CFA Fire Equipment
Maintenance
Site & Classification of
Portable Fire Extinguishers:
• Selection Criteria
• Fire Extinguisher Guidelines
• Installing & Replacing Fire
Equipment
• Signage
• Maintenance of Essential Measures
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SITE & CLASSIFICATION OF PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
SELECTION & INSTALLATION CRITERIA
Portable Fire Extinguishers are required by law to be installed within every building except:
•
Class 1 Residential Dwellings
•
Sole occupancy units of Class 2 or 3 buildings
•
A Class 4 part of a building.
Portable Fire Extinguishers are an excellent means of providing effective, initial attack on a fire by
occupants. The CFA & MFB strongly recommends that Portable Fire Extinguishers be installed for
all classes of building, including sole occupancy units and domestic buildings.
The selection of suitable extinguishers depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to,
the following:
•
expected types of fires including size and propagation
•
construction and occupancy of the property
•
special risk to be protected
•
extremes of temperature expected
•
size and degree of hazards which affect their use
•
reliability and availability of other manual or automatic fire-fighting equipment
•
knowledge and capability of the likely user.
Portable fire extinguishers satisfy the above if:
•
they are provided and installed in accordance with AS 2444 – 2001 “Portable fire
extinguishers and fire blankets – selection and location”, except water type extinguishers
which need not be installed in a building or part of a building served by a hose reel.
•
extinguishers provided for fires other than Class A fires, are suitably located adjacent to the
relevant risk.
•
where water type extinguishers are provided, they are located, wherever practicable,
adjacent to required exits.
The distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with the hazard classification of
the area, or risk to be protected. Extinguishers shall be located in a conspicuous and readily
accessible position, adjacent to the risk, in the path of exit travel or near exits, and mounted at the
appropriate height.
Site and Classification of Portable Fire Extinguishers guideline outlines the type and location of
portable fire extinguishers for identified risks. For additional information, reference should be made
to Section 4 (Distribution of Portable Fire Extinguishers in buildings) of AS2444. Where gasses are
stored within a building, reference must be made to AS 1596 “Storage and Handling of LP Gas”
and AS 1940 “The Storage and Handling of Flammable and Combustible liquids” or alternatively
contact the CFA Community Safety Department in your Region/Area.
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ADDITIONAL FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN SELECTING AN EXTINGUISHER
Physical factors to consider are:
•
Choice of an appropriate extinguisher for the type of fire most likely to occur
•
Size and mass of the fire extinguisher and the ability of the user to carry and operate it.
•
Effects of environmental conditions on the fire extinguisher and its support fixture.
•
Possibility of adverse reactions, contamination, or other effects of an extinguishant on
manufacturing processes or equipment.
•
Possibility of winds or draughts affecting the distribution and thus effectiveness of the
extinguishant.
•
Possibility of installation of the fire extinguisher in a location where vibration may affect the
components of the extinguisher or its contents, e.g. powder.
Health and safety factors to consider are:
•
Water-based extinguishants (water, wet chemical, hydro spray, and foam) are electrically
conductive and therefore must not be used on fires involving electrically energised
equipment.
•
Carbon dioxide, used in sufficient concentration to extinguish a fire, will displace air. In a
confined space, the possible resultant oxygen deficiency may be life-threatening.
•
Powder extinguishers discharged in a confined space can temporarily reduce visibility and
may cause respiratory irritation, thus should not be used in patient care areas or areas that
contain aged or very young persons.
•
A.B.E powders based on ammonium phosphate should not be used for the protection of
appliances using cooking oils or fats.
For further information on the additional factors to consider when selecting a portable fire
extinguisher refer to Appendix A of AS2444.
CONSIDERATIONS AFTER USE OF EXTINGUISHERS
Health and Safety:
Most fires produce toxic products of combustion and fire involving some materials may produce
highly toxic gases. Fires consume available oxygen and may present dangerously high exposure to
convectional or radiant heat. Any space in which there is smoke, fumes or pungent odours, or in
which extinguishers have been discharged, should be immediately vacated by all persons not
involved in the fire control. The space should only be re-entered with caution.
Note: Inappropriate use of extinguishers may result in electrocution, oxygen deficiency, or
respiratory irritation.
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CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING REPLACEMENT OF EXTINGUISHERS
•
Access to the area (risk) that the extinguisher is to be provided for, i.e. kitchen, open fire,
garage, etc.
•
Always recommend replacement with an extinguisher of equivalent or higher rating. i.e.
1A:10B:E – replace with a Dry Powder 1A:10B:E Rating or higher.
•
Aerosol type extinguishers are not recommended for commercial premises.
•
It is recommended that only an ‘F’ type or B:E (other than ammonium based) extinguisher be
used to protect a deep fat fryer.
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RATING AND CLASSIFICATION
Fire extinguishers complying with Australian Standards are marked with a classification and rating,
determined in accordance with AS 1850.
Extinguishers are rated by their performance and suitably for a particular class of fire, i.e. A water
extinguisher will be marked A and a dry chemical extinguisher will be marked ABE or BE. The
classes of fire are:
Class A:
Fire in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many
plastics.
Class B:
Fires in flammable and combustible liquids, greases, and oils.
Class C:
Fires in combustible gases.
Class D:
Fires in combustible metals.
Class E:
Fires which in involve energised electrical equipment.
Class F:
Fires for cooking oils and fats.
The number before the letter is a measure of the relative performance within that class range,
namely:
•
Between 0 and 10 for Class A
•
2 and 80 for Class B
•
1 and 4 for Class F
A greater rating reflects an increased effectiveness of the extinguisher for the nominated class of
fire. When a fire extinguisher is rated for more than one class of fire, it is expressed in alphabetical
order, i.e. A:B:E:F.
There is no one type of fire extinguisher that will universally cover all fires. For this reason, careful
consideration needs to be given to the selection of the most suitable fire extinguisher, or
combination of fire extinguishers.
The rating and classes listed on following pages are minimum recommendations only.
Individual companies may not manufacture exact ratings as listed, therefore, the next highest rating
should be utilised. For example, in the instance of a 1A:5B:E Dry Powder not being available than
1A:10B:E Dry Powder would be considered appropriate.
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SITE AND CLASSIFICATION OF PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
These guidelines have been issued to Building Surveyors who are now responsible for the
installation of fire extinguishers in buildings.
Fire Equipment Maintenance Officers can refer to these guidelines when information on a
replacement type extinguisher is required.
They must never be used when determining the risk and type of extinguishers in Buildings.
Fire Extinguisher Guidelines
Schools
Building Location
Extinguishers
Extinguisher Location
Portable Classrooms
2A Water Type
Adjacent to Exit
Electrical Switch Rooms
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to and external to entry
door
Electrical Switchboards
1A 20BE Dry Chemical (with hose Between 2m and 20m from
attached)
Electrical Switchboard
Canteen or Kitchen
40BE Dry Chemical (NOT ABE)
Powder
OR Extinguisher with a 4F rating
Adjacent to exit doors and
accessible to cooking areas
Audiovisual
2A 20BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Science Room
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Science Laboratories
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Home Economics
40BE Dry Chemical (NOT ABE)
Adjacent to Exit Door
Powder
OR Extinguisher with a 4F Rating
Boiler Rooms (oil fired)
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
External to and adjacent to Entry
Rooms
Boiler Rooms (gas or
electric fired)
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
External to and adjacent to Entry
Rooms
Woodwork Room
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
External to and adjacent to Entry
Rooms
Woodwork Machine Room 1A 20BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Art Room 3D (Spray
Booth)
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Kiln Room
1A 20BE Dry Chemical
Accessible to Kiln
Metal Work
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Automotive Practices
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Computer Room
1A 20BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Electrical Practices
1A 20BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Staff Resources
1A 20BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Administration area
1A 20BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to exit Door
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Commercial and Office Buildings
Building Location
Extinguishers
Extinguisher Location
Takeaway Food Shop Kitchens
(with deep fryer)
40BE Dry Chemical
(NOT ABE) Powder
OR Extinguisher with a
4F rating
Adjacent to Exit Door and
Accessible to Cooking Area
Takeaway Food Shop Kitchens
(without deep fryer)
2A 20BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door and
Accessible to Cooking Area
Electrical Switchboards
2A 20BE Dry Chemical
(with hose attached)
Between 2m and 20m from Electrical
Switchboard
Electrical Switchrooms
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
(with hose attached)
Between 2m and 20m from Electrical
Switchboard
Computer, Photocopier and
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Electrical Office Equipment Rooms
Plant Rooms and Oil Fired Airconditioning (with hose reels)
80BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to and external to Entry
Door
Plant Rooms and Oil Fired Airconditioning (without hose reels)
4A 80BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to and external to Entry
Door
Gas Fired Air-conditioning
2A 40BE Dry Chemical
Lift Motor
2A 20BE Dry Chemical
Hospitals, Health Care
and Nursing Homes
Building Location
Extinguishers
Extinguisher Location
Operating Theatre
5BE Carbon Dioxide
Adjacent to Exit Door
Kitchens
40BE Dry Chemical
(NOT ABE) Powder
OR Extinguisher with a
4F rating
Adjacent to Exit Door and accessible
to Cooking Areas
Laboratories
5BE Carbon Dioxide
Adjacent to Exit Door
Switchboards
5BE Carbon Dioxide
Between 2m and 20m from electrical
switchboards
Switchrooms
5BE Carbon Dioxide
Between 2m and 20m from electrical
switchboards
Plant Rooms (with hose reels)
80BE Dry Chemical for
Gas Fired
Adjacent to and External to Entry
Door
Plant Rooms (without hose reels)
4A 80BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to and External to Entry
Door
Surgery
5BE Carbon Dioxide
Adjacent to Exit Door
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Industrial Buildings
Building Location
Extinguishers
Extinguisher Location
Electrical Switchboards (Factory area 2A 40BE Dry Chemical
greater than 600m²)
(with Hose Attached)
Between 2m and 20m from
electrical switchboard
Electrical Switchboards (Factory area 2A 20BE Dry Chemical
less than 600m²)
(with Hose Attached)
Between 2m and 20m from
electrical switchboard
Vehicle Entry Points, Loading Bays
(with hose reels)
80BE Dry Chemical
By vehicle entry doors at 1
per 18m
Vehicle Entry Points, Loading Bays
(without hose reels)
4A 80BE Dry Chemical
By vehicle entry doors at 1
per 18m
Workshops and Garages (with hose
reels)
80BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Workshops and Garages (without
hose reels)
4A 80BE Dry Chemical
Adjacent to Exit Door
Building where hose reels are not provided
Building
Location
Building where hose
reels are not provided
Extinguishers
Extinguisher Location
2A Water Type (1 per 200m²
Adjacent to Exit
or part thereof)
Temporary Structures
General
Electrical Generator
2A Water Type (1 per
200m² or part thereof)
4A:80B:E
Flammable Liquid or Gas
4A:80B:E
Between 2m and 4m
from flammable liquid
or gas containers.
Cooking Areas
- Single cooking facility
2A:40B:E
Between 2m and 4m
from cooking area.
Between 2m and 4m
from cooking area.
-Multiple cooking facilities
40B:E Dry Chemical
(NOT A:B:E)
Or Extinguisher with a 4F rating
Adjacent to exit.
Between 1 m and 4 m
From generator.
Note 1. Dry Powder extinguisher may be substituted for the use of a water type extinguisher
where they have a Class A rating.
Note 2. Where cooking appliances (using cooking oils and fats) are installed, a fire blanket is
recommended, additional to the above
Note 3. Water type extinguishers are not to be located near other specific risks (e.g. electrical ).
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Amusement Rides and Devices
Registered capacity of amusement device
(number of patrons)
Over
Number of Extinguishers
Category of amusement devices(see Legend
Up to and including
A
B
C
D
E
0
5
1
1
1
1
1
5
20
2
2
1
1
1
20
50
3
2
2
2
1
50
-
3
3
3
2
1
LEGEND:
Category A: made of and housed in a structure of primarily combustible or low melting
Temperature materials, such as timber, aluminium, plastics.
Category B: made of primarily combustible or low melting temperature materials and sited in open
air.
Category C: made of and housed in a structure where no significant quantities of combustible or
low melting temperature materials are contained.
Category D: containing no significant quantities of combustible or low melting temperature
materials.
Category E: made in matter that presents minimal fire danger or hazard.
Pyrotechnics
The operator of the outdoor display shall provide at least (1) 2A Water type fire extinguisher, (1)
2A:40B:E Dry Chemical fire extinguisher, (1) 20 Litre container of water and (1) bucket of sand at
each point of launch.
Note 1: WorkSafe Victoria, local council and the fire brigade are required to be informed of the time,
location and type of display to be undertaken.
Note 2: The Pyrotechnician must be licensed and the license must be available on request.
Vehicles
Risk
Sedan, station wagon,
seat.
Panel van or utility
Caravan/Campervan
- Single compartment
- Multi compartment
each
- Relocatable dwelling
Extinguisher Type &
Rating
Extinguisher Location
1A:5B:E
Adjacent to driver’s
1A:5B:E
Adjacent to exit door¹
1A:5B:E
Adjacent to exit in
1A:5B:E
Compartment
Adjacent to kitchen and
near exit.
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Outboard/Inboard
Powered Boat
- Small fuel tank < 25 litres
5B:E
Adjacent to driver’s seat.
- Large fuel tank > 25 litres
20B:E
Adjacent to driver’s seat
- Houseboat and motor
Cruising yacht
2A:20B:E
( with hose attached)
Minimum of 2 fire
extinguishers located
adjacent to driver’s seat.
Passenger carrying
Vehicle
- Not fitted with integral
luggage department
2A:20B:E
(with hose attached)
Adjacent to driver’s seat
- Fitted with integral luggage
Compartment
2A:20B:E
(with hose attached)
Adjacent to driver’s seat
plus one mounted near
underfloor area or engine.
Cargo carrying vehicle
Non DG’s
1A:10B:E
(with hose attached)
DG’s- Reference
Chapter 12
Australian Dangerous Goods Code
Adjacent to driver’s seat²
¹ In caravans and boats where cooking appliance (using cooking oils and fats) are
installed, a fire blanket is recommended, additional to the above.
² Additional extinguishers appropriate to the cargo carried and in accordance with the
relevant regulations.
Flammable Liquids
For details and requirements relating to the fire protection of flammable liquid stores and
installations reference should be made to Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulations
2000 and Australian Standard AS1940 "The Storage and Handling of Flammable and Combustible
Liquids".
Visit the Worksafe website www.workcover.vic.gov.au for further information.
How is the correct extinguisher determined?
Portable fire extinguishers are classified for the use on certain types of fire and rated for relative
extinguishing effectiveness. This rating is determined using Australian/New Zealand Standard
(AS/NZS 1850) and is shown on each extinguisher. The fire rating of the extinguisher, rather than its
size, is the guide to its extinguishing ability.
As a result of testing by Australia/New Zealand Standards, fire extinguishers carry on their label a
classification consisting of a numeral followed by a letter. Guidance for the selection of fire
extinguishers is based on their classification, location, rating and potential hazard as provided in AS
2444.
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INSTALLING AND REPLACING FIRE EQUIPMENT
Location of Extinguishers
The location of fire extinguishers is very important. Each extinguisher needs to be located in a
conspicuous, easily accessible position. If possible, extinguishers should be located along normal
paths of travel and near exits.
In addition, all fire extinguishers should:
•
•
Have their locations clearly indicated by a location sign; and
Be mounted at the appropriate height. That is, the sign should be two metres from the
floor and the head of the extinguisher should be 1200mm from the floor.
This height can only vary if the extinguisher could be dislodged and must remain at least 100mm
from the floor. At all times the sign must be clearly visible and the extinguisher accessible.
Portable fire extinguishers are to be installed in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2444.
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SIGNAGE
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MAINTENANCE OF ESSENTIAL SAFETY MEASURES
What are essential safety measures?
Essential safety measures are the fire and life safety items installed or constructed in a building to
ensure adequate levels of fire safety over the life of the building.
Essential safety measures include all traditional building fire services such as sprinklers, mechanical
services, etc., but also include passive fire safety such as fire doors, fire rated structures etc., and
other building infrastructure items such as paths of travel to exits.
Why do they need to be maintained?
The objective of maintenance is to ensure that every essential safety measure continues to perform
at the same level of operation that existed at time of commissioning and issue of the occupancy
permit.
The maintenance of essential safety measures involves:•
Ensuring the service is maintained at a level of performance specified by the relevant
building surveyor (usually to the Building Code of Australia (BCA) or an Australian
Standard).
•
Periodical inspections and checks in accordance with an Australian Standard or other
specified method.
•
Maintaining a record of the maintenance inspections and checks in the form of an annual
“essential services report”.
Reasons for ensuring maintenance of various services:•
General wear and tear – i.e. Electronic-magnetic hold open devices on fire doors, shut down
on air conditioning system in fire situation, replacement of emergency lighting batteries and
tubes.
•
Reliability of a system operating – i.e. Sprinkler system, mechanical ventilation system (used
as a smoke hazard management system), early warning and intercommunication system.
•
Faults after commissioning of a system – i.e. Emergency power supply.
•
General housekeeping – i.e. Ensure paths of travel to exits are not obstructed, fire protective
coverings are maintained, and portable fire extinguishers remain in place.
What buildings require maintenance of essential services?
The maintenance of essential safety measures applies to Class 1b, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 building as
defined in the BCA. These classifications include granny flats, multi-storey residential buildings,
hotels/motels, offices, shops, warehouses, factories and hospitals/public buildings respectively.
Part 12 of the Building Regulations 2006 (regulations) prescribed the requirements for maintenance
of buildings and is divided into three divisions; buildings that were constructed before 1st July 1994,
buildings that were constructed on and after 1st July 1994 to 1st May 2004 and those constructed
from 1st May 2004
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BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED BEFORE 1ST JULY 1994
The Building Regulations 2006 (the Regulations) require that owners of buildings built prior to 1st
July 1994 maintain the essential safety measures installed within the building.
Any essential safety measure in Class 1b, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings and places of public
entertainment constructed before 1st July 1994 must be maintained by the owner to a working
condition that enables them to fulfil their purpose and meet the expectations of inspecting
authorities.
What essential safety measures are required to be maintained?
Part 12, Subdivision 2 of the Regulations does not explain the terms ‘item of equipment’, ‘form of
construction’ or ‘safety strategies’. However, it is expected that building owners will engage suitably
qualified and competent persons to establish the essential safety measures and outline a level of
maintenance. In some instances this may be a difficult task and may involve detailed inspection and
research of historical documentation to establish the essential safety measure and frequency and
type of maintenance.
Essential safety measures in this part means any measure required for the safety of persons using a
building or place of public entertainment. It includes an item of equipment, form of construction or
safety strategies.
Essential safety measures in a building constructed prior to 1st July 1994 could be, but are not
limited to:•
Air conditioning systems
•
Fire-isolated lift shafts
•
Emergency lifts
•
Fire-isolated passageways
•
Emergency power supply
•
Fire-isolated ramps
•
•
Fire-isolated stairs
•
Emergency
warning
Intercommunication
Systems
Exit doors
•
Fire mains
•
Exit signs
•
Fire-protective coverings
•
Fire brigade connections
•
Fire-rated access panels
•
Fire control centres
•
Fire-rated control joints
•
Fire control panels
•
•
Fire curtains
•
Fire-rated materials applied to
building elements
Fire-resisting shafts
•
Fire dampers
•
Fire shutters
•
Fire detectors and alarm systems
•
Fire windows
•
Fire-resisting structures
•
Lightweight construction
•
Fire doors
•
Mechanical ventilation systems
and
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•
Fire extinguishers (portable)
•
Paths of travel to exits
•
Fire hydrants
•
Vehicular access for large isolated
buildings
•
Fire indices for materials
•
Warning systems associated with lifts
•
Fire-isolated lift shafts
•
•
Penetrations in fire-rated structures
•
Smoke alarms
Any other fire safety matter which is
required by the Act or Regulations
and the relevant building surveyor
designates on the occupancy permit
or otherwise determines in writing.
•
Smoke control measures
•
Smoke doors
•
Smoke vents
•
Sprinkler systems
•
Stairwell pressurisation systems
•
Static water storage
The Regulations require that the owner must ensure than an essential safety measure:(a) Is maintained in a state which enables the essential safety measure to fulfil its purpose; and
(b) Must not be removed from its approved location except for the purpose of providing
maintenance.
What should be the level of maintenance?
If there was no specific standard of maintenance in force at the time, then any relevant Australian
Standards available at the time may be used as a guide to the level of adequate maintenance. If
there was no relevant Australian Standard in existence at the time of installation, then the first
published edition of a relevant Standard may be used as a guide to what may be adequate
maintenance.
The level of maintenance expected in the future by inspecting authorities should not be greater that
that at the time the initial maintenance requirement was determined for that essential safety
measure.
Does the client need to upgrade their essential safety measure?
The Regulations do not require the automatic upgrade of systems in buildings where regulations
change from time- to- time. The essential safety measure must be maintained by the owner to a
working condition that enables them to fulfil their purpose.
The enforcement provisions of Part 8 of the Act provide for a municipal building surveyor or private
building surveyor where appointed, to review any risk to the life, safety, or health of any occupant in
a building. As part of the enforcement process consideration could be given to upgrading the
essential safety measures to current standards and practices.
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COOLING TOWERS
The Building (Legionella) Act 2000 requires all cooling tower systems in Victoria to be registered
with the Building Commission to help track potential sources of Legionnaires’ disease. The Building
Act 1993 requires the registration of all cooling tower systems and the development of a Risk
Management Plan (RMP) for each cooling tower system.
The Building (Legionella Risk Management) Regulations 2001 specify the risks that an RMP must
address. The Health (Legionella) Regulations 2001 also prescribe maintenance, testing and
associated record-keeping relating to cooling tower and warm water systems that a responsible
person must comply with.
The owner of the land on which a cooling tower system is located is required to register and renew
the registration of that system on an annual basis. Once on the register, the application for renewal
of registration will be sent to the owner before their current registration expires each year.
Maintenance and inspection records
For pre-1994 buildings, the Regulations do not specify a level of documentation to be kept by the
owner. It is recommended that records of maintenance should be completed and made available to
the building owner or agent at the time of conducting the system and equipment maintenance.
It is recommended that records should contain the following information:
(a) Record reference.
(b) Name of building or site.
(c) Address of building or site.
(d) Date of maintenance/inspection.
(e) System or equipment identification and location (Possibly a location plan).
(f) Frequency of maintenance activity undertaken.
(g) Defects identified.
(h) Name of property owner or the agent.
(i) Name and signature of the service person.
(j) Date the record was completed.
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FORM OF RECORDS
If a person, such as a building surveyor, has been used to inspect and nominate essential safety
measures, that person should provide advice as to the level of record-keeping required to satisfy the
level and frequency of maintenance. As a minimum, it should include the information provided
above.
Maintenance records may be electronically-based. Hard copy records should be kept on site and be
available at all times. Technology in regard to the preparation of maintenance records has advanced
considerably in recent years with the advent of purpose designed software. As a minimum, a hard
copy of records of maintenance are to be made available to organisations, such as regulators, fire
authorities, insurance surveyors, fire auditors, etc., at all times. However, the hard copy records
required may be prepared utilising electronic recording system.
Maintenance records can be in the form of maintenance record tags (in the case of hydrant landing
valves, hose reels, portable and wheeled fire extinguishers and fire blankets), or log books (in the
case of sprinkler, pumpset, fire hydrant, detection, smoke and heat alarm, fire alarm monitoring,
sound, intercom, gaseous, aerosol, water mist, passive fire and smoke and HVAC and evacuation
systems).
The use of maintenance record tags or labels shall not preclude the need for a separate
maintenance record system.
Where log books are used, they shall have sequentially numbered pages in triplicate. Provision shall
be made for the signatures of the building owner, occupier or agent, and the service person. The
required distribution of copies shall be printed on each page as follows.
(a) Original………………………………………………owner/occupier/agent
(b) Duplicate……………………………………………Service person
(c) Triplicate……………………………………………..Retain in book
PREPARATION OF ANNUAL REPORT
An owner of a building or a place of public entertainment must ensure that an essential safety
measures report is prepared in accordance with Regulation 1215 in respect of any essential safety
measure required to be provided in relation to that building or place under the Act or these
Regulations or any corresponding Act or Regulations.
In the case of a first report, it must be prepared before the 13th June 2009, and in the case of each
subsequent report, before each anniversary of 13th Jun 2009.
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BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED BETWEEN 1ST JULY 1994 AND 1ST MAY 2004
The Building Regulations 2006 and Part 11 of the Building Regulations 1994 (the Regulations)
prescribe the requirements for maintenance of buildings built on and after 1st July 1994.
Any essential safety measure in Class 1b, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings and places of public
entertainment must be maintained, by the owner, to a working condition, that enables them to fulfil
their purpose and meet the expectations of inspecting authorities.
The Regulations make it mandatory for the building surveyor to list the required essential services
on the issuing of the occupancy permit. The level of performance to which the service is to be
maintained must also be specified on the occupancy permit. In the case of an essential service
being provided where no occupancy permit is required, then the relevant building surveyor must
determine the level of performance that must be specified in writing and given to the owner.
The Regulations list essential safety measures as:
Air conditioning systems
Fire-resisting shafts
Emergency Lifts
Fire-resisting structures
Emergency lighting
Fire shutters
Emergency warning and Intercommunication systems
Fire windows
Exit signs
Lightweight construction
Fire brigade connections
Mechanical ventilation systems
Fire control centres
Paths of travel to exits
Fire control panels
Penetrations in fire-rated structures
Fire curtain
Smoke Alarms
Fire dampers
Smoke control measures
Fire detectors and alarm systems
Smoke doors
Fire Doors
Smoke vents
Fire extinguishers (portable)
Sprinkler systems
Fire Hose Reels
Stairwell pressurization systems
Fire Hydrants
Static water storage
Fire indices for materials
Vehicular access for large isolated buildings
Fire-isolated lift shafts
Warning systems associated with lifts
Fire-isolated passageways
Fire-isolated ramps
Fire-isolated stairs
Fire mains
Fire-protective coverings
Fire-rated access panels
Fire-rated control joints
Fire-rated materials applied to building element
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USE OF AS 1851.1 TO AS 1851.10- MAINTENANCE OF FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
Where an essential safety measure has been nominated as using AS 1851 to provide maintenance
within this part, details of the level of records to be kept are incorporated in the relevant
maintenance sections and schedules of that standard. It is noted that over time this version of AS
1851 may no longer be available and as such, log sheets have been provided for AS 1851.1 to AS
1851.10 for historical purposes and to maintain consistency with previous versions of this manual.
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BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED FROM 1ST MAY 2004.
As part of the 2004 amendment to the Building Code of Australia (BCA) Volume 1, safety measures
were defined and Part 1 introduced a list of safety measures to be maintained.
The intent of Part 1 of the BCA Volume 1 is to establish the minimum standard of performance that
all safety measures in buildings must continually be able to achieve.
Part 1 of the BCA Volume 1 currently groups safety measures as follows:•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Building fire integrity
Means of egress
Signs
Lighting
Fire-fighting services and equipment
Air handling systems
Automatic fire detection and alarm systems
Occupant warning systems
Lifts
Standby power supply systems
Building clearance and fire appliances
Other measures
Building use and application
Part 2 – Mechanical ventilation and hot water, warm water and cooling water systems.
Currently, the Building Regulations 2006 (the Regulations) outline the relevant tables of Part 1 of the
BCA Volume 1 applicable in Victoria as essential safety measures. The applicable essential safety
measures are listed in Tables 1.1 to 1.11, excluding artificial lighting contained in Table 1.4 and
Table 1.12 of the BCA. This manual will only deal with those tables as listed above.
MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION RECORDS
Records of maintenance shall be completed and made available to the building owner of agent at
the time of conducting the system and equipment maintenance.
Records shall contain the following information:a) Record reference
b) Name of building or site
c) Address of building or site
d) Date of maintenance/inspection
e) System or equipment identification and location (Possibly a location plan).
f) Frequency of maintenance activity undertaken.
g) Defects identified.
h) Name and signature of the service person.
i) Date the record was completed.
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FORM OF RECORDS
Maintenance records may be electronically-based. Hard copy records shall be kept on site and be
available at all times. Technology in regard to the preparation of maintenance records has advanced
considerably in recent years with the advent of purpose-designed software. As a minimum, hard
copy records of maintenance should be made available to regulators, fire authorities, insurance
surveyors, fire auditors, etc., at all times. However, the hard copy records required may be prepared
utilising electronic recording systems.
Maintenance records shall be in the form of maintenance record tags (in the case of hydrant landing
valves, delivery lay flat hose, hose reels, portable and wheeled fire extinguishers and fire blankets),
or log books (in the case of sprinkler, pumpset, fire hydrant, detection, smoke and heat alarm, fire
alarm monitoring, sound, intercom, gaseous, aerosol, water mist, passive fire and smoke and HVAV
and evacuation systems).
The use of maintenance record tags or labels shall not preclude the need for a separate
maintenance record system.
Where log books are used they shall have sequential numbered pages in triplicate. Provision shall
be made for the signatures of the building owner, occupier or agent, and the service person. The
required distribution copies shall be printed on each page as follows:a) Original …………………………………………….owner/occupier/agent
b) Duplicate ……………………………………………………service person
c) Triplicate ………………………………………………………retain in book
USE OF AS 1851-2005
Where an essential safety measure has been nominated as using AS 1851-2005 to provide
maintenance within this manual, details of the level of records to be kept are incorporated in the
maintenance schedules of Sections 2 to 19 of the Standard.
Owners should develop log sheets using the maintenance tables provided in that Standard for each
essential safety measure.
Where the essential safety measure nominated in this manual does not use AS 1851-2005 as a
minimum level of maintenance, log sheets have been developed and are available in the Essential
Services Measures Maintenance Manual which is obtained from the Building Commission.
It should be noted that building surveyors may specify a level of maintenance not using AS 1851. In
this case, the building surveyor should provide advice as to the level of record-keeping required to
satisfy the level of frequency of maintenance, but as a minimum should include the information
provided above.
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WHAT BUILDINGS REQUIRE MAINTENANCE OF ESSENTIAL SAFETY MEASURES?
The maintenance of essential safety measures applies to Class 1b, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings as
defined in the BCA Volume 1. These classifications include multi-storey residential buildings,
hotels/motels, offices, shops, warehouses, factories and hospitals/public buildings respectively.
Buildings are classifies in the BCA Volume 1 as follows:
Class 1: one or more buildings, which in association constitute:(a) Class 1a- a single dwelling being(i) a detached house; or
(ii) one of a group of two or more attached dwellings, each being a building,
separated by a fire-resisting wall, including a row house, terrace house, town
house or villa unit; or
(b) Class 1b- a boarding house, guest house, hostel or the like(i) with a total area of all floors not exceeding 300m² measured over the enclosing
walls of the Class 1b: and
(ii) in which not more than 12 persons would ordinarily be resident,
which is not located above or below another dwelling or another class of building other than a
private garage.
Class 2: a building containing two or more sole-occupancy units, each being a separate dwelling.
Class 3: a residential building, other than a building of Class 1 or 2, which is a common place of
long-term or transient living for a number of unrelated persons, including:(a) a boarding-house, guest house, hostel, lodging-house or backpackers accommodation;
or
(b) a residential part of a hotel or motel; or
(c) a residential part of a school; or
(d) accommodation for the aged, children or people with disabilities; or
(e) a residential part of a detention centre.
Class 4: a dwelling in a building that is Class 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9, if it is the only dwelling in the building.
Class 5: an office building used for professional or commercial purposes, excluding buildings of
class 6, 7, 8 or 9.
Class 6: a shop or other building for the sale of goods by retail or the supply of services direct to
the public, including:(a) an eating room, café, restaurant, milk or soft drink bar; or
(b) a dining room, bar, shop or kiosk part of a hotel or motel; or
(c) a hairdresser’s or barber’s shop, public laundry, or undertaker’s establishment; or
(d) market or sale room, showroom, or service station.
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Class 7: a building which is:(a) Class 7a- a car park; or
(b) Class 7b- for storage, or display of goods or produce for sale by wholesale.
Class 8: a laboratory, or a building in which a handicraft or process for the production, assembling,
altering, repairing, packaging, finishing, or cleaning of goods or produce is carried on for
trade, sale or gain.
Class 9: a building of a public nature:(a) Class 9a -a health-care building, including those parts of the building set aside as a
laboratory ; or
(b) Class 9b - an assembly building, including a trade workshop, laboratory or the like in a
primary or secondary school, but excluding any other parts of the building that are
another Class; or
(c) Class 9c - an aged-care building.
Class 10: a non-habitable building or structure:(a) Class 10a- a non-habitable building being a private garage, carport, shed, or the like; or
(b) Class 10b- a structure being a fence, mast, antennae, retaining or free standing wall,
swimming pool or the like.
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SAMPLE SCHEDULE OF FIRE SAFETY MEASURES
The following sample schedule of fire safety measures applies to buildings constructed in
accordance with the deemed-to-satisfy provisions of the BCA 2005.
Fire safety measure
(a) Fire-resistant materials applied to
building elements
Compliance requirements
Section C of Vol.1 of the BCA
(b) Early fire hazard indices for linings and
surface finishes
(c) Compartmentation including bounding
construction and service penetrations
through fire resistant structures (includes
fire walls; smoke walls; fire-resistant
elements such as walls, floors, ceilings,
protective coverings, access panels and
control joints)
Specification C1. 10 of Vol 1 of the BCA
(d) Fire doors
(e) Smoke doors
(f) ‘Solid core doors’
(g) Fire shutters
(h) Fire windows
(i) Fire curtains (proscenium arches)
(j) Wall wetting sprinklers
Parts C2 and C3 of Vol 1 of the BCA
Specifications C1.1 and C3.15 of Vol 1 of the
BCA
Specification C3.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA
AS/NZS 1905.1
Specification C3.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA
Clause C3.11 of Vol 1 of the BCA
Specification C3.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA AS
1905.2
Specification C3.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA
Specification C3.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA
Clause C3.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA and as
approved by the authority having jurisdiction
MEANS OF EGRESS
Fire safety measure
Compliance requirements
Exits and paths of travel to exits including doors, Section D of Vol 1 of the BCA
doorways, operation of latches (including
automatic closing or unlocking devices),
handrails, stair treads and clearance from
obstructions
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SIGNS
Fire safety measure
(a) Signs concerning use of lifts in the event
of fire
Compliance requirements
Clause E3.3 of Vol 1 of the BCA
(b) Internally illuminated exit signs
Clauses E4.5 and E4.8 of vol 1 of the BCA and
AS/NZS 2293.1
Clauses E4.5 and E4.8 of Vol 1 of the BCA
AS/NZS 2293.1
(c) Indirectly illuminated exit signs
(d) Exit identification including signs on fire
doors and smoke doors; signs on egress
doors leading from fire-isolated
passageways; signs and audible and
visual alarms on sliding doors; chevron
stripes; and flashing luminaires.
Clauses D2.23 and C3.6 of Vol 1 of the BCA and
as approved by the authority having jurisdiction
EMERGENCY LIGHTING
Fire safety measure
Compliance requirements
Emergency lighting
Clause E4.2 and E4.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA and(a) equipment manufactured to AS/NZS 2293.3
and;
(b) designed and installed to AS/NZS 2293.1, or
(c) designed and installed as approved by the
authority having jurisdiction, or
(d) for class 1b buildings, Clause 3.7.2.5 of Vol 2
of the BCA
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FIREFIGHTING SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT
Fire safety measure
(a) Fire pump sets
(b) Fire main, booster, static water supply and
associated equipment
(c) Fire hydrant installations
(d) Fire control room fit-out and facilities
(e) Fire hose reels
(f) Portable fire extinguishers
(g) Fire sprinkler installations
(h) Sprinkler protection of openings
(i) Special hazards firefighting systems and
equipment
Compliance requirements
AS 2941 or as approved by the authority having
jurisdiction
Part E1 of Vol1 of the BCA
AS 2118
AS 2419.1
Clause E1.3 of Vol 1 of the BCA
AS 2419.1
Specification E1.8 of Vol 1 of the BCA
Clause E1.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA
AS 2441
Clause E1.6 of Vol 1 of the BCA
AS 2444
Clause E1.5 and/or Specification E1.5 of Vol 1
of the BCA
AS 2118 suite of Standards or as approved by
the authority having jurisdiction
Clause C3.4 of Vol 1 of the BCA and as
approved by the authority having jurisdiction
Clause E1.10 of Vol 1 of the BCA or as
approved by the authority having jurisdiction
NOTE: This may include various fire
extinguishing media or gaseous/foam systems in
accordance with relevant Australian Standards
such as AS 4214, AS 4215 suite of Standards,
AS/NZS 4487, or other Australian or
International Standards.
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AIR HANDLING SYSTEMS
Fire safety Measure
(a) Fans and fan motors associated with the
operation of a ventilation system
(frequent and emergency uses)
(b) Smoke detectors (not forming part of an AS
1670 system)
( (c) Fire control operation associated with
mechanical ventilation for air conditioning
systems:
(i) Fire shut down of equipment
Compliance requirements
AS/NZS 1668.1 and AS 1668.2
Clause E2.2 and Specification E2.2a of Vol 1 of
the BCA and AS/NZS 1668.1 or AS 1670 as
appropriate
Clause E2.2 of Vol 1 of the BCA or
AS/NZS 1668.1 as appropriate
(ii) Control of supply and return of air fans or
equipment
AS/NZS 1668.1 or as approved by the authority
having jurisdiction
(iii) Fire mode of operation of air dampers for
outside air, recycle air, relief air, zone
control dampers for supply and return air
including motorized
fire/smoke/combination dampers
(iv) Fire dampers (thermal)
AS/NZS 1668.1 or as approved by the authority
having jurisdiction
(e) Smoke hazard management
(i) egress pressurisation and/or zone
pressurisation
AS 1682.1
AS 1682.2
AS/NZS 1668.1
AS/NZS 1668.1 or as approved by the authority
having jurisdiction
(ii) Smoke spill
AS 1682
AS 1682.2
AS/NZS 1668.1
(iii) Smoke curtains, baffles or bulkheads
(including concealed voids)
Specification E2.2b of Vol 1 of the BCA or as
approved by the authority having jurisdiction
(iv) Roof and wall vents
Specifications E2.2c and G3.8 of Vol 1 of the
BCA
AS 2665
(v) Natural openings(windows, doors,
panels, or the like)
Openings identified and approved by the
authority having jurisdiction as part of smoke
control management
(vi) Make-up air provisions including louvres
and automatic doors
Specifications E2.2b and C2.3 of Vol 1 of the
BCA as applicable, or as approved by the
authority having jurisdiction
AS/NZS 1668.1
AS 1668.2
AS 1668.2
(e) Kitchen exhausts including grease filters
(f) Automatic monitoring of atmosphere
contaminants for car parks and other vehicle
enclosures
(g) Electric duct heaters
AS/NZS 1668.1
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AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMS
Fire safety measure
(a) Self-contained smoke and thermal alarms
Compliance requirements
Specification E2.2a of Vol 1 of the BCA, or
Section 3.7.2.2 of Vol 2 of the BCA for Class 1b
buildings
AS 12239
(b) Detection and alarm systems
Clause E2.2 and Specification E2.2a of Vol 1 of
the BCA
AS 1670.1
(c) Interconnected smoke alarms for occupant
warning systems
Specification E2.2a of Vol 1 of the BCA
AS 12239
(d) Occupant earning systems including audible
alarms, recorded and visual messages
Specifications E1.5 and E2.2a of Vol 1 of the
BCA
EMERGENCY WARNING AND INTERCOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
Fire safety measure
Emergency warning and intercommunications
systems
Compliance requirements
Clause E4.9 of Vol 1 of the BCA
AS 4428.4
AS 60849
LIFTS
Fire safety measure
Equipment and controls in lifts for operation in
event of emergency
Compliance requirements
Part E3 of Vol 1 of the BCA
EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY
Fire safety measure
Emergency power
Compliance requirements
Clause G3.8 of Vol 1 of the BCA or as approved
by the authority having jurisdiction
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INTERCONNECTIONS- FIRE SAFETY SYSTEMS
Fire safety measure
All fire and safety systems
Compliance requirements
As approved by the authority having jurisdiction
(this may include hot smoke tests etc.)
CLEARANCES FOR LARGE ISOLATED BUILDINGS
Fie safety measures
Occupancy hazard in relation to requirements for
sprinklers, including fire compartments with –
Compliance requirements
Note 3, Table E1.5 of the BCA
Floor area >2 000m²
Volume > 12 000 m³
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES
Fire safety measure
Emergency control organisation and procedures
Compliance requirements
AS 3745
AS 4083 for Class 9a buildings
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