Aircraft Conceptual Design of TAJ PEGASUS A Lon

AIAA Foundation Student Design Competition 2015/16
Undergraduate Individual – Aircraft
Conceptual Design of
TAJ PEGASUS
A Long Range Container Transportation Aircraft
Designer & Author
: Waheedullah Taj
Signature Page
Designer and Author
: Waheedullah Taj
Photo
AIAA Member ID
: 513415
E-mail Address
: waheedtaj@gmail.com
Date
: 16 May 2016
Signature
Faculty Advisor
: Prof. Dr. Serkan Özgen
AIAA Member ID
: 327810
E-mail Address
: serkan.ozgen@ae.metu.edu.tr
Date
: 16 May 2016
Signature
Copyright © 2016 by Waheedullah Taj
1
Contents
CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1
Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 6
1.2
Design Method .............................................................................................................................. 7
1.3
Competitor Study .......................................................................................................................... 9
1.3.1
Performance Parameters .................................................................................................... 10
1.3.2
Geometric Characteristics ................................................................................................... 12
1.3.3
Design Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 14
1.4
Conclusions ................................................................................................................................. 15
CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................................................. 16
2.1
Concept 1 .................................................................................................................................... 17
2.2
Concept 2 .................................................................................................................................... 18
2.3
Concept 3 .................................................................................................................................... 19
2.1
Concept 4; The Final Configuration............................................................................................. 20
CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................................................................. 21
3.1
Simple cruise mission profile ...................................................................................................... 22
3.2
Estimation of the design take-off gross weight .......................................................................... 22
3.3
Trade Studies .............................................................................................................................. 24
3.3.1
Payload Trade...................................................................................................................... 24
3.3.2
Range Trade ........................................................................................................................ 25
2
3.3.3
Composite Materials Trade ................................................................................................. 25
CHAPTER 4 .................................................................................................................................................. 27
4.1
Airfoil Selection ........................................................................................................................... 28
4.2
Other Wing Properties. ............................................................................................................... 29
CHAPTER 5 .................................................................................................................................................. 31
5.1
Power-to-Weight Ratio ............................................................................................................... 31
5.2
Wing Loading .............................................................................................................................. 33
5.2.1
Cruise .................................................................................................................................. 33
5.2.2
Climb Rate ........................................................................................................................... 34
5.2.3
Takeoff Distance.................................................................................................................. 34
5.2.4
Landing Distance ................................................................................................................. 35
5.2.5
Service Ceiling ..................................................................................................................... 35
5.2.6
Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 36
CHAPTER 6 .................................................................................................................................................. 37
6.1
Empty Weight Fraction ............................................................................................................... 37
CHAPTER 7 .................................................................................................................................................. 39
7.1
Fuel Volume ................................................................................................................................ 39
7.2
Wing Sizing and Planform Shape ................................................................................................ 40
7.3
Fuselage Length .......................................................................................................................... 41
7.4
Tail Sizing and Planform Shape ................................................................................................... 41
3
7.4.1
7.5
Tails ..................................................................................................................................... 42
Engine and Propeller Dimensions and Weight ........................................................................... 43
CHAPTER 8 .................................................................................................................................................. 44
8.1
Weights of Major Components ................................................................................................... 44
8.2
Landing Gear Placement and Sizing ............................................................................................ 46
CHAPTER 9 .................................................................................................................................................. 49
9.1
Lift Curve Slope ........................................................................................................................... 49
9.2
Drag ............................................................................................................................................. 52
CHAPTER 10 ................................................................................................................................................ 53
10.1
Power Curves .............................................................................................................................. 53
10.2
Takeoff And Landing Distances ................................................................................................... 56
CHAPTER 11 ................................................................................................................................................ 57
CHAPTER 12 ................................................................................................................................................ 65
12.1
Stability and Control ................................................................................................................... 65
12.1.1
CG Envelope ........................................................................................................................ 65
12.1.2
Control Surfaces .................................................................................................................. 67
12.1.3
Stability Derivatives............................................................................................................. 68
12.2
Handling the Payload .................................................................................................................. 71
12.2.1
Attachment Mechanism...................................................................................................... 71
12.2.2
Gates ................................................................................................................................... 71
4
12.3
Crew Station Design .................................................................................................................... 73
12.4
Air Loads and Structures ............................................................................................................. 74
12.4.1
Wings................................................................................................................................... 76
12.4.2
Empennage ......................................................................................................................... 77
12.4.3
Fuselage .............................................................................................................................. 78
12.5
Materials Selection ..................................................................................................................... 78
12.5.1
Wings................................................................................................................................... 79
12.5.2
Fuselage .............................................................................................................................. 80
12.5.3
Tails ..................................................................................................................................... 80
CHAPTER 13 ................................................................................................................................................ 84
REFERENCES: ............................................................................................................................................... 92
5
CHAPTER 1
Design Basics
“When once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes
turned skyward, for there have you been, and there you will always long to return.”
Leonardo da Vinci
1.1 INTRODUCTION
There is a need for a new military aerial transport vehicle that can swiftly pick up 20 ft. containers and
deliver them to war zones. The containers could contain first aid, military equipment and others. The
aircraft sought should have among other qualities, the ability to fly without the container and drop the
container mid-air. It should also takeoff and land on rough surfaces. This document reports the procedures
undertaken while designing Taj Pegasus, a transport aircraft that meets the above criteria.
Taj Pegasus is a high aspect ratio conventional aircraft with conventional tail designed as a response to
the Request for Proposal published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Foundation for
the 2015/16 Undergraduate Individual Aircraft Design Condition. It meets all the requirements set forth
by the Request for Proposal.
1.2 REQUIREMENTS
The design is performed as per requirements of 2015/16 Undergraduate Individual Aircraft Design
Competition of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Foundation. The containers to
6
be carried with the airplane have an empty weight of 5140 lb. and a payload of up to 40000 lb. and have
to be carried external to the aircraft. The aircraft should be able to fly without the container and drop the
container when desired. For maintenance purposes the aircraft should use the same engine and the
propellers as Lockheed Martin C130H, i.e. Rolls Royce Allison T-56-A-15 engines and NP2000 propellers
by Hamilton Sunstrand. The rest of the requirements are summarized below.

Crew: 3 people.

Cruise speed: at least 250 knots at an altitude of 23000 ft.

Payload: 45140 lb. (Container + Contents).

Service Ceiling: 33000 ft. with container empty.

Rate of climb: 1500 ft/min at an altitude of 10000 ft.

Takeoff and Landing Distances: 3500 ft. (both).

Range: 1000 nm.
The engine and the propeller have the following properties:

Uninstalled Takeoff Power: 4300 shp.

Takeoff Specific Fuel Consumption: 0.5 lbs/hp/hr.

Propeller Efficiency: 0.9.
1.3 DESIGN METHOD
This report utilizes the design method of Daniel Raymer outlined in [1]. The design starts with an initial
weight estimate which is a result of considering both competitor aircraft and statistical equations. This
estimate is used to design the wings and decide on critical performance parameters such as power to
weight ratio and wing loading. The weight is then estimated once again. This estimate is considered to be
more accurate because in this estimate the effect of more parameters on the aircraft weight are
7
considered than before. Later geometric characteristics of the aircraft are decided upon and the weight
and center of gravity of the aircraft are estimated once again, this time using component buildup method.
Next aerodynamic characteristics of the whole airplane are calculated and the performance of the aircraft
is compared against the requirements. Finally carpet plots are obtained and power and wing loading levels
are optimized to meet the requirements with minimal weight. Various aspects of the design like stability
and control, structures, certification and others are considered and explained in detail.
All the equations used throughout this design were programmed into a Ms. Excel file. This is very
important because mistakes in calculations can easily be detected and optimization process is completely
automated when the design is programmed into the computer.
Drawings of the aircraft were prepared at various stages of the design. At the initial stages the drawings
were prepared in a software named OpenVSP. This software is easy to use but it does not allow full control
over the design. At the later stages however, SolidWorks was used to draw the 3D model of the aircraft.
1.4 MISCELLANEOUS
1.4.1 Units
Conventionally aircraft designers have used imperial units in the design procedure. It is also customary to
use Knots (indicated by kts. In this report) and miles per hour (Mhp) for speed and nautical miles (nmi.)
for distance from time to time. Most aircraft design books and the tools and figures in them are thus
constructed using these units. Hence this report will continue this custom. Imperial units will be used
virtually throughout the design. Knots, Miles per hour and nautical miles will be used to replace feet per
second and feet when necessary.
8
1.4.2 Atmospheric Data
Various atmospheric data such as density and local speed of sound at different altitudes were needed
throughout the design. All such data were readily obtained from [2]. This is a very useful and handy tool
and the author suggests every aircraft designer to have this tool bookmarked in his/her web browser.
1.5 COMPETITOR STUDY
Airplane design is an evolutionary, rather than revolutionary, process. Which means a lot can be learned
from studying aircraft of the same category when designing a new aircraft. Some important characteristics
of aircraft similar in role, payload and range to the requirements were compiled. The following data is
compiled from [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12]. These tables will be used throughout the
design process for reference and comparison.
9
1.5.1 Performance Parameters
Design Requirements
Alenia
Embraer
Lockheed Martin
Shaanxi
C-27
KC-390
C-130J
Y-9
Crew
3
3
2
3
3-4
Cruise Speed (kts)
250 kts @ 23000 ft.
240
460
330
351
25000
36000
30560
34120
with max load
Service Ceiling (ft.)
33000 ft. (empty
container)
Rate of Climb (ft/m)
1500 ft/m @ 10000 ft
1000
N/F
1500
N/F
Take-off distance (ft.)
3500 ft
2300
N/F
3127
4430
Range (nm)
1000
2500
1400
2835
3700
Payload (lb.)
45140 (max)
25353
52029
44000
55000
Antonov
Fairchild
Transall
Kawasaki
HAL
Shaanxi Y-8
An-12
C-123 K
C-160
C-1
IL-214
(F-100)
5
4
3
5
3
2-5
310
198
260
235
437
350
33000
29000
27000
38000
42979
34120
1000
1220
1000
3500
N/F
1552
2300
N/F
N/F
N/F
3440
4170
2100
1278
2500
700
1775
3489
44000
24000
35275
31910
44000
44090
10
Table 1: Design requirements and competitor aircraft performance. Note: N/F stands for “Not Found”.
1.5.1.1

Remarks:
Among the competitor aircraft that were chosen for consideration in this study, Fairchild C-123 K
has a relatively poor performance. This is due to the fact that Fairchild C-123 K is a relatively old
aircraft compared to the others and uses inferior technology. Thus this aircraft will be mostly
ignored when using competitor data.
11
1.5.2 Geometric Characteristics
Geometric
Alenia
Embraer
Lockheed
Shaanxi
Antonov
Characteristics
C-27
KC-390
Martin C-130J
Y-9
An-12
Length (ft.)
74.5
111.3
97.8
118.1
108.6
Wing Span (ft.)
94.2
115.0
132.5
124.7
124.7
Wing Area (ft2)
882.6
1507.0
1745.0
1312.1
1310.0
Aspect Ratio
10.0
N/F
10.1
11.9
N/F
Propeller
13.5
N/F
13.5
14.8
N/F
Height (ft.)
32.2
33.7
38.7
37.0
34.5
Wing Position
High
High
High Wing
High
High
Wing
Wing
Wing
Wing
Tail
Regular
T-tail
Regular
Regular
Configuration
tail
tail
tail
Empty Weight
37480
N/F
75562
85980
62000
67240
N/F
164000
169755
122000
Diameter (ft.)
Regular tail
(lb.)
Design TO
weight (lb.)
12
Fairchild C-
Transall C-
Kawasaki
HAL IL-214
Shaanxi Y-8
Averages
123 K
160
C-1
75.8
106.3
95.1
125.4
111.6
102.5
110.0
131.2
100.4
116.5
124.7
117.4
1222.8
1722.2
1297.0
N/F
1312.1
1231.0
N/F
N/F
N/F
N/F
11.9
10.98
N/F
N/F
N/F
N/F
14.8
14.2
34.1
38.4
32.8
42.5
36.6
36.0
High Wing
High Wing
High Wing
High Wing
High Wing
-
Regular tail
Regular tail
T-tail
T-tail
Regular tail
-
35366
63935
53410
N/F
76060
61224.1
60000
112435
85300
149915
134480
106512.5
Table 2: Some geometric characteristics of competitor aircraft. Note: N/F stands for “Not Found”.
1.5.2.1
Remarks:

All of the competitor aircraft shown in Table 2 use high wing configuration.

Conventional tail configuration seems to dominate the market in this aircraft category.
13
1.5.3 Design Characteristics
Design
Alenia
Embraer
Lockheed Martin
Shaanxi
Antonov
Characteristics
C-27
KC-390
C-130J
Y-9
An-12
W/S (lb/ft2)
76.2
108.3
94.0
129.4
92.7
P/W (hp/lb)
0.138
N/A
0.112
0.120
0.132
T/W (lb-
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
We/W0
0.557
N/F
0.461
0.506
0.508
Wf/W0
0.319
0.505
0.280
0.299
0.399
Stall Speed
176.8
N/F
168.6
N/F
N/F
374
528
416
403
483
force/lb)
(ft/s)
Top speed
(mph)
Fairchild
Transall
Kawasaki
HAL IL-
Shaanxi
C-123 K
C-160
C-1
214
Y-8
49.1
65.3
65.8
N/F
102.5
87.0
0.083
0.109
N/A
N/A
0.125
0.117
N/A
N/A
0.340
0.459
N/A
0.4
0.498
0.589
0.626
N/F
0.566
0.539
N/F
0.259
N/F
0.199
0.376
0.330
N/F
161.3
N/F
N/F
N/F
168.9
228
319
500
540
410
420.1
14
Averages
Table 3: Some design characteristics of competitor aircraft. Note: N/F stands for “Not Found” and N/A stands for
“Not Applicable”.
1.5.3.1

Remarks:
For some aircraft design take-off weight could not be found. As a result, maximum take-off weight
was used in calculation of W/S, P/W, T/W, We/W0 and Wf/W0.
1.6 CONCLUSIONS
The airplanes considered in this chapter have somewhat similar characteristics. For example the average
aspect ratio is 10.98 and little deviation from that value is observed. Similarly most airplanes considered
use high wing and conventional tail configurations. These will be helpful when deciding on different
characteristics of Taj Pegasus. For example aspect ratio of Taj Pegasus was directly chosen to be 10.98
based on this competitor study.
15
CHAPTER 2
System Level Concepts; Trade and
Selection
“Simplicity is the ultimate form of sophistication.”
Leonardo da Vinci
Many different concept aircraft were considered before and during the design procedure. While these
alternatives offered many advantages, they were not feasible in some other aspects. Four of the most
important alternative concepts considered, benefits of using them, and the reason why they were
dismissed are discussed below. This part also intends to explain why each of the choices were made for
the final configuration.
16
2.1 CONCEPT 1
Figure 1: Concept 1; a flying wing airplane.
Concept 1 was a flying wing airplane and it was the runner-up in the final concept selection. The payload
of Taj Pegasus is only one 20 ft. container. This means a long fuselage is not necessary and a flying wing
airplane such as that shown in Figure 1 would be a very wise choice in terms of weight and drag since it
does not have tails or a distinct fuselage. Using a flying wing would have had other advantages too. Since
the container is attached directly to the wings (which are already very strong) additional structural
stiffeners in the fuselage would be avoided.
However this concept was considered unfeasible because of two major reasons. First flying wings need to
have great sweep angles in order to eliminate the need for the tail. Wings with high sweeps do not
generate much lift unless the aircraft flies at very high velocities, i.e. near Mach 1 while Taj Pegasus is
intended to fly at much lower velocities.
Second, this concept would be an inherently unstable aircraft and this is highly undesirable in transport
category aircraft.
17
2.2 CONCEPT 2
Figure 2: Concept 2; a low wing configuration.
The second concept was a low wing aircraft with a flat fuselage very near the ground. This aircraft would
have a whole in the middle where the container stands. The concept has a positive dihedral for enhanced
stability. The pilot and copilot are in the nose which is located in front of the container. The tail could have
been a T-tail, a conventional tail or a boom mounted tail. The engines are on top of the wings to avoid
contact with the ground. One of the greatest problems faced during the design of Taj Pegasus was the
landing gear design. Landing gears either have to be excessively long, making them very heavy, or very
large external canopies have to be designed in order to house and support the landing gears which adds
to the weight and drag of the aircraft. Since both the wing and fuselage of Concept 2 are very close to the
ground very light and effective landing gears could have been designed.
The main disadvantage of Concept 2 is that loading and unloading would have been very difficult with this
configuration. The RFP explicitly states that the loading procedure has to be swift. However if this concept
was used the container would have to be loaded with a crane or similar mechanisms. Similarly dropping
the container would have to be done using complex mechanisms and maneuvers.
18
2.3 CONCEPT 3
Figure 3: Concept 3; high wing configuration with gates at the front.
Concept 3 is very similar to the final configuration. The major difference between this concept and the
final configuration is that in this concept the front of the fuselage, rather than the back is opened when
loading and unloading the container. This concept uses a tail dragger landing gear configuration.
The greatest advantage of this concept is that it makes loading and unloading the container easy. The
loading procedure does not require a truck, neither does it require the pilots to move the aircraft in
reverse. The airplane can move forward to the point where the container is stationed and attach the
container to its payload compartment.
There are many disadvantages to this concept. First of all the fuselage has to be very bulky and large. This
directly increases weight and drag of the airplane. Secondly, dropping the container with this
configuration is risky because if released while flying, the container has a tendency to go backwards. This
would cause the container to crash to the cone shaped rear half of the fuselage. Last but not least it would
be near impossible for the aircraft to fly without a container. The void where the container stands would
create immense amounts of drag when the container is absent.
19
2.1 CONCEPT 4; THE FINAL CONFIGURATION
At the end all these concepts converged to the final configuration that is designed in this report. The final
configuration is a high wing, high aspect ratio and highly conventional airplane that has a conventional
tail. The engines are below the wing, the container is hung below a narrow fuselage and streamlined
surfaces cover both the front and the rear of the fuselage. Three sides of the fuselage are directly exposed
to the free stream because the RFP requires that the container be carried externally. The aircraft uses a
tricycle landing gear with nose landing gear directly beneath the cockpit and main landing gears are
stationed in the wings. A 3D drawing of the final configuration is shown below. This design is stable,
compact, and reliable. The aircraft can be manufactured easily because its structural members are made
of simple shapes only.
The aircraft has a high aspect ratio which improves aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. This reduces
fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions thus contributing to a healthier environment.
Last but not least this design is aesthetically pleasing which adds to its social acceptance. This is important
because history has shown that a better performing aircraft might lose to an aircraft of inferior
performance in bids if the latter is more beautiful.
Figure 4: The final configuration of Taj Pegasus.
20
CHAPTER 3
Initial Sizing
“Aeronautics was neither an industry nor a science. It was a miracle.”
Igor Sikorsky
3.1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
This chapter aims to establish a weight estimate of Taj Pegasus using the information known about Taj
Pegasus from the RFP or other sources. At the end of this chapter an approximation of empty weight,
crew weight, total fuel weight, fuel weight spent at each flight segment, and design takeoff weight of Taj
Pegasus will be obtained. A trade study will also be performed to observe the effects of changing some
requirements on the aircraft weight.
The weight estimation method used in this chapter uses statistics and some empirical equations. Crew
weight and payload were guessed based on common sense and obtained directly from the RFP,
respectively. The empty weight and fuel weight were calculated as fractions of design takeoff weight.
Empty weight fraction estimation takes one input only, which is aircraft category (transport, fighter,
trainer etc.). The results, though crude in nature, are deemed accurate enough for this stage of the design.
Fuel weight fraction was estimated based on the amount of fuel spent in every flight segment. Fuel weight
fraction of some flight segments were again substituted from historical data, while some others were
calculated using mathematical equations with some minor assumptions.
21
3.2 SIMPLE CRUISE MISSION PROFILE
The cargo aircraft described in AIAA design competition has to take-off and fly to a distance of 1000
nautical miles with full payload. The figure below describes this flight envelope graphically.
h
3
2
Loiter
4
0
4’
1
Engine start,
taxi, take-off
Landing and stop
5
t,x
Figure 5: Simple cruise mission profile of TAJ PEGASUS.
Where h shows altitude, t shows time and x shows forward distance. The distances in the figure are for
demonstration purposes only and they are not to be scaled.
3.3 ESTIMATION OF THE DESIGN TAKE-OFF GROSS WEIGHT
Design gross weight, W0, is made up of four parts; crew weight, Wc, payload weight, Wp, fuel weight, Wf
and empty weight, We.
 + 
(1)
 
1 −  − 
0
0
The crew of 3 people was estimated to weigh about 600 lb. The payload of Taj Pegasus is a container
0 =  +  +  +   0 =
weighing a maximum of 45140 lb. Empty weight fraction for a cargo bomber is statistically given by [1].
22

(2)
= 0.930−0.07
0
Fuel consumption will be calculated as mission segment fuel weight fractions and then multiplied together
to receive overall fuel spending. The subscripts seen here show the stations in Figure 5.
5 5 4 3 2 1
(3)
=
0 4 3 2 1 0
Mission segment fuel weight fraction from instant 0 to instant 1 and from instant 1 to 2 will be assumed
to be 0.97 and 0.985 respectively based on historical figures given by [1].
For calculating mission segment fuel weight fraction from instant 2 to 3, Brequet range equation was used
[1]
3
−
= exp (
) = 0.905

2
∞ 
(4)
Here range, R, and cruise velocity, V∞, were directly substituted from the requirements. Specific fuel
consumption at the cruise altitude was decreased due to density drop by using the sizing equations
provided in [13] and found to be C = 0.426 lbs/hr/hp. Lift to drag ratio, L/D, was estimated to be 17 based
on aspect ratio and wetted area ratio and using figures provided in [1].
Mission segment fuel weight fraction for loiter from instant 3 to 4 can be calculated from endurance
version of Eq. ( 4 ). A loiter time of 20 min = 1200 s will be allocated [14]. Propeller airplanes fly with a
lower lift to drag ratio in loiter, thus L/D = 14.722 [1]. Then W4/W3 = 0.989.
For descent, landing and stop, (4-5) historical trends were used again, hence W5/W4 = 0.995 [1]. Then
W5/W0 = 0.85 and Wf/W0 = 0.159 allowing about 6% reserve fuel.
Finally from Eq. ( 1 ) W0 = 106914.5 lb. and We/W0 = 0.414
23
3.4 TRADE STUDIES
3.4.1 Payload Trade
The figure below shows how the design empty weight of the aircraft changes with changing payload.
Figure 6 plot of design gross weight versus payload weight.
24
3.4.2 Range Trade
The scatter below shows how design gross weight of the aircraft changes with changing range
Figure 7 Plot of design gross weight versus range. Note that range is given in ft.
3.4.3 Composite Materials Trade
According to statistical data given by [1] the empty weight fraction of the aircraft decreases by 5% if it is
made of composite materials. The table and scatter below show how the gross weight of the aircraft
changes if the aircraft is mostly made of composite materials rather than metals.
Material
W0 (lb.)
We (lb.)
Metals
106914.5269
44206.59827
Composites
102265.3463
42416.07196
Table 4 Change in design take-off weight of the aircraft if it was made of composites or metals mostly.
25
3.5 CONCLUSIONS
Taj Pegasus was estimated to weigh 106914.5 lb. This weight could change significantly if the customer
decided to change the requirements or if the aircraft is manufactured from composites. For example if
reducing the payload weight from 45140 lb. to 40000 lb. alone could reduce aircraft design takeoff weight
to around 85000 lb. Which means huge savings in production, operating and maintenance costs.
26
CHAPTER 4
Airfoil Selection and Wing Design
“There is no flying without wings.”
French proverb
4.1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
This chapter is concerned with designing or selecting a good airfoil for Taj Pegasus and determining some
important features of the wings. The design of actual dimensions and shape of the wing is left for later.
The airfoil could be selected on based on different segments of flight depending on the type of the aircraft.
Since this is a transport aircraft and spends most of its operating life in cruise the airfoil is selected based
on this flight segment. A list of candidate airfoils were prepared after considering some threshold criteria
and the best of the candidate airfoils were selected as the final choice. When choosing the final airfoil
many different characteristics of the airfoil such as maximum coefficient of lift, minimum coefficient of
drag, coefficient of pitching moment at zero angle of attack and the behavior of pitching moment at the
stall region were considered.
27
4.2 AIRFOIL SELECTION
There are two main parameters used in airfoil selection. These are design lift coefficient, that is, the
coefficient of lift used in most of the aircraft’s flight time, and thickness ratio. Design lift coefficient is
calculated based on cruise conditions using lift equation (Eq. ( 5)).
1
 =  2 
2
( 5)
We make use of the assumption that W=L during cruise. Using density of air at cruise altitude from [15],
cruise speed from the requirements and wing loading from the average of the competitors we find that
CL,Design = 0.83.
Cruise mach number is M = 0.415 [16]. At this Mach number a thickness ratio of t/c, of 15% is
recommended by [1]. Reynolds number was calculated based on average chord length and stall speed of
the competitors and was found to be 11.5E6. Then some important characteristics of some candidate
airfoils were found using Javafoil, an internet based program, and are shown below.
Airfoils
NACA 63-815
NACA 58115
NACA 0415
Cl_max Cm_0
alpha_stall Cd_min
1.78
-0.172
10
0.0056
1.79
-0.065
16
0.035
1.45
-0.02
15 0.00553
Table 5 Key airfoil parameters.
Among these airfoils NACA 58115 offers very good moment characteristics and the highest maximum
coefficient of lift. The stall angle of attack is also higher for this airfoil. Thus NACA 58115 was chosen for
this aircraft. Shape, CL-CD, CL-alpha and CM-alpha plots of this airfoil are shown in Figure 8.
28
Figure 8: Shape (top left), CL-CD plot (top right), CL-alpha plot (bottom left and CM-alpha plot (bottom right) of NACA
58115.
4.3 OTHER WING PROPERTIES.
Figures from reference [1] suggest a maximum quarter chord sweep of 5⁰ for an aircraft with an aspect
ratio of 10.98 and a leading edge sweep of about 5⁰ for a Mach number of 0.6 which is the maximum
29
Mach number for such an aircraft based on competitor data. Thus a leading edge sweep of 2⁰ will be used
for aesthetic reasons. This results in a quarter chord sweep of about 1°.
Based on historical trends provided by reference [1] a taper ratio of 0.4 is appropriate for an aircraft with
a quarter chord sweep of 1⁰.
Typical twist angles range from 0⁰ to 5⁰ [1]. A twist of 0⁰ was used in Taj Pegasus to improve
manufacturability and thus decrease the cost.
30
CHAPTER 5
Design Parameters
“One man’s ‘magic’ is another man’s engineering. ‘Supernatural’ is a null word.”
Robert A. Heinlein
5.1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
Power to weight ratio and wing loading are perhaps two of the most important performance parameters
of an aircraft. These two parameters determine how the aircraft will perform in virtually all performance
related maneuvers and flight conditions. This chapter determines these two parameters using the
information available so far about Taj Pegasus. Competitor aircraft information as well as various flight
equations obtained from references were used throughout this chapter.
5.2 POWER-TO-WEIGHT RATIO
Power to weight ratio P/W0 is usually defined as the ratio of power of all the engines at maximum throttle
settings at sea-level static and standard-day conditions divided by the design takeoff weight of the aircraft.
Power to weight ratio P/W0 has a direct effect on the performance of an aircraft. A higher Power to weight
ratio will result in higher acceleration, quicker climb, higher maximum speeds and higher turn rates.
However Power to weight ratio requires for more powerful and thus larger engines. Historical data
compiled by reference [1] state that a power ratio of 0.2 hp/lb is appropriate for a twin turboprop aircraft,
however the average power to weight ratio of competitors shows a value of 0.117 hp/lb. There is a striking
31
contrast between the two. The latter value seems more appropriate since the competitor data has a very
low standard deviation (about 10%) and “twin turboprop” refers to a wide variety of aircraft and it might
not be appropriate for Taj Pegasus. This value of power to weight ratio cannot be used as an initial
estimate, it is rather used to determine the number of engines to be used. As a rule of thumb the least
number of engines exceeding this value were used. This value indicates at least 4 engines are needed
which make the power to weight ratio of the aircraft equal to P/W = 0.16 hp/lb.
5.3 THRUST AND POWER CORRECTIONS
Power level of Rolls Royce Allison T-56-A-15 Engines are given to be 4300 hp. This power level and the
thrust obtained from it change when installed on the aircraft. Power offtake needed for aircraft systems
needs to be subtracted from this power first. Then the drag emanating from nacelle blockage effects,
cooling and other sources has to be subtracted from the thrust. Although in practice propeller efficiency
has to be corrected for compressibility and scrubbing effects, these effects are to be ignored in this study
as stated in the request for proposal.
5.3.1 Power offtake
Reference [1] provides the following statistical equation for finding the power offtake of this aircraft:
 =
160
∗ 4300 ℎ = 105.8 ℎ
6500
( 6)
Where 160/6500 is just a ratio of extracted power to total power obtained from statistics of airplanes.
Thus a shaft power of 105.8 shp was subtracted from the total power in each engine.
5.3.2 Cooling Drag
Cooling the engines slows down the oncoming air and this generates a drag that has to be subtracted from
the thrust of the engine at any velocity and altitude. This drag is found as shown below:
32

ℎ  2
( )
= 4.9 − 7
 

( 7)
Where bhp is the brake horsepower of the engine, T is ambient temperature in Kelvins, σ is the ratio of
density to sea level density and V is flight velocity.
5.3.3 Miscellaneous Drag
Miscellaneous drag is about 0.002% of the total power multiplied by dynamic pressure, as shown below
[1]. This drag was reduced from the total thrust of each engine in the analyses below.

( )
= 2 − 4 ∗ ℎ
 
( 8)
5.4 WING LOADING
Wing loading shows how much weight each ft2 of the wing reference area carries at a given flight condition.
A smaller wing loading results in a larger wing. Wing loading will be calculated for each performance
requirement and the largest wing loading that satisfies all the requirements will be selected at the end.
This makes sure that the smallest possible wing is designed.
5.4.1 Cruise
The main objective in cruise is to increase range. This is done by increasing aerodynamic efficiency of the
aircraft, or in other words, maximizing L/D in propeller airplanes. This happens when induced drag is equal
to parasite drag. Which means we can write coefficient of lift in terms of other parameters such as Oswald
span efficiency factor and parasite drag coefficient. This is shown in Eq. ( 9). Note that Eq. ( 9) is just
another form of lift equation (see Eq. ( 5)) where coefficient of lift is written in terms of other parameters.
Oswald span efficiency factor was calculated to be 0.731 based on aspect ratio [1], parasite drag (CD0 =
0.0267) depends on skin friction coefficient and wetted area ratio. The values used for these parameters
33
at this stage of the design are rough values based on eyeball estimates and approximate Reynold’s
numbers. The graphs provided in references [1] and [13] are used for these estimations. Using this
information in Eq. ( 9) we find that W/S = 87.66 lb/ft2 is required to fulfill the cruise mission. Note that the
wing loading found here was corrected for the fuel spent during takeoff and climb.

= ∞ √0

( 9)
5.4.2 Climb Rate
The requirements ask for a climb rate of 1500 ft/min at 10000 ft. altitude. Wing loading can also be
estimated based on the climb rate requirements given in the requirements. The following equation is
given by [1]:

=

2


[ − ] ± √( − ) − 4 ∗  ∗ 0
( 10)
2/∞
Where k = 1/(πARe) = 0.0396 and G = (T-D)/W = Forward Speed/Upward Speed = Climb gradient. Climb
usually takes place at velocities higher than stall speed and lower than cruise speed for propeller airplanes.
A flight speed of 250 ft/s was used for flight speed after a competitor survey. Then G = 0.1. Available
power of the aircraft at 10000 ft altitude was then converted to equivalent thrust to weight ratio T/W
using flight velocity and propeller efficiency. This requirement results in a wing loading of W/S = 361.5
lb/ft2.
5.4.3 Takeoff Distance
MIL-STD-3013 takeoff distance definition [17] will be used in the following calculations. This includes an
obstacle clearance of 50 ft. in the takeoff distance definition. Reference [1] provides graphs for
approximating the “Takeoff parameter” defined as
34
  () =
/
 /
( 11)
Here σ is the ratio of air density at takeoff location divided by air density at sea level. For the purposes of
this report it will be assumed that the aircraft takes off from sea level making the value of σ equal to 1.
For a propeller aircraft with a takeoff distance of 3500 ft. takeoff parameter corresponds to roughly 450.
The takeoff lift coefficient CL,TO is hard to estimate. On the one hand performance of the airfoil will be
reduced in a 3D wing which results in a smaller CL,max for the wing than the airfoil. On the other hand high
lift devices will be used which increase the lift of the airfoil. Hence the author hereby assumes that after
installation of high lift devices coefficient of lift at takeoff will be equal to maximum coefficient of lift of
the airfoil, thus 129.58 lb/ft2.
5.4.4 Landing Distance
The request for proposal is not clear about the landing conventions but MIL-STD-3013 [17] landing field
length will be used for calculation of landing distance in this part.
Reference [1] provides an equation for estimating the wing loading based on landing distance.

1
 = 0.66 ∗ 80 ( ) (
) + 
 
( 12)
Where CL,max was found to be 1.79 for NACA 58115, Slanding is the landing distance and Sa is the obstacle
clearance distance and it is equal to 1000 ft. for airliner type aircraft. A factor of 0.66 is included in the
first term of the above expression because the aircraft has variable pitch propellers (as stated in the RFP).
Then wing loading is then calculated to be W/S = 98.06 lb/ft2 after correcting for fuel spent during takeoff.
5.4.5 Service Ceiling
Eq. ( 10) can also be used to calculate the wing loading necessary to attain some service ceiling. Service
ceiling is defined as the altitude in which the aircraft has barely enough power to climb at 100 ft/min if
35
needed [1]. The request for proposal requires the aircraft to be able to fly at 33000 ft. altitude with an
empty container (weight of the aircraft minus 40000 lb.). After using the appropriate weight (empty
container and reduced fuel) and power at that altitude wing loading is calculated as W/S = 357.02 lb/ft2.
5.4.6 Conclusions
Five different values were calculated for wing loading. The smallest one of these values will satisfy all the
other requirements. Thus a value of W/S = 85.65 lb/ft2 was chosen for wing loading after leaving a small
margin of 2 lb/ft2. Furthermore, it was decided that 4 engines are to be used in Taj Pegasus. Which results
in a power to weight ratio of 0.16 hp/lb. It was verified that all the requirements are met with these
choices of wing loading and power to weight ratio.
36
CHAPTER 6
Refined Sizing
“I have not failed, but found 1000 ways to not make a lightbulb.”
Thomas Edison
6.1 EMPTY WEIGHT FRACTION
Empty weight fraction can be estimated based on advanced statistical equations. One such equation is
given in reference [1] and reported below:

 3 0 4 5
=  + 01 2 ( ) ( ) 
0
0

(13)
This weight estimate is more accurate because it accounts for many different factors when giving a weight
estimate such as initial takeoff weight estimate, aspect ratio, power to weight ratio, wing loading and
maximum speed. All of these variables with the exception of maximum speed are already calculated.
Maximum speed Vmax = 420.1 was found from the average of the competitors. Values of the constants in
Eq. (13) for a twin turboprop aircraft are given as shown below:
Type
a
b
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
Twin Turboprop
0.37
0.08
-0.06
0.08
0.08
-0.05
0.3
Table 6: List of parameters used in the statistical sizing equation.
37
Eq.(13) is a very useful equation even for learning how various factors affect aircraft weight. For example
Eq. (13) implies that increasing aspect ratio will result in a heavier airplane. This makes sense because
longer wings will generate larger moments at the root. Hence stronger and heavier materials are used at
the root to strengthen the wings. Fuel weight fraction of the aircraft was calculated to be Wf/W0 = 0.172
based on the same method as section 0 but using updated input data.
Then weight of Taj Pegasus is calculated iteratively to be W0 = 16964.1 lb. assuming composites structures
are widely used in the aircraft. Similarly empty weight and fuel weight of the aircraft are 75927.8 lb. and
25296.3 lb. respectively.
38
CHAPTER 7
Geometry, Sizing and Configuration
“If it looks good it will fly good.”
Bill Lear
7.1 FUEL VOLUME
A fuel weight of 25296.3 lb. was calculated previously. Assuming this aircraft uses JP-8/JETA1 fuel we
calculate the volume of the carried fuel to be
=
22078.0
= 3775.6  = 504.8  3
6.7
(14)
Where 6.7 lb/gal is the density of JP-8/JETA1 from [1]. There are three locations on the aircraft used for
fuel storage. These are the fuselage, the wings and external canopies. Among these three options the
wings provide the most useful alternative as shown below:

Fuel is close to the center of gravity, which makes the aircraft easily controllable at all times.

The risk of catching fire is diminished. (As opposed to storing the fuel in the fuselage)

In case of fire the passengers, crew and payload are relatively safe. (As opposed to storing the fuel
in the fuselage)

No additional drag. (As opposed to external fuel tanks)
Thus the fuel will be stored in wing integral tanks.
39
85% of the volume measured external surface is usable for wing integral tanks [1]. Also 3-5% volume will
be allocated for fuel expansion in warm weather. Then Vf = 440.5/0.85/0.95 = 625.14 ft3
7.2 WING SIZING AND PLANFORM SHAPE
Wing area is calculated from weight and wing loading as S = W0/(W0/S) = 1715.7 ft2. Then the following
geometric characteristics are calculated for the wing using aspect ratio and taper ratio found previously:
Span
Root Chord (Cr)
Tip Chord (Ct)
MAC
yMAC
137.38
17.8
7.1
13.3
29.4
Table 7: Wing Geometric characteristics. All units are in ft. (Note: MAC stands for Mean Aerodynamic Chord and
yMAC is the spanwise location of MAC)
Also note that a high wing configuration was used to allow room for the container at the bottom and a
dihedral angle of -3 degrees was given to the wings to avoid an overly stiff airplane. The keywords used in
this section are shown graphically in Figure 9.
Figure 9: Figure showing wing terminology graphically.
40
7.3 FUSELAGE LENGTH
Historical trends shown in reference [1] result in a fuselage length of 83.9 ft for this aircraft. Average
fuselage length of the competitors was previously found to be 102.5 ft. The aircraft designed in this report
does not need a very long fuselage. The payload this aircraft will carry has a length of 20 ft which can
easily fit in the airplane even if the fuselage is short. Thus a length of lf = 80 ft will be used.
7.4 TAIL SIZING AND PLANFORM SHAPE
There are many different alternatives for tail configuration that could be used in this aircraft. Some tail
configurations used in airplanes in the past are shown in the figure below:
Figure 10: Tail configurations. Figure obtained from [1].
41
Among the alternatives conventional tail is the most used tail configuration. However other configurations
are also used from time to time based on the specific needs of the aircraft being designed. For Taj Pegasus,
other than conventional tail boom mounted tail also looks promising due to the ease in loading and
unloading that this tail could provide. The following table summarizes the advantages and disadvantages
of the two tail configurations.
Configuration
Conventional
Advantages
Disadvantages

Lighter tail


Easier production (low cost)
loading and

Since the rear of the fuselage is already
unloading of the
extending well beyond wing trailing edge, tail
container.
Could hinder
arm will be small and thus lightweight.
Boom Mounted


Horizontal tail is more effective because the

Heavier tail
vertical tails act as winglets.

Heavier arm
Vertical tails could be made more effective by

Higher cost
placing them in the propwash.

Higher drag
Table 8: Candidate tail configurations for TAJ PEGASUS.
After considering the advantages and disadvantages of each, conventional tail was chosen to be used in
Taj Pegasus.
7.4.1 Tails
The tails were sized with methods outlined in [1]. Vertical tail was placed slightly ahead of horizontal tail
to avoid horizontal tail wake on the vertical tail in high angles of attack. The following table summarizes
tail properties.
42
Tail
2
S (ft )
AR
λ
l (ft)
Root Chord (Cr)
Tip Chord
MAC
yMAC
(ft)
(Ct) (ft)
(ft)
(ft)
Span (ft)
Horizontal
473.7 3.0 0.4
48
37.7
18.0
7.2
13.3
8.1
Vertical
392.8 2.0 0.4
48
28.0
20.0
8.0
14.9
6.0
Table 9: Tail geometric characteristics. (Note: MAC stands for mean aerodynamic chord and y MAC is the spanwise
location of MAC. l is the distance from wing MAC to tail MAC.)
7.5 ENGINE AND PROPELLER DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT
As stated previously 4 Rolls Royce Allison T-56-A-15 Engines will be used. The following properties were
found for this engine:
Type
Weight
Length
Diameter
SFC (dry)
Power
(uninstalled)
(ft.)
(ft.)
(lbs/hp/hr)
(SLS)
Diameter
(SHP)
(ft)
(lb.)
Turboprop
1940
12.17
2.25
0.5
Table 10: Engine characteristics.
43
4300
Propeller
NP2000
Propeller
13.5
CHAPTER 8
Preliminary CG Estimation, Landing Gear
Placement and Sizing
“Only from the heart can you touch the sky.”
Rumi
8.1 WEIGHTS OF MAJOR COMPONENTS
At this point a simple 3D model of the airplane was drawn in OpenVSP, a computer aided design software
made specifically for airplane design. This drawing is shown below.
44
Figure 11: A CAD drawing of Taj Pegasus prepared in OpenVSP.
This drawing was used to obtain the reference parameters for the following parts.
Weights of major components of the aircraft can be calculated using tables given in [1]. These weights
and parameters used as bases for calculating these weights are shown in the table below.
Component
Wing
Horizontal Tail
Vertical Tail
Fuselage
Reference Parameter
Exposed Area
Exposed Area
Exposed Area
Wetted Area
Weight (lb.)
13725.6
2423.1
2160.6
7060
Landing Gear
All-Else
Fuel
Engines
Container
Takeoff Design
Weight
Takeoff
Takeoff Design
Design Weight
Weight
5818.6
23003.7
-
-
-
-
23291.4
10088.0
45140.0
135316
Table 11: Takeoff Design Weight calculation based on component weights.
45
Note that weight of fuel, engines and container are either available from the RFP or calculated in previous
parts. Takeoff design weight was calculated by summing all the component weights and landing gear and
all-else weight were calculated iteratively based on takeoff design weight.
8.2 LANDING GEAR PLACEMENT AND SIZING
Landing gear placement is one of the trickiest part of airplane design. It most often results in a complete
revision of the design. This is especially the case for the aircraft designed in this report. The author opted
for swift loading and unloading of the container and the container has to be carried externally. This makes
landing gear placement complicated. Since Lockheed Martin C130J Hercules is similar to this aircraft in
many senses its landing gear was used as a reference. A tricycle (conventional) landing gear was used
however wheel base (distance between nose and main landing gears) was reduced considerably because
this aircraft is much shorter. Then landing gears were placed such that most of the weight (>80%) is carried
by the main landing gear, as is the case with most aircraft [1].
Center of gravity of the aircraft is located 26 ft. aft and 3.5 ft. above the nose. Landing gear positions are
shown in the figure below.
46
Figure 12: Position of CG and landing gears. All dimensions are in ft.
With a simple geometrical calculation using these distances it was determined that nose and main landing
gears carry 19102.0 lb. (18.2%) and 105712.4 lb. (81.8%) respectively.
As mentioned before landing gears and tires are modelled after Lockheed Martin C130J Hercules. C130J
has two tires in the front landing gear in parallel and two in each main landing gear in tandem. This exact
configuration will also be used here. Diameters and widths of the tires are calculated based on historical
trends given in [1].
Diameter (ft.)
Width (ft.)
Nose Landing Gear
2.43
0.71
Main Landing Gear
3.36
1.15
Table 12: Landing gear tire dimensions.
Later some critical angles in landing gear design such as tipback and taildown angle and the angle that the
CG makes with main landing gear are calculated and shown in the table and figures below. Tipback angle
is the angle that main landing gear makes with the rearmost part of the aircraft. Taildown angle is the
47
same as tipback angle except this angle is measured when the landing gear strut is contracted. The
minimum limits for these angles are taken from [14]. These angles are also shown in Figure 13.
Tipback Angle
Taildown Angle
CG Angle
Value (deg.)
17.89
16.07
29.71
Minimum Allowed Limit (deg.)
-
15
Tipback Angle or 15 deg
Figure 13: Tipback, taildown and CG angles of Taj Pegasus.
48
CHAPTER 9
Aerodynamics
“When I meet God, I am going to ask him two questions: Why relativity? And why
turbulence? I really believe he will have an answer for the first.”
Werner Heisenberg
9.1 LIFT CURVE SLOPE
When plotting lift curve of an aircraft two parameters are needed; slope of the lift curve and its maximum
value. For a subsonic aircraft the slope of the lift curve is affected by various parameters such as fuselage
lift factor, exposed wing area, reference wing area, aspect ratio, wing sweep, compressibility factor and
airfoil efficiency. Definitions of these parameters and the formula used for calculation of lift curve is shown
in detail in reference [1]. The lift curve was found to be CLa = 5.5 at aircraft design conditions.
Maximum lift coefficient of an aircraft is considerably different than that of the airfoil even in clean
configuration (no high lift devices). Thus maximum lift coefficient had to be corrected for higher Mach
numbers and 3D effects. The resulting maximum coefficient of lift and lift curves are shown in the figures
below.Maximum lift coefficient was also calculated with high lift devices . A slotted flap and a leading edge
flap were used for high lift devices.
49
Figure 14: maximum coefficient of lift versus Mach number in clean configuration.
Figure 15: Maximum coefficient of lift versus Mach number with high lift devices.
50
Figure 16: Coefficient of lift versus angle of attack at cruise velocity (Top) and climb velocity (Bottom).
51
9.2 DRAG
Drag of the aircraft is composed of two parts; parasite drag and induced drag. Parasite drag is calculated
using the component buildup method, in which contribution of each component to drag is calculated
separately and then added together. The drag of all components with the exception of the container are
calculated using the methods outlined in [1] and assuming the most turbulent winds. The surface of the
container is corrugated and as such the methods used for other parts are not sufficient for it. As such the
methods of [18] were used instead. The parasite drag coefficient depends on skin friction coefficient, form
factor, interference factor and etc. Component buildup method is explained in detail in references [1],
[13]. Induced drag or so called “drag due to lift” depends largely on the aspect ratio of the wings and
Oswald span efficiency factor. As the name suggests induced drag coefficient changes with lift coefficient.
When all this is put together a drag polar is obtained for the aircraft which is shown in Figure 17.
Figure 17: Drag polar of TAJ PEGASUS at its design conditions.
52
CHAPTER 10
Performance
“You were born with wings, why prefer to crawl through life?”
Rumi
10.1
POWER CURVES
Available power is fairly constant with velocity. However power required varies with velocity at a given
altitude. The figure below shows these changes graphically.
There are some important points on this graph that have serious implications for the performance of the
aircraft. The point where power available and power required curves meet shows the maximum velocity
that the aircraft can reach at that altitude and weight. The point on the power available curve that is
tangent to a straight line drawn from the origin shows the velocity at which range is maximized. In other
words, it is the cruise velocity of the aircraft. The left end of power required curve shows the stall speed
at these conditions. The point where power required and power available curves are furthest apart from
each other shows the velocity at which maximum rate of climb is reached at that altitude. These velocities
are summarized in the table below.
53
Figure 18: Power curve of TAJ PEGASUS at 23000 ft altitude and 131250.2 lb weight.
Quantity
Cruise Velocity (ft/s)
Maximum Velocity (ft/s)
Stall Velocity (ft/s)
Value
450
610
360
Table 19: Some important velocity values of TAJ PEGASUS at 23000 ft. altitude and 124814.4 lb. weight.
Note that the cruise velocity of 450 ft/s or 266.6 knot exceeds the required minimum cruise velocity of
250 knot.
At this velocity the aircraft has a lift to drag ratio of 17.2 which results in a range of 1192 nmi. when used
in Breguet range equation [1]. This also exceeds the range requirement of 1000 nm.
Another power curve is shown in Figure 20 for an altitude of 10000 ft. to evaluate the climb rate
requirement. From this graph it can be seen that the velocity for maximum rate of climb at 10000 ft is 310
ft/s which corresponds to a climb rate of 2512.0 ft/min. This is greater than the required climb rate of
1500 ft/min.
54
Figure 20: Power Curve of TAJ PEGASUS at 10000 ft. altitude and 131250.2 lb. weight.
The same method as Section 5.4.5 can be used to find the service ceiling. Service ceiling is the altitude at
which the aircraft has just enough power to climb at 100 ft/min or 1.67 ft/s. Note that the service ceiling
requirement has to be met with empty container. Using the climb rate equation of Section 5.4 Service
ceiling was then found to be 47500 ft. This exceeds the required service ceiling of 33000 ft. The power
curve at this altitude is shown in Figure 21.
55
Figure 21: Power Curve of Taj Pegasus at 47500 ft. altitude and 91250.2 lb weight.
10.2
TAKEOFF AND LANDING DISTANCES
Using the maximum CL value calculated in the previous chapter and the most recent values for wing
loading and power to weight ratio takeoff distance was calculated to be 2800 ft based on the methods of
section 5.4.3. This is less than the required maximum takeoff distance of 3500 ft.
Similarly landing distance was found to be 2801.5 ft using the same method as section 5.4.4.
56
CHAPTER 11
Optimization Matrix and Carpet Plots
“It is possible to fly without motors, but not without knowledge and skill.”
Wilbur Wright
The aircraft designed so far in this report fulfills all the requirements. However the question of whether
this is the lightest design that does so remains. To answer this question an optimization was performed
on the aircraft. First eight new combinations of power and wing loading were used to design the airplane.
For the optimization process to be effective some of the designs should fail. So moderately different
values were selected for these parameters. The power levels chosen correspond to 3, 4 and 5 engines
respectively and wing loading values are 80%, 100% and 120% of the baseline design. A summary of these
designs is given in the figure below.
57
W0/S = 68.6 lb/ft2
P = 12900 bhp
P = 17200 bhp
P = 21500 bhp
W0/S = 85.7 lb/ft2
W0/S = 102.8 lb/ft2
#1
#2
#3
W0 = 136057.8 lb.
W0 = 126569.5 lb.
W0 = 121973.8 lb.
Cruise Speed: 242.9 kts.
Cruise Speed: 266.7 kts.
Cruise Speed: 296.2 kts.
Range: 1128.6 nmi.
Range: 1192.0 nmi.
Range: 1286.2 nmi.
R/C: 1648.44 ft./min
R/C: 1734.1 ft./min
R/C: 2706.0 ft./min
Service Ceil.: 43200 ft.
Service Ceil.: 43600 ft.
Service Ceil.: 43100 ft.
TO Dist.: 3400 ft.
TO Dist.: 3900 ft.
TO Dist.: 4000 ft.
Land. Dist.: 2500.7 ft.
Land. Dist.: 2688.3 ft.
Land. Dist.: 2842.3 ft.
#4
#5 Baseline Design
#6
W0 = 141006.6 lb.
W0 = 131250.2 lb.
W0 = 126493.3 lb.
Cruise Speed: 242.9 kts.
Cruise Speed: 266.7 kts.
Cruise Speed: 296.2 kts.
Range: 1128.6 nmi.
Range: 1193.0 nmi.
Range: 1286.2 nmi.
R/C: 2373.7 ft./min
R/C: 2512.0 ft./min
R/C: 3512.6 ft./min
Service Ceil.: 47300 ft.
Service Ceil.: 47500 ft.
Service Ceil.: 47100 ft.
TO Dist.: 2700 ft.
TO Dist.: 2800 ft.
TO Dist.: 2950 ft.
Land. Dist.: 2525.6 ft.
Land. Dist.: 2712.6 ft.
Land. Dist.: 2873.0 ft.
#7
#8
#9
W0 = 145874.4 lb.
W0 = 135835.6 lb.
W0 = 130957.2 lb.
Cruise Speed: 242.9 kts.
Cruise Speed: 266.6 kts.
Cruise Speed: 296.2 kts.
Range: 1128.6 nmi.
Range: 1192.9 nmi.
Range: 1286.2 nmi.
R/C: 3052.0 ft./min
R/C: 3238.7 ft./min
R/C: 4265.5 ft./min
Service Ceil.: 50300 ft.
Service Ceil.: 50500 ft.
Service Ceil.: 50100 ft.
TO Dist.: 2200 ft.
TO Dist.: 2300 ft.
TO Dist.: 2400 ft.
Land. Dist. 2542.5 ft.
Land. Dist. 2736.3 ft.
Land. Dist. 2902.2 ft.
Table 13: 9 different combinations of power and wing loading and the resulting airplanes.
Then all the variables shown above including the weight were plotted against wing loading for every
power level.
58
W0 (lb.)
Cruise speed (kts.)
150000
P = 12900
400
300
140000
200
bhp
130000
100
120000
0
150000
400
P = 17200
140000
bhp
130000
300
200
100
120000
0
150000
400
140000
P = 21500
300
200
130000
100
bhp
120000
0
60
80
100
W/S (lb./ft.^2)
60
59
80
100
W/S (lb./ft.^2)
Range (nmi.)
R/C (ft/min)
1500
4500
P = 12900
1000
2500
bhp
500
500
0
-1500
1500
4500
P = 17200
1000
2500
bhp
500
500
0
-1500
P = 21500
bhp
1500
6000
1000
4000
500
2000
0
0
60
60
80
100
W/S (lb./ft.^2)
60
80
100
W/S (lb./ft.^2)
Service Ceiling (ft.)
Takeoff Distance (ft.)
43800
P = 12900
6000
43600
4000
43400
bhp
2000
43200
43000
0
47600
4000
P = 17200
47400
bhp
47200
3000
2000
1000
47000
0
50600
4000
50400
P = 21500
3000
2000
50200
1000
bhp
50000
0
60
80
100
W/S (lb./ft.^2)
60
61
80
100
W/S (lb./ft.^2)
Landing Distance (ft.)
4000
P = 12900
3000
2000
bhp
1000
0
4000
P = 17200
3000
2000
bhp
1000
0
4000
P = 21500
bhp
3000
2000
1000
0
60
80
100
W/S (lb./ft.^2)
Note that the orange lines show the requirements set forth by the request for proposal. Then the results
were cross plotted in a power vs. wing loading plot. This plot is used to find the best point to design the
airplane.
62
63
Figure 22: Carpet plot of requirements and weights on a Power vs W/S graph.
This plot serves to show two points. First of all it shows that the design is not possible with 3 engines only.
That would violate the cruise speed requirement. Second, the design point shown corresponds to the
lightest aircraft that fulfills all the requirements. This point is then chosen as the design point of the
airplane and the aircraft was redesigned using the wing loading and power values of 100 lb/ft2 and 17200
hp respectively. The resulting airplane dimensions and characteristics are given in CHAPTER 14.
Note that except for cruise speed and takeoff distance (shown as TO Dist.) all the other requirements
were readily met and as such they were not included in the matrix plot.
64
CHAPTER 12
Additional Considerations
“I am well convinced that aerial navigation will form a most prominent feature in
the progress of civilization.”
George Cayley
12.1
STABILITY AND CONTROL
12.1.1 CG Envelope
For the aircraft to be stable at all times the aircraft CG has to stay within predefined limits. These limits
are determined by calculating the maximum amount of moment that the horizontal tail can provide in
either direction and leaving some margin for maneuverability. Furthermore the CG is not allowed to cross
the neutral point because that would make the aircraft unstable. The following figure shows relative
positions of the aircraft neutral point, aircraft CG, container CG and CG of the gates.
65
Figure 23: Relative locations of some important points on Taj Pegasus.
Note that the CG depicted here shows the location of CG before takeoff. Gate CG was approximated
assuming the gates are homogenous sheet structures. Further, the container CG is assumed to be exactly
at the middle of the container.
The container was intentionally placed slightly ahead of aircraft CG. This is because when containers are
dropped or not loaded at all, the gates move forward. Even though the gates are not significantly heavy,
the large displacement that they go through relatively large changes in CG location. As a result when the
container is not present and the gates are in the forward position, the resulting aircraft CG is very close
to the same as depicted in Figure 23.
Furthermore fuel tanks are almost exactly at the CG. This means the aircraft CG will be relatively fixed
during the entire flight envelope and the aircraft will not experience serious changes in stability behavior.
The CG envelope of the aircraft is shown in Figure 24.
66
Figure 24: CG Envelope of Taj Pegasus for mission
12.1.2 Control Surfaces
A pair of ailerons and elevators and a rudder were placed on the aircraft. While designing the control
surfaces they were made as long as possible. The ailerons were placed on the outboard portion of the
wings and a small distance (0.5 ft) was left between the flap and the aileron so that a rib could pass
between them. Similarly a small distance was left empty at the wing tip for another rib. The final length
of each aileron is 17 ft.
67
Elevators and the rudder were placed such that they act on the entire span of the horizontal and vertical
tail respectively.
The analysis of control surfaces is done in the using the vortex lattice method and it is explained in the
following section.
12.1.3 Stability Derivatives
During the early stages of aircraft design one of the best methods to determine the sensitivity of flight
parameters to control surface inputs is the vortex lattice method. In this method a number of vortex
sheets are placed on aircraft surfaces and the resulting aerodynamic forces and moments are calculated.
The vortex lattice method program used in this report is called Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) and it was
developed in Massachusetts Institute of Technology [19]. The simplified model of Taj Pegasus in AVL and
the summary of AVL output are given in Figure 25. Figure 26 shows sensitivity (derivative) of most relevant
aerodynamic coefficients to flight conditions.
68
Figure 25: Simplified drawing of Taj Pegasus in AVL. Control surfaces are not shown here.
69
Figure 26: Aerodynamic derivatives of Taj Pegasus taken from AVL output files.
For example the first data point at the top left, i.e. 5.064899 shows the derivative of coefficient of lift, C L
with respect to angle of attack, alpha. Here axes x, y and z are in the direction of aircraft nose, starboard
wing tip and local gravitational vector respectively while x’ and y’ are in the direction of Lift force and
starboard wing tip and z’ is normal to these. While reading the data it is easy to confuse the direction of
rotation. A control surface rotation that results in the aft of the surface going up is a positive rotation. For
example leading edge flap may seem to be affecting coefficient of lift adversely, however this is not the
case and the negative sign in front of the CLd1 value should not confuse the readers. While reading the
data it is easy to confuse the direction of rotation. A control surface rotation that results in the aft of the
surface going up is a positive rotation. For example leading edge flap may seem to be affecting coefficient
of lift adversely, however this is not the case and the negative sign in front of the CLd1 value should not
confuse the readers.
Note that despite being a simple method, AVL is a powerful tool. This can be verified by comparing its
results with previously obtained data. For example lift curve slope was found to be CLa = 5.5 in CHAPTER
70
9, AVL predicts a value of CLa = 5.064899 which shows an error of only %10. Since this is a conceptual
design only, the results of this program are deemed sufficient at this point.
12.2
HANDLING THE PAYLOAD
12.2.1 Attachment Mechanism
TAJ PEGASUS is required to swiftly pick up a 20 ft. container
externally and deliver it to its destination. It is also required to
drop the container mid-flight and fly without the container
when desired. This requires additional aerodynamic and
mechanical considerations in the design of the airplane. The
containers have slots for hooks on all their corners. These slots
Figure 27: Hook slots of the container.
are shown in Figure 27.
During the loading process the container will be moved on a truck from the rear side of the airplane until
the two beams on the airplane are inserted into the two hook slots in the front of the container. Then the
mechanical hooks are attached to the two hook slots in the back of the container. Now the container is
fully constrained and attached to the airplane. During unloading on the ground this process is reversed.
When the container is to be released mid-air the mechanical hooks are simply opened. Since now the
containers are not constrained at the back, and in the front they are just hanging on to two horizontal
beams the container will quickly separate from the airplane and fall towards the ground.
12.2.2 Gates
TAJ PEGASUS has a set of two gate-like structures at the back that have the ability to move in two different
manners. First the set of structures can open up to the sides. When the gates are in this position the
71
container can be moved to or from its loading position via a truck or by maneuvering the airplane itself.
This process is depicted in Figure 28.
2
1
1
3
1
Figure 28: Loading process of the container. Top left: The container has not been loaded yet. Top right: gates have
opened and the container is now ready to be brought under the airplane. Bottom: The container is fully loaded and
the gates have closed. During unloading this process is reversed.
The second motion that the gates perform is longitudinal. The gates can move back and forth on the
airplane. This is useful when the airplane is flying without the container. When moved forward, the gates
close the rear of the crew station thus increasing aerodynamic efficiency of the airplane. This motion can
be seen in the figures below.
72
Figure 29: Left: TAJ PEGASUS is ready to fly with the container. Right: The gates have moved forward and TAJ
PEGASUS is ready to fly without the container.
A combination of these two motions allows for dropping the container mid-air. While flying the gates are
first opened up, the container is released using mechanical hooks, the gates close down and move forward
to close the gap behind the crew station.
12.3
CREW STATION DESIGN
Crew station was designed to be as small as possible while still comfortably accommodating the crew. For
a crew station with 3 crew members a length of 10.8 ft. is recommended [14]. This ensures that the crew
members can comfortably stretch their legs, get up, and store their flight bags. The crew station of TAJ
PEGASUS has a length of 10.8 ft. and height of 7.0 ft. at its maximum as seen from the photos below.
73
Loadmaster
7.0 ft.
Pilots
10.8 ft.
Figure 30: Crew station with two pilots and a loadmaster inside.
MIL-STD-850B defines vision requirements for various kinds of military aircraft. For military transport
aircraft an over-nose angle of 17 deg. and over-side angle of 35 deg. are required [14]. The crew station
of TAJ PEGASUS also complies with these requirements.
12.4
AIR LOADS AND STRUCTURES
Load factors (indicated by n) are usually used to express the amount of loads that an aircraft is exposed
to. For example n = 2 means the aircraft is subjected to a load that is twice as much as its weight. As a
result airplanes have limiting load factors that show the ultimate loads that the aircraft structures can
carry. Typically transport airplanes are designed with positive load factor of 3 to 4 and negative load factor
of -1 to -2. Taj Pegasus is designed with positive load factor of 3 and negative load factor of -2 [1]. The
following V-n diagram was then obtained for this aircraft.
74
Figure 31: V-n diagram of Taj Pegasus.
The curved portions of the V-n diagram (to the left) are stall limits. The aircraft cannot cross those
boundaries with those velocities. The horizontal lines at the top and bottom show the limiting load factors.
And the vertical line to the right shows the dive speed. Aircraft structures can sustain only a limited
amount of dynamic pressure and this line shows that limit.
Note that the V-n diagram is expressed in Indicated Air Speed (IAS). This is because using True Air Speed
(TAS) would result in different V-n diagrams at different altitudes. However Figure 31 is valid at any
altitude. Three most important velocities, Vcorner, Vcruise and Vdive are marked on the figure. Vcorner is the
smallest speed at which the aircraft can reach its limiting load factor and Vdive is the maximum speed the
aircraft can reach. Also note that true cruise air speed of 450 ft/s was converted to the indicated airspeed
before plotting the graph.
Gusts can have huge effects on the aircraft. They are often even more marked than maneuvers especially
for transport aircraft. However when calculated gust loads were calculated it was observed that the
75
current limiting load factors are enough to sustain gusts at any speed and altitude. The following figure
shows V-n diagram with gusts for reference.
Figure 32: V-n diagram for Taj Pegasus. Note that the dashed lines show loads caused by gusts.
12.4.1 Wings
Wings will have a so called torque-box as the main load carrying component. The torque box is closed
off by a front spar, a rear spar and upper and lower skins. Typical spar locations are 15-30 percent chord
for front spar and 65-75 percent chord for rear spar. Wing ribs are usually about 24 in. apart in transport
aircraft [20]. The leading edge flap spans throughout the wing however a small section of the wing leading
edge (0.5 ft) was left empty near the fuselage and at the tip to allow wing ribs to pass through there. The
flap encompasses about 38 ft of the wing span. The rest of the wing span is left for ailerons.
76
Figure 33: Structural components of the wings.
Figure 33 shows wing ribs and spars of Taj Pegasus. There are 30 spars spaced as evenly as possible and
as close to the recommendations of [20] as possible. There are two spars that are at 25 and 70 percent of
the chord line respectively.
12.4.2 Empennage
Typical spar locations for the empennage are 15-25 percent chord for front spar and 70-75 percent chord
for rear spar. Ribs are about 24 in. apart as was the case in wings [20]. This information will be kept in
mind while designing the structural members of the empennage.
77
12.4.3 Fuselage
Fuselage frames are usually 0.02df+1 in. and are spaced about 18-22 in. apart. Similarly longerons are
usually 6-12 in. apart from each other in transport aircraft [20]. This information will be used when
designing the structural members of the fuselage.
12.5
MATERIALS SELECTION
In the early years of aviation industry wood was extensively used in aircraft structures. This trend
continued to some degree even to World War II. However by the end of the Second World War Aluminum,
titanium and their alloys had completely replaced wood and its derivatives in aircraft structures. One of
the most widely used Aluminum alloys, Aluminum 7075 (Aluminum, Copper, Magnesium, Zinc) will be
used in the airframe of TAJ PEGASUS when needed. Aluminum 7075 has superior strength, even in the
presence of cracks and it has a long fatigue life relative to other aluminum alloys [21].
Later in twentieth century composite materials, especially polymer-matrix composites reinforced with
various fibers such as carbon and glass fibers started to be used in aviation industry. The contribution of
composite materials in aircraft structures rapidly increased to the point that today about %25 of Lockheed
Martin F-22 Raptor, %35 of the Joint Strike Fighter and %50 of Boeing 787 Dreamliner is made of
composite materials [22], [23].
The main advantages of composite materials, especially Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) include
mass and part reduction, complex shape manufacturability, reduced scrap and improved fatigue life.
While the main disadvantages to using them are high material and processing costs and low resistance to
impact loading [24]. Especially high cost associated with composite materials was pronounced especially
in the late twentieth century. For example according to 1980s estimates a kilogram of reduction in weight
by using composite materials in large transport aircraft costed 300 USD [22]. However the latest trends in
78
the aerospace industry show that cost effectiveness of composite materials is increasing. This is very
evident in the %50 share of composites in Boeing 787 as mentioned previously. The author of this report
is also confident that cost effectiveness of composite materials will further increase until the time of
production of TAJ PEGASUS. Based on this reasoning, composite materials will be used whenever possible.
12.5.1 Wings
Most structural components of the wings including all the spars and most ribs will be manufactured from
CFRPs. There are some exceptions to this that are explained below.
The leading edge of the wings will be manufactured from aluminum 7075. The leading edge of a wing is
very sensitive to surface roughness thus utmost importance should be given to the precision of
manufacturing this part. Since CFRPs are not machineable their surface will not be as precise as a
machined metal. Aluminum 7075 is used here because it is light and the loads that this part carries do not
require very high strength. Another reason to use aluminum 7075 and not CFRP for this part is that, as
mentioned before, CFRPs are weak in impact loading. The leading edge of the wing is the part that is most
likely to receive impacts (such as accidental damage by the tools of technicians, bird collisions etc.) and
using a CFRP here would be risky.
The two ribs connecting the wing to the fuselage will be made from titanium. The reason for this is high
strength and ductility of titanium when compared to CFRPs. This part needs to be ductile because this
part carries one of the greatest loadings in the wing and small flaws, cracks, dents and elongations of the
part need to be detected swiftly to avoid material failures during flight. Since CFRPs are very brittle using
them here could have disastrous consequences.
79
12.5.2 Fuselage
Just like wings most parts of the fuselage will be made from CFRPs. The exceptions to this are discussed
below.
The nose cone will be made of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). This material allows for signals
emitted from the radar to pass freely through it. The canopy will be made of acrylic as is done in most
airplanes. Landing gear struts and hooks that will attach to the container will be made of steel. This is
because other materials are simply not strong enough to support the loads applied on the struts. Finally
the two gate-like structures behind the cockpit will be made of GFRP because GFRP is cheaper than CFRP
and those parts do not carry major loads.
12.5.3 Tails
Almost the entirety of the structural members of the tails will be composed of CFRPs.
80
CHAPTER 13
Cost Analysis
“A billion here, a billion there – pretty soon it adds up to real money.”
Everett Mckinley Dirksen
The first step in estimating the cost of an airplane is to break it down into groups. The following figure
obtained from [1] shows one such breakdown.
Figure 34: Elements of aircraft lifecycle cost.
81
The size of the boxes in Figure 34 are representative of approximate relative shares in total aircraft cost.
Aircraft program starts with Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E). This includes
technology research, design engineering, prototype fabrication, flight and ground testing, and evaluations
for operational suitability. The sum of RDT&E and flyaway costs are calculated in this report using DAPCA
IV model. DAPCA stands for Development and Procurement Cost of Aircraft and it is a set of cost
estimating relationships developed by RAND Corporation [1]. The model is rather simple but accurate
results are obtained using this method. The model gives engineering, manufacturing, quality control and
tooling hours based on aircraft empty weight, maximum speed and number to be built. The model also
gives the cost for developing supporting infrastructure, flight test costs, and engineering production costs.
These costs depend on empty weight, maximum velocity and number of flight test aircraft. The only area
that DAPCA IV model falls short is the estimation of avionics cost.
Taj Pegasus has an empty weight of 59225.31 lb. and a maximum velocity of 386 kts. was calculated at
sea level. It is assumed that only one flight test aircraft will be produced. Avionics of the aircraft was
assumed to cost about 4000$ per pound of aircraft empty weight. Rolls Royce Allison T-56 engine cost
was around 3.19 million USD in 2014 [25].
DAPCA IV model is developed assuming the aircraft will be produced from aluminum. However some parts
of Taj Pegasus are to be manufactured from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP), Glass Fiber
Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) and titanium. To account for these a fudge factor of 1.2 was used.
An investment cost factor of 1.15 was used to allocate some contractor profit.
The sum of RDT&E and Flyaway costs are then presented below for a various production quantities. RDT&E
and Flyaway costs per aircraft decrease as the production quantity increases. This is because the burden
of RDT&E is distributed over more aircraft and the company producing the aircraft “learns” as it produces
more and more aircraft.
82
Number of Aircraft Built Total RDT&E + Flyaway cost (USD) RDT&E + Flyaway Cost per Aircraft (USD)
1
1.81E+09
1.81E+09
10
3.10E+09
3.10E+08
20
3.85E+09
1.93E+08
30
4.43E+09
1.48E+08
40
4.93E+09
1.23E+08
50
5.37E+09
1.07E+08
60
5.78E+09
9.63E+07
70
6.15E+09
8.79E+07
80
6.51E+09
8.14E+07
90
6.85E+09
7.61E+07
100
7.17E+09
7.17E+07
110
7.48E+09
6.80E+07
120
7.77E+09
6.48E+07
130
8.06E+09
6.20E+07
140
8.34E+09
5.96E+07
150
8.61E+09
5.74E+07
160
8.88E+09
5.55E+07
170
9.13E+09
5.37E+07
180
9.39E+09
5.21E+07
190
9.63E+09
5.07E+07
200
9.87E+09
4.94E+07
Figure 35: RDT&E and flyaway costs for various production quantities.
Note that the cost estimates were done in constant 2016 dollars.
83
CHAPTER 14
Design Summary and Drawings
“A scientist discovers that which exists. An engineer creates that which never was.”
Theodore Von Karman
This documents is the design report of TAJ PEGASUS, a transport aerial vehicle. The aircraft was designed
in compliance with the Request for Proposal (RFP) published by American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics for the 2016 Individual Aircraft Design Competition. However the aircraft is not constrained
to the mission specified in the RFP alone. Taj Pegasus could be used for various other missions as well. For
example the container could be replaced with a radar and the aircraft could perform the role of Airborne
Early Warning and Control aircraft. It could also be used as an intelligence gathering airplane in times of
need because it has a large wing aspect ratio, low fuel consumption and high service ceiling. The removal
of the container further adds to aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft which helps it stay longer in the air.
Taj Pegasus could easily be employed in the commercial market as well. For example it could deliver aid
in containers to regions hit by natural disasters. Scientific payloads could be installed instead of the
container and weather, meteorology and geology studies could be performed. It would also be a great
tool for cargo and transportation to remote areas since it can land and takeoff from rough surfaces.
The design started with a competitor study. The competitor study provided some initial ideas about the
general layout, takeoff weight, wing span and area, aspect ratio and other aircraft parameters. The results
of this study were used throughout the design process for comparison and determination of such
parameters for this aircraft.
84
Competitor study was followed by an initial weight estimation. The method used here was a rather simple
one with few inputs. As such the resulting weight estimate was crude, as seen in later stages of the design.
Nevertheless the results of this estimate enabled predicting many design parameters such as wing loading.
Next an airfoil was selected for the aircraft. Some candidate airfoils were listed based on design
coefficient of lift and cruise Mach number as criteria and the airfoil with the most desirable moment
characteristics, maximum coefficient of lift and the coefficient of drag at design was selected for use in
this aircraft. Other wing characteristics such as twist, sweep, dihedral, and taper ratio were also found
using guidelines given in standard aircraft design books. The average aspect ratio of the competitor
aircraft was used in this design.
Later two of the most critical performance parameters of an aircraft, power to weight ratio and wing
loading were determined using the previous weight estimates. Determination of these was based on the
type of the engine pre-specified in the Request for Proposal (RFP), competitor data and key performance
requirements such as cruise, rate of climb, landing and takeoff distances and service ceiling. The largest
wing loading that fulfills all of these requirements was then chosen to be used in this design.
The value for the weight of the aircraft was then estimated again using more advanced equations and
more in-depth analysis than before. Wing loading and Power to weight ratio that were found in the
previous chapter were used here to determine design takeoff weight of the aircraft, fuel weight and empty
weight.
In CHAPTER 7 the geometry and shape of the largest components of the aircraft were determined. These
include horizontal and vertical tails, wing and fuselage. Tail surface areas and moment arms were
determined based on wing reference area using the historical trend equations found in aircraft design
books. Wing reference area was found using the estimates of the design takeoff weight of the aircraft and
wing loading obtained in the previous chapters. Fuselage length obtained using its empty weight. Fuel
85
volume was calculated using standard jet fuel properties and the fuel weight calculated in the previous
chapter. Taj Pegasus was drawn using an open source 3D drawing package (OpenVSP) for the first time in
this chapter and using SolidWorks in the later stages of the design.
In CHAPTER 8 the drawing was studied more closely and the location of the center of gravity was
estimated. This estimate was later used to determine the location, type and tire width and radius of the
landing gears. A more reliable estimate for aircraft weight was also obtained after summing weights of
the individual components.
Aerodynamics of the aircraft was then investigated in detail in CHAPTER 9. High lift devices were chosen
to be used in the aircraft. Lift curve slope and maximum coefficient of lift were calculated for clean and
flapped configurations. The total parasite drag of the aircraft for different altitudes and flight regimes
were determined using the component buildup method. Induced drag factor was found as a function of
the aspect ratio of the aircraft. A plot of coefficient of lift versus angle of attack and a drag polar were
then plotted and presented.
In CHAPTER 10 the performance of the aircraft was measured and compared to the key performance
requirements. It was verified that all the requirements are met.
An optimization was done on Taj Pegasus and the optimum wing loading and power were obtained from
a carpet plot. The aircraft was then redesigned with the new parameters.
Finally various subjects like structures, stability and control were addressed in the final chapter.
Some pictures of Taj Pegasus followed by a table of key characteristics is given below.
86
Figure 36: A three view image of TAJ PEGASUS.
87
Figure 37: An isometric view of TAJ PEGASUS.
Figure 38: An isometric view of Taj Pegasus when the container is removed.
88
Figure 39: Front view of Taj Pegasus.
Figure 40: Side view of Taj Pegasus.
89
Figure 41: Side view of Taj Pegasus when the container is removed.
Figure 42: Top view of Taj Pegasus.
90
Length (overall)
80 ft
Height (overall)
30 ft
Design Takeoff Weight
127058.7 lb
Empty Weight
59255.3 lb
Fuel Weight
22063.4 lb
Wing Span
120.5 ft
Wing Area
1319.1 ft2
Wing Aspect Ratio
10.98
Propeller Diameter
13.5 ft
Cruise Speed
490 ft/s (290.3 knots)
Rate of Climb at 10000 ft
3493.2 ft/min
Range
1327.5 nm
Takeoff Distance
3500 ft
Landing Distance
3103.1 ft
Service Ceiling (With empty container)
47300 ft
Power Plant
Rolls Royce Allison T-56-A-15
Number of Engines
4
Figure 43: Key parameters and dimensions of TAJ PEGASUS.
91
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