aircraft operating information

AIRCRAFT OPERATING INFORMATION
(Document No. FA09000)
XA85
Registration Number
N17XA
THIS HANDBOOK INCLUDES THE MATERIAL REQUIRED TO BE FURNISHED TO THE PILOT
BY THE FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION PROVIDED
BY THE MANUFACTURER.
Date: September 22, 2008 Initial Issue: February 22, 2008 Revised: September 22, 2008
Log of Temporary Revisions
XAirLS(XA85)
PILOT OPERATING HANDBOOK
LOG OF NORMAL REVISIONS
Normal
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and Date
Revised
Description of Revision or Referenced
Approved By
Pages
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Date
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Log of normal Revisions
XAirLS(XA85)
PILOT OPERATING HANDBOOK
LOG OF TEMPORARY REVISIONS
Temporary
Revision No.
and Date
Revised
Pages
Description of Revision or Referenced
Narrative Discussion Pages
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date Rev A September 22, 2008
Approved By
Date
FA09000
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Log of Temporary Revisions
X Air LS (XA 85)
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FA09000
iv
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
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INTRODUCTION PAGES
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Weight & Balance (Appendix B)
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Installed Equipment List
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
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FA09000
VII
Narrative Discussion of Revisions
XAirLS(XA85)
NARRATIVE DISCUSSION OF REVISIONS
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FA09000
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-^
FA09000
ix
Section 1
X Air LS (XA85)
General
Section 1
General
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THREE VIEW DRAWING OF THE AIRPLANE
1-2
INTRODUCTION
1-3
DESCRIPTIVE DATA
1-4
Engine
Propeller
1-4
1-4
Fuel
1-4
Oil
1-5
Maximum Certificated Weights
Typical Airplane Weights
Cabin and Entry Dimensions
Space and Entry Dimensions of Baggage Compartment
Specific Loadings
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
ABBREVIATIONS, TERMINOLOGY, AND SYMBOLS
Airspeed Terminology
Meteorological Terminology
Engine Power and Controls Terminology
Airplane Performance and Flight Planning Terminology
Weight and Balance Terminology
REVISIONS AND CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS MANUAL
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-11
Revisions
1-12
Supplements
Use of the terms Warning, Caution, and Note
Meaning of Shall, Will, Should, and May
Meaning of Land as Soon as Possible or Practicable
1-12
1-12
1-13
1-13
CONVERSION CHARTS
1-13
Kilograms and Pounds
1-14
Feet and Meters
1-15
Inches and Centimeters
1-16
MPH, Statute Miles, and Kilometers
1-17
Liters, Imperial Gallons, and U.S. Gallons
Temperature Relationship (Fahrenheit and Celsius)
Fuel Weights and Conversion Relationships
1-18
1-21
1-22
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-1
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
THREE VIEW DRAWING OF THE AIRPLANE
33 Feet
5 Feet, 8 Inches
20 Feet
Length
*/^
8 Feet
5 Feet
(Figure 1-1)
FA09000
1-2
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
X Air LS (XA85)
General
Section 1
General
INTRODUCTION
This handbook is written in eight sections and includes the material required to be furnished to
the pilot by Federal Aviation Regulations and ASTM Standards along with additional infor
mation provided by the manufacturer and constitutes the Airplane Operating Instructions.
Section 1 contains generalized descriptive data about the airplane including dimensions, fuel and
oil capacities, and weights. There are also definitions and explanations of symbols, abbreviations,
and commonly used terminology for this airplane. Finally, conventions specific to this manual
are detailed.
NOTE
It is the operator's responsibility to maintain the Handbook in a current
status. The manufacturer provides the registered owner(s) of the airplane
with revisions.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
FA09000
1-3
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
DESCRIPTIVE DATA
ENGINE
Number of Engines: 1
Engine Manufacturer: Jabiru
Engine Model Number: 2200
Engine Type: Normally aspirated, direct drive, air-cooled, horizontally opposed, carbureted,
2200cm3 displacement
Takeoff Power: 81 BHP at 3100 RPM
Maximum Continuous Power: 85 HP at 3300 RPM
Maximum Normal Operating Power: Same as maximum continuous power.
Maximum Climb Power: Same as maximum takeoff power.
Maximum Cruise Power: Same as maximum continuous power.
PROPELLER
Propeller Manufacturer: DUC
Propeller Model Number: SWIRL
Number of Blades: 2
Propeller Diameter: 1620 MM
PropellerType: Ground adjusted with a low pitch setting of 13.5°(Measured 20 Millimetersfrom
blade end)
FUEL
The following fuel grades, including the respective colors, are approved for this airplane.
AVGAS 100LL (Blue). MOGAS with RON Octane Rating 95 or above may be used if
AVGAS is not available. (Correlates to 91+ octane using R+M/2 rating method - see
note below).
Total Fuel Capacity - 15.5 Gallons
Total Usable Fuel—15 Gallons
NOTE
Use of fuel mixed with Ethanol is not permitted. Contact X Air with any
questions related to use of Mogas if you are unsure if the fuel you intend to
use meets the minimum octane rating. Most US fuel distributors rate their
fuel on an average RON and MON (R+M/2) octane rating basis. With the
averaging system R+M/2 fuel usually has a 4 to 5 point LOWER rating than
fuel evaluated using a strict utilization of RON rating. Understanding this
difference is critical to ensuring use of the proper octane rating fuel in the X
Air. It is the owner/operator's responsibility to ensure the fuel used in the X
Air LS complies with these requirements. Failure to comply can result in
engine damage, loss of aircraft control and bodily injury and potentially
death.
^^^
FA09000
1-4
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
X Air LS (XA85)
General
OIL
Specification or Oil Grade -Aero Oil W Multigrade 15W-50, or equivalent Lubricant
complying with MIL-L-2285 IC, or Lycoming Spec. 30IF, or Teledyne - Continental Spec
MHF4B.
Total Oil Capacity
Sump: 2.4 Quarts (2.3 L)
Drain and Refill Quantity: 2.4 Quarts (2.3 L)
MAXIMUM WEIGHTS
Ramp Weight:
Max. Empty Weight:
Takeoff Weight:
Landing Weight
Baggage Weight
1234 lbs. (560 kg)
739 lbs. (335 kg)
1234 lbs. (560 kg)
1234 lbs. (560 kg)
10 lbs. (4.5 kg)
TYPICAL AIRPLANE WEIGHTS
The empty weight of a typical airplane offered with standard interior, avionics, accessories, and
equipment has a standard empty weight of about 650 lbs. (293 kg).
Maximum Useful Load:
584 lbs.* (265 kg)
*(The useful load varies for each airplane. Please see Section 6 for specific details.)
CABIN AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS
Maximum Cabin Width: 43 inches
Maximum Cabin Length (Rudder pedals to seat back): 39 inches
Maximum Cabin Height: (Seat Bottom to Upper Cabin Members) 37.5 inches
Entry Width: 37 inches (Measured at mid point of door)
Entry Height: 32 inches (Measured mid span of opening)
SPACE AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS OF BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT
Maximum Baggage Compartment Width: 33 inches
Maximum Baggage Compartment Length: 10 inches
Maximum Baggage Compartment Height: 16 inches
SPECIFIC LOADINGS
Wing Loading: 8.8 lbs./sq. ft.
Power Loading: 14.5 lbs./hp.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-5
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
ABBREVIATIONS, TERMINOLOGY, AND SYMBOLS
AIRSPEED TERMINOLOGY
CAS
Calibrated Airspeed means the indicated speed of an
aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error.
Calibrated airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard at
mosphere at sea level.
GS
Ground Speed is the speed of an airplane relative to the
ground.
IAS
Indicated Airspeed is the speed of an aircraft as shown in
the airspeed indicator when corrected for instrument error.
IAS values published in this Handbook assume zero
instrument error. Airspeeds are referenced in Indicated
Airspeed unless noted as CAS.
MPH CAS
Calibrated Airspeed expressed in miles per hour.
MPHIAS
Indicated Airspeed expressed in miles per hour.
TAS
True Airspeed is the airspeed of an airplane relative to
undisturbed air, which is the CAS, corrected for altitude,
temperature and compressibility.
This term refers to the maximum speed in level flight with
maximum continuous power.
V0
The maximum operating maneuvering speed of the
airplane. Do not apply full or abrupt control movements
above this speed.
V FE
Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the highest speed
permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended
position.
V NE
Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit that may not be
exceeded at any time.
VS
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which
the airplane is controllable.
V si
Stalling Speed in defined configuration or the minimum
steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable
with the take-off flap setting.
FA09000
1-6
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
V so
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which
the airplane is controllable in the landing configuration (full
flap).
V^
Best Angle-of-Climb Speed is the airspeed that delivers the
greatest gain of altitude in the shortest possible horizontal
distance.
V-
Best Rate-of-Climb Speed is the airspeed that delivers the
greatest gain in altitude in the shortest possible time.
METEOROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY
ISA
International Standard Atmosphere in which:
1. The air is a dry perfect gas;
2. The temperature at sea level (SL) is 15° C (59° F);
3. The pressure at SL is 29.92 inches Hg. (1013.2 mb);
4. The temperature gradient from SL to an altitude where
the temperature is -56.5°C (-69.7°F) is -0.00198°C
(-.003564°F) per foot, and zero above that altitude.
Standard Temperature
Standard Temperature is 15°C (59°F) at sea level pressure
altitude and decreases 2°C (3.2°F) for each 1000 feet of
altitude.
OAT
Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature
obtained either from in-flight temperature indications or
ground meteorological sources.
Indicated Pressure Altitude
The number actually read from an altimeter when the
barometric subscale has been set to 29.92 inches of mercury
(1013.2 mb).
Pressure Altitude (PA)
Altitude measured from standard sea level pressure (29.92
inches Hg.) by a pressure or barometric altimeter. It is the
indicated pressure altitude corrected for position and
instrument error. In this Handbook, altimeter instrument
errors are assumed to be zero.
Station Pressure
Actual atmospheric pressure at field elevation.
Wind
The wind velocities recorded as variables on the charts of
this handbook are to be understood as the headwind or
tailwind components of the reported winds.
ENGINE POWER & CONTROLS TERMINOLOGY
BHP
Brake Horsepower is the power developed by the engine.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-7
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
EGT Gauge
The Exhaust Gas Temperature indicator is the instrument
used to identify the lean fuel flow mixtures for various
power settings.
MCP
Maximum Continuous Power is the maximum power for
abnormal or emergency operations.
Maximum Cruise Power
The maximum power recommended for cruise.
MNOP
Maximum Normal Operating Power is the maximum power
for all normal operations (except takeoff). This power, in
most situations, is the same as Maximum Continuous
Power.
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute is a measure of engine and/or
propeller speed.
Tachometer
An instrument that indicates revolutions per minute (RPM).
Throttle
The lever used to control engine power, from the lowest
through the highest power, by controlling propeller pitch,
fuel flow, engine speed, or any combination of these.
^
AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE & FLIGHT PLANNING TERMINOLOGY
Demonstrated Crosswind
Velocity
Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity is the velocity of the
crosswind component for which adequate control of the
airplane can be maintained during takeoff and landing. The
value shown is not considered limiting.
G
A unit of acceleration equal to the acceleration of gravity at
the surface of the earth. The term is frequently used to
quantify additional forces exerted on the airplane and is
expressed as multiples of the basic gravitational force, e.g.,
a 1.7-g force.
GPH
Gallons Per Hour is the quantity of fuel consumed in an
hour expressed in gallons.
Limit Load
The maximum load a structure is designed to carry, and the
factor of safety is the percentage of limit load the structure
can actually carry before its ultimate load is reached. A
structure designed to carry a load of 1,000 pounds with a
safety factor of 1.5 has an ultimate load of 1,500 pounds.
The airplane can be damaged above limit load.
FA09000
1-8
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
General
XAirLS(XA85)
MPG
Miles per Gallon is the distance (in statute miles) which
can be expected per gallon of fuel consumed at a specific
power setting and/or flight configuration.
PPH
Pounds Per Hour is the quantity of fuel consumed in an
hour expressed in pounds.
Unusable Fuel
Unusable Fuel is the amount of fuel expressed in gallons
that cannot safely be used in flight. Unusable Fuel is the
fuel remaining after a runout test has been completed.
Ultimate Load
The amount of load that can be applied to an aircraft
structure before it fails. The airplane can be damaged
between
limit
and
ultimate
load,
and
it
can
fail
catastrophically above ultimate load.
Usable Fuel
Usable Fuel is the quantity available that can safely be used
for flight planning purposes.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
Arm
The Arm is the horizontal distance from the reference
datum to the center of gravity (CG.) of an item.
Basic Empty Weight
The Basic Empty Weight is the Standard Empty Weight
plus optional equipment.
CG
The Center of Gravity is the point at which the airplane will
balance if suspended. Its distance from the datum is found
by dividing the total moment by the total weight of the
airplane.
CGArm
The arm obtained by adding the individual moments of the
airplane and dividing the sum by the total weight.
CG Limits
The extreme center of gravity locations within which the
airplane must be operated at a given weight.
Maximum Empty Weight
The largest empty weight of the airplane, including all
operational equipment that is installed in the airplane:
weight of the airframe, power plant, required equipment,
optional and specific equipment, fixed ballast, fiill engine
coolant and oil, hydraulic fluid, and the unusable fuel. In
the case of the X Air LS this number is 739 lbs.
Maximum Gross Weight
The maximum loaded weight of an aircraft. Gross weight
includes the total weight of the aircraft, the weight of the
fuel and oil, and the weight of the entire load it is carrying.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
FA09000
1-9
/-aB%
Section 1
General
Maximum Takeoff Weight
X Air LS (XA85)
The maximum weight approved for the start of the takeoff
run.
Moment
The moment of a lever is the distance, in inches, between
the point at which a force is applied and the fulcrum, or the
point about which a lever rotates, multiplied by the force, in
pounds. Moment is expressed in inch-pounds.
Reference Datum
This is an imaginary vertical plane from which
horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes.
Standard Empty Weight
This is the weight of a standard airplane including unusable
fuel, full operating fluids, and full oil and any required
all
documentation.
Station
The Station is a location along the airplane's fuselage
usually given in terms of distance from the reference
datum, i.e., Station 40 would be 40 inches from the
reference datum.
Useful Load
The Useful Load is the difference between Takeoff Weight
or Ramp Weight, if applicable, and Basic Empty Weight.
MISCELLANEOUS
Flight Time - Airplanes
Pilot time that commences when an aircraft moves under its
own power for the purpose of flight and ends when the
aircraft comes to rest after landing.
Time in Service
Time in service, with respect to maintenance time records,
means the time from the moment an aircraft leaves the
surface of the earth until it touches it at the next point of
landing.
FA09000
1-10
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
X Air LS (XA85)
General
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
^
>*^
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-11
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA 85)
REVISIONS & CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS MANUAL
REVISIONS
The data contained in this manual is updated through revisions provided by the manufacturer.
Normal revisions are issued based on the volume of changes. Temporary revisions are issued as
needed for urgent matters concerning the airplane. This type of revision contains the temporary
revision number and date of the revision. Temporary revisions are normally superceded at the
next normal revision cycle since they are incorporated into the manual as a normal revision.
Revisions are noted in the manual as follows.
1. The date of the initial issue of the Aircraft Operating Instructions (POH) is listed on the top
line of the footer, at the bottom of the page.
2.
The revision level and date of the latest revision is shown under the initial issuance date.
3. The revised text is cited on the Discussion of Revisions (NDR) pages, which is included with
each revision. The NDR identifies the date of the revision, the revision level, the affected
pages, and a discussion of the changes. The NDR pages follow the List of Effective Pages
and are number sequentially with roman numerals. For example, if the final page number in
the List of Effective Pages is x, then the first NDR page will be number xi.
It is the responsibiUty of the owner or operator of the airplane to keep this manual current. The
most current revision level of the AOI can be obtained by sending an email to info@x-airlsa.com
SUPPLEMENTS
Equipment, which is not covered in Sections 1 through 8 in the Aircraft Operating Instructions
Handbook, is included in Section 9, as applicable.
USE OF THE TERMS WARNING, CAUTION, AND NOTE
The following conventions will be used for the terms, Warning, Caution, and Note.
WARNING
The use of a Warning symbol means that information which follows is of
critical importance and concerns procedures and techniques which could
cause or result in personal injury or death if not carefully followed.
CAUTION
The use of a Caution symbol means that information which follows is of
significant importance and concerns procedures and techniques which could
cause or result in damage to the airplane and/or its equipment if not
carefully followed.
NOTE
The use of the term "NOTE" means the information that follows is essential
to emphasize.
FA09000
1-12
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
X Air LS (XA85)
General
MEANING OF SHALL, WILL, SHOULD, AND MAY
The words shall and will are used to denote a mandatory requirement. The word should denotes '^y
something that is recommended but not mandatory. The word may is permissive in nature and
suggests something that is optional.
MEANING OF LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE OR PRACTICABLE
The use of these two terms relates to the urgency of the situation. When it is suggested to land as
soon as possible, this means to land at the nearest suitable airfield after considering weather
conditions, ambient Ughting, and landing requirements. When it is suggested to land as soon as
practicable, this means that the flight may be continued to an airport with superior facilities,
including maintenance support, and weather conditions.
CONVERSION CHARTS
On the following pages are a series of charts and graphs for conversion to and from U.S. weights
and measures to metric and imperial equivalents.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
FA09000
1-13
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
KILOGRAMS AND POUNDS
CONVERTING KILOGRAMS TO POUNDS
Kilograms
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2.205
4.409
6.614
8.818
11.023
13.228
15.432
17.637
19.842
10
22.046
24.251
26.455
28.660
30.865
33.069
35.274
37.479
39.683
41.888
20
44.092
46.297
48.502
50.706
52.911
55.116
57.320
59.525
61.729
63.934
30
66.139
68.343
70.548
72.753
74.957
77.162
79.366
81.571
83.776
85.980
40
88.185
90.390
92.594
94.799
97.003
99.208
101.413
103.617
105.822
108.026
50
110.231
112.436
114.640
116.845
119.050
121.254
123.459
125.663
127.868
130.073
132.277
134.482
136.687
138.891
141.096
143.300
145.505
147.710
149.914
152.119
154.324
156.528
158.733
160.937
163.142
165.347
167.551
169.756
171.961
174.165
176.370
178.574
180.779
182.984
185.188
187.393
189.597
191.802
194.007
196.211
90
198.416
200.621
202.825
205.030
207.234
209.439
211.644
213.848
216.053
218.258
100
220.462
222.667
224.871
227.076
229.281
231.485
233.690
235.895
238.099
240.304
70
Example: Convert 76 kilograms to pounds. Locate the 70 row in the first column and then move right, horizontally to
Column No. 6 and read the solution, 167.551 pounds.
(Figure 1-2)
CONVERTING POUNDS TO KILOGRAMS
Pounds
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0.454
0.907
1.361
1.814
2.268
2.722
3.175
3.629
4.082
10
4.536
4.990
5.443
5.897
6.350
6.804
7.257
7.711
8.165
8.618
20
9.072
9.525
9.979
10.433
10.886
11.340
11.793
12.247
12.701
13.154
30
13.608
14.061
14.515
14.969
15.422
15.876
16.329
16.783
17.236
17.690
40
18.144
18.597
19.051
19.504
19.958
20.412
20.865
21.319
21.772
22.226
50
22.680
23.133
23.587
24.040
24.494
24.948
25.401
25.855
26.308
26.762
60
27.216
27.669
28.123
28.576
29.030
29.483
29.937
30.391
30.844
31.298
70
31.751
32.205
32.659
33.112
33.566
34.019
34.473
34.927
35.380
35.834
80
36.287
36.741
37.195
37.648
38.102
38.555
39.009
39.463
39.916
40.370
90
40.823
41.277
41.730
42.184
42.638
43.091
43.545
43.998
44.452
44.906
100
45.359
45.813
46.266
46.720
47.174
47.627
48.081
48.534
48.988
49.442
Example: Convert 40 pounds to kilograms. Locate the 40 row in the first column and then move right one column to
Column No. 0 and read the solution, 18.144 kilograms.
(Figure 1-3)
FA09000
1-14
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
FEET AND METERS
CONVERTING METERS TO FEET
0
Meters
0
•
•
•
•
•
12
3
4
5
6
7
3.281
6.562
9.843
13.123
16.404
19.685
22.966
26.247
29.528
10
32.808
36.089
39.370
42.651
45.932
49.213
52.493
55.774
59.055
62.336
20
65.617
68.898
72.178
75.459
78.740
82.021
85.302
88.583
91.864
95.144
30
98.425
101.706
104.987
108.268
111.549
114.829
118.110
121.391
124.672
127.953
40
131.234
134.514
137.795
141.076
144.357
147.638
150.919
154.199
157.480
160.761
50
164.042
167.323
170.604
173.885
177.165
180.446
183.727
187.008
190.289
193.570
60
196.850
200.131
203.412
206.693
209.974
213.255
216.535
219.816
223.097
226.378
70
229.659
232.940
236.220
239.501
242.782
246.063
249.344
252.625
255.906
259.186
80
262.467
265.748
269.029
272.310
275.591
278.871
282.152
285.433
288.714
291.995
90
295.276
298.556
301.837
305.118
308.399
311.680
314.961
318.241
321.522
324.803
100
328.084
331.365
334.646
337.927
341.207
344.488
347.769
351.050
354.331
357.612
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-4)
CONVERTING FEET TO METERS
Feet
•
•
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0.305
0.610
0.914
1.219
1.524
1.829
2.134
2.43$
438
2.743
10
3.048
3.353
3.658
3.962
4.267
4.572
4.877
5.182
5.48(
486
5.791
20
6.096
6.401
6.706
7.010
7.315
7.620
7.925
8.230
534
8.53'
8.839
30
9.144
9.449
9.754
10.058
10.363
10.668
10.973
11.278
.582
11.58
11.887
40
12.192
12.497
12.802
13.106
13.411
13.716
14.021
14.326
14.63
.630
14.935
50
15.240
15.545
15.850
16.154
16.459
16.764
17.069
17.374
.678
17.67
17.983
60
18.288
18.593
18.898
19.202
19.507
19.812
20.117
20.422
20.72
.726
21.031
70
21.336
21.641
21.946
22.250
22.555
22.860
23.165
23.470
.774
23.77
24.079
80
24.384
24.689
24.994
25.298
25.603
25.908
26.213
26.518
26.82
.822
27.127
90
27.432
27.737
28.042
28.346
28.651
28.956
29.261
29.566
29.87
.870
30.175
100
30.480
30.785
31.090
31.394
31.699
32.004
.918
33.223
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types
(Figure 1-5)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-15
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
INCHES AND CENTIMETERS
CONVERTING CENTIMETERS TO INCHES
Centimeters
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0.394
0.787
1.181
1.575
1.969
2.362
2.756
3.150
3.543
• •^•^•^^••^B •••••••••••B HMMMHBBHBI
10
3.937
4.331
4.724
5.118
5.512
5.906
6.299
6.693
7.087
7.480
20
7.874
8.268
8.661
9.055
9.449
9.843
10.236
10.630
11.024
11.417
30
11.811
12.205
12.598
12.992
13.386
13.780
14.173
14.567
14.961
15.354
40
15.748
16.142
16.535
16.929
17.323
17.717
18.110
18.504
18.898
19.291
50
19.685
20.079
20.472
20.866
21.260
21.654
22.047
22.441
22.835
23.228
60
23.622
24.016
24.409
24.803
25.197
25.591
25.984
26.378
26.772
27.165
70
27.559
27.953
28.346
28.740
29.134
29.528
29.921
30.315
30.709
31.102
80
31.496
31.890
32.283
32.677
33.071
33.465
33.858
34.252
34.646
35.039
90
35.433
35.827
36.220
36.614
37.008
37.402
37.795
38.189
38.583
38.976
100
39.370
39.764
40.157
40.551
40.945
41.339
41.732
42.126
42.520
42.913
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-6)
CONVERTING INCHES TO CENTIMETERS
Inches
1
7
I
17.78
20.32
22.86
9
10
25.40
27.94
30.48
33.02
35.56
38.10
40.64
43.18
45.72
48.26
20
50.80
53.34
55.88
58.42
60.96
63.50
66.04
68.58
71.12
73.66
30
76.20
78.74
81.28
83.82
86.36
88.90
91.44
93.98
96.52
99.06
40
101.60
104.14
106.68
109.22
111.76
114.30
116.84
119.3*
119.38
121.92
121.92
124.46
124.46
50
127.00
129.54
132.08
134.62
137.16
139.70
142.24
144.78
147.32
149.86
60
152.40
154.94
157.48
160.02
162.56
165.10
167.64
170.18
172.72
175.26
70
177.80
180.34
182.88
185.42
187.96
190.50
193.04
195.58
198.12
200.66
80
203.20
205.74
208.28
210.82
213.36
215.90
218.44
220.98
223.52
226.06
90
228.60
231.14
233.68
236.22
238.76
241.30
243.84
246.38
248.92
251.46
100
254.00
256.54
259.08
261.62
264.16
266.70
269.24
271.78
274.32
276.86
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-7)
FA09000
1-16
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
X Air LS (XA85)
General
KNOTS, STATUTE MILES, AND KILOMETERS
KNOT
5Statute
Kilo
Miles
meters
5
6
10
KNOT
Statute
Miles
meters
9
175
202
324
12
19
180
207
15
17
28
185
213
20
23
37
190
25
29
46
30
35
35
Kilo
KNOT
Statute
Kilo
Miles
meters
345
397
639
350
403
648
343
355
409
657
219
352
360
415
667
195
225
361
365
420
676
56
200
230
370
370
426
685
40
65
205
236
380
375
432
695
40
46
74
210
242
389
380
438
704
45
52
83
215
248
398
385
443
713
50
58
93
220
253
407
390
449
722
55
63
102
225
259
417
395
455
732
60
69
111
230
265
426
400
461
741
65
75
120
235
271
435
405
466
750
70
81
130
240
276
444
410
472
759
75
86
139
245
282
454
415
478
769
80||
92
148
250
288
463
420
484
778
85
98
157
255
294
472
425
489
787
90
104
167
260
299
482
430
495
796
95
109
176
265
305
491
435
501
806
115
185
270
311
500
440
507
105
121
194
275
317
509
445
512
110
127
204
280
322
519
450
518
115
132
213
285
328
528
455
524
843
120
138
222
290
334
537
460
530
852
125
144
232
295
340
546
465
535
861
130
150
241
300
345
556
470
541
870
135
155
250
305
351
565
475
547
880
140
161
259
310
357
574
480
553
889
145
167
269
315
363
583
485
559
898
150
173
278
320
369
593
490
564
907
155
178
287
325
374
602
495
570
917
160
184
296
330
380
611
500
576
926
165
190
306
335
386
620
505
582
935
392
630
510
587
824
(Figure 1-8)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-17
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
LITERS, IMPERIAL GALLONS, AND U.S. GALLONS
CONVERTING LITERS TO IMPERIAL GALLONS
5
•
•
6
7
1.32
1.54
8
9
1.98
2.42
2.64
2.86
3.08
3.30
3.52
3.74
3.96
4.18
20
4.40
4.62
4.84
5.06
5.28
5.50
5.72
5.94
6.16
6.38
30
6.60
6.82
7.04
7.26
7.48
7.70
7.92
8.14
8.36
8.58
40
8.80
9.02
9.24
9.46
9.68
9.90
10.12
10.34
10.56
10.78
50
11.00
11.22
11.44
11.66
11.88
12.10
12.32
12.54
12.76
12.98
60
13.20
13.42
13.64
13.86
14.08
14.30
14.52
14.74
14.96
15.18
70
15.40
15.62
15.84
16.06
16.28
16.50
16.72
16.94
17.16
17.38
80
17.60
17.82
18.04
18.26
18.48
18.70
18.92
19.14
19.36
19.58
90
19.80
20.02
20.24
20.46
20.68
20.90
21.12
21.34
21.56
21.78
100
22.00
22.22
22.44
22.66
22.88
23.10
23.32
23.54
23.76
23.98
Example: Referto (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of howto use thesetypesof tables.
(Figure 1-9)
CONVERTING IMPERIAL GALLONS TO LITI
Imperial
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
0.00
4.55
9.09
13.64
18.18
22.73
27.28
31.82
36.37
40.91
10
45.46
50.01
54.55
59.10
63.64
68.19
72.74
77.28
81.83
86.37
20
90.92
95.47
100.01
104.56
109.10
113.65
118.20
122.74
127.29
131.83
30
136.38
140.93
145.47
150.02
154.56
159.11
163.66
168.20
172.75
177.29
40
181.84
186.39
190.93
195.48
200.02
204.57
209.12
213.66
218.21
222.75
50
227.30
231.85
236.39
240.94
245.48
250.03
254.58
259.12
263.67
268.21
60
272.76
277.31
281.85
286.40
290.94
295.49
300.04
304.58
309.13
313.67
70
318.22
322.77
327.31
331.86
336.40
340.95
345.50
350.04
354.59
359.13
80
363.68
368.23
372.77
377.32
381.86
386.41
390.96
395.50
400.05
404.59
90
409.14
413.69
418.23
422.78
427.32
431.87
436.42
440.96
445.51
450.05
100
454.60
459.15
463.69
468.24
472.78
477.33
481.88
486.42
490.97
495.51
Gallons
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-10)
FA09000
1-18
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
X Air LS (XA85)
General
CONVERTING LITERS TO U.S. GALLON!
Liters
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
0.00
0.26
0.53
0.79
1.06
1.32
1.59
1.85
2.11
2.38
10
2.64
2.91
3.17
3.43
3.70
3.96
4.23
4.49
4.76
5.02
20
5.28
5.55
5.81
6.08
6.34
6.60
6.87
7.13
7.40
7.66
30
7.93
8.19
8.45
8.72
8.98
9.25
9.51
9.77
10.04
10.30
40
10.57
10.83
11.10
11.36
11.62
11.89
12.15
12.42
12.68
12.94
50
13.21
13.47
13.74
14.00
14.27
14.53
14.79
15.06
15.32
15.59
60
15.85
16.11
16.38
16.64
16.91
17.17
17.44
17.70
17.96
18.23
70
18.49
18.76
19.02
19.28
19.55
19.81
20.08
20.34
20.61
20.87
80
21.13
21.40
21.66
21.93
22.19
22.45
22.72
22.98
23.25
23.51
90
23.78
24.04
24.30
24.57
24.83
25.10
25.36
25.62
25.89
26.15
100
26.42
26.68
26.95
27.21
27.47
27.74
28.00
28.27
28.53
28.79
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-11)
CONVERTING U.S. GALLONS TO LITERS
U.S. Gallons
I
•
•
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3.79
7.57
11.36
15.14
18.93
22.71
26.50
30.28
34.07
10
37.85
41.64
45.42
49.21
52.99
56.78
60.56
64.35
68.13
71.92
20
75.70
79.49
83.27
87.06
90.84
94.63
98.41
102.20
105.98
109.77
30
113.55
117.34
121.12
124.91
128.69
132.48
136.26
140.05
143.83
147.62
40
151.40
155.19
158.97
162.76
166.54
170.33
174.11
177.90
181.68
185.47
50
189.25
193.04
196.82
200.61
204.39
208.18
211.96
215.75
219.53
223.32
60
227.10
230.89
234.67
238.46
242.24
246.03
249.81
253.60
257.38
261.17
70
264.95
268.74
272.52
276.31
280.09
283.88
287.66
291.45
295.23
299.02
80
302.80
306.59
310.37
314.16
317.94
321.73
325.51
329.30
333.08
336.87
90
340.65
344.44
348.22
352.01
355.79
359.58
363.36
367.15
370.93
374.72
100
378.50
382.29
386.07
389.86
393.64
397.43
401.21
405.00
408.78
412.57
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-12)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-19
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
CONVERTING IMPERIAL GALLONS TO U.S. GALLONS
Imperial
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0.00
1.20
2.40
3.60
4.80
6.01
7.21
8.41
9.61
10.81
10
12.01
13.21
14.41
15.61
16.81
18.02
19.22
20.42
21.62
22.82
20
24.02
25.22
26.42
27.62
28.82
30.03
31.23
32.43
33.63
34.83
30
36.03
37.23
38.43
39.63
40.83
42.04
43.24
44.44
45.64
46.84
40
48.04
49.24
50.44
51.64
52.84
54.05
55.25
56.45
57.65
58.85
50
60.05
61.25
62.45
63.65
64.85
66.06
67.26
68.46
69.66
70.86
60
72.06
73.26
74.46
75.66
76.86
78.07
79.27
80.47
81.67
82.87
70
84.07
85.27
86.47
87.67
88.87
90.08
91.28
92.48
93.68
94.88
80
96.08
97.28
98.48
99.68
100.88
102.09
103.29
104.49
105.69
106.89
90
108.09
109.29
110.49
111.69
112.89
114.10
115.30
116.50
117.70
118.90
100
120.10
121.30
122.50
123.70
124.90
126.11
127.31
128.51
129.71
130.91
Gallons
Example: Refe r to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1- 3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-13)
CONVERTING U.S. GALLONS TO IMPERIAL GALLONS
U.S. Gallons
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
0.00
0.83
1.67
2.50
3.33
4.16
5.00
5.83
6.66
7.49
10
8.33
9.16
9.99
10.82
11.66
12.49
13.32
14.16
14.99
15.82
20
16.65
17.49
18.32
19.15
19.98
20.82
21.65
22.48
23.32
24.15
30
24.98
25.81
26.65
27.48
28.31
29.14
29.98
30.81
31.64
32.47
40
33.31
34.14
34.97
35.81
36.64
37.47
38.30
39.14
39.97
40.80
50
41.63
42.47
43.30
44.13
44.96
45.80
46.63
47.46
48.30
49.13
60
49.96
50.79
51.63
52.46
53.29
54.12
54.96
55.79
56.62
57.45
70
58.29
59.12
59.95
60.79
61.62
62.45
63.28
64.12
64.95
65.78
80
66.61
71.61
72.44
73.28
74.11
90
74.94
75.77
76.61
77.44
78.27
79.10
79.94
80.77
81.60
82.44
100
83.27
84.10
84.93
85.77
86.60
87.43
88.26
89.10
89.93
90.76
•
•
•
•
•
Example: Refer to (Figure 1-2) and (Figure 1-3) for examples of how to use these types of tables.
(Figure 1-14)
FA09000
1-20
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIPS (FAHRENHEIT AND CELSIUS)
Fahrenheit
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Celsius
F*lhrenhc it
Celsius
-40F
-40C
145F
63C
330F
166C
-35F
-37C ••
150F
66C
335F
168C
-30F
-34C
155F
68C
340F
171C
-32C
160F
71C
345F
-20F
-29C
165F
74C
350F
177C
-15F
-26C
170F
77C
355F
179C
-10F
-23C
175F
79C
360F
182C
-5F
-21C
180F
82C
365F
185C
OF
-18C
185F
85C
370F
188C
190F
88C
375F
191C
-25F
•
5F
•
IM
!•
-15C
IB
•
91C
380F
193C
15F
-9C
200F
93C
385F
196C
20F
-7C
205F
96C
390F
199C
25F
-4C
210F
99C
395F
202C
30F
-IC
215F
102C
400F
204C
35F
2C
220F
104C
405F
207C
40F
4C
225F
107C
410F
230F
hoc
415F
•
210C
•I
213C
50F
IOC
235F
113C
420F
216C
55F
13C
240F
116C
425F
218C
60F
16C
245F
118C
430F
221C
65F
18C
250F
121C
435F
224C
70F
21C
255F
124C
440F
227C
75F
24C
260F
127C
445F
229C
27C
265F
129C
450F
232C
29C
270F
132C
455F
235C
90F
32C
275F
135C
460F
238C
95F
35C
280F
138C
465F
241C
100F
38C
285F
141C
470F
243C
105F
41C
290F
143C
475F
246C
110F
43C
295F
146C
480F
249C
115F
46C
300F
149C
485F
252C
120F
49C
305F
152C
490F
254C
125F
52C
310F
495F
257C
130F
54C
315F
157C
500F
260C
135F
57C
320F
160C
505F
263C
140F
60C
325F
163C
510F
266C
•
154C
Hi
•
174C
195F
IB
•
Ml
-12C
80F
•
WM m
10F
IB
•
m
•
•
(Figure I-15)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
1-21
-%
Section 1
General
X Air LS (XA85)
FUEL WEIGHTS AND CONVERSION RELATIONSHIPS
The table below summarizes the weights and conversion relationships for liters, U.S. Gallons,
and Imperial Gallons. The chart values are only to two decimal places. The table is intended to
provide approximate values for converting from one particular quantity of measurement to
another.
Weight
Quantity
Kg.
Lbs.
Liters
0.72
1.58
Imperial Gallons
3.72
7.2
U.S. Gallons
2.72
6.0
Converting To U.S.
Converting To
Converting To
Gallons
Imperial Gallons
Liters
26% of the liter quantity 22% of the liter quantity
1.2 times the number of
4.55 times the number of
Imperial Gallons
Imperial Gallons
83% of the U.S. Gallon 3.78 times the number of
quantity
U.S. Gallons
(Figure 1-16)
r
FA09000
1-22
I
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 1
XAirLS(XA85)
•
General
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
^
FA09000
1-23
Section 2
X Air LS (XA85)
Limitations
Section 2
Limitations
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
2-3
LIMITATIONS
2-3
Airspeed Limitation
Airspeed Indicator Markings
Powerplant Limitations
Powerplant Fuel and Oil Data
Oil Grades Recommended for Various Average Temperature Ranges
Oil Temperature
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-5
Oil Pressure
2-5
Approved Fuel Grades
2-5
Fuel Flow and Fuel Pressure
2-5
Powerplant Instrument Markings
Propeller Data and Limitations
Propeller Diameters
Propeller Blade Angles at 20 mm Station
Weight Limits
Center Of Gravity Limits
Center of Gravity Table
Maneuvering Limits
Approved Acrobatic Maneuvers
Spins
Flight Load Factor Limits
Utility Category
Kinds of Operation Limits and Pilot Requirements
Icing Conditions
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
Fuel Limitations
Other Limitations
Altitude
2-7
2-7
2-7
Flap Limitations
Passenger Seating Capacity
PLACARDS
General
Placards
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
2-7
2-7
2-8
2-8
2-9
FA09000
2-1
Section 2
Limitations
X Air LS (XA85)
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
/H^*\
FA09000
2-2
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 2
X Air LS (XA85)
Limitations
Section 2
Limitations
INTRODUCTION
Section 2 contains the operating limitations of this airplane. X Air, LLC approves the limitations
included in this Section. These include operating limitations, instrument markings, and basic
placards necessary for the safe operation of the airplane, the airplane's engine, the airplane's
standard systems, and the airplane's standard equipment.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
2-3
Section 2
Limitations
X Air LS (XA85)
LIMITATIONS
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
The airspeed limitations below are based on the maximum gross takeoff weight of 1234 lbs. The
maximum operating maneuvering speeds (V0) and applicable gross weight limitations are shown
in (Figure 2-1).
MPH
SPEED
Vq Max. Operating Maneuvering Speed
v
Maximum Flap Extended Speed
re (Landing)
VN0
Max. Structural Cruising Speed
VNE
REMARKS
CAS
Never Exceed Speed
100
Do not apply full or abrupt control movements
above this speed.
60
Do not exceed this speed with full flaps. Take-Off
flaps can be extended at 70 MPH CAS.
105
Do not exceed this speed except in smooth air and
then only with caution.
120
Do not exceed this speed in any operation.
(Figure 2-1)
AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS
The outer circumference of the airspeed indicator has four colored arcs. The meaning and range
of each arc is tabulated in (Figure 2-2).
MARKING
VALUE OR
RANGE
White Arc
39 to 70 MPH
Full Flap Operating Range - Lower limit is maximum weight stalling speed
in the landing configuration. Upper limit is maximum speed permissible
with take-off flaps extended.
Green Arc
44 to 105 MPH
Normal Operating Range - Lower limit is maximum weight stalling speed
with flaps retracted. Upper limit is maximum structural cruising speed.
Yellow Arc
106 to 119 MPH
Operations must be conducted with caution and only in smooth air.
Red Line
120 MPH
Maximum speed for all operations
(Figure 2-2)
POWERPLANT LIMITATIONS
Number of Engines: One (1)
Engine Manufacturer: Jabiru
Engine Model Number: 2200
Recommended Time Between Overhaul: 2000 Hours (Time in Service), Top overhaul 1000
Hours (Time in Service)
Maximum Power: 85 BHP at 3300 RPM
Maximum Recommended Cruise: 85 BHP
Maximum Peak Cylinder Head Temperature: 392°F (200°C)
Maximum Continuous Cylinder Head Temperature: 356°F (180°C)
FA09000
2-4
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 2
X Air LS (XA85)
Limitations
POWERPLANT FUEL AND OIL DATA
Recommended Oil Grade
Aero Oil Multigrade 15W-50, or equivalent Lubricant complying with MEL-L-22851C, or
Lycoming Spec. 30IF, or Teledyne - Continental Spec MHF-24B.
Oil Temperature
Minimum for Takeoff: 122°F (50°C)
Maximum Allowable: 244°F (118°C)
Recommended flight operations: 176°F to 212°F (80°C to 100°C)
Oil Pressures
Normal Operations: 32-76 psi (pounds per square inch)
Idle, minimum: 12 psi
Maximum allowable (cold oil): 76 psi
Approved Fuel Grades
AVGAS 100LL. MOGAS with RON Octane Rating 95 or above may be used if AVGAS is
not available. (Correlates to 91+ octane using R+M/2 rating method. See note in section 1
regarding Octane rating methods)
Fuel Flow and Fuel Pressure
Normal Operations: 3 to 3.7 (5.5 Max) GPH (21 LPH Max)
Maximum allowable fuel pressure: .75 to 3 PSI at carburetor
POWERPLANT INSTRUMENT MARKINGS
The following table (Figure 2-3) shows applicable color-coded ranges for the various powerplant
instruments within the aircraft.
•
RED LINE
GREEN ARC
RED LINE
INSTRUMENT
Minimum Limit
Normal Operating
Limit
2000 - 3300 RPM
3300 RPM
176°F-212°F
(-1°C to 50°C)
Minimum for idle
Tachometer
900 RPM*
30°Ftol22°F
Oil Temperature
Minimum for takeoff 122°F (50°C)
(80°C-100°C)
244°F to 250°F
(118°Ctol21°C)
w
Oil
••
Minimum for idle 12 psi
32 - 76 psi
76 psi
(Cold Oil)
A red line below "E" or "zero" indicates
Fuel Quantity
Cylinder Head Temperature
the remaining fuel in the tank cannot be
used safely in flight.
Minimum for takeoff 212°F (100°C)
(J j£J, _igfJ^C)
240- 356°F
392°F (200°C)
*These limitations are not marked on the gauge. However, it is important information that the pilot must be aware of.
DO NOT allow cylinder heads to rise above 356°F during ground running.
(Figure 2-3)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
2-5
Section 2
X Air LS (XA85)
Limitations
PROPELLER DATA AND LIMITATIONS
Number of Propellers: 1
Propeller Manufacture: DUC
Propeller Model: SWIRL
Propeller Diameters
Minimum: 1600mm
Maximum: 1620mm
Propeller Blade Angle at 20 mm Station from end of blade:
13.5° (±0.5°)
WEIGHT LIMITS
Maximum Ramp Weight:
Maximum Empty Weight:
Maximum Takeoff Weight:
Maximum Landing Weight:
Maximum Baggage Weight:
1234 lbs. (560 kg)
739 lbs. (335 kg)
1234 lbs. (560 kg)
1234 lbs. (560 kg)
10 lbs. (4.5 kg)
CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMITS
(Figure 2-4) specifies the center of gravity limits.
CENTER OF GRAVITY TABLE
CATEGORY
FORWARD DATUM
AFT DATUM POINT
VARIATION
62.6 inches
Straight Line
POINT
Light Sport
58.25 inches
Reference Datum: The reference datum is located at the rear of the propeller spinner bulkhead.
This location causes all arm distances and moments (the product of arm and weight) to be positive
values.
(Figure 2-4)
MANEUVER LIMITS
APPROVED ACROBATIC MANEUVERS
MANEUVER
ENTRY SPEED
Chandelles
90 MPH CAS
Lazy Eights
90 MPH CAS
Steep Turns
90 MPH CAS
Stalls
Slow Deceleration
SPINS PROHIBITED
r
(Figure 2-5)
FA09000
2-6
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 2
X Air LS (XA85)
Limitations
It is important to remember that the airplane accelerates quite rapidly in a nose down attitude,
such as when performing a lazy eight.
SPINS
The airplane is not approved for spins of any duration.
WARNING
Do not attempt to spin the airplane under any circumstances. The airplane is
not approved for spins of any duration.
FLIGHT LOAD FACTOR LIMITS
Maximum flight load factors for all weights are:
Flaps Position
Max. Load Factor
Up (Cruise Position)
Down (Landing Position)
+4.4g and -1.76g
+2.0g and -0.0 g
KINDS OF OPERATION LIMITS AND PILOT REQUIREMENTS
The airplane has the necessary equipment available and is certified for daytime VFR only. The
operational minimum equipment and instrumentation for the kinds of operation are detailed in
Part 91 of the Federal Aviation Regulations.
IMC CONDITIONS (Instrument Meteorological Conditions)
Flight into IMC is prohibited. The Light Sport Pilot must maintain visual contact with the surface
of the earth at all times. No attitude information is availableon the X Air LS instrument panel.
FUEL LIMITATIONS
Total Capacity: 15.5 US Gallons (58.6)
Total Usable Fuel: 15 US Gallons (57 L)
OTHER LIMITATIONS
Altitude - The maximum flight altitude is 10,000 MSL for light Sport Pilot Operations. If
operated by a Private Pilot and properly equipped, the maximum flight altitude is 14,000 MSL.
See FAR Part 91 for applicable equipment and oxygen requirements.
Flap Limitations
Approved Takeoff Range: 0-10°
Approved Landing Range: All
Occupant Seating Capacity - The maximum seating configuration is two persons.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
2-7
Section 2
Limitations
X Air LS (XA85)
PLACARDS
r
GENERAL
A number of different placards must be prominently displayed on the interior and exterior of the
airplane. The placards contain infonnation about the airplane and its operation that is of
significant importance. The placard is placed in a location proximate to the item it describes. For
example, the fuel capacity placard is near the tank filler cap. The placards and their locations are
shown on the following pages as they appear on the interior and exterior of the airplane.
FA09000
2-8
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 2
X Air LS (XA85)
Limitations
PLACARDS
Intercom
Pull Hot
On
Radio
Carb Heat
Fuel Pump
Radio Switch
Carb Heat Control
Fuel Pump Switch
Starting Fuel
Control (SFC)
Push to Start
Ignition
Left Ignition
Right Ignition
Starter Button
Fuel Valve
I
Open
MASTER
Flap Position
Up
10
20
35
Master Switch (Keyed)
Above Flap Handle
MAN
X-AIR, LLC
MODEL
XA85
SERIAL
XXXX
DOM
XXX XXXX
N12345
Left and Right Side of Fuselage
Close
This aircraft has been manufactured in
accordance with LSA airworthiness
Max. Baggage 10lbs.
standards and does not conform to standard
category airworthiness requirements.
Data Plate
(Located on left hand side of
fuselage below horizontal stabilizer)
On Baggage Flap
Passenger Warning
Light Sport
FUEL 15.5 GALLONS MAX 15 GALLONS USEABLE
Just Above the Baggage Flap
MINIMUM OCTANE RATING 91 OCTANE MOGAS (R+M/2)
OR 100LL AVIATION FUEL
USE OF FUEL MIXED WITH ETHANOL NOT ALLOWED
Near Fuel Filler
NOTE: A compass correction card must also be installed in
the holder attached to the compass installed in the aircraft.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
2-9
Section 3
X Air LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
Section 3
Emergency Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Airspeeds For Emergency Operations
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CHECKLISTS
Engine Failure During Takeoff
Engine Failure Immediately After Takeoff (Below 400 feet AGL)
Engine Failure During Climb to Cruise Altitude (Above 400 feet AGL)
Engine Failure During Flight
Engine Failure During Descent (Fuel Annunciator Illuminated)
Procedures After an Engine Restart
Emergency Landing Without Engine Power
Emergency Landing With Throttle Stuck at Idle Power
Precautionary Landing With Engine Power
Ditching
Engine Fires On The Ground During Startup
In-Flight Engine Fire
In-Flight Electrical Fire
In-Flight Cabin Fire (Fuel/Hydraulic Fluid)
In-Flight Wing Fire
Landing With Flat Main Tire
Landing With Flat Nose Tire
Electrical System Overcharging
Electrical System Discharging
Complete Electrical Failure
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
Broken or Stuck Throttle Cable
3-8
Evacuating the Airplane
3-9
AMPLIFIED EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Engine Failure and Forced Landing
General
Engine Failure After Takeoff (Below 400 feet AGL)
Engine Failure After Takeoff (Above 400 feet AGL)
In-Flight Engine Failure
Best Glide Speed Versus Minimum Rate of Descent
Backup Boost Pump
Engine Restarts
Engine Does Not Restart
Forced Landing with the Throttle Stuck in the Idle Position
Stuck Throttle with Enough Power to Sustain Flight
Flight Controls Malfunction
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-10
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-11
FA09000
3-1
Section 3
Emergency Procedures
General
Aileron or Rudder Failure
Elevator Failure
Trim Tab Malfunctions
Fires
X Air LS (XA85)
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-12
General
3-12
Engine Fires
3-12
Cabin Fires
3-12
Engine and Propeller Problems
Engine Roughness
High Cylinder Head Temperatures
High Oil Temperature
3-12
3-12
3-13
3-13
Low Oil Pressure
3-13
Failure of Engine Driven Fuel Pump
3-13
Electrical Problems
3-13
Under Voltage
Loadshedding
Complete Electrical Failure
3-14
3-14
3-14
General
Static Source Blockage
Spins
Emergency Exit
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-14
General
3-14
Doors
3-14
Seat Belts
3-14
Exiting (Cabin Door(s) Operable)
Exiting (Cabin Doors Inoperable)
3-15
3-15
r
FA09000
3-2
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 3
X Air LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
Section 3
Emergency Procedures
INTRODUCTION
The emergency procedures are included before the normal procedures, as these items have a
higher level of importance. The owner of this handbook is encouraged to copy or otherwise
tabulate the following emergency procedures in a format that is usable under flight conditions.
Plastic laminated pages printed on both sides and bound together are preferable. Complete
Emergency Procedures Checklist shall be carried in the aircraft at all times in a location that is
easily accessible to the pilot in command.
Many emergency procedures require immediate action by the pilot in command, and corrective
action must be initiated without direct reference to the emergency checklist. Therefore, the pilot
in command must memorize the appropriate corrective action for these types of emergencies. In
this instance, the Emergency Procedures Checklist is used as a crosscheck to ensure that no items
are excluded and is used only after control of the airplane is established. When the airplane is
under control and the demands of the situation permit, the Emergency Procedures Checklist
should be used to verify that all required actions are completed.
In all emergencies, it is important to communicate with Air Traffic Control (ATC) or the
appropriate controlling entity within radio range if possible. However, communicating is always
secondary to controlling the airplane and should be done, if time and conditions permit, after the
essential elements of handling the emergency are performed.
AIRSPEEDS FOR EMERGENCY OPERATIONS
Engine Failure After Takeoff
Wing Flaps Up (Cruise Position)
Wing Flaps Takeoff Position
Maximum Glide (Flaps Up)
65 MPH
1234 lbs Gross Weight
62 MPH
CAS
60 MPH
CAS
Maneuvering Speed
1234 lbs. Gross Weight
Minimum Rate of Descent (Flaps Up)
65 MPH
1234 lbs. Gross Weight
CAS
Precautionary Landing
(With engine power, flaps in the landing
position)
62 MPH
CAS
Approach Speed without Power
60 MPH
CAS
Wing Flaps Up (Cruise Position)
Wing Flaps Landing Position
60 MPH
CAS
55 MPH
CAS
(Figure 3-1)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
3-3
_^-^
Section 3
Emergency Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CHECKLISTS
ENGINE FAILURE DURING TAKEOFF ROLL
1.
Throttle Control—SET TO IDLE
2.
3.
4.
5.
Brakes—APPLY STEADY PRESSURE (release momentarily if skidding occurs)
Wing Flaps—IN THE CRUISE POSITION
Ignition Switches — SET TO OFF
Key Switch—SET TO OFF
6.
Fuel Selector Valve—SET TO OFF
ENGINE FAILURE IMMEDIATELY AFTER TAKEOFF (Below 400 Feet AGL)
1. Airspeed— 65 MPH (with flaps in the up position)*
2. Ignition Switches — SET TO OFF
3.
Fuel Selector Valve—SET TO OFF
4. Key Switch—SET TO OFF
5. Wing Flaps — IN THE LANDING POSITION (If airspeed and height above the ground
permit full extension of flaps. Otherwise, the maximum flap extension practicable should be
used depending on airspeed and height above the ground.)
♦Obtain this airspeed if altitude permits; otherwise lower the nose, maintain current airspeed
and land straight ahead.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING CLIMB TO CRUISE ALTITUDE (Above 400 Feet AGL)
1. Airspeed—65 MPH (flaps in the up position)
2.
Fuel Selector Valve—SET TO ON
3. Ignition Switches — VERIFY SET TO ON
4.
Throttle Control — SET TO FULL OPEN
5. Backup Boost Pump — CHECK IN ON POSITION
6.
Carburetor Heat-ON
6.1. Engine Does Not Restart—Use EmergencyLanding Without Engine Power checklist.
6.2. Engine Restarts — Use the Procedures After an Engine Restart checklist.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT
1. Airspeed—65 MPH (flaps in the up position)
2.
Fuel Selector Valve—SET TO ON
3. Throttle Control — SET TO FULL OPEN
4. Backup Boost Pump —SWITCH SET TO ON
5.
Carburetor Heat~ON
6. Ignition Switches — VERIFY SET TO ON
6.1. Engine Restarts — Use the Procedures After an EngineRestart checklist.
6.2. Engine Does Not Restart — Use Emergency Landing Without Engine Power checklist.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING DESCENT
1. Airspeed—65 MPH
f**-. 2. Ignition Switches — SET TO ON
3. Throttle — ADVANCED ABOUT ONE THIRD
4.
Fuel Selector—VERIFY ON
FA09000
3-4
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 3
X Air LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
5. Back-up Boost Pump — SET TO ON
6. Carburetor Heat-ON
^
5.1.Engine Restarts — CLIMB TO SAFE ALTITUDE (Use Procedures After an Engine
Restart checklist.)
5.2.Engine Does Not Restart - (Use Emergency Landing Without Engine Power checklist if
step 6 does not restore engine power)
7. Throttle — SET TO FULL OPEN - and proceed with 5.1 or 5.2 as appropriate
PROCEDURES AFTER AN ENGINE RESTART
1. Airspeed—APPROPRIATE TO THE SITUATION
2. Throttle Control — AS REQUIRED
3. Failure Analysis — DETERMINE CAUSE (Proceed to 3.1 or 3.2 as applicable.)
3.1. Improper Fuel Management — If the engine failure cause is improper fuel management,
set the backup boost pump to OFF and resume flight.
3.2. Engine Driven Fuel Pump Failure — If fuel management is correct, failure of the engine
driven fuel pump or a clogged fuel filter is probable. If practicable, reduce power to 75%
or less and land as soon as possible.
3.3. In relatively humid conditions, it is possible for carburetor ice to develop at fairly high
ambient temperatures. If Carburetor Heat restores engine power, continue operating with
Carburetor Heat on and anticipate reduced maximum power available.
EMERGENCY LANDING WITHOUT ENGINE POWER
1.
Approach Airspeed—
2.
Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses—FASTENED AND SECURE
60 MPH (Full Flaps or Takeoff Flaps)
3.
4.
Loose objects—SECURE
Backup Boost Pump—SET TO OFF
^%
5.
Fuel Selector Valve—SET TO OFF
6.
Electrical and Avionics Master Switches — SET TO OFF
7.
8.
9.
10.
Ignition Switches — SET TO OFF
Wing Flaps — AS REQUIRED (Full flaps recommended for landing)
Key Switch — SET TO OFF
Landing Flare — INITIATE AT APPROPRIATE POINT TO ARREST DECENT RATE,
AND TOUCHDOWN AT NORMAL LANDING SPEEDS
11. Stopping — APPLY HEAVY BRAKING
EMERGENCY LANDING WITH THROTTLE STUCK AT IDLE POWER
1. Approach Airspeed—60 MPH (full flaps or takeoff flaps)
2.
Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses—FASTENED AND SECURE
3. Loose objects — SECURE
4.
Electrical and Avionics Master Switches — SET TO OFF
5.
6.
7.
8.
Backup Boost Pump — SET TO OFF
Wing Haps — AS REQUIRED (full flaps recommended)
Engine Shutdown—DELAY AS LONG AS PRACTICABLE (Then follow steps 8-12)
Key Switch — SET TO OFF
9.
Fuel Selector Valve—SET TO OFF
10. Ignition Switches—SET TO OFF
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
FA09000
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**%
Section 3
Emergency Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
11. Landing Flare — INITIATE AT APPROPRIATE POINT TO ARREST DECENT RATE,
AND TOUCHDOWN AT NORMAL LANDING SPEEDS
12. Stopping—APPLY HEAVY BRAKING
PRECAUTIONARY LANDING WITH ENGINE POWER
1.
Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses—FASTENED AND SECURE
2.
3.
4.
5.
Loose Objects — SECURE
Wing Flaps — SET TO TAKEOFF POSITION
Airspeed—70 MPH
Select a landing area — FLY OVER AREA (Determine wind direction and survey terrain.
Note obstructions and most suitable landing area. Climb to approximately 1000 feet above
ground level (AGL) and retract flaps when at a safe altitude and airspeed. Set up a normal
traffic pattern for a landing into the wind.)
6.
Electrical and radio switches — SET TO OFF
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Wing flaps — SET TO LANDING POSITION (when on final approach)
Airspeed—50-55 MPH
Key Switch—SET TO OFF (just before touchdown)
Landing — LAND AS SLOW AS PRACTICABLE IN A NOSE UP ATTITUDE
Ignition Switches — SET TO OFF
Stopping—APPLY HEAVY BRAKING
DITCHING
1.
2.
Radio — MAKE DISTRESS TRANSMISSION (Set transponder code 7700 if so equipped
and transmit a Mayday distress condition. Give estimated position and intentions.)
Loose Objects — SECURE
3.
Seat Belts and shoulder harnesses—FASTENED AND SECURE
4.
5.
Wing Flaps — SET TO 20 degrees (Second notch)Doors — OPEN
Descent — ESTABLISH MINIMUM DESCENT (Set airspeed to 60 MPH and use power to
establish minimum descent, ±200 feet/minute. See 7.2 below for landings without power.)
Approach — In high winds and heavy swell conditions, approach into the wind. In Ught
winds and heavy swell conditions, approach parallel to the swell. If no swells exist, approach
6.
into the wind.
7.
8.
9.
Touchdown Alternatives
7.1. Touchdown (Engine power available) — Maintain minimum descent attitude. Apply
power to slow or stop descent if necessary. When over a suitable touchdown area, reduce
power and slowly settle into the water in a nose up attitude near the stalling speed.
7.2. Touchdown (No engine power available) — Use an 55 to 65 MPH approach speed
down to the flare-out point and then glide momentarily to get a feel for the surface.
Allow the airplane to settle into the water in a nose up attitude near the stalling speed.
Evacuation of airplane — Evacuate the airplane through the pilot or passenger doors. It may
be necessary to allow some cabin flooding to equalize pressure on the doors. If the pilot or
passenger doors are inoperative, force doors open as necessary.
Rotation devices — DEPLOY FLOTATION DEVICES
FA09000
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
Section 3
X Air LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
NOTE
Over glassy smooth water, or at night without sufficient light, even
experienced pilots can misjudge altitude by 50 feet or more. Under such
conditions, carry enough power to maintain a nose up attitude at 10 to 20
percent above stalling speed until the airplane makes contact with the water.
ENGINE FIRE ON THE GROUND DURING STARTUP
If flames are observed in the induction or exhaust system, use the following procedures.
1. Ignition Switches — SET TO OFF
2.
Throttle Control —SET TO FULL OPEN
3. Starter Switch — HOLD IN CRANKING POSITION (until fire is extinguished)
4. Fire Extinguisher — OBTAIN FROM CABIN AND EVACUATE AIRPLANE
5. Follow-up — If fire is present, extinguish it. Inspect for damage and make the appropriate
repairs or replacements.
NOTE
Sometimes a fire will occur on the ground because of improper starting
procedures. If circumstances permit, move the airplane away from the
ground fire by pushing aft on the horizontal stabilizer, and then extinguish
the ground fire. This must only be attempted if the ground fire is nominal
and sufficient ground personnel are present to move the airplane.
IN-FLIGHT ENGINE FIRE
1.
Throttle Control — SET TO CLOSED
2.
Fuel Selector Valve — SET TO OFF
3. Heating and Ventilation Controls — SET TO OFF
4. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
5. Airspeed— 120 MPH (If fire is not extinguished at this speed, increase speed to a level that
extinguishes the fire.)
6. Landing— PERFORM A FORCED LANDING (See procedures on page 3-4.)
IN-FLIGHT ELECTRICAL FIRE
1. Heating and Ventilating Controls — SET TO OFF
2. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
3. Fire Extinguisher — DISCHARGE IN AREA OF THE FIRE
4. Post Fire Details — OPEN VENTILATION (if fire is extinguished)
5. Land as soon as possible.
IN-FLIGHT CABIN FIRE (Fuel)
1. All Heating Controls — SET TO OFF
2. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
3.
Fuel Selector — SET TO OFF
4. Fire Extinguisher — DISCHARGE IN AREA OF THE FIRE
5. When Fire is Extinguished — VENTILATE CABIN
6. Post Fire Details — Land the airplane as soon as possible to determine the extent of damage.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 3
Emergency Procedures
.
X Air LS (XA85)
WARNING
The fire extinguishing substance is toxic and the fumes must not be inhaled
for extended periods. After discharging the extinguisher, the cabin must be
ventilated.
IN-FLIGHT WING FIRE
1. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
2. Flight Action — Perform an intense sideslip to keep the flames away from the fuel tank and
the cabin. The sideslip may also extinguish the fire. Land the airplane as soon as possible.
Use wing flaps only if essential for a safe landing.
LANDING WITH A FLAT MAIN TIRE
1. Approach — NORMAL
2. Wing Flaps —SET TO LANDING POSITION
3.
Touchdown — Touch down on the inflated tire first and maintain full aileron deflection
towards the good tire, keeping the flat tire off the ground for as long as possible. Be prepared
for abnormal yaw in the direction of the flat tire. Utilize nose gear steering and braking to
maintain directional control.
LANDING WITH A FLAT NOSE TIRE
1. Approach — NORMAL
2. Wing Flaps — SET TO LANDING POSITION
3. Touchdown — Touch down on the main landing gear tires first. Maintain sufficient back
elevator deflection to keep the nose tire off the ground for as long as possible.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OVERCHARGING* (Alternator stays on-line and voltmeter has high
voltage indication)
1. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
2. Nonessential Electrical and Avionics Equipment — SET TO OFF
3. Flight — Depending on conditions, the flight shall be terminated as soon as possible or
practicable.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DISCHARGING (Ammeter shows a discharging condition)
1.
Avionics —SET TO OFF
2. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
3. Flight — Depending on conditions, the flight must be terminated as soon as possible or
practicable.
COMPLETE ELECTRICAL FAILURE (Battery is totally discharged or provides unreliable
instrument, lighting, and avionics indications)
1. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
2. Flight —LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE OR AS SOON AS POSSIBLE (depending
^
on flight conditions)
BROKEN OR STUCK THROTTLE CABLE (with enough power for continued flight)
FA09000
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 3
XAir LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
1. Continued Flight — LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
2. Airport Selection — ADEQUATE FOR POWER OFF APPROACH
3. Decent — CONTROL WITH IGNITION (Avoid extended power off descents which could
result in cold soaking.)
4.
Fuel Selector — ON
5. Approach Airspeed— 75 MPH (With flaps in the up position)
65 MPH (With flaps in the second notch (20 degrees)
6.
Seat Belts — FASTENED AND SECURE
7. Loose objects — SECURE
8. Flaps — AS REQUIRED (Full flaps should be extended only when reaching the runway is
assured.)
9. Touchdown — MAIN WHEELS FIRST, GENTLY LOWER NOSE WHEEL
10. Braking — AS REQUIRED
EVACUATING THE AIRPLANE
1. Seat Belts — REMOVE (Do not remove seat belts until the airplane comes to a
complete stop, unless there is a compelling reason to do otherwise. If the onset of the
emergency is anticipated, ensure the seat belt is as tight as possible.
2. Doors — USE BOTH IF POSSIBLE AND REQUIRED
"3. Exiting the Airplane — AS APPROPRIATE (If possible, use both doors).
4. Assistance — AS APPROPRIATE (If possible, necessary, and not life threatening,
render assistance to passenger in the airplane.)
5. Congregating Point — DESIGNATE (Pilot and passenger should have a designated
congregating point.)
AMPLIFIED EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
ENGINE FAILURE AND FORCED LANDINGS
General - The most important thing in any emergency is to maintain control of the airplane. If
an engine failure occurs during the takeoff run, the primary consideration is to safely stop the
airplane in the remaining available runway. The throttle is reduced first to prevent momentary
restarting of the engine. Raising the flaps reduces lift, which improves ground friction and
facilitates braking. In emergencies involving loss of power, it is important to minimize fire
potential, which includes shutting down or closing the electrical and fuel systems.
Engine Failure After Takeoff (Below 400 feet AGL) - With an engine failure immediately
after takeoff, time is of the essence. The most important consideration in this situation is to
maintain the proper airspeed. The airplane will be in a climb attitude and when the engine fails,
airspeed decays rapidly. Therefore, the nose must be lowered immediately and a proper glide
speed established. It may not be possible to accelerate to the best distance glide speed due to
altitude limitations. In this instance, lower the nose, maintain current airspeed, and land straight
ahead.
It is unlikely there will be enough altitude to do any significant maneuvering; only gentle turns
left or right to avoid obstructions should be attempted. If there are no obstructions, it is best to
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 3
Emergency Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
land straight ahead unless there is a significant crosswind component. Flaps should be applied if
airspeed and altitude permit since they can provide a reduction in landing speed.
Engine Failure After Takeoff (Above 400 feet AGL) - With an engine failure after takeoff,
there may be time to employ modified restarting procedures. Still, the most important
consideration in this situation is to maintain the proper airspeed. The airplane will be in a climb
attitude and when the engine fails, airspeed decays rapidly. Therefore, the nose must be lowered
immediately and a proper glide speed established. It may not be possible to accelerate to the best
distance glide speed due to altitude limitations. In this instance, lower the nose, maintain current
airspeed, and land straight ahead.
In-Flight Engine Failure - The extra time afforded by altitude may permit some diagnosis of
the situation. The first item is to establish the proper rate of descent at the best glide speed for the
situation. If altitude and other factors permit, an engine restart should be attempted. The
checklist, Engine Failure During Flight, ensure that the fuel supply and ignition are available.
Best Distance Glide
Min. Rate Glide
(Most Distance)
(Min. rate of descent)
Gross Weight
(lbs.)
MPH CAS
MPH CAS
1234 lbs.
62
62
(Figure 3-2)
Best Glide Speed Versus Minimum Rate of Descent Speed - The best distance glide speed
will provide the most distance covered over the ground for a given altitude loss, while the
minimum rate of descent speed, as its name suggests, will provide the least altitude lost in a
given time period. The best distance glide speed might be used in situations where a pilot, with a
engine failure but several thousand feet above the ground, is attempting to reach a distant airport.
The minimum rate of descent could be used in a situation when the pilot is over the desired
landing spot and wishes to maximize the time aloft for checklists and restart procedures. These
speeds are both 62 MPH CAS on the X Air LS.
Backup Boost Pump - The backup boost pump is intended for use during a situation when
failure of the engine driven pump has occurred. The switch that controls this operation is on the
center console. The switch is normally in the ON position for takeoff, climb to safe altitude, and
approach to landing and in the OFF position for cruise and descent.
If the engine driven pump malfunctions, and the backup boost pump is in the ON position, the
backup fuel pump will provide the engine with the required fuel pressure to continue operation.
Engine Restarts - If the engine restarts, two special issues must be considered: (1) If the airplane
was in a glide for an extended period of time at cold ambient air temperatures, the engine should
be operated at lower RPM settings for a few minutes until the oil and cylinder temperatures
return to normal ranges if possible. (2) If the engine failure is not related to pilot error, i.e., poor
fue\ management then a landing should be made as soon as practicable to determine the cause of
the engine failure.
FA09000
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 3
XAir LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
Engine Does Not Restart - If the engine does not restart, then a forced landing without power
must be completed as detailed earlier in this section, Emergency Landing Without Engine Power.
Maintaining the best distance glide speed provides the maximum distance over the ground with
the least altitude loss.
Forced Landing with the Throttle Stuck in the Idle Position - If the throttle is stuck at idle or
near idle power, then a forced landing must be performed. The procedures are somewhat similar
to those associated with a complete power loss. However, engine shutdown should be delayed as
long as safely practicable since the stuck throttle may be spontaneously cured. Changes in
altitude, temperature, and other atmospheric conditions associated with the descent may combine
to alleviate the stuck throttle condition. On the other hand, the problem could be the result of a
broken throttle cable, which has no immediate cure. Regardless of the cause, the pilot lacks both
the time and resources to properly analyze the cause. Running the engine until the last practicable
moment, within the confines of safety, is the most prudent course of action.
It is possible that the throttle may stick at a power setting that is above idle, but at insufficient
engine power level to sustain level flight. At the same time, this condition may restrict the
desired rate of descent. In this situation, the pilot can set the ignition switches to OFF to
momentarily stop the operation of the engine. If cylinder head temperatures fall below 240°,
restart the engine as necessary by selecting ignition switches to ON and pressing the START
bv&totv. Note that when the ignition is switched OFF, the propeller will not windmill and the
starter system will need to be employed to restart the engine. If the battery is discharged the
engine may not restart.
Stuck Throttle with Sufficient Power to Sustain Flight - If the throttle sticks at a power
setting that produces enough power for continued flight then a landing should be made as soon as
possible. If the airplane is near the ground, climb to an altitude that provides a greater margin of
safety, provided there is sufficient power to do so. Do not begin the descent for landing until the
airplane is near or over the airport. Again, as mentioned in the previous paragraph, the pilot can
set the ignition switches to OFF to momentarily stop the operation of the engine. If cylinder head
temperatures fall below 240°, restart the engine as necessary by selecting ignition switches to ON
and pressing the START button. A checklist for a stuck throttle condition that will sustain flight
is discussed above.
FLIGHT CONTROLS MALFUNCTIONS
General - The elevator and aileron controls are actuated by pushrods, which provide direct
positive response to the input of control pressures. The rudder is actuated by cable controls. The
pushrod system makes the likelihood of a control failure in the roll and pitch axis remote.
Aileron or Rudder Failure - The failure of the rudder or ailerons does not impose a critical
situation since control around either the vertical and longitudinal axes can still be approximately
maintained with either control surface. Plan a landing as soon as practicable on a runway that
minimizes the crosswind component. Remember that the skidding and slipping maneuvers
inherent in such an approach will increase the airplane's stall speed, and a margin for safety
should be added to the approach airspeed.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 3
Emergency Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
Elevator Failure - In the event of a failure of the elevator control system the airplane can be
controlled and landed using the elevator trim tab. The airplane should be landed as soon as
possible. En route, establish horizontal flight at 65% to 75% power. When within 2 miles of the
landing airport, slow to 70 MPH, set the flaps to the takeoff position, and establish a timed
shallow descent. Adjust the decent with power to enter the downwind leg at or slightly above
pattern altitude. Make a slightly wider than normal pattern so more time is provided for setup. On
final approach, set the flaps to the second notch position and re-trim the airplane to a 500 fpm
descent at about 65 MPH. Do not make further adjustment to the elevator trim, and avoid
excessive power adjustments. On the final approach to landing, make small power changes to
control the descent. Do not reduce power suddenly at the flare-out point as this will cause an
excessive nose down change and may cause the airplane to land on the nose wheel first. Land the
airplane in the established rate of decent rather than attempting to flare using the trim tab. Once
securely on the ground, raise the flaps and reduce power to idle.
TRIM TAB MALFUNCTION
In the event of trim tab malfunction it may be necessary to adjust the engine power setting and
indicated airspeed to reduce control system forces. The airplane will remain fully controllable
even with a stuck or inoperative trim tab. There will be higher than usual control forces during
the landing phase, or the airplane could be trimmed for a slower speed (and more nose up
attitude) than normal for landing. In either case, the control forces will be reduced by reducing
airspeed. Close attention should be paid to the airspeed on final and control forces may be
opposite from normal in some situations.
FIRES
General - Fires in flight (either engine, electrical, or cabin) are inherently more critical;
however, the likelihood of such an occurrence is extremely rare. The onset of an in-flight fire
can, to some degree, be forestalled through diligent monitoring of the engine instruments and
vigilance for suspicious odors. Fires on the ground can be mitigated through proper starting
techniques, particularly when the engine is very cold.
Engine Fires - The most common engine fires occur on the ground and are usually the result of
improper starting procedures. The excessive use of the starting fuel control is a primary reason
since this causes engine flooding. In situations of extensive starting fuel control use, the excess
fuel drains from the intake box and puddles on the ground. If this happens, the aircraft should be
moved away from the puddle. Otherwise, the potential exists for the exhaust system to ignite the
fuel puddle on the ground. Inadvertent engine flooding is likely during situations where the
engine has been cold-soaked at temperatures below 25°F (-4°C) for over two hours. See cold
weather operations on page 4-16.
Cabin Fire - Follow the manufacturer's instructions for use of the fire extinguisher. Once a
cabin fire is extinguished, it is important to ventilate the cabin as soon as possible. The residual
smoke and toxins from the fire extinguisher must not be inhaled for extended periods. Opening
the doors will enhance the ventilation process.
ENGINE AND PROPELLER PROBLEMS
Engine Roughness - Check operations on the individual left and right magnetos. If the engine
operates smoothly when operating on an individual magneto, adjust power as necessary and
FA09000
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 3
X Air LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
continue. However, do not operate the engine in this manner any longer than necessary. Land as
soon as possible for determination and repair of the problem. If individual magneto operations do
not improve performance, set both ignition switches to ON, and land as soon as possible for
engine repairs.
High Cylinder Head Temperatures - High cylinder head temperatures are often caused by too
lean of a mixture setting or internal carburetor malfunction. Reduce power and put the aircraft in
a gentle descent to increase airspeed. If cylinder head temperatures cannot be maintained within
the prescribed limits, land as soon as possible to have the problem evaluated and repaired.
High Oil Temperature - A prolonged high oil temperature indication is usually accompanied by
a drop in oil pressure. If oil pressure remains normal, then the cause of the problem could be a
faulty indicator. If the oil pressure drops as temperature increases, reduce power and put the
aircraft in a gentle descent to increase airspeed. If oil temperature does not drop after increasing
airspeed, reduce power and land as soon as possible.
CAUTION
If the above steps do not restore oil temperature to normal, severe damage
or an engine failure can result. Reduce power to idle and select a suitable
area for a forced landing. Follow the procedures described on page 3-5,
Emergency Landing Without Engine Power. The use of power must be
minimized and used only to reach the desired landing area.
Low Oil Pressure - If oil pressure drops below 20 psi at normal cruise power settings without
apparent reason and the oil temperature remains normal, monitor both oil pressure and
temperature closely, and land as soon as possible for evaluation and repair. If a drop in oil
pressure from prescribed limits is accompanied by a corresponding excessive temperature
increase, engine failure should be anticipated. Reduce power and follow the procedures described
on page 3-5, Emergency Landing Without Engine Power. The use of power must be minimized
and used only to reach the desired landing area.
Failure of Engine Driven Fuel Pump - In the event the engine driven fuel pump fails in flight
or during takeoff, there is an electrically powered backup fuel pump. The backup pump is
normally in the ON position for takeoff. In the cruise and descent configurations, the pump is
normally in the OFF position. At the first indication of engine drive pump failure set the throttle
to full open and set the backup pump switch to the ON position. Thereafter, the switch must
remain in this position and a landing must be made as soon as practicable to repair the engine
driven boost pump.
ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS
The potential for electrical problems can be forestalled somewhat by systematic monitoring of
the ammeter and voltmeter gauges. The onset of most electrical problems is indicated by
abnormal readings from either or both of these gauges. The ammeter, which is presented on an
analog gauge, basically measures the condition of the battery while the voltmeter indicates the
condition of the airplane's electrical system in a digital format.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
3-13
Section 3
Emergency Procedures
XAir LS (XA85)
Under Voltage - If there is an electrical demand above what can be produced by the alternator,
the battery temporarily satisfies the increased requirement and a discharging condition exists.
This condition is normal on the ground at low engine RPM operations. In flight, however, if the
alternator should fail, the battery carries the entire electrical demand of the airplane. As the
battery charge is expended, the voltage to the system will read something less than the optimum
14 volts. At approximately 8 volts, most electrical components will cease to work orwill operate
erratically and unreliably. Anytime the electrical demand is greater than what can be supplied by
the alternator, the battery is in a discharging state. If the discharging state is not corrected, in
time, there is decay in the voltage available to the electrical system of the airplane.
Load Shedding - If the under voltage condition cannot be cured, reducing the electrical load to
the system is necessary and the flight should be terminated as soon as possible or as soon as
practicable depending on flight conditions. All nonessential electrical and avionics equipment
must be turned off.
COMPLETE ELECTRICAL FAILURE
General - Normally, a pilot can anticipate the onset of a complete electrical failure. Items like an
alternator failure and a battery discharging state usually precedes the total loss of electrical
power. At the point the pilot first determines the electrical system is in an uncorrectable state of
decay, appropriate planning should be initiated. The primary objective is to ensure enough energy
remains in the system to provide power for necessary equipment to complete the flight safely.
In case of a total and sudden or otherwise not anticipated electrical failure, the pilot must take
actions appropriate to the conditions of flight. The pilot might choose to continue to the planned
destination or make a precautionary or unplanned landing.
STATIC AIR SOURCE BLOCKAGE
The static source for the airspeed indicator, the altimeter, the rate of climb indicator, and encoder
is located forward of the instrument panel. If the normal static source is blocked, airspeed and
altitude indications will be unreliable. If the need to return these instruments to normal indication
is compelling, breaking the glass of VSI will provide alternate venting of the static system and
return the indications to normal.
SPINS
The airplane, as certified in the LSA category, is not approved for spins of any duration.
EMERGENCY EXIT
General - It is impossible to cover all the contingencies of an emergency situation. The pilot in
command must analyze all possible alternatives and select a course of action appropriate to the
situation. The discussion on the following pages is intended as a generalized overview of
recommended actions and issues associated with emergency egress.
Doors - In emergencies, the cabin doors are used as exit points.
Seat Belts - The seat belt should not be removed until the airplane has come to a complete stop,
unless there are compelling reasons to do otherwise. At other times, such as when the airplane
has come to rest in an area of treetops, leaving the belts fastened might be the best course of
FA09000
3-14
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 3
X Air LS (XA85)
Emergency Procedures
action. When the seat belts are removed, it is helpful if the pilot and passengers stow them in a
manner that minimizes interference with airplane egress patterns.
^^
Exiting (Cabin Door(s) Operable) - If possible, useboth cabin doors as exit points. In theevent
of a wing fire, exit on the side away from thefire. If practicable, passenger and pilot should have
a designated congregating point. For example, 100feet aft of the airplane.
Exiting (Cabin Doors Inoperable) - If the cabin doors are inoperable, it is possible to kick the
door free from the airplane and exit.
INVERTED EXIT PROCEDURES
General - In emergencies where the airplane has come to rest in an inverted position the doors
may not open sufficiently to exit the airplane. If this happens, break either of the cabin door
windows.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
FA09000
3-15
Section 4
X Air LS (XA85)
Normal Procedures
Section 4
Normal Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Indicated Airspeeds for Normal Operations
NORMAL PROCEDURES CHECKLISTS
Preflight Inspection
Before Starting Engine
Starting Engine
After Engine Start
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-6
Before Taxi
4-7
Taxiing
4-6
Before Takeoff
4-7
Normal Takeoff
4-7
Short Field Takeoff
4-8
Crosswind operations
4-8
Normal Climb
4-8
Maximum Performance Climb
4-8
Cruise
4-8
Descent
4-8
Before Landing
Normal Landing
Short Field Landing
Balked Landing
After Landing
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-9
Shutdown
4-9
AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
4-10
Preflight Inspection
Wing Flaps
4-10
4-10
Fuel Drain
Fuel Vents
Fuel Selector
4-10
4-10
4-10
Fuel Quantity
Before Starting Engine
Restraints (Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses)
Engine Starting
Normal Starting
Under Priming
Control Position Versus Wind Component (Table)
Taxiing
4-10
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-11
4-11
4-11
4-12
Before Takeoff
4-11
Engine Temperatures
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
4-12
FA09000
4-1
Section 4
Normal Procedures
.
X Air LS (XA85)
Engine Runup
Takeoffs
Normal Takeoff
Short Field Takeoff
Crosswind Takeoff
Normal and Maximum Performance Climbs
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-13
Best Rate of Climb Speeds
4-13
Cruise Climb
4-13
Best Angle of Climb Speeds
Power Settings
4-13
4-13
Cruise
Flight Planning
Descent
Approach
Landing
Normal Landings
Short Field Landings
Crosswind Landings
Balked Landings
4-13
4-13
4-14
4-14
4-14
4-14
4-15
4-15
4-15
Stalls
4-15
Practicing Stalls
Loading and Stall Characteristics
Spins
Cold Weather Operations
Hot Weather Operations
4-15
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-17
Noise Abatement
4-18
FA09000
4-2
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
Section 4
Normal Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
Section 4
Normal Procedures
INTRODUCTION
Section 4 contains checklists for normal procedures. As mentioned in Section 3, the owner of this
handbook is encouraged to copy or otherwise tabulate the following normal procedures checklists
in a format that is usable under flight conditions. Plastic laminated pages printed on both sides
and bound together (if more than one sheet) are preferable. The first portion of Section 4 contains
various checklists appropriate for normal operations. The last portion of this section contains an
amplified discussion in a narrative format.
INDICATED AIRSPEEDS FOR NORMAL OPERATIONS
The speeds tabulated below (Figure 4-1), provide a general overview for normal operations and
are based on a maximum gross weight of 1234 pounds. At weights less than maximum gross
weight, the indicated airspeeds are different. The pilot should refer to Section 5 for specific
configuration data.
Takeoff
Normal Take-Off - rotate speed
Sbort. Field Takeoff to 50 feet - rotate speed
Climb To Altitude
Normal (Best Engine Cooling)
Best Rate of Climb at Sea Level
Best Angle of Climb at Sea Level
Approach To Landing
Normal Approach
Normal Approach
Short Field Landing
Balked Landing (Go Around)
Apply Maximum Power
Apply Maximum Power
Flaps Setting
CAS
Takeoff Position
50 MPH
Takeoff Position
45 MPH
Flaps Setting
CAS
Up Position
Up Position
Up Position
70 MPH
65 MPH
Flaps Setting
CAS
Up Position
own (Landing Position)
Down (Landing Position)
55 MPH
55 MPH
60 MPH
50 MPH
Flaps Setting
CAS
Takeoff Position
60 MPH
Landing Position
55 MPH
Maximum Recommended Turbulent Air
Penetration Speed
1234 lbs
Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity*
Flaps Setting
CAS
Up Position
70 MPH
Flaps Setting
Airspeed
Takeoff
Takeoff Position
15 MPH
Landing
Landing Position
15 MPH
* The maximum demonstrated crosswind velocity assumes normal pilot technique and a wind with a fairly
constant velocity and direction. The maximum demonstrated crosswind component of 15 mph is not considered
limiting.
(Figure 4-1)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-3
Section 4
Normal Procedures
XAir LS (XA85)
NORMAL PROCEDURES CHECKLISTS
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
Figure 4-2 depicts the major inspection points, and the arrow shows the sequence for inspecting
each point. The inspection sequence moves in a clockwise direction; however, it does not matter
in which direction the pilot performs the preflight inspection so long as it is systematic. The
inspection should be initiated in the cockpit from the pilot's side of the airplane.
Area 1 (The Cabin)
1. Pitot Tube Cover — REMOVE AND STORE
2. Aircraft Operating Instructions — AVAILABLE IN THE AIRPLANE
3. Airworthiness and Registration Documents — PRESENT
4.
5.
6.
7.
Ignition Switches — SET TO OFF
Propeller Area — CLEAR
Key Switch —TURN TO ON
Flaps — SET TO LANDING POSITION
8.
Trim Tab —SET TO NEUTRAL
9. Fuel Quantity Indicator — CHECK FUEL QUANTITY
10. Key Switch — TURN TO OFF
11. Aileron Disconnect — VERIFY PINS INSTALLED AND SAFETY RINGS PRESENT
12. Wing Attach Pins —VERIFY IN PLACE AND SAFETY RINGS PRESENT
r
Area 2 (Left Wing Flap, Trailing Edge and Wing Tip)
1. Flap — CHECK (Visually check for proper extension and security of hardware and safety
rings present for all hinge bolts and drive rod.)
2. Wing Attach Hardware — VERIFY INSTALLED AND SAFETY RINGS PRESENT
3. Jury Struts — VERIFY PINS IN PLACE AND SAFETY RINGS PRESENT
4. Aileron — CHECK (Freedom of movement and safety rings present at all hinge bolts.)
5. Wing Sail — CHECK CONDITION AND VERIFY TAUT
6. Wing Tip — CHECK (Look for damage; check security of position and anti-collision lights
if so equipped.)
Area 3 (Left Wing Leading Edge and Left Tire)
1. Leading Edge — CHECK (Look for damage.)
2. Left Wing Tie-down — REMOVE
3.
Pitot Tube — VERIFY FREE OF OBSTRUCTIONS AND SECURITY OF ATTACHMENT
4. Left Main Strut and Tire — CHECK (Remove wheel chocks, check tire for proper inflation,
check gear strut for evidence of damage.)
5. Wing Lift Strut — VERIFY PIN IN PLACE AT FUSELAGE AND SAFETY RING
PRESENT
6.
Pitot Line Connection — CHECK SECURITY OF FITTINGS
Area 4 (Nose Section)
1. Engine Oil — CHECK LEVEL (Maintain between marks on dipstick. Do no overfill.)
2. Engine Oil Filler Cap and Accessory Door — CAP AND ACCESSORY DOOR SECURE
FA09000
4-4
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 4
X Air LS (XA85)
Normal Procedures
3. Propeller and Spinner—CHECK (Look fornicks, security, and evidence of oil leakage.)
4. Nose Tire — CHECK (Remove wheel chocks, check tire for proper inflation.)
j
Area 5 (Right Wing Leading Edge and Right Tire)
1. Leading Edge—CHECK (Look for damage.)
2. Right Wing Tie-down— REMOVE
3. RightMain Strut and Tire — CHECK (Remove wheel chocks, check tire for proper inflation,
check gear strut for evidence of damage.)
4. Wing Lift Strut — VERIFY PIN EST PLACE AT FUSELAGE AND SAFETY RING
PRESENT
Area 6 (Right Wing Tip, Trailing Edge, Wing Flap, and Right Fuselage Area)
1. Wing Tip — CHECK (Look for damage; check security of position and anti-collision lights
2.
3.
4.
5.
if so equipped.)
Wing Sail — CHECK CONDITION AND VERIFY TAUT
Aileron — CHECK (freedom of movement safety rings present at all hinge bolts.)
Flap — CHECK (Visually check for proper extension and security of hardware and safety
rings present for all hinge bolts and drive rod.)
Fuel—Check Cap and fuel access flap for security and vent area clear
Area 7 (Tail Section)
1. Leading Edge of Horizontal and Vertical Surfaces — CHECK (Look for damage.)
2. Vertical Stabilizer—CHECK FOR SECURITY
3.
^
Vertical Stabilizer Cables — CHECK CONDITION AND VERIFY TAUT
4. Rudder/Elevator Hardware—CHECK (General condition and security)
5. Rudder Surface—CHECK (freedom of movement and safety rings in all hinge hardware.)
6. Elevator Surface—CHECK (freedom of movement and safety rings in all hinge and drive
rod end hardware.)
7.
Elevator Trim Tab—CHECK FOR NEUTRAL POSITION
8. Sail — CHECK CONDITION AND VERIFY TAUT
9.
Tail Tie-down — REMOVE
Area 8 (Aft Fuselage and Cabin)
1. Fuselage Sail—CHECK CONDITION AND VERIFY TAUT
2.
Fuel Drain—SAMPLE AND ENSURE DRAIN IS NOT LEAKING WHEN DONE
3. Belly Panel—SECURE AND HARDWARE IN PLACE
BEFORE ENGINE STARTING
1. Preflight Inspection—COMPLETE
2. Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses — SECURE (Stow all unused seat belts.)
3.
Fuel Valve—SET TO ON
4.
Brakes —TESTED AND HELD ON
5.
Doors —LATCHED AND SECURE
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-5
Section 4
Normal Procedures
^
X Air LS (XA85)
STARTING ENGINE
1. Fuel Pump—ON TO VERIFY OPERATION AND THEN OFF
2. Carburetor Heat—SET TO THE OFF POSITION
3. Throttle Control—SET TO FULLY CLOSED
4. Propeller Area—CLEAR (Ensure people/equipment are not in the propeller area.)
5.
6.
7.
8.
Ignition Switches — SET TO ON
Key Switch—TURN TO ON
Start Fuel Control — PULL ON UNTIL ENGINE IS RUNNING THEN RELEASE
Starter Switch—PUSH AND RELEASE ONCE ENGINE FIRES
ICAUTIONl
If the engine starter is engaged for 30 seconds and the engine will not start, release
the starter switch and allow the starter motor to cool for three to five minutes.
Release the starter as soon as the engine fires. Never engage the starter while the
propeller is still turning. Hard starting is usually an indication of poor spark plug
condition.
AFTER ENGINE START
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Throttle Control —ADJUST IDLE (1200 RPM)
Oil Pressure—CHECK (Ensure that the oil pressure gauge reads between 30 to 60 psi.)
Ammeter—CHECK (Ensure that the ammeter is indicating the system is charging.)
Position and Anti-collision Lights — SET AS REQUIRED (if so equipped)
Radios and Required Avionics — SET AS REQUIRED
6. Start Fuel Control — VERIFIED CLOSED (FULL IN)
InoteI
It may be necessary to adjust the Start Fuel Control "on" in varying amounts
in order to maintain a smooth idle when the engine is cold. Always ensure the
control is returned to full "off" once the engine is operating smoothly at idle
and normal operating temperatures are obtained.
BEFORE TAXI
1. Wing Flaps—SET TO UP (Cruise Position)
2. Radio Clearance—AS REQUIRED
3. Passenger Briefing — COMPLETE
4.
Brakes — RELEASE
TAXIING
1.
Brakes — CHECK FOR PROPER OPERATION
2. Nose Wheel Steering—CHECK FOR PROPER OPERATION
FA09000
4-6
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 4
X Air LS (XA85)
Normal Procedures
BEFORE TAKEOFF
1.
Run Up Position — MAXIMUM HEADWIND COMPONENT
2.
Brakes —HOLD
3.
Flight Controls — FREE AND CORRECT (Left stick = right aileron down, Right stick=left
aileron down, Aft stick=elevator up)
4.
Trim Tab — SET FOR TAKEOFF
5.
Flight Instruments— SET ALTIMETER TO FIELD ELEVATION
6.
Fuel Valve —ON
7.
Cabin Doors — CLOSED AND LATCHED
8.
Engine Runup — OIL TEMPERATURE CHECK (Above 122°F)
9.
Throttle — SET TO 1800 RPM, CHECK MAGNETOS (50 RPM maximum difference with
a maximum drop of 150 RPM)
10.
Carburetor Heat — PULL CONTROL ON AND VERIFY NOTICABLE DROP IN RPM.
RETURN CONTROL TO "OFF'
11. Magnetos — VERIFY BOTH SET TO ON
12. Engine Instruments and Ammeter — CHECK (Within proper ranges)
13. Throttle — SET TO IDLE (900 RPM Min.)
14. Radios — SET (obtain clearance if required)
15. Wing Flaps — TAKEOFF POSITION
\$>. Transponder — SET (if so equipped)
17.
Doors — LATCHED AND DETENTED
18. Electric Fuel Pump — ON
19. Starting Fuel Control — VERIFY "OFF"
20.
Time —NOTED
21.
Brakes — RELEASE
CAUTION
Do not underestimate the importance of pre-takeoff magneto checks. When
operating on single ignition, some RPM drop should always occur. Normal
indications are 25 to 75 RPM and a slight engine roughness as each magneto
is switched off. A drop in excess of 150 RPM may indicate a faulty magneto or
fouled spark plugs. Additionally, a uniform increase in all EGTs should occur
with one magneto switched off. Rough running and a drop in a single EGT
indicates an ignition problem with the corresponding cylinder. Do not take off
with a malfunctioning ignition system.
CAUTION
Do not operate the engine on the ground longer than necessary to test engine
operations and observe engine instruments. Proper engine cooling depends on
forward speed. Discontinue testing if temperature or pressure limits are
approached.
NORMAL TAKEOFF
1. Power — SET THROTTLE CONTROL AND RPM TO FULL (2900-3000 RPM)
2.
Elevator Control — LIFT NOSE AT 45 - 50 MPH
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-7
Section 4
Normal Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
3. Climb Speed —62-70 MPH
4. Wing Flaps — RETRACT (At 200 feet AGL, and at or above the best rate of climb speed)
5. Electric Fuel Pump - OFF
SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF (Complete Before Takeoff checklist first)
1. Wing Flaps — (TAKEOFF Position)
2.
Brakes —APPLY
3. Power — SET THROTTLE CONTROL TO FULL (2900-3000 RPM)
4.
Brakes —RELEASE
5. Elevator Control — MAINTAIN LEVEL NOSE ATTITUDE
6. Rotate Speed — 45 MPH (5°nose up pitch attitude)
7. Climb Speed — 55 MPH (Until clear of obstacles)
8. Wing Flaps— RETRACT (At 200 feet AGL, and at or above the best rate of climb speed)
NOTE
If usable runway length is not affected, it is preferable to use a rolling start to
begin the takeoff roll as opposed to a standing started at full power.
Otherwise, position the airplane to use the entire runway available.
CROSSWIND OPERATIONS
Crosswind operations require care to ensure that proper control inputs are observed to maintain
control of the airplane at all times when on or near the ground. See the amplified discussion of
crosswind operations.
NORMAL CLIMB
1. Airspeed — ACCELERATE TO AND MAINTAIN 70 MPH
2. Power Settings — ADJUST AS NECESSARY (See amplified discussion.)
3. Electric Fuel Pump — OFF
MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE CLIMB
1. Airspeed — 59 to 45 MPH (Sea level and 10,000 feet respectively)
2. Power Settings —FULL THROTTLE
3. Electric Fuel Pump — OFF
CRUISE
1.
Throttle Control — SET AS APPROPRIATE
2. Electric Fuel Pump — OFF
DESCENT
1.
Fuel Selector Valve — ON
2. Power Settings — AS REQUIRED
3.
Carburetor Heat—ON below 2000 RPM
4. Electric Fuel Pump — OFF
r
BEFORE LANDING
1. Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses — SECURE (both pilot and passengers)
2.
Fuel Selector Valve — ON
FA09000
4-8
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 4
X Air LS (XA85)
Normal Procedures
3. Electric Fuel Pump — ON
4.
Carburetor Heat~ON
NORMAL LANDING
1.
Approach Airspeed — AS REQUIRED FOR CONFIGURATION
Flaps (First Notch)
70 MPH CAS
Flaps (Second Notch)
60 MPH CAS
Flaps (Full Down)
50 - 55 MPH CAS
2.
Trim Tab — ADJUST AS REQUIRED
3.
Touchdown — MAIN WHEELS FIRST
4.
5.
Landing Roll — GENTLY LOWER NOSE WHEEL
Braking — AS REQUIRED
SHORT FIELD LANDING (Complete Before Landing Checklist first)
1. Initial Approach Airspeed — 60 TO 70 MPH (depending on flap setting)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Electric Fuel Pump — ON
Wing Flaps — SET TO LANDING POSITION (FULL DOWN)
Maximum Full Flap Airspeed — 55 MPH
Minimum Approach Speed with Wing Flaps in Landing Position — 50 MPH
Trim Tab — ADJUST AS REQUIRED
7.
Power — REDUCE AT THE FLARE POINT
8.
Touchdown — MAIN WHEEL FIRST
9. Landing Roll — LOWER NOSE WHEEL SMOOTHLY AND QUICKLY
10. Braking and Flaps —APPLY HEAVY BRAKING AND RETRACT FLAPS (Up position)
BALKED LANDING (Go Around)
1.
Power — SET THROTTLE TO FULL
2.
3.
4.
5.
Airspeed —60 MPH
Climb — POSITIVE (Establish Positive Rate of Climb.)
Wing Flaps —SET TO TAKEOFF POSITION
Wing Flaps — SET TO CRUISE AT BEST RATE OF CLIMB SPEED (more than 200 feet
above the surface)
6. Electric Fuel Pump — OFF
AFTER LANDING
1. Wing Flaps — SET TO UP (Cruise Position)
2. Electric Fuel Pump — OFF
3.
Time —NOTE
SHUTDOWN
1. Throttle — SET TO IDLE (900 to 1000 RPM)
2. ELT — CHECK NOT ACTIVATED (Check before shutdown)
3.
Trim Tabs —SET TO NEUTRAL
4*
4. Ignition Switches — SET TO OFF
5. Key Switch —SET TO OFF
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-9
Section 4
Normal Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
The purpose of the preflight inspection is to ascertain that the airplane is physically capable of
completing the intended operation with a high degree of safety. The weather conditions, length of
flight, equipment installed, and daylight conditions, to mention a few, will dictate any special
considerations that should be employed. It is the pilot in command's responsibility to ensure the
airplane is assembled correctly prior to flight and that all removable connections are reassembled
securely and the safety devices are in place properly. Damaged or missing safety rings may lead
to disconnection of the flight control or surface resulting in loss of control of the airplane.
Wing Flaps - Extending the wing flaps as part of the preflight routine permits inspection of the
attachment and actuating hardware. The pilot can also roughly compare that the flaps are equally
extended on each side.
Fuel Drain - The X Air LS has only one fuel drain. It is located under the pilot side of the belly
and can be accessed easily by bending down while in front of the left main wheel. The drain
valve is located in the lowest point the fuel gascolator which corresponds to the lowest point in
the fuel system. A sample must be taken from this drain before the first flight of each day and
after refueling. The fuel sample should be inspectedfor water, contaminants or fuel separation.
r
Fuel Vent - The only fuel vent is located near the left lift strut attach to the fuselage. The vent
should be inspected during each pre-flight to ensure it is open and secure. A blocked fuel vent
will not allow fuel to be fed from the tank to the engine - even with the application of the
Electric Fuel Pump.
FUEL SELECTOR
The fuel selector simply controls fuel flow to the engine. When the OFF position is selected, no
fuel will flow to the engine. This position should be used when storing or transporting the
airplane. Care should always be taken to ensure the ON position is selected prior to engine start
and then rechecked prior to engine run-up and take-off. Additionally, the selector should be
checked to ensure it is ON during decent, approach and prior to landing.
FUEL QUANTITY
Fuel quantity is displayed on the Dynon EMS D10A. A resistance measurement is sent to the
Dynon and that resistance is computed into a calibrated fuel level. The resistance changes with
fuel level by means of a float type sending unit installed in the fuel tank. The values displayed are
relatively accurate. However, proper fuel management never relies solely on the indication on the
Dynon instrument. It is the pilot in command's responsibility to track fuel burn versus fuel
quantity to ensure enough fuel is on board to complete the flight within the fuel requirements of
FAR 91.
BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
Restraints (Seat Belts & Shoulder Harnesses) - The pilot in command is usually diligent about
J^v securing his or her restraint device; however, it is also important to ensure that the passenger has
their belt properly fastened. The lower body restraints and shoulder harnesses are adjustable.
FA09000
4-10
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
Section 4
Normal Procedures
X Air LS (XA 85)
However, they may not be similar to airline or automotive restraint devices. A passenger may
have the seat belt fastened but not properly adjusted.
Stow the restraint devices on unoccupied seats to prevent fouling during emergency exiting of the
airplane.
ENGINE STARTING
Normal Starting - Under normal conditions there should be no problems with starting the
engine. The most common pilot mistake is over priming of the engine. The engine is primed by
introducing fuel to the intake system by means of a Starting Fuel Control. The Starting Fuel
Control should be utilized only when needed and actuated to the "ON" position by pulling the
control while the starter is engaged and the engine is turning.
CAUTION
Over priming can cause a flooded intake resulting in a hydrostatic lock and
subsequent engine malfunction or failure. If the engine is inadvertently or
accidentally over primed, allow all the fuel to drain from the intake manifold
before starting the engine.
Cold Starting - When the engine is cold use of the Starting Fuel Control will be
required. Ensure the key and ignition switches are on, clear the propeller area, pull the
SVartMi^ Fuel Control fully, and depress the starter button. The engine will fire
immediately. Depending on temperature, the Starting Fuel Control may need to remain
pulled "ON" in varying degrees to keep the engine running smoothly. As the engine
warms at idle, the control may be returned to "OFF". It is important to return the Starting
Fuel Control fully "OFF" before take-off.
CONTROL POSITIONS VERSUS WIND COMPONENT
The airplane is stable on the ground. Proper positioning of control surfaces during taxiing will
improve ground stability in gusty or high wind conditions. The following table, (Figure 4-2),
summarizes control positions that should be maintained for a given wind component.
Wind Component
Aileron Position
Elevator Position
Left
Left Wing Aileron Up
Neutral
Quartering Headwind
(Move Aileron Control to the Left)
Hold Elevator Control in Neutral Position
Right
Right Wing Aileron Up
Neutral
Quartering Headwind
(Move Aileron Control to the Right)
Hold Elevator Control in Neutral Position
Left
Left Wing Aileron Down
Down Elevator
Quartering Tailwind
(Move Aileron Control to the Right)
(Move Elevator Control Forward)
Right
Right Wing Aileron Down
Down Elevator
Quartering Tailwind
(Move Aileron Control to the Left)
(Move Elevator Control Forward)
(Figure 4-2)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-11
Section 4
Normal Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
TAXIING
The first thing to check during taxiing is the braking system. This should be done soon after the
taxi roll is begun. Apply normal braking to verify that both brakes are operational. When taxiing,
minimize the use of the brakes. Since the airplane has a steerable nose wheel, steering is
accomplished with no braking.
Avoid taxiing in areas of loose gravel, small rocks, etc., since it can cause abrasion and damage
to the propeller. If it is necessary to taxi in these areas, maintain low propeller speeds. If taxiing
from a hard surface through a small area of gravel, obtain momentum before reaching the gravel.
BEFORE TAKEOFF
Engine Temperatures - The control of engine temperatures is an important consideration when
operating the airplane on the ground. Care must be used to preclude overheating during ground
operations. Before starting the engine runup check, be sure the airplane is aligned for the
maximum headwind component. Conversely, when the ambient temperature is low, time may be
needed for temperatures to reach normal operating ranges. Do not attempt to runup the engine
until the oil temperature reaches 122°F (50°C).
Engine Runup - The engine runup is performed at 1800 RPM. To check the operation of the
magnetos, move the ignition switch L to the OFF position and note the RPM drop. Return the
switch to the ON position and then move the switch R to the OFF position to check the RPM
drop. Return the switch to the ON position. The difference between the magnetos when operated
individually cannot exceed 50 RPM, and the maximum drop on either magneto cannot be greater
than 150 RPM. Check performance of the carburetor heat by pulling the control "On". A
noticeable drop in RPM should be apparent. Return the carburetor heat control to "Off.
TAKEOFFS
Normal Takeoff - In all takeoff situations, the primary consideration is to ascertain that the
engine is developing full takeoff power. This is normally checked in the initial phase of the
takeoff run. The engine should operate smoothly and provide normal acceleration. The engine
RPM should read 2900 to 3000 RPM.
For normal takeoffs (not short field) on surfaces with loose gravel and the like, the rate of throttle
advancement should be slightly less than normal. While this extends the length of the takeoff run
somewhat, the technique permits the airplane to obtain momentum at lower RPM settings, which
reduces the potential for propeller damage. Using this technique ensures that the propeller blows
loose gravel and rocks aft of the propeller blade. Rapid throttle advancement is more likely to
draw gravel and rocks into the propeller blade.
Short Field Takeoff - The three major items of importance in a short field takeoff are
developing maximum takeoff power, maximum acceleration, and utilization of the entire runway
available. During the takeoff run, do not raise the nose wheel too soon since this will impede
acceleration. Finally, use the entire runway that is available; that is, initiate the takeoff run at the
furthest downwind point available. Use a rolling start if possible, provided doing so does not
affect usable runway.
FA09000
4-12
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 4
XAir LS (XA 85)
Normal Procedures
The flaps are set to first notch position for short field takeoff. After liftoff, maintain the best
angle of climb speed until the airplane is clear of all obstacles. Once past all obstacles, accelerate
to the best rate of climb speed and raise the flaps. If no obstacles are present, accelerate the
airplane to the best rate of climb speed and raise the flaps when at a safe height above the ground.
Crosswind Takeoff - Crosswind takeoffs should be made with takeoff flaps. When the take off
run is initiated, the aileron is fully deflected into the wind. As the airplane accelerates and control
response becomes more positive, the aileron deflection should be reduced as necessary. When
airborne, turn the airplane into the wind as required to maintain alignment over the runway and in
the climb out. Maintain the best angle of climb speed until the airplane is clear of all obstacles.
Once past all obstacles, accelerate to the best rate of climb speed at or above 200 feet AGL and
raise the flaps.
NORMAL AND MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE CLIMBS
Best Rate of Climb Speeds - The normal climb speed of the airplane, 65 to 70 MPH CAS,
produces the most altitude gain in a given time period while allowing for proper engine cooling
and good forward visibihty. This airspeed range is above the actual best rate of climb airspeed
(VY) of 60 MPH CAS at sea level to 55 MPH CAS at 10,000 feet. The best rate of climb airspeed
is used in situations which require the most altitude gain in given time period, such as after
takeoff when an initial 1,000 feet or so height above the ground is desirable as a safety buffer.
Cruise Climb - Climbing at speeds of 70 MPH CAS is preferable, particularly when climbing to
higher altitudes, i.e., those that require more than 6,000 feet of altitude change. A 500 FPM rate
^
climb at cruise power provides better forward visibility and engine cooling.
Best Angle of Climb Speeds - The best angle of climb airspeed (Vx) for the airplane is 55 MPH
CAS at sea level to 50 MPH CAS at 10,000 feet, with flaps in the up position. The best angle of
climb airspeed produces the maximum altitude change in a given distance and is used in a
situation where clearance of obstructions is required. When using the best angle of climb
airspeed, the rate at which the airplane approaches an obstruction is reduced, which allows more
space in which to climb. For example, if a pilot is approaching the end of a canyon and must gain
altitude, the appropriate Vx speed should be used.
Power Settings - Use maximum continuous power until the airplane reaches a safe altitude
above the ground. Ensure the propeller RPM does not exceed the red line limitation.
CRUISE
Flight Planning - Several considerations are necessary in selecting a cruise airspeed, power
setting, and altitude. The primary issues are time, range, and fuel consumption. High cruise
speeds shorten the time en route, but at the expense of decreased range and increased fuel
consumption.
Cruising at higher altitudes increases true airspeed and improves fuel consumption, but the time
and fuel used to reach the higher cruise altitude must be considered. Clearly, numerous factors
are weighed to determine what altitude, airspeed, and power settings are optimal for a particular -*^
flight. Section 5 in this manual contains information to assist the pilot in the flight planning
process.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-13
Section 4
Normal Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
In general, the airplane cruises at 60% to 80% of available power. Refer to Section 5 for
performance information.
DESCENT
The descent from altitude is best performed through gradual power reductions. Avoid long
descents at low power settings as the engine can cool excessively and may not accelerate properly
when power is reapplied. To assist with engine warming in descents, it is sometimes helpful to
descend at a slower airspeed and moderate power setting.
If power must be reduced for long periods adjust power as required to maintain the desired
descent. If the outside air temperature is extremely cold, it may be necessary to add drag to the
airplane by lowering the flaps so that additional power is needed to maintain the descent
airspeed. Do not permit the cylinder head temperature to drop below 240°F (116°C) for more
than five minutes.
WARNING
During longer descents it is imperative that the pilot occasionally clear the
airplane's engine by application of partial power. This helps keep the engine
from over cooling and verifies that power is available. It is also important to
remember to apply carburetor heat at low power settings to prevent potential
jp^
icing of the carburetor.
APPROACH
On the downwind leg adjust power to maintain 70 MPH to 80 MPH with the flaps retracted.
When opposite the landing point, reduce power and reduce speed to about 65-70 MPH. Once
below 70 MPH, set the flaps to the takeoff position. On the base leg, set the flaps to the second
notch and reduce speed to 65 MPH. Be prepared to counteract the ballooning tendency which
occurs when full flaps are applied. On final approach, maintain airspeed of 55 to 60 MPH
depending on crosswind condition and/or landing weight. Reduce the indicated airspeed to 50
MPH as the touchdown point is approached.
CAUTION
At the forward CG limit, slowing below 50 MPH CAS prior to the flare with
idle power and full flaps, will create a situation of limited elevator authority;
an incomplete flare may result
LANDINGS
Normal Landings - Landings under normal conditions are performed with the flaps set to the
second notch. The landing approach speed is 55 to 60 MPH depending on gross weight and wind
conditions. The approach can be made with or without power; however, power should be reduced
to idle before touchdown. The use of forward and sideslips are permitted if required to dissipate
excess altitude. Remember that the slipping maneuver will increase the stall speed of the airplane
1^ and a margin for safety should be added to the approach airspeed.
FA09000
4-14
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 4
XAir LS (XA 85)
Normal Procedures
The landing attitude is slightly nose up so that the main gear touches the ground first. After
touchdown, the back-pressure on the elevator should be released slowly so the nose gear gently
touches the ground. Brakes should be applied gently and evenly to both pedals. Avoid skidding
the tires or holding brake pressure for sustained periods.
Short Field Landings - In a short field landing, the important issues are to land just past the
beginning of the runway at minimum speed. The initial approach should be made at 55 to 60
MPH and reduced to 50 MPH when full flaps are applied. A low-power descent, from a slightly
longer than normal final approach, is preferred. It provides more time to set up and establish the
proper descent path. If there is an obstacle, cross over it at 55 MPH. Maintain power to control
decent angle on approach until just prior to touchdown. Do not extend the landing flare; rather,
allow the airplane to land in a slight nose up attitude on the main landing gear first. Lower the
nose wheel smoothly and quickly, and apply heavy braking. However, do not skid the tires.
Braking response is improved if the flaps are retracted after touchdown and the elevator control
is held full nose up.
Crosswind Landings - When landing in a strong crosswind, use a slightly higher than normal
approach speed and avoid the use of full flaps unless required because of runway length. If
practicable, use a 55 to 60 MPH approach speed with the flaps in the takeoff position. A power
descent, from a slightly longer than normal final approach, is preferred. It provides more time to
set.up and establish the proper crosswind compensation. Maintain runway alignment either with
a crab into the wind, a gentle forward slip (upwind wing down), or a combination of both. Touch
down on the upwind main gear first by holding aileron into the wind. As the airplane decelerates,
increase the aileron deflection. Apply braking as required. Raising the flaps after landing will
reduce the lateral movement caused by the wind, and also improves braking.
Balked Landing - In a balked landing or a go-around, the primary concerns are to maximize
power, minimize drag, and establish a climb. Initiate a go-around by the immediate but smooth
full application of power and selecting carburetor heat "OFF". It the flaps are in the landing
position, reduce them to the takeoff positions once a positive rate of climb is established at 50
MPH. Increase speed to 60 MPH. When the airplane is a safe distance above the surface and at
60 MPH or higher, retract the flaps to the up position.
STALLS
Practicing Stalls - For unaccelerated stalls (a speed decrease of one MPH/second or less), the
stall recovery should be initiated at the first indication of the stall or the so-called "break" that
occurs while in the nose high pitch position. An uncommanded change in pitch or bank normally
indicates this break.
There are fairly benign stall characteristics when the airplane is loaded with a forward CG. In
most cases, there is not a discernable break even though the control stick is in the full back
position. In this situation, after two seconds of full aft stick application, stall recovery should be
initiated. To recover from a stall, simultaneously release back-pressure and apply full power; then
level the wings with the coordinated application of rudder and aileron.
Accelerated stalls can occur at higher-than-normal airspeeds due to abrupt and/or excessive
control applications. These stalls may occur in steep turns, pull-ups, or other abrupt changes in
flight path. Accelerated stalls usually are more severe than unaccelerated stalls and are often
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-15
Section 4
Normal Procedures
r
X Air LS (XA85)
unexpected because they occur at higher-than-normal airspeeds. The recovery from accelerated
stalls (a speed change of three to five MPH/second) is essentially the same as unaccelerated
stalls. The primary difference is the indicated stall speed is usually higher and the airplane's
attitude may be lower than normal stalling attitudes.
Stalling speeds, of course, are controlled by flap settings, center of gravity location, gross weight,
and the rate of change in angle of attack.
Loading and Stall Characteristics - The center of gravity location affects the airplane's stall
handling characteristics. It was noted above that stall characteristics are docile with a forward
CG. However, as the center of gravity moves aft, the stall handling characteristics, in terms of
lateral stability, will deteriorate. This change in stability is particularly noticeable at higher power
settings with flaps in the landing position.
It is recommended during the checkout phase for the X Air LS that the pilots investigate stall
performance at near gross weight with a CG towards the aft limit of the envelope. This training,
of course, should be under the supervision of a qualified and certificated flight instructor.
SPINS
WARNING
Do not attempt to spin the airplane under any circumstances. The airplane is
not approved for spins of any duration.
COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS
Engine starting during cold weather is generally more difficult than during normal temperature
conditions. These conditions, commonly referred to as "cold soaking," causes the oil to become
more viscous or thicker. Cold weather also impairs the operation of the battery. The thick oil, in
combination with decreased battery effectiveness, makes it more difficult for the starter to crank
the engine. At low temperatures, aviation gasoline does not vaporize readily, further
complicating the starting procedure.
CAUTION
Superficial application of preheat to a cold-soaked engine can cause damage
to the engine since it may permit starting but will not warm the oil
sufficiently for proper lubrication of the engine parts. The amount of damage
will vary and may not be evident for several hours of operation. In other
situations, a problem may occur during or just after takeoff when full power
is applied.
The use of a preheater is required to facilitate starting during cold weather and is required when
the engine has been cold soaked at temperatures of 25°F (-4°C) or below for more than two
hours. Be sure to use a high volume hot air heater. Small electric heaters that are inserted into the
cowling opening do not appreciably warm the oil and may result in superficial preheating.
Apply the hot air primarily to the oil sump, filter, and cooler area for 15 to 30 minutes and turn
the propeller by hand through six to eight revolutions at 5 to 10 minute intervals. Periodically
FA09000
4-16
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 4
X Air LS (XA 85)
Normal Procedures
feel the top of the engine, and when some warmth is noted, apply heat directly to the upper
portion of the engine for five minutes to heat the fuel lines and cylinders. This will ensure proper
vaporization of the fuel when the engine is started. Start the engine immediately after completing
the preheating process. Since the engine is warm, use the normal starting procedures.
WARNING
To prevent the possibility of serious injury or death, always treat the
propeller as though the ignition switch is set to the on position. Before
turning the propeller by hand, use the following procedures. Verify the
magnetos switches are set to off and the throttle is closed. It is recommended
the airplane be chocked, tied down, with the pilot's cabin door open to allow
easy access to the engine controls.
After starting the engine, set the idle to 1000 RPM or less until an increase in oil temperature is
noted. Monitor oil pressure closely and watch for sudden increases or decreases in oil pressure. If
necessary, reduce power below 1000 RPM to maintain oil pressure below 100 psi. If the oil
pressure drops suddenly to below 30 psi, shut the engine down and inspect the lubricating
system. If no damage or leaks are noted, preheat the engine for an additional 10 to 15 minutes.
Before takeoff, when performing the runup check, it may be necessary to incrementally increase
engine RPM to prevent oil pressure from exceeding 100 psi. Check magnetos and other items in
the normal manner. When the oil temperature has reached 122°F and oil pressure does not
exceed 70 psi at 2500 RPM, the engine has warmed sufficiently to accept full rated power.
NOTE
In cold weather below freezing, ensure engine oil viscosity is maintained in
accordance with the Jabiru recommendations.
HOT WEATHER OPERATIONS
Flight operations during hot weather usually present few problems. It is unlikely that ambient
temperatures at the selected cruising altitude will be high enough to cause problems. The airplane
design provides good air circulation under normal flight cruise conditions. However, there are
some instances where abnormally high ambient temperatures need special attention. These are:
1. Ground operations under high ambient temperature conditions
2.
Takeoff and initial climb out.
Ground operations during high ambient temperature conditions should be kept to a minimum. In
situations which involve takeoff delays, or when performing the Before Takeoff Checklist, it is
imperative that the airplane is pointed into the wind. During climb out, it may be necessary to
climb at a slightly higher than normal airspeed. Temperatures should be closely monitored and
sufficient airspeed maintained to provide cooling of the engine.
NOTE
Heat soaking is usually the highest between 30 minutes and one hour after
shutdown. At some point after the first hour the engine temperatures will
stabilize, though it may take as long as two or three hours (total time from
shutdown) depending on wind, temperature, and the airplane's orientation
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
4-17
Section 4
Normal Procedures
X Air LS (XA85)
(upwind or downwind) when it was parked. Restarting attempts will be
most difficult in the period 30 minutes to one hour after shutdown.
NOISE ABATEMENT
Many general aviation pilots believe that noise abatement is an issue reserved for the larger
transport type airplanes. While larger airplanes clearly generate a greater decibel level, the pilot
operating a small single or multiengine propeller driven airplane should, within the limits of safe
operations, do all that is possible to mitigate the impact of noise on the environment. In some
instances, the noise levels of small airplanes operating at smaller general aviation airfields are
more noticeable. This is because at larger airports with frequent large airplane activity, there is an
expectation of airplane ambient noise.
The general aviation pilot can enhance the opinion of the general public by demonstrating a
concern for the environment in terms of noise pollution. To this end, common sense and
courteousness should be used as basic guidelines. In the U.S. Part 91 of the Federal Air
Regulations (FAR's) permit an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle over congested
areas. However, an altitude of 2,000, where practicable and within the limits of safety, should be
used. Similarly, during the departure and approach phases of the flight, avoid prolonged flight at
lower heights above the ground. At airports where there are established noise abatement
procedures in the takeoff corridor, the short field takeoff procedure should be used. This is a
courteous thing to do even though the noise abatement procedure might be applicable only to
turbine-powered aircraft.
FA09000
4-18
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 4
XAirLS(XA85)
Normal Procedures
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
FA09000
4-19
/IJF*\
Section 5
X Air LS (XA85)
Performance
Section 5
Performance
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
5-3
Stall Speed
Crosswind, Headwind, and Tailwind Component
Short Field Takeoff Distance (12° - Takeoff Flaps)
5-3
5-4
5-5
Maximum Rate of Climb
5-5
Cruise Performance Overview
5-5
Range Profile
5-6
Endurance Profile
5-6
Normal Landing Distance (35° - Land Flaps)
Short Field Landing Distance (35° - Land Flaps)
5-6
5-6
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
5-1
Section 5
Performance
X Air LS(XA85)
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
POH09000
5-2
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
Section 5
XAir LS (XA 85)
Performance
INTRODUCTION
The performance charts and graphs on the following pages are designed to assist the pilot in
determining specific performance characteristics in all phases of flight operations. These phases
include takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, and landing. The data in these charts were determined
through actual flight tests of the airplane. At the time of the tests, the airplane and engine were in
good condition and normal piloting skills were employed.
There may be slight variations between actual results and those specified in the tables and graphs.
The condition of the airplane, as well as runway condition, air turbulence, and pilot techniques,
will influence actual results. Fuel consumption assumes proper control of the power settings. The
combined effect of these variables may produce differences as great as 10%. The pilot must apply
an appropriate margin of safety in terms of estimated fuel consumption and other performance
aspects, such as takeoff and landing. Fuel endurance data include a 30-minute reserve at the
specified cruise power setting.
STALL SPEEDS
The table below (Figure 5-1) shows the stalling speed of the airplane for various flap settings and
angles of bank. While an aft CG lowers the stalling speed of the airplane, the benign stalling
characteristics exhibited with a forward CG are diminished. Please see stall discussion on page 415. The maximum altitude loss during power off stalls is about 200 feet, Nose down attitude
change during stall recovery is generally less than 5°.
ANGLE OF BANK
CONDITIONS
Weight
1234lbs.
(Most Forward Center of Gravity - Power Off- Coordinated Flight)
0°
30°
45°
60°
Flap Setting
MPH CAS
MPH CAS
MPH CAS
Flaps - Cruise
46
53
65
Flaps - Takeoff
44
51
63
Flaps - Landing
41
48
60
(Figure 5-1)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
5-3
Section 5
X Air LS (XA 85)
Performance
^
CROSSWIND, HEADWIND, AND TAILWIND COMPONENT
Degs. Wind
Off Runway
10°
20e
30°
40°
50°
60°
70°
80°
Component
Component
Component
Component
Component
Component
Component
Component
in MPH of
in MPH of
in MPH of
in MPH of
in MPH of
in MPH of
in MPH of
in MPH of
0
Centerline
O
JJ
is
u
5
2
5
2
4
3
10
3
9
5
9
6
15
5
14
7
13
10
11
20
7
19
10
17
13
25
9
23
12
22
30
10
28
15
34
12
33
39
14
38
3S
ii
{I
fi
IS
IS
"3 2
•si
•ii
fI
U
IS
as
C
3
4
3
5
2
5
6
9
5
9
3
10
11
10
13
8
14
5
15
15
15
13
17
10
19
7
20
16
19
19
16
22
13
23
9
25
26
19
23
23
19
26
15
28
10
30
17
30
22
27
27
22
30
18
33
12
34
20
35
26
31 [ 31
26 [ 35
20
38
14
39
O
X
X
u
as
i
f
x
This table is used to determine the headwind, crosswind, or tailwind component. For example, a 15 MPH wind, 55° off
the runway centerline, has a headwind component of 9 MPH and a crosswind component of 12 MPH. For tailwind
components, apply the number of degrees the tailwind is off the centerline and read the tailwind component in the
headwind/tailwind column. A 20 MPH tailwind, 60° off the downwind runway centerline, has a tailwind component of
10 MPH and a crosswind component of 17 MPH.
(Figure 5-2)
FA09000
5-4
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 5
X Air LS (XA 85)
Performance
SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF DISTANCE (TAKEOFF FLAPS)
The X Air LS has excellent short field performance. The sea level gross weight take-off distance
is 263 feet. Total distance to clear a 50 foot high obstacle at sea level is 650 feet. This distance
will increase with elevation MSL.
CRUISE PERFORMANCE OVERVIEW
This section provides information for use as an aid to preflight planning of cruise performance.
The maximum recommended cruise setting is 80% of brake horsepower; however, settings of
75% and below provide better economy with only a modest sacrifice in true airspeed. Be sure to
monitor engine instruments to ensure safe ranges. The Jabiru engine is capable of cruise
performance at 3300 RPM continuously. X Air recommends a cruise setting of 2700 to 2900
RPM to take advantage of fuel economy.
Pressure Altitude 1500 ft Standard Temperature 12°C
Power Setting
TASMPH
Max RPM
2900 RPM
2700 RPM
104
90
79
CAS MPH
99
87
77
Fuel Flow GPH
7.6
4.2
3.6
Pressure Altitude 2500 ft Standard Temperature 10° C
Power Setting
Max RPM
2900 RPM
2700 RPM
TAS MPH
104
91
80
CAS MPH
97
87
77
Fuel Flow GPH
7.4
4.2
3.6
Pressure Altitude 4500 ft Standard Temperature 6° C
Power Setting
Max RPM
2900 RPM
2700 RPM
TAS MPH
104
89
82
CAS MPH
94
83
76
Fuel Flow GPH
7.2
4.1
3.5
Pressure Altitude 6500 ft Standard Temperature 2° C
Power Setting
Max RPM
2900 RPM
2700 RPM
TASMPH
98
86
83
CAS MPH
87
78
75
Fuel Flow GPH
6.7
4
3.3
Pressure Altitude 8500 ft Standard Temperature -2° C
Power Setting
Max RPM
2900 RPM
2700 RPM
TASMPH
96
86
77
CAS MPH
84
75
67
Fuel Flow GPH
6.4
3.9
3.3
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
5-5
Section 5
Performance
^*V
XAirLS(XA85)
Pressure Altitude 9500 ft Standard Temperature -4° C
Power Setting
Max RPM
2900 RPM
2700 RPM
TAS MPH
96
86
75
CAS MPH
83
74
65
Fuel Flow GPH
6.4
3.8
3.3
Pressure Altitude 10,000 ft Standard Temperature -5°C
Power Setting
Max RPM
2900 RPM
2700 RPM
TAS MPH
92
86
75
CAS MPH
79
74
64
Fuel Flow GPH
6.2
3.8
3.3
RANGE PROFILE
Maximum range is achieved with a power setting of 2700 RPM. At this power setting the engine
will consume approximately 3.5 GPH and provide additional thrust for increased true airspeed.
The no wind range with a power setting of 2700 RPM plus 30 minute reserve, will result in a 300
mile range.
Various combinations of power settings and altitudes will yield different fuel economy. In all
instances it is the pilot's responsibility to ensure enough fuel is loaded prior to the flight to
provide for a successful flight to the destination including reserve fuel.
ENDURANCE PROFILE
Maximum endurance is achieved with lower power settings. With a power setting of 2600 RPM
a fuel flow of approximately 2.8 GPH can be expected. With this power setting the LS can stay
aloft for up to 5 hours. Airspeeds would be lower than those listed in the cruise performance
charts.
NORMAL LANDING DISTANCE (LANDING FLAPS)
The sea level landing distance for the LS is 265 feet. To land over a 50 foot obstacle will require
a total distance of 600 feet. Approach speed for landing over an obstacle is 55 MPH maintained
to the landing flare. A power off approach at 55 MPH will result in a steep approach to clear the
obstacle and reach the landing area with minimum distance traveled forward.
SHORT FIELD LANDING DISTANCE (LANDING FLAPS)
The LS also has excellent short field landing performance. At sea level, the LS requires 245 feet
of runway at gross weight. Landing should be performed with full flaps. Approach speed is 50
MPH at gross weight. Carry some power to ensure adequate energy to arrest the decent. Touch
down with a nose high attitude and power off. With full flaps the aircraft has a very high drag
profile. Reducing power with full flaps results in a noticeable and immediate loss of airspeed in
level flight and an increased sink rate with constant airspeed.
FA09000
5-6
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 5
XAirLS(XA85)
Performance
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
RA09000
5-7
#^
r
^
Section 6
X Air LS (XA 85)
Weight &Balance - Equipment List
Section 6
^
Weight & Balance
&
Equipment List (Appendix A)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
6-2
PROCEDURES FOR WEIGHING & DETERMINING EMPTY CG
General
6-3
Airplane Configuration
Airplane Leveling
Using the Permanent Reference Point
Weights and Computations
Example of Empty Center of Gravity (CG) Determination
Changes in the Airplane's Configuration
Determining Location (FS) of Installed Equipment in Relation to Datum
Weight and Balance Forms
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-4
Updating the Form
6-4 ^
PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING GROSS WEIGHT AND LOADED CG
Useful Load and Stations
6-5
Baggage
Summary of Loading Stations
Computing the Loaded Center of Gravity (CG)
Sample Problem - Calculator Method
Weight and Balance Limitations
Center of Gravity Envelope
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-6
6-6
6-7
INSTALLED EQUIPMENT LIST (IEL) - APPENDIX B
AFTER-MARKET EQUIPMENT LIST
WEIGHT & BALANCE RECORD
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
6-B1
Follows IEL
Follows AMEL
FA09000
6-1
Section 6
Weight &Balance - Equipment List
XAir LS (XA 85)
Section 6
Weight & Balance/Equipment List
INTRODUCTION
Weight and Balance Procedures - This section is divided into three parts. The first part
contains procedures for determining the empty weight and empty center of gravity of the
airplane. Its use is intended primarily for mechanics and companies or individuals who make
modifications to the airplane. While the procedures are not directly applicable for day-to-day
pilot use, the information will give the owner or operator of the airplane an expanded
understanding of the weight and balance procedures.
The procedures for determining the empty weight and empty CG are excerpted from the
maintenance manual and included in Pilot's Operating Handbook to aid those who need to
compute this information but do not have access to a maintenance manual. This section also
contains procedures for maintaining and updating weight and balance changes to the airplane.
While a mechanic or others who make changes to the airplane's configuration normally update
the section, the pilot, owner, and/or operator of the airplane are responsible for ensuring that the
information is maintained in a current status. The last entry on this table should contain the
current weight and moment for this airplane.
The second part of this section is applicable to pilots, as it has procedures for determining the
weight and balance for each flight. This part details specific procedures for airplane loading, how
loading affects the center of gravity, plus a number of charts and graphs for determining the
loaded center of gravity.
The datum point is at the aft face of the propeller spinner bulkhead. All measurements from this
point are positive or aft of the datum point and are expressed in inches. It is important to
remember that the weight and balance for each airplane varies somewhat and depends on a
number of factors. The weight and balance information detailed in this manual only applies to the
airplane specified on the cover page.
It is the responsibility of the pilot in command to ensure that the airplane is properly loaded for
both take-off and landing.
Equipment List - The final portion of this section contains the equipment list. The equipment
list includes standard and optional equipment and specifies both the weight of the installed item
and its arm, i.e., distance from the datum. This information is useful in computing the new empty
weight and CG when items are temporarily removed for maintenance or other purposes. In
addition,
FA09000
6-2
equipment
required
for
a
particular
flight
operation
is
tabulated.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
XAir LS (XA 85)
Section 6
Weight &Balance
PROCEDURES FOR WEIGHING & DETERMINING EMPTY CG
GENERAL
To detennine the empty weight and center of gravity of the airplane, the airplane must be in a
level area and in a particular configuration.
AIRPLANE CONFIGURATION (Empty Weight)
The following should be performed in a closed hangar on a level surface to prevent errors
induced by wind.
1. The airplane empty weight includes 2.4 quarts of oil (dipstick reading), unusable fuel, and
installed equipment.
2. Defuel airplane per instruction in the maintenance manual. Retain .5 gallon in fuel tank as
unusable.
3. Ensure the oil sump is filled to 2.4 quarts (Cold engine). Check the reading on the dipstick
and service as necessary.
4. Place the pilot's and front passenger's seat in the full aft position.
5. Retract the flaps to the up or 0° position.
6. Center the controls to the neutral static position.
7. Ensure all doors are closed when the airplane is weighed.
AIRPLANE LEVELING
Place scales under each wheel and level the aircraft. Using a smart level or similar device placed
laterally then longitudinally on the aircraft floor between the rudder pedals and control stick,
reference Chapter 8 of the Aircraft Maintenance Manual. A convenient method of leveling the
airplane is to increase or decrease tire pressure as necessary to achieve level. Following
completion of the weighing procedure return tire pressures to the values show in Figure 8-1.
With the aircraft now level record the weights at each wheel and compute per industry standard
weight and balance computation practices.
USING THE PERMANENT REFERENCE POINT (DATUM)
1. To determine the empty weight center of gravity of the airplane, it is more convenient to
work with the permanent reference. The permanent reference point on the airplane is located
at the aft face of propeller spinner bulkhead.
2. Determine the center point on each tire and make a reference mark near the bottom where the
tire touches the floor. On the main gear tires, the mark should be on the inside toward the
centerline of the airplane.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
6-3
Section 6
Weight &Balance
XAir LS (XA 85)
MEASUREMENTS
Measure the distance along the longitudinal axis from the permanent reference point (tip of the
plumb bob) to the lateral reference line between the main gear tires. This is Measurement A.
Measure the distance along the longitudinal axis between the plumb bob to the mark onnose tire.
This is Measurement B. The resulting measurements are the Arms of each weight location (nose
gear and main gear).
WEIGHTS AND COMPUTATIONS
Each scale should be capable of handling weight capacities of about 500 lbs.
CHANGES IN THE AIRPLANE'S CONFIGURATION
1. Determining Location (FS) of Installed Equipment in Relation to the Datum - If
equipment is installed in the airplane, the weight and balance information must be updated.
Individuals and companies who are involved with equipment installations and/or
modifications are generally competent and conversant with weight and balance issues.
2. Weight and Balance Forms - There is a form that is inserted after Appendix A of Chapter 6
of the POH that is used to track changes in the configuration of the airplane. When
equipment is added or removed, these pages or an appropriate approved form must be
updated. In either instance the required information is similar.
3. Updating The Form - Fill in the date the item is added or removed, a description of the
item, the arm of the item, its weight, and the moment of the item. Remember, multiply the
weight times the arm of the item to obtain the moment. Finally, compute the new empty
weight and empty moment by adjusting the running totals. If an item is removed, subtract the
weight and moment of the item from the running totals. If an item is added, add the weight
and moment of the item to the running totals.
FA09000
6-4
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 6
XAir LS (XA 85)
Weight &Balance
PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING GROSS WEIGHT
AND
LOADED CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG)
USEFUL LOAD AND STATIONS
The useful load is determined by subtracting the empty weight of the airplane from the maximum
allowable gross weight of 1234 pounds. The current information obtained from the Weight &
Balance Record in the previous discussion contains the empty weight and empty moments for
this airplane. The useful load includes the weight of pilot, passenger, usable fuel, and baggage.
The objective in good weight and balance planning is to distribute the useful load in a manner
that keeps the loaded center of gravity within prescribed limits and near the center of the CG
range. The center of gravity is affected by both the amount of weight added and the arm or
distance from the datum. The arm is sometimes expressed as a station. For example, if weight is
added at station 50, this means the added weight is 50 inches from the datum or zero reference
point. The fuel is loaded at station 78 inches. These loading stations are summarized in (Figure 61).
BAGGAGE
The space behind the rear of the seats and is confined within the zipper
SUMMARY OF LOADING STATIONS
Description
Arm
Maximum Weight
(Inches From Datum)
Front Seat Pilot and Passenger
Fuel
Baggage Area
♦Usable Fuel
62.1 inches
N/A
78 inches
Lbs. (15 Gallons*)
86.65 inches
10 Lbs.
(The .5 gallon of unusable fuel is included in the empty weight.)
The maximum total allowed baggage weight is 10 lbs.
(Figure 6-1)
COMPUTING THE LOADED CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG)
All information required to compute the center of gravity as loaded with passenger, baggage, and
fuel is now available. Refer to the sample-loading problem in (Figure 6-2). This table is divided
into two sections; the first section contains a sample-loading problem with computations, and the
second section provides space for actual calculations. It is recommended that the second section
of this table be copied or otherwise duplicated so that the pilot has an unmarked document with
which to perform the required calculations.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
6-5
Section 6
X Air LS (XA 85)
Equipment List
CALCULATOR METHOD
Sample Problem
Actual Calculation
Calculator Method
For This Airplane
WT.
ARM
MOMENTS
(Lbs.)
Basic Empty Wt.**
645
Seat Wts.
370
(lbs.-in.)
(Inches)
38835.1
62.1
22975.87
Baggage
10
86.65
866.5
Fuel (At 6 lbs./gal.)
90
78.0
7020
Totals
WT.
ARM
MOMENTS
(Lbs.)
(Inches)
(lbs.-in.)
ITEM
ITEM
lll5
69697.47lbs.-in
69697.47
,_.
Basic Empty Wt.
62.1
Front Seats
Baggage (Main)*
86.65
Fuel (At 6 lbs./gal.)
78.0
Totals
,
lbs—in.
=o2.5lincnes
=
\W5lbs.
inches
lbs.
NOTE
The basic empty weight used in this example will vary for each airplane. Refer to the
Weight and Balance Record, which follows Appendix A of this section.
(Figure 6-2)
In the sample problem, multiplying the weight of a particular item, i.e., pilots, baggage "and fuel,
times its arm, computes the moment for that item. The moments and weight are then summed
with the basic empty weight and the empty moment of the airplane. In the example, these totals
are ll 15 pounds and 69697 moment. The loaded center of gravity of 62.5 inches is then
determined by dividing the total moment by the gross weight.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE LIMITATIONS
As its name suggests, weight and balance limitations have two components, a weight limitation
and a balance or center of gravity limitation. The maximum gross weight of the airplane is 1,234
pounds. This is the first limitation that must be considered in weight and balance preflight
planning. If the gross weight is more than 1,234 lbs., then fuel, baggage, and/or passenger weight
must be reduced. Once the gross weight is at or below 1,234 pounds, consideration is then made
for distribution of the weight.
The objective in dealing with the balance limitation is to ensure that the center of gravity is
within prescribed ranges at the specified gross weight. The center of gravity range is referred to
as the "envelope." The envelope is depicted with the values from the sample above in (Figure 63).
If the center of gravity is outside the envelope, the airplane is not safe to fly. If the range is
exceeded to the left of the envelope, then the airplane is nose heavy and weight must be
redistributed with more to the aft position. Conversely, if the range is exceeded to the right of the
envelope, then the airplane is tail heavy and weight must be redistributed with more to the
FA09000
6-6
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 6
X Air LS (XA 85)
Weight & Balance
forward position. Notice that the range of the envelope decreases as weight increases. At 1,234
lbs. maximum gross weight, the range of the envelope is 58.25 inches to 62.6 inches.
XA Air LS (XA 85) WEIGHT AND BALANCE ENVELOPE
CG Envelope
1300
1200
1000
900
^
<4^
•V
^K v°
**
1100
'/'"%,
/ ; / / y^
/%
800
700
600
35000
40000
45000
50000
55000
60000
65000
70000
75000
80000
Moment
(Figure 6-3)
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
6-7
Vertical Speed Indicator
Air Gizmos Air Dock
Dynon EMS D-10A
Initial Issue ot Manual: hebruary 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
20.
19.
18.
17.
16.
15.
14.
13.
12.
11.
10.
9.
8.
7.
6.
5.
ICOM A200
(APPENDIX B)
Item
INSTALLED EQUIPMENT LIST
Airspeed Indicator
4.
Chapter
Altimeter
Serial/Part No.
ATA
3.
2.
1.
Item No.
X Air LS (XA 85)
(lbs.)
Weight
6-B1
FA09000
(ins.)
Arm
Section 6 (Appendix A)
height & Balance
i
20.
19.
18.
17.
16.
15.
14.
13.
12.
11.
10.
9.
8.
7.
6.
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.
Item No.
Serial/Part No.
ATA
Chapter
Item
AFTER-MARKET EQUIPMENT LIST
(lbs.)
Weight
Arm
____J
(ins.)
MOVED
DATE
OUT
N/A
IN
N/A
MOVED
ITEM
BASIC AIRPLANE AS DELIVERED
DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLE OR
MODIFICATION
AIRPLANE MODEL: X Air LS (XA 85)
N/A
(Lbs.)
N/A
(Inches)
N/A
(Lbs. - in.)
WEIGHT ADDED
N/A
(Lbs.)
N/A
(Inches)
N/A
(Lbs. - in.)
WEIGHT REMOVED
WEIGHT /MOMENT CHANGE
SERIAL NUMBER: 1160
Date Airplane Weighed - February 22, 2008 (Initial)
WEIGHT & BALANCE RECORD
(History ofChanges in Structure orEquipment Affecting Weight and Balance)
645
(Lbs.)
38835.1
(Lbs. - in.)
TOTALS
RUNNING
PAGE NO. 1
MOVED
DATE
IN
OUT
MOVED
ITEM
DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLE OR
MODIFICATION
AIRPLANE MODEL: X Air LS (XA 85)
(Lbs.)
(Inches)
(Lbs. - in.)
WEIGHT ADDED
(Lbs.)
(Inches)
(Lbs. - in.)
WEIGHT REMOVED
WEIGHT /MOMENT CHANGE
Date Airplane Weighed - xxxx xx, 200x (Initial)
SERIAL NUMBER: 1160
WEIGHT & BALANCE RECORD
(History of Changes in Structure or Equipment Affecting Weight and Balance)
(Lbs.)
(Lbs. - in.)
TOTALS
RUNNING
PAGE NO. 2
Section 7
XAir LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Section 7
Description of Airplane & Systems
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
7-3
AIRFRAME & RELATED ITEMS
7-4
Basic Construction Techniques
7-4
Fuselage
Wings and Fuel Tanks
Flight Controls
7-4
7-4
7-4
Ailerons and Elevator
Rudder
7-4
7-4
Control Lock
7-4
Trim System
Elevators and Aileron
Wing Flaps
Landing Gear
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-5
Main Gear
7-5
Nose Gear
7-5
Seats
7-5
Front Seat (General)
7-5
Front Seat Adjustment
7-5
Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses
7-5
Doors
7-5
Cabin Doors
Latching Mechanism
Brake System
Steering
ENGINE
Engine Specifications
Engine Controls
Throttle
Engine Sub-systems
Starter and Ignition
Propeller
Cooling
Engine Oil
Exhaust
INSTRUMENTS
Engine Instrument Panel
Fuel Quantity
7-5
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
Ammeter
7-7
Tachometer
7-7
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
7-1
Section 7
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
XAir LS (XA 85)
Oil Temperature
'-7
Oil Pressure
7-8
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT)
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
Flight Instrument Panel
7-8
7-8
7-8
7-8
Magnetic Compass
Airspeed Indicator
7-8
Altimeter
7-8
Pitot-Static System
7-9
ENGINE RELATED SYSTEMS
7-9
Fuel System
Fuel Quantity Indication
7-9
7-9
Fuel Selector
Fuel Vents
7-9
7-9
Fuel Drains and Strainer
7-10
Backup Boost Pump, Vapor Suppression, and Primer
Environmental Control System (ECS)
Airflow and Operation
ELECTRICAL AND RELATED SYSTEM
Electrical System
General Description
7-10
7-lQ
7-10
7-10
7-10
7-10
Master Switch
7-10
Avionics Master Switch
7-10
Rocker Switch Panel
7-10
Electrical System Diagram
FA09000
7-2
7-11
.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
XAir LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Section 7
Description of Airplane & Systems
INTRODUCTION
Section 7 provides a basic understanding of the airplane's airframe, powerplant, systems,
avionics, and components. The systems include: electrical system; flight control system; wing
flap system; fuel system; braking system; heating and ventilating system; pitot pressure system;
and the static pressure system. In addition, various non-system components are described. These
include: control locks; doors and exits; baggage compartment; seats, seat belts and shoulder
harnesses; and the instrument panel.
Terms that are not well known and not contained in the definitions in Section 1 are explained in
general terms. The description and discussion on the following pages assume a basic
understanding of airplane nomenclature and operations.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
7-3
Section 7
XAir LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
AIRFRAME & RELATED ITEMS
The X Air LS is a tube and fabric, two seat, single engine, high wing, tricycle design airplane.
The airplane is certificated in the Light Sport Aircraft category.
BASIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
The construction process employs aluminum tubes as the primary structure. Aluminum tubes are
light-weight and provide a strong primary structure with a relatively low weight. The tubes are
primarily bolted together with steel weldments utilized where needed for additional strength at
the intersections. The engine mount and landing gear utilize steel tubes for increased strength.
Fuselage and Wings - The fuselage is built from aluminum tubing. The wings are primarily
aluminum tubing with internal drag wires to provide torsional stiffness. Once assembled, the
wings and the aft fuselage are covered with sail cloth. The wing aerodynamic shape is controlled
by the use of aluminum batons. These batons are pre-formed to the aerodynamic shape of the
wing design and inserted into sleeves within the wing envelope. Once the sail cloth envelopes are
installed they are laced to maintain tension.
Fuel Tank - The fuel tank is a fiberglass reinforced epoxy resin shell. The upper portion of the
tank is bonded into the lower to create the tank structure. A resistance sending device is bolted
into the upper tank surface to provide capacity measurement on the fuel quantity indicator.
Horizontal Stabilizer - Aluminum tube and sailcloth covering is employed on both the
horizontal and vertical stabilizer surfaces.
FLIGHT CONTROLS
Ailerons and Elevator - These control surfaces also employ aluminum tube and sailcloth
construction technique.
Rudder - These control surfaces also employ aluminum tube and sailcloth construction
technique. The drive rib that is used to mount the control's actuating hardware provides
additional structural support. The rudder control system is operated through a series of cables and
mechanical linkages that run between the control surface and the rudder pedals in the cockpit.
Control Lock - When the airplane is parked or stored, there is a control lock designed to limit
movement of the ailerons, elevator, and rudder during high wind conditions. The device attaches
to the control stick, and the rudder pedals.
TRIM SYSTEM
Elevator - The elevator trim tab is located on the left side of the elevator. The trim tab is
actuated by a control in the upper portion of the cabin which uses cables to move the tab.
WING FLAPS
The wing flaps are extended and retracted using a lever located above the left seat outboard
shoulder position. The flaps are hinged on the trailing edge of the wings and are mechanically
driven by actuating rods. Flap position is indicated by the detent in which the locking portion of
the actuating handle rests.
FA09000
7-4
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
v aX Air LS (XA 85)
Section 7
Description ofthe Airplane and its Systems
LANDING GEAR
^
Main Gear - The airplane has a tricycle landing gear with the two main wheels located behind
the center of gravity (CG) and a nose wheel well forward of the CG point. The main tires are
3.50-8 (tire width andrim diameter in inches) that are inflated to 30 to 35 psi andmounted to the
gear with drum brakes. Composite wheel fairings are mounted (optionally) over each tire to
reduce drag.
Nose Gear - The nose gear strut is attached to the engine mount and serves as a shock absorber.
The strut contains a springto absorb landing or vertical impact. The nose gear is connected to the
rudder control system via interconnect linkage. This linkage provides positive nose gear steering
while on the ground. Nose gear travel is 15 degrees left and right of neutral. The nose gear tire is
also 3.50-8 and is inflated to 30 psi.
SEATS
Seats (General) - Two individual, adjustable, glass fiber reinforced resin frame seats provide the
seating for the pilot and passenger. The seats are fabric covered.
Front Seat Adjustment - The front seats are adjustable fore and aft. The adjustment control for
the seats is located below the seat on the inboard side. To adjust the position of either seat, move
the control lever towards the middle of the aircraft until the seat unlocks from the seat track and
adjust the seat to the desired position. Release the adjustment control when the seat is in the
desired position, and test for positive seat locking by applying a slight fore and aft movement to
the seat.
J
SEAT BELTS AND SHOULDER HARNESSES
The seat belts and shoulder harnesses are an integrated restraint type of design. The webbing is
anchored on each side of the seat for the lap belt restraint and then in the empenage for the
harness restraints. The lower strap of the shoulder harness is integrated into the lap belt and
connected to the upper strap at the adjustment buckle.
Use of the restraint system is accomplished by grasping the male end of the buckle, drawing the
lap webbing and shoulder harness across the lower and upper torso, and inserting it into the
female end of the buckle. There is a distinctive snap when the two parts are properly connected.
Adjusting two devices in the lap-webbing loop varies the length of the lap belt. One end of the
adjustment loop contains a dowel, and the other has a small strap. Draw the dowel and strap
together to enlarge the lap belt size, and draw them apart to tighten the lap belt. To release the
belt, press the red button on the female portion of the buckle.
DOORS
Cabin Doors - The airplane has entrance doors on each side, which permits easy access. The
doors are hinged at the forward extremities.
The hinges, in conjunction with the door latching mechanism, which extend across the inner door
jam, keep the door secure. The latching mechanism ensures that the doors will remain secured
during flight.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
^_
FA09000
7-5
Section 7
XAir LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Latching Mechanism - From the exterior, the latching mechanism on each cabin door is
operated through movement of the exterior door handle. The handle is mounted onthe side of the
door at the aft position. Moving the forward end of the handle from its normal middle position to
the six o'clock position disengages the latching mechanism. To secure the door, return the handle
to the middle position.
BRAKE SYSTEM
The airplane braking system is mechanically operated by a dedicated braking system. Each
rudder pedal has a brake pedal built into it. Depressing the top portion of the rudder pedals
actuates the brake for that brake.
NOSE GEAR STEERING
Directional control of the airplane is maintained through mechanical nose gear steering. Applying
rudder pressure in the direction of desired turn results in a rotational force being applied to the
nose gear mechanism and results in a change of direction.
ENGINE
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
The airplane engine is a Jabiru 2200. It is a horizontally opposed, four-cylinder, carbureted, aircooled engine that uses a high-pressure wet-sump type of oil system for lubrication. There is a
full flow, spin-on, disposable oil filter. The engine has top air induction, an engine mounted
carburetor, and a bottom exhaust system. Rear engine accessories include a starter, gear-driven
oil pump, gear-driven fuel pump, and dual gear-driven magnetos.
ENGINE CONTROLS
Throttle - The throttle controls the volume of air that enters the cylinders. The dual throttle
control is located to the left of each of the seats and is accessible to the left hand of each
occupant. Moving the throttle forward increases engine power and RPM, while moving it back
will reduce power and RPM.
ENGINE SUB-SYSTEMS
Starter and Ignition - Selecting ignition switches "ON" removes the ground from the ignition
circuit. In this condition the ignition will operate and turning the propeller will cause it to fire.
The electric starter motor is controlled by the starter button located in the center console. To
operate the starter the key master switch must be on. Depressing the starter button with the key
master switch on will result in the engine cranking.
Propeller - The airplane is equipped with a DUC Swirl composite ground-adjustable propeller.
Cooling - The airplane has a pressure cooling system. The basic principle of this design is to
have high pressure at the intake point and lower pressure at the exit point. This type of
r
arrangement promotes a positive airflow since higher-pressure air moves towards the area of low
pressure. The high-pressure source is provided by ram air that enters the left and right intake
openings in the front of the cowling. The low pressure point is created at the bottom of the
cowling near the engine exhaust stacks. The flared cowl bottom causes increased airflow, which
lowers pressure.
FA09000
7-6
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 7
XAir LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Within the cowling, the high-pressure intake air is routed around and over the cylinders through
an arrangement of strategically placed baffles as it moves towards the lower pressure exit point.
In addition, fins on the cylinders and cylinder heads, which increase the surface area and allow
greater heat radiation, promote increased cooling. The system is least efficient during ground
operations since the only source of ram air is from the propeller or possibly a headwind.
Engine Oil - The dipstick and oil filler cap are located on the top right side of the engine. The
engine must not be operated with less than two quarts of oil and must not be filled above 2.4
quarts. For extended flights, the oil should be brought up to full capacity. Information about oil
grades, specifications, and related issues are covered in Section 1 of this handbook.
Exhaust - Gases that remain after combustion flow from the cylinders through the exhaust
valves and into the exhaust manifold (a series of connected pipes) and are expelled into the
outside atmosphere. There is an exhaust manifold on each side of the engine, and each of these
manifolds is connected to two cylinders. The manifolds are connected to the muffler and tail pipe
that extend out the bottom of the engine cowling. A heat shroud is attached to the muffler and
serves as a heat exchanger. The air-to-air heat exchanger is used for cabin heat as well as
carburetor heat.
INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INSTRUMENT PANEL
All engine instruments, with the exception of the ammeter, are contained in the Dynon EMS D10. A breakdown of the function of each is provided below, however, and more thorough
description and operation of the Dynon can be found in the Dynon Pilot Guide.
Fuel Quantity -The gauge displays the amount of available usable fuel, in U.S. gallons. The
pilot is reminded that the fuel gauges are approximate indications and are never substitutes for
proper planning and pilot technique.
Tachometer - Changes in RPM settings are displayed on the tachometer in increments of 100
RPM with the red line at 3300 RPM. A green arc indicates the range for normal operations, 2000
to 3300 RPM. The gauge is electronically operated and translates the rotor speed of the alternator
into an equivalent engine RPM reading. Since the tachometer is electrically powered, it will not
display a reading with the master switch turned off.
Oil Temperature - The oil temperature gauge is in the engine instrument panel in the bottomleft position. The instrument is a dual presentation gauge with the oil temperature gauge below
and oil pressure gauge above. The gauge measures oil temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in 1
°F increments. The normal operating limits (Green Arc) displayed on the gauge range from
122°F to 200°F with a red line upper limit of 240°F. The thermal bulb, which is the source point
for measurement of oil temperature, is located in the oil sump. Power for the temperature gauge
is supplied by the airplane's electrical system, and the oil temperature gauge will not operate with
-1
the master switch turned off.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
7-7
Section 7
XAir LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Oil Pressure - An electrical transducer mounted to the oil cooler converts pressure changes into
electrical voltages. Power for the transducer is supplied by the airplane's electrical system, and
the oil pressure gauge will not operate with the master switch turned off.
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) - The CHT gauge displays cylinder head temperature in
degrees Fahrenheit (°F). The green arc or normal operating limits range from 240°F to 390°F
with a red line above 390°F. The source of the temperature reading is a direct measurement from
a gasket probe in each cylinder. While the CHT is a voltage-generating temperature indicator,
commonly referred to as a thermocouple, the transmitting unit uses the electrical system of the
airplane and the gauge will not operate if electrical power is lost or the master switch is turned
off. Reference to the CHT should be made to ensure that the operating limitations of the engine
are not exceeded. The pilot is capable of controlling CHT through airspeed and power
management. Should the indicated value exceed operating limitations adjustments should be
made to power or airspeed or both. Whenever possible a cruise climb should be used to provide
additional cooling air as well as improved visibility forward.
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) - The EGT gauge is provided for reference. The typical EGT
indication will be between 1200 °F and 1300 °F at cruise power settings. Observing the EGT
indication can lead to early detection of abnormal operation of the altitude compensation
carburetor or an individual cylinder. A lean mixture results in a higher EGT while a rich mixture
results in a cooler EGT.
Ammeter - The ammeter is located in the center console and is not part of the Dynon Engine
Monitor. It is marked for positive and negative indications in 5 amp increments. During engine
start the ammeter can be monitored to determine battery and electrical system health. After start,
positive operation of the charging system can be monitored on the ammeter. Neutral values are
normal once the battery is charged.
FLIGHT INSTRUMENT PANEL
All flight and navigational instruments are installed in this particular area and the panel is
directly in front of the pilot.
Magnetic Compass - The airplane has a conventional aircraft, liquid filled, magnetic compass
with a lubber line on the face of the window, which indicates the airplane's heading in relation to
magnetic north. The instrument is located on top of the glare shield and is labeled at the 30°
points on the compass rose with major increments at 10° and minor increments at 5°. A compass
correction card is on the compass and displays compass error at 30° intervals with the radios on.
Airspeed Indicator - The airspeed indicator is part of the pitot-static system, The instrument
measures the difference between ram pressure and static pressure and, through a series of
mechanical linkages, displays an airspeed indication. The source of the ram pressure is from the
pitot tube and the source of the static pressure is from the static air vent. The instrument shows
airspeed in MPH. Range markings on the instrument define limits.
Altimeter - The altimeter displays altitude in terms of MSL. The instrument is an aneroid
barometer that can be adjusted for local barometric pressure to display baro-corrected altitude.
FA09000
7-8
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 7
X Air LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Local barometric pressure is selected in the Kollsman window. The altimeter derives the local air
pressure through the static system.
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) - The VSI displays rate of climb or decent. The instrument is
connected to the static system and derives the rate of change in altitude from the change in
ambient air pressure. The instrument is not instantaneous and some "lag" will be noticed as the
aircraft begins a climb or decent.
PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM
The pitot-static system, as the name suggests, has two components, ram air from the pitot tube
and ambient air from the static air vent. The amount of ram compression depends on air density
and the rate of travel through the air. The ram air, in conjunction with static air, operates the
airspeed indicator. The static system also provides ambient uncompressed air for the altimeter,
vertical speed indicator. The pitot tube is located on the left wing of the airplane and the static air
vent is behind the instrument panel.
ENGINE RELATED SYSTEMS
FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel system has one tank that gravity feeds to a two position (ON and Off) fuel selector valve
located in the floor adjacent to the center console on the left side. The fuel flows from the tank to
the strainer and then to the auxiliary fuel pump. From this point it goes to the engine-driven
pump and then to the carburetor.
^
The fuel tank is designed with a lower section in the center where the fuel pick-up resides. This
design allows any contaminants to collect below the fuel pick-up and also maximizes the amount
of fuel useable.
Fuel Quantity Indication - A fuel level indicator is provided to help the pilot determine fuel
quantity on board. The fuel level is part of the Dynon EMS 10 and a more thorough description
can be found in the Dynon Pilot Guide.
A float moves up and down on a pivot point between the top and bottom of the compartment, and
the position of each float is summed into a fuel level indication. The positions of the float
depends on the fuel level; changes in the float position increases or decreases resistance in the
sending circuit, and the change in resistance is reflected as a fuel quantity indication.
The pilot is reminded that the fuel gauges are approximate indications and are never substitutes
for proper planning and pilot technique. Always verify the fuel onboard through a visual
inspection, and compute the fuel used through time and established fuel flows.
Fuel Selector Valve - The fuel selector valve is located adjacent to the center console on the left
floorboard. The valve selects between fuel "ON" and fuel "OFF".
Fuel Vents - The fuel tank is vented to the exterior of the airplane. The vent exits the airplane
near the intersection of the lower composite fuselage cover and the rear sail lacing.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 7
XAir LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Fuel Drain and Strainer -The gascolator or fuel strainer is located under the fuselage, on the
left side. The gascolator design includes a drain at the lowest point in the fuel system. This drain
is a conventional drain device that operates by pushing up on the valve stem. There is an internal
bypass in the strainer that routes fuel around the filter if it becomes clogged.
Backup Fuel Pump - The auxiliary fuel pump is connected to the main bus electrically and is
operated by a switch in the center console. The pump is designed to deliver proper fuel pressure
to the carburetor should the engine driven pump fail. A fail-safe circuit is plumbed around the
pump to allow fuel to continue to flow should the pump seize. This circuit contains a check valve
to prevent pump cavitation. The backup fuel pump should be utilized only during take-off and
landing and is not meant to be used continuously.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM
The environmental control system (ECS) incorporates the use of an air-to-air heat exchanger, ram
intake air to distribute heated and outside air to the cabin.
Airflow - Ram air enters through a duct behind the oil cooler and flows to the heat exchanger
(located on the muffler). Air to the heat exchanger, depending on the control settings, is mixed
with outside air in the heater box.
ELECTRICAL AND RELATED SYSTEMS
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
General Description - The airplane electrical system is designed to normally operate at 14 volts.
Power is supplied by a 20-amp alternator (continuous rating), and storage is maintained by a 25
amp-hour (at a 20-amp discharge rate) lead-acid battery located under the right seat. The voltage
regulator is designed to maintain ± 0.4 volts of the normal voltage. The alternator switch is
incorporated in the main key master switch. The airplane is equipped with a voltmeter that
measures bus voltage and an ammeter that measures the charging or discharging of the battery.
The system has one distribution bus. Power is supplied to the distribution bus when the system
master switch is turned on. Please refer to (Figure 7-1) for a diagram of the electrical system.
Master Switch - The system master switch is located in the center console panel. The switch is a
rotational key design with the alternator switch and the battery switch integrated into one switch.
FA09000
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 7
X Air LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DIAGRAM
ICOMA720
Optional GARM1N 396/496
DYNON EMS 10A
Unused
'=i*%
Unused
(Figure 7-1)
/«W(i
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
FA09000
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Section 7
X Air LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
^•"v
FA09000
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Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
Section 8
X Air LS (XA 85)
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
Section 8
-,
Handling, Servicing,
&
Maintenance
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
General
Fuselage Identification Plate
Publications
Address Information
SERVICES AND SERVICING
Fuel Servicing
Grounding During Refueling and Defueling
Fuel Contamination
Oil Servicing
Oil grades Recommended for Various Temperature Ranges
Sump Capacity
Oil Filter
Brakes and Tire/Nose Strut Pressures
Battery Replacement Cycles
MAINTENANCE AND DOCUMENTATION
Maintenance
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-6
Airplane Inspection Periods
8-6
Preventive Maintenance
8-6
Alterations or Repairs
Required Oil Changes and Special Inspections
Recommended Oil Changes and Special Inspections
Warranty Inspections
Airplane Documentation
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-7
HANDLING AND STORAGE
8-7
Ground Handling
Towing
Parking
Securing the Airplane
Jacking and Leveling
Jacking
Leveling
8-7
8-7
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 8
X Air LS (XA 85)
Description of the Airplane and its Systems
Storage
Indefinite Storage (over 90 days)
Return to Service From Indefinite Storage
Airframe Preservation for Temporary and Indefinite Storage
Airframe Preservation Return to Service
Inspections During Temporary Storage
Inspections During Indefinite Storage
AIRFRAME AND ENGINE CARE
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
Airframe
Exterior
8-10
8-10
Windshield and Windows
8-11
Interior Cleaning and Care
Engine and Propeller
Engine Cleaning and Care
8-12
8-12
8-12
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22,2008
8-2
FA09000
Section 8
X Air LS(XA 85)
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
INTRODUCTION
This section contains procedures for ground handling of the X Air LS (XA 85), as well as
recommendations and techniques for routine care of the airplane's interior and exterior. In
addition, maintenance intervals and procedures are addressed. Finally, publications and servicing
information are discussed.
GENERAL
The owner or operator of the airplane is responsible for ensuring the airplane is maintained
properly and is in a condition for safe operation. The responsibility extends to maintaining the
airplane logbooks, ensuring the required inspections are performed in a timely manner, and
ensuring that mandatory service directives and part replacements are accomplished within the
specified period.
While the owner or operator is responsible for the continued airworthiness of the airplane, the
use of authorized personnel or trained service station will facilitate compliance. It is
recommended that the owner or operator of the airplane contact a dealer or a certified service
station for service information. All correspondence regarding the airplane should include the
airplane serial number.
Fuselage Identification Plate - The airplane serial number, make, model, and year of
manufacture are contained on the Fuselage Identification Plate on the tail of the airplane. The
serial number is also listed on the cover page of the Aircraft Operating Instructions.
/=8%
Publications - In the U.S. owners may perform preventative maintenance as described in part
43 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. To do this requires the use of an authorized maintenance
manual. In some instances, the owner or operator may wish to maintain a copy of the
maintenance manual to assist other appropriately certified individuals in maintaining the
airplane's continued airworthiness. A maintenance manual and other related documentation can
be obtained by contacting:
X Air, LLC
PO Box 1964
Redmond, Oregon 97756
Phone: (541) 504-0381
Fax: (541) 504-0430
Email: support@x-airlsa.com
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 8
Handling. Servicing, and Maintenance
X Air LS (XA 85)
SERVICES AND SERVICING
X AIR ADVISORY SERVICE
Changes and information that affect the X Air LS, including the maintenance and operation of
the airplane, are provided to all registered owners free of charge. The advisory service contains
two basic types of data, compulsory and informational. Compulsory items must be accomplished
within a specified time to maintain the continued airworthiness of the airplane. Informational
items are non-binding and usually contain details and tips thatenhance the use of the airplane.
FUEL SERVICING
Grounding During Refueling and Defueling - It is important for the airplane to be grounded to
the fuel source during refueling and defueling operations. Place the fuel source grounding clamp
on the right or left exhaust stack of the airplane before touching the filler neck of the fuel tank
with metal parts of the ground refueling equipment. Remember that refueling is often done at the
conclusion of a flight and the exhaust stacks may still be hot, so care must be used when
attaching the clamp.
To completely defuel the airplane, refer to Chapter 12 in the Airplane Maintenance manual.
Fuel Contamination - To test for fuel contamination a fuel sample must be taken from the drain
of the gascolator before each flight and after the airplane is refueled. There are three types of
contaminates that can inadvertently be introduced to the fuel system: (1) sediment such as dirt
and bacteria, (2) water, and (3) the improper grade of fuel.
1.
The accumulation of sediments is an inherent issue with most aircraft and can never be
completely eliminated. Refueling the airplane at the conclusion of each flight and using fuel
from a supplier who routinely maintains the filtration of the refueling equipment will lessen
the problem somewhat. If specks are observed in the fuel sampler, continue the sampling
operation until no debris is observed. Be sure the sampling device is clean before using it.
2.
The two more common sources of water contamination are condensation of water from the
air within a partially filled fuel tank and water-contaminated Avgas from a fuel supplier.
Again, refueling after each flight and proper filtration of the fuel delivery system will
mitigate water contamination. Water, which is heavier than Avgas, will collect near the
bottom of the sampling device. If water is observed in the fuel sampler, take additional fuel
samples until all the water is removed.
3.
Aviation fuel is dyed according to its grade. If fuels of two different grades are mixed, the
fuel sample will be clear. If an inferior, improper grade of fuel is noted, completely defuel the
tank and refuel with the proper grade of fuel.
Persistent fuel contamination is a serious problem. If repeated fuel sampling demonstrates
chronic contamination, approved personnel must inspect the airplane, and it is unsafe to fly. It is
always a good idea to personally observe refueling operations. If it is necessary to operate in
areas where there is questionable fuel delivery, the use of a portable fuel filter is recommended.
NOTE
There are a number of fuel additives on the market that are formulated for
automotive use. While the additives may be beneficial for cars, trucks, etc., they
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
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Section 8
XAir LS (XA 85)
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
are not approved for aircraft use. Only fuel additives that are approved by
Jabiru may be used in the X Air LS.
OIL SERVICING
NOTE
Oil is added to the engine through the filler neck that contains the dipstick. To
remove the dipstick, rotate it counterclockwise to unseat it; raise the dipstick
approximately six to eight inches to read. Accurate oil quantity level is only
achieved by checking the level after the dipstick has been fully screwed into its
seated position.
Oil servicing is best performed with a funnel as the neck of the filler is relatively small. The use
of a funnel will aid in preventing overflow of the filler neck.
Oil Grades Recommended
Aero Oil W Multigrade 15W-50, or equivalent Lubricant complying with MIL-L-2285 IC, or
Lycoming Spec. 30IF, or Teledyne - Continental Spec MHF-24B.
Sump Capacity - The system has a wet type oil sump with a drain-refill capacity of 2.4 quarts.
Oil Filter - A full flow, spin on-type, oil filter is used.
NOTE
There are a number of oil additives on the market that are formulated for
automotive use; however, they are not approved for aircraft operations.
Only oil additives that are approved by Jabiru may be used in the X Air LS.
TIRE PRESSURE
Proper inflation of the tires reduces tire external damage and heat, which reduces tire wear.
Maneuverability on the ground is enhanced when tire pressures are at proper levels. The table
below (Figure 8-1) summarizes the recommended pressures and types of tires.
Tire Considerations - The airplane is delivered with Dunlop tires. These tires have a profile that
provides about 3/s in. (0.95 cm) clearance between the tire and wheel pants. Other brands of tires
with similar specifications may have slightly larger profiles. Tires with larger profiles are not
recommended since damage to the tire or wheel pant is possible, particularly during landing. If
other brands of tires are used, the profile of the tire must be precisely measured and compared
with the original equipment tire.
CAUTION
The profile of replacement tires that are not a recommended brand should be
measured precisely to ensure they are the same height and width. The use of
tires that have slightly larger profiles can cause damage to the tire and to the
wheel pant, particularly during landing operations.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 8
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
r
X Air LS (XA 85)
ITEM
SPECIFICATIONS
PRESSURE
TYPE OF GAS
Nose Gear Tire
3.50-8
30 psi
Air
Main Gear Tires
3.50-8
35 psi
Air
(Figure 8-1)
BATTERY REPLACEMENT CYCLES
The X Air has two separate batteries that require periodic replacement. While the system battery
indicates its charge on the installed voltmeter, the ELT battery does not have a positive test to
indicate its charge. The table below summarizes the replacement cycles.
BATTERY REPLACMENT CYCLES
BATTERY TYPE
BATTERY LOCATION
Every two years or when the battery
Emergency Locator Transmitter
(ELT) -Alkaline Type Battery
System - Dry Sealed Lead-Acid
Type Battery
REPLACEMENT CYCLE
had been used for more than one
hour or used 50% if its power
TT ,
it lL
,
...
Underneath the seat on the copilot s
.,
r
Every Four Years - However, if the
, ^
c .. , , .,
,
battery fails to hold a charge, it must
be replaced.
(Figure 8-2)
MAINTENANCE AND DOCUMENTATION
MAINTENANCE
Airplane Inspection Periods - Part 91, Subpart E of the Federal Aviation Regulations requires
that each U.S. civil registered airplane not used for hire be inspected every 12 calendar months in
accordance with Part 43.
Preventive Maintenance - A certificated pilot who owns or operates an airplane not used as an
air carrier is authorized by FAR Part 43 to perform limited preventive maintenance on his or her
airplane. Appendix A of Part 43 of the Federal Aviation Regulations specifies what items
constitute preventative maintenance. Only the certificated pilot who owns or operates the
airplane can perform the specific items listed in FAR Part 43. The work must be performed
according to procedures and specifications in the applicable handbook or maintenance manual.
Appropriately licensed personnel must perform all other maintenance items not specifically
identified in Appendix A of Part 43. For more details regarding authorized maintenance, contact
the dealer or service center.
Alterations or Repairs - All alterations or repairs to the airplane must be accomplished by
licensed personnel. In addition, an alteration may violate the airworthiness of the airplane. Before
alterations are made, the owner or operator of the airplane should contact X Air for approval.
Required Oil Changes and Special Inspections - After the first 25 hours of the airplane's time
in service, the oil and oil filter must be changed and refilled with approved engine oil. At 50
hours of time in service, the oil and oil filter shall be changed and the filter and discarded oil
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 8
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
X Air LS (XA 85)
checked for evidence of metal particles. Thereafter, the oil and oil filter must be changed at every
50 hours of time in service. Reference should be made to the Instruction and Maintenance
Manual for the Jabiru 2200 Engine for detailed maintenance checks.
Recommended Oil Changes and Special Inspections - At approximately every 50 hours of
time in service it is recommended the engine oil be changed. Since the cowling is removed for an
oil change, a cursory inspection of other engine systems is possible, and the engine can be
cleaned and degreased if necessary. The airplane's engine is the single most expensive
component in the airplane and arguably the most important. The comparative nominal expense
and time involved in doing 50-hour oil changes are more than offset by the long-term benefits
and peace of mind.
Warranty Inspections - Please refer to X Air Warranty Guide.
AIRPLANE DOCUMENTATION
There are certain items required to be in the airplane at all times. Moreover, some of the items
must be displayed near the cabin or cockpit door. The required items are provided with the
airplane when it is delivered to the new owner. A description of all required documentation is
summarized in the table below in (Figure 8-3).
Item
Must be Displayed
Aircraft Airworthiness Certificate
*es
Aircraft Registration
*es
Aircraft Operating Instructions
No
Weight & Balance
No
Equipment List
No
Location
In display pocket
In the baggage area
(Figure 8-3)
HANDLING AND STORAGE
GROUND HANDLING
Towing -It is recommended that the airplane only be maneuvered during towing by use of the
hand-held tow bar. If it is necessary to tow with a vehicle, extreme care is required to ensure the
rotation limits of the nose wheel (15° left and right) are not exceeded. Since the rotation of the
nose gear is limited by physical stops, rotating the gear beyond 15° will damage the airplane.
Should the turning travel be exceeded, do not fly the airplane until a thorough inspection of the
rudder control system has been performed.
It is always a good idea to have another person serve as a spotter when moving the airplane.
Remember that the airplane has vertical limitations as well as horizontal restrictions. The vertical
stabilizer is frequently overlooked as an airplane is being pushed into a hanger with most of the
attention directed towards the wingtips. When moving the airplane over uneven surfaces,
remember that small up and down oscillations of the nose strut result in amplified movement of
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 8
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
X Air LS (XA 85)
the vertical stabilizer. Finally, keep in mind that inflation level of the nose tire affects the height
of the vertical stabilizer. A flat tire will increase the height of the vertical stabilizer.
Parking - During parking operations, it is best to head the airplane into the wind if possible.
Caring for the aircraft extends even to how an aircraft is parked whether short term or long term.
When at all feasible parking the aircraftaway from run up areas and the like is importantto avoid
debris erosion of the aircraft. Additionally, mooring or tying down the aircraft adequately is
critical. Always utilize tie downs after parking the aircraft even for short visits to avoid wind
damage. Secure both of the wings and the tail tie down securely.
Securing the Airplane - The airplane should be chocked and the following items should be
accomplished to secure the airplane.
1.
Install the control lock.
2. Chock the main gear tires with chocks on both sides of each tire.
3. Attach a rope or chain to each tie-down point and secure the rope or chain to a ramp tie-down
point. There are three tie-down points, one on each wing and one on the tail. The ropes or
chains should have a tensile strength of at least 750 lbs.
JACKING AND LEVELING
Jacking - The airplane can be jacked at the axle using a low profile floor jack. It is advisable to
jack only one side of the airplane at a time.
1. If only one jack is used, as when changing a single tire, the airplane can be safely jacked by
one person using the following procedure.
a. The operation must be performed in a level area, such as an airplane hangar and in an area
free of wind.
b. Chock the nose tire and the main gear tire that is not raised.
c. Place a jack under the axle of the wheel to be raised. Take extra precaution to ensure the
jack is properly stabilized, the base is locked in position, and the jack is lifting vertically.
d. Slowly raise the jack until the desired ground clearance is achieved. The clearance
between the bottom of the tire and lifting surface (ground or hangar floor) should not
exceed three inches.
Leveling - Please see page 6-3 for information about leveling the airplane. Also reference
Chapter 8 of the Aircraft Maintenance Manual.
STORAGE
The recommendations of the Jabiru Instruction and Maintenance Manual should be followed to
{~-
properly handle the storage the Jabiru engine. The best protection for the exterior is, of course, to
hangar the airplane, if possible. Caring for the aircraft extends even to how an aircraft is parked
whether short term or long term. Park the aircraft away from run up areas whenever possible to
avoid debris erosion of the aircraft. Additionally, mooring or tying down the aircraft adequately
is critical. Always utilize tie downs after parking the aircraft even for short visits to avoid wind
damage. Secure both of the wings and the tail tie down securely.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 8
X Air LS (XA 85)
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
When storing the aircraft for extendedperiods of time it is strongly recommended that the
aircraft be stored in ahangar or under some form ofcover as extended exposure to UV can
deteriorate the aircraft covering over extended periods of time.
Indefinite Storage (Over 90 Days) - If the airplane is to be stored for a long period, follow the
procedures listedin the Jabiru Instruction and Maintenance Manual to preserve the engine.
Return to Service From Indefinite Storage - To return an airplane that has been in indefinite
storage to active service follow the order of items in the Jabiru Instruction and Maintenance
Manual. Additionally, follow these steps for the airframe:
1. Conduct a normal engine start and idle the airplane for several minutes until oil temperature
is in within normal limits. Monitor all engine instruments to ensure they are within normal
operating ranges.
2. Stop the engine and inspect the entire airplane before test flying. It is best to remove the
cowling at this point to inspect for fuel or oil leaks.
3. Reinstall the cowling.
4. Test fly the airplane.
Airframe Preservation for Temporary and Indefinite Storage - If the airplane is to be stored
for over 30 days, some or all the procedures below may be applicable, depending on the
anticipated storage time period. The airplane should be kept in a hangaror covered to protect the
sail from UV.
1. Ensure the tires are free of grease, oil, tar, and, gasoline. The presence of these items
accelerates the aging process. Sunlight and static electricity convert oxygen to ozone, a
substance that accelerates the aging process. Special tire covers can be installed which retard
the erosion process.
2. It is best if the weight of the airplane is removed from the tires to prevent flat spots. If the
airplane cannot be blocked or set on jacks, then every 30 days each wheel should be rotated
about 90° to expose a new tire pressure point.
3. Lubricate exposed exterior metal fittings, hinges, push rods, etc. Use plugs or moisture
resistant tape to seal all openings except fuel vent holes and drain holes.
4. Remove the battery and store in a cool, dry location. The battery may need periodic servicing
and recharging depending on the storage period.
5. Prominently tag areas where tape and plugs are installed.
Airframe Preservation Return to Service - To return the airframe portion of an airplane that
has been in temporary or indefinite storage to active service, perform the following steps, as
applicable.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22,2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
8-9
"^
Section 8
Handling. Servicing, and Maintenance
X Air LS (XA 85)
1. Remove all methods of tagging and sealing the airplane including any items on or in the
engine area.
2. Remove tire covers or other protection devices. Check the condition of the tires and service
to proper pressures. Cracked, deformed, and desiccated tires should be replaced.
3. Thoroughlyclean the exterior of the airplane including the windows.
4. Check the condition and charge of the battery. If the battery is still serviceable, reinstall it in
the airplane; otherwise, install a new battery.
NOTE
When an airplane has been in storage for a long period, the date of the
required annual inspection may have passed. There is no requirement to
perform this inspection during the temporary or indefinite storage period.
However, the inspection must be completed before than airplane is returned
to service.
Inspections During Temporary Storage - The following inspections should be performed
while the airplane is in temporary storage.
1. Check the cleanliness of the airframe as frequently as possible and remove any dust that has
collected.
2. Check the condition and durability of the protective covering (if used) and repair or reattach
as required.
3. Every 30 days, check the interior of at least one cylinder for evidence of corrosion.
Inspections During Indefinite Storage - The following inspections should be performed while
the airplane is in indefinite storage. Follow the instructions noted in Inspection During
Temporary Storage above and ensure compliance with the procedures outlined in the Instruction
and Maintenance Manual for the Jabiru 2200 engine.
AIRFRAME AND ENGINE CARE
AIRFRAME
Exterior - The exterior painted surfaces are cleaned by washing with a mild soap and water and
drying with a soft towel or chamois. The seal coats that are applied to the painted composite
surface, in most instances, will provide adequate protection from moisture. Some additional
protection is provided by waxing the painted composite surface and facilitates washing the
airplane since bugs and dirt will not adhere as tightly to a waxed surface. A wax with a high
concentration of carnauba is recommended. There are several commercial boat waxes available
that are ideal for this use. Be sure to read the label with an eye for the percentage of carnauba in
the compound.
ICAUTION
It is best to avoid directing a high volume flow of water over the aircraft An
acceptable technique of washing the airplane is to use a minimal flow of
water. Avoid pointing a stream of water into openings in the airframe as this
may result in water accumulating inside areas of the airframe that may lead
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
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Section 8
X Air LS (XA 85)
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
to corrosion. Prior to flying the aircraft after washing, ensure the low points
of the fuselage have drained and that the drain holes are clear.
Windshield and Windows - The proper care of the windshield and windows (sometimes
referred to as transparencies) is one of the more important exterior care items on the airplane, and
often the least understood. The cardinal rule is to never do anything that will scratch the surface
of the plastic. The following points for cleaning and caring for the transparencies will help to
keep windows looking like new.
1. First, when cleaning the windows, it is recommended that rings and watches be removed as
they can cause deep scratches. In this vein, long sleeve shirts should be turned up a few rolls
to hide exposed buttons.
2. When removing bugs and dirt, avoid touching the surface. If possible, remove most of the
dirt by flushing the windows and windshield with water and a mild dish soap mixture. Allow
the accumulation of dirt and/or bugs to soak for a few minutes. If rubbing is required, a bare
hand is best. When all the debris on the surface of the window is loosened, app/y a second
water flush and then dry with a 100% cotton cloth.
3. Use a good quality non-abrasive cleaner/polish specifically intended for acrylic windows and
apply per the manufacturer's instructions. Use up and down or side to side movements when
polishing. Never use a circular movement as this can cause glare rings.
4. The best polishing cloth is the softest cotton available. One hundred percent cotton flannel is
ideal and available in yard goods stores. Never use any type of paper product or synthetic
material. In particular, never use shop rags or shop towels. Be sure the polishing cloth is
clean and dry. Reserve polishing cloths should be stored in a plastic bag to limit dirt
accumulation.
5. Small scratches, the type that can be seen but cannot be felt with a fingernail, should be filled
with a polishing compound that has scratch filling properties. The cleaner/polisher mentioned
in paragraph 3 frequently has scratch filling properties and is satisfactory for regular use.
Some scratches are not correctable with a scratch-filling product. While the scratches cannot
be felt, they are still visible, particularly when flying into the sun. In this instance, a mildly
abrasive scratch removal cream can be used per manufacturer's recommendations. Scratches
of greater magnitude require the use of high abrasives and removal of some of the window's
surface around the greatest depth of the scratch. This procedure requires considerable
expertise and frequently makes areas where the scratch was removed more objectionable than
the original scratch.
6. As mentioned previously in this section, the use of canopy or window covers can grind dirt
particles into the acrylic and are virtually impossible to remove.
CAUTION
Do not use anything containing ammonia, aromatic solvents like methyl ethyl
ketone, acetone, lacquer thinner, paint stripper, gasoline, benzene, alcohol,
anti-ice fluid, hydraulic fluid, fire extinguisher solutions, or window cleaner
on the acrylic window surfaces. The use of these substances may cause the
surface to craze.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
8-11
Section 8
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
X Air LS (XA 85)
NOTE
To remove difficult substance such as tape residue, oil, and grease, the safest
solvents are 100% mineral spirits or kerosene. Some alcohols are safe, such
as isopropyl alcohol.
Interior Cleaning and Care - The useful life of the airplane's interior can be extended through
proper care and cleaning. One of the major elements in the aging process is the interior's
exposure to sunlight. If possible, the airplane should be stored in a hangar. Routine vacuuming is
another item that helps extend the life of the airplane's interior.
The carpet can be cleaned with a mild foam product, but care must be used not to over saturate.
Follow the manufacturer's instructions regarding use of the foam cleaner. Small spots can be
cleaned with a commercial spot remover; however, this must be done with care. Again, follow
the recommended procedure of the manufacturer, and try a test application in an area of limited
exposure.
ENGINE AND PROPELLER
Engine Cleaning and Care - Follow the instructions in the Instruction and Maintenance Manual
for the Jabiru 2200.
Propeller Cleaning and Care - It is important to keep the propeller clean since it facilitates
detection of cracks and other problems. The propeller must be cleaned with a non abrasive
cleaner. The use of water and a mild soap is also acceptable; however, never use any alkalinebased products.
Nicks on the leading edge of propeller blade, particularly towards the blade's tip should be
repaired as soon as possible. Unrepaired nicks, over time, can lead to problems that are more
serious. The repair of the airplane's propeller, including propeller nicks, can only be performed
by authorized maintenance personnel and is not an item of authorized preventative maintenance.
When the propeller is clean, dry the surface with a soft cloth and wax the blades with a good
quality automobile paste wax. Frequent cleaning and applications of paste wax will significantly
retard the erosion process. These procedures are particularly applicable in geographical areas of
high humidity and salt particles.
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
8-12:
Section 8
X Air LS (XA 85)
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Initial Issue of Manual: February 22, 2008
Latest Revision Level/Date: Rev A September 22, 2008
FA09000
8-13