Dublin Institute of Technology
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Pamphlets
1977
Zena Skinner's Cookbook
Zena Skinner
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Skinner, Z., ''Zena Skinner's Cookbook'', London, BBC, 1978.
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Publications
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British Broadcasting Corporation
Published in conjunction with the second
BBC-tv series of Indoors Outdoors, produced by
Peter Riding and first broadcast on BBC-2
from 17th February 1978.
Cover photo by Tom Blau (Camera Press)
Photos by Peter Pugh-Cook
Illustrations by Ray Burrows
Meat diagrams by John Gilkes
Acknowledgment is due eo:
for extracts from their leaflet
'British beef, lamb, pork- a guide to buying and cooking'.
THE MEAT AND LIVESTOCK COMMISSION
THE METRICATION BOARD
for weights and measures diagrams
on page 8.
Published to accompany a series of programmes
prepared in consultation with the BBC
Further Education Advisory Council.
© Zena Skinner and the British Broadcasting Corporation 1977
First published 1977, reprinted 1978 (four times)
Published by the British Broadcasting Corporation,
35 Marylebone High Street, London W1M 4AA .
Set in 1 I / 12 pt. Monophoto Plantin.
Printed in England by Belmont Press, Northampton.
ISBN o 563 16213 9
FOREWORD
One of the nicest things about appearing on television is the
tremendous number of friends I have made over the years. I don't just
mean the folk in the studios and production departments, but you the
thousands of viewers who have taken the trouble to write to me. Your
letters, in fact, are partly responsible for this book.
I've had lots of fun writing it and it's different to all my others as
it contains a 'Make Your Own' section and also many 'Hints and Tips'.
At the same time, I've tried to include something for everyone, with the
accent very much on economical, everyday dishes for the housewife and
her family.
The recipes include most of the ones I showed you on the first
Indoors Outdoors series, some I'll be doing in the second, and some of my
own favourites. I've also included a number of money-saving recipes
demonstrated by Shirley Goode in the first series.
My thanks to everyone connected with the programmes and the
production of the book, to my family who test the recipes and to 'you'
the viewers, who I hope will enjoy them.
Best wishes to you all and Happy Cooking.
ZPJW r{dp~X
4
CONTENTS
FACTS AND FIGURES
Abbreviations
Egg Sizes
Oven Temperatures
Metric Weights and Measures
page
7
7
7
8
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
Meat:
Fish:
Savoury:
Stuffed Roast Hand of Pork
Spare Rib Pork Casserole
Quick Lamb Stew
Barley Lamb
Roast Breast of Lamb
Roast Brisket of Beef
Savoury Beef Pudding
Chicken Italian Style
Crunchy Crisp Chicken
10
10
11
12
12
13
13
14
15
Family Fish Pie
Sprats
Stuffed Mackerel
Cod Fillets with Orange
Savoury Plaice Fillets
16
Pizzas and Tomato Sauce
Savoury Stuffed Pancakes
Sweet and Sour Sauce
Fried Rice
Savoury Sausage Plait
Bacon Scotch Egg
Cornish Pasty
Sausage Kedgeree
Vegetable Hot-Pot
Savoury Macaroni
21
17
18
19
19
22
23
23
24
24
25
26
26
27
s
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
Hot:
Crunchy Pear Pudding
Mrs Bates' Bread and Butter Pudding
Old-Fashioned Rhubarb Pudding
Pancakes and Fillings
Meringue Layer Pancake
Farmhouse Apple Pie
Rhubarb and Orange Meringue
29
29
30
30
32
33
34
Cold:
Crunchy Lemon Pie
Lemon Yogurt Mousse
Orange Cheesecake
34
35
36
MAKE YOUR OWN
Bread, Buns
and Biscuits:
Quick Wheatmeal Bread
Soda Bread
Currant Loaf
Chelsea Buns
Doughnuts
Yeast Hot Cross Buns
Millie's Fruit Loaf
Chocolate Wheatmeal Biscuits
Savoury Biscuits
39
40
41
42
42
43
Preserves:
Apple Chutney
Seville Orange Marmalade
Three Fruit Marmalade
46
46
47
Soups:
Left-over Vegetable Soup
Yellow Split Pea Soup (Baked Croutons)
Thick Green Pea Soup
49
49
50
Miscellaneous:
Home-made Sausages
Liver Pate
Potato Crisps
Whole Lemon Drink
Muesli
Yogurt
51
52
52
53
53
54
44
44
45
6
CHRISTMAS FARE
Turkey and
Pudding:
Buying Turkeys
Thawing Frozen Turkeys
Cooking Turkeys
Carving a Turkey
Roast Stuffed Turkey
Gran's Christmas Pudding
Cakes and Icing: Zena's Christmas Cake
Almond Paste and Royal Icing
Christmas Cake Decorations
Cake Frills
Christmas Chocolate Log
Candle Cake
Presents:
Peppermint Creams and Fondants
Marzipan Stuffed Dates
Rum Truffles
56
56
56
57
58
59
6o
62
63
64
65
65
66
66
67
TIPS AND HINTS
Apples, Bacon, Batter, Bones, Bread, Breadcrumbs
Butter, Cake Tins, Cheese, Chives, Cream
Egg Whites, Egg Yolks, Frying Pan, Jam, Lemons
Mayonnaise, Milk, Mushrooms, Onions, Parsley
and Mint, Pasta, Preserving, Quick Soup
Root Vegetables, Saucepans, Spinach, Sugar,
Tomatoes, Vacuum Flasks, Vegetables
68
69
70
71
72
KNOW YOUR MEAT
Cuts and ways of cooking Beef
Cuts and ways of cooking Lamb
Cuts and ways of cooking Pork
73
75
76
MONEY SAVERS
Using a Pressure Cooker
Using a Steamer
Growing and Using Bean Sprouts
78
79
8o
7
In this book I've used three abbreviations in the lists of ingredients.
These are:
tsp
teaspoon
dsp
dessertspoon
tbsp
tablespoon
Egg Sizes
From J!lnuary ISt 1978 eggs sold in the United Kingdom must conform
with EEC size regulations. There are seven sizes.
For the purpose of the recipes in this book, I have indicated at the
side of the new sizes the terms we are all more familiar with:
No 1
No2
No3
No4
No 5
No6
No7
eggs
eggs
eggs
eggs
eggs
eggs
eggs
weighing over 70 g
weighing 65 g to 70 g
weighing 6o g to 65 g
weighing 55 g to 6o g
weighing 50 g to 55 g
weighing 45 g to 50 g
weighing under 45 g
- Large
- Large
- Large
- Standard
-Medium
- Small
- Extra Small
Oven Temperatures
This table compares oven thermostats marked in °C with those marked
in F and with Gas marks. They are dial markings, not exact conversions.
oF
oc
F
Gas mark
c Gas mark
550
525
500
475
450
425
400
375
350
290
270
250
240
230
220
200
190
180
9
8
7
6
5
4
325
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
170
150
140
130
I 10
100
8o
70
3
2
I
t
*
LOW
The table is based on information given by the Electricity Council/British Gas.
8
Metric Weights and Measures
MIWUTRES - PINTS
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GOLDEN RULE
Never mix metric and the
old imperial measures in
one recipe. Stick to one
system or the other.
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10
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
STUFFED ROAST HAND OF PORK
6 Portions
A really succulent and economical Sunday Roast with lots of lovely crisp
crackling.
Ingredients
4 lb hand of pork
(cut from the
'hand and spring')
little oil or lard
salt
dripping
Stuffing
large onions
(finely chopped)
4 oz white or brown
breadcrumbs
I tsp dried sage
I oz butter
2
Method
Cook onion in a little water until tender (about 5 minutes ) then drain well.
Add all other ingredients for the stuffing and mix well together.
Ask the butcher to score the rind of the hand of pork finely and
to remove the bone.
Wipe the joint with a damp cloth, then rub a little oil or lard
into the rind. Sprinkle well with salt and rub into the score marks .
Put the stuffing into the cavity left by the bone, then tic with string
in several places, but not too tightly or the stuffing will come out during
cooking.
Place the joint into a roasting pan, add a little dripping and roast
at approximately 375 F or I90 C or mark 5 for about 2-i to 3 hours, or
until the meat is tender and the crackling crisp.
Serve with roast or boiled potatoes and fresh vegetables in season.
SPARE RIB PORK CASSEROLE
4 Portions
These chops are probably the best value for money you can buy, a11d tf you're
just two infamily halve the ingredients.
Ingredients
4 pork spare rib chops
I tsp basil
I large onion (thinly sliced)
salt and pepper
1- pint stock
I large cooking apple (sliced
2 large tomatoes (sliced)
~"
rings )
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
11
Method
Put the chops in the centre of a 3-4 pint ovenproof casserole and sprinkle
with basil.
Arrange onions on either side of the chops, season and pour over
stock.
Cover with a well fitting lid and cook at approximately 350°F or
I 8o Cor mark 4 for I hour.
Remove casserole from oven, add apple and tomatoes, replace the lid
and continue cooking for a further IS minutes at the same temperature.
Serve with baked potatoes in their jackets cooked at the side of the
casserole.
QUICK LAMB STEW
4-6 Portions
A complete meal in one saucepan, which is cooked in just about
can be made in most months of the year.
Ingredients
I
hour and
lb middle neck lamb
tbsp seasoned flour
I oz dripping
I! pints stock
4 carrots (sliced)
4 small onions (sliced)
4 medium potatoes
4 tomatoes
I tsp mixed herbs
2
2
Method
Trim any excess fat from meat, then wash, dry and toss in seasoned
flour.
Using a 6 pint saucepan, melt the dripping and fry the meat until it
is brown all over.
Add stock, carrots, onions and potatoes cut into pieces and season
with herbs, salt and pepper.
Put lid on pan, bring to the boil, then simmer for ! hour, add
tomatoes and simmer a further! hour or until the meat is tender.
12
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
BARLEY LAMB
3-4 Portions
This dish uses one of the cheaper cuts of lamb to make a family casserole.
A good mid-week idea for saving money.
Ingredients
I
lb scrag end or neck of lamb
It oz seasoned flour
oz butter or margarine
medium sized onion (thinly sliced)
i pint stock
I large carrot (sliced)
i oz pearl barley
I large potato (thinly sliced)
little parsley (chopped)
black pepper
I
I
Method
Trim the meat, remove any excess fat and cut into even-sized pieces,
then dip in seasoned flour.
Melt the fat and fry the meat for about 5 minutes or until brown all
over. Put meat into a deep oven proof casserole and fry onions golden brown
in remaining fat then add to casserole.
Stir remaining flour into frying pan and cook for about 2-3 minutes,
remove pan from heat and gradually add the stock, stirring all the time.
Return pan to the heat, bring to the boil and cook for I minute.
Remove pan from heat and stir in carrot and barley. Pour into casserole.
Arrange potatoes on top, cover and bake at approximately 325 F or
I60°C or mark 3 for 2-21- hours. Remove lid for the last 30 minutes
cooking to brown the potatoes. Serve sprinkled with parsley and black
pepper.
ROAST BREAST OF LAMB
3 Portions
A succulent cut of meat, very often forgotten these days. A really good buy
for the smaller family.
Ingredients
I breast of lamb
salt and pepper
3 oz fresh breadcrumbs
I level tbsp parsley (chopped)
-! lemon (grated rind)
I oz butter (melted)
I standard egg
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
IJ
Method
Remove all the bones, or ask the butcher to do this.
Place lamb skin-side down and season with salt and pepper.
Mix together the breadcrumbs, parsley, lemon rind and butter and
bind together with the beaten egg. Spread the stuffing on the inside of the
lamb, roll up and secure (but not too tightly) with string in several places.
Roast at approximately 375 "F or I90°C or mark 5 for about It hours.
Serve hot with vegetables in season and roast or boiled potatoes.
ROAST BRISKET OF BEEF
4 Portions
This is one of the cheaper cuts of beef, but roasted in this way it will be both
tender and succulent.
Ingredients
2j-lb brisket of beef (rolled)
good beef dripping
Method
Pre-heat oven to 425 For 220 Cor mark 7·
Put joint into a roasting pan, pour in about half an inch of cold
water and cover the top of the joint with a layer of dripping. Cover pan
or not as preferred. Roast at pre-heated temperature for 20 minutes.
Reduce temperature to 225 °F or I I0°C or mark t and continue
cooking until tender, approximately 2-!--3 hours to be cooked right through.
SAVOURY BEEF PUDDING
4-6 Portions
A simple, tasty and filling pudding for a cold day. It saves fuel as it is cooked
on one hotplate.
Ingredients
Pastry
8 oz plain flour
4 oz butcher's suet
(minced)
pinch salt
cold water to mix
Filling
8 oz stewing steak (minced)
I pig's kidney (skinned, cored and
finely chopped)
4 oz bacon pieces (chopped)
I tbsp seasoned flour
I small onion (chopped)
2 tomatoes (skinned and chopped)
i- pint beef stock
salt and pepper
14
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
Method
Put all the ingredients for the pastry into a basin and mix to a soft but
not sticky consistency with the water.
Turn out on to a floured board and roll out two-thirds to line a well
buttered 2 pint pudding basin. Roll out remaining one-third to form a lid.
Toss the mince and kidney in the seasoned flour. Fill the lined
basin with a layer of mince, half the bacon, onion and tomato. Continue
with another layer in the same way, seasoning as you go. Pour in stock .
Dampen the edge of the pastry lid with water, place on top of the
mixture and seal the edges well together.
Cover the pudding with a piece of well buttered foil or double
thickness greaseproof paper and steam for 2 hours.
To serve - remove foil and wrap a folded napkin round the basin.
CHICKEN ITALIAN STYLE
4 Portions
If you have a Pressure Cooker and don' t use it- get it out and try this. You'll
be surprised how easy it is.
Ingredients
4 chicken portions
(skinned, fresh or thawed)
2 small onions
(finely chopped)
4 oz mushrooms (sliced)
! pint chicken stock
salt and pepper
I bouquet garni
4 medium sized potatoes
4 medium sized carrots
8 oz frozen peas
small can tomato puree
I tbsp flour
little milk
I oz butter
parsley for garnish
Method
Using a high dome I2i pint size Pressure Cooker, lift the trivet from the
pan, add stock, mushrooms, onions, bouquet garni, chicken and seasoning.
Lay trivet on top, then put in potatoes and season .
Put cooker on a high heat, allowing liquid to boil and the pan to fill
with steam. Then add container with frozen peas on one side and carrots
on the other. Season . .
Put the cover on, sliding the handles together until they cover each
other. Once a steady flow of steam escapes through the centre vent, put
on I5 lb weight, pressing down firmly.
Bring the cooker to pressure, indicated by a loud hissing noise (about
5 minutes), then time a 5 minute cooking period.
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
15
Reduce the heat during this period until you get a gentle 'muttering'
sound, and keep this sound throughout the cooking period.
While the cooking is taking place, blend the flour with a little milk
and stir into the tomato puree.
Immediately the cooking time is finished, reduce the pressure by
standing the cooker in a bowl of cold water. About I 1- minutes.
Open the cooker, serve the potatoes and carrots with the butter and
parsley. Serve the chicken. Remove the bouquet garni. Serve the peas.
Add the thickening to the remaining stock, bring to the boil in the
open pan, stirring all the time, check the seasoning, pour over the chicken
and serve.
Note If you have a different size of pressure cooker to the one indicated
in the recipe, consult the instruction book that came with it for quantities
and details of cooking.
CRUNCHY CRISP CHICKEN
2
Portions
If you're rwo in family or live on your own, here's a chicken recipe with a
slight curry flavour.
Ingredients
chicken joints
oz plain flour
! level tsp salt
-!- level tsp curry powder
little milk
2 packets potato crisps (approx. )
2
1
Method
In a polythene or clean paper bag shake together the flour, salt and curry
powder, until thoroughly mixed.
Coat the washed and dried chicken joints with this mixture, by
shaking them around in the bag.
Dip joints in milk, drain and coat in potato crisps which have been
crushed with a rolling pin.
Make sure the joints are covered thickly and evenly, before placing
them skin-side up in a greased baking dish.
Cook at approximately 350 F or I8o C or mark 4 for about 40
minutes, when the outside will be crunchy crisp and the meat cooked.
Note If you cook vegetables and a pudding in the oven at the same
time it will save fuel.
16
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
FAMILY FISH PIE
4 Portions
Coley is also known as Saithe, and many people think it is only good enough
for the cat! It makes a lovely pie, is available all the year round and is always
relatively cheap.
Ingredients
I-!- lb coley (skinned)
oz butter or margarine
I oz plain flour
~pint milk
I dsp fresh lemon juice
I tbsp anchovy essence
salt and pepper
I
Topping
I-! oz cornflakes
(finely crushed)
I oz strong Cheddar cheese
(grated)
-! oz butter (melted)
pinch cayenne pepper
Method
First cook the coley in a saucepan with sufficient liquid (! milk -! water)
to cover. Simmer until tender about I<r-I5 minutes. Remove fish from
liquid and flake, removing any bones. Strain the liquid through a sieve
and use this to make the sauce.
In a saucepan melt the butter or margarine, add the flour and
cook for about 3 minutes, stirring constantly. Remove the pan from the
heat and gradually stir in the stock. Return pan to heat and bring to the
boil stirring all the time and cook for 2 minutes.
Add flaked fish, lemon juice, anchovy essence and seasoning, stir
until blended. Pour into a 2 pint greased ovenproof pie dish.
Mix ingredients for topping and when blended together, sprinkle
over the top of the fish.
Bake at approximately 425 For 220 Cor mark 7 for 2c:r-25 minutes,
until the top is crisp.
Note When you buy coley you will notice that it is a darker colour than
cod, but when cooked it turns white.
To ring the changes why not try smoked haddock instead of coley and
substitute I tablespoon of chopped parsley for the anchovy essence.
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
17
SPRATS
These are delightful little fish and one of the cheapest you can buy. They
are always good value for money, when available.
Ingredients
quantity of sprats according
to number of persons
Batter
4 oz plain flour
pinch salt
r egg
i pint milk or milk and water
Method
Put the flour and salt into a basin, add the egg and beat together, gradually
adding the milk or milk and water to make a smooth batter.
Remove the heads and clean the fish carefully without splitting them.
Wash and thoroughly dry.
Meanwhile, heat oil or fat for frying and when hot, dip each sprat
into the batter and then put into the hot fat.
Cook for 2-3 minutes, turning them once during cooking.
Drain on absorbent paper and serve with cayenne pepper, wedges of
lemon and thin brown bread and butter.
18
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
More ways of cooking Sprats
Fried
Prepare as given in the recipe, then toss in seasoned flour
and fry until golden brown 2-3 minutes, turning once during
cooking.
Grilled As above but grill for 3-4 minutes under a medium grill.
Pickled Prepare as given in the recipe, then wash and place in a greased
ovenproof dish. Just cover them with a mixture of two-thirds
water to one-third vinegar, season with plenty of black pepper
and add 3 or 4 bay leaves.
Cover and bake at 325°F or I6o°C or mark 2 for Io-I5
minutes. Serve hot or cold.
Note These are cheap and nourishing fish which are available usually
between October and January, providing there is no really rough
weather.
STUFFED MACKEREL
2
Portions
Mackerel should be a good buy during the early months of the year and quite
often I eat this recipe over the Easter holidays.
Ingredients
2 mackerel (split and boned)
It oz butter
I oz fresh breadcrumbs
It level tbsp watercress (chopped)
salt and pepper
Method
Wipe the mackerel inside and out with a clean cloth and lay them in a
lightly greased ovenproof dish, which has a lid.
Cream the butter until soft, add the breadcrumbs and watercress,
season to taste and mix well together.
Put half the mixture into each mackerel, cover the dish and bake at
approximately 375 oF or I90°C or mark 5 for 3o-35 minutes, until the
fish is tender.
Serve with wedges of lemon and garnish with sprigs of watercress.
Mashed potatoes go very well with this dish.
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
COD FILLETS WITH ORANGE
19
3 Portions
Cod cooked this way makes a cha11ge> but at the same time gives a reasonably
priced meal.
Ingredients
2 oz butter
2 oz brown breadcrumbs (fresh )
I large orange (rind and juice)
I clove garlic (crushed) (optional)
:1 lb fresh cod fillet
salt and pepper
Method
Melt the.butter in a frying pan, add breadcrumbs, orange rind and garlic
and stir until the butter has been absorbed.
Divide the cod fillet into portions, place in a buttered ovenproof dish
and season well. Cover fillets with breadcrumb mixture, pour over the
orange juice and bake uncovered at approximately 375 F or 190 C or
mark 5 for 2o-3o minutes, depending on the thickness of the fillets.
Serve with new potatoes and a green salad.
SAVOURY PLAICE FILLETS
4 Portions
This makes a 11ice cha11gejrom plai11jried or grilledfillets> and as you have the
vegetables in the stujji11g> you only need lO serve with mashed potatoes.
Ingredients
4 plaice fillets
4 oz mushrooms (thinly sliced)
r small onion (finely chopped)
2 small tomatoes (skinned and chopped)
little butter or oil
salt and pepper
few drops lemon juice
Method
Into a greased oven proof dish place 2 of the fillets, sprinkle with lemon
juice and half the mushrooms.
Fry the onion and tomatoes until tender and scatter on top. Season
well, cover with remaining fillets and then mushrooms.
Cover the dish ccurely with a well buttered piece of paper or foil,
to keep in all the juices.
Bake at approximately 300 F or I50 C or mark 2 for about 2o-25
minutes, depending on the thickness of the fillets. Garnish with parsley.
20
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
How to fillet flat fish
I
Cut down its back from head to tail
on either side of, and close to, the
backbone.
2
Cut between fins and edge of the
fish, and remove the head.
3
Insert a sharp, pliable knife under
the flesh; keeping the blade flat and
working the knife from the backbone outwards from head to tail.
Slice the flesh carefully away from
the bones, using long clean strokes.
Remove the fillet from the fish and
repeat process for the other fillets.
4
To remove the black skin, grip the
tail of the fillet and saw along the
skin with the blade of a knife.
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
PIZZAS
21
24-30 Portions
This is one of Shirley Goode's recipes for a large buffet party. Not only
does it look good, but it is filling as well!
Ingredients
Dough
I lb plain flour
I oz fresh yeast or t oz dried yeast
3 tbsp cooking oil
I teacup plus 3 tbsp tepid water
I tsp sugar
I tsp salt
Method
Crumble .fresh yeast into 3 tablespoons of tepid water, add sugar. Cover
and leave for 2 minutes. Stir, cover and keep warm for a further 5 minutes,
until froth has risen. If using dried yeast see directions on packet.
Add salt to flour and make a well in the centre. Add yeast mixture
together with the oil and remaining cup of tepid water.
Mix well with a wooden spoon or by hand until smooth. Knead
well and divide into four.
Roll out on a floured board into four circles about IO" in diameter.
Leave to rise in a warm place.
Cover with tomato sauce and grated cheese and add toppings if
desired of bacon scraps or sliced mushrooms. Bake at approximately 425 F
or 220 C or mark 7 for about 20 minutes.
Tomato Sauce
Ingredients
cooking oil
I medium onion (chopped)
I4 oz can tomatoes (roughly chopped)
oz can tomato puree
ground black pepper
basil, oregano, bay leaf (fresh or dried)
I tsp sugar
t tsp salt
s±
Method
Heat the oil and fry the onion for a few minutes until transparent. Add
tomatoes, together with the liquid.
Mix in tomato puree and stir well.
Add ~ teaspoon of basil and oregano or I dessertspoon of fresh herbs
and one bay leaf. Season with pepper, salt and sugar and simmer until
thickened, about I hour. Remove bay leaf and spread on risen dough.
22
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
SAVOURY STUFFED PAN CAKES
8 Pancakes
These are served with Sweet and Sour Sauce and Fried Rice. An economical
dish and another of Shirley's creations.
Batter
Ingredients
3 oz plain flour
! oz dried milk powder
! pint water
I
I
standard egg
tsp vegetable oil
Method
Mix milk powder with water until smooth.
Whisk in egg and beat in flour. Leave to stand in a cool place for
about I hour.
Stir in vegetable oil before cooking.
Cook quickly in a frying pan until golden brown on the underside.
Turn over and cook the other side the same.
Pancake Stuffing
Ingredients
bean sprouts (grown from I! oz seed)
any available meat scraps (chicken, bacon, etc)
oil for frying
Method
Divide bean sprouts and meat scraps into 8 portions. Place each portion in
the centre of a pancake, season and wrap up like a parcel.
The trick is to fold the bottom of the pancake up over the filling,
fold in both sides and continue folding up from the bottom.
Place fold side down in hot oil and fry until crisp.
Turn and cook on other side. It takes about I minute for each side.
Serve on fried rice and cover with sweet and sour sauce (see page 23 ).
Note Any spare bean sprouts can be stirred into the fried rice.
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
23
SWEETANDSOURSAUCE
Serve this with Savoury Stuffed Pancakes- see recipe on facing page.
Ingredients
4 fluid oz malt vinegar
i pint water
2 oz granulated sugar
oil for frying
3 oz onion (finely chopped)
thick tomato juice drained from 15 oz can of tomatoes
1 dsp cornflour
celery salt
salt
pepper
soy sauce
Method
Fry onion in a little oil until cooked but not brown.
Add vinegar, water and sugar and stir until sugar has dissolved.
Add tomato juice and season with salt and pepper and celery salt.
Add a shake of soy sauce and thicken with the cornflour, blended
with a little water.
Note This can be made a day or two in advance and kept covered in
the refrigerator.
FRIED RICE
A nice accompaniment to many savoury dishes.
Ingredients
6 oz long grain rice
I dsp oil for frying
salt and pepper
Method
Boil rice in the usual way, but do not overcook. Ten minutes should be
quite long enough.
Drain well, then pour boiling water through the rice and drain again.
When cold, this can be kept covered in a refrigerator for several days.
To fry the rice: heat oil in frying pan and stir rice into it.
Stir in extra bean sprouts and season to taste.
Quickly heat through and turn on to a plate.
24
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
SAVOURY SAUSAGE PLAIT
8- I o Portions
This is tasty served hot or cold. It can also be served at buffet parties.
Ingredients
I2 oz rough puff pastry
I 2 oz pork sausage meat
I tsp basil
I rasher bacon (chopped)
I small onion (finely chopped)
beaten egg
salt and pepper
I dsp cheese (finely grated)
Method
Roll out pastry into an oblong approx: Io" " 8". Mix sausage meat and
seasonings together, form into a roll and put down centre of pastry,
leaving an equal amount of pastry on each side of the roll.
Cut an equal number of -!" strips obliquely down each side of the
pastry. Make a small depression in the centre of the roll, fill with onion
and bacon.
Plait alternate strips over the sausage.
Brush with beaten egg, sprinkle with cheese and bake at approximately 425 ~ F or 220 Cor mark 7 for 25-30 minutes.
BACON SCOTCH EGG
I
Portion
A tasty main course for I person. If you can't manage it all at one meal- cut
it in half and have this the next day cold with salad.
Ingredients
I-! oz sausage meat
I-! oz cooked bacon (minced) or
I-! oz fried bacon pieces
tsp parsley (chopped)
I large hard-boiled egg
little beaten egg
browned breadcrumbs
salt and pepper
fat or oil for frying
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
25
Method
Mix together the sausage meat, parsley and bacon and season to taste.
Shell the hard-boiled egg, lightly coat in plain flour, shaking off any
excess flour.
Mould the meat mixture round the egg, making sure it is evenly
covered.
Brush all over with beaten egg and coat in breadcrumbs. If possible
leave it to 'set' for half an hour. Fry in hot deep fat until golden brown
all over, about 7-8 minutes.
Serve hot with vegetables.
CORNISH PASTY
r Portion
If you have a healthy appetite you will manage this on your own I On the
other hand two people could share it.
Ingredients
t lb short crust pastry
t lb lean steak (ie chuck steak)
2 medium sized potatoes
1 small onion
2 slices turnip
salt and pepper
Method
Make the pastry the day before required, wrap in paper and leave in a cool
place.
The following day -roll out the pastry into a 9" round .
Peel the vegetables and cut the meat into small pieces. Dry potatoes
and turnip on a clean cloth.
Thinly slice the potatoes on to the pastry, then the turnip and onion,
keeping the ingredients towards the centre.
Place the meat on top and season well.
Damp the edges of the pastry with water, pinch them together and
crimp the edge along the top with the fingers.
Make a small hole in the top of the pastry, place on a baking tin and
bake at approximately 425 °F or 220°C or mark 7 for about 45-55 minutes.
To test when cooked, put a skewer in the hole at the top and if all
the ingredients feel soft it's done.
26
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
SAUSAGE KEDGEREE
2
Portions
This is one way of making two cold sausages into a hot meal for
If you are a larger family just double up on the ingredients.
Ingredients
2
people.
pork sausages (cooked)
oz butter
6 oz long grain rice (cooked)
2 large hard-boiled eggs (chopped)
salt and pepper
little cayenne pepper
small pinch nutmeg
2
I
Method
Cut each sausage into 6 slices.
Melt the butter in a frying pan, stir in the rice, sausages and hardboiled eggs.
Season with salt, pepper, cayenne and nutmeg.
Stir until the ingredients are thoroughly heated through.
Serve with a green vegetable if liked.
VEGETABLE HOT -POT
3-4 Portions
A dish for those wishing to have a change from meat. It is also suitable for
vegetarians.
Ingredients
large potatoes (peeled and sliced)
large carrots (cleaned and sliced)
2 sticks celery (cleaned and sliced)
1 large onion (peeled and sliced)
8 oz can baked beans in tomato sauce
-! pint hot water
small level tsp yeast extract (eg Marmite, Bovril)
pepper to taste
1-2 oz Cheddar cheese (grated)
-! oz margarine
2
2
Method
Melt the margarine in a frying pan and cook the onion (which has been
pressed out into rings) until golden brown.
Using a 2 pint ovenproof dish, layer half the potatoes, then carrots,
celery and onion.
ECONOMICAL MAIN DISHES
27
Repeat layers of carrots, celery and onion, cover with baked beans
and season well. Add remaining potatoes in a layer on top.
Mix yeast extract with the hot water, pour over ingredients, cover dish
with a lid and cook at approximately 400°F or 200°C or mark 6 for
I-2 hours, depending on the thickness of the sliced vegetables.
Once the vegetables are tender, sprinkle on cheese and leave in the
oven until the cheese has melted.
Serve very hot with a green vegetable.
SAVOURY MACARONI
4 Portions
A quick, easy and economical meal that doesn't need meat. I've found this
popular with children coming home from school.
Ingredients
8 oz macaroni
3 oz onions (finely sliced)
I oz butter
can tomatoes (approx I4 oz)
4 oz Cheddar cheese (grated)
salt
black pepper
I oz browned breadcrumbs
Method
Put the macaroni into boiling water, add salt and boil until just tender.
Drain well.
Fry onions in t oz of butter until golden brown.
Mix together the macaroni, chopped tomatoes, onions and 3 oz of
cheese.
Season with salt and black pepper.
Pour into a greased, deep ovenproof casserole.
Mix breadcrumbs and ~emaining cheese together, sprinkle on top and
dot with remaining butter.
Bake at approximately 450°F or 230°C or mark 8 for 25-30 minutes
until golden brown.
t-lotOJ«1 CoU
l)lJIJIJIN(iS
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
CRUNCHY PEAR PUDDING
29
4 Portions
This cooks at the same temperature as the Roast Brisket of Beef and together
they make a nice meal (see recipe on page I 3) .
Ingredients
I}lb pears
I oz granulated sugar
2 pieces stem ginger
(chopped)
I-! tsp ginger syrup
Topping
2 oz butter
3 oz soft brown sugar
2 oz cornflakes
(lightly crushed)
Method
Peel, core and slice the pears into a 2 pint ovenproof pie dish, add sugar,
ginger and ginger syrup then cover and cook at approximately 225 °F or
I I0°C or mark-! for 45 minutes to I hour, or until tender.
To make the topping- melt the butter and sugar in a saucepan, add
the cornflakes and stir until they are all well coated with the syrup.
Spread this mixture evenly over the pears and continue to bake at the
same temperature for a further 2o-25 minutes. Serve with cream, top of
the milk or custard.
MRS BATES'
BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING
4 Portions
This recipe was given to me by a friend who hadn't named it, so the pudding
is named after her. It's quick to make and economical.
Ingredients
3-4 slices cut from a large loaf (in squares)
2 oz castor sugar
2 standard eggs
I pint milk
2 heaped tbsp marmalade
little butter
Method
Grease a deep 2-2} pint ovenproof pie dish.
Tip in the cubes of bread to fill two-thirds full.
Beat the eggs with the sugar and milk, and when blended stir in the
marmalade . Pour over the bread in the dish and dot the top with butter.
Cook at approximately 375°F or I90°C or mark 5 for about I hour,
until the top is golden brown. Serve at once.
JO
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
OLD-FASHIONED
RHUBARB PUDDING
6 Portions
This is just the pudding for a really cold day and I tried it out in January
when the first rhubarb comes into season.
Ingredients
I oz butter
I! oz Demerara sugar
8 oz suet crust pastry
Filling
I lb rhubarb (thinly sliced)
I oz candied peel
2 oz currants
! lemon
(grated rind and juice)
4 oz castor sugar (approx.)
small pinch cinnamon
i teacup water
Method
Use the I oz of butter to thickly coat the inside of a 2 pint pudding basin.
Add the demerara sugar and turn the basin round and round until it is
coated.
Line the basin with two-thirds of the pastry, roll out remaining onethird for the lid.
Layer the following ingredients in the basin: rhubarb, peel, currants,
rind and juice of lemon and sugar to taste.
Finally, add the cinnamon and water, cover with the pastry lid, seal
well and cover with a piece of greased greaseproof paper.
Bake at approximately 350°F or I80°C or mark 4 for It-It hours.
PANCAKES
Eight
7'' Pancakes
These are very simple to make and you can ring the changes with the variety of
fillings that follow the recipe.
Ingredients
4 oz plain flour
pinch salt
2 large eggs
t pint milk
lard or oil for frying
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
JI
Method
Sieve the flour and salt into a basin or jug and make a well in the centre
of the flour .
Add the eggs and a little milk, stir, drawing the flour from the sides
of the basin, then beat until smooth .
Gradually add the remaining milk, beating all the time.
If using a basin to mix, transfer the batter into a jug, as it is easier to
regulate the right amount of batter to be poured into the frying pan.
To fry - heat sufficient fat or oil in a frying pan to just cover the
base, pour off any excess and then you're ready for frying.
Cover the base of the pan thinly with batter and when brown on the
underside, toss or turn the pancake to cook on the other side. Turn on
to a hot plate, add the filling and serve at once.
Note To keep cooked pancakes from becoming hard and dry while
cooking enough for the family, place them between two plates over a
pan of hot water.
Here are some of my favourite pancake fillings. The quantities can be varied
to suit the numbers of pancakes you're making. For a change, try orange
instead of lemon or almonds instead of walnuts.
Spiced Banana Filling
Ingredients
4 Portions
-! lb diced bananas
1- oz castor sugar
t level tsp cinnamon
small pinch salt
I oz melted butter
2 tsp fresh lemon juice
icing or castor sugar
Method
Mix well together the sugar, cinnamon, salt and lemon juice.
Fold in the bananas until evenly blended.
Brush some melted butter on to the cooked pancake, spread with the
mixture and roll up in the usual way.
Sprinkle with castor or icing sugar and serve.
32
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
Lemon Butter Filling
Ingredients
2
I
2
2
2
Portions
oz butter
lemon (grated rind)
tsp lemon juice
level tsp castor sugar
Method
Beat the butter until smooth and creamy. Add remaining ingredients and
beat thoroughly until blended.
Fill pancake and roll up.
Nutty Filling
Ingredients
2
Portions
oz walnuts (finely chopped)
level dsp brown sugar
little lemon juice
pinch mixed spice or nutmeg
I
I
Method
Mix together sugar, walnuts and spice or nutmeg.
Trickle lemon juice over cooked pancake, sprinkle over nutty mixture,
roll up and serve.
MERINGUE LAYER PAN CAKE
4 Portions
This is absolutely gorgeous if you are four in a family, but if you are two
just halve the ingredients, except for the meringue.
Ingredients
4 hot cooked pancakes (see page 30)
lemon curd, red currant jelly or marmalade
I large egg white
I oz castor sugar
few blanched, flaked almonds
pinch cream of tartar
Method
Slightly warm sufficient lemon curd, jelly or marmalade to spread on 3
pancakes.
Then start cooking the pancakes and while they're cooking, whisk
the egg white and cream of tartar together until very stiff. Fold in the
sugar until evenly blended.
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
33
Don't forget to keep an eye on the pancakes in the meantime.
As each pancake is cooked, put it on to a hot plate and spread with
the preserve you've chosen, piling them one on top of the other.
When the last pancake is on top, spread the meringue over, sprinkle
on the flaked almonds and put in an oven of 450°F or 230°C or mark 8
for 2-4 minutes, until the meringue is lightly browned.
Serve immediately and cut into wedges as you would a cake.
Note If you don't happen to have the oven on when you make this, the
meringue can be browned under the grill, providing you have space.
FARMHOUSE APPLE PIE
4 Portions
This recipe was given to me by a friend who lives on a farm and jolly good
it is too.
Ingredients
6 oz short crust pastry
i lb cooking apples (peeled and cored)
3 oz Demerara sugar
2 oz sultanas
pinch nutmeg
pinch cinnamon
t oz butter
Method
Line a deep ovenproof pie plate with half the pastry. Thinly slice half the
apples into the dish.
Sprinkle over the sugar, sultanas, nutmeg and cinnamon.
Add remaining apples thinly sliced and dot the butter over them.
Cover with the remaining pastry, press the pastry edges well together,
knock up the pastry edge with the back of a knife and flute the edge.
Bake at approximately 400°F or 200°C or mark 6 for about 35 minutes,
or until the apples are tender and the crust golden brown.
Sprinkle the pie with castor sugar and serve with cream or custard.
34
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
RHUBARB AND ORANGE
MERINGUE
4-6 Portions
This is one of my favourite rhubarb dishes and the great thing about it is that
the base can be made the day before you want it.
Ingredients
i lb trimmed rhubarb
4 individual sponge cakes
2 oz castor sugar
2 tbsp cold water
I large orange (rind and juice)
small pinch cinnamon
Meringue
4 oz castor sugar
2 egg whites
Method
Slice sponge cakes through the middle, and cut rhubarb into thin slices.
Into a 2 pint ovenproof pie dish put a layer of sponge cake, half the
rhubarb, sprinkle on half the sugar, cinnamon, orange rind and juice.
Continue with another layer the same, finally adding the water.
Cover and cook at approximately 375°F or I90°C or mark 5 for
35-45 minutes, until the rhubarb is tender.
Whip egg whites stiffly, gradually add sugar and fold in until evenly
blended .
Pile on top and bake a further Io-12 minutes at the same temperature.
CRUNCHY LEMON PIE
6-8 Portions
A delicious dessert for a special occasion, not as expensive as the ingredients
suggest, because it is rich and therefore you only serve small portions.
Ingredients
I pkt ginger nut biscuits
(finely crushed)
4 oz butter
Filling
large can condensed milk
3 lemons medium size
(grated rind)
7 tbsp lemon juice
t pint whipping or
double cream
grated chocolate for
decoration
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
35
Method
Melt butter over a low heat. Remove pan from heat, add crushed
biscuits and mix well together.
Press mixture into sides and base of a 9" pie plate or into a flan ring
(standing on a baking sheet) and put in a cold place to set.
Stir the lemon rind and juice into the condensed milk, until it starts
to thicken.
Whip the cream until fairly stiff and stir into the mixture until
evenly blended.
Pour into the prepared case and level the top.
Cover and chill until required.
Sprinkle the top with grated chocolate, just before serving.
This dessert can be eaten the day it is made or stored m the
refrigerator until the next day.
LEMON YOGURT MOUSSE
4 Portions
One of Shirley's reasonable puddings for the family. It's even cheaper if you
make your own yogurt.
Ingredients
5 oz plain yogurt
-! packet lemon jelly
I
standard egg
-! oz sugar
-! pint water
I
heaped tsp gelatine
Method
Put jelly into a small saucepan with half the water, scatter over gelatine
and add sugar.
Heat very gently until dissolved, but do not boil.
Add beaten egg yolk and blend into jelly. Cook for I-2 minutes, but
do not boil.
Remove pan from heat, add remaining water and stir well.
Cool until just beginning to set.
Beat yogurt until frothy and beat into setting jelly.
Beat egg white stiffly and fold into jelly mixture.
Serve in individual dishes, decorated with a fan type wafer, divided
into four.
Note The yogurt can be bought or home-made (see page 54).
36
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
ORANGE CHEESECAKE
Approx.
20
Portions
Cheesecake is ideal for party fare - this was made by Shirley for a party of
people. The recipe is in three sections and the Curd Cheese should be
made the day before.
20
Curd Cheese
Ingredients
2 pints gold top milk or
3 pints silver top milk
I
dsp rennet
Method
Warm milk for curd cheese to blood heat. Add rennet and leave to stand
until set.
Chop into squares and drain in muslin bag or in a colander lined
with kitchen paper over a basin (preferably overnight).
When whey has drained off, the curds can be used for the cheesecake (-! lb curd cheese).
Note The whey can be used in making bread, or used in milk puddings
with the addition of 4 teaspoons of milk powder per pint.
Orange Filling
Ingredients
I
orange jelly
t can frozen concentrated orange juice
! oz gelatine
2
standard eggs
! pint top of the milk
~
lb curd cheese
! oz sugar
Method
Heat the concentrated orange juice over a low heat. Add the jelly and
gelatine and stir until melted. Do not boil.
When melted, add egg yolks beaten in ! pint of milk. Stir for a
few minutes - again do not boil.
Remove pan from heat and cool.
When beginning to set, stir in curd cheese which has been broken up
with a fork. Mix well.
HOT AND COLD PUDDINGS
37
Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites to which has been added the sugar.
Put into a deep ro" flan ring or loose-bottomed cake tin or spring
sided tin. Chill until firm.
Topping
Ingredients
6 oz coarse wheatmeal or
6 oz wheatmeal biscuits (crushed)
3 oz butter
oz brown sugar
2
Method
Place all ingredients in a saucepan and mix until butter has melted and
the ingrepients are blended.
Press on top of cheesecake, smooth off and chill. When set, slide knife
round tin and remove carefully by placing plate over biscuit base and
turning upside down.
To serve- cut through centre of cheesecake with a plain pastry cutter
and then cut outer ring into individual portions and the centre circle
into 4·
Decorate each portion with a cream rosette and a small piece of orange
peel.
i\IJ\1\]~
t-/
I
.
I
Y()lJlt
J
()\l7N
MAKE YOUR OWN
QUICK WHEATMEAL BREAD
2
39
small loaves
A quick and easy to make home-made bread. It will save yotf money, zs
satisfying and has a good flavour.
Ingredients
8 oz plain white bread flour
8 oz plain brown bread flour
t oz lard
-! oz fresh yeast or t oz (2 tsp) dried yeast
2 level tsp salt
2 level tsp sugar
-! pint warm water
Method
a
Using fresh yeast: Blend yeast with 1 tsp sugar until it is liquid, then
add water and stir well.
b
Using dried yeast: Dissolve 1 tsp sugar in a cup of warm water (taken
from the amount stated in the recipe). Sprinkle on the dried yeast
and leave until frothy (about 1o-15 minutes). Add this to remaining
liquid.
In a large basin mix together the flours, salt and remaining tsp of
sugar. Rub in lard.
Make a well in the centre of the flour and pour in the liquid yeast
all at once.
Mix to a soft, scone-like dough, until the dough leaves the bowl
clean.
Turn on to a lightly floured board and knead well, until it feels
firm and elastic and no longer sticky.
Divide dough into two equal pieces and press out each piece until it
is fairly fiat. Roll up dough, and tuck in ends to fit into 2 well-greased
tins measuring approximately 7!" X J!" X 2".
Press dough firmly down into tins, then place tins in a polythene
bag in a warm place, leaving sufficient room for the dough to rise to the
top of the tins.
When risen, remove from the bag and bake at approximately 450°F
or 230uC or mark 8 for 2o-30 minutes.
To test when cooked, remove loaves from tins, tap the base of each
with the knuckles and if the loaves sound hollow they are done.
Cool on a wire tray.
40
MAKE YOUR OWN
This recipe will make:
2loaves in tins, or same size foil containers (usually sold for use in freezers ).
or I small plait and I small bloomer.
or I2 rolls.
or 2 small loaves and I very small plait.
Notes on bread making
1
Rising times can suit your convenience.
QUICK RISE -allow about t hour in a warm place.
SLOWER RISE- allow about I-!-2 hours on a kitchen table.
OVERNIGHT RISE- allow up to I2 hours in a cold larder.
2
To make all white bread, use all white flour and make as recipe for
Quick Wheatmeal Loaves.
3
To make all brown bread use brown flour and make as Quick
Wheatmeal Loaves, using a little extra water if required.
4
Surplus dough can be kept in the refrigerator, loosely tied in a
polythene bag or in a plastic container with a lid. Use the following
day or the day after.
s
To use refrigerated dough, allow to stand in a warm place for
IS-20 minutes to soften the dough. Then shape the loaves from
the cold dough.
·
6
To freshen stale bread - wrap loosely in foil, sealing the ends,
and put into a hot oven for about IO minutes.
SODA BREAD
1
round loaf
If you haven't any yeast and need a loaf quickly, then make this. Be sure
to eat it fresh as it doesn't keep .
Ingredients
I lb plain white bread flour
I level tsp salt
2 level tsp bicarbonate of soda
4 level tsp cream of tartar
I oz fat
t pint milk (approx. )
MAKE YOUR OWN
'1
1
41
Method
Sieve together flour, salt, bicarbonate of soda and cream of tartar.
Rub in fat and add sufficient milk to make a soft dough.
Turn on to a lightly floured board and knead lightly for I minute.
Shape into a round, place on a greased baking tin and mark with a
cross, cutting almost to the bottom of the dough.
Bake at approximately 425 °F or 220°C or mark 7 for 35-45 minutes,
until well risen, lightly browned and firm underneath.
CURRANT LOAF
Two r lb loaves
A delicious home-made tea bread that all the family will enjoy. Raisins or
sultanas could be used instead of currants zf preferred.
Ingredients
I
I
I
I
4
I
I
t
lb strong plain white flour
oz granulated sugar
tsp salt
oz margarine
oz currants
oz fresh yeast or t oz dried yeast
tsp castor sugar
pint milk and water (warm)
Method
a
Vsingfresh yeast: Blend yeast with tsp sugar until liquid, then add
liquid and stir well.
b
Using dried yeast: Dissolve tsp sugar in liquid, sprinkle on yeast and
leave until frothy- about IO minutes.
Mix flour, sugar and salt together and rub in margarine, add currants.
Add yeast liquid, mix to a firm dough until it leaves the bowl clean.
Turn on to a lightly floured board, knead well until firm, elastic
and no longer sticky. Return to bowl and put into a large polythene bag
to rise to double the size.
Turn dough out on to floured board, flatten to knock out the air
bubbles and knead until firm.
'
Divide into two. Flatten each piece into an oblong the width of the
tin and roll up like a swiss roll.
Place in two greased I lb loaf tins and return to polythene bag
to rise to the top of the tins.
Bake at approximately 375°F or I90°C or mark 5 for 4<r-45 minutes.
Brush tops of hot loaves with a wet brush dipped in honey. Cool
on a wire cooling tray.
42
MAKE YOUR OWN
CHELSEA BUNS
ro buns
These have always been a favourite of mine and I am sure your family and
friends will enjoy them too.
Ingredients
Dough
i lb strong white bread flour
i oz fresh yeast or
t oz dried yeast
pinch salt
I oz butter (melted)
It oz castor sugar
t pint milk
Filling
i oz melted butter
2 oz castor sugar
2 oz currants
I oz mixed peel
small pinch mixed spice
Method
Cream fresh yeast with I dessertspoon of sugar.
Sieve flour and salt and add remaining sugar.
Heat butter and milk together until just warm, add yeast mixture
and pour into flour. (If dried yeast is used see directions on packet.)
Mix to a soft dough and knead until smooth. Cover basin with a polythene bag or cloth. Leave to rise in a warm place until it doubles its size.
Knead the dough lightly on a floured board. Roll into an oblong
and brush with the i oz of melted butter. Mix the filling ingredients
together and sprinkle over the dough. Roll up like a swiss roll, and cut
into IO slices. Put these into greased sandwich tins, leaving room for them
to rise. Five slices in a 7'' tin is sufficient.
Leave to rise in a polythene bag for about 20-30 minutes.
Bake at approximately 425 °F or 220°C or mark 7 for IS-20 minutes.
To glaze the buns: Mix I dessertspoon of castor sugar with r tablespoon
of cold water, brush the tops of the buns when cooked and put back into
the oven for about I minute.
Turn out on to wire cooling trays and separate when cold.
DOUGHNUTS
Approx.
r2
doughnuts
If you start eating them as soon as they are cooked, they won't last very long,
but this is the best time to eat them.
Ingredients
dough from Chelsea Bun recipe
castor sugar and cinnamon
jam
fat or oil for frying
MAKE YOUR OWN
43
Method
Turn the dough on to a lightly floured board, knead well then divide into
equal-sized pieces.
Shape each piece into a ball then flatten slightly. Place a little jam in
the centre of each piece and gather up the edges over the jam, taking care
to seal the jam inside.
Place the doughnuts on floured baking tins, put into a polythene bag
and leave to rise in a warm place until they double in size, approximately
IO minutes.
Heat the fat or oil, fry the doughnuts until golden brown all over,
turning them over during cooking, approximately 5 minutes.
Drain well and toss in the sugar and cinnamon until coated all over.
YEAST HOT CROSS BUNS
12
buns
These taste like the old-fashioned buns, but you must be around at the right
time for the various processes.
Ingredients
I lb plain bread flour
I level tsp salt
I level tsp mixed spice
2 oz butter
3 oz currants
I oz candied peel
I oz fresh yeast or
-! oz dried yeast
It oz castor sugar
t pint warm milk
Method
Cream yeast with I dessertspoon of sugar until it becomes a liquid, then
add the milk. (If dried yeast is used, see directions on packet.)
Into a basin sieve flour, salt, spice and remaining sugar, then rub in
butter. Add currants and peel.
Pour yeast into dry ingredients, beat well, cover with a clean cloth
and leave in a warm place to rise to double its size.
Turn out on to a floured board and knead well, divide into I2 equal
portions and knead each one into a bun.
Place buns on floured baking tins, flatten slightly and cut a deep
cross into each. Prove buns in a warm place until double their size.
Bake at approximately 400°F or 200°C or mark 6 for Io-I5 minutes.
When cooked they should be golden brown on top and sound hollow
when tapped dn the base with the fingers.
Brush with a little sugar and water glaze. Serve hot with butter.
44
MAKE YOUR OWN
MILLIE'S FRUIT LOAF
2
lb loaf
In this recipe you can use some of that cold tea that is normally thrown
down the sink. The loaf keeps fresh for a week, if allowed to!
Ingredients
( The cup I use holds 8 fluid oz of water)
I teacup cold tea (without milk)
I teacup granulated sugar
I teacup mixed dried fruit
2 oz butter or margarine
I large egg
2 teacups self-raising flour
Method
In a saucepan put the tea, sugar, butter and fruit, bring to simmering
point and simmer for 2-3 minutes.
Take the pan from the heat and allow to cool until lukewarm.
Add the beaten egg and sieved flour.
Mix all well together with a wooden spoon, and pour into a greased
and lined 2 lb loaf tin.
Bake at approximately 350°F or I80°C or mark 4 for I-Ii hours.
Turn out on to a wire cooling tray and allow to get cold before
storing in an airtight container.
CHOCOLATE WHEATMEAL
BISCUITS
Approx. 36 biscuits
If you've never tried making home-made biscuits, you really should try
Shirley's recipe.
Ingredients
6 oz wheatmeal flour
3 oz self-raising flour
I level tsp baking powder
good pinch salt
I oz granulated sugar
2 oz lard (or good clarified dripping)
2 oz margarine
very little milk to mix
Method
Mix dry ingredients together, rub in fats very thoroughly.
Mix in only enough milk to give a firm dough.
MAKE YOUR OWN
45
Turn out on to floured board, knead lightly and roll out to about
-!"thick.
Cut into rounds with a 2-f ' pastry cutter.
Place on greased and floured baking tins, prick well and bake at
approximately 375°F or I90°C or mark 5 until lightly browned, about
10-15 minutes.
Cool on wire tray.
When cold, cover with -! lb of chocolate, melted in a basin over a
pan of hot but not boiling water. Spread a little on the back of each
biscuit to cover and mark wavy pattern with a fork.
SAVOURY BISCUITS
84 biscuits
Another of Shirley Goode's home-made recipes. Cut this recipe in half unless
you are having a very large party!
Ingredients
9 oz self-raising flour
1 tsp salt
2 oz margarine
cold water
Flavourings
parmesan cheese (grated)
onion salt
celery salt or seeds
Method
Sieve flour and salt, rub in fat and mix to a firm dough with water.
Knead thoroughly and turn on to a floured board.
Roll into an oblong and divide this into three equal pieces.
Using one third, sprinkle with one of the flavourings, fold into three
and roll out into an oblong. Repeat this and roll out very thinly.
Cut into circles with a 2 " cutter.
Repeat this process with remaining pastry, using optional flavourings.
Prick biscuits well before baking at approximately 350°F or 180°C or
mark 4 for about 10 minutes, until light golden in colour and crisp.
If salty biscuits are wanted, shake salt over biscuits before baking.
Serve as canapes, topped with pate, hard-boiled egg and tomato.
Decorate with cucumber and radish.
46
MAKE YOUR OWN
APPLE CHUTNEY
Yield approx. 4! lb
This makes a good accompaniment to cold meat as it has a hot flavour.
Windfall apples can be used, but only the good parts.
Ingredients
3 lb cooking apples (peeled and cored)
I lb onions
t pint water
-! oz salt
pinch cayenne pepper
t oz ground cinnamon
i oz ground ginger
I pint vinegar
I lb sugar
-! lb golden syrup
Method
Finely chop the apples and onions and simmer in the water for about
-!hour.
Add salt, spices and half of the vinegar and cook over a low heat until
the ingredients are soft.
Add sugar, syrup and remaining vinegar and simmer until desired
consistency is obtained in about I hour.
Put into hot jars, seal in the usual way and finally cover with waxed
paper tops to stop the vinegar evaporating.
Note The waxed paper from cereal packets is ideal for covering the pots,
simply cut into rounds and secure with fine string.
SEVILLE ORANGE
MARMALADE
Yield approx. 5! lb
This marmalade has to be made at the beginning of the year when the Seville
oranges are about, so make plenty to last you for several months or as I do for
the whole year.
Ingredients
I! lb Seville oranges
I lemon
3 pints water
3 lb granulated sugar
MAKE YOUR OWN
47
Method
Scrub fruit in cold water. Cut fruit in half and squeeze out the juice.
Put pith and pips into a muslin bag or a piece of muslin. Tie the
top of the bag tightly, but leave room for the pith and pips to move
around.
Slice or mince the peel.
Into a 9" or 10" pan (ie 8-!---Io pints) put the juice, bag of pith
and pips, cut up peel and water.
Cook very slowly until the peel is soft and the water has reduced by
half (approx. I-!---2 hours).
Remove the bag of pith and pips and squeeze into the pan when it is
cool enough to handle.
Add the sugar and stir over a low heat until it has dissolved, then
boil rapidly until setting point is reached (approx. IS-20 minutes).
To test for a set: take the pan off the heat and put a little marmalade
on a saucer. Allow it to get cold, then push with a finger; if it wrinkles,
the marmalade is done.
Next, remove any scum if necessary. Allow the marmalade to cool
slightly, then pour into heated jars.
Cover with waxed circles while still hot and tie down when cold.
Label before storing in a cool, dry place.
THREE FRUIT MARMALADE Yield approx. 5! lb
Make this at any time during the year. A few jars sell very well at Fetes and
Christmas Fairs.
Ingredients
I grapefruit
I sweet or Seville orange
2lemons
3 lb granulated sugar
3 pints water
I! lb
m
weight
Method
Scrub fruit, cut in half and extract the juice. Remove pith and pips and
tie in muslin bag.
Cut the skins into shreds or mince.
Put the fruit, juice, bag of pith and pips and water into a large
saucepan (approx. 9"-10") .
Simmer slowly until the fruit is tender and the water has reduced by
half (approx. I-I! hours).
48
MAKE YOUR OWN
Remove bag of pith and pips, allow to cool then squeeze into pan .
Add sugar, and stir over a low heat until it has dissolved. Boil
rapidly until setting point is reached, by testing in the way described on
page 47·
Remove any scum if necessary, allow to cool slightly before pouring
into heated jars.
Cover with waxed discs and tie down. Label when cold.
Notes on marmalade making
1
The fruit should be well washed before using.
2
Any pith removed when cutting up the peel should be put into a
muslin bag with the pips and left in the pan while cooking the peel.
In this way, the pectin will be extracted which is necessary to
make the marmalade set.
3
The fruit must be evenly shredded or minced as the skin is tougher
than most fruits used for jam making.
4
The cut up peel may be soaked overnight in the water with the
bag of pith and pips if liked, as this helps to soften the peel and
reduce the cooking time.
5
The sugar must not be added until the peel is quite soft and the
excess water has been boiled off.
6
The sugar should be dissolved over a low heat.
7
Cooking time for the peel to soften is at least
8
The marmalade should be boiled rapidly once the sugar has
dissolved until setting point is reached.
9
Remove scum if necessary as soon as setting point has been
reached.
10
Allow marmalade to cool slightly before potting, otherwise the
fruit will rise to the top of the jars.
I
hour.
MAKE YOUR OWN
LEFT -OVER VEGETABLE SOUP
49
r-r 21 p·tnts
When you're next cooking vegetables cook a few more, then make this soup for
the evening or the following day.
Ingredients
I breakfast cup of cooked vegetables
eg I small stick celery
I tbsp peas
I medium carrot
I slice swede
-! medium onion
2 small potatoes
I pint milk, water or stock (or a mixture)
I tbsp mushroom ketchup or
little Worcester sauce
salt and pepper
Method
Put vegetables and milk, water or stock into a liquidiser.
Switch to 'blend' for 20-3oseconds.lfyou do not possess a liquidiser,
puree the cooked vegetables by rubbing them through a sieve with a
wooden spoon.
Pour vegetables into a saucepan, add ketchup or sauce and season to
taste. Stir well and bring to the boil.
Serve garnished with chopped parsley or croutons of bread.
Note The vegetables can be varied as to what is available.
Herbs or a little finely chopped left-over cooked meat or bacon can be
added when re-heating if so desired.
YELLOW SPLIT PEA SOUP
r 21 -2 p·1nts
Lentils are cheap and very nutritious and combined with fresh vegetables they
make a good thick soup. The croutons are tasty as well.
Ingredients
2 oz yellow split peas
2 sticks celery (chopped)
I medium sized onion (chopped)
I medium sized potato (peeled and chopped)
i pint water
I chicken stock cube
2! fluid oz milk
50
MAKE YOUR OWN
Method
Soak the split peas for at least I hour in enough cold water to cover them,
then drain well.
Into a large saucepan put peas, celery, onion, potato, water and stock
cube. Bring to the boil stirring now and again, then cover and simmer
gently for I!-2 hours, or until the ingredients are cooked.
Puree the ingredients using a liquidiser or rub them through a fine
sieve.
Wash the pan and return the puree to it, add milk and re-heat,
seasoning to taste.
Garnish with finely chopped parsley or baked croutons of bread.
Alternatives: Green split peas or lentils can be used instead of yellow split
peas. One leek and one carrot can be substituted for the celery and onion.
If you have a freezer, make double the quantity and freeze half.
Baked Croutons
Cut slices of bread about t" thick, remove the crusts and butter on both
sides.
Cut into small squares, place on a baking tin, or a piece of foil on a
baking tin and bake in the oven when it is being used for other baking.
When they are golden brown all over, remove from the oven, allow
to get cold and then store in an airtight container up to 2-3 days.
THICK GREEN PEA SOUP
4 Portions
One of Shirley's favourite family soups, but don't forget to soak the peas
overnight.
Ingredients
4 oz dried peas
I! pints bone stock
I level dsp sugar
pinch dried mint (optional)
few bacon scraps or rinds
I level dsp cornflour
salt and pepper
MAKE YOUR OWN
51
Method
Soak peas overnight in cold water. Drain and add to stock with sugar, mint
and bacon scraps. Simmer until peas are cooked and soft.
Remove pan from heat, take out bacon scraps and rub through a sieve
or liquidise to a puree.
Season to taste.
Mix cornflour with a little water and blend with a little of the warm
soup, then pour into the rest of the soup.
Heat until thickened and serve.
HOME-MADE SAUSAGES
Approx. r 5 sausages
These sausages are skinless and they don't contain bread or any preservative,
so they must be eaten freshly cooked.
Ingredients
lb Jean pork or beef (minced)
oz butcher's suet (minced or grated)
1: lemon (grated rind)
! level tsp sage
pinch mixed herbs
good pinch nutmeg
salt and pepper
I standard egg
I
I2
Method
Into a basin put the pork or beef, suet, lemon rind, sage, herbs, nutmeg,
salt and pepper and stir until thoroughly mixed.
Lightly beat the egg and add to the mixture, stirring all well together.
Mould into sausage shapes with the hands.
Lightly grease a frying pan and once hot, fry the sausages very gently
for about 8-IO minutes, turning them frequently to ensure they're cooked
right through. Serve hot or cold.
Notes on Home-made Sausages
As these sausages do not contain bread or a preservative, they must
be eaten fresh, otherwise the meat could go off.
2
Herbs may be varied to suit own personal taste.
3 Do not have the frying pan too hot when cooking them as otherwise
they could be overdone on the outside, before they are thoroughly
cooked through.
1
52
MAKE YOUR OWN
LIVER PATE
Ox liver and bacon scraps make this a liver pate most people can afford.
Shirley serves it on her savoury biscuits.
Ingredients
! lb ox liver
2 oz bacon scraps
I onion (small)
4 oz soft butter
black pepper
sherry or brandy to taste (optional)
Method
Mince liver, bacon and onion and add a little ground black pepper.
Into a blender put the liver mixture and spirit and blend until
smooth.
Place in a buttered dish, and stand this in a dish of hot water.
Cover liver mixture with buttered paper and cook at approximately
325°F or I6o°C or mark 3 for about I hour.
Press through a sieve and add soft butter and a little more spirit if
desired and beat well.
Keep covered in the refrigerator, but use at room temperature.
Freezes very well.
POTATO CRISPS
You can make an awful lot of crisps from one potato, so you save money by
making your own.
Ingredients
2 lb potatoes
oil or fat for frying
salt
Method
Peel and slice the potatoes very thinly.
Leave to soak in cold water for half an hour.
Dry off thoroughly in a tea towel and deep fat fry until golden brown
and crisp and they've stopped sizzling.
Drain and store in airtight containers until required.
Salt just before serving.
MAKE YOUR OWN
WHOLE LEMON DRINK
53
Approx. r! pints
Here you have the real flavour of lemonade as you use the whole lemon, but
you need a liquidiser .
Ingredients
I medium sized thin-skinned lemon
6 ice cubes
2 tbsp granulated sugar
cold water
I egg (optional)
Method
Into the goblet of a liquidiser or blender put the lemon, ice cubes, sugar
and egg.
Add sufficient cold water to come up to the I-!- pint mark indicated
on the goblet.
Put the lid firmly on and turn to 'Hi-Speed' for IO seconds.
Strain into a serving jug and serve at once.
Note To give the serving glasses a party finish- dip the rim of each
glass into lightly beaten egg white and then into castor sugar. This will
give them a frosted effect.
MUESLI
r6 Portions
I believe everyone should eat something for breakfast and you'll find this is a
simple and sustaining recipe which can be made in advance.
Ingredients
I6 oz porage oats
4 oz sultanas
4 oz raisins
4 oz chopped nuts
4 oz brown sugar
Method
Mix all ingredients together and store in an airtight container until
required.
To serve: Allow 3 or 4 tablespoons per portion, add milk or yogurt. Top
with sliced banana or chopped apple if liked.
Note The quantities of ingredients can be varied to suit personal taste.
54
MAKE YOUR OWN
YOGURT
There are a number of appliances on the market for making yogurt at home.
However, it can be just as easy to make your own yogurt in a wide-necked
vacuum flask or in small jars.
Ingredients
I pint sterilised or UHT (long life) milk
I tbsp fresh natural yogurt
Method
Pour the milk into a saucepan and heat to 43 °C (II0°F). Use a jam
thermometer to ensure that che temperature is correct.
Add the yogurt, mix well and pour into a clean and pre-warmed
wide-necked vacuum flask. Close the flask securely and leave undisturbed
for 8-Io hours, to allow the yogurt to set.
Remove yogurt from the flask by shaking it, then put into a covered
container in the refrigerator or a cool place until required for use.
You can make your own fruit yogurt by stirring in fruit or jam after
it has set, or sweeten to taste by adding sugar.
Alternatively, the yogurt can be made in small glass jars and eaten straight
from these. Heat milk and add yogurt as already mentioned; pour milk into
jars and cover. Put jars into a cake tin packed with insulating material, or
lined with cotton wool and leave undisturbed in a warm place for 8-IO
hours. If the yogurt is not eaten immediately, place the jars in the
refrigerator or a cool place.
Notes on yogurt making
It's a good idea to read these notes before you make your first batch.
1
As milk and milk products are perishable foods, care should be taken
to ensure they are in good condition when you use them.
2
All equipment used should be sterilised (by boiling in water or by
using a commercial sterilising solution).
3 Sterilised or UHT (long life) milks give the best results. Fresh
pasteurised milk may be used but must be boiled first, then covered
and allowed to cool to the required temperature (43 °C or I I0°F).
4 From each batch of freshly made yogurt, keep a tablespoonful in a
covered container in the refrigerator for up to two days. This can
then be used to make the next batch. If you haven't a refrigerator, then
when making yogurt be sure to use a fresh bought one as a 'starter' .
5 Ensure that any bought yogurt is fresh. Check the date code. Yogurt
caps should be secure and fiat -not 'blown'. Buy only from chilled
cabinets (these keep it in the best condition).
(~lllliS'ri\IJ\S
l?J\Ill~
56
CHRISTMAS FARE
Turkeys
It's as well to know what to look for when buying a turkey, how long to defrost
it (if frozen ) and how many it will feed. Here are afew helpful hints.
Buying Turkeys
1
2
3
4
A cock bird is usually larger than a hen bird, but is not as economical
as the bone weighs heavily, so there is comparatively less flesh on it.
A hen bird is more compact, has smaller legs and is more succulent.
Fresh birds are sold by dead weight, including head, neck and innards.
Oven-ready birds include neck, gizzard, liver and heart.
12-16 lb bird serves 2o-3o people
16-20 lb bird serves 3o-40 people
6-8 lb bird serves 6-10 people
8-12 lb bird serves 1o-2o people
Thawing Frozen Turkeys
Allow a minimum of 48 hours for a 15 lb oven-ready weight.
Allow a minimum of 36 hours for a 10 lb oven-ready weight.
Allow a minimum of 24 hours for a 5 lb oven-ready weight.
It is best to allow the bird to thaw naturally in the bag in a cool place.
Cooking Turkeys
Size
6-8lb
8-Iolb
Io-12 lb
12-14lb
14-16 lb
16-18 lb
Servings
6-10
Io-20
Io-20
2o-30
2o-30
3o-40
Quick Oven
450° For 230°C
or mark 8
2-!-2-!
2-!-21
21-3
3
3-3-!3-i--3-!
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
Slow Oven
325° For I60°C
or mark 3
3-J!
3-!--31
3t-4
4-4-!4-i--4!
4-!--5
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
Turkeys can be loosely wrapped in foil or covered with greased greaseproof paper to roast.
All times may vary slightly according to the shape of the bird, age
and whether two stuffings are used. Allow an extra 2o-30 minutes if the
turkey has been stuffed in the body cavity as well as the neck end.
CHRISTMAS FARE
57
Carving a Turkey
I
Remove the leg of the turkey, by
cutting down between the leg and
main body of the bird, easing the
leg away gently as you cut.
2
Remove the two end sections of the
wing, not the whole wing. The base
of the wing helps to keep the turkey
stable for carving.
3
Slice the breast thinly from the top
to the bottom, running the entire
length of the turkey.
When carved on one side, start all
over again on the other side.
4
Separate the leg into the drumstick
and thigh and then carve slices from
the drumstick and the thigh as
shown.
Serve slices of leg and breast meat
with each portion.
58
CHRISTMAS FARE
ROAST STUFFED TURKEY
I o-20
Servings
Th e traditional dish for Christmas Day and cooked in this way the breast
will be moist and the thighs cooked through.
Ingredients
ro lb turkey (dressed weight)
few slices fat bacon
Stuffing
4 oz fresh breadcrumbs
2 oz suet (chopped)
r tsp mixed herbs
r tbsp parsley (chopped)
liver from giblets
(cooked and chopped)
little grated lemon rind
egg or milk for mixing
salt and pepper
Method
To make stuffing- mix together breadcrumbs, suet, herbs, parsley, liver,
lemon rind and seasoning, then add sufficient beaten egg or milk to bind
the mixture together.
Wash the remaining giblets and simmer covered with water - this
makes the gravy.
Wash the body of the bird through with cold water and drain.
Stuff the neck end of the bird with the stuffing.
Place a large piece of foil in the roasting pan, put the bird in on its
side, cover the breast with bacon and fold the foil loosely round the bird.
Seal the ends of the foil to keep in the juices.
Roast in a slow oven 325 F or r6o C or mark 3 for approximately
31-4 hours, turning the bird on to its other side after one-third of the
cooking time is completed, then on to its back for the remaining
time.
Then half an hour before the cooking time is finished, remove the
bacon from the breast and fold back the foil to brown the bird.
To test when cooked - the leg joints should move easily and no
pink liquid should be visible when a skewer is put into them.
CHRISTMAS FARE
59
GRAN'S CHRISTMAS PUDDING
This recipe has been in our family for well over a hundred y ears, so you
can imagine it has been well tested!
Ingredients
~
lb grated butcher's suet
-t lb fresh white breadcrumbs
-t lb self-raising flour
-! lb currants
-! lb sultanas
! lb raisins
-!- lb candied peel
-! lb Demerara sugar
I
lemon (grated rind only)
t of I nutmeg (grated)
I! oz blanched almonds
(chopped)
tsp salt
4 standard eggs
-!- pint barley wine
I oz butter (melted )
t
Method
Grease three I pint pudding basins with butter (or a 2 pint and a I pint).
Beat the eggs together then add the barley wine. Melt the butter.
In a large mixing bowl, mix all the dry ingredients together until
evenly blended, then add eggs, barley wine and lemon rind and mix
before adding the butter.
Stir well, then put into basins leaving about-!-" at the top. Cover the
mixture with a piece of buttered greaseproof paper and a pudding cloth,
but leave room for the puddings to rise during cooking.
Place the basins in a large steamer and steam for 6 hours. From time
to time add more boiling water to the saucepan to ensure it doesn't boil
dry.
If preferred, the basins can be placed in large saucepans, in which
case have the water level only half way up the basins, and top up from
time to time to keep the right water level.
When required for eating, place the basins in a steamer or saucepan
and re-heat for 2-3 hours.
60
CHRISTMAS FARE
ZENA'S CHRISTMAS CAKE
This recipe has been used i11 our family for years . I make my cakes early
in October so that they have time to mature before Christmas. I hope you'll
find the size you want i11 the following charts.
Chart for Round Cake
Round
8" Round
r61 oz
8 oz
51 oz
4 oz
Currants
I8 oz
9 oz
6 oz
5 oz
Sultanas
r8 oz
9 oz
6 oz
5 oz
Blanched almonds (chopped ) 41 oz
2 oz
I1 oz
Glace cherries (chopped)
6 oz
3 oz
2 oz
ri oz
Candied peel (chopped)
6 oz
3 oz
2 oz
ri oz
Ingredients
Raisins (seedless)
10"
7" Round 6" Round
I
OZ
Plain flour
I5
OZ
7~
oz
5 oz
4 oz
Butter
I5
OZ
7i oz
5 oz
4 oz
Soft brown sugar
15 oz
7~
oz
5 oz
4 oz
Eggs (L ) Large
(S) = Standard
7(L )
3(L )
3(L )
2(S)
Grated lemon rind
(ie r lemon)
I __!_
I
2
Brandy or rum (tbsp )
4
2
Mixed spice (level tsp)
I1
2
I
rl2
I
I
2
2
Small pinch nutmeg
Varied according to cake size
Pinch salt
Varied according to cake size
Cooking time in hours
(approximately)
5
31
Cooking temperature for all sizes, approximately:
or Gas mark 1-2.
2
.j
3
3
300
For
150
C
CHRISTMAS FARE
61
Chart for Square Cake
7'' Square
6" Square
OZ
8 oz
7 oz
Currants
I2 oz
9 oz
7 oz
Sultanas
12 oz
9 oz
7 oz
Blanched almonds (chopped)
3 oz
2 oz
2 oz
Glace cherries (chopped)
4 oz
3 oz
2-t oz
Candied peel (chopped)
4 oz
3 oz
2-t oz
Plain flour
IO oz
7-t oz
6 oz
Butter
IO oz
7-t oz
6 oz
Soft brown sugar
IO oz
7-t oz
6 oz
Eggs (L ) = Large
(S) Standard
s CS)
3(L )
2(L )
I
I
2
2
2
Mixed spice (tsp)
3
I
1
-t
Small pinch nutmeg
Varied according to cake size
Pinch salt
Varied according to cake size
Ingredients
Raisins (seedless)
Grated lemon rind
(ie I lemon)
Brandy or rum (tbsp)
Cooking time in hours
(approximately)
8" Square
IO-!-
4-4-t
2
4
Cooking temperature for all sizes, approximately: 300rF or
or Gas mark 1-2.
1
3-t
150
C
62
CHRISTMAS FARE
Method
Line the tin with a double thickness of greased, greaseproof paper or
waxed paper from cereal packets.
Tie a double thickness of brown paper round the outside of the tin.
Sieve together the flour, spices and salt.
Cream butter and sugar together until light and fluffy. Beat in eggs
one at a time, adding a tablespoon of flour with each egg.
Stir in remaining flour until blended.
Mix all fruit together including lemon rind and add to the mixture,
stirring until well mixed. Finally add the brandy or rum.
Bake at approximately 300°F or 150°C or mark 1-2 for the time given
in the chart .
To test when the cake is done - push a fine steel knitting needle
into the centre of the cake several times and when it comes out clean
when wiped with the fingers, the cake is cooked.
Turn out on to a wire cooling tray and when really cold, wrap m
greaseproof paper and seal in a container - this will allow the cake to
mature until Christmas.
Almond Paste
Cake Size
Approximate Made-up Weight
6" Round
i -I lb
6" Square
7'' Round
7'' Square
8" Round
(
I
(
It -I-! lb
lb
8" Square
10" Round
The above quantities are sufficient to cover the top and sides of the cakes,
but as some like a thicker almond paste than others the quantities may
need to be varied to suit your personal taste.
CHRISTMAS FARE
63
Royal Icing
Cake Size
Amount Required
6" Round
I lb
6" Square
f
7'' Round
7'' Square
8" Round
8" Square
Io" Round
f
It lb
I-!-I* lb
2
lb
2!-2-!lb
The above quantities are approximate amounts for 2 base coats of icing
plus a simple decoration. If you wish to make a rough snow scene then
you will require a little more.
CHRISTMAS CAKE DECORATIONS
Here are a few simple ideas for decorating the cake with marzipan. Divide
it into three and colour one piece pink, one green and leave the third plain.
Marzipan Cracker
Dust the board with cornflour to prevent the marzipan sticking. Make a
small roll of marzipan.
Roll out some pink marzipan about f' thick. Cut into a small rectangle
and frill the two ends, using either an icing comb or by gently pressing
with the tip of a fork.
Roll the piece of plain marzipan inside the pink piece, like a swiss roll.
Run a knife gently round each end about
in from the edge to make
an indentation.
Decorate the top with small blobs of white icing.
*"
Holly and Mistletoe Leaves
Using green marzipan roll out to i" thick.
Use a plain pastry cutter for mistletoe and cut two curved sides.
Mark the veins of the leaf with a knife.
Roll a small ball of plain marzipan for the berry.
64
CHRISTMAS FARE
Use a fluted pastry cutter for the holly leaves. Cut one side, then
carefully line up the fluting and cut the other side.
Mark the veins of the leaves with a knife.
Roll small balls of pink marzipan for the berries.
How to make paper cake frills
I prefer to make my own, as it's cheaper, fun to make and you get the size
you want.
1
Measure the depth of the cake
2
Measure round the cake with a piece of string, then cut a double
thickness of greaseproof paper this length.
3
Cut another length of fancy or coloured foil paper the same as for
the greaseproof.
4
Stick or machine three lengths of paper together, down the centre
lengthwise.
5
Cut both edges of the paper as indicated in the diagram below.
6
To cover the machine stitching, stick a length of Christmas tape
over it or decorate with fancy Christmas seals.
to
give the width of paper required.
Folding and cutting of cake frill
A
8
Fold end to end to a width of 3" to 4",
ie fold C to A then fold B to A.
Snip both edges about f ' apart and
into the centre as indicated.
!"
CHRISTMAS FARE
CHRISTMAS CHOCOLATE LOG
65
16 Portions
No cooking needed for this cake, so why not let the children make it for you.
It will keep well for a week.
Ingredients
I 6 ginger biscuits
5 oz butter
IO oz icing sugar (sieved)
2 tbsp fresh orange juice
I level tbsp cocoa
Method
Cream together the butter and icing sugar until soft and smooth, add I
teaspoon of orange juice and beat again.
To assemble the log - spread the butter cream on one side only of
the first biscuit, and on both sides of the remaining biscuits, sandwiching
them together as you go. Spread cream on one side only of the last biscuit.
Add the remaining orange juice to the butter cream, sieve in the
cocoa and beat well together. Spread the icing all over the log, roughing
it up to resemble a log. Leave to set firm for about one hour and then
decorate with holly leaves and a robin.
CANDLE CAKE
16 Portions
A variation on the chocolate log which is very suitable for children's parties.
Ingredients
I6 ginger nut biscuits
5 oz butter
I o oz icing sugar
I tbsp fresh orange juice
Method
Cream the butter and sugar together until soft and smooth, add orange
juice and beat again.
To make the cake - spread a little icing on two biscuits and press
them together. Stand them up and spread a little icing on the top.
Continue spreading icing on both sides of each biscuit and pressing
them together to form a column, until all the biscuits have been used.
Use the remaining icing to cover the outside of the biscuits, roughing
it up to resemble a candle. Allow to harden for about I hour.
Decorate with a flame, made by cutting a piece of cardboard into a
flame shape. Cover with shiny, sticky red tape.
Put one end in the top of the candle cake just before serving.
66
CHRISTMAS FARE
PEPPERMINT CREAMS
AND FONDANTS
64 sweets
H ere is a11 idea for a Chrisr111as or Birrhday presenl. I always think a home11/ade prese11r is very acceprable for people of all ages.
Ingredients
lb icing sugar (sieved)
large egg white (lightly beaten)
3 drops oil of peppermint or
~ tsp peppermint essence
small quantity of walnuts
glace cherries and vermicelli
I
I
Method
In a basin mix together the icing sugar and egg white. If the mixture is
too dry and will not hold together, add 1 or 2 drops of cold water.
Divide the mixture in half. To one half, knead in the peppermint
oil or essence. Green colouring can be added to half of this mixture if
desired.
Roll out on pastry board, lightly dusted with icing sugar to about
~ " thick. Cut into rounds with a I " plain pa try cutter.
Place on a di sh and keep in a warm place until the next day, when
they will have firmed up. Put into sweet cases and box.
To 111ake Fo11dalllS: Turn the board over and roll out as for the peppermint creams. Colour can be added if liked, to ring the changes.
Cut into rounds and decorate with glace cherries. Roll some into
balls and coat in chocolate vermicelli.
Roll some into small rounds and press a walnut half on each side.
Put into sweet cases and box.
MARZIPAN STUFFED DATES
50 dates
A11o1her idea for prese11r s, a11d 110 cooki11g is 11eeded. Do11'1 1hrow away rhe
dare boxes as !h ey ca11 be re-used for pacl?ing !he s111jJ~d dares.
Ingredients
1lb made-up marzipan
2 boxes dates (approx. 50 dates )
25 whole almonds (blanched and split)
red and green colouring
CHRISTMAS FARE
67
Method
Make a slit in the top of each date and remove stone.
Divide the marzipan into three equal portions, colour one portion
red, the second portion green and leave the third one its natural colour.
Take a small piece of marzipan, roll into a sausage shape and fill
each date, so that some of the marzipan shows above the edges of the
dates. Press an almond into the marzipan.
Continue in this way until all the dates are filled, then put them into
sweet cases and then into boxes.
To box using date boxes: Remove all the paper from the boxes. Cover
each half of the box with fancy paper, and place a folded doyley in the
base of each. Arrange dates in a pattern in the boxes. Cover with
cellophane paper and stick down.
RUM TRUFFLES
24 truffles
The older children will enjoy 111aki11g these for their jrie11ds, with or without
the rum!
Ingredients
4 oz plain chocolate
2 oz butter
r tbsp double cream
2 rounded tsp castor sugar
2-3 tsp rum
2 oz plain biscuits (finely crushed)
little cocoa
Method
Melt chocolate in a basin over a pan of hot but nor boiling water.
When melted, remove pan from the heat, add butter and beat well
together.
Add cream, sugar, rum and biscuit crumbs and beat well.
Allow mixture to rand for sometime to stiffen up, then take a
teaspoonful at a time and roll into rounds with the palms of the hands.
Put aside on a plate to set, then lightly coat in the sieved cocoa.
Place in sweet cases and box as desired.
The truffles may be made without rum if so desired.
IIIN'fS
1\NIJ 'llJlS
This section contains some of the hints and tips I have used over many years.
I do hope some of them will help you to save time and money in the kitchen.
APPLES
To avoid apples or bananas going brown when making
a fruit salad, dip them in lemon juice.
BACON
Bacon rinds can be grilled or frfed crisply, then broken
into small pieces to serve with soup or a mixed grill.
They can also be simply fried and served with drinks
at a party.
Bacon pieces (available from grocers and supermarkets who cut their own bacon) can be used in
many dishes instead of rashers and they're cheaper.
BATTER
When you've poured the yorkshire pudding batter
into the pan of hot fat, mix the gravy for the roast
in the empty bowl to thicken the gravy.
BONES
Always take your bones home from the butcher,
cover them with cold water and simmer for 3 to 4
hours and you will have an excellent stock. Use this
for soups, gravies, stews and casseroles.
BREAD
To freshen bread and rolls, wrap loosely in foil, put
into a hot oven for 10 minutes and leave in the foil
until cold.
Another way to freshen bread and rolls -sprinkle with
a little water and place in a hot oven 400°F or 200°C
or mark 6 for 7 minutes .
BREADCRUMBS
Dry the crusts of bread in a low temperature oven
until golden brown. When cold put into a polythene
bag, seal the top and crush with a rolling pin.
HINTS AND TIPS
69
Use in recipes where it says 'coat in egg and breadcrumbs'. Crush biscuits in the same way.
BUTTER
If you have a lot of sandwiches to make, beat the
butter to a cream with a wooden spoon. By the way,
if you are careful a pound of butter ought to do for
upwards of 6o slices of bread.
CAKE TINS
When lining cake tins don't buy greaseproof paper,
use the waxed paper from the inside of cereal packets.
Use foil to make cake tins of the size and shape you
require, it saves buying and storing extra tins. Simply
use a double thickness of foil and mould it to shape
then put it on a baking tin before filling it. To make
a round one, mould it over a saucepan.
CHEESE
Most supermarkets and grocers keep a box of 'cheese
ends' or 'cheese bits' which they sell off cheaper. These
are ideal for cooking as they are usually on the
hard side.
Keep all odd pieces of cheese then grate them fine,
medium and coarse on a grater. Keep them all separate
in covered containers in the refrigerator.
Uses- fine for garnishing soups and spaghetti dishes.
medium for adding to sauces.
coarse for cheese salads and sandwiches.
CHIVES
If a recipe calls for chopped chives and you can't
get any, snip the green tips off the ends of salad onions.
Mind they are fresh though.
CREAM
As double cream is expensive, it can be extended m
two ways.
a Mix equal quantities of single and double cream
together and beat.
b Beat t pint of double cream, then fold in one stiffly
beaten egg white.
If you've added the seasoning twice to a sauce, don't
throw it away, just add 1 tablespoon of double cream.
This will take the bite out of the extra seasoning.
70
HINTS AND TIPS
EGG WHITES
Here are three uses for left-over whites.
a Whisk one into a fruit jelly just before it sets. It
lightens it and makes it look more attractive.
b Brush the inside of a pastry flan case before baking
it 'blind'. It will act as a barrier between the pastry
and the moist filling.
c Whisk one white until stiff, fold in 2 oz of castor
sugar and pipe star meringues on to a well greased
baking tin. Dry out in an oven on the lowest
setting, until they can be lifted from the tin. Use
for decorating cakes and puddings.
EGG YOLKS
Here are three ways for using up the yolks.
a Use with a tablespoon of milk for coating food
before frying in breadcrumbs.
b Mix pastry with a yolk and very little water for
flans, it makes them richer and crisper.
c Beat into freshly mashed potato with butter.
FRYING PAN
To clean fishy or onion smells from a frying pan pour remaining tea leaves from the tea pot into the
pan, bring to the boil and pour away. Rinse well.
If pancakes and omelettes stick in the frying pan- heat
a tablespoon of salt and scour the pan with a ball of
screwed up paper. Throw salt away, run oil all over
the surface. Throw oil away and wipe with absorbent
paper. The pan is now ready for use.
JAM
If you want to speed up jam making, make sure to
warm the sugar first.
When you are making strawberry jam, don't forget to
add some gooseberry, red currant or lemon juice to
make it set.
LEMONS
To remove all the grated rind of a lemon or orange
from the grater - brush inside and outside with a
pastry brush.
To get the maximum juice out of a lemon, either put
it on top of a warm cooker, or roll it with the hand
on a draining board to soften and release the juice.
HINTS AND TIPS
71
MAYONNAISE
When home-made mayonnaise separates, you can
rescue it by putting another egg yolk into a clean
bowl and slowly beating in the separated mayonnaise.
MILK
To sour milk or cream quickly, just add one tablespoon
of vinegar or lemon juice to half a pint.
MUSHROOMS
Cultivated mushrooms never need peeling. Just wipe
them over with a damp cloth, or wash them under the
tap but drain well. Incidentally, the 'flats' or 'opens'
a they are sometimes called are best for frying. 'Cups'
or 'half-opens' for grilling or stuffing, and 'buttons'
for soups or garnishing a steak .
ONIONS
To slice onions quickly, peel then hold firmly with a
fork. Slice on either side and between the prongs.
This way saves handling them and the knife slipping.
PARSLEY
and MINT
To chop parsley quickly, hold the stalks in one hand,
rinse under cold water. Shake off exces moisture.
Put leaves into a teacup and 'chop' with kitchen
SCISSOrS.
Mint chops quicker on a board, if you add a little
ugar to the leaves before you start chopping.
PAST A
When calculating the amount of rice, spaghetti and
macaroni, remember they double their bulk when
cooked.
PRESERVING
Add a knob of butter to the preserving pan when
making jam or marmalade. This prevents sticking at
the bottom of the pan and scum.
QUICK SOUP
Use the left-over carcase of a chicken or other poultry
for making stock. Simply break the carcase into small
pieces, cover with water and simmer. Then remove
any meat from the bones, add left-over gravy and
cooked vegetables. Liquidise or rub through a sieve
and re-heat quickly to boiling point.
72
HINTS AND TIPS
ROOT
VEGETABLES
These vegetables used in pot roasts don't have to be
the good looking ones! There are often mis-shapen
ones about that are a few pence cheaper.
SAUCEPANS
When using an aluminium saucepan for boiling or
steaming, put a small piece oflemon in the water. This
will save the saucepan turning black.
If you already have badly stained saucepans, they
should come clean if you boil apple peelings in them.
Burnt saucepans can be cleaned easily if dealt with
immediately. Fill the pan with salt and water, leave to
soak for two or three hours, then put over a low
heat and bring to the boil. You will find most, if not
all of the burnt part will come away easily.
SPINACH
Next time you have spinach, remove stalks in the
usual way, but don't throw them away. Cook them in
fast boiling water until tender, drain and leave to get
cold. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and a little
vinegar, cut into small pieces and add to a salad.
SUGAR
To save sugar when sprinkling small cakes and
biscuits, use a salt or pepper pot (clean and dry of
course). This means the sugar goes on to the cakes
and not the tray or plate .
TOMATOES
To skin tomatoes easily - dip them first into boiling
water for 1-2 minutes, then into cold water. The skin
will then come off easily.
VACUUM
FLASKS
To clean the inside of these, break up two washed
egg shells and put the pieces into the flask with a little
cold water, shake vigorously, and then rinse out.
Repeat if necessary.
VEGETABLES
To speed up the opening of radish roses, soak them
in iced water.
To keep potatoes white before tossing them in
dressing for potato salad, sprinkle them with lemon
juice after they have been diced.
I{N()\l' Y()IJil IIJ~A'f
This section is designed to explain the cuts of meat and where they come
from. You'll also find suggested ways for cooking the various cuts.
BEEF
THE ECONOMY CUTS
Top Rump (also called Thick flank,
Bed of Beef or First cutting). A lean
cut, usually sold sliced ready for frying or braising. Also makes an
acceptable joint but requires slow,
moist cooking such as pot-roasting.
Brisket An economical and tasty
joint sold on the bone, or boned and
rolled. Requires slow cooking. It is
often salted or pickled for pressed
beef.
Silverside Traditional joint for
boiled beef and carrots. Contains no
bone and is exceptionally lean. Also
sold pickled ready for boiling. In
Scotland, silverside is roasted.
Shin Excellent meat for stews, casseroles and soup . Meat and bone
cooked together give a good jelly
stock. The traditional cut for making beef tea.
Neck and Clod Special full flavour
makes this cut a good choice for hotpots and stews. Its rich juices make
superb gravy.
Leg Another excellent soup meatuse in the same way as shin.
Flank A cheaper cut which deserves
wider recognition. Ideal for potroasting on the bone, and for stews
and hot-pots. Sometimes salted or
pickled to boil with spices for
pressed beef. Not suitable for dry
heat cooking methods.
Chuck and Blade Large, fairly
lean cut. Meat is removed from the
bone and sold as chuck steak for
braising, stewing, puddings, pies.
Skirt A tasty, economical stewing
meat which comes from inside the
ribs and the flank. Good for a steak
and kidney pie.
THE BETTER CUTS
Sirloin Tender and delicious cut.
Can be roasted in the piece or
grilled as steaks. Fillet is found on
the inside of the sirloin bone, and
fillet can also be separated from the
sirloin for roasting in the piece, or
for slicing into fillet steaks - the
most tender for grilling or frying.
74
KNOW YOUR MEAT
Rump steak The perfect steak for
grilling or frying, although not as
tender as fillet. Lean should be
velvety and close-grained but with
no gristle. Choose the amount of
fat to suit personal preference.
Ribs May be boned and rolled or
roasted on the bone.
Fore ribs - traditional English roast
beef.
Wing ribs - popular roast, but also
cut and sold as grilling and frying
steaks.
Back ribs and top ribs - ideal cuts
for braising and pot-roasting.
Topside Lean cut, usually sold
with a layer of fat tied around it to
keep it moist. Roast slowly and keep
well basted. Usually more tender
served slightly underdone. Makes a
perfect pot-roast. In Scotland, topside is braised.
NECK
CHUCK
CLOD
BLADE
and
SCOTTISH CUTS
In some areas of Scotland, cuts may
have other names.
Topside and silverside may be
called rump, buttock or round steak.
Rump steak is sometimes called
pope's eye.
Leg and shin are called hough.
Chuck and blade is sold as shoulder.
Beef is particularly juicy when
served slightly underdone. In fact,
many people prefer this meat served
rare. But this is a matter of personal
taste and, if you prefer your beef
cooked evenly right through, just
ensure that the heat is not so fierce
that the outside becomes overcooked.
and
RIBS
SIRLOIN
RUMP TOPSIDE
SILVERSIDE
SHIN
BRISKET
FLANK
TOP RUMP
or
THICK FLANK
LEG
KNOW YOUR MEAT
75
LAMB
THE ECONOMY CUTS
Shoulder An economical roast
whether on the bone, or boned,
stuffed and rolled. Makes rich and
meaty casseroles. Often divided into
two smaller cuts - blade end and
knuckle end. Both are ideal for
roasting or braising.
Best End Neck Reliable roast on
the bone, or boned, stuffed and
rolled. Often sold as cutlets to grill
or fry. Two best end necks are used
to make a Crown Roast.
Middle Neck Usually cut into
chops for casseroles - the basis of
the famous Lancashire Hot-pot.
Breast A most economical cut for
roasting, braising. Makes tasty stews.
THE BETTER CUTS
Saddle A large roasting joint which
SCRAG
MIDDLE
NECK
BEST END
NECK
includes both loin cuts. Suitable for
special-occasion entertaining.
Leg An excellent roasting joint on
the bone, or boned, stuffed and
rolled. The leg is often divided into
fillet and shank end.
Fillet end- a succulent roast.
Shank end- a reliable roasting joint,
and excellent for casseroles.
Loin A fine roast in the piece, or
boned, stuffed and rolled. Loin is
usually divided into loin end and
chump end, and cut into loin chops
and chump chops to grill or fry.
SCOTTISH CUTS
In Scotland, shoulder is not cut as
a separate joint. The entire forequarter is usually divided in half,
boned arid rolled, then cut into
smaller joints.
Leg is known as gigot.
LOIN
CHUMP END
SHOULDER
BREAST
LEG
76
KNOW YOUR MEAT
PORK
THE ECONOMY CUTS
Shoulder Large, popular roasting
joint, particularly good when boned
and rolled. Often divided into blade
and spare rib:
Blade - economical roasting joint.
Excellent when boned and the cavity
filled with a savoury stuffing. Ideal
for braising and stewing.
Spare Rib - lean and economical
roasting joint with little top fat and
skin. Meat from this cut makes the
best filling for home-made pies.
Spare rib chops - ideal for grilling,
frying or braising.
SHOULDER
SPARE RIB
Hand and Spring Large joint for
roasting. Often divided into hand
and shank:
Hand- can be boned and roasted.
Also ideal for boiling, fresh or
pickled.
Shank- good for casseroles, stews.
Belly (also called draft or flank).
Thick end of belly, with a stuffing
through the centre, makes an
economical and tasty roast. All belly
is excellent for braising, stewing and
boiling, fresh or pickled. Sliced
belly is a very economical cut for
grilling and frying.
LOIN
BLADE
CHUMP END
FILLET END
HAND
SHANK
and
SPRING
BELLY
KNUCKLE END
LEG
KNOW YOUR MEAT
THE BETTER CUTS
Leg A succulent and popular
roasting joint. Often divided into
fillet end and knuckle end:
Fillet end - thick slice from the top
of the leg. Excellent for roasting, or
slicing into steaks for grilling and
frying.
Knuckle end- roasting joint. Excellent when boned and stuffed.
Loin A popular roast on the bone or boned, stuffed and rolled. Often
divided into loin and chump chops:
Loin chops - sometimes sold with
the kidney in. Excellent for grilling,
frying or roasting.
Chump end of loin - provides chops
which are large and meaty. Good for
frying, grilling and roasting.
Tenderloin Lean cut found on the
inside of the loin bone. Sometimes
called pork fillet, but should not be
confused with fillet end from the leg.
Ideal for slicing and frying.
SCOTTISH CUTS
In Scotland, a shoulder of pork
includes hand and spring, blade, and
ribs. The shoulder is usually cut in
half and boned and rolled. The
amount required is cut to order.
Leg is known as gigot.
Shank end ofleg is called hough end.
Hand and spring, minus the shank,
is called runner.
77
II()NJ~Y S1\VI~IlS
I felt I must include some of the money-saving ideas I mentioned on the
'Indoors Outdoors' programmes- so here they are.
Using a Pressure Cooker
A pressure cooker is designed to harness the steam which in an ordinary
saucepan escapes and is wasted. The sealing in of this steam and the
consequent build-up of pressure causes a rise in temperature and it is this
high heat, coupled with the fact that the pressure generated in the cooker
drives the heat into and through the food, which explains the rapid
cooking action.
Pressure cookers are fitted with a safety device that will come into action
automatically if the pressure control should become blocked; the excess
pressure will be released well below that to which the cooker has
been tested.
A pressure cooker has particular advantages:
a Acts as three saucepans in one - will cook three vegetables at the same
time on one ring or hotplate.
b Eliminates cooking smells and steam in the kitchen.
c Suitable for one-pan meals, eg stewed meat and vegetables.
Apart from its special value for those with limited cooking facilities, a
pressure cooker has other general advantages:
a Cuts down on cooking time, with subsequent saving on fuel.
b Cheaper cuts of meat are tenderized more quickly.
c Used correctly, will conserve vitamins in vegetables. As less water is
used, the resultant stock is more nutritious than ordinary stock made
in a saucepan.
d A useful addition to camping or caravanning equipment - will produce
a hot meal in quick time on one ring.
Pressure cookers can be used on any type of heat - gas, electricity, solid
fuel, oil or pressure stoves.
a The cooker should not be filled more than two-thirds with solid foods
MONEY SAVERS
79
as room must be left for the free circulation, during cooking, of the
compressed steam.
Not more than half full with foods such as soups, cereals, milk puddings,
or fruit for jam making, as sufficient space must be left to allow for the
tendency of these to rise in the pan as they come to the boil.
b The amount of liquid required for the cooking depends on the length of
the cooking time and not on the amount of food being cooked. Put the
liquid into the cooker before anything else, so that it is not forgotten.
c The liquid used in a pressure cooker must be one that will give off steam
when it boils.. It may be water, stock, soup, gravy, wines, milk, etc; it
cannot be melted fat alone as fat when it heats does not give off steam
and therefore there would be nothing in the cooker with which to build
up pressure.
e When cooking vegetables together, ie carrots, sprouts and potatoes, the
carrots and potatoes must be cut to cook in the same time as the sprouts.
Put the potatoes and carrots on the trivet, bring the water to the boil,
then add the sprouts in the separator. In this way, the sprouts will
retain their colour.
These are general points on the use of a pressure cooker. But for details
on how to bring the cooker up to pressure, cook the food, reduce the
pressure and also on care and cleaning, consult the book which comes
with your own pressure cooker.
Using a Steamer
It is possible to use a one, two or even three-tier steamer on a saucepan
containing boiling water and therefore cut the fuel bills by making use
of only one ring.
When using two or three tiers, the food in the top one will take longer
to cook than the food in the bottom one.
For example, if you were cooking a steak and kidney pudding,
vegetables and a sponge pudding - the steak and kidney would go in the
bottom steamer, vegetables in the centre and the sponge at the top.
If you have never used a steamer before, here are a few general rules
to follow:
1
The water in the saucepan must be boiling and kept boiling during
the cooking time .
2
Water must not touch the food.
80
3
4
MONEY SAVERS
If a basin is used, it must be greased and also covered with greased
paper to keep the steam out of the basin.
The time allowed for steaming should be half as long again as that
for boiling.
Foods suitable for steaming are meat, fish, puddings, vegetables,
egg custards and souffles.
One final tip when buying a steamer : it could pay you to shop around
as the prices for individual steamers can vary quite considerably.
Growing and using bean sprouts (Mung beans)
Bean sprouts can be purchased in I lb bags from shops specialising in
Chinese or Indian food.
Bean sprouts take about 5 days to grow in a warm place or up to
IO days in a cooler place. They keep for a week in water in a cold
place after growing.
They can be grown in several ways, but here are two ideas :
1
Line a swiss roll tin or tray with a double thickness of kitchen paper
and soak with water. Pour off any surplus water and scatter I! oz of
seed (which have been soaked overnight).
· Put tray into a polythene bag and keep in a warm, dark place (ie airing
cupboard) making sure the bag is large enough to let the seeds grow
to about 3" high.
The warmer the place, the quicker the seeds will grow. Water every
day with tepid water and drain off any surplus.
2
Get a large glass or plastic jar- no smaller than an 8 oz coffee jar put the seeds in and fill the jar with water.
Fasten muslin firmly over the top of the jar and drain off the water.
Keep in a dark, warm place.
Everyday fill the jar with water and drain off the surplus.
Using bean sprouts
Put them in a bowl of water and swish around. The green husks should
come away and be removed. The sprouts can be drained, eaten raw or
very lightly cooked. One minute in boiling water is sufficient.
85p
This book contains many recipes, hints and tips
BBC-tv series Indoors Outdoors.
2
t it is more than just a recipe book - it's a
cook's companion designed to help people of all
ages. Apart from the sections on 'Economical
Main Dishes' and 'Hot and Cold Puddings', what
makes this book different are the sections on
'Make Your Own' and over 30 useful 'Hints and
Tips' which could help you save time and money
in the kitchen.
""11.1~~1 b.e
There is also a 'Christmas Fare' section and
another called 'Know Your Meat' which shows the
cuts and ways of cooking them.