the correct positions.
9.7.1 Drum shaft bearings
If it is necessary to replace the bearings, the engineer may:
replace the rear tub shell complete with bearings and sealing ring
replace the bearings and the sealing ring only
In the latter case:
a. Remove the tub and the drum from the appliance
b. First remove the external bearing, then the internal bearing with its seal
55
When re-assembling:
In order to prevent damage to the bearing and the seal during re-assembly,
use spacers of the appropriate diameter
Pack the bearings with the specific grease all around the sealing ring (55).
Check that the drum shaft bushing is undamaged, otherwise replace the
drum spider or the drum itself.
9.7.2 Drum spider
a. Remove the screws which secure the spider to the drum
b. Use two narrow chisels to remove the spider from the drum band
When re-assembling:
a. Replace the spider on the drum ensuring that the fixing holes are correctly aligned
b. Insert the spider into the seat in the drum band and, if necessary, rotate it until the holes are correctly
aligned
c. If the same screws are used, clean and apply thread fixing paste
d. Tighten the screws securely
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9.7.3
Front counterweight (Carboran tub)
+ version with front-mounted fixing screws
a. Remove the tub
b. Replace both the shell and the front counterweight to prevent the possibility of breakage due to
vibrations
+ version with fixing screws on the perimeter of the tub
a. Remove the tub
b. Remove the fixing screws
c. Check that the seats of the tub screws are undamaged, otherwise replace the front tub shell
9.7.4
Rear counterweight (Carboran tub)
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Remove the screws which secure the counterweight
c. Remove the counterweight from the tub
d. Check that the expansion pins of the tub screws are undamaged, otherwise replace the rear shell also
9.8
Components of stainless steel tubs
9.8.1 Tub spider
a. Remove the tub
b. Dismantle the pulley
c. Remove the screws which secure the spider to the tub
d. Remove the nut which secures the tub support band in position
e. Rotate the spider until it exits the fixing holes
f. Push the drum shaft inwards as far as possible
g. Remove the spider from the tub
Alternative method of removing the spider (after removing the tub):
a. Remove the pulley
b. Remove the screws which secure the spider to the tub
c. Push the drum shaft inwards as far as possible
d. Insert a small chisel between one of the lifters and the tub near the
fixing holes, and tap gently with a hammer. If the lifter is secured by
two screws, use two chisels. The chisels should be as thin as
possible in order to avoid deformation of the edge of the tub.
e. Use the chisel(s) to lever the lifter off the tub spider
f. Repeat this procedure for the other lifter and remove the spider.
When re-assembling:
a. Reposition the spider on the drum, ensuring that the holes are
correctly aligned.
b. Insert the spider into its seat in the tub band and rotate if necessary
to align the fixing holes.
c. If the same screws are used, clean and apply thread fixing paste
d. Tighten the screws securely.
55
9.8.2 Drum shaft bearings
If it is necessary to replace the bearings, the engineer may:
replace the tub spider assembly complete with bearings and sealing ring
replace the bearings and the sealing ring only
In the latter case:
a. Remove the spider
b. First remove the external bearing, then the internal bearing with its seal
When re-assembling:
In order to prevent damage to the bearing and the seal during re-assembly, use spacers of the appropriate
diameter
Pack the bearings with the specific grease all around the sealing ring (55).
Check that the drum shaft bushing is undamaged, otherwise replace the drum spider or the drum itself.
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9.8.3 Tub support band
a. Remove the tub from the appliance
b. Release the retaining spring using a length of steel wire
c. Remove the two nuts which secure the band to the tub (near the
motor)
d. Remove the support band
Re-assembly: First fit the two bolts which secure the band to the tub,
then, using a length of steel wire, re-attach the retaining spring
9.8.4 Drum
a. Remove the tub from the appliance
b. Remove the idle pulley
c. Remove the screw and remove the ring. Remove the front
counterweight and the tub flange with its sealing ring
d. Remove the drum.
9.8.5 Replacing the stainless steel tub
a. Refit the bellows seal to the tub flange.
b. Position the counterweight on the flange, ensuring that the
reference points on the counterweight are in alignment with those
on the bellows seal (59).
c. After replacing the drum, position the flange-counterweight
assembly on the tub, ensuring that the reference point on the
counterweight is aligned with the indent in the support band (60)
d. Fit the retaining ring with the screw in alignment with the welded
seam on the tub (61)
e. Tighten the ring fastening screw while tapping around the perimeter
of the ring to ensure that it is firmly secured.
f. Replace the pulley
g. Replace the tub in the appliance.
Re-connect the hoses to the tub in their original positions.
9.8.6 Rear counterweight
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Remove the screws which secure the counterweight in position
c. Detach the counterweight from the tub.
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9.9
Drum lifter
The drum lifter can be removed from the interior for
stainless steel tubs (G10-G11-G12-G13) and the type
G17-G18-G19 Carboran tubs.
For type G20-G21 Carboran tubs, it is necessary
to remove the drum before replacing the lifter.
Removal
a. Insert a screwdriver into the following holes:
+ for G13 tubs, into the fourth hole in the lifter
+ for G10-G11-G12-G18-G19 tubs, into the third
hole in the lifter
+ for G17 tubs, into the second hole of the lifter
b. Bend the drum anchor tabs as shown in the figure
(62)
c. Pull the drum lifter towards the door of the
appliance and detach from the drum (63)
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Re-assembly (G10-G11-G12-G18-G19 tubs)
Check that the anchor tabs are parallel with the drum band.
Insert the new lifter into the drum and push towards the rear of the appliance.
Detach the hose connecting the tub to the filter body
Tighten the screw through the hole in the tub to secure the lifter to the drum (64)
Re-assembly for G17 tubs (32 cm washing machines)
Check that the anchor tabs are parallel to the drum band.
Insert the new lifter into the drum and push towards the rear of the appliance.
Detach the steam venting hose from the tub.
Using a screwdriver through the hole in the tub, bend the anchor tabs so that the drum lifter is firmly
secured (65).
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9.10 Access to the pumps/manifolds
Important!
Do not fit the circulation pump in place of the drain pump
and vice versa.
9.10.1 Drain pump (standard version)
To access the drain pump, it is not necessary to remove the rear
cabinet shell. The pump can be accessed from the base.
a. Detach the clamps which secure the filter body to the base
and raise slightly (66)
b. Remove the drain pump
c. Detach the drain hose
d. Detach the wiring connectors
When re-assembling, ensure that the OR seal is fitted to the
pump. To facilitate insertion, lubricate with vaseline or silicone oil.
Check that the pump is correctly housed in its seat in the filter
body.
9.10.2 Drain pump - models with P66 (32cm) cabinet
Access to the pump is from the base of the appliance:
a. Slightly raise the clamp and remove the pump from the base
(67)
b. Detach the drain hose and the hose between the pump and
the tub
c. Detach the wiring connectors
9.10.3 Drain pump - models with RIM and P63 soft BD cabinets
Access to the pump is from the base of the appliance:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Remove the cover
Detach the connectors
Press down the anchor tab (68c)
Turn the pump counter-clockwise (68d)
Remove the pump (68e)
68
When re-assembling:
" Insert the pump fully into its seat in the filter body before
rotating it.
" Check that the anchor tab is undamaged. If so, use a
3.5x19 mm screw to secure the pump (69)
69
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9.10.4 Drain pump - models with Neat cabinet (Jetsy- IZ)
a. Lay the appliance face-down, remove the screws which secure the filter body and remove the filter from
the base (70)
b. Detach the drain hose from the pump.
c. Press down the two anchor tabs and detach the pump from the filter body (71).
d. Detach the wiring connector.
When re-assembling, ensure that the OR seal is fitted to the pump. To facilitate insertion, lubricate with
vaseline or silicone oil. Check that the pump is correctly housed in its seat in the filter body.
9.10.5 Circulation pump (standard version)
a. Remove the rear shell
b. Disconnect the circulation hose (and, if present, the venting
hose)
c. Lay the appliance face-down and remove the screw which
secures the support to the base.
d. Bend back the two base anchor tabs and remove the pump
(72)
e. Detach the pump from the filter coupling (or from the heat
exchanger)
f. Detach the wiring connector
g. Detach the thermostat bulb (if present)
When re-assembling, ensure that the O-ring is fitted to the filter
body coupling hose (or to the heat exchanger). Lubricate with
vaseline to facilitate insertion.
9.10.6 Circulation pump - “New Jet” version
Access to the pump is from the base of the appliance:
a. Remove the two screws which secure the pump to the base.
b. Detach the circulation pump assembly from the base.
c. Loosen the clamps and detach the hoses from the pump (73)
d. Detach the cover.
e. Detach the wiring connectors.
f. Remove the circulation pump assembly
9.10.7 Filter/pump assembly - models with Neat cabinet (Jetsy- IZ)
a. Lay the appliance face-down, remove the screws which secure
the filter body (70) and detach the filter from the base.
b. Detach the hoses from the filter body and the pumps.
c. Detach the connectors.
d. Remove the filter/pumps assembly from the base.
9.10.8 Circulation pump - models with Neat cabinet (Jetsy- IZ)
a. Remove the filter/pumps assembly from the base (9.10.7)
b. Remove the screws which secure the circulation pump (74)
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9.10.9 Drain filter body (standard version)
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Lay the appliance face-down
c. Remove the circulation pump (if present)
d. Detach the hoses from the filter body
e. Remove the screws which secure the front shell to the base (75)
f. Raise the base in order to detach the filter body from the front
shell
g. Release the tabs which anchor the filter body to the base (66)
h. Remove the drain pump
i. Remove the filter body
9.10.10 Heat exchanger (certain Jetsystem models only)
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Detach the circulation pump without detaching the hoses
c. Disconnect the heat exchanger from the filter body
Re-assembly: Ensure that the two seals (O-rings) are correctly positioned on the heat exchanger. Lubricate
with vaseline to facilitate insertion.
9.10.11 Base
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Remove the pins which secure the dampers to the base
c. Cut the fixing ties and detach the wiring
d. Release the speed control unit casing (if present)
e. Detach the drying condenser (washer-dryers)
f. Lay the appliance face-down
g. Detach the drain hose
h. Remove the lateral screws which secure the front shell to the base (75)
i. Raise the base and remove the filter body
j. Remove the base
After re-assembly, connect the wiring correctly to the base and secure using new wiring ties.
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9.11 Front cabinet shell
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
Remove the top
Remove the control panel
Remove the porthole door
Detach the bellows seal from the front panel
Remove the two screws which secure the door delay device to the
front panel
Remove the rear shell
Detach the wiring support from the front shell
Detach the circulation hose (if present) from the front shell (76)
Replace the rear shell, leaving a gap of 1-2 cm in order to remove
the lateral screws which secure the front shell to the base
Re-position the rear shell completely and re-tighten the screws
which secure the upper cross-member to the rear cabinet shell
Re-tighten the screws which secure the rear shell to the base
Lay the appliance on its rear panel, preferably on a sheet of
cardboard to protect the surface
Remove the screws which secure the upper cross-member to the
front cabinet shell
Lift the cross-member and slide the front cabinet shell from the
base
When re-assembling:
a. Replace the front cabinet shell and check that it is correctly
inserted into the guides in the base
b. Place the appliance in the upright position, taking care not to
damage the structure
c. Replace the screws which secure the upper cross-member to the
front cabinet shell
d. Remove the screws which secure the upper cross-member to the
rear cabinet shell
e. Slide the rear cabinet shell outwards about two centimetres
f. Tighten the lateral screws which secure the front cabinet shell to
the base
g. Remove the rear cabinet shell and replace the internal
components removed in previous steps
h. Replace the rear shell
i. Replace the porthole door, the door delay device, the bellows
seal, the control panel and the top
The following components are attached to the front cabinet shell:
the support brackets for the feet (using two screws)
the drain filter access panel
on P63 and NEAT models, the lower plinth
It is not necessary to remove the cabinet shell in order to access these components.
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9.12 Access to specific washer-dryer components
9.12.1 Bellows seal and drying duct
a. Remove the work-top
b. Remove the screw which secures the duct to the tank (80)
c. Open the porthole door, remove the screw which secures the
duct to the cabinet, detach the duct from the heating element
casing and pull the seal downwards (81)
d. Detach the seal from the front panel
e. Detach the circulation hose from the seal (Jetsystem models
only) (78)
f. Remove the wire clamp which secures the seal to the duct and
remove the seal (82)
At this point, the duct can be accessed. To access the seal,
proceed as follows:
g. Remove the seal and the ring by pulling downwards
Re-assembly
a. Use soap and water to lubricate the seal seat where it comes
into contact with the flange and the metal ring
b. Replace the seal, ensuring that the reference mark on the seal
is aligned with the hole for the screw which secures the duct to
the front panel (83)
c. Re-connect the circulation hose (if featured) with the hose
clamp (79)
d. When replacing the wire hose clamp, ensure that it is correctly
positioned in the groove in the seal, then proceed as shown in
the figure (84)
e. Lubricate the seal with soap and water to facilitate insertion of
the duct into the heating element casing.
f. Use pliers to re-close the two anchor tabs and tighten the
screw (85)
g. Attach the seal to the front panel
h. Re-tighten the screw which secures the duct to the cabinet
i. Replace the ring which secures the duct to the cabinet using
pliers to close in position
After fitting a new bellows seal, lubricate the external surface
(which comes into contact with the porthole door) with
silicone oil. This will ensure that the porthole door does not
stick to the seal during the first few drying cycles.
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9.12.2 Rear cabinet shell
a. Remove the top
b. Remove the screws which secure the shell to the base and to
the control panel support
c. Remove the screw which secures the fan to the shell (86)
9.12.3 Motor-Fan assembly
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Remove the screw which secures the fan to the control panel support
(87)
c. Detach the fan from the heating element casing:
! Standard version: if present, remove the seal retaining clamp (88)
and fold back the seal on the coupling between the fan and the
heating elements (89)
! High Performance version: remove the screw from the heating
element casing (90)
d. Detach the fan from the drying condenser and from the crossmember (91)
e. Detach the wiring connector from the motor and remove the fan
assembly
Re-assembly:
For the "High Performance" version, replace the sealing ring (OR)
between the heating element casing and the fan; replace the fan
assembly on the condenser, attaching to the cross-member; close the
anchor tabs using pliers (92), then fully tighten the screw.
9.12.4 Motor / Fan
a. Remove the fan assembly
b. Detach the drive belt from the pulleys
c. Remove the three screws and separate the motor from the fan (93)
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9.12.5 Drying heater casing
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Detach the connectors from the heating elements and from the thermostats
c. Detach the fan from the casing (9.12.3)
d. Remove the screws which secure the casing to the duct and the two screws which secure it to the
cross-member
e. Remove the casing
When re-assembling: Use pliers to close the two anchor tabs and tighten the screw (85)
9.12.6 Drying heaters
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Remove the hose connecting the condenser to the dispenser
coupling
c. Detach the connectors
d. Remove the screws which secure the heating element to the casing
e. Remove the heating element
When re-assembling: When inserting the heating element, ensure that
it is correctly positioned in the support inside the casing.
9.12.7 Drying and safety thermostats
a. Remove the heating element casing from the appliance
b. Remove the screws which secure the thermostat to the casing and
remove the thermostat
9.12.8 Temperature sensor / Safety thermostat
a. Remove the work-top
b. Detach the connectors
c. Remove the screws which secure the component to the casing and
remove the thermostat/sensor (95)
9.12.9 Drying condenser
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Lift the fan and detach from the condenser (91)
c. Detach the upper hoses from the condenser
d. Detach the NTC sensor connector (if present)
e. Detach the condenser from the base
f. Loosen the clamp and detach the hose which connects the
condenser to the tub (96)
9.12.10 NTC sensor for control of drying times (models with electronic control)
a. Remove the rear cabinet shell
b. Detach the wiring connector
c. Remove the temperature sensor from the hose between the tub and
the condenser or from the seal
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10 TOOLS AND MATERIALS
10.1 Standard tools
1. Set of standard flat-head screwdrivers (small,
medium, large)
2. Set of cross-head ("Phillips") screwdrivers
3.
4.
5.
6.
Set of socket screws (7, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17mm)
Insulated scissors.
Allen keys (5-6 mm)
A battery-operated power screwdriver may also
be used.
7. “Torx” screwdriver(T30-T50)
8. “Torx” T20H insert (to unscrew "Torx" T20
screws with central pin, also available as a tool
under part number 5024880100/8).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Adjustable wrench
Standard pliers
Narrow-tipper pliers (curved)
Narrow-tipped pliers (straight)
Cutter
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14. Hammer (300 g approx.)
15. Plastic or rubber-head hammer
16. Two narrow-tipped chisels (mm 200x8)
17. Steel wire
18. "L"-shaped lever (used to detach the support
band from stainless steel tubs)
When replacing the bearings, use spacers of the
appropriate diameter
10.2 Materials
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
soap and water
silicone oil
vaseline
thread-anchoring liquid for screws
grease for drum shaft seal (part number 5026 24 16-00/6)
grease for detergent dispenser distributor (part number 5022 18 11-00/8)
plastic wiring ties
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