Contents
Introduction..........................................................................1
Verifying Package Contents...............................................1
Safety Information...............................................................3
Operating Precautions........................................................8
1
Overview13 2
1.1 Product Overview...........................................13
1.2 Names and Functions of Parts.....................14
2
Preparing for Measurement
21
2.1 Battery Replacement.....................................22
2.2 Using Model L9788-10 Test Lead with
Remote Switch (Red).....................................24
2.3 How to Use the Carrying Case
(Model C0206).................................................26
3
1
Measurement27
3.1 Pre-measurement Inspection........................27
3.2 Auto Power Save (Power-Saving Function).29
3.3 Auto Backlight-off (Automatic Light-off
Function).........................................................30
3.4 Pass/Fail Judgment (Comparator)
Function..........................................................31
3.5 Measurement Preparation.............................33
3.6 Making Measurements in Voc Mode.............34
FT4310A961-01
i
5
6
7
Index
Comparison Display Function.................................... 35
Auto-hold................................................................... 36
4
Appx.
Setting the Comparator Function............................... 32
Canceling the Comparator Function.......................... 32
3
Contents
Negative Voltage Notification Function...................... 37
Ground Fault Detection.............................................. 37
3.7 Making Measurements in BPD TEST Mode.38
Lock Function............................................................ 39
Measuring Bypass Diode........................................... 40
3.8Bluetooth® Communication Function...........43
Installing the Smartphone Application Software
GENNECT Cross....................................................... 44
Pairing the Application Software................................ 45
Making Measurements with the Bluetooth® Function.46
4
Specifications
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
47
General Specifications..................................47
Input/Output/Measurement Specifications..49
Function Specifications.................................54
Interface Specifications.................................57
Factory Settings.............................................57
Maintenance and Service
59
5.1Troubleshooting.............................................60
Error Displays and Remedies.................................... 61
Appx.Appx.1
Appx. 1 Measurement Principles...................Appx.1
Measurement Principles for Bypass Diodes
with an Open Fault..............................................Appx.1
Measurement Principles for Bypass Diodes
with a Short-circuit Fault.....................................Appx.2
ii
Introduction
Introduction
Thank you for purchasing the Hioki FT4310 Bypass Diode Tester. To
obtain maximum performance from the instrument, please read this
Instruction Manual first, and keep it handy for future reference.
Verifying Package Contents
2
When you receive the instrument, inspect it carefully to ensure
that no damage occurred during shipping. In particular, check the
accessories, panel switches, and connectors. If damage is evident,
or if it fails to operate according to the specifications, contact your
authorized Hioki distributor or reseller.
Confirm that these contents are provided.
□ Model FT4310
Bypass Diode Tester
1
□ Instruction Manual
3
4
5
□ LR6 Alkaline battery × 6
6
□ Model C0206 Carrying Case □ Model L9788-11
Test Lead Set with Remote Switch
7
Index
1
Appx.
Model L9788-11 is a set of model
L9788-10 Test Lead with Remote Switch
(Red) and EARTH side lead.
Verifying Package Contents
Options
The following options are available for the instrument. Contact your
authorized Hioki distributor or reseller when ordering.
1
Product name
1
2
2
2
Maximum rated voltage and
maximum rated current
Model L9788-92 Breaker Pin
CAT III 600 V, 2 A
Model L9788-90 Tip Pin
CAT III 600 V/CAT II 600 V, 2 A
Safety Information
Safety Information
This instrument is designed to conform to IEC 61010 Safety
Standards, and has been thoroughly tested for safety prior to
shipment. However, using the instrument in a way not described in
this manual may negate the provided safety features.
Before using the instrument, be certain to carefully read the
following safety notes.
1
2
DANGER
Mishandling during use could result in injury or death,
as well as damage to the instrument. Be certain that
you understand the instructions and precautions in
the manual before use.
3
4
WARNING
Protective gear
This instrument is measured on a live line. To
prevent an electric shock, use appropriate protective
insulation and adhere to applicable laws and
regulations.
5
6
Notation
7
In this manual, the risk seriousness and the hazard levels are
classified as follows.
Indicates an imminently hazardous situation that will
result in death or serious injury to the operator.
WARNING
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation that may result
in death or serious injury to the operator.
Index
3
Appx.
DANGER
Safety Information
CAUTION
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation that may result
in minor or moderate injury to the operator or damage to
the instrument or malfunction.
Indicates prohibited actions.
Indicates the action which must be performed.
*
Additional information is presented below.
(p. )
Indicates the page of reference information.
[
Screen displays are enclosed in square brackets.
]
MEASURE
(Bold)
Indicates the names of keys and other controls on the
instrument.
Symbols on the instrument
Indicates cautions and hazards. When the symbol is
printed on the instrument, refer to a corresponding topic
in the Instruction Manual.
Indicates that dangerous voltage may be present at this
terminal.
Indicates a instrument that has been protected throughout
by double insulation or reinforced insulation.
Indicates a grounding terminal.
Indicates DC (Direct Current).
Indicates AC (Alternating Current).
4
Safety Information
Symbols for various standards
Indicates the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
Directive (WEEE Directive) in EU member states.
1
Indicates that the product conforms to regulations set out by the
EU Directive.
Indicates that the product incorporates Bluetooth® wireless
technology.
2
Screen Display
3
The instrument screen displays the alphanumeric characters as
follows.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
5
Accuracy
We define measurement tolerances in terms of rdg. (reading) and
dgt. (digt) values, with the following meanings:
6
(reading or displayed value)
The value currently being measured and indicated on the
measuring instrument.
dgt.
(resolution)
The smallest displayable unit on a digital measuring instrument,
i.e., the input value that causes the digital display to show a “1” as
the least-significant digit.
Index
5
7
Appx.
rdg.
Safety Information
Trademarks
•• Bluetooth® is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG, Inc. (USA).
The trademark is used by HIOKI E.E.CORPORATION under
license.
•• Android, Google Play are registered trademarks of Google, Inc.
•• IOS is a registered trademark of Cisco in the U.S. and other
countries.
•• iPhone, iPad, iPad mini, and iPod Touch are trademarks of Apple
Inc.
•• The App Store is a service mark of Apple Inc.
6
Safety Information
Measurement Categories
To ensure safe operation of measuring instruments, IEC 61010
establishes safety standards for various electrical environments,
categorized as CAT II to CAT IV, and called measurement
categories.
1
DANGER
•• Using a measuring instrument in an environment
designated with a higher-numbered category than
that for which the instrument is rated could result in
a severe accident, and must be carefully avoided.
•• Never use a measuring instrument that lacks
category labeling in a CAT II to CAT IV measurement
environment. Doing so could result in a serious
accident.
CAT II:
CAT III:
CAT IV:
When directly measuring the electrical outlet receptacles of
the primary electrical circuits in equipment connected to an
AC electrical outlet by a power cord (portable tools, household
appliances, etc.)
When measuring the primary electrical circuits of heavy equipment
(fixed installations) connected directly to the distribution panel, and
feeders from the distribution panel to outlets.
When measuring the circuit from the service drop to the service
entrance, and to the power meter and primary overcurrent
protection device (distribution panel).
2
3
4
5
6
7
Distribution panel
Service entrance
CAT IV
Appx.
Service drop
Internal wiring
CAT II
CAT III
T
Outlet
Fixed installation
7
Index
Power meter
Operating Precautions
Operating Precautions
Follow these precautions to ensure safe operation and to obtain the
full benefits of the various functions.
DANGER
•• For your safe operation, do not connect any test
lead to the primary of the distribution panel.
•• Do not short-circuit two wires to be measured by
bringing the test leads into contact with them. Arcs
or such grave accidents are likely to occur.
•• To prevent a short-circuit or an electric shock, do
not touch the metal part of the connecting test lead
tip.
•• To prevent an electric shock, be careful to avoid
shorting live lines with the test leads tip.
If the test lead or the instrument is damaged, there
is a risk of an electric shock. Perform the following
inspection before using them:
•• Before using the instrument, check that the coating
of the test leads are neither ripped nor torn and that
no metal parts are exposed. Using the instrument
under such conditions could result in an electric
shock. Replace the test leads with those specified
by our company.
•• Verify that it operates normally to ensure that no
damage occurred during storage or shipping. If you
find any damage, contact your authorized Hioki
distributor or reseller.
8
Operating Precautions
WARNING
•• To prevent an electric shock, a short-circuit and
damage to the instrument, observe the following
precautions: Check the position of the rotary
switch before taking measurements. Disconnect
the test leads from the measurement object before
switching the rotary switch.
1
2
•• Do not use the instrument with circuits that exceed
its ratings or specifications. Doing so may damage
the instrument, resulting in an electric shock.
3
•• Use only the specified test leads. Use of any test
lead not specified by our company does not allow
safe measurements.
•• To prevent electrical accidents, remove power from
the circuit before connecting the test leads.
•• To prevent an electric shock, do not exceed the
lower of the ratings shown on the instrument and
test leads.
4
5
6
7
Appx.
Index
9
Operating Precautions
CAUTION
Observe the following to prevent an electric shock, a
short-circuit, or damage to the instrument.
•• Turn off any disconnector devices and separate from
the power conditioner before starting the measurements
for the solar battery panel.
•• Solar batteries always generate high voltages especially
in day time. Pay attention to prevent an electric shock
for measurements.
•• Do not touch any metal parts such as connection box
and disconnector devices directly with bare hands.
Doing so may cause an electric shock due to the
voltage of the generator.
•• Maximum rated voltage to terminal of the instrument is
1000 V DC. Do not use the instrument for equipment
with rated voltage over 1000 V DC. Doing so may cause
an electric shock or damage to the instrument.
•• The cable is hardened in freezing temperatures. Do not
bend or pull it to avoid tearing its shield or cutting cable.
•• The protection rating for the enclosure of this instrument
(based on EN60529) is IP40*.
* IP40:
This indicates the degree of protection provided by the enclosure of
the instrument for use in hazardous locations, entry of solid foreign
objects, and the ingress of water.
4: Protected against access to hazardous parts with wire measuring 1.0 mm
in diameter.
0: The equipment inside the enclosure is not protected against the harmful
effects of water.
10
Operating Precautions
Installing the instrument
WARNING
1
Installing the instrument in inappropriate locations
may cause a malfunction of instrument or may give
rise to an accident. Avoid the following locations.
•• Exposed to direct sunlight or high temperature
•• Exposed to corrosive or combustible gases
•• Exposed to a strong electromagnetic field or
electrostatic charge
•• Near induction heating systems (such as highfrequency induction heating systems and IH
cooking equipment)
•• Susceptible to vibration
•• Exposed to water, oil, chemicals, or solvents
•• Exposed to high humidity or condensation
•• Exposed to high quantities of dust particles
2
3
4
5
Precautions when transporting the instrument
During shipment of the instrument, handle it carefully so that it is not
damaged due to a vibration or shock.
6
7
Appx.
Index
11
Operating Precautions
Handling the Instrument
CAUTION
To avoid damage to the instrument, protect it from physical
shock when transporting and handling it. Be especially
careful to avoid physical shock from due to dropping it.
Test leads
CAUTION
•• Removable sleeves are attached to the metal pins
at the end of the test leads. To prevent a short-circuit
accident, be sure to use the test leads with the sleeves
attached when performing measurements in the CAT
III measurement category. Remove the sleeves before
starting CAT II circuit measurements. You can use the
test leads with the sleeve removed for secondary side
of the circuit breakers turned off. (Refer to “Measurement
Categories” (p. 7))
•• If the sleeves are inadvertently removed during
measurement, stop the measurement.(p. 26)
12
1
Overview
1.1 Product Overview
This is a measuring instrument to test faults of bypass diodes (BPD)
incorporated in solar power generation systems*.
Can be measured even in day time
•• Bypass diode condition can be measured without covering the solar panels.
Easy measurements
1
2
3
•• Bypass diode condition can be measured with a connection box.
•• Measurement results can be sent to a tablet or other mobile device by
Bluetooth®.
4
Detecting bypass diode deterioration
•• The resistance of the bypass route can be measured and deterioration
of the bypass diode or increase of connector contact resistance between
modules can be detected.
5
*: Strings in parallel configuration or special complex configuration cannot be
measured.
6
7
Appx.
Index
13
Names and Functions of Parts
1.2 Names and Functions of Parts
Front
1
(p. 19, p. 22, p. 38)
Display (p. 17)
Top
2
3
(p. 8)
5
6
4
(p. 8)
7
1
2
3
4
MEASURE key (p. 15)
Measurement switch
N(−) terminal
Connect the black test lead.
Control terminal
Connect Model L9788-10 Test Lead with
Remote Switch (Red).
5
Rotary switch (p. 15)
6
Operation keys (p. 16)
7
Live circuit indicator
14
P(+) terminal
Selects the measurement functions (the
measurement modes) and turns off the
power. (p. 15)
Flashes when voltage remains between
measuring terminals.
Names and Functions of Parts
MEASURE key
1
MEASURE key
states
Press the right of
the key
Retract the key
Turn on comparison
Description in display or enable
Press the
this manual
continuous
MEASURE key.
measurement.
Release the
MEASURE key.
Raise the key
Changing measurement mode (turning on the power)
Setting the rotary switch in a position other than OFF turns on the power.
Voc mode
BPD TEST mode
Self-check mode
Rotary switch
state
Description in
this manual
2
3
4
5
Set the rotary
switch in Voc.
Set the rotary
switch in BPD
TEST.
Set the rotary
switch in SELF
CHECK.
Voc mode: Measures open-circuit voltages. (p. 34)
BPD TEST mode: M
easures bypass diodes and bypass diode resistors.
(p. 38)
6
7
Turning off the power
Appx.
Rotary switch
state
Set off the rotary
switch in OFF.
15
Index
Description in
this manual
Names and Functions of Parts
Operation keys
1
Key name
1
LIGHT
2
Press
Backlight On/Off
3
4
Press and hold Turn on the instrument
(1 second or more) while holding down
Turns off the
auto-backlight
function
Cancel the auto
power save
function
2
•• In BPD TEST mode: •• When
Switches between
comparison
the measurement
display is set:
screen and the
Reference
DISPLAY
COUNT mode screen value reset
•• When comparator
(p. 35)
is set: Decrease of •• COUNT mode
judgment reference
screen: Count
value (p. 32)
reset (p. 51)
–
3
•• In Voc or BPD TEST Bluetooth®
mode: Moves to
communication
comparator setting On/Off (p. 43)
COMP
screen. (p. 32)
Bluetooth •• When comparator
is set: Increase of
judgment reference
value (p. 32)
–
4
16
•• In BPD TEST mode/
self-check mode:
Unlock
RELEASE
In locked state,
RELEASE key
flashes. (p. 39)
Turns on the power
in self- check
mode.
–
Indicates
the number
of capacitor
discharges.
Names and Functions of Parts
Display
Open-circuit voltage value (Voc mode, (p. 34)) or bypass route resistance
(RBPR)
1
2
Applied current value
Short-circuit current value
or comparison difference
(p. 35)
Open-circuit voltage value (BPD TEST mode) or reference value (REF,
(p. 35))
3
4
Battery indicator (four levels) (p. 28)
Appears when measured voltage is DC.
Flashes when measured voltage is AC.
5
Flashes when the measured value is less than the minimum
display value.
Flashes when the measured value is greater than the maximum
display value.
Appears when the measured value is retained. (p. 36)
Appears when BPD TEST is PASS (good). (p. 40)
Appears when the judgment is PASS (good) with comparator
function. (p. 31)
Flashes during measurement in BPD TEST mode.
17
Index
The auto power save function will activate 30 seconds after this
mark starts flashing. (p. 29)
7
Appx.
Appears when BPD TEST is FAIL (defective). (p. 40)
Appears when the judgment is FAIL (defective) with comparator
function. (p. 31)
6
Names and Functions of Parts
Displays Bluetooth® function state. (p. 43)
•• On: Bluetooth® function On
•• Off: Bluetooth® function Off
•• Flashes: Bluetooth® communication active
Appears while in self-check mode.
Appears while in continuous measurement. (p. 15) (p. 35)
Appears when the comparator function is enabled. (p. 31)
Reference value for comparison display measurement in Voc
mode. (p. 35)
Difference between reference value and measured value for
comparison display measurement in Voc mode. (p. 35)
Bypass route resistance
Open-circuit voltage value (p. 34)
Short-circuit current value
Applied current value
Short the test lead when this mark appears during the self-check.
18
Names and Functions of Parts
Model L9788-10 Test Lead with Remote Switch (Red)
CAUTION
The MEASURE key of the instrument is enabled even
when the L9788-10 is connected to the instrument. Note
that the testing voltage is output when the MEASURE
key of the instrument is pressed while the L9788-10 is
connected.
1
2
Refer to the L9788-92 Breaker Pin Connection (p. 25)
Sleeve
1 2
3
3
Enlarged tip view
16
4
35
φ3.0
φ1.8
Plug
5
Unit: mm
6
Lights up interlocked with the backlight of the
instrument.
2
Measurement switch
•• Press: Press the MEASURE key.
•• Press and hold: Turns on the comparison display or
enables continuous measurement.
MEASURE key
(This operation cannot be performed if the
instrument’s MEASURE key is in the raised position.)
•• Lights up in red interlocked with the live wire
warning indicator of the instrument.
3
Judgment
display LED
Lights up in accordance with the BPD TEST or
comparator judgment result.
•• PASS: Green
•• FAIL: Red
19
7
Index
Light
Appx.
1
Names and Functions of Parts
20

2
Preparing for Measurement
1
Insert the batteries. (p. 22)
2
Connect the test leads to the terminals.
N(−) terminal
Connect the black
test lead.
1
2
P(+) terminal
Connect the red test
lead.
3
4
5
6
7
Appx.
Index
21
Battery Replacement
2.1 Battery Replacement
WARNING
Do not short-circuit, recharge, disassemble or dispose
of in fire. Battery may explode if mistreated.
•• To prevent an electric shock, release the
MEASURE key, disconnect the test leads from the
measurement object and replace the batteries.
•• After replacing the batteries, reattach the cover and
secure the screw before using the instrument.
•• To prevent instrument damage or an electric shock,
use only the screw for securing the battery cover
in place that are originally installed. If you have lost
a screw or find that a screw is damaged, please
contact your authorized Hioki distributor for a
replacement.
CAUTION
Poor performance or damage from battery leakage could
result. Observe the cautions listed below.
•• Do not mix new and old batteries, or different types of
batteries.
•• Be careful to observe the battery polarity during
installation.
•• Do not use batteries after their recommended expiry
date.
•• Do not leave depleted batteries inside the instrument.
•• Replace batteries only with the specified type.
22
Battery Replacement
•• The battery indicator flashes when the remaining battery capacity
is low. In this case, measurement is not possible. Replace the
batteries. (p. 28)
•• Handle and dispose of batteries in accordance with local
regulations.
1
Set the rotary switch in OFF.
Disconnect the test leads
from the instrument.
2
Loosen the fastening screw
at the rear of the instrument
and remove the battery
cover.
OFF
Battery (LR6 × 6)
Check the polarity.
+ + +
+ + +
3
1
2
3
4
Replace all six batteries.
5
4
Tabs
Slide the battery cover back
into place and tighten the
screw.
6
7
Screw × 1
Appx.
Battery cover
Index
23
Using Model L9788-10 Test Lead with Remote Switch (Red)
2.2 Using Model L9788-10 Test Lead
with Remote Switch (Red)
Pre-measurement Inspection
1
Set the rotary
switch in OFF.
2
Fully insert the plug of L9788-10 into
terminal P(+) of the instrument.
OK
NO
OFF
3
4
5
Set the rotary switch in SELF CHECK.
6
Press the MEASURE key of the L9788-10.
Press the RELEASE key to cancel the lock function.
After [Short the Test Leads] is shown on the display, short
the test lead tips with each other.
Verify that the display indicates [PASS].
PASS
Lights up in green
7
24
Press
.
Check that the L9788-10 tip
lamp lights up.
Using Model L9788-10 Test Lead with Remote Switch (Red)
Replacing the Tip Pin (optional) for Model L9788-10
When the tip pin (L9788-90) of model L9788-10 Test Lead with
Remote Switch (Red) is worn out or broken, it can be replaced. The
tip pin can be purchased via authorized Hioki distributor or reseller.
1
Set the rotary switch in OFF and
disconnect the L9788-10.
2
Remove the tip pin by rotating
with a wrench.
OFF
Wrench (size:
7 mm width)
3
4
2
3
Attach the new tip pin to the
L9788-10 by rotating with a
wrench.
4
(Tightening torque: 0.3 N·m)
Model L9788-90 Tip Pin
1
Check the operation.
Measure a measurement object of known
values and use after checking that the
resistance is correct.
Attaching the L9788-92 Breaker Pin
Remove the sleeve of the L9788-10 (p. 26) and attach the breaker
pin.
5
6
7
Fully insert.
Appx.
Model L9788-92 Breaker Pin
Index
25
How to Use the Carrying Case (Model C0206)
Removing and attaching the test lead sleeves
Safely store the removed sleeves so as
not to lose them. (p. 12)
Removing the sleeves
Gently hold the bottom of the
sleeves and pull the sleeves off.
Attaching the sleeves
Insert the metal pins of the test leads into
the holes of the sleeves, and firmly push
them all the way in.
2.3 How to Use the Carrying Case
(Model C0206)
CAUTION
Attach the strap securely to the four fittings on the carrying
case. If insecurely attached, the instrument may fall and
be damaged when carrying.
Housing
Instruction
manual
Model L9788-11 Test Lead Set with
Remote Switch
*
LR6 Alkaline battery × 6 (Accessory)
Belt for the instrument Use this space for storing spare batteries
(separately sold) after the accessory
batteries are installed.
* Secure the strap at 4 positions.
26
3
Measurement
1
WARNING
Be sure to perform the self-check before using the
instrument. If the instrument is damaged, electric
shock could result.
2
3.1 Pre-measurement Inspection
Before using the instrument, verify that it operates normally to ensure that no
damage occurred during storage or shipping. If you find any damage, contact
your authorized Hioki distributor or reseller.
Checking the test lead
Is the white portion
(insulation layer) inside the
cable exposed?
Exposed
Not Exposed
Checking the instrument
4
5
The following issues may be
occurring:
•• The test lead has not been
inserted all the way.
→Insert the test lead all the way
Not
in.
displayed
•• There is a broken connection
in the test lead.
→Replace them with those
specified by our company.
•• Error is displayed.
→The instrument may have
failed. (p. 61)
27
7
Index
Displayed
(Go on to the following page)
6
Appx.
1. Set the rotary switch in
SELF CHECK.
2. Press the RELEASE
key to release the lock
function.
3. Short the test lead tips.
4. Is [PASS] displayed
when the MEASURE key
is pressed?
Do not use any damaged
cables and replace them
with those specified by our
company. This may cause an
electric shock.
3
Pre-measurement Inspection
From the previous page
Checking the remaining battery charge
Is the battery level adequate?
Set the rotary switch in SELF
CHECK and confirm the
battery indicator.
Flashes
Replace the batteries. (p. 22)
appears
Inspection complete
Please read “Operating Precautions” (p. 8) before use.
28
Auto Power Save (Power-Saving Function)
3.2 Auto Power Save (Power-Saving
Function)
When the rotary switch is not set in the OFF position, the instrument changes
to the auto power save state 15 minutes after the last operation or live wire
warning indication.
After use, set the rotary switch in OFF. The auto power save feature
consumes a small amount of current.
1
2
Disabling the function
Other than
the OFF
position.
3
Turn on the instrument while
holding down
.
4
Recovering from auto power save state
5
Set the rotary switch in OFF and then put it back into place.
6
7
Appx.
Index
29
Auto Backlight-off (Automatic Light-off Function)
3.3 Auto Backlight-off (Automatic
Light-off Function)
The backlight of the instrument will automatically turn off after approx. 3
minutes has passed since the last operation.
The automatic light-off function can be canceled when working continuously
in a dark location.
Disabling the function
Backlight: Off
With the backlight off, press
Continuous
short beep
for approx. 2 seconds
until the instrument beeps
continuously.
Press for approx. 2 seconds.
Setting the rotary switch in OFF cancels the disabled state.
30
Pass/Fail Judgment (Comparator) Function
3.4 Pass/Fail Judgment (Comparator)
Function
This function compares the measured value with the preset value (= judgment
reference value) and judges whether the result is PASS (good) or FAIL
(defective).
Comparator settings for each mode pass/fail judgment (comparator) will be
saved, even if the rotary switch is set in OFF.
1
2
The range that can be set for the reference value is as follows:
DIFF
3
0 V to ±20 V. The setting allows 1 V increments.
RBPR
0 Ω to 15 Ω. The setting allows 0.5 Ω increments.
4
Indication lights up
PASS (good) judgment
FAIL (defective) judgment
5
Indication
Backlight:
No change
Lights up in
green
Backlight:
Lights up in red
Lights up in
red
7
Type of measurements that can be judged
Voc
PASS judgment
State of measured value
FAIL judgment
Backlight
Buzzer
Short
beep
Lights up
in red
Long
beep
Reference value or lower
Lower than reference value
BPD TEST and bypass diode is working
correctly
31
Index
Buzzer
Appx.
Mode
6
Pass/Fail Judgment (Comparator) Function
Setting the Comparator Function
1
Set the rotary switch in the mode for which you wish to set
the comparator function.
In BPD TEST mode, press
COMP
1
Flashes
to cancel the lock function. (p. 39)
2
Press
.
[COMP] flashes and a value set as
judgment reference value at that
moment is displayed.
2
3
Press
or
to set the
reference value.
If you do nothing about 2 seconds
after you set the reference value, the
comparator function will be set, and
[COMP] will appear.
3
Canceling the Comparator Function
oFF
Press
or
select [oFF].
several times to
If you do nothing for about 2 seconds after
you select, [COMP] will go out, and the
comparator function will be canceled.
32
Measurement Preparation
3.5 Measurement Preparation
1
Turn off the main switch of the connection box to be
disconnected from the power conditioner.
2
Turn off all the disconnector devices of the strings.
3
Disconnect lightning arresters from the measuring circuit.
1
Disconnection is not required for the figure (solar generator facility)
shown below because a lightning arrester is not present at the string
side of the disconnector device.
1
Off
P (+)
Off
Main switch
Disconnector devices
N ( -)
3
Lightning
arrester
Connection
box
Power
Conditioner
2
String
2
4
5
SELF
CHECK
(Example: Solar generator facility)
6
7
Appx.
Index
33
Making Measurements in Voc Mode
3.6 Making Measurements in Voc
Mode
Open-circuit voltage of a string can be measured. Checking the
difference between strings allows determining short-circuit fault.
WARNING
During measurement, do not switch over to other
measurement modes.
Power
Conditioner,
Main switch
N ( -)
P (+)
4
N(−)
P(+)
2
3
String
1
1
Set the rotary switch in Voc.
2
Connect the black test lead to N(−) of the measurement
object.
3
Connect the red test lead to P(+) of the measurement
object.
4
Check the displayed value.
34
[Voc] shows the measured value (open-circuit voltage value).
Making Measurements in Voc Mode
Comparison Display Function
You can check the difference between the reference value and the
measured value while measuring the open-circuit voltage of solar
battery string.
1
HOLD
flashes
1
Raise the MEASURE key of the
instrument or press and hold the
MEASURE key of the L9788-10.
[HOLD] flashes and [CONT] appears.
2
3
CONT
HOLD appears
1
2
Connect the test lead to the
measurement object.
[HOLD] appears and [Voc] and [REF]
show their measured values.
4
5
6
Example measurement results display
3
[Voc] shows the measured value and
[DIFF] shows the difference with the
[REF] (the reference value).
When the comparator function is
enabled, [PASS] or [FAIL] is displayed.
35
Index
To reset the reference value, press and hold the DISPLAY key.
7
Appx.
Example measurement results display
Voc=338 V, REF=348 V,
DIFF= −10 V
Connect the test lead to the next
measurement object.
Making Measurements in Voc Mode
Auto-hold
With the comparison display function, when the measured value
stabilizes, a short beep is emitted and the measured value is
automatically retained.
When the measured value is 20 V or higher and stabilizes for
approx. 1 second (fluctuation range is within 20 V), the measured
value is automatically retained.
When the test leads are disconnected from the measurement object
and a new measurement is started, the new measured value is
retained.
[HOLD] flashes: Waiting for stabilization of the measured value
[HOLD] appears: The measured value is retained
Conceptual diagram of auto-hold (AC voltage)
Indicated value
100 V
99 V
Auto-hold
Example: 100 V
Auto-hold is
not applied
(threshold is
not exceeded)
Threshold allowing
auto-hold
Stabilized
range
Measured
value
Auto-hold
Example: 99 V
Dead zone
Connect to the
measurement
object
36
Disconnect
Connect
Disconnect
Connect
Disconnect
Making Measurements in Voc Mode
Negative Voltage Notification Function
You can check whether P(+) and N(−) are connected in reverse
while measuring the open-circuit voltage of solar battery string.
When the voltage is −1 V or lower, red and white of the backlight
flash alternately.
1
2
Ground Fault Detection
Connecting the black test lead to the ground and red test lead to
N(−) or P(+) of the measurement object and measuring the voltage
allows a simple ground fault detection.
3
4
5
6
7
Appx.
Index
37
Making Measurements in BPD TEST Mode
3.7 Making Measurements in BPD TEST
Mode
To determine open fault and deterioration of bypass diodes
connected to a solar panel, measure the bypass diode and bypass
route resistance.
WARNING
Observe the following to prevent an electric shock,
short-circuit, or damage to the instrument.
•• Do not measure under a live circuit condition.
Doing so could damage the instrument or cause an
accident that might result in injury or death. Always
turn off power to the measurement object before
starting.
•• When measuring a bypass diode, dangerous
voltage is applied to the measurement terminals.
To prevent an electric shock, do not touch the test
leads.
•• Press the MEASURE key fully down until a live circuit indicator lights up.
If the button is not pressed down fully, a proper measurement cannot be
made.
•• After use, set the rotary switch in OFF.
38
Making Measurements in BPD TEST Mode
Lock Function
This function is used to avoid applying a measuring signal to
equipment. This function will prevent the test from starting even
if the rotary switch is set in BPD TEST and the MEASURE key is
pressed.
1
2
Canceling the lock function
1
Flashes
1
Off
2
Set the rotary switch in BPD
TEST.
RELEASE key flashes.
2
Press
3
4
.
Pressing this key unlocks the
instrument and switches the
display to the measurement
screen.
5
6
The screen is locked 1 minute after the last measurement or
operation again.
7
Appx.
Index
39
Making Measurements in BPD TEST Mode
Measuring Bypass Diode
CAUTION
To avoid electrical accidents, disconnect the solar
battery module from the commercial power circuit
before measuring.
Clusters with breakdown voltage 100 V or lower
cannot be judged correctly.
1 Release
N ( -)
1
2
P (+)
Release the MEASURE key.
Set the rotary switch in BPD TEST.
Press
to cancel the lock function.(p. 39)
2
Power conditioner,
Main switch
N ( -)
P (+)
3
OFF
N(−)
P(+)
4
String
3
Connect the black test lead to N(−) of
the measurement object.
4
Connect the red test lead to P(+) of the
measurement object.
If the measurement object has an AC voltage
or its polarity is reversed, red and white flash
alternately on the backlight.
40
Making Measurements in BPD TEST Mode
5
Press the MEASURE key.
6
Check the judgment and
displayed values.
7 Release
N ( -)
Starts a measurement.
To make a continuous measurement,
raise the MEASURE key.
P (+)
6
2
5 Press
7
Release the MEASURE key with the test leads connected to
the measurement object.
Ends the measurement.
•• During measurement, do not switch over to other modes.
•• The screen is locked 1 minute after the last measurement. To continue
the measurement, release the lock function. (p. 39)
•• If negative voltage notification function is engaged, no measurement
starts. Verify the test lead connections once again.
•• If the solar panel is not generating power due to the shielding of the light,
continuous measurement and negative voltage notification functions will
not be activated.
•• The RBPR value will flash if the insolation varies during measurement
(for example, due to the movement of clouds). In this case, it will not
be possible to accurately measure the bypass route resistance. Repeat
measurement under conditions of consistent insolation
Press the MEASURE key once per string for measurements. If the result
is FAIL, verify the test lead connections once again.
Measure all strings.
3
4
5
6
7
Appx.
8
1
Repeat the above procedure from 3 to 7.
Index
41
Making Measurements in BPD TEST Mode
After measurements are completed
1
Reconnect the lightning arrester connection if
disconnected.
2
Turn on all the disconnector devices of the strings.
3
Turn on the main switch of the connection box.
42
Bluetooth® Communication Function
3.8 Bluetooth® Communication
Function
The instrument supports Bluetooth® low energy.
When the Bluetooth® function is enabled, you can review
measurement data and create measurement reports on mobile
devices (iPhone, iPad, iPad mini, iPod Touch, and Android™
devices).
For more information about this functionality, see the help function
in the application software GENNECT Cross.
1
Install the GENNECT Cross on
your mobile device. (p. 44)
2
Enable the Bluetooth® function
on the instrument.
3
Launch GENNECT Cross and
pair it with the instrument.
(p. 45)
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
Select the general
measurement function of
GENNECT Cross and make
measurements.
7
Appx.
Index
43
Bluetooth® Communication Function
Installing the Smartphone Application Software
GENNECT Cross
Search for “GENNECT Cross” on the App Store from your iPhone,
iPad or other Apple devices, or on Google Play™ from your Android
device. Then download and install the GENNECT Cross. You will
need an Apple ID to download the app from the App Store, or a
Google account to download the app from Google Play. For more
information about how to register an account, contact the store at
which you purchased your device.
•• Because the instrument emits radio waves, use in a country or
region where it has not been approved may be subject to fines
or other penalties as a violation of applicable laws or regulations.
For more information, see the attached “Precautions Concerning
Use of Equipment that Emits Radio Waves” or go to our website.
•• The availability of the instrument is limited to certain countries.
For more information, contact your authorized Hioki distributor or
reseller.
•• Bluetooth® communications range varies greatly with distance
from obstructions (walls, metal obstruction, etc.) as well as
distance from the floor or ground. To ensure stable measurement,
verify adequate signal strength.
•• Although this application software is provided free of charge,
downloading or use of the application software may incur Internet
connection charges. Such charges are the sole responsibility of
the user.
•• This application software is not guaranteed to operate on all
mobile devices.
44
Bluetooth® Communication Function
Pairing the Application Software
1
1
Home > Other
2 Instrument
Settings
3
The instrument is
automatically registered.
2
3
4
4
Returns to the
home screen.
5
6
7
Appx.
•• When the application software is
launched for the first time (before
being paired with any instrument),
the connection setup screen will be
displayed.
•• While the mobile device is displaying
the connection setup screen, simply
move it close to the instrument to
automatically pair it with the instrument
(the application software can be paired
with up to 8 instruments).
•• Allow about 5 to 30 seconds for the
instrument to pair with the application
software after being turned on.
If the instrument fails to pair within 1
minute, relaunch GENNECT Cross and
cycle the instrument’s power.
•• Pairing will be skipped when the
instrument is started next time after the
instrument has registered.
Index
45
Bluetooth® Communication Function
Making Measurements with the Bluetooth®
Function
On the home screen, select the standard measurement function
from the options, standard measurement, logging or waveform
display, to start a measurement. For more information about each
function, see the help function in the GENNECT Cross.
The values displayed by the instrument may be different from the
values displayed by the application software due to communication
delays or differences in the update timing.
Standard measurement
Measured values of multiple channels are saved.
46
4
Specifications
1
4.1 General Specifications
Operating
environment
Indoors, outdoors, Pollution Degree 2, altitude up to
2000 m (6562 ft.)
Operating
temperature and
humidity
Temperature: −10°C (14°F) to 65°C (149°F)
Humidity:
less than 40°C (104°F),
80% RH or less (no condensation)
40°C (104°F) or higher but less than 45°C (113°F),
60% RH or less (no condensation)
45°C (113°F) or higher but less than 50°C (122°F),
50% RH or less (no condensation)
50°C (122°F) or higher but less than 55°C (131°F),
40% RH or less (no condensation)
55°C (131°F) or higher but less than 60°C (140°F),
30% RH or less (no condensation)
60°C (140°F) to 65°C (149°F),
25% RH or less (no condensation)
Storage
temperature and
humidity
3
4
5
−20°C (−4°F) to 65°C (149°F),
80% RH or less (no condensation)
6
Dustproofness and IP40 (EN 60529)
waterproofness
Safety: EN61010
EMC: EN61326
Power supply
LR6 Alkaline battery × 6
Rated supply voltage: 1.5 V DC × 6
Power supply voltage range: 6.75 V to 10.35 V DC
Maximum rated power: 18 VA
7
47
Index
On concrete: 1 m
Standards
Appx.
Drop proof
2
General Specifications
Continuous
operating time
(Voc)
When LR6 alkaline battery × 6 are used (at 23°C, as
a referential)
Approx. 45 hours (Comparator, LCD backlight,
Bluetooth®: Off)
Approx. 18 hours (Comparator, LCD backlight,
Bluetooth®: On)
Possible number
of measurements
(BPD TEST)
LR6 Alkaline battery × 6 (at 23°C, as a referential)
Approx. 3000 times (Comparator, LCD backlight,
Bluetooth®: Off)
Interface
Bluetooth®
Dimensions
Approx. 152W × 92H × 69D mm (5.98″W × 3.62″H ×
2.72″D)
Mass
Approx. 650 g (22.9 oz.)
(including batteries, excluding test leads)
Product warranty
period
3 years
Fuse
3 A/1000 V fuse to protect from IGBT short-circuit
fault
(Cut-off capacity 30 kA, fast acting, φ10 × 38 mm:
SIBA GmbH)
Note: Replacement by user not allowed
Accessories
Refer to “Verifying Package Contents” (p. 1)
Options
Refer to “Options” (p. 2)
48
Input/Output/Measurement Specifications
4.2 Input/Output/Measurement
Specifications
1
Standard Specifications
Measurement function
Abbreviation
Measurement function
Voc
Open-circuit voltage
measurement
BPD TEST
Bypass diode
measurement
SELF CHECK
Self-check
2
3
Function configuration
SELF CHECK/OFF/Voc/BPD TEST
Input terminal
P(+) terminal: Connected to positive terminal of
PV string
N(−) terminal: Connected to negative terminal of
PV string
Maximum input voltage
1000 V DC
Maximum rated voltage
to earth
600 V DC (No measurement category)
4
5
(1) Voc mode
6
Open-circuit voltage
Displayed item
Open-circuit voltage
(Reference value and comparison value when
comparison display is enabled)
Measurement range
0 V to 1000 V DC (Displayed up to 1200 V DC)
Response time
Within 1 sec.
7
Appx.
Measurement item
Index
49
Input/Output/Measurement Specifications
Comparison display
Displays the difference from the measurement
voltage with the auto-hold enabled for the first
time or immediately after reset.
Valid only in the auto-hold state.
Displayed range: −100 V to 100 V
Maximum count: 100 counts
Overrange display: [>100 V] or [<−100 V] is
displayed.
Auto-hold
Setting method:
Enable by placing the instrument’s MEASURE
key in the raised position or press and hold the
MEASURE key on a test-lead with remote switch.
Functionality:
When both the below conditions are met,
measured value is automatically held.
•• Measurement voltage: 20 V or higher
•• Fluctuation range of measurement voltage for
1 second: 20 V or less
Auto-hold update: A signal meeting the above
Auto-hold conditions is input after a measurement
voltage less than 20 V is input.
(2) BPD TEST mode
Measurement
item
Bypass diode comparator judgment/Bypass route
resistor/Open-circuit voltage/Short-circuit current/
Applied current
Displayed item
Screen 1: ‌Bypass route resistor, open-circuit voltage,
short-circuit current, and applied current
Screen 2: The number of bypass diode measurements
Measurement
object
Open-circuit voltage: 1000 V DC or less
Rated current: 2 A to 12 A DC
Crystal system string (Strings with a breakdown voltage
of 100 V DC or less cannot be measured.)
Measurement
method
Short-circuit and pulse voltage application
50
Input/Output/Measurement Specifications
Duration of
shorting between
terminals
10 ms or less
Output pulse
Voltage: 100 V DC or less
Pulse width: 5 ms or less
Limiting current: Measured short-circuit current + 1 A or
less
Maximum: 13 A
Judgment
method
Detected peak current ≥ Measured short-circuit current
+ additional current × 0.8: PASS
Detected peak current < Measured short-circuit current
+ additional current × 0.8: FAIL
RBPR condition can be added to the conditions above
with comparator setting.
Measurement
time
2 seconds or less (3 seconds or less when
measurement voltage is 10 V or less)
Current
measurement
method
Peak value detection
Measuring range
for bypass route
resistance
0 Ω to 15 Ω
The RBPR value will flash if insolation (short-circuit
current) varies during measurement.
1
2
3
4
5
6
(3) COUNT mode
Displays the number of bypass diode measurements
Number of
measurements
Counts the number of measurements from power on to
power off.
Resets the count to 0 when the power is turned off or
auto power save.
Maximum count: 199
More than 200 counts: [>199 V] flashes
Index
51
7
Appx.
Measurement
item
Input/Output/Measurement Specifications
(4) SELF CHECK mode
Measurement
item
IGBT and capacitor discharge switch tests
Capacitor
discharge switch:
Short-circuit
Tests that capacitor discharge switch is not shortcircuited.
Fail: [Err5] is displayed.
IGBT:
Short-circuit
Tests that IGBT is not short-circuited.
Fail: [Err4] or [oPn] is displayed.
Accuracy specifications
Conditions of
guaranteed
accuracy
Guaranteed accuracy
period
1 year
Guaranteed accuracy
period from adjustment
made by Hioki
1 year
Temperature and humidity 23°C±5°C (73°F±9°F),
for guaranteed accuracy
80% RH or less
Power voltage range with
accuracy guarantee
6.4 V to 10.35 V DC (One or
more battery levels appear)
Temperature
characteristic‌
Measurement accuracy ×
0.1/°C is added (other than
23°C±5°C).
(1) Open-circuit voltage measurement
Range (displayed
range)
1000 V (0 V to ±1200 V)
Accuracy range
0 V to ±1000 V
Accuracy
±0.2% rdg.±3 dgt.
Input impedance
1 MΩ or higher
Maximum count
Overrange display
1200 counts
[>1200 V] or [<−1200 V] is displayed.
52
Input/Output/Measurement Specifications
(2) Short-circuit current measurement
Range (displayed
range)
15.0 A (0.0 A to 15.0 A)
Accuracy range
0.0 A to 15.0 A
Accuracy
±3% rdg.±3 dgt.
1
Input impedance
0.5 Ω or lower
Maximum count
150 counts (The short-circuit current display will
flash if the value is greater than 13.0 A but less than
or equal to 15.0 A.)
[>15.0 A] or [<0.0 A] is displayed.
Overrange display
(3) Bypass route resistance measurement
Range (displayed
range)
15 Ω (0.0 Ω to 15.0 Ω)
Accuracy range
0.0 Ω to 15.0 Ω
Accuracy
±5% rdg. ±5 dgt.
Maximum count
150 counts
2
3
4
Overrange display
[>15.0 Ω] is displayed.
Conditions of
guaranteed accuracy
During pure resistance measurement after the selfcheck has been performed
Accuracy is not guaranteed while the bypass route
resistance display is flashing.
5
6
7
Appx.
Index
53
Function Specifications
4.3 Function Specifications
Key input
Refer to “MEASURE key” (p. 15), “Operation
keys” (p. 16), and “Model L9788-10 Test Lead with
Remote Switch (Red)” (p. 19)
Auto power save
(APS)
Automatically turns off the power 15 minutes±1
minutes after the last measurement (measurement
voltage is 5 V or less for Voc mode) with the power on.
Recovering from auto power save:
Set the rotary switch in OFF to turn off the power and
then turn on the power once again.
Indication
Battery indicator
Semi-transmissive FSTN LCD, positive
Refer to “Display” (p. 17)
Battery voltage
Battery level
7.95 V±0.2 V or higher
3
7.35 V±0.2 V to 7.95 V±0.2 V
2
6.75 V±0.2 V to 7.35 V±0.2 V
1
6.75 V±0.2 V or less
0 (Battery
shape flashes)
• Hysteresis
Low battery level remains even if battery voltage
increases but the power is not turned on once
again.
• Measurements cannot be carried out when battery
level is 0.
([bAt Lo] is displayed and automatically turns off
the power.)
54
Function Specifications
Live circuit indicator •• Voc mode, SELF CHECK
+20 V DC or higher or −1 V DC or less: Flashes
Other than the above: Off
•• BPD TEST mode
MEASURE key is pressed: Lights up
MEASURE key is released:
+20 V DC or higher or −1 V DC or less: Flashes
Other than the above: Off
Backlight
White
Automatic light-off function available (The backlight
will turn off 3 minutes ±30 seconds after the last
measurement (or in Voc mode, after the measured
voltage falls to 5 V or less) or after the last operation.)
Automatic polarity
judgment function
When measurement voltage is −1 V or less:
•• Buzzer sounds, red backlight flashes, and white
backlight lights up.
•• Auto-hold is disabled.
•• Bypass diode measurement does not start.
1
2
3
4
When measurement voltage is 70 V0-P AC or higher:
•• Bypass diode measurement does not start.
•• Buzzer sounds and red backlight lights up.
5
When measurement voltage is over −1 V to 10 V, and
when output pulse with limiting current of 0.1 A or less
is generated and measurement voltage is 90 V or
higher:
•• Bypass diode measurement does not start.
•• Buzzer sounds and red backlight lights up.
6
7
Appx.
Index
55
Function Specifications
Comparator
•• Voc
Threshold value can be set in 1 V increments from
0 V to 20 V for the absolute value of Voc diff.
Voc diff ≥ Threshold value: FAIL
Voc diff < Threshold value: PASS
•• BPD TEST mode
Threshold value can be set in 0.5 Ω increments
from 0 Ω to 15 Ω for RBPR.
RBPR ≥ Threshold value: FAIL
RBPR < Threshold value, and
Detected peak currentd < Measured short-circuit
current + additional current × 0.8: FAIL
Detected peak current ≥ Measured short-circuit
current + additional current × 0.8: PASS
Judgment is available only when the auto-hold is
enabled.
56
Interface Specifications
4.4 Interface Specifications
)
1
Communication profile
GATT (Generic Attribute Profile)
2
Supported Android
devices
Android4.3 or later
Supported iOS devices
iOS10 or later
Interface
Bluetooth® 4.0LE (
Antenna power
Maximum +0 dBm (1 mW)
Communication distance 5 m (line of sight)
(Bluetooth® low energy enabled devices)
3
(Bluetooth® low energy enabled devices)
4
4.5 Factory Settings
Settings state
5
Setting backup
Auto power save
Enabled
N/A
Comparator
Enabled
Voc diff: 10 V
RBPR: 2.5 Ω
Available
(On/Off, preset)
Bluetooth® setting
Enabled
Available (On/Off)
6
7
Appx.
Index
57
Factory Settings
58

5
Maintenance and Service
WARNING
1
Touching any of the high-voltage points inside
the instrument is very dangerous. Customers are
not allowed to modify, disassemble, or repair the
instrument. Doing so may cause a fire, an electric
shock, or a injury.
2
Calibrations
The calibration period varies depending on the status of the
instrument or installation environment. We recommend that the
calibration period be determined in accordance with the status of
the instrument or installation environment. Please contact your Hioki
distributor to have your instrument periodically calibrated.
Precautions when transporting the instrument
When transporting the instrument for repair or any other purpose,
be sure to observe the following precautions:
•• To avoid damage to the instrument, remove the batteries from
the instrument. Moreover, be sure to pack in a double carton.
Damage that occurs during transportation is not covered by the
warranty.
•• When sending the instrument for repair, be sure to include details
of the problem.
3
4
5
6
7
Disposal
Handle and dispose of the instrument in accordance with local
regulations.
59
Index
•• To clean the instrument, wipe it gently with a soft cloth moistened
with water or mild detergent.
•• Wipe the LCD gently with a soft, dry cloth.
•• Wipe the dust from metal parts of alligator clips with a soft cloth to
avoid any impact on the measurements.
Appx.
Cleaning
Troubleshooting
5.1 Troubleshooting
Before Returning for Repair
If damage is suspected, check the “Troubleshooting” section below
before contacting your authorized Hioki distributor or reseller.
Symptom
Measurements
cannot be
performed in BPD
TEST mode.
Pressing the
MEASURE key in
BPD TEST mode
enables the lock
function that has
been released.
The MEASURE
key of test lead
with remote switch
is not working.
Measured value
is not displayed
correctly.
The batteries run
out immediately.
60
Check Items
Remedy and Reference
Is the function to prevent Release the lock function.
the application of voltage (p. 39)
by mistake locked?
Does the battery have
sufficient charge?
Are you using alkaline
batteries?
Has 1 minute lapsed
after the last operation?
Replace the batteries with new
alkaline batteries. (p. 22)
Release the lock function
again. (p. 39)
Is the plug of the test
Fully insert the plug to the limit
lead with remote switch without any gaps. (p. 24)
fully inserted?
Is there a broken
connection in a test
lead?
Are the test leads
securely connected?
Check the continuity of the test
lead with a tester.
Are you using alkaline
batteries?
Replace the batteries with
alkaline batteries. (p. 22)
Check the connection
between the test leads and
the instrument, and check the
connection of the tips of the
test leads.
Troubleshooting
Symptom
The power is not
turning on.
Check Items
Remedy and Reference
Does the battery have
sufficient charge?
Replace the batteries with new
alkaline batteries. (p. 22)
Have the batteries been Install the batteries in the
installed properly?
proper orientation. (p. 22)
Error Displays and Remedies
2
When an error is displayed on the LCD screen, repair is necessary.
Contact your authorized Hioki distributor or reseller.
Error
indication
Description
1
Remedy and Reference
3
Zero-adjustment error
(resistance value of 3
Check whether the test lead is
Ω or greater during the unplugged.
self-check)
4
Failure of EEPROM
that holds measured
data
(If you encounter an
EEPROM error, reset
the instrument to its
factory defaults.)
5
Turn off power and turn on the
power once again.
Corrupted adjustment
data
Repair is required.
IGBT short-circuit fault
Repair is required.
6
7
Appx.
Discharge switch shortRepair is required.
circuit fault
Index
61
Troubleshooting
Discharge capacitor life
(Displayed once
Repair is required.
800,000 cycles are
reached.)
Bluetooth® is broken
Repair is required.
AC voltage input
Verify that you have
connected the instrument
properly.
Low battery voltage
Replace the batteries.
(p. 22)
1 VΩ or greater input
during the self-check
Bypass diode is open
or input is open
62
Check whether the test
lead is connected.
Appx.
Appx. 1 Measurement Principles
1
Measurement Principles for Bypass Diodes with
an Open Fault
1
2
2
Measure a short-circuit current of a solar panel
Apply current to a solar panel
3
Applied current (IB) = Short-circuit current (IA) + 1 A current
•• If short-circuit current (IA) < applied current (IB), the bypass diode is
working correctly (OK).
•• If short-circuit current (IA) = applied current (IB), the bypass diode has
an open fault.
Bypass diode
P
1
2
Short-circuit current
P
Applied current
P
4
5
N
N ( -)
N
P (+)
N
N ( -)
P (+)
N ( -)
IA
6
P (+)
IVB B
P
P
Appx.
N
7
N
Pass: IA < IB
Normal
False: IA = IB
Open fault
Appx.1
Index
Applied current
Measurement Principles
Measurement Principles for Bypass Diodes with a
Short-circuit Fault
1
2
Measure an open-circuit voltage of a reference solar panel
(= reference voltage)
Measure an open-circuit voltage of another solar panel
(= measurement object voltage)
•• If reference voltage (VA) = measurement object voltage (VB),
the bypass diode is working correctly (OK).
•• If reference voltage (VA) > measurement object voltage (VB),
the bypass diode has a short-circuit fault.
Bypass diode
P
1
Reference panel
2
Another panel
P
P
B
A
N
N ( -)
P (+)
N
N
N ( -)
P (+)
N ( -)
VA
P
P
B
B
N
N
N ( -)
P (+)
Pass: VA = VB
Normal
Appx.2
P (+)
VBB
N ( -)
P (+)
False: VA > VB
Short-circuit fault
16-01 EN