R&S®RTM2000
Digital Oscilloscope
User Manual
(=A_J2)
User Manual
Test & Measurement
1317.4726.02 ─ 10
This document describes the following R&S®RTM models with firmware 05.8xx and higher:
● R&S®RTM2022: 200 MHz, 2 channels (5710.0999K22)
●
R&S®RTM2024: 200 MHz, 4 channels (5710.0999K24)
●
R&S®RTM2032: 350 MHz, 2 channels (5710.0999K32)
●
R&S®RTM2034: 350 MHz, 4 channels (5710.0999K34)
●
R&S®RTM2052: 500 MHz, 2 channels (5710.0999K52)
●
R&S®RTM2054: 500 MHz, 4 channels (5710.0999K54)
●
R&S®RTM2102: 1 GHz, 2channels (5710.0999K02)
●
R&S®RTM2104: 1 GHz, 4 channels (5710.0999K04)
In addition to the base unit, the following options are described:
●
R&S®RTM-K1 (1305.0295.02), I²C/SPI
●
R&S®RTM-K2 (1305.0308.02), UART/RS232
●
R&S®RTM-K3 (1317.3065.02), CAN/LIN
●
R&S®RTM-K5 (5710.0882.02), I²S (audio)
●
R&S®RTM-K6 (1317.6835.02), MIL.1553
●
R&S®RTM-K7 (1317.6841.02), ARINC 429
●
R&S®RTM-K15 (5710.0899.02), History and segmented memory
●
R&S®RTM-K18 (1326.0959.02), Spectrum analysis
●
R&S®RTM-K31 (1317.5745.02), Power analysis
●
R&S®RTM-K32 (1326.0907.02), Digital voltmeter (DVM)
© 2016 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
Email: info@rohde-schwarz.com
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual: R&S®RTM2000 is abbreviated as R&S RTM.
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF Power
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Caution ! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
To identify any terminal which is intended for
connection to an external conductor for
protection against electric shock in case of a
fault, or the terminal of a protective earth
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Earth (Ground)
Class II Equipment
to identify equipment meeting the safety
requirements specified for Class II equipment
(device protected by double or reinforced
insulation)
Frame or chassis Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution degree 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the mains-supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the mains, or if the power switch is not
suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product from the
mains. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and accessible at all
times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the connecting cable
must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing disconnection
from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into racks or systems,
the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1 or IEC 61010-1 / EN 61010-1 standards that
apply in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
 Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
 Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Significado
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
1171.0000.42 - 08
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión U eff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
1171.0000.42 - 08
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados ―los llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)―. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
 Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
 Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
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Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
Lesen und beachten Sie unbedingt die nachfolgenden Anweisungen und Sicherheitshinweise!
Alle Werke und Standorte der Rohde & Schwarz Firmengruppe sind ständig bemüht, den
Sicherheitsstandard unserer Produkte auf dem aktuellsten Stand zu halten und unseren Kunden ein
höchstmögliches Maß an Sicherheit zu bieten. Unsere Produkte und die dafür erforderlichen Zusatzgeräte
werden entsprechend der jeweils gültigen Sicherheitsvorschriften gebaut und geprüft. Die Einhaltung
dieser Bestimmungen wird durch unser Qualitätssicherungssystem laufend überwacht. Das vorliegende
Produkt ist gemäß beiliegender EU-Konformitätsbescheinigung gebaut und geprüft und hat das Werk in
sicherheitstechnisch einwandfreiem Zustand verlassen. Um diesen Zustand zu erhalten und einen
gefahrlosen Betrieb sicherzustellen, muss der Benutzer alle Hinweise, Warnhinweise und Warnvermerke
beachten. Bei allen Fragen bezüglich vorliegender Sicherheitshinweise steht Ihnen die Rohde & Schwarz
Firmengruppe jederzeit gerne zur Verfügung.
Darüber hinaus liegt es in der Verantwortung des Benutzers, das Produkt in geeigneter Weise zu
verwenden. Das Produkt ist ausschließlich für den Betrieb in Industrie und Labor bzw., wenn ausdrücklich
zugelassen, auch für den Feldeinsatz bestimmt und darf in keiner Weise so verwendet werden, dass einer
Person/Sache Schaden zugefügt werden kann. Die Benutzung des Produkts außerhalb des
bestimmungsgemäßen Gebrauchs oder unter Missachtung der Anweisungen des Herstellers liegt in der
Verantwortung des Benutzers. Der Hersteller übernimmt keine Verantwortung für die Zweckentfremdung
des Produkts.
Die bestimmungsgemäße Verwendung des Produkts wird angenommen, wenn das Produkt nach den
Vorgaben der zugehörigen Produktdokumentation innerhalb seiner Leistungsgrenzen verwendet wird
(siehe Datenblatt, Dokumentation, nachfolgende Sicherheitshinweise). Die Benutzung des Produkts
erfordert Fachkenntnisse und zum Teil englische Sprachkenntnisse. Es ist daher zu beachten, dass das
Produkt ausschließlich von Fachkräften oder sorgfältig eingewiesenen Personen mit entsprechenden
Fähigkeiten bedient werden darf. Sollte für die Verwendung von Rohde & Schwarz-Produkten persönliche
Schutzausrüstung erforderlich sein, wird in der Produktdokumentation an entsprechender Stelle darauf
hingewiesen. Bewahren Sie die grundlegenden Sicherheitshinweise und die Produktdokumentation gut
auf und geben Sie diese an weitere Benutzer des Produkts weiter.
Die Einhaltung der Sicherheitshinweise dient dazu, Verletzungen oder Schäden durch Gefahren aller Art
auszuschließen. Hierzu ist es erforderlich, dass die nachstehenden Sicherheitshinweise vor der
Benutzung des Produkts sorgfältig gelesen und verstanden sowie bei der Benutzung des Produkts
beachtet werden. Sämtliche weitere Sicherheitshinweise wie z.B. zum Personenschutz, die an
entsprechender Stelle der Produktdokumentation stehen, sind ebenfalls unbedingt zu beachten. In den
vorliegenden Sicherheitshinweisen sind sämtliche von der Rohde & Schwarz Firmengruppe vertriebenen
Waren unter dem Begriff „Produkt“ zusammengefasst, hierzu zählen u. a. Geräte, Anlagen sowie
sämtliches Zubehör.
1171.0000.41 – 08
Seite 1
Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
Symbole und Sicherheitskennzeichnungen
Symbol
Bedeutung
Achtung, allgemeine Gefahrenstelle
Symbol
Bedeutung
EIN-/AUS (Versorgung)
Produktdokumentation beachten
Vorsicht beim Umgang mit Geräten mit hohem
Gewicht
Stand-by-Anzeige
Gefahr vor elektrischem Schlag
Gleichstrom (DC)
Warnung vor heißer Oberfläche
Wechselstrom (AC)
Schutzleiteranschluss
Gleichstrom/Wechselstrom (DC/AC)
Erdungsanschluss
Gerät entspricht den Sicherheitsanforderungen an die Schutzklasse II
(Gerät durchgehend durch doppelte /
verstärkte Isolierung geschützt.
Masseanschluss des Gestells oder Gehäuses
EU - Kennzeichnung für Batterien und
Akkumulatoren.
Das Gerät enthält eine Batterie bzw. einen
Akkumulator. Diese dürfen nicht über
unsortierten Siedlungsabfall entsorgt werden,
sondern sollten getrennt gesammelt werden.
Weitere Informationen siehe Seite 7.
Achtung beim Umgang mit elektrostatisch
gefährdeten Bauelementen
EU - Kennzeichnung für die getrennte
Sammlung von Elektro- und
Elektronikgeräten.
Elektroaltgeräte dürfen nicht über unsortierten
Siedlungsabfall entsorgt werden, sondern
müssen getrennt gesammelt werden.
Weitere Informationen siehe Seite 7.
Warnung vor Laserstrahl
Produkte mit Laser sind je nach ihrer LaserKlasse mit genormten Warnhinweisen
versehen.
Laser können aufgrund der Eigenschaften
ihrer Strahlung und aufgrund ihrer extrem
konzentrierten elektromagnetischen Leistung
biologische Schäden verursachen.
Für zusätzliche Informationen siehe Kapitel
„Betrieb“ Punkt 7.
1171.0000.41 – 08
Seite 2
Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
Signalworte und ihre Bedeutung
Die folgenden Signalworte werden in der Produktdokumentation verwendet, um vor Risiken und Gefahren
zu warnen.
kennzeichnet eine unmittelbare Gefährdung mit hohem Risiko, die Tod oder
schwere Körperverletzung zur Folge haben wird, wenn sie nicht vermieden
wird.
kennzeichnet eine mögliche Gefährdung mit mittlerem Risiko, die Tod oder
(schwere) Körperverletzung zur Folge haben kann, wenn sie nicht vermieden
wird.
kennzeichnet eine Gefährdung mit geringem Risiko, die leichte oder mittlere
Körperverletzungen zur Folge haben könnte, wenn sie nicht vermieden wird.
weist auf die Möglichkeit einer Fehlbedienung hin, bei der das Produkt
Schaden nehmen kann.
Diese Signalworte entsprechen der im europäischen Wirtschaftsraum üblichen Definition für zivile
Anwendungen. Neben dieser Definition können in anderen Wirtschaftsräumen oder bei militärischen
Anwendungen abweichende Definitionen existieren. Es ist daher darauf zu achten, dass die hier
beschriebenen Signalworte stets nur in Verbindung mit der zugehörigen Produktdokumentation und nur in
Verbindung mit dem zugehörigen Produkt verwendet werden. Die Verwendung von Signalworten in
Zusammenhang mit nicht zugehörigen Produkten oder nicht zugehörigen Dokumentationen kann zu
Fehlinterpretationen führen und damit zu Personen- oder Sachschäden führen.
Betriebszustände und Betriebslagen
Das Produkt darf nur in den vom Hersteller angegebenen Betriebszuständen und Betriebslagen ohne
Behinderung der Belüftung betrieben werden. Werden die Herstellerangaben nicht eingehalten, kann dies
elektrischen Schlag, Brand und/oder schwere Verletzungen von Personen, unter Umständen mit
Todesfolge, verursachen. Bei allen Arbeiten sind die örtlichen bzw. landesspezifischen Sicherheits- und
Unfallverhütungsvorschriften zu beachten.
1. Sofern nicht anders vereinbart, gilt für R&S-Produkte folgendes:
als vorgeschriebene Betriebslage grundsätzlich Gehäuseboden unten, IP-Schutzart 2X,
Verschmutzungsgrad 2, Überspannungskategorie 2, nur in Innenräumen verwenden, Betrieb bis
2000 m ü. NN, Transport bis 4500 m ü. NN, für die Nennspannung gilt eine Toleranz von ±10%, für
die Nennfrequenz eine Toleranz von ±5%.
2. Stellen Sie das Produkt nicht auf Oberflächen, Fahrzeuge, Ablagen oder Tische, die aus Gewichtsoder Stabilitätsgründen nicht dafür geeignet sind. Folgen Sie bei Aufbau und Befestigung des
Produkts an Gegenständen oder Strukturen (z.B. Wände und Regale) immer den Installationshinweisen des Herstellers. Bei Installation abweichend von der Produktdokumentation können
Personen verletzt, unter Umständen sogar getötet werden.
3. Stellen Sie das Produkt nicht auf hitzeerzeugende Gerätschaften (z.B. Radiatoren und Heizlüfter). Die
Umgebungstemperatur darf nicht die in der Produktdokumentation oder im Datenblatt spezifizierte
Maximaltemperatur überschreiten. Eine Überhitzung des Produkts kann elektrischen Schlag, Brand
und/oder schwere Verletzungen von Personen, unter Umständen mit Todesfolge, verursachen.
1171.0000.41 – 08
Seite 3
Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
Elektrische Sicherheit
Werden die Hinweise zur elektrischen Sicherheit nicht oder unzureichend beachtet, kann dies elektrischen
Schlag, Brand und/oder schwere Verletzungen von Personen, unter Umständen mit Todesfolge,
verursachen.
1. Vor jedem Einschalten des Produkts ist sicherzustellen, dass die am Produkt eingestellte
Nennspannung und die Netznennspannung des Versorgungsnetzes übereinstimmen. Ist es
erforderlich, die Spannungseinstellung zu ändern, so muss ggf. auch die dazu gehörige
Netzsicherung des Produkts geändert werden.
2. Bei Produkten der Schutzklasse I mit beweglicher Netzzuleitung und Gerätesteckvorrichtung ist der
Betrieb nur an Steckdosen mit Schutzkontakt und angeschlossenem Schutzleiter zulässig.
3. Jegliche absichtliche Unterbrechung des Schutzleiters, sowohl in der Zuleitung als auch am Produkt
selbst, ist unzulässig. Es kann dazu führen, dass von dem Produkt die Gefahr eines elektrischen
Schlags ausgeht. Bei Verwendung von Verlängerungsleitungen oder Steckdosenleisten ist sicherzustellen, dass diese regelmäßig auf ihren sicherheitstechnischen Zustand überprüft werden.
4. Sofern das Produkt nicht mit einem Netzschalter zur Netztrennung ausgerüstet ist, beziehungsweise
der vorhandene Netzschalter zu Netztrennung nicht geeignet ist, so ist der Stecker des
Anschlusskabels als Trennvorrichtung anzusehen.
Die Trennvorrichtung muss jederzeit leicht erreichbar und gut zugänglich sein. Ist z.B. der Netzstecker
die Trennvorrichtung, darf die Länge des Anschlusskabels 3 m nicht überschreiten.
Funktionsschalter oder elektronische Schalter sind zur Netztrennung nicht geeignet. Werden Produkte
ohne Netzschalter in Gestelle oder Anlagen integriert, so ist die Trennvorrichtung auf Anlagenebene
zu verlagern.
5. Benutzen Sie das Produkt niemals, wenn das Netzkabel beschädigt ist. Überprüfen Sie regelmäßig
den einwandfreien Zustand der Netzkabel. Stellen Sie durch geeignete Schutzmaßnahmen und
Verlegearten sicher, dass das Netzkabel nicht beschädigt werden kann und niemand z.B. durch
Stolperfallen oder elektrischen Schlag zu Schaden kommen kann.
6. Der Betrieb ist nur an TN/TT Versorgungsnetzen gestattet, die mit höchstens 16 A abgesichert sind
(höhere Absicherung nur nach Rücksprache mit der Rohde & Schwarz Firmengruppe).
7. Stecken Sie den Stecker nicht in verstaubte oder verschmutzte Steckdosen/-buchsen. Stecken Sie die
Steckverbindung/-vorrichtung fest und vollständig in die dafür vorgesehenen Steckdosen/-buchsen.
Missachtung dieser Maßnahmen kann zu Funken, Feuer und/oder Verletzungen führen.
8. Überlasten Sie keine Steckdosen, Verlängerungskabel oder Steckdosenleisten, dies kann Feuer oder
elektrische Schläge verursachen.
9. Bei Messungen in Stromkreisen mit Spannungen Ueff > 30 V ist mit geeigneten Maßnahmen Vorsorge
zu treffen, dass jegliche Gefährdung ausgeschlossen wird (z.B. geeignete Messmittel, Absicherung,
Strombegrenzung, Schutztrennung, Isolierung usw.).
10. Bei Verbindungen mit informationstechnischen Geräten, z.B. PC oder Industrierechner, ist darauf zu
achten, dass diese der jeweils gültigen IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1 oder IEC 61010-1 / EN 61010-1
entsprechen.
11. Sofern nicht ausdrücklich erlaubt, darf der Deckel oder ein Teil des Gehäuses niemals entfernt
werden, wenn das Produkt betrieben wird. Dies macht elektrische Leitungen und Komponenten
zugänglich und kann zu Verletzungen, Feuer oder Schaden am Produkt führen.
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Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
12. Wird ein Produkt ortsfest angeschlossen, ist die Verbindung zwischen dem Schutzleiteranschluss vor
Ort und dem Geräteschutzleiter vor jeglicher anderer Verbindung herzustellen. Aufstellung und
Anschluss darf nur durch eine Elektrofachkraft erfolgen.
13. Bei ortsfesten Geräten ohne eingebaute Sicherung, Selbstschalter oder ähnliche Schutzeinrichtung
muss der Versorgungskreis so abgesichert sein, dass alle Personen, die Zugang zum Produkt haben,
sowie das Produkt selbst ausreichend vor Schäden geschützt sind.
14. Jedes Produkt muss durch geeigneten Überspannungsschutz vor Überspannung (z.B. durch
Blitzschlag) geschützt werden. Andernfalls ist das bedienende Personal durch elektrischen Schlag
gefährdet.
15. Gegenstände, die nicht dafür vorgesehen sind, dürfen nicht in die Öffnungen des Gehäuses
eingebracht werden. Dies kann Kurzschlüsse im Produkt und/oder elektrische Schläge, Feuer oder
Verletzungen verursachen.
16. Sofern nicht anders spezifiziert, sind Produkte nicht gegen das Eindringen von Flüssigkeiten
geschützt, siehe auch Abschnitt "Betriebszustände und Betriebslagen", Punkt 1. Daher müssen die
Geräte vor Eindringen von Flüssigkeiten geschützt werden. Wird dies nicht beachtet, besteht Gefahr
durch elektrischen Schlag für den Benutzer oder Beschädigung des Produkts, was ebenfalls zur
Gefährdung von Personen führen kann.
17. Benutzen Sie das Produkt nicht unter Bedingungen, bei denen Kondensation in oder am Produkt
stattfinden könnte oder ggf. bereits stattgefunden hat, z.B. wenn das Produkt von kalter in warme
Umgebung bewegt wurde. Das Eindringen von Wasser erhöht das Risiko eines elektrischen
Schlages.
18. Trennen Sie das Produkt vor der Reinigung komplett von der Energieversorgung (z.B. speisendes
Netz oder Batterie). Nehmen Sie bei Geräten die Reinigung mit einem weichen, nicht fasernden
Staublappen vor. Verwenden Sie keinesfalls chemische Reinigungsmittel wie z.B. Alkohol, Aceton,
Nitroverdünnung.
Betrieb
1. Die Benutzung des Produkts erfordert spezielle Einweisung und hohe Konzentration während der
Benutzung. Es muss sichergestellt sein, dass Personen, die das Produkt bedienen, bezüglich ihrer
körperlichen, geistigen und seelischen Verfassung den Anforderungen gewachsen sind, da
andernfalls Verletzungen oder Sachschäden nicht auszuschließen sind. Es liegt in der Verantwortung
des Arbeitsgebers/Betreibers, geeignetes Personal für die Benutzung des Produkts auszuwählen.
2. Bevor Sie das Produkt bewegen oder transportieren, lesen und beachten Sie den Abschnitt
"Transport".
3. Wie bei allen industriell gefertigten Gütern kann die Verwendung von Stoffen, die Allergien
hervorrufen - so genannte Allergene (z.B. Nickel) - nicht generell ausgeschlossen werden. Sollten
beim Umgang mit R&S-Produkten allergische Reaktionen, z.B. Hautausschlag, häufiges Niesen,
Bindehautrötung oder Atembeschwerden auftreten, ist umgehend ein Arzt aufzusuchen, um die
Ursachen zu klären und Gesundheitsschäden bzw. -belastungen zu vermeiden.
4. Vor der mechanischen und/oder thermischen Bearbeitung oder Zerlegung des Produkts beachten Sie
unbedingt Abschnitt "Entsorgung", Punkt 1.
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Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
5. Bei bestimmten Produkten, z.B. HF-Funkanlagen, können funktionsbedingt erhöhte elektromagnetische Strahlungen auftreten. Unter Berücksichtigung der erhöhten Schutzwürdigkeit des ungeborenen Lebens müssen Schwangere durch geeignete Maßnahmen geschützt werden. Auch Träger
von Herzschrittmachern können durch elektromagnetische Strahlungen gefährdet sein. Der
Arbeitgeber/Betreiber ist verpflichtet, Arbeitsstätten, bei denen ein besonderes Risiko einer Strahlenexposition besteht, zu beurteilen und zu kennzeichnen und mögliche Gefahren abzuwenden.
6. Im Falle eines Brandes entweichen ggf. giftige Stoffe (Gase, Flüssigkeiten etc.) aus dem Produkt, die
Gesundheitsschäden verursachen können. Daher sind im Brandfall geeignete Maßnahmen wie z.B.
Atemschutzmasken und Schutzkleidung zu verwenden.
7. Falls ein Laser-Produkt in ein R&S-Produkt integriert ist (z.B. CD/DVD-Laufwerk), dürfen keine
anderen Einstellungen oder Funktionen verwendet werden, als in der Produktdokumentation beschrieben, um Personenschäden zu vermeiden (z.B. durch Laserstrahl).
8. EMV Klassen (nach EN 55011 / CISPR 11; sinngemäß EN 55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
Gerät der Klasse A:
Ein Gerät, das sich für den Gebrauch in allen anderen Bereichen außer dem Wohnbereich und
solchen Bereichen eignet, die direkt an ein Niederspannungs-Versorgungsnetz angeschlossen sind,
das Wohngebäude versorgt.
Hinweis: Diese Einrichtung kann wegen möglicher auftretender leitungsgebundener als auch
gestrahlten Störgrößen im Wohnbereich Funkstörungen verursachen. In diesem Fall kann vom
Betreiber verlangt werden, angemessene Maßnahmen durchzuführen.
Gerät der Klasse B:
Ein Gerät, das sich für den Betrieb im Wohnbereich sowie in solchen Bereichen eignet, die direkt an
ein Niederspannungs-Versorgungsnetz angeschlossen sind, das Wohngebäude versorgt.
Reparatur und Service
1. Das Produkt darf nur von dafür autorisiertem Fachpersonal geöffnet werden. Vor Arbeiten am Produkt
oder Öffnen des Produkts ist dieses von der Versorgungsspannung zu trennen, sonst besteht das
Risiko eines elektrischen Schlages.
2. Abgleich, Auswechseln von Teilen, Wartung und Reparatur darf nur von R&S-autorisierten
Elektrofachkräften ausgeführt werden. Werden sicherheitsrelevante Teile (z.B. Netzschalter,
Netztrafos oder Sicherungen) ausgewechselt, so dürfen diese nur durch Originalteile ersetzt werden.
Nach jedem Austausch von sicherheitsrelevanten Teilen ist eine Sicherheitsprüfung durchzuführen
(Sichtprüfung, Schutzleitertest, Isolationswiderstand-, Ableitstrommessung, Funktionstest). Damit wird
sichergestellt, dass die Sicherheit des Produkts erhalten bleibt.
Batterien und Akkumulatoren/Zellen
Werden die Hinweise zu Batterien und Akkumulatoren/Zellen nicht oder unzureichend beachtet, kann dies
Explosion, Brand und/oder schwere Verletzungen von Personen, unter Umständen mit Todesfolge,
verursachen. Die Handhabung von Batterien und Akkumulatoren mit alkalischen Elektrolyten (z.B.
Lithiumzellen) muss der EN 62133 entsprechen.
1. Zellen dürfen nicht zerlegt, geöffnet oder zerkleinert werden.
2. Zellen oder Batterien dürfen weder Hitze noch Feuer ausgesetzt werden. Die Lagerung im direkten
Sonnenlicht ist zu vermeiden. Zellen und Batterien sauber und trocken halten. Verschmutzte
Anschlüsse mit einem trockenen, sauberen Tuch reinigen.
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Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
3. Zellen oder Batterien dürfen nicht kurzgeschlossen werden. Zellen oder Batterien dürfen nicht
gefahrbringend in einer Schachtel oder in einem Schubfach gelagert werden, wo sie sich gegenseitig
kurzschließen oder durch andere leitende Werkstoffe kurzgeschlossen werden können. Eine Zelle
oder Batterie darf erst aus ihrer Originalverpackung entnommen werden, wenn sie verwendet werden
soll.
4. Zellen oder Batterien dürfen keinen unzulässig starken, mechanischen Stößen ausgesetzt werden.
5. Bei Undichtheit einer Zelle darf die Flüssigkeit nicht mit der Haut in Berührung kommen oder in die
Augen gelangen. Falls es zu einer Berührung gekommen ist, den betroffenen Bereich mit reichlich
Wasser waschen und ärztliche Hilfe in Anspruch nehmen.
6. Werden Zellen oder Batterien, die alkalische Elektrolyte enthalten (z.B. Lithiumzellen), unsachgemäß
ausgewechselt oder geladen, besteht Explosionsgefahr. Zellen oder Batterien nur durch den entsprechenden R&S-Typ ersetzen (siehe Ersatzteilliste), um die Sicherheit des Produkts zu erhalten.
7. Zellen oder Batterien müssen wiederverwertet werden und dürfen nicht in den Restmüll gelangen.
Akkumulatoren oder Batterien, die Blei, Quecksilber oder Cadmium enthalten, sind Sonderabfall.
Beachten Sie hierzu die landesspezifischen Entsorgungs- und Recycling-Bestimmungen.
Transport
1. Das Produkt kann ein hohes Gewicht aufweisen. Daher muss es vorsichtig und ggf. unter
Verwendung eines geeigneten Hebemittels (z.B. Hubwagen) bewegt bzw. transportiert werden, um
Rückenschäden oder Verletzungen zu vermeiden.
2. Griffe an den Produkten sind eine Handhabungshilfe, die ausschließlich für den Transport des
Produkts durch Personen vorgesehen ist. Es ist daher nicht zulässig, Griffe zur Befestigung an bzw.
auf Transportmitteln, z.B. Kränen, Gabelstaplern, Karren etc. zu verwenden. Es liegt in Ihrer
Verantwortung, die Produkte sicher an bzw. auf geeigneten Transport- oder Hebemitteln zu
befestigen. Beachten Sie die Sicherheitsvorschriften des jeweiligen Herstellers eingesetzter
Transport- oder Hebemittel, um Personenschäden und Schäden am Produkt zu vermeiden.
3. Falls Sie das Produkt in einem Fahrzeug benutzen, liegt es in der alleinigen Verantwortung des
Fahrers, das Fahrzeug in sicherer und angemessener Weise zu führen. Der Hersteller übernimmt
keine Verantwortung für Unfälle oder Kollisionen. Verwenden Sie das Produkt niemals in einem sich
bewegenden Fahrzeug, sofern dies den Fahrzeugführer ablenken könnte. Sichern Sie das Produkt im
Fahrzeug ausreichend ab, um im Falle eines Unfalls Verletzungen oder Schäden anderer Art zu
verhindern.
Entsorgung
1. Batterien bzw. Akkumulatoren, die nicht mit dem Hausmüll entsorgt werden dürfen, darf nach Ende
der Lebensdauer nur über eine geeignete Sammelstelle oder eine Rohde & SchwarzKundendienststelle entsorgt werden.
2. Am Ende der Lebensdauer des Produktes darf dieses Produkt nicht über den normalen Hausmüll
entsorgt werden, sondern muss getrennt gesammelt werden.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ein Entsorgungskonzept entwickelt und übernimmt die Pflichten
der Rücknahme- und Entsorgung für Hersteller innerhalb der EU in vollem Umfang. Wenden Sie sich
bitte an Ihre Rohde & Schwarz-Kundendienststelle, um das Produkt umweltgerecht zu entsorgen.
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Grundlegende Sicherheitshinweise
3. Werden Produkte oder ihre Bestandteile über den bestimmungsgemäßen Betrieb hinaus mechanisch
und/oder thermisch bearbeitet, können ggf. gefährliche Stoffe (schwermetallhaltiger Staub wie z.B.
Blei, Beryllium, Nickel) freigesetzt werden. Die Zerlegung des Produkts darf daher nur von speziell
geschultem Fachpersonal erfolgen. Unsachgemäßes Zerlegen kann Gesundheitsschäden
hervorrufen. Die nationalen Vorschriften zur Entsorgung sind zu beachten.
4. Falls beim Umgang mit dem Produkt Gefahren- oder Betriebsstoffe entstehen, die speziell zu
entsorgen sind, z.B. regelmäßig zu wechselnde Kühlmittel oder Motorenöle, sind die
Sicherheitshinweise des Herstellers dieser Gefahren- oder Betriebsstoffe und die regional gültigen
Entsorgungsvorschriften einzuhalten. Beachten Sie ggf. auch die zugehörigen speziellen
Sicherheitshinweise in der Produktdokumentation. Die unsachgemäße Entsorgung von Gefahrenoder Betriebsstoffen kann zu Gesundheitsschäden von Personen und Umweltschäden führen.
Weitere Informationen zu Umweltschutz finden Sie auf der Rohde & Schwarz Home Page.
1171.0000.41 – 08
Seite 8
Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
Lisez et respectez impérativement les instructions et consignes de sécurité suivantes
Les usines et sites du groupe Rohde & Schwarz veillent à la conformité des produits du groupe avec les
normes de sécurité en vigueur dans un souci constant de garantir aux clients le plus haut niveau de
sécurité possible. Nos produits ainsi que les accessoires nécessaires sont fabriqués et testés
conformément aux règles de sécurité en vigueur. Le respect de ces règles est vérifié régulièrement par
notre système d’assurance qualité. Le présent produit a été fabriqué et contrôlé conformément au
certificat de conformité CE ci-joint et a quitté l’usine dans un parfait état de sécurité. Pour le maintenir
dans cet état et en garantir une utilisation sans danger, l’utilisateur doit respecter l’ensemble des
consignes, remarques de sécurité et avertissements qui se trouvent dans ce manuel. Le groupe
Rohde & Schwarz se tient à votre disposition pour toutes questions relatives aux présentes consignes de
sécurité.
Il incombe à l’utilisateur d’employer ce produit de manière appropriée. Le produit est exclusivement
destiné à l’utilisation en industrie et en laboratoire et/ou, si cela a été expressément autorisé, également
aux travaux extérieurs ; il ne peut en aucun cas être utilisé à des fins pouvant causer des dommages
corporels ou matériels. L’exploitation du produit en dehors de son utilisation prévue ou le non-respect des
consignes du fabricant se font sous la responsabilité de l’utilisateur. Le fabricant décline toute
responsabilité en cas d’utilisation non conforme du produit.
Le produit est présumé faire l’objet d’une utilisation conforme lorsqu’il est utilisé conformément aux
consignes de la documentation produit correspondante et dans la limite de ses performances (voir fiche
technique, documentation, consignes de sécurité ci-après). L’utilisation du produit exige des compétences
en la matière et des connaissances de base de l’anglais. Par conséquent, le produit ne devra être utilisé
que par un personnel qualifié ou des personnes formées de manière approfondie et possédant les
compétences requises. Si, pour l’utilisation des produits Rohde & Schwarz, l’emploi d’un équipement
personnel de protection s’avère nécessaire, il en est fait mention dans la documentation produit à
l’emplacement correspondant. Conservez les consignes de sécurité fondamentales et la documentation
produit dans un lieu sûr et transmettez ces documents aux autres utilisateurs du produit.
La stricte observation des consignes de sécurité a pour but d’exclure des blessures ou dommages causés
par des dangers de toutes sortes. A cet effet, il est nécessaire de lire avec soin et de bien comprendre les
consignes de sécurité ci-dessous avant l’utilisation du produit et de les respecter lors de l’utilisation du
produit. Toutes les autres consignes de sécurité présentées à l’emplacement correspondant de la
documentation produit, par exemple, celles concernant la protection des personnes, doivent également
être impérativement respectées. Dans les présentes consignes de sécurité, toutes les marchandises
commercialisées par le groupe Rohde & Schwarz, notamment les appareils, les systèmes ainsi que les
accessoires, sont dénommés « produit ».
1171.0000.43 – 08
Page 1
Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
Symboles et marquages de sécurité
Symbole
Signification
Avis, source générale de danger
Symbole
Signification
MARCHE / ARRET (tension d’alimentation)
Se référer à la documentation produit
Attention lors de la manipulation d’appareils
ayant un poids élevé
Indicateur de veille
Risque de choc électrique
Courant continu (CC)
Avertissement, surface chaude
Courant alternatif (CA)
Borne de conducteur de protection
Courant continu/alternatif (CC/CA)
Borne de mise à la terre
L’appareil est conforme aux exigences de
sécurité du degré de protection II
(appareil entièrement protégé par isolation
double/renforcée).
Borne de mise à la masse du bâti ou du boîtier
Marquage UE pour batteries et accumulateurs.
L’appareil contient une batterie ou un
accumulateur. Ces pièces ne peuvent pas être
éliminées avec les déchets urbains non triés,
mais doivent faire l’objet d’une collecte
séparée.
Pour plus d’informations, voir la page 7.
Avis : prudence lors de la manipulation de
composants sensibles aux décharges
électrostatiques
Marquage UE pour la collecte séparée
d’équipements électriques et électroniques.
Les déchets d’équipements électriques et
électroniques ne peuvent pas être éliminés
avec les déchets urbains non triés, mais
doivent faire l’objet d’une collecte séparée.
Pour plus d’informations, voir la page 7.
Avertissement, rayon laser
Les produits laser sont munis d’avertissements
normalisés d’après leur catégorie laser.
En raison des caractéristiques de leur
rayonnement ainsi que de leur puissance
électromagnétique extrêmement concentrée,
les lasers peuvent causer des dommages
biologiques.
Pour plus d’informations, voir le chapitre
« Fonctionnement »", point 7.
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Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
Mots d’alerte et significations
Les mots d’alerte suivants sont utilisés dans la documentation produit pour avertir des risques et dangers.
Indique une situation dangereuse immédiate qui, si elle n’est pas
évitée, comporte un risque élevé de blessures graves ou
mortelles.
Indique une situation dangereuse possible qui, si elle n’est pas
évitée, comporte un risque modéré de blessures (graves) ou
mortelles.
Indique une situation dangereuse qui, si elle n’est pas évitée,
comporte un risque faible de blessures mineures ou modérées.
Indique la possibilité d’une fausse manœuvre susceptible
d’endommager le produit.
Ces mots d’alerte correspondent à la définition habituelle utilisée pour des applications civiles dans
l’espace économique européen. Des définitions divergentes peuvent cependant exister dans d’autres
espaces économiques ou dans le cadre d’applications militaires. Il faut donc veiller à ce que les mots
d’alerte décrits ici ne soient utilisés qu’en relation avec la documentation produit correspondante et
seulement avec le produit correspondant. L’utilisation des mots d’alerte en relation avec des produits ou
des documentations non correspondants peut conduire à des erreurs d’interprétation et par conséquent à
des dommages corporels ou matériels.
États et positions de fonctionnement
L’appareil ne doit être utilisé que dans les états et positions de fonctionnement indiqués par le fabricant.
Tout obstacle à la ventilation doit être empêché. Le non-respect des indications du fabricant peut
provoquer des chocs électriques, des incendies et/ou des blessures graves pouvant éventuellement
entraîner la mort. Pour tous les travaux, les règles locales et/ou nationales de sécurité et de prévention
des accidents doivent être respectées.
1. Sauf stipulations contraires, les produits Rohde & Schwarz répondent aux exigences ci-après :
faire fonctionner le produit avec le fond du boîtier toujours en bas, degré de protection IP 2X, degré de
pollution 2, catégorie de surtension 2, utilisation uniquement à l’intérieur, fonctionnement à une
altitude max. de 2000 m au-dessus du niveau de la mer, transport à une altitude max. de 4500 m audessus du niveau de la mer, tolérance de ±10 % pour la tension nominale et de ±5 % pour la
fréquence nominale.
2. Ne jamais placer le produit sur des surfaces, véhicules, dépôts ou tables non appropriés pour raisons
de stabilité ou de poids. Suivre toujours strictement les indications d’installation du fabricant pour le
montage et la fixation du produit sur des objets ou des structures (par exemple parois et étagères). En
cas d’installation non conforme à la documentation produit, il y a risque de blessures, voire de mort.
3. Ne jamais placer le produit sur des dispositifs générant de la chaleur (par exemple radiateurs et
appareils de chauffage soufflants). La température ambiante ne doit pas dépasser la température
maximale spécifiée dans la documentation produit ou dans la fiche technique. Une surchauffe du
produit peut provoquer des chocs électriques, des incendies et/ou des blessures graves pouvant
éventuellement entraîner la mort.
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Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
Sécurité électrique
Si les consignes relatives à la sécurité électrique ne sont pas ou sont insuffisamment respectées, il peut
s’ensuivre des chocs électriques, des incendies et/ou des blessures graves pouvant éventuellement
entraîner la mort.
1. Avant chaque mise sous tension du produit, il faut s’assurer que la tension nominale réglée sur le
produit correspond à la tension nominale du réseau électrique. S’il est nécessaire de modifier le
réglage de la tension, il faut remplacer le fusible du produit, le cas échéant.
2. L’utilisation des produits du degré de protection I pourvus d’un câble d’alimentation mobile et d’un
connecteur n’est autorisée qu’avec des prises munies d’un contact de protection et d’un conducteur
de protection raccordé.
3. Toute déconnexion intentionnelle du conducteur de protection, dans le câble ou dans le produit luimême, est interdite. Elle entraîne un risque de choc électrique au niveau du produit. En cas
d’utilisation de câbles prolongateurs ou de multiprises, ceux-ci doivent être examinés régulièrement
quant à leur état de sécurité technique.
4. Si le produit n’est pas doté d’un interrupteur d’alimentation pour le couper du réseau électrique ou si
l’interrupteur d’alimentation disponible n’est pas approprié pour couper le produit du réseau électrique,
le connecteur mâle du câble de raccordement est à considérer comme dispositif de séparation.
Le dispositif de séparation doit être à tout moment facilement accessible. Si, par exemple, le
connecteur d’alimentation sert de dispositif de séparation, la longueur du câble de raccordement ne
doit pas dépasser 3 m.
Les commutateurs fonctionnels ou électroniques ne sont pas appropriés pour couper l’appareil du
réseau électrique. Si des produits sans interrupteur d’alimentation sont intégrés dans des bâtis ou
systèmes, le dispositif de séparation doit être reporté au niveau du système.
5. Ne jamais utiliser le produit si le câble d’alimentation est endommagé. Vérifier régulièrement le parfait
état du câble d’alimentation. Prendre les mesures préventives appropriées et opter pour des types de
pose tels que le câble d’alimentation ne puisse pas être endommagé et que personne ne puisse subir
de préjudice, par exemple en trébuchant sur le câble ou par des chocs électriques.
6. L’utilisation des produits est uniquement autorisée sur des réseaux d’alimentation de type TN/TT
protégés par des fusibles d’une intensité max. de 16 A (pour toute intensité supérieure, consulter le
groupe Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Ne pas brancher le connecteur dans des prises d’alimentation sales ou poussiéreuses. Enfoncer
fermement le connecteur jusqu’au bout de la prise. Le non-respect de cette mesure peut provoquer
des étincelles, incendies et/ou blessures.
8. Ne pas surcharger les prises, les câbles prolongateurs ou les multiprises, cela pouvant provoquer des
incendies ou chocs électriques.
9. En cas de mesures sur les circuits électriques d’une tension efficace > 30 V, prendre les précautions
nécessaires pour éviter tout risque (par exemple équipement de mesure approprié, fusibles, limitation
de courant, coupe-circuit, isolation, etc.).
10. En cas d’interconnexion avec des équipements informatiques comme par exemple un PC ou un
ordinateur industriel, veiller à ce que ces derniers soient conformes aux normes IEC 60950-1 /
EN 60950-1 ou IEC 61010-1 / EN 61010-1 en vigueur.
11. Sauf autorisation expresse, il est interdit de retirer le couvercle ou toute autre pièce du boîtier lorsque
le produit est en cours de service. Les câbles et composants électriques seraient ainsi accessibles, ce
qui peut entraîner des blessures, des incendies ou des dégâts sur le produit.
1171.0000.43 – 08
Page 4
Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
12. Si un produit est connecté de façon stationnaire, établir avant toute autre connexion le raccordement
du conducteur de protection local et du conducteur de protection du produit. L’installation et le
raccordement ne peuvent être effectués que par un électricien ou électronicien qualifié.
13. Sur les appareils stationnaires sans fusible ni disjoncteur automatique ou dispositif de protection
similaire intégrés, le circuit d’alimentation doit être sécurisé de sorte que toutes les personnes ayant
accès au produit et le produit lui-même soient suffisamment protégés contre tout dommage.
14. Chaque produit doit être protégé de manière appropriée contre les éventuelles surtensions (par
exemple dues à un coup de foudre). Sinon, les utilisateurs sont exposés à des risques de choc
électrique.
15. Ne jamais introduire d’objets non prévus à cet effet dans les ouvertures du boîtier, étant donné que
cela peut entraîner des courts-circuits dans le produit et/ou des chocs électriques, incendies ou
blessures.
16. Sauf spécification contraire, les produits ne sont pas protégés contre l’infiltration de liquides, voir aussi
la section « États et positions de fonctionnement », point 1. Il faut donc protéger les produits contre
l’infiltration de liquides. La non-observation de cette consigne entraîne le risque de choc électrique
pour l’utilisateur ou d’endommagement du produit, ce qui peut également mettre les personnes en
danger.
17. Ne pas utiliser le produit dans des conditions pouvant occasionner ou ayant déjà occasionné, le cas
échéant, des condensations dans ou sur le produit, par exemple lorsque celui-ci est déplacé d’un
environnement froid dans un environnement chaud. L’infiltration d’eau augmente le risque de choc
électrique.
18. Avant le nettoyage, débrancher le produit de l’alimentation (par exemple réseau électrique ou
batterie). Pour le nettoyage des appareils, utiliser un chiffon doux non pelucheux. N’utiliser en aucun
cas de produit de nettoyage chimique, tel que de l’alcool, de l’acétone ou un diluant nitrocellulosique.
Fonctionnement
1. L’utilisation du produit exige une formation spécifique ainsi qu’une grande concentration. Il est
impératif que les personnes qui utilisent le produit présent les aptitudes physiques, mentales et
psychiques requises, vu qu’autrement des dommages corporels ou matériels ne peuvent pas être
exclus. Le choix du personnel qualifié pour l’utilisation du produit est sous la responsabilité de
l’employeur/l’exploitant.
2. Avant de déplacer ou de transporter le produit, lire et respecter la section « Transport ».
3. Comme pour tous les biens produits de façon industrielle, l’utilisation de matériaux pouvant causer
des allergies (allergènes, comme par exemple le nickel) ne peut être totalement exclue. Si, lors de
l’utilisation de produits Rohde & Schwarz, des réactions allergiques surviennent, telles qu’éruption
cutanée, éternuements fréquents, rougeur de la conjonctive ou difficultés respiratoires, il faut
immédiatement consulter un médecin pour en clarifier la cause et éviter toute atteinte à la santé.
4. Avant le traitement mécanique et/ou thermique ou le démontage du produit, il faut impérativement
observer la section « Élimination des déchets », point 1.
1171.0000.43 – 08
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Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
5. Selon les fonctions, certains produits, tels que des systèmes de radiocommunication RF, peuvent
produire des niveaux élevés de rayonnement électromagnétique. Étant donné la vulnérabilité de
l’enfant à naître, les femmes enceintes doivent être protégées par des mesures appropriées. Les
porteurs de stimulateurs cardiaques peuvent également être menacés par les rayonnements
électromagnétiques. L’employeur/l’exploitant est tenu d’évaluer et de repérer les lieux de travail
soumis à un risque particulier d’exposition aux rayonnements et de prévenir les dangers éventuels.
6. En cas d’incendie, il se peut que le produit dégage des matières toxiques (gaz, liquides, etc.)
susceptibles de nuire à la santé. Il faut donc, en cas d’incendie, prendre des mesures adéquates
comme par exemple le port de masques respiratoires et de vêtements de protection.
7. Si un produit laser est intégré dans un produit Rohde & Schwarz (par exemple lecteur CD/DVD), il ne
faut pas utiliser de réglages ou fonctions autres que ceux décrits dans la documentation produit pour
éviter tout dommage corporel (par exemple causé par rayon laser).
8. Classes CEM (selon EN 55011 / CISPR 11 ; selon EN 55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32 par
analogie)
 Appareil de la classe A :
Appareil approprié à un usage dans tous les environnements autres que l’environnement
résidentiel et les environnements raccordés directement à un réseau d’alimentation basse tension
qui alimente des bâtiments résidentiels.
Remarque : ces appareils peuvent provoquer des perturbations radioélectriques dans
l’environnement résidentiel en raison de perturbations conduites ou rayonnées. Dans ce cas, on
peut exiger que l’exploitant mette en œuvre de mesures appropriées pour éliminer ces
perturbations.
 Appareil de la classe B :
Appareil approprié à un usage dans l’environnement résidentiel ainsi que dans les
environnements raccordés directement à un réseau d’alimentation basse tension qui alimente des
bâtiments résidentiels.
Réparation et service après-vente
1. Le produit ne doit être ouvert que par un personnel qualifié et autorisé. Avant de travailler sur le
produit ou de l’ouvrir, il faut le couper de la tension d’alimentation ; sinon il y a risque de choc
électrique.
2. Les travaux d’ajustement, le remplacement des pièces, la maintenance et la réparation ne doivent
être effectués que par des électroniciens qualifiés et autorisés par Rohde & Schwarz. En cas de
remplacement de pièces concernant la sécurité (notamment interrupteur d’alimentation,
transformateur d’alimentation réseau ou fusibles), celles-ci ne doivent être remplacées que par des
pièces d’origine. Après chaque remplacement de pièces concernant la sécurité, une vérification de
sécurité doit être effectuée (contrôle visuel, vérification du conducteur de protection, mesure de la
résistance d’isolement et du courant de fuite, essai de fonctionnement). Cela permet d’assurer le
maintien de la sécurité du produit.
Batteries et accumulateurs/cellules
Si les instructions concernant les batteries et accumulateurs/cellules ne sont pas ou sont insuffisamment
respectées, cela peut provoquer des explosions, des incendies et/ou des blessures graves pouvant
entraîner la mort. La manipulation de batteries et accumulateurs contenant des électrolytes alcalins (par
exemple cellules de lithium) doit être conforme à la norme EN 62133.
1171.0000.43 – 08
Page 6
Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
1. Les cellules ne doivent être ni démontées, ni ouvertes, ni réduites en morceaux.
2. Ne jamais exposer les cellules ou batteries à la chaleur ou au feu. Ne pas les stocker dans un endroit
où elles sont exposées au rayonnement direct du soleil. Tenir les cellules et batteries au sec. Nettoyer
les raccords sales avec un chiffon sec et propre.
3. Ne jamais court-circuiter les cellules ou batteries. Les cellules ou batteries ne doivent pas être
gardées dans une boîte ou un tiroir où elles peuvent se court-circuiter mutuellement ou être courtcircuitées par d’autres matériaux conducteurs. Une cellule ou batterie ne doit être retirée de son
emballage d’origine que lorsqu’on l’utilise.
4. Les cellules ou batteries ne doivent pas être exposées à des chocs mécaniques de force non
admissible.
5. En cas de manque d’étanchéité d’une cellule, le liquide ne doit pas entrer en contact avec la peau ou
les yeux. S’il y a contact, rincer abondamment à l’eau l’endroit concerné et consulter un médecin.
6. Il y a danger d’explosion en cas de remplacement ou chargement incorrect des cellules ou batteries
qui contiennent des électrolytes alcalins (par exemple cellules de lithium). Remplacer les cellules ou
batteries uniquement par le type Rohde & Schwarz correspondant (voir la liste des pièces de
rechange) pour maintenir la sécurité du produit.
7. Il faut recycler les cellules ou batteries et il est interdit de les éliminer comme déchets normaux. Les
accumulateurs ou batteries qui contiennent du plomb, du mercure ou du cadmium sont des déchets
spéciaux. Observer les règles nationales d’élimination et de recyclage.
Transport
1. Le produit peut avoir un poids élevé. Il faut donc le déplacer ou le transporter avec précaution et en
utilisant le cas échéant un moyen de levage approprié (par exemple, chariot élévateur) pour éviter des
dommages au dos ou des blessures.
2. Les poignées des produits sont une aide de manipulation exclusivement réservée au transport du
produit par des personnes. Il est donc proscrit d’utiliser ces poignées pour attacher le produit à ou sur
des moyens de transport, tels que grues, chariots et chariots élévateurs, etc. Vous êtes responsable
de la fixation sûre des produits à ou sur des moyens de transport et de levage appropriés. Observer
les consignes de sécurité du fabricant des moyens de transport ou de levage utilisés pour éviter des
dommages corporels et des dégâts sur le produit.
3. L’utilisation du produit dans un véhicule se fait sous l’unique responsabilité du conducteur qui doit
piloter le véhicule de manière sûre et appropriée. Le fabricant décline toute responsabilité en cas
d’accidents ou de collisions. Ne jamais utiliser le produit dans un véhicule en mouvement si cela
pouvait détourner l’attention du conducteur. Sécuriser suffisamment le produit dans le véhicule pour
empêcher des blessures ou dommages de tout type en cas d’accident.
Élimination des déchets
1. Au terme de leur durée de vie, les batteries ou accumulateurs qui ne peuvent pas être éliminés avec
les déchets ménagers peuvent uniquement être éliminés par des points de collecte appropriés ou par
un centre de service après-vente Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.43 – 08
Page 7
Consignes de sécurité fondamentales
2. Au terme de sa durée de vie, un produit ne peut pas être éliminé avec les déchets ménagers
normaux, mais doit être collecté séparément.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG a développé un concept d’élimination des déchets et assume
toutes les obligations en matière de reprise et d’élimination, valables pour les fabricants au sein de
l’UE. Veuillez vous adresser à votre centre de service après-vente Rohde & Schwarz pour éliminer le
produit de manière écologique.
3. Si les produits ou leurs composants sont travaillés mécaniquement et/ou thermiquement au-delà de
l’utilisation prévue, ils peuvent, le cas échéant, libérer des substances dangereuses (poussières
contenant des métaux lourds comme par exemple du plomb, du béryllium ou du nickel). Le
démontage du produit ne doit donc être effectué que par un personnel qualifié et spécialement formé.
Le démontage inadéquat peut nuire à la santé. Les règles nationales concernant l’élimination des
déchets doivent être observées.
4. Si, lors de l’utilisation du produit, des substances dangereuses ou combustibles exigeant une
élimination spéciale sont dégagées, comme par exemple liquides de refroidissement ou huiles
moteurs qui sont à changer régulièrement, les consignes de sécurité du fabricant de ces substances
dangereuses ou combustibles ainsi que les règles sur l’élimination en vigueur au niveau régional
doivent être respectées. Les consignes de sécurité spéciales correspondantes dans la documentation
produit doivent également être respectées, le cas échéant. L’élimination non conforme des
substances dangereuses ou combustibles peut provoquer des atteintes à la santé et des dommages
écologiques.
Pour plus d’informations concernant la protection de l’environnement, voir la page d’accueil de
Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.43 – 08
Page 8
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
customer.support@rsa.rohde-schwarz.com
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
customersupport.la@rohde-schwarz.com
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
customersupport.asia@rohde-schwarz.com
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
customersupport.china@rohde-schwarz.com
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S®RTM2000
Contents
Contents
1 Preface.................................................................................................. 15
1.1
Documentation Overview........................................................................................... 15
1.2
Conventions Used in the Documentation.................................................................16
1.2.1
Typographical Conventions...........................................................................................16
2 Acquisition and Waveform Setup.......................................................17
2.1
Basics...........................................................................................................................17
2.1.1
Vertical System............................................................................................................. 17
2.1.2
Sampling and Acquisition..............................................................................................18
2.1.3
Horizontal System......................................................................................................... 21
2.1.4
Probes...........................................................................................................................22
2.2
Setting up the Waveform............................................................................................26
2.2.1
Setting Up the Signal Input with Autoset.......................................................................26
2.2.2
Adjusting the Signal Input Manually.............................................................................. 26
2.2.3
Setting the Acquisition...................................................................................................27
2.2.4
Starting and Stopping Acquisition................................................................................. 28
2.3
Reference for Waveform Setup..................................................................................28
2.3.1
HORIZONTAL Controls.................................................................................................28
2.3.2
Acquisition Settings.......................................................................................................29
2.3.3
Vertical Settings............................................................................................................ 34
2.4
History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)....................................... 43
2.4.1
Segmented Memory......................................................................................................44
2.4.2
Segmentation Settings.................................................................................................. 45
2.4.3
History Viewer............................................................................................................... 46
2.4.4
Export of History Segments.......................................................................................... 50
3 Triggers.................................................................................................54
3.1
Basics of Triggering................................................................................................... 54
3.2
Setting Up the Trigger................................................................................................ 55
3.2.1
Configuring the Trigger Event....................................................................................... 55
3.2.2
Positioning the Trigger.................................................................................................. 56
3.2.3
Setting Up a Trigger Sequence.....................................................................................56
3.3
Reference for Triggers................................................................................................57
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3.3.1
TRIGGER Controls....................................................................................................... 57
3.3.2
Trigger Settings.............................................................................................................59
4 Display ................................................................................................. 74
4.1
General Display Settings............................................................................................74
4.1.1
Configuring the Display................................................................................................. 75
4.1.2
Display Menu................................................................................................................ 77
4.2
XY-Diagram..................................................................................................................81
4.2.1
Configuring XY-Diagrams............................................................................................. 82
4.2.2
XYZ Setup Menu...........................................................................................................84
4.3
Zoom............................................................................................................................ 86
4.3.1
Zoom Display................................................................................................................ 86
4.3.2
Zooming for Details....................................................................................................... 88
4.3.3
Zoom Menu................................................................................................................... 89
4.4
Markers........................................................................................................................ 91
4.4.1
Using Timestamp Markers............................................................................................ 91
4.4.2
Reference for Markers.................................................................................................. 93
5 Reference Waveforms......................................................................... 94
5.1
Using References........................................................................................................94
5.1.1
Displaying a Reference Waveform................................................................................94
5.1.2
Saving and Loading References................................................................................... 95
5.2
Reference for REF key................................................................................................96
6 Measurements...................................................................................... 98
6.1
Cursor Measurements................................................................................................ 98
6.1.1
Cursor Measurements Types and Results....................................................................98
6.1.2
Performing Cursor Measurements.............................................................................. 101
6.1.3
Cursor Menu............................................................................................................... 102
6.2
Quick Measurements................................................................................................ 105
6.3
Automatic Measurements........................................................................................ 107
6.3.1
Measurement Types and Results............................................................................... 107
6.3.2
Configuring and Performing Automatic Measurements.............................................. 113
6.3.3
Auto Measure Menu (MEAS key)................................................................................115
7 Mathematics....................................................................................... 118
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7.1
Configuring and Using Math Waveforms................................................................118
7.1.1
Displaying Mathematical Waveforms.......................................................................... 118
7.1.2
Editing Equations and Equation Sets..........................................................................119
7.1.3
Saving and Loading Equation Sets............................................................................. 120
7.2
Reference for Mathematics...................................................................................... 121
8 Spectrum Analysis.............................................................................131
8.1
Basic FFT................................................................................................................... 131
8.1.1
FFT Display.................................................................................................................131
8.1.2
Configuring and Using FFT Calculations.................................................................... 133
8.1.3
Reference for FFT key................................................................................................ 137
8.2
Spectrum Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K18)............................................................143
8.2.1
Spectrum Analysis Display..........................................................................................143
8.2.2
Displaying and Configuring Spectrum Analysis.......................................................... 145
8.2.3
Spectrum Analysis Settings........................................................................................ 147
9 Masks.................................................................................................. 163
9.1
About Masks..............................................................................................................163
9.1.1
Masks..........................................................................................................................163
9.1.2
Mask Testing...............................................................................................................163
9.1.3
File Formats for Masks................................................................................................164
9.2
Working with Masks..................................................................................................166
9.2.1
Creating New Masks................................................................................................... 166
9.2.2
Loading Masks............................................................................................................ 169
9.2.3
Performing a Mask Test.............................................................................................. 169
9.3
Reference for MASKS key........................................................................................ 170
10 Search................................................................................................. 175
10.1
Search Conditions and Results............................................................................... 175
10.1.1
Search Results............................................................................................................175
10.2
Configuring and Performing Searches................................................................... 177
10.3
Reference for Search Menu......................................................................................178
10.3.1
Main Search Menu...................................................................................................... 178
10.3.2
Edge Setup................................................................................................................. 180
10.3.3
Width Setup.................................................................................................................181
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10.3.4
Peak Setup..................................................................................................................182
10.3.5
Rise/Fall Time Setup...................................................................................................183
10.3.6
Runt Setup.................................................................................................................. 184
10.3.7
Data2Clock Search..................................................................................................... 185
10.3.8
Pattern Search............................................................................................................ 187
10.3.9
Gate Menu.................................................................................................................. 189
10.3.10
Events Menu............................................................................................................... 190
11 Protocol Analysis...............................................................................192
11.1
Basics of Protocol Analysis.....................................................................................192
11.1.1
Configuring Common Protocol Settings...................................................................... 192
11.1.2
Protocol - Common Settings....................................................................................... 193
11.1.3
Display Settings.......................................................................................................... 194
11.1.4
Label List.....................................................................................................................195
11.1.5
Frame Table: Decode Results.................................................................................... 198
11.1.6
Trigger Source............................................................................................................ 199
11.2
SPI/SSPI Bus (Option R&S RTM-K1)....................................................................... 200
11.2.1
The SPI Protocol......................................................................................................... 200
11.2.2
SPI/SSPI Bus Configuration........................................................................................201
11.2.3
SPI/SSPI Trigger.........................................................................................................204
11.2.4
SPI/SSPI Decode Results...........................................................................................207
11.3
I²C (Option R&S RTM-K1)......................................................................................... 210
11.3.1
The I²C Protocol.......................................................................................................... 210
11.3.2
I²C Configuration......................................................................................................... 212
11.3.3
I²C Trigger................................................................................................................... 213
11.3.4
I2C Label List............................................................................................................... 217
11.3.5
I2C Decode Results..................................................................................................... 218
11.4
UART/RS-232 Interface (Option R&S RTM-K2)....................................................... 220
11.4.1
The UART / RS232 Interface...................................................................................... 220
11.4.2
UART/RS-232 Configuration.......................................................................................221
11.4.3
UART/RS-232 Trigger.................................................................................................224
11.4.4
UART/RS-232 Decode Results...................................................................................228
11.5
CAN (Option R&S RTM-K3)...................................................................................... 229
11.5.1
CAN Configuration...................................................................................................... 229
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11.5.2
CAN Trigger Settings.................................................................................................. 231
11.5.3
CAN Label List............................................................................................................ 235
11.5.4
CAN Decode Results.................................................................................................. 236
11.5.5
Search on Decoded CAN Data................................................................................... 238
11.6
LIN (Option R&S RTM-K3)........................................................................................ 241
11.6.1
The LIN Protocol......................................................................................................... 241
11.6.2
LIN Configuration Settings.......................................................................................... 242
11.6.3
LIN Trigger Settings.................................................................................................... 243
11.6.4
LIN Label List.............................................................................................................. 246
11.6.5
LIN Decode Results.................................................................................................... 247
11.6.6
Search on Decoded LIN Data..................................................................................... 249
11.7
Audio Signals (Option R&S RTM-K5)...................................................................... 251
11.7.1
Audio Protocols........................................................................................................... 252
11.7.2
Audio Signal Configuration..........................................................................................253
11.7.3
Audio Trigger...............................................................................................................258
11.7.4
Display of Audio Signals............................................................................................. 261
11.7.5
Tracking Audio Signals............................................................................................... 263
11.7.6
Decode Results of Audio Signals................................................................................264
11.8
MIL-STD-1553 (Option R&S RTM-K6)...................................................................... 267
11.8.1
The MIL-STD-1553 .................................................................................................... 267
11.8.2
MIL-STD-1553 Configuration ..................................................................................... 269
11.8.3
MIL-STD-1553 Trigger Settings.................................................................................. 271
11.8.4
MIL-STD-1553 Label List............................................................................................ 278
11.8.5
MIL-STD-1553 Decode Results.................................................................................. 279
11.8.6
Search on Decoded MIL-STD-1553 Data .................................................................. 280
11.9
ARINC 429 (Option R&S RTM-K7)............................................................................283
11.9.1
ARINC 429 Basics...................................................................................................... 283
11.9.2
ARINC 429 Configuration............................................................................................284
11.9.3
ARINC 429 Trigger Settings........................................................................................286
11.9.4
ARINC 429 Label List..................................................................................................292
11.9.5
ARINC 429 Decode Results........................................................................................293
11.9.6
Search on Decoded ARINC 429 Data.........................................................................295
12 Power Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K31).......................................... 297
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12.1
Probe Adjustment..................................................................................................... 297
12.1.1
Deskewing the Probes................................................................................................ 297
12.1.2
Probe Settings for Power Measurements................................................................... 298
12.2
Statistic Menu Settings.............................................................................................298
12.3
Result Table Settings................................................................................................299
12.4
Report.........................................................................................................................300
12.4.1
Export to Report.......................................................................................................... 300
12.4.2
R&S Report Tool......................................................................................................... 302
12.5
Input Power Measurements..................................................................................... 307
12.5.1
Quality......................................................................................................................... 307
12.5.2
Consumption............................................................................................................... 312
12.5.3
Harmonics................................................................................................................... 314
12.5.4
Inrush Current............................................................................................................. 318
12.6
Output Power Measurements.................................................................................. 320
12.6.1
Ripple.......................................................................................................................... 320
12.6.2
Spectrum.....................................................................................................................324
12.6.3
Transient Response.................................................................................................... 326
12.7
Switching and Control Loop Measurements.......................................................... 329
12.7.1
Slew Rate....................................................................................................................329
12.7.2
Modulation...................................................................................................................331
12.7.3
Dynamic On Resistance..............................................................................................334
12.8
Power Path Analysis.................................................................................................337
12.8.1
Efficiency.....................................................................................................................337
12.8.2
Switching Loss............................................................................................................ 340
12.8.3
Turn ON/OFF Time..................................................................................................... 343
12.8.4
Safe Operating Area (S.O.A.)..................................................................................... 345
13 Digital Voltmeter and Counter (DVM Option R&S RTM-K32)......... 351
13.1
DVM and Counter Results........................................................................................ 351
13.2
DVM Settings............................................................................................................. 352
14 Mixed Signal Option (MSO, R&S RTM-B1).......................................354
14.1
About MSO.................................................................................................................354
14.2
Digital Channels........................................................................................................ 355
14.2.1
Digital Channels - Activity Display...............................................................................355
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14.2.2
Digital Channels - Configuration................................................................................. 355
14.3
Parallel Buses............................................................................................................358
14.3.1
Line Configuration for Parallel Buses..........................................................................358
14.3.2
Control Wires Configuration for Clocked Parallel Buses.............................................360
14.3.3
Decode Results...........................................................................................................361
14.3.4
Analyzing Parallel Buses.............................................................................................361
15 Data and File Management................................................................363
15.1
Quick Access with PRINT key..................................................................................363
15.1.1
Configuring the PRINT-Key Behavior......................................................................... 363
15.1.2
PRINT-Key Settings.................................................................................................... 364
15.2
Printing.......................................................................................................................365
15.2.1
Printing a Screenshot..................................................................................................365
15.2.2
Printer Settings............................................................................................................366
15.3
Saving and Loading.................................................................................................. 367
15.3.1
Storage Locations....................................................................................................... 367
15.3.2
Device Settings........................................................................................................... 373
15.3.3
Waveforms.................................................................................................................. 375
15.3.4
Screenshots................................................................................................................ 379
15.3.5
References, Masks, and Equation Sets: Import/Export.............................................. 381
16 General Instrument Setup................................................................. 382
16.1
Firmware and Options.............................................................................................. 382
16.1.1
Updating Firmware......................................................................................................382
16.1.2
Activating Options....................................................................................................... 383
16.1.3
Moving a Portable License..........................................................................................383
16.2
Reference for Setup.................................................................................................. 384
17 Network and Remote Operation....................................................... 392
17.1
Operation in a LAN....................................................................................................392
17.1.1
Connecting the Instrument to the LAN........................................................................ 392
17.1.2
Configuring LAN Parameters...................................................................................... 392
17.2
Remote Access using a Web Browser....................................................................394
17.2.1
Accessing the Instrument using a Web Browser.........................................................394
17.2.2
Instrument Home.........................................................................................................395
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17.2.3
Sceenshot................................................................................................................... 395
17.2.4
SCPI Device Control................................................................................................... 396
17.2.5
Save/Recall................................................................................................................. 397
17.2.6
Network Settings......................................................................................................... 398
17.3
Remote Control Interfaces....................................................................................... 399
17.3.1
LAN Interface.............................................................................................................. 399
17.3.2
USB Interface..............................................................................................................401
17.3.3
GPIB Interface (IEC/IEEE Bus Interface)....................................................................402
17.4
Switching to Remote Control...................................................................................403
18 Remote Commands Reference......................................................... 404
18.1
Conventions used in Command Description......................................................... 404
18.2
Programming Examples........................................................................................... 405
18.2.1
Data Export................................................................................................................. 405
18.2.2
Search.........................................................................................................................407
18.2.3
Data and File Management.........................................................................................408
18.3
Common Commands................................................................................................ 409
18.4
Acquisition and Setup.............................................................................................. 413
18.4.1
Starting and Stopping Acquisition............................................................................... 413
18.4.2
Time Base................................................................................................................... 414
18.4.3
Acquisition...................................................................................................................416
18.4.4
Vertical........................................................................................................................ 421
18.4.5
Waveform Data........................................................................................................... 427
18.4.6
Probes.........................................................................................................................431
18.4.7
History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)..........................................437
18.4.8
History Viewer............................................................................................................. 438
18.4.9
Timestamps.................................................................................................................442
18.4.10
Export..........................................................................................................................445
18.5
Trigger........................................................................................................................447
18.5.1
General A Trigger Settings..........................................................................................447
18.5.2
Edge Trigger............................................................................................................... 450
18.5.3
Width Trigger...............................................................................................................451
18.5.4
Video/TV Trigger......................................................................................................... 453
18.5.5
Pattern Trigger............................................................................................................ 454
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18.5.6
Runt.............................................................................................................................457
18.5.7
Rise Time / Fall Time Trigger......................................................................................457
18.5.8
B-Trigger..................................................................................................................... 459
18.6
Display....................................................................................................................... 462
18.6.1
Basic Display Settings.................................................................................................462
18.6.2
Zoom........................................................................................................................... 468
18.6.3
Markers (Timestamps)................................................................................................ 470
18.7
Reference Waveforms.............................................................................................. 470
18.8
Measurements........................................................................................................... 475
18.8.1
Cursor Measurements.................................................................................................475
18.8.2
Quick Measurements.................................................................................................. 484
18.8.3
Automatic Measurements........................................................................................... 485
18.8.4
Automatic Measurements - Statistics..........................................................................490
18.8.5
Reference Level.......................................................................................................... 495
18.9
Mathematics.............................................................................................................. 497
18.10
Spectrum Analysis....................................................................................................500
18.10.1
Basic FFT....................................................................................................................500
18.10.2
Spectrum Waveform Data...........................................................................................505
18.10.3
Spectrum Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K18)................................................................508
18.11
Masks......................................................................................................................... 524
18.11.1
Mask Test Setup......................................................................................................... 524
18.11.2
Actions on Violation.....................................................................................................527
18.11.3
Mask Data................................................................................................................... 529
18.12
Search........................................................................................................................ 530
18.12.1
General Search Configuration.....................................................................................531
18.12.2
Edge Search Configuration......................................................................................... 534
18.12.3
Width Search Configuration........................................................................................ 534
18.12.4
Peak Search Configuration......................................................................................... 536
18.12.5
Rise/Fall Time Search Configuration.......................................................................... 537
18.12.6
Runt Search Configuration..........................................................................................539
18.12.7
Data2Clock Search Configuration...............................................................................541
18.12.8
Pattern Search Configuration......................................................................................542
18.12.9
Search Results............................................................................................................545
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Contents
18.13
Protocol Analysis......................................................................................................547
18.13.1
General....................................................................................................................... 547
18.13.2
SPI.............................................................................................................................. 551
18.13.3
SSPI............................................................................................................................ 561
18.13.4
I²C............................................................................................................................... 565
18.13.5
UART.......................................................................................................................... 576
18.13.6
CAN.............................................................................................................................584
18.13.7
LIN...............................................................................................................................601
18.13.8
Audio Signals (Option R&S RTM-K5)......................................................................... 615
18.13.9
MIL_STD-1553 (Option R&S RTM-K6)....................................................................... 631
18.13.10
ARINC 429 (Option R&S RTM-K7)............................................................................. 653
18.14
Power Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K31)................................................................. 665
18.14.1
Measurement Selection and General Settings............................................................665
18.14.2
Probe Adjustment........................................................................................................667
18.14.3
Report......................................................................................................................... 667
18.14.4
Statistical Results........................................................................................................668
18.14.5
Power Quality..............................................................................................................670
18.14.6
Consumption............................................................................................................... 675
18.14.7
Current Harmonics...................................................................................................... 676
18.14.8
Inrush Current............................................................................................................. 683
18.14.9
Ripple.......................................................................................................................... 685
18.14.10
Spectrum.....................................................................................................................690
18.14.11
Transient Response.................................................................................................... 693
18.14.12
Slew Rate....................................................................................................................695
18.14.13
Modulation Analysis.................................................................................................... 697
18.14.14
Dynamic ON Resistance............................................................................................. 700
18.14.15
Efficiency.....................................................................................................................701
18.14.16
Switching Loss............................................................................................................ 703
18.14.17
Turn ON/OFF.............................................................................................................. 707
18.14.18
Safe Operating Area (S.O.A.) .................................................................................... 708
18.14.19
S.O.A. Results.............................................................................................................710
18.15
Mixed Signal Option (MSO, R&S RTM-B1).............................................................. 717
18.15.1
Digital Channels - Activity Display...............................................................................717
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Contents
18.15.2
Digital Channels - Configuration................................................................................. 718
18.15.3
Waveform Data........................................................................................................... 721
18.15.4
Parallel Buses............................................................................................................. 723
18.16
Digital Voltmeter and Counter (Option R&S RTM-K32)......................................... 727
18.16.1
Counter Settings and Results..................................................................................... 727
18.16.2
Digital Voltmeter Settings and Results........................................................................728
18.17
Data and File Management.......................................................................................730
18.17.1
Waveform Data Transfer.............................................................................................730
18.17.2
Waveform Data Export to File..................................................................................... 744
18.17.3
Instrument Settings..................................................................................................... 745
18.17.4
Screenshots................................................................................................................ 751
18.18
General Instrument Setup........................................................................................ 755
18.19
Status Reporting....................................................................................................... 759
18.19.1
STATus:OPERation Register......................................................................................759
18.19.2
STATus:QUEStionable Registers............................................................................... 760
Annex.................................................................................................. 765
A Remote Control Basics......................................................................765
A.1
Messages................................................................................................................... 765
A.1.1
LAN Interface Messages.............................................................................................766
A.1.2
GPIB Interface Messages........................................................................................... 766
A.2
SCPI Command Structure........................................................................................ 767
A.2.1
Syntax for Common Commands................................................................................. 768
A.2.2
Syntax for Device-Specific Commands.......................................................................768
A.2.3
SCPI Parameters........................................................................................................ 771
A.2.4
Overview of Syntax Elements..................................................................................... 774
A.2.5
Structure of a command line....................................................................................... 774
A.2.6
Responses to Queries.................................................................................................775
A.3
Command Sequence and Synchronization............................................................ 776
A.3.1
Preventing Overlapping Execution..............................................................................777
A.4
General Programming Recommendations............................................................. 778
B Status Reporting System.................................................................. 780
B.1
Structure of a SCPI Status Register........................................................................ 780
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Contents
B.2
Hierarchy of status registers................................................................................... 781
B.3
Contents of the Status Registers............................................................................ 783
B.3.1
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)................................783
B.3.2
Event Status Register (ESR) and Event Status Enable Register (ESE)..................... 784
B.3.3
STATus:OPERation Register......................................................................................785
B.3.4
STATus:QUEStionable Register................................................................................. 785
B.4
Application of the Status Reporting System.......................................................... 788
B.4.1
Service Request..........................................................................................................788
B.4.2
Serial Poll.................................................................................................................... 789
B.4.3
Query of an instrument status..................................................................................... 789
B.4.4
Error Queue................................................................................................................ 790
B.5
Reset Values of the Status Reporting System....................................................... 790
List of Commands..............................................................................792
Index....................................................................................................822
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R&S®RTM2000
Preface
Documentation Overview
1 Preface
1.1 Documentation Overview
The user documentation for the R&S RTM consists of the following parts:
●
Help system on the instrument
●
"Getting Started" printed manual in English
●
Documentation CD-ROM with:
–
Getting Started
–
User manual
–
Service manual
–
Data sheet
–
Open source acknowledgments
–
Certificates
–
Links to useful sites on the Rohde & Schwarz Internet
Instrument Help
The instrument help is embedded in the instrument's firmware, and it is installed
together with the firmware. It offers quick, context-sensitive access to the complete
information needed for operation and programming. Firmware updates are available on
the Rohde & Schwarz product website in the "Downloads" > "Firmware" section.
Getting Started
The Getting Started manual provides the information needed to set up and start working with the instrument, and describes basic operations and typical measurement
examples. The manual also includes safety information. The English edition of this
manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form and on the Documentation CDROM. The newest English version and translations to other languages (if available) are
provided in PDF format on the product website.
User Manual
The user manual describes all instrument functions in detail. It also provides an introduction to remote control and a complete description of the remote control commands
with programming examples.
The user manual is available in PDF format on the Documentation CD-ROM. The newest version of the manual is provided on the product website in PDF format for download and as online manual (HTML) for immediate display (no download required).
Service Manual
The Service Manual is available in PDF format on the Documentation CD-ROM. It
describes how to check compliance with rated specifications, instrument function,
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Preface
Conventions Used in the Documentation
repair, troubleshooting, and fault elimination. It contains all information required for
repairing the instrument by replacing modules.
Documentation updates
You can download the newest version of all manuals here: www.rohde-schwarz.com/
product/rtm.html > "Downloads > Manuals".
1.2 Conventions Used in the Documentation
This chapter describes the conventions used throughout this documentation.
1.2.1 Typographical Conventions
The following text markers are used throughout this documentation:
Convention
Description
"Graphical user interface elements"
All names of graphical user interface elements on the screen, such as
dialog boxes, menus, options, buttons, and softkeys are enclosed by
quotation marks.
KEYS
Key names are written in capital letters.
File names, commands,
program code
File names, commands, coding samples and screen output are distinguished by their font.
Input
Input to be entered by the user is displayed in italics.
Links
Links that you can click are displayed in blue font.
"References"
References to other parts of the documentation are enclosed by quotation marks.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
2 Acquisition and Waveform Setup
The chapter describes the horizontal and vertical basic settings including the acquisition and probe settings.
2.1 Basics
This chapter provides background information on the essential settings in the vertical
and horizontal systems, on acquisition setup and probing.
2.1.1 Vertical System
The controls and parameters of the vertical system are used to scale and position the
waveform vertically.
2.1.1.1
Input Coupling
The input coupling influences the signal path between input connector and the following internal signal stage. The coupling can be set to DC, AC, or ground.
2.1.1.2
●
DC coupling shows all of an input signal. DC coupling is available with 1 MΩ input
impedance to connect standard passive probes. DC coupling is the default for 50 Ω
input impedance.
●
AC coupling is useful if the DC component of a signal is of no interest. AC coupling
blocks the DC component of the signal so that the waveform is centered around
zero volts.
Vertical Scale and Position
Vertical scale and vertical position directly affect the resolution of the waveform amplitude. The vertical scale corresponds to the ADC input range. To get the full resolution
of the ADC, set up the waveforms to cover most of the height of the diagram.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
Figure 2-1: Input range and resolution of the ADC
2.1.1.3
Bandwidth
For analog applications, the highest signal frequency determines the required oscilloscope bandwidth. As a general rule , the oscilloscope bandwidth should be 3 times
higher than the maximum frequency included in the analog test signal to measure the
amplitude with high accuracy.
Most test signals are more complex than a simple sine wave and include several spectral components. A digital signal, for example, is built up of several odd harmonics. As
a general rule, for digital signals the oscilloscope bandwidth should be 5 times higher
than the clock frequency to be measured.
The oscilloscope is not a stand-alone system. You need a probe to measure the signal
of interest, and the probe has a limited bandwidth, too. The combination of oscilloscope and probe creates a system bandwidth. To reduce the effect of the probe on the
system bandwidth, the probe bandwidth must exceed the bandwidth of the oscilloscope, the recommended factor is 1.5 x oscilloscope bandwidth.
See also: Chapter 2.1.4.1, "Voltage Probes", on page 22
2.1.2 Sampling and Acquisition
The vertical system of a digital oscilloscope conditions the test signal in a way that the
following A/D Converter (ADC) can transform the measured voltage into digital data.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
2.1.2.1
Sampling and Processing
The A/D converter samples the continuous signal under test at specific points in time
and delivers digital values called ADC samples. The rate at which the converter is
working is the ADC sample rate, a constant value specified in GHz: fADC = 1 / TI
The digital ADC samples are processed according to the acquisition settings. The
result is a waveform record that contains waveform samples and is stored in the
waveform memory. The waveform samples are displayed on the screen and build up
the waveform.
The number of waveform samples in one waveform record is called record length.
The rate of recording waveform samples - the number of waveform samples per second - is the sample rate. The higher the sample rate, the better is the resolution and
the more details of the waveform are visible.
A sufficient resolution is essential for correct reconstruction of the waveform. If the signal is undersampled, aliasing occurs - a false waveform is displayed. To avoid aliasing
and accurately reconstruct a signal, Nyquist theorem postulates that the sample rate
must be at least twice as fast as the highest frequency component of the signal. However, the theorem assumes ideal conditions, so the Nyquist sample rate is usually not
sufficient.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
Figure 2-2: Waveforms acquired with different sample rates
To avoid aliasing, the sample rate must be set to a value 3 to 5 times the fastest frequency component of the signal. A higher sample rate increases signal fidelity, increases the chance to capture glitches and other signal anomalies, and improves the
zoom-in capabilities.
2.1.2.2
Acquisition Settings
The resulting sample rate can be the same as the constant ADC sample rate, or
higher, or lower.
By default, the real time sample mode is used. With fast timebase settings, the sample rate becomes higher than the ADC sample rate. The missing waveform samples
are added to the ADC samples with sin(x)/x interpolation automatically.
When measuring high-frequency, repetitive signals whose frequency components are
even higher than the ADC sample rate, equivalent-time sampling is used to capture
the waveform. This sample mode captures ADC samples over a number of subsequent
repetitions at different points in time, and creates one waveform with higher sample
rate from this data.
At lower timebase settings, the required sample rate is lower than the ADC sample
rate. To reduce the sample rate, decimation methods are used: sample and peak
detect.
As digital waveform data is stored in the memory, and the memory can save many
waveform records, further waveform arithmetic processing is possible: average and
envelope waveforms are resulting waveforms, created from a composite of sample
points taken from multiple acquisitions. Another function called smoothing calculates
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
a mean value of several adjacent sample points of the same waveform and displays it.
The result is a moving average that uses the full data and can be used for non-periodic
signals.
2.1.2.3
Acquisition Control
You can run the R&S RTM in two ways:
●
RUN CONT: the instrument acquires data until you stop it manually.
●
RUN N× SINGLE: the instrument samples and processes a specified number of
acquisitions.
The determining point of an acquisition is the trigger. The instrument acquires continuously and keeps the sample points to fill the pre-trigger part of the waveform record.
When the trigger occurs, the instrument continues acquisition until the post-trigger part
of the waveform record is filled. Then it stops acquiring and waits for the next trigger.
When a trigger is recognized, the instrument does not accept another trigger until the
acquisition is complete.
The trigger modes define how the instrument triggers:
●
Normal: The instrument acquires a waveform only if a real trigger occurs, that is, if
all trigger conditions are fulfilled.
●
Auto: The instrument triggers repeatedly after a fixed time interval if the trigger conditions are not fulfilled. If a real trigger occurs, it takes precedence. If the real trigger is faster than the auto trigger, both modes are virtually the same.
In practice, both trigger modes are useful: The auto mode lets you see the signal with
little adjustment, while the normal mode selects the interesting part of the waveform. If
you want to acquire a specified number of waveforms, make sure to select the normal
trigger mode. Thus you get only the required number of interesting acquisitions.
See also: Chapter 3, "Triggers", on page 54
2.1.3 Horizontal System
As described before in Chapter 2.1.2.3, "Acquisition Control", on page 21, the trigger is
the determining point of the waveform record.
Two parameters set the position of the horizontal acquisition window in relation to the
trigger point: time reference and trigger offset. Using these parameters, you choose
the part of the waveform you want to see: around the trigger, before, or after the trigger.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
2.1.4 Probes
A probe connects the signal source (DUT) to the oscilloscope, and delivers the signal
to be measured. It is the essential first link in the measurement chain.
An ideal probe fulfills the following requirements:
●
Safe and reliable contacts
●
Infinite bandwidth
●
The probe should not load the signal source and thus impact the circuit operation.
●
The connection should not introduce or suppress signal components (hum, noise,
filter) and thus degrade or distort the transferred signal.
In reality, the probe can never be an ideal one, it always affects the signal transmission
and the signal source, and thus the measured signal. It depends on the frequency to
be measured and on the signal source to determine the acceptable loading, and to
determine which kind of probe delivers good results.
The solution depends on the quantity to be measured with respect to:
2.1.4.1
●
Signal type: voltage, current, power, pressure, optical, etc.
●
Signal amplitude: The oscilloscope itself can only display voltages in a limited
range. Most probes can adjust the dynamic range to amplitudes from a few mV to
10 V. Smaller or much larger signals require specialized equipment.
●
Signal frequency: High frequencies require advanced equipment in order to get
correct results.
●
Source characteristic: The source impedance is the decisive factor when choosing
the suitable connection.
Voltage Probes
The following table provides an overview on common voltage probes and their usage.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
Table 2-1: Voltage probes overview
Probe type
Attenuation
Typical bandwidth
range
Oscilloscope
input
Usage
Passive, high impedance
1:1
10 MHz
1 MΩ
Low speed, low level
signals
Passive, high impedance
10:1
500 MHz
1 MΩ
General purpose
Passive, low impedance
10:1
up to 10 GHz
50 Ω
High frequency
Active, single-ended
10:1
up to 10 GHz
50 Ω
High speed
Active, differential
10:1
50 Ω
Floating
For a list of recommended probes refer to the R&S RTM product brochure.
Besides the possible input voltage range, two factors are important when selecting a
voltage probe: Bandwidth and impedance over frequency.
●
Bandwidth:
The combination of probe and oscilloscope builds up a system. The resulting system bandwidth is approximately determined with:
1
BWsystem

1
 
 BW probe

2


1
 

 BWscope






2
To measure the signal with low measurement error, the system bandwidth should
be higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. The probe bandwidth must be even higher than the system bandwidth.
●
Impedance:
A minimum impedance is required to keep the circuit loading low. Over frequency,
the impedance decreases, in particular with passive probes. The probe impedance
should be approximately 10 times the impedance of the circuit test point at the
highest signal frequency.
Passive voltage probes
Passive probes have the following qualities:
●
No active components inside
●
BNC connector for universal use
●
Compensate the probe when it is connected to a scope input: LF compensation
matches the probe (mainly cable) capacitance to the oscilloscope input capacitance.
High frequency adjustment is an option for higher measurement frequencies in the
MHz range.
●
With high impedance probes, the impedance varies significantly over frequency.
●
With low impedance probes, the impedance variation over frequency is low, but the
load on the source is high.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
If you use passive probes, remember some recommendations:
●
Use a probe recommended for your oscilloscope model.
●
Use a ground lead as short as possible to minimize the effect of ground lead inductance. The resonance frequency can be much lower than the system bandwidth
and thus can affect the measurement results, in particular, if you measure steep
edge rise times.
●
Select a probe that has a bandwidth of 5 to 10 times the highest frequency being
measured. This preserves the harmonics and thus the waveform integrity.
Active voltage probes - General
Active probes require operating power from the instrument and have a proprietary
interface to the instrument. Their main qualities are:
●
Low loading on signal source
●
The probe is automatically recognized by the instrument, no adjustment is
required.
●
Adjustable DC offset at probe tip allows for high resolution on small AC signals
which are superimposed on DC levels.
●
Connections should be as short as possible to keep the usable bandwidth high.
●
Observe the operating voltage range.
●
The probe impedance depends on the signal frequency.
RT-ZS single-ended active probes and RT-ZD differential active probes provide special
features for easier use and precise measurements. These special features are not
available on RT-ZSxxE probes.
●
The micro button on the probe head remotely controls important functions on the
instrument, like running and stopping the acquisition, autoset, AutoZero and setting
the offset to mean value.
●
The R&S ProbeMeter measures DC voltages between the probe tip and the
ground connection with very high precision. The result is displayed on the instrument's screen. So you can check DC voltages with different levels without having
to adjust the measurement range of the oscilloscope. The R&S ProbeMeter also
measures the zero error of the probe to optimize measurement results at small signal levels.
When you connect an R&S RT-ZSxx active probe to a channel input of the R&S RTM,
the oscilloscope recognizes the probe. It reads the identification and calibration data
from the probe box and shows the result in the "Setup" and "Probe Attributes" tabs.
This data together with the deskew time for a given channel is stored and processed
by the R&S RTM. If you connect the probe the next time to the same channel, the
information is fetched and used.
Differential Active Probes
Differential active probes are designed to measure signals that are referenced against
each other, and voltages that are not references to ground, for example twisted-pair
signal lines. The R&S RT-ZD probes are differential probes with high input impedance,
they can be used to measure voltages between any two test points.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
Basics
Compared with two-channel measurement setup with single-ended probes, the measurement with differential probes is symmetric due to the same amplification and cable
length on both paths. It is also immune to interference and noise and occupies only
one input channel.
A differential probe has three sockets: the positive signal socket (+), the negative signal socket (-), and the ground socket.
Multiple input voltages can be defined for a differential probe:
●
Differential mode input voltage (Vin, Vdm)
Voltage between the positive and negative signal sockets
●
Positive single-ended input voltage (Vp)
Voltage between the positive signal socket and the ground socket
●
Negative single-ended input voltage (Vn)
Voltage between the negative signal socket and the ground socket
●
Common mode input voltage (Vcm)
Mean voltage of positive and negative signal sockets referred to the ground socket,
respectively
Two of these voltages are independent values, the other two can be calculated:
Vin  Vp  Vn
Vcm 
Vp  Vn
2
R&S RT-ZD probes detect only differential input voltages and provide it to the oscilloscope. Common mode signals are suppressed by the probe. This characteristic is
described by the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR):
CMRR 
Differenti alGain
CommonMode Gain
In addition, the R&S ProbeMeter of R&S RT-ZD differential probes can measure differential and common mode DC voltages. The measurement result is displayed on the
oscilloscope's screen. The common mode measurement of the R&S ProbeMeter
allows you to check the input voltage relative to ground. Thus, the CM measurement is
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Setting up the Waveform
a convenient way to detect breaches of the operating voltage window, and the reason
of unwanted clippings.
2.2 Setting up the Waveform
This chapter contains the fundamental procedures for setting up the acquisition and
adjusting the channel waveforms.
Passive probes
Passive probes require compensation for exact signal display and measurement. The
compensation procedure is described in the "Getting Started" manual.
2.2.1 Setting Up the Signal Input with Autoset
Autoset is the solution for the major part of routine test-setup. It is also a good start if
you need to use more complex trigger settings. Autoset finds appropriate horizontal
and vertical scales and trigger conditions to present a stable waveform.
1. Connect the probe to the input connector CH N.
The instrument recognizes the probe and turns the channel on.
2. Press the AUTOSET button on the left of the display.
2.2.2 Adjusting the Signal Input Manually
The settings mentioned here are described in detail in:
●
Chapter 2.3.1, "HORIZONTAL Controls", on page 28
●
Chapter 2.3.3.2, "Channel Menu", on page 36
●
Chapter 2.3.3.1, "VERTICAL Controls", on page 34
1. Connect the probe to the input connector CH N.
The instrument recognizes the probe and turns the channel on.
2. Use the SCALE rotary knob in the HORIZONTAL area of the front panel to set up
the time base.
3. Use the POSITION rotary knob to set up the trigger position. Press the knob to
reset the trigger offset to 0 s.
4. Press the channel key corresponding to the input channel. It is lighted with the
color of the channel waveform.
5. In the softkey menu, press the "Coupling" softkey repeatedly to select the correct
coupling.
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6. Select the "Bandwidth" limit.
7. If you use a passive probe, adjust the probe settings:
a) Select the "Termination" (input impedance).
b) Select "More" to switch the menu page.
c) Press the "Probe" softkey and select the attenuation.
8. Use the SCALE rotary knob in the VERTICAL area of the front panel to adjust the
vertical scale of the waveform. Press the knob to toggle between fine and rough
adjustment.
9. Use the POSITION rotary knob to adjust the vertical position of the waveform. Vertical position is defined by the position of the waveform's zero line and the offset
between the zero line and the waveform axis. Pressing the knob toggles between
these parameters.
By default, offset is disabled. Press the "Offset" softkey in the "Channel" menu to
enable the offset. Use the NAVIGATION knob or the POSITION / OFFSET knob to
adjust. Turn clockwise to move the waveform down.
10. Proceed with: Chapter 2.2.3, "Setting the Acquisition", on page 27.
2.2.3 Setting the Acquisition
Prerequisites:
●
Probes are connected.
●
Vertical and horizontal settings are adjusted.
For details on acquisition settings, see Chapter 2.3.2.1, "Acquisition Menu",
on page 30.
1. Press the ACQUISITION key in the HORIZONTAL area of the front panel.
2. Select the "Sample Mode" - Real time or Equivalent time.
This defines the behavior of the oscilloscope if the sample rate is higher than the
ADC sample rate.
Use Equivalent time to capture fast repetitive signals whose frequency components
may be much higher than the sample rate of the ADC.
3. Select the "Decimation Mode" - for example, Peak detect.
This defines the behavior of the instrument if the oscilloscope captures more samples than the waveform memory can save.
4. Select the "Wavef. Arithmetic" - for example, Average or Envelope.
This defines how the resulting waveform is built from several consecutive acquisitions of the signal.
5. If "Average" is selected, enter the "Number of Averages", that is the number of
waveforms used for average calculation.
6. Select the "Waveform Rate".
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2.2.4 Starting and Stopping Acquisition
You can control the acquisition in two ways:
●
Running continuous acquisition until you stop it
●
Running one acquisition or a given number of acquisitions
Prerequisites:
●
Probes are connected.
●
Vertical and horizontal settings are adjusted.
●
Triggering is set.
●
Channels to be acquired are turned on.
To start and stop continuous acquisition
1. Check if the trigger mode is set to "Normal". The trigger mode is shown in the top
information bar.
If not, press the MODE key on the front panel to toggle the setting.
2. Press the RUN CONT key to start acquisition.
The acquisition starts if a trigger occurs.
3. To stop, press the RUN CONT key again.
The acquisition stops immediately.
To acquire a limited number of acquisitions
1. Press the ACQUISITION key in the HORIZONTAL area of the front panel.
2. Select "Nx Single" and enter the number of acquisitions.
3. Press the RUN N× SINGLE key on the front panel.
You can stop the acquisition before it is finished by pressing the key again.
2.3 Reference for Waveform Setup
2.3.1 HORIZONTAL Controls
Time base settings adjust the display in horizontal direction. Use the rotary knobs in
the HORIZONTAL functional block for setting.
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POSITION..................................................................................................................... 29
SCALE.......................................................................................................................... 29
POSITION
The rotary knob changes the trigger offset. This is the horizontal position of the trigger
point in relation to the reference point - the zero point of the grid. Thus, you can set the
trigger point even outside the diagram and analyze the signal some time before or after
the trigger.
The reference point is set with SETUP >"Time Reference".
Turn clockwise to move the trigger point to the right. At zero-crossing, the knob shortly
snaps in and the setting is kept constant to simplify the zero-setting. The current trigger
position is shown in the top information bar, denoted by "T". Press the knob to reset
the trigger offset to 0.
Note: If a zoom or FFT window is displayed, the knob can adjust other values depending on the selection of the SCALE rotary knob.
See also: "Time Reference" on page 386
Remote command:
TIMebase:POSition on page 416
SCALE
The rotary knob adjusts the time scale of the horizontal axis for all signals, also known
as time base. The current scale value is shown in the top information bar, denoted by
"TB". Turn clockwise to stretch the waveforms - the scale value time/div decreases.
If a Zoom or FFT window is displayed, press the knob to switch between the settings,
then turn to adjust the selected value.
Remote command:
TIMebase:SCALe on page 414
2.3.2 Acquisition Settings
The ACQUISITION key in the HORIZONTAL functional block opens the "Acquisition"
menu, where you select the the settings for data processing - how the waveform is built
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from the captured ADC samples. The current acquisition mode is shown in the top
information bar, the second value from right.
The settings are placed in the "Acquisition" menu and in the "Acquisition Control"
menu.
2.3.2.1
Acquisition Menu
Access: ACQUISITION key
Decimation Mode.......................................................................................................... 30
Wfm. Arithmetic.............................................................................................................31
No. of Averages............................................................................................................ 31
Limit Freq...................................................................................................................... 31
Acquisition Control........................................................................................................ 31
Sample Mode................................................................................................................ 32
Interpolation.................................................................................................................. 32
Roll................................................................................................................................ 32
Decimation Mode
Decimation reduces the data stream of the ADC to a stream of waveform points with
lower sample rate and a less precise resolution if the oscilloscope captures more samples than the waveform memory can save.
"Sample"
The oscilloscope acquires the input data with a sample rate which is
aligned to the time base (horizontal scale) and the memory depth.
Usually, most signals are displayed optimally with this acquisition
mode if all trigger conditions are met.
"Peak Detect"
The minimum and the maximum of n samples are recorded as waveform points, the other samples are discarded. Thus the instrument
can detect fast signal peaks at slow time scale settings that would be
missed with other acquisition modes.
"High Resolution"
The average of n captured sample points is recorded as one waveform sample. Averaging reduces the noise, the result is a more precise waveform with higher vertical resolution. The resulting resolution
is indicated in the upper right corner of the window.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:TYPE on page 419
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Wfm. Arithmetic
Waveform arithmetic builds the resulting waveform from several consecutive acquisitions of the signal (envelope and average) or by other operations on the captured data.
The arithmetic works with all sample modes and decimated waveforms.
"Off"
No arithmetic is applied.
"Envelope"
The minimum and maximum values are saved in addition to the normal waveform samples. The resulting diagram shows two envelope
waveforms below and above the normal waveform: the minimums
(floor) and maximums (roof) representing the borders in which the
signal occurs. The envelope is refreshed with each acquisition and it
is reset each time the waveform parameters are changed.
"Average"
The average is calculated from the data of the current acquisition and
a number of acquisitions before. The method reduces random noise
and other heterodyne signals. It requires a stable, triggered and
repetitive signal.
The number of acquisitions for average calculation is defined with No.
of Averages. The resulting resolution is indicated in the upper right
corner of the window.
"Smooth"
Smoothing calculates a mean value of several adjacent sample
points and displays it. The result is a smoothed waveform. Thus,
smoothing is a moving average that uses the full data and can be
used for non-periodic signals. It works like a low-pass, and increases
the vertical resolution at the expense of bandwidth reduction.
"Filter"
Filter is a low-pass with 3 db attenuation at a configurable limit frequency set with "Limit Freq.". The filter removes higher frequencies
from the channel signals.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:ARIThmetics on page 419
No. of Averages
Defines the number of waveforms used to calculate the average waveform with "Wfm.
Arithmetic" = "Average". Only numbers from the 2n progression are available. The
higher the number, the better the noise is reduced.
Remote command:
ACQuire:AVERage:COUNt on page 417
Limit Freq.
Sets the limit frequency for "Wfm. Arithmetic" = "Filter". The low pass filter has 3 dB
attenuation at the given limit frequency.
Remote command:
ACQuire:FILTer:FREQuency on page 420
Acquisition Control
Opens the "Acquisition Control" menu to set the waveform rate.
If option R&S RTM-K15 is installed, the segmentation is defined in the menu.
See also:
● Chapter 2.3.2.2, "Acquisition Control Menu", on page 33
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●
Chapter 2.4.2, "Segmentation Settings", on page 45
Sample Mode
Defines how the waveform is created from the sample points which are acquired by the
ADC.
The setting is only available for instruments with < 1 GHz bandwidth. Instruments with
1 GHz bandwidth support only real time sampling.
"Real Time"
At slow time base settings the oscilloscope can acquire enough
points to create an accurate waveform, so the sampled points of the
input signal are used directly to build the waveform.
With fast time base settings, the sample rate is higher than the ADC
sample rate. Waveform samples are added to the ADC samples
according to the selected interpolation method.
See also: "Interpolation" on page 32
Real-time sampling is used to capture fast, single-shot, transient signals.
"Equivalent
Time"
Random equivalent-time sampling: This mode requires repetitive, stable signals. It is used to capture fast signals whose frequency components may be much higher than the sample rate of the ADC. The
waveform points are taken from several acquisitions at a different
time in relation to the trigger point. The time difference between the
sample and the trigger is random. Then, all the sampled points are
put together into one composite waveform.
Remote command:
ACQuire:MODE on page 417
Interpolation
Selects the interpolation method if the real time sample mode needs interpolation.
"Sin (x)/x"
Two adjacent ADC sample points are connected by a sin(x)/x curve,
and also the adjoining sample points are considered by this curve.
The interpolated points are located on the resulting curve. This interpolation method is the default method. It is very precise and shows
the best signal curve.
"Linear"
Two adjacent ADC sample points are connected by a straight line,
the interpolated points are located on the line. You see a polygonal
waveform similar to the real signal, and also the ADC sample points
as vertexes.
"Sample &
Hold"
The ADC sample points are displayed like a histogram. For each
sample interval, the voltage is taken from the sample point and considered as constant, and the intervals are connected with vertical
lines. Thus, you see the discrete values of the ADC.
Remote command:
ACQuire:INTerpolate on page 417
Roll
Enables the roll mode.
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The roll mode moves the captured input data on the display from the right to the left.
The instrument shows the waveform immediately, without waiting for the complete
acquisition of the waveform record. The roll mode displays the untriggered signal. Use
the roll mode for slow, non-repetitive signals with 200 kHz or slower.
In roll mode, you can the following functionality:
● Quick measurements
● XY-diagram
● In stop mode:
– FFT
– Zoom
– Waveform export
The roll mode has the following restrictions:
● RUN N× SINGLE captures the waveform until the display is filled. Multiple acquistions are not possible, "N× Single" = 1.
● Segmentation and history are not available
● "Wfm. Arithmetic" is not available
● Sample mode is alway real time.
● Serial and parallel buses, logic analysis, power measurements and mask testing
are not available
Remote command:
TIMebase:ROLL:ENABle on page 420
2.3.2.2
Acquisition Control Menu
Access: ACQUISITION key > "Acquisition Control"
If option R&S RTM-K15 is installed, the menu provides additional settings. See Chapter 2.4.2, "Segmentation Settings", on page 45.
Waveform Rate............................................................................................................. 33
Record Length...............................................................................................................34
Nx Single.......................................................................................................................34
Waveform Rate
Defines the mode to set the sample rate (samples per second saved in the memory)
and the waveform acquisition rate (waveforms per second).
"Max. Wfm.
Rate"
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The instrument combines sample rate and memory depth to acquire
at maximum waveform acquisition rate. In connection with persistence, the mode can display rare signal anomalies.
Note: Due to less memory depth, aliasing effects may occur.
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"Max. Sa.
Rate"
The instrument acquires the signal at maximum sample rate and uses
the full memory depth. The result is a waveform with maximum number of waveform samples, high degree of accuracy, and low risk of
aliasing. However, the waveform acquisition rate is low.
"Automatic"
Default mode: To display the best waveform, the instrument selects
the optimum combination of waveform acquisition rate and sample
rate using the maximum record length.
Remote command:
ACQuire:WRATe on page 418
Record Length
Shows the current record length, the number of recorded waveform points that build
the waveform across the acquisition time.
Remote command:
ACQuire:POINts[:VALue] on page 418
Nx Single
Sets the number of waveforms that are acquired with RUN N× SINGLE.
Remote command:
ACQuire:NSINgle:COUNt on page 414
2.3.3 Vertical Settings
To adjust the vertical settings, you use the keys and rotary knobs in the VERTICAL
functional block of the front panel and the channel-specific softkey menu.
2.3.3.1
VERTICAL Controls
REF functions are described in Chapter 5, "Reference Waveforms", on page 94.
MATH functions are described in Chapter 7, "Mathematics", on page 118.
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CH N............................................................................................................................. 35
SIGNAL OFF.................................................................................................................35
POSITION / OFFSET....................................................................................................35
└ POSITION.......................................................................................................35
└ OFFSET..........................................................................................................35
SCALE, Y-Scale............................................................................................................36
CH N
Each channel key turns on an analog channel, selects it, and opens the "Channel"
menu with the vertical settings of the selected channel. The key is illuminated in the
channel color, if the channel is active.
The effect of the keypress depends on state of the channel:
● If channel is off: Pressing the key turns on the channel and selects it. The rotary
knobs alongside light up in the channel color.
● If the channel is on: Pressing the key selects the channel waveform and opens its
channel setup menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:STATe on page 421
SIGNAL OFF
Turns off the selected signal and selects the next channel, math or reference waveform.
The key lights up in the color of the selected signal and changes the light according to
the new selection.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:STATe on page 421
POSITION / OFFSET
The rotary knob adjusts the vertical position or the DC offset (if enabled). It lights up in
the color of the selected waveform. Pressing the key toggles the parameter, the current
parameter and its value are shown in a temporary label marked with the channel color.
Note: By default, offset is disabled. Press "Offset" in the "Channel" menu to enable the
offset.
POSITION ← POSITION / OFFSET
Position changes the vertical location of the selected channel, math, or reference
waveform, or of the decoded bus signal. Turn clockwise to move the waveform up. At
zero-crossing, the knob shortly snaps in and the setting is kept constant to simplify the
zero-setting.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:POSition on page 424
CALCulate:MATH<m>:POSition on page 498
BUS<b>:POSition on page 550
OFFSET ← POSITION / OFFSET
The offset voltage is added to correct an offset-affected signal. The vertical center of
the selected channel is shifted by the offset value and the signal is re-positioned within
the diagram area.
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Use the offset to measure small AC voltages that are overlaid by higher DC voltages.
Unlike AC coupling, the DC part of the signal is not lost with offset setting. The device
under test is not affected. The offset always has to be set manually, it is not included in
the autoset process.
Turn clockwise to move the waveform down. At zero-crossing, the knob shortly snaps
in and the setting is kept constant to simplify the zero-setting.
If an active probe is connected, the offset limit is defined by the probe. Refer to the
documentation of the probe for allowed values.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:OFFSet on page 424
PROBe<m>:SETup:UOFFset on page 435
SCALE, Y-Scale
Sets the vertical scale in Volts per division to change the amplitude of the selected
channel, math, or reference waveform, or of the decoded bus signal. The current value
is shown in the waveform label above the grid. The knob lights up in the color of the
selected waveform.
Turn SCALE clockwise to stretch the waveform. Doing so, the scale value V/div
decreases. Press the knob to toggle between fine and rough adjustment.
To set the vertical scale for a channel waveform numerically, press the "Y-Scale" softkey in the channel menu and then use the NAVIGATION knob.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:SCALe on page 423
CALCulate:MATH<m>:SCALe on page 497
BUS<b>:DSIZe on page 549
2.3.3.2
Channel Menu
The softkeys of the "Channel <n>" menu are placed on two menu pages. Each channel
has its own menu.
The channel label shows the basic vertical settings: vertical scale (in the figure below,
channel 1: 5 mV/div), coupling (DC), termination (50 Ω, and bandwidth (limited). The
label of the active channel is highlighted with the channel color (channel 1).
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Coupling........................................................................................................................ 37
Termination................................................................................................................... 37
Bandwidth..................................................................................................................... 37
Offset.............................................................................................................................38
Invert............................................................................................................................. 38
Y-Scale..........................................................................................................................38
Probe.............................................................................................................................38
Deskew......................................................................................................................... 38
Threshold...................................................................................................................... 38
Label............................................................................................................................. 39
Zero Offset.................................................................................................................... 39
Coupling
Selects the connection of the input signal. The current coupling of each channel is
shown in the waveform labels above the grid.
"AC"
A 2 Hz high-pass filter is placed into the signal path that removes the
DC offset voltage from the input signal. AC coupling is labeled with ≈.
"DC"
DC coupling passes the input signal unchanged. It is labeled with ≅.
"GND"
Connects the input virtually to the ground. All channel data is set to a
constant ground value. Ground connection is labeled with .
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:COUPling on page 422
Termination
Adjusts the input impedance of the instrument to the impedance of the DUT. By
default, the oscilloscope has an input impedance of 1 MΩ . If an active probe is used,
the termination is read out from the probe - usually it is 50 Ω.
"50Ω"
In measurement systems that are dimensioned for a characteristic
impedance of 50 Ω, reflections along the signal path are minimized by
setting the input resistor of the oscilloscope also to 50 Ω. This increases the accuracy of measurement results. 50 Ω termination is identified for each channel by the icon Ω in the waveform label.
"1 MΩ"
The high input resistor minimizes the loading effect on the device
under test. This value is set automatically if a passive probe is connected and cannot be changed.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:COUPling on page 422
Bandwidth
Selects the bandwidth limit. The specified full bandwidth indicates the range of frequencies that the instrument can acquire and display accurately with less than 3dB
attenuation. The probe has also a limited bandwidth and thus affects the resulting system bandwidth.
See also: Chapter 2.1.1.3, "Bandwidth", on page 18
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"Full"
At full bandwidth, all frequencies in the specified range are acquired
and displayed. Full bandwidth is used for most applications.
Note: Instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth: If termination is 50 Ω, the
full bandwidth of 1 GHz is available. If termination is 1 MΩ, the full
bandwith is limited to 500 MHz.
"400 MHz, 200
MHz, 20 MHz"
Frequency limit. Frequencies above the selected limit are removed to
reduce noise at different levels. These bandwidth limits are indicated
by the icon
in the waveform label.
Available values depend on the instrument's bandwidth.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:BANDwidth on page 424
Offset
See "OFFSET" on page 35.
Invert
Turns the inversion of the signal amplitude on or off. To invert means to reflect the voltage values of all signal components against the ground level. Inversion affects only the
display of the signal but not the trigger. For example: if the oscilloscope triggers on the
rising edge, the trigger is not changed by inversion, but the actually rising edge is displayed as falling edge.
Inversion is indicated by a line above the channel name in the waveform label.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:POLarity on page 425
Y-Scale
See "SCALE, Y-Scale" on page 36
Probe
Opens the Probe menu. The menu is different for active and passive probes.
●
●
Chapter 2.3.3.3, "Probe Menu (Passive Probe)", on page 39
Chapter 2.3.3.4, "Probe Menu (Active Probe)", on page 40
Deskew
Deskew compensates delay differences between channels caused by the different
length of cables, probes, and other sources. Correct deskew values are important for
accurate triggering.
Signals which are routed over lines with different lengths have a different propagation
delay. If high speed signals are measured, this delay may lead to a non-synchronous
waveform display. For example, a coax cable with a length of one meter has a propagation delay of typically 5.3 ns.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:SKEW on page 426
Threshold
Access: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold"
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Threshold value for digitization of analog signals. If the signal value is higher than the
threshold, the signal state is high (1 or true for the boolean logic). Otherwise, the signal
state is considered low (0 or false) if the signal value is below the threshold.
You can:
●
●
●
Select one of the default values for TTL (1,4 V), ECL (-1,3 V), or CMOS (2,5 V).
Set the "User" value individually
Let the instrument analyze the signal and find an appropriate level
The threshold is applied to the selected channel.
To avoid the change of signal states due to noise, set the hysteresis. If the signal jitters
inside this range and crosses the threshold thereby, no state transition occurs.
Threshold
Logic 0
Hysteresis
Logic 1
Logic 0
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold on page 426
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:HYSTeresis on page 426
Label
Opens the "Label" menu to define an additional name label for the selected waveform.
See: Chapter 2.3.3.5, "Label Menu", on page 43
Zero Offset
Differences in DUT and oscilloscope ground levels may cause larger zero errors affecting the waveform. If the DUT is ground-referenced, the "Zero Offset" corrects the zero
error and sets the probe to the zero level.
You can assess the zero error by measuring the mean value of a signal that should
return zero.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:ZOFFset[:VALue] on page 427
2.3.3.3
Probe Menu (Passive Probe)
In the probe menu for passive probes, the probe attenuation for the selected channel is
set. If the probe is known to the instrument, the attenuation factor is set automatically.
For unknown probes, you can select a default factor or enter a user-defined value.
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Access: CH N > "More > Probe"
x1, x10, x100, x1000: attenuation factor
The keys select a default attenuation factor of the connected probe. The vertical scaling and measured values are multiplied by this factor so that the displayed values are
equal to the undivided measured signal values.
To set an arbitrary attenuation factor, press the "User" softkey.
User: user-defined attenuation factor
You can enter an arbitrary attenuation factor in the range between x0.001 and x1000.
The vertical scaling and measured values are multiplied by this factor so that the displayed values are equal to the undivided measured signal values.
Remote command:
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:MANual on page 432
Unit
Selects the unit that the probe can measure.
● V - for voltage measurements
● A - for current measurements
Remote command:
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:UNIT on page 432
2.3.3.4
Probe Menu (Active Probe)
Active probes with R&S probe interface (probe head) are detected by the R&S RTM.
The instrument reads out the probe-specific parameters, for example, bandwidth, termination and attenuation. These parameters do not need any adjustment.
Other parameters, like the offset value for the selected channel, the micro button action
and other probe-specific settings are defined in the probe menu for active probes.
Access: CH N > "More > Probe"
The menu displays the settings for the recognized probe.
Figure 2-3: Probe menu for single-ended probe R&S RT-ZS30
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Figure 2-4: Probe menu for differential probe R&S RT-ZD10
Figure 2-5: Probe menu for current probe R&S RT-ZC20B
Offset
See "OFFSET" on page 35.
ProbeMeter
Activates the integrated R&S ProbeMeter of active R&S probes and selects the probe
type. This voltmeter measures DC voltages between the probe tip and ground connection with very high precision and enables ground-referenced measurements of voltages. The DC measurement is performed continuously and in parallel to the measurements of the oscilloscope. If activated, the DC offset measured on the probe tip is
shown in a colored label below the channel label.
"Inactive"
ProbeMeter is disabled.
"Single Ended" ProbeMeter of a single-ended active probe is enabled.
Remote command:
PROBe<m>:SETup:OFFSwitch on page 434
PROBe<m>:SETup:DCOFfset? on page 433
Micro Button
Active R&S probes have a configurable micro button on the probe head. Pressing this
button, you can perform an action on the instrument directly from the probe. During
internal automatic processes the button is disabled, for example, during self alignment,
autoset, and find level.
Select the action that you want to start from the probe.
"Continuous"
Pressing the Micro Button starts continuous acquisition like the RUN
key. The acquisition is running as long as you press the Micro Button
again.
"Single"
Starts one acquisition.
"Autoset"
Starts the autoset procedure.
"None"
Select this option to prevent unwanted actions due to unintended
usage of the Micro Button.
Remote command:
PROBe<m>:SETup:MODE on page 434
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Reference for Waveform Setup
Info
Shows general information on the connected probe, for example, type, serial number,
and production date, as well as electrical characteristics like bandwidth, attenuation,
input capacitance and impedance, voltage and DC offset range.
Com. Mode Offset
Sets the common-mode offset to compensate for a common DC voltage applied to
both input sockets (referenced to the ground socket). This is particularly helpful for
measurements on differential signals with high common mode levels, for example, current measurements using a shunt resistor. You can measure the common mode input
voltage using the R&S ProbeMeter.
The setting is only available for Rohde & Schwarz differential probes.
Remote command:
PROBe<m>:SETup:CMOFfset on page 435
Attenuator
If you use the external attenuator R&S RT-ZA15 together with one of the differential
active probes R&S RT-ZD10/20/30, enable "Attenuator" to include the external attenuation in the measurements.
Zero Adjust
Sets the waveform to zero position. After demagnetizing, always carry out a zero
adjustment.
The setting is only available for current probes R&S RT-ZCxxB.
Save Zero Adjust
Saves the "Zero Adjust" value in the probe box. If you connect the probe to another
channel or to another R&S RTx oscilloscope, the value is read out again.
The setting is only available for current probes R&S RT-ZCxxB.
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
Degauss
Demagnetizes the core if it has been magnetized by switching the power on and off, or
by an excessive input. Always carry out demagnetizing before measurement. The
demagnetizing process takes about one second. During demagnetizing, a demagnetizing waveform is present at the output.
The setting is only available for current probes R&S RT-ZCxxB.
2.3.3.5
Label Menu
Access: CH N > "More > Label"
In the "Label" menu, you can define an additional name label for the selected waveform.
Label
Shows or hides the channel name. The name label is shown at the vertical center of
the channel on the right edge of the display.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:LABel:STATe on page 427
Library
Selects a predefined label text and assigns it. The text can be edited with "Edit Label".
Edit Label
Opens on-screen keyboard to enter a label text. If you previously have selected a text
from the library, it is already written in the entry line, and you can modify it.
The maximum name length is 8 characters, and only ASCII characters provided on the
on-screen keyboard can be used.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:LABel on page 426
2.4 History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTMK15)
The option R&S RTM-K15, History and Segmented Memory, provides access to prior
waveforms and allows you to look at a signal sequence to find the cause of an error in
the signal. Using this option, you can analyze signals that occur in short bursts with
long idle times, packet communication on serial buses, radar pulses, and laser pulses.
The option uses the segmented memory to store the waveforms and provides a history
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
viewer to analyze the stored waveforms. It provides also the ultra segmentation mode
to reduce the blind time of the acquisition.
2.4.1 Segmented Memory
If an acquisition runs, the instrument stores the captured data in the memory, processes the data and displays the waveform. The segmented memory can keep not
only the data of the displayed waveform but also data of the waveforms that have been
captured before. Each stored waveform is called a segment. The record length of the
segments can be defined. The number of segments depends on the record length. The
shorter the record length, the more segments can be saved.
Total memory
10 segments
4 waveforms acquired
Segmented
memory at
time = t5
4 segments
-3
Discarded
earlier
waveforms
t1
-9
Segmented
memory at
time = t13
t1
t2
t3
12 waveforms acquired
-7
-6
-8
-5
t4
t5
t6
t7
t2
10 segments
-4
-3
-2
t8
t9
-1
-2
t 10
0
t5
t4
t3
-1
t 11
0
t 12
t 13
Figure 2-6: Segmented memory. In this example, the memory can store 10 waveforms (segments).
Each segment has a time stamp time to identify when the events took place. Time
stamps are relative, the zero time point is the end of the latest segment.
The history can access the stored segments and display them. When you start a new
acquisition, the memory is cleared and written anew.
History
The history is always active. When you press the HISTORY key, the acquisition stops
and the history viewer opens to display the waveform segments that are stored in the
memory. It can show all segments in sequence, a selected range, or a single segment.
The history viewer shows the segments of the currently active channels. You can capture several channels at once, and display them individually using the history viewer.
You can work with history waveforms in the same way as with the waveform of the latest acquisition. All R&S RTM measurement and analysis tools are availbale: zoom,
cursor measurements, quick and automatic measurements, create math waveforms,
perform mask testing, serial protocol decode, mixed-signal functions and so on.
History data can be saved to file using FILE > "Waveforms". You can select to save all
segments, or a range of subsequent segments.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
Ultra Segmentation
During usual acquisitions, only a short time of the acquisition cycle is used for sampling; processing and display take most of the time. The processing and display time is
blind time causing a gap in the recorded signal. Usual acquisitions may miss very
short-time and infrequent events occurring during the dead time.
To reduce the dead time and thus the probability of missed events, ultra segmentation
is provided.
With Ultra Segmentation, a number of triggered acquisitions is captured very fast, with
hardly any dead time between the acquisitions. After the acquisition of all segments
has been completed, the data is processed and the latest waveform is displayed.
Using the history viewer, you can view and analyze all stored waveform segments.
2.4.2 Segmentation Settings
Access: ACQUISITION > "Acquisition Control"
Waveform Rate............................................................................................................. 45
Record Length...............................................................................................................45
No. of Segments........................................................................................................... 46
Ultra Segmentation....................................................................................................... 46
Nx Single.......................................................................................................................46
Nx Single Maximum...................................................................................................... 46
Waveform Rate
In addition to the basic settings, option R&S RTM-K15 provides the possibility to set
the record length of the segments using "Set Rec. Length".
The instrument acquires the signals at a sample rate that fills up a user-defined record
length, which is set using "Record Length".
For information on basic waveform rate settings, see "Waveform Rate" on page 33
Remote command:
ACQuire:WRATe on page 418
Record Length
The value can be defined if "Waveform Rate" is set to "Set Rec. Length". It sets the
number of recorded waveform points in a segment.
Remote command:
ACQuire:POINts[:VALue] on page 418
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
No. of Segments
Shows the number of available segments in the memory. It is the maximum number of
segments that can be captured with the current configuration.
Remote command:
ACQuire:COUNt? on page 437
Ultra Segmentation
Enables the ultra segmentation mode. The acquisitions are performed very fast without
processing and displaying the waveforms. When acquisition has been stopped, the
data is processes and the latest waveform is displayed, the older segments are stored
in segments. You can display and analyze the segments using the HISTORY.
Remote command:
ACQuire:SEGMented:STATe on page 438
Nx Single
See "Nx Single" on page 34.
Nx Single Maximum
Sets "Nx Single" to the number of available segments. Thus, all segments of the memory are captured with a RUN Nx SINGLE acquisition.
Remote command:
ACQuire:NSINgle:MAXimum on page 438
2.4.3 History Viewer
Access: HISTORY key
The HISTORY key stops the running acquisition and opens the history viewer.
You can display the stored segments in various ways:
●
One particular segment: set "Current Acquisition"
●
All segments: set "Play All" and start "Play"
●
A range of subsequent segments: set "Start Acquisition" and "Stop Acquisition",
and start "Play".
Current Acquisition........................................................................................................47
Acquisition Table...........................................................................................................47
└ Save................................................................................................................48
Play | Stop.....................................................................................................................49
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
Play All.......................................................................................................................... 49
Range............................................................................................................................49
└ Start Acquisition / Stop Acquisition................................................................. 49
Speed............................................................................................................................50
Repeat...........................................................................................................................50
Current Acquisition
Accesses a particular history segment in the memory to display it, or to save it. The
newest acquisition segment has always the index "0". Older segments have a negative
index. If the history is playing, the field shows the number of the currently shown segment.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent on page 439
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:CURRent on page 439
DIGital<m>:HISTory:CURRent on page 439
SPECtrum:HISTory:CURRent on page 439
BUS<b>:HISTory:CURRent on page 439
Acquisition Table
The acquisition table shows the index numbers of the acquired segments together with
their time stamps. The time stamps include the relative time - the time difference to the
end of the latest segment - and the time difference to the previous segment.
The currently shown segment is highlighted, and its absolute time is shown in the table
footer. Using the NAVIGATION knob, you can scroll through the history segments.
To save the acquisition table, press "Save".
Remote command:
Channel waveforms:
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL? on page 444
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL? on page 443
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL? on page 445
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute? on page 444
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSRelative? on page 443
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSDate? on page 445
Math waveforms:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL? on page 444
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL? on page 443
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL? on page 445
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute? on page 444
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSRelative? on page 443
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSDate? on page 444
Digital channels:
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL? on page 444
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL? on page 443
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL? on page 445
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute? on page 444
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSRelative? on page 443
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSDate? on page 444
Buses:
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL? on page 444
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL? on page 443
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL? on page 445
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSABsolute? on page 444
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSRelative? on page 443
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSDate? on page 444
Spectrum Analysis:
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL? on page 444
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL? on page 443
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSDate:ALL? on page 445
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSABsolute? on page 444
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSDate? on page 445
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSRelative? on page 443
Save ← Acquisition Table
Saves the acquisition table to a CSV file. The file contains all timestamps: relative time,
time to previous, and absolute time.
To save the waveform segments, use FILE > "Waveforms", see Chapter 2.4.4, "Export
of History Segments", on page 50.
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Acquisition and Waveform Setup
History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
Remote command:
EXPort:ATABle:NAME on page 445
EXPort:ATABle:SAVE on page 446
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:NAME on page 446
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:SAVE on page 446
Play | Stop
Starts and stops the replay of the history segments.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe on page 442
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe on page 442
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe on page 442
SPECtrum:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe on page 442
BUS<b>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe on page 442
Play All
Enables the replay of all acquired segments.
Alternatively, you can replay a range of the acquired segments using "Start Acquisition / Stop Acquisition".
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PALL on page 440
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PALL on page 439
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PALL on page 439
SPECtrum:HISTory:PALL on page 440
BUS<b>:HISTory:PALL on page 439
Range
In the "Range" menu, you can define a range of acquired segments to be displayed in
the history viewer.
Start Acquisition / Stop Acquisition ← Range
If you want to show a range of the acquired segments, set the index of the first and the
last history segment that you want to see. The newest segment has always the index
"0". Older segments have a negative index. The number of available acquisitions is
shown under "Play all".
Alternatively, you can replay all acquired segments using "Play All".
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:STARt on page 440
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:STOP on page 440
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:STARt on page 440
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:STOP on page 440
DIGital<m>:HISTory:STARt on page 440
DIGital<m>:HISTory:STOP on page 440
SPECtrum:HISTory:STARt on page 440
SPECtrum:HISTory:STOP on page 440
BUS<b>:HISTory:STARt on page 440
BUS<b>:HISTory:STOP on page 440
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
Speed
Sets the speed of the history replay: slow, medium, fast, or automatic.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed on page 441
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed on page 441
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed on page 441
SPECtrum:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed on page 441
BUS<b>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed on page 441
Repeat
If selected, the replay of the selected history segments repeats automatically.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:REPLay on page 441
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:REPLay on page 441
DIGital<m>:HISTory:REPLay on page 441
SPECtrum:HISTory:REPLay on page 441
BUS<b>:HISTory:REPLay on page 441
2.4.4 Export of History Segments
History segments can be saved to files on a USB flash drive if the acquisition is stopped. You can select to save all segments, or a range of subsequent segments.
2.4.4.1
File Organization
Each segment is saved to a separate file, and all segment files are written to a folder
that contains only the files of saved acquisition. You can specify the name of the folder,
and the format of the segment files.
The data file names consist of the source channel and the segment index.
Figure 2-7: Content of a history waveform folder
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
In addition to the data files, an index file is written. The index file delivers information
on the files and the segments. For each segment, the segment index, save date and
time, the timestamp and the filename is listed.
Figure 2-8: Content of a history index file
2.4.4.2
Save Settings
Access: FILE > "Waveforms"
Data
If "Ultra Segmentation" is on, the R&S RTM provides an additional data selection: "History Data". It allows you to save history segments to a front or rear USB storage
device.
For information on basic "Data" settings, see "Data" on page 379.
Directory Name
Name of the subdirectory that contains the segment files. For each segment, one file is
written.
Save
Opens the "Waveforms" menu, where you can select the range of segments to be
saved, start the saving, and get information on the process.
Start Acquisition / Stop Acquisition ← Save
If you want to save a range of the acquired segments, set the index of the first and of
the last history segment that you want to save. The newest segment always has the
index "0". Older segments have a negative index.
Use All Segments ← Save
Selects all history segments to be saved.
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
Cur. Acquisition ← Save
Shows the index of the history segment that is currently saved.
This information is only available during the saving process.
No. of Segments ← Save
Shows the number of history segments that are not yet saved.
This information is only available during the saving process.
Save ← Save
Starts the saving process.
The instrument shows information on the currently saved segment file: the progress
in %, the remaining time, file size and number of samples.
2.4.4.3
Saving History Segments to File
1. Acquire a waveform with history segments ("Acquisition > Acquisition Control >
Ultra Segmentation = On" > RUN).
2. Stop the acquisition.
3. Press the FILE key.
4. Press "Waveforms".
5. Press "Data" and select "History Data".
6. Select the "Storage" location, the "Waveform" to be saved, and the export "Format".
7. Check the "Directory Name" and change it if necessary. It names the folder to
which the segment files are written.
8. Press "Save".
9. Select the segments that you want to save:
●
●
"Use All Segments", or
Enter the indexes of the start and stop acquisitions.
The newest segment has always the index "0". Older segments have a negative index.
The instrument shows information on the data to be saved, and a warning if there
is not enough free space on the USB flash drive.
10. Press "Save".
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History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
In the menu, you see the number of the segment that is currently saved, and the
number of remaining segments.
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R&S®RTM2000
Triggers
Basics of Triggering
3 Triggers
3.1 Basics of Triggering
Triggering means to capture the interesting part of the relevant waveforms. Choosing
the right trigger type and configuring all trigger settings correctly allows you to detect
various incidents in analog, digital, and logic signals.
Trigger
A trigger occurs if the complete set of trigger conditions is satisfied simultaneously. It
establishes the time-zero point in the waveform record. The instrument acquires continuously and keeps the sample points to fill the pretrigger part of the waveform record.
When the trigger occurs, the instrument continues acquisition until the posttrigger part
of the waveform record is filled. Then it stops acquiring and displays the waveform.
When a trigger is recognized, the the instrument will not accept another trigger until the
acquisition is complete.
Trigger conditions
A simple set of trigger conditions includes:
●
Source of the trigger signal
●
Trigger type and and its setup
●
Horizontal position of the trigger: trigger position and reference point
●
Trigger mode
The R&S RTM provides various trigger types for troubleshooting and signal analysis,
for example, edge trigger, width trigger, pattern trigger, and specific triggers like video
and bus triggers.
More complex trigger conditions are also available: you can setup a trigger sequence
to join two edge triggers with an optional delay time or event count. Similar setups are
also known as multi-step trigger or A/B trigger.
Furthermore, hysteresis avoids unwanted trigger events caused by noise.
Trigger event
In particular for the A/B trigger sequence, it is important to distinguish between the trigger and the event. An event is the fulfillment of the event conditions, but an event may
not be the trigger. The trigger occurs only if the conditions of all events - the A event
and the B event - in a trigger sequence and all further trigger conditions are all fulfilled.
Trigger information
Information on the most important trigger settings are shown in the information bar.
The label shows:
●
Trigger source and level
●
Trigger coupling and filters
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Triggers
Setting Up the Trigger
●
Trigger slope or other conditions specific for the selected trigger type
Figure 3-1: Trigger information: Normal trigger mode, trigger source is channel 1, width trigger to
find negative pulses shorter than a given pulse width, trigger level = 1.71 mV
Figure 3-2: Trigger information: Normal trigger mode, trigger sequence; A-event has source channel
1, edge trigger on rising edge with DC coupling and HF reject, trigger level 1.71 mV; Bevent has source channel 2, edge trigger on rising edge and trigger level 0 V; instrument triggers on the second B-event
3.2 Setting Up the Trigger
This chapter provides step-by-step procedures for the important stages of trigger
setup. The settings mentioned here are described in detail in Chapter 3.3, "Reference
for Triggers", on page 57.
3.2.1 Configuring the Trigger Event
Prerequisites:
●
Horizontal and vertical settings are set appropriately to the signals.
●
The acquisition is running, the RUN CONT key lights green.
1. Press the SETUP key in the TRIGGER functional block.
The "Trigger" menu opens.
2. Press the "Source" softkey and select the trigger source.
3. Press "Setup" to return to the "Trigger" menu.
4. Press the "Type" softkey repeatedly until the required trigger type is selected.
5. Select "Setup".
6. Configure the settings for the selected trigger type.
For details, see:
● Chapter 3.3.2.3, "Edge", on page 61
● Chapter 3.3.2.4, "Width", on page 63
● Chapter 3.3.2.5, "Video", on page 65
● Chapter 3.3.2.6, "Pattern", on page 67
● Chapter 3.3.2.8, "Rise Time / Fall Time", on page 70
● Chapter 3.3.2.9, "Protocol", on page 71
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Triggers
Setting Up the Trigger
7. Set the "Normal" trigger mode: Press the AUTO/NORMAL key on the front panel
until "Norm" is shown in the information bar.
3.2.2 Positioning the Trigger
By positioning the trigger, you define which part of the waveform is displayed: mainly
the pretrigger part, or the posttrigger part, or the part around the trigger point. Therefore, you set the time reference (also known as reference point) and the trigger position
in relation to the time reference.
1. To set the time reference point:
a) Press the SETUP key on the left of the display.
b) Select "Time Reference".
c) Turn the navigation knob to move the reference point.
2. To set the trigger position, turn the POSITION rotary knob in the HORIZONTAL
functional block.
3.2.3 Setting Up a Trigger Sequence
An A/B trigger sequence consists of two edge triggers connected by a time delay or
event count.
1. Press the SETUP key in the TRIGGER functional block.
2. Press the "Trigger Type" softkey and select "Edge" trigger.
3. Select "Setup", configure the A trigger and select "Back".
4. Press the "B-Trigger" softkey to enable the B-trigger.
The LEVEL knob and SLOPE key on the front panel are automatically assigned to
the B-trigger. You can change the assignment with the "Trigger Level" softkey in
the "Trigger" menu.
5. Press the "B-Setup" softkey.
6. Configure the B-trigger: Select "B-Source" and "Slope", and turn the LEVEL rotary
knob to adjust the B-trigger level.
7. Define the connection between the A and B triggers by doing one of the following:
●
●
Press "Time" and adjust the delay time with the navigation knob.
Press "Events" and enter the number of B-trigger events that have to be fulfilled until the instrument triggers.
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Triggers
Reference for Triggers
3.3 Reference for Triggers
The trigger settings are located in the TRIGGER functional block on the front panel and
in the "Trigger" menu.
3.3.1 TRIGGER Controls
The keys and the rotary knob in the TRIGGER functional block adjust the trigger and
start or stop acquisition.
RUN CONT
Starts and stops the continuous acquisition. A green light indicates a running acquisition. A red light shows that acquisition is stopped.
The status is shown also at the right end of the information bar: "Run" or "Complete".
Remote command:
RUN on page 413
RUNContinous on page 413
STOP on page 414
RUN Nx SINGLE
Starts a defined number of acquisitions. Press the key again to stop running acquisitions.
To set the number of acquisitions, press the ACQUISITION key and enter "Nx Single".
Remote command:
SINGle on page 414
RUNSingle on page 414
FORCE
If the acquisition is running in normal mode and no valid trigger occurs, forcing the trigger provokes an immediate single acquisition. Thus you can confirm that a signal is
available and use the waveform display to determine how to trigger on it.
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Triggers
Reference for Triggers
MODE
Toggles the trigger mode between Auto and Normal. The trigger mode determines the
behavior of the instrument if no trigger occurs. The current setting is shown in the information bar.
"Auto"
The instrument triggers repeatedly after a time interval if the trigger
conditions are not fulfilled. If a real trigger occurs, it takes precedence. This mode helps to see the waveform even before the trigger
is set. The waveform on the screen is not synchronized, and successive waveforms are not triggered at the same point of the waveform.
"Normal"
The instrument acquires a waveform only if a trigger occurs, that is, if
all trigger conditions are fulfilled. If no trigger occurs, no waveform is
acquired and the last acquired waveform is displayed. If no waveform
was captured before, nothing is displayed.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MODE on page 447
LEVEL
The rotary knob changes the trigger treshold voltage. Turn clockwise to move the trigger level up.
If the trigger type has one trigger leven, pressing the knob sets the level to 50% of the
signal amplitude.
If the trigger type requires two trigger levels, for example, the rise time/fall time trigger,
pressing the knob toggles between upper and lower level.
If a B-trigger is enabled, the knob can set the level for both the A- and B-trigger. To
assign the level to the A- or B-trigger, use "Trigger Level" in the "Trigger" menu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>[:VALue] on page 447
TRIGger:A:FINDlevel on page 448
TRIGger:B:FINDlevel on page 460
SETUP
Opens the "Trigger" menu.
SOURCE
Opens the "Trigger Source" menu for the A-trigger. Press the key repeatedly until the
required source is selected. The key lights up in the color of the selected trigger channel. The selected source is shown in the information bar.
SLOPE
If you have selected "Edge" trigger as trigger type with an analog trigger source, the
SLOPE key toggles the trigger slope. The current setting is shown by an icon in the
information bar.
If a B-trigger is enabled, the key can set the slope for both the A- and B-trigger. To
assign the slope to the A- or B-trigger, use "Trigger Level" in the "Trigger" menu.
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Reference for Triggers
3.3.2 Trigger Settings
Trigger settings consist of general settings in the "Trigger" menu and the trigger typespecific setup. For B-trigger setup, a separate menu is provided.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
3.3.2.1
Common Trigger Settings....................................................................................... 59
Trigger Source Settings.......................................................................................... 60
Edge........................................................................................................................61
Width.......................................................................................................................63
Video.......................................................................................................................65
Pattern.....................................................................................................................67
Runt.........................................................................................................................69
Rise Time / Fall Time.............................................................................................. 70
Protocol...................................................................................................................71
B-Setup................................................................................................................... 71
Common Trigger Settings
The "Trigger" menu is general menu for all trigger types and leads to the type-specific
menus.
To set the trigger offset, use the horizontal POSITION rotary knob, see "POSITION"
on page 29.
Trigger Type..................................................................................................................59
Setup.............................................................................................................................60
Source...........................................................................................................................60
Hold Off......................................................................................................................... 60
B-Trigger....................................................................................................................... 60
B-Setup......................................................................................................................... 60
Trigger Level................................................................................................................. 60
Trigger Type
Selects the trigger type.
For details, see:
● Chapter 3.3.2.3, "Edge", on page 61
● Chapter 3.3.2.4, "Width", on page 63
● Chapter 3.3.2.5, "Video", on page 65
● Chapter 3.3.2.6, "Pattern", on page 67
● Chapter 3.3.2.8, "Rise Time / Fall Time", on page 70
● Chapter 3.3.2.9, "Protocol", on page 71
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:TYPE on page 448
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Setup
Opens the setup menu for the selected trigger type.
Source
Opens the "Trigger Source" menu for the selected trigger type.
See: Chapter 3.3.2.2, "Trigger Source Settings", on page 60
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SOURce on page 448
Hold Off
Enables the hold off and defines the hold off time. The next trigger occurs only after the
hold off time has passed.
The trigger hold off defines when the next trigger after the current will be recognized.
Thus, it affects the next trigger to occur after the current one. Hold off helps to obtain
stable triggering when the oscilloscope is triggering on undesired events.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:HOLDoff:MODE on page 449
TRIGger:A:HOLDoff:TIME on page 449
B-Trigger
Activates or deactivates the second edge trigger event that follows a first edge trigger
event in a trigger sequence. The instrument triggers if both trigger event conditions (A
and B) are fulfilled.
If the B-trigger is activated, the LEVEL rotary knob and the SLOPE key are automatically assigned to the B-event. You can toggle the assignment of these controls with the
"Trigger Level" setting in the "Trigger" menu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:B:ENABle on page 459
B-Setup
Opens the menu for B-trigger configuration. The B-trigger is a second edge trigger
event that can be combined with a preceding edge trigger event. The trigger conditions
of this second event are considered when the conditions of the main event (A-trigger)
are met.
For a description of the menu, see Chapter 3.3.2.10, "B-Setup", on page 71.
Trigger Level
Assigns the SLOPE key and the LEVEL rotary knob on the front panel to the A- or Bevent. The function is only relevant if the B-trigger is enabled. The SOURCE key sets
always the A-trigger source.
3.3.2.2
Trigger Source Settings
Access: Trigger SETUP > "Source"
The content of the "Trigger Source" menu depends on the trigger type.
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The figure below shows the trigger source menus for the edge trigger on an 1 GHz
instrument with MSO option R&S RTM-B1 installed.
Remote Command: TRIGger:A:SOURce on page 448
Channel N
Selects one of the analog input channels as trigger source.
Logic Channels
Selects one of the digital channels as trigger source if MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is
installed.
Logic channels are available for edge and width triggers but they are not selectable if
the B-trigger is enabled.
AC Line
Selects the mains supply of the oscilloscope as trigger input for the edge trigger. The
instrument extracts the trigger signal from the power supply.
Extern
Sets the external trigger input on the rear panel as trigger source. Select the signal
type that is connected: AC or DC.
Remote command:
TRIGger:EXTern:COUPling on page 449
Ext. Termination
Adjusts the input impedance of the external trigger input. The setting is only available
for instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
Remote command:
TRIGger:EXTern:TERMination on page 449
3.3.2.3
Edge
The edge trigger is the simplest and most common trigger type. It is well-known from
analog oscilloscopes; and you can use it for analog and digital signals. The trigger
event occurs when the signal from the trigger source passes the specified threshold
voltage - the trigger level - in the specified direction (slope).
The edge trigger is also selected by the AUTOSET function.
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Slope............................................................................................................................. 62
Coupling........................................................................................................................ 62
LF Reject.......................................................................................................................62
HF Reject...................................................................................................................... 62
Low-pass.......................................................................................................................62
Hysteresis..................................................................................................................... 63
└ Hysteresis A|B................................................................................................ 63
└ Value...............................................................................................................63
Slope
Sets the edge for the trigger.
"Rising"
Selects the rising edge, that is a positive voltage change.
"Falling"
Selects the falling edge, that is a negative voltage change.
"Both"
Selects the rising as well as the falling edge.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:EDGE:SLOPe on page 450
Coupling
Sets the coupling for the trigger source.
"AC"
Alternating Current coupling. A 5 Hz high pass filter is connected into
the trigger path and removes the DC offset voltage from the trigger
signal.
"DC"
Direct Current coupling. The trigger signal remains unchanged.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:EDGE:COUPling on page 450
LF Reject
Sets the trigger coupling to high frequency. A 15 kHz high-pass filter is connected into
the trigger path and removes lower frequencies from the trigger signal. Use this mode
only with very high frequency signals.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:EDGE:COUPling on page 450
HF Reject
Turns an additional 5 kHz low-pass filter in the trigger path on or off. This filter removes
higher frequencies and is available with AC and DC coupling.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:EDGE:FILTer:LPASs on page 450
Low-pass
Turns an additional 100 MHz low-pass filter in the trigger path on or off. This filter
removes higher frequencies and is available with AC and DC coupling.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:EDGE:FILTer:NREJect on page 451
Hysteresis
Opens the "Hysteresis" menu (only on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth).
Hysteresis A|B ← Hysteresis
Sets a hysteresis range around the trigger level. If the signal jitters inside this range
and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs. Thus, hysteresis avoids
unwanted trigger events caused by noise oscillation around the trigger level.
The automatic, small, medium, large hysteresis values depend on the vertical scale.
On instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth, you can also set the hysteresis to user-defined
values.
If the hysteresis is set to "Automatic", you can activate the hysteresis display using
"Display > Auxillary Cursors > Trigger Hyst.". For small, medium, large and userdefined hysteresis, the line for the hysteresis area is always shown.
Hysteresis is available for the edge trigger. A-trigger and B-trigger can have different
hysteresis if the trigger source is different.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:HYSTeresis on page 451
TRIGger:B:HYSTeresis on page 461
Value ← Hysteresis
Sets the hysteresis value if "Mode" is set to "Manual".
The setting is only available on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:HYSTeresis on page 451
TRIGger:B:LEVel:HYSTeresis on page 461
3.3.2.4
Width
The width trigger compares the pulse width (duration) with a given time limit. It detects
pulses with an exact pulse width, pulses shorter or longer than a given time, as well as
pulses inside or outside the allowable time range.
The pulse width is measured at the trigger level.
Comparison...................................................................................................................64
Polarity.......................................................................................................................... 64
Time t............................................................................................................................ 64
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Variation........................................................................................................................ 64
Time t1, Time t2............................................................................................................ 64
Find level.......................................................................................................................65
Comparison
Sets how the measured pulse width is compared with the given limit(s).
"ti<t, ti>t"
Triggers on pulse width shorter or longer than the reference "Time t".
"ti=t"
Triggers on pulse width equal to the reference "Time t" if "Variation"
Δt = 0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0: this setting triggers on pulses within the range t±Δt.
"ti≠t"
Triggers on pulses unequal to the reference "Time t", if "Variation" Δt
= 0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0: this setting triggers on pulses outside a range t±Δt.
"Inside, Outside"
Triggers on pulses inside or outside a range specified with "Time t1"
and "Time t2".
This method is an alternative setting to the range definition with "Time
t" and "Variation". The values are interdependent. "Variation" and
"Time t" are adjusted If you change t1 and t2, and vice versa.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:RANGe on page 452
Polarity
Sets the polarity of the pulse.
"Pos."
Positive going pulse, the width is defined from the rising to the falling
slopes.
"Neg."
Negative going pulse, the width is defined from the falling to the rising
slopes.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:POLarity on page 451
Time t
Sets the reference time, the nominal value for comparisons ti<t, ti>t, ti=t, ti≠t.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:WIDTh on page 452
Variation
Sets a range Δt to the reference "Time t", if comparison is set to "ti=t" or "ti≠t". The
instrument triggers on pulses inside or outside the range ti±Δt.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:DELTa on page 452
Time t1, Time t2
Set the lower and upper time limits defining the time range if "Inside" or "Outside" is set
for comparison. "Time t" and "Variation" are adjusted accordingly.
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Find level
Sets the trigger level automatically to 0.5 * (MaxPeak – MinPeak).
3.3.2.5
Video
The video or TV trigger is used to analyze analog baseband video signals. You can
trigger on baseband video signals from standard definition and high definition standards connected to an analog channel input or to the external trigger input.
The trigger level is determined and set automatically by the instrument.
First select the standard and the signal polarity, then decide to trigger on lines or fields
and enter the specific settings.
Most video signals have an output impedance of 75 Ω. The channel inputs of the
R&S RTM have an input impedance of 50 Ω or 1 MΩ. Make sure to provide the adequate matching to ensure amplitude fidelity. A simple 75 Ω feed-through termination
combined with 1 MΩ oscilloscope inputs is suitable for most applications.
Standard........................................................................................................................65
Signal............................................................................................................................ 65
Trigger On..................................................................................................................... 66
Line............................................................................................................................... 66
All Lines.........................................................................................................................66
Frame............................................................................................................................66
Standard
Selects the color television standard.
You can trigger on various SDTV signals like PAL, PAL-M, SECAM, NTSC and
SDTV 576i (PAL and SECAM).
HDTV standards are indicated by the number of active lines and the scanning system
(p for progressive scanning, I for interlaced scanning.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:TV:STANdard on page 453
Signal
Selects the polarity of the signal. Note that the sync pulse has the opposite polarity. If
the video modulation is positive, the sync pulses are negative. If the modulation is negative, sync pulses are positive. The edges of the sync pulses are used for triggering,
therefore incorrect polarity setting causes a sporadic triggering by the video information.
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T
T
Figure 3-3: Positive video signal with negative bi-level sync pulse (SDTV, left) and negative signal
with positive tri-level sync pulse (HDTV, right)
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:TV:POLarity on page 453
Trigger On
Toggles between triggering on line starts or frame starts.
"Line" allows you to trigger on "All Lines" or on one specified "Line".
"Frame" has different effect depending on the selected signal standard:
● For standards using progressive scanning (HDTV 720p/1080p), the instrument triggers on the frame start.
● All other available standards use interlaced scanning, and the instrument triggers
on the field start. You can select the field type to be triggered on using "Frame".
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:TV:FIELd on page 453
Line
Sets an exact line number if "Trigger on" is "Line". If the other trigger conditions are
also met, the oscilloscope triggers exactly on the beginning of the selected line in any
field.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:TV:LINE on page 454
All Lines
The oscilloscope triggers on the beginning of all video signal lines if "Trigger on" is
"Line".
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:TV:FIELd on page 453
Frame
The oscilloscope triggers on the beginning of the video signal fields if the other trigger
conditions are fulfilled. The setting is available for video signals using interlaced scanning.
"All"
Triggers on all fields
"Odd"
Triggers only on odd fields.
"Even"
Triggers only on even fields.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:TV:FIELd on page 453
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3.3.2.6
Pattern
The Pattern trigger is a logic trigger. It provides any logical combination of the input
channels and supports you in verifying the operation of digital logic. Thus you can also
trigger on bus patterns of parallel buses.
The channel pattern is configured in the "Source" menu. Additionally, you can set a
time limitation to the pattern in the "Setup" menu.
Pattern
Channel N..................................................................................................................... 67
Combination.................................................................................................................. 67
Trigger On..................................................................................................................... 68
Channel N
Select the state for each channel. The states are:
"H"
High: the signal voltage is higher than the trigger level.
"L"
Low: the signal voltage is lower than the trigger level.
"X"
Don't care: the channel does not affect the trigger.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, the digital channels D0 to
D15 are available in addition to analog channels.
If X is set for all channels, the oscilloscope triggers only in automatic
trigger mode.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:PATTern:SOURce on page 455
Combination
Sets the logical combination of the trigger states of the channels.
"And"
The required states of all channels must appear in the input signal at
the same time.
"Or"
At least one of the channels must have the required state.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:PATTern:FUNCtion on page 455
Trigger On
Sets the trigger point depending on the result of the logical combination of the channel
states.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:PATTern:CONDition on page 455
Time Limitation
In addition to the pattern and the trigger levels, you can define a timing condition - how
long the result of the pattern condition must be true or false.
Duration
Enables or disables the time limitation to the pattern state.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:PATTern:MODE on page 456
Comparison
Sets how the duration time of the resulting pattern state is compared with the given
time limit(s).
"ti<t, ti>t"
Triggers if the pattern state changes before or after the "Time t" has
expired.
"ti=t"
Triggers if the pattern state changes exactly at "Time t" if "Variation"
Δt = 0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0: this setting triggers within the range t±Δt.
"ti≠t"
Triggers on pattern state durations unequal to the "Time t", if "Variation" Δt = 0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0: this setting triggers outside a range t±Δt.
"Inside, Outside"
Triggers on pattern state durations inside or outside a range specified
with "Time t1" and "Time t2".
This method is an alternative setting to the range definition with "Time
t" and "Variation". The values are interdependent. "Variation" and
"Time t" are adjusted if you change t1 and t2, and vice versa.
"Timeout"
Defines how long the result of the pattern condition must be true. The
instrument triggers at "Time t".
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh:RANGe on page 456
TRIGger:A:PATTern:MODE on page 456
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Time t
Sets the reference time, the nominal value for comparisons ti<t, ti>t, ti=t, ti≠t and timeout
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh[:WIDTh] on page 456
Time t1, Time t2
Set the lower and upper time limits defining the time range if "Inside" or "Outside" is set
for comparison. "Time t" and "Variation" are adjusted accordingly.
Variation
Sets a range Δt to the reference "Time t", if comparison is set to "ti=t" or "ti≠t". The
instrument triggers on pulses inside or outside the range ti±Δt.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh:DELTa on page 457
3.3.2.7
Runt
A runt is a pulse lower than normal in amplitude. The amplitude crosses the first
threshold twice in succession without crossing the second one. For example, this trigger can detect logic, digital, and analog signals remaining below a specified threshold
amplitude because I/O ports are in undefined state.
Polarity
Sets the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
"Positive"
Positive going pulse, the width is defined from the rising to the falling
slopes.
"Negative"
Negative going pulse, the width is defined from the falling to the rising
slopes.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:RUNT:POLarity on page 457
Upper Level
Sets the upper trigger level.
To set the value using the Level 50% rotary knob, press the knob to toggle upper and
lower level and then turn the knob.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RUNT:UPPer on page 457
Lower Level
Sets the lower trigger level.
The value corresponds to the threshold value of the trigger channel.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RUNT:LOWer on page 457
3.3.2.8
Rise Time / Fall Time
The rise time trigger, also known as slew rate or transition trigger, can detect fast or
slow rising or falling edges selectively. It triggers on edges, if the rise or fall time from
the lower to higher voltage level (or vice versa) is shorter or longer as defined, or inside
or outside a specified time range. The trigger finds slew rates that are faster than
expected or permissible to avoid overshooting and other interfering effects. It also
detects very slow edges violating the timing in pulse series.
Polarity
Sets the edge, the transition time of which is to be analyzed:
"Rising"
Rise time trigger
"Falling"
Fall time trigger
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:RISetime:SLOPe on page 458
Upper Level
Sets the upper voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the slew rate
measurement starts or stops depending on the selected polarity.
To set the value using the Level 50% rotary knob, press the knob to toggle upper and
lower level and then turn the knob.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RISetime:UPPer on page 458
Lower Level
Sets the lower voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the slew rate
measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope.
The value corresponds to the threshold value of the trigger channel.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RISetime:LOWer on page 458
Comparison
Selects how the time limit for the slew rate is defined. The time measurement starts
when the signal crosses the first trigger level - the upper or lower level depending on
the selected slope - and stops when the signal crosses the second level.
"Greater than"
Triggers on transition times longer than the given "Rise Time".
"Lower than"
Triggers on transition times shorter than the given "Rise Time".
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"Equal"
Triggers on transition times inside the time range Rise Time ± Variation.
"Not equal"
Triggers on transition times outside the time range Rise Time ± Variation.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:RISetime:RANGe on page 458
Rise Time
For the comparisons "Greater than" and "Lower than", the setting defines the minimum
and maximum transition time limits, respectively.
For the comparisons "Equal" and "Not equal", the setting defines the center of a range,
which is defined by "Variation"
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:RISetime:TIME on page 459
Variation
Defines a time range around the given "Rise Time" value.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:RISetime:DELTa on page 459
3.3.2.9
Protocol
The "Protocol" trigger menu contains the trigger settings for the serial bus or interface
that is configured with PROTOCOL. Protocol analysis requires additional options.
For protocol setup and trigger settings, see Chapter 11, "Protocol Analysis",
on page 192.
To trigger on parallel buses, use the pattern trigger. See: Chapter 3.3.2.6, "Pattern",
on page 67.
3.3.2.10
B-Setup
The B-trigger is a second edge trigger event that can be combined with a preceding
edge trigger event. The conditions of this second event are considered when the conditions of the main event (A-trigger) are met.
B-Source....................................................................................................................... 72
Slope............................................................................................................................. 72
Level..............................................................................................................................72
Trigger On..................................................................................................................... 72
Time.............................................................................................................................. 72
Events........................................................................................................................... 72
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Hysteresis..................................................................................................................... 72
└ Hysteresis A|B................................................................................................ 73
└ Value...............................................................................................................73
B-Source
Selects one of the input channels as B-trigger source. Press the softkey repeatedly
until the required source is selected.
Remote command:
TRIGger:B:SOURce on page 459
Slope
Sets the edge for the B-trigger event.
"Positive"
Selects the rising edge, that is a positive voltage change.
"Negative"
Selects the falling edge, that is a negative voltage change.
"Both"
Selects the rising as well as the falling edge.
Remote command:
TRIGger:B:EDGE:SLOPe on page 460
Level
Sets the trigger level for the B-trigger event.
Remote command:
TRIGger:B:LEVel on page 460
Trigger On
Sets an additional delay condition for the B-event: time delay or event delay. According
to this selection, set also "Time" or "Events" to define the condition completely.
Remote command:
TRIGger:B:MODE on page 460
Time
Sets the time the instrument waits after an A-event until it recognizes B-events.
Remote command:
TRIGger:B:DELay on page 460
Events
Sets a number of B-trigger events that fulfill all B-trigger conditions but do not cause
the trigger. The oscilloscope triggers on the n-th event (the last of the specified number
of events).
Remote command:
TRIGger:B:EVENt:COUNt on page 461
Hysteresis
Opens the "Hysteresis" menu (only on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth).
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Hysteresis A|B ← Hysteresis
Sets a hysteresis range around the trigger level. If the signal jitters inside this range
and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs. Thus, hysteresis avoids
unwanted trigger events caused by noise oscillation around the trigger level.
The automatic, small, medium, large hysteresis values depend on the vertical scale.
On instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth, you can also set the hysteresis to user-defined
values.
If the hysteresis is set to "Automatic", you can activate the hysteresis display using
"Display > Auxillary Cursors > Trigger Hyst.". For small, medium, large and userdefined hysteresis, the line for the hysteresis area is always shown.
Hysteresis is available for the edge trigger. A-trigger and B-trigger can have different
hysteresis if the trigger source is different.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:HYSTeresis on page 451
TRIGger:B:HYSTeresis on page 461
Value ← Hysteresis
Sets the hysteresis value if "Mode" is set to "Manual".
The setting is only available on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:HYSTeresis on page 451
TRIGger:B:LEVel:HYSTeresis on page 461
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General Display Settings
4 Display
This chapter provides information on display configuration and display modes.
The default display is a waveform diagram with a time axis in x-direction and the signal
amplitudes displayed in y-direction - the Y(t) or time diagram. You can adjust the visibility of diagram elements and waveform to your needs. See Chapter 4.1, "General
Display Settings", on page 74 for details.
You can also display and configure XY-diagrams to combine the voltage levels of two
waveforms in one diagram. This display mode is described in Chapter 4.2, "XY-Diagram", on page 81.
Furthermore, you can zoom into waveforms to analyze the results in more detail. The
zoom display mode is described in Chapter 4.3, "Zoom", on page 86.
In a Y(t)-diagram and in zoom mode, you can set markers to mark positions of interest
in the waveform. See Chapter 4.4, "Markers", on page 91 for details.
In addition to zoom and XY-diagram modes, the following functional modes are available:
●
FFT analysis, see Chapter 8.1.2, "Configuring and Using FFT Calculations",
on page 133
●
Mask testing, see Chapter 9.2, "Working with Masks", on page 166
4.1 General Display Settings
General display settings adjust the visibility of diagram elements and waveforms.
The individual diagram elements can be shown or hidden:
●
Basic diagram elements: grid and crosshairs
●
Point of the trigger event
●
Channel cursors to mark the ground level and the DC offset
You can also adjust how the waveforms are displayed. The intensity and brightness of
the individual screen elements can influence the readability of the results. Depending
on which type of result you are interested in, e.g. frequency of occurance, time of
occurance, or amplitude of a specific value, different settings may be necessary to
highlight that aspect in the display.
The waveform display depends on the following criteria:
●
Waveform style: dots or line
●
Intensity: adjusts the optimal contrast of the display
Three settings can be changed to improve the contrast for the relevant display elements.
–
The intensity of the waveform determines the strength of the signal in the diagram.
–
The intensity of the background lighting determines the contrast of the signal.
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General Display Settings
–
The intensity of the grid has an influence on the readability of the signal.
●
Persistence defines how long a data point is displayed in the diagram. Each new
data point remains on the screen for the defined persistence time, or infinitely until
the persistence time is changed or the persistence is cleared.
●
Signal colors or brightness depend on on the cumulative frequency of the values.
By default, values that occur frequently are displayed brighter than rare values.
Alternatively, the brightness level can be converted to a color range, i.e. the color
changes gradually with increasing cumulative occurance.
It is also possible to invert the brightness display so that rare values are brighter
than frequent values. This setting is useful in combination with persistence to
detect rare values within the waveform.
4.1.1 Configuring the Display
4.1.1.1
Configuring the Diagram Elements
To display the grid or crosshairs
1. Press "DISPLAY > Grid > Lines" to display a grid.
2. Press "DISPLAY > Grid > Reticle" to display crosshairs.
3. Press "DISPLAY > Grid > Off" to remove both the grid and the crosshairs.
To display the trigger event or the channel cursors
The marker of trigger event and the channel cursors are auxiliary cursors. By default,
both auxiliary cursors are displayed. They help to evaluate specific results more easily.
1. Press "DISPLAY > Aux. Cursor > Trigger Event" to display a trigger cursor.
A rhombus marks the point where the trigger event happened.
2. Press "DISPLAY > Aux. Cursor > Channel Cursors" to display a channel cursor.
A dashed line is displayed that marks the ground level of the displayed channel. If
a DC offset is defined, a second auxiliary line is displayed. The distance between
those two lines is the DC offset.
3. Press "DISPLAY > Aux. Cursor > Defaults" to restore the default setting (both cursors displayed).
4.1.1.2
Configuring the Waveform Display
The waveform display depends on the following criteria:
●
Intensities adjust the optimal contrast of the display. See "To configure intensity"
on page 76.
●
Persistence defines how long a data point is displayed in the diagram. See "To
configure persistence" on page 76.
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●
Brightness and signal colors depend on the cumulative frequency of the value.
See: "To configure brightness" on page 76
●
Waveform as line or points: see "To set the waveform style" on page 77.
To configure intensity
For optimal contrast, you can change the intensity of the waveform, of the grid, and of
the backlight.
1. Press "DISPLAY > Intensities".
2. To set the intensity of the waveform:
a) Press "Waveform".
b) Enter a percentage between 0 (not visible) and 100% (very strong). The default
value is 50%. You can also use the "INTENSITY" knob on the left side of the
screen to adjust the waveform intensity directly.
3. To set the intensity of the grid:
a) Press "Grid".
b) Enter a percentage between 0 and 100%. The default value is 34%.
4. To set the intensity of the backlight:
a) Press "Backlight".
b) Enter a percentage between 10 and 100%. The default value is 50%.
To configure persistence
1. To display only the current signal at any time, press "DISPLAY > Intensities > Persistence" until "Off" is highlighted.
2. To have the instrument define the optimal persistence automatically, press "DISPLAY > Intensities > Persistence" until "Automatic" is highlighted.
3. To configure the persistence manually:
a) Press "DISPLAY > Intensities > Persistence" until "Manual" is highlighted.
b) Press "DISPLAY > Intensities > Persist. Time" to define the persistence time.
c) Enter a value between 50 ms and 9.6 s or "Infinite".
Each new data point in the diagram area remains on the screen for the defined
duration. If "Infinite" is selected, each new data point in the diagram area remains
on the screen infinitely until this setting is changed or the persistence is cleared.
4. To update the waveform, press "DISPLAY > Intensities > Clear Persist.".
To configure brightness
For better distinction of rare and frequent values, you can apply a color range to the
value frequency. With this color range, rare values are displayed in blue, while more
frequent values are red and very frequent values are displayed in yellow or white, with
various colors inbetween.
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It is also possible to invert the brightness display so that rare values are brighter than
frequent values.
1. To convert the brightness level to a color range, press "DISPLAY > Temperature
Colors".
2. To invert the brightness level of the signals, press "DISPLAY > Inverse Brightn.".
To set the waveform style
By default, the individual data points are connected by a line. Alternatively, only the
individual data points can be displayed.
You can change the strength of the line using the "INTENSITY" knob on the left side of
the screen.
► Press "DISPLAY > Dots Only" to display the data points only.
4.1.2 Display Menu
The DISPLAY key provides functions for configuring the display.
Display Mode................................................................................................................ 78
XYZ Setup.....................................................................................................................78
Intensities...................................................................................................................... 78
└ Waveform........................................................................................................78
└ Backlight......................................................................................................... 78
└ Grid................................................................................................................. 78
└ Persistence..................................................................................................... 79
└ Persist. Time................................................................................................... 79
└ Clear Persist................................................................................................... 79
Dots Only...................................................................................................................... 79
Inverse Brightn.............................................................................................................. 79
Temper. Colors............................................................................................................. 79
Aux. Cursors................................................................................................................. 80
└ Trigger Event.................................................................................................. 80
└ Channel Cursors............................................................................................. 80
└ Trigger Hyst.................................................................................................... 80
└ Defaults...........................................................................................................81
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Grid............................................................................................................................... 81
VirtualScreen.................................................................................................................81
Transparency................................................................................................................ 81
Display Mode
Toggles the diagram mode.
"Y(t)"
Default time diagram with a time axis in x-direction and the signal
amplitudes displayed in y-direction.
"XY-diagram"
XY-diagrams combine the voltage levels of two waveforms in one diagram. They use the voltage level of a second waveform as the x-axis,
rather then a time base. This allows you to perform phase shift measurements, for example.You can also define the intensity of the XYdiagram according to a further signal source Z.
Together with the XY-diagram, the Y(t)-diagrams of the source signals are displayed in separate windows.
With R&S RTM1054, it is also possible to define two source signals in
y-direction for comparison.
Remote command:
DISPlay:MODE on page 462
XYZ Setup
See Chapter 4.2.2, "XYZ Setup Menu", on page 84.
Intensities
Provides functions to define the intensity of various display elements.
Waveform ← Intensities
Waveform intensity determines the strength of the waveform lines in the diagram.
Enter a percentage between 0 (barely visible) and 100% (very strong), or press and
turn the "INTENSITY" knob on the left side of the screen to adjust the waveform intensity directly. The default value is 50%.
Remote command:
DISPlay:INTensity:WAVeform on page 465
Backlight ← Intensities
Defines the intensity of the background lighting of the display in percent. Enter a percentage between 10% and 100%. The default value is 50%.
Remote command:
DISPlay:INTensity:BACKlight on page 465
Grid ← Intensities
Defines the intensity of the grid on the screen in percent. Enter a percentage between
0% and 100%. The default value is 34%.
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Remote command:
DISPlay:INTensity:GRID on page 466
Persistence ← Intensities
Defines the persistence of the waveform on the screen.
"Off"
Deactivates persistence
"Automatic"
The optimal persistence time is determined automatically by the
instrument
"Manual"
User-defined persistence according to "Persist. Time" setting.
Remote command:
DISPlay:PERSistence:STATe on page 466
DISPlay:PERSistence:TIME:AUTO on page 467
Persist. Time ← Intensities
User-defined persistence time if "Manual" persistence is selected. Each new data point
remains on the screen for the duration defined here. Possible values are from 50 ms to
9.6 s or "Infinite". If "Infinite" is selected, each new data point remains on the screen
infinitely until this setting is changed or the persistence is cleared.
Remote command:
DISPlay:PERSistence:TIME on page 466
DISPlay:PERSistence:INFinite on page 467
Clear Persist. ← Intensities
Clears the displayed persistence on the screen.
Remote command:
DISPlay:PERSistence:CLEar on page 467
Dots Only
If activated, only the individual data points are displayed. If deactivated, the individual
data points are connected by a line. Define the strength of the line using the "INTENSITY" knob on the left side of the screen.
Remote command:
DISPlay:STYLe on page 467
Inverse Brightn.
Inverts the brightness level of the signals. Normally, values that occur frequently are
brighter than rare values. This setting inverts this behavior: Rare values are brighter
than frequent values. Use this setting in combination with persistence to detect rare
values within the waveform.
Remote command:
DISPlay:PALette on page 463 (INVerse, IFColor)
Temper. Colors
Temperature Colors: Converts the brightness level of the displayed signals into a color
range, i.e. the color changes gradually in a wide color spectrum with increasing cumulative occurance.
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By default, rare values are displayed in blue, while more frequent values are red and
very frequent values are displayed in yellow or white, with various colors inbetween.
This results in a higher contrast, which provides a better perception of details in the
waveforms.
Note: The colors change if you invert the brightness display.
Remote command:
DISPlay:PALette on page 463 (NORMal, FColor)
Aux. Cursors
Provides functions to display auxiliary cursors. Highlighted functions are active.
Trigger Event ← Aux. Cursors
Show or hides the point of the trigger. A small rhombus markes the intersection of the
trigger level and the trigger offset T.
The offset is related to the reference point and is displayed in the header of the display.
If you change the trigger level or the trigger position, a line appears temporarily to highlight the changed value.
If the B-trigger is activated, the trigger is the result of an A-event followed by an Bevent. The trigger point has the color of the B-trigger source.
Channel Cursors ← Aux. Cursors
Activates or deactivates the channel cursor of the active channel. A channel cursor is a
line that marks the ground level of a channel. This line is displayed temporarily if the yscaling is modified and fades out automatically.
If a DC offset is defined, a second auxiliary line is displayed. The distance between
those two lines is the DC offset.
Trigger Hyst. ← Aux. Cursors
Shows or hides the hysteresis range around the trigger level when the trigger level or
the hysteresis are changed. Hysteresis avoids unwanted trigger events caused by
noise oscillation around the trigger level.
The setting is only available if "Hysteresis A / B" is set to "Automatic".
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See also: "Hysteresis A|B" on page 63
Defaults ← Aux. Cursors
Restores the default cursor settings, i.e. both auxiliary cursors are displayed.
Grid
Defines how the grid is displayed.
"Lines"
Displays the grid as horizontal and vertical lines.
"Reticle"
Displays crosshairs instead of a grid.
"Off"
Removes the grid from the display.
Remote command:
DISPlay:GRID:STYLe on page 467
VirtualScreen
Enables or disables the virtual screen.
If enabled, the virtual screen has 20 divisions, 8 of them are displayed. To select the
divisions to be displayed, press and turn the "Intensity / Virtual screen" knob at the left
of the screen.
If disabled, only 8 divisions are available, and all divisions are displayed.
Remote command:
DISPlay:VSCReen:ENABle on page 468
DISPlay:VSCReen:POSition on page 468
Transparency
Sets the transparency of result boxes that overlay the waveforms, for example, boxes
with statistical results or digital voltmeter results.
Remote command:
DISPlay:DIALog:TRANsparency on page 463
4.2 XY-Diagram
XY-diagrams combine the voltage levels of two waveforms in one diagram. They use
the amplitude of a second waveform as the x-axis, rather then a time base. This allows
you to perform phase shift measurements, for example. With harmonically related signals the resulting XY-diagrams are Lissajous patterns. XY-diagrams can also be used
to display the IQ representation of a signal.
It is also possible to define two source signals in y-direction for comparison.
The intensity of the XY-waveform can be set to a defined level, or be modulated
dynamically using a further source signal. In the latter case, the amplitudes of addi-
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tional source signal determine the intensity of the displayed waveform. For details, see
Chapter 4.2.1.2, "Configuring the Intensity of an XY-Waveform", on page 83.
Together with the XY-diagram, the time diagrams of the source signals are displayed in
separate windows.
Figure 4-1: XYZ-display
4.2.1 Configuring XY-Diagrams
XY-diagrams combine the voltage levels of two waveforms in one diagram. A further
signal source can be used to determine the intensity of the XY-waveform.
4.2.1.1
Setting Up the XY-Diagram
To switch the display to XY-diagram and vice versa
► Press "DISPLAY > Display Mode" until the "XY" mode is selected.
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To configure an XY-diagram
Prerequisite: The "Display Mode" is set to "XY".
1. Select "DISPLAY > XYZ Setup > Source X" to define the signal to be used as the
x-axis source. Press "Source X" repeatedly until the required channel is highlighted.
2. Select "DISPLAY > XYZ Setup > Source Y1" to define the signal to be used as the
(first) y-axis source. Press "Source Y1" repeatedly until the required channel is
highlighted.
3. Optionally, select "DISPLAY > XYZ Setup > Source Y2" to define the signal to be
used as a second y-axis source. Press "Source Y2" repeatedly until the required
channel is highlighted.
The XY-diagram is displayed in the main window, and additional windows are
opened to display the X, Y1, Y2, and Z time diagrams, if the source is defined.
4.2.1.2
Configuring the Intensity of an XY-Waveform
You can define the intensity of the XY-diagram as a constant value or according to the
amplitude of a further signal source Z.
●
Constant intensity: To configure the intensity of an XY-waveform at a defined level
●
The waveform intensity is modulated dynamically according to the signal source Z.
The higher the signal level Z is, the stronger the waveform is displayed: To configure the intensity of an XY-waveform modulated by a signal amplitude.
●
The waveform intensity is defined by a threshold value: If the Z signal value is
below the selected threshold, the corresponding x/y point is not displayed. If the Z
signal value is above the threshold, the x/y point is displayed with the defined
intensity level: To configure the intensity of an XY-waveform using a threshold
value
To configure the intensity of an XY-waveform at a defined level
Prerequisite: The "Display Mode" is set to "XY", and the XY-diagram is configured.
1. Press "DISPLAY > XYZ Setup > Z Setup".
2. Press the left "Source Z" softkey until "OFF" is highlighted to deactivate intensity
control by the Z source.
3. Press "DISPLAY > Intensities > Trace" to define the intensity level of the waveform.
4. Enter a percentage between 0 (not visible) and 100% (very strong). The default
value is 50%.
Regardless of which menu is currently displayed, you can use the "INTENSITY" knob
on the left side of the screen to adjust the waveform intensity directly.
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To configure the intensity of an XY-waveform modulated by a signal amplitude
Prerequisite: The "Display Mode" is set to "XY", and the XY-diagram is configured.
1. Press "DISPLAY > XYZ Setup > Z Setup".
2. Press the left "Source Z" softkey until "ON" is highlighted to activate intensity control by the Z source.
3. Press the second "Source Z" softkey repeatedly until the required channel for
intensity control is selected.
4. Press "Z-Intensity" until "Modulation" is highlighted to select intensity control via
modulation.
To configure the intensity of an XY-waveform using a threshold value
Prerequisite: The "Display Mode" is set to "XY", and the XY-diagram is configured.
1. Press "DISPLAY > XYZ Setup > Z Setup".
2. Press the left "Source Z" softkey until "ON" is highlighted to activate intensity control by the Z source.
3. Press the second "Source Z" softkey repeatedly until the required channel for
intensity control is selected.
4. Press "Z-Intensity" until "ON | OFF" is highlighted to select intensity control via a
threshold value.
5. Press "Threshold" and enter the required value to define the threshold value.
4.2.2 XYZ Setup Menu
The setup of XY-diagrams is a submenu of the "Display" menu.
Access: DISPLAY > "XYZ Setup"
Source X
Defines the source to be displayed in x direction in an XY-diagram, replacing the usual
time base. The source can be selected from any of the analog channels.
The function is available in R&S RTM1054.
Remote command:
DISPlay:XY:XSOurce on page 463
Source Y1
Defines the (first) source to be displayed in y direction in an XY-diagram. The source
can be selected from any of the analog channels.
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The function is available in R&S RTM1054.
Remote command:
DISPlay:XY:Y1Source on page 464
Source Y2
Defines an optional second source to be displayed in y direction in an XY-diagram. The
source can be selected from any of the analog channels.
The function is available in R&S RTM1054.
Remote command:
DISPlay:XY:Y2Source on page 464
X-CH1 Y-CH2
Defines channel 1 to be displayed in x direction in an XY-diagram, replacing the usual
time base, and sets channel 2 to the y-axis.
The function is available in R&S RTM1052.
X-CH2 Y-CH1
Defines channel 2 to be displayed in x direction in an XY-diagram, replacing the usual
time base, and sets channel 1 to the y-axis.
The function is available in R&S RTM1052.
Z Setup
The intensity of the waveform displayed in an XY-diagram can be set to a defined
level, or be modulated dynamically using a further source signal Z. In the latter case,
the amplitudes of the source signal determine the intensity of the displayed waveform.
Z ← Z Setup
Activates or deactivates the intensity control of the waveform via an additional signal
source. If deactivated, the intensity is defined by the general "Intensity" setting for the
trace.
Remote command:
DISPlay:XY:ZMODe on page 464
Source Z ← Z Setup
Defines the source to be used to determine the intensity of the waveform. The source
can be selected from any of the analog channels. Pressing the softkey repeatedly
scrolls through the list of available source channels.
Remote command:
DISPlay:XY:ZSOurce on page 465
Z-Intensity ← Z Setup
Toggles between intensity modes.
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"Modulation"
Modulated intensity; Intensity is modulated continuously according to
the selected "Source Z".
"On | Off"
Intensity is determined by a "Threshold" value. If the Z signal value is
below the selected threshold, the corresponding x/y point is displayed
with lowest intensity. If the Z signal value is above the threshold, the
x/y point is displayed with the defined intensity level.
Remote command:
DISPlay:XY:ZMODe on page 464
Threshold ← Z Setup
Defines the threshold for intensity with a two-state modulation, if "Z-Intensity" is set to
"ON | OFF".
Remote command:
DISPlay:XY:ZTHReshold on page 465
4.3 Zoom
You can zoom into waveforms to analyze the results in more detail. The zoomed area
and its position can be configured numerically or using the rotary knobs.
Using Markers
You can use markers to quickly zoom into a place of interest in the display, see "To
zoom into a marker position" on page 92.
4.3.1 Zoom Display
When you activate zoom display, two windows are displayed: the original waveform
diagram at the top (Y(t)-window), and the zoom window at the bottom. The zoom area
defines the part of the original waveform to be zoomed. It is indicated by white lines in
the original Y(t)-window.
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Zoom
The usual channel parameters are displayed in the information bar above the original
Y(t)-window (see the general display information described in the "Getting Started"
manual).
In addition, the zoom area parameters are indicated in the information bar above the
zoom window. The following information is given there:
Z
Zoom Time Base, i.e. scaling for the time base in the zoom window in seconds per division;
determines the width of the zoom area that is displayed in the zoom window (10 divisions * scaling per division)
TIMebase:ZOOM:SCALe?
Tz
Zoom Time, i.e. the offset of the trigger point to the reference point 0s in the zoom window;
determines the position of the zoom area
TIMebase:ZOOM:TIME?
Sample rate for zoom window
ACQuire:SRATe:ZOOM?
Pressing the horizontal SCALE rotary knob moves the focus between the Y(t)-window
(Time Control), the zoom area (Zoom Control) and the zoom window. The currently
selected screen area is highlighted and displayed in the information bar of the zoom
window. Depending on the selection, the functions of the SCALE and POSITION rotary
knobs may change.
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Figure 4-2: Zoom area width and position
When you deactivate the zoom display, the previous display is restored.
4.3.2 Zooming for Details
The zoomed area and its position can be configured numerically or using the rotary
knobs.
To display a zoom diagram
► Press the ZOOM key.
The key lights up and two windows are displayed: the original signal vs. time at the
top, the zoom at the bottom.
To deactivate the zoom display
► Press the ZOOM key again, or press the "Zoom Off" softkey in the "Zoom" menu to
close the zoom window.
The ZOOM key is no longer illuminated and the previous display is restored.
To configure the zoom area numerically
1. Press the "Zoom Time Base" softkey to define the scaling for the time base in the
zoom diagram in seconds per division. The scaling is indicated by "Z" in the information bar above the zoom diagram and determines the width of the zoom area
that is displayed in the zoom diagram (10 divisions * scaling per division).
2. Press the "Zoom Time" softkey to define the offset of the trigger point to the reference point 0s in the zoom diagram. The offset is indicated by "Tz" in the information bar above the zoom window and determines the position of the zoom area.
The zoom area is indicated by white lines in the original Y(t)-window. The zoom
window displays the data in the defined zoom area from the main time base in
greater detail.
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To configure the zoom area via the rotary knobs
Pressing the horizontal SCALE rotary knob moves the focus between the Y(t)-window
(Time Control), the zoom area (Zoom Control) and the zoom window. The currently
selected screen area is highlighted and displayed in the information bar of the zoom
window. Depending on the selection, the functions of the SCALE and POSITION rotary
knobs may change.
1. Press the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to select "Zoom Control" or "Zoom Window". The functions for the rotary knobs are the same for both elements; for very
high zoom factors, however, it may be faster to scroll through with the "Zoom Window" focus.
2. Turn the horizontal SCALE rotary knob counter-clockwise to enlarge the zoom
area, or clockwise to decrease it.
The zoom diagram and the "Z" parameter (Zoom Time Base) in the information bar
above it are adapted.
3. Turn the horizontal POSITION rotary knob counter-clockwise to move the zoom
area to the left, or clockwise to move it to the right.
The zoom diagram and the "Tz" parameter (Zoom Time) in the information bar
above it are adapted.
The zoom window displays the data in the defined zoom area from the main time
base in greater detail.
To configure the original Y(t)-diagram
1. Press the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to select "Time Control", the original Y(t)window.
2. Press "Main Time Base" to define the scaling for the time base in the original Y(t)window in seconds per division. Alternatively, turn the horizontal SCALE rotary
knob.
3. Press "Trigger Offset" to define the offset of the trigger point to the reference point
for 0s in the original Y(t)-window. Alternatively, turn the horizontal POSITION rotary
knob.
Note that changing the offset in the original window also changes the offset for the
zoom window (Zoom Time).
4.3.3 Zoom Menu
The ZOOM key provides functions for configuring the zoom display.
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Main Time Base............................................................................................................ 90
Zoom Time Base...........................................................................................................90
Trigger Offset................................................................................................................ 90
Zoom Time.................................................................................................................... 90
Zoom Off....................................................................................................................... 90
Main Time Base
Defines the scaling for the time base in the (original) Y(t)-window in seconds per division. The scaling is indicated by "TB" in the information bar above the window.
Note: If "Time Control" is selected, the main time base can be adjusted using the horizontal SCALE rotary knob.
See also "SCALE" on page 29, "To configure the original Y(t)-diagram" on page 89 and
Figure 8-2.
Remote command:
TIMebase:SCALe on page 414
Zoom Time Base
Defines the scaling for the time base in the zoom window in seconds per division. The
scaling determines the width of the zoom area that is displayed in the zoom window
(10 divisions * scaling per division).
The zoom area is indicated by white lines in the original Y(t)-window.
Remote command:
TIMebase:ZOOM:SCALe on page 469
Trigger Offset
Defines the horizontal position of the trigger point in relation to the reference point - to
the zero point of the grid. The value is indicated by "T" in the information bar above the
window.
The reference point is set with SETUP >"Time Reference".
Note: If a zoom or FFT window is displayed and "Time Control" is selected, the trigger
offset can be adjusted using the horizontal POSITION rotary knob.
See also:
● "POSITION" on page 29
● "Time Reference" on page 386
● "To configure the original Y(t)-diagram" on page 89
Remote command:
TIMebase:POSition on page 416
Zoom Time
Defines the offset of the trigger point to the reference point 0s in the zoom window. The
offset determines the position of the zoom area that is displayed in the zoom window.
Remote command:
TIMebase:ZOOM:TIME on page 469
Zoom Off
Closes the zoom window and returns to the previous display.
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Remote command:
TIMebase:ZOOM:STATe on page 468
4.4 Markers
Markers allow you to mark certain positions on the screen, e.g. a rising or falling edge,
or an unexpected signal value, or a search result. You can then use the markers to
identify areas of interest you want to zoom into, and quickly move through the data.
Two marker types are available:
●
Timestamp markers can be used if no search is enabled. They can be set manually
at any position of the waveform. These markers are indicated by blue vertical lines.
You can set up to 8 timestamp markers. Timestamp markers are descibed in this
chapter.
●
If a search is active, you can set search markers to selected search results. These
markers are indicated by magenta search result flags. Search result markers are
described in Chapter 10.1, "Search Conditions and Results", on page 175
4.4.1 Using Timestamp Markers
Timestamp markers are displayed as colored lines on the screen. If more markers are
available but currently not visible on the screen (e.g. in a zoomed display), this is indicated by a small arrow at the right or left edge of the display.
See also: "To use markers on search results" on page 178.
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Figure 4-3: Zoomed display using markers
To set a marker
1. Turn the horizontal "Position" rotary knob and move the position to be marked to
the reference point, usually in the middle of the display.
2. Press the SET CLEAR key to insert a new marker at the reference position.
To select a marker
When you select a marker it is automatically moved to the reference point of the display.
1. Press the NEXT key to move the next (right) marker to the reference point of the
display or zoom area.
2. Press the PREV key to move the previous (left) marker to the reference point of the
display or zoom area.
To remove a marker
1. Select the marker to be deleted using the NEXT or PREV key.
2. Press the SET CLEAR key to remove the marker at the reference position.
To zoom into a marker position
1. Set a marker in the display as described above.
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2. If not yet active, activate the zoom function by pressing the ZOOM key.
The marker lines are displayed both in the original window and in the zoom window.
3. Select the marker that indicates the area you want to zoom into using the NEXT or
PREV key.
The center of the zoom area is moved to the marker (see Figure 4-3).
4. If necessary, fine-tune the position of the zoom area around the marker as described in "To configure the zoom area via the rotary knobs" on page 89.
4.4.2 Reference for Markers
The marker keys are used for both marker types, timestamp markers and search result
markers.
For details on setting and moving markers; see
●
Chapter 4.4.1, "Using Timestamp Markers", on page 91
●
"To use markers on search results" on page 178
NEXT.............................................................................................................................93
PREV............................................................................................................................ 93
SET CLEAR.................................................................................................................. 93
NEXT
Moves the next (right) marker to the reference point of the display or zoom area. If a
search is enabled, the key navigates the search result markers.
Note: If another marker is available at the right, but currently not visible on the screen,
a small red arrow is displayed at the right edge of the display.
Remote command:
TSTamp:NEXT on page 470 (for timestamp markers only)
PREV
Moves the previous (left) marker to the reference point of the display or zoom area. If a
search is enabled, the key navigates the search result markers.
Note: If another marker is available at the left, but currently not visible on the screen, a
small red arrow is displayed at the left edge of the display.
Remote command:
TSTamp:PREVious on page 470 (for timestamp markers only)
SET CLEAR
Sets a new marker at the reference point of the display, or deletes an existing marker
at this point. Use the NEXT and PREV keys to move the markers to the reference
point.
In the display of search results, the marker is set to or removed from the search result
that is selected in the "Event Table".
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Reference Waveforms
Using References
5 Reference Waveforms
Reference waveforms are waveform data stored in in the internal reference storages.
Four internal reference storages are available: RE1 - RE4. These four reference waveforms can be displayed.
Reference waveforms can be saved to and loaded from any storage device - internal
memory or external USB flash device. The file format is .TRF. TRF files contain binary
waveform data and the instrument settings, so you can restore also the settings when
you load a reference waveform. If the TRF file is saved to internal storage, the amount
of waveform data is limited to 256 kB (without settings and header data).
See Chapter 15.3.3.1, "Waveform File Formats", on page 376 for details on file formats.
You can copy the stored references to another storage device using export/import
functions. With export/import, you can also change the target file format and convert
the data. To copy a stored reference, use FILE >"Import/Export References". See also:
Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and Exporting Data", on page 369.
Furthermore, you can save waveforms directly to a USB flash drive with FILE > "Waveforms", without creating a reference waveform before. See: Chapter 15.3.3, "Waveforms", on page 375.
5.1 Using References
You can store any of the active waveforms as reference waveform - channel, math,
and other reference waveforms - or load a previously saved reference.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, you can store also the pods of digital channels
as references.
For each selected reference waveform, you can adjust the vertical position and scale
as usual, and, unlike for other waveform types, you can also adjust the horizontal position and scale individually.
The current scale values are shown in the waveform label of the reference waveform.
5.1.1 Displaying a Reference Waveform
A reference waveform is displayed as soon as data is written to its storage, either from
an active waveform, or loaded from a reference file. You can hide it and display it again
by using the "Visible" key.
1. Press the REF key to display the "Reference" menu.
2. Press "Reference" and select the reference storage position.
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Using References
If a reference was already loaded to the selected reference position before, the
stored reference waveform is displayed.
3. Select the data that will be used as reference by doing one of the following:
●
●
Press "Source" and select one of the active waveforms, then press "Update".
Load a previously saved reference.
See also: "To load references and reference settings" on page 95.
The selected data is written to the selected reference storage and displayed.
4. Press "Visible" to hide and show the reference waveform.
5.1.2 Saving and Loading References
If you need more than four references, or you want to keep a reference for other measurements, you can save it and load it back to the instrument when needed. Import and
export is also possible.
To save references
1. Press REF to display the "Reference" menu
2. Press "Save".
3. Press "Source" and select the waveform whose data you want to save as a reference. All active waveforms can be saved.
4. Press "Storage" and define the storage settings.
See: "To select the storage directory" on page 368.
5. Press "File Name" and enter the name of the target file.
See: "To define a new file or directory name" on page 368.
6. Press "Save".
To copy a stored reference, use FILE > "Import/Export References". For import/export
procedure, see Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and Exporting Data", on page 369.
To load references and reference settings
1. Press REF.
2. Press "Load".
3. Press "Reference" and select the reference number you want to load the reference
to.
4. Press "Load".
A file explorer is displayed.
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Reference Waveforms
Reference for REF key
5. Select the storage device and the file that contains the reference. Use the "Navigation" knob to scroll through the directories. To change the directory, scroll to the
name of the directory and press the knob, or press "Change Directory".
6. Press "Load".
The saved reference is loaded to the R&S RTM.
7. If you also want to load the settings that were used to create the reference waveform:
a) In the "Reference" or "Load" menu, press "Reference" and select the reference
number you want to load the settings to.
b) Press "Load Settings".
"Load Settings" is only available if the waveform was loaded to the reference
storage before, you cannot laod the setting first.
5.2 Reference for REF key
The REF key provides functions for working with reference waveforms on the instrument.
For details on working with these functions, see Chapter 5.1, "Using References",
on page 94.
Reference......................................................................................................................96
Source...........................................................................................................................96
Update...........................................................................................................................97
Visible............................................................................................................................97
Save.............................................................................................................................. 97
Load.............................................................................................................................. 97
└ Reference....................................................................................................... 97
└ Load................................................................................................................ 97
Load Settings................................................................................................................ 97
Reference
Selects one of the four possible internal reference storages.
See also: Chapter 5.1, "Using References", on page 94.
Source
Defines the source of the reference waveform. Any active channel, math or reference
waveform can be selected.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, you can store also the pods of digital channels
as references.
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Reference for REF key
Remote command:
REFCurve<m>:SOURce on page 471
REFCurve<m>:SOURce:CATalog? on page 472
Update
Stores the waveform defined as the "Source" to the selected reference waveform. The
reference waveform is kept until you update or load another waveform to the reference.
See also: Chapter 5.1.1, "Displaying a Reference Waveform", on page 94.
Remote command:
REFCurve<m>:UPDate on page 472
Visible
Displays or hides the selected reference waveform.
Remote command:
REFCurve<m>:STATe on page 471
Save
Opens the "Save" menu with basic functions to save the equation set.
See "Save Menu" on page 370 .
Remote command:
REFCurve<m>:SAVE on page 472
Load
Provides functions to load reference data.
Reference ← Load
Selects one of the four possible internal reference storages.
See also: Chapter 5.1, "Using References", on page 94.
Load ← Load
Opens the "Load" menu and a file explorer to select the reference waveform file for
loading.
See "Load Menu" on page 371.
Remote command:
REFCurve<m>:LOAD on page 472
Load Settings
Loads the device settings that were used to obtain the stored reference waveform. The
settings are only available if the file was stored to the internal storage /INT/
REFERENCE and never written to an external storage (USB stick).
Remote command:
REFCurve<m>:LOAD:STATe on page 473
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Cursor Measurements
6 Measurements
The following measurement methods are available:
●
CURSOR: Cursor measurements determine specific measurement results at the
current cursor positions of an active waveform; the results are displayed in a result
table.
●
QUICK MEAS: performs basic automatic measurements for the selected channel
immediately; the results are displayed directly at the waveform and in a result
table.
●
MEAS: With automatic measurements, up to four amplitude and time measurements or pulse counts can be configured and performed simultaneously; based on
an active channel, reference, or math waveforms. The results are displayed in a
result table, the color of the results corresponds with the source waveform color.
These measurements can be performed together with the "Quick Meas" measurements.
Use the full height of the screen for waveform display to get best vertical resolution and
measurement results.
6.1 Cursor Measurements
Using the CURSOR key you can determine specific measurement results at the current cursor positions for various waveforms. The cursors can be set to the required
position with the Navigation rotary knob, or set to typical positions on a keypress.
You can measure on any active channel, math, or reference waveform, and also on the
resulting waveform of an FFT analysis and on XY-waveforms.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, active digital channels are available as measurement sources for time and count cursor measurements, and the bit values of the
pods can be determined.
6.1.1 Cursor Measurements Types and Results
Cursor measurements are based on automatic measurements. The cursor measurement is limited to the cursor positions or the part of the waveform between the cursors
while automatic measurements considers the complete display of the waveform. Thus
you can focus the measurement to the interesting part of the waveform by using cursors. The results are displayed in the right part of the result table.
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Cursor Measurements
For cursor measurements on channel, math, and reference waveforms, various measurement types are available, for example, Peak, RMS, Mean und Count. Cursor measurement is also possible on the results of an FFT analysis. It measures the frequencies and levels at the cursor positions and their differences.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, time and count measurements can be performed on active digital channels, and the bit values of the pods can be determined.
Available cursor measurements are:
Voltage.......................................................................................................................... 99
Time............................................................................................................................ 100
Voltage & Time............................................................................................................100
Ratio X........................................................................................................................ 100
Ratio Y........................................................................................................................ 100
Count...........................................................................................................................100
Peak Values................................................................................................................ 100
RMS, Mean, σ............................................................................................................. 100
Duty Ratio................................................................................................................... 101
Burst Width..................................................................................................................101
Rise Time.................................................................................................................... 101
V-Marker..................................................................................................................... 101
Crest factor..................................................................................................................101
Voltage
Sets two horizontal cursor lines and measures the voltages at the two cursor positions
and the delta of the two values.
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Cursor Measurements
Results: V1, V2, ΔV
Time
Sets two vertical cursor lines and measures the time from the trigger point to each cursor point, the time between the two cursors and the frequency calculated from that
time.
Results: t1, t2, Δt, 1/t
Voltage & Time
Combines the "Voltage" cursor and "Time" cursor measurements. Two horizontal and
two vertical cursor lines are set and the voltages and time from the trigger point are
measured at the cursor positions, as well as the delta of the voltage and time values.
Results: t1, t2, Δt, V1, V2, ΔV
Ratio X
Provides three cursors and measures the ratio of the x-values (e.g. a duty cycle)
between the first and second cursors and the first and third cursors:
(x2-x1)/(x3-x1)
The ratio is displayed as a floating value, in percent, in degrees and as a radian.
Results: abs, %, °, π
Ratio Y
Provides three cursors and measures the ratio of the y-values (e.g. overshooting)
between the first and second cursors and the first and third cursors:
(y2-y1)/(y3-y1)
The ratio is displayed as a floating value and in percent.
Results: abs, %
Count
Provides three cursors to count signal transitions. The time base is defined by the first
two cursors, the third cursor defines the threshold value. As a result, the number of rising and falling edges as well as the number of positive and negative impulses is counted.
Results:
,
,
,
Peak Values
Measures the positive and negative peak values between the two cursors, as well as
the absolute difference between the two peak values (peak-to-peak value):
Vpp = |(Vp+) - (Vp-)|
Results: Vp+, Vp-, Vpp
RMS, Mean, σ
Measures the root mean square (RMS), the mean value, and the standard deviation of
measurement results between the two cursors.
Results: Mean, RMS, σ
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Cursor Measurements
Duty Ratio
Measures the positive and negative duty cycles. The duty cycle is the ratio between
the duration of a positve pulse (high active) or a negative pulse (low-active) and the
period of a rectangular waveform. The measurement requires at least one complete
period of the signal between cursor 1 and cursor 2. Pulse duration and period are measured at cursor 3.
Results: Dty+, Dty- (in %)
Burst Width
Measures the duration of a burst. Two vertical cursors mark the beginning and the end
of the burst. The horizontal cursor sets the threshold value, and the time between the
first and the last edge of the burst is returned.
Result: BstW
Rise Time
Measures the rise and fall times of the left-most edge in the display between the upper
and lower reference levels. The reference levels are set in the Auto Measure menu:
MEAS > "Reference Level".
See also: Reference Level: Upper, Middle, Lower Levels.
Results: tr, tf
V-Marker
Two vertical markers are provided and the values of the waveform at the marker positions are measured. Additionally, the differences of the two values in x- and y-direction
are displayed.
Results: V1, V2, Δt, ΔV
Crest factor
The crest factor is also known as peak-to-average ratio. It is calculated from the maximum value divided by the RMS value of the waveform. The measurement value is displayed as "Crest" in the result table.
Crest 
VP 
RMS
6.1.2 Performing Cursor Measurements
The cursors are activated according to the latest setting as soon as you press the
CURSOR key.
To configure cursor measurements
1. Press the CURSOR key.
The cursors are activated according to the latest setting.
2. Press "Meas. Type" to select the type of measurement to perform. The type determines which results are displayed in the result table.
See also: "Meas.Type" on page 103.
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Cursor Measurements
3. Press "Source" to select the waveform for which the measurement is to be performed. The source can be any active waveform depending on the selected measurement type.
4. Move the cursors to obtain the required results.
See also: "To change the position of the cursors" on page 102.
The cursor measurement is performed and the results are displayed in the result
table.
To change the position of the cursors
The cursor measurement displays the results depending on the current position of the
cursors. Move the cursors to obtain the results for a specific time range or at specific
signal points.
1. Press the NAVIGATION rotary knob to select the first cursor. If a selection menu is
open, it is closed.
Tip: If the cursors have disappeared from the screen or must be moved extensively
within the screen, press "Set To Screen" in the "Cursor" menu to reset the cursors
to their default positions.
2. Turn the NAVIGATION knob to change the position of the selected cursor line.
3. Press the knob again to select the next cursor line, and turn to adjust position.
4. To simplify the cursor positioning, the following functions are helpful:
● "Track Scaling" to adjust the cursor position when the vertical or horizontal
scaling are changed
● "Coupling" to keep the distance between two cursor lines constant while one of
the cursors is moved
● "Set to Wave" to set the cursor lines to typical points of the waveform based on
automatic measurements in the background
See also: Chapter 6.1.3, "Cursor Menu", on page 102.
The results of the cursor measurement in the result table are updated.
To deactivate cursor measurements
1. Press the CURSOR key.
2. Press the "Cursor" softkey.
The "Cursor" softkey is no longer highlighted, no more measurements are performed, the cursor lines disappear and the results are removed from the result
table.
6.1.3 Cursor Menu
The CURSOR key opens the "Cursor" menu to configure manual measurements.
See also: Chapter 6.1.2, "Performing Cursor Measurements", on page 101.
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Cursor Measurements
Cursor......................................................................................................................... 103
Meas.Type.................................................................................................................. 103
Source.........................................................................................................................103
Track Scaling.............................................................................................................. 104
Coupling...................................................................................................................... 104
Set to Wave.................................................................................................................104
Set To Screen............................................................................................................. 104
Prev. peak................................................................................................................... 104
Next peak.................................................................................................................... 105
NAVIGATION.............................................................................................................. 105
Cursor
Activates or deactivates the selected cursor measurement.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:STATe on page 476
Meas.Type
Selects the cursor measurement type. Depending on the type, different results are displayed in the result table.
For a list of all cursor measurement types and their description, see Chapter 6.3.1.1,
"Measurement Types", on page 107.
Depending on the measurement type, two or three cursors are provided which can be
set to the required position using the "Navigation" rotary knob. See also: "To change
the position of the cursors" on page 102.
The measurement type setting is not available for cursor measurments on FFT analysis.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:FUNCtion on page 477
Source
Defines the source of the cursor measurement as one of the active channel, math, or
reference waveforms.
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Cursor Measurements
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, also digital channels D0 to D15 are available
for time, ratio X, count, duty ratio, and burst width measurements, and the pods
D0...D7 and D8...D15 are available for V-marker measurements. Available sources
depend on the selected measurement type.
The source setting is not available for cursor measurements on FFT analysis and in XY
mode.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:SOURce on page 476
Track Scaling
If enabled, "Track Scaling" adjusts the cursor lines if the vertical or horizontal scales
are changed. The cursor lines keep their relative position to the waveform.
If disabled, the cursor lines remain on their position on the display if the scaling is
changed.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:TRACking:SCALe[:STATe] on page 481
Coupling
If enabled, the cursors of a can be coupled and moved together. Press the
NAVIGATION key to select both corsors or one cursor to be moved.
If disabled, the NAVIGATION key toggles the single cursor lines.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:XCOupling on page 480
CURSor<m>:YCOupling on page 480
Set to Wave
Autoset for cursor lines, sets the cursor lines to typical points of the waveform depending on the selected measurement type. For example, for voltage measurement, the
cursor lines are set to the upper and lower peaks of the waveform. For time measurement, the cursor lines are set to the edges of two consecutive positive or two consecutive negative pulses.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:SWAVe on page 480
Set To Screen
Resets the cursors to their initial positions. This is helpful if the cursors have disappeared from the display or need to be moved for a larger distance.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:SSCReen on page 480
Prev. peak
For FFT analysis only: sets the selected cursor to the previous (left) level peak.
To select the cursor, press the NAVIGATION knob.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:SPPeak on page 480
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Quick Measurements
Next peak
For FFT analysis only: sets the selected cursor to the next (right) level peak.
To select the cursor, press the NAVIGATION knob.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:SNPeak on page 480
NAVIGATION
Select cursor: Press the NAVIGATION rotary knob to select a cursor line. If a menu is
open, it is closed. Press the knob repeatedly to select the required cursor line or - if
Coupling is enabled - a pair of coupled cursor lines.
Move selected cursor: Turn the rotary knob to change the position of the selected cursor line.
Remote command:
CURSor<m>:X1Position on page 479
CURSor<m>:X2Position on page 479
CURSor<m>:X3Position on page 479
CURSor<m>:Y1Position on page 479
CURSor<m>:Y2Position on page 479
CURSor<m>:Y3Position on page 479
6.2 Quick Measurements
Quick measurement performs all currently available automatic measurements for the
selected channel. The measurements cannot be configured. The results are displayed
either directly at the waveform (WF) or in the right part of the result table (T) and are
updated continuously.
If the instrument detects a period in the signal, the quick measurement measures the
first cycle and displays the results. If no period is detected, it measures the complete
waveform.
► Press the QUICK MEAS key to activate quick measurement.
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Quick Measurements
The following measurement results are determined for the displayed section of the
waveform:
Label
Description
Display
Vp+
Positive peak value
WF
Vp-
Negative peak value
WF
tr
Rising time of the first rising edge
WF
Mean
Mean value
WF
tf
Falling time of the first falling edge
WF
RMS
RMS
T
Vpp
Peak to peak value
T
T
Period length
T
f
Frequency
T
When you activate quick measurements, cursor measurements are automatically
deactivated, as well as the reference and math menus. Deactivate quick measurements before selecting these functions. Channels other than the selected one are
switched off in quick measurement mode.
► Press the QUICK MEAS key again to deactivate the quick measurement and
remove the results.
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Automatic Measurements
Remote command:
●
MEASurement<m>:ALL[:STATe] on page 484
●
MEASurement<m>:AON on page 484
●
MEASurement<m>:AOFF on page 484
●
MEASurement<m>:ARESult? on page 484
6.3 Automatic Measurements
Using the MEAS key you can configure up to four amplitude and time measurements
or pulse counts on one of the active channel, reference or math waveforms.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, active digital channels are available as measurement sources for time and count measurements.
●
●
●
Measurement Types and Results......................................................................... 107
Configuring and Performing Automatic Measurements........................................ 113
Auto Measure Menu (MEAS key)..........................................................................115
6.3.1 Measurement Types and Results
●
●
●
6.3.1.1
Measurement Types............................................................................................. 107
Measurement Results........................................................................................... 112
Statistics................................................................................................................113
Measurement Types
The R&S RTM provides a varity of automatic measurements:
Mean Value................................................................................................................. 108
RMS Value.................................................................................................................. 108
Mean Cycle................................................................................................................. 108
RMS Cycle.................................................................................................................. 108
Peak Peak...................................................................................................................108
Peak +......................................................................................................................... 108
Peak -..........................................................................................................................108
Frequency................................................................................................................... 108
Period..........................................................................................................................109
Amplitude.................................................................................................................... 109
Crest factor..................................................................................................................109
Top Level.................................................................................................................... 109
Base Level.................................................................................................................. 109
Pulse Width (positive pulse)........................................................................................109
Pos. Overshoot........................................................................................................... 109
Neg. Overshoot........................................................................................................... 109
Pulse Width (negative pulse)...................................................................................... 110
Duty Cycle +................................................................................................................110
Duty Cycle -.................................................................................................................110
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Automatic Measurements
Rise Time.................................................................................................................... 110
Fall Time..................................................................................................................... 110
σ-Std. Dev. Wave........................................................................................................110
σ-Std. Dev. Cycle........................................................................................................ 110
Delay........................................................................................................................... 111
Phase.......................................................................................................................... 111
Burst Width..................................................................................................................111
Count positive pulses.................................................................................................. 111
Count negative pulses.................................................................................................111
Count rising edges...................................................................................................... 111
Count falling edges..................................................................................................... 111
Trigger Freq................................................................................................................ 111
Trigger Period............................................................................................................. 112
Trigger B Freq............................................................................................................. 112
Trigger B Period.......................................................................................................... 112
Mean Value
Determines the mean value of the complete displayed waveform. The measurement
value is displayed as "Mean" in the result table.
RMS Value
Measures the RMS (Root Mean Square) value of the voltage of the complete displayed
waveform. The measurement value is displayed as "RMS" in the result table.
Mean Cycle
Measures the mean value of the left-most signal period. The measurement value is
displayed as "MnCy" in the result table.
RMS Cycle
Measures the RMS (Root Mean Square) value of the voltage of the left-most signal
period. The measurement value is displayed as "RMSCy" in the result table.
Peak Peak
Measures the peak-to-peak value within the displayed section of the waveform. The
measurement value is displayed as "Vpp" in the result table.
Peak +
Measures the maximum value within the displayed section of the waveform. The measured value is displayed as "Vp+" in the result table.
Peak Measures the minimum value within the displayed section of the waveform. The measured value is displayed as "Vp-" in the result table.
Frequency
Measures the frequency of the signal. The result is based on the length of the left-most
signal period within the displayed section of the waveform. The measurement value is
displayed as "f" in the result table.
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Automatic Measurements
Period
Measures the length of the left-most signal period within the displayed section of the
waveform. The measurement value is displayed as "T" in the result table.
Amplitude
Measures the amplitude of a square wave. To do so, the potential difference between
high and low level ("Vbase" and "Vtop") is calculated. The measurement requires at
least one complete period of a triggered signal. The measured value is displayed as
"VAmp" in the result table.
Crest factor
The crest factor is also known as peak-to-average ratio. It is calculated from the maximum value divided by the RMS value of the waveform. The measurement value is displayed as "Crest" in the result table.
Crest 
VP 
RMS
Top Level
Measures the mean value of the high level of a square wave. To do so, the mean value
of the tilt is calculated (without the overshoot). The measurement and requires at least
one complete period of a triggered signal. The measured value is displayed as "Vtop"
in the result table.
Base Level
Measures the mean value of the low level of a square wave. To do so, the mean value
of the tilt is calculated (without the overshoot). The measurement requires at least one
complete period of a triggered signal. The measured value is displayed as "Vbase" in
the result table.
Pulse Width (positive pulse)
: Measures the width of a positive pulse. A positive pulse consists of a rising edge
followed by a falling edge. The measurement and requires at least one complete
period of a triggered signal. The measured value is displayed as "t " in the result
table.
Pos. Overshoot
Positive overshoot of a square wave, calculated from measurement values Top Level,
Peak +, and Amplitude. The measured value is displayed as "+Ovr" in the result table.
 Ovr 
Vtop  VP 
VAmp
 100%
Neg. Overshoot
Negative overshoot of a square wave, calculated from measurement values Min, Low,
and Amplitude. The measured value is displayed as "-Ovr" in the result table.
 Ovr 
Vbase  VP 
 100%
VAmp
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Automatic Measurements
Pulse Width (negative pulse)
: Measures the width of a negative pulse. A negative pulse consists of a falling edge
followed by a rising edge. The measurement requires at least one complete period of a
triggered signal. The measured value is displayed as "t " in the result table.
Duty Cycle +
Measures the positive duty cycle. The duty cycle is the ratio between the duration of a
positve pulse (high active) and the period of a rectangular waveform. The measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered signal.
The result is the measured value as a percentage of the signal period and is displayed
as "Dty+" in the result table.
Duty Cycle Measures the positive duty cycle. The duty cycle is the ratio between the duration of a
negative pulse (low active) and the period of a rectangular waveform. The measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered signal.
The result is the measured value as a percentage of the signal period and is displayed
as "Dty-" in the result table.
Rise Time
Measures the rise time of the left-most rising edge within the displayed section of the
waveform. The rise time is determined as the time it takes the signal to rise from the
lower reference level to the upper reference level which are set with "Upper Level" and
"Lower Level" in the "Reference Level" menu. The measurement result is displayed as
"tr" in the result table.
See also: "Reference Level: Upper, Middle, Lower Levels" on page 116.
Fall Time
Measures the falling time of the left-most falling edge within the displayed section of
the waveform. The fall time is determined as the time it takes the signal to fall from the
upper reference level to the lower reference level which are set with "Upper Level" and
"Lower Level" in the "Reference Level" menu. The measurement result is displayed as
"tf" in the result table.
σ-Std. Dev. Wave
Measures the standard deviation of the complete waveform.
X 
1
N Eval  1
NEval
 x(i )  X
Mean
2
i 1
XMean = Mean Value
X(i) = Value of the measured waveform sample
NEval = Number of waveform samples
σ-Std. Dev. Cycle
Measures the standard deviation of one cycle, usually of the first, left-most signal
period.
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Delay
Measures the time difference on the middle reference level between two slopes of the
same or different waveforms. The measurement value is displayed as "Delay" in the
result table.
Select the sources and slopes in the Delay Setup menu.
Set the middle reference level in the Reference Level menu.
Phase
Phase difference between two waveforms (time difference/period * 360) on the middle
reference level. The measurement value is displayed as "Phase" in the result table.
Select the waveforms in the Phase Setup menu.
Set the middle reference level in the Reference Level menu.
Burst Width
Duration of one burst, measured from the first edge to the last edge that cross the middle reference level. The measurement value is displayed as "Bst" in the result table.
Set the middle reference level in the Reference Level menu.
Count positive pulses
Count : Counts positive pulses within the displayed section of the waveform. A positive pulse consists of a rising edge followed by a falling edge. The mean value of the
signal is determined. If the signal passes the mean value, an edge is counted. The
pulse is counted if a rising edge and a falling edge are detected. The number of positive pulses is displayed as "Cnt " in the result table.
Count negative pulses
Count : Counts negative pulses within the displayed section of the waveform. A negative pulse consists of a falling edge followed by a rising edge. The mean value of the
signal is determined. If the signal passes the mean value, an edge is counted. The
pulse is counted if a falling edge and a rising edge are detected. The number of negative pulses is displayed as "Cnt " in the result table.
Count rising edges
Count : Counts transitions of the signal from low level to high level within the displayed section of the waveform. To do so, the mean value of the signal is determined.
If the signal passes the mean value, a rising edge is counted. The number of rising
edges is displayed as "Cnt " in the result table.
Count falling edges
Count : Counts transitions of the signal from high level to low level within the displayed section of the waveform. To do so, the mean value of the signal is determined.
If the signal passes the mean value, a falling edge is counted. The number of falling
edges is displayed as "Cnt " in the result table.
Trigger Freq.
Measures the frequency of the A-trigger signal based on the length of its period. The
measurement value is displayed as "f(Tr)" in the result table.
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Trigger Period
Measures the length of the A-trigger signal periods (hardware counter). The measurement value is displayed as "T(Tr)" in the result table.
Trigger B Freq.
Measures the frequency of the B-trigger signal based on the length of its period. The
measurement value is displayed as "f(TrB)" in the result table.
Trigger B Period
Measures the length of the B-trigger signal periods. The measurement value is displayed as "T(TrB)" in the result table.
6.3.1.2
Measurement Results
The results of an automatic measurement are displayed in the result table below the
diagram. The color of the results in the left part of the result table corresponds with the
source waveform color. If the result for the selected measurement type cannot be
determined, e.g. because a complete period of a signal is required but not available, a
"?" is displayed.
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:RESult[:ACTual]? on page 489
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6.3.1.3
Statistics
For each active measurement, you can enable a statistic evaluation of the measurement results. It returns the current, minimum and maximum measurement values, the
average and standard deviation, and the number of measured waveforms.
For configuration settings, see "Statistic" on page 116.
Remote commands:
●
MEASurement<m>:RESult[:ACTual]? on page 489
●
MEASurement<m>:RESult:AVG? on page 491
●
MEASurement<m>:RESult:STDDev? on page 491
●
MEASurement<m>:RESult:NPEak? on page 492
●
MEASurement<m>:RESult:PPEak? on page 492
●
MEASurement<m>:RESult:WFMCount? on page 492
●
MEASurement<m>:STATistics:VALue:ALL? on page 492
●
MEASurement<m>:STATistics:VALue<n>? on page 493
Remote commands for export of statistical results:
●
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:NAME on page 493
●
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:SAVE on page 493
●
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:ALL:NAME on page 494
●
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:ALL:SAVE on page 494
6.3.2 Configuring and Performing Automatic Measurements
To configure and activate automatic measurements
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press "Meas. Place" to select one of the four measurement positions.
3. Press "Meas. Type" to select the type of measurement to perform. The type determines which results are displayed in the result table.
See also: "Meas. Type" on page 115.
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4. Press "Source" to select the waveform for which the measurement is to be performed. The source can be any active waveform depending on the selected measurement type.
5. For rise time, fall time, delay and phase measurements, press "Reference Level"
and set the reference levels as percentages of the high signal level.
See also: "Reference Level: Upper, Middle, Lower Levels" on page 116
6. Press "Measure 1-4" until "On" is highlighted to activate the measurement.
The selected measurement is activated and the results are displayed in the result
table.
To activate configured automatic measurements
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press "Meas. Place" to select one of the four measurement positions.
3. Press "Measure 1-4" until "On" is highlighted.
To deactivate automatic measurements
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press "Meas. Place" to select the measurement you want to deactivate.
3. Press "Measure 1-4" until "Off" is highlighted.
4. If you want to reset and deactivate all automatic measurements at once, press
"Clear All" in the "Auto measure" menu.
No more measurements are performed, the results are removed from the result
table.
To use statistics
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Configure at least one mesurement as described in "To configure and activate
automatic measurements" on page 113.
3. Press "Statistic".
4. Press "Meas. Place" to select the measurement for which you need statistical
results.
5. Press "Statistic" until "On" is highlighted.
6. Press Average No. and enter the number of measured waveforms to be used for
calculation of average and standard deviation.
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6.3.3 Auto Measure Menu (MEAS key)
The MEAS key opens the "Auto Measure" menu to configure automatic measurements.
For details, see Chapter 6.3, "Automatic Measurements", on page 107.
Meas. Place................................................................................................................ 115
Measure 1-4................................................................................................................ 115
Meas. Type................................................................................................................. 115
Source.........................................................................................................................116
Statistic........................................................................................................................116
└ Meas. Place.................................................................................................. 116
└ Statistic......................................................................................................... 116
└ No. of Averages............................................................................................ 116
└ Reset, Reset All............................................................................................ 116
└ Clear All........................................................................................................ 116
Reference Level: Upper, Middle, Lower Levels.......................................................... 116
Clear All.......................................................................................................................117
Delay Setup.................................................................................................................117
Phase Setup................................................................................................................117
Meas. Place
Selects one of the four available measurements to be configured or activated.
Measure 1-4
Activates or deactivates the selected measurement (1-4).
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>[:ENABle] on page 485
Meas. Type
Defines the measurement type to be performed on the selected source. Depending on
the type, different results are displayed in the result table.
For a list of all automatic measurement types and their description, see Chapter 6.3.1,
"Measurement Types and Results", on page 107.
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Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:MAIN on page 485
MEASurement<m>:RESult[:ACTual]? on page 489
Source
Selects one of the active signal, reference or math waveforms as the source of the
selected measurement. Available sources depend on the selected measurement type.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, active digital channels are available as measurement sources for time and count measurements.
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:SOURce on page 487
Statistic
Opens a submenu to enable and configure up to four statistics.
Meas. Place ← Statistic
Selects the measurement for which statistical evaluation is configured.
Statistic ← Statistic
Activates or deactivates the statistical evaluation for the selected measurement (1-4).
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:STATistics[:ENABle] on page 490
No. of Averages ← Statistic
Sets the number of measured waveforms used for calculation of average and standard
deviation. The maximum number is 1000.
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:STATistics:WEIGht on page 490
Reset, Reset All ← Statistic
Deletes the statistical results for the current measurement or all measurements,
respectivley, and starts a new statistical evaluation if the acquisition is running.
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:STATistics:RESet on page 491
Clear All ← Statistic
Resets and deactivates all active statistic measurements.
Reference Level: Upper, Middle, Lower Levels
Set the lower and upper reference levels for rise and fall time mesurements (cursor
and automatic mesurements) as well as the middle reference level used for phase and
delay measurements. The levels are defined as percentages of the high signal level.
The settings are valid for all measurement places.
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Remote command:
REFLevel:RELative:MODE on page 496
REFLevel:RELative:LOWer on page 496
REFLevel:RELative:MIDDle on page 496
REFLevel:RELative:UPPer on page 496
Clear All
Resets and deactivates all four measurements.
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:AOFF on page 484
Delay Setup
Configures the delay measurement that measures the time difference between two
edges of the same or different waveforms.
"Source 1,
Source 2"
Select one of the active channel, math or reference waveforms for
each measurement source.
"Slope"
Select the rising or falling slope for each measurement source.
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:SOURce on page 487
MEASurement<m>:DELay:SLOPe on page 489
Phase Setup
Configures the phase measurement that measures the pahse difference between two
waveforms.
"Source 1,
Source 2"
Select one of the active channel, math or reference waveforms for
each measurement source.
Remote command:
MEASurement<m>:SOURce on page 487
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Configuring and Using Math Waveforms
7 Mathematics
Mathematical (math) waveforms are calculated data. Each math waveform is defined
by an equation. You can configure and save up to five equations (MA1 – MA5), four of
these equation can be displayed.
Each equation consists of one or two operands and a operator. An operand can be an
input channel, a constant value, or a math waveform with lower number than the operand's number. For example, the MA3 equation can use the results of MA2 and MA1 as
operands.
Each equation and also the set of all defined equations can get a label.
An equation set can be saved to and loaded from any storage device - internal memory
or external USB flash device. The file format is always .FML, and the file size is 526
Byte. It is also possible to copy the stored equation sets to another storage device with
FILE > "Import/Export Equation Sets". See also: Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and
Exporting Data", on page 369.
7.1 Configuring and Using Math Waveforms
Math waveforms are configured using the "Equation Set Editor". Each equation for a
math waveform is configured and displayed individually, and you can save and load
the configuration of all five math waveforms as an "Equation Set".
7.1.1 Displaying Mathematical Waveforms
For each of the math waveforms MA1 - MA5 you can define whether it is displayed or
not and which equation is performed in each one. .
1. Press MATH to display the "Mathematics" menu.
2. Press "Equation" and select the mathematical waveform that contains the equation
you want to display.
To check which equation is configured for which channel:
a) Press "Edit Equations". The "Equation Set Editor" is displayed, where you can
see the configuration for each math waveform. Currently displayed waveforms
are indicated by the symbol.
b) Press "Back" to exit the editor.
3. Press "Visible" until "On" is highlighted.
The selected equation is calculated and the results are displayed as an additional
(mathematical) waveform on the screen. If necessary, change the vertical scaling
of the math waveform to improve the display using the vertical SCALE rotary knob.
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If the required equation is not included, edit the current equation set, or load an appropriate equation set that was saved before. See also: "To configure an equation"
on page 119 and "To load an equation set" on page 121.
7.1.2 Editing Equations and Equation Sets
To each math waveform an equation is assigned. The mathematical operation is
defined by the operator and is performed on the operands. Operands are one or two of
the active channel or math waveforms, or a constant value.
All five math waveforms together build an equation set that can be stored and loaded.
To configure an equation
1. Press "MATH > Edit Equations" to display the "Equation Set Editor" with the current equation set configuration.
2. Press "Equation" and select the equation to be configured.
3. Press "Operator" to select the operator of the equation.
See also: "Operator" on page 123.
4. Press "Operand1".
See also: "Operand 1" on page 128.
5. If the equation requires a second operand, press "Operand2" and define the second operand.
6. If one of the operands is defined as a constant, define its value:
a) Press "Operand1" or "Operand2" to select the constant for the corresponding
operand.
b) Press "Edit Constant" to define its value.
c) Press "Constant" and select either a pre-defined constant, or one of 10 available user-defined constants.
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d) If you selected a user-defined constant, define its value:
●
●
●
Press "Value" and enter the numeric value.
Press "Decimal Point" to move the decimal point within the numeric value.
Press "Prefix" to define an SI-prefix to the unit. See also: "Prefix"
on page 129.
● Press "Unit" to define the unit of the value. See also: "Unit" on page 129.
e) Press "Save" to store the user-defined constant.
7. Press "Unit" to define the unit of the equation results. See also: "Unit"
on page 122.
8. Optionally, press "Equation Label" to define a name for the equation. This label is
displayed on the "Equation" softkey and in the "Equation Set Editor".
To edit an equation set
1. Press "MATH > Edit Equations" to display the "Equation Set Editor".
2. Press "Equation" to select the first equation to be configured. This equation is
assigned to the first math waveform (MA1).
3. Configure the equation.
See: "To configure an equation" on page 119.
4. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to configure all 5 equations in the equation set.
5. Press "Back" to exit the editor and return to the main "Mathematics" menu.
6. For each equation MA1 to MA4, define whether it is to be displayed or not:
a) Press "Equation" to select the equation.
b) Press "Visible" to switch the display of the math waveform on or off.
7. Optionally, press "Eq. Set Label" to define a name for the equation set. This label is
displayed in the "Equation Set Editor".
7.1.3 Saving and Loading Equation Sets
If you want to keep math configurations for specific measurement purposes for later
use, you can save equations sets in the instrument or on external storage device.
To copy a stored equation sets to another storage device, use FILE > "Equation Sets".
For import/export procedure, see Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and Exporting Data",
on page 369.
To save the current equation set
1. Press MATH to display the "Mathematics" menu.
2. Press "Save".
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3. Define the storage location using the "Storage" softkey, and the file name using the
"File name" softkey.
See: Chapter 15.3.1.1, "Configuring Storage Locations", on page 368.
4. Optionally, define a comment to be added to the equation set using the "Comment"
softkey.
5. Press "Save".
The equation set is saved as configured.
To load an equation set
1. Press "MATH > Load".
A file explorer is displayed.
2. If necessary, switch to the storage location that contains the file by pressing "Storage".
3. Select the file that contains the equation set. Use the "Navigation" knob to scroll
through the directories. To change the directory, scroll to the name of the directory
and press the knob, or press "Change dir.".
4. Press "Load".
The equation set is loaded to the R&S RTM.
7.2 Reference for Mathematics
The MATH key provides functions to configure and display calculated data.
For details on working with these functions, see Chapter 7.1, "Configuring and Using
Math Waveforms", on page 118.
Equation...................................................................................................................... 122
Visible..........................................................................................................................122
Unit..............................................................................................................................122
Edit Equations............................................................................................................. 123
└ Equation........................................................................................................123
└ Operator........................................................................................................123
└ Operand 1..................................................................................................... 128
└ Operand 2..................................................................................................... 128
└ Edit Constant................................................................................................ 128
└ Constant............................................................................................. 129
└ Value...................................................................................................129
└ Decimal Point......................................................................................129
└ Prefix...................................................................................................129
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└ Unit..................................................................................................... 129
└ Save....................................................................................................130
└ Equation Label.............................................................................................. 130
Eq. Set Label...............................................................................................................130
Save............................................................................................................................ 130
Load............................................................................................................................ 130
Equation
Selects one of five possible mathematical channels.
Visible
Defines whether the selected mathematical waveform is displayed on the display or
not.
Note: MA5 cannot be displayed, it is always invisible.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:STATe on page 497
Unit
Defines the unit of the equation results. The selected unit only has an effect on the displayed unit, not on the size of the values.
The following units are available:
● V (Volts)
● A (Amperes)
● Ω (Ohms)
● S (Siemens)
● V/A (Volts per Ampere)
● W (Watts, active power)
● VA (Voltamps, apparent power)
● VAr (Voltamps, reactive power)
● Vs (Volt-seconds = Weber, unit of magnetic flux)
● V/s (Volts per second)
● dB (decibels)
● dBm (dB referred to 1 mW)
● dBV (dB referred to 1 V)
● dBμV (dB referred to 1 μV)
● s (Second)
● 1/s, Hz (Hertz)
● s/DIV
● F (Farad)
● H (Henry)
● % (Percent)
● ° (Degree)
● π (Pi)
● Pa (Pascal)
● m (Meter)
● g (Acceleration)
● °C (Degrees Celsius)
● K (Kelvin)
● °F (Degrees Fahrenheit)
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●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
N (Newton)
J (Joule)
C (Coulomb)
Wb (Weber)
T (Tesla)
(dez) (dezimal)
(bin) (binary)
(hex) (hexadezimal)
(oct) (octal)
DIV (Division, graticule)
px (pixel)
Bit
Bit/s
Byte
Bd (Baud)
Sa (Samples)
Sa/sec. (Samples per second)
cyc (cycles)
Trc. (Traces)
Sa/X
Rising edge
Falling edge
Positive impulse
Negative impulse
Ev. (Events)
Symb. (symbols)
Sy./s (symbols per second)
Wfm. (waveforms)
Edit Equations
Provides functions to configure the calculations for the mathematical channels.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>[:EXPRession][:DEFine] on page 498
Equation ← Edit Equations
Selects one of five possible mathematical channels.
Operator ← Edit Equations
Defines the operation to be performed on the specified operands in the mathematical
channel.
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"Addition"
Op1 + Op2
Adds the two operands.
"Subtraction"
Op1 - Op2
Subtracts the second operand from the first operand.
"Multiplication"
Op1 * Op2
Multiplies the two operands.
"Division"
Op1 / Op2
Divides the first operand by the second operand.
For small amplitudes of the second operand, the result increases
quickly. If the second operand crosses zero, the result would be a
range of +∞ to -∞. In this case, instead of 0V, the calculation function
uses the value that the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the second operand represents. (For an 8-bit value, for example, 1/256).
You can limit the zero-crossings of the operand by using the "Maximum" operator. This limitation results in a smaller result range and a
finer resolution.
"Maximum"
Maximum (Op1, Op2)
Compares the amplitudes of both operands and displays the maximum amplitude. The sign of the result is taken from Operand1. Use
this operation in combination with the "Reciprocal" or "Division" operation to limit the minimal amplitudes of an operand.
Example: Operand1 is a homopolar sine signal with Vpp=3V. Operand2 is a constant value of 1V. The result is always larger than 1V or
smaller than -1V.
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"Minimum"
Minimum (Op1, Op2)
Compares the amplitudes of both operands and displays the minimum amplitude. The sign of the result is taken from Operand1. Use
this operation in combination with the "Reciprocal" or "Division" operation to limit the maximal amplitudes of an operand.
Example: Operand1 is a MATH waveform within the range of +/-10V.
Operand2 is a constant value of 1V. The result is always smaller than
1V or larger than -1V.
"Square"
Op1 * Op1
Squares the operand. If the operand contains negative values that
have been clipped, then the result contains positive clipping.
"Square Root"
Square Root (Op1)
Calculates the square root of the operand. Note that the square root
of a negative number is undefined and the result is clipped.
"Abs. Value"
|Op1|
Calculates the absolute value of the operand. All negative values are
inverted to positive values. The positive values remain unmodified. If
the operand has negative values that have been clipped, the result
contains positive clipping.
"Pos. Wave"
Max (Op1, 0)
Extracts the positive data points from the operand. For all negative
values the result is zero. The positive values remain unmodified.
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"Neg. Wave"
Min (Op1, 0)
Extracts the negative data points from the operand. For all positive
values the result is zero. The negative values remain unmodified.
"Reciprocal"
1V / Op1
Divides 1V by the operand values.
For small operand amplitudes the result increases quickly. If the operand crosses zero, the result would be a range of +∞ to -∞. In this
case, instead of 0V, the calculation function uses the value that the
Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the operand represents. (For an 8-bit
value, for example, 1/256).
You can limit the zero-crossings of the operand by using the "Maximum" operator. This limitation results in a smaller result range and a
finer resolution.
"Inverse"
Inverts all voltage values of the operand, i.e. all values are mirrored at
the ground level. Thus, a positive voltage offset becomes negative. If
the amplitude of the operand is clipped, the result is the inverted limitation.
"Common
Log."
log (Op1)
Calculates the logarithm to the basis 10 of the operand. Note that the
logarithm of a negative number is undefined and the result is clipped.
"Natural Log."
ln (Op1)
Calculates the logarithm to the basis e (Euler number) of the operand. Note that the logarithm of a negative number is undefined and
the result is clipped.
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"Integral"
Calculates the definite integral of the operand.
The calculation is displayed in the illustration. The integration starts at
point "a" and adds the area beneath the waveform. Point "b" indicates
the currently calculated value. At the end of the positive alternation,
the integral function reaches its maximum. Due to the homopolar
operand used in this example, the waveform of the area reaches zero
after the negative alternation.
Use a V-Marker to measure the area for an extract of the waveform.
See also: "Meas.Type" on page 103.
"Derivative"
f'(Op1)
The derivative corresponds to the rise of the tangent through a function point and indicates the dimension of the change in quantity of the
operand in time. The larger the quantity change of the operand per
time becomes, the larger the result of the derivative is.
The calculation is approximated using the secant based on the current calculated value and a value with a distance of 0.1 DIV. Due to
this, the time axis has a finitely small resolution. Therefore, scale the
input signal to display the required area appropriately.
"Period"
Creates a track of all period values of one waveform and displays it in
time-correlation to the waveform.
"Frequency"
Creates a track of all frequency values of one waveform and displays
it in time-correlation to the waveform.
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"Duty Cycle
+/-"
Creates a track of all positive or negative duty cycle results of one
waveform and displays it in time-correlation to the waveform.
"Pulse Width
+/-"
Creates a track of all positive or negative pulse width values of one
waveform and displays it in time-correlation to the waveform.
"IIR low pass"
IIR (Op1,fg=Op2)
Calculates a low-pass filtered waveform of "Operand 1". The cut-off
frequency is set with constant "Operand 2". Signal components with
frequencies higher than the cut-off frequency are attenuated significantly.
"IIR high pass"
IIR (Op1,fg=Op2)
Calculates a high-pass filtered waveform of "Operand 1". The cut-off
frequency is set with constant "Operand 2". Signal components with
frequencies below the cut-off frequency are attenuated significantly.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>[:EXPRession][:DEFine] on page 498
Operand 1 ← Edit Equations
Defines the first operand for the mathematical operation. The source can be any active
channel signal, a constant value, or a mathematical waveform with lower number than
the one to be defined.
"CH1 | CH2 |
CH3 | CH4"
An active channel waveform
"Const."
A constant value
"MA1 | MA2 |
MA3 | MA4"
A mathematical waveform. Only math waveforms with lower number
are available.
Operand 2 ← Edit Equations
Defines the second operand for the mathematical operation, if required. The source
can be any active channel signal, a constant value, or a mathematical waveform with
lower number than the one to be defined.
"CH1 | CH2 |
CH3 | CH4"
An active channel waveform
"Const."
A constant value
"MA1 | MA2 |
MA3 | MA4"
A mathematical waveform. Only math waveforms with lower number
are available.
Edit Constant ← Edit Equations
Provides functions to define a constant value to be used in a mathematical operation.
In addition to the value, a decimal point, the unit and an SI-prefix can be defined.
This softkey is only available if "Constant" is selected as one of the operands.
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Reference for Mathematics
Constant ← Edit Constant ← Edit Equations
Specifies a pre-defined constant or a user-defined constant for a mathematical operation. Either one of the following pre-defined constants can be selected, or one of 10
user-defined constants.
●
●
●
●
Pi
2*Pi
1/2*Pi
e
Value ← Edit Constant ← Edit Equations
Specifies the value for a user-defined constant. This function is only available if one of
the user-defined constants is selected by the "Constant" softkey.
Decimal Point ← Edit Constant ← Edit Equations
Moves the decimal point within the user-defined constant value.
Prefix ← Edit Constant ← Edit Equations
Defines an SI-prefix for the unit of a user-defined constant value. The following prefixes
are available:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
None
m (Milli, 10-3)
μ (Mikro, 10-6)
n (Nano, 10-9)
p (Piko, 10-12)
f (Femto, 10-15)
a (Atto, 10-18)
z (Zepto, 10-21)
y (Yokto, 10-24)
K (Kilo, 103)
M (Mega, 106)
G (Giga, 109)
T (Tera, 1012)
P (Peta, 1015)
E (Exa, 1018)
Z (Zetta, 1021)
Y (Yotta, 1024)
Unit ← Edit Constant ← Edit Equations
Defines the unit of the user-defined constant value. The selected unit only has an
effect on the displayed unit, not on the size of the values.
For a list of available units, see "Unit" on page 122.
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Save ← Edit Constant ← Edit Equations
Saves the defined constant to the equation of the math waveform.
Equation Label ← Edit Equations
Defines a label for the current equation.
Eq. Set Label
Defines a label for the equation set.
Save
Opens the "Save" menu with basic functions to save the equation set.
See "Save Menu" on page 370.
Load
Displays the "Load" menu and a file explorer to select an equation set file.
See "Load Menu" on page 371.
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Basic FFT
8 Spectrum Analysis
The R&S RTM provides two ways of spectrum analysis:
●
Basic FFT calculation, which is included in the firmware
●
Spectrum analysis option R&S RTM-K18, which is hardware-supported and provides a wide range of analysis possibilities, for example, spectogram, markers, reference markers, cursor and automatic measurements.
8.1 Basic FFT
In addition to signal vs. time and signal vs. signal displays, the frequencies of a signal
as determined by FFT analysis can be displayed. FFT analysis is configured and activated using the FFT key. Analysis is always performed on the signal channel that was
most recently activated, however you can change the channel source.
Various parameters concerning the time base, scaling and the waveform arithmetic
can be configured for the FFT display. You can configure FFT either numerically using
the softkeys, or graphically using the rotary knobs.
On the FFT display, you can perform frequency and level measurements by means of
a cursor measurement. Automatic measurements are not available.
8.1.1 FFT Display
When you activate FFT display, two windows are displayed: the signal vs. time at the
top, the result of the FFT analysis at the bottom.
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The display can be restricted to the results for a certain time base extract and to a
specified frequency range. The time range is indicated by white lines in the Y(t)-diagram (see also Figure 8-1).
Move the focus between the Y(t)-window (Time Control), the FFT time base extract
(Time Section) and the FFT frequency range (FFT Control) by pressing the horizontal
SCALE rotary knob. The currently selected screen element is highlighted and displayed in the information bar. Depending on the selection, the functions of the SCALE
and POSITION rotary knobs may change.
The usual channel parameters are displayed in the information bar above the Y(t)-window (see the general display information described in the "Getting Started" manual).
In addition, FFT-specific parameters are indicated in the information bar above the FFT
window. The following information is given there:
Description
Setting
1
Width of the time base extract for which FFT is calculated
YT-Window
2
Position of time base extract
Position
3
Width of the displayed frequency range
Span
4
Center of the displayed frequency range
Center
5
Sample rate for FFT calculation
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Description
Setting
6
FFT result mode
Waveform Arithmetic
7
Signal source and vertical scaling factor per division
CH1...CH4 / Y-Scale / Y-Scaling
8
Focus of the horizontal SCALE knob
Press SCALE
8.1.2 Configuring and Using FFT Calculations
●
●
●
8.1.2.1
Setting Up the FFT Analysis................................................................................. 133
Configuring the Diagrams..................................................................................... 134
Measuring on FFT.................................................................................................136
Setting Up the FFT Analysis
To display an FFT diagram
► Press the FFT key.
The key lights up and two windows are displayed: the signal vs. time at the top, the
result of the FFT analysis at the bottom.
To deactivate the FFT display
► There are two ways to deactivate the FFT display:
●
●
If the main "FFT" menu is open, press the FFT key once.
If the "FFT Setup" menu or the "Y(t) Setup" menu is open, press the the FFT
key twice.
Press "FFT off" in the "FFT" main menu.
The FFT key is no longer illuminated and the time domain is displayed.
To configure the general FFT display
1. Press the FFT key to activate the FFT display and open the "FFT" menu.
2. If necessary, press one of the CH1...CH4 keys to change the signal source of the
FFT calculation.
3. Press "Waveform Arithmetic" to define the mode for FFT calculation and display.
The waveform arithmetic defines whether the values are updated regularly, or
whether values from previous spectra are included in the calculation and display.
For details see "Wfm. Arithmetic" on page 138.
4. If "Average" mode is selected, press "No. of Averages" to define how many spectra
are considered for the calculation.
5. Press "Window" to define which type of function is laid over the input values. If the
input values are to be used unaltered, use the "Rectangle" window. To reduce
noise, use a bell-shaped window.
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For details see "Window" on page 139.
6. Press "Y-Scaling" to select logarithmic or linear scaling of the y-axis in the FFT window (see "Y-Scaling" on page 140).
7. Define the settings for the FFT window as described in "To configure the FFT diagram numerically" on page 134.
8. Define the settings of the signal vs. time window as described in "To configure the
Y(t)-window numerically" on page 135. These settings are identical to the general
trigger and scaling settings defined for the channel (see also Chapter 2.2.2,
"Adjusting the Signal Input Manually", on page 26).
8.1.2.2
Configuring the Diagrams
To configure the FFT diagram numerically
Alternatively to configuring the FFT window numerically via the softkeys, you can use
the rotary knobs to change the settings graphically, see "To configure the FFT diagram
graphically" on page 135.
1. Press "FFT-Setup" in the "FFT" menu.
2. Define the time base extract for which the FFT is to be calculated and displayed.
The extract is defined by its width and position (see Figure 8-1).
a) Press "YT-Window" to define the width of the time base extract.
b) Press "Position" to define the position of the time base extract. The position is
defined as an offset of the center of the extract range to the 0s reference point.
The time base extract is indicated by a white frame in the Y(t)-window. The width
(W) and position (P) are indicated in the information bar beneath the Y(t)-window.
Figure 8-1: Width and position of the time base extract for FFT calculation
3. Press "Y-Scale" to define the scaling of the FFT amplitudes.
4. Define the frequency range to be displayed in the FFT window. The range is
defined as (Center - Span/2) to (Center + Span/2). For details see "Span"
on page 140 and "Center" on page 140.
a) Press "Span" to define the width of the frequency range.
b) Press "Center" to define the center frequency of the range.
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To configure the FFT diagram graphically
1. Define the time base extract for which the FFT is to be calculated and displayed.
The extract is defined by its width and position (see Figure 8-1).
a) Press the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to select the FFT time base extract
("W"/"P" settings are highlighted).
b) Turn the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to define the width of the time base
extract. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to enlarge the extract, or clockwise to
decrease it.
c) Turn the horizontal POSITION rotary knob to define the position of the time
base extract. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to move the extract to the left, or
clockwise to move it to the right.
2. Define the frequency range to be displayed in the FFT diagram. The range is
defined as (Center - Span/2) to (Center + Span/2). For details see "Span"
on page 140 and "Center" on page 140.
a) Press the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to select the FFT frequency range
("Span"/"Center" settings are highlighted).
b) Turn the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to define the span of the frequency
range. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to enlarge the span, or clockwise to
decrease it.
c) Turn the horizontal POSITION rotary knob to define the center of the frequency
range. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to move the center to the left, or clockwise to move it to the right.
d) Turn the vertical SCALE rotary knob to define the scaling of the FFT amplitudes. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to decrease the amplitudes, or clockwise to enlarge them.
To configure the Y(t)-window numerically
Alternatively to configuring the Y(t)-window numerically via the softkeys, you can use
the rotary knobs to change the settings graphically, see "To configure the Y(t)-window
graphically" on page 136.
1. Press "Y(t)-Setup" in the "FFT" menu.
2. Press "Y-Scale" to define the scaling of the signal amplitudes in the Y(t)-window.
3. Press "Y-Position" to define the vertical position of the time axis in the Y(t)-window,
in divisions.
4. Press "Main Time Base" to define the scaling for the time base in the Y(t)-window
in seconds per division.
Note that when you change the scaling for the main time base, the width of the
FFT time base extract is also changed.
5. Press "Trigger Offset" to define the offset of the trigger point to the reference point
for 0s.
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Note that when you change the trigger offset, the position of the FFT time base
extract is also changed.
The scaling factor for the time base (TB) and the trigger offset (T) are indicated in
the information bar above the Y(t)-window.
Figure 8-2: Time base (per division) and trigger offset in Y(t)-window
To configure the Y(t)-window graphically
1. Press the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to select the Y(t)-window ("TB"/"T" settings
are highlighted).
2. Turn the vertical SCALE rotary knob to define the scaling of the signal amplitudes
in the Y(t)-window. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to decrease the amplitudes, or
clockwise to enlarge them.
3. Turn the vertical POSITION rotary knob to define the vertical position of the time
axis in the Y(t)-window. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to move the time axis
down, or clockwise to move it up.
4. Turn the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to define the scaling for the time base in the
Y(t)-window. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to increase the scaling, or clockwise
to decrease it (and thus spread the waveform).
Note that when you change the scaling for the main time base, the width of the
FFT time base extract is also changed.
5. Turn the horizontal POSITION rotary knob to define the offset of the trigger point to
the reference point for 0s. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to move the trigger
point to the left, or clockwise to move it to the right.
Note that when you change the trigger offset, the position of the FFT time base
extract is also changed.
8.1.2.3
Measuring on FFT
You can perform cursor measurements in FFT mode. Automatic measurements are
not available.
1. Press FFT, then set up and configure the FFT diagram.
2. Press CURSOR.
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3. In the "Cursor" menu, set the cursor lines to the required positions:
●
●
●
Use "Prev. Peak" and "Next Peak" to set the selected cursor line to the level
peaks.
See also: Chapter 6.1.3, "Cursor Menu", on page 102.
Turn the NAVIGATION knob to move the cursor line.
Press the NAVIGATION knob to switch the cursor line.
The frequency and level results are shown in the results table.
8.1.3 Reference for FFT key
The FFT key enables the FFT mode and opens the FFT menu.
See also:
●
Chapter 8.1.2, "Configuring and Using FFT Calculations", on page 133
●
Chapter 8.1.1, "FFT Display", on page 131
FFT..............................................................................................................................138
Wfm. Arithmetic...........................................................................................................138
No. of Averages.......................................................................................................... 138
Window....................................................................................................................... 139
└ Hanning.........................................................................................................139
└ Hamming.......................................................................................................139
└ Blackman...................................................................................................... 139
└ Flat top.......................................................................................................... 139
└ Rectangle......................................................................................................140
Y-Scaling.....................................................................................................................140
FFT-Setup................................................................................................................... 140
└ Span..............................................................................................................140
└ Center........................................................................................................... 140
└ Y-Scale......................................................................................................... 141
└ YT-Window................................................................................................... 141
└ Position......................................................................................................... 141
└ Points............................................................................................................ 141
Y(t)-Setup....................................................................................................................142
└ Y-Scale......................................................................................................... 142
└ Y-Position......................................................................................................142
└ Main Time Base............................................................................................ 142
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└ Trigger Offset................................................................................................ 142
└ Show Channels.............................................................................................143
FFT Off........................................................................................................................143
FFT
The FFT key activates and deactivates the spectrum analyses functions:
●
●
If option R&S RTM-K18 is installed, the FFT key enables the spectrum analysis
mode.
Without the option, the FFT key enables the basic Fast Fourier Transformation
(FFT) calculation for the most recently selected channel.
If activated, the FFT key lights up.
To deactivate spectrum analysis, press the FFT key until the time domain waveform is
displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:EXPR "FFTMAG(CHx)"; see also CALCulate:MATH<m>[:
EXPRession][:DEFine] on page 498.
Wfm. Arithmetic
Defines the arithmetic mode for FFT calculation and display.
"None"
The FFT is performed without any additional weighting or postprocessing of the acquired data. The new input data is acquired and displayed, and thus overwrites the previously saved and displayed data.
"Envelope"
In addition to the normal spectrum, the maximal oscillations are
saved separately and updated for each new spectrum. The maximum
values are displayed together with the newly acquired values and
form an envelope. This envelope indicates the range of all FFT trace
values that occurred.
If any signal parameters are changed, the envelope is reset.
"Average"
The average of several spectrums is calculated. The number of spectrums used for the averaging is defined using the knob or the "No. of
Averages" softkey. This mode is useful for noise rejection.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:ARIThmetics on page 501
No. of Averages
Defines the number of spectrums used for averaging.
This function is only available if "Average" mode is selected.
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Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:AVERage:COUNt on page 502
Window
Window functions are multiplied with the input values and thus can improve the display.
If discontinuities occur at the borders of the measurement interval, the algorithm interprets such discontinuities as a sudden edge, which can distort the result. For bell-shaped functions, the border values are multiplied with smaller values and thus have less
influence on the result.
Remote command:
FFT: CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:WINDow:TYPE on page 501
Spectrum analysis: SPECtrum:FREQuency:WINDow:TYPE on page 510
Hanning ← Window
The Hanning window is bell shaped. Unlike the Hamming window, its value is zero at
the borders of the measuring interval. Thus, the noise level within the spectrum is
reduced and the width of the spectral lines enlarges. Use this window to measure
amplitudes of a periodical signal precisely.
Hamming ← Window
The Hamming window is bell shaped. Its value is not zero at the borders of the measuring interval. Thus, the noise level inside the spectrum is higher than Hanning or
Blackman, but smaller than the rectangular window. The width of the spectral lines is
thinner than the other bell-shaped functions. Use this window to measure amplitudes of
a periodical signal precisely.
Blackman ← Window
The Blackman window is bell shaped and has the steepest fall in its wave shape of all
other available functions. Its value is zero at both borders of the measuring interval. In
the Blackman window the amplitudes can be measured very precisely. However, determining the frequency is more difficult. Use this window to measure amplitudes of a
periodical signal precisely.
Flat top ← Window
The flat top window has low amplitude measurement errors but a poor frequency resolution. Use this window for accurate single-tone measurements and for measurement
of amplitudes of sinusoidal frequency components.
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Rectangle ← Window
The rectangular window multiplies all points by one. The result is a high frequency
accuracy with thin spectral lines, but also with increased noise. Use this function preferably with pulse response tests where start and end values are zero.
Y-Scaling
Defines the scaling unit for the y-axis. The display values are valid for 50Ω termination
impendance. To achieve this, the existing internal terminating resistor can be used, or
an external terminating resistor can be connected parallel to the high impedance input.
"dBm"
logarithmic scaling; related to 1 mW
"dBV"
logarithmic scaling; related to 1 Veff
"Veff"
linear scaling; displays the RMS value of the voltage
Remote command:
FFT: CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:MAGNitude:SCALe on page 503
Spectrum analysis: SPECtrum:FREQuency:MAGNitude:SCALe on page 509
FFT-Setup
Defines the settings for the FFT window. The display can be restricted to the results for
a certain time base extract and to a specified frequency range.
Span ← FFT-Setup
The span is specified in Hertz and defines the width of the displayed frequency range,
which is (Center - Span/2) to (Center + Span/2). The position of the span is defined
using the "Center" function.
Note: If the FFT frequency range is selected ("Span"/"Center" is highlighted), the width
of the span can be adjusted using the horizontal SCALE rotary knob.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:SPAN on page 504
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:FULLspan on page 504
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:STARt on page 504
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:STOP on page 505
Center ← FFT-Setup
Defines the position of the displayed frequency domain, which is (Center - Span/2) to
(Center + Span/2). The width of the domain is defined using the "Span" function.
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Note: If the FFT frequency range is selected ("Span"/"Center" is highlighted), the width
of the span can be adjusted using the horizontal POSITION rotary knob.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:CFRequency on page 504
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:STARt on page 504
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:STOP on page 505
Y-Scale ← FFT-Setup
Changes the vertical scaling of the FFT display (in V/dBm) per division.
Note: If the FFT frequency range is selected ("Span"/"Center" is highlighted), the YScale can be defined using the vertical SCALE rotary knob.
See also "SCALE, Y-Scale" on page 36.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:SCALe on page 497
YT-Window ← FFT-Setup
Defines the width of the time base extract from the Y(t)-window for which the FFT is
calculated. The extract is indicated by white lines in the Y(t)-window. The value is indicated by "W" in the information bar above the FFT window.
Note: If the FFT time base extract is selected ("W"/"P" is highlighted), the width can be
adjusted using the horizontal SCALE rotary knob.
See also Figure 8-1.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:TIME:RANGe on page 505
Position ← FFT-Setup
Defines the position of the time base extract in the Y(t)-window for which the FFT is
calculated. The value is indicated by "P" in the information bar above the FFT window.
Note: If the FFT time base extract is selected ("W"/"P" is highlighted), the position can
be adjusted using the horizontal POSITION rotary knob.
See also Figure 8-1.
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:TIME:POSition on page 505
Points ← FFT-Setup
Defines how many samples are used for FFT calculation
The value is changed in 2n steps from 2048 (211) to 65536 (216).
Remote command:
CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:RATio on page 503
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Y(t)-Setup
Defines the settings for the signal vs. time window.
Y-Scale ← Y(t)-Setup
Changes the vertical scaling of the Y(t)-window (channel scaling).
Note: If the Y(t)-window is selected (indicated by a white border), the Y-Scale can be
adjusted using the vertical SCALE rotary knob.
See "SCALE, Y-Scale" on page 36.
Remote command:
FFT:CHANnel<m>:SCALe on page 423
Spectrum analysis: SPECtrum:FREQuency:SCALe on page 510
Y-Position ← Y(t)-Setup
Defines the vertical position of the time axis in the Y(t)-window, in divisions.
Note: If the Y(t)-window is selected (indicated by a white border), the Y-Position can
be adjusted using the vertical POSITION rotary knob.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:POSition on page 424
Main Time Base ← Y(t)-Setup
Defines the scaling for the time base in the (original) Y(t)-window in seconds per division. The scaling is indicated by "TB" in the information bar above the window.
Note: If "Time Control" is selected, the main time base can be adjusted using the horizontal SCALE rotary knob.
See also "SCALE" on page 29, "To configure the original Y(t)-diagram" on page 89 and
Figure 8-2.
Remote command:
TIMebase:SCALe on page 414
Trigger Offset ← Y(t)-Setup
Defines the horizontal position of the trigger point in relation to the reference point - to
the zero point of the grid. The value is indicated by "T" in the information bar above the
window.
The reference point is set with SETUP >"Time Reference".
Note: If a zoom or FFT window is displayed and "Time Control" is selected, the trigger
offset can be adjusted using the horizontal POSITION rotary knob.
See also:
● "POSITION" on page 29
● "Time Reference" on page 386
● "To configure the original Y(t)-diagram" on page 89
Remote command:
TIMebase:POSition on page 416
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Show Channels ← Y(t)-Setup
Displays all active channels in the Y(t)-window. By default, only the selected channel is
visible, the channel used for FFT calculation.
FFT Off
Closes the FFT display and returns to the previous display.
8.2 Spectrum Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K18)
The spectrum analysis settings are available if option R&S RTM-K18 is installed. Using
the spectrum analysis option, you can analyze frequency-dependent events and display a spectrogram that shows the changes of the spectrum over time.
Additionally you can define various criteria for peak search and display the results on
the frequency domain diagram.
8.2.1 Spectrum Analysis Display
When you activate spectrum analysis display, three windows are displayed: the signal
vs. time at the top, the spectrogram in the middle and the result of the frequency analysis at the bottom.
The spectrogram displays the frequency over time. The oldest spectrum is on the top,
while the current spectrum is the bottom line. The magnitude can be color-coded for
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Spectrum Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K18)
easy interpretation. By default, rainbow colors are used, and the noise floor is displayed in blue. Highest magnitudes are shown in red color. If the history and segmented memory option R&S RTM-K15 is installed, you can browse the spectrums. The
spectrogram marker shows the time of the acquisition and makes it possible to load the
corresponding time and frequency waveforms onto the screen. The displayed spectrum is marked by a white line in the spectrogram. All analysis functions of the
R&S RTM are available to evaluate the loaded frequency waveforms.
Unlike basic FFT, you can select the source waveform of the spectrum analysis, and
you can also analyze reference and math waveforms.
You can enable and disable the display of each diagram separately by selecting it with
the "Diagram" softkey and enabling/disabling it by pressing the NAVIGATION rotary
knob.
The spectrum analysis can be restricted to the results for a certain time base extract
and to a specified frequency range. The time range is indicated by white lines in the
time domain diagram.
Move the focus between the time domain, the spectogram, the FFT time base extract
(time section) and the FFT frequency range (FFT Control) by pressing the horizontal
SCALE rotary knob. The currently selected screen element is highlighted and displayed in the information bar. Depending on the selection, the functions of the SCALE
and POSITION rotary knobs may change.
The usual channel parameters are displayed in the information bar above the Y(t)-window (see the general display information described in the "Getting Started" manual).
In addition, spectrum-specific parameters are indicated in the information bar above
the spectrum window. The following information is given there:
Description
Setting
1
Width of the time base extract for which FFT is calculated
YT-Window
2
Position of time base extract
Position
3
Width of the displayed frequency range
Span
4
Center of the displayed frequency range
Center
5
Resolution bandwidth
RBW
6
Minimum level of the selected color scale
Display > Minimum
7
The color-level mapping for the selected color scale
Display > Spectr. Color /
Freq.Dom.Color
8
Maximum level of the selected color scale
Display > Maximum
9
Focus of the horizontal SCALE knob
Press SCALE
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8.2.2 Displaying and Configuring Spectrum Analysis
To display the spectrum analysis diagrams
► Press the FFT key or press the TOOLS key and then select "Spectrum Analysis".
The FFT key lights up and three windows are displayed: the signal vs. time at the
top, the spectogram in the middle and the frequency waveform at the bottom.
To deactivate the spectrum analysis display
► If the main "Spectrum Analysis" menu is open, press the FFT key once.
If a submenu is open, for example the "Marker" menu, press the the FFT key twice.
The FFT key is no longer illuminated and time domain waveform is displayed.
To enable/disable the display of a diagram
1. Press "Diagram" and select the diagram you want to enable/disable. The selection
is indicated by a green check mark nexto to the diagram name.
2. Press the NAVIGATION rotary knob to enable/disable the display of the selected
diagram window.
To configure the spectrum analysis window numerically
Alternatively to configuring the spectrum analysis window numerically via the softkeys,
you can use the rotary knobs to change the settings graphically, see "To configure the
spectrum analysis diagram graphically" on page 146.
1. In the "Spectrum Analysis" menu, press "More 1|2" and then "Freq. Domain".
2. Define the time base extract for which the spectrum is to be calculated and displayed. The extract is defined by its width and position.
a) Press "YT-Window" to define the width of the time base extract.
b) Press "Position" to define the position of the time base extract. The position is
defined as an offset of the center of the extract range to the 0s reference point.
The time base extract is indicated by a white frame in the time domain window. The
width (W) and position (P) are indicated in the information bar beneath the time
domain window.
3. Press "Y-Scale" to define the scaling of the frequency amplitudes.
4. Define the frequency range to be displayed in the frequency domain window. The
range is defined as (Center - Span/2) to (Center + Span/2). For details see Span
and Center Frequency.
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a) Press "Span" to define the width of the frequency range.
b) Press "Center" to define the center frequency of the range.
c) Press "RBW" to define the resolution bandwidth.
To configure the spectrum analysis diagram graphically
1. Define the time base extract for which thespectrum analysis is to be calculated and
displayed. The extract is defined by its width and position .
a) Press the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to select the time base extract
("W"/"P" settings are highlighted).
b) Turn the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to define the width of the time base
extract. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to enlarge the extract, or clockwise to
decrease it.
c) Turn the horizontal POSITION rotary knob to define the position of the time
base extract. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to move the trigger time to the
left, or clockwise to move it to the right.
2. Define the frequency range to be displayed in the frequency domain diagram. The
range is defined as (Center - Span/2) to (Center + Span/2). For details see Span
and Center Frequency.
a) Press the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to select the frequency range
("Span"/"Center" settings are highlighted).
b) Turn the horizontal SCALE rotary knob to define the span of the frequency
range. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to enlarge the span, or clockwise to
decrease it.
c) Turn the horizontal POSITION rotary knob to define the center of the frequency
range. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to move the center to the left, or clockwise to move it to the right.
d) Turn the vertical SCALE rotary knob to define the scaling of the frequency
amplitudes. Turn the knob counter-clockwise to decrease the amplitudes, or
clockwise to enlarge them.
To configure the markers
1. Press "Marker" in the "Spectrum Analysis" menu.
2. Press "Enable" to display the markers.
3. Press "Source" and select the source waveform for the marker selection.
4. Press "Setup" and open a menu for setting up the markers.
a) Set the "Min. Level" for the marker detection.
b) If required enable the "Advanced peak setup" and set the "Excursion", "Max.
Width" and "Distance".
5. If required set a reference marker with "R-Marker".
6. Press "Marker Table" and press "View marker table" to see the results.
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To configure the diagram display
1. Press "Display" in the "Spectrum Analysis" menu.
2. Press "Spectr. Color"/ "Freq.Dom. Color" and select the desired color scale.
3. Define the level range of the selected color scale with "Minimum" and "Maximum".
To configure the diagrams with AUTOSET
A prerequisite is that a periodical signal is input.
1. Press the FFT key to activate the spectrum analysis.
2. Press the "Autoset" button on the left of the display. The following settings are
made automatically:
The "Time Base " is set to ~5 periods per Division
The "Span" is set to 20*"Trigger Frequency".
The "Center" is set to "Span"/2.
The settings of the resolution bandwidth are dependent on the selected "RBW"
mode.
If "RBW > Auto", then an automatic "Span":"RBW" ratio will be set.
If "RBW > Manual", then the Time Window will be around 80 % of the
shown"Time Range".
e) The settings of the "Y-Scaling"/"Position" depend on the selected "Y-Scaling"
settings of the spectrum.
If "Y-Scaling > dBm/dBv", the "Position" is set to 3 DIV and the scaling is set to
20dBm/DIV.
If "Y-Scaling > Veff", the "Position" is set to - 3 DIV and the scaling is set to
(channel scaling)/2.
a)
b)
c)
d)
8.2.3 Spectrum Analysis Settings
If option R&S RTM-K18 is installed, the FFT key enables the spectrum analysis mode
and opens the spectrum analysis menu.
See also:
●
Chapter 8.2.1, "Spectrum Analysis Display", on page 143
●
Chapter 8.2.2, "Displaying and Configuring Spectrum Analysis", on page 145
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8.2.3.1
General Settings
Diagram.......................................................................................................................148
Source.........................................................................................................................148
Window....................................................................................................................... 148
└ Hanning.........................................................................................................149
└ Hamming.......................................................................................................149
└ Blackman...................................................................................................... 149
└ Flat top.......................................................................................................... 149
└ Rectangle......................................................................................................149
Y-Scaling.....................................................................................................................149
Waveform....................................................................................................................150
Marker......................................................................................................................... 150
More 1|2...................................................................................................................... 150
Freq. Domain.............................................................................................................. 150
Time Domain...............................................................................................................150
Display........................................................................................................................ 150
Diagram
Selects the diagram that should be focused on. Simultaneously you can select which
diagrams you want to display on the screen by enabling/ disabling it.
The time domain diagram shows the signal vs. time. You can restrict the result to a
certain time base.
The spectrogram displays a history of the spectral changes.
The frequency domain diagram allows the display of different waveforms and can show
the results of the marker search.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:DIAGram:FDOMain[:ENABle] on page 523
SPECtrum:DIAGram:SPECtrogram[:ENABle] on page 523
SPECtrum:DIAGram:TDOMain[:ENABle] on page 523
Source
Selects the source for the spectrum analysis.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:SOURce on page 509
Window
Window functions are multiplied with the input values and thus can improve the display.
If discontinuities occur at the borders of the measurement interval, the algorithm interprets such discontinuities as a sudden edge, which can distort the result. For bell-shaped functions, the border values are multiplied with smaller values and thus have less
influence on the result.
Remote command:
FFT: CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:WINDow:TYPE on page 501
Spectrum analysis: SPECtrum:FREQuency:WINDow:TYPE on page 510
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Hanning ← Window
The Hanning window is bell shaped. Unlike the Hamming window, its value is zero at
the borders of the measuring interval. Thus, the noise level within the spectrum is
reduced and the width of the spectral lines enlarges. Use this window to measure
amplitudes of a periodical signal precisely.
Hamming ← Window
The Hamming window is bell shaped. Its value is not zero at the borders of the measuring interval. Thus, the noise level inside the spectrum is higher than Hanning or
Blackman, but smaller than the rectangular window. The width of the spectral lines is
thinner than the other bell-shaped functions. Use this window to measure amplitudes of
a periodical signal precisely.
Blackman ← Window
The Blackman window is bell shaped and has the steepest fall in its wave shape of all
other available functions. Its value is zero at both borders of the measuring interval. In
the Blackman window the amplitudes can be measured very precisely. However, determining the frequency is more difficult. Use this window to measure amplitudes of a
periodical signal precisely.
Flat top ← Window
The flat top window has low amplitude measurement errors but a poor frequency resolution. Use this window for accurate single-tone measurements and for measurement
of amplitudes of sinusoidal frequency components.
Rectangle ← Window
The rectangular window multiplies all points by one. The result is a high frequency
accuracy with thin spectral lines, but also with increased noise. Use this function preferably with pulse response tests where start and end values are zero.
Y-Scaling
Defines the scaling unit for the y-axis. The display values are valid for 50Ω termination
impendance. To achieve this, the existing internal terminating resistor can be used, or
an external terminating resistor can be connected parallel to the high impedance input.
"dBm"
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"dBV"
logarithmic scaling; related to 1 Veff
"Veff"
linear scaling; displays the RMS value of the voltage
Remote command:
FFT: CALCulate:MATH<m>:FFT:MAGNitude:SCALe on page 503
Spectrum analysis: SPECtrum:FREQuency:MAGNitude:SCALe on page 509
Waveform
Opens a menu for setting the waveforms.
Marker
Opens a menu for setting the markers.
More 1|2
Switches the menu page for the spectrum analysis settings.
Freq. Domain
Opens a menu for setting the frequency domain diagram.
Time Domain
Opens a menu for setting the time domain diagram.
Display
Defines the settings for the display of the diagrams.
8.2.3.2
Marker Settings
Using the marker search, you can find up to 100 peaks in the spectrum. A detailed definition of the search criteria can be done in the marker menu.
●
●
●
●
General Marker Settings....................................................................................... 150
Setup Settings.......................................................................................................151
R-Marker............................................................................................................... 153
Marker Table......................................................................................................... 154
General Marker Settings
Enable......................................................................................................................... 150
Source.........................................................................................................................151
Setup...........................................................................................................................151
R-Marker..................................................................................................................... 151
R-Mark. to Center........................................................................................................151
Marker table................................................................................................................ 151
Enable
Enables the usage of markers.
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Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer[:ENABle] on page 512
Source
Defines the source for the marker search function.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:SOURce on page 511
Setup
Opens a menu for defining the settings for the markers.
R-Marker
Defines the settings for the reference marker.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:RMARker? on page 515
R-Mark. to Center
Centers the display to the reference marker.
Marker table
Defines the settings for the marker table. The result values include the result number
ant the corresponding frequency and magnitude values.
Setup Settings
Min. Level....................................................................................................................151
Advanced Peak Setup.................................................................................................151
Excursion.................................................................................................................... 152
Max. Width.................................................................................................................. 152
Distance...................................................................................................................... 153
Info.............................................................................................................................. 153
Min. Level
Defines the minimum level for marker peak detection. Peaks with a level below this
value will not be listed in the "Marker Table".
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:SETup:MLEVel on page 512
Advanced Peak Setup
Enables a more precise definition of the marker settings.
For a peak to be detected, the "Excursion", "Max width" and "Distance" have to be
within the defined limits, see Figure 8-3. If the conditions are not fulfilled, the peak is
not considered, see Figure 8-4 and Figure 8-5.
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Excursion
Spectrum Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K18)
Min. level
Peak width
Distance
Max. width
Figure 8-3: Detected peak within the setting ranges
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:SETup:MMODe on page 512
Excursion
Excursion
Defines a level difference between two subsequent peaks that has to be kept, for the
peak to be detected.
Min. level
Peak width
Distance
Max. width
Figure 8-4: Ignored peak, distance and excursion not kept
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:SETup:EXCursion on page 512
Max. Width
Defines the maximum width, that a peak can have for it to be detected.
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Excursion
Spectrum Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K18)
Min. level
Max. width
Peak width
Figure 8-5: Ignored peak, peak width out of setting range
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:SETup:MWIDth on page 513
Distance
Defines a distance between two subsequent peaks that has to be kept, for the peak to
be detected.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:SETup:DISTance on page 512
Info
Enables the display of the marker info window. It shows information about the current
settings that are considered for the marker detection.
R-Marker
Defines the settings for the reference marker. The reference marker is displayed on the
waveform as a filled orange triangle.
R-Marker..................................................................................................................... 153
Index........................................................................................................................... 154
Frequency................................................................................................................... 154
Span............................................................................................................................154
Center to Screen......................................................................................................... 154
Center to Highest Peak............................................................................................... 154
R-Marker
Defines the mode for the selection of the reference peak.
"Off"
Disables the reference marker.
"Indicated"
The reference peak is set to the peak with a selected index number.
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"Range"
The peak with the highest level within the selected range is set as the
reference marker.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:REFerence:SETup:MODE on page 513
Index
Defines the index number of the reference marker, when "R-Marker" is set to "Indicated".
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:REFerence:SETup:INDex on page 513
Frequency
Defines the center frequency for the capture range.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:REFerence:SETup:FREQuency on page 513
Span
Defines the span range, which is defined as the ratio of the capture range and the
width of the specified reference mode, when "R-Marker" is set to "Range".
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:REFerence:SETup:SPAN on page 513
Center to Screen
Centers the display to the center frequency.
Center to Highest Peak
Centers the display to the highest detected peak.
Marker Table
Defines the settings for the marker table.
The result values include the result number ant the corresponding frequency and magnitude. In the marker table you can select up to 10 peaks to be displayed with their values on the waveform. A green check mark next to the peak on the marker table indicates which markers are selected. The marker is then indicated on the waveform by a
red triangle.
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Remote commands, result:
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RCOunt? on page 514
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>? on page 515
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>:ALL? on page 516
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>:ALL:DELTa? on page 516
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>:DELTa? on page 516
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>:FREQuency? on page 516
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>:FREQuency:DELTa? on page 517
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>:LEVel? on page 517
●
SPECtrum:MARKer:RESult<n>:LEVel:DELTa? on page 517
View marker table....................................................................................................... 155
Clean all Marker.......................................................................................................... 156
Reference....................................................................................................................156
Waveform marker........................................................................................................156
Position....................................................................................................................... 156
View marker table
Enables/disables the display of the marker table.
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Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:RTABle:ENABle on page 514
Clean all Marker
Deletes all results from the marker table.
Reference
Defines the mode for the displayed results in the marker table. You can select to show
the absolute frequency and level value of the markers or the delta values of the frequency and level in comparison to the reference marker.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:RMODe on page 514
Waveform marker
Enables the display of the selected markers on the waveform diagram. You can display
the index number or the result values of the peak.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:MARKer:DISPlay on page 511
Position
Defines the position of the table on the screen: top right, bottom right, or full screen.
With full screen setting, the table covers nearly the complete righthand half of the
screen.
8.2.3.3
Waveform Settings
In the waveform menu you can select which waveforms should be shown in the diagram. You can enable all types of waveforms simultaneously.
Spectrum.....................................................................................................................156
Min Hold...................................................................................................................... 157
Max Hold..................................................................................................................... 157
Average.......................................................................................................................157
No. of Averages.......................................................................................................... 158
Reset...........................................................................................................................158
Spectrum
Displays the spectrum.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum[:ENABle] on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA:HEADer? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA:POINts? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA:XINCrement? on page 521
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SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA:XORigin? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA:YINCrement? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA:YORigin? on page 522
SPECtrum:WAVeform:SPECtrum:DATA:YRESolution? on page 522
Min Hold
Displays a waveform of the minimum amplitude spectrum.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum[:ENABle] on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA:HEADer? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA:POINts? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA:XINCrement? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA:XORigin? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA:YINCrement? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA:YORigin? on page 522
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MINimum:DATA:YRESolution? on page 522
Max Hold
Displays a waveform of the maximum amplitude spectrum.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum[:ENABle] on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA:HEADer? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA:POINts? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA:XINCrement? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA:XORigin? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA:YINCrement? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA:YORigin? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:MAXimum:DATA:YRESolution? on page 522
Average
Displays an average waveform. It is calculated as the average of the number of spectrums defined with "No. of Averages".
Remote command:
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage[:ENABle] on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA:HEADer? on page 520
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA:POINts? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA:XINCrement? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA:XORigin? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA:YINCrement? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA:YORigin? on page 521
SPECtrum:WAVeform:AVERage:DATA:YRESolution? on page 522
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No. of Averages
Defines the number of spectrums used for averaging, when the "Average" waveform is
enabled.
Reset
Resets the "Min", "Max" and "Average" to the current waveform.
8.2.3.4
Spectrogram Settings
Define the settings for the spectrogram diagram.
Cur. Acquisition........................................................................................................... 158
Zoom........................................................................................................................... 158
Reset...........................................................................................................................158
Cur. Acquisition
Defines the current acquisition that is considered for the measurement.
Zoom
Defines a zoom factor for the spectrogram.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:SPECtrogram:SCALe on page 511
Reset
Resets the current spectrogram and starts a new recording of information.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:SPECtrogram:RESet on page 511
8.2.3.5
Time Domain Settings
In the time domain menu you can define the settings for the time domain diagram.
Position....................................................................................................................... 158
Time Range.................................................................................................................159
Y-Scale........................................................................................................................159
Y-Position....................................................................................................................159
Main Time Base.......................................................................................................... 159
Trigger Offset.............................................................................................................. 159
Position
Defines the time position of the analyzed time range.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:TIME:POSition on page 519
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Time Range
Defines the time range for the time domain diagram.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:TIME:RANGe on page 519
Y-Scale
Changes the vertical scaling of the Y(t)-window (channel scaling).
Note: If the Y(t)-window is selected (indicated by a white border), the Y-Scale can be
adjusted using the vertical SCALE rotary knob.
See "SCALE, Y-Scale" on page 36.
Remote command:
FFT:CHANnel<m>:SCALe on page 423
Spectrum analysis: SPECtrum:FREQuency:SCALe on page 510
Y-Position
Defines the vertical position of the time axis in the Y(t)-window, in divisions.
Note: If the Y(t)-window is selected (indicated by a white border), the Y-Position can
be adjusted using the vertical POSITION rotary knob.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:POSition on page 424
Main Time Base
Defines the scaling for the time base in the (original) Y(t)-window in seconds per division. The scaling is indicated by "TB" in the information bar above the window.
Note: If "Time Control" is selected, the main time base can be adjusted using the horizontal SCALE rotary knob.
See also "SCALE" on page 29, "To configure the original Y(t)-diagram" on page 89 and
Figure 8-2.
Remote command:
TIMebase:SCALe on page 414
Trigger Offset
Defines the horizontal position of the trigger point in relation to the reference point - to
the zero point of the grid. The value is indicated by "T" in the information bar above the
window.
The reference point is set with SETUP >"Time Reference".
Note: If a zoom or FFT window is displayed and "Time Control" is selected, the trigger
offset can be adjusted using the horizontal POSITION rotary knob.
See also:
● "POSITION" on page 29
● "Time Reference" on page 386
● "To configure the original Y(t)-diagram" on page 89
Remote command:
TIMebase:POSition on page 416
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8.2.3.6
Frequency Domain Settings
In the time domain menu you can define the settings for the frequency domain diagram.
Center Frequency....................................................................................................... 160
Span............................................................................................................................160
RBW............................................................................................................................161
Set Full Span...............................................................................................................161
Center Frequency
Defines the position of the displayed frequency domain, which is (Center Frequency Span/2) to (Center Frequency + Span/2). The width of the domain is defined using the
"Span" function.
Note: If the Spectrum analysis frequency range is selected ("Span"/"Center Frequency" is highlighted), the width of the span can be adjusted using the horizontal
POSITION rotary knob.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:FREQuency:CENTer on page 517
Span
The span is specified in Hertz and defines the width of the displayed frequency range,
which is (Center Frequency - Span/2) to (Center Frequency + Span/2). The position of
the span is defined using the "Center Frequency" function.
Note: If the spectrum analysis frequency range is selected ("Span"/"Center Frequency"
is highlighted), the width of the span can be adjusted using the horizontal SCALE
rotary knob.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:FREQuency:SPAN on page 518
SPECtrum:FREQuency:FULLspan on page 517
SPECtrum:FREQuency:STARt on page 518
SPECtrum:FREQuency:STOP on page 518
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RBW
Sets the resolution bandwidth, the minimum frequency separation at which the individual components of a spectrum can be distinguished.
Small values result in a high precision, as the distance between two distinguishable
frequencies is small. Higher values decrease the precision, but increase measurement
speed.
In auto mode (default), the instrument sets the RBW to an appropriate value. In manual
mode, you can set the RBW value using the NAVIGATION rotary knob. Press the
"RBW" key to toggle auto and manual mode.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:FREQuency:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:AUTO on page 518
SPECtrum:FREQuency:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:RATio on page 518
SPECtrum:FREQuency:BANDwidth[:RESolution][:VALue] on page 519
Set Full Span
Performs the spectrum analysis calculation for the full frequency span.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:FREQuency:FULLspan on page 517
8.2.3.7
Display Settings
In the time display menu you can define the settings for the display of diagrams.
Spectr. Color / Freq.Dom.Color...................................................................................161
Magnitude Mode......................................................................................................... 162
Find Level....................................................................................................................162
Minimum......................................................................................................................162
Maximum.....................................................................................................................162
Spectr. Color / Freq.Dom.Color
Selects the color scale for the display of the waveform in the spectrogram / frequency
domain diagram. Each scale comprises a set of colors, where each color represents a
certain level/frequency of occurrence.
You can set the range of the color scale with "Minimum" and "Maximum".
"Rainbow"
The waveform is displayed in the rainbow colors. Blue corresponds to
the low level values while red stands for high ones.
"Temp. Color"
The waveform is displayed in the temperature colors. Blue corresponds to the low level values while white stands for high ones.
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Spectrum Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K18)
"Monochrome"
The waveform is displayed in monochrome colors, which depend on
the color of the selected source channel. Black corresponds to the
low level values while the channel color stands for high ones.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:DIAGram:COLor:SCHeme:FDOMain on page 523
SPECtrum:DIAGram:COLor:SCHeme:SPECtrogramm on page 523
Magnitude Mode
Enables the magnitude dependent coloring of the waveform. The higher the level the
higher the color in the color scale.
When the "Magnitude Mode" is disabled, then the color is depending on the frequency
of occurrence of a value.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:DIAGram:COLor:MAGNitude:MODE on page 522
Find Level
Sets the level automatically to 0.5 * (MaxPeak – MinPeak). The MinPeak is set in the
noise floor and the MaxPeak is the highest point of the waveform.
Minimum
Defines the level used as a minimum of the color scale selected with "Spectr.
Color"/"Freq.Dom.Color". All level values lower than the minimum will be displayed with
the minimum color.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:DIAGram:COLor:MINimum[:LEVel] on page 523
Maximum
Defines the level used as a maximum for the color scale selected with "Spectr. Color"/
"Freq.Dom.Color". All level values higher than the maximum will be displayed with the
maximum color.
Remote command:
SPECtrum:DIAGram:COLor:MAXimum[:LEVel] on page 522
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About Masks
9 Masks
Masks are used to determine whether the amplitude of a signal remains within specified limits, e.g. to detect errors or test compliance of digital signals.
9.1 About Masks
9.1.1 Masks
A mask is specified by an upper and a lower limit line. The signal must run inside these
limit lines, otherwise a mask violation occurs.
A new mask is created from an existing signal: Mask limits are created by copying the
waveform, and the limits are moved and stretched. The result is a tolerance tube
around the signal that is used as mask.
Once a mask has been defined, the copied waveform envelope is kept in the instrument until the next mask is defined or loaded. The settings for stretch and move are
not kept. If you want to keep the complete mask definition, or you need more than one
mask, you can save the mask to and load from any storage device - internal memory
or external USB flash device.
It is also possible to copy the saved masks to another storage device with "Export/
Import Masks". In an export/import operation, the name of the target file can be
changed, so you can copy and rename the file in one operation. You can also change
the target file format and convert the data during export/import. To copy a mask, use
FILE >"Import/Export Masks".
See also:
●
Chapter 9.1.3, "File Formats for Masks", on page 164
●
Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and Exporting Data", on page 369
9.1.2 Mask Testing
The mask test analyzes whether tested signal runs inside the mask. The overall test
result is shown in the results table:
= number of tested acquisitions and test duration
left column
middle column = number of passed acquisitions (green) and number of failed acquisitions (red)
right column = percentage share of passed and failed acquisitions
During a mask test, various actions can be executed when mask violations occur: notification by a sound, stop of acquisition, printout or saving a screenshot, saving the
waveform data.
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About Masks
Remote commands for mask test results:
●
MASK:COUNt? on page 526
●
MASK:VCOunt? on page 526
●
MASK:RESet:COUNter on page 526
9.1.3 File Formats for Masks
Data of masks is always saved as a succession of pairs of values - lower and upper
limit - and the pairs are written as two consecutive single values. Depending on the file
format, only amplitude values are stored, or the amplitude values are stored together
with their sample index.
Amplitude values are not saved as voltage values but as division values. The minimum
value for evaluation is -5.12 DIV, the maximum is +5.12 DIV. The internal vertical
range of the instrument exceeds the visible vertical range of ±4 DIV.
With export, you can convert the MSK file to CSV, TXT, or BIN formats. Import is possible for MSK and CSV files.
MSK format
MSK is the specific binary format for masks of the R&S RTM. It contains pairs of amplitude values (in divisions) , their sample indexes and current instrument settings. Thus,
the amplitude values are not related to time and voltage. The data can be loaded back
to the instrument for further use. The format is not intended for analysis outside the
R&S RTM.
CSV format
In a Comma Separated Values text file, the waveform is stored in a two-columned
table. Columns are separated by a comma, and the lines are separated by line breaks
\r\n (0x0D 0x0A).
The first column contains the sample indexes, and the second column contains the
associated amplitude values in divisions. The first line indicates the units of the values
in each column, and the name of the waveform. For each sample index, two values
(minimum and maximum) are written. The range of amplitude values is -5.12 to +5.12
divisions.
The data can be loaded back to the instrument for further use.
Example: CSV file
[Sa],MSK1[DIV]
0.000E+00,-3.273E+00
0.000E+00,-7.831E-01
1.000E+00,-3.313E+00
1.000E+00,-8.232E-01
2.000E+00,-3.273E+00
2.000E+00,-8.232E-01
3.000E+00,-3.273E+00
3.000E+00,-7.831E-01
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About Masks
4.000E+00,-3.273E+00
4.000E+00,-7.831E-01
5.000E+00,-3.313E+00
5.000E+00,-8.232E-01
6.000E+00,-3.273E+00
6.000E+00,-8.232E-01
7.000E+00,-3.273E+00
7.000E+00,-7.831E-01
8.000E+00,-3.313E+00
8.000E+00,-7.831E-01
9.000E+00,-3.273E+00
9.000E+00,-7.831E-01
1.000E+01,-3.273E+00
1.000E+01,-8.232E-01
...
At export, the sample indexes are written in scientific notification.
If you create a mask manually in a CSV file, you can write the indexes simply as intergers. The file should contain 1000 pairs of min-max values.
TXT format
TXT files are ASCII files that contain only amplitude values but no time values. Amplitude values are separated by commas. Pairs of values are listed as two subsequent
single values, without any identification. Amplitude values are given in scientific notation. There is no comma at the end of the file.
Amplitude values are given in decimal fractions.
Example: TXT file
4.00,4.20,4.05,4.25,4.08,4.28,....., -4.05,-4.25,-4.00,-4.20
BIN format
BIN files contain only binary amplitude values but no time values. Each value has a
word size of 8, or 16, or 32 bit, the word size is the same throughout the file.
You can set the word order: BIN MSBF saves data in Big Endian order - beginning with
the MSB (Most Significant Byte) and ending with the LSB (Least Significant Byte). BIN
LSBF saves data beginning with the LSB and ending with the MSB. Pairs of values are
listed as two subsequent single values, without any identification.
FLT format
FLT files contain amplitude values in float format, where 4 successive bytes are saved
in a 32-bit float value.
You can set the word order: FLT MSBF saves data in Big Endian order - beginning
with the MSB (Most Significant Byte) and ending with the LSB (Least Significant Byte).
FLT LSBF saves data beginning with the LSB and ending with the MSB.
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Working with Masks
9.2 Working with Masks
Masks define a frame with which you can compare the signal values. You can load
pre-configured masks or define your own masks based on existing waveforms. When
you perform a test, you can define which actions are to be taken upon violation of the
mask limits.
Masks are displayed in the color used for reference waveforms.
9.2.1 Creating New Masks
You create a new mask based on a channel waveform, then optimize it by changing its
position and proportions, and save it.
1. Select and adjust the channel waveform that will be used as basis for the mask,
and run continuous acquisition.
2. Press TOOLS.
3. Press "Masks Tests"
The selected waveform is displayed with its envelope, other waveforms are
switched off in masks mode.
4. Press "New Mask".
5. Press "Copy Channel" to create the new mask.
The mask is created from the envelope and displayed in the color used for reference waveforms.
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Working with Masks
6. To change the width of the waveform in vertical direction, press "Width Y" and turn
the "Navigation" rotary knob.
The specified factor in divisions is added to the y-values of the upper mask limit
and subtracted from the y-values of the lower mask limit. Thus, the upper half of
the mask is pulled upwards, the lower half is pulled down.
7. Similarly, to change the width of the waveform in horizontal direction, press "Width
X" and turn the "Navigation" rotary knob.
The left half of the mask is pulled to the left, the right half is pulled to the right.
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Working with Masks
8. To move the mask vertically on the screen, press "Y-Position" and turn the "Navigation" rotary knob to change the y-position.
The current position is indicated as an offset from the center in divisions; a positive
value indicates the waveform was moved upwards; a negative value indicates the
waveform was moved down.
9. To change the scaling of the mask in y-direction, press "Stretch Y" and turn the
"Navigation" rotary knob.
Turn the knob clockwise to increase the factor, or counterclockwise to decrease
the factor. A value over 100% stretches the amplitudes; a value less than 100%
compresses the amplitudes.
10. Save the new mask:
a) Press "Save".
b) Define the storage settings as described for waveforms in Chapter 15.3.1.1,
"Configuring Storage Locations", on page 368.
c) Press "Save".
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9.2.2 Loading Masks
You can load mask data from MSK or CSV files from any storage device.
To copy a mask, use FILE >"Import/Export Masks". For import/export procedure, see
Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and Exporting Data", on page 369.
1. Press TOOLS > "Masks Tests" to display the "Mask Test" menu.
2. Press "Load Mask".
The "Load" menu and a file explorer is displayed.
3. Press "Storage" and select the storage device (internal directory or USB flash drive
connected to front or rear panel).
4. Select the directory and then the file that contains the mask. Use the "Navigation"
knob to scroll through the directories. To change the directory, scroll to the name of
the directory and press the knob, or press "Change dir.".
5. Press "Load".
The selected mask is displayed on the screen.
9.2.3 Performing a Mask Test
Using a mask test you can detect limit violations of the measured signal compared to a
pre-defined mask.
To perform a mask test
1. Seet up the waveform as usual.
2. Press TOOLS > "Masks Tests" to display the "Mask Test" menu.
3. Create a mask, or load an existing mask.
See:
● Chapter 9.2.1, "Creating New Masks", on page 166
● Chapter 9.2.2, "Loading Masks", on page 169
4. Press "Actions" to define what happens when a violation occurs. Select one or
more of the available actions by pressing the corresponding softkey and define
when the action will be executed.
See: "Actions" on page 172.
5. Press "Test" to start the mask test.
The mask test is performed, i.e. the data from the active channel is compared to
the mask.
If the mask limits are exceeded, the specified action is taken. The overall result is
shown in the results table:
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Reference for MASKS key
6. Press "Pause" to stop testing temporarily without closing the "Masks" menu.
Press "Pause" again to continue the test.
7. Press "Masks Test Off" to turn off the mask test and exit the "Mask" menu.
9.3 Reference for MASKS key
Masks are used for error detection and compliance tests of digital signals.
You can:
●
run mask tests.
●
configure actions triggered by mask violation.
●
configure new masks based on channel signals.
To start a mask configuration and test, press the TOOLS key and "Masks Test".
MASKS........................................................................................................................170
Test............................................................................................................................. 171
Pause.......................................................................................................................... 171
New Mask................................................................................................................... 171
└ Copy Channel............................................................................................... 171
└ Y-Position......................................................................................................171
└ Stretch Y....................................................................................................... 171
└ Width Y......................................................................................................... 172
└ Width X......................................................................................................... 172
└ Save..............................................................................................................172
Load Mask...................................................................................................................172
Actions........................................................................................................................ 172
└ Sound, Stop, Screenshot, Print, Waveform, Pulse....................................... 173
└ Polarity.......................................................................................................... 173
└ Pulse width....................................................................................................173
Masks Test Off............................................................................................................ 174
MASKS
Opens the "Masks" menu to perform a mask test on the selected waveform. Masks are
used for error detection and compliance tests of digital signals.
You can:
● run mask tests,
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Reference for MASKS key
●
●
configure new masks besed on channel signals,
configure actions triggered by mask violation.
Test
Performs a mask test for the selected signal, i.e. the signal's amplitudes are compared
with the specified mask. If the amplitude exceeds the limits of the mask, a violation is
detected.
Which action is to be taken when a violation is detected is defined using the Actions
softkey. See also: Chapter 9.2.3, "Performing a Mask Test", on page 169.
Remote command:
MASK:TEST on page 524
Pause
Temporarily stops the mask test without closing the "Masks" menu. Counts are not
deleted, and the actions cannot be changed during a pause.
Remote command:
MASK:TEST on page 524
New Mask
Opens a submenu to define a new mask for testing.
See also: Chapter 9.2.1, "Creating New Masks", on page 166
Copy Channel ← New Mask
Creates a new mask from the envelope waveform of the selected channel and stores it
in the instrument.
Remote command:
MASK:CHCopy on page 525
Y-Position ← New Mask
Moves the mask vertically within the display. Turn the "Navigation" rotary knob to
change the y-position.
The current position is indicated as an offset from the center in divisions; a positive
value indicates the waveform was moved upwards; a negative value indicates the
waveform was moved down.
Remote command:
MASK:YPOSition on page 525
Stretch Y ← New Mask
Changes the vertical scaling to stretch the mask in y-direction.
Turn the "Navigation" rotary knob clockwise to increase the factor, or counterclockwise
to decrease the factor. A value over 100% stretches the amplitudes; a value less than
100% compresses the amplitudes.
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Reference for MASKS key
Remote command:
MASK:YSCale on page 525
Width Y ← New Mask
Changes the width of the mask in vertical direction.
The specified number of divisions is added to the y-values of the upper mask limit and
subtracted from the y-values of the lower mask limit. Thus, the upper half of the mask
is pulled upwards, the lower half is pulled down, and the overall height of the mask is
twice the "Width Y".
Remote command:
MASK:YWIDth on page 526
Width X ← New Mask
Changes the width of the mask in horizontal direction.
The specified factor in divisions is added to the positive x-values and subtracted from
the negative x-values of the mask limits in relation to the mask center. Thus, the left
half of the mask is pulled to the left, the right half is pulled to the right.
Remote command:
MASK:XWIDth on page 526
Save ← New Mask
Opens a menu to save the mask in an instrument-specific format. The complete mask
definition - envelope waveform with width, stretch and position settings - is stored.
See "Save Menu" on page 370.
Remote command:
MASK:SAVE on page 525
Load Mask
Opens a file explorer to select a previously stored mask. The selected mask is loaded
and can be used for a subsequent test.
Remote command:
MASK:LOAD on page 524
Actions
Opens a submenu to select the actions to be taken when a violation against the mask
limits occurs. For each action, you can define when and how often the action will be
executed.
"Sound"
Generates a beep sound.
"Stop"
Stops the waveform acquisition.
"Screenshot"
Saves a screenshot according to the settings in FILE > "Screenshots".
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Reference for MASKS key
"Print"
Prints a screenshot to a printer connected to the USB connector on
the front or rear panel.
"Waveform"
Saves the waveform data according to the settings in FILE > "Waveform".
"Pulse"
Creates a pulse on the TRIGGER OUTPUT connector.
You can set the Polarity and Pulse width in the "Pulse" submenu.
Remote command:
MASK:ACTion:SOUNd:EVENt:MODE on page 527
MASK:ACTion:STOP:EVENt:MODE on page 527
MASK:ACTion:SCRSave:EVENt:MODE on page 527
MASK:ACTion:PRINt:EVENt:MODE on page 527
MASK:ACTion:WFMSave:EVENt:MODE on page 527
MASK:ACTion:PULSe:EVENt:MODE on page 527
Sound, Stop, Screenshot, Print, Waveform, Pulse ← Actions
For each action, you can define when and how often the action will be executed.
"Off"
No action is executed.
"Each"
The selected action is executed on each violation of the mask.
"After n / n"
"Single": The selected action is executed once after the n-th violation.
"Cyclic": The selected action is executed repeatedly after each n-th
violation.
Set the execution interval with softkey "n".
Remote command:
MASK:ACTion:SOUNd:EVENt:COUNt on page 528
MASK:ACTion:STOP:EVENt:COUNt on page 528
MASK:ACTion:SCRSave:EVENt:COUNt on page 528
MASK:ACTion:PRINt:EVENt:COUNt on page 528
MASK:ACTion:WFMSave:EVENt:COUNt on page 528
MASK:ACTion:PULSe:EVENt:COUNt on page 528
Polarity ← Actions
Sets the polarity of the trigger out pulse.
Remote command:
MASK:ACTion:PULSe:POLarity on page 529
Pulse width ← Actions
Sets the length of the trigger out pulse.
Remote command:
MASK:ACTion:PULSe:PLENgth on page 529
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Reference for MASKS key
Masks Test Off
Turns off the mask test and exits the "Mask" menu.
Remote command:
MASK:STATe on page 524
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Search
Search Conditions and Results
10 Search
10.1 Search Conditions and Results
The search functions of R&S RTM allow to find all edges, pulse widths, peaks, or other
events in an acquisition that match the search conditions. For each search type, specific settings are available. Searches can be performed on any channel, math or reference waveform.
Searches can be performed online, that is repeatedly for each new data acquisition in
a running acquisition series, or only once after the acquisition has been stopped. In an
online search, only the displayed data is searched while the search on a stopped
acquisition analyzes the contents of the memory.
The searched time base range can be restricted by defining a gate.
10.1.1 Search Results
Search results are marked in the diagram and listed in a results table with their specific
measurement values. In the table, five results are shown. To navigate the search
results, turn the NAVIGATION knob. See also: "To analyze search results"
on page 177.
Search result markers
For further analysis, for example, for cursor measurements, you can set up to 20 markers to selected search results. Search result markers are different from usual timestamp markers but they are set, navigated and deleted by means of the marker keys,
too. As long as a search is enabled, the search result markers are active. If search is
off, usual markers can be used.
See also:
●
"To use markers on search results" on page 178
●
Chapter 4.4, "Markers", on page 91
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Search Conditions and Results
Figure 10-1: Results of an edge search with R&S RTM
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
=
=
=
=
=
Search results
Marked search results
Selected search result
Search conditions
Number of results, scope of results displayed in the results table
Result values: result number, time value, optional value depending on the search type (voltage, width)
Remote commands:
●
SEARch:RCOunt? on page 546
●
SEARch:RESult:ALL? on page 545
●
SEARch:RESult<n>? on page 546
●
EXPort:SEARch:NAME on page 547
●
EXPort:SEARch:SAVE on page 547
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Configuring and Performing Searches
10.2 Configuring and Performing Searches
To configure and start a search
Prerequisite: Signal acquisition, reference or math waveform is configured.
1. Press the SEARCH key.
The "Search" menu opens, and the search is enabled.
2. Press "Source" and select the waveform for analysis. All active channel, math, and
reference waveforms are available for selection.
3. Press "Search type" and select the event you want to search for: edge, width,
peaks, runts, specified rise/fall time, setup/hold time, pattern, or protocol-specific
events.
4. Press "Setup" and configure the selected search type.
Details:
● Chapter 10.3.2, "Edge Setup", on page 180
● Chapter 10.3.3, "Width Setup", on page 181
● Chapter 10.3.4, "Peak Setup", on page 182
● Chapter 10.3.5, "Rise/Fall Time Setup", on page 183
● Chapter 10.3.6, "Runt Setup", on page 184
● Chapter 10.3.7, "Data2Clock Search", on page 185
● Chapter 10.3.8, "Pattern Search", on page 187
● Chapter 11.5.5.1, "CAN Search Setup", on page 238, requires option
R&S RTM-K3
● Chapter 11.6.6.1, "LIN Search Setup", on page 249, requires option
R&S RTM-K3
5. To restrict the time base range of the source waveform to be searched, press
"Gate" and define the search area.
6. Start continuous acquisition with RUN CONT.
The online search is performed on the displayed data. Search results are updated
permanently and indicated at the top of the diagram.
Stop the acquisition to search the memory data of the latest acquisition.
To analyze search results
1. Stop the running continuous acquisition, or acquire one waveform with RUN N×
SINGLE.
2. Press "Events".
3. Press "View event table" in the "Events" menu.
The first five search results are listed in a table.
4. To select a search result, turn the NAVIGATION knob.
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Reference for Search Menu
The selected result is highlighted in the table and indicated in the diagram with a
magnifier symbol.
5. To see the selected event even if it is outside the display, press "Track event".
The waveform is moved on the display, and the selected result is shown at the time
reference point.
To use markers on search results
1. If the search results table is not visible, press "View event table".
2. To set markers to all results, press "Mark events". If more then 20 results are
found, the first 20 results are marked.
3. To set a marker to a selected result:
a) Select the result in the "Search Event Table" by turning the NAVIGATION
knob.
b) Press the SET CLEAR key.
4. To select a marker:
● Press the NEXT key to move to next marker to the right.
● Press the PREV key to move to previous marker to the left.
5. To delete a single marker, select it an press the SET CLEAR key.
6. To delete all markers, press "Clear all event markers".
To finish a search
1. To close the results table, press "View event table".
2. To stop the search, press "Search".
10.3 Reference for Search Menu
10.3.1 Main Search Menu
The SEARCH key opens the same-named menu where you can search various
events, for example:
●
edges
●
peaks
●
pulses with defined pulse width
●
rise time or fall time
●
... and more
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Reference for Search Menu
Search
Enables and disables the search mode.
Remote command:
SEARch:STATe on page 531
Search type
Selects the event you want to search for.
"Edge"
Similar to the edge trigger, an edge search result is found when the
waveform passes the given level in the specified direction.
For settings, see Chapter 10.3.2, "Edge Setup", on page 180.
"Width"
Similar to the width trigger, a width search finds pulses with an exact
pulse width, or pulses shorter or longer than a given time, or pulses
inside or outside the allowable time range.
For settings, see Chapter 10.3.3, "Width Setup", on page 181
"Peak"
The peak search finds pulses exceeding a given peak-to peak value.
For settings, see Chapter 10.3.4, "Peak Setup", on page 182
"Rise/Fall time" The rise or fall time search finds slopes with an exact rise or fall time,
or rise/fall times shorter or longer than a given limit, or rise/fall times
inside or outside the allowable time range.
For settings, see Chapter 10.3.5, "Rise/Fall Time Setup",
on page 183
"Runt"
The runt search finds pulses lower than normal in amplitude. The
amplitude crosses the first threshold twice without crossing the second one. In addition to the threshold amplitudes, you can define a
time limit for the runt in the same way as for width search: runts with
exact width, shorter or longer than a given time, or runts inside or outside the allowable time range.
For settings, see Chapter 10.3.6, "Runt Setup", on page 184
"Data2Clock"
The Data2Clock search - also known as setup/hold - finds violation of
setup and hold times. It analyzes the relative timing between two signals: a data signal and the synchronous clock signal.
Many systems require, that the data signal must be steady for some
time before and after the clock edge. Setup time is the time that the
data signal is steady before clock edge. Hold time is the time that the
data signal is steady after clock edge.
For settings, see Chapter 10.3.7, "Data2Clock Search", on page 185.
"Pattern"
The pattern search finds logical combinations of channel states inside
or outside a specified time range. For each channel, its state and
threshold level is defined. The states are combined logically, and the
time of true pattern results is compared with a specified time range.
For settings, see Chapter 10.3.8, "Pattern Search", on page 187.
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Reference for Search Menu
"Protocol"
The protocol search finds various events in decoded data serial signals. The events are protocol-specific and correspond to the trigger
settings of the serial protocol.
The following protocol searches are available:
● Chapter 11.5.5, "Search on Decoded CAN Data", on page 238
(option R&S RTM-K3)
● Chapter 11.6.6, "Search on Decoded LIN Data", on page 249
(option R&S RTM-K3)
● Chapter 11.8.6, "Search on Decoded MIL-STD-1553 Data ",
on page 280 (option R&S RTM-K6)
● Chapter 11.9.6, "Search on Decoded ARINC 429 Data",
on page 295 (option R&S RTM-K7)
Remote command:
SEARch:CONDition on page 531
Setup
Opens the "Setup" menu to define the protocol search parameters.
Source
Selects the waveform to be analyzed with edge, width, peak, rise/fall time, or runt
search. All active channel, math, and reference waveforms are available for selection.
For protocol search, select the configured bus.
Remote command:
SEARch:SOURce on page 533
Source Setup
Opens a menu to define the source parameters for Data2Clock and Pattern search:
waveform, level, and hysteresis.
Gate
Opens a menu to restrict the time base range of the source waveform for search.
See Chapter 10.3.9, "Gate Menu", on page 189
Events
Opens a menu with functions for result display and marker usage.
See: Chapter 10.3.10, "Events Menu", on page 190
Remote command:
SEARch:RESDiagram:SHOW on page 545
10.3.2 Edge Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Edge" > "Setup"
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Edge
Sets the slope to be found:
"Rising"
Rising edge, a positive voltage change
"Falling"
Falling edge, a negative voltage change
"Both"
Rising edge and falling edge
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:EDGE:SLOPe on page 534
Level
Sets the voltage level for the search.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:EDGE:LEVel on page 534
Hysteresis
Sets a hysteresis range to the search level in order to avoid unwanted search results
caused by noise oscillation around the level. For a rising edge, the hysteresis is below
the search level. Otherwise, for a falling edge the hysteresis is above the level.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:EDGE:LEVel:DELTa on page 534
10.3.3 Width Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Width" > "Setup"
Polarity
Indicates the polarity of the pulse to be searched for.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:WIDTh:POLarity on page 535
Level
Sets the voltage level on which the pulse width is measured.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:WIDTh:LEVel on page 535
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Hysteresis
Sets a hysteresis range to the search level in order to avoid unwanted search results
caused by noise oscillation around the level. For a rising edge, the hysteresis is below
the search level. Otherwise, for a falling edge the hysteresis is above the level.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:WIDTh:LEVel:DELTa on page 535
Comparison
Sets the condition how the measured pulse width is compared with the given limit(s).
"Greater than"
Finds pulses longer than the given "Width".
See also: Width
"Lower than"
Finds pulses shorter than the given "Width".
"Equal"
Finds pulses equal to the reference "Width" if "Variation" Δt = 0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0, the setting finds pulses within the range width ± Δt.
See also: Variation
"Not equal"
Finds pulses unequal to the reference "Width" if "Variation" Δt = 0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0, the setting finds pulses outside the range width ± Δt.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:WIDTh:RANGe on page 535
Width
Sets the reference pulse width, the nominal value for comparisons.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:WIDTh:WIDTh on page 536
Variation
Sets a range Δt to the reference "Width" if comparison is set to "Equal" or "Not equal".
The instrument finds pulses inside or outside the range width ± Δt.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:WIDTh:DELTa on page 536
10.3.4 Peak Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Peak" > "Setup"
The peak search finds pulses exceeding a given peak-to-peak value (magnitude).
Polarity
Indicates the polarity of the pulse to be searched for.
Remote command:
SEARch:MEASure:PEAK:POLarity on page 536
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Magnitude
Sets the peak-to-peak limit of the signal.
Remote command:
SEARch:MEASure:LEVel:PEAK:MAGNitude on page 537
10.3.5 Rise/Fall Time Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Rise/Fall time" > "Setup"
Edge
Sets the slope to be found:
● "Rising" to search for rise time
● "Falling" to search for fall time
● "Both" to search for rise and fall time
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RISetime:SLOPe on page 537
Upper level
Sets the upper voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the rise/fall time
measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:LEVel:RISetime:UPPer on page 538
Lower level
Sets the lower voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the rise time measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:LEVel:RISetime:LOWer on page 537
Comparison
Sets how the measured rise or fall time is compared with the given limit(s).
"Greater than"
Finds rise/fall times longer than the given "Rise/Fall time".
"Lower than"
Finds rise/fall times shorter than the given "Rise/Fall time".
"Equal"
Finds rise/fall times equal to the reference "Rise/Fall time" if "Variation" Δt = 0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0, the setting finds rise/fall times within the range time
± Δt.
See also: Variation.
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"Not equal"
Finds rise/fall times unequal to the reference value if "Variation" Δt =
0.
If "Variation" ≠ 0, the setting finds rise/fall times outside the range
time ± Δt.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RISetime:RANGe on page 538
Rise/Fall time
Sets the reference rise or fall time, the nominal value for comparisons.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RISetime:TIME on page 538
Variation
Sets a range Δt to the reference "Rise/Fall time" if comparison is set to "Equal" or "Not
equal". The instrument finds rise/fall times inside or outside the range width ± Δt.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RISetime:DELTa on page 538
10.3.6 Runt Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Runt" > "Setup"
Polarity
Indicates the polarity of the pulse to be searched for.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RUNT:POLarity on page 539
Upper level
Sets the upper voltage threshold for runt detection. A negative runt crosses the upper
level twice without crossing the lower level.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:LEVel:RUNT:UPPer on page 539
Lower level
Sets the lower voltage threshold for runt detection. A positive runt crosses the lower
level twice without crossing the upper level.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:LEVel:RUNT:LOWer on page 539
Comparison
Sets the condition how the measured runt width is compared with the given limit(s).
The same conditions as with width search are used, see "Comparison" on page 182.
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Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RUNT:RANGe on page 540
Width
Sets the reference runt pulse width, the nominal value for comparisons.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RUNT:WIDTh on page 540
Variation
Sets a range Δt to the reference "Width" if comparison is set to "Equal" or "Not equal".
The instrument finds pulses inside or outside the range width ± Δt.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:RUNT:DELTa on page 540
10.3.7 Data2Clock Search
The settings for Data2Clock search are provided in two menus: in the "Setup" menu
you define the clock polarity, setup and hold times; and in the "Source Setup" menu
you define the waveforms to be used, and the levels and hysteresis for each source.
10.3.7.1
Data2Clock Source Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Data2Clock" > "Source Setup"
For Data2Clock search, two sources have to be defined: a clock and a data waveform.
For each waveform, the level and the hysteresis can be set individually.
Clock
Selects the input channel of the clock signal.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:CSOurce on page 541
Data
Selects the input channel of the data signal.
Remote command:
SEARch:SOURce on page 533
Level
Set the voltage levels for clock and data signals. Clock level and clock edge define the
reference point for setup and hold time. The data lavel defines the point of data transition.
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Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:CLEVel on page 541
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:DLEVel on page 541
Hysteresis
Sets a hysteresis range to the search level of the selected signal in order to avoid
unwanted search results caused by noise oscillation around the level. For a rising
edge, the hysteresis is below the search level. Otherwise, for a falling edge the hysteresis is above the level.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:CLEVel:DELTa on page 541
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:DLEVel:DELTa on page 541
10.3.7.2
Data2Clock Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Data2Clock" > "Setup"
Polarity
Sets the edge of the clock signal to define the time reference point for the setup and
hold time.
"Rising"
Only positive clock edges are considered.
"Falling"
Only negative clock edges are considered.
"Either"
The clock edges next to the data edge are considered regardless of
the clock slope.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:CEDGe on page 542
Setup Time
Sets the minimum time before the clock edge while the data signal must stay steady
above or below the data level. The setup time can be negative. In this case, the setup
interval starts after the clock edge, and the hold time must be positive and longer than
the absolute value of the setup time.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:STIMe on page 542
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Hold Time
Sets the minimum time after the clock edge while the data signal must stay steady
above or below the data level. The hold time can be negative. In this case, the hold
time ends before the clock edge, and the setup time must be positive and longer than
the absolute value of the hold time.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:DATatoclock:HTIMe on page 542
10.3.8 Pattern Search
The settings for pattern search are provided in two menus: in the "Setup" menu you
define the channel states, their logical combination and the time range for keeping up
the true result of the state pattern condition; and in the "Source Setup" menu you
define the threshold levels and hysteresis for each channel.
10.3.8.1
Pattern Source Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Pattern" > "Source Setup"
For pattern search, up to four analog channels can be used as source. For each analog channel, the threshold level and the hysteresis can be set individually. If MSO
option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, also digital channels can be searched.
Source
Selects the channel for which the pattern search is defined.
Level
Sets the threshold value for the selected source channel. If the signal value is higher
than the trigger level, the signal state is high (1 or true for the boolean logic). Otherwise, the signal state is considered low (0 or false) if the signal value is below the trigger level.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:LEVel<n> on page 543
Hysteresis
Sets a hysteresis range to the level of the selected source channel in order to avoid
unwanted search results caused by noise oscillation around the level. For a rising
edge, the hysteresis is below the search level. Otherwise, for a falling edge the hysteresis is above the level.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:LEVel<n>:DELTa on page 543
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10.3.8.2
Pattern Setup
Access: SEARCH > "Search type = Pattern" > "Setup"
For pattern search, up to four analog channels can be used as source. If MSO option
R&S RTM-B1 is installed, also digital channels can be searched. For each channel,
you define the state. The states are combined logically, and the time of true pattern
results is compared with a specified time range. Thus you can find state transitions
inside or outside this time range.
Source
Selects the channel for which the pattern search is defined.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:SOURce on page 542
State
Sets the state of the selected source channel. The states are:
"H"
High: the signal voltage is higher than the threshold level.
"L"
Low: the signal voltage is lower than the threshold level.
"X"
Don't care: the channel does not affect the search.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:SOURce on page 542
Combination
Sets the logical combination of the channel states.
"AND"
The required states of all channels must appear in the input signal at
the same time.
"Or"
At least one of the channels must have the required state.
"NAND"
"Not and" operator, at least one of the channels does not have the
required state.
"NOR"
"Not or" operator, none of the channels has the required state.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:FUNCtion on page 543
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Comparison
Sets the condition how the duration of a steady pattern is compared with the given
limit(s). The three settings "Width" "Variation" and "Comparison" define the time range
for keeping up the true result of the state pattern.
The same conditions as with width search are used, see "Comparison" on page 182.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:WIDTh:RANGe on page 544
Width
Sets the limit time of a steady pattern, the nominal value for comparisons.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:WIDTh[:WIDTh] on page 544
Variation
Sets a range Δt to the reference "Width" if comparison is set to "Equal" or "Not equal".
The instrument finds true results of the state pattern inside or outside the range width ±
Δt.
Remote command:
SEARch:TRIGger:PATTern:WIDTh:DELTa on page 544
10.3.9 Gate Menu
Access: SEARCH > "Gate"
The gate restricts the time base of the source waveform to be searched.
Gate
Defines the search area. If the search is performed on a running acquisition series, the
instrument analyzes the displayed data. The search on a stopped acquisition analyzes
the contents of the memory.
"All"
Running acquisition: all waveform samples that are displayed on the
screen.
Stopped acquisition: all data samples that are stored in the memory.
"Display"
Search is restricted to the time range of the display.
"User"
Search is restricted to the time range defined by "Start" and "Stop"
values.
Remote command:
SEARch:GATE:MODE on page 533
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Start
Sets the start time of the search area in relation to the trigger point.
Remote command:
SEARch:GATE:ABSolute:START on page 533
Stop
Sets the end time of the search area in relation to the trigger point.
Remote command:
SEARch:GATE:ABSolute:STOP on page 534
Set to screen
Sets the search gate to the six divisions in the middle of the display. The two division
on the left and on the right are outside the gate.
10.3.10 Events Menu
Access: SEARCH > "Events"
Events are the search results which are marked in the waveform diagram and listed in
the event table. See also: Chapter 10.1.1, "Search Results", on page 175.
View event table
Shows or hides the table of search results.
Remote command:
SEARch:RESDiagram:SHOW on page 545
Mark events
Sets markers to the first search results. Up to 20 markers can be set at once.
Clear all event marks
Removes all markers from search results.
Track event
If enables, the selected result is moved to the reference point. Thus you can always
see the selected event in the diagram.
Position
Defines the position of the table on the screen: top right, bottom right, or full screen.
With full screen setting, the table covers nearly the complete righthand half of the
screen.
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Save
Opens the "Save" menu to save the search results: Storage, File name, Comment, and
Save.
For a description of these common save functions, see Chapter 15.3.1.3, "General
Storage Settings", on page 370.
Remote command:
EXPort:SEARch:NAME on page 547
EXPort:SEARch:SAVE on page 547
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11 Protocol Analysis
With the R&S RTM and some additional options, you can analyze the following parallel
and serial protocols:
●
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface with 3 lines) and SSPI (Serial Peripheral Interface
with 2 lines) - requires option R&S RTM-K1
●
I²C (Inter-Integrated circuit bus) - requires option R&S RTM-K1
●
UART/RS232 (EIA-232 serial interface) - requires option R&S RTM-K2
●
CAN (Controller Area Network) - requires option R&S RTM-K3
●
LIN (Local Interconnect Network) - requires option R&S RTM-K3
●
Audio (I2S, LJ, RJ,TDM) - requires option R&S RTM-K5
●
MIL-STD-1553 - requires option R&S RTM-K6
●
ARINC 429 - requires option R&S RTM-K7
11.1 Basics of Protocol Analysis
The analysis of serial data consists of three main steps:
●
Protocol configuration: Select the protocol type, and configure the input line as well
as the protocol-specific settings
●
Decoding: Configure the display of the decoded data and enable decoding. As a
result, the digitized signal data is displayed on the screen together with the decoded content of the messages.
You can scale the signal display and zoom into it to see it in more detail.
You can create and apply label lists for easier identification of the bus nodes on the
display.
●
Triggering: You can trigger on various events that are typical for the configured bus
type, for example, on start and stop of messages, on specific addresses, or on
serial patterns.
Analysis can be performed on analog input channels, and - if MSO option R&S RTMK1 is installed - on digital channels.
You can configure up to four protocol buses and select one of the configured buses for
analysis.
11.1.1 Configuring Common Protocol Settings
Common settings for all bus types are the logic threshold and the decoding and display
settings.
If the MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, and the digital channels are used for protocol analysis, the thresholds are set in the "Logic" menu.
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To set the logic threshold for analog channels
Before you start configuration and analysis, check and set the logic thresholds for all
used channels - the voltage values for digitization of analog signals. If the signal value
is higher than the threshold, the signal state is 1. Otherwise, the signal state is considered 0 if the signal value is below the threshold.
If you want the instrument to set the thresholds based on the analysis of the signals,
press "Find level" in the protocol's "Configuration" menu.
1. Press the CH N key of the required channel.
2. Press the "More" softkey.
3. Press "Threshold" and enter the voltage value.
4. Repeat step 1 to 3 for all channels that are used for protocol analysis.
To configure decoding and data display
1. Press the PROTOCOL LOGIC key on the front panel.
2. If the "Logic" menu is displayed, press "Protocol".
3. Press "Decode" to display the content of the messages in an easily readable and
comprehensible form.
4. Press "Display".
5. Press "Bits" to display the individual bit lines above the decoded data.
6. Press "Data format" to select the decoding format: Binary, Hexadecimal, Decimal
or ASCII.
7. To attach a descriptive label to the decoded bus, enable "Label" and select a predefined text from the "Library", or enter a user-defined text using "Edit Label".
8. To adjust the position and size of decoded information on the screen, use the vertical POSITION and SCALE rotary knobs.
11.1.2 Protocol - Common Settings
The common settings in the "Protocol" menu define the bus type and open further
menus to adjust the display of the decoded bus signal.
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > if "Logic" menu is displayed: "Protocol"
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Bus
Selects the bus to be configured.
SPI/SSPI and UART protocols occupy two bus lines (bus 1 and 2 or bus 3 and 4). If
one of these buses is configured, the number of buses is reduced. Bus 2 and/or bus 4
is not available.
Bus Type
Defines the bus or protocol type for analysis. For most types, a special option to the
instrument is required.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:TYPE on page 548
Configuration
Opens the configuration menu for the selected bus type.
Decode
Decodes the signal according to the protocol configuration and displays the decoded
signal - the content of every message. The decoding format is set with "Display".
Remote command:
BUS<b>:STATe on page 548
Display
Opens the "Display" menu, where you can:
● Display the bit lines
● Set the decoding format
● Define labels for the bus and its lines
See: Chapter 11.1.3, "Display Settings", on page 194
Frame Table
Opens the "Frame table" menu to configure and display the frame table with detailed
decoded data for each frame of the acquisition.
See: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
11.1.3 Display Settings
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > if "Logic" menu is displayed: "Protocol" > "Display"
Bits
Displays the individual bit lines above the decoded bus line.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:DSIGnals on page 548
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Data format
Sets the decoding format of the data: Binary, Hexadecimal, Decimal, Octal or ASCII.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:FORMat on page 548
Label
Opens the "Label" menu to define an additional name label for the selected bus.
Label ← Label
Displays or hides the bus label. The bus label is shown on the the right side of the display. You can enter a label text in several ways:
● Select a predefined string from the "Library".
● Enter a user-defined text using "Edit Label".
Remote command:
BUS<b>:LABel:STATe on page 549
Library ← Label
Selects a label text from a list of frequently used terms.
Edit Label ← Label
Opens the on-screen keyboard to enter any label text.
The maximum name length is 8 characters, and only ASCII characters provided on the
on-screen keyboard can be used.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:LABel on page 549
Label List
Opens the "Label list" menu to load, sort, and display a name for each bus node
instead of the address or ID on the decoded results display. So it is easy to identify the
messages of the different bus nodes.
See: Chapter 11.1.4, "Label List", on page 195
11.1.4 Label List
For all protocols using ID or address identification, it is possible to create label lists
containing addresses or IDs, a symbolic name for each node (symbolic label), and
some protocol-specific information. You can load label lists, and activate its usage for
decoding. As a result, an additional "Label" column appears in the "Frame Table", containing the symbolic label. The frame captions of the decoded signal show the symbolic
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label instead of the ID or address values so it is easy to identify the messages of the
different bus nodes.
●
●
11.1.4.1
Content and Format of the PTT File......................................................................196
Label List Menu.....................................................................................................197
Content and Format of the PTT File
Label lists are stored as PTT (protocol translation table) files. The PTT file format is an
extension of the CSV format (comma separated values). You can edit it with standard
editors, for example, with MS Excel or a text editor.
The PTT file has three types of lines:
●
Comment lines begin with a hash character #. A hash character at any other position in the line is treated like a standard character.
●
Command lines begin with a commercial at character @. An @ character at any
other position in the line is treated like a standard character.
●
Standard lines are the lines that not qualify as comment or command lines. They
build the core of the label list.
Command lines
Command lines define the version of the PTT file and the protocol name:
●
@FILE_VERSION: must appear exactly once in the file
●
@PROTOCOL_NAME: must appear at least once in the file. Thus, one file can
contain several label lists for different protocols.
# --- Start of PTT file
@FILE_VERSION
= 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = i2c
[... Label list for I2C]
@PROTOCOL_NAME = can
[... Label list for CAN]
# --- End of PTT file
Standard lines
Standard lines define the contents of the label list. The rules for standard lines follow
the csv convention, they are:
●
Values are separated by commas
●
Space characters following a delimiter are ignored
●
Values with a special character (comma, newline, or double quote) must be
enclosed in double quotes
●
Text in double quotes must be escaped by double quote characters
The format of the numeric value is indicated by a suffix. The following formats are supported:
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Format
Suffix
Example
Decimal
<empty>
106, DeviceName
d
106d, DeviceName
h
6Ah, DeviceName
Hexadecimal
or prefix: 0x6A, DeviceName
Octal
o
152o, DeviceName
Binary
b
01101010b, DeviceName
The maximum supported word size for (unsigned) integers is 64 bits.
# --- Start of PTT file
@FILE_VERSION
= 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = i2c
#
Following two lines are equal:
7,01h,Temperature
7,01h, Temperature
#
A comma must be enclosed in double quotes:
7,01h,"Temperature, Pressure, and Volume"
#
A double quote must also be enclosed in double quotes:
7,7Fh,"Highspeed ""Master"" 01"
#
Following lines yield the same result:
7d,0x11,Pressure
7h,11h,Pressure
0x7,17d,Pressure
7,17,Pressure
Label lists are protocol-specific. Their contents are described in the corresponding protocol chapters:
11.1.4.2
●
Chapter 11.3.4, "I2C Label List", on page 217
●
Chapter 11.5.3, "CAN Label List", on page 235
●
Chapter 11.6.4, "LIN Label List", on page 246
●
Chapter 11.8.4, "MIL-STD-1553 Label List", on page 278
Label List Menu
Access: PROTOCOL > "Bus Type" = "I2C | CAN | LIN" > "Label List"
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Apply........................................................................................................................... 198
Load............................................................................................................................ 198
Show........................................................................................................................... 198
Sort..............................................................................................................................198
Remove.......................................................................................................................198
Apply
Shows the labels from the label list in the display of decode results instead of the ID or
address.
Load
Opens a menu to select and load a PTT file from an USB flash drive. The PTT file contains one or more label lists.
The function is only available if an USB flash drive is connected to the instrument.
Alternatively, you can load a label list together with the device settings, if both were
saved with FILE > "Device Settings > Save > Setup & Label".
See also: "Setup & Label" on page 375
Show
Diplays the label list for the selected protocol type. Before, the label list must be loaded
from a PTT file.
Sort
Displays the label list in alphanumerical order or sorted by protocol-specific data columns.
Remove
Deletes the label list from the instrument.
11.1.5 Frame Table: Decode Results
Access: PROTOCOL > "Frame Table"
The frame table shows the detailed decoded data for each frame of the acquisition.
The table content is protocol-specific, and the display of the table can be enabled for
each individual bus type.
Decode results shown in the frame table can be saved in a CSV file.
To navigate in the frame table
1. Stop the acquisition.
2. Turn the NAVIGATION knob to select a frame.
3. Press the NAVIGATION knob to display the selected frame in the center of the
waveform display.
If a search on decoded data was performed, the search results are marked in the
frame table.
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Frame Table
Displays or hides the table of decode results.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:RESult on page 550
Track frame
Defines the automatic synchronization of the selected frame in the frame table and the
waveform display.
The function is only available if the acquisition has been stopped.
"Off"
Frame table and waveform display are not synchronized.
"Frame Index"
The waveform display is connected to the frame that is selected in
the frame table. The selected frame is shown in the center of the display. If you select another frame, the waveform display is adjusted
automatically.
"Hori. Position" The frame selection in the frame table is connected to the waveform
display. The frame in the center of the display is selected in the frame
table. When you change the horizontal position of the waveform, the
selection in the frame table is adjusted automatically.
Frame time difference
If selected, the time shown in the frame table is the time difference to the previous
frame. The column is indicated with "Time diff.". If the setting is disabled, the absolute
time in releation to the trigger point is shown in the "Start time" column.
Position
Defines the position of the frame table on the screen: top right, bottom right, or full
screen. With full screen setting, the frame table covers nearly the complete righthand
half of the screen.
Save
Opens the "Save" menu to save the decoded data in a CSV file (comma-separated
list).
Remote command:
BUS<b>:LIST? on page 550
BUS<b>:LIST:SAVE on page 551
11.1.6 Trigger Source
The instrument triggers on the decoded data of a protocol bus. You can select one of
the configured and decoded buses as trigger source and use the protocol specific trigger types for further analysis.
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Access: TRIGGER SETUP > "Trigger Type" = "Protocol (SPI or SSPI)" > "Source"
A bus is only available in the "Source" menu if "Decode" is enabled in the "Protocol"
menu.
B1, B2, B3, B4
Select one of the configured and decoded buses as trigger source.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SOURce on page 448
11.2 SPI/SSPI Bus (Option R&S RTM-K1)
11.2.1 The SPI Protocol
A 4-channel instrument is required for full support of the SPI protocol.
The Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is used for communication with slow peripheral
devices, in particular, for transmission of data streams.
Main characteristics of SPI are:
●
Master-slave communication
●
No device addressing; The slave is accessed by a chip select, or slave select line.
●
No acknowledgement mechanism to confirm receipt of data
●
Duplex capability
Most SPI buses have four lines, two data and two control lines:
●
Clock line to all slaves (SCLK)
●
Slave Select or Chip Select line (SS or CS)
●
Master data output, slave data input (MOSI or SDI)
●
Master data input, slave data output (MISO or SDO)
When the master generates a clock and selects a slave device, data may be transferred in either or both directions simultaneously.
As SPI is very simple and efficient for single master - single slave applications, the
R&S RTM provides also an SSPI (simple SPI) configuration that does not have a chip
select line.
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Figure 11-1: Simple configuration of SPI bus
The data bits of a message are grouped by following criteria:
●
A word contains a number of successive bits. The word length is defined in the protocol configuration.
●
A frame contains a number of successive words, at least one word.
For SPI buses, the R&S RTM provides the following trigger possibilities:
●
On frame start
●
On frame end
●
On a specified bit in the message
●
On a serial pattern at a specified position
11.2.2 SPI/SSPI Bus Configuration
●
●
11.2.2.1
Configuring SPI Buses.......................................................................................... 201
SPI/SSPI Configuration Settings...........................................................................202
Configuring SPI Buses
You define the input channels for the lines and some bit information on the message.
1. Press the PROTOCOL LOGIC key on the front panel.
2. If the "Logic" menu is displayed, press "Protocol".
3. Press the "Bus Type" softkey and select "SPI" or "SSPI".
4. Press "Configuration".
5. Press "Source" and select "Clk".
6. Press "Clock" and select the input channel of the clock. Select the "Slope".
7. Press "Source" and select "MOSI".
8. Press "MOSI" and select the input channel. With "Active", select the active state of
the data - high or low.
9. If required, repeat steps 6 and 7 for the optional MISO line.
10. For SPI, press "Source" and select "CS". Enter the input channel with "Chip Select"
and set the "Active" state.
11. For SSPI, press "Source" and select "Time". Enter the "Idle Time".
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12. Set the "First Bit" and the "Symbol Size".
13. Press "Find level", or set the threshold manually for each channel.
See: "To set the logic threshold for analog channels" on page 193
Now you can disply the decoded signal and the frame table with results.
The display of the decoded data is described in "To configure decoding and data display" on page 193.
11.2.2.2
SPI/SSPI Configuration Settings
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > "Bus type" = "SPI or SSPI" "Configuration"
Source.........................................................................................................................202
Chip Select, Clock, MOSI, MISO................................................................................ 202
Active.......................................................................................................................... 203
Slope........................................................................................................................... 203
Time Out..................................................................................................................... 203
First Bit........................................................................................................................ 203
Symbol Size................................................................................................................ 203
Find Level....................................................................................................................204
Source
Toggles the lines of the SPI bus. Each line has to be configured. Select a line and
adjust the settings:
●
●
●
●
Chip Select (SPI only): Select the input channel and the "Active" state.
Time Out (SSPI only): Set the "Time Out" (instead if chip select).
Clock: Select the input channel and the "Slope".
MOSI, MISO: Select the input channel and the "Active" state for each data line.
Chip Select, Clock, MOSI, MISO
Select the input channels of the corresponding line. Make sure to select the "Source"
before you assign the channel. MISO is optional and can be set to "None".
If the MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, digital channels can also be used as
source.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:SPI:CS:SOURce on page 551
BUS<b>:SPI:CLOCk:SOURce on page 552
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BUS<b>:SPI:DATA:SOURce on page 553
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:DATA:MOSI? on page 558
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:DATA:MISO? on page 559
BUS<b>:SSPI:CLOCk:SOURce on page 562
BUS<b>:SSPI:DATA:SOURce on page 562
BUS<b>:SSPI:MOSI:SOURce on page 562
BUS<b>:SSPI:MISO:SOURce on page 562
Active
Selects whether transmitted data or the chip select signal is high active (high = 1) or
low active (low = 1).
For CS, the default is low active.
For data, the default is high active.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:SPI:CS:POLarity on page 552
BUS<b>:SPI:DATA:POLarity on page 553
BUS<b>:SPI:MOSI:POLarity on page 553
BUS<b>:SPI:MISO:POLarity on page 554
BUS<b>:SSPI:DATA:POLarity on page 563
BUS<b>:SSPI:MOSI:POLarity on page 563
BUS<b>:SSPI:MISO:POLarity on page 563
Slope
Selects if data is sampled on the rising or falling slope of the clock. The clock slope
marks the begin of a new bit.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:SPI:CLOCk:POLarity on page 552
BUS<b>:SSPI:CLOCk:POLarity on page 562
Time Out
Sets the minimum idle time between two data packets. If the time interval between the
data packets is shorter, the packets are part of the same frame. Within the time out,
the data and clock lines are low. A new frame begins when the time out has expired.
Time out is only relevant for SSPI that has no chip select.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:SSPI:BITime on page 563
First Bit
Defines if the data of the messages starts with MSB (most significant bit) or LSB (least
significant bit).
Remote command:
BUS<b>:SPI:BORDer on page 554
BUS<b>:SSPI:BORDer on page 564
Symbol Size
Sets the word length, the number of bits in a message.
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Remote command:
BUS<b>:SPI:SSIZe on page 554
BUS<b>:SSPI:SSIZe on page 564
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
11.2.3 SPI/SSPI Trigger
●
●
11.2.3.1
Triggering on SPI Buses....................................................................................... 204
SPI/SSPI Trigger Settings.....................................................................................205
Triggering on SPI Buses
Prerequisites: The SPI or SSPI bus is configured. After configuration, the trigger type
"Protocol (SPI)" or "Protocol (SSPI)" is available. See: Chapter 11.2.2.1, "Configuring
SPI Buses", on page 201.
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
1. Press the SETUP key in the trigger area of the front panel.
2. Select the "Trigger Type": "Protocol (SPI)" or "Protocol (SSPI)"
3. Press "Setup".
4. Press the softkey of the required trigger condition:
● "Frame Start": begin of the message
● "Frame End": message end
● "Bit<x>": a specified bit inside the message
● "Ser. Pattern": a bit pattern in the message
5. If "Bit<x>" is selected, enter the bit number.
6. If "Ser. Pattern" is selected, press the softkey again and define the pattern:
a) Set the "Bit Offset", the number of bits before the pattern starts.
b) Set the "Number of Bits" contained in the pattern.
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c) Enter the pattern, either as binary input, or as hexadecimal input:
● For binary input, press "Select Bit" and enter the bit number to be set. The
bits are counted from the message start, the selected bit is highlighted in
the pattern bit line. Then enter the "State" of this bit: 0, 1, or X (don't care).
Repeat these settings until all bit states are defined.
● For hexadecimal input, press "Select Nibble" and select the four bits (half
byte) to be set. The selected nibble is highlighted in the lower pattern line.
Then press "Value" and turn the navigation knob to change the bits.
Repeat these settings until all nibbles are defined.
11.2.3.2
SPI/SSPI Trigger Settings
Access: TRIGGER SETUP > "Trigger Type" = "Protocol"
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
Frame Start................................................................................................................. 206
Frame End.................................................................................................................. 206
Bit<x>.......................................................................................................................... 206
Ser. Pattern................................................................................................................. 206
└ Bit Offset....................................................................................................... 206
└ Number of Bits.............................................................................................. 206
└ Select Bit.......................................................................................................207
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└ State..............................................................................................................207
└ Select Nibble.................................................................................................207
└ Value.............................................................................................................207
Frame Start
Sets the trigger to the start of the message. For SPI, the frame starts when the chip
select signal CS changes to the active state. For SSPI, the frame starts when the idle
time has expired.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SPI:MODE on page 555 (BSTart)
Frame End
Sets the trigger to the end of the message. For SPI, the frame ends when the chip
select signal CS changes to the inactive state. For SSPI, the frame ends when the idle
time has expired after the last clock and no new clock appeared during that time.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SPI:MODE on page 555 (BEND)
Bit<x>
Sets the trigger to the specified bit number.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SPI:MODE on page 555 (NTHBit)
Ser. Pattern
Sets the trigger to a specified bit pattern that is configured in the submenu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SPI:MODE on page 555 (PATTern)
TRIGger:A:SPI:PATTern on page 556
Bit Offset ← Ser. Pattern
Sets the number of bits before the first bit of the pattern. These bits are ignored. The
first bit after CS is Bit 0.
For example, with bit offset = 2, Bit 0 and Bit 1 after CS are ignored, and the pattern
starts with Bit 2.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SPI:POFFset on page 557
Number of Bits ← Ser. Pattern
Defines the length of the serial pattern in bit.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:SPI:PLENgth on page 556
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Select Bit ← Ser. Pattern
Selects the bit number for binary pattern setting. For the selected bit, "State" is to be
set. The bits are counted from the message start, the selected bit is highlighted in the
pattern bit line.
State ← Ser. Pattern
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Select Nibble ← Ser. Pattern
Selects four bits (half byte) for hexadecimal entry with "Value". The selected nibble is
highlighted in the lower pattern line.
Value ← Ser. Pattern
Sets the hexadecimal value for the selected nibble.
11.2.4 SPI/SSPI Decode Results
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Display". Additionally, you
can display the binary signal with "Bits".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
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Figure 11-2: Decoded SPI signal
C1
C2
C3
blue results
grey brackets
red results
=
=
=
=
=
=
Clock (Clk)
Data
Chip Select (Cs)
completely decoded words
start and end of complete frame
Incomplete word that is not completely contained in the acquisition. Change the horizontal
scale, or move the"Time Reference" to get a longer acquisition.
Additionally, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded data:
frame number, start time of the frame, source (line), data and state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
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Figure 11-3: Decoded SSPI signal with frame table
Table 11-1: Content of the SPI/SSPI frame table
Column
Description
Start time
Time of the frame start in relation to the trigger point
Source
MISO or MOSI line
Length
Number of words in the frame
Data
Hexadecimal values of the data words
State
Overall state of the frame
Example:
In the figure above, the first two frames have four words each, the following two frames
contain 6 words each. The fifth frame is incomplete.
Remote commands:
●
BUS<b>:SPI:FCOunt? on page 557
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:STATus? on page 557
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:STARt? on page 558
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:STOP? on page 558
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:DATA:MOSI? on page 558
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:DATA:MISO? on page 559
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:WCOunt? on page 559
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BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:WORD<o>:STARt? on page 560
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:WORD<o>:STOP? on page 560
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:WORD<o>:MOSI? on page 560
BUS<b>:SPI:FRAME<n>:WORD<o>:MISO? on page 561
11.3 I²C (Option R&S RTM-K1)
The Inter-Integrated Circuit is a simple, lowbandwidth, low-speed protocol used for
communication between on-board devices, for example, in LCD and LED drivers,
RAM, EEPROM, and others.
11.3.1 The I²C Protocol
This chapter provides an overview of protocol characteristics, data format, address
types and trigger possibilities. For detailed information, read the "I2C-bus specification
and user manual" available on the NXP manuals web page at http://www.nxp.com/.
I²C characteristics
Main characteristics of I²C are:
●
Two-wire design: serial clock (SCL) and serial data (SDA) lines
●
Master-slave communication: the master generates the clock and addresses the
slaves. Slaves receive the address and the clock. Both master and slaves can
transmit and receive data.
●
Addressing scheme: each slave device is addressable by a unique address. Multiple slave devices can be linked together and can be addressed by the same master.
●
Read/write bit: specifies if the master will read (=1) or write (=0) the data.
●
Acknowledge: takes place after every byte. The receiver of the address or data
sends the acknowledge bit to the transmitter.
The R&S RTM supports all operating speed modes: high-speed, fast mode plus, fast
mode, and standard mode.
Data transfer
The format of a simple I²C message (frame) with 7 bit addressing consists of the following parts:
●
Start condition: a falling slope on SDA while SCL is high
●
7-bit address of the slave device that either will be written to or read from
●
R/W bit: specifies if the data will be written to or read from the slave
●
ACKnowledge bits: is issued by the receiver of the previous byte if the transfer was
successful
Exception: At read access, the master terminates the data transmission with a
NACK bit after the last byte.
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●
Data: a number of data bytes with an ACK bit after every byte
●
Stop condition: a rising slope on SDA while SCL is high
Figure 11-4: I2C write access with 7-bit address
Address types: 7-bit and 10-bit
Slave addresses can be 7 or 10 bits long. A 7-bit address requires one byte, 7 bits for
the address followed by the R/W bit.
A 10-bit address for write access requires two bytes: the first byte starts with the
reserved sequence 11110, followed by the two MSB of the address and the write bit.
The second byte contains the remaining 8 LSB of the address. The slave acknowledges each address byte.
Figure 11-5: 10-bit address, write access
A 10-bit address for read access requires three bytes. The first two bytes are identical
to the write access address. The third byte repeats the address bits of the first byte and
sets the read bit.
Figure 11-6: 10-bit address, read access
Trigger
The R&S RTM can trigger on various parts of I²C messages. The data and clock lines
must be connected to the input channels, triggering on math and reference waveforms
is not possible.
You can trigger on:
●
Start or stop condition
●
Repeated start condition
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●
Transfer direction (read or write)
●
Bytes with missing acknowledge bit
●
Specific slave address
●
Specific data pattern in the message
11.3.2 I²C Configuration
11.3.2.1
Configuring I²C
The configuration of the I²C is simple - only assign the two lines to input channels.
1. Press the PROTOCOL LOGIC key on the front panel.
2. If the "Logic" menu is displayed, press "Protocol".
3. Press the "Bus Type" softkey and select "I2C".
4. Press "Configuration".
5. Press "Clock SCL" and select the channel connected to the clock line.
6. Press "Data SDA" and select the channel connected to the data line.
7. Press "Find level", or set the threshold manually for each channel.
See: "To set the logic threshold for analog channels" on page 193
Now you can disply the decoded signal and the frame table with results.
The display of the decoded data is described in "To configure decoding and data display" on page 193.
11.3.2.2
I²C Configuration Settings
Clock SCL................................................................................................................... 212
Data SDA.................................................................................................................... 212
Find Level....................................................................................................................213
Clock SCL
Sets the input channel to which the clock line is connected.
If the MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, digital channels can also be used as
source.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2C:CLOCk:SOURce on page 565
Data SDA
Sets the input channel to which the data line is connected.
If the MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, digital channels can also be used as
source.
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Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2C:DATA:SOURce on page 565
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
11.3.3 I²C Trigger
●
●
11.3.3.1
Triggering on I²C .................................................................................................. 213
I²C Trigger Settings............................................................................................... 214
Triggering on I²C
Prerequisites: The I²C interface is configured. After configuration, the trigger type "Protocol (I2C)" is available. See: Chapter 11.3.2.1, "Configuring I²C ", on page 212.
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
1. Press the SETUP key in the trigger area of the front panel.
2. Select the "Trigger Type": "Protocol (I2C)".
3. Press "Setup".
4. Press the softkey of the required trigger condition:
● "Start": begin of the message
● "Stop": end of the message
● "Restart": repeated start condition
● "Acknowledge": transfer of a data byte is not acknowledged
● "Read/Write": complex trigger condition containing read or write access of the
master, slave address, or/and a bit pattern in the message
5. If "Read/Write" is selected, press the softkey again and define the condition:
a) Press "Master" and select read or write access of the master.
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b) Configure the "Address" of the slave:
● Select the "Address Length", 7 bit or 10 bit.
● Press "Slave Address" and turn the navigation knob to set the address.
If the address is not relevant for your trigger condition, set it to "0xX" (any
address).
c) Press "Data Setup" to specify data bytes of the message, and/or to a serial pattern.
d) Set the "Byte Offset", the number of bytes to be ignored before the first byte of
interes.t
e) Set the "Number of Bytes" contained in the pattern.
f) Enter the pattern, either as binary input, or as hexadecimal input:
● For binary input, press "Bit" and enter the bit number to be set. The bits are
counted inside the selected bytes, the selected bit is highlighted in the pattern bit line. Then enter the "State" of this bit: 0, 1, or X (don't care).
Repeat these settings until all bit states are defined.
● For hexadecimal input, press "Byte" and select the byte to be set. The
selected byte is highlighted in the lower pattern line. Then press "Value"
and turn the navigation knob to change the bits.
Repeat these settings until all bytes are defined.
If the data is not relevant for your trigger condition, set all data bytes to "0xXX".
11.3.3.2
I²C Trigger Settings
Access: SETUP (Trigger) > "Trigger type" = "Protocol" > "Setup"
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
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Start.............................................................................................................................215
Stop.............................................................................................................................215
Restart.........................................................................................................................215
~Acknowledge.............................................................................................................215
Read/Write.................................................................................................................. 216
└ Master........................................................................................................... 216
└ Symbolic ID...................................................................................................216
└ Address Length.............................................................................................216
└ Slave Address...............................................................................................216
└ Data Setup.................................................................................................... 216
└ Byte Offset.......................................................................................... 217
└ Number of Bytes................................................................................. 217
└ Bit........................................................................................................217
└ State................................................................................................... 217
└ Byte.....................................................................................................217
└ Value...................................................................................................217
Start
Sets the trigger to the start of the message. The start condition is a falling slope on
SDA while SCL is high.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:PATTern on page 568 (STARt)
Stop
Sets the trigger to the end of the message. The stop condition is a rising slope on SDA
while SCL is high.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:PATTern on page 568 (STOP)
Restart
Sets the trigger to a repeated start - when the start condition occurs without previous
stop condition. This can happen when a master sends multiple messages without
releasing the bus.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:PATTern on page 568 (RESTart)
~Acknowledge
Missing acknowledge: the instrument triggers if the slave does not send the acknowledge bit. Acknowledging takes place after every byte. If the transfer failed, at the
moment of the acknowledge bit the SDA line is on high level during the high period of
the clock pulse.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:PATTern on page 568 (MACKnowledge)
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Read/Write
Sets the trigger to a read or write access of the master, to an address, or/and to a bit
pattern in the message. The trigger condition is specified in the submenus. All submenu settings together create the trigger condition. If you want to trigger on a specific
parameter, make sure to set all other settings to "any".
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the "Symbolic ID" from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:PATTern on page 568 (PATTern)
Master ← Read/Write
Toggles the trigger condition between Read and Write access of the master. The R/W
bit is 8th bit of the first address byte of a frame. The selected condition is displayed in
the I2C Settings: "Trigger On".
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:ACCess on page 567
Symbolic ID ← Read/Write
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
Address Length ← Read/Write
Toggles the lenght of the slave address: 7 bit or 10 bit.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:AMODe on page 567
Slave Address ← Read/Write
Sets the address of the slave device in hex. You can set a precise address, or trigger
on any address with "0xXX" (7Bit address) or "0xXXX" (10Bit address). X cannot be
assigned to a specified bit
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:ADDRess on page 568
Data Setup ← Read/Write
Opens a submenu to set the trigger on specified data bytes of the message, and/or to
a serial pattern.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:PATTern on page 568
Byte Offset ← Data Setup ← Read/Write
Sets the number of bytes before the first byte of interest, relating to the end of the
address bytes. These offset bytes are ignored.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:POFFset on page 569
Number of Bytes ← Data Setup ← Read/Write
Sets the number of bytes you want to trigger on. Maximum 3 bytes are possible.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2C:PLENgth on page 568
Bit ← Data Setup ← Read/Write
Selects the bit number inside the selected bytes for binary pattern input. For the
selected bit, "State" is to be set. the selected bit is highlighted in the "Data" bit line.
State ← Data Setup ← Read/Write
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Byte ← Data Setup ← Read/Write
Selects a byte for hex input with "Value". The selected byte is highlighted in the "Data"
hex line.
Value ← Data Setup ← Read/Write
Sets the hexadecimal value for the selected byte.
If the data is not relevant for your trigger condition, set all data bytes to "0xXX".
11.3.4 I2C Label List
Label lists are protocol-specific. An I2C PTT file contains three values for each
address:
●
Address type, 7-bit or 10-bit long
●
Hexadecimal address value
●
Label, symbolic name of the address, specifiing its function in the bus network.
Example: I2C PTT file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------@FILE_VERSION
= 1.00
@PROTOCOL_NAME = i2c
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------# Labels for I2C protocol
#
Column order: Identifier type, Identifier value, Label
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------7,0x1E,Voltage
7,0x38,Pressure
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7,0x2A,Temperature
7,0x16,Speed
7,0x76,Acceleration
7,0x07,HighSpeed_Master_0x3
7,0x51,EEPROM
10,0x3A2,DeviceSetup
10,0x1A3,GatewayStatus
10,0x06E,LeftSensor
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Figure 11-7: Label list for I²C
For general information, see Chapter 11.1.4, "Label List", on page 195.
11.3.5 I2C Decode Results
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Display". Additionally, you
can display the binary signal with "Bits".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
Additionally, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded data:
frame number, start time of the frame, access type. ID, data and state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
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Figure 11-8: Decoded and binary I2C signal, and frame table with decode results
gray brackets
violet
blue
green
red
=
=
=
=
=
start and end of the frame
address
correct data words
acknowledge bit, ok
missing acknowledge bit, or other error
Table 11-2: Content of the I2C frame table
Column
Description
Start time
Time of the frame start in relation to the trigger point
Type
Value of the R/W bit, read or write access
ID
Hexadecimal value of the address
Label
Symbolic label, available if a label list was loaded and applied
Length
Number of words in the frame
Data
Hexadecimal values of the data words
State
Overall state of the frame
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Remote commands:
●
BUS<b>:I2C:FCOunt? on page 569
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:DATA? on page 569
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:STATus? on page 570
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:STARt? on page 570
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:STOP? on page 571
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:AACCess? on page 571
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:ACCess? on page 571
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:ACOMplete? on page 572
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:ADBStart? on page 572
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:ADDRess? on page 572
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:ADEVice? on page 573
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:AMODe? on page 573
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:ASTart? on page 573
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:BCOunt? on page 574
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:ACCess? on page 574
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:ACKStart? on page 574
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:COMPlete? on page 575
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:STARt? on page 575
BUS<b>:I2C:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:VALue? on page 575
11.4 UART/RS-232 Interface (Option R&S RTM-K2)
11.4.1 The UART / RS232 Interface
The Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter UART converts a word of data into
serial data, and vice versa. It is the base of many serial protocols like of RS-232. The
UART uses only one line, or two lines for transmitter and receiver.
Data transfer
The data is transmitted in symbols, also referred to as words or characters. Each symbol consists of a start bit, several data bits, an optional parity bit, and one or more stop
bits. Several symbols can form a frame, or package. The end of a frame is marked by
a pause between two symbols.
Start
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3 Data4 [Data5] [Data6] [Data7] [Data8] [Parity]
Stop
Figure 11-9: Bit order in a UART word (symbol)
●
The start bit is a logic 0.
●
The stop bits and the idle state are always logic 1.
The UART protocol has no clock for synchronization. The receiver synchronizes by
means of the start and stop bits, and the bit rate that must be known to the receiver.
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Trigger
The R&S RTM can trigger on specified parts of UART serial signals:
●
Start bit
●
Frame start
●
A specified symbol
●
Parity errors, and breaks
●
Frame errors
●
A serial pattern at any or a specified position
11.4.2 UART/RS-232 Configuration
11.4.2.1
Configuring UART/RS-232 Interfaces
To configure the UART interface, you assign the channels to the RX an (optionally) TX
lines, set the active state for each line and set some protocol-specific parameters.
1. Press the PROTOCOL LOGIC key on the front panel.
2. If the "Logic" menu is displayed, press "Protocol".
3. Press the "Bus Type" softkey and select "UART".
4. Press "Configuration".
5. Press "RX" and select the channel connected to the receiver line.
6. Press "TX" and select the channel connected to the transmitter line.
7. Set the "Active" state, "Parity" bit and the number of "Stop Bits".
8. Press "More".
9. Enter the "Symbol size".
10. Enter the bit rate:
●
●
For a standard bit rate, select the "Defined Bit Rate".
For a user-defined bit rate, press "User Bit Rate" and enter the value
11. Set the "Idle Time" between two frames.
12. Press "Find level", or set the threshold manually for each channel.
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See: "To set the logic threshold for analog channels" on page 193
Now you can disply the decoded signal and the frame table with results.
The display of the decoded data is described in "To configure decoding and data display" on page 193.
11.4.2.2
UART Configuration Settings
Access: PROTOCOL > "Bus type" = "UART" "Configuration"
RX, TX.........................................................................................................................222
Active.......................................................................................................................... 222
Parity........................................................................................................................... 222
Stop Bits......................................................................................................................223
Symbol Size................................................................................................................ 223
Bit Rate....................................................................................................................... 223
Idle Time..................................................................................................................... 223
Find Level....................................................................................................................223
RX, TX
Select the input channels of the RX and TX lines.
If the MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, digital channels can also be used as
source.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:UART:DATA:SOURce on page 576
BUS<b>:UART:RX:SOURce on page 576
BUS<b>:UART:TX:SOURce on page 577
Active
Defines the logic levels of the bus. The idle state corresponds to a logic 1, and the start
bit to a logic 0. Active-high (high=1) is used, for example, for control signals, while
active-low (low=1) is defined for data lines (RS-232).
Remote command:
BUS<b>:UART:DATA:POLarity on page 577
BUS<b>:UART:POLarity on page 577
Parity
Defines the optional parity bit that is used for error detection.
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"None"
No parity bit is used.
"Even"
The parity bit is set to "1" if the number of "1"s in a given set of bits is
odd (not including the parity bit).
"Odd"
The parity bit is set to "1" if the number of "1"s in a given set of bits is
even (not including the parity bit).
Remote command:
BUS<b>:UART:PARity on page 578
Stop Bits
Sets the number of stop bits: 1; 1.5 or 2 stop bits are possible.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:UART:SBIT on page 578
Symbol Size
Sets the number of data bits in a word (symbol) in a range from 5 to 9 bits.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:UART:SSIZe on page 578
Bit Rate
Sets the number of transmitted bits per second.
"Defined Bit
Rate"
Select a standard bit rate value from the list.
"User Bit Rate" Enter a user defined value.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:UART:BAUDrate on page 579
Idle Time
Sets the minimal time between two frames – between the stop bit of the last word in a
frame and the start bit of the first word in the next frame.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:UART:BITime on page 579
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
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11.4.3 UART/RS-232 Trigger
●
●
11.4.3.1
Triggering on UART/RS-232 Interfaces................................................................ 224
UART Trigger Settings.......................................................................................... 225
Triggering on UART/RS-232 Interfaces
Prerequisites: The UART interface is configured. After configuration, the trigger type
"Protocol (UART)" is available. See: Chapter 11.4.2.1, "Configuring UART/RS-232
Interfaces", on page 221.
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
1. Press the SETUP key in the trigger area of the front panel.
2. Select the "Trigger Type": "Protocol (UART)".
3. Press "Source" and select RX or TX as trigger source.
4. Press "Back".
5. Press "Setup".
6. Press the softkey of the required trigger condition:
● "Start Bit", or "Frame Start": next start bit, or first start bit after idle time
● "Symbol<n>": frame number in a data stream
● "Any Symbol": pattern of the data bits anywhere in the data stream
● "Pattern": serial pattern of one, two or three symbols at a defined position in the
data stream
● "Parity Error"
● "Frame Errror"
● "Break"
7. If "Any Symbol" is selected, press the softkey again and define the symbol pattern,
either as binary input, or as hexadecimal input:
●
●
For hex entry, select "Value" and turn the navigation knob to change the bits.
For binary input, press "Select Bit" and enter the data bit number to be set.
Enter the "State" of this bit: 0, 1, or X (don't care).
Repeat these settings until all bit states are defined.
8. If "Pattern" is selected, press the softkey again and define the pattern:
a) Set the "Symbol Offset", the number of symbols to be ignored before the pattern starts.
b) Set the "Number of Symbols" contained in the pattern.
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c) Enter the pattern, either as binary input, or as hexadecimal input:
● For hexadecimal input, press "Select Symbol" repeatedly to select the symbol to be set. The selected symbol is highlighted in the hex pattern line.
Then press "Value" and turn the navigation knob to change the bits.
Repeat these settings until all symbols are defined.
● For binary input, press "Select Symbol" until the required symbol is marked
in the pattern hex line. Then press "Select Bit" and enter the data bit number to be set. Enter the "State" of this bit: 0, 1, or X (don't care).
Repeat these settings until all bit states of all symbols are defined.
11.4.3.2
UART Trigger Settings
Access: TRIGGER SETUP > "Trigger Type" = "Protocol"
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
●
●
UART Trigger Type Selection............................................................................... 225
UART Pattern Setup............................................................................................. 227
UART Trigger Type Selection
Access: TRIGGER SETUP > "Trigger Type" = "Protocol" > "Setup"
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Start Bit....................................................................................................................... 226
Frame Start................................................................................................................. 226
Symbol <n>................................................................................................................. 226
Any Symbol................................................................................................................. 226
Pattern.........................................................................................................................226
Parity Error.................................................................................................................. 226
Frame Error.................................................................................................................227
Break...........................................................................................................................227
Start Bit
Triggers on a start bit. The start bit is the first logical 0 after a stop bit.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (SBIT)
Frame Start
Triggers on the begin of a frame. The frame start is the first start bit after the idle time.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (BSTart)
Symbol <n>
Sets the trigger to the specified symbol - the n-th word - in a frame (package).
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (NTHSymbol)
Any Symbol
Opens a submenu to trigger if a pattern occurs in a symbol at any position in a frame.
You can enter the pattern in binary or hex, the functions are the same as for "Pattern"
setting:
● "Select Bit" on page 227
● "State" on page 227
● "Value" on page 227
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (SYMBol)
Pattern
Opens a submenu to set the trigger on a serial pattern at a defined position in the
frame. The pattern can include several subsequent symbols.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (PATTern)
TRIGger:A:UART:PATTern on page 581
Parity Error
Triggers on a parity error indicating a transmission error.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (PERRor)
Frame Error
Triggers on a frame error.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (FERRor)
Break
Triggers if a start bit is not followed by a stop bit, the data line remains at logic 0 for
longer than a UART word.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:MODE on page 580 (BREak)
UART Pattern Setup
Access: TRIGGER SETUP > "Trigger Type" = "Protocol" > "Setup" > "Pattern" (2x)
The pattern menu contains the settings for the "Pattern" and "Any Symbol" trigger
types.
Symbol Offset
Sets the number of symbols to be ignored before the serial pattern.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:POFFset on page 582
Number of Symb.
Defines the length of the pattern - how many symbols build it up.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:UART:PLENgth on page 581
Select Bit
Selects the bit number inside the selected symbol for binary pattern input.
State
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Select Symbol
Selects the symbol for binary or hex input.
Value
Sets the hexadecimal value for the selected symbol by turning the navigation knob.
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11.4.4 UART/RS-232 Decode Results
You can enable the decoding results in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the
decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Display". Additionally, you can display the binary signal with "Bits".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
Additionally, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded data:
frame number, start time of the frame, data and state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
Figure 11-10: Decoded UART signal
C1
blue results
grey brackets
green results
red results
=
=
=
=
=
Data source
completely decoded words
start and end of complete frames
correct parity bits
Errors or incomplete word that is not completely contained in the acquisition. Change the
horizontal scale, or move the"Time Reference" to get a longer acquisition.
Example:
The figure above shows five frames of a UART signal with one source line.
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Table 11-3: Content of the UART frame table
Column
Description
Start time
Time of the frame start in relation to the trigger point
Data
Hexadecimal values of the data words
State
Overall state of the frame
Remote commands:
●
BUS<b>:UART:RX:FCOunt? on page 582
●
BUS<b>:UART:RX:FRAMe<n>:WCOunt? on page 582
●
BUS<b>:UART:RX:FRAMe<n>:WORD<o>:STATe? on page 583
●
BUS<b>:UART:RX:FRAMe<n>:WORD<o>:STARt? on page 583
●
BUS<b>:UART:RX:FRAMe<n>:WORD<o>:STOP? on page 584
●
BUS<b>:UART:RX:FRAMe<n>:WORD<o>:VALue? on page 584
11.5 CAN (Option R&S RTM-K3)
CAN is the Controller Area Network, a bus system used within automotive network
architecture.
11.5.1 CAN Configuration
Access: PROTOCOL > "Bus type" = "CAN" > "Configuration"
Data.............................................................................................................................229
Type............................................................................................................................ 230
Sample point............................................................................................................... 230
Bit rate.........................................................................................................................230
Find Level....................................................................................................................230
Data
Sets the source of the data line. All channel waveforms can be used.
If the MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, digital channels can also be used as
source.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CAN:DATA:SOURce on page 585
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Type
Selects the CAN-High or CAN-Low line. CAN uses both lines for differential signal
transmission.
If you measure with a differential probe, connect the probe to both CAN-H and CAN-L
lines, and select the data "Type" "CAN-H".
If you use a single-ended probe, connect the probe to either CAN_L or CAN_H, and
select the data type accordingly.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CAN:TYPE on page 585
Sample point
Sets the position of the sample point within the bit in percent of the nominal bit time.
The sample point divides the nominal bit period into two distinct time segments, which
are used for resynchronization of the clock.
The CAN bus interface uses an asynchronous transmission scheme. The standard
specifies a set of rules to resynchronize the local clock of a CAN node to the message.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CAN:SAMPlepoint on page 585
Bit rate
Sets the number of transmitted bits per second. The maximum bit rate for High Speed
CAN is 1 Mbit/s. The bit rate is uniform and fixed for a given CAN bus.
To select a bit rate from the list of predefined values, set "Bit rate" to "Defined Bit
Rate", and then select the value with "Predefined".
To set another value, set "Bit rate" to "User Bit Rate", and then enter the value with
"User".
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CAN:BITRate on page 586
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
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11.5.2 CAN Trigger Settings
Access: SETUP (Trigger) > "Trigger type" = "Protocol" > "Setup"
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
Start of frame.............................................................................................................. 231
End of frame................................................................................................................231
Frame <type>..............................................................................................................232
└ Error.............................................................................................................. 232
└ Overload....................................................................................................... 232
└ Data.............................................................................................................. 232
└ Remote......................................................................................................... 232
└ Data or remote.............................................................................................. 232
Error <type>................................................................................................................ 232
└ Stuff bit..........................................................................................................232
└ Form..............................................................................................................233
└ Acknowledge.................................................................................................233
└ CRC.............................................................................................................. 233
Identifier...................................................................................................................... 233
└ Frame type....................................................................................................233
└ Symbolic ID...................................................................................................233
└ Identifier Setup..............................................................................................234
└ ID type................................................................................................ 234
└ Compare............................................................................................. 234
└ Bit........................................................................................................234
└ State................................................................................................... 234
└ Byte.....................................................................................................234
└ Value...................................................................................................234
Identifier and data....................................................................................................... 234
└ Data Setup.................................................................................................... 235
└ Data Length........................................................................................ 235
Start of frame
Triggers on the first edge of the dominant SOF bit (synchronization bit).
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:TYPE on page 587 (STOFrame)
End of frame
Triggers on the end of the frame (7 recessive bits).
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:TYPE on page 587 (EOFrame)
Frame <type>
Selects the frame type to be triggered on. The selected frame type is indicated in the
softkey name.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:TYPE on page 587 (FTYPe)
TRIGger:A:CAN:FTYPe on page 588
Error ← Frame <type>
An error frame is sent by a node that has detected an error.
Overload ← Frame <type>
An overload frame is sent by a node that needs a delay between data and/or remote
frames.
Data ← Frame <type>
Frame for data transmission.
The identifier format is also considered, see "ID type" on page 234.
Remote ← Frame <type>
Data: Frame for data transmission.
A remote frame initiates the transmission of data by another node. The frame format is
the same as of data frames but without the data field.
The identifier format is also considered, see "ID type" on page 234.
Data or remote ← Frame <type>
Triggers on remote frames and on data frames.
The identifier format is also considered, see "ID type" on page 234.
Error <type>
Identifies various errors in the frame. You can select one or more error types as trigger
condition.
The first key press enables the "Error" trigger type, the second opens the "Error" menu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:TYPE on page 587 (ERRCondition)
Stuff bit ← Error <type>
The frame segments Start Of Frame, Arbitration Field, Control Field, Data Field and
CRC Sequence are coded by the bit stuffing method. The transmitter automatically
inserts a complementary bit into the bit stream when it detects five consecutive bits of
identical value in the bit stream to be transmitted. A stuff error occurs when the 6th
consecutive equal bit level in the mentioned fields is detected.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:BITSterror on page 590
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Form ← Error <type>
A form error occurs when a fixed-form bit field contains one or more illegal bits.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:FORMerror on page 590
Acknowledge ← Error <type>
An acknowledgement error occurs when the transmitter does not receive an acknowledgment - a dominant bit during the Ack Slot.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:ACKerror on page 590
CRC ← Error <type>
CAN uses the Cyclic Redundancy Check, which is a complex checksum calculation
method. The transmitter calculates the CRC and sends the result in the CRC
sequence. The receiver calculates the CRC in the same way. A CRC error occurs
when the calculated result differs from the received value in the CRC sequence.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:CRCerror on page 590
Identifier
Sets the trigger to a specific message identifier or an identifier range.
The first key press enables the "Identifier" trigger type, the second one opens the
"Identifier" menu.
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the "Symbolic ID" from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:TYPE on page 587 (ID | IDDT)
Frame type ← Identifier
Data frames and remote frames contain an identifier. Select the frame type to be triggered on, or select "Data and remote" if the frame type is not relevant.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:FTYPe on page 588
Symbolic ID ← Identifier
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
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Identifier Setup ← Identifier
Opens the menu to set the identifier pattern. After setting the "ID type" and the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the state high, low, or don't
care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:IDENtifier on page 589
ID type ← Identifier Setup ← Identifier
Selects the length of the identifier: 11 bit for CAN base frames, or 29 bits for CAN
extended frames.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:ITYPe on page 588
Compare ← Identifier Setup ← Identifier
Sets the comparison condition: If the pattern contains at least one X (don't care), you
can trigger on values equal or not equal to the specified value. If the pattern contains
only 0 and 1, you can also trigger on a range greater than or lower than the specified
value.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:ICONdition on page 589
Bit ← Identifier Setup ← Identifier
Selects the number of the bit in the pattern for bit-by-bit input. For each selected bit,
enter the "State".
State ← Identifier Setup ← Identifier
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Byte ← Identifier Setup ← Identifier
Selects the byte for input of the pattern. For each selected byte, enter the hexadecimal
value, or set the "State" for each selected "Bit".
Value ← Identifier Setup ← Identifier
Sets the hexadecimal value for the selected byte by turning the navigation knob.
Identifier and data
Sets the trigger to a combination of identifier and data condition. The instrument triggers at the end of the last byte of the specified data pattern.
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The identifier conditions are the same as for the "Identifier" trigger type, see "Identifier"
on page 233.
The first key press enables the trigger type, the second one opens the "Identifier and
data" menu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:TYPE on page 587 (IDDT)
Data Setup ← Identifier and data
Opens a menu to set the data pattern to be triggered on. After setting the "Data length"
and the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the state
high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal
value for each byte.
Most settings are the same as for identifier input. See:
● "Compare" on page 234
● "Bit" on page 234
● "State" on page 234
● "Byte" on page 234
● "Value" on page 234
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:DCONdition on page 589
TRIGger:A:CAN:DATA on page 590
Data Length ← Data Setup ← Identifier and data
Defines the length of the data pattern - the number of bytes in the pattern.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:CAN:DLC on page 589
11.5.3 CAN Label List
Label lists are protocol-specific. A PTT file for CAN contains three values for each
identifier:
●
Identifier type, 11-bit or 29-bit long
●
Hexadecimal identifier value
●
Label, symbolic name of the identifier, specifiing its function in the bus network.
Example: CAN PTT file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------@FILE_VERSION
= 1.00
@PROTOCOL_NAME = can
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------# Labels for CAN protocol
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#
Column order: Identifier type, Identifier value, Label
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------11,0x064,Diag_Response
11,0x1E5,EngineData
11,0x0A2,Ignition_Info
11,0x1BC,TP_Console
11,0x333,ABSdata
11,0x313,Door_Left
11,0x314,Door_Right
29,0x01A54321,Throttle
29,0x13A00FA2,LightState
29,0x0630ABCD,Engine_Status
29,0x03B1C002,Airbag_Status
29,0x01234ABC,NM_Gateway
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Figure 11-11: Label list for CAN
For general information, see Chapter 11.1.4, "Label List", on page 195.
11.5.4 CAN Decode Results
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Data Format". Additionally, you can display the binary signal with "Bits".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
To get data values, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded
data: frame number, start time of the frame, frame type, identifier, data length code,
data, checksum, and state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
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Figure 11-12: Decoded CAN signal with frame table and applied label list
violet
gray
blue
red
=
=
=
=
identifier
DLC, data length code
data words
error occured, error frame
Table 11-4: Content of the CAN frame table
Column
Description
Start time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
Type
Frame type: Data, Remote, Error, or Overload
ID
Identifier value, hexadecimal value
Label
Symbolic label, available if a label list was loaded and applied
DLC
Data length code, number of data bytes
Data
Hexadecimal values of the data bytes
CRC
Hexadecimal value of the Cyclic Redundance Check (checksum)
State
Overall state of the frame.
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Remote commands:
●
BUS<b>:CAN:FCOunt? on page 591
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:DATA? on page 593
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:STATus? on page 592
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:STARt? on page 592
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:STOP? on page 593
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:TYPE? on page 591
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:ACKState? on page 593
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:ACKValue? on page 594
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:CSSTate? on page 594
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:CSValue? on page 594
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:DLCState? on page 594
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:DLCValue? on page 595
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:IDSTate? on page 595
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:IDTYpe? on page 595
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:IDValue? on page 596
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:BSEPosition? on page 596
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:BCOunt? on page 596
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:STATe? on page 597
BUS<b>:CAN:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:VALue? on page 597
11.5.5 Search on Decoded CAN Data
Using the search functionality, you can find various events in the decoded data, the
same events which you also can trigger on. Before you can start the search, you have
to configure the bus correctly and acquire decoded data.
To search on decoded data, use the search type "Protocol" and select the "Source" the bus that is configured for CAN protocol.
See also: Chapter 10, "Search", on page 175.
11.5.5.1
CAN Search Setup
Event
Sets the event or combination of events to be searched for. Depending on the selected
event, the appropriate settings in the softkey menu are activated.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:CONDition on page 598
Frame Setup
Selects the frame type to be searched for.
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If you search for remote or data frames, the search consideres also the ID type, the
length of the identifier.
The setting is only available if "Event" = "Frame" is selected.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:FRAMe on page 598
Error Setup
Selects the error type to be searched for. You can select one or more error types as
search condition.
The error types are the same as in the CAN trigger setup, see "Error <type>"
on page 232.
The setting is only available if "Event" = "Error" or "ID & Error" is selected.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:ACKerror on page 599
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:BITSterror on page 599
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:CRCerror on page 599
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:FORMerror on page 600
Symbolic ID
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
Frame type
Selects the frame type to be searched for, if "Event" = "Identifier" is selected. You can
search for data and or remote frames.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:FTYPe on page 600
Identifier Setup
Opens the menu to set the identifier pattern, if "Event" = "Identifier" or "ID & Data" or
"ID & Error" is selected.
After setting the "ID type" and the "Comparison" condition, you can enter the value bitby-bit by setting the state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you
can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the identifier trigger, see "Identifier
Setup" on page 234.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:ITYPe on page 600
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:ICONdition on page 600
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:IDENtifier on page 600
Data Setup
Opens the menu to set the data pattern to be searched, if "Event" = "ID & Data" is
selected.
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After setting the "Data length" and the "Comparison" condition, you can enter the value
bit-by-bit by setting the state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively,
you can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the data trigger, see "Data Setup"
on page 235.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:DLENgth on page 601
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:DCONdition on page 601
SEARch:PROTocol:CAN:DATA on page 601
11.5.5.2
CAN Search Results
Search results (events) are marked on the waveform and listed in the event table as
usual. Instead of the event table, you can display the frame table, where the search
results are also marked. The event flags are not saved in the csv file of the frame table.
Figure 11-13: Search for data frames with 11 bit identifier, search results are marked in frame table
and on the decoded data
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11.6 LIN (Option R&S RTM-K3)
The Local Interconnect Network (LIN) is a simple, low-cost bus system used within
automotive network architectures. LIN is usually a sub-network of a CAN bus. The primary purpose of LIN is the integration of uncritical sensors and actuators with low
bandwidth requirements. Common applications in a motor vehicle are the control of
doors, windows, wing mirrors, and wipers.
11.6.1 The LIN Protocol
This chapter provides an overview of protocol characteristics, frame format, identifiers
and trigger possibilities. For detailed information, order the LIN specification on http://
www.lin-subbus.org/ (free of charge).
LIN characteristics
Main characteristics of LIN are:
●
Single-wire serial communications protocol, based on the UART byte-word interface
●
Single master, multiple slaves - usually up to 12 nodes
●
Master-controlled communication: master coordinates communication with the LIN
schedule and sends identifier to the slaves
●
Synchronization mechanism for clock recovery by slave nodes without crystal or
ceramics resonator
The R&S RTM supports several versions of the LIN standard: v1.3, v2.0, v2.1 and the
American SAE J2602.
Data transfer
Basic communication concept of LIN:
●
Communication in an active LIN network is always initiated by the master.
●
Master sends a message header including the synchronization break, the synchronization byte, and the message identifier.
●
The identified node sends the message response: one to eight data bytes and one
checksum byte.
●
Header and response form the message frame.
The data is transmitted in bytes using the UART byte-word interface without the parity
bit. Each byte consists of a start bit, 8 bits and a stop bit.
Figure 11-14: Structure of a byte field
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Data bytes are transmitted LSB first.
The identifier byte consists of 6 bits for the frame identifier and two parity bits. This
combination is known as protected identifier.
Trigger
The R&S RTM can trigger on various parts of LIN frames. The data line must be connected to an input channel, triggering on math and reference waveforms is not possible.
You can trigger on:
●
Frame start (synchronization field)
●
Specific slave identifier or identifier range
●
Data pattern in the message
●
Wake up signal
●
Checksum error (error in data), parity error (error in identifier)
11.6.2 LIN Configuration Settings
Access: PROTOCOL > "Bus type" = "LIN" "Configuration"
Data.............................................................................................................................242
Polarity........................................................................................................................ 242
Version........................................................................................................................ 242
Bit rate.........................................................................................................................243
Find Level....................................................................................................................243
Data
Sets the source of the data line. All channel waveforms can be used.
If the MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, digital channels can also be used as
source.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:LIN:DATA:SOURce on page 602
Polarity
Defines the idle state of the bus. The idle state is the rezessive state and corresponds
to a logic 1.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:LIN:POLarity on page 602
Version
Selects the version of the LIN standard that is used in the DUT. The setting mainly
defines the checksum version used during decoding.
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The most common version is LIN 2.x. For mixed networks, or if the standard is
unknown, set the LIN standard to "Auto".
Remote command:
BUS<b>:LIN:STANdard on page 602
Bit rate
Sets the number of transmitted bits per second. The maximum bit rate is 20 kbit/s.
To select a bit rate from the list of predefined values, set "Bit rate" to "Defined Bit
Rate", and then select the value with "Predefined".
To set another value, set "Bit rate" to "User Bit Rate", and then enter the value with
"User".
Remote command:
BUS<b>:LIN:BITRate on page 603
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
11.6.3 LIN Trigger Settings
Access: SETUP (Trigger) > "Trigger type" = "Protocol" "Setup"
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
Start of Frame............................................................................................................. 244
Wake Up..................................................................................................................... 244
Error <type>................................................................................................................ 244
└ Checksum..................................................................................................... 244
└ Parity.............................................................................................................244
└ Synchronization............................................................................................ 244
Identifier...................................................................................................................... 245
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└ Symbolic ID...................................................................................................245
└ Compare....................................................................................................... 245
└ Bit..................................................................................................................245
└ State..............................................................................................................245
└ Byte...............................................................................................................245
└ Value.............................................................................................................245
Identifier and data....................................................................................................... 246
└ Identifier Setup..............................................................................................246
└ Data Setup.................................................................................................... 246
└ No. of Bytes........................................................................................ 246
Start of Frame
Triggers on the stop bit of the sync field.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:TYPE on page 604 (SYNC)
Wake Up
Triggers after a wakeup frame.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:TYPE on page 604 (WKFRame)
Error <type>
Identifies various errors in the frame. You can select one or more error types as trigger
condition.
The first key press enables the "Error" trigger type, the second opens the "Error" menu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:TYPE on page 604 (ERRCondition)
Checksum ← Error <type>
Triggers on a checksum error. The checksum verifies the correct data transmission. It
is the last byte of the frame response. The checksum includes not only the data but
also the protected identifier (PID).
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:CHKSerror on page 605
Parity ← Error <type>
Triggers on a parity error. Parity bits are the bits 6 and 7 of the identifier. They verify
the correct transmission of the identifier.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:IPERror on page 605
Synchronization ← Error <type>
Triggers if synchronization caused an error.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:SYERror on page 605
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Identifier
Sets the trigger to a specific identifier or an identifier range. Only the 6 bit identifier
without parity bits is considered, not the protected identifier.
The first key press enables the "Identifier" trigger type, the second opens the "Identifier" menu.
After setting the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the
state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the "Symbolic ID" from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:TYPE on page 604 (ID | IDDT)
TRIGger:A:LIN:ICONdition on page 605
TRIGger:A:LIN:IDENtifier on page 605
Symbolic ID ← Identifier
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
Compare ← Identifier
Sets the comparison condition: If the pattern contains at least one X (don't care), you
can trigger on values equal or not equal to the specified value. If the pattern contains
only 0 and 1, you can also trigger on a range greater than or lower than the specified
value.
Bit ← Identifier
Selects the number of the bit in the pattern for bit-by-bit input. For each selected bit,
enter the "State".
State ← Identifier
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Byte ← Identifier
Selects the byte for input of the data pattern. For each selected byte, enter the hexadecimal value, or set the "State" for each selected "Bit".
Value ← Identifier
Sets the hexadecimal value for the selected byte by turning the navigation knob.
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Identifier and data
Sets the trigger to a combination of identifier and data condition. The instrument triggers at the end of the last byte of the specified data pattern.
The first key press enables the trigger type, the second one opens the "Identifier and
data" menu.
Identifier Setup ← Identifier and data
Opens the "Identifier" menu.
The identifier conditions are the same as for the "Identifier" trigger type, see "Identifier"
on page 245.
Data Setup ← Identifier and data
Opens a menu to set the data pattern. After setting the "No. of Bytes" and the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the state high, low, or don't
care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
The method is the same as for identifier input. See:
● "Compare" on page 245
● "Bit" on page 245
● "State" on page 245
● "Byte" on page 245
● "Value" on page 245
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:TYPE on page 604 (IDDT)
TRIGger:A:LIN:DCONdition on page 606
TRIGger:A:LIN:DATA on page 606
No. of Bytes ← Data Setup ← Identifier and data
Defines the length of the data pattern - the number of bytes in the pattern.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:LIN:DLENgth on page 606
11.6.4 LIN Label List
Label lists are protocol-specific. A LIN PTT file contains two values for each identifier:
●
"ID / Addr": hexadecimal identifier value
●
"Symbolic label": symbolic name for the identifier
Example: LIN PTT file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------@FILE_VERSION = 1.0
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@PROTOCOL_NAME = lin
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# Labels for LIN protocol
#
Column order: Identifier, Label
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# Labels for standard addresses
0x06,Dashboard
0x13,Gateway
0x1C,Temperature
0x21,Mirror
0x37,Indoor lights
# Labels for reserved addresses
0x3C,Master_Request_Frame
0x3D,Slave_Response_Frame
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Figure 11-15: Label list for CAN
For general information, see Chapter 11.1.4, "Label List", on page 195.
11.6.5 LIN Decode Results
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Display". Additionally, you
can display the binary signal with "Bits".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
Additionally, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded data:
frame number, start time of the frame, identifier, data length, data, checksum, and
state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
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Figure 11-16: Decoded LIN signal with frame table and applied label list
gray
yellow
green
blue
=
=
=
=
synchronization break, synchronization byte, correct checksum
identifier
parity bits
data words (UART words)
Table 11-5: Content of the LIN frame table
Column
Description
Start time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
ID
Identifier value, hexadecimal value
Label
Symbolic label, available if a label list was loaded and applied
Length
Number of data bytes
Data
Hexadecimal values of the data bytes
Chks
Checksum value
State
Overall state of the frame.
Remote commands:
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FCOunt? on page 607
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●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:DATA? on page 607
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:STATus? on page 607
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:STARt? on page 608
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:STOP? on page 608
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:VERSion? on page 610
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:CSSTate? on page 608
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:CSValue? on page 609
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:IDPValue? on page 609
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:IDSTate? on page 609
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:IDValue? on page 610
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:SYSTate? on page 610
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:SYValue? on page 610
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:BCOunt? on page 611
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:STATe? on page 611
●
BUS<b>:LIN:FRAMe<n>:BYTE<o>:VALue? on page 612
11.6.6 Search on Decoded LIN Data
Using the search functionality, you can find various events in the decoded data, the
same events which you also can trigger on. Before you can start the search, you have
to configure the bus correctly and acquire decoded data.
To search on decoded data, use the search type "Protocol" and select the "Source" the bus that is configured for LIN protocol.
See also: Chapter 10, "Search", on page 175.
11.6.6.1
LIN Search Setup
Event
Sets the event or combination of events to be searched for. Depending on the selected
event, the appropriate settings in the softkey menu are activated.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:CONDition on page 612
Frame Setup
Selects the frame type to be searched for: Start of frame or wakeup frame.
The setting is only available if "Event" = "Frame" is selected.
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Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:FRAMe on page 613
Error Setup
Selects the error type to be searched for. You can select one or more error types as
search condition.
The error types are the same as in the LIN trigger setup, see "Error <type>"
on page 244.
The setting is only available if "Event" = "Error" or "ID & Error" is selected.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:CHKSerror on page 614
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:IPERror on page 613
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:SYERror on page 614
Symbolic ID
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
Identifier Setup
Opens the menu to set the identifier pattern, if "Event" = "Identifier" or "ID & Data" or
"ID & Error" is selected.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the identifier trigger, see "Identifier"
on page 245.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:ICONdition on page 614
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:IDENtifier on page 614
Data Setup
Opens the menu to set the data pattern to be searched, if "Event" = "ID & Data" is
selected.
After setting the "No. of Bytes" and the "Comparison" condition, you can enter the
value bit-by-bit by setting the state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the data trigger, see "Data Setup"
on page 246.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:DLENgth on page 614
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:DCONdition on page 615
SEARch:PROTocol:LIN:DATA on page 615
11.6.6.2
LIN Search Results
Search results (events) are marked on the waveform and listed in the event table as
usual. Instead of the event table, you can display the frame table, where the search
results are also marked. The event flags are not saved in the csv file of the frame table.
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Audio Signals (Option R&S RTM-K5)
Figure 11-17: Search for data frames with 11 bit identifier, search results are marked in frame table
and on the decoded data
11.7 Audio Signals (Option R&S RTM-K5)
The R&S RTM can analyze several standard and de-facto industry standard signals:
I²S Inter-IC Sound standard audio format, left justified and right justified data formats
and Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) audio format.
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Audio Signals (Option R&S RTM-K5)
11.7.1 Audio Protocols
All audio protocols use 3 lines:
11.7.1.1
●
The clock line generates the bit clock.
●
The word select line (WS, also known as word clock) defines the frame start and
the maximum length of the data word.
For pulse code modulated signals (I²S standard, left and right justified data formats), the level of the WS signal assigns the data words to the left and right channels.
TDM uses frame synchronization pulses on the WS line to identify the beginning of
a frame.
●
The data line transmits the audio data in time-multiplexed data channels.
I²S Standard
I²S standard interfaces transmit two PCM coded audio channels. The WS line selects
the channel being transmitted - left or right channel. Usually, 32 bits are transmitted on
each channel. The data word can be shorter than the channel length, and the receiver
ignores the remaining bits. The first byte of the audio word is delayed one clock period
from the leading edge of the word select pulse. The R&S RTM can decode I²S standard signals with MSBF and LSBF bit order.
11.7.1.2
Left Justified Data Format
The left justified data format is very similar to the I²S standard, but the first byte of the
audio word is aligned with the leading edge of the word select pulse. Thus the audio
word is left justified within the frame. The data word can be shorter than the channel
length.
In addition to the standard configuration, the R&S RTM can analyze also left justified
data formats which send the data word with offset to the WS edge. The bit order can
be MSBF or LSBF.
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11.7.1.3
Right Justified Data Format
The right-justified data format is similar to the left-justified, but the last byte of the word
in the frame is aligned with the trailing edge of the word select pulse. Thus the audio
word is right-aligned within the frame.
The R&S RTM can analyze also right justified data formats if the data word ends with a
delay after the trailing edge of the WS pulse. The bit order can be MSBF or LSBF.
11.7.1.4
TDM
The Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) audio format is not standardized and provides
high flexibility for transfer of more than two audio data channels on one line. On the
word select line, it uses frame synchronization pulses to identify the beginning of a
frame. On the data line, channel blocks of a defined length are transmitted. Each block
contains an audio word that can be shorter than the channel length.
The first channel can have a delay to the word select edge. Inside the channel, the
audio word also can have an offset to the channel start.
Channel length, channel offset and word length are dependent values:
Channel length ≥ Word length + Channel offset
11.7.2 Audio Signal Configuration
Audio signal are configured for decoding in two menus. The "Configuration" menu is
common for all audio signals. The "Setup" menu contains the specific settings for the
seledcted audio signal variant.
11.7.2.1
Common Configuration
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > "Bus type" = "Audio" > "Configuration"
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Threshold setup
Make sure to set the thresholds for the audio lines. Press "Find level" to set the threshold for all analog sources automatically, or set the thresholds manually for each channel.
If analog channels are used, set the thresholds in the "CH N" menu > "More" >
"Threshold"; see also: "To set the logic threshold for analog channels" on page 193.
If digital channels are used (MSO R&S RTM-B1), set the thresholds in the "Logic" >
"Threshold" menu, see also "Threshold" on page 356.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:CLOCk:THReshold on page 618
BUS<b>:I2S:DATA:THReshold on page 618
BUS<b>:I2S:WSELect:THReshold on page 618
Source
Selects the audio line that you want to configure in the menu.
Word Select
Selects the source of the word select line. All analog channels of the instrument can be
used. If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, you can use also one of the digital
channels.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:WSELect:SOURce on page 617
Polarity
For I²S, LJ and RJ signals, the polarity defines the word select values assigned to the
left and right channels.
● "Normal": 0 indicates the left channel, and 1 indicates the right channel. This is the
usual setting.
● "Inverted": 0 indicates the right channel, and 1 the left channel.
For TDM signals, the polarity defines the edge of the frame synchronization pulse that
identifies the beginning of a frame. The frame starts at the next clock edge following
the selected FSYNC edge.
● "Normal": the frame begins with a rising edge. This is the usual setting.
● "Inverted": the frame begins with a falling edge.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:WSELect:POLarity on page 617
Clock
Selects the source of the clock line. All analog channels of the instrument can be used.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, you can use also one of the digital channels.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:CLOCk:SOURce on page 616
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Slope
Sets the clock edge at which the instrument samples the data on the data line. Usually,
the rising edge is used. The R&S RTM can also analyze the converse setup.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:CLOCk:POLarity on page 616
Data
Selects the source of the data line. All analog channels of the instrument can be used.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, you can use also one of the digital channels.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:DATA:SOURce on page 617
Active
Defines the interpretation of high and low signal states.
● "Active high": HIGH (signal level above the threshold level) = 1 and LOW (signal
level below the threshold level) = 0
● "Active low": HIGH = 0 and LOW = 1
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:DATA:POLarity on page 618
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
Variant
Selects the protocol variant of the audio signal. The configuration possibilities in
R&S RTM exceed the definitions of the standards.
See also: Chapter 11.7.1, "Audio Protocols", on page 252
"I2S Standard"
Inter-IC Sound standard audio format. The first byte of the audio word
is delayed one clock period from the leading edge of the word select
pulse.
"Left justified"
The left justified data format is very similar to the I²S standard. The
first byte of the audio word is aligned with the leading edge of the
word select pulse. Thus the audio word is left justified within the
frame. In R&S RTM, an additional offset of the audio word can be set.
"Right justified" In right justified data, the last byte of the word in the frame is aligned
with the trailing edge of the word select pulse. Thus the audio word is
right-aligned within the frame. In R&S RTM, an additional offset of the
audio word can be set.
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"TDM"
The Time Division Multiplexed audio format can transfer of up to 8
audio data channels on one line. On the word select line, it uses
frame synchronization pulses to identify the beginning of a frame. On
the data line, channel blocks of a defined length are transmitted.
Each block contains an audio word.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:AVARiant on page 616
11.7.2.2
Setup of Audio Variants
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > "Bus type" = "Audio" > "Configuration" > select "Variant" > "Setup"
Depending on the selected audio variant, different settings are available in the "Setup"
menu.
I²S standard settings
●
"First Channel" on page 257
●
"Word Length" on page 257
●
"Bit Order" on page 257
Left and right justified audio signal settings
●
"First Channel" on page 257
●
"Channel Offset" on page 257
●
"Word Length" on page 257
●
"Bit Order" on page 257
TDM signal settings
●
"No. of Channels" on page 257
●
"Channel Delay" on page 257
●
"Channel Length" on page 257
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●
"Channel Offset" on page 257
●
"Word Length" on page 257
●
"Bit Order" on page 257
First Channel
Defines if the left or the right channel is the first channel in the frame.
The setting is available for I²S standard, left and right justified audio signals.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:CHANnel:ORDer on page 619
No. of Channels
Sets the number of channels transmitted on the TDM audio line.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:CHANnel:TDMCount on page 620
Channel Delay
Sets a delay of the channel blocks after the frame start (word select edge). Thus, all
channels are shifted.
The setting is available only for TDM signals.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:FOFFset on page 620
Channel Length
Sets the number of bits in a channel block for TDM audio signals (transmitter length).
The setting is available only for TDM signals.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:CHANnel:LENGth on page 620
Channel Offset
Sets the number of bits between the channel start and the start of the audio word. The
setting is available for left justified data format and TDM audio signals.
For TDM, possible values depend on the channel lenght and the word length. The
maximum offset is Channel length - Word length. If you change the channel lenght or
the word length, the channel offset is adjusted automatically.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:CHANnel:OFFSet on page 620
Word Length
Defines the number of bits in an audio data word (receiver length). The minimum
length is 1 bit, the maximum length is the channel length.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:WLENgth on page 619
Bit Order
Sets the bit order in the audio data words. Usually, the MSB is transmitted first.
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Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:BORDer on page 619
11.7.3 Audio Trigger
If the audio bus is configured and Decode is enabled, you can trigger on the audio signal. Four trigger types are available: data, window, word select, and error trigger.
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
11.7.3.1
Trigger Type Selection
Access: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" = "Protocol" > "Setup"
To configure the data, window, or word select trigger, press the key once to enable the
trigger type, and a second time to open its setup menu. The error trigger has no setup.
Data
Sets the trigger to a data word or a data range that occurs on a specified channel. The
instrument triggers on the last bit of the specified data pattern.
You can also trigger on an AND combination of data conditions on different channels.
The instrument triggers if all conditions are met inside one frame.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:TYPE on page 622 (DATA)
Window
Sets the windows trigger. The windows trigger is a data trigger with additional minimum
time limit. The instrument triggers if the data conditions are fulfilled at least for the
given number of subsequent frames.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:TYPE on page 622 (WINDow)
Word Select
Sets the edge of the word select signal as trigger condition. Using this trigger tpe, you
can trigger on the right or left channel of pulse code modulated signals, and on the
frame start of TDM signals. The instrument triggers on the first clock edge after the
specified edge.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:TYPE on page 622 (WSELect)
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Error
The oscilloscope uses the WS or FSYNC line to monitor the channel and frame length.
An error is detected when two consecutive frames have different length. The instrument triggers on the first clock edge after error detection.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:TYPE on page 622 (ERRCondition)
11.7.3.2
Data Trigger Setup
Sets the trigger to a data word or a data range that occurs on a specified channel. The
instrument triggers on the last bit of the specified data pattern.
You can also trigger on an AND combination of data conditions on different channels.
The instrument triggers if all conditions are met inside one frame.
Channel
Selects the audio channel on which the instrument looks for the specified data condition. The setting is relevant for trigger types data and window.
Compare
Defines the operator for comparison of the decoded data word with the specified data
word.
The following operators can be set: equal, not equal, greater than, lower than, in range
and out of range.
If the data on the selected channel is not relevant for the trigger condition, select "Don't
care".
The setting is relevant for data and window trigger types.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:LEFT:CONDition on page 623
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:RIGHt:CONDition on page 623
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:TDM<n>:CONDition on page 623
Data / Data min. / Data max.
Define the data word(s) to be compared with the decoded data word. The data format
is decimal. The maximum value is limited by the word length. Consider that audio
words are signed numbers in 2's complement format. For example, an 8-bit data word
has a value range from -128 to 127.
The setting is relevant for trigger types data and window.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:LEFT:DMIN on page 623
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:LEFT:DMAX on page 623
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:RIGHt:DMIN on page 623
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:RIGHt:DMAX on page 623
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TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:TDM<n>:DMIN on page 623
TRIGger:A:I2S:CHANnel:TDM<n>:DMAX on page 623
Combination
Sets the logical combination to trigger on data words on different channels. The instrument triggers if all conditions are met inside one frame.
AND: the instrument triggers if the data conditions on all selected channels are fulfilled.
OR: The instrument triggers if one of the specified data conditions is fulfilled.
The setting is relevant for trigger types data and window.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:FUNCtion on page 624
11.7.3.3
Windows Trigger
The windows trigger is a data trigger with additional minimum time limit. The instrument
triggers if the data conditions are fulfilled at least for the given number of subsequent
frames.
Except of the window length, the windows trigger uses the same settings as the data
trigger:
●
"Compare" on page 259
●
"Channel" on page 259
●
"Data / Data min. / Data max." on page 259
●
"Combination" on page 260
Window Length
Sets the number of subsequent frames (audio samples) for which the data conditions
are fulfilled.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:WINDow:LENGth on page 624
11.7.3.4
Word Select Trigger
Sets the edge of the word select signal as trigger condition. Using this trigger tpe, you
can trigger on the right or left channel of pulse code modulated signals, and on the
frame start of TDM signals. The instrument triggers on the first clock edge after the
specified edge.
Positive
Sets the rising edge of the word select signal as trigger condition. Consider your WS
"Polarity" setting in the audio configuration menu.
See also: "Polarity" on page 254
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:WSSLope on page 624 (POS)
Negative
Sets the falling edge of the word select signal as trigger condition. Consider your WS
"Polarity" setting in the audio configuration menu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:I2S:WSSLope on page 624 (NEG)
11.7.4 Display of Audio Signals
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > "Bus type" = "Audio" > "Display"
If the "Audio" protocol is selected, the "Display" menu contains more functions which
are specific for the audio protocol.
The following display functions are used for all protocoll types:
●
"Data format" on page 195
●
"Label" on page 195
The following functions are specific for the audio protocol:
Display........................................................................................................................ 261
Track Channel.............................................................................................................262
Track Setup.................................................................................................................262
Default.........................................................................................................................262
Display
Defines how the decoded bus, the bit lines of the channels, and the track waveforms
are displayed.
"Sequential"
The decoded data words of the channels are shown in sequential,
horizontal order.
"Seq. + Bits"
The decoded data words of the channels are shown in sequential
order, and the individual bit lines are displayed above.
"Seq. + Track"
The decoded data words of the channels are shown in sequential
order, and the individual track waveforms are displayed above.
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"Parallel"
The decoded data words of the channels are arranged vertically. You
see the data word like you hear the audio signal: all channels at the
same time, with the length of one frame.
"Paral. +
Track"
The decoded data words of the channels are arranged vertically with
frame length, and the individual track waveforms are displayed
above.
"Track"
Only the individual track waveforms are displayed.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:DISPlay on page 625
Track Channel
Selects the track waveform that is adjusted with the vertical Scale and Position knobs.
For TDM signals, "Track Channel" also selects the tracks that are visible on the display. Turn the Navigation knob to highlight a track waveform and press the knob to
select or deselect this track.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:TRACk:TDM<o>:STATe on page 627
Track Setup
Opens the "Track Setup" menu where you can adjust the scale and position of the
track waveform.
See Chapter 11.7.5, "Tracking Audio Signals", on page 263
Default
Sets all selected tracks to the middle of the display and scales them to full height of the
display (8 divisions). The track waveforms overlap.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:TRACk:SET:DEFault on page 628
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11.7.5 Tracking Audio Signals
The track is a waveform that shows data values in time-correlation to the audio signal.
It is the graphical interpretation of all data values of a single acquisition. For audio signals, the data values on the vertical axis are the decoded values of the audio channels,
the time scale is equivalent to the scale of the source waveform.
Figure 11-18: Tracks of an I²S signal
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > "Bus type" = "Audio" > "Display" > "Track Setup"
Figure 11-19: Track setup for I2S, LJ, and RJ audio signals
Figure 11-20: Track setup for TDM signals
Left Position / Right Position / Position
Sets the vertical positiion of the selected track waveform in divisions.
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The virtual screen is available also for tracks. Thus, 20 divisions can be used to
arrange all lines.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:TRACk:TDM<o>:POSition on page 627
BUS<b>:I2S:TRACk:LEFT:POSition on page 625
BUS<b>:I2S:TRACk:RIGHt:POSition on page 626
Left Scale / Right Scale / Scale
Sets the zoom factor of the selected track waveform. The Navigation knob sets the
value in 2n steps.
The zoom factor depends on the word length. It is 1, if all 8 divisions of the display are
used. If the factor is >1, the track display is clipped and you can analyze details of the
track waveform.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:TRACk:TDM<o>:SCALe on page 627
All visible / Track Channel
Selects the TDM audio channel for which you want to display the track waveform. See
also: "Track Channel" on page 262.
Set to screen
Arranges the selected tracks vertically, one above the other. The instrument adjusts
the vertical scale according to the word length and the number of displayed channels.
The track waveforms do not overlap.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:I2S:TRACk:SET:SCReen on page 628
Default
See "Default" on page 262
11.7.6 Decode Results of Audio Signals
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the decoded values in the format selected with "Display" and "Data Format".
See also: Chapter 11.7.4, "Display of Audio Signals", on page 261
To get data values, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded
data: frame number, start time of the frame, and audio channel data.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
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Figure 11-21: Decoded TDM signal, CH1 = Word Select. Audio channels are displayed parallel and
marked with different colors
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Figure 11-22: Decoded I²S signal with frame table
Table 11-6: Content of the audio frame table
Column
Description
Frame
Frame number
Start time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
Left, Right (I²S, LJ, RJ)
Hexadecimal values of the audio words
CH1, CH2,...CH8 (TDM)
Remote commands:
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FCOunt? on page 628
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:STATe? on page 628
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:STARt? on page 629
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:STOP? on page 629
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:LEFT:STATe? on page 630
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:LEFT:VALue? on page 630
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:RIGHt:STATe? on page 630
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:RIGHt:VALue? on page 630
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●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:TDM<o>:STATe? on page 630
●
BUS<b>:I2S:FRAMe<n>:TDM<o>:VALue? on page 631
11.8 MIL-STD-1553 (Option R&S RTM-K6)
11.8.1 The MIL-STD-1553
The MIL-STD-1553 specification defines the characteristics of a serial data bus originally designed for use in the military avionics. Nowadays it is also used in spacecraft
on-board data handling.
The bus is a 2-wire bus that uses differential signals.
A MIL-STD-1553 system consists of the following components:
●
Bus Controller (BC): initiates and coordinates the data flow in the system.
●
Remote Terminal (RT): interfaces various subsystems with the data bus. A system
can consists of up to 31 RTs and each RT can have 31 subaddresses.
The subaddresses 0 and 31 refer to a mode code command.
●
Bus Monitor (BM) (optional): listens to all messages and can record selected data
for real-time or off-line analysis.
The information is transmitted over the bus in defined series of words using Manchester code, where each bit is transmitted as high-low for a logical 1 or a low-high for a
logical 0. There are three types of words: command, data and status.
Command Word
Figure 11-23: Structure of a command word
The format of a command word consists of the following parts (see Figure 11-23):
●
Sync: an invalid Manchester waveform.
●
Remote Terminal (RT) Address: the unique address of the corresponding RT.
●
Transmit/Receive (T/R): indicates the action required from the RT.
●
Subaddress/Mode Code: indicates the RT subaddress. The subaddresses 0 and
31 signalize the transmission of a mode code.
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●
Data Word Count /Mode Code: indicates the number of words that are sent/
received by the RT. A maximum of 32 words is allowed. This field may be used for
the transmission of the mode code value.
●
Parity: checks if there are bit errors during the transmission. The total number of
logic 1 bits for the word (sync bits not included) shall be odd.
Data Word
Figure 11-24: Structure of a data word
The format of a data word consists of the following parts (see Figure 11-24):
●
Sync: an invalid Manchester waveform.
●
Data: the transferred information (16 bit).
●
Parity: checks if there are bit errors during the transmission. The total number of
logic 1 bits for the word (sync bits not included) shall be odd.
Status Word
Figure 11-25: Structure of a status word
The format of a status word consists of the following parts (see Figure 11-25):
●
Sync: an invalid Manchester waveform.
●
Remote Terminal (RT) Address: the unique address of the corresponding RT.
●
Message error: indicates an error in the command/data word transmission from the
BC. A logic 1 indicates presence of a message error and a logic 0 indicates its
absence.
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●
Instrumentation: helps to distinguish between a status word and a command word.
The logic state of this bit shall be 0.
●
Service Request: indicates that the RT requires service. A logic 1 indicates a presence of a service request and logic 0 indicates its absence.
●
Reserved: bits reserved for future uses.
●
Broadcast Command: a logic 1 indicates that the preceding valid command word
was a broadcast command and a logic 0 that it wasn't.
●
Busy: a busy state indicates that the RT or the subsystem is not able to transfer
data. A logic 1 indicates a presence of a busy condition and logic 0 indicates its
absence.
●
Subsystem Flag: flags a subsystem fault. A logic 1 indicates a presence of a flag
and logic 0 indicates its absence.
●
Dynamic Bus Control Acceptance: a logic 1 indicates acceptance of a dynamic bus
control and a logic 0 a rejection.
●
Terminal Flag: flags an RT fault condition. A logic 1 indicates a presence of a flag
and logic 0 indicates its absence.
●
Parity: checks if there are bit errors during the transmission. The total number of
logic 1 bits for the word (sync bits not included) shall be odd.
For comfortable analysis, you can load an editable label list, to interpret transferred
numeric values as meaningful text labels.
11.8.2 MIL-STD-1553 Configuration
●
●
11.8.2.1
Configuring MIL-STD-1553................................................................................... 269
MIL-STD-1553 Configuration Settings.................................................................. 270
Configuring MIL-STD-1553
You can define the input channel and set some standard-specific parameters.
1. Press the PROTOCOL LOGIC key on the front panel.
2. If the "Logic" menu is displayed, press "Protocol".
3. Press the "Bus Type" softkey and select "MIL-STD-1553".
4. Press "Configuration".
5. Press "Source" and select the channel.
6. Set the "Polarity" of the signal.
7. Set the "Threshold High" and the "Threshold Low" of the signal or press "Find
level".
See: "To set the logic threshold for analog channels" on page 193
8. Press "Timing setup" and set the maximum for the response time.
Now you can display the decoded signal and the frame table with results.
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MIL-STD-1553 (Option R&S RTM-K6)
The display of the decoded data is described in Chapter 11.8.5, "MIL-STD-1553
Decode Results", on page 279.
11.8.2.2
MIL-STD-1553 Configuration Settings
Access: PROTOCOL > "Bus type" = "MIL-STD-1553"> "Configuration"
Source
Sets the channel for the signal source.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:MILStd:SOURce on page 632
Polarity
Sets the polarity of the bus.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:MILStd:POLarity on page 631
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
Threshold High
Sets the upper threshold level of the signal.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:MILStd:THReshold:HIGH on page 632
Threshold Low
Sets the lower threshold level of the signal.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:MILStd:THReshold:LOW on page 632
Timing Setup
Opens a submenu to set the ranges of the timeouts.
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Response Max ← Timing Setup
Sets a value for the maximum response time.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:MILStd:RESPonsetime:MAXimum on page 632
Default Timing ← Timing Setup
Resets the response time to its default value of 14 µs.
11.8.3 MIL-STD-1553 Trigger Settings
11.8.3.1
Triggering on MIL-STD-1553 Buses
Prerequisites: The MIL-STD-1553 bus is configured. After configuration, the trigger
type "Protocol (MIL-STD-1553)" is available. See: Chapter 11.8.2, "MIL-STD-1553
Configuration ", on page 269.
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
1. Press the SETUP key in the trigger area of the front panel.
2. Select the "Trigger Type": "Protocol".
3. Press "Source" and select the bus as trigger source.
4. Press "Back".
5. Press "Setup".
6. Press the softkey of the required trigger condition:
● "Synchronization"
● "Word"
● "Error"
● "Command"
● "Status"
● "Cmd. and data"
7. If "Error" is selected, press the softkey again and enable the type of errors you
want to trigger on.
8. If "Command" is selected, press the softkey again and define the command word.
9. If "Status" is selected, press the softkey again and define the status word.
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10. If "Cmd. and data" is selected, press the softkey again and define the transmission
type as well as the command and data word.
11.8.3.2
MIL-STD-1553 Trigger Settings
Access: TRIGGER SETUP > "Trigger Type" = "Protocol"
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
Synchronization...........................................................................................................273
Word............................................................................................................................273
Error............................................................................................................................ 273
└ Synchronization............................................................................................ 273
└ Parity.............................................................................................................273
└ Manchester................................................................................................... 273
└ Timeout......................................................................................................... 274
Command....................................................................................................................274
└ Cmd. Type.................................................................................................... 274
└ Symbolic ID...................................................................................................274
└ RT Address................................................................................................... 274
└ Compare............................................................................................. 274
└ Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum.............................................................. 274
└ Bit............................................................................................. 275
└ Byte.......................................................................................... 275
└ State......................................................................................... 275
└ Value........................................................................................ 275
└ Data Direction............................................................................................... 275
└ Subaddress...................................................................................................275
└ Compare............................................................................................. 275
└ Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum.............................................................. 275
└ Word Count...................................................................................................276
└ Compare............................................................................................. 276
└ Minimum............................................................................................. 276
└ Maximum............................................................................................ 276
└ Subaddress...................................................................................................276
└ Mode Code................................................................................................... 276
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Status.......................................................................................................................... 276
└ Status............................................................................................................276
└ State..............................................................................................................277
Cmd. and data.............................................................................................................277
└ Transmission.................................................................................................277
└ Command..................................................................................................... 277
└ Data.............................................................................................................. 277
└ Offset Compare.................................................................................. 277
└ Offset.................................................................................................. 277
└ Data Words.........................................................................................278
└ Data Compare.................................................................................... 278
└ Minimum/Maximum.............................................................................278
Synchronization
Triggers on a sync impulse. You can select to trigger on "C/S" (Commando/Status), on
"Data" or on "All" sync pulses.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:SYNC on page 633
Word
Selects the word type to be triggered on. The selected word type is indicated in the
softkey name.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:WORD on page 633
Error
Triggers on any combination of protocol errors. You can enable triggering on a specific
type of error in the submenu.
Synchronization ← Error
Triggers if a sync impulse doesn't fulfill the technical requirements or when the transmission is not valid.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:ERRor:SYNC on page 634
Parity ← Error
Checks the parity of every word and triggers if the parity is even.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:ERRor:PARity on page 633
Manchester ← Error
Triggers if there is an error in the Manchester coding of the signal.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:ERRor:MANChester on page 633
Timeout ← Error
Triggers if the timeout is out of the set range. The range can be set in the "Bus type" =
"MIL-STD-1553"> "Configuration" > "Timing setup" menu.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:ERRor:TIMeout on page 634
Command
Triggers on a command word that is specified in the submenu.
Cmd. Type ← Command
Selects the command type.
Symbolic ID ← Command
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
RT Address ← Command
Opens a submenu to set the RT address.
Compare ← RT Address ← Command
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:RTADdress:CONDition on page 635
Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum ← RT Address ← Command
Opens the "Edit Minimum"/"Edit Maximum" submenu.
After setting the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the
state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:RTADdress:MAXimum on page 635
TRIGger:A:MILStd:RTADdress:MINimum on page 635
Bit ← Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum ← RT Address ← Command
Selects the number of the bit in the pattern for bit-by-bit input. For each selected bit,
enter the "State".
Byte ← Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum ← RT Address ← Command
Selects the byte for input of the data pattern. For each selected byte, enter the hexadecimal value, or set the "State" for each selected "Bit".
State ← Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum ← RT Address ← Command
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Value ← Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum ← RT Address ← Command
Sets the hexadecimal value for the selected byte by turning the navigation knob.
Data Direction ← Command
Toggles the data direction of the selected command: T (transmit), R (receive), or X
(either).
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:TRMode on page 636
Subaddress ← Command
Opens a submenu to set the subaddress.
Compare ← Subaddress ← Command
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:SADDress:CONDition on page 636
Edit Minimum/Edit Maximum ← Subaddress ← Command
Opens the "Edit Minimum"/"Edit Maximum" submenu.
After setting the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the
state high, low or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value.
The functions are the same as for "RT Address", see: "RT Address" on page 274.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:SADDress:MAXimum on page 636
TRIGger:A:MILStd:SADDress:MINimum on page 636
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Word Count ← Command
Opens a submenu to set the word count.
Compare ← Word Count ← Command
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:WCOunt:CONDition on page 636
Minimum ← Word Count ← Command
Sets the minimum of the word count range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:WCOunt:MINimum on page 637
Maximum ← Word Count ← Command
Sets the maximum of the word count range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:WCOunt:MAXimum on page 637
Subaddress ← Command
When "Command Type" > "Mode Code" is selected the subaddress selection is restricted to "0", "31" or "0 | 31"
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:SADDress:MCADdress on page 636
Mode Code ← Command
Selects the type of mode code when "Command Type" > "Mode Code" is selected.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:MCODe:CODE on page 634
Status
Triggers on a status word that is specified in the submenu.
The functions of the "RT Address" are the same as for the "Command" word, see: "RT
Address" on page 274.
Status ← Status
Selects a status bit. For each bit, you can select the "State" to be triggered on.
See also: "Status Word" on page 268
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:BCReceived on page 637
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:BUSY on page 637
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:DBCaccept on page 637
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:INSTrument on page 637
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:MERRor on page 638
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:SREQuest on page 638
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:SUBSystem on page 638
TRIGger:A:MILStd:STATus:TERMinal on page 638
State ← Status
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Cmd. and data
Triggers on command and data, that are specified in the submenus.
Transmission ← Cmd. and data
Sets the transmission type: "BC-RT" (bus controller to remote terminal); "RT - BC"
(remote terminal to bus controller), "RT - RT" (remote terminal to remote terminal),
"Mode Code with data".
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:TTYPe on page 639
Command ← Cmd. and data
Triggers on a command, that is specified in the submenu. The available settings
depend on the selected "Transmission".
The command settings are described in: "Command" on page 274.
Data ← Cmd. and data
Triggers on a data, that is specified in the submenu.
Offset Compare ← Data ← Cmd. and data
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined offset.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:DATA:OFFSet:CONDition on page 639
Offset ← Data ← Cmd. and data
Sets a word offset.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:DATA:OFFSet on page 639
Data Words ← Data ← Cmd. and data
Sets the number of words. Up to four words can be set.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:DATA:WORDs on page 639
Data Compare ← Data ← Cmd. and data
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:DATA:CONDition on page 638
Minimum/Maximum ← Data ← Cmd. and data
Opens the "Minimum"/"Maximum" submenu.
After setting the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the
state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
The functions are the same as for "RT Address", see: "RT Address" on page 274.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:MILStd:DATA:MAXimum on page 639
TRIGger:A:MILStd:DATA:MINimum on page 639
11.8.4 MIL-STD-1553 Label List
Label lists are protocol-specific. A MIL-STD-1553 file contains three values for each
identifier:
●
"Symbolic label": symbolic name of addressed device, or the label of the sub
address. The Labels are sorted in alphabetic order.
●
"RT Addr.": hexadecimal remote terminal address value
●
"Sub Addr": hexadecimal sub address value
Example: MIL PTT file
# ----------------------------------------------------------# Labels for MIL.1553 protocol
# Column order: RT address, RT label, Subaddress, Subaddress Label
# --------------------------------------------------------------------@PROTOCOL_NAME = mil1553
0Ah,Engine,01h,Thrust
03h,Main panel,07h,Altimeter
03h,Main panel,01h,Speed
0Eh,Only RTA
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11.8.5 MIL-STD-1553 Decode Results
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Display".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
Additionally, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded data:
frame number, start time of the frame, word type, RTA, data direction, subaddress,
label, word count , data, response/IMG time and state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
Table 11-7: Content of the MIL-STD-1553 frame table
Column
Description
Start time
Time of word start in relation to the trigger point
Type
Word Type
RTA
RT address
Label
Symbolic label, available if a label list was loaded and applied
T/R
Data direction, transmit or receive
Sub
Subaddress
Length
Number of data bytes
Data
Hexadecimal values of the data bytes
RT/IMG
Response time/intermessage gap time
State
Overall state of the word
Remote Commands
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WCOunt? on page 640
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:COMMand:MCODe:CODE? on page 641
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:COMMand:MCODe:VALue? on page 641
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:COMMand:RTADdress? on page 641
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:COMMand:SADDress? on page 641
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:COMMand:WCOunt? on page 642
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:DATA? on page 642
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●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:IMGTime? on page 642
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:PARity? on page 642
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:RTIMe? on page 643
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STARt? on page 643
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus? on page 643
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:BCReceived? on page 643
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:BUSY? on page 644
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:DBCaccept? on page 644
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:INSTrument? on page 644
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:MERRor? on page 644
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:RTADdress? on page 645
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:SREQuest? on page 645
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:SUBSystem? on page 645
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STATus:TERMinal? on page 645
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:STOP? on page 646
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:TRMode? on page 646
●
BUS<b>:MILStd:WORD<n>:TYPE? on page 646
11.8.6 Search on Decoded MIL-STD-1553 Data
Using the search functionality, you can find various events in the decoded data, the
same events which you also can trigger on. Before you can start the search, you have
to configure the bus correctly and acquire decoded data.
To search on decoded data, use the search type "Protocol" and select the "Source" the bus that is configured for MIL-STD-1553 protocol.
See also: Chapter 10, "Search", on page 175.
11.8.6.1
MIL-STD-1553 Search Setup
Event
Sets the event or combination of events to be searched for. Depending on the selected
event, the appropriate settings in the softkey menu are activated.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:CONDition on page 647
Word Start
Selects the word start to be searched for.
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Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:WSTart on page 652
Error
Searches for the selected error type.
The error types are the same as in the MIL-STD-1553 trigger setup, see "Error"
on page 273.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:ERRor on page 648
RT Address
Opens a submenu to set the RT address to be searched for.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the RT address trigger, see "RT Address"
on page 274.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:RTADdress:COMPare on page 649
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:RTADdress:CONDition on page 649
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:RTADdress:MAXimum on page 649
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:RTADdress:MINimum on page 649
Data direction
Selects the data direction to be searched for :T (transmit), R (receive), or X (either).
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:TRMode on page 652
Sub Address
Opens a submenu to set the sub address to be searched for.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the sub address trigger, see "Subaddress" on page 275 .
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:SADDress:COMPare on page 649
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:SADDress:CONDition on page 650
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:SADDress:MAXimum on page 650
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:SADDress:MINimum on page 650
Word Count
Opens a submenu to set the word count to be searched for.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the word count trigger, see "Word Count"
on page 276.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:WCOunt:COMPare on page 652
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:WCOunt:CONDition on page 652
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:WCOunt:MAXimum on page 653
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:WCOunt:MINimum on page 653
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Sub Address (Mode Code)
Searches for a mode code sub address.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:SADDress:MCADdress on page 650
Mode Code
Sets the mode code to be searched for.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:MCODe on page 648
Status
Selects a status bit to be searched for. For each bit, you can select the "State" to be
searched for.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:BCReceived on page 650
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:BUSY on page 650
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:DBCaccept on page 651
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:INSTrument on page 651
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:MERRor on page 651
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:SREQuest on page 651
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:SUBSystem on page 651
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:STATus:TERMinal on page 651
State
Toggles the logic state of the with "Status" selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't
care).
Data
Searches for a specified data.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:DATA:COMPare on page 647
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:DATA:CONDition on page 648
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:DATA:MAXimum on page 648
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:DATA:MINimum on page 648
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:DATA:OFFSet on page 648
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:DATA:WORDs on page 648
Transmission
Sets the transmission type to be searched for: "BC-RT" (bus controller to remote terminal); "RT - BC" (remote terminal to bus controller), "RT - RT" (remote terminal to
remote terminal), "Mode Code with data".
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:MILStd:TTYPe on page 652
Command
Opens a submenu to configure the command to be searched for.
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ARINC 429 (Option R&S RTM-K7)
The settings are the same as for the setup of the command trigger, see "Command"
on page 274.
11.9 ARINC 429 (Option R&S RTM-K7)
11.9.1 ARINC 429 Basics
The ARINC 429 is a specification that defines the characteristics of an avionic data bus
used on commercial and transport aircraft.
In an ARINC 429 system, a single transmitter/source is connected to 1-20 receivers/
sinks on one twisted wire pair. The bus uses differential signals. The ARINC 429 standard uses a simplex communication - data may be transmitted in only one direction.
The information is transmitted over the bus in defined series of words.
Word Format
Figure 11-26: Structure of an ARINC 429 word
An ARINC 429 word is 32-bits and consists of the following parts (see Figure 11-26):
●
Parity: the most significant bit (MSB). Checks if there are bit errors during the transmission. The total number of logic 1 bits for the word shall be odd.
●
Sign/Status Matrix (SSM): the value of these bits depend on the data type. It may
be used to report the status of hardware equipment.
●
Data:
–
Binary (BNR): stores the data as a binary number.
–
Binary Coded Decimal (BCD): uses 4 data field bits to represent a decimal
digit.
–
Discrete data: a combination of BNR and/ or BCD or individual bits that express
specific equipment conditions.
–
Maintenance data and acknowledgment
–
Williamsburg / Buckhorn protocol: a bit-oriented protocol that is used for file
transfer.
●
Source/Destination Identifier (SDI): indicates the intended receiver or the transmitting subsystem.
●
Label: gives information about the word's data type.
For comfortable analysis, you can load an editable label list, to interpret transferred
numeric values as meaningful text labels.
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ARINC 429 (Option R&S RTM-K7)
11.9.2 ARINC 429 Configuration
●
●
●
11.9.2.1
Configuring ARINC 429 ........................................................................................284
ARINC 429 Configuration Settings........................................................................284
ARINC 429 Display Settings................................................................................. 285
Configuring ARINC 429
You can define the input channel and set some standard-specific parameters.
1. Press the PROTOCOL LOGIC key on the front panel.
2. If the "Logic" menu is displayed, press "Protocol".
3. Press the "Bus Type" softkey and select "ARINC 429".
4. Press "Configuration".
5. Press "Source" and select the channel.
6. Set the "Polarity" of the signal.
7. Set the "Threshold High" and the "Threshold Low" of the signal or press "Find
level", or set the threshold manually.
See: "To set the logic threshold for analog channels" on page 193
8. Press "Bitrate" and set the bitrate speed.
Now you can display the decoded signal and the frame table with results.
The display of the decoded data is described in Chapter 11.9.5, "ARINC 429 Decode
Results", on page 293.
11.9.2.2
ARINC 429 Configuration Settings
Access: PROTOCOL > "Bus type" = "ARINC 429"> "Configuration"
Source
Sets the channel for the signal source.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:ARINc:SOURce on page 654
Polarity
Sets the polarity of the bus.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:ARINc:POLarity on page 654
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ARINC 429 (Option R&S RTM-K7)
Find Level
The instrument analyzes all analog channels that are configured for the selected bus
and sets the threshold for digitization for each channel. If no level can be found, the
existing value remains unchanged, and you can set the thresholds manually in the
channel menu: CH N > "More" (page 2) > "Threshold".
See: "Threshold" on page 38
"Find Level" is not relevant for digital channels (MSO R&S RTM-B1). Thresholds for
digital channels are set in the "Logic > Threshold" menu.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:FINDlevel on page 555
Threshold High
Sets the upper threshold level of the signal.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:ARINc:THReshold:HIGH on page 654
Threshold Low
Sets the lower threshold level of the signal.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:ARINc:THReshold:LOW on page 654
Bit Rate
Opens a submenu to set the bit rate.
"Low Speed"
Sets the speed to 12.5 kBit/s
"High Speed"
Sets the speed to 100 kBit/s
"User"
Set a user defined speed.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:ARINc:BRMode on page 653
BUS<b>:ARINc:BRValue on page 653
11.9.2.3
ARINC 429 Display Settings
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > if "Logic" menu is displayed: "Protocol" > "Display"
This chapter describes only the ARINC 429 specific display settings. For a description
of the general protocol display settings, see Chapter 11.1.3, "Display Settings",
on page 194.
Decode format
Sets the decoding data format for the ARINC 429 bus: Data, SSM+Data, SSM+Data
+SDI, Data+SDI.
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Remote command:
BUS<b>:ARINc:DATA:FORMat on page 659
11.9.3 ARINC 429 Trigger Settings
11.9.3.1
Triggering on ARINC 429 Buses
Prerequisites: The ARINC 429 bus is configured. After configuration, the trigger type
"Protocol ( ARINC 429)" is available. See:Chapter 11.9.2, "ARINC 429 Configuration",
on page 284.
Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
1. Press the SETUP key in the trigger area of the front panel.
2. Select the "Trigger Type": "Protocol".
3. Press "Source" and select the bus as trigger source.
4. Press "Back".
5. Press "Setup".
6. Press the softkey of the required trigger condition:
● "Word"
● "Error"
● "Label"
● "Label and Data"
● "Transmission"
7. If "Error" is selected, press the softkey again and enable the type of errors you
want to trigger on.
8. If "Label" is selected, press the softkey again and define the label range.
9. If "Label and Data" is selected, press the softkey again and define the label, trigger
format SSM/SDI and the data.
10. If "Transmission" is selected, press the softkey again and define the label, trigger
format and the timing setup.
11.9.3.2
ARINC 429 Trigger Settings
Access: TRIGGER SETUP > "Trigger Type" = "Protocol"
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Triggers are only available if "Decode" is enabled.
Make sure to set the correct bus as trigger source: Trigger SETUP > "Trigger type" =
"Protocol" > "Source", see Chapter 11.1.6, "Trigger Source", on page 199.
Word............................................................................................................................287
Error............................................................................................................................ 288
└ Parity.............................................................................................................288
└ Gap Error...................................................................................................... 288
└ Coding Error..................................................................................................288
Label........................................................................................................................... 288
└ Symbolic ID...................................................................................................288
└ Compare....................................................................................................... 288
└ Edit Label Minimum/Edit Label Maximum.....................................................288
└ Bit........................................................................................................289
└ Byte.....................................................................................................289
└ State................................................................................................... 289
└ Value...................................................................................................289
Label and Data............................................................................................................289
└ Label............................................................................................................. 289
└ Trigger Format.............................................................................................. 289
└ SSM.............................................................................................................. 289
└ Data.............................................................................................................. 290
└ Data Offset..........................................................................................290
└ Data Size............................................................................................ 290
└ Compare............................................................................................. 290
└ Edit Data Min/Edit Data Max...............................................................290
└ SDI................................................................................................................ 290
Transmission...............................................................................................................290
└ Symbolic ID...................................................................................................291
└ Label............................................................................................................. 291
└ Trigger Format.............................................................................................. 291
└ SDI................................................................................................................ 291
└ Timing Setup.................................................................................................291
└ Compare............................................................................................. 291
└ Min. Time............................................................................................ 291
└ Max. Time........................................................................................... 291
Word
Triggers on a word start or word stop.
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Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:WORD:TYPE on page 658
Error
Triggers on any combination of protocol errors. You can enable triggering on a specific
type of error in the submenu.
Parity ← Error
Checks the parity and triggers if the parity is even.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:ERRor:PARity on page 656
Gap Error ← Error
Triggers on a gap error. The gap is calculated automatically from the set sample rate.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:ERRor:GAP on page 656
Coding Error ← Error
Triggers on a coding error.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:ERRor:CODing on page 656
Label
Opens a submenu to set the label.
Symbolic ID ← Label
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
Compare ← Label
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:LABel:CONDition on page 656
Edit Label Minimum/Edit Label Maximum ← Label
Opens the "Edit Minimum"/"Edit Maximum" submenu.
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After setting the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the
state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:LABel:MAXimum on page 657
TRIGger:A:ARINc:LABel:MINimum on page 657
Bit ← Edit Label Minimum/Edit Label Maximum ← Label
Selects the number of the bit in the pattern for bit-by-bit input. For each selected bit,
enter the "State".
Byte ← Edit Label Minimum/Edit Label Maximum ← Label
Selects the byte for input of the data pattern. For each selected byte, enter the hexadecimal value, or set the "State" for each selected "Bit".
State ← Edit Label Minimum/Edit Label Maximum ← Label
Toggles the logic state of the selected bit: 0 (low), 1 (high), or X (don't care).
Value ← Edit Label Minimum/Edit Label Maximum ← Label
Sets the hexadecimal value for the selected byte by turning the navigation knob.
Label and Data
Opens a submenu to set the label and data.
Label ← Label and Data
Opens a submenu to configure the label.
See: "Label" on page 288.
Trigger Format ← Label and Data
Selects the transmission format to be triggered on: "Data", "SSM+Data", "SSM+Data
+SDI", "Data+SDI".
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:FORMat on page 656
SSM ← Label and Data
Sets the values for the sign/status matrix (SSM) bits.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:SSM on page 657
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Data ← Label and Data
Triggers on a data, that is specified in the submenu.
Data Offset ← Data ← Label and Data
Sets a data offset.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:DATA:OFFSet on page 655
Data Size ← Data ← Label and Data
Sets the data size.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:DATA:SIZE on page 656
Compare ← Data ← Label and Data
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:DATA:CONDition on page 655
Edit Data Min/Edit Data Max ← Data ← Label and Data
After setting the "Compare" condition, you can enter the value bit-by-bit by setting the
state high, low, or don't care for each single bit. Alternatively, you can enter a hexadecimal value for each byte.
The functions are the same as for "Label", see: .
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:DATA:MAXimum on page 655
TRIGger:A:ARINc:DATA:MINimum on page 655
SDI ← Label and Data
Sets the values for the source/destination identifier (SDI) bits.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:SDI on page 657
Transmission
Opens a submenu to set the transmission
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Symbolic ID ← Transmission
If a label list with node names was loaded and applied in the bus configuration, you
can select simply the node name from the list instead of entering the numeric identifier.
The instrument triggers on the identifier of the selected node.
Label ← Transmission
Opens a submenu to configure the label.
See: "Label" on page 288.
Trigger Format ← Transmission
Selects the transmission format to be triggered on: "Data", "SSM+Data", "SSM+Data
+SDI", "Data+SDI".
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:FORMat on page 656
SDI ← Transmission
Sets the values for the source/destination identifier (SDI) bits.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:SDI on page 657
Timing Setup ← Transmission
Opens a submenu to set a transmission time interval to be triggered on. For a reference on the real-time transmission times that a system has to fulfill refer to ARINC 429
standard.
Compare ← Timing Setup ← Transmission
Sets the condition how the decoded value is compared with the defined range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:TTIMe:CONDition on page 658
Min. Time ← Timing Setup ← Transmission
Sets the minimum of the transmission time range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:TTIMe:MINimum on page 658
Max. Time ← Timing Setup ← Transmission
Sets the maximum of the transmission time range.
Remote command:
TRIGger:A:ARINc:TTIMe:MAXimum on page 658
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11.9.4 ARINC 429 Label List
Label lists are protocol-specific. An ARINC 429 file contains three values for each identifier:
●
"Arinc Label": the Arinc 429 label value, that identifies the data type and the parameters associated with it.
●
"Symbolic label": symbolic name of the label, specifying the device function.
●
"Word Format": an optional parameter to describe the composition of the ARINC
429 word. It can be provided as integer value or mnemonic.
Word format definition
0 or DATA
= <P><
Data
><Label>
1 or DATA_SDI
= <P><
Data
><SDI><Label>
2 or DATA_SSM
= <P><SSM><
Data
><Label>
3 or DATA_SDI_SSM
= <P><SSM><
Data
><SDI><Label>
>3 or SYSTEM_DEFAULT or empty = Default format as defined in scope.
Example: ARINC 429 PTT file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------@FILE_VERSION = 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = arinc429
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# Labels for ARINC protocol
# Column order: Numeric address (Label), Symbolic label, Word format
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# ----Definition---@PROTOCOL_NAME = arinc429
101o, Distance to Go, 0
102o, Time to Go, DATA_SDI
103o, Engine Discrete, DATA_SSM
104o, Latitude, 3
105o, Ground Speed, 4
106o, Magnetic heading
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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11.9.5 ARINC 429 Decode Results
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. "Decode" shows the decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Display". Additionally, you
can display the binary signal with "Bits".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
Additionally, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded data:
frame number, start time of the frame, label, SDI, SSM, data, and state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
Table 11-8: Content of the "Decode results" table
Column
Description
Start time
Time of word start in relation to the trigger point
Stop time
Time of word stop in relation to the trigger point
Label name
Symbolic label, available if a label list was loaded and applied
Label
The value of the label bytes
SDI
The state of the SDI bits
SSM
The state of the SSM bits
Data
The value of the data bytes
State
Overall state of the frame
The number of bits in the data column depends on the SDI and/or SSM status. The
SDI and SSM fields have each 2 bits. The word format is also considered in the comb
display of the data.
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Figure 11-27: Symbolic labels and decoded data in the ARINC 429 results table
blue
= The columns SDI, Data and SSM are set according to the defined word format
magenta = no word format or SYSTEM_DEFAULT is defined. The"Decode Format" setting is used.
Remote Commands:
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:DATA:FORMat on page 659
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WCOunt? on page 659
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:DATA? on page 659
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:DATA[:VALue]? on page 659
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:FORMat? on page 659
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:LABel? on page 660
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:LABel[:VALue]? on page 660
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:PARity? on page 660
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:PATTern? on page 660
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●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:SDI? on page 660
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:SSM? on page 661
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:STARt? on page 661
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:STOP? on page 661
●
BUS<b>:ARINc:WORD<n>:STATus? on page 661
11.9.6 Search on Decoded ARINC 429 Data
Using the search functionality, you can find various events in the decoded data, the
same events which you also can trigger on. Before you can start the search, you have
to configure the bus correctly and acquire decoded data.
To search on decoded data, use the search type "Protocol" and select the "Source" the bus that is configured for ARINC 429 protocol.
See also: Chapter 10, "Search", on page 175.
11.9.6.1
ARINC 429 Search Setup
Event
Sets the event or combination of events to be searched for. Depending on the selected
event, the appropriate settings in the softkey menu are activated.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:CONDition on page 662
Word Start/ Word Stop
Searches for a word start or a word stop.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:WORD[:TYPE] on page 665
Error
Selects the error type to be searched for.
The error types are the same as in the ARINC 429 trigger setup, see "Error"
on page 288.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:ERRor on page 663
Label
Opens the menu to set the label to be searched for.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the label trigger, see "Label"
on page 288.
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Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:LABel:CONDition on page 664
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:LABel:MAXimum on page 664
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:LABel:MINimum on page 664
Data format
Selects the data format to be searched for.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:FORMat on page 663
SDI
Searches for the source/destination identifier (SDI) bits.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:SDI on page 664
Data
Opens the menu to set the data to be searched for.
The settings are the same as for the setup of the label trigger, see "Data" on page 290.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:DATA:CONDition on page 662
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:DATA:MAXimum on page 662
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:DATA:MINimum on page 663
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:DATA:OFFSet on page 663
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:DATA:SIZE on page 663
SSM
Searches for sign/status matrix (SSM) bits.
Remote command:
SEARch:PROTocol:ARINc:SSM on page 664
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Probe Adjustment
12 Power Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K31)
With the R&S RTM and option R&S RTM-K31 you can perform power analysis measurements.
The following power measurements are available:
●
Quality
●
Consumption
●
Harmonics
●
Inrush Current
●
Ripple
●
Spectrum
●
Transient Response
●
Slew Rate
●
Modulation
●
Dynamic On Resistance
●
Efficiency
●
Switching Loss
●
Turn ON/OFF Time
●
Safe Operating Area (S.O.A.)
12.1 Probe Adjustment
12.1.1 Deskewing the Probes
Some power measurements require a current and a voltage probe. Before you start
one of these measurements, you need to deskew the probes to get correct measurement results. The settings menu of the corresponding measurements contain the
"Probe" function to adjust the probes.
Required equipment:
●
R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture
●
Rohde & Schwarz voltage probe
●
Rohde & Schwarz current probe
1. Connect the voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
2. Check and adjust the probe setup for each probe: CH N key > "More" > "Probe".
3. Press the TOOLS key.
4. Select "Power Analysis".
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5. Press "Analysis" repeatedly until the required measurement is selected.
6. Select the correct channels for "Voltage" and "Current".
7. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
Refer to the R&S RT-ZF20 Manual for a detailed description.
8. Press "Probe".
9. Press "Deskew".
The automatic deskew procedure aligns the waveforms of all visible channels.
12.1.2 Probe Settings for Power Measurements
The probe menu is available from the main "Power" menu if "Analysis" is switched off.
It is also available in many power measurement menus.
Deskew
Use the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture to deskew the probes.
Starts the automatic deskew procedure to align the waveforms of all visible channels. It
is necessary to deskew if a current and a voltage probe is used in the measurement.
Remote command:
POWer:DESKew[:EXECute] on page 667
Zero Offset
Differences in DUT and oscilloscope ground levels may cause larger zero errors affecting the waveform. If the DUT is ground-referenced, the "Zero Offset" corrects the zero
error of the probe to optimize measurement results at small signal levels.
Short the signal pin and the ground pin together and connect them to the ground of the
DUT. Then press "Zero Offset".
Remote command:
POWer:ZOFFset[:EXECute] on page 667
12.2 Statistic Menu Settings
In the statistic menu you can enable and configure statistic measurements. It is available only for some power measurements.
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Result Table Settings
Visible
Activates or deactivates the statistical evaluation of the measurement.
Average No.
Sets the number of measured waveforms used for calculation of average and standard
deviation. The maximum number is 1000.
Reset all
Deletes the statistical results for the current measurement or all measurements,
respectivley, and starts a new statistical evaluation if the acquisition is running.
Export
Opens the "Export" menu to save the measurement results to a CSV file.
See: Chapter 15.3.1.3, "General Storage Settings", on page 370.
Remote command:
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:NAME on page 493
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:SAVE on page 493
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:ALL:NAME on page 494
EXPort:MEASurement<m>:STATistics:ALL:SAVE on page 494
12.3 Result Table Settings
In the the result table menu you can set the display settings and export the results to
file. It is available only for some power measurements.
Result Table
Displays or hides the result table.
Remote command:
POWer:RESult:TABLe on page 666
Track Frame
Defines the synchronization of the waveform display and the lines in the result table.
"Off"
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"Frame Index"
The waveform display is connected to the result that is selected in the
result table. The selected result is shown in the center of the display.
If you select another result, the waveform display is adjusted automatically.
"Hori. Position" The result selection in the result table is connected to the waveform
display. The result in the center of the display is selected in the result
table. When you change the horizontal position of the waveform, the
selection in the result table is adjusted automatically.
Export
Opens the "Save" menu to save the measurement results.
See: "Save Menu" on page 370.
The results are saved to an Excel file.
Restart
Restarts the current measurement.
Remote command:
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:RESet on page 677
POWer:SPECtrum:RESult<n>:RESet on page 692
12.4 Report
Power measurements create various result data. To document these measurement
results, you can create reports in PDF format using th R&S Report tool.
The R&S Report tool is a separate software that is installed on a computer. To transfer
the measurement results to the computer, you export them from the R&S RTM to a
USB flash drive and copy the result file to the computer.
In the R&S Report tool, you can adapt the report to your needs in various ways:
●
Select the results that will be included
●
Define the layout: Paper size, font, screenshot color, and logo
●
Define the content elements that will be included, for example, title page, setup
data, measurement settings, and more.
12.4.1 Export to Report
When a power measurement is finished, you can save the measurement settings and
results to a report file. The R&S Report tool uses the stored data to create measurement reports.
12.4.1.1
Report Settings
The "Report" menu is available from the main "Power" menu if "Analysis" is switched
off. It is also available in all power measurement menus.
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Report
In the "Report" menu you can describe your device under test (DUT) and the test conditions. This information can be used on the title page for a report generated from the
"Power Analysis" measurements.
Report
Opens the Report menu to enter DUT and test information and start the result export.
Device under test (DUT)
Enter a name for your DUT.
Remote command:
POWer:REPort:DUT on page 668
User
Enters a user.
Remote command:
POWer:REPort:USER on page 668
Site
Enters a site.
Remote command:
POWer:REPort:SITE on page 668
Temperature
Enters the temperature.
Remote command:
POWer:REPort:TEMPerature on page 668
Description
Enters a description.
Remote command:
POWer:REPort:DESCription on page 668
Save
Opens the "Save" menu where you set the storage settings and save the report to the
USB flash drive. The file name is assigned automatically.
See: "Save Menu" on page 370
Remote command:
POWer:REPort:OUTPut on page 668
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12.4.2 R&S Report Tool
R&S Report is a java-based software that allows you to create reports from your power
measurement analysis results. It is installed on a computer, not on the instrument.
Prerequisites:
●
Installed Java Runtime Environment version 7.0
To install the R&S Report tool
1. Download the RSReportCreator_Setup.exe from www.rohde-schwarz.com/en/
software/rtm2000/.
2. On a computer with installed java runtime environment start the
RSReportCreator_Setup.exe and follow the installation procedure.
To generate a report
1. Perform a power analysis measurement on your scope and save the result on an
USB stick.
2. Transfer the measurement results from the USB to your computer.
3. On your computer start the R&S Report program.
4. Set the "Report Home Directory" and add the required reports.
5. In the "Layout" and "Contents" tabs, set the parameters according to your requirements.
6. To generate your report, click "Test Results > Save As" and select the name and
the directory where the report is to be stored.
12.4.2.1
Test Results
In this tab you can manage all saved measurement results.
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Filter
Enables a filter on the selected condition.
"Analysis"
Shows only the results for the selected analysis.
"DUT"
Shows only the results for the selected DUT.
Report Table
Shows a list of the available measurements.
"Analysis"
Shows the type of power analysis measurement.
"DUT"
Shows the name of the DUT, see Chapter 12.4.1.1, "Report Settings",
on page 300.
"Date & Time"
Shows the date and at what time the measurement result was added
to report.
"Comment"
Enters a comment.
"Add"
Adds the selected measurement to the report.
Selection
Manages the selection of the result reports.
Add selection ← Selection
Adds the selected measurement to the report.
Deselect all ← Selection
Deselects all result reports.
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Invert selection ← Selection
Inverts the selection of all result reports, meaning that all selected result reports are
deselected and vice versa.
Remove selected ← Selection
Removes the selected result report.
Save As
Opens the file selection dialog box and saves the data to the selected file.
12.4.2.2
Layout
In this tab you can set up a layout for your report.
Paper size
Selects the paper size.
"A4"
Selects A4.
"US Letter"
Selects US Letter.
Font
Sets the font for the report.
Font Family ← Font
Selects the font family from the list.
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Size ← Font
Sets the font size.
Color ← Font
Sets the font color.
Invert Screenshot Colors
Inverts the screenshot colors.
Logo
Adds a logo to the report.
Rohde & Schwarz ← Logo
Adds the Rohde & Schwarz logo. You can select "Silver" or "Cyan" as the display
color.
User ← Logo
Selects a path to an user defined logo picture file.
12.4.2.3
Content
In this tab you can select the contents of your report. For each content you can select
how often it is included in the report:
●
"Always": Shows the respective contents for each measurement.
●
"Never": Doesn't show the respective contents in the report.
●
"Once": Shows the respective contents once at the beginning of the report.
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Title Page
Adds a title page to the report.
The contents can be set up in the "Report" menu, see Chapter 12.4.1.1, "Report Settings", on page 300.
Measurement Setup
Adds a graphic of the measurement setup.
Settings
Adds the settings of the analysis.
Vertical Setup
Adds the vertical setup settings.
Trigger Setup
Adds the trigger setup settings.
Horizontal Setup
Adds the horizontal setup settings.
Measured signals
Adds a diagram of the measured signal.
Results
Adds the result box.
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12.5 Input Power Measurements
Input line analysis is used to measure the characteristics of the input power as well as
the effects the power supply exudes to the input line.
●
●
●
●
Quality...................................................................................................................307
Consumption.........................................................................................................312
Harmonics............................................................................................................. 314
Inrush Current....................................................................................................... 318
12.5.1 Quality
The power quality analysis measures the input voltage and current and the resulting
power. The results characterize the quality of the input AC line.
12.5.1.1
Quality Results
The results of "Quality" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
the current waveform
●
the power waveform that is the product of the current and voltage waveforms
●
numeric measurement results
Additionally, for each measurement result you can enable a statistic evaluation of the
measurement results. It returns the current, minimum and maximum measurement values, the average and standard deviation, and the number of measured waveforms.
Voltage and current results
The voltage and current results are defined as follows:
Result
Description
RMS
Square root of the mean of the square of the current or voltage averaged
over N cycles
Crest, crest factor
Peak value / RMS value
f, frequency
Frequency of the signal
Remote commands, RMS:
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:RMS[:ACTual]? on page 672
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:RMS:AVG? on page 672
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:RMS:NPEak? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:RMS:PPEak? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:RMS:STDDev? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:RMS:WFMCount? on page 673
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Remote commands, crest factor:
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:CREStfactor[:ACTual]? on page 672
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:CREStfactor:AVG? on page 672
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:CREStfactor:NPEak? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:CREStfactor:PPEak? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:CREStfactor:STDDev? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:CREStfactor:WFMCount? on page 674
Remote commands, frequency:
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:FREQuency[:ACTual]? on page 672
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:FREQuency:AVG? on page 672
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:FREQuency:NPEak? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:FREQuency:PPEak? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:FREQuency:STDDev? on page 673
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:CURRent:FREQuency:WFMCount? on page 674
Power results
The power in a system is described by several physical quantities: real power, reactive
power, apparent power, and phase angle. In Figure 12-1 you can see how these quantities are related if the voltage and the current are sinusoidal signals. ||S|| stands for the
vector norm value of the vector S.
Figure 12-1: Power diagram for sinusoidal signals
P
Q
||S||
φ
=
=
=
=
real power [W]
reactive power [VAR]
apparent power [VA]
phase angle between the current and the voltage sine waves [°]
The power results are defined as follows (see Figure 12-1):
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Result
Name, Unit
Apparent
Active
Reactive
Formula
Description
Apparent power
||S||= VRMS ∙ I RMS
||S|| (VA)
(averaged over N cycles)
|S| is the magnitude of the vector
sum of real and reactive power.
Real power
P = VINSTANTENEOUS ∙ IINSTANTENEOUS
P (W)
(averaged over N cycles)
Reactive power
Q = ||S||sinφ
Power flow that is temporarily
stored in a system because of the
inductive and capacitive elements.
PFactor = ||P|| / ||S||
Measure of the system efficiency.
The value varies between -1 and
1.
φ = acos (PFactor)
Phase angle between the current
and the voltage sine waves.
Q (VAr, VoltAmpere reactive)
Factor
Power factor
PFactor
Angle
Phase angle
φ (°)
Energy of the system that can be
used to do work.
Remote commands, apparent power:
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:APParent[:ACTual]? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:APParent:AVG? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:APParent:NPEak? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:APParent:PPEak? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:APParent:STDDev? on page 675
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:APParent:WFMCount? on page 675
Remote commands, real power (active):
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower[:ACTual]? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:AVG? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:NPEak? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:PPEak? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:STDDev? on page 675
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:WFMCount? on page 675
Remote commands, reactive power:
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REACtive[:ACTual]? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:AVG? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:NPEak? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:PPEak? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:STDDev? on page 675
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:REALpower:WFMCount? on page 675
Remote commands, power factor:
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PFACtor[:ACTual]? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PFACtor:AVG? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PFACtor:NPEak? on page 674
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●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PFACtor:PPEak? on page 675
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PFACtor:STDDev? on page 675
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PFACtor:WFMCount? on page 675
Remote commands, phase:
12.5.1.2
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PHASe[:ACTual]? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PHASe:AVG? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PHASe:NPEak? on page 674
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PHASe:PPEak? on page 675
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PHASe:STDDev? on page 675
●
POWer:QUALity:RESult:POWer:PHASe:WFMCount? on page 675
Configuring Power Quality Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.5.1.3, "Power Quality Settings", on page 311.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Quality".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential voltage probe to the
line of the AC input.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential voltage probe to the
neutral of the AC input. Make sure that you use a common ground.
Connect the current probe in flow direction of the current to the line of the AC
input.
10. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
11. To enable statistic evaluation of the measurement results, select "Statistic" > "Visible".
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12. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current, the voltage
and the power. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the
lower left corner. For details, see Chapter 12.5.1.1, "Quality Results", on page 307.
12.5.1.3
Power Quality Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis =Quality".
Figure 12-2: Setup of power quality analysis
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
To get statistic results of the quality parameters, select "Statistic" > "Visible". See:
Chapter 12.2, "Statistic Menu Settings", on page 298.
Voltage
Sets the channel for the voltage source input. It is recommended that you use a high
voltage differential probe for measurements at the DUT power input.
Remote command:
POWer:SOURce:VOLTage<n> on page 666
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Current
Sets the channel for the current source. Connect the current probe in flow direction of
the current.
Remote command:
POWer:SOURce:CURRent<n> on page 666
12.5.2 Consumption
The consumption analysis measures the input voltage, input current, and the resulting
power. Using these values, it calculates the energy that is consumed over time. The
consumption analysis is best suited for non periodical measurements, e.g. measuring
the consumptionof a device in a stand-by mode.
12.5.2.1
Consumption Results
The results of "Consumption" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
the current waveform
●
the power waveform that is the product of the current and voltage waveforms
●
numeric measurement results
The consumption results are defined as follows:
Result
Description
Duration
Duration of the measurement in seconds
Energy
Calculated energy
Active, real power
Energy of the system that can be used to do work
Remote commands:
12.5.2.2
●
POWer:CONSumption:RESult:DURation? on page 676
●
POWer:CONSumption:RESult:ENERgy? on page 676
●
POWer:CONSumption:RESult:REALpower? on page 676
Configuring Consumption Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.5.2.3, "Consumption Settings",
on page 313.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Consumption".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
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4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential voltage probe to the
line of the AC input.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential voltage probe to the
neutral of the AC input. Make sure that you use a common ground.
Connect the current probe in flow direction of the current to the line of the AC
input.
10. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
11. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
12. To enable statistic evaluation of the measurement results, select "Statistic" > "Visible".
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current, the voltage
and the power. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the
lower left corner. For details, see Chapter 12.5.1.1, "Quality Results", on page 307.
12.5.2.3
Consumption Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = Consumption"
Figure 12-3: Setup of consumption analysis
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Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
The settings for the voltage and current sources are the same as for quality analysis,
see "Voltage" on page 311 and "Current" on page 312.
Restart
Restarts the consumption measurement.
Remote command:
POWer:CONSumption:RESTart on page 676
12.5.3 Harmonics
Current harmonics analysis measures the amplitude of frequency components that can
be injected back into the AC lines. Therefore, FFT analysis with flat top window is performed. Current harmonics analysis also performs pre-compliance testing according to
standards EN 61000-3-2 A / B / C / D.
12.5.3.1
Harmonics Results
The results of "Harmonics" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
the current waveform
●
numeric measurement results
●
a bar that displays the measured value of the harmonics related to the value
defined in the standard
Table 12-1: Harmonics results
Result Table
Description
Order
The harmonic order
Frequency
The frequency value of the signal
Level
The level of the harmonic
Minimum
The minimum measured value
Maximum
The maximum measured value
Average
The average level of the harmonic
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Result Table
Description
Limit bar chart
The value defined in the standard (white bar) and the measured value of the harmonics (green: value within the standard's defined limit; red: value out of the
standard's defined limit)
Limit
The limit for the harmonic
Remote commands:
12.5.3.2
●
POWer:HARMonics:AVAilable? on page 678
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:DURation? on page 678
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:FREQuency:AVG? on page 678
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:FREQuency:NPEak? on page 679
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:FREQuency:PPeak? on page 679
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:FREQuency:STDDev? on page 679
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:FREQuency[:ACTual]? on page 679
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:REALpower[:ACTual]? on page 679
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:THDistortion:AVG? on page 679
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:THDistortion:NPEak? on page 680
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:THDistortion:PPeak? on page 680
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:THDistortion:STDDev? on page 680
●
POWer:HARMonics:MEASurement:THDistortion[:ACTual]? on page 680
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:FREQency? on page 680
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:LEVel:LIMit? on page 680
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:LEVel[:VALue]? on page 681
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:MAXimum? on page 681
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:MINimum? on page 681
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:MEAN? on page 681
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:VALid? on page 682
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:VCOunt? on page 682
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:WFMCount? on page 682
●
POWer:HARMonics:RESult<n>:RESet on page 677
●
EXPort:POWer:NAME on page 682
●
EXPort:POWer:SAVE on page 682
Configuring Harmonics Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.5.3.3, "Harmonics Settings",
on page 316.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Harmonics".
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3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. If required demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your
current probe.
5. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential voltage probe to the
line of the AC input.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential voltage probe to the
neutral of the AC input. Make sure that you use a common ground.
Connect the current probe in flow direction of the current to the line of the AC
input.
6. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
7. Select the "Standard".
8. Select the "Fundamental".
9. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
10. If required, change the "Span" and the "Points" for the FFT analysis. The flat top
window is automatically set.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press FFT.
Press "FFT Setup" to open the submenu.
Set the "Span" to adjust the width of the displayed frequency range.
Set the "Points" to define how many samples are used for FFT calculation.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current, the voltage
and the power. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the
result table. For details, see Chapter 12.5.3.1, "Harmonics Results", on page 314.
12.5.3.3
Harmonics Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = Harmonics"
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Figure 12-4: Setup of harmonics analysis
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
To see a result table with the harmonics parameters, select "Result Table" > "Result
Table". See: Chapter 12.3, "Result Table Settings", on page 299.
The settings for voltage and current sources are the same as for quality analysis, see
"Voltage" on page 311 and "Current" on page 312.
Standard
Selects the standard for pre-compliance testing.
"EN 61000-3-2 Class A"
Balanced 3-phase equipment, household appliances (excluding
equipment identified as class D), tools (excluding portable tools), dimmers for incandescent lamps, audio equipment
"EN 61000-3-2 Class B"
Portable tools, not professional arc welding equipment
"EN 61000-3-2 Class C"
Lighting equipment
"EN 61000-3-2 Class D"
PC, PC monitors, radio, or TV receivers with an input power less than
or equal to 600W
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"MIL-STD-1399"
Military shipboard user equipment
"RTCA DO-160"
Environmental tests of avionics hardware
Remote command:
POWer:HARMonics:STANdard on page 677
Fundamental
Selects the frequency of the input signal. If "Automatic" is set, the instrument analyses
the signal and sets the fundamental frequency accordingly.
Remote command:
POWer:HARMonics:ENFRequency on page 677
POWer:HARMonics:MIFRequency on page 677
POWer:HARMonics:DOFRequency on page 677
Result Table
Opens the result table menu where you can set the display settings and export the
results to file.
12.5.4 Inrush Current
The inrush current analysis measures the peak of the input current that is drawn by the
device, when the device is turned on.
12.5.4.1
Inrush Current Results
The results of "Inrush Current" measurements are:
●
the current waveform
●
numeric measurement results:
–
"Peak1": the inrush current (maximum current) for the gate
–
"|y(x)*x|": the area of the gate
Remote commands:
12.5.4.2
●
POWer:INRushcurrent:RESult<n>:AREA? on page 684
●
POWer:INRushcurrent:RESult<n>:MAXCurrent? on page 685
Configuring Inrush Current Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.5.4.3, "Inrush Current Settings", on page 319.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Inrush Current".
3. Connect the current probe to the oscilloscope.
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4. Demagnetize and zero the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your
current probe.
5. Connect the current probe in flow direction of the current to the line of the AC input
of the DUT.
6. Select the correct channel for the "Current" source.
7. Set the "Gate Count".
8. If required adjust the cursors manually:
a) Press the NAVIGATION rotary knob until the correspondent cursor is selected.
b) Rotate the NAVIGATION rotary knob to change the position of the cursor.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveform of the current. Additionally,
the numeric measurement results are shown in the lower left corner. For details,
see Chapter 12.5.4.1, "Inrush Current Results", on page 318.
12.5.4.3
Inrush Current Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = Inrush Current".
Figure 12-5: Setup of inrush current analysis
Required probes:
●
Current probe
Current
Sets the channel for the current source. Connect the current probe in flow direction of
the current.
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Gate Count
Sets up to three gates.
Remote command:
POWer:INRushcurrent:GCOunt on page 684
POWer:INRushcurrent:GATE<n>:STARt on page 684
POWer:INRushcurrent:GATE<n>:STOP on page 684
Set to Screen
Resets the cursors to their initial positions. This is helpful if the cursors have disappeared from the display or need to be moved for a larger distance.
12.6 Output Power Measurements
Output analysis is used to measure the characteristics of the output voltage
●
●
●
Ripple....................................................................................................................320
Spectrum...............................................................................................................324
Transient Response.............................................................................................. 326
12.6.1 Ripple
The "Ripple" analysis measures the ripple of the device output. In this measurement
the peak-to peak extremes of the output DC signal are of interest. The measurement
also includes the AC-RMS of the output DC signal, that is calculated as a standard derivation.
12.6.1.1
Ripple Results
The results of "Ripple" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
numeric measurement results
Additionally, for each measurement result you can enable a statistic evaluation of the
measurement results. It returns the current, minimum and maximum measurement values, the average and standard deviation, and the number of measured waveforms.
The numeric measurement results are defined as follows:
Table 12-2: Properties output ripple
Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Peak +
Vp+
Maximum value within the displayed section of the waveform.
Peak -
Vp-
Minimum value within the displayed section of the waveform.
Peak peak
Vpp
Peak-to-peak value of the waveform: the difference of maximum and minimum values.
XAmpl = XMax - XMin
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Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Mean
Mean
Mean value of the complete displayed waveform.
σ
σ
Standard deviation of the waveform samples.
Period
T
The length of the left-most signal period within the displayed section of the
waveform.
Frequency
f
Frequency of the signal. The result is based on the length of the left-most signal period within the displayed section of the waveform.
Pos. duty cycle
Dty+
Positive duty cycle: Width of a positive pulse in relation to the period in %.
The measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered signal.
Neg. duty cycle
Dty-
Negative duty cycle: Width of a negative pulse in relation to the period in %.
The measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered signal.
Remote commands, peak+ :
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:UPEak[:ACTual]? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:UPEak:AVG? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:UPEak:NPEak? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:UPEak:PPEak? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:UPEak:STDDev? on page 690
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:UPEak:WFMCount? on page 690
Remote commands, peak- :
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:LPEak[:ACTual]? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:LPEak:AVG? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:LPEak:NPEak? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:LPEak:PPEak? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:LPEak:STDDev? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:LPEak:WFMCount? on page 687
Remote commands, peak peak:
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PEAK[:ACTual]? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PEAK:AVG? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PEAK:NPEak? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PEAK:PPEak? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PEAK:STDDev? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PEAK:WFMCount? on page 688
Remote commands, mean:
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:MEAN[:ACTual]? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:MEAN:AVG? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:MEAN:NPEak? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:MEAN:PPEak? on page 687
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●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:MEAN:STDDev? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:MEAN:WFMCount? on page 687
Remote commands, standard deviation:
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:STDDev[:ACTual]? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:STDDev:AVG? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:STDDev:NPEak? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:STDDev:PPEak? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:STDDev:STDDev? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:STDDev:WFMCount? on page 689
Remote commands, frequency:
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:FREQuency[:ACTual]? on page 686
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:FREQuency:AVG? on page 686
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:FREQuency:NPEak? on page 686
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:FREQuency:PPEak? on page 686
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:FREQuency:STDDev? on page 686
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:FREQuency:WFMCount? on page 686
Remote commands, period:
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PERiod[:ACTual]? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PERiod:AVG? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PERiod:NPEak? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PERiod:PPEak? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PERiod:STDDev? on page 689
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PERiod:WFMCount? on page 689
Remote commands, positive duty cycle:
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PDCYcle[:ACTual]? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PDCYcle:AVG? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PDCYcle:NPEak? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PDCYcle:PPEak? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PDCYcle:STDDev? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:PDCYcle:WFMCount? on page 688
Remote commands, negative duty cycle:
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:NDCYcle[:ACTual]? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:NDCYcle:AVG? on page 687
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:NDCYcle:NPEak? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:NDCYcle:PPEak? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:NDCYcle:STDDev? on page 688
●
POWer:RIPPle:RESult:NDCYcle:WFMCount? on page 688
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12.6.1.2
Configuring Ripple Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.6.1.3, "Ripple Settings",
on page 323.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Ripple".
3. Connect the voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
Connect the voltage probe to the output stage of the DUT.
Connect the current probe in flow direction of the current to the output stage of
the DUT.
10. Select the correct channel for the "Source".
11. To enable statistic evaluation of the measurement results, select "Statistic" > "Visible".
12. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current and the
voltage. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the lower left
corner. For details, see Chapter 12.5.3.1, "Harmonics Results", on page 314.
12.6.1.3
Ripple Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = Ripple"
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Figure 12-6: Setup of ripple analysis
Required probes:
●
Voltage probe
●
(Optional) Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
To get statistic results of the ripple parameters, select "Statistic" > "Visible". See:
Chapter 12.2, "Statistic Menu Settings", on page 298.
Source
Sets the channel for the source input. This can be either a current or a voltage source.
12.6.2 Spectrum
The spectrum analysis measures the spectrum of the output voltage. The results can
be applied to see typical side effect problems of the switched-mode power supply
(SMPS) application, such as switching frequency components of internal SMPS.
12.6.2.1
Spectrum Results
The results of "Spectrum" measurements are:
●
Voltage waveform
●
Spectrum
●
Numeric measurement results
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For a detailed description of the numeric parameters, see Table 12-1.
Remote commands:
12.6.2.2
●
POWer:SPECtrum:RESult<n>:FREQuency? on page 691
●
POWer:SPECtrum:RESult<n>:LEVel[:VALue]? on page 691
●
POWer:SPECtrum:RESult<n>:MAXimum? on page 691
●
POWer:SPECtrum:RESult<n>:MEAN? on page 691
●
POWer:SPECtrum:RESult<n>:MINimum? on page 691
●
POWer:SPECtrum:RESult<n>:RESet on page 692
●
EXPort:POWer:NAME on page 682
●
EXPort:POWer:SAVE on page 682
Configuring Spectrum Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.6.2.3, "Spectrum Settings",
on page 326.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Spectrum".
3. Connect the voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. If required demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your
current probe.
5. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
Connect the voltage probe to the output stage of the DUT.
Connect the current probe in flow direction of the current to the output stage of
the DUT.
6. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
7. Select the "Fundamental".
8. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
9. If required change the "Span" and the "Points":
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press FFT.
Press "FFT Setup" to open the submenu.
Set the "Span" to adjust the width of the displayed frequency range.
Set the "Points" to define how many samples are used for FFT calculation.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current, the voltage
and the spectrum. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the
result table. For details, see Chapter 12.6.2.1, "Spectrum Results", on page 324.
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12.6.2.3
Spectrum Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = Spectrum"
Figure 12-7: Setup of spectrum analysis
Required probes:
●
Voltage probe
●
Current probe
To see a result table with the spectrum parameters, select "Result Table" > "Result
Table". See: Chapter 12.3, "Result Table Settings", on page 299.
Source
Sets the channel for the source input. This can be either a current or a voltage source.
Fundamental
Sets the switching frequency of the device.
Remote command:
POWer:SPECtrum:FREQuency on page 690
12.6.3 Transient Response
The transient response analysis measures the response of a system to a change from
equilibrium. This response is described by different properties like the overshoot, the
settling time, the peak time and the delay time.
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12.6.3.1
Transient Response Results
The results of "Transient Response" measurements are:
●
Voltage waveform
●
Numeric measurement results
The transient response results are defined as follows:
Table 12-3: Transient response
Result
Symbol
Description
Rise time
tr
The time needed for the signal to change from 10% to 90% of the specified top level.
Overshoot level
Ovr
The maximum swing level above the top level.
Settling time
Sett.
The time period between cursor 1 and cursor 2.
Peak time
tPeak
The time needed for the response to reach the first peak of the overshoot.
Peak
Peak
The peak value of the signal
Delay time
Delay
The time needed for the response to reach half of the top level value,
after the trigger event.
Remote commands:
12.6.3.2
●
POWer:TRANsient:RESult:DELay? on page 694
●
POWer:TRANsient:RESult:OVERshoot? on page 694
●
POWer:TRANsient:RESult:PEAK:TIME? on page 694
●
POWer:TRANsient:RESult:PEAK:VALue? on page 694
●
POWer:TRANsient:RESult:RTIMe? on page 695
●
POWer:TRANsient:RESult:SETTlingtime? on page 695
Configuring Transient Response Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.6.3.3, "Transient Response
Settings", on page 328 .
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Transient Response".
3. Connect the voltage probe to the oscilloscope.
4. Connect the voltage probe to the output stage of the DUT.
5. Select the correct channel for the "Source".
6. Set the "Top Level" and the "Base Level" of the signal.
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7. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the voltage. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the result table. For details,
see Chapter 12.6.3.1, "Transient Response Results", on page 327.
12.6.3.3
Transient Response Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis =Transient Response".
Figure 12-8: Setup of transient response analysis
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
Source
Sets the channel for the voltage source input.
Top Level
Sets the expected top value.
Remote command:
POWer:TRANsient:SIGHigh on page 695
Base Level
Sets the expected base value.
Remote command:
POWer:TRANsient:SIGLow on page 695
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Switching and Control Loop Measurements
Set to screen
Resets the cursors to their initial positions. This is helpful if the cursors have disappeared from the display or need to be moved for a larger distance.
12.7 Switching and Control Loop Measurements
Switching and control loop analysis is used to measure the internal characteristics of a
switching device and the operational reliability of the components.
●
●
●
Slew Rate..............................................................................................................329
Modulation.............................................................................................................331
Dynamic On Resistance........................................................................................334
12.7.1 Slew Rate
The slew rate analysis measures the rate of change of the voltage or current waveform
during the switching of a switching transistor.
12.7.1.1
Slew Rate Results
The results of "Slew Rate" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform or the current waveform
●
a waveform of the derivative of voltage and current
●
numeric measurement results
For a detailed description of the numeric results, see Table 12-2.
Additionally, for each measurement result you can enable a statistic evaluation of the
measurement results. It returns the current, minimum and maximum measurement values, the average and standard deviation, and the number of measured waveforms.
Remote commands, peak- :
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:LPEak[:ACTual]? on page 696
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:LPEak:AVG? on page 696
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:LPEak:NPEak? on page 696
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:LPEak:PPEak? on page 696
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:LPEak:STDDev? on page 696
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:LPEak:WFMCount? on page 696
Remote commands, peak+ :
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:UPEak[:ACTual]? on page 697
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:UPEak:AVG? on page 697
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:UPEak:NPEak? on page 697
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:UPEak:PPEak? on page 697
●
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:UPEak:STDDev? on page 697
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Switching and Control Loop Measurements
●
12.7.1.2
POWer:SLEWrate:RESult:UPEak:WFMCount? on page 697
Configuring Slew Rate Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.7.1.3, "Slew Rate Settings",
on page 330.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Slew Rate".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential probe to the drain of
the transistor.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential probe to the source of
the transistor.
Connect the current probe to the source of the transistor.
10. Select the correct channel for the "Source".
11. Set the "Δt" value low enough.
12. To enable statistic evaluation of the measurement results, select "Statistic" > "Visible".
13. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current, the voltage
and the derivative of voltage and current. Additionally, the numeric measurement
results are shown in the lower left corner. For details, see Chapter 12.7.1.1, "Slew
Rate Results", on page 329.
12.7.1.3
Slew Rate Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = Slew Rate"
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Switching and Control Loop Measurements
Figure 12-9: Setup of slew rate
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
To get statistic results of the slew rate parameters, select "Statistic" > "Visible". See:
Chapter 12.2, "Statistic Menu Settings", on page 298.
Source
Sets the channel for the source. This can be either a current or a voltage source.
Delta t
Sets the delta time.
Remote command:
POWer:SLEWrate:DTIMe on page 696
12.7.2 Modulation
The modulation analysis measures the control pulse signal to a switching device.
12.7.2.1
Modulation Results
The results of "Modulation" measurements are:
●
the voltage or the current waveform
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Switching and Control Loop Measurements
●
numeric measurement results
For a detailed description of the numeric results, see Table 12-2.
Additionally, for each measurement result you can enable a statistic evaluation of the
measurement results. It returns the current, minimum and maximum measurement values, the average and standard deviation, and the number of measured waveforms.
Remote commands, peak+:
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:UPEak[:ACTual]? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:UPEak:AVG? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:UPEak:NPEak? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:UPEak:PPEak? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:UPEak:STDDev? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:UPEakWFMCount? on page 700
Remote commands, peak-:
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:LPEak[:ACTual]? on page 698
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:LPEak:AVG? on page 698
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:LPEak:NPEak? on page 698
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:LPEak:PPEak? on page 698
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:LPEak:STDDev? on page 698
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:LPEak:WFMCount? on page 698
Remote commands, mean:
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:MEAN[:ACTual]? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:MEAN:AVG? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:MEAN:NPEak? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:MEAN:PPEak? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:MEAN:STDDev? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:MEAN:WFMCount? on page 699
Remote commands, RMS:
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:RMS[:ACTual]? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:RMS:AVG? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:RMS:NPEak? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:RMS:PPEak? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:RMS:STDDev? on page 699
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:RMS:WFMCount? on page 699
Remote commands, standard deviation:
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:STDDev[:ACTual]? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:STDDev:AVG? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:STDDev:NPEak? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:STDDev:PPEak? on page 700
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12.7.2.2
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:STDDev:STDDev? on page 700
●
POWer:MODulation:RESult:STDDev:WFMCount? on page 700
Configuring Modulation Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.5.1.3, "Power Quality Settings", on page 311.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Modulation".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. If required demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your
current probe.
5. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential probe to the gate of the
transistor.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential probe to the source of
the transistor.
Connect the current probe to the drain of the transistor.
6. Select the correct channel for the "Source".
7. To enable statistic evaluation of the measurement results, select "Statistic" > "Visible".
8. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current, the voltage
and the power. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the
lower left corner. For details, see Chapter 12.5.1.1, "Quality Results", on page 307.
12.7.2.3
Modulation Analysis Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis =Modulation".
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Switching and Control Loop Measurements
Figure 12-10: Setup of modulation analysis
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To get statistic results of the modulation analysis parameters, select "Statistic" > "Visible". See: Chapter 12.2, "Statistic Menu Settings", on page 298.
Source
Sets the channel for the source. This can be either a current or a voltage source.
Type
Selects the modulation type. A calculation of the waveform for the selected measurement type is shown on the screen. You can select between the period, frequency, the
positive/negative duty cycle and the positive/negative pulse width.
Remote command:
POWer:MODulation:TYPE on page 698
12.7.3 Dynamic On Resistance
The dynamic On resistance analysis measures the resistance of a switching device,
during operation. Because voltage and current may vary in time, the resistance is not
constant, thus it is called dynamic On resistance. It is defined as the ratio dV/dI.
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Switching and Control Loop Measurements
12.7.3.1
Dynamic On Resistance Results
The results of "Dynamic On Resistance" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
the current waveform
●
the dynamic on resistance value
Remote commands:
12.7.3.2
●
POWer:DONResistance:RESult:DONResistance? on page 701
●
POWer:DONResistance:GATE<n>:START on page 701
●
POWer:DONResistance:GATE<n>STOP on page 701
Configuring Dynamic On Resistance Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.7.3.3, "Dynamic On Resistance Settings", on page 336.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Dynamic On Resistance".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential probe to the drain of
the transistor.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential probe to the source of
the transistor.
Connect the current probe to the source of the transistor.
10. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
11. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
12. If required adjust the cursors manually:
a) Press the NAVIGATION rotary knob until the correspondent cursor is selected.
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Switching and Control Loop Measurements
b) Rotate the NAVIGATION rotary knob to change the position of the cursor.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the current and the
voltage. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the lower right
corner. For details, see Chapter 12.7.3.1, "Dynamic On Resistance Results",
on page 335.
12.7.3.3
Dynamic On Resistance Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = Dynamic ON Resistance"
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
The settings for the voltage and current sources are the same as for quality analysis,
see "Voltage" on page 311 and "Current" on page 312.
Set to screen
Resets the cursors to their initial positions. This is helpful if the cursors have disappeared from the display or need to be moved for a larger distance.
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Power Path Analysis
12.8 Power Path Analysis
●
●
●
●
Efficiency...............................................................................................................337
Switching Loss...................................................................................................... 340
Turn ON/OFF Time............................................................................................... 343
Safe Operating Area (S.O.A.)............................................................................... 345
12.8.1 Efficiency
The power efficiency analysis measures the input and the output power of a power
supply. The power efficiency of the power supply is then calculated as the ratio of the
output power and the input power.
12.8.1.1
Efficiency Results
The results of "Efficiency" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
the current waveform
●
the power waveform that is the product of the current and voltage waveforms
●
numeric measurement results
For a detailed description of the numeric results, see Table 12-2.
Additionally, for each measurement result you can enable a statistic evaluation of the
measurement results. It returns the current, minimum and maximum measurement values, the average and standard deviation, and the number of measured waveforms.
Remote commands, efficiency:
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:EFFiciency[:ACTual]? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:EFFiciency:AVG? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:EFFiciency:NPEak? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:EFFiciency:PPEak? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:EFFiciency:STDDev? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:EFFiciency:WFMCount? on page 702
Remote commands, output real power:
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:INPut:REALpower[:ACTual]? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:INPut:REALpower:AVG? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:INPut:REALpower:NPEak? on page 702
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:INPut:REALpower:PPEak? on page 703
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:INPut:REALpower:STDDev? on page 703
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:INPut:REALpower:WFMCount? on page 703
Remote commands, input real power:
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:OUTPut:REALpower[:ACTual]? on page 703
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12.8.1.2
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:OUTPut:REALpower:AVG? on page 703
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:OUTPut:REALpower:NPEak? on page 703
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:OUTPut:REALpower:PPEak? on page 703
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:OUTPut:REALpower:STDDev? on page 703
●
POWer:EFFiciency:RESult:OUTPut:REALpower:WFMCount? on page 703
Configuring Efficiency Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.8.1.3, "Efficiency Settings",
on page 339.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Efficiency".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probes. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the first differential probe to the line of
the AC input.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the first differential probe to the neutral of the AC input.
Connect the first current probe to the line of the AC input.
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the second differential probe to the
input path of the load.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the second differential probe to the
return path of the load.
Connect the second current probe to the input path of the load with the direction of the arrow pointing towards the current flow.
10. Select the correct channels for the "Input Current", "Input Voltage", "Output Current" and the "Output Voltage" sources.
11. To enable statistic evaluation of the measurement results, select "Statistic" > "Visible".
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12. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveforms of the currents and the
voltages. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the lower
right corner. For details, see Chapter 12.8.1.1, "Efficiency Results", on page 337.
If you have a two-channel scope or you don't have four probes to perform the efficiency
analysis measurement at once, you can first store your input waveform as a reference
and then measure the output waveform.
12.8.1.3
Efficiency Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis =Efficiency".
Required probes:
●
Two differential voltage probes
●
Two current probes
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
To get statistic results of the efficiency parameters, select "Statistic" > "Visible". See:
Chapter 12.2, "Statistic Menu Settings", on page 298.
Input, Output
Displays the softkeys for setting the input/ouput voltage and current.
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Input Voltage, Input Current
Sets the channels for the input voltage and the input current.
Output Voltage, Output Current
Sets the channels for the output voltage and the output current.
12.8.2 Switching Loss
The switching loss analysis measures the power and energy losses of a switching
device, that occur during the switching phases and the conduction phase of a switching
transistor.
12.8.2.1
Switching Loss Results
The results of "Switching Loss" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
the current waveform
●
the power waveform that is the product of the current and voltage waveforms
●
numeric measurement results
The numeric measurement results can be displayed in dependance of the power or the
energy according to the selected "Type". The switching loss results show the power/
energy values in W/J for the following switching phases:
Table 12-4: Switching loss phases
Phase
Symbol
Definition Points
Description
Turn on
On
The area between "t1" and "t2"
The time after switching the device,
during which the current rises until it
reaches the saturation current level.
Conduction
Cond
The area between "t2" and "t3"
The time during which the voltage is
at the transistors saturated minimum
and the current flows.
Turn off
Off
The area between "t3" and "t4"
The time during which after a short
delay time the voltage rises until it
reaches its final value.
Non conduction
No Cond
The area between "t4" and "t5"
The time during current doesn't flow.
The losses during this period should
be theoretically zero.
Total
Total
The area between "t1" and "t5"
The period of one switching cycle.
Remote commands:
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:CONDuction:ENERgy? on page 706
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:CONDuction:POWer? on page 706
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:NCONduction:ENERgy? on page 706
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:NCONduction:POWer? on page 706
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:TOFF:ENERgy? on page 706
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12.8.2.2
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:TOFF:POWer? on page 706
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:TON:ENERgy? on page 707
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:TON:POWer? on page 707
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:TOTal:ENERgy? on page 707
●
POWer:SWITching:RESult:TOTal:POWer? on page 707
Configuring Switching Loss Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.8.2.3, "Switching Loss Settings
", on page 342.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Switching Loss".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential probe to the drain of
the transistor.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential probe to the source of
the transistor.
Connect the current probe to the source of the transistor.
10. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
11. Select the "Type" for the measurement.
12. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveform of the current, the voltage
and the power. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the
lower right corner. For details, see Chapter 12.8.2.1, "Switching Loss Results",
on page 340.
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12.8.2.3
Switching Loss Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis =Switching Loss".
Figure 12-11: Setup of switching loss analysis
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
The settings for the voltage and current sources are the same as for quality analysis,
see "Voltage" on page 311 and "Current" on page 312.
Type
Selects the measurement type, power or energy, for the switching loss measurement.
The results of the measurement are displayed in W for power measurements and in J
for energy measurements.
Remote command:
POWer:SWITching:TYPE on page 704
Set to waveform
Autoset for cursor lines, sets the cursor lines to typical points of the waveform depending on the selected measurement type
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12.8.3 Turn ON/OFF Time
The turn on/off analysis measures how long it takes a power supply to reach a certain
percentage of the steady state output level during initial turn on or turn off.
12.8.3.1
Turn ON/OFF Time Results
The results of "Turn ON/OFF Time" measurements are:
●
the input voltage waveform
●
the output voltage waveform
●
the turn on / turn off time
Remote commands:
●
12.8.3.2
POWer:ONOFf:RESult<n>:TIME? on page 708
Configuring Turn ON/OFF Time Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.8.3.3, "Turn ON/OFF Time
Settings", on page 344.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "Turn ON/OFF".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT:
●
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential probe to the line of the
AC input.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential probe to the neutral of
the AC input.
Connect the passive voltage probe to the DC output of the DUT.
Connect the current probe to the input path of the load with the direction of the
arrow pointing towards the current flow.
10. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
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11. Select the "Type" for the measurement.
12. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveform of the input and output
voltage. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the lower left
corner. For details, see Chapter 12.8.3.1, "Turn ON/OFF Time Results",
on page 343.
12.8.3.3
Turn ON/OFF Time Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis =Turn ON/OFF time".
Required probes:
●
Two voltage probes
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
Type
Selects turn on or turn off time as the type of measurement.
Input Voltage
Sets the channel for the input voltage.
Output Voltage
Sets the channels for the output voltage.
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More
Displays more softkeys belonging to the same submenu.
12.8.4 Safe Operating Area (S.O.A.)
The safe operating area is defined by the voltage and current conditions over which a
power semiconductor device is expected to operate without self-damage. The "Safe
Operating Area" analysis provides a diagram of the safe operating conditions of your
device.
12.8.4.1
Safe Operating Area Results
The results of "SOA" measurements are:
●
the voltage waveform
●
the current waveform
●
numeric measurement results
The numeric measurement results are:
Table 12-5: Results of the mask test
Result
Description
Samples/ Acquisitions
Number of tested points/acquisitions
Passed
Number of points/acquisitions that have passed the
mask test, i.e. they are within the defined safe opearating area mask
Failed
Number of points/acquisitions that have failed the
mask test, i.e. they are out of the defined safe opearating area mask
Fail rate
Ratio of acquisition hits to the number of tested
acquisitions
Result
A test has failed if the number of sample hits or
acquisition hits exceeds the limit of "Total tolerance"/"Acq. tolerance" hits
Remote commands:
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:FAILed? on page 712
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:FRATe? on page 712
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:PASSed? on page 712
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:POINts? on page 712
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:STATe? on page 712
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:TOLerance on page 711
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:VCOunt? on page 713
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:VIOLation<n>? on page 713
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage? on page 713
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●
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:VIOLation<n>:CURRent? on page 713
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:SAMPle:COUNt? on page 713
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:SAMPle:FAILed? on page 714
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:SAMPle:PASSed? on page 714
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:COUNt? on page 714
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:FAILed? on page 714
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:FRATe? on page 714
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:PASSed? on page 714
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:STATe? on page 715
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:TOLerance on page 711
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VCOunt? on page 715
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>? on page 715
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent? on page 715
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent:DATA? on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent:DATA:HEADer?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent:DATA:XINCrement?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent:DATA:XORigin?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent:DATA:YINCrement?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent:DATA:YORigin?
on page 717
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:CURRent:DATA:YRESolution?
on page 717
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage? on page 715
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage:DATA? on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage:DATA:HEADer?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage:DATA:XINCrement?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage:DATA:XORigin?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage:DATA:YINCrement?
on page 716
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage:DATA:YORigin?
on page 717
●
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:VIOLation<n>:VOLTage:DATA:YRESolution?
on page 717
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12.8.4.2
Configuring Safe Operating Area Measurements
For details of the configuration settings, see Chapter 12.8.4.3, "Safe Operating Area
(S.O.A.) Settings", on page 347.
1. Press the "Tools" key and select "Power".
2. Press "Analysis" and select "SOA".
3. Connect the differential voltage probe and the current probe to the oscilloscope.
It is recommended that you use a high voltage differential probe for measurements
at the DUT power input.
4. Demagnetize the current probe. For details, see the user manual of your current
probe.
5. Press "Probe".
6. Connect the probes to the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture.
7. "Deskew" the probes and adjust the "Zero Offset".
8. Disconnect the probes from the R&S RT-ZF20 power deskew fixture and press
"Back".
9. Connect the probes to the DUT.
●
●
●
Connect the positive (+) signal socket of the differential probe to the drain of
the transistor.
Connect the negative (-) signal socket of the differential probe to the source of
the transistor.
Connect the current probe to the source of the transistor.
10. Select the correct channels for the "Current" and the "Voltage" sources.
11. Select "Mask Setup" and configure the mask to be used for the measurement.
12. Select "Test Setup" and set the "Total Tolerance", "Acq. Tolerance" and the "Window Scale".
13. Press the AUTOSET button to adjust the display scales automatically or adjust
them manually.
On the screen you can see the measurement waveform of the input and output
voltage. Additionally, the numeric measurement results are shown in the lower left
corner. For details, see Chapter 12.8.4.1, "Safe Operating Area Results",
on page 345.
12.8.4.3
Safe Operating Area (S.O.A.) Settings
Access: TOOLS > "Power" > "Analysis = SOA".
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Figure 12-12: Setup of safe operating area analysis
Required probes:
●
Differential voltage probe
●
Current probe
To adjust the probes, open the "Probe" menu. For details, see Chapter 12.1.2, "Probe
Settings for Power Measurements", on page 298.
The settings for the voltage and current sources are the same as for quality analysis,
see "Voltage" on page 311 and "Current" on page 312.
Restart
Restarts the SOA measurement.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:RESTart on page 709
Mask Setup
Opens a submenu for configuring the mask.
Edit Mask
Opens a submenu to configure a user defined mask values.
For each mask point, the voltage and minimum and maximum current are set. Thus,
the upper and the lower mask limits are defined.
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Power Path Analysis
Point ← Edit Mask
Selects the point to be defined.
Voltage ← Edit Mask
Sets the voltage for the selected point.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:LINear:POINt<m>:VOLTage on page 710
POWer:SOA:LOGarithmic:POINt<m>:VOLTage on page 710
Imin ← Edit Mask
Sets the minimum current for the selected point.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:LINear:POINt<m>:CURRent:MINimum on page 710
POWer:SOA:LOGarithmic:POINt<m>:CURRent:MINimum on page 710
Imax ← Edit Mask
Sets the maximum current for the selected point.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:LINear:POINt<m>:CURRent:MAXimum on page 710
POWer:SOA:LOGarithmic:POINt<m>:CURRent:MAXimum on page 710
POWer:SOA:LINear:POINt<m>:CURRent on page 709
POWer:SOA:LOGarithmic:POINt<m>:CURRent on page 709
Add ← Edit Mask
Adds a point to the safe operating area definition list.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:LINear:ADD on page 709
POWer:SOA:LOGarithmic:ADD on page 709
POWer:SOA:LINear:INSert on page 709
POWer:SOA:LOGarithmic:INSert on page 709
Remove ← Edit Mask
Removes the selected point from the safe operating area definition list.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:LINear:REMove on page 710
POWer:SOA:LOGarithmic:REMove on page 710
Save Mask
Opens a submenu to save the mask.
See: Chapter 15.3.1.3, "General Storage Settings", on page 370
New File ← Save Mask
Creates new file.
More ← Save Mask
Displays more softkeys belonging to the same submenu.
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Load Mask
Opens a file explorer to select a previously stored mask. The selected mask is loaded
and can be used for a subsequent test.
See: Chapter 15.3.1.3, "General Storage Settings", on page 370
Mask Scale
Selects the scale for the mask, linear or logarithmic.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:SCALe:MASK on page 709
Test Setup
Opens a submenu to define the tolerance of the test setup as well as the window
scale.
Total Tolerance ← Test Setup
Sets the allowed total tolerance.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:RESult:TOTal:TOLerance on page 711
Acq. Tolerance ← Test Setup
Sets the allowed acquisition tolerance.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:RESult:ACQuisition:TOLerance on page 711
Window Scale ← Acq. Tolerance ← Test Setup
Selects a linear or a logarithmic scaled for the displayed results.
Remote command:
POWer:SOA:SCALe:DISPlay on page 709
Export Violations
Opens the "Export" menu to save the measurement results to an Excel file.
See: Chapter 15.3.1.3, "General Storage Settings", on page 370.
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Digital Voltmeter and Counter (DVM Option R&S RTM-K32)
DVM and Counter Results
13 Digital Voltmeter and Counter (DVM Option
R&S RTM-K32)
The integrated three-digit digital voltmeter simplifies measurement, in particular for service personnel. You can perform four configurable measurements at the same time
and define the position of the measurement results.
The following DVM measurements are available:
●
DC: mean value of the signal
●
AC+DC RMS: RMS value of the signal
●
AC RMS: RMS value of the signal's AC component
●
Crest Factor: |X|max / XRMS
●
Peak: Maximum - Minimum
●
Peak +: Maximum value
●
Peak -: Minimum value
The counter shows two basic parameters of the trigger source: frequency and period. If
both A-trigger and B-trigger are used, two counter results are displayed.
The digital voltmeter captures input data with the selected vertical sensitivity and the
basic accuracy of the ADC. It is independent from the capture settings and the post
processing. All measurements are are based on a measurement interval, which
ensures reliable results over the defined frequency range.
13.1 DVM and Counter Results
If the digital voltmeter and/or the counter are enabled in the TOOLs menu, a result box
displays the measurement results. You can define the position ot the result box.
For DVM measurements, the measurement source is indicated by the channel color,
counter results are displayed in white.
1 = Frequency of the trigger source (counter)
2 = Period of the trigger source (counter)
3 = A/B-trigger and trigger source (counter)
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DVM Settings
4 = Measurement type (DVM)
5 = Measurement result (DVM)
6 = Clipping marker (DVM)
The clipping marker shows if the signal is clipped at the upper limit of the ADC range,
at the lower limit, or at both.
Remote commands:
●
TCOunter<t>:RESult[:ACTual]:FREQuency? on page 727
●
TCOunter<t>:RESult[:ACTual]:PERiod? on page 728
●
DVM<m>:RESult[:ACTual]? on page 729
●
DVM<m>:RESult[:ACTual]:STATus? on page 729
13.2 DVM Settings
Access: TOOLS
In the "Tools" menu, you can activate the DVM and trigger counter measurements
directly, and you can open the menu woith digital voltmeter settings.
Trig. Counter............................................................................................................... 352
Dig. Voltmeter............................................................................................................. 353
└ Voltmeter.......................................................................................................353
└ Meas. Place.................................................................................................. 353
└ Source...........................................................................................................353
└ Type.............................................................................................................. 353
└ Position......................................................................................................... 353
Trig. Counter
Enables and disables the trigger counter. If enabled, the frequency and period of the Aand B-trigger sources are displayed above the DVM results. The counter provides the
same results as the automatic measurement functions "Trigger Frequency" and "Trigger Period".
Remote command:
TCOunter<t>:ENAB on page 727
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DVM Settings
Dig. Voltmeter
Activates the digital voltmeter and opens the "Digital Voltmeter" menu, where you can
configure four independent voltmeter measurements. For each measurement, you can
define the source and the measurement type.
Voltmeter ← Dig. Voltmeter
Enables and disables all configured voltmeter measurements.
If you disable the voltmeter, the measurement setup remains.
Remote command:
DVM<m>:ENABle on page 728
Meas. Place ← Dig. Voltmeter
Selects one of the four available measurements to be configured.
Source ← Dig. Voltmeter
Selects an analog channel as the source of the selected measurement.
Remote command:
DVM<m>:SOURce on page 728
Type ← Dig. Voltmeter
Defines the measurement type to be performed on the selected source.
Select "Off" to disable the measurement.
The following DVM measurements are available:
● DC: mean value of the signal
● AC+DC RMS: RMS value of the signal
● AC RMS: RMS value of the signal's AC component
● Crest Factor: |X|max / XRMS
● Peak: Maximum - Minimum
● Peak +: Maximum value
● Peak -: Minimum value
Remote command:
DVM<m>:TYPE on page 728
Position ← Dig. Voltmeter
Selects the corner of the screen in which the measurement results are displayed.
Remote command:
DVM<m>:POSition on page 729
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About MSO
14 Mixed Signal Option (MSO, R&S RTM-B1)
The Mixed Signal Option R&S RTM-B1 adds logic analyzer functions to the classical
oscilloscope functions. Using the MSO option, you can analyze and debug embedded
systems with mixed-signal designs that use analog signals and correlated digital signals simultaneously.
14.1 About MSO
The Mixed Signal Option provides 16 digital channels grouped in two logic probes
(pods) with 8 channels each. The instrument ensures that analog and digital waveforms are timealigned and synchronized so that critical timing interactions between
analog and digital signals can be displayed and tested. The automatic alignment compensates the skew between the probe connectors of the analog channels and the
probe boxes of the digital channels.
Digital channels
Each digital channel can be displayed on the screen and used as trigger source of
some trigger types. A pod of digital signals can be saved as reference waveform (REF
> "Source" > "Save", and exported to file (FILE > "Waveforms").
Digital channels are not available for mathematical operations. Search on digital channels is not possible.
Parallel buses
Digital channels may be grouped and displayed as a parallel bus. Up to 4 parallel
buses can be configured; and two bus types are supported: clocked bus and unclocked
bus. The last selected bus is the active bus that is shown on the display, other configured buses are disabled.
Trigger possibilities
One of the digital channels can be used as trigger source for edge and width triggers.
However, digital channels are not selectable if the B-trigger is enabled. Using the pattern trigger, you can trigger on parallel buses and logical combinations of analog and
digital channels. For all digital trigger sources, the trigger level is the logical threshold.
Additionally, you can define a trigger holdoff time for the edge and width trigger.
Cursor measurements
Cursor measurements can be performed on single digital channels and on pods. As for
all measurements, the instrument provides only sources that are active and appropriate for the selected measurement type.
The sources D0 to D15 are available for time, ratio X, count, duty ratio and burst width
measurements. The pods D0...D7 and D8...D15 are available for V-marker measurements, which delivers the 8-bit value of the pod lines.
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Automatic measurements and statistics
Automatic time and count measurements can be performed on active digital channels.
As for all measurements, the instrument provides only sources that are active and
appropriate for the selected measurement type.
The following measurement types are available for single digital channels (bits): frequency, period, edge and pulse counts, phase, delay, duty cycle, burst width. Statistical evaluation of these measurements is also possible.
Quick measurements on digital channels are not available.
14.2 Digital Channels
14.2.1 Digital Channels - Activity Display
The color coded waveform label for digital channels on the top of the window shows
the current status of all logic channels regardless of the trigger settings, and even without any acquisition. The states are high, low, and toggle.
Remote commands:
●
DIGital<m>:CURRent:STATe:MAXimum? on page 717
●
DIGital<m>:CURRent:STATe:MINimum? on page 717
14.2.2 Digital Channels - Configuration
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > if "Protocol" menu is displayed: "Logic"
D7-D0 / D15-D8.......................................................................................................... 356
Visible..........................................................................................................................356
Deskew....................................................................................................................... 356
Threshold.................................................................................................................... 356
└ Nibble............................................................................................................357
└ Threshold...................................................................................................... 357
└ Technology................................................................................................... 357
└ Hysteresis..................................................................................................... 357
└ Couple Levels............................................................................................... 357
Label........................................................................................................................... 357
└ Bit..................................................................................................................358
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└ Label............................................................................................................. 358
└ Library........................................................................................................... 358
└ Edit Label...................................................................................................... 358
POSITION................................................................................................................... 358
SCALE........................................................................................................................ 358
D7-D0 / D15-D8
Enables or disables all digital channels of the pod at once.
Visible
Enables or disables individual digital channels.
Turn the navigation knob to select the digital channel, then press the knob to enable or
disable the channel.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:DISPlay on page 718
Deskew
Deskew compensates delays that are known from the circuit specifics or caused by the
different length of cables. The skew between the probe boxes of the digital channels
and the probe connectors of the analog channels is automatically aligned by the instrument.
You can set the deskew for all channels of a logic probe at once, or for each logic
channel separately.
"Logic Probe"
Selects the pod.
"Deskew"
Enables deskewing for the selected logic probe.
"Logic Channel"
If you want to deskew single logic channels, select the channel and
set the deskew value using "Deskew".
"Value"
Sets the deskew value for the selected logic channel, or for the
selected logic probe.
"Set probe to"
Applies the current deskew value to all logic channels of the selected
logic probe.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:DESKew on page 719
Threshold
Opens the "Threshold" menu.
You can set the digital threshold in several ways:
● The same threshold and hysteresis is used for all digital channels: Enable "Couple
Levels" and set the values.
● Different thresholds and hysteresis are used for individual channel groups (nibbles): Disable "Couple Levels" and set the threshold and hysteresis for each nibble.
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Nibble ← Threshold
Selects a group of 4 digital channels for which the threshold and the hysteresis can be
set.
Threshold ← Threshold
Sets the threshold value for the selected nibble, or for all digital channels if "Couple
Levels" is enabled.
The threshold setting is available if "Technology" is "User Level".
For each acquired sample, the instrument compares the input voltage with the threshold value. If the input voltage is above the threshold, the signal state "1" is stored. Otherwise, the signal state "0" is stored if the input voltage is below the threshold.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:THReshold on page 718
Technology ← Threshold
Selects the threshold voltage for various types of integrated circuits from a list. The
value is applied to the selected nibble, or to all digital channels if "Couple Levels" is
enabled.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:TECHnology on page 718
Hysteresis ← Threshold
Hysteresis avoids the change of signal states due to noise oscillation around the
threshold level. Set a small hysteresis for clean signals, and large hysteresis for noisy
signals.
Threshold
Logic 0
Hysteresis
Logic 1
Logic 0
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:Hysteresis on page 719
Couple Levels ← Threshold
Applies the threshold and hysteresis values of the first nibble (D0 to D3) to all digital
channels.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:THCoupling on page 719
Label
Opens the "Label" menu.
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You can define a label for each digital channel, and display each label individually. The
labels are shown on the the right side of the display. You can enter a label text in several ways:
● Select a predefined string from the "Library".
● Enter a user-defined text using "Edit Label".
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:LABel on page 720
Bit ← Label
Selects the digital channel for which the label is to be defined.
Label ← Label
Displays or hides the label of the selected digital channel.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:LABel:STATe on page 720
Library ← Label
Selects a label text from a list of frequently used terms.
Edit Label ← Label
Opens the on-screen keyboard to enter any label text
The maximum name length is 8 characters, and only ASCII characters provided on the
on-screen keyboard can be used.
POSITION
The vertical POSITION rotary knob moves the digital channels vertically on the screen.
It affects all visible dgital channels.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:POSition on page 720
SCALE
The vertical SCALE rotary knob sets the size of the digital channels. The setting affects
all visible dgital channels.
Remote command:
DIGital<m>:SIZE on page 719
14.3 Parallel Buses
The R&S RTM can display and decode up to 16 lines of a parallel bus. To trigger on
parallel buses, use the pattern trigger. See: Chapter 3.3.2.6, "Pattern", on page 67.
14.3.1 Line Configuration for Parallel Buses
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > if "Logic" menu is displayed: "Protocol" > "Bus Type" =
"Parallel" or "Parallel Clocked" > "Configuration "
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A parallel bus can analyze up to 16 digital channels. You can assign the digital channels to the bus bits individually. The configuration is the same for unclocked and
clocked parallel buses. The configuration remains until you press the PRESET key or
"Set to default".
Bus width
Sets the number of lines to be analyzed.
For an unclocked parallel bus, the maximum number is 16 bits.
For a clocked parallel bus, the maximum number is 15 bits, one channel is reserved for
the clock. If chip select is used in addition, the maximum number is 14 bits.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:PARallel:WIDTh on page 723
BUS<b>:CPARallel:WIDTh on page 723
Prev. Bit / Next bit
Select the bit to which the source is assigned. The selection is marked with blue color
in the configuration list.
Source
Selects the digital channel that is assigned to the selected bit.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:PARallel:DATA<m>:SOURce on page 723
BUS<b>:CPARallel:DATA<m>:SOURce on page 723
Set to default
Resets the data lines to the default order D0...D15.
Control Wires
Opens the "Control Wires" configuration menu to setup the clock and chip select lines
for clocked parallel buses.
See: Chapter 14.3.2, "Control Wires Configuration for Clocked Parallel Buses",
on page 360
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POSITION
The vertical POSITION rotary knob moves bus display vertically on the screen.
SCALE
The vertical SCALE rotary knob sets the size of the parallel bus.
14.3.2 Control Wires Configuration for Clocked Parallel Buses
For the clocked parallel bus, a clock line and a chip select line are defined in addition.
Access: PROTOCOL LOGIC > if "Logic" menu is displayed: "Protocol" > "Bus Type =
Parallel Clocked" > "Configuration " > "Control Wires"
Use Chip Select
Enables and disables the chip select line.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CPARallel:CS:ENABle on page 724
Chip Select (source)
Selects the digital channel that is used as chip select line.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CPARallel:CS:SOURce on page 725
Chip Select (active)
Selects wether the chip select signal is high active (high = 1) or low active (low = 1).
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CPARallel:CS:POLarity on page 725
Clock (source)
Selects the digital channel that is used as clock line.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CPARallel:CLOCk:SOURce on page 724
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Clock (slope)
Selects if the data is sampled on the rising or falling slope of the clock, or on both
edges of a double data rate clock. The clock slope marks the begin of a new bit.
Remote command:
BUS<b>:CPARallel:CLOCK:SLOPe on page 724
14.3.3 Decode Results
You can enable the decoding in the "Protocol" main menu. Select "Decode" to show
the decoded values below the waveforms in the format selected with "Display". Additionally, you can display the binary signal with "Bits".
See also: Chapter 11.1.2, "Protocol - Common Settings", on page 193
Additionally, you can display and save a "Frame Table" containing decoded data:
frame number, start time of the frame, identifier, data length, data, checksum, and
state of the frame.
See also: Chapter 11.1.5, "Frame Table: Decode Results", on page 198
Remote commands for unclocked parallel bus:
●
BUS<b>:PARallel:FCOunt? on page 725
●
BUS<b>:PARallel:FRAMe<n>:DATA? on page 726
●
BUS<b>:PARallel:FRAMe<n>:STATe? on page 726
●
BUS<b>:PARallel:FRAMe<n>:STARt? on page 726
●
BUS<b>:PARallel:FRAMe<n>:STOP? on page 727
Remote commands for clocked parallel bus:
●
BUS<b>:CPARallel:FCOunt? on page 725
●
BUS<b>:CPARallel:FRAMe<n>:DATA? on page 726
●
BUS<b>:CPARallel:FRAMe<n>:STATe? on page 726
●
BUS<b>:CPARallel:FRAMe<n>:STARt? on page 726
●
BUS<b>:CPARallel:FRAMe<n>:STOP? on page 727
14.3.4 Analyzing Parallel Buses
Similar to serial protocols, the parallel buses - unclocked and clocked - need configuration to decode and display the signal.
To configure parallel buses
1. Press the PROTOCOL LOGIC key on the front panel.
2. If the "Logic" menu is displayed, press "Protocol".
3. Press "Bus" and select the bus to be configured.
4. Press the "Bus Type" and select "Parallel" or "Parallel Clocked".
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5. Press "Configuration".
6. To configure the "Parallel" (unclocked) bus, select the "Bus Width".
7. To configure the "Parallel Clocked" bus:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Select the "Bus Width".
Press "Chip Select" and select the digital channel connected to CS.
Select the "Active" state of chip select.
Press "Clock" and select the digital channel connected to the clock line.
Select the clock "Slope".
8. Make sure that the thresholds are set correctly.
See:
9. Press "Back" and configure the data display.
See: "To configure decoding and data display" on page 193
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Quick Access with PRINT key
15 Data and File Management
This chapter describes how to print screenshots and how to manage settings, waveform data, references, masks, and formulas. All data management functionality is available in the "File" menu.
To open the File menu
► Press the FILE key on the left of the screen.
●
●
●
Quick Access with PRINT key...............................................................................363
Printing..................................................................................................................365
Saving and Loading.............................................................................................. 367
15.1 Quick Access with PRINT key
The PRINT key is a shortcut key that initiates the associated action. With this key it is
easyto print screenshots to a connected printer, or to save data to a specified storage
location just by pressing a single key.
You can assign one of the following actions to the PRINT key:
●
Save device settings
●
Save a waveform
●
Save a screenshot
●
Save a screenshot and the device settings
●
Print a screenshot
●
Save a report for power measurements (requires option R&S RTM-K31)
Saving data
You also can save data without changing the behavior of the PRINT key by pressing
"Save" for the selected data type in the FILE menu.
15.1.1 Configuring the PRINT-Key Behavior
Assign the action that is initiated when you press the "Print Key".
1. Press FILE > "Print Key".
2. Press the softkey of the action that you want to assign to the PRINT key.
3. Configure the settings for the selected action:
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●
●
●
●
●
Save device settings: FILE > "Device Settings > Save"
Save a waveform: FILE > "Waveforms"
Save a screenshot: FILE > "Screenshots"
Save a screenshot and the device settings: FILE > "Screenshots" and FILE >
"Device Settings > Save"
Print screenshots: SETUP > "More > Printer"
After this configuration the selected action is started whenever you press the
PRINT key.
15.1.2 PRINT-Key Settings
With FILE > "Print Key", you define thea ction that is executed when you press the
PRINT key.
Device Settings........................................................................................................... 364
Waveforms.................................................................................................................. 364
(Save) Screenshots.....................................................................................................364
Screen & Setup........................................................................................................... 364
(Print) Screenshots..................................................................................................... 365
Report......................................................................................................................... 365
Device Settings
If selected, the device settings are stored when you press the PRINT key. Storage settings are configured with FILE > "Device Settings".
See also: Chapter 15.3.2.2, "Device Settings Menu", on page 374.
Waveforms
If selected, the current waveform is stored when you press the PRINT key. Storage
settings are configured with FILE > "Waveforms".
See also: Chapter 15.3.3.3, "Waveform Storage Settings", on page 378.
(Save) Screenshots
If selected, a screenshot of the current display is stored when you press the PRINT
key. Storage settings are configured with FILE > "Screenshots".
See also: Chapter 15.3.4.2, "Screenshot Storage Settings", on page 380.
Screen & Setup
If selected, the device settings and a screenshot of the current display are stored when
you press the PRINT key. Storage settings are configured with FILE > "Screenshots"
and FILE > "Device Settings".
See also: Chapter 15.3.4.2, "Screenshot Storage Settings", on page 380
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(Print) Screenshots
If selected, a screenshot of the current display is sent to the USB printer when you
press the PRINT key. Printer settings are configured with SETUP > "Printer".
See also: Chapter 15.2, "Printing", on page 365
Report
If selected, a report of the current power measurement results is saved when you
press the PRINT key. To configure the report settings, use TOOLS > "Power Analysis"
> "Report".
The setting is only available if option R&S RTM-K31 Power Analysis is installed, and if
you have created at least one report in the "Power Analysis" menu.
See also Chapter 12.4, "Report", on page 300.
15.2 Printing
You can create a sceenshot of the current display of your waveforms and measurement results and print it on a printer. To optimize the output, you can configure different
color modes. The printer has to be connected to a Type A USB port. Alternatively, you
can save screenshots to files, see also: Chapter 15.3.4, "Screenshots", on page 379.
If you want to print many screenshots, you can assign the printout function to the
PRINT key. This key is a shortcut key that initiates the assigned action at a single keypress. Infrequent printouts can be started from the "File" menu, see also: Chapter 15.2.1.3, "Quick Printing with the PRINT Key", on page 366.
15.2.1 Printing a Screenshot
Before you can print, you have to:
●
Connect and configure the printer
●
Configure the PRINT key if you need quick printout
Then you can start the printout from the "File" menu or with the PRINT key.
15.2.1.1
Configuring the Printer Output
For the printout, you configure the format and colors. The individual settings are described in Chapter 15.2.2, "Printer Settings", on page 366.
1. Connect the printer to a Type A USB port on the front or rear panel of the instrument.
2. Press SETUP > "Printer" to open the "Printer" menu.
3. Press "Paper Format" and select the required format using the "Navigation" knob.
4. In the "Printer" menu, press "Color Mode".
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5. Select the required color format using the "Navigation" knob.
6. Most printers support PCL (Printer Command Language). If your printer does not,
select the appropriate "Command Set".
15.2.1.2
Starting the Printout
Infrequent printouts can be started from the "File" menu.
1. Make sure that the printer is configured correctly.
See: Chapter 15.2.1.1, "Configuring the Printer Output", on page 365
2. Press the FILE key.
3. Press "Screenshots > Print".
15.2.1.3
Quick Printing with the PRINT Key
You assign the print function to the PRINT key. Thus, a screenshot is printed on the
connected printer when you press the PRINT key.
See also Chapter 15.1, "Quick Access with PRINT key", on page 363.
1. Configure the PRINT key:
a) Press FILE > "Print-Key".
b) Press "(Print) Screenshots".
2. Make sure that the printer is configured correctly.
See: Chapter 15.2.1.1, "Configuring the Printer Output", on page 365
3. Press the PRINT key.
15.2.2 Printer Settings
Access: SETUP key > "More" (switch to page 2/3) > "Printer"
Paper Format
Defines the paper format and the orientation (portrait or landscape) for printing.
Remote command:
HCOPy:PAGE:SIZE on page 753
HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation on page 753
Color Mode
Defines the color mode for output on printer.
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"Grayscale"
Black and white output
"Color"
Color output
"Inverted"
Inverts the colors of the output, i.e. a dark waveform is printed on a
white background.
Remote command:
HCOPy:COLor:SCHeme on page 753
Command Set
Sets the printer language that is supported by the printer. The following printer languages are supported: PCL5, PCL XL, Postscript, and HP Deskjet (PCL3).
Remote command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:PRINter:CSET on page 754
15.3 Saving and Loading
With R&S RTM, you can save and recall your measurement data: device settings,
mask definitions, equation sets, waveform data, and screenshots. Data can be stored
in the instrument or on external device, it can be copied and converted (depending on
the available formats).
●
●
●
●
●
Storage Locations................................................................................................. 367
Device Settings..................................................................................................... 373
Waveforms............................................................................................................ 375
Screenshots.......................................................................................................... 379
References, Masks, and Equation Sets: Import/Export........................................ 381
15.3.1 Storage Locations
The R&S RTM provides three basic storage locations to store any data. In the following, these locations are refered to as storage devices:
●
The "Internal" storage device is a flash memory in the instrument with about 8 MB
memory size.
●
The "Front USB" storage device indicates a USB flash drive that is connected to
the USB connector on the front panel of the instrument.
●
The "Rear USB" storage device indicates a USB flash drive that is connected to the
USB connector on the rear panel of the instrument.
On each storage device, data can be organized in folders as usual. Therefore, the
R&S RTM allows you to create folders or remove them wherever you need.
Device settings, reference waveforms, masks, and equations sets can be directly
saved to and loaded from any storage device. Waveforms and screenshots can be
saved to USB storage devices only.
To copy data from one storage device to another, the "Import/Export" functions are
used. The name of the target file can be changed, so you can copy and rename in one
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operation. For references and masks, you can also change the target file format and
convert the data during export/import.
This chapter describes the general procedures and settings to save, load, and export/
import data.
15.3.1.1
Configuring Storage Locations
You must configure the storage settings for the various data types initially: select the
storage location and the storage directory, and define the file name. For some data
types, further storage settings are available. Then you can save data simply by pressing the "Save" softkey in the FILE menu or, if configured accordingly, by pressing the
PRINT key on the front panel.
To select the storage directory
Whenever you want to save, copy or load data, you have to set the directory where the
data will be stored or loaded from.
1. Press "Storage" to open the storage directory menu and display the file explorer for
the currently selected storage location.
See also: "Storage Directory Menu" on page 371.
2. Press "Storage (Internal/Front/Rear)" until the required storage device is highlighted.
For waveforms and screenshots, only a USB flash drive can be selected as a storage location. If no USB flash drive is connected to the instrument, this function is
not available.
3. Use the "Navigation" knob to scroll through the directories. To change the directory, scroll to the name of the directory and press the knob, or press "Change dir.".
4. Press "Create dir." to create a new subdirectory under the selected directory. Enter
a name for the subdirectory as described in "To define a new file or directory
name" on page 368.
5. Press "Remove dir." to remove a directory that you no longer need.
6. Press "Accept" to confirm the selected storage directory.
To define a new file or directory name
When you create a new directory or press "File name" to define the name of the storage file, a text editor is displayed in which you can enter the new name.
1. Use the "Navigate" knob to select a character.
2. Press "Character Set", if available, to display additional characters.
3. Press "Backspace" to delete the character to the left of the cursor.
4. Press the "Cursor →" and "Cursor←" softkeys to scroll through the characters of the
name.
5. Press "Default name" to restore the default name.
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6. Press "Accept" to save the defined name.
15.3.1.2
Importing and Exporting Data
To copy data from one storage device to another, the "Import/Export" functions are
used. The procedures is the same for all data types.
The name of the target file can be changed, so you can copy and rename in one operation. For references and masks, you can also change the target file format and convert the data during export/import.
1. In the FILE menu, press the "Import/Export" softkey for the required data type.
2. Define the source file for the copy operation.
a) Press "Source".
A file explorer is displayed.
b) If necessary, switch to the storage location that contains the source file by
pressing "Storage (Internal/Front/Rear)".
c) Select the source file. Use the "Navigation" knob to scroll through the directories. To change the directory, scroll to the name of the directory and press the
knob, or press "Change dir.".
d) Press "Load".
The source file is selected, but not yet loaded to the R&S RTM.
3. Define the destination directory for the copy operation. The source file will be copied here.
a) Press "Destination".
A file explorer is displayed.
b) If necessary, switch to the storage location that contains the storage directory
by pressing "Storage (Internal/Front/Rear)".
c) Select the storage directory. Use the "Navigation" knob to scroll through the
directories. To change the directory, scroll to the name of the directory and
press the knob, or press "Change dir.".
Press "Create dir." to create a new subdirectory under the selected directory.
Enter a name for the subdirectory as described in "To define a new file or directory name" on page 368.
d) Press "Accept" to confirm the selection.
4. Change the "File Name" of the destination file if necessary.
Note: If a file with the same file name already exists in the destination directory, it
will be overwritten without notification.
5. If you want to change the file format for references or masks, press "Format" and
select the target format.
6. Press "Import/Export".
The source file is copied to the destination directory.
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Saving and Loading
Imported data is not loaded to the instrument automatically. You must explicitly load it
after import with the "Load" function in the relevant menu (Masks, Reference, Math
menu, or File menu for instrument settings).
15.3.1.3
General Storage Settings
This chapter describes the general settings to save, load, and export/import data.
●
●
●
●
Save Menu............................................................................................................370
Load Menu............................................................................................................ 371
Storage Directory Menu........................................................................................ 371
Import/Export Menu...............................................................................................373
Save Menu
The "Save" menu provides functions to configure how the data is saved and to start the
save process. Its main functions are displayed whenever some data has to be stored.
Depending on the data type, additional specific functions may be provided. These functions are described in the relevant chapters.
Storage........................................................................................................................370
File name.................................................................................................................... 370
Comment.....................................................................................................................371
Save............................................................................................................................ 371
Storage
Opens the storage directory submenu, see "Storage Directory Menu" on page 371.
The key indicates the currently selected storage device.
File name
Opens on-screen keyboard to define a new file name to which the data is stored.
Note: If a file with the same file name already exists in the destination directory, it will
be overwritten without notification.
Turn the NAVIGATION knob to mark a character and press the knob to select it. Press
"Backspace" to delete the character to the left of the cursor. Press the "Cursor →" and
"Cursor ←" softkeys to scroll through the characters of the name. Press "Default name"
to restore the standard file name.
Press "Accept" to save the defined name.
Remote command:
Device settings: MMEMory:NAME on page 752
Waveforms: EXPort:WAVeform:NAME on page 744
Mask Tests: MASK:ACTion:WFMSave:DESTination on page 528
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Comment
Opens an on-screen keyboard to insert a comment to the stored data. Comments are
available for all file formats that can be read by the R&S RTM: device settings, reference waveforms (trf format), masks, equation sets, search results.
Save
Saves the data to the selected storage directory. The used file name is displayed when
storage is completed.
Remote command:
Device settings: MMEMory:STORe:STATe on page 751
Other data: MMEMory:DATA on page 750
Load Menu
The "Load" menu provides functions and a file explorer to select data files and to load
it for usage. It is displayed whenever some data has to be loaded.
Storage........................................................................................................................371
Remove File................................................................................................................ 371
Load............................................................................................................................ 371
Storage
Opens the storage directory submenu, see "Storage Directory Menu" on page 371.
The key indicates the currently selected storage device.
Remove File
Deletes the selected file.
Remote command:
MMEMory:DELete on page 750
Load
Loads the selected file to the instrument.
During an import/export operation, this command confirms the selection of a file and
loads it temporarily. In order to actually copy the file to the selected destination, press
"Import/Export".
Remote command:
Device settings: MMEMory:LOAD:STATe on page 751
Storage Directory Menu
The storage directory menu is opened with the "Storage" softkey that is available in all
"Save" and "Load" menus. Here you define the storage device and the directory where
the file will be saved or loaded from. If appropriate, you can also create new directories
or delete existing ones.
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Waveforms, screenshots and power measurement reports can only be stored on a
USB flash drive connected to the front or rear panel, not to an internal directory. In this
case, the softkey is only available if a USB flash drive is connected to the rear or front
panel.
See also: Chapter 15.3.1, "Storage Locations", on page 367.
Storage (Internal/Front/Rear)...................................................................................... 372
Sort Entries................................................................................................................. 372
Change Directory........................................................................................................ 372
Create Directory.......................................................................................................... 372
Remove Directory....................................................................................................... 373
Storage (Internal/Front/Rear)
Defines the storage device.
Waveforms, screenshots and power measurement reports can only be stored on a
USB flash drive connected to the front or rear panel, not to an internal directory. In this
case, the softkey is only available if a USB flash drive is connected to the rear or front
panel.
"Internal"
Directly in the internal memory of the instrument
"Front"
On a USB stick connected to the front panel
"Rear"
On a USB stick connected to the rear panel
Remote command:
MMEMory:MSIS on page 746
Sort Entries
Selects the sort option. You can sort the file list by file type, file name, size and saving
date, each in ascending or descending order.
Change Directory
Switches to the selected directory.
See also: "To select the storage directory" on page 368.
Remote command:
MMEMory:CDIRectory on page 746
Create Directory
Creates a new subdirectory of the currently selected storage directory.
See also: "To define a new file or directory name" on page 368.
Remote command:
MMEMory:MDIRectory on page 746
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Remove Directory
Removes the currently selected directory.
Remote command:
MMEMory:RDIRectory on page 747
Import/Export Menu
The "Import/Export" menu provides functions to copy data between the instrument and
a USB flash device.
See also: Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and Exporting Data", on page 369
Source.........................................................................................................................373
Destination.................................................................................................................. 373
Import/Export...............................................................................................................373
Source
Opens the "Load" menu and a file explorer to select the source file of the import/export
operation.
See "Load Menu" on page 371.
Destination
Opens the "Storage" menu and a file explorer to select the destination of the import/
export operation.
See "Storage Directory Menu" on page 371.
Import/Export
Copies the selected source file to the specified file in the selected destination directory.
Note: If a file with the same file name already exists in the destination directory, it will
be overwritten without notification.
Remote command:
MMEMory:COPY on page 749
15.3.2 Device Settings
In order to repeat measurements at different times or perform similar measurements
with different test data, it is useful to save the used instrument settings and load them
again later. Furthermore, it can be helpful to refer to the instrument settings of a particular measurement when analyzing the results. Therefore, functions are provided so
you can easily save the instrument settings of a measurement, with or without the corresponding screenshot.
The instrument settings can be saved to and loaded from any storage device - internal
memory or external USB flash device. It is also possible to copy the stored settings to
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another storage device with "Export/Import". The file format is always .SET, and the
file size is about 2.76 kB.
You can exchange stored device settings between R&S RTM instruments, also
between 2-channel and 4-channel instruments.
The default instrument settings can be restored with PRESET or FILE > "Device Settings > Default sett.".
15.3.2.1
Saving and Loading Device Settings
●
"To save device settings" on page 374
●
"To load device settings" on page 374
To save device settings
1. Press FILE > "Device Settings > Save".
2. Configure the storage location as described in "To select the storage directory"
on page 368.
3. Enter the file name as described in "To define a new file or directory name"
on page 368.
4. Optionally, press "Comment" and enter a description of the settings.
5. Press "Save".
Note: To save the device settings several times by pressing simply the PRINT key,
assign the "Device Settings" to the PRINT key as described in Chapter 15.1.1,
"Configuring the PRINT-Key Behavior", on page 363.
To load device settings
1. Press FILE > "Device Settings > Load".
A file explorer is displayed.
2. If necessary, select the storage device and directory described in "To select the
storage directory" on page 368.
3. Select the file that contains the device settings. Use the "Navigation" knob to scroll
through the files.
4. Press "Load".
The saved settings are loaded to the R&S RTM.
15.3.2.2
Device Settings Menu
With FILE > "Device Settings" you open a menu to manage instrument configuration
files.
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Save............................................................................................................................ 375
└ Setup & Label............................................................................................... 375
Load............................................................................................................................ 375
Import/Export Device Settings.....................................................................................375
Memory Usage............................................................................................................375
Default sett.................................................................................................................. 375
Save
Opens the "Save" menu, see "Save Menu" on page 370.
In addition to the common save functions, specific functions are available.
Setup & Label ← Save
Saves the the device settings together with the label list to the selected storage directory in one file. The used file name is displayed when storage is completed.
This function is available if option R&S RTM-K1 or K3 is installed (protocols I2C, LIN,
CAN), and a label list was loaded and applied to the protocol data.
When you load a setting file with label list to an instrument, the label list is loaded
together with the instrument settings. A previously loaded label list will be overwritten.
Load
Opens the "Load" menu, see "Load Menu" on page 371.
Import/Export Device Settings
Opens the "Import/Export" menu, see "Import/Export Menu" on page 373.
Memory Usage
Displays information on the instrument and information on used and available memory
space on all available storage devices.
Default sett.
Restores the default device settings. These settings, among others, are also restored
with the PRESET key.
15.3.3 Waveforms
A waveform can be saved in several ways:
●
As a reference waveform for later use with R&S RTM: REF key
See: Chapter 5, "Reference Waveforms", on page 94
●
As data in various formats directly to a USB flash drive for analysis by other
means: FILE > "Waveforms".
This way is described in the current chapter.
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If you want to save many waveforms, you can assign the function to the PRINT
key. Infrequent save operations can be started from the "File" menu. See also:
Chapter 15.1, "Quick Access with PRINT key", on page 363.
●
15.3.3.1
If the instrument is connected to the LAN, waveform data and instrument settings
can be saved directly to a computer using the Web interface. Downloading data
using the Web interface is much simpler, faster, and more powerful.
See: Chapter 17.2, "Remote Access using a Web Browser", on page 394
Waveform File Formats
Data of all waveforms - channel, reference, and math waveforms - is saved as a succession of values or pairs of values. Pairs of values are written as two consecutive single values. Depending on the file format, only amplitude values are stored, or the
amplitude values are stored together with their time value, or frequency value in FFT
mode.
With export/import, you can change the target file format and convert the data.
In order to reload waveform data as a reference waveform, it must be stored in TRF or
CSV format.
CSV Format
In a Comma Separated Values text file, the waveform is stored in a two-columned
table. Columns are separated by a comma, and the lines are separated by line breaks
\r\n (0x0D 0x0A). Values are listed in scientific notation.
The first column contains the time values of the samples in relation to the trigger point,
and the second column contains the associated amplitude values. The first line indicates the units of the values in each column, and the name of the waveform. Pairs of
values are listed as two single values with the same time value (minimum and maximum).
The data can be loaded back to the instrument for further use.
Example CSV1: Waveform of channel 1, single values
[s],CH1[V]
-1.1996E-02,1.000E-02
-1.1992E-02,1.000E-02
-1.1988E-02,1.000E-02
-1.1984E-02,1.000E-02
Example CSV2: Waveform of channel 1, pairs of values
[s],CH1[V]
-2.9980E+00,2.000E-05
-2.9980E+00,1.400E-04
-2.9960E+00,-1.800E-04
-2.9960E+00,1.400E-04
-2.9940E+00,-1.800E-04
-2.9940E+00,1.400E-04
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Example CSV3: FFT
[Hz],FFT[dBm]
0.000000E+00,1.03746E+01
1.525879E+02,7.49460E+00
3.051758E+02,-1.19854E+01
4.577637E+02,-1.56854E+01
Import of CSV files: If you import a CSV file as reference waveform from a USB flash
drive to the instrument, the import converts the data to TRF format. The instrument
reads the first and the last time value and calculates the total time of the waveform,
and it counts the number of values. Then all amplitude values are read one by one and
written with an equidistant time distribution to the TRF file. If the first two time values
are identical, the waveform is considered to consist of pairs of values.
TXT Format
TXT files are ASCII files that contain only amplitude values but no time values. Amplitude values are separated by commas. Pairs of values are listed as two subsequent
single values, without any identification. Amplitude values are given in scientific notation. There is no comma at the end of the file.
Amplitude values are given in scientific notation.
Example: TXT file
1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,3.000E-02
BIN Format
BIN files contain only binary amplitude values but no time values. Each value has a
word size of 8, or 16, or 32 bit, the word size is the same throughout the file.
You can set the word order: BIN MSBF saves data in Big Endian order - beginning with
the MSB (Most Significant Byte) and ending with the LSB (Least Significant Byte). BIN
LSBF saves data beginning with the LSB and ending with the MSB. Pairs of values are
listed as two subsequent single values, without any identification.
FLT Format
FLT files contain amplitude values in float format, where 4 successive bytes are saved
in a 32-bit float value.
You can set the word order: FLT MSBF saves data in Big Endian order - beginning
with the MSB (Most Significant Byte) and ending with the LSB (Least Significant Byte).
FLT LSBF saves data beginning with the LSB and ending with the MSB.
TRF Format
TRF is the specific binary format for reference waveforms of the R&S RTM. It contains
the amplitude value of each sample that is displayed on the sreen (8 bit or 16 bit long).
For peak-detect waveforms, 2 values per sample are saved. The file contains also time
information (time of the first sample and the sample interval) and current instrument
settings. The data can be loaded as reference waveform for further use on the instrument. It is not intended for analysis outside the R&S RTM.
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15.3.3.2
Saving a Waveform to USB flash drive
If you want to save many waveforms, you can assign the function to the PRINT key.
Infrequent savings can be started from the "File" menu. Before you can save the waveform, you have to configure the storage location and file format.
1. Press FILE > "Waveforms".
2. Configure the storage location as described in "To select the storage directory"
on page 368.
3. Press "Waveform" and select the waveform to be stored. All active waveforms are
listed.
4. Enter the file name as described in "To define a new file or directory name"
on page 368.
5. Select the "Format".
For details, see Chapter 15.3.3.1, "Waveform File Formats", on page 376.
6. Press "Data" and select whether to save the displayed data or the data stored in
the memory.
For details, see "Data" on page 379.
7. Press "Save".
To save waveforms several times by pressing simply the PRINT key, assign the
"Waveforms" to the PRINT key as described in Chapter 15.1.1, "Configuring the
PRINT-Key Behavior", on page 363.
15.3.3.3
Waveform Storage Settings
With FILE > "Waveforms" you open a menu to store one of the active waveforms to a
USB flash drive.
Storage, File Name,.................................................................................................... 378
Waveform....................................................................................................................379
Format.........................................................................................................................379
Data.............................................................................................................................379
Save............................................................................................................................ 379
Storage, File Name,
For a description of the common functions "Storage" and "File Name", see Chapter 15.3.1.3, "General Storage Settings", on page 370.
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Remote command:
EXPort:WAVeform:NAME on page 744
Waveform
Selects the waveform to be stored. Turn the "Navigation" knob to select one of the
available waveforms (channel, reference, and math waveforms).
Remote command:
EXPort:WAVeform:SOURce on page 744
Format
Defines the format of the waveform storage file: BIN, CSV, TXT, or FLT. For details,
see Chapter 15.3.3.1, "Waveform File Formats", on page 376.
Data
Selects the amount of data points to be saved in the waveform file.
"Display Data"
All waveform samples that are displayed on the screen will be saved.
Exception: The "Waveform Rate" ist set to maximum sample rate,
and the acquisition is stopped. In this case, the memory can contain
more data samples than the display shows (decimation). To save the
waveform with maximum resolution, the instrument stores the samples that are saved in the memory.
"Acq. Memory"
All data samples that are stored in the memory will be saved.
This setting takes effect only for stopped acquisitions and it is not
available for math waveforms. For running acquisitions, always display data is stored.
Remote command:
CHANnel<m>:DATA:POINts on page 430
Save
Saves the data to the selected storage directory. The used path and file name are displayed when storage is completed.
"Save" is not possible if "Data" is set set to "Acq. Memory" or "History Data", and the
acquisition is running.
Remote command:
Waveforms: EXPort:WAVeform:SAVE on page 745
15.3.4 Screenshots
You can create a screenshot of the current display of your waveforms and measurement results and save it to a file. To optimize the output, you can configure different
color modes and file formats. Alternatively, you can print screenshots to a printer.
See also: Chapter 15.2, "Printing", on page 365.
If you want to save many screenshots - together with the instrument or the image only you can assign the function to the PRINT key. Infrequent save operations can be started from the "File" menu.
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See also: Chapter 15.1, "Quick Access with PRINT key", on page 363.
15.3.4.1
Saving a Screenshot
Before you can save the screenshot, you have to configure the storage location and
file format.
1. Press FILE > "Screenshots".
2. Configure the storage location as described in "To select the storage directory"
on page 368.
3. Enter the file name as described in "To define a new file or directory name"
on page 368.
4. Select the "Format" and the "Color mode".
For details, see Chapter 15.3.4.2, "Screenshot Storage Settings", on page 380.
5. Press "Save".
See also: Chapter 15.1, "Quick Access with PRINT key", on page 363.
15.3.4.2
Screenshot Storage Settings
With FILE > "Screenshots" you open a menu to save or print screenshots of the current
display.
For a description of the common save functions "Storage", "File Name", and "Save",
see Chapter 15.3.1.3, "General Storage Settings", on page 370. Specific settings for
saving screenshots are described below.
Format.........................................................................................................................380
Color mode..................................................................................................................381
Print.............................................................................................................................381
Format
Defines the format of the screenshot file. The following formats are available:
●
●
BMP
BitMaP is an uncompressed format, files are large and saving might take some
time.
PNG
Portable Network Graphics is a graphic format with lossless data compression.
If you select "BMP" or "PNG", the complete display is saved, including the menu.
If you select"BMP (no menu)" or "PNG (no menu)", the menu is clipped off, and date
and time are shown instead of the menu name.
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Remote command:
HCOPy:LANGuage on page 753
HCOpy:MENU[:ENABle] on page 753
Color mode
Defines the color mode for saved screenshots.
"Grayscale"
Black and white output
"Color"
Color output
"Inverted"
Inverts the colors of the output, i.e. a dark waveform is printed on a
white background
Remote command:
HCOPy:COLor:SCHeme on page 753
Print
Prints the screenshot on a printer connected to the USB connector on the front or rear
panel. The printer output is configured with SETUP > "Printer".
The function is only available if a printer is connected.
Remote command:
HCOPy[:IMMediate] on page 752
15.3.5 References, Masks, and Equation Sets: Import/Export
The "File" menu provides the functions to copy mask files, equation sets, and reference waveform files from one storage device to another.
For details, refer to the relevant chapters:
●
Reference waveforms: Chapter 5, "Reference Waveforms", on page 94
●
Masks: Chapter 9, "Masks", on page 163
●
Equation sets: Chapter 7, "Mathematics", on page 118
●
Export/Import procedure: Chapter 15.3.1.2, "Importing and Exporting Data",
on page 369
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16 General Instrument Setup
This chapter describes the firmware update, the activation of new options, and all softkeys of the "Setup" menu.
The usage of the functions except of update is described in other chapters depending
on the usage context:
●
chapter "Defining General Instrument Settings" in the "Getting Started" manual:
configuring date, time, interface and help language, and sounds;
●
Chapter 17.1, "Operation in a LAN", on page 392.
16.1 Firmware and Options
●
●
●
Updating Firmware................................................................................................382
Activating Options................................................................................................. 383
Moving a Portable License....................................................................................383
16.1.1 Updating Firmware
This chapter describes how to update the instrument's firmware and the interface firmware. Instrument and interface firmware are delivered in different files, which are
packed together into the firmware zip file. Instrument and interface firmware must be
updated in separate steps.
You should update the instrument and interface firmware in regular intervals to take
advantage of new functions and solve possible problems.
To update the instrument firmware
1. Download the current firmware package from the instrument's Web page: http://
www.scope-of-the-art.com/product/rtm.html under "Downloads > Firmware".
2. Extract the zip package and copy the required files to a USB flash drive.
Note: The zip package contains the interface firmware and instrument firmware:
RTM20x2.fwu / RTM20x4.fwu for R&S RTM20xx instruments, and
RTM2102.fwu / RTM2104.fwu for R&S RTM21xx.
Instruments with an upgrade to 1 GHz bandwidth always require the
RTM210x.fwu file.
3. Insert the USB flash drive in the instrument.
4. Press SETUP.
5. Press "More".
6. Press "Update > Firmware".
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The currently installed firmware version as well as all available update versions are
displayed.
7. Press "Execute" to start the firmware update.
Note: After update, the instrument reboots itself.
Do not turn off the instrument or interrupt the power during the update process. An
incomplete update leads to an undefined software state and the instrument does
not work properly.
To update the interface firmware
1. Insert a USB flash drive containing an interface update file in the instrument.
2. Press SETUP > "Update > Interface".
The currently installed firmware version as well as all available update versions are
displayed.
3. Press "Execute" to install the available updates.
Note: Do not turn off the instrument or interrupt the power during the update process. An incomplete update leads to an undefined software state and the instrument
does not work properly.
16.1.2 Activating Options
You need the material number and serial number of your instrument to get a license
key. New R&S RTM options must be activated using the license key supplied by
Rohde & Schwarz. The license key can be read from a license file or entered manually.
A detailed description of the key activation procedure is delivered together with the
license key information.
16.1.3 Moving a Portable License
The following procedure describes how to move an active portable license to another
instrument. Each instrument is identified by its individual device ID.
The procedure involves the transfer of files between the R&S License Manager and the
instruments using a USB flash drive.
1. On the source instrument, save the portable license to a file:
a) Press SETUP > "Update" > "Licenses" > "Portable Licenses".
b) Select the portable license to be moved.
c) Press "Save to license file" and store the portable license to a USB flash drive.
2. In the R&S License Manager, identify the source and target instruments:
a) Open the R&S License Manager: https://extranet.rohde-schwarz.com/service
b) Select "Move Portable License".
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c) Enter the device identifications of the source and target instruments.
You find the IDs on the top of the "Portable Licenses" window.
3. In the R&S License Manager, identify the portable license to be moved and create
a deactivation key for the source instrument:
a) Open the portable license file that you have saved in step 1.
b) Generate and note a deactivation key. Store it on the USB flash drive.
4. On the source instrument, deactivate the license and generate a response key:
a) Press "Read keys from license file" and install the deactivation key file generated in the previous step.
b) Note the deactivation response key.
5. In the R&S License Manager, verify that the license has been deactivated and generate an activation key for the target instrument:
a) Enter the deactivation response key generated in the previous step.
As a result, a portable license file registered for the target is generated.
b) Store the license file on the USB flash drive.
6. On the target instrument, press SETUP > "Update" > "Licenses" > "Read keys from
license file" and install the activation key file generated in the previous step.
The portable license is now active on the target instrument.
16.2 Reference for Setup
The SETUP key provides functions for basic instrument settings and allows you to
update the instrument's firmware and help files:
Time Reference...........................................................................................................386
Menu Off..................................................................................................................... 386
Language.................................................................................................................... 386
Date & Time................................................................................................................ 386
└ Year/Month/Day/Hour/Minute....................................................................... 386
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Interface...................................................................................................................... 386
└ USB...............................................................................................................386
└ LAN............................................................................................................... 386
└ IEEE488........................................................................................................387
└ Parameter..................................................................................................... 387
└ DHCP..................................................................................................387
└ Next.................................................................................................... 387
└ Up....................................................................................................... 387
└ Down...................................................................................................387
└ Default................................................................................................ 387
└ Save....................................................................................................387
Device Information...................................................................................................... 387
Update.........................................................................................................................387
└ Firmware....................................................................................................... 388
└ Execute...............................................................................................388
└ Interface........................................................................................................ 388
└ Execute...............................................................................................388
└ Licenses........................................................................................................388
└ Read keys from license file.................................................................388
└ Input key manually..............................................................................388
└ Licenses..............................................................................................388
└ Portable licenses................................................................................ 389
Printer..........................................................................................................................389
Sound..........................................................................................................................389
└ Control Beep................................................................................................. 389
└ Error Beep.....................................................................................................389
└ Trigger Beep................................................................................................. 389
Self Alignment............................................................................................................. 389
└ Start.............................................................................................................. 390
└ Export............................................................................................................390
└ Abort............................................................................................................. 390
Probe Adjust................................................................................................................390
└ 1kHz..............................................................................................................390
└ 1MHz.............................................................................................................390
└ Automatic...................................................................................................... 390
Education Mode.......................................................................................................... 390
└ Education Mode............................................................................................ 390
└ Set Password................................................................................................390
└ Clear Password.............................................................................................390
Secure Erase.............................................................................................................. 391
Device Name...............................................................................................................391
LED Intensity...............................................................................................................391
Trigger Output............................................................................................................. 391
└ Output........................................................................................................... 391
└ Polarity.......................................................................................................... 391
└ Pulse width....................................................................................................391
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Time Reference
Defines the time reference point in the diagram, i.e. the point at which the trigger is 0 s.
The reference point is defined as an offset of divisions from the center in the diagram.
By default, the reference point 0 s is displayed in the center of the window, which corresponds to 0 divisions.
The scaling of the waveform depends on this reference point.
Remote command:
TIMebase:REFerence on page 416
Menu Off
Defines how long a selection menu for a softkey is displayed before it automatically
closes again.
Language
Selects the language in which the key labels, help and other screen information is displayed. Currently, the help is available only in English.
Remote command:
DISPlay:LANGuage on page 755
Date & Time
Provides softkeys to set the current date and time in the instrument.
Year/Month/Day/Hour/Minute ← Date & Time
Change the date and time settings individually. Changes are only adopted by the
instrument after you press "Save and Back".
Remote command:
SYSTem:DATE on page 757
SYSTem:TIME on page 757
Interface
Activates or deactivates additional instrument interfaces. Using these interfaces you
can communicate with the instrument, for example to read out data or automate the
measuring station. Various interfaces are available as options for the instrument and
are installed in a specific slot at the rear. Depending on the installed interface, additional parameters may be definable via the "Parameter" softkey after the interface has
been activated.
USB ← Interface
Activates the (Type B) USB interface for remote control. The USB interface provides a
simple way to connect the instrument to a PC. The USB 2.0 standard is supported.
Use a connection cable that is suitable for a "Type B" USB interface.
No settings are available for the USB interface.
Note: You cannot connect a printer via the Type B USB interface. Use one of the Type
A USB interfaces on the rear or front panel to connect a printer.
LAN ← Interface
Activates the LAN interface which allows you to connect the instrument to various other
devices. Access to the instrument is controlled via its IP address.
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By default, the instrument is set to use DHCP. If the instrument cannot find a DHCP
server, it takes about two minutes until the LAN menu is available.
The interface is configured using the Parameter softkey. See also: Chapter 17.1,
"Operation in a LAN", on page 392.
IEEE488 ← Interface
Activates the IEEE488 interface, also known as a "General Purpose Interface Bus"
(GPIB). Using this interface, up to 15 devices can be connected to the instrument.
Each device is identified by a unique number, which is defined within the device.
The interface is configured using the Parameter softkey. For details see Chapter 17.1,
"Operation in a LAN", on page 392.
Parameter ← Interface
Provides a settings dialog to configure the active additional interface. Changes are only
adopted by the instrument after you press "Save".
DHCP ← Parameter ← Interface
Activates or deactivates usage of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). If
the network supports dynamic TCP/IP configuration using DHCP, all address information can be assigned automatically.
Next ← Parameter ← Interface
For settings that require several entries in one row, "Next" selects the next entry.
To select the next setting in the dialog, press "Down", to select the previous setting,
press "Up".
Up ← Parameter ← Interface
Selects the previous setting in the dialog.
Down ← Parameter ← Interface
Selects the next setting in the dialog.
Default ← Parameter ← Interface
Restores the default interface settings.
Save ← Parameter ← Interface
Saves the changes to the instrument and closes the dialog.
Device Information
Displays information on the instrument, such as its serial number, the installed software version and hardware information. This information is required in case of a support request.
Update
Provides functions to update the help files or firmware of the instrument or interfaces.
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Firmware ← Update
Allows you to update the instrument firmware. The currently installed firmware version
is displayed, as well as all available update versions if a USB flash drive containing an
update is identified. The instrument is only updated when you press "Execute".
Note: You should update the instrument firmware in regular intervals to take advantage of new functions and solve possible problems.
The online help is not included in the firmware update package. Update the online help
separately to get the latest information.
Execute ← Firmware ← Update
The instrument firmware is updated.
Interface ← Update
Some interfaces are provided with their own instrument-independent firmware. This
interface firmware can also be updated. The currently installed firmware version is displayed, as well as all available update versions, if a USB flash drive containing an
update is identified. The instrument is only updated when you press "Execute".
Note: You should update the interface firmware in regular intervals to take advantage
of new functions and solve possible problems.
Execute ← Interface ← Update
The interface firmware is updated.
Licenses ← Update
Provides functions to activate options.
Read keys from license file ← Licenses ← Update
Select the storage and directory where your license file is stored, and press "Load" to
activate the options.
Input key manually ← Licenses ← Update
Opens the on-screen keyboard to enter the license key of the option.
Licenses ← Licenses ← Update
Displays a list of all licenses of the instrument: active licenses, inactive licenses, and
the response keys of deactivated licenses. The following license types are available:
●
Permanent: unlimited licenses for a dedicated instrument.
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●
●
Portable permanent: unlimited licenses that can be transferred to another instrument.
Temporary: time-limited licenses for a dedicated instrument. The remaining validity
period is shown in the "Validity" column.
Portable licenses ← Licenses ← Update
Opens a menu to manage portable licenses. Use "License" to list the portable licenses
that are installed on the instrument. To move the selected portable license to another
instrument, use "Save to license file".
The "Portable licenses" key is only active if at least one portable license is installed.
Printer
Opens a menu to configure the output on the printer: paper format, orientation, color,
and printer language. The printer has to be connected to a (Type A) USB port.
For details, see Chapter 15.2.2, "Printer Settings", on page 366.
Sound
Defines the event types for which a sound is to be generated by the instrument. Switch
the sound for a particular event type on or off by selecting the corresponding softkey.
Active sounds are highlighted.
Control Beep ← Sound
Generates a sound for general control events, e.g. reaching the rotary encoder end or
changing the measuring mode in the "Automeasure" menu.
Remote command:
SYSTem:BEEPer:CONTrol:STATe on page 757
Error Beep ← Sound
Generates a sound if an error occurs in the instrument, e.g. when the input exceeds 50
Ω or a false value is entered in a dialog.
Remote command:
SYSTem:BEEPer:ERRor:STATe on page 757
Trigger Beep ← Sound
Generates a sound when the trigger condition is fulfilled.
Remote command:
SYSTem:BEEPer:TRIG:STATe on page 758
Self Alignment
Opens a submenu to execute an internal self-alignment of the instrument. Alignment is
only executed when you press the "Start" softkey.
When data from several input channels is displayed at the same time, it may be necessary to align the data in order to synchronize the time bases, amplitudes, and positions. This is the case, for example, when strong temperature changes occur.
Remote command:
CALibration on page 755
CALibration:STATe? on page 756
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Start ← Self Alignment
Starts the internal self-calibration of the instrument. Status information is displayed on
the screen.
Export ← Self Alignment
Opens the submenu to store the log file on USB stick.
See also: "Storage Directory Menu" on page 371.
Abort ← Self Alignment
Aborts the internal self-calibration of the instrument.
Probe Adjust
A R&S RTM allows you to adjust a probe without further devices. Two connector pins
are located on the front panel. The left pin is on ground level. The right pin supplies a
square wave signal for the adjustment. In this menu you can choose between two frequencies (1 kHz, 1 MHz) or allow the detection of an automatic setting by the instrument. The rise time does not differ between the settings.
1kHz ← Probe Adjust
A square wave with a frequency of f = 1 kHz is generated at the "Probe Adjust" pin.
Use this setting to adjust the LF band of the probe.
1MHz ← Probe Adjust
A square wave with a frequency of f = 1 MHz is generated at the "Probe Adjust" pin.
Use this setting to adjust the HF band of the probe.
Automatic ← Probe Adjust
A square wave is generated at the "Probe Adjust" pin. The frequency of the square
wave depends on the defined time base. If the time base becomes too small to display
the 1 kHz wave, it is automatically switched to a 1 MHz wave.
Education Mode
Opens a menu where you can disable the comfort functions Autoset, Quick Meas, and
automatic measurements for educational purpose.
Education Mode ← Education Mode
If enabled, the comfort functions Autoset, Quick Meas, and automatic measurements
are not available. This status is shown in the "Device Information".
Set Password ← Education Mode
You can enter a password to prevent unwanted deactivation of the education mode.
Clear Password ← Education Mode
Deletes the password. Then, all users can enable and disable the education mode.
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You have to enter the password before it is deleted.
If you forgot the password, you can reset it using the SYSTem:EDUCation:PRESet
remote command.
Secure Erase
Deletes current instrument configuration data and user data (for example, reference
files, equation sets, masks) from the internal storage. Calibration data remains in the
storage.
Use this function before you send the instrument to the service. If the instrument is
used in a secured environment, the function ensures that all sensitive data is removed
before the instrument leaves the secured area.
To start secure erase, select "OK". Do not turn off the instrument before the process
has been completed!
See also: document "Resolving Security Issues When Working in Secure Areas" that is
delivered on the documentation CD-ROM and on the R&S RTM internet web page.
Device Name
Enter the name of the instrument.
LED Intensity
Defines the luminosity of illuminated front panel keys and rotary knobs.
Trigger Output
Opens the "Trigger Output" menu.
Output ← Trigger Output
Enables the trigger out signal and defines when a trigger out pulse is generated: on
trigger event, or on mask violation.
Trigger output on mask violation is enabled and configured in TOOLS >"Masks Tests >
Actions > Pulse".
Remote command:
TRIGger:OUT:MODE on page 756
Polarity ← Trigger Output
Sets the polarity of the trigger out pulse.
Remote command:
TRIGger:OUT:POLarity on page 756
Pulse width ← Trigger Output
Defines the pulse width of the trigger out pulse.
Remote command:
TRIGger:OUT:PLENgth on page 756
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Network and Remote Operation
Operation in a LAN
17 Network and Remote Operation
17.1 Operation in a LAN
17.1.1 Connecting the Instrument to the LAN
The network card can be operated with a 10 Mbps Ethernet IEEE 802.3 or a 100 Mbps
Ethernet IEEE 802.3u interface.
Risk of network failure
Before connecting the instrument to the network or configuring the network, consult
your network administrator. Errors may affect the entire network.
► To establish a network connection, connect a commercial RJ-45 cable to one of
the LAN ports of the instrument and to a PC.
17.1.2 Configuring LAN Parameters
Depending on the network capacities, the TCP/IP address information for the instrument can be obtained in different ways.
●
If the network supports dynamic TCP/IP configuration using the Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and a DHCP server is available, all address information can be assigned automatically.
●
Otherwise, the address must be set manually. Automatic Private IP Addressing
(APIPA) is not supported.
See: "Configuring LAN parameters manually (no DHCP)" on page 393
By default, the instrument is configured to use dynamic TCP/IP configuration and
obtain all address information automatically. This means that it is safe to establish a
physical connection to the LAN without any previous instrument configuration.
Risk of network errors
Connection errors can affect the entire network. If your network does not support
DHCP, or if you choose to disable dynamic TCP/IP configuration, you must assign
valid address information before connecting the instrument to the LAN. Contact your
network administrator to obtain a valid IP address.
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Configuring LAN parameters manually (no DHCP)
1. Disconnect the R&S RTM from the LAN.
2. Restart the instrument.
3. Press the SETUP key and then the "Interface" softkey.
4. Wait about two minutes until the LAN menu is available. Press the "LAN" softkey.
Note: By default, the instrument is set to use DHCP. If the instrument cannot find a
DHCP server, it takes some time until the LAN settings can be accessed.
5. Press the "Parameter" softkey.
The "LAN settings" dialog box is displayed.
Some data is displayed for information only and cannot be edited. This includes the
"MAC" (physical) address of the connector and the "Link" status information.
6. If the LAN does not support DHCP, or the instrument is directly connected with a
computer, disable DHCP: Press the "DHCP" softkey so that it is not highlighted
(off).
7. Define the IP address of the instrument by entering each of the four blocks individually.
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a) Define the first block number using the Navigation knob.
b) Press "Next" to move to the next block and define the number.
c) When the IP address is complete, press "Down" to continue with the next setting.
8. Define the "Subnetmask" and "Gateway" in the same way as the IP address.
9. Select the "IP Port" - the port number for raw socket communication.
10. Select the "HTTP Port" used by the instrument.
11. Select the "Transfer" mode. This mode can either be determined automatically
("Auto" setting), or you can select a combination of a transfer rate and half or full
duplex manually.
12. Press "Save" to save the LAN parameters on the instrument.
The "Link" status information at the bottom of the dialog box indicates whether a
LAN connection was established successfully.
Checking LAN and SCPI connection
1. Check the LAN connection using ping: ping xxx.yyy.zzz.xxx.
2. If the computer can access the instrument, enter the IP address of the R&S RTM in
the address line of the internet browser on your computer: http//:xxx.yyy.zzz.xxx.
See: Chapter 17.2.1, "Accessing the Instrument using a Web Browser",
on page 394
17.2 Remote Access using a Web Browser
The R&S RTM firmware contains a web server. If a LAN connection is established, you
can access the instrument remotely using a web browser on the control computer.
The browser access allows you to:
●
Check instrument data
●
Control the instrument
●
Print screenshots
●
Send remote commands
●
Save waveform and instrument data
●
Check network settings
17.2.1 Accessing the Instrument using a Web Browser
To access the R&S RTM, you need a LAN connection and the IP address of the instrument.
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1. Obtain the IP address of the R&S RTM: SETUP > "Interface" > activate "LAN" >
"Parameter".
2. Open an Internet browser on the control computer.
3. Enter the IP address of the R&S RTM in the address line: http//:xxx.yyy.zzz.xxx.
The "Instrument Home" page appears.
17.2.2 Instrument Home
The "Instrument Home" page provides information on the instrument and the LAN connection.
17.2.3 Sceenshot
The "Screenshot" page shows a copy of the instrument's screen. It also provides
instrument control functions and screenshot settings.
Instrument control
●
"Run" and "Stop"
Start and stop continuous acquisition, see also "RUN CONT" on page 57.
●
"Single"
Starts a single acquisition
●
"Autoset" = AUTOSET key on the instrument
●
"Preset" = PRESET key on the instrument
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Screenshots
●
"Auto refresh" and "Update"
Get the current screen content from the instrument. With "Auto refresh", you can
set the interval of automatic updates.
●
Format and Color:
●
Set the file format and color mode of the screenshot, see also Chapter 15.3.4.2,
"Screenshot Storage Settings", on page 380.
► To save the screenshot, right-click the picture and select "Save picture as".
17.2.4 SCPI Device Control
On the "SCPI Device Control" page, you can check how the transfer of remote commands is working.
You can enter a single command, for example; *IDN?, and transmit it with "Send". Do
not press the ENTER key.
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If the sent command has an error, an error message is created in the background, and
you do not get any response. You can see the error messages using "Last Error Message" and "All Error Messages"
17.2.5 Save/Recall
On the "Save/Recall" page, you can save waveform data and instrument settings to a
file - either on the computer (local file) or on the instrument (remote device). On the
computer, the default storage directory is the download folder, but you can change the
directory using the download functions of your browser. On the instrument, the files are
saved in the internal storage.
You can also load reference waveforms and instrument settings from file to the instrument.
To save data to local file
1. Select the waveform or the device settings in the "Source" list.
2. Select the file "Format".
See also:
● Chapter 15.3.3.1, "Waveform File Formats", on page 376
● Chapter 5, "Reference Waveforms", on page 94
● Chapter 15.3.2, "Device Settings", on page 373
3. For analog and digital channels, select the "Data" scope to be written.
See also: "Data" on page 379
4. Click "Save".
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17.2.6 Network Settings
On the "Network Setting" page, you can change the port settings, switch off DHCP
address and enter an IP address in a more comfortable way than directly on the instrument. To take effect of the changes, "Submit" them to the instrument.
"Reset" removes all modified values that were not yet sent to the instrument.
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17.3 Remote Control Interfaces
For remote control, the LAN, USB or the GPIB interface can be used. The GPIB interface (Option RTM-B10) replaces the LAN / USB type B interface module on the rear
panel.
Table 17-1: Remote control interfaces and protocols
Interface
Protocols, address string
Remarks
Local Area
Network
(LAN)
VXI-11 protocol:
TCPIP::<IP_address>[::inst0]::INSTR
The LAN connector is located on the rear panel of
the instrument.
See also:
●
Chapter 17.1, "Operation in a LAN",
on page 392
●
Chapter 17.3.1, "LAN Interface", on page 399
USB
USB::<vendor_ID>::<product_ID>::<serial_number>[::INSTR)
Raw socket mode:
TCPIP::<IP_address>::<IP_port>::SO
CKET
A USB type B connector is located on the rear
panel of the instrument.
See also: Chapter 17.3.2, "USB Interface",
on page 401
GPIB (IEC/
IEEE Bus
Interface)
GPIB::primary address[::INSTR]
(no secondary address)
An optional GPIB bus interface according to standard IEC 625.1/IEEE 488.1 can be mounted on the
rear panel of the instrument.
See also: Chapter 17.3.3, "GPIB Interface (IEC/
IEEE Bus Interface)", on page 402.
Within this interface description, the term GPIB is used as a synonym for the IEC/IEEE
bus interface.
SCPI compatibility
SCPI commands (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) are used for
remote control. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and aims at the
standardization of device-specific commands, error handling and the status registers.
The tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control - A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE 488.2"
from John M. Pieper (R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information on
concepts and definitions of SCPI. The instrument supports the SCPI version 1999.
SCPI-confirmed commands are explicitly marked in the command reference chapters.
Commands without SCPI label are device-specific, however, their syntax follows SCPI
rules.
17.3.1 LAN Interface
The R&S RTM is equipped with a network interface and can be connected to an Ethernet LAN (local area network) for remote control of the instrument. The instrument
accepts remote commands via the LAN interface using the VISA library. VISA must be
installed on the control computer.
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The R&S RTM supports two ways of LAN communication:
●
VXI-11 protocol: a protocol that has been specifically developed for test and measurement instruments. It is the recommended protocol for remote control via LAN.
●
Raw socket mode: a synchronous, streaming oriented protocol. Consequently, raw
socket communication does not support asynchronous events like Service Request
(SRQ) or Device Clear (DCL).
See also: Chapter 17.1, "Operation in a LAN", on page 392.
17.3.1.1
IP Address and VISA Resource String
Only the IP address of the instrument is required to set up the connection. It identifies
the instrument in the network and is part of the resource string used by the programs to
identify and control the instrument. Depending on the communication mode - VXI-11
protocol or raw socket mode - the resource string has different forms.
IP address and port number are listed in the "Ethernet Settings" of R&S RTM, see
also: Chapter 17.1.2, "Configuring LAN Parameters", on page 392.
If the LAN is supported by a DNS server, the host name can be used instead of the IP
address. The DNS server (Domain Name System server) translates the host name to
the IP address. To assign a host name to the R&S RTM, select SETUP > "More" >
"Device Name".
VXI-11 protocol
TCPIP::<IP address>[::inst0]::INSTR
where:
●
inst0 is the LAN device name. VISA supports several devices running on the
instrument. On R&S RTM, only one device is configured, so the LAN device name
can be omitted.
●
INSTR indicates that the VXI-11 protocol is used
Example: If the instrument has the IP address 192.1.2.3, the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::192.1.2.3::INSTR
With host name instead of IP address:
TCPIP::<host name>[::inst0]::INSTR
Example: If the computer name is RSRT1, the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::RSRT1::INSTR.
Raw socket mode
TCPIP::<IP_address>::<IP_port>::SOCKET
The default port number for SCPI socket communication is 5025.
Example: If the instrument has the IP address 192.1.2.3; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::192.1.2.3::5025::SOCKET
With host name instead of IP address:
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TCPIP::<host_name>::<IP_port>::SOCKET
Example: If the host name is RSRT1; the valid resource string is: TCPIP::RSRT1::
5025::SOCKET
The end character must be set to linefeed.
17.3.1.2
VXI-11 Protocol
The VXI-11 standard is based on the ONC RPC (Open Network Computing Remote
Procedure Call) protocol which in turn relies on TCP/IP as the network/transport layer.
The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured.
TCP/IP ensures connection-oriented communication, where the order of the
exchanged messages is adhered to and interrupted links are identified. With this protocol, messages cannot be lost.
17.3.2 USB Interface
For remote control via the USB connection, use the USB type B interface to connect
the PC and the instrument. The USB connection requires the VISA library installed on
the PC. No separate driver installation is necessary.
Connect the instrument to the computer using the USB cable and select SETUP >
"Interface" > "USB" on the R&S RTM. VISA detects the R&S instrument automatically
and displays the address string.
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17.3.3 GPIB Interface (IEC/IEEE Bus Interface)
The GBIP interface is optional (option RTM-B10). It replaces the LAN / USB type B
interface module on the rear panel. Thus, remote control is possible either with LAN or
USB connection, or with GBIP.
To be able to control the instrument via the GPIB bus, the instrument and the controller
must be linked by a GPIB bus cable. A GPIB bus card, the card drivers and the program libraries for the programming language must be provided in the controller. The
controller must address the instrument with the GPIB instrument address.
Characteristics
The GPIB interface is described by the following characteristics:
●
Up to 15 instruments can be connected
●
The total cable length is restricted to a maximum of 15 m; the cable lenth between
two instruments should not exceed 2m.
●
A wired "OR"-connection is used if several instruments are connected in parallel.
GPIB Instrument Address
In order to operate the instrument via remote control, it must be addressed using the
GPIB address. The remote control address is factory-set to 20, but it can be changed
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in the network environment settings or in the "Setup" menu under "Interface > Parameter". For remote control, addresses 0 through 30 are allowed. The GPIB address is
maintained after a reset of the instrument settings.
17.4 Switching to Remote Control
When you switch on the instrument, it is always in manual operation state ("local"
state) and can be operated via the front panel.
When you send a command from the control computer, it is received and executed by
the R&S RTM. The display remains on, manual operation via the front panel is always
possible.
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Conventions used in Command Description
18 Remote Commands Reference
This chapter provides the description of all remote commands available for R&S RTM.
The commands are sorted according to the menu structure of the instrument. A list of
commands in alphabetical order ist given in the "List of Commands" at the end of this
documentation.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Conventions used in Command Description......................................................... 404
Programming Examples........................................................................................405
Common Commands............................................................................................ 409
Acquisition and Setup........................................................................................... 413
Trigger...................................................................................................................447
Display.................................................................................................................. 462
Reference Waveforms.......................................................................................... 470
Measurements...................................................................................................... 475
Mathematics..........................................................................................................497
Spectrum Analysis................................................................................................ 500
Masks....................................................................................................................524
Search...................................................................................................................530
Protocol Analysis...................................................................................................547
Power Analysis (Option R&S RTM-K31)...............................................................665
Mixed Signal Option (MSO, R&S RTM-B1)...........................................................717
Digital Voltmeter and Counter (Option R&S RTM-K32)........................................ 727
Data and File Management...................................................................................730
General Instrument Setup..................................................................................... 755
Status Reporting................................................................................................... 759
18.1 Conventions used in Command Description
Note the following conventions used in the remote command descriptions:
●
Command usage
If not specified otherwise, commands can be used both for setting and for querying
parameters.
If a command can be used for setting or querying only, or if it initiates an event, the
usage is stated explicitly.
●
Parameter usage
If not specified otherwise, a parameter can be used to set a value and it is the
result of a query.
Parameters required only for setting are indicated as Setting parameters.
Parameters required only to refine a query are indicated as Query parameters.
Parameters that are only returned as the result of a query are indicated as Return
values.
●
Conformity
Commands that are taken from the SCPI standard are indicated as SCPI confirmed. All commands used by the R&S RTM follow the SCPI syntax rules.
●
Asynchronous commands
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Programming Examples
A command which does not automatically finish executing before the next command starts executing (overlapping command) is indicated as an Asynchronous
command.
●
Reset values (*RST)
Default parameter values that are used directly after resetting the instrument (*RST
command) are indicated as *RST values, if available.
●
Default unit
This is the unit used for numeric values if no other unit is provided with the parameter.
18.2 Programming Examples
●
●
●
Data Export........................................................................................................... 405
Search...................................................................................................................407
Data and File Management...................................................................................408
18.2.1 Data Export
●
●
18.2.1.1
Reading Waveform Data in Real Format.............................................................. 405
Reading Waveform Data in Unsigned Integer Format.......................................... 406
Reading Waveform Data in Real Format
Set data format and sample range, read channel header and data.
Command description in Chapter 18.17.1, "Waveform Data Transfer", on page 730.
* Connected to: TCPIP0::192.168.1.1::inst0::INSTR
SYST:ERR?
<-- 0,"No error"
*IDN?
<-- Rohde&Schwarz,RTM1052,1305.0008K52/101489,04.502
*RST
CHAN:TYPE HRES
// Set high resolution mode (16 bit data)
ACQ:WRAT MSAM
// Set maximum waveform rate
TIM:SCAL 1E-7
// Set time base
FORM REAL
// Set REAL data format
FORM:BORD LSBF
// Set little endian byte order
CHAN:DATA:POIN DMAX
// Set sample range to memory data in displayed time range
SING;*OPC?
// Start single acquisition
<--
1
CHAN:DATA:HEAD?
<--
// Read header
-4.9980E-07,5.0000E-07,5000,1
CHAN:DATA?
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// Xstart, Xstop, record length in samples
// Read channel data
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<--
#520000>??[>??[>??[>??[>??[>??...
// Binary block data,
// 4-byte floating point number/sample
18.2.1.2
Reading Waveform Data in Unsigned Integer Format
Read the channel header, the waveform conversion data, set the UINT binary data format and read the channel data.
Command description in: Chapter 18.17.1, "Waveform Data Transfer", on page 730.
*RST
TIM:SCAL 1E-7
CHAN:DATA:POIN DMAX
// Set data range
SING;*OPC?
<--
1
CHAN:DATA:HEAD?
<--
CHAN:DATA:YRES?
<--
// Set data format to unsigned integer, 8 bit
UINT,8
CHAN:DATA:YINC?
<--
// Read time between two adjacent samples
2.000000023E-10
FORM UINT,8;FORM?
<--
// Read time of the first sample
-4.998000058E-7
CHAN:DATA:XINC?
<--
// Read voltage value for binary value 0
-2.549999943E-2
CHAN:DATA:XOR?
<--
// Xstart, Xstop, record length in samples
// Read vertical resolution
8
CHAN:DATA:YOR?
<--
// Read header
-4.9980E-07,5.0000E-07,5000,1
// Read voltage value per bit
1.999999949E-4
CHAN:DATA?
// Read channel data
<--
// 5000 bytes total
128,125,120...
FORM UINT,16;FORM?
<--
CHAN:DATA:YINC?
<--
// Read voltage value per bit
7.812499803E-7
CHAN:DATA?
<--
// Change data format to unsigned integer, 16 bit
UINT,16
// Read channel data
32768,32000,30720... // 10000 bytes total
Note the following correlations:
●
The number of received data values matches the number of samples indicated in
the header.
●
The time of the first sample (XORigin) matches the start time Xstart indicated in the
header.
●
The Y-increment adjusts to the data length defined in the data format (8 or 16 bit).
Data conversion
Definition: the sample numbers start with 0 and end with record length - 1.
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Sample time
tn = n * xIncrement + xOrigin
First sample: t0 = -4.998000058E-7 (= Xstart)
Last sample: t4999 = 4999 * 2E−10 − 4.998E−7 = 5.0 E−7 (= Xstop)
Sample value
Yn = yOrigin + (yIncrement * byteValuen)
The format UINT,8 has the data range 0 to 255. The voltage value for byte value 128
is:
Yn = −2.55E-2 + (2E−4 * 128) = 0.0001
The center of the display at position 0 div always has the byte value 127.5. The corresponding voltage value is:
Yn = −2.55E-2 + (2E−4 * 127.5) = 0
8-bit and 16-bit data
At the end of the above example, the 8-bit waveform is read as 16-bit data, for example, 0xFF is read 0xFF00, or 0x1A is read 0x1A00. The yOrigin value is the same in
both cases, but the yIncrement differs.
yIncrement * byteValuen
8-bit data
16-bit data
Result
2e-4 * 128
7,8125E-7 * 32768
0,0256 V
2e-4 * 125
7,8125E-7 * 32000
0,025 V
In the reverse case, if a 16-bit waveform is read with 8-bit data format, data precision
may be reduced. Data values ar truncated, and only the more significiant bits remain.
For example, the 16-bit data 0xabcd is read 0xab in 8-bit format, and cd is lost.
18.2.2 Search
18.2.2.1
Searching for a Pulse of Specified Width
Search for positive pulses with pulse width 12 ± 10 µs (2 µs to 22 µs).
Command description in: Chapter 18.12, "Search", on page 530.
SEAR:STAT ON
// Turn on search
SEAR:COND WIDTH
// Select search condition
SEAR:SOUR CH2
// Configure search source
SEAR:TRIG:WIDT:POL POS
// Configure search parameters: Polarity
SEAR:TRIG:WIDT:RANG WITH
// Configure search parameters: Condition = within
SEAR:TRIG:WIDT:WIDT 12e-6
// Configure search parameters: Pulse width
SEAR:TRIG:WIDT:DELT 10e-6
// Configure search parameters: +/- delta
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SEAR:RESD:SHOW ON
// Show result table
SEAR:RCO?
// Get number of search events found
<--
1.400E+01
SEAR:RES:ALL?
<--
// Get all search results
1,5.201200e-06,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,1.220160e-05,2,4.120040e-05,0,WIDTH,
POSITIVE,3.076800e-06,3,4.732480e-05,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,9.127200e-06,4,
6.499960e-05,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,1.835160e-05,5,8.634920e-05,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,
3.052000e-06,6,1.293984e-04,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,9.176800e-06,7,1.477228e-04,0,
WIDTH,POSITIVE,3.052000e-06,8,1.623224e-04,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,3.102000e-06,9,
1.684724e-04,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,1.215160e-05,10,1.953216e-04,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,
3.027200e-06,11,2.044716e-04,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,6.052000e-06,12,2.252212e-04,0,
WIDTH,POSITIVE,3.052000e-06,13,2.435456e-04,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,3.027200e-06,14,
2.496456e-04,0,WIDTH,POSITIVE,6.702000e-06
18.2.3 Data and File Management
●
●
18.2.3.1
Saving Screenshots to File................................................................................... 408
Saving, Copying, and Loading Setup Data........................................................... 408
Saving Screenshots to File
Save two display images in png format to the PIX folder on a USB flash drive that is
connected to the front panel. One screenshot is colored and the other is grayscaled.
Finally, the data of the gray screenshot is read for further user on the control computer.
Command description in: Chapter 18.17.4, "Screenshots", on page 751.
*RST
MMEM:CDIR "/USB_FRONT"
MMEM:MDIR "/USB_FRONT/PIX"
MMEM:CDIR "/USB_FRONT/PIX/"
HCOP:DEST "MMEM"
HCOP:LANG PNG
HCOP:COL:SCH COL
MMEM:NAME "COLORED"
HCOP:IMM
HCOP:COL:SCH GRAY
MMEM:NAME "GRAY"
HCOP:IMM
MMEM:CAT? "*.PNG"
MMEM:DATA? "GRAY.PNG"
18.2.3.2
Saving, Copying, and Loading Setup Data
Save instrument settings to a file on internal storage device, duplicate this file and save
it to a USB stick attached to the front panel. Finally, there are three setup files on the
internal storage /INT/SETTINGS, and one file on the USB flash device.
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Command description in: Chapter 18.17.3, "Instrument Settings", on page 745.
CHAN1:STAT ON
// Turn channel 1 on
CHAN2:STAT ON
// Turn channel 2 on
TIM:ZOOM:STAT ON
// Show zoom diagram
MMEM:CDIR "/INT/SETTINGS"
// Set storage device and directory
MMEM:STOR:STAT 1,"ZOOM_A.SET"
// Save settings to internal storage
MMEM:CAT? "*.SET"
// Check
<--
332112,8633856,"ZOOM_A.SET,,2759"
MMEM:COPY "ZOOM_A.SET","ZOOM_B.SET" // Copy file
MMEM:CAT? "*.SET"
<--
// Check
332112,8633856,"ZOOM_A.SET,,2759","ZOOM_B.SET,,2759"
MMEM:COPY "/INT/SETTINGS/ZOOM_B.SET","/USB_FRONT/ZOOM_B.SET"
// Save copied file to USB stick
MMEM:CDIR "/USB_FRONT"
// Check
MMEM:CAT? "*.SET"
<--
4890624,-641765376,"ZOOM_B.SET,,2759"
MMEM:COPY "/USB_FRONT/ZOOM_B.SET","/USB_FRONT/ZOOM_USB.SET"
// Duplicate file on USB stick
MMEM:CAT? "*.SET"
<--
// Check
4890624,-641765376,"ZOOM_B.SET,,2759","ZOOM_USB.SET,,2759"
MMEM:DEL "ZOOM_B.SET"
// Delete original file
MMEM:CAT? "*.SET"
// Check
<--
4886528,-641765376,"ZOOM_USB.SET,,2759"
MMEM:COPY "/USB_FRONT/ZOOM_USB.SET","/INT/SETTINGS/"
// Copy new file to the instrument
MMEM:CDIR "/INT/SETTINGS"
// Check
MMEM:CAT? "*.SET"
<--
332112,8633856,"ZOOM_A.SET,,2759","ZOOM_B.SET,,2759","ZOOM_USB.SET,,2759"
*RST;*OPC?
<--
1
MMEM:CDIR "/INT/SETTINGS"
MMEM:LOAD:STAT 1,"ZOOM_USB.SET"
// Load settings
18.3 Common Commands
Common commands are described in the IEEE 488.2 (IEC 625-2) standard. These
commands have the same effect and are employed in the same way on different devices. The headers of these commands consist of "*" followed by three letters. Many
common commands are related to the Status Reporting System.
Available common commands:
*CAL?...........................................................................................................................410
*CLS.............................................................................................................................410
*ESE.............................................................................................................................410
*ESR?...........................................................................................................................410
*IDN?............................................................................................................................410
*OPC............................................................................................................................ 411
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*OPT?...........................................................................................................................411
*PSC............................................................................................................................ 411
*RST.............................................................................................................................412
*SRE............................................................................................................................ 412
*STB?...........................................................................................................................412
*TRG............................................................................................................................ 412
*TST?........................................................................................................................... 412
*WAI.............................................................................................................................413
*CAL?
Performs a self-alignment of the instrument and then generates a status response.
Return values ≠ 0 indicate an error.
Usage:
Query only
*CLS
Clear status
Sets the status byte (STB), the standard event register (ESR) and the EVENt part of
the QUEStionable and the OPERation registers to zero. The command does not
alter the mask and transition parts of the registers. It clears the output buffer.
Usage:
Setting only
*ESE <Value>
Event status enable
Sets the event status enable register to the specified value. The query returns the contents of the event status enable register in decimal form.
Parameters:
<Value>
Range:
0 to 255
*ESR?
Event status read
Returns the contents of the event status register in decimal form and subsequently
sets the register to zero.
Return values:
<Contents>
Range:
Usage:
Query only
0 to 255
*IDN?
Identification
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Returns the instrument identification.
Return values:
<ID>
"Rohde&Schwarz,<device type>,<serial number>,<firmware version>"
<ID>
"Rohde&Schwarz,<device type>,<part number>/serial number>,<firmware version>"
Example:
Rohde&Schwarz,RTM,1316.1000k14/200153,1.30.0.25
Usage:
Query only
*OPC
Operation complete
Sets bit 0 in the event status register when all preceding commands have been executed. This bit can be used to initiate a service request. The query form writes a "1" into
the output buffer as soon as all preceding commands have been executed. This is
used for command synchronization.
*OPT?
Option identification query
Queries the options included in the instrument. For a list of all available options and
their description refer to the data sheet.
Return values:
<Options>
Usage:
The query returns a list of options. The options are returned at
fixed positions in a comma-separated string. A zero is returned
for options that are not installed.
Query only
*PSC <Action>
Power on status clear
Determines whether the contents of the ENABle registers are preserved or reset when
the instrument is switched on. Thus a service request can be triggered when the instrument is switched on, if the status registers ESE and SRE are suitably configured. The
query reads out the contents of the "power-on-status-clear" flag.
Parameters:
<Action>
0|1
0
The contents of the status registers are preserved.
1
Resets the status registers.
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*RST
Reset
Sets the instrument to a defined default status. The default settings are indicated in the
description of commands.
Usage:
Setting only
*SRE <Contents>
Service request enable
Sets the service request enable register to the indicated value. This command determines under which conditions a service request is triggered.
Parameters:
<Contents>
Contents of the service request enable register in decimal form.
Bit 6 (MSS mask bit) is always 0.
Range:
0 to 255
*STB?
Status byte query
Reads the contents of the status byte in decimal form.
Usage:
Query only
*TRG
Trigger
Triggers all actions waiting for a trigger event. In particular, *TRG generates a manual
trigger signal. This common command complements the commands of the TRIGger
subsystem.
Usage:
Event
*TST?
Self-test query
Initiates self-tests of the instrument and returns an error code
Return values:
<ErrorCode>
integer > 0 (in decimal format)
An error occurred.
(For details see the Service Manual supplied with the instrument).
0
No errors occurred.
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Usage:
Query only
*WAI
Wait to continue
Prevents servicing of the subsequent commands until all preceding commands have
been executed and all signals have settled (see also command synchronization and
*OPC).
Usage:
Event
18.4 Acquisition and Setup
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Starting and Stopping Acquisition......................................................................... 413
Time Base.............................................................................................................414
Acquisition.............................................................................................................416
Vertical.................................................................................................................. 421
Waveform Data..................................................................................................... 427
Probes...................................................................................................................431
History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)....................................437
History Viewer....................................................................................................... 438
Timestamps...........................................................................................................442
Export....................................................................................................................445
18.4.1 Starting and Stopping Acquisition
RUN............................................................................................................................. 413
RUNContinous...............................................................................................................413
SINGle..........................................................................................................................414
RUNSingle.................................................................................................................... 414
ACQuire:NSINgle:COUNt................................................................................................414
STOP........................................................................................................................... 414
RUN
Starts the continuous acquisition.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
RUNContinous
Same as RUN.
Usage:
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Asynchronous command
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SINGle
Starts a defined number of acquisitions. The number of acquisitions is set with
ACQuire:NSINgle:COUNt.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
RUNSingle
Same as SINGle.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
ACQuire:NSINgle:COUNt <NSingleCount>
Sets the number of waveforms acquired with RUNSingle.
Parameters:
<NSingleCount>
Number of waveforms
*RST:
1
STOP
Stops the running acquistion.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
18.4.2 Time Base
TIMebase:SCALe...........................................................................................................414
TIMebase:RATime?....................................................................................................... 415
TIMebase:ACQTime.......................................................................................................415
TIMebase:RANGe..........................................................................................................415
TIMebase:DIVisions?..................................................................................................... 415
TIMebase:POSition........................................................................................................ 416
TIMebase:REFerence.....................................................................................................416
TIMebase:SCALe <TimeScale>
Sets the horizontal scale for all channel and math waveforms.
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Parameters:
<TimeScale>
Range:
1e-9 to 50; lower limits are possible if zoom or
FFT is enabled.
Increment: 1, 2, 5 progression, for example, 1 ms/div, 2 ms/div,
5 ms/div, 10, 20, 50...
*RST:
100e-6
Default unit: s/DIV
TIMebase:RATime?
Queries the real acquisition time used in the hardware. If FFT analysis is performed,
the value can differ from the adjusted acquisition time (TIMebase:ACQTime).
Return values:
<HWAcqTime>
Usage:
Range:
Depends on various settings
Default unit: s
Query only
TIMebase:ACQTime <AcquisitionTime>
Defines the time of one acquisition, that is the time across the 10 divisions of the diagram: Timebase Scale*10.
Parameters:
<AcquisitionTime>
*RST:
1e-3
Default unit: s
TIMebase:RANGe <AcquisitionTime>
Defines the time of one acquisition, that is the time across the 10 divisions of the diagram: Timebase Scale*10.
Parameters:
<AcquisitionTime>
Range and increment depend on time base and other settings
*RST:
1e-3
Default unit: s
TIMebase:DIVisions?
Queries the number of horizontal divisions on the screen.
Return values:
<HorizDivCount>
Usage:
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Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
10 to 10
0
10
DIV
Query only
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TIMebase:POSition <Offset>
Defines the trigger position (trigger offset) - the time interval between trigger point and
reference point to analize the signal some time before or after the trigger event.
See also: TIMebase:REFerence on page 416
Parameters:
<Offset>
Range:
Depends on time base setting
*RST:
0
Default unit: s
TIMebase:REFerence <ReferencePoint>
Sets the reference point of the time scale (Time Reference) in % of the display. The
reference point defines which part of the waveform is shown. If the trigger position is
zero, the trigger point matches the reference point.
See also: TIMebase:POSition on page 416
Parameters:
<ReferencePoint>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
10 to 90
10
50
%
18.4.3 Acquisition
AUToscale.................................................................................................................... 416
ACQuire:MODE............................................................................................................. 417
ACQuire:INTerpolate...................................................................................................... 417
ACQuire:AVERage:COUNt............................................................................................. 417
ACQuire:AVERage:COMPlete?....................................................................................... 417
ACQuire:WRATe............................................................................................................418
ACQuire:POINts[:VALue]................................................................................................ 418
CHANnel<m>:TYPE.......................................................................................................419
CHANnel<m>:ARIThmetics.............................................................................................419
TIMebase:ROLL:ENABle................................................................................................ 420
ACQuire:FILTer:FREQuency...........................................................................................420
ACQuire:POINts:ARATe?............................................................................................... 420
ACQuire:SRATe?...........................................................................................................421
AUToscale
Performs an autoset process: analyzes the enabled channel signals, and obtains
appropriate horizontal, vertical, and trigger settings to display stable waveforms.
Usage:
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Asynchronous command
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ACQuire:MODE <AcquisitionMode>
Selects the method of adding waveform points to the samples of the ADC in order to fill
the record length.
Parameters:
<AcquisitionMode>
RTIMe | ETIMe
RTIMe
Real Time Mode: At slow time base settings the sampled points
of the input signal are used to build the waveform, no waveform
points are added. With fast time base settings, the sample rate
is higher than the ADC sample rate. Waveform samples are
added to the ADC samples with sin(x)/x interpolation.
ETIMe
Equivalent time: The waveform points are taken from several
acquisitions of a repetive signal at a different time in relation to
the trigger point.
*RST:
RTIME
ACQuire:INTerpolate <Interpolation>
Defines the interpolation mode.
See also: "Interpolation" on page 32
Parameters:
<Interpolation>
SINX
LINear
Linear interpolation between two adjacent sample points.
SINX
Interpolation by means of a sin(x)/x curve.
SMHD
Sample & Hold causes a histogram-like interpolation.
*RST:
SINX
ACQuire:AVERage:COUNt <AverageCount>
Defines the number of waveforms used to calculate the average waveform. The higher
the number, the better the noise is reduced.
Parameters:
<AverageCount>
Only numbers from the 2n progression are permitted (2, 4, 8, ...)
Range:
*RST:
2 to 1024
2
ACQuire:AVERage:COMPlete?
Returns the state of averaging.
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Return values:
<AverageComplete> 0 | 1
0
The number of acquired waveforms is less than the number
required for average calculation. See ACQuire:AVERage:
COUNt.
1
The instrument acquired a sufficient number of waveforms to
determine the average.
Usage:
Query only
ACQuire:WRATe <WaveformRate>
Defines the mode to set the sample rate (samples per second saved in the memory)
and the waveform acquisition rate (waveforms per second).
Parameters:
<WaveformRate>
AUTO | MWAVeform | MSAMples | MANual
AUTO
To display the best waveform, the instrument selects the optimum combination of waveform acquisition rate and sample rate
using the full memory depth (maximum record length).
MWAVeform
Maximum waveform rate: The instrument combines sample rate
and memory depth to acquire at maximum waveform acquisition
rate. In connection with persistence, the mode can display rare
signal anomalies.
MSAMples
Maximum sample rate: The instrument acquires the signal at
maximum sample rate and uses the full memory depth. The
result is a waveform with maximum number of waveform samples, high degree of accuracy, and low risk of aliasing.
MANual
The instrument acquires the signals at a sample rate that fills up
an user-defined record length. Set the record length using
ACQuire:POINts[:VALue].
MANual is only available if the History option R&S RTM-K15 is
installed.
*RST:
AUTO
ACQuire:POINts[:VALue] <RecordLength>
The query returns the record length, the number of recorded waveform points in a segment.
If option R&S RTM-K15 is installed, and ACQuire:WRATe on page 418 is set to MANual, the command can set the record length of a segment.
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Parameters:
<RecordLength>
Record length in Sa
CHANnel<m>:TYPE <DecimationMode>
Selects the method to reduce the data stream of the ADC to a stream of waveform
points with lower sample rate.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<DecimationMode>
.
1..4
The command affects all channels regardless of the indicated
channel number. The suffix can be omitted.
SAMPle | PDETect | HRESolution
SAMPle
Input data is acquired with a sample rate which is aligned to the
time base (horizontal scale) and the record length.
PDETect
Peak Detect: the minimum and the maximum of n samples in a
sample interval are recorded as waveform points.
HRESolution
High resolution: The average of n sample points is recorded as
waveform point.
*RST:
SAMPle
CHANnel<m>:ARIThmetics <TrArithmetic>
Selects the method to build the resulting waveform from several consecutive acquisitions of the signal.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
The command affects all channels regardless of the indicated
channel number. The suffix can be omitted.
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Parameters:
<TrArithmetic>
OFF | ENVelope | AVERage | SMOoth | FILTer
OFF
The data of the current acquisition is recorded according to the
decimation settings.
ENVelope
Detects the minimum and maximum values in an sample interval
over a number of acquisitions.
AVERage
Calculates the average from the data of the current acquisition
and a number of acquisitions before. The number of used
acquisitions is set with ACQuire:AVERage:COUNt.
SMOoth
Calculates a mean value of several adjacent sample points.
Thus, smoothing is a moving average that uses the full data and
can be used for non-periodic signals. It works like a low-pass,
and increases the vertical resolution at the expense of bandwidth reduction.
FILTer
Sets a low-pass filter with 3 db attenuation at a configurable limit
frequency set with ACQuire:FILTer:FREQuency. The filter
removes higher frequencies from the channel signals.
*RST:
OFF
TIMebase:ROLL:ENABle <Roll>
Enables the roll mode.
Parameters:
<Roll>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
ACQuire:FILTer:FREQuency <FilterFrequency>
Sets the limit frequency for CHANnel<m>:ARIThmetics is set to FILTer.
Parameters:
<FilterFrequency>
Limit frequency with 3 dB attenuation
Default unit: Hz
ACQuire:POINts:ARATe?
Retrieves the sample rate of the ADC, that is the number of points that are sampled by
the ADC in one second.
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Return values:
<AcquisitionRate>
ADC sample rate
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
Usage:
2.5E3 to 5E9
1E3
5E9
Hz
Query only
ACQuire:SRATe?
Returns the sample rate, that is the number of recorded waveform samples per second.
Return values:
<SampleRate>
Usage:
Range:
2 to 1E11
Increment: depends on time base, waveform rate, number of
active channels
*RST:
1E7
Default unit: Sa/s
Query only
18.4.4 Vertical
CHANnel<m>:STATe..................................................................................................... 421
CHANnel<m>:AOFF.......................................................................................................422
CHANnel<m>:AON........................................................................................................ 422
CHANnel<m>:COUPling................................................................................................. 422
CHANnel<m>:SCALe..................................................................................................... 423
CHANnel<m>:RANGe.................................................................................................... 423
CHANnel<m>:POSition...................................................................................................424
CHANnel<m>:OFFSet.................................................................................................... 424
CHANnel<m>:BANDwidth...............................................................................................424
CHANnel<m>:POLarity...................................................................................................425
CHANnel<m>:OVERload................................................................................................ 425
CHANnel<m>:SKEW......................................................................................................426
CHANnel<m>:THReshold............................................................................................... 426
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:HYSTeresis............................................................................. 426
CHANnel<m>:LABel.......................................................................................................426
CHANnel<m>:LABel:STATe............................................................................................427
CHANnel<m>:ZOFFset[:VALue]...................................................................................... 427
CHANnel<m>:STATe <State>
Switches the channel signal on or off.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
ON | OFF
CHANnel<m>:AOFF
Switches all analog channels off.
Suffix:
<m>
.
The suffix is irrelevant.
Usage:
Event
Firmware/Software: FW 05.7xx
CHANnel<m>:AON
Switches all analog channels on.
Suffix:
<m>
.
The suffix is irrelevant.
Usage:
Event
Firmware/Software: FW 05.7xx
CHANnel<m>:COUPling <Coupling>
Selects the connection of the indicated channel signal - coupling and termination.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
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Parameters:
<Coupling>
DC | DCLimit | AC | ACLimit | GND
DC
Direct connection with 50 Ω termination.
DCLimit
Direct connection with 1 MΩ termination.
AC
Connection through DC capacitor that removes the DC offset
voltage from the input signal.
ACLimit
Connection through DC capacitor with 1 MΩ termination. The
capacitor removes the DC offset voltage from the input signal.
GND
Connection to the ground. All channel data is set to a constant
ground value.
*RST:
DCLimit
CHANnel<m>:SCALe <Scale>
Sets the vertical scale for the indicated channel.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Scale>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Scale value, given in Volts per division.
Range:
1e-3 to 10 (without probe attenuation)
*RST:
5e-3
Default unit: V/DIV
CHANnel<m>:RANGe <Range>
Sets the voltage range across the 8 vertical divisions of the diagram. Use the command alternativly instead of CHANnel<m>:SCALe.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Range>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The maximum channel number is
instrument-dependent.
Voltage range value
Range:
8e-3 to 80 (without probe attenuation)
*RST:
40e-3
Default unit: V
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CHANnel<m>:POSition <Position>
Sets the vertical position of the indicated channel and its horizontal axis in the window.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Position>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Position value, given in divisions.
Range:
-5 to 5
*RST:
0
Default unit: DIV
CHANnel<m>:OFFSet <Offset>
The offset voltage is subtracted to correct an offset-affected signal.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Offset>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Offset value
Range:
Values depend on vertical scale and probe attenuation.
Increment: Value depends on vertical scale and probe attenuation.
Default unit: V
CHANnel<m>:BANDwidth <BandwidthLimit>
Selects the bandwidth limit for the indicated channel.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
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Parameters:
<BandwidthLimit>
FULL | B400 | B200 | B20
FULL
Use full bandwidth.
Instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth: If termination is 50 Ω, the
full bandwidth of 1 GHz is available. If termination is 1 MΩ, the
full bandwith is limited to 500 MHz.
B400 | B200 | B20
Limit to 400MHz, 200 MHz, or 20 MHz, respectively.
Available values depend on the instrument's bandwidth.
*RST:
FULL
CHANnel<m>:POLarity <Polarity>
Turns the inversion of the signal amplitude on or off. To invert means to reflect the voltage values of all signal components against the ground level. Inversion affects only the
display of the signal but not the trigger.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Polarity>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
NORMal | INVerted
*RST:
NORM
CHANnel<m>:OVERload <Overload>
Retrieves the overload status of the specified channel from the status bit. When the
overload problem is solved, the command resets the status bit.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Overload>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
ON | OFF
Use OFF to reset the overload status bit.
*RST:
Example:
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OFF
CHANnel2:OVERload?
Queries the overload status of channel 2.
CHANnel2:OVERload OFF
Resets the overload status bit.
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CHANnel<m>:SKEW <Skew>
Skew or deskew compensates delay differences between channels caused by the different length of cables, probes, and other sources. Correct deskew values are important for accurate triggering.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Skew>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Deskew value
Default unit: s
CHANnel<m>:THReshold <Threshold>
Threshold value for digitization of analog signals. If the signal value is higher than the
threshold, the signal state is high (1 or true for the boolean logic). Otherwise, the signal
state is considered low (0 or false) if the signal value is below the threshold.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Threshold>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Default values are:
TTL: 1.4 V
ECL: -1.3 V
CMOS: 2.5 V
*RST:
1.4
Default unit: V
CHANnel<m>:THReshold:HYSTeresis <ThresholdHysteresis>
Defines the size of the hysteresis to avoid the change of signal states due to noise.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Parameters:
<ThresholdHysteresis>SMALl | MEDium | LARGe
*RST:
SMAL
CHANnel<m>:LABel <Label>
Specifies a name for the selected channel.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Label>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
String value
String with max. 8 characters, only ASCII characters can be
used
CHANnel<m>:LABel:STATe <State>
Shows or hides the channel name.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CHANnel<m>:ZOFFset[:VALue] <ZeroOffset>
Sets the zero offset.
Differences in DUT and oscilloscope ground levels may cause larger zero errors affecting the waveform. If the DUT is ground-referenced, the "Zero Offset" corrects the zero
error and sets the probe to the zero level.
You can assess the zero error by measuring the mean value of a signal that should
return zero.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ZeroOffset>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
*RST:
0
Default unit: V
18.4.5 Waveform Data
Consider also the following commands:
●
FORMat[:DATA] on page 731
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:XINCrement? on page 742
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:XORigin? on page 742
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:YINCrement? on page 743
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●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:YORigin? on page 743
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:YRESolution? on page 743
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:XINCrement? on page 742
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:XORigin? on page 742
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:YINCrement? on page 743
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:YORigin? on page 743
●
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:YRESolution? on page 743
CHANnel<m>:DATA?..................................................................................................... 428
CHANnel<m>:DATA:HEADer?........................................................................................ 428
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope?..................................................................................... 429
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:HEADer?.........................................................................429
CHANnel<m>:DATA:POINts........................................................................................... 430
CHANnel<m>:DATA?
Returns the data of the analog channel waveform for transmission from the instrument
to the controlling computer. The waveforms data can be used in MATLAB, for example.
To set the export format, use FORMat[:DATA] on page 731.
To set the range of samples to be returned, use CHANnel<m>:DATA:POINts.
For envelope waveforms, use the CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope? command.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Data>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
List of values according to the format settings - the voltages of
recorded waveform samples.
Example:
FORM ASC
CHAN1:DATA?
-0.125000,-0.123016,-0.123016,-0.123016,
-0.123016,-0.123016,...
Example:
See Chapter 18.2.1, "Data Export", on page 405
Usage:
Query only
CHANnel<m>:DATA:HEADer?
Returns information on the channel waveform. For envelope waveforms, use the
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:HEADer? command.
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Table 18-1: Header data
Position
Meaning
Example
1
XStart in s
-9.477E-008 = - 94,77 ns
2
XStop in s
9.477E-008 = 94,77 ns
3
Record length of the waveform in Samples
200000
4
Number of values per sample interval, usually 1.
1
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<DataHeader>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Comma-separated value list
Example: -9.477E-008,9.477E-008,200000,1
Usage:
Query only
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope?
Returns the data of the envelope. The envelope consists of two waveforms. The waveforms data can be used in MATLAB, for example.
Use this command only for envelope waveforms. For other channel waveforms use
CHANnel<m>:DATA?.
To set the export format, use FORMat[:DATA] on page 731.
To set the range of samples to be returned, use CHANnel<m>:DATA:POINts.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Data>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
List of values according to the format settings - the voltages of
the envelope points. The list contains two values for each sample interval.
Query only
CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope:HEADer?
Returns information on the envelope waveform.
Use this command only for envelope waveforms. for all other channel waveforms use
CHANnel<m>:DATA:HEADer?.
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Table 18-2: Header data
Position
Meaning
Example
1
XStart in s
-9.477E-008 = - 94,77 ns
2
XStop in s
9.477E-008 = 94,77 ns
3
Number of samples
200000
4
Number of values per sample interval. For envelope
waveforms the value is 2.
2
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Return values:
<DataHeader>
Comma-separated value list
Example: -9.477E-008,9.477E-008,200000,2
Usage:
Query only
CHANnel<m>:DATA:POINts <Points>
As a setting, the command selects a range of samples that will be returned with
CHANnel<m>:DATA? and CHANnel<m>:DATA:ENVelope?. As a query, it returns the
number of returned samples for the selected range.
If ACQuire:WRATe is set to MSAMples (maximum sample rate), the memory usually
contains more data samples than the screen can display. In this case, you can decide
which data will be saved: samples stored in the memory or only the displayed samples.
Note: The sample range can only be changed in STOP mode. If the acquisition is running, DEF is always used automatically. If the acquisition has been stopped, data can
be read from the memory, and all settings are available.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
The command affects all channels, and the suffix is irrelevant.
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Setting parameters:
<Points>
DEFault | MAXimum | DMAXimum
Sets the range for data queries.
DEFault
Waveform points that are visible on the screen. At maximum
waveform rate, the instrument stores more samples than visible
on the screen, and DEF returns less values than acquired.
MAXimum
All waveform samples that are stored in the memory. Only available if acquisition is stopped.
DMAXimum
Display maximum: Waveform samples stored in the current
waveform record but only for the displayed time range. At maximum waveform rate, the instrument stores more samples than
visible on the screen, and DMAX returns more values than DEF.
Only available if acquisition is stopped.
*RST:
Return values:
<Points>
DEFault
Number of data points in the selected range.
Default unit: Samples
Example:
CHAN:DATA:POIN DEF
CHAN:DATA:POIN?;:CHAN2:DATA:POIN?
Returned values: 10416;10416
CHAN:DATA:POIN DMAX
CHAN:DATA:POIN?;:CHAN2:DATA:POIN?
Returned values: 124992;124992
CHAN:DATA:POIN MAX
CHAN:DATA:POIN?;:CHAN2:DATA:POIN?
Returned values: 4194302;4194302
Example:
See Chapter 18.2.1.1, "Reading Waveform Data in Real Format", on page 405
18.4.6 Probes
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation[:AUTO]?....................................................................... 432
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:UNIT............................................................................ 432
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:MANual........................................................................ 432
PROBe<m>:SETup:BANDwidth?.....................................................................................433
PROBe<m>:SETup:CAPacitance?...................................................................................433
PROBe<m>:SETup:DCOFfset?.......................................................................................433
PROBe<m>:SETup:IMPedance?.....................................................................................433
PROBe<m>:SETup:MODE ............................................................................................ 434
PROBe<m>:SETup:NAME?............................................................................................ 434
PROBe<m>:SETup:OFFSwitch....................................................................................... 434
PROBe<m>:SETup:TYPE?.............................................................................................435
PROBe<m>:SETup:UOFFset.......................................................................................... 435
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PROBe<m>:SETup:CMOFfset........................................................................................ 435
PROBe<m>:ID:BUILd?................................................................................................... 436
PROBe<m>:ID:PARTnumber?........................................................................................ 436
PROBe<m>:ID:PRDate?.................................................................................................436
PROBe<m>:ID:SRNumber?............................................................................................ 437
PROBe<m>:ID:SWVersion?............................................................................................437
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation[:AUTO]?
Returns the attenuation of an automatically detected probe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Return values:
<ProbeAttenuation>
Range:
Usage:
Query only
0.001 to 1000
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:UNIT <Unit>
Selects the unit that the probe can measure.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Unit>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
V|A
Firmware/Software: FW 03.700
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:MANual <ManualAttenuation>
Sets the attenuation or gain of the probe if the probe was not detected by the instrument.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Parameters:
<ManualAttenuation> Range:
*RST:
0.001 to 10000
1
Firmware/Software: FW 03.700
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PROBe<m>:SETup:BANDwidth?
Queries the bandwidth of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Bandwidth>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Range:
10e5 to 20e8
Increment: 10
Default unit: Hz
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:CAPacitance?
Queries the input capacity of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Return values:
<InputCapacitance> Range:
0.1e-12 to 1.0e-9
Increment: 1.0e-12
Default unit: F
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:DCOFfset?
Retrieves the DC voltage that is measured by the integrated voltmeter of R&S active
probes. Switch the voltmeter on before, see PROBe<m>:SETup:OFFSwitch
on page 434.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Offset>
Usage:
.
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Range:
-1.0e26 to 1.0e-26
Increment: 1e-3
Default unit: V
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:IMPedance?
Queries the termination of the probe.
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Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Return values:
<Termination>
50OHm | 1MOHm | UNKNown
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:MODE <Mode>
Select the action that is started with the probe button.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Mode>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
RCONtinuous | RSINgle | AUToset | NOACtion
RCONtinuous
Run continuous: The acquisition is running as long as the probe
button is pressed.
RSINgle
Run single: starts one acquisition.
AUTOSET
Starts the autoset procedure.
NOACtion
Nothing is started on pressing the micro button.
*RST:
RCONtinuous
PROBe<m>:SETup:NAME?
Queries the name of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Return values:
<Name>
string
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:OFFSwitch <DCOffsetOnOff>
Switches the integrated voltmeter of an R&S active probe on or off.
The command is only available if an R&S active probe with R&S ProbeMeter is used.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<DCOffsetOnOff>
.
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
PROBe<m>:SETup:TYPE?
Queries the type of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Type>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
NONE | ACTive | PASSive
NONE
not detected
ACTive
active probe
PASSive
passive probe
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:UOFFset <UserOffset>
Sets an additional probe offset.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<UserOffset>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Range:
Depends on the probe characteristics.
*RST:
0
Default unit: V
PROBe<m>:SETup:CMOFfset <CommonModeOffset>
Sets the common-mode offset. The setting is only available for differential probes.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
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Parameters:
<CommonModeOffset>*RST:
0
Default unit: V
PROBe<m>:ID:BUILd?
Queries the build number of the probe software.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<BuildNumber>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
32 bit number
Range:
0 to 4294967295
Increment: 1
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:ID:PARTnumber?
Queries the R&S part number of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<PartNumber>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
string
Returns the part number in a string.
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:ID:PRDate?
Queries the production date of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<ProductionDate>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
string
Returns the date in a string.
Usage:
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PROBe<m>:ID:SRNumber?
Queries the serial number of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
Return values:
<SerialNumber>
string
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:ID:SWVersion?
Queries the version of the probe firmware.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<SoftwareVersion>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel. The number of channels depends on
the instrument.
string
Returns the version number in a string.
Usage:
Query only
18.4.7 History and Segmented Memory (Option R&S RTM-K15)
This section lists the commands of option R&S RTM-K15. The following commands are
also important:
18.4.7.1
●
ACQuire:WRATe on page 418
●
ACQuire:POINts[:VALue] on page 418
●
Ultra Segmentation Settings................................................................................. 437
Ultra Segmentation Settings
ACQuire:COUNt?...........................................................................................................437
ACQuire:SEGMented:MAXimum..................................................................................... 438
ACQuire:NSINgle:MAXimum........................................................................................... 438
ACQuire:AVAilable?....................................................................................................... 438
ACQuire:SEGMented:STATe.......................................................................................... 438
ACQuire:COUNt?
Returns the maximum number of segments that can be captured with the current configuration.
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Return values:
<NoOfSegments>
Number of available segments in the memory
Usage:
Query only
ACQuire:SEGMented:MAXimum <MaxAcquisitions>
ACQuire:NSINgle:MAXimum <MaxAcquisitions>
Sets the maximum possible number of segments for a RUN Nx SINGLE acquisition.
Thus, all segments of the memory are captured.
Parameters:
<MaxAcquisitions>
ON | OFF
ACQuire:AVAilable?
Returns the number of segments that are currently saved in the memory. This number
is available for history viewing.
Return values:
<Acquisitions>
Number of captured segments
Usage:
Query only
ACQuire:SEGMented:STATe <State>
Enables the ultra segementation mode. The acquisitions are performed very fast without processing and displaying the waveforms. When acquisition has been stopped, the
latest waveform is displayed, the older ones are stored in segments.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
18.4.8 History Viewer
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:CURRent........................................................................ 439
BUS<b>:HISTory:CURRent............................................................................................ 439
DIGital<m>:HISTory:CURRent........................................................................................ 439
SPECtrum:HISTory:CURRent......................................................................................... 439
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent.....................................................................................439
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PALL.............................................................................. 439
BUS<b>:HISTory:PALL.................................................................................................. 439
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PALL.............................................................................................. 439
SPECtrum:HISTory:PALL............................................................................................... 440
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PALL...........................................................................................440
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:STARt.............................................................................440
BUS<b>:HISTory:STARt.................................................................................................440
DIGital<m>:HISTory:STARt.............................................................................................440
SPECtrum:HISTory:STARt..............................................................................................440
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:STARt......................................................................................... 440
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CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:STOP..............................................................................440
BUS<b>:HISTory:STOP..................................................................................................440
DIGital<m>:HISTory:STOP............................................................................................. 440
SPECtrum:HISTory:STOP.............................................................................................. 440
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:STOP..........................................................................................440
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed................................................................ 441
BUS<b>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed.................................................................................... 441
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed................................................................................ 441
SPECtrum:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed................................................................................. 441
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed............................................................................ 441
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:REPLay.......................................................................... 441
BUS<b>:HISTory:REPLay.............................................................................................. 441
DIGital<m>:HISTory:REPLay.......................................................................................... 441
SPECtrum:HISTory:REPLay........................................................................................... 441
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:REPLay.......................................................................................441
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe................................................................ 442
BUS<b>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe.................................................................................... 442
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe................................................................................ 442
SPECtrum:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe................................................................................. 442
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe............................................................................ 442
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:CURRent <CurrentAcquisition>
BUS<b>:HISTory:CURRent <CurrentAcquisition>
DIGital<m>:HISTory:CURRent <CurrentAcquisition>
SPECtrum:HISTory:CURRent <CurrentAcquisition>
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent <CurrentAcquisition>
Accesses a particular acquisition segment in the memory to display it. The query
returns the index of the segment that is shown.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel or math waveform.
0..15
Selects the digital channel.
<b>
1..4
Selects the bus.
Parameters:
<CurrentAcquisition> Segment index. There are two ways to enter the index.
Negative index count: the newest segment has the index "0",
older segments have a negative index: -(n-1), .... -1 , 0
Positive index count: the oldest segment has the index 1, and
the newest segment has the index n: 1, 2,..., n
where n is the number of acquired segments.
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PALL <PlayAll>
BUS<b>:HISTory:PALL <PlayAll>
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PALL <PlayAll>
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SPECtrum:HISTory:PALL <PlayAll>
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PALL <PlayAll>
Enables the replay of all acquired segments.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel or math waveform.
0..15
Selects the digital channel.
<b>
1..4
Selects the bus.
Parameters:
<PlayAll>
ON | OFF
If set to OFF, define the range of segments to be shown using
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:STARt and CHANnel<m>:HISTory:
STOP
*RST:
ON
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:STARt <StartAcquisition>
BUS<b>:HISTory:STARt <StartAcquisition>
DIGital<m>:HISTory:STARt <StartAcquisition>
SPECtrum:HISTory:STARt <StartAcquisition>
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:STARt <StartAcquisition>
Sets the index of the oldest segment to be displayed.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel or math waveform.
0..15
Selects the digital channel.
<b>
1..4
Selects the bus.
Parameters:
<StartAcquisition>
Start index. You can enter a positive or negative index, see
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent.
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:STOP <StopAcquisition>
BUS<b>:HISTory:STOP <StopAcquisition>
DIGital<m>:HISTory:STOP <StopAcquisition>
SPECtrum:HISTory:STOP <StopAcquisition>
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:STOP <StopAcquisition>
Sets the index of the latest segment to be displayed.
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Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel or math waveform.
0..15
Selects the digital channel.
<b>
1..4
Selects the bus.
Parameters:
<StopAcquisition>
Stop index. You can enter a positive or negative index, see
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent.
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed <PlayerSpeed>
BUS<b>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed <PlayerSpeed>
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed <PlayerSpeed>
SPECtrum:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed <PlayerSpeed>
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:SPEed <PlayerSpeed>
Sets the speed of the history replay.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel or math waveform.
0..15
Selects the digital channel.
<b>
1..4
Selects the bus.
Parameters:
<PlayerSpeed>
SLOW | MEDium | FAST | AUTO
*RST:
AUTO
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:REPLay <Replay>
BUS<b>:HISTory:REPLay <Replay>
DIGital<m>:HISTory:REPLay <Replay>
SPECtrum:HISTory:REPLay <Replay>
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:REPLay <Replay>
If set to ON, the replay of the selected history segments repeats automatically.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel or math waveform.
0..15
Selects the digital channel.
<b>
1..4
Selects the bus.
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Parameters:
<Replay>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe <PlayerState>
BUS<b>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe <PlayerState>
DIGital<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe <PlayerState>
SPECtrum:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe <PlayerState>
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:PLAYer:STATe <PlayerState>
Starts and stops the replay of the history segments.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel or math waveform.
0..15
Selects the digital channel.
<b>
1..4
Selects the bus.
Parameters:
<PlayerState>
RUN | STOP
*RST:
STOP
18.4.9 Timestamps
You can query the timestamps of history segments in two ways:
●
Query for the timestamps of all history segments using ...:HISTory:...:ALL
commands.
●
Query for the timestamp of a specific segment using ...:HISTory:... commands. Select the segment of interest using CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent
The following commands use numeric suffixes:
●
CHANnel<m>: Selects the analog input channel.
●
MATH<m>: Selects the math waveform, range 1..4
●
DIGital<m>: Selects the digital channel, range 0..15
●
BUS<b>: Selects the bus, range 1..4
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSRelative?.....................................................................443
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSRelative?.........................................................................................443
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSRelative?.....................................................................................443
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSRelative?......................................................................................443
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSRelative?................................................................................. 443
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?.............................................................. 443
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?.................................................................................. 443
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?..............................................................................443
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?............................................................................... 443
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?.......................................................................... 443
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CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute?................................................................... 444
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSABsolute?....................................................................................... 444
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute?................................................................................... 444
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSABsolute?.................................................................................... 444
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute?................................................................................444
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?.............................................................444
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?.................................................................................444
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?.............................................................................444
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?..............................................................................444
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?......................................................................... 444
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSDate?..........................................................................444
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSDate?..............................................................................................444
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSDate?......................................................................................... 444
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSDate?.......................................................................................... 445
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSDate?......................................................................................445
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?...................................................................445
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?.......................................................................................445
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?...................................................................................445
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?....................................................................................445
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?............................................................................... 445
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSRelative?
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSRelative?
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSRelative?
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSRelative?
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSRelative?
Returns the time difference of the selected segment to the newest segment. To select
a segment, use CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent.
Return values:
<Time>
Time to newest acquisition
Example:
CHAN:HIST:CURR -5
CHAN:HIST:TSR?
--> -1.138757760000E-02
Returns the relative time of the sixth segment. The newest segment has index 0.
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?
Returns the time differences to the newest acquisition of all history segments.
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Return values:
<TimeToNewestAcq> List of Values
The list starts with the oldest segment, and the newest segment
is the last one.
Example:
CHANnel2:HISTory:TSRelative:ALL?
--> -4.184565632000E-01,-4.094896352000E-01,-4.005227104000E-01,
-3.915557824000E-01, ...,-8.966924800000E-03,-0.000000000000E+00
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute?
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSABsolute?
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute?
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSABsolute?
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute?
Returns the absolute daytime of the selected acquisition (CHANnel<m>:HISTory:
CURRent).
Return values:
<Hour>, <Minute>,
<Seconds>
Comma-separated list
Example:
CHAN:HIST:CURR -1
CHAN:HIST:TSAB?
--> 16,24,3.302100000000E+01
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?
Returns the absolute daytimes of all history segments.
Return values:
<Hour>,<Minute>,
<Second>
Example:
Comma-separated list of hour, minute, and second values.
The list starts with the oldest segment, and the newest segment
is the last one.
CHANnel2:HISTory:TSABsolute:ALL?
--> 14,59,4.558154343680E+01,14,59,4.559051036480E+01,
14,59,4.559947728960E+01,...
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSDate?
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSDate?
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSDate?
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SPECtrum:HISTory:TSDate?
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSDate?
Returns the date of the selected acquisition (CHANnel<m>:HISTory:CURRent).
Return values:
<Year>, <Month>,
<Day>
Comma-separated list
Example:
CHAN:HIST:CURR -5
CHAN:HIST:TSD?
--> 2014,7,1
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate:MATH<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?
BUS<b>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?
DIGital<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?
SPECtrum:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?
CHANnel<m>:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?
Returns the dates of all history segments.
Return values:
<Year>,<Month>,
<Day>
Example:
Comma-separated list of year, month, and day values.
The list starts with the oldest segment, and the newest segment
is the last one.
CHANnel2:HISTory:TSDate:ALL?
--> 2014,11,26,2014,11,26,2014,11,26,2014,11,26,...
Usage:
Query only
18.4.10 Export
EXPort:ATABle:NAME....................................................................................................445
EXPort:ATABle:SAVE.....................................................................................................446
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:NAME...................................................................................446
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:SAVE................................................................................... 446
EXPort:ATABle:NAME <ExportPath>
Defines the path and filename of the acqisition timestamps file. The file format is CSV.
If the file already exists, it will be overwritten.
Parameters:
<ExportPath>
string
String parameter
Example:
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EXPort:ATABle:SAVE
Saves the acquisition timestamps table to the file that is defined by the EXPort:
ATABle:NAME command.
Example:
EXPort:ATABle:SAVE
The file contains the following timestamp values:
"","Date","Time"
"Start of Acquisition","2014-11-24","14:35:59"
"Last Acquisition","2014-11-24","14:36:01"
"Acquisitions","150"
"Number","Relative Time","Time to previous",
"Date","Time"
"0","-0.000000000000000E+00","1.009638400000000E-02",
"2014-11-24","14:36:01","0.0000000000E+00"
"-1","-1.009638400000000E-02","2.000568800000000E-02",
"2014-11-24","14:36:00","9.8990361600E-01"
"-2","-3.010207200000000E-02","2.000216800000000E-02",
"2014-11-24","14:36:00","9.6989792800E-01"
"-3","-5.010424000000000E-02","2.001423200000000E-02",
"2014-11-24","14:36:00","9.4989576000E-01"
"-4","-7.011847200000000E-02","2.000044000000000E-02",
"2014-11-24","14:36:00","9.2988152800E-01"
"-5","-9.011891200000001E-02","9.917412000000000E-03",
"2014-11-24","14:36:00","9.0988108800E-01"
"-6","-1.000363240000000E-01","1.009686000000000E-02",
"2014-11-24","14:36:00","8.9996367600E-01".....
Usage:
Event
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:NAME <ExportPath>
Defines the path and filename of the spectrum analysis timestamps file. The file format
is CSV. If the file already exists, it will be overwritten.
Parameters:
<ExportPath>
string
Example:
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:NAME "/USB_FRONT/EXPORT/TIMES"
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:SAVE
Saves the spectrum analysis timestamps table to the file that is defined by the
SPECtrum:HISTory:EXPort:NAME command.
Usage:
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18.5 Trigger
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
General A Trigger Settings....................................................................................447
Edge Trigger......................................................................................................... 450
Width Trigger.........................................................................................................451
Video/TV Trigger................................................................................................... 453
Pattern Trigger...................................................................................................... 454
Runt.......................................................................................................................457
Rise Time / Fall Time Trigger................................................................................457
B-Trigger............................................................................................................... 459
18.5.1 General A Trigger Settings
TRIGger:A:MODE.......................................................................................................... 447
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>[:VALue]......................................................................................... 447
TRIGger:A:FINDlevel......................................................................................................448
TRIGger:A:SOURce....................................................................................................... 448
TRIGger:A:TYPE........................................................................................................... 448
TRIGger:EXTern:COUPling.............................................................................................449
TRIGger:EXTern:TERMination........................................................................................ 449
TRIGger:EXTern:OVERload............................................................................................449
TRIGger:A:HOLDoff:MODE.............................................................................................449
TRIGger:A:HOLDoff:TIME...............................................................................................449
TRIGger:A:MODE <TriggerMode>
Sets the trigger mode. The trigger mode determines the behaviour of the instrument if
no trigger occurs.
Parameters:
<TriggerMode>
AUTO | NORMal
AUTO
The instrument triggers repeatedly after a time interval if the trigger conditions are not fulfilled. If a real trigger occurs, it takes
precedence.
NORMal
The instrument acquires a waveform only if a trigger occurs.
*RST:
AUTO
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>[:VALue] <Level>
Sets the trigger treshold voltage for all A trigger types that require a trigger level.
Suffix:
<n>
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1..5
Selects the trigger input. 1...4 select the corresponding channel,
5 is the external trigger input. The number of channels depends
on the instrument.
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Parameters:
<Level>
Range:
Depends on vertical scale.
Default unit: V
TRIGger:A:FINDlevel
Sets the trigger level of the A-trigger event to 50% of the signal amplitude.
Usage:
Event
TRIGger:A:SOURce <Source>
Sets the trigger source for the selected A trigger type.
Parameters:
<Source>
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4 | EXTernanalog | LINE |
SBUS1 .. SBUS4 | D0..D15
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4
One of the input channels is the trigger source. Available channels depend on the instrument type.
EXTernanalog
External trigger input on the rear panel
LINE
AC line for the edge trigger
SBUS1 .. SBUS4
Serial buses 1 to 4
The UART, SPI, SSPI and audio protocols require two bus lines
(bus 1 and 2 or bus 3 and 4). Bus 2 and/or bus 4 is not available
if one of these protocols is selected.
D0..D15
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, the digital channels D0
to D15 can be used as trigger sources for edge, width and pattern trigger.
TRIGger:A:TYPE <Type>
Sets the trigger type for the A trigger.
Parameters:
<Type>
EDGE | WIDTh | TV | BUS | LOGic | RISetime | RUNT
EDGE: edge trigger
WIDTh: width trigger
TV: video trigger
BUS: requires at least one protocol option (R&S RTM-K1 to K5)
See: Chapter 11, "Protocol Analysis", on page 192
LOGic: pattern trigger, logic trigger
RIStime: rise time trigger
RUNT: runt trigger
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TRIGger:EXTern:COUPling <ExternCoupling>
Sets the coupling for the external trigger input. The command is relevant if TRIGger:
B:SOURce is set to EXTernanalog.
Parameters:
<ExternCoupling>
AC | DC
*RST:
AC
TRIGger:EXTern:TERMination <ExternTermination>
Adjusts the input impedance of the external trigger input.
The command is only available for instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
Parameters:
<ExternTermination> ON | OFF
0 = 1 MΩ
1 = 50 Ω
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger:EXTern:OVERload <ExternOverload>
Retrieves the overload status of the external trigger input from the status bit. When the
overload problem is solved, use the command to reset the status bit.
The command is only available for instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
Parameters:
<ExternOverload>
ON | OFF
Use OFF to reset the overload status bit.
*RST:
Example:
OFF
TRIGger:EXTern:OVERload?
Queries the overload status of the external trigger input.
TRIGger:EXTern:OVERload OFF
Resets the overload status bit.
TRIGger:A:HOLDoff:MODE <HoldOffMode>
Enables or disables the holdoff time.
Parameters:
<HoldOffMode>
TIME | OFF
*RST:
Off
TRIGger:A:HOLDoff:TIME <HoldOffTime>
Defines the holdoff time. The next trigger occurs only after the holdoff time has passed.
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Trigger
Parameters:
<HoldOffTime>
Default unit: s
18.5.2 Edge Trigger
TRIGger:A:EDGE:SLOPe............................................................................................... 450
TRIGger:A:EDGE:COUPling........................................................................................... 450
TRIGger:A:EDGE:FILTer:LPASs..................................................................................... 450
TRIGger:A:EDGE:FILTer:NREJect...................................................................................451
TRIGger:A:HYSTeresis...................................................................................................451
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:HYSTeresis................................................................................... 451
TRIGger:A:EDGE:SLOPe <Slope>
Sets the slope for the edge trigger (A trigger).
Parameters:
<Slope>
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
POSitive
Rising edge, a positive voltage change
NEGative
Falling edge, a negative voltage change
EITHer
Rising as well as the falling edge
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger:A:EDGE:COUPling <Coupling>
Sets the coupling for the trigger source.
Parameters:
<Coupling>
DC | AC | HF
DC
Direct Current coupling. The trigger signal remains unchanged.
AC
Alternating Current coupling. A 5 Hz high pass filter removes the
DC offset voltage from the trigger signal.
HF
High frequency coupling. A 15 kHz high-pass filter removes
lower frequencies from the trigger signal. Use this mode only
with very high frequency signals.
*RST:
DC
TRIGger:A:EDGE:FILTer:LPASs <State>
Turns an additional 5 kHz low-pass filter in the trigger path on or off. This filter removes
higher frequencies and is available with AC and DC coupling.
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Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger:A:EDGE:FILTer:NREJect <State>
Turns an additional 100 MHz low-pass filter in the trigger path on or off. This filter
removes higher frequencies and is available with AC and DC coupling.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger:A:HYSTeresis <Hysteresis>
Sets a hysteresis range around the trigger level of the A trigger event. If the signal jitters inside this range and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs.
Hysteresis is available for edge trigger.
Parameters:
<Hysteresis>
AUTO | SMALl | MEDium | LARGE | MANual
MANual
Sets the hysteresis to a user-defined value, which is defined
using TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:HYSTeresis.
The value is only available on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
*RST:
AUTO
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:HYSTeresis <LevelHysteresis>
Sets the hysteresis value if TRIGger:A:HYSTeresis is set to MANual.
The command is only available on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
Parameters:
<LevelHysteresis>
Default unit: DIV
18.5.3 Width Trigger
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:POLarity............................................................................................ 451
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:RANGe..............................................................................................452
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:DELTa...............................................................................................452
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:WIDTh...............................................................................................452
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:POLarity <Polarity>
Sets the polarity of the pulse.
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Trigger
Parameters:
<Polarity>
POSitive | NEGative
POSitive
Positive going pulse, the width is defined from the rising to the
falling slopes.
NEGative
Negative going pulse, the width is defined from the falling to the
rising slopes.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:RANGe <RangeMode>
Defines how the measured pulse width is compared with the given limit(s).
Parameters:
<RangeMode>
WITHin | OUTSide | SHORter | LONGer
WITHin | OUTSide
Triggers on pulses inside or outside a range defined by time ±
delta. The time is specified with TRIGger:A:WIDTh:WIDTh,
the range around is defined with TRIGger:A:WIDTh:DELTa.
SHORter | LONGer
Triggers on pulses shorter or longer than a time set with
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:WIDTh.
*RST:
LONGer
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:DELTa <Delta>
Defines a range around the width value specified using TRIGger:A:WIDTh:WIDTh.
Parameters:
<Delta>
Range ±Δt ("Variation" softkey)
Range:
Depends on the defined pulse width
(TRIG:A:WIDTH:WITDH)
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:WIDTh <Time1>
For the ranges WITHin and OUTSide (defined using TRIGger:A:WIDTh:RANGe), the
<Time1> defines the center of a range which is defined by the limits ±<Delta> (set with
TRIGger:A:WIDTh:DELTa).
For the ranges SHORter and LONGer, the width defines the maximum and minimum
pulse width, respectively.
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Trigger
Parameters:
<Time1>
Center value, maximum value or minimum value depending on
the defined range type.
Range:
20E-9 to 6.87194685440
Increment: Depends on the <Time1> value
*RST:
20E-9
18.5.4 Video/TV Trigger
TRIGger:A:TV:STANdard................................................................................................453
TRIGger:A:TV:POLarity.................................................................................................. 453
TRIGger:A:TV:FIELd...................................................................................................... 453
TRIGger:A:TV:LINE........................................................................................................454
TRIGger:A:TV:STANdard <Standard>
Selects the color television standard.
Parameters:
<Standard>
PAL | NTSC | SECam | PALM | I576 | P720 | P1080 | I1080
PALM = PAL-M
I576 = SDTV 576i (PAL and SECAM)
P720 | P1080 = HDTV 720/1080p (progressive scanning)
I1080 = HDTV 1080i (interlaced scanning)
*RST:
PAL
TRIGger:A:TV:POLarity <Polarity>
Selects the polarity of the signal. Note that the sync pulse has the opposite polarity.
The edges of the sync pulses are used for triggering,
See also: "Signal" on page 65
Parameters:
<Polarity>
POSitive | NEGative
POSitive
If the video modulation is positive, the sync pulses are negative.
NEGative
If the modulation is negative, sync pulses are positive.
*RST:
NEGative
TRIGger:A:TV:FIELd <Field>
Sets the trigger on the beginning of the video signal fields, or on the beginning of video
signal lines.
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Parameters:
<Field>
EVEN | ODD | ALL | LINE | ALINe
EVEN | ODD
Triggers only on the field start of even or odd fields. Only available for interlaced scanning.
ALL
All fields, triggers on the frame start (progressive scanning) or
any field start (interlaced scanning).
LINE
Triggers on the beginning of a specified line in any field. The line
number is set with TRIGger:A:TV:LINE.
ALINe
Triggers on the beginning of all video signal lines.
*RST:
ALL
TRIGger:A:TV:LINE <Line>
Sets an exact line number if TRIGger:A:TV:FIELd is set to LINE.
Parameters:
<Line>
Range:
1 to 525 (NTSC, PAL-M); 625 (PAL, SECAM,
SDTV I-576); 750 (HDTV P720); 1125 (HDTV
I1080, HDTV P1080)
Increment: 1
*RST:
1
18.5.5 Pattern Trigger
●
●
18.5.5.1
Pattern Definition...................................................................................................454
Time Limitation......................................................................................................456
Pattern Definition
TRIGger:A:PATTern:SOURce......................................................................................... 455
TRIGger:A:PATTern:FUNCtion........................................................................................455
TRIGger:A:PATTern:CONDition.......................................................................................455
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Trigger
TRIGger:A:PATTern:SOURce <SourceString>
Parameters:
<SourceString>
string containing 0, 1, or X for each channel
1: high, the signal voltage is higher than the trigger level.
0: low, the signal voltage is lower than the trigger level.
X: Don't care. the channel does not affect the trigger.
Without MSO option, the pattern has 4 or 2 bits, depending on
the number of channels: <ch1><ch2>[<ch3><ch4>].
With MSO option, the pattern has 18 or 20 bits:
<ch1><ch2>[<ch3><ch4>]<d0><d1><d2>...<d15>.
Example:
Without MSO option R&S RTM-B1:
TRIG:A:PATT:SOUR "1X10"
CH1, CH3, and NOT CH4 are logically combined with
TRIGger:A:PATTern:FUNCtion, CH2 does not matter (don't
care).
Example:
With MSO option R&S RTM-B1:
TRIG:A:PATT:SOUR "XXXX111101010011XXXX"
Analog channels CH1 to CH4 do not matter (don't care). Digital
channels D0 to D15 are logically combined with TRIGger:A:
PATTern:FUNCtion.
TRIGger:A:PATTern:FUNCtion <Function>
Sets the logical combination of the trigger states of the channels.
Parameters:
<Function>
AND | OR
AND
The required states of all channels must appear in the input signal at the same time.
OR
At least one of the channels must have the required state.
*RST:
AND
TRIGger:A:PATTern:CONDition <ConditionString>
Sets the trigger point depending on the result of the logical combination of the channel
states.
Parameters:
<ConditionString>
"TRUE" | "FALSE"
*RST:
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18.5.5.2
Time Limitation
TRIGger:A:PATTern:MODE............................................................................................ 456
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh:RANGe................................................................................456
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh[:WIDTh]............................................................................... 456
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh:DELTa................................................................................. 457
TRIGger:A:PATTern:MODE <PatternMode>
Disables the time limitation or sets the time comparison mode.
Parameters:
<PatternMode>
OFF | TIMeout | WIDTh
OFF
Disables the time limitation.
TIMeout
Defines how long at least the result of the state pattern condition
must be true or false.
WIDTh
Defines a time range for keeping up the true result of the pattern
condition. The range is defined using TRIGger:A:PATTern:
WIDTh:RANGe.
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh:RANGe <PatternRange>
Selects how the time limit of the pattern state is defined.
The time is specified using TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh[:WIDTh] on page 456,
the range around is specified using TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh:DELTa
on page 457.
Parameters:
<PatternRange>
WITHin | OUTSide | SHORter | LONGer
WITHin
Triggers if the pattern state remains unchanged longer than
Time - Delta and shorter than Time + Delta.
OUTSide
Triggers if the pattern state remains unchanged either shorter
than Time - Delta or longer than Time + Delta.
SHORter | LONGer
Triggers if the pattern state changes before or after the specified
time.
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh[:WIDTh] <PatternWidth>
For the ranges WITHin and OUTSide, the <PatternWidth> defines the center of a
range which is defined by the limits ±<Delta>.
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Trigger
For the ranges SHORter and LONGer, the pattern width defines the maximum and
minimum values, respectively.
Parameters:
<PatternWidth>
Default unit: s
TRIGger:A:PATTern:WIDTh:DELTa <PatternDelta>
Defines a range around the pattern width value specified using TRIGger:A:
PATTern:WIDTh[:WIDTh].
Parameters:
<PatternDelta>
Default unit: s
18.5.6 Runt
TRIGger:A:RUNT:POLarity <Polarity>
Sets the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
Parameters:
<Polarity>
POSitive | NEGative
*RST:
POS
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RUNT:LOWer <Level>
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RUNT:UPPer <Level>
Set the lower and the upper voltage threshold, respectively. The instrument triggers if
the amplitude crosses the first threshold twice in succession without crossing the second one.
The upper level corresponds to the trigger level (TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>[:VALue]
on page 447). The lower level corresponds to the threshold value of the trigger channel
(CHANnel<m>:THReshold on page 426).
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Level>
.
1..5
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5 = not available
Default unit: V
18.5.7 Rise Time / Fall Time Trigger
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RISetime:LOWer............................................................................ 458
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RISetime:UPPer............................................................................. 458
TRIGger:A:RISetime:SLOPe........................................................................................... 458
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Trigger
TRIGger:A:RISetime:RANGe.......................................................................................... 458
TRIGger:A:RISetime:TIME..............................................................................................459
TRIGger:A:RISetime:DELTa............................................................................................459
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RISetime:LOWer <Level>
TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>:RISetime:UPPer <Level>
Set the lower and upper voltage threshold, respectively. When the signal crosses these
levels, the slew rate measurement starts or stops depending on the selected polarity.
The upper level corresponds to the trigger level (TRIGger:A:LEVel<n>[:VALue]
on page 447). The lower level corresponds to the threshold value of the trigger channel
(CHANnel<m>:THReshold on page 426).
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Level>
.
1..5
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5 = not available
Default unit: V
TRIGger:A:RISetime:SLOPe <Polarity>
Sets the edge of whic the transition time is to be analyzed:
Parameters:
<Polarity>
POSitive | NEGative
POSitive: rise time trigger
NEGative: Fall time trigger
*RST:
POS
TRIGger:A:RISetime:RANGe <Range>
Selects how the time limit of the rise or fall time is defined.
Parameters:
<Range>
LONGer | SHORter | WITHin | OUTSide
LONGer | SHORter
Triggers on transition times longer or shorter than the time
TRIGger:A:RISetime:TIME.
WITHin | OUTSide
Triggers on transition times inside or outside the time range
TIMe ± DELTa. Use TRIGger:A:RISetime:TIME and
TRIGger:A:RISetime:DELTa to set the time range.
*RST:
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Trigger
TRIGger:A:RISetime:TIME <RiseTime>
For the ranges LONGer and SHORter, the command defines the minimum and maximum transition times, respectively.
For the ranges WITHin and OUTSide, the command defines the center of a time range
which is defined using TRIGger:A:RISetime:DELTa.
See also: TRIGger:A:RISetime:RANGe
Parameters:
<RiseTime>
Default unit: s
TRIGger:A:RISetime:DELTa <Variation>
Sets a time range around the time value defined using TRIGger:A:RISetime:TIME
if TRIGger:A:RISetime:RANGe is set to WITHin | OUTSide.
Parameters:
<Variation>
Default unit: s
18.5.8 B-Trigger
TRIGger:B:ENABle.........................................................................................................459
TRIGger:B:SOURce....................................................................................................... 459
TRIGger:B:EDGE:SLOPe............................................................................................... 460
TRIGger:B:LEVel........................................................................................................... 460
TRIGger:B:FINDlevel......................................................................................................460
TRIGger:B:MODE.......................................................................................................... 460
TRIGger:B:DELay.......................................................................................................... 460
TRIGger:B:EVENt:COUNt...............................................................................................461
TRIGger:B:HYSTeresis...................................................................................................461
TRIGger:B:LEVel:HYSTeresis......................................................................................... 461
TRIGger:B:ENABle <State>
Activates or deactivates the second trigger. The instrument triggers if both trigger event
conditions (A and B) are fulfilled.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger:B:SOURce <Source>
Selects one of the input channels as B-trigger source. Available channels depend on
the instrument type.
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Trigger
Parameters:
<Source>
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4
*RST:
CH1
TRIGger:B:EDGE:SLOPe <Slope>
Sets the edge for the B-trigger.
Parameters:
<Slope>
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger:B:LEVel <Level>
Sets the trigger level for the B-trigger event.
Parameters:
<Level>
*RST:
0
Default unit: V
TRIGger:B:FINDlevel
Sets the trigger level of the B-trigger event to 50% of the signal amplitude.
Usage:
Event
TRIGger:B:MODE <Mode>
Defines the delay type of the B-trigger.
Parameters:
<Mode>
DELay | EVENts
DELay
Time delay, set with TRIGger:B:DELay
EVENts
Event count delay, set with TRIGger:B:EVENt:COUNt
*RST:
DELay
TRIGger:B:DELay <DelayTime>
Sets the time the instrument waits after an A-event until it recognizes B-events.
Before setting the dalay time, TRIGger:B:MODE must be set to DELAy.
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Trigger
Parameters:
<DelayTime>
Range:
20e-9 to 6,871946854
Increment: Depends on the <DelayTime> value. The longer the
<DelayTime>, the longer is the increment value.
*RST:
20e-9
Default unit: s
TRIGger:B:EVENt:COUNt <EventCnt>
Sets a number of B-trigger events that fulfill all B-trigger conditions but do not cause
the trigger. The oscilloscope triggers on the n-th event (the last of the specified number
of events).
Before setting the event number, TRIGger:B:MODE must be set to EVENts.
Parameters:
<EventCnt>
Number of B-events
Range:
1 to 65535
Increment: 1
*RST:
1
TRIGger:B:HYSTeresis <Hysteresis>
Sets a hysteresis range around the trigger level of the B trigger event. If the signal jitters inside this range and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs.
Parameters:
<Hysteresis>
AUTO | SMALl | MEDium | LARGe | MANual
MANual
Sets the hysteresis to a user-defined value, which is defined
using TRIGger:B:LEVel:HYSTeresis.
The value is only available on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
*RST:
AUTO
TRIGger:B:LEVel:HYSTeresis <HysteresisValue>
Sets the hysteresis value if TRIGger:B:HYSTeresis is set to MANual. The command is only available on instruments with 1 GHz bandwidth.
Parameters:
<HysteresisValue>
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Default unit: DIV
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Display
18.6 Display
18.6.1 Basic Display Settings
This chapter describes commands that configure the screen display.
18.6.1.1
General Display Settings
DISPlay:DIALog:CLOSe................................................................................................. 462
DISPlay:DIALog:MESSage............................................................................................. 462
DISPlay:MODE.............................................................................................................. 462
DISPlay:PALette............................................................................................................ 463
DISPlay:DIALog:TRANsparency...................................................................................... 463
DISPlay:DIALog:CLOSe
Closes an open dialog box.
Usage:
Event
DISPlay:DIALog:MESSage <MessageText>
Sends a message text to the instrument and displays it in a message box.
To close the message box, use DISPlay:DIALog:CLOSe.
Setting parameters:
<MessageText>
String
String that contains the message.
Example:
DISP:DIAL:MESS 'My message'
DISP:DIAL:CLOS
Usage:
Setting only
DISPlay:MODE <Mode>
Sets the diagram mode.
Parameters:
<Mode>
YT | XY
YT
Default time diagram with a time axis in x-direction and the signal amplitudes displayed in y-direction.
XY
XY-diagram, combines the voltage levels of two waveforms in
one diagram.
*RST:
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YT
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Display
DISPlay:PALette <Palette>
Sets the color and brightness of the displayed waveform samples depending on their
cumulative occurance.
Parameters:
<Palette>
NORMal | INVerse | FCOLor | IFColor
NORMal
Values that occur frequently are brighter than rare values.
INVerse
Rare values are brighter than frequent values, inverse to the
NORMal brightness.
FColor
Rare values are displayed in blue, while more frequent values
are red and very frequent values are displayed in yellow or
white, with various colors inbetween.
IFColor
Inverses the FColor setting: rare values are yellow or white while
frequent values are blue.
*RST:
NORMal
DISPlay:DIALog:TRANsparency <Transparency>
Sets the transparency of result boxes that overlay the waveforms, for example, boxes
with statistical results or digital voltmeter results.
Parameters:
<Transparency>
18.6.1.2
Range:
0 to 100
Increment: 1
Default unit: %
XYZ-Setup
DISPlay:XY:XSOurce..................................................................................................... 463
DISPlay:XY:Y1Source.................................................................................................... 464
DISPlay:XY:Y2Source.................................................................................................... 464
DISPlay:XY:ZMODe....................................................................................................... 464
DISPlay:XY:ZTHReshold................................................................................................ 465
DISPlay:XY:ZSOurce..................................................................................................... 465
DISPlay:XY:XSOurce <Source>
Defines the source to be displayed in x direction in an XY-diagram, replacing the usual
time base.
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Display
Parameters:
<Source>
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4
CH3 and CH4 are only available with 4-channel R&S RTM oscilloscopes.
*RST:
CH1
DISPlay:XY:Y1Source <Source>
Defines the (first) source to be displayed in y direction in an XY-diagram.
Parameters:
<Source>
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4
CH3 and CH4 are only available with 4-channel R&S RTM oscilloscopes.
*RST:
CH2
DISPlay:XY:Y2Source <Source>
Defines an optional second source to be displayed in y direction in an XY-diagram. The
command is only relevant for 4-channel R&S RTM instruments.
Parameters:
<Source>
NONE | CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4
*RST:
NONE
DISPlay:XY:ZMODe <Mode>
Activates or deactivates the intensity control of the waveform via an additional signal
source and sets the intensity mode.
Parameters:
<Mode>
ANALog | DIGital | OFF
ANALog
Modulated intensity; Intensity is modulated continuously according to the selected Source Z.
DIGital
Intensity is determined by a threshold value defined with
DISPlay:XY:ZTHReshold. If the Z signal value is below the
selected threshold, the corresponding x/y point is not displayed.
If the Z signal value is above the threshold, the x/y point is displayed with the defined intensity level.
OFF
Intensity control is deactivated.
*RST:
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Display
DISPlay:XY:ZTHReshold <Zthreshold>
Defines the threshold for intensity with a two-state modulation, if DISPlay:XY:ZMODe
is set to DIGital.
Parameters:
<Zthreshold>
Threshold for visibility on the screen
Range:
-10 to 10
Increment: depends on the scaling of the channel that is
assigned to Z
*RST:
0
Default unit: V
DISPlay:XY:ZSOurce <Source>
Defines the source to be used to determine the intensity of the xy-waveform.
Parameters:
<Source>
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4
CH3 and CH4 are only available with 4-channel R&S RTM oscilloscopes.
*RST:
18.6.1.3
CH1
Intensities
DISPlay:INTensity:WAVeform......................................................................................... 465
DISPlay:INTensity:BACKlight.......................................................................................... 465
DISPlay:INTensity:GRID................................................................................................. 466
DISPlay:PERSistence:STATe..........................................................................................466
DISPlay:PERSistence:TIME............................................................................................ 466
DISPlay:PERSistence:INFinite.........................................................................................467
DISPlay:PERSistence:TIME:AUTO.................................................................................. 467
DISPlay:PERSistence:CLEar.......................................................................................... 467
DISPlay:INTensity:WAVeform <Intensity>
Defines the strength of the waveform line in the diagram.
Parameters:
<Intensity>
Value in percent
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
not available, *RST does not change the intensity
%
DISPlay:INTensity:BACKlight <Intensity>
Defines the intensity of the background lighting of the display.
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Display
Parameters:
<Intensity>
Value in percent
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
10 to 100
1
not available, *RST does not change the intensity
%
DISPlay:INTensity:GRID <Intensity>
Defines the intensity of the grid on the screen.
Parameters:
<Intensity>
Value in percent
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
not available, *RST does not change the intensity
%
DISPlay:PERSistence:STATe <State>
Defines whether the waveform persists on the screen or whether the screen is
refreshed continuously.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
ON
The waveform persists for the time defined using DISPlay:
PERSistence:TIME.
OFF
The waveform does not persist on the screen. Only the currently
measured values are displayed at any time.
*RST:
OFF
DISPlay:PERSistence:TIME <Time>
Persistence time if persistence is active (see DISPlay:PERSistence:STATe
on page 466).
Each new data point in the diagram area remains on the screen for the duration
defined here. To set infinite persistence, use DISPlay:PERSistence:INFinite.
Parameters:
<Time>
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Range:
50E-3 to Infinite
Increment: minimum 50E-3 s, increasing increment with
increasing persistence time
*RST:
50E-3
Default unit: s
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Display
DISPlay:PERSistence:INFinite <InfPersistence>
Sets the persistence time to infinite if DISPlay:PERSistence:STATe is ON. each
new data point remains on the screen infinitely until this setting is changed or the persistence is cleared.
Parameters:
<InfPersistence>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
DISPlay:PERSistence:TIME:AUTO <Auto>
The optimal persistence time is determined automatically by the instrument.
Parameters:
<Auto>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
DISPlay:PERSistence:CLEar
Removes the displayed persistent waveform from the screen.
Usage:
18.6.1.4
Event
Waveform, Auxilary Cursors and Grid Settings
DISPlay:STYLe..............................................................................................................467
DISPlay:GRID:STYLe.....................................................................................................467
DISPlay:STYLe <Style>
Defines how the waveform data is displayed
Parameters:
<Style>
VECTors | DOTS
VECTors
Individual data points are connected by a line.
DOTS
Only the data points are displayed.
*RST:
VECT
DISPlay:GRID:STYLe <Style>
Defines how the grid is displayed.
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Display
Parameters:
<Style>
LINes | RETicle | NONE
LINes
Displays the grid as horizontal and vertical lines.
RETicle
Displays crosshairs instead of a grid.
NONE
No grid is displayed.
*RST:
18.6.1.5
LIN
Virtual Screen
DISPlay:VSCReen:ENABle............................................................................................. 468
DISPlay:VSCReen:POSition............................................................................................468
DISPlay:VSCReen:ENABle <Enable>
Enables or disables the virtual screen. If enabled, the virtual screen has 20 divisions, 8
of them are displayed.
Parameters:
<Enable>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
DISPlay:VSCReen:POSition <Position>
Selects the divisions to be displayed on the virtual screen. The virtual screen has 20
divisions, 8 of them are displayed.
Parameters:
<Position>
Indicated the position of the middle visible division.
Range:
-6 to 6. At -6, the lower 8 divisons are visible. 0 indicates the center of the virtual screen, and the divions -4 to 4 are visible.
18.6.2 Zoom
TIMebase:ZOOM:STATe................................................................................................ 468
TIMebase:ZOOM:SCALe................................................................................................ 469
TIMebase:ZOOM:TIME...................................................................................................469
TIMebase:ZOOM:POSition..............................................................................................469
ACQuire:SRATe:ZOOM?................................................................................................ 469
TIMebase:ZOOM:STATe <ZoomState>
Switches the zoom window on or off.
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Display
Parameters:
<ZoomState>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TIMebase:ZOOM:SCALe <ZoomScale>
Defines the time base in the zoom diagram in seconds per division.
Parameters:
<ZoomScale>
Range:
Depends on various other settings
Default unit: s/DIV
TIMebase:ZOOM:TIME <Time>
Defines the offset of the trigger point to the reference point of the zoom diagram.
Parameters:
<Time>
*RST:
0
Default unit: s
TIMebase:ZOOM:POSition <Position>
Defines the position of the zoom reference point (the reference point of the zoom window) in relation to the reference point of original time base.
Parameters:
<Position>
Range:
Depends on the zoom time base, nearly 0 to 100 %
for large zoom
*RST:
50
Default unit: %
ACQuire:SRATe:ZOOM?
Returns the sample rate of the zoom window.
Return values:
<SampleRateZoom> Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
Usage:
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2 to 1E11
1E3
1E7
Sa/s
Query only
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Reference Waveforms
18.6.3 Markers (Timestamps)
TSTamp:SET.................................................................................................................470
TSTamp:NEXT.............................................................................................................. 470
TSTamp:PREVious........................................................................................................ 470
TSTamp:CLEar..............................................................................................................470
TSTamp:ACLear............................................................................................................ 470
TSTamp:SET
Sets a new marker (timestamp) at the reference point of the display, unless an existing
marker is already set there. The reference point is set with TIMebase:REFerence.
Usage:
Event
TSTamp:NEXT
Usage:
Event
Moves the next marker (timestamp, to the right) to the reference point of the display or
zoom area.
TSTamp:PREVious
Moves the previous marker (timestamp, to the left) to the reference point of the display
or zoom area.
Usage:
Event
TSTamp:CLEar
Deletes the marker (timestamp) at the reference point. The reference point is set with
TIMebase:REFerence.
Usage:
Event
TSTamp:ACLear
Deletes all markers (timestamps).
Usage:
Event
18.7 Reference Waveforms
For data queries and conversion, consider also the following commands:
●
FORMat[:DATA] on page 731
●
REFCurve<m>:DATA:XINCrement? on page 742
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Reference Waveforms
●
REFCurve<m>:DATA:XORigin? on page 742
●
REFCurve<m>:DATA:YINCrement? on page 743
●
REFCurve<m>:DATA:YORigin? on page 743
●
REFCurve<m>:DATA:YRESolution? on page 743
REFCurve<m>:STATe....................................................................................................471
REFCurve<m>:SOURce................................................................................................. 471
REFCurve<m>:SOURce:CATalog?..................................................................................472
REFCurve<m>:UPDate.................................................................................................. 472
REFCurve<m>:SAVE..................................................................................................... 472
REFCurve<m>:LOAD..................................................................................................... 472
REFCurve<m>:LOAD:STATe.......................................................................................... 473
REFCurve<m>:HORizontal:SCALe.................................................................................. 473
REFCurve<m>:HORizontal:POSition................................................................................473
REFCurve<m>:VERTical:SCALe..................................................................................... 473
REFCurve<m>:VERTical:POSition...................................................................................474
REFCurve<m>:DATA?................................................................................................... 474
REFCurve<m>:DATA:HEADer?.......................................................................................474
REFCurve<m>:DATA:POINts?........................................................................................ 475
REFCurve<m>:STATe <State>
Displays or hides the selected reference waveform.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
REFCurve<m>:SOURce <Source>
Defines the source of the reference waveform.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Source>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4 | MA1 | MA2 | MA3 | MA4 | RE1 | RE2 |
RE3 | RE4 | D70 | D158
Any active channel, math, or reference waveform. Available
channels depend on the instrument type.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, you can use also the
pods as reference source: D70 is the pod with digital channels
D0 to D7, and D158 is the pod with D8 to D15.
*RST:
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CH1
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REFCurve<m>:SOURce:CATalog?
Returns the source waveform - channel, math or reference waveform.
If MSO option R&S RTM-B1 is installed, the source can also be a pod: D70 is the pod
with digital channels D0 to D7, and D158 is the pod with D8 to D15.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Catalog>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4 | MA1 | MA2 | MA3 | MA4 | RE1 | RE2 |
RE3 | RE4 | D70 | D158
Query only
REFCurve<m>:UPDate
Updates the selected reference by the waveform defined with REFCurve<m>:SOURce.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
Usage:
Event
REFCurve<m>:SAVE <FileName>
Stores the reference waveform the specified file.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
Setting parameters:
<FileName>
String with path and file name
Usage:
Setting only
REFCurve<m>:LOAD <FileName>
Loads the waveform data from the indicated reference file to the reference storage.
To load the instrument settings, use REFCurve<m>:LOAD:STATe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
Setting parameters:
<FileName>
String with path and file name
Usage:
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REFCurve<m>:LOAD:STATe
Loads the instrument settings in addition to the reference waveform data. The waveform data must be loaded before the settings, see REFCurve<m>:LOAD on page 472.
The settings are only available if the file was stored to the internal storage /INT/
REFERENCE and never written to an external storage (USB stick).
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform.
Usage:
Event
REFCurve<m>:HORizontal:SCALe <Scale>
Changes the horizontal scale (timebase) of the reference waveform independent of the
channel waveform settings.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Scale>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
*RST:
100e-6
Default unit: s/DIV
REFCurve<m>:HORizontal:POSition <Position>
Changes the horizontal position of the reference waveform independent of the channel
waveform settings.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Position>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
*RST:
0
Default unit: s
REFCurve<m>:VERTical:SCALe <Scale>
Changes the vertical scale of the reference waveform.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Scale>
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.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
*RST:
1
Default unit: V/DIV
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REFCurve<m>:VERTical:POSition <Position>
Changes the vertical position of the reference waveform.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
Parameters:
<Position>
*RST:
0
Default unit: DIV
REFCurve<m>:DATA?
Returns the data of the reference waveform for transmission from the instrument to the
controlling computer. The waveforms data can be used in MATLAB, for example.
To set the export format, use FORMat[:DATA] on page 731.
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Data>
List of values according to the format settings.
Usage:
Query only
REFCurve<m>:DATA:HEADer?
Returns information on the reference waveform.
Table 18-3: Header data
Position
Meaning
Example
1
XStart in s
-9.477E-008 = - 94,77 ns
2
XStop in s
9.477E-008 = 94,77 ns
3
Record length of the waveform in Samples
200000
4
Number of values per sample interval, usually 1.
1
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Header>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform, the internal reference storage.
Comma-separated value list
Example: -9.477E-008,9.477E-008,200000,1
Usage:
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REFCurve<m>:DATA:POINts?
Returns the number of data samples that are returned with REFCurve<m>:DATA?.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the reference waveform.
Return values:
<DataPoints>
Amount of data points
Usage:
Query only
18.8 Measurements
This chapter describes functions that configure or perform cursor and automatic measurements.
●
●
●
●
●
Cursor Measurements...........................................................................................475
Quick Measurements............................................................................................ 484
Automatic Measurements..................................................................................... 485
Automatic Measurements - Statistics....................................................................490
Reference Level....................................................................................................495
18.8.1 Cursor Measurements
CURSor<m>:AOFF........................................................................................................ 476
CURSor<m>:STATe.......................................................................................................476
CURSor<m>:SOURce.................................................................................................... 476
CURSor<m>:FUNCtion...................................................................................................477
CURSor<m>:TRACking[:STATe]..................................................................................... 479
CURSor<m>:X1Position................................................................................................. 479
CURSor<m>:X2Position................................................................................................. 479
CURSor<m>:X3Position................................................................................................. 479
CURSor<m>:Y1Position................................................................................................. 479
CURSor<m>:Y2Position................................................................................................. 479
CURSor<m>:Y3Position................................................................................................. 479
CURSor<m>:YCOupling................................................................................................. 480
CURSor<m>:XCOupling................................................................................................. 480
CURSor<m>:SWAVe..................................................................................................... 480
CURSor<m>:SSCReen.................................................................................................. 480
CURSor<m>:SPPeak..................................................................................................... 480
CURSor<m>:SNPeak..................................................................................................... 480
CURSor<m>:TRACking:SCALe[:STATe].......................................................................... 481
CURSor<m>:RESult?..................................................................................................... 481
CURSor<m>:XDELta:INVerse?....................................................................................... 481
CURSor<m>:XDELta[:VALue]?....................................................................................... 481
CURSor<m>:YDELta:SLOPe?.........................................................................................482
CURSor<m>:YDELta[:VALue]?....................................................................................... 482
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CURsor<m>:XRATio:UNIT..............................................................................................482
CURSor<m>:XRATio[:VALue]?....................................................................................... 483
CURSor<m>:YRATio:UNIT............................................................................................. 483
CURSor<m>:YRATio[:VALue]?....................................................................................... 483
CURSor<m>:AOFF
Switches the cursor off.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Usage:
Event
CURSor<m>:STATe <State>
Activates or deactivates the cursor measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CURSor<m>:SOURce <Source>
Defines the source of the cursor measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
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1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
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Parameters:
<Source>
NONE | CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4 | MA1 | MA2 | MA3 | MA4 |
MA5 | RE1 | RE2 | RE3 | RE4 | XY1 | XY2 | D0..D15 | D70 |
D158 | SPECtrum | MINHold | MAXHold | AVERage
CH1 | CH2 | CH3 | CH4
Active channel waveform 1 to 4
MA1 | MA2 | MA3 | MA4 | MA5
Active math channels 1 to 5
RE1 | RE2 | RE3 | RE4
Active reference channels 1 to 4
XY1
Active XY-waveform
D0..D15
Active igital channels D0 to D15, available if MSO option
R&S RTM-B1 is installed. The following cursor measurements
are possible: time, ratio X, count, duty ratio, burst width. Available sources depend on the selected measurement type.
D70 | D158
Active digital pods D0...D7 and D8...D15, available if MSO
option R&S RTM-B1 is installed. The following cursor measurements are possible: V-marker.
SPECtrum | MINHold | MAXHold | AVERage
Available if option R&S RTM-K18 is installed. The measurement
source is a spectrum analysis waveform.
SPECtrum: normal spectrum waveform
MINHold: waveform of the minimum amplitude spectrum
MAXHold: waveform of the maximum amplitude spectrum
AVERage: avarage amplitude spectrum
*RST:
CH1
CURSor<m>:FUNCtion <Type>
Defines the cursor measurement type.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Type>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
HORizontal | VERTical | PAIRed | HRATio | VRATio | PPCount |
NPCount | RECount | FECount | MEAN | RMS | RTIMe | FTIMe |
PEAK | UPEakvalue | LPEakvalue | BWIDth
*RST:
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VERT
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Measurements
Value
Description
Queries for results
HORizontal
Sets two horizontal cursor lines and measures the voltages at the two cursor positions and the delta of the
two values.
CURSor<m>:Y1Position
CURSor<m>:Y2Position
CURSor<m>:YDELta[:VALue]?
CURSor<m>:YDELta:SLOPe?
VERTical
Sets two vertical cursor lines and measures the time
from the trigger point to each cursor, the time between
the two cursors and the frequency calculated from that
time.
CURSor<m>:X1Position
CURSor<m>:X2Position
CURSor<m>:XDELta[:VALue]?
CURSor<m>:XDELta:INVerse?
PAIRed
V-Marker
CURSor<m>:Y1Position
same as CURSor<m>:TRACking[:STATe]
CURSor<m>:Y2Position
CURSor<m>:XDELta[:VALue]?
CURSor<m>:YDELta[:VALue]?
HRATio
Sets three horizontal cursor lines. Queries return the
ratio of the y-values (e.g. overshooting) between the
first and second cursors and the first and third cursors.
CURSor<m>:YRATio:UNIT
CURSor<m>:YRATio[:VALue]?
CURSor<m>:Y1Position
CURSor<m>:Y2Position
CURSor<m>:Y3Position
VRATio
Sets three vertical cursor lines. Queries return the ratio CURsor<m>:XRATio:UNIT
of the x-values (e.g. a duty cycle) between the first and
CURSor<m>:XDELta[:VALue]?
second cursors and the first and third cursors.
CURSor<m>:X1Position
CURSor<m>:X2Position
CURSor<m>:X3Position
PPCount
Count positive pulses
NPCount
Count negative pulses
RECount
Count rising edges
FECount
Count falling edges
CURSor<m>:RESult?
Sets two vertical and one horizontal cursor line. The
time base is defined by the vertical cursors, the horizontal cursor defines the threshold value.
MEAN
Mean value
RMS
Root mean square
CURSor<m>:RESult?
Values are measured between two vertical cursor
lines.
RTIMe
Rise time, tr
FTIMe
Fall time, tf
CURSor<m>:RESult?
Measures the rise or fall time of the first edge after the
first vertical cursor between the upper and lower reference levels. The reference level for rise and fall time
measurement is set with REFLevel:RELative:
MODE.
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Value
Description
Queries for results
PEAK
Vpp, absolute difference between the two peak values
CURSor<m>:RESult?
UPEakvalue
Vp+, upper peak value
LPEakvalue
Vp-, lower peak value
Values are measured between two vertical cursor
lines.
BWIDth
Burst width, the duration of a burst. Two vertical cursors mark the beginning and the end of the burst. The
horizontal cursor sets the threshold value, and the
time between the first and the last edge of the burst is
returned.
CURSor<m>:RESult?
CURSor<m>:TRACking[:STATe] <State>
If set to ON, the V-Marker cursor measurement is enabled.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CURSor<m>:X1Position <Xposition1>
CURSor<m>:X2Position <Xposition2>
CURSor<m>:X3Position <Xposition3>
The commands specify the x-positions of vertical cursor lines on the time axis. The
third cursor is only used for Ratio X measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Position>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
Depends on horizontal settings.
CURSor<m>:Y1Position <Yposition1>
CURSor<m>:Y2Position <Yposition2>
CURSor<m>:Y3Position <Yposition3>
The commands specify the positions of horizontal cursor lines on the y-axis. The third
cursor is only used for Ratio Y measurements.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Position>
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.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
Depends on various other settings.
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CURSor<m>:YCOupling <Coupling>
CURSor<m>:XCOupling <Coupling>
If enabled, the cursors of a set are coupled so that the distance between the two
remains the same if one cursor is moved.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Coupling>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CURSor<m>:SWAVe
Autoset for cursor lines, sets the cursor lines to typical points of the waveform depending on the selected measurement type. For example, for voltage measurement, the
cursor lines are set to the upper and lower peaks of the waveform. For time measurement, the cursor lines are set to the edges of two consecutive positive or two consecutive negative pulses.
Usage:
Event
Firmware/Software: FW 03.700
CURSor<m>:SSCReen
Resets the cursors to their initial positions. This is helpful if the cursors have disappeared from the display or need to be moved for a larger distance.
Usage:
Event
Firmware/Software: FW 03.700
CURSor<m>:SPPeak
For FFT analysis only: sets the selected cursor to the previous (left) level peak.
Usage:
Event
Firmware/Software: FW 03.700
CURSor<m>:SNPeak
For FFT analysis only: sets the selected cursor to the next (right) level peak.
Usage:
Event
Firmware/Software: FW 03.700
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CURSor<m>:TRACking:SCALe[:STATe] <State>
Enables the adjustment of cursor lines if the vertical or horizontal scales are changed.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
ON | OFF
ON
Cursor lines keep their relative position to the waveform.
OFF
Cursor lines remain on their position on the display if the scaling
is changed.
*RST:
OFF
CURSor<m>:RESult?
Returns the measurement result for count, mean, RMS, rise and fall time, peak measurements, and burst width. Make sure to set CURSor<m>:FUNCtion correctly.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Return values:
<Value>
Measurement result
Usage:
Query only
CURSor<m>:XDELta:INVerse?
Returns the inverse time difference between the two cursors (1/Δt).
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<DeltaInverse>
Usage:
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100e24 to 100e24
0.1
0
1/s
Query only
CURSor<m>:XDELta[:VALue]?
Returns the time difference between the two cursors (Δt).
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Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Delta>
Usage:
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100e24 to 100e24
0.1
0
s
Query only
CURSor<m>:YDELta:SLOPe?
Returns the inverse value of the voltage difference - the reciprocal of the vertical distance of two horizontal cursor lines: 1/ΔV.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Return values:
<DeltyYslope>
Inverse value
Usage:
Query only
CURSor<m>:YDELta[:VALue]?
Queries the delta of the values in y-direction at the two cursors.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Return values:
<DeltaY>
Delta value in V
Usage:
Query only
CURsor<m>:XRATio:UNIT <Unit>
Sets the unit for X Ratio measurements with CURSor<m>:XRATio[:VALue]?.
Suffix:
<m>
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The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
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Parameters:
<Unit>
RATio | PCT | GRD | PI
RATio - floating value
PCT - percent
GRD - degree
PI - radian
*RST:
RAT
CURSor<m>:XRATio[:VALue]?
Returns the ratio of the x-values (e.g. a duty cycle) between the first and second cursors and the first and third cursors: (x2-x1)/(x3-x1).
Set the unit of the result with CURsor<m>:XRATio:UNIT.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Return values:
<Ratio>
Numeric value corresponding to the specified unit.
Usage:
Query only
CURSor<m>:YRATio:UNIT <Unit>
Sets the unit for Y Ratio measurements with CURSor<m>:YRATio[:VALue]?
on page 483.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Unit>
.
1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
RATio | PCT
RATio - floating value
PCT - percent
*RST:
RAT
CURSor<m>:YRATio[:VALue]?
Returns the ratio of the y-values (e.g. overshooting) between the first and second cursors and the first and third cursors: (y2-y1)/(y3-y1).
For this measurement, set the cursor measurement type CURSor<m>:FUNCtion to
HRATio.
Set the unit of the result with CURSor<m>:YRATio:UNIT.
Suffix:
<m>
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1
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
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Return values:
<Ratio>
Numeric value corresponding to the specified unit.
Usage:
Query only
18.8.2 Quick Measurements
MEASurement<m>:ALL[:STATe]..................................................................................... 484
MEASurement<m>:AON.................................................................................................484
MEASurement<m>:AOFF............................................................................................... 484
MEASurement<m>:ARESult?..........................................................................................484
MEASurement<m>:ALL[:STATe] <State>
Starts or stops the quick measurement and sets the status bit.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Firmware/Software: FW 03.800
MEASurement<m>:AON
Starts the quick measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Usage:
Event
MEASurement<m>:AOFF
Stops the quick measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
Usage:
Event
MEASurement<m>:ARESult?
Returns the results of the quick measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
User Manual 1317.4726.02 ─ 10
.
1..4
Selects the measurement.
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Return values:
<QuickMeasData>
List of values
Quick measurement results are listed in the following order:
PEAK, UPE, LPE, RMS, MEAN, PER, FREQ, RTIM , FTIM
Usage:
Query only
18.8.3 Automatic Measurements
MEASurement<m>[:ENABle]...........................................................................................485
MEASurement<m>:MAIN................................................................................................485
MEASurement<m>:SOURce........................................................................................... 487
MEASurement<m>:DELay:SLOPe...................................................................................489
MEASurement<m>:RESult[:ACTual]?.............................................................................. 489
MEASurement<m>:CATegory?....................................................................................... 489
MEASurement<m>[:ENABle] <State>
Activates or deactivates the selected measurement (1-4). Only the results of active
measurements are displayed in the result table.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..4
Selects the measurement.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
MEASurement<m>:MAIN <MeasType>
Defines the measurement type to be performed on the selected source. To query the
results, use MEASurement<m>:RESult[:ACTual]?.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the measurement.
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Parameters:
<MeasType>
FREQuency | PERiod | PEAK | UPEakvalue | LPEakvalue |
PPCount | NPCount | RECount | FECount | HIGH | LOW |
AMPLitude | MEAN | RMS | RTIMe | FTIMe | PDCYcle |
NDCYcle | PPWidth | NPWidth | CYCMean | CYCRms |
STDDev | CYCStddev | TFRequency | TPERiode | DELay |
PHASe | BWIDth | POVershoot | NOVershoot | TBFRequency |
TBPeriod
For a detailed description, see "Meas. Type" on page 115.
FREQuency
Frequency of the signal. The result is based on the length of the
left-most signal period within the displayed section of the waveform of the selected channel.
PERiod
Length of the left-most signal period within the displayed section
of the waveform of the selected channel.
PEAK
Peak-to-peak value within the displayed section of the waveform
of the selected channel.
UPEakvalue
Maximum value within the displayed section of the waveform of
the selected channel.
LPEakvalue
Minimum value within the displayed section of the waveform of
the selected channel.
PPCount
Counts positive pulses.
NPCount
Counts negative pulses.
RECount
Counts the number of rising edges.
FECount
Counts the number of falling edges.
HIGH
Mean value of the high level of a square wave.
LOW
Mean value of the low level of a square wave.
AMPLitude
Amplitude of a square wave.
MEAN
Mean value of the complete displayed waveform of the selected
channel.
RMS
RMS (Root Mean Square) value of the voltage of the complete
displayed waveform of the selected channel.
RTIMe | FTIMe
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Rise or falling time of the left-most rising edge within the displayed section of the waveform of the selected channel. The reference level for this mesurement is set with REFLevel:
RELative:MODE.
PDCycle | NDCycle
Measure the positive or negative duty cycle.
PPWidth | NPWidth
Measure the width of positive or negative pulses.
CYCMean
Mean value of the left-most signal period of the waveform of the
selected channel.
CYCRms
RMS (Root Mean Square) value of the voltage of the left-most
signal period of the waveform of the selected ch