Food Science and Technology Notes
Extension Division Deportment of Food Science and Technology Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Blacksburg, Virginia
Unless otherwise specified, the following recipes are for 10 gallons of finished
Plain ice cream.
40 lb. 25% cream
2 doz. eggs (whipped and pasteurized with mix)
3 lb. sugar
3 oz. gelatin
Vanilla to suit
If the mix is not homogenized, proceed as follows: Add egg yolks and
sugar mixed with gelatin tos:nall portion of cream, cook to custard, and
cool. Whip cream and egg whites and mix with custard.
Sugar heated above its melting point in the presence of water
brown, the substance formed being called caramel. Mix 8 lb. sugar
ferably half cane and half brown sugar) with 1 qt. of coffee cream
one-piece utensil without a soldered seam. Heat the mixture until
dark brown. This amount should be added to 40 lb. unsweetened mix
made thereby for the added sugar).
(prein a
it turns
15 lb. cocoa (or 25 lb. chocolate liquor)
25 lb. sugar
4 1/ 2 gal. water
2 oz. salt
Heat to 180°F for 15 min. and cool. To 40 lb. of mix add 7 lb. of the
above sirup. If chocolate liquor is used add 8 lb. sirup. If practicable,
the entire chocolate mix should be homogenized.
8 lb. granulated sugar
1 1/2 lb. butter
1 1/2 pt. milk
1 1/2 pt. water
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in
cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. W. E. Skelton, Dean, Extension
Division, Cooperative Extension Service, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg,
Virginia 24061.
Add sugar and butter to the water and boil to soft-ball stage (236°F).
Keep covered to avoid evaporation and do not stir. Cool to 100°F and add
milk. Heat again to boiling. Add to 40 lb. unsweetened mix.
The flavor is prepared by boiling 1 lb. good coffee with 3 lb. water,
and using only the liquid. The coffee should not be boiled long enough to
become bitter. Add to 45 lb. mix. An excellent flavor can be prepared by
soaking pulverized coffee in cold water at room temperature for 25 hours and
using only the liquid.
Vanilla malt
To 45 lb. mix add 3 lb. malted milk powder and vanilla extract.
Chocolate malt
2 1/2 gal. plain mix
2 1/2 gal. chocolate mix
3 lb. malted milk powder
1 1/4 gal. chocolate mix
3 3/4 gal. plain mix
Enough coffee extract to impart milk coffee flavor
Fruit ice creams. Usually the best-flavored ice cream is obtained by use of the
true fruit. Only highly flavored varieties should be used. Fruits ideal for
shipping may be unsuited for use in ice cream because of lack of flavor.
Add 3 to 4 qt. fresh or frozen berries (depending upon the concentration
of the pack) to 45 lb. mix. Color pink. One-half ounce of 50% citric acid
solution will enhance the flavor.
Add 2 qt. crushed pineapple to 45 lb. mix. Prepare pineapple by boiling
the contents of 1 No. 10 can unsweetened pineapple with 6 lb. sugar. Colored
pineapple cubes add to the attractiveness of the ice cream.
Add 2 qt. crushed cherries to 45 lb. mix.
Color light red.
Add 6 to 8 qt. crushed, well-ripened peaches (fresh or frozen) to 45
lb. mix. Color light yellow. By using some apricots or nectarines a more
distinct flavor is obtained.
Add 3 doz. well-ripened bananas, reduced to pulp, to 45 lb. mix.
Color yellow.
Add the juice of 3 doz. lemons and 1/2 doz. oranges to 45 lb. mix. To
avoid curdling add the fruit juice after the mix starts freezing. Color
lemon yellow.
Add the Juice of 3 doz. oranges and 1 doz. lemons to 45 lb. mix. Add
orange color and, if desired, orange extract to strengthen the flavor.
Nut Ice Creams.
Pistachio (popular item for St. Patrick Day)
To 45 lb. mix add 1 oz. pistachio extract and 1/2 oz. green color. When
ice cream is partially frozen, add 1 1/2 lb. crushed pistachio nut meats.
Butter pecan
Toast pecan halves to a brown color on inside. Add 1 lb. melted butter
to 8 lb. nut meats. Sprinkle with 3/4 oz. salt. Use 3 1/4 lb. to a 40-qt.
batch of ice cream.
Black walnut (salad)
Add 2 lb. broken nut meats to 45 lb. mix.
Burnt almond
2 1/2 lb. chopped burnt almonds
1/3 oz. almond flavor
Add 2 qt. raspberry puree and sufficient pure raspberry extract to give
desired flavor to 45 lb. mix. The addition of a small amount of citric acid
solution at the freezer produces a more pronounced flavor.
45 lbs. mix
Caramel nut
1 1/2 lb. nuts
1 oz. burnt sugar coloring
Caramel flavor
45 lb. mix
Maple nut
1 1/2 oz. maple extract
2 1/2 oz. burnt sugar coloring
2 lb. nuts
45 lb . mix
Pineapple nut
1/2 gal. pineapple
1 1/2 lb. nuts
Cherry nut
3 pt. cherries
2 qt. pecans
45 lb. mix
1/4 oz. New York color
45 lb. mix
Confection Ice Creams.
English toffee
2 lb. butter
3 cups nut meats (pecans)
5 lb. sugar
1/2 tsp. soda
Heat butter and sugar to 160°C. Remove from fire and add soda, stirring
thoroughly. Mix in nuts and spread on marble slab to cool. Use 3 lb. of
candy to 45 lb. mix.
Almond toffee
1 oz. burnt sugar
1/4 oz. almond flavor
3 lb. broken toffee candy
45 lb. mix
Mint stick
Use 2 lb. peppermint candy (satin finish) to 45 lb. mix.
To 45 lb. mix add 2 to 5 lb. marshmallows at the freezer. The marshmallows can be used either dried or fresh. To dry, place them in an oven
adjusted for slow heat. They may be cut into small pieces with scissors
before drying or broken into pi e ces after drying . Small marshmallow
cubes of suitable size for adding to ice cream can be purchased.
1/8 oz. red color
40 lb. mix
Bisque Ice Cream
French nougat
1 qt. marshmallows
1 oz. lemon flavor
2 qt. green anJ red pineapple bits
To 45 lb. partially frozen mix add 4 lb. grapenuts, macaroons, sponge cake,
broken into fine pieces. Fruits and nuts may be added.
Nabi s cos~
Tutti-f rutti
1 qt. red cherries
1 qt. green pineapple
1 qt. crushed pineapple
1 lb. raisins
Orange pudding
4 oz. orange extract
1/2 oz. cheese coloring
1 qt. pineapple
Roman pudding
45 lb. plain mix
or 35 lb. 25 percent cream
4 doz. eggs,
whipped and pasteurized with mix
2 qt. orange Juice
1 qt. lemon juice
1 lb. nut meats
45 lb. mix
Red coloring
1 pt. cherries
1 lb. raisins
45 lb. mix
5 lb. condensed milk
7 1/2 lb. sugar
assorted fruits
Nesselrode pudding
2 1/ 4 gal. crushed pineapple
1/4 gal. raisins
1/ 4 gal. candied citron
1/ 4 gal. emrelettes
1/2 gal. cherries
1 mixing spoon allspice
1/3 gal. fig-walnut mixture
2 lb. candied orange peel
Use 3 qt. of above mixture to 5 gal. ice cream mix. Add:
1/4 lb. walnuts
3/4 lb. pecans
1/2 lb. cashews
Christmas special
20 lb. blanched almonds
15 lb. candied citron
15 lb. candied orange peel
40 lb. mince meat
20 lb. dark raisins
Plum pudding
35 lb. 25 percent cream
5 lb. condensed milk
7 1/2 lb. sugar
Stabilizer if desired
20 lb. white raisins
60 lb. simple sirup
1 pt. rum, dark, New England,
or Puerto Rican
Use 3 qt. to 5 gal. mix
or 45 lb. plain mix
3 doz. eggs (whipped)
1 lb. nuts
2 lb. raisins
1 qt. pineapple
1 pt. cherries
English plum pudding
35 lb. 25 percent cream
5 lb. condensed milk
7 1/2 lb. sugar
Stabilizer if desired
4 doz. eggs (whipped)
2 lb. chocolate sirup
2 qt. assorted fruit
1 lb. raisins
2 lb. fi gs or dates
4 lb. nut meats
or 45 lb. plain mix
3 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice
4 oz. vanilla
Date pudding
5 gal. mix
3 lb. dates, pitted and ground (the condition is improved by brief gentle
cooking to soften)
1 lb. chopped walnut meats
45 lb. high-fat mix
4 oz. vanilla
4 doz. eggs
Cook eggs to custard in portion of mix. Fruits, nuts, and flavoring
may be added at the freezer.
Add 1 lb. coffee
2 tsp. cir.namon
1 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. allspice
Pink coloring
to plain parfait recipe.
Add caramel coloring.
Whip 1 lb. powdered sugar with 1 gal. whipping cream. A special
spumoni cup should be used. Fill the cup one-fourth full of vanilla ice
cream. With a wooden masher dipped in warm water press the ice cream to
sides of cup. Half-fill with chocolate ice cream. Place 4 cherries on top
of chocolate ice cream and finish filling with fruited whipped cream. Place
in hardening room.
Small quantity (will finish about 5 gal.)
2 oz. gelatin
2 gal. 35 percent cream
(aged for 48 hours)
Fruits and flavoring as desired
4 lb. sugar
Large quantity (will finish 10 to 12 gal.)
7 lb. sugar
40 gal. 40 percent cream
(aged for 48 hours)
3 oz. gelatin
1 gal. 8 percent condensed milk
Place the ingredients in the freezer, cool to about 32°F, and keep cool
until whipped. Care should be taken not to churn the cream by cooling
to too low a temperature or by leaving in the freezer too long.
Rich flavor
40 lb. 22 percent cream
9 lb. sugar
7 doz. eggs
Beat eggs and mix with cream and sugar. Heat to 160°F and cool.
one gallon of this base to 4 gal. plain mix.
Plain custard
1 doz. whole eggs
1 qt. whipping cream
1 pt. skim milk
11 oz. sugar
Beat the eggs, add sugar, and beat again. Mix with the milk and cream and
cook until the mixture makes a thick coating on the spoon. Do not heat to
too high a temperature. Add to 5 5al. plain mix.
New York Ice Cream
Cherry :
1/3 oz. New York color (egg shade)
2 qt. cherries (maraschino)
45 lb. mix
Vanilla extract
The basis of an ice consists of:
Sugar - 20 lb. cane of beet sugar
7 lb. corn sugar or 12 1/2 lb. cane or beet sugar
21 lb. corn sirup
5 oz. dry citric acid or 10 oz. 50 percent solution (other organic acids may
be used)
4 oz. pectin or other suitable stabilizer
Fruits and flavors, such as the following:
a. Orange - 3 doz. large oranges or orange extract or emulsion to suit taste
b. Grape - 2 qt. concentrated grape juice
c. Cranberry - 16 qt. cranberries cooked in water until soft. Strain and use
only juice.
d. Apricot - 1 1/2 gal. apricots
e. Strawberry - 1 gal. strawberries (frozen pack)
f. Pineapple - 2 qt. canned pineapple
Enough water to make 10 gal. mix.
Sherbet. The basis of a sherbet is the same as that of an ice except that whole
or skim milk, or condensed milk and water, or ice cream mix and water are used
in place of all water. The milk solids improve the body and flavor of the finished
product. If the batch freezer -1.s used in making the sherbet, add the acid at
the freezer so as to prevent curdling. If using the continuous freezer, add the
acid slowly at the tank, taking care to have the mix as near 32°F as possible.
A suggested formula for a sherbet is as follows:
Sugar - 18 lb. cane or beet sugar
7 lb. corn sugar
20 lb. corn sirup
or 12 lb. cane or beet sugar
12-18 lb. mix (depending on smoothness desired)
5 1/2 oz. dry citric acid or 11 oz. of 50 percent solution (other organic acids,
such as lactic, may be used)
4 oz. pectin or other suitable stabilizer
Fruits and flavor combinations as desired
Water to make 10 gal. Whip to 35 to 50 percent, depending upon the amount of
total solids present.
Lacto (for 5 gal.)
1 doz. eggs, whipped
3 gal. starter
1 1/2 pt. lemon juice
9 lb. sugar
1 qt. grape juice (or other flavor desired)
Dissolve the sugar in the starter; beat the egg yolks and whites separately
and add after the mix is in the freezer.
Souffle. A souffle differs from a sherbet mainly in that it contains whole eggs.
3 gal. water or skim milk
1 gal. grated pineapple
4 doz. eggs
1 qt. lemon juice
12 lb. sugar
This formula may be used for any souffle by substituting other flavoring.
Frappe (for 5 gal.)
3 doz. lemons
2 lb. sugar
1 doz. oranges
Water to make 5 gal.
2 qt. grape juice
A better flavored product can be obtained by aging the mixture at low temperature
in glass or earthenware containers until a good blend of flavors is obtained.
58 lb. water
20 lb. sugar
11 qt. grape juice
1 qt. lemon juice
1 qt. raspberry juice
Liquors and spices as desired
Fruit salad. This product consists of a mixture of mayonnaise, whipped cream,
and fruits. The mayonnaise may be prepared as follows:
1/2 lb. dried egg yolk
1/2 lb. butter
2 lb. sugar
2/3 pt. vinegar
6 tsp. salt
1/2 pt. water
3 tsp. mustard
Mix the ingredients and heat to about 185°F. (If practicable, prepare in large
quantities and homogenize.) Add enough cooled mayonnaise to the whipped cream
to give it the desired flavor. The above quantity should be used with about
2/3 gal. of ice cream. A small quantity of gelatin will improve the body.
Whole fruit - pears, peaches, apricots, white and red cherries, pineapple cubes
or slices - should be mixed with the cream mixture and the whole allowed to
stiffen before being placed in brick pans or Seal-rights. About 4 qt. of
fruit should be used with the above amount of mayonnaise.
Fruit ices for bars.
100 lb. sugar
33 lb. dextrose
3 lb. pectin
2 1/4 lb. citric acid crystals
3 gal. flavoring material
Enough water to make 90 gal.
French pot ice cream
The French pot method of manufacturing ice cream was commonly used many years
ago. The mix is prepared from rich cream, sugar, and eggs and is cooked at
a fairly high temperature, so that a custard-like flavor is produced.
Freezing is done in a copper pot, which is surrounded by salt and ice.
During freezing the mix is agitated with a paddle. Little air is incorporated, so that the product is rather heavy in body and rich in flavor.
Eggnog ice cream
5 gal. mix
3 doz. egg yolks, cooked to a
custard in a portion of the mix
1/2 pt. dark rum
1 1/2 oz. egg color
1 oz. lemon extract
1 1/2 oz. vanilla extract
Spices if desired
Chocolate cake roll
3 lb. sugar
3 pt. whole milk
1 lb. vegetable shortening
1 oz. baking soda
3 lb. cake flour
4 oz. melted chocolate
1 doz. eggs
Cream the sugar and shortening until very smooth, using a mechanical mixer.
Add eggs and again mix. Add melted chocolate and milk in which the soda
has been dissolved. Finally add the flour and mix thoroughly about 5 min.
Spread the batter in a baker's sheet pan with sides and bottom covered with
waxed paper. Bake at 350°F for about 10 min. A crust should form on the
surface, which will prevent the penetration of the ice cream. When the cake
is cool, spread with vanilla ice cream and form into a roll.
This is a brick ice cream consisting of layers of one or more kinds of ice
cream between which are solid layers of frozen fruit. Care should be taken
not to make the layer of fruit too thick, since it freezes harder than the
ice cream.
Miscellaneous Recipes
Simple sirup
(1) 30 lb. sugar
7 qt. boiling water
Add the sugar to the water slowly, keeping the mixture thoroughly
(2) 7 gal. high-conversion corn sirup
3 gal. water
Mix together; no heating necessary.
Eggnog base
Mix together 12 doz. eggs, 8 lb. sugar, and 6 gal. of 22 percent cream.
Heat to 160°F for 20 min. Cool to 130°F and homogenize at 2000 lb. pressure.
Whip~ and serve with liquor.
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